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HR TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Question 1:....................................................................................................................................................2 (a) Explain the importance and scope of “Human Resource Development” in an organisation.............2 (b) What is meant by HRD Audit?..............................................................................................................4 (a) Explain the relevance of “Human Resource Planning” in an industry...............................................6 (b) What are the stages in the career of an employee? Explain each stage? ............................................7 (a) What is meant by Performance Appraisal? What are the objectives of a Performance Appraisal System?........................................................................................................................................................10 (b) Explain the concept of 360 degree appraisal and its relevance in the industry................................11 Question 4:..................................................................................................................................................12 (a) Explain the process involved in an Appraisal Interview?..................................................................12 (b) What are the objectives of Potential Evaluation? ..............................................................................14 (a) What the main elements that should be included in an Employee Induction Programme?............15 (b) Explain the different stages of Systematic Recruitment Process.......................................................17 (a) Explain the importance of Job Description and Person Specification..............................................23 (b) Discuss the relevance of innovative Employee Reward System.........................................................25 Many such various schemes are innovatively discovered, within the limits of the organisation to praise and understand the efforts of its employees. This ensures that the employees are treated with respect and concern and motivates him to be a better, devoted and honest employee of the organisation. These are rewards for his actions and a form of gratitude shown by the organisation to him. .............................................................................................................................................................28 (a) Explain how the Training needs can be identified?............................................................................29 (b) What are the ways a Training programme can be evaluated?..........................................................32 Question 8:..................................................................................................................................................35 (a) What is system approach to training?.................................................................................................35 (b) Explain briefly different training and development methods............................................................37 (a) MBO:.....................................................................................................................................................39 (c) Selection Process:..................................................................................................................................40 Analyse anyone of the cases given in the study material..........................................................................42
Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. 200308104
HR Development and Training
Question 1: (a) Explain the importance and scope of “Human Resource Development” in an organisation. (b) What is meant by HRD Audit?
(a) Explain the importance and scope of “Human Resource Development” in an organisation. Introduction: HRD Means Developing The Human Resources Upgrading Their Skills And Extending Their Knowledge Would Lead To Economic Development And Organizational Development. Therefore Human Resource Development (HRD) Is Key To Optimize Utilization Of Human Intellectual Technological And Entrepreneurial Skills. (HRD) is the means used to support the mission of human resource management, which is to maximize employee performance. HRD is also defined by four functions: • Education. • Training. • Development. • Career Management. Scope of HRD: In 1970 Len Nadler published his now-classic book Developing Human Resources, in which he coined the term "human resource development" (HRD). The term HRD provided a conceptual umbrella under which the field began to unify, using the three-fold notion of training, education, and development. HRD provided purpose and direction for the continued growth of the field: organized learning to provide the possibility of performance change. It further idententified a core discipline from which a field of study could develop: adult learning in the workplace. McLagans HRD studies in 1983 and 1989 reflected a shift taking place in HRD work. In 1983 the assumptions in the competency models focused on change in technology. In 1987 Patricia McLagan proposed the following narrative definition of HRD: HRD is the integrated use of training and development, career development, and organization development to improve individual effectiveness In HRD Emphasis On: • Improving Existing Skills and Exploring Potential Skills of an Individual. • Attachment of Organizational and Individual Goals. • Acquire or Sharpen Their Capabilities Required To Perform Various Obligations, Tasks and Functions. • Develop Their Capabilities As Individual So That They May Be Able To Discover Their Potential And Exploit them To Full Their Own and/or Organizational Development Purpose And • To Develop An Organizational Culture Where Superior Subordinate Relationship Team Work And Collaboration Among Different Sub Units Are Strong And Contribute to Organizational Wealth, Dynamism And Pride To The Employees. • Supporting the business • Supporting (informal) learning • Supporting knowledge sharing (as a special form of supporting informal learning) • Development and coordination of training • Changing HRD practices • Develop their general capabilities as individuals, so as to discover and exploit their inner potentials for their own organizational development purposes.
Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. 200308104
HR Development and Training
Develop organization culture in which superior subordinate relationships, team work and, collaboration among sub-units are strong and contribute to the professional well being, motivation and pride of employees.
Objectives: 1. Maximise the utilisation of human resources for the achievement on individual and organisational goals. 2. Provide an opportunity and comprehensive framework for the development of human resources in an organisation for full expression of their talent and manifest potentials. 3. Develop constructive mind and an overall personality of the employees. 4. Develop the sense of team spirit, team work and inter team collaborations. 5. Develop the organisational health, culture and effectiveness. 6. Generate systematic information about human resources. Importance of HRD: Human resource development (HRD) can be defined as a set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the opportunities to learn necessary skills to meet current and future job demands. Learning is at the core of all HRD efforts. HRD activities should begin when an employee joins an organization and continue throughout his or her career, regardless of whether that employee is an executive or a worker on an assembly line. HRD programs must respond to job changes and integrate the long term plans and strategies of the organization to ensure the efficient and effective use of re-sources. All resources of production are important like machine, capital, money, land and building etc. in order to ensure the achievement of production of a running factory. Over all supremacy has to be given to the element of human resource. Man itself ensures the economical use of resources by applying wisdom. Hence, any amount of efforts spent on training of human resources will yield its appropriate result and higher productivity of the organisation The prospects and growth, productivity and profitability of an organisation depend maximum on effective utilisation of such resources employed in the effort of achieving company objectives. The achievement of an organisation can be seen as a result of cooperation and hard work at all the levels of functioning of an organisation. Any huge capital investment in developing infrastructure of a training institute and its running will, in the years to come, show its results in achieving higher productivity and profitability. HRD is a process in which the employees of an organization are continuously helped in a planned manner • Acquire or sharpen their capabilities that are required perform various functions associated with their present expected future roles. • HRD helps in maximizing the utilization of human resource for the achievement of individual and organizational goals. • HRD helps to provide an opportunity and comprehensive framework for the development of human resource in an organization for full expression of their talent and manifest potentials. • HRD helps in increasing skills of employees it helps to develop the constructive mind and an overall personality of the employees. • HRD develop the sense of team spirit team work and inter team collaborations. • HRD also used to develop the organizational health culture and effectiveness and to generate systematic information about human resources. • HRD helps in creating the healthy working environment it helps to build good employee, employees relationship so that individual goals matches with organizational goal.
Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. 200308104
HR Development and Training
Conclusion: Human resources are the assets which do not find a place for mentioning in the balance sheet of a company. But it is one of the most important assets as human resources are a resource of production as well as they are utilising other resources of production like a material, machines, money etc. (b) What is meant by HRD Audit? HRD audit starts with and understanding of the future business plans and corporate strategies while HRD audit can be done even in organizations that look well formulated future plans and strategies it is most effective as a tool when the organization already has such long term plans. HRD audit is a comprehensive evaluation of the current human resource development strategies, structure, systems, styles and skills in the context of the short and long-term business plans of a company. HRD audit attempts to find out the future HRD needs of the company after assessing the current HRD activities and inputs available. In the last few years the author along with his colleague Dr. Udai Pareek pioneered in India, a methodology for auditing HRD function and implemented the same in a good number of Indian companies. HRD audit is cost-effective and can give many insights into a company's affairs. The auditors come for one to two weeks, camp at the organization and give a report in a month's time. They normally make a preliminary presentation at the end of their visit. HRD audit can lead to several benefits: 1. Getting the top management to think in terms of strategic and long-term business plans It may sound ironical that the HRD audit should begin with such strategic plans, but in some cases it has compelled the top management to think about such plans. While some companies started thinking about them, a few others started sharing these plans with a larger number of persons. Since the employees cannot participate in an HRD audit without some sharing of these plans, the audit has forced the top management to share their plans which has resulted in increased employee involvement. In a few cases a new system of annual planning and sharing of business plans with the management staff have been initiated to enable them plan their own activities and competency development programmes. 2. Clarifying the role of the HRD department and line managers in HRD In almost all cases the HRD audit has been found to draw the attention of employees at various levels to the important role of the HRD department and current as well as the future. Enhanced role clarity of HRD department and HRD function and increased understanding of line managers about their HRD role have been the uniform results of HRD audit. The degree may vary from organization to organization depending on other factors. 3. Streamlining of other management practices Most often HRD audit identifies the strengths and weaknesses in the some of the management systems existing in the organization. It also points out to the absence of systems that can enhance human productivity and utilisation of the existing competency base; for example, the MIS, rules and procedures, etc. which may have an effect on the functioning of the employees. In a few cases an HRD audit has helped the management look at some of these sub-systems and work procedures. Preparation of a manual of delegation of powers, clarification of roles and responsibilities, developing or streamlining the manuals of financial and accounting procedures and systems, strengthening the information systems, and sharing of information are some of the resultant activities in this direction. 4. Better recruitment policies and more professional staff An HRD audit points out to the competence base required. It sets the stage and gives direction for the competency requirements of employees at various levels and thus provides a base for recruitment policies and procedures. In some companies, it has resulted in strengthening the recruitment policies and procedures. As a result of HRD audit, new recruitment and retention strategies have been worked out.
Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. 200308104
an HRD audit leads to the strengthening of the quality systems. A number of organisations have introduced systems of performance planning. This has helped to provide subtle feedback to the top management and to initiate a change process. This differentiation has been found to help organisations identify and focus sharply on the competency requirements and gaps. 6. resulting in a large number of human Problems leading to wastage of time. Changes in the styles of top management One of the objectives of HRD is to also create a learning organization. Improvements in HRD systems The HRD audit has helped most of the organisations in taking stock of the effectiveness of their HRD systems and in designing or re-designing the HRD systems. This can take place through separate role clarity exercises or through the development of an appropriate performance appraisal system. This gets assessed through performance appraisals as well as through the work culture and other cultural dimensions. The audit establishes a system of role clarity and fixing of accountabilities. 200308104 . career planning and promotion policies. As direct investments are made in training. job-rotation. In a few organisations the performance appraisals have been so changed as to integrate quality aspects and internal customer satisfaction dimensions into the appraisal system. group work and appraisal systems. Such a style requires an empowering attitude. managerial. Assessment of training needs has also become more scientific in these organisations. human and conceptual competencies of the staff at various levels. The process of identifying training needs and utilisation of training inputs and learning for organisation growth and development are assessed. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. More planning and more cost-effective training HRD audits have been found to raise questions about the returns on training. 10. Strengthening accountabilities through appraisal systems and other mechanisms An HRD audit can give significant inputs about the existing state of the accountabilities of employees. In a number of cases the HRD audit has pointed out to the linkages between TQM and other developmental programmes and helped in strengthening the same. communication. 8. For example. 9. one organization has been found to neglect human relations competencies of their staff. sharing of expectations and documenting the accountabilities of staff. A learning culture can be created only if the top managers of the company exhibit an HRD style of management. In any case the attention of the organization gets focused on developing the competency base of the organization. 7. conflicts and problems as learning opportunities. Many organisations have developed training policies and systematised their training function. induction training. autocratic and even paternalistic styles of management. mentoring. TQM programmes have also improved. TQM interventions Quality improvements and establishing TQM systems require a high degree of employee involvement. and an ability to convert and use mistakes.HR Development and Training 5 5. attitudes and skills required by the employees in the organization. Due to improvements in the training system. Increased focus on human resources and human competencies One of the results of an HRD audit is to focus on new knowledge. More sensitivity are developed to the missing aspects of competencies. Some of these got streamlined and various HRD policies also got strengthened. Some of the top-level managers in India have been found to block employee motivation and learning through coercive. In such cases the HRD audit has pointed out the difficulties in developing and preparing the employees for the future. any cost-benefit analysis draws the attention of the top management and HRD managers to review the training function with relative ease. The most frequently changed or renewed systems include performance appraisal. and training. One of the aspects emphasised in the HRD audit is to calculate the investments made in training and ask questions about he returns. Comments are made about the technical. One organization strengthened its training function by introducing a new system of post-training follow-up and dissemination of knowledge to others through seminars and action plans. participative style of management. Thus.
i. Management development: . who are capable of completing those tasks that help the organization reach its objectives. (a) Explain the relevance of “Human Resource Planning” in an industry Human resource planning is the process by which management ensures that it has the right personnel. • From this information. • This is typically done through a human resource inventory. blockage in the promotion flow and needless redundancies. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. • Also. • Another part of the current assessment is the job analysis which is an assessment that defines jobs and the behaviors necessary to perform them. management can draw up a job description which is a written statement of what a jobholder does. 200308104 . related to short term and/or long term timescales. Balancing the cost between the utilization of plant and workforce: .A succession of trained and experienced manager is essential to the effectiveness of the organization and this depends on accurate information about present and future requirement in all management parts. Industrial relations: . Determining training needs: . A system of human resource planning The main elements of a system are: • Defining the organisational objectives. • Monitoring the system and amending as required.This in values comparing costs of these two resources in different combinations and selecting the optimum. This is especially important when costing projects. (b)Future assessment involves a determination of future human resource needs by looking at the organization's objectives and strategies.HR Development and Training Question 2: (a) Explain the relevance of “Human Resource Planning” in an industry (b) What are the stages in the career of an employee? Explain each stage. • Assessing the future requirements to meet objectives. how it is done. it will have an impact on the organization industrial relations strategies In practice. (c)Developing a future program involves matching estimates of shortages of needed personnel with forecasts of future labor supply. wastage. and why it is done. which follow these analyses.This is fundamentally important to planning training programmed for which it is necessary to not only quality but also quantity in terms of the skills required by the organization. • Assessing the current resources and availability of resources in the future. any system has to be based on analyses of demand and supply and the plans and decisions. balancing forecasts for demand and supply. • Producing and implementing the plan in detail.The business plan will of necessity make assumptions about productivity of the human resource. 6 (a) Current assessment involves reviewing the organization's current human resource status.An essential prerequisite to the process of recruitment is to avoid problems of unexpected shortage. management can develop a job specification which is a statement of the minimum acceptable qualifications that an incumbent must possess to perform a given job successfully. The relevance of Human Resource Planning is described as follows – Determine recruitment needs: . hr planning is concerned with the demand and supply of labor and problems arising from the process of reconciling these factors.e.
and work-environment preferences. checklists. However individuals in this stage have yet to reach their peak productivity and rarely are they given work assignment that carry great power or high stages. interviews. Stage 2: Establishment The establishment period begins with the search for work and includes getting your first job being accepted by your peers. learning the job and gaining the first tangible evidence of success of or failure in the 'real world'. Additionally it also marked by the making of mistakes. At this stage. interpersonal. • Mid-career is when an individual is no longer seen as a "learner. Stage 3: Mid-Career Most people do not face their first career dilemmas until they reach the mid-carrier stage this is a time where individual may continue their prior improvements in performance level off or begin to deteriorate. many of which are unrealistic. and personal. and spiritual dimensions and lifestyle such as choice of a partner. From an organisation stand point. It is of course not irrelevant. Career stages model is the most popular way to view careers. The exploration period is when a number of expectations abt ones career are developed. This stage has less relevance. their aspirations and their financial resources will be heavy factors in determining out planets. and so forth. their interests." • Late career is when an individual can share his or her knowledge with others in the organization. At Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. • Decline is when an individual leaves the work force. including the effect of his or her value systems on personal preferences. work. and so forth. work-style. Career stages: Stage 1: Exploration This stage includes a person’s earliest recollection of “what I want to be when I grow up” and the revisions on that dream as the person commits to his or her career work. and cultural values. This stage is usually heavily affected by spoken and unspoken messages that people receive from family or significant others regarding what their life path or journey should be. The activities of this stage help people assess and understand their competency strengths. personality traits. people usually receive detailed information from having completed formal or informal appraisal instruments. learning from these mistakes and gradual assumption of increased responsibilities. At this stage. since it occurs prior to employment. The output contains highly specific information about a person. people bring with them a list of potential life and work options. their aspirations and their financial resources will be heavy factors in determine out perception of what carriers are available. teachers as well as what we see on television and films very early in our parents their interests. • Exploration is when individuals are exploring possible career options and making critical choices. It is a time that brings the uncertainties and anxieties. Many to the critical choices individual make about their carrier are made prior to every entering the work on a paid basis our parents relatives. simulations. • Establishment begins with the search for work and getting that first job. learning-style.HR Development and Training 7 (b) What are the stages in the career of an employee? Explain each stage? A career is defined as a sequence of positions occupied by a person during the course of a lifetime. The exploration period ends for most in our mid-twenties as we get employed. 200308104 . where he or she should live. interests. The messages are usually from a person’s elders about their desire for the type of work the person should do. number of children. The popular way of analyzing the career is to look at them as made up of stages. There are five stage models that is applicable to the most people during their work life. People can use that appraisal information to revise the options they developed in the exploration stage. abilities.
These individuals are forced to step out of the limelight and give up major component of their identity. individuals are no longer learning nor is it expected that they should out do their levels of performance from previous years. 200308104 . During the late career days. built up over so many years and through varied experiences and sharing with and teaching others based on the knowledge they have gained. given the information available at the time. adjustment of priorities or the pursuit of alternative life styles. Their value to the organisation lies heavily in their judgment. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. Thus. For the most performers or those who have seen their performance deteriorate over the years. time for retirement has reached. At this point in a career one is expected to have moved beyond apprenticeship to journeyman status. One begins to look forward to retirement and the opportunities of doing something different life off the job is likely lot carry for greater importance then it did in earlier days. Stage 5: Decline The final stage in one's carrier is difficult for everyone but ironically is probably hardest on those who had continued successes in earlier stages. job changes. For others it may be a time of reassessment. It is a time their one rest on one's laurels and both in the respect given by younger employees. After several decades of continued achievements and high level of performance. It may be pleasant time. people are likely to experience frustration or disappointment later on. Responsibilities will be fewer in life and will be less structured. It is a time when individuals recognize that they have decreased work mobility and may be locked to their current job. That could cause them to be discouraged. which could lead to abandoning any further effort. This is a delicate stage of career work because the outputs must be grounded in reality to the greatest degree possible. For those who have stagnated or deteriorated during the previous stage the late career brings the reality that they will not have an everlasting impact or change the world as they had once thought. As a result it is a difficult stage for anyone to confront. Adjustments of course will have to be made regardless of whether one is leaving a sparkling career or a dismal career. The frustrations that have been associated with work will be left behind.HR Development and Training 8 this stage the first dilemma is accepting that on is no longer seen as a learner. Stage 4: Late Career For those who continue to grow through the mid-carrier stage the late carrier usually is a pleasant time when one is allowed the luxury to relax a bit and enjoy playing the part of the elder state man. If they aren’t realistic. the decisionmaking process should result in a set of realistic career work goals. The regimentation that work provides will no longer be there. Mistakes carry greater penalty. To those who make the successful transition go greater responsibilities and rewards.
• Don't stay too long in your first job. • Stay mobile. • Stay visible. • Work harder than ever at developing a network. • Learn the power structure. • Present the right image. 200308104 . • Gain control of organizational resources. 25 35 AGE 50 60 70 Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. • Think laterally. • Think of your career in terms of skills you're acquiring and continue upgrading those skills. • Support your boss.HR Development and Training Stages in career Development 9 High P E R F O R M A N C E 5 Low Keys to a successful management career include the following aspects. • Find a mentor. • Select your first job judiciously. • Do good work.
To provide a format enabling the supervisor to recommend a specific program design to help an employee improve performance. 3. Evaluation Of Goal Achievement 13. In many organizations .) Performance appraisal for evaluation using the traditional approach has served the following purposes: 1. 200308104 . that usually takes the form of a periodic interview (annual or semi-annual). Recognition of Individual Performance 9. By the same token. and other rewards 6. including merit increases. (a) What is meant by Performance Appraisal? What are the objectives of a Performance Appraisal System? Performance appraisal may be defined as a structured formal interaction between a subordinate and supervisor. appraisal results are used to identify the poorer performers who may require some form of counseling. Identification of Poor Performance 11. Feedback to the employee regarding how the organization viewed the employee's performance 3. or in extreme cases. 5. with a view to identifying weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for improvement and skills development. either directly or indirectly. (Organizations need to be aware of laws in their country that might restrict their capacity to dismiss employees or decrease pay. Determination of Promotion 10. and promotions. Assistance In Goal Identification 12. and transfer decisions 2. demotion.appraisal results are used. dismissal or decreases in pay. Identification of Individual Training Needs Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. 2. To provide the supervisors with a means of identifying the strengths and weaknesses of an employee’s performance. To provide a basis of salary recommendations. That is. and human resources planning can be used Objectives of Appraisal System: 1. promotions. the appraisal results are used to identify the better performing employees who should get the majority of available merit pay increases. Criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of selection and placement decisions. in which the work performance of the subordinate is examined and discussed.but not all . including the relevance of the information used in the decisions within the organization 5. 4. Reward decisions. budgeting. Criteria for evaluating the success of training and development decisions 8. To give employees the opportunity to discuss performance and performance standards regularly with their supervisor. Salary Administration 6.HR Development and Training 10 Question 3: (a) What is meant by Performance Appraisal? What are the objectives of a Performance Appraisal System? (b) Explain the concept of 360 degree appraisal and its relevance in the industry. Ascertaining and diagnosing training and development decisions 7. to help determine reward outcomes. Evaluations of relative contributions made by individuals and entire departments in achieving higher level organization goals 4. Performance Feedback 7. bonuses. Promotion. Information upon which work scheduling plans. separation. Identification of Individual Strengths and Weaknesses 8.
