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Tension, Compression, and Shear

**Normal Stress and Strain
**

Problem 1.2-1 A solid circular post ABC (see figure) supports a load P1 2500 lb acting at the top. A second load P2 is uniformly distributed around the shelf at B. The diameters of the upper and lower parts of the post are dAB 1.25 in. and dBC 2.25 in., respectively. (a) Calculate the normal stress AB in the upper part of the post. (b) If it is desired that the lower part of the post have the same compressive stress as the upper part, what should be the magnitude of the load P2?

C A

P1

dAB P2 B dBC

Solution 1.2-1 P1 2500 lb dAB dBC 1.25 in. 2.25 in.

Circular post in compression ALTERNATE SOLUTION sBC sAB 2040 psi — P1 P2 P1 P2 2 ABC 4 dBC P1 P1 sBC 2 AAB 4 dAB P1 2 or P2 dAB

(a) NORMAL STRESS IN PART AB sAB P1 AAB 2500 lb 2 4 (1.25 in.)

P1 P2 2 dBC

**(b) LOAD P FOR EQUAL STRESSES 2 sBC P1 P2 ABC
**

AB

**2500 lb P2 2 4 (2.25 in.) 2040 psi 5600 lb —
**

B

P1 A

∴ P2

dBC 1.8 dAB 2.24 P1 5600 lb —

P1 B ¢

sAB dBC 2 ≤ dAB

1R

Solve for P2: P2

P2

C

1

2

CHAPTER 1

Tension, Compression, and Shear

Problem 1.2-2 Calculate the compressive stress c in the circular piston rod (see figure) when a force P 40 N is applied to the brake pedal. Assume that the line of action of the force P is parallel to the piston rod, which has diameter 5 mm. Also, the other dimensions shown in the figure (50 mm and 225 mm) are measured perpendicular to the line of action of the force P.

50 mm 5 mm 225 mm P = 40 N Piston rod

Solution 1.2-2

**Free-body diagram of brake pedal
**

50 mm A

EQUILIBRIUM OF BRAKE PEDAL ©MA 0 275 mm ≤ 50 mm F(50 mm) (40 N) ¢ P(275 mm) 275 ≤ 50 0 220 N 5 mm)

F

225 mm P = 40 N

F

COMPRESSIVE STRESS IN PISTON ROD (d F d compressive force in piston rod diameter of piston rod 5 mm sc F A 220 N (5 mm) 2 4 11.2 MPa —

P¢

Problem 1.2-3 A steel rod 110 ft long hangs inside a tall tower and holds a 200-pound weight at its lower end (see figure). If the diameter of the circular rod is 1⁄4 inch, calculate the maximum normal stress max in the rod, taking into account the weight of the rod itself. (Obtain the weight density of steel from Table H-1, Appendix H.)

1 — in. 4

110 ft

200 lb

SECTION 1.2

Normal Stress and Strain

3

Solution 1.2-3

**Long steel rod in tension P 200 lb 110 ft
**

1

**smax gL 490 lb/ft3 P A
**

max

W A

P

gL

d L

L d

⁄4 in.

Weight density: W Weight of rod (Volume) AL P 200 lb

374.3 psi 200 lb 2 4 (0.25 in.) 374 psi

(490 lb ft3 )(110 ft) ¢ 4074 psi

P A

4074 psi

1 ft2 ≤ 144 in.2 4448 psi

Rounding, we get

max

4450 psi —

P = 200 lb

Problem 1.2-4 A circular aluminum tube of length L 400 mm is loaded in compression by forces P (see figure). The outside and inside diameters are 60 mm and 50 mm, respectively. A strain gage is placed on the outside of the bar to measure normal strains in the longitudinal direction. (a) If the measured strain is 550 10 6, what is the shortening of the bar? (b) If the compressive stress in the bar is intended to be 40 MPa, what should be the load P?

Strain gage P L = 400 mm P

Solution 1.2-4

**Aluminum tube in compression
**

Strain gage P P

e L d2 d1

550

10

6

**(b) COMPRESSIVE LOAD P 40 MPa A
**

2 [d 2 d1 ] 4 2 863.9 mm2

400 mm 60 mm 50 mm

OF THE BAR

4

[ (60 mm) 2

(50 mm) 2 ]

(a) SHORTENING eL

P

A

(40 MPa)(863.9 mm2)

(550

10 6)(400 mm) —

34.6 kN —

0.220 mm

8 in.) A4 960 in.2-6 A car weighing 130 kN when fully loaded is pulled slowly up a steep inclined track by a steel cable (see figure). O 20 in. y x x 1 (48 in. 16 in.)(128 in.2 A4 256 128) in. Compression.) A1 A2 (960 A3 256 in.2) (28 in.2 ) 1472 in. 16 in. 12 A 1 (x A 2x2 A2 x3 A3 ) A 1 1 1 [ (10 in. Eq. 16 in. 1 16 in. 16 in. 2 3 4 x (b) COORDINATES OF CENTROID c From symmetry. Calculate the tensile stress t in the cable. Cable .333 in. y 20 in.) 2 (16 in. and Shear Problem 1. and the angle of the incline is 30°. — 1472 in. x Solution 1.)(960 in. — 7a) O 20 in.)(256 in.)(20 in.2 © xi Ai (see Chapter 12.2 128 15.2)] 1 (16 in.2-5 y Concrete pier in compression (a) AVERAGE COMPRESSIVE STRESS 16 in.2 2(25.2 Problem 1.)(16 in. 16 in.2-5 The cross section of a concrete pier that is loaded uniformly in compression is shown in the figure.2 1. 48 in. (a) Determine the average compressive stress c in the concrete if the load is equal to 2500 k.2 128 in.)(16 in. (b) Determine the coordinates x and y of the point where the resultant load must act in order to produce uniform normal stress. USE THE FOLLOWING AREAS: A1 A2 A3 A (48 in.70 ksi — x 48 in.) 2 24 in. c P sc 2500 k P A 2500 k 1472 in. C y 16 in. The cable has an effective cross-sectional area of 490 mm2.4 CHAPTER 1 Tension.