200308104 . as with any appraisal technique depends on how managers use the information and how fairly employees are treated. internal customers. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. The 360 degree appraisal is based upon performance feedback from multiple sources. Safeguards to be observed to ensure maximum quality and acceptance: Assure anonymity Make respondents accountable Prevent " gaming " of the system Use statistical procedures Identify and quantify biases Based on the experience of companies it appears as though 360 degree feedback can provide a valuable approach to performance appraisal its success. 360 degree appraisals were conducted in writing and required complex and time consuming procedures for the assessments to be successful. employee development. performance appraisal has been limited to a feedback process between employees and supervisors. In a 360 degree appraisal. Feedback from peers and other may increase employee self-development. Cons: The system complex in combining all the responses Feedback can be intimidating and cause resentment if employee feels the respondents have "ganged up These may be conflicting opinions. supervisors. Pros: The system is more comprehensive in that response are gathered from multiple perspectives Quality of information better (quality of respondents is more important than quantity) It complements TQM intestines by emphasizing internal/external customer and teams. The system requires training to work effectively. the emphasis has shifted to employee feedback from the full circle of sources depicted in the diagram below. The term 360 degree refers to feedback from all directions. 360 degree feedback is intended to provide employee with as accurate a view of their performance as possible by getting input from all angles = superiors beers subordinates customer and the like although in the beginning 360 degree systems were purely developmental and were restricted mainly to management and carrier development they have migrated to performance appraisal and other administrative applications. Determination of Organizational Training Needs. This multiple-input approach to performance feedback is sometimes called “360-degree assessment” to connote that full circle. though they may all be accurate from the respective standpoints. Initially. It may lessen bias/prejudice since feedback comes from more people not one individual. and customer service. and the individual. Appraisers may not be accountable if their evaluations are anonymous. (b) Explain the concept of 360 degree appraisal and its relevance in the industry. staff. feedback may come from peers. external customers. rather than dependence on an employee's supervisor or other single source. Employees may collude or game the system by giving invalid evaluation to one another. As name implies. with the increased focus on teamwork. Typically.HR Development and Training 11 14. However.
This is the reward review component. At the other extreme it is simply regarded as a chat.HR Development and Training Question 4: (a) Explain the process involved in an Appraisal Interview? (b) What are the objectives of Potential Evaluation? 12 (a) Explain the process involved in an Appraisal Interview? Appraisals have three main purposes.a one-sided process based entirely on the manager's perspective. if appropriate. and seen to be fair to the individual and consistent across the organisation. The employee is not the only beneficiary . this can be overcome if the appraisal system is wellconstructed. the rest of the time he should be listening to employees’ respond to questions. Research evidence suggests that participation is strongly released to an employee’s satisfaction with the appraisal feedback.the organisation benefits through identifying employees for promotion. it is sometimes seen as a judgement . the self appraisal starts the employee thinking about his or her accomplishments. Self appraisal also ensures that against what criteria he or she is being evaluated. thus eliminating potential surprises. Additionally. to provide training and development to enable an individual to help the organisation to achieve its objectives. Conducting the appraisal interview: There is often misunderstanding as to how an appraisal should be conducted. However. Finally. As a thumb rule. appraisals are also important to aid an individual's career development by attempting to predict work that the individual may be capable of in the future. Employees often question the value and usefulness of the time and effort taken up by an appraisal. the extent to which the employee believes it is fair and useful as well as his/her intention to improve performance. These are often misunderstood. The second purpose of an appraisal is to identify any training needs and. and by using the system as a basis for human resource planning. Invite participation: The core purpose of a performance appraisal interview is to initiate a dialogue that will help an employee improve her or his performance. Appraisees sometimes perceive their annual appraisal as a threat. This is the performance review component. It gives employees a form of self-assessment according to it employee has evaluated his or her own performance the interview can be used to discuss those area where the manager and the employee have reached different conclusion not so much to resolve the truth but to work towards a resolution of problem. it establishes key results that an individual needs to achieve within a time period while also comparing the individual's performance against a set and established standard. 200308104 . This is the potential review component. noting areas for individual improvement. the supervisors should spend 30-35 percent of time talking during the interview. To the extent that an employee is an active participant in that discussion. A typical negative response to appraisals is that they are confrontational. The first is to measure the extent to which an individual may be awarded a salary increase compared with his or her peers. This is often due to a lack of agreement on performance or poor explanation by management. However. Eve if this information is not used formally. Process Involved In Appraisal Interview: Ask for a self-assessment: It is useful to have employees evaluate their own performance prior to appraisal interview. the more likely it is that the roof cause and obstacles to performance will be uncovered and the more likely it is that constructive ideas for improvement will be raised. Express appreciation: - Gayathri Shankarram Registration No.
Materials Job design Economic condition Unions Rules and policies Management support Laws and regulations Perf = f (A. in particular it is important to remember that it is not the person who is bad. These action plans may also include a list of contact. It is difficult for employee to change who they are but it will e easier for them to change the way they act. instead suggestion of more acceptable ways of performing would prove effective. Better approach is to have informal talks periodically to follow up on issues raised during the interview. E) Gayathri Shankarram Ability: Technical skills Interpersonal skills Problem solving skills Analytical skills Registration No. Focus on solving problems: In addressing performance issues. . and timetables for follow up. but the actions exhibited by him. Minimize criticism: Employees who have a good relationship with their managers may be able to handle criticism better than those who do not if an employee has many areas in need for improvement. Feedback is most useful when it is immediate and specific to a particular situation. Factors that influence Performance Motivation: Career ambition Employee conflict Frustration Fairness/ Satisfaction Goals/Expectations Environment: Equipment. Follow up:Ideally performance feedback should be an ongoing part of a manager’s job. Establish specific action plans that spell out how each goal will be achieved. it is important to focus the interviews attention of future rather than past. it is frequently tempting to get into the blame game in which both manager and employee enter into a potentially endless discussion of why a situation has arises. Establish goals:Major portion of the interview is to make plans for improvement. the manager should: Emphasize strengths on which employee can build rather than weaknesses to overcome. 200308104 Communication skills Physical limitations. Unfortunately both manager and employee are generally happy to finish interview and file away. managers should focus on those few objectives issues that are most problematic or most important to the job some tips for using criticism constructively include the following. Limit plans for growth to a few important items that can be accomplished within a reasonable period of time. Concentrate on opportunities for growth that exists within the frame work of the employee’s present position. Avoid suggestions and personal traits to change. Consider whether it is really necessary Don't exaggerate Make improvement your goal Changing the behavior not the person: When dealing with problem area.HR Development and Training 13 Praise is a powerful motivator and in an appraisal interview. M. particularly employees are seeking positive feedback it is frequently beneficial to start the appraisal interview by expressing appreciation for what the employee has done well. resources. in this way he or she may be less defensive and more likely to talk about aspects of the job that are not going so well. Frequently solving problems requires and analysis of the causes but ultimately the appraisal interview should be directed devising a solution to the problem. In setting goals with an employee.
The evaluation optimizes the use of the employee and avoids errors in promotion. 200308104 . (b) What are the objectives of Potential Evaluation? Potential-evaluation measures the aptitude of an employee (or a candidate). nobody has ever questioned the need for assessment of potential for vital personnel decision it is in fact pre-requisite to the very survival of an organization. Objective of Potential Evaluation: Potential evaluation poses a number of problems. bonus and other tangible incentives based on individual performance. It is an important area because people have to be prepared to take up higher responsibilities. skills.HR Development and Training 14 Assessing rewards: The reward review is the process by which managers have to decide who deserves increments. Some of the major areas where potential evaluation plays a critical role and help in handling the employees of organization. It also helps in identifying high fusers and the dead wood early. abilities in meeting the requirements of the job which the individual currently holds on the other hand potential refers to the abilities present but not currently utilized or not required to that degree in the present job as would be required in possible future higher jobs which the individual may hold. highlights his personality. it refers to the abilities to discharge higher responsibilities in future roles. character traits. Promotions Transfer Placement Training And Development Carrier Planning Succession Planning Salary Increase Organization Planning Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. These problems are likely to occur. Potential evaluation refers to an individuals behavior. and the strong-points of his professional profile. The evaluation aids to orientate him towards the functions in which he can most fully use his capacity and talents. however sound the schemes may be but it is obviously vitally important to give thought in preparation and practice to ensure that any scheme for the reward review is fair and efficient. It is potentially uncomfortable and contentious situation because inevitable there will be winner and losers.
15 (a) What the main elements that should be included in an Employee Induction Programme? Employee induction and orientation is as much about creating an impression as it is about providing information. The impressions that you create become information that employees act on. such as: During engineering apprenticeships. More often than not the programme is a combination of both forms of training. Do you want them to do it the way that always did it? Or do you have a better way? If they have a better way. It may take the form of short Full-Time courses or very much longer programmes where a high level of performance is essential.one that is not designed to meet either their or our needs .HR Development and Training Question 5: (a) What the main elements that should be included in an Employee Induction Programme? (b) Explain the different stages of Systematic Recruitment Process. Increased knowledge of the organisation will help to develop confidence and is a significant means of stimulating interest and motivation. This could include a schedule of visits or short attachments to other units.may demotivate the person before they have even started! The induction phase is broadly classified into three elements: Training Work Experience and Social Adaptation INDUCTION PROGRAM Training Social Adaptation Work Experience Training: Induction training is mainly vocational and designed in order to give new employees the skills and knowledge required for productive employment. An inadequate induction . such as CallCenter training. Induction is a major factor in that employee's ability to perform effectively and their desire to remain with the organisation. an effective induction process is essential to maintain their enthusiasm. do you want to know about it? When a new employee commences his job. 200308104 . etc. Flying training. Sometimes induction training is given on the job itself. am imaginative approach is necessary to widen new employee’s knowledge of their organisational environment as much as possible. BPO. Work Experience: This covers a wide range of possibilities and is a matter of each organisation to decide whether new employees remain with one occupation or are rotated to meet particular requirements of experience. motivation and enabling them to get on with the work they were employed to do. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. And before they can become a productive member of the workforce they do need a lot of information. etc.
Managers cannot expect to control subtle interplay of intra-group relationships. their induction into the organisation still has to be recognised as an essentially individual process. The more members of the group that can be usefully involved in this process the better. The process of socializing is infinitely subtle and varied with each individual. but they need to develop a psychological awareness of group and individual behaviour in order to assist their groups. Finally. Helps to reduce the high risk potential of injuries to young employees. the ability to anticipate where interpersonal difficulties could arise and how the social forces within the group could be used to advantage. In this way. the varied experience and strengths of the different members of the team may be used skillfully to help newcomers to adapt. and seasonal or temporary employees. because of the complexity and variability of the initial phase of employment from the individual’s point of view. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. . this is a particular source of difficulty in the induction phase. 200308104 . new/transferred or re-hired employees. Although new employees often undertake part of the induction programme together. employers cannot naively assume that a formally planned induction programme coincides with each individual employee’s induction phase. Helps to meet legal requirements.HR Development and Training 16 Social Adaptation: As we have already seen. Induction training provides many benefits: Makes the employee aware of the health and safety hazards of the job and how these affected the safety of others. Helps to reduce the anxiety or stress experienced in a new or changed working environment or situation. as though the programme covers a fixed period at the end of which new employees cross as it were a boundary that separates the novitiate from null membership. Helps to balance the company’s need for productivity with the worker’s needs for self esteem and security.
( Internal/External). Not to forget that to have reached the interview stage you have already impressed the recruiters and they believe you have the ability to do the job. 17 Training:__________ On the job specific courses. 200308104 . Interviews are a crucial part of the recruitment process for most organisations. All you need to do is show them they are right! Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. The purpose of an interview is to give the selector a chance to assess you and for you to demonstrate your abilities and personality. It is also an opportunity for you to assess them and to make sure their organisation and the position are what you want.HR Development and Training Summary of main elements of an induction Initial Interviews__________________________ Conducted by the line manager and HRM. Training:___________ Work Experience:_____ Job variety attachments visits and Assistance by the manager and members of the work group Follow up interviews:_______________________ Conducted by the line manager and personal officer in the form of performance appraisal and career development interviews Check programmes and general welfare (b) Explain the different stages of Systematic Recruitment Process. covering Details of the induction program Organisational objective and functions Personal objectives and job Work conditions and facilities Personal needs problems etc. Usually applicants are interviewed after sending in an application form or CV for a particular position.
efficient. (iii) Recruitment should be treated as a key public relations exercise as the way it is managed affects the organisation’s image. should actually see this as an opportunity to get their recruitment function in line with HR best practice. and takes you through to making a decision about any offers that may result. and can include assessment centers. General Recruitment policy: A company should recognize its staff as being fundamental to its success. (i) Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. The number of interviews also varies. (v) Guidelines which form the basis for the implementation of this policy are also provided. while still ensuring that the organisation complies with relevant legislation any significant variations in practice must be discussed with the Senior HR Advisers to minimise risk to the organisation (vi) Professional advice and support is available at all stages of the recruitment process from the Senior HR Advisers. HR best practice has always been that organisations should not discriminate in their recruitment procedures. and should always strive to recruit and retain the most qualified staff. Most qualified was never to be interpreted as indicating a preferred race. A diverse workforce has always been a key feature of the best practice organisation. applications are received. If you are successful at the interview stage you will receive an official letter offering you the job. 200308104 . and support the organisational values. as we discuss later. either via an online application form. those who shudder when they hear reference made to legal recruitment procedures. As such. (iv) This policy has been designed to provide a flexible framework which promotes good practice. (ii) The organisation must be committed to ensuring that the recruitment and selection of staff is conducted in a manner that is systematic. The interview format can vary considerably. This information describes what you can expect at interviews and assessment centers. For these reasons. Candidates are short listed and invited for interview. They have been designed to maximise flexibility to meet the needs of all areas. adopts a proactive approach to equality and diversity issues and supports fully the organisation’s core business.HR Development and Training 18 The recruitment process for most organisations is designed along the same path. Some companies are satisfied after just one interview whereas others will want to bring back a further shortlist of candidates for one or more interviews. and consequently its ability to attract and appoint high caliber staff. A strategic and professional approach to recruitment processes help enable the organisation to attract and appoint staff with the necessary skills and attributes to fulfill its strategic aims. age or gender for the job. a postal form or a CV. and effective and promotes equality of opportunity.
In practice job vacancy may occur when: 1. Technology 6. An organisation or work unit is set up.Selection Short List Tests Interviewing/Group Selections References/Medical Appointment Induction programme Follow-up Steps of Recruitment: Step 1: Vacancy This stage decides what resources are required. An organisation takes place through changes in policy. An employee reaches retirement.HR Development and Training Systematic recruitment process flow chart Job Description Person specification 19 Sourcing Strategy Internal/External Advertisement Agency/Consultant/Search Send Application form Request CV Pre . 2. 4. Mergers Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. 200308104 . An employee resigns from the post. Details of requirements will emerge from the compilation and regular revision of HR plan. 3. 5.
for example required qualifications.HR Development and Training 7. The human resource plan is to provide general information about the types of factor that influence the supply of labour at macro and micro levels. Design of an appropriate application form will clearly depend on particular situation and needs. bearing in mind the actual requirements of the job. The items that are normally needed in application forms are: Job title Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. Internal recruitment to fill vacancies may be used as a means of career development. posters. On the other hand. It is allowable to include desired qualifications. Care should always be exercised when using images or photographs as a tool in recruitment advertising. 20 Because of the subtle changes that take place within an organisation the existence and nature of job vacancies should be accepted. Many employers now include an “equal opportunities employer” statement in their advertisements. 2. or which may indirectly exclude a portion of society Step 2: Sources This stage concerns with the general questions about supply and availability of resources and particular avenues through which these are likely to be obtained. transfers and promotions which this usually involves will more often not produce a vacancy at the end of the chain. Acquisitions. 2 means of conducting the search is done: Through employment and consultancies and agencies By contacting the public directly through advertisements in newspaper. which indicates an acknowledgement of. Different forms may be necessary for different kinds of work. Nevertheless filling of vacancies internally should always be given careful considerations. but be careful to avoid mentioning “requirements” which are not actually necessary for the job. A job and person specification should be prepared. Step 3: Application form/Resume/CV Many organisations use application forms in an effort to ensure an equal footing for all applicants. It is important that these do not reflect negative stereotypes. while at the same time also ensuring that all required information is captured in relation to the position. which may indicate an intention to discriminate. External employees: When organisation has to use external sources. equality legislation. radio. Again it is essential that the form is prepared in a style which complies with the legislation. and television and on the internet. journals. family status and nationality. skills and experience. The first step in any recruitment process is to define the job requirements. There are 2 types of recruitment noted while sourcing the resources: 1. and compliance with. 200308104 . and it is often worth including a statement indicating that the organisation is an equal opportunities employer. Questions which could be seen as discriminatory against potential candidates include those requesting information regarding marital status. widening the opportunities and stimulating motivation among existing employees. correct use of imagery can enhance an organisations perception as an equal opportunities employer. selection and induction procedures consume can be reduced. The costs and time that external recruitment. Questions should be carefully worded to avoid any hint of discriminatory practices. Even when it is feasible to fill job vacancies from within the organisation. Internal recruitment: Existing employees are known to the organisation are generally familiar with the customs and practices.
in-tray exercises) must be directly related to the role and measured against objective criteria. Some organisations have a practice of removing surnames. Another intervention which HR may take in order to ensure equity. be of mixed race and gender composition. presentations. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. and all interviews for one post must be conducted by the same people.HR Development and Training 21 Applicant’s full name Date of birth Contact address and phone number Nationality Education Academic qualifications Professional qualifications Present employment – details Previous employment – details in chronological order from latest Main interests Health Certifications Awards and achievements References Step 4: Processing and assessing application (Pre-selection) Once completed applications have been received. Step6: Tests Any skills tests (e. marital status. 200308104 . Step5: Short listing Short listing must be undertaken by at least two individuals who are involved in the interviewing process. addresses. Part of this experience should be that the organisation presents itself as an equal opportunities employer. This process is usually conducted by the hiring manager in conjunction with HR. and presentations for one post must be assessed by the same persons. is more likely to reapply should another position arise in the future. Referee reports are usually required as supplementary evidence for use in the assessment of candidates during selection procedure. Employees are often more frank on telephone conversations so over-emphasis must note on written reference. who feels that they were treated fairly by a company. In order to promote equality of opportunity selection committees should. in order that they remove information which could result in discriminatory selection by those screening them. Finally a word needs to be said about the use of testimonials and referee reports. age etc. and any other details which may lead to discriminatory selection prior to passing them on to the managers selecting interviewees. would be to reformat CV’s. when job requirements are established then room must always be left to decide the individual cases on their merits. date of birth.g. wherever possible. the next step in the process is to screen them in order to identify those most suitable for interview for the post. The screening involves cross-checking the applications against the job description and choosing the most suitable candidates for interview. A further important point has to be made concerns the need of flexibility in making final decisions about acceptance or rejections. Step 7: Interviewing/Group selections The interview should always be viewed as a two way process. Not only is it an opportunity for the candidate to present themselves in pursuit of the position. Candidates must be notified of the details of any skills test when they are invited for interview and the selection process for lectureships and senior lectureships must include a presentation or short lecture. Interviews should normally be conducted by at least two people. but it is also an opportunity to ensure that the candidate has a positive experience of the organisation. Best is not be stubbornly inflexible about length of experience. Studies have shown that an unsuccessful applicant.