) Determine the tensile stresses AB and BC in the two wires.66913) TBC(0.2 TAB 12. R2 Wheel reactions (no friction force between wheels and rails) EQUILIBRIUM IN THE INCLINED DIRECTION ©FT T 0 Q b T W sin 0 W sin Problem 1. Wire AB is at an angle 34° to the horizontal and wire BC is at an angle 48°.2 Normal Stress and Strain 5 Solution 1.300 psi — EQUATIONS OF EQUILIBRIUM Fx Fy 0 0 TAB cos TAB sin TBC cos TBC sin 0 W 0 sBC .9 TENSILE STRESSES IN THE WIRES sAB TAB A TBC A 17.55919) SOLVE THE EQUATIONS: in.200 psi — 21. AB and BC. 10 6 TBC(0. (Wire diameters are often expressed in mils.SECTION 1.82904) 34 d 30 mils d2 4 48 0. support a lamp weighing 18 lb (see figure).74314) 0 18 0 TAB(0. C A B Solution 1.2-6 Car on inclined track TENSILE STRESS IN THE CABLE W T Weight of car Tensile force in cable Angle of incline R2 FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF CAR W st T A W sin A SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES: W A st 130 kN 490 mm2 (130 kN)(sin 30 ) 490 mm2 133 MPa — 30 A R1 Effective area of cable R1.069 lb y W = 18 lb 0 x A 706.001 in.2-7 Two steel wires. Both wires have diameter 30 mils.030 in. one mil equals 0.2-7 Two steel wires supporting a lamp FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF POINT B TAB TBC SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES: TAB(0.163 lb TBC 15.

5 m) or (190 kN)(1.5 m A 4.5 m 30° A AH AV CV CH 30° SUMMATION OF MOMENTS ABOUT POINT A ©MA 0 0 F(1. If each shore has a 150 mm 150 mm square cross section.21 MPa — . what is the compressive stress c in the shores? Soil Retaining wall Concrete Shore thrust block 30° B F 1. as shown in the first part of the figure. and the resultant force acting on a 3-meter length of the wall is F 190 kN.0225 m2 5.14 kN C(sin 30 )(4.0 m C Solution 1.5 m C Shore F A A 190 kN area of one shore (150 mm)(150 mm) 22.2-8 A long retaining wall is braced by wood shores set at an angle of 30° and supported by concrete thrust blocks.5 m) 0 C CH CV CH CV compressive force in wood shore horizontal component of C vertical component of C C cos 30 C sin 30 COMPRESSIVE STRESS IN THE SHORES sc C A 117. For analysis purposes. the wall and shores are idealized as shown in the second part of the figure. and Shear Problem 1.500 mm2 0. 3 m apart.6 CHAPTER 1 Tension.0 m) C C(cos 30 )(0.0225 m2 FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF WALL AND SHORE B F 1.5 m A 30° 0.5 m) CV (4.14 kN 0.0 m) CH (0.5 m 4.2-8 Retaining wall braced by wood shores Wall B F 1. The pressure of the soil against the wall is assumed to be triangularly distributed. The shores are evenly spaced. Compression. Note that the base of the wall and both ends of the shores are assumed to be pinned.0 m 30° 0.5 m) ∴C 117.

382 in.2-9 A loading crane consisting of a steel girder ABC supported by a cable BD is subjected to a load P (see figure).000 lb H L2 A P 9 ft 4 ft 0.000 lb) 2 TENSILE FORCE IN CABLE T 9000 lb 20. ft) L H2 L2 1 15 ft P = 9000 lb 0.000 lb) ¢ 2 TH 2 TV 12 ≤ 9 (16. (15 ft)(12 in.382 in. (a) If the load P 9000 lb. what is the average tensile stress in the cable? (b) If the cable stretches by 0.500 psi — A 12 ft TH B 4 ft C (b) AVERAGE STRAIN IN CABLE L length of cable stretch of cable e L 0. and L2 4 ft. L1 12 ft.000 lb) 2 (12..2-9 Loading crane with girder and cable EQUILIBRIUM D ©MA 0 (9000 lb)(16 ft) 0 TV (12 ft) H TV TH TV A L1 B L2 P = 9000 lb C TH 12. what is the average strain? D Cable H Girder A L1 B L2 P C Solution 1.471 in2.SECTION 1.000 lb FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF GIRDER T TV (a) AVERAGE TENSILE STRESS IN CABLE s T A 20. The dimensions of the crane are H 9 ft. The cable has an effective cross-sectional area A 0.471 in.000 lb L1 12 ft H 9 ft 12 ∴ TH TV ¢ ≤ 9 16.2 Normal Stress and Strain 7 Problem 1.2 12 ft effective area of cable (12. 2120 10 6 T P tensile force in cable 9000 lb — .382 in.471 L1 A in.2 42.000 lb 0.

1 mm 3.0 ft square and 9.5 m. (See Table H-1.0 m L2 A A L1 B L2 P = 32 kN C effective area of cable FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF GIRDER T TV T = tensile force in cable C 1. and Shear Problem 1. and the cable stretches by 5. Compression. Figure is with Prob. Appendix H.6 m 1. 1.5 m TENSILE FORCE IN CABLE T 2 TH TV2 (90 kN) 2 (48 kN) 2 A 3.2-10 Solve the preceding problem if the load P 32 kN. the dimensions of the crane are H 1.12 in2.5 m 481 mm2 A P L1 32 kN 3.0 m TH B 102 kN (a) AVERAGE TENSILE STRESS IN CABLE P = 32 kN EQUILIBRIUM ©MA 0 (32 kN)(4.0 TH (48 kN) ¢ ≤ 1. Each cable has an effective cross-sectional area A 0.6 90 kN Problem 1. as shown in the figure.0 ∴ TH TV ¢ ≤ 1.2-10 D Loading crane with girder and cable H H 1. Determine the tensile stress t in the cables due to the weight of the concrete slab. the cable has effective cross-sectional area A 481 mm2.0 ft above the top of the slab.2-11 A reinforced concrete slab 8.6 m 3.6 m. L1 3. thick is lifted by four cables attached to the corners. and L2 1.1 mm e L 5.8 CHAPTER 1 Tension.0 m.) stretch of cable 5. Solution 1.0 m) TV TH TV 48 kN L1 3.6 3.0 in.4 m TV (3. for the weight density of reinforced concrete.0 m H 1.2-9. The cables are attached to a hook at a point 5.1 mm.4 m 1500 10 6 — Cables Reinforced concrete slab .5 m) 0 s T A 102 kN 481 mm2 212 MPa — (b) AVERAGE STRAIN IN CABLE L L length of cable H2 L2 1 3.

(1) & (2): H H W 4 2 L 2 2 W 4 W 4 1 L2 2H 2 H 2 L2 2 H DIMENSIONS OF CABLE AB A LAB H B D= L 2 2 TENSILE STRESS IN A CABLE LAB B A L 2 2 effective cross-sectional area of a cable T A W 4A 1 L2 2H2 — t: length of cable st H2 SUBSTITUTE NUMERICAL VALUES AND OBTAIN H 5.2 t 9.0 ft 150 W lb/ft3 7200 lb 1 L2 2H2 22. (a) Derive a formula for the tensile stress x in the bar as a function of the distance x from the midpoint C.600 psi — L A 8. The material of the bar has weight density .0 in.2-11 W Reinforced concrete slab supported by four cables T tensile force in a cable Cable AB: A H Cable TV T TV t B L L EQUILIBRIUM Fvert W 4TV W 4 ≤ T¢ H LAB H H 2 L2 2 ≤ (Eq.SECTION 1. (b) What is the maximum tensile stress max? A L C x L B .2-12 A round bar ACB of length 2L (see figure) rotates about an axis through the midpoint C with constant angular speed (radians per second).2 Normal Stress and Strain 9 Solution 1. 2) H L t height of hook above slab length of side of square slab thickness of slab weight density of reinforced concrete TV W D weight of slab L2t L 2 length of diagonal of slab T¢ T COMBINE EQS.75 ft FREE-BODY DIAGRAM OF HOOK AT POINT A W A T TH L2t W 4A st TV T T T T Problem 1. 1) 0↑ ↓ 0 (Eq.12 in. 0.0 ft 0.

2 ft2 ) 490 lb ft3 L W 11. The force Fx equals the inertia force of the part of the rotating bar from D to B.000 psi (144 in.000 psi (144 in.500 ft — .8 lb/ft3 A max cross-sectional area of wire 40 psi (yield strength) (a) WIRE HANGING IN AIR W smax S AL smax gS gW 40.800 ft — (b) WIRE HANGING IN SEA WATER F F Lmax tensile force at top of wire (gS gW ) AL smax F A (gS gW )L weight density of sea water 63.3-1 Imagine that a long steel wire hangs vertically from a high-altitude balloon. and Shear Solution 1.2 ft2 ) (490 63. (a) What is the greatest length (feet) it can have without yielding if the steel yields at 40 ksi? (b) If the same wire hangs from a ship at sea.2-12 Rotating Bar dM B C x L d Consider an element of mass dM at distance from the midpoint C.10 CHAPTER 1 Tension. Appendix H.3-1 Hanging wire of length L W S total weight of steel wire weight density of steel 490 lb/ft3 Lmax smax gS 40. distance x from the midpoint C. what is the greatest length? (Obtain the weight densities of steel and sea water from Table H-1. The variable ranges from x to L. (b) MAXIMUM TENSILE STRESS x 0 smax g 2L2 — 2g Mechanical Properties and Stress-Strain Diagrams Problem 1. Compression. dM dF dF Fx D g g A dj Inertia force (centrifugal force) of element of mass dM g (dM)(j 2 ) g A 2jdj B L angular speed (rad/s) A cross-sectional area weight density g g mass density dF x g A 2jdj g gA 2 2 (L 2g x 2) (a) TENSILE STRESS IN BAR AT DISTANCE x sx Fx A g 2 2 (L 2g x 2) — We wish to find the axial force Fx in the bar at Section D.) Solution 1.8)lb ft3 W A gSL 13.

Appendix H. using your own judgment. and 0. respectively.484... and gage lengths of 2.SECTION 1.13.78 in.3-2 Imagine that a long wire of tungsten hangs vertically from a high-altitude balloon. P Gage length P . Determine the percent elongation and percent reduction in area of each specimen. and then. at the failure cross sections the diameters are found to be 0.505 in.0 kN/m3 F A (gT gW )L A max cross-sectional area of wire 1500 MPa (breaking strength) smax gT gW 1500 MPa (190 10.3 Mechanical Properties and Stress-Strain Diagrams 11 Problem 1. At failure.3-2 Hanging wire of length L W T total weight of tungsten wire weight density of tungsten 190 W (b) WIRE HANGING IN SEA WATER F F smax Lmax tensile force at top of wire ( T W)AL L kN/m3 weight density of sea water 10. B.0) kN m3 8300 m — (a) WIRE HANGING IN AIR W smax Lmax T AL W A smax gT gTL 1500 MPa 190 kN m3 7900 m — Problem 1.) Solution 1.48. Also.398. and C. are tested in tension using test specimens having diameters of 0. designated A. respectively. 0.3-3 Three different materials. classify each material as brittle or ductile. what is the greatest length? (Obtain the weight densities of tungsten and sea water from Table H-1. and 2. (see figure). (a) What is the greatest length (meters) it can have without breaking if the ultimate strength (or breaking strength) is 1500 MPa? (b) If the same wire hangs from a ship at sea.0 in.253 in. 2. the distances between the gage marks are found to be 2.

nylon. Douglas fir (in bending).9% 74. the strength-to-weight ratio RS/W for a material in tension is defined as RS/W in which is the characteristic stress and is the weight density. where d1 is in inches. 2) Brittle or Ductile? Brittle Ductile Ductile Problem 1. we may use a characteristic tensile stress (as obtained from a stress-strain curve) as a measure of strength. structural steel ASTM-A572.48 2. 1) 6.5% 24. 1) 1 ≤100 d0 A1 A0 initial diameter d1 ¢ Percent reduction in area B1 ¢ d1 2 ≤ d0 final diameter A1 ≤ (100) A0 d0 0.0 RS/W (m) 11.13 2. calculate the strength-to-weight ratio (in units of meters) for each of the following materials: aluminum alloy 6061-T6. Appendix H.9 12. For materials in tension. Aluminum is higher than steel.1 6.8 77. For instance. and RS/W are listed in the table.253 % Elongation (Eq.505 in Percent reduction in area A0 ¢1 A1 A0 (100) Percent elongation L0 2. which makes it desirable for commercial aircraft.0% 39.9% (Eq.3-3 P Tensile tests of three materials P 2.5 23. and a titanium alloy.0% d1 2 ≤ R (100) 0. When a range of values is given in a table.505 in. Compression.505 % Reduction (Eq. Titanium has a high strength-to-weight ratio.0 5. L1 2. 2) 8. which is why it is used in space vehicles and high-performance airplanes. use the average value. Material A B C L1 (in. L1 L0 ¢ L0 (100) Percent elongation where L1 is in inches. The strength-to-weight ratio (meters) is RS W su (MPa) (103 ) g(kN m3 ) u. and the weight density is obtained from Table H-1. (Obtain the material properties from Tables H-1 and H-3 of Appendix H.0 44. (MPa) Aluminum alloy 6061-T6 Douglas fir Nylon Structural steel ASTM-A572 Titanium alloy 310 65 60 500 1050 (kN/m3) 26.9 103 103 103 103 103 Values of .0 in 0. .) 0.3-4 The strength-to-weight ratio of a structural material is defined as its load-carrying capacity divided by its weight. either the yield stress or the ultimate stress could be used. depending upon the particular application.1 9. Some woods are also higher than steel.1% 37.398 0.7 6.) 2. and nylon is about the same as steel.0 in.12 CHAPTER 1 Tension. Note that the ratio has units of length.78 d1 (in.0 1 ≤ (100) ¢ L1 L0 (Eq.) Solution 1. Thus. Using the ultimate stress U as the strength parameter.484 0. and Shear Solution 1.3-4 Strength-to-weight ratio u The ultimate stress u for each material is obtained from Table H-3.