Last step prior to appointment decision may be the medical examination of the person. and potentially discriminatory. who has moved into the organisation successfully after all the above processes. This may involve contacting the former organisations to confirm the candidate’s work record and obtain their appraisal of his/her performance. It is assumed that the applicant can pass the physical examination however it is intended to screen out those individuals who are unable to comply physically with the requirements of the job and the organisation. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. but their roles should only be administrative. This completes the process of recruitment. etc. and where an interviewer has not been trained in interviewing techniques. Where an interview panel is used it is worth trying to form the panel in order that it reflects the diverse make up of the applicant pool. This gives information about the performance of the employee in the organisation. For administrative purposed the draft should be made by the personnel department. This also paves way for the employee to understand the rules and regulation of the organisation which he is required to follow. The whole interview process should be transparent and interview notes should reflect this. This normally excludes visiting and other casual appointments of less than three months duration.HR Development and Training 22 The first step in ensuring that interviews are conducted within the law is in the selection of the interviewer. Agreeing questions in advance of the meeting avoids any discriminatory questions being asked out of the blue. Step8: References/Medical The next step in the recruiting process is investigation of those applicants who appear to be potential employees. appointments will only be offered on a fixed term basis where objective grounds exist for not making the appointment permanent. Interview questions must relate to the job requirements as exemplified in the person specification and the candidate’s suitability for the position. 200308104 . At the end of the recruitment process all records must be handed to the Human Resources Department who will retain them for six months in case of requests for feedback or the threat of litigation. Background investigation has major implications. organisations should attempt to have one woman and one man on a panel to ensure that gender discrimination is avoided. this is a screening device in selection process. Step 9: Appointment The individuals who perform successfully on the employment tests. The next step is to ensure that the interviewers are trained in interview techniques. Step 10: Induction This step involves formal introduction of the employee to the organisation. interview and reference/medical examination are chosen to be appointed into the organisation formally through a legally drafted Appointment order. For most jobs. This helps avoid them asking questions which could be deemed unnecessary. or interview panel. Offers of employment are conditional upon receipt of satisfactory references. his likes and dislikes. contacting other job related and personal references and verifying the educational accomplishments shown on application. requirements (if any). with successfully absorbing an employee with the laid regulations and benefits and perks. this becomes even more important. In accordance with employment legislation. The employee is given an overview of all the departments within the organisation. there should be gender balance. medical assessment and any other appropriate checks. As a minimum. his role and designation. Step 11: Follow up The last step in the recruitment process is the follow up on the employee. Training requirements and other elements which the new comer has to absorb. i. The person specification should be used as the basis for determining the interview questions.e. A member of HR should always attend interviews.
23 (a) Explain the importance of Job Description and Person Specification.Job identification or original position." Realistically speaking. and current. The list should contain each and every essential job duty or responsibility that is critical to the successful performance of the job. and/or the evolution of new technologies. Each duty or responsibility that comprises at least five percent of the incumbent's time should be included in the list. indicate the name of the department where it is situated . level. and objective of the job. and accountability of the occupant of the position. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. organizational development. many jobs are subject to change due either to personal growth. and/or other working relationships. continuing responsibilities. A job description should include a: • Job Title • Job Objective or Overall Purpose Statement . Flexible job descriptions will encourage your employees to grow within their positions and learn how to make larger contributions to your company. such as the individual tasks involved. division plant and code number of the job. including any supervisory positions. mechanical shop etc. Job Description A job description describes the major areas of an employee's job or position. The summary should describe the broad function and scope of the position and be no longer than three to four sentences. 2. which includes the job title. First it provides a short definition which is useful as an additional identification information when a job title in not adequate. 200308104 .This statement is generally a summary designed to orient the reader to the general nature. Job duties and responsibilities: . For example: Is your office manager stuck "routinely ordering office supplies for the company and keeping the storage closet well stocked " or is she/he "developing and implementing a system of ordering office supplies that promotes cost savings and efficiency within the organization?" When writing a job description.whether it is the maintenance department. Job Identification: . Importance of Job Description: 1. • List of Duties or Tasks Performed . purpose. (b) Discuss the relevance of innovative Employee Reward System. the relationship of the job to other jobs.HR Development and Training Question 6: (a) Explain the importance of Job Description and Person Specification. It's important to make a job description practical by keeping it dynamic. and the qualifications needed for the job. subordinating roles. • Description of the Relationships and Roles the occupant of the position holds within the company. The list should begin with the most important functional and relational responsibilities and continue down in order of significance. The job title identifies and designates the job properly the departments division etc. Don't get stuck with an inflexible job description! A poor job description will keep an organisation and its employees away from trying anything new and learning how to perform their job more productively.Job duties and responsibilities are two important purposes. the purpose and responsibilities of the job.The list contains an item by item list of principal duties. it should be kept in mind that the job description will serve as a major basis for outlining job training or conducting future job evaluations. functional. the methods used to complete the tasks. A good job description begins with a careful analysis of the important facts about a job. A well-written. department. practical job description will help you avoid hearing a refusal to carry out a relevant assignment because "it isn't in my job description.
6. 4. Supervision: . diplomatically and sensitively. but not exclusively. where possible. or imply the suitability of any particular 'race. • Has the ability to critically analyse relationships and demonstrates self-awareness of own impact on others. including. The person specification assists in the recruitment process by providing: A consistent set of standards for all applicants which can be observed or measured objectively. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. A document to ensure that the basis of decision making is publicly known. Relation to other jobs: . and must not include any requirements which are not necessary for the job. skills.Under it is given the number of persons to be supervised along with there job titles and the extent of supervision involved general intermediate or close supervision. and indicate the typical activities of the post holder.Job duties and responsibilities gives a comprehensive listing of the duties together with some indication of the frequency of occurrence or percentage of time devoted to each major duty. 200308104 . This specification will correlate with the job specification.Job description also defines each major type or trade name of the machine and tool and the raw material used. Person Specification: This involves relating to a range of organisations. indicate the role of the post holder within the Team/Unit. 5. tools and equipments: . The person specification and the job specification must not be restrictive. The person specification should include the following criteria: 1. Qualifications 5. Personal attributes The requirements set out in the person specification should be specific and. for the job. Machine. Experience 4. groups and individuals.This helps to locate the job in the organization by indicating the job immediate below or above it in the job hierarchy. those who have experienced personal or social difficulties. This requires that a candidate: • Has an ability to create an impression of reliability and dependability but challenges inappropriate behaviour firmly. The person specification will specify a range of means of demonstrating the requirements and will not be confined to conventional qualifications and experience. The person specification will detail the qualifications. Skills and aptitude 2.HR Development and Training 3. and any relationship with other Teams/Units. experience. measurable. Importance: From the criteria set out in the job description a person specification should be set. knowledge and personal qualities required. It must not contain requirements or conditions which cannot be shown to be justifiable. To ensure equality of opportunity all criteria on the person specification should be derived from the requirements set by the job description. The job specification will describe the job succinctly. Knowledge 3. A structured means for a comparative assessment of the applicants. specify the responsibilities of the post. 24 Job duties and responsibilities: .
Has the sense of values changed with time? But we are not concerned here with the philosophical angle. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. They are usually not listed as essential because it is expected that they can be acquired once in employment. Essential skills are those that are critical for the satisfactory performance of the job. but with hard facts of life in a commercial world. All this despite the claim of psychologists that security is the prime need of a person. education. endurance. aggressiveness.' In fact. poise. extroversion. It is expected that applicants will meet all the essential criteria to be considered eligible for appointment. In particular. they are taken so much for granted that their denial may act as a de-motivator. range. 'Economic incentives are becoming rights rather than rewards.. etc Personnel characteristics: Traits of temperament. responsibility for the safety of others. resourceful. responsibility for preventing money loss. It is no different in the industrial world. body size. responsibility for production process and equipment. However items like sex. submissiveness. personal appearance. There is no doubt that motivation is the crux for good performance. height.HR Development and Training 25 The person specification can be divided into essential and desirable criteria. good Human Relations will give that extra zest to a team. etc Responsibilities: Include supervision of others. while specific knowledge of the University and it’s environment could be of benefit. (b) Discuss the relevance of innovative Employee Reward System. etc are invariably included in a person specification. The 'gold banana' in Foxboro has its origin in just an ordinary banana which one of the pioneers could muster on the spur of the moment when he discovered extraordinary performance by one of the employees. Any amount of human relations cannot compensate for a lack of monetary reward. good and pleasing manners. Money is a factor in motivating people. such as manual dexterity. and • Reward should vary with performance. Insufficient monetary reward cannot be compensated by good human relations. motivating them to give of their best efforts. strength. To achieve motivation of executives. age. etc The items included in person specification are according to the nature of an organisation and uses to which area they put. judgment. no matter how much it is extolled. vision. Person specifications relate to: Physical characteristics: Including health. but little money may have no effect. Antimaterialism is a myth. 200308104 . mechanical aptitude. Strikes for better salary and rewards do still occur. money can be a motivating factor. emotional stability. skill.' There is no doubt that we live in a money-motivated world. For example. weight. If the reward is right. as indicated in the previous section. Properly used. leadership. merit must be measured and rewarded regularly. if it is to be encouraged and sustained. This should be used in the short listing process to distinguish between candidates. but there is no clear cut answer to the question of how to motivate. Self-motivation can go only so far and it needs to be constantly reinforced by rewards. hand and foot coordination etc Psychological characteristics: Special attitude. According to Peter Drucker (1974) 'there is not one shred of evidence for the alleged turning away from material rewards. therefore: • Reward should be meaningful. eye. it can also be learnt. in germinate. Desirable criteria are those which enhance a person’s capacity to do the job. introversion. experience..