3-5 Symmetrical framework L length of bar BD distance BC L cot L2 D P A B C L1 L(cot 48 ) 0.0400 L2 From the stress-strain diagram of Figure 1-13: s E 31 ksi .9004 L length of bar CD L csc L(csc 48 ) 1. The angle between the inclined bars and the horizontal is 48°.) A B C D P Solution 1.SECTION 1.0538L Strain in bar CD 0.3 Mechanical Properties and Stress-Strain Diagrams 13 Problem 1.0713 L distance CE L2 1 (L distance DE Aluminum alloy 48 eBD 0. The axial strain in the middle bar is measured as 0. 1-13.0538L 1.3-5 A symmetrical framework consisting of three pinconnected bars is loaded by a force P (see figure).0713) 2 Use stress-strain diagram of Figure 1-13 (0.3456 L eBDL Elongation of bar BD eBDL L3 L3 0.0713 B C eBD L) 2 L2 (1 0. (Express the stress in USCS units.3994 L elongation of bar CD L3 L L2 L3 D BDL L2 0.3456L 0. Determine the tensile stress in the outer bars if they are constructed of aluminum alloy having the stress-strain diagram shown in Fig.0713.9004L) 2 1.

01 0.1 Strain 0. The test specimen had a diameter of 0.0230 0. ultimate stress.0047 0.0054 0.0184 0.400 13.04 Problem 1. — 0.0073 0.1 39.000 12. Plot the conventional stress-strain curve for the steel and determine the proportional limit.0209 0.0331 0. 1.800 18.4 GPa — Modulus of elasticity (slope) Y yield stress at 0.2% offset 0 Material is brittle.. yield stress at 0.0336 0.0006 0.8 44.900 13. (see figure for Prob.505 in. Is the material ductile or brittle? P P STRESS-STRAIN DATA FOR PROBLEM 1.200 16.5 25.0129 0.000 14. and Shear Problem 1.0063 0. and the minimum diameter was 0.42 in.2% offset 53 MPa — 60 Stress (MPa) PL Y 40 slope ≈ 40 MPa = 2..0102 0.0507 0.03 Strain 0.3-6 A specimen of a methacrylate plastic is tested in tension at room temperature (see figure). the slope of the initial part of the stress-strain curve). and percent reduction in area. because the strain after the proportional limit is exceeded is relatively small.3-6 Stress (MPa) 8.e.00 in.9 58.2% offset.0033 0.0130 0.00 in.1108 Fracture .400 15.600 Elongation (in.0039 0.) 0.0002 0.0163 0.0 17. TENSILE-TEST DATA FOR PROBLEM 1.800 14.3-6 Tensile test of a plastic PL Using the stress-strain data given in the problem statement.400 20.3-3).000 22.0090 0. Compression.0 62.0019 0. percent elongation in 2.0043 0. the elongation between the gage marks was 0.600 13.4 GPa 0. plot the stress-strain curve: proportional limit PL 47 MPa — 2.e.1% offset.6 31. and a gage length of 2.3-7 Load (lb) 1.017 20 0.400 22.12 in. producing the stress-strain data listed in the accompanying table.000 6.0111 0.0 48. modulus of elasticity (i.2 53.0260 0. At fracture.000 2.02 0. and yield stress at 0.000 10.3-7 The data shown in the accompanying table were obtained from a tensile test of high-strength steel.1 62. Plot the stress-strain curve and determine the proportional limit..000 12. the slope of the initial part of the stress-strain curve). modulus of elasticity (i.0429 Fracture Solution 1.14 CHAPTER 1 Tension.0032 0.

0006 0.400 15.000 PL P P ≈ 69. (100) 2.000 12.000 psi Slope ≈ 0.000 Stress (psi) 100.600 Stress (psi) 5.1% offset) PL ≈ 0.0019 0.0090 0.0047 0.400 20.00010 0.00215 0.1% pffset 50.000 Percent reduction in area A0 A0 A1 (100) 0.00195 0. 2 d0 4 Tensile test of high-strength steel L0 2.0130 0.000 70.000 Strain e 0.SECTION 1.) 2 (100) 0.000 84.05540 50.3 Mechanical Properties and Stress-Strain Diagrams 15 Solution 1.0507 0.02535 0.0063 0.00510 0.00 in.000 113.200 in.3-7 d0 A0 0.400 13.000 60.0400 Strain 0.000 6.000 68.00165 ≈ 30 × 106 psi 0.200 in.2 CONVENTIONAL STRESS AND STRAIN s P A0 e L0 Elongation (in.0600 .000 30.01680 0.000 72.200 16.000 psi — Percent elongation in 2. ENLARGEMENT OF PART OF THE STRESS-STRAIN CURVE Stress (psi) 70.505 in.00 in.000 69.800 14.000 psi Load P (lb) 1.0230 0.00030 0.12 in.000 0 0.000 psi — Ultimate stress (maximum stress) 113.000 14.0200 0.00235 0.000 100.00270 0.0054 0.00650 0.600 13.01150 0. L1 L0 L0 (100) 6% — STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM 0.000 76.00315 0.00100 0.000 psi — 30 106 psi — Modulus of elasticity (slope) Yield stress at 0. 150.000 92.000 50.0336 0.800 18.42 in.000 22.0020 0.00165 0.1108 Fracture 65.2 31% — 50.0040 Strain RESULTS Proportional limit 65.) 0.000 60.0039 0.0102 0.1% offset 69.000 10.000 10.2 4 (0.000 psi (0.0002 0.000 2.000 64.000 112.00 in.200 in.500 67.00450 0.400 22.000 12.0043 0.900 13.0033 0.000 0 0.

.002 0.5 mm. 103 ksi 0.006 Solution 1.) 0.13 in.20 in.20 in.20 in.4-1 Steel bar in tension ELASTIC RECOVERY eE A B eE sB Slope 30 42 ksi 103 ksi 0.004 0. greater than its original length. 0. — 42 ksi 0. The bar is loaded axially until it elongates 6. STRESS AND STRAIN AT POINT B B Y Final length of bar is 0. The yield stress of the steel is 42 ksi and the slope of the initial linear part of the stress-strain curve (modulus of elasticity) is 30 103 ksi.00417 eB L Problem 1.) (MPa) 300 200 100 0 0 0. How does the final length of the bar compare with its original length? (Hint: Use the concepts illustrated in Fig. 48 in.00140 0.006 .16 CHAPTER 1 Tension.00277 PERMANENT SET 0 R B L 48 in. 1-18b.4-2 A bar of length 2. and then the load is removed.004 0.00417 0. Y Yield stress Slope 30 42 ksi eRL (0. The bar is loaded axially until it elongates 0.002 0.4-1 A bar made of structural steel having the stressstrain diagram shown in the figure has a length of 48 in. and then the load is removed. The yield stress of the steel is 250 MPa and the slope of the initial linear part of the stress-strain curve (modulus of elasticity) is 200 GPa. Compression.00140 E RESIDUAL STRAIN eR eR eB eE 0.00277)(48 in.) (ksi) 60 40 20 0 0 0. 1-18b.13 in. and Shear Elasticity and Plasticity Problem 1. How does the final length of the bar compare with its original length? (Hint: Use the concepts illustrated in Fig.0 m is made of a structural steel having the stress-strain diagram shown in the figure.

04 0.0 mm greater than its original length.0 in.) 31 ksi 0.00200)(2000 mm) 6.) 1.037)(48 in. — 250 MPa 6.4-2 Steel bar in tension ELASTIC RECOVERY eE L 2.00200 Permanent set eRL (0. 1-18b and 1-19.037 (Note: the accuracy in this result is very poor because eB is approximate.8 in.0 mm Final length of bar is 4.0 in.00325 eB L Problem 1.4-3 An aluminum bar has length L 4 ft and diameter d 1. 1-13 of Section 1.) 106 psi.0031 0.00125 0. The bar is loaded by tensile forces P 24 k and then unloaded.4-3 Aluminum bar in tension B STRESS AND STRAIN AT POINT B sB P A 24 k 2 4 (1.00325 0.0 m 2000 mm Y A B Yield stress Slope E 250 MPa eE sB Slope 250 MPa 200 GPa 0. The stress-strain curve for the aluminum is shown in Fig.) Solution 1.3.0031 0 R B L d P 4 ft 1. 24 k 48 in. 1-13: eB E ELASTIC RECOVERY eE eE sB Slope 31 ksi 10 106 psi 0. RESIDUAL STRAIN eR eR eB eE 0.SECTION 1. — See Fig. (a) What is the permanent set of the bar? (b) If the bar is reloaded. (a) PERMANENT SET eRL (0.4 Elasticity and Plasticity 17 Solution 1. The initial straight-line part of the curve has a slope (modulus of elasticity) of 10 106 psi.0 in.04 B A From Fig.00125 200 GPa RESIDUAL STRAIN eR eR eB eE 0. 1-13 for stress-strain diagram Slope from O to A is 10 (b) PROPORTIONAL LIMIT WHEN RELOADED B 31 ksi — .5 mm 2000 mm 0. what is the proportional limit? (Hint: Use the concepts illustrated in Figs.5 mm 0 R B STRESS AND STRAIN AT POINT B B Y 4.

6 mm.6 mm 800 mm 0.00314 (a) PERMANENT SET eRL (0.000 0 0. (c) If the forces are removed.125 in.002 44 GPa A STRESS AND STRAIN AT POINT B eB L 5.18 CHAPTER 1 Tension.03 ( ksi) 1 300 in which is nondimensional and square inch (ksi).005 0. Compression. The bar is loaded in tension to an elongation of 5. The wire is made of a copper alloy having a stress-strain relationship that may be described mathematically by the following equation: 18. and Shear Problem 1. (b) Determine the elongation of the wire due to the forces P.00386 L 800 mm 5. is stretched by tensile forces P 600 lb. what is the proportional limit? (Hint: Use the concepts illustrated in Figs. The stress-strain diagram for the material is shown in the figure.4-4 A circular bar of magnesium alloy is 800 mm long.51 mm — ( PL )2 proportional limit when the bar is reloaded INITIAL SLOPE OF STRESS-STRAIN CURVE From e diagram: PL )1 At point A: ( 88 MPa 0. has units of kips per (a) Construct a stress-strain diagram for the material.00314)(800 mm) 2. what is the proportional limit? .007 0.6 mm ( PL )1 initial proportional limit 88 MPa (from stress-strain diagram) RESIDUAL STRAIN eR eR eB eE 0.4-4 ( ( PL )2 PL )1 Magnesium bar in tension B Slope (spl ) 1 eA 88 MPa 0.010 Solution 1. (a) What is the permanent set of the bar? (b) If the bar is reloaded. what is the permanent set of the bar? (d) If the forces are applied again.4-5 A wire of length L 4 ft and diameter d 0.007 B From E e diagram: ( PL)2 170 MPa 0 R B ELASTIC RECOVERY eE eE sB Slope (sPL ) 2 Slope 170 MPa 44 GPa 0. and then the load is removed.002 (b) PROPORTIONAL LIMIT WHEN RELOADED ( PL)2 B eA 170 MPa — Problem 1. 1-18b and 1-19.00386 0.) 200 (MPa) 100 0 0 0.

(see figure).000e 1 300e 0 e 0. 2) 18.29.125 in. The steel has modulus of elasticity E 29 106 psi and Poisson’s ratio 0.) 0.000 300s This equation may also be used when plotting the stress-strain diagram.001 in.0147 eL (0.SECTION 1. — 40 (ksi) 20 B STRESS AND STRAIN AT POINT B (see diagram) 48. when it is compressed by axial forces. — B 18.00272 INITIAL SLOPE OF STRESS-STRAIN CURVE Take the derivative of ds de (1 with respect to e: RESIDUAL STRAIN eR eR eB eE 0.0120 300e)(18.000 ksi (d) Proportional limit when reloaded B ∴ Initial slope 18.9 ksi 18.0027 0.000 (1 300e) 2 At e 0.0120)(48 in.01 0.4-5 L P 4 ft 600 lb Wire stretched by forces P 0. 48 in.5-1 A high-strength steel bar used in a large crane has diameter d 2. ALTERNATIVE FORM OF THE STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIP Solve Eq.000e)(300) (1 300e) 2 (c) Permanent set (0.58 in. assume that the material behaves linearly elastically.9 ksi From Eq. Because of clearance requirements. d COPPER ALLOY s 18. ds de 18.000 ksi 0. 1) 60 B P A 600 lb (0.71 in.00 in.9 ksi eB 0.02 eE sB Slope 48. 1) (b) ELONGATION s = 54 ksi OF THE WIRE (a) STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM (From Eq.03 (s ksi) (Eq.03 0 R B 0. What is the largest compressive load Pmax that is permitted? d P P .125 in.000 ksi 49 ksi — Hooke’s Law and Poisson’s Ratio When solving the problems for Section 1. Problem 1.0147 eR L 0.) 0.5 Hooke’s Law and Poisson’s Ratio 19 Solution 1. (1) for e in terms of : s e 0 s 54 ksi (s ksi) (Eq.0147 E = B− R ELASTIC RECOVERY eE 0.) 2 4 48. (2) or from the stress-strain diagram: e 0.000) (18.5.0147)(48 in. the diameter of the bar is limited to 2.900 psi 48.