There is also need for constant search of new ideas in this respect. 3. as such. However. but not at the expense of discretion. • Reward must be distinctly and directly related to performance. and attainable. An arithmetic increase in the number of people involved results in a geometric increase in the time required to reach agreement. 4. Appearance of a reward as important a factor as the reward itself. for example promotion on the basis of seniority or favoritism. Correcting one inequity may lead to yet another. but only as part of the total compensation concept. hence they must be structured to attain a proper balance of motivating people to purpose and at optimum effort. Executives perceive others as working less and paid more. is not enough and in any case it is not a substitute for good management. • Size of pay rewards for high performance. For rewards to be effective. the reward should be 'tailored' to each individual. Rather. Not everyone can be motivated by money alone. It is essential to consider the following aspects before designing a pay plan to motivate performance: • Preference of individual employees. 7. These include: • Reward should be quick. Motivating for high performance can cost a lot of money. • Reward should be significant. Performance rating should support the pay action. Incentive pay plans should be designed not only to reward good performance but also to minimize the negative side-effects. To be effective. Many pay plans fail because of either not being suited to the particular situation or because of poor implementation. equitable and acceptable means of performance. 6. But reward. Any plan for executives should take into account the following factors: 1. 200308104 . but its implementation is not easy. A decision once announced is difficult to modify. such as conflict and grievance. it is a part of management. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. • Reward should be irrevocable. 2. At times it is difficult to develop a valid. The five basic elements of executive compensation are: • Salary. The essentials of an effective companywide executive compensation scheme are: sound salary-base structure. several fundamental compensation devices and considerable flexibility in its application. • The goals and rewards must be. If the reward plan is seen to be unfair and unrealistic. • Short-term incentives. the job is well worth trying. Flexibility. understandable. • Long-term incentives. they have to be generous and significant as noted above. • Method of motivating individual job performance.HR Development and Training 26 The concept is simple. it may have a definitely negative effect as a motivator. however much. Certain basic criteria are essential for rewards to be effective. • Reward should be compatible with job measurement. 5. known. • Subjective Performance related pay Reward can act as the 'catalyst' for improved performance and better productivity. • Employee benefits and • Perquisites. It is essential (Moore (1968)) to develop an overall program within which each compensation package must be individualized.
Each factor is assigned a rating on the basis of a scale agreed beforehand by the union and the management joint committee. and • Merit rating. financial motivation plays a major role. But total productivity which ultimately determines the profitability of the entire organization is the sum total of the productivity at various levels right up to the CEO. A typical. This is nearly twice as much as that attained by goal-setting or job-redesign. Reward systems The financial rewards are basically of three types: • Profit sharing. Profit sharing Profit sharing could be on a macro basis or on a micro basis. and here too. it would be difficult to identify and reward outstanding performance. But each incentive or reward system is likely to have value under certain conditions only. 200308104 . In some cases and in some countries these are stipulated by law. since overheads and other common services have to be charged and this cannot be done completely objectively. a manager can increase productivity indirectly by aiding to produce more. the 'minimum wage'. Hence to be effective. • Expertise. For if the workers are not given the right materials at the right place and at the right time. the rewards must be 'tailored' and changed to suit the specific conditions. This is possible on a micro level by treating the particular activity as a cost and profit center by itself. Productivity is usually but erroneously associated only with the workshop floor. depending on the nature of work and the geographical area. • Human relations. Merit rating Merit rating has been used as an indicator of performance. The former relates to the entire company as a whole and the latter to a particular section or group dealing with a particular activity and/or product. However. therefore. • Job evaluation. representing. • Physical characteristics. average or poor. the factors are: • Responsibility. good. list of job factors is as follows: • Working environment. in that he or she does not contribute directly to the production. On a macro level. Individually the manager may be considered nonproductive. but is responsible for integrating the work of his or her team into a total productivity effort. This is easier said than done. in effect. though somewhat broad. plays a vital role in the productivity of the workers and team. typically as excellent. Each employee is rated. in respect of the following abilities: Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. The manager. Job evaluation In case of job evaluation.HR Development and Training 27 Rewards are generally reckoned to improve productivity by somewhere of the order of 20 to 30 per cent. there must be a base level. • Extent of responsibility. The cost allocation in such cases is somewhat arbitrary and the profit will therefore not be a true reflection of the performance of that particular group or activity. • Training and experience. Thus. • Mental characteristics. the various component factors have to be isolated and evaluated for purposes of inter-job comparison. One can even go as far to say that productivity is the only reason for the existence of the manager. The total rating for each job then forms the basis of wage structure. their productivity will suffer due to no fault of theirs. There is no magic formula for all situations and at all times. In case of managers.
within the limits of the organisation to praise and understand the efforts of its employees. tends to be carried out purely mechanically and it carries a heavy bias of the rater who may be too lenient. Other systems of Employee rewards: Thank You Award/Reward: A reward/Award scheme where the employee is given a Thanks award or a Thank you certificate to symbolize his actions. unfortunately. The rating. including leadership and motivation. These are rewards for his actions and a form of gratitude shown by the organisation to him. devoted and honest employee of the organisation. This also acts as a boost within the employee for better performance.HR Development and Training • • • • • 28 Communication. may not be objective and may also have favorites or otherwise in the group being rated. 200308104 . Employee of the month/Week: This kind of appreciation of an employee by the organisation triggers other employees to reach those heights. This provokes an employee to work for an organisation as though it was his own company. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. Posters in main location could be posted to bring to the notice of everybody in the organisation. Knowledge. Articles could be posted on the local Intranet for viewing. Intelligence. etc. It invokes a sense of competition and recognition for the employees’ effort. This is a form of sharing the profit with the employees. Judgment. Employee Stock options: This is another of the reward systems where in the employee is given a share of the company’s Stock in the market. This indicates the bonding of the company with the employee and making him a part of the company profits shows a sense of belonging. Conclusion: Many such various schemes are innovatively discovered. This ensures that the employees are treated with respect and concern and motivates him to be a better. Human relations. This would require no approvals and any person in the organisation can nominate this award.
customer comments. It involves gathering information to identify areas where your employees could improve their performance. This is invaluable for ensuring that money is spent on training that will help the business to achieve its objectives. management observations. Training needs arises of three levels Organizational Group Individual levels Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. The purpose of this diagnostic is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance. Training Need Analysis (TNA) is an effective way to identify any gap between the skills in business needs and those the employees have. 200308104 . A TNA can help you clarify objectives in training staff. We can use employee surveys.HR Development and Training Question 7: (a) (b) Explain how the Training needs can be identified? What are the ways a Training programme can be evaluated? 29 (a) Explain how the Training needs can be identified? An analysis of training needs is an essential prerequisite to the design of effective training. company meetings and inspections to collect this information.
HR Development and Training 30 Behaviour Discrepancy Identification Cost/Value Analysis YES! Cant Do Job Aid Skill/Knowledge Deficiency NO Don’t Do Reward/Punishment/ Incongruence Training Lack of inadequate Feedback Practice Obstacles in System Change the job Transfer or Terminate Training Need Analysis Model The corporate needs arise at three levels organization group and individual levels they are interdependent because the corporate performance of an organization ultimately depends on the performance of its individual employee and its sub group. 200308104 . The corporate needs of the organization and its group may be identified in the following ways - Gayathri Shankarram Registration No.
200308104 . unrealistic or impractical examples are used to illustrate situation not related to the actual simulation in the workplace. budget conscious companies are also aware of problems that arise when training is conducted by external training providers and consultants. increases their productivity and efficiency at work with a minimum training budget. course time and location are three crucial factors in decision making for training. Today's globalised economy has led to organisational responses which include drives for quality. may reveal needs for training that are common throughout the organisation.This provides information about the demand and supply of human resources and the possible implications for training needs. while courses provided are insensitive to company's and training needs. creates a performance gap in knowledge and skills and hence a training need. Some courses are believed to be irrelevant as they are not tailored according to employee and job needs. technological change and organisational restructuring. Compelling the organization to recruit at lower level and then to provide compensatory training to fill the performance gap. training needs of employees must be identified and must not be assumed in order to achieve cost effectiveness for the company. For example. Managers can request from the external training providers to develop courses where the theory ties to relevant practical examples. computers are introduced this changes the requirements for effective performance. Specific training needs for individuals may arise at any time during their working career. Course content. in which line managers. at flexible times. There are complaints that the external training are too expensive. External training providers should carefully identify the individual company's needs for training and respond to these different needs accordingly. mentoring and open learning are still popular among the Malaysian companies. While internal training such as in-house courses and programmes. After identifying the needs and problems.Whenever new methods of work e. Collective evidence from performance appraisal and formal method for needs assessment: Information emerging from the performance appraisal of individual employees or from formal methods such as meetings. Cost-effective training is usually work-related and practical by nature. HR and training staff and individual employees are involved. Hence. The introduction of new methods: . traditional external training have received criticisms from many companies for its theoretical and academic approach. on-the-job training.g. Some also find external training disruptive and creating problems rather than solving them. In short. interviews or questionnaires. which has been the trigger for seeking more cost-effective training.HR Development and Training 31 The evidence of human resources planning: . it is the need for cost-effective training which has caused the shift away from traditional training over recent years. Thus a forecast of a possible difficulty in recruitment people with required entry levels in knowledge and skills could effect recruitment and training policy. As managers increasingly see work-related training to be of importance. training providers should relate the course content to the trainee's work by providing information and hands-on approach to the trainees. The perception that external training is irrelevant deserves a second thought in view of increasing competition posed by the global market place and recession. Ideally. costeffective training enhances the trainee's motivation and understanding. and with trainers going out to the workplace as much as possible. However there are particular occasions when formal assessment is needed: Gayathri Shankarram Registration No.
that is. This questionnaire moves beyond how well the students liked the training to questions about: • The relevance of the objectives. recent performance is compared with required levels. it may not be useful to the organisation unless somehow translates into improved behavior and job performance. (b) What are the ways a Training programme can be evaluated? Evaluation is often looked at from four different levels listed below. • The ability of the course to maintain interest. a survey similar to the one used in the formative evaluation also could be used with the full student population. It may be easy to collect glowing information from trainees but gratifying as this information is to management. Training like any other function should be evaluated to determine its effectiveness. did the learner apply the new skills to the necessary tasks in the organization and. Learning: Beyond what participants think about the training it might be a good idea to see whether or not they actually learned anything testing knowledge and skills before beginning a training program gives a baseline standard Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. Note that the farther down the list. The comparison with required levels reveals deficiencies and needs which have to be remedied by training. 200308104 .What does the learner feel about the training? Learning . what results were achieved? Reactions: One of the simplest and most common approaches to training evaluation in assessing participant reactions.HR Development and Training 32 Starting Employment: New employees will invariably need some kind of training to fill the gap between their present levels of knowledge and skills those needed for effective performance at work. students are asked to evaluate the training after completing the program. • The ease of navigation.What results occurred. Appraising performance: In performance appraisal. These are sometimes called smile sheets or happy sheets because in their simplest form they measure how well students liked the training. • The amount and appropriateness of interactive exercises. knowledge. Training in laws and regulations adhered by the company. For example. did the learner gain? Behaviors . positive reactions are no guarantee that the training has been successful. that is. However. etc. Happy training will be more likely to want to focus on training principles and to utilize the information on the job potential question might include the following What were your learning goals for this program? Did you achieve them? Did you like this program? Would you recommend it to other who have similar learning goals? In this first level or step. what new information is the learner using on the job? Results or effectiveness . While evaluation methods based on reactions are improving. Changing jobs: People changing jobs are in a similar situation to those starting employment. too many conclusions about training effectiveness are still based on broad satisfaction measures that lack specific feedback.. The requirements for the new job may well create a performance gap that needs to be filled by training. Further. the more valid the evaluation.What facts. this type of evaluation can reveal valuable data if the questions asked are more complex. Some examples of new employee training are: Introduction into the software used by the company. etc. • The perceived value and transferability to the workplace. A variety of methods are available to assess the extent to which training programs improve learning affect behavior on the job an impact the bottom line performance of an organization Reaction . if so.What skills did the learner develop.