0016 (349. At what value of the force P will the space between the nylon bar and the steel tube be closed? (For nylon.5-3 A nylon bar having diameter d1 3.50 in. Find the magnitude of the load P. When the bar is stretched by axial forces P.33 0.) 2 Problem 1. 0.) Steel tube d1 d2 Nylon bar .51 in.5-1 STEEL BAr d E LATERAL STRAIN e¿ ¢d d Steel bar in compression 2.00 ksi (compression) Assume that the yield stress for the high-strength steel is greater than 50 ksi.) P 7075-T6 d = 10 mm P Solution 1. The nylon bar is then compressed by an axial force P.00 in. d 0.29 AXIAL STRESS Ee (29 106 psi)( 0.5-2 A round bar of 10 mm diameter is made of aluminum alloy 7075-T6 (see figure). is placed inside a steel tube having inner diameter d2 3. assume E 400 ksi and 0. ≤ (10 From Table H-3: Yield stress LATERAL STRAIN e¿ ¢d d 0. 2.00 in. (see figure).0005 e n 0. MAXIMUM COMPRESSIVE LOAD 0.1 MPa) ¢ 27.29 (shortening) in.016 mm 10 mm LOAD P (TENSILE FORCE) P sA 0.4 kN 4 mm) 2 — AXIAL STRAIN e 0. 29 Max. 0.004848) (Decrease in diameter) 7075-T6 From Table H-2: E 72 GPa Y 349.001 in.00 106 psi 0. Hooke’s law is valid.0005 AXIAL STRAIN e¿ 0.33 480 MPa Because < Y.001724 Pmax sA 157 k (50.00 ksi) ¢ — 4 ≤ (2.016 mm.1 MPa (Tension) 0.0016 0. (Obtain the material properties from Appendix H. Hooke’s law is valid.5-2 d 10 mm Aluminum bar in tension d 0.001 in.001724) 50.016 mm AXIAL STRESS Ee (72 GPa)(0. and Shear Solution 1. Compression. Therefore.4.20 CHAPTER 1 Tension.004848 (Elongation) e¿ n Problem 1. its diameter decreases by 0.

5 m 75 GPa Aluminum bar in tension d 30 mm 1 DECREASE IN DIAMETER d ed (0.0024) 3 0.SECTION 1.0024 AXIAL STRESS Ee (75 GPa)(0.50 and LATERAL STRAIN e¿ e¿ ¢d1 (Increase in diameter) d1 0.0024) 180 MPa (This stress is less than the yield stress.002857 0.0008 (Minus means decrease in diameter) mm) 2 4 127 kN — .51 in. so Hooke’s law is valid. 0.4 d1 0.007143) 2.024 mm — ⁄3 3. Ee (400 ksi)( 0. It is made of aluminum alloy with modulus 1 of elasticity E 75 GPa and Poisson’s ratio ⁄3. d2 3. The bar has length L 1.007143 Compression d1 3.5 k 4 ≤ (3.5-4 L E 1.) LOAD P (TENSION) P sA (180 MPa) ¢ ≤ (30 LATERAL STRAIN e¿ ne ( 1 )(0. what is the decrease in diameter d? What is the magnitude of the load P? P L d P Solution 1. If the bar elongates by 3.6 mm.6 mm (elongation) AXIAL STRAIN e L 3.50 in.5 Hooke’s Law and Poisson’s Ratio 21 Solution 1.4 0.0008)(30 mm) 0.857 ksi) ¢ 27. FORCE P (COMPRESSION) P sA (2.) 2 — Problem 1.857 ksi (Compressive stress) Assume that the yield stress is greater than Hooke’s law is valid.5 m 0.6 mm 1.5-3 Nylon bar inside steel tube AXIAL STRAIN d1 d2 e¿ n (Shortening) e AXIAL STRESS 0.5-4 A prismatic bar of circular cross section is loaded by tensile forces P (see figure).002857 in.50 in.5 m and diameter d 30 mm.01 in. 3. Nylon: E 400 ksi 0.01 in.

0000978)(0.0003910)(0. and Shear Problem 1.) is loaded axially by a tensile force P 1500 lb (see figure).32)(0.22 CHAPTER 1 Tension.5-5 L 8 in.4999) (100) (0.5-5 A bar of monel metal (length L 8 in. Using the data in Table H-2.5-6 A tensile test is peformed on a brass specimen 10 mm in diameter using a gage length of 50 mm (see figure). (0. 25..560 psi 25.00830 mm. so that Hooke’s law is valid. AXIAL STRAIN e s E 30.122 mm. the distance between the gage marks has increased by 0. — PERCENT DECREASE IN AREA Percent ¢A (100) A0 (¢d)(2d d2 ¢d) (100) LATERAL STRAIN e¿ ne (0. Solution 1.25 in.00978 in.001222) 0.25 in. (a) What is the modulus of elasticity E of the brass? (b) If the diameter decreases by 0. what is Poisson’s ratio? 10 mm 50 mm P P . diameter d 0.560 psi Final area: A1 A1 4 4 (d [d2 ¢d) 2 2d¢d (¢d) 2 ] Assume is less than the proportional limit.32 Original area: A0 DECREASE IN CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA d2 4 From Table H-2: E AXIAL STRESS P 1500 lb s A 4 (0.) 2 30.000 ksi P 1500 lb 0.000 ksi 0.) 0.078% — Problem 1.) 0.25 in. determine the increase in length of the bar and the percent decrease in its cross-sectional area. Appendix H. When the tensile load P reaches a value of 20 kN.001222 Decrease in area: A ¢A A0 4 A1 ¢d) (¢d)(2d INCREASE IN LENGTH eL (0.0003910 DECREASE IN DIAMETER ¢d e¿d (0.0000978 in. Bar of monel metal in tension d 0.25 in. Compression.25) 2 0.001222)(8 in.

000337 10.3 in. — 0.2 P A Y.) 2 ] 30.002440)(10 mm) 0..002440 (b) POISSON’S RATIO e d n e ed ¢d ed ed 0.2 Hooke’s law is valid) 10.000337 (b) INCREASE IN WALL THICKNESS ¢t e¿t (0. 4.6 MPa A 4 (10 mm) 2 Assume is below the proportional limit so that Hooke’s law is valid.5-6 d P 10 mm 20 kN Brass specimen in tension Gage length L 0. P A 4 [ (4.105 ksi (compression) Axial strain: (a) INCREASE IN INNER DIAMETER ¢d1 e¿d1 (0. (increase) s LATERAL STRAIN e¿ ¢d2 d2 455 10 6 in.5 in.6 MPa 0.34 — L Problem 1. (b) Determine the increase in the wall thickness.30 — . 4.9 in.0001011 0.9 in.002440 104 GPa — AXIAL STRESS P 20 kN 254. the outer diameter of the cylinder increases by 455 10 6 in.000 ksi 0.5 in.00830 mm E (a) MODULUS OF ELASTICITY s e 254.3 in.000 ksi 40 k (compression) 455 10 6 in. When the force P increases from zero to 40 k. Hollow steel cylinder (c) POISSON’S RATIO d1 d2 t Axial stress: s A [d2 d2 ] 1 4 2 3.000 ksi. — n 0.5-7 d1 d2 t E P d2 3. outer diameter d2 4. s AXIAL STRAIN e 0.5 in.5 Hooke’s Law and Poisson’s Ratio 23 Solution 1.9 in.9584 in.0001011 ( 40 k 3.) 2 (3.5-7 A hollow steel cylinder is compressed by a force P (see figure).122 mm 50 mm 0.105 ksi 30.9 in..00830 mm (0.122 mm 50 mm d 0. 0. (a) Determine the increase in the inner diameter.) 394 10 6 e s E e¿ e in. (c) Determine Poisson’s ratio for the steel.) 30 10 6 in.5 in. P d1 d2 Solution 1.SECTION 1. The cylinder has inner diameter d1 3. and modulus of elasticity E 30.0001011)(0.9584 in. 0.0001011)(3.

Compression. 100 mm 100 mm 1300 kN 2.006. Assume that E 200 GPa and v 0.24 CHAPTER 1 Tension.5-8 A steel bar of length 2. Determine the increase in volume of the bar. and Shear Problem 1.000. AXIAL STRAIN e s E 130 MPa 200 GPa 650 10 6 INITIAL VOLUME V Lb2 25.0195 mm FINAL DIMENSIONS L1 b1 L b ¢L ¢b 2501.625 mm 99.9805 mm 200 GPa AXIAL STRESS s s P A P b2 130 MPa 1300 kN (100 mm) 2 FINAL VOLUME V1 L1b2 1 25.5 m 100 mm 1300 kN 0. Length: L Side: b Force: P E 2.5 m Solution 1.625 mm .3.490 mm3 Stress is less than the yield stress.000 mm3 INCREASE IN VOLUME V V1 V 6490 mm3 — INCREASE IN LENGTH ¢L eL (650 10 6 )(2500 mm) 1.5 m with a square cross section 100 mm on each side is subjected to an axial tensile force of 1300 kN (see figure).5-8 Square bar in tension DECREASE IN SIDE DIMENSION e¿ ¢b ne e¿b 195 (195 10 6 Find increase in volume. so Hooke’s law is valid.3 2500 mm 10 6 )(100 mm) 0.

5 in.50 k 2(0. Determine the average bearing pressure b between the angle bracket and the bolts and the average shear stress aver in the bolts.2 7. The top face of the bracket has length L 6 in.625 in. (Disregard friction between the bracket and the column.50 k L BEARING PRESSURE BETWEEN BRACKET AND BOLTS Ab bearing area of one bolt dt (0.) 2 4.625 in.) 4.3125 in.6 Shear Stress and Strain 25 Shear Stress and Strain Problem 1.) (6.6-1 Angle bracket bolted to a column p pressure acting on top of the bracket 300 psi b F F resultant force acting on the bracket pbL (300 psi) (2.2 7.0 in.) p b L t Solution 1. 0.3068 in.3125 in.0 in. 6.20 ksi — t sb F 2Ab Two bolts d t b L 0.2 ) 0.6-1 An angle bracket having thickness t 0.) 4. is attached to the flange of a column by two 5⁄8-inch diameter bolts (see figure).5 in.SECTION 1.3068 in. A uniformly distributed load acts on the top face of the bracket with a pressure p 300 psi.2 ) 0.50 k 2(0.5 in. thickness of angle 2.33 ksi — .5 in.) (0.625 in. and width b 2.5 in. AVERAGE SHEAR STRESS IN THE BOLTS As Shear area of one bolt 4 taver d2 F 2As 4 (0.5 in.

The compressive load P carried by the brace equals 8. are joined by two 20-mm diameter rivets as shown in the figure.) P/2 P/2 P P P Solution 1. Ab bearing area for one rivet dt 226 kN — Problem 1.6-2 Three steel plates. what force Pult is required to cause the rivets to fail in shear? (Disregard friction between the plates. (Disregard friction between the plates.26 CHAPTER 1 Tension. The connection consists of three 5⁄8-in. what is the largest bearing stress acting on the rivets? (b) If the ultimate shear stress for the rivets is 180 MPa. Compression.1 MPa — (b) ULTIMATE LOAD IN SHEAR P P Shear force on two rivets Shear force on one rivet t d P ULT P 2 P 4 thickness of plates diameter of rivets 50 kN 16 mm 20 mm Let A 180 MPa (for shear in the rivets) cross-sectional area of one rivet P4 P P Shear stress t d2 A d2 4( 4 ) 2 or. and Shear Problem 1. bolts that join two 1⁄4-in.6-3 A bolted connection between a vertical column and a diagonal brace is shown in the figure.0 k. and (b) The average bearing stress b between the gusset plate and the bolts. each 16 mm thick. (a) If the load P 50 kN. P d At the ultimate load: PULT d 2tULT (20 mm) 2 (180 MPa) (a) MAXIMUM BEARING STRESS ON THE RIVETS Maximum stress occurs at the middle plate. end plates welded to the brace and a 5⁄8-in. Determine the following quantities: (a) The average shear stress aver in the bolts. gusset plate welded to the column.) P Column Brace End plates for brace Gusset plate .6-2 P/2 P/2 Three plates joined by two rivets P t sb P 2Ab P 2dt 50 kN 2(20 mm)(16 mm) 78.

6-3 Diagonal brace P (a) AVERAGE SHEAR STRESS IN THE BOLTS A cross-sectional area of one bolt d2 4 V 0.625 in.3068 in.6-4 A hollow box beam ABC of length L is supported at end A by a 20-mm diameter pin that passes through the beam and its supporting pedestals (see figure). (a) Determine the average shear stress in the pin due to a load P equal to 10 kN. 0.3068 in.625 in. sb bearing force acting on gusset plate from one bolt P 3 P 8. thickness of gusset plate ⁄8 in. The roller support at B is located at distance L/3 from end A.3906 in.25 in.0 k 0.6 Shear Stress and Strain 27 Solution 1.3906 in.2 End plates P Gusset plate 1 P P ¢ ≤ 3 2 6 V P taver A 6A shear force acting on one bolt 8.SECTION 1. Ab F bearing area of one bolt t1d (0. 0. t2 1 thickness of end plates ⁄4 in.625 in.0 k 6(0.)(0.2 ) Problem 1.) 0.2 ) 4350 psi — 3 bolts in double shear P d t1 5 (b) AVERAGE BEARING STRESS AGAINST GUSSET PLATE 8. (b) Determine the average bearing stress between the pin and the box beam if the wall thickness of the beam is equal to 12 mm.2 5 compressive force in brace diameter of bolts ⁄8 in.0 k 6830 psi — 3Ab 3(0. P Box beam A B C L — 3 2L — 3 Box beam Pin at support A .625 in.