or tasks. delivery. 200308104 . • Sales training. However. Disadvantages Only reflects a quick reading of the participant while they are still in the class. fewer employee complains decreased cost and waste and productivity. and even the trainee’s customers. The only scientific way to isolate training as a variable would be to isolate a representative control group within the larger trainee’s population. individuals who report directly to the trainee. Ideally. Behavior: Trainees typically score well on post-tests. Level Three evaluations attempt to answer whether or not trainees' behaviors actually change as a result of new learning. this is rarely done because of the difficulty of gathering the business data and the complexity of isolating the training intervention as a unique variable. To maximize transfers. Measure a reduction in number of defects. the supervisor. forms. Surveys can be completed by the trainee. or improved use of software or systems. profitability on each sale after the training program has been implemented. Measure reduction in number or severity of accidents. Measure increase in engagement levels of direct-reports According to a study approximately two third of training managers surveyed reported that they were coming under additional pressure to show that their programs produce bottom line results fume of the results based on criteria used in evaluating training include increased productivity. and environmental factors. and then rollout the training program. Unfortunately. managers and trainers can take several approaches: Feature identical elements Focus on general principles Establish a climate for transfer Give employees transfer strategies Result: The fourth level in this model is to evaluate the business impact of the training program. trainees have the opportunity to implement new skills and retention rates can be checked." Advantages Low cost and easy to administer. Often referred to as "Smile Sheets. Results should not be used as a solid basis for changing the educational content or strategy Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. Provides insights to participant's personal feelings about the course. Measure reduction in calls to the help desk. even anecdotal data is worth capturing.HR Development and Training 33 on trainees that can be measured again after training to determine improvement. • Safety training. complete the evaluation. • Quality training. Provides quick feedback on successes and failures to the training provider. Measure change in sales volume. • Management training. length of sales cycle. In addition to testing trainees before and after training parallel standards can be measured for individuals I a control group to compare with those in training to make certain improvements are due to training and not some other factor. but the real question is whether or not any of the new knowledge and skills are retained and transferred back on the job. and compare against a business evaluation of the non-trained group. Reaction Definition Measures trainees' opinions about the course. By allowing some time to pass. This Is the most common way to evaluate student reaction to the course and provides a measure of immediate customer satisfaction with content. reduced time to complete reports. Below are sample training programs and the type of business impact data that can be measured. customer retention. Observation surveys are used. Summary Level 1. this measurement is conducted three to six months after the training program. sometimes called behavioral scorecards. • Technical training.
sales) 34 Requires more time and money than level 1. and/or values from the course are used in the job. 200308104 . production. Linkage from training to org'1 results is hard to establish 3.HR Development and Training 2.Behaviour 4. this provides more compelling evidence of whether the training program works. Assesses practical value of training.. Provides stronger evidence that the investment in training yields the desired return. Provides strong evidence that training program has impact on organization. safety. and cost savings to the organization. Often hard to decide whether or not this level is required. quality improvements. Measures the return on investment of the training course. Can include tests of performance immediately before and after the course. Addresses whether the performance is important to the organization's bottom line (e. Also requires greater insight to the evaluation process to develop valid measures of learning. Compared to level 1.g. Measures performance improvement. If designed properly. skills.Results Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. Requires significantly more investment of time and money.Learning Measures how well participants have mastered the course objectives. Requires indepth insight into performance interventions and root causes of performance deficiencies. Typically measured 3-6 months after the course. Measures how well the knowledge. can also identify barriers and obstacles to improved performance. Substantial levels of investment and expertise are required to develop level 4.
design and provide training to meet identified needs. Assess whether training has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. The systematic approach to training ensures that people are prepared for their work by having the necessary knowledge. Make any necessary amendments to any of the previous stays in order to remedy or improve failure practices. The process is commonly known as the system approach to training (sat) the sat is so called because it is a series of interdependent system’s functionally linked together and integrated into the whole work system interdependence of the stage is crucial since the malfunction or neglect of any one of them inevitably affects the others and the total systems For example: . Taking account of learning theory. logical approach to determining what people must know and do at a particular job or in a specific profession. The steps invoked in assigning a training programme are as follows: Identify training needs who need training and what do they need to learn. 200308104 . Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. and attitudes to do their job. skills.If job analysis has not defined the criteria for effective performance training need cannot be identified by performance appraisal. The Systematic Approach to Training or SAT is a methodology for managing training programs.HR Development and Training Question 8: (a) What is system approach to training? (b) Explain briefly different training and development methods 35 (a) What is system approach to training? The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. It is an orderly.
In the design phase we complete three important activities: 1. and the student is competent to be assigned to work. These become the basis for the design of the training course and for writing the trainee’s learning objectives. It ensures training is delivered properly. 200308104 . It is concerned with on the job performance. Analysis: The first phase in SAT is analysis. Implementation: In the implementation phase the instructor teaches and the student learns. radiation protection. or other material. During the analysis phase trainers will attempt to identify the knowledge and skills of future trainees. Training materials for instructor and trainee’s are written or purchased. SAT is always a combined effort between trainers and experts from operating line organizations. and experienced workers from organizations such as operations. and attitudes necessary to perform the tasks. From this activity we write trainee’s learning objectives. skills. The outcome of the analysis phase is a task analysis that lists the tasks that are performed to accomplish the duties of a position and the knowledge. evaluation is done throughout the SAT process. maintenance. Managers. This will allow the course to be designed to meet their learning needs. supervisors. 2. Design. SAT begins with identifying people's work related needs. Then analyze to determine what training should be done. the student learns what is important. We decide what the trainee will learn in the class and how that learning will transfer to the job. However. Make sure training is needed. training aids. Design: The design phase is really a decision making phase. These materials could include lesson plans. and others play an important role in the implementation of the systematic approach to training. student handouts.HR Development and Training 36 SAT is performance-based training and competency driven. is it caused by a performance problem that training will fix?" Managers sometimes will attempt to correct a human performance problem caused by an inadequate procedure or faulty equipment by training the people. We also apply the information learned about the job in the analysis phase during implementation. "How are we doing?" Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. 3. Implementation. The systematic approach to training uses constant evaluation of the training program to ensure it is meeting the needs of the students and of the organization. Evaluation is asking. Development: In the development phase the training design is made into training material. We decide how the student will demonstrate competency to do the required work and we develop an examination plan to test the trainee’s competency. Examination questions are written as required in the examination table of specifications from the design phase. Development. At the completion of the course the trainee’s prove their competency by passing the course examination. and Evaluation. Trainers sometimes attempt to use training to correct problems even though training will not solve the problem because they want to help. videotapes. There are five phases in the systematic approach to training: Analysis. The material written during the development phase is used to implement the decisions that we made in the design phase. The first questions that must be asked are "Is there a need for training?" and "If something is wrong. Evaluation: Evaluation is usually listed last. Although this is the phase that most people think of as "training" it is the easiest phase to perform. We decide what will be taught and the instructional methods to be used to teach.
people seeking to enter skilled trades are often required to undergo apprenticeship training Off the job training: .off the job training covers a number of technique classroom lectures films demonstrations cause studies and others relations exercise and programmed instructions. logical approach to determining what people must know and do at a particular job or in a specific profession and to prepare them to do their job. The systematic approach to training ensures that people are prepared for their work by having the necessary knowledge. and attitudes to do their job. They determine if the trainee is performing on the job as expected.Management development is more future oriented and more concerned with education than is employee training or assisting a person to become a better performer by education we mean that management development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes – To enhance one’s ability to understand and interpret knowledge rather than imparting a body of serial facts. (b) Explain briefly different training and development methods Training and Development Methods: 1. Trainers identify what else is needed to improve performance and determine if the course could have been done better. 200308104 . They determine if the training course was useful to the nuclear power plant performance. skills. Apprenticeship programs: . On the job training places the employee in an actual work situation and makes them appear to be employee is an actual work situation and make them appear to be immediately productive. It is an orderly. Employee Training Methods: . Conclusion: The systematic approach to training is always attempting to improve performance of people.HR Development and Training 37 During the other three phases trainers do an evaluation to ensure the process is working correctly and to identify improvements immediately. we will review four popular on the job techniques (i) Coaching (ii) Understudy assignments (iii) Job rotation (iv) Committee assignments Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. Identifying improvements for the course and improvements for the entire training process is an important part of the evaluation phase of SAT.The most popular training methods used by organization can be classified as either on the job or off the job training few better technique from each category are briefly explained On the job training: The most widely used method of training take place on the job. Different types of off the job training are as follows: Films Simulation exercise Cases Experimental exercise Computer modeling Vestibule training Programmed instructions (2) Management development method: . They are able to think and understand management development method is further divided into two parts On the job development :The development of a manager’s abilities can take place on the job. After the training is completed trainers evaluate the effectiveness of the training. Successful managers have analytical human conceptual and specialized skills.
Job rotation represents an excellent method for broadening the manager or potential manager and for turning specialist into generalists. Simulation exercises: These were introduced as a training technique. Role playing Responsibility for training and development: . In large organisations. In addition to increasing the manager’s experience and allowing the manager to absorb new information. 200308104 . The effective gives guidance through direction. advice. Simulated decision game c. Lecture courses: Formal lectures offer an opportunity for managers or potential managers to acquire knowledge and develop conceptual and analytical abilities. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. ascertain alternative solutions and make recommendations for implementing solutions.When a manager takes an active role in guiding another manager we refer to this activity as coaching. (3) Off the job development: -there are many management development technique that personal can partake in off the job. Job rotation: . Few popular ones: Sensitivity training: Sensitivity training in encounter groups is a method of changing behaviour through group processes. Appointment to permanent committee: . criticism and suggestions in an attempt to aid the growth of the employee. Most widely used simulation exercises are: a. o The HRD department which plans establishes and evaluates instructional programmes o Super ions who facilitate training and development activities o Employee’s who provide feedback revisions and suggestions for corporate educational endeavors. It can also provide opportunities for a more comprehensive and reliable evaluation of the manager by his or her supervisors. Committee assignments: -Assignment to a committee can provide an opportunity for the employee to share in manager decision making to learn by watching others and to investigate specific organisational problems. When committees are of “Adhoc” or temporary nature they often take on task force activities designed to delve into a particular problem. Case studies b. which frames the training policy.Appointment to permanent committee increases the employee’s exposure to other member of the organization. it can reduce boredom and stimulate the development of new ideas. these lecture courses may be offered “In-The-House” by the organisation itself. broadens his/her understanding and provides an opportunity to grow and make recommendations under the scrutiny of other committee members. Transactional analysis: This may help managers understand others better and assist them in altering their responses so as to produce effective results.HR Development and Training 38 Coaching: .Training is the responsibility of four major groups: o The top management. they were meant probably for management development.
MBO substitutes for good intentions a process that requires rather precise written description of objectives (for the period ahead) and time-lines for their monitoring and achievement. it is essential to make the system as objective as possible. if necessary. In the traditional performance appraisal methods the appraiser has to rely entirely on his judgment to assess the employee. (v) Setting objectives for the next cycle. what it is that everyone is trying to achieve. For example. let us suppose that they feel that it will be sensible to introduce a key performance indicator to show the development of sales revenue in a part of the firm. (iv) Having a final evaluation session for counseling and encouragement. Specific objectives for each member. The process requires that the manager and the employee agree to what the employee will attempt to achieve in the period ahead. and agree with their employees. what the time-schedule is and what the indicator might or might not be. Organisations have scarce resources and so it is incumbent on the managers to consider the level of resourcing but also to consider whether the objectives that are jointly agreed within the firm are the right ones and represent the best allocation of effort. Problems faced by the MBO program are: Too much paper work Setting too many objectives may create prioritization problems Difficult to establish measurable objectives for certain jobs. Participative decision making. (ii) Establishing criteria for evaluation of objectives. (iii) Determining the dates for review of progress and making modification in the original objective during the review. Thereafter the two of them should liaise to ensure that the objective is being attended to and will be delivered on time. Since a number of decisions are taken based on appraisal. Then the manager and the employee need to discuss what is being planned. For this program to be effective. whatever else a manager and employee may discuss and agree in their regular discussions. and (very important) that the employee accept and buy into the objectives (otherwise commitment will be lacking). MBO Principles Cascading of organizational goals and objectives. both the superior and subordinate must e actively involved in the objective formulation and agrees upon the methods to be used to assess performance. The MBO program involves: (i) Defining key tasks for the subordinate and setting a limited number of objectives. The management by objectives approach involves establishing performance goals jointly by the superior and subordinate. Explicit time period. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No.HR Development and Training Question 9: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 39 Write short notes on: (Any Two) MBO Principles of learning Selection process Training of Appraisers (a) MBO: It is all too easy for managers to fail to outline. Too much emphasis on short term performance and losing sight of long-term objectives. Performance evaluation and feedback. 200308104 .
no matter how many times you carefully measure a basketball player. • A second way is to use an instrument such as a test during the evaluation / selection process. But a yardstick has no validity as a measure of his muscular coordination. job success or performance. etc. 200308104 . Initial screening interview: . In this case. Usually. The higher the reliability. and designate it as a predictor. because the numbers of persons in similar jobs is too small to use concurrent or predictive methods. An intelligence test is said to be reliable. the more confidence can be placed in the measurement method. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. is called synthetic validity. The provision of screening interviews. A yardstick is a reliable measure of space. The criteria usually can best summarize in the following categories: • Education • Experience • Physical Characteristics • Personal Characteristics 40 Basically. This method is newer than the other two and us used less frequently. This is called concurrent validity. The instrument used must also be internally consistent to be considered reliable. if the same person's scores do not vary greatly when the test is taken several times. is to look at the currently successful employees. These predictors of success. then wait until the successful employees are identified and correlate the test or test measures with the successful and unsuccessful employees. the instrument is more reliable if it is longer. Human resource specialists can compute the validity of a selection instrument several ways. if the list of characteristics desired is too long. • A third way. The screening of inquiries and ii.HR Development and Training May be used by some supervisors as a control devise that intimidates rather than motivates subordinates. the screening is in effort a few step procedures. he will be the same height. the wrong prospects are likely to be selected. it may not be possible to select anyone. elements of several jobs that are similar. is the extent to which the instrument is a consistent measure of something. Selection process: 1. are used to validate the selection instrument.In culmination of our recruiting efforts we should be prepared to imitative a preliminary review of potentially acceptable candidates. particularly the more formal mechanisms such as items on a paper and pencil test. It should be noted that the criterion used to predict performance or success is a proxy of actual performance. find a factor that is common to them. which is a good predictor of success for the job performance in question. Since good job performance is usually a combination of many factors (quality of work. This is called predictive validity. Thus a selection device such as a test may be reliable without being valid. • One way. However.). quantity of work. have two characteristics: • Reliability • Validity The reliability of an employee evaluation and selection instrument. the employee evaluation and selection criteria should list the characteristics of present employees who have performed well in the positions to be filled. rather than a whole job. i. (c) Selection Process: If an evaluation / selection program is to be successful the employee characteristics which are believed necessary for effective performance on the job should be stated explicitly in the job specification. such as a test. Reliability and validity can be thought of in the following way. a criterion such as a supervisory rating is a proxy for the real measure. sometimes used by smaller organizations. With no list of criterion.
7. Comprehensive interview: . 6.Once the initial screening has been completed application 3.Organizations historically relied to a considerable extent on intelligence aptitude ability and interest tests to provide major inputs to the selection process. Gayathri Shankarram Registration No.The last step prior to the final selection decision may consist of having the applicant take a physical examination. Physical examination: . Final employment decision: -Those individuals who perform successfully on the employment tests and the comprehensive interview and are not eliminated by the development of negative information on either the background investigation or physical examination is now considered to be eligible to receive an offer of employment. 5. Employment tests: . address and telephone number. For most jobs this is a screening device in the selection process. 4. They may include contacting former employers to confirm the candidate work record and to obtain their appraisal of his or her performance. This is the whole selection process adopted by almost all the organizations in order to choose the best candidate for the job among all candidates.The next step in the selection process is to undertake an investigation of those applicants who appear to other potential as employees. The amount of information required may be only the applicant’s name. Completion of application form: . are asked to complete the organization application form.HR Development and Training 41 2. 200308104 . The applicant may be interviewed by personnel department interviewers. Background investigation: .Those individuals who are still viable applicants after the initial screening application form and required tests have been completed are then given a comprehensive interview.
Sharma could have fit in it. The company should have instituted an effective reward system to motivate and spur high performance employees. care should also have been taken to take the inputs of the trainees themselves in assessing their aspirations and explaining to them the nature and scope of the training program Failure to handle a high performer’s career ambitions – It is evident that Mr. Where did things go wrong? In the above case study. training manager and the company in general. Very often. He could have taken initiative by taking on more responsibilities or working on more strategic opportunities and let his good performance speak for itself. that would have listed the goals. Lack of effective reward system – Very often it is seen that a lack of an effective reward and appreciation system is the cause of frustration and disinterest in the job. while at the same time ascertaining from the management or the Department Manager as to what sources of avenue were open to them to improve the morale of Mr. Sharma should have expressed his situation better to the Training Manager instead of letting his feelings and frustration creep into his job. 2. He should have looked at the long term benefits as pointed out by the Training Manager and the implications of his behaviour on it. Did the Paints Shop manager handle the trainee properly? 4. The Training Manager should have better tried to understand Mr. Sharma – Mr. Sharma or the company. Sharma and to ensure a fair hearing on the matter. Where did the things go wrong? 2. Sharma had the technical skills necessary that would have enabled him to contribute better to his specific department. had the department manager. interviews etc. handled his career aspirations better and had a policy in place to mould future leaders of the company by having a fast growth career track and periodically assessing if Mr. a company’s work environment and policies come in the way of a high performer’s growth and ambition and this was probably the case in this situation too. This could have taken the form of either a monetary award or an increase in stipend or even something non-monetary like better benefits or a citation or an opportunity to contribute in a more interesting and challenging work opportunity. What options are open for the training management other than termination of Mr. The Training Manager should have taken it into himself to discuss the matter with his management team including the Department Manager to find out ways and means of rewarding effective performance. Sharma back on the right Track? Case analysis: 1. How could you put Mr. it is evident that there were certain key turning points in the scenario where one could say that the things took a turn for the worse. While it is stated that the trainees were taken in only after rigorous rounds of tests. 42 Case: A Depressed Trainee Engineer (Chapter 8 – Appraisal Interviews) Questions: 1. The parties concerned should have got together and discussed the pros n cons of the avenues open to them. including the trainees like Mr. Sharma. activities. Improper handling of a potential conflict – Reading the case study. one gets the feeling that the conflict was never really handled to the satisfaction of the parties thereby denying a win-win situation for Mr. 200308104 . What options are open for the training management other than termination of Mr. Lack of foresight on the part of Mr. Sharma’s demand. Sharma? Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. A few of them are outlined below: Improper setting of goals and expectations – The company should have had a defined policy and training guide in place for all job roles.HR Development and Training Question 10: Analyse anyone of the cases given in the study material. skills required for every department’s trainees and thereby set a realistic expectation in the minds of the trainees. Sharma? 3.
scope and nature of work along with scope for growth and learning should be explained at the outset to prevent a repeat of the current scenario. the training management should consider whether they would like to ask Mr. Sharma to take on a more challenging role or provide him with higher training that would help him learn more skills and at the same time assuage his ego. Sharma’s demand and find out if it would be possible to effect a decision that would satisfy both Mr. Sharma’s demand and apathy towards his job. Not providing an effective means of capturing periodic feedback – There was no instance which suggested that a well thought out feedback mechanism was incorporated in the training cycle. Sharma regarding the scope of more challenging work in the new department where he could be better satisfied and contribute more. Sharma’s academic record from a prestigious institute was good. it must also be mentioned that the situation should be handled delicately and it should not seem that the current department is trying to get rid of Mr.HR Development and Training 43 Some of the options that are open to the training management are: Understand the underlying motives of Mr. Ineffective reward