6-4 Hollow box beam P P d t 10 kN diameter of pin 20 mm 12 mm A B C Wall thickness of box beam (a) AVERAGE SHEAR STRESS IN PIN L — 3 R = 2P 2P 2L — 3 Double shear taver 2¢ d2 ≤ 4 2P 4P d2 31. diameter bolt.8 MPa (b) AVERAGE BEARING STRESS ON PIN R =P 2 R =P 2 sb 2P 2(dt) P dt 41. distributed among the plates as shown. The total load transferred between the plates is 1200 lb.28 CHAPTER 1 Tension. Compression. 360 lb 480 lb 360 lb 600 lb 600 lb Solution 1. thick. (a) Calculate the largest shear stress in the bolt. (a) MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS IN BOLT Vmax 4Vmax tmax 7330 psi d2 d2 4 (b) MAXIMUM BEARING STRESS 600 lb — 360 lb 480 lb 360 lb A B B A A B B A Fmax 600 lb maximum force applied by a plate against the bolt 600 lb Fmax dt 12.7 MPa Problem 1. joined by a single 1⁄4-in. and Shear Solution 1.6-5 The connection shown in the figure consists of five steel plates. disregarding friction between the plates. (b) Calculate the largest bearing stress acting against the bolt.6-5 d t Plates joined by a bolt 1 diameter of bolt thickness of plates ⁄4 in.800 psi — Fmax sb Free-body diagram of bolt Section A Section B Vmax A: V B: V 360 lb 240 lb max. each 3⁄16 in. 3 ⁄16 in. shear force in bolt 360 lb .

1) m 77.6-6 Steel plate hoisted by a sling 1.2 0.0 kN/m3 23.0 m H W 2 .1 m 100 mm W 2 cos 32 FREE-BODY DIAGRAMS OF SLING AND PIN P=W T 32° Pin W 2 32° 32° SHEAR STRESS IN THE PINS (DOUBLE SHEAR) taver T 2Apin 13. P Cable sling 32° 32° Clevis 2.62 kN Dimensions of plate: 2.0 m Steel plate (2.5 1.8 MPa H Cable BEARING STRESS BETWEEN PLATE AND PINS Ab bearing area td T td 13.2 × 0. The pins through the clevises are 18 mm in diameter and are located 2. For these conditions.0 m apart.10 kN Weight density of steel: Weight of plate: W d t V diameter of pin through clevis thickness of plate 0.5 Volume of plate: V (2.300 m3 TENSILE FORCE T IN CABLE Fvertical T cos 32 18 mm T 0 W 2 ↑ ↓ 0 23.2 0.1 m) Solution 1.5 × 1.62 kN 2( 4 )(18 mm) 2 26.62 kN (100 mm)(18 mm) sb 7.57 MPa W 2 H 2.2) (0. Each half of the cable is at an angle of 32° to the vertical.5) (1.1 m 0.6-6 A steel plate of dimensions 2.6 Shear Stress and Strain 29 Problem 1.SECTION 1.10 kN 2 cos 32 13.1 m is hoisted by a cable sling that has a clevis at each end (see figure). determine the average shear stress aver in the pins and the average bearing stress b between the steel plate and the pins.

50 in.2194 in.0 mm with respect to the bottom plate.50 in.6-8 An elastomeric bearing pad consisting of two steel plates bonded to a chloroprene elastomer (an artificial rubber) is subjected to a shear force V during a static loading test (see figure).25 in. Steel plate d 2r t P Solution 1. and Shear Problem 1.25 in.40 in.2 0.50 in.40 in. and the tensile force P in the bolt is 1000 lb.40 in.2 0.50 in. The radius of the circumscribed circle for the hexagon is r 0. 0.40 in. 0. (b) Determine the average shear stress aver in the head of the bolt. The pad has dimensions a 150 mm and b 250 mm.2 4560 psi — 2r P t P t Ab Area of one equilateral triangle r r2 4 3 sb Area of hexagon 2r (b) SHEAR STRESS IN HEAD OF BOLT As taver shear area As P As P dt dt 1000 lb (0. 1000 lb (a) BEARING STRESS BETWEEN BOLT HEAD AND PLATE Ab Ab bearing area area of hexagon minus area of bolt 3r2 3 d2 2 4 3 (0.6-7 Bolt in tension d r d 0.1963 in. When the force V equals 12 kN.). the thickness t of the bolt head is 0. the top plate is found to have displaced laterally 8. (which means that each side of the hexagon has length 0.6-7 A special-purpose bolt of shank diameter d 0.4157 in. The hexagonal head of the bolt bears directly against the steel plate. What is the shear modulus of elasticity G of the chloroprene? b a V t .2194 in.) — 3r2 3 2 2550 psi Problem 1. passes through a hole in a steel plate (see figure). Compression.25 in. and the elastomer has thickness t 50 mm.)(0.30 CHAPTER 1 Tension.) 2 2 4 0.) 2 ( 3) ¢ ≤ (0.2 P Ab 1000 lb 0. (a) Determine the average bearing stress b between the hexagonal head of the bolt and the plate. Also.

6 k — . 0.004)(4.SECTION 1. Under the action of shear forces V.) 89. relative to each other.5 in. its length is L 40 in. (a) What is the average shear strain aver in the epoxy? (b) What is the magnitude of the forces V if the shear modulus of elasticity G for the epoxy is 140 ksi? h A L B t d A h V V B t Solution 1.004 — (b) SHEAR FORCES V Average shear stress : aver G aver h t L d G 4..6-8 d = 8. and its thickness is t 0.5 in. 40 in.0 in.16 2.16 0.002 in.0 in.32 MPa gaver G b = 250 mm — V 12 kN 150 mm 250 mm 8. The height of the joint is h 4. 0.0 mm 50 mm 0.0 MPa 0.)(40 in.0 in.002 in..6-9 A joint between two concrete slabs A and B is filled with a flexible epoxy that bonds securely to the concrete (see figure).0 mm Width of pad: a Length of pad: b d Problem 1.6-9 Epoxy Joint between concrete slabs d (a) AVERAGE SHEAR STRAIN B h A V V t gaver d t 0.6 Shear Stress and Strain 31 Solution 1.0 mm V Bearing pad subjected to shear taver t = 50 mm V ab d t t g 12 kN (150 mm)(250 mm) 8.32 MPa 0. 140 ksi V aver(hL) G aver(hL) (140 ksi)(0. the slabs displace vertically through the distance d 0.

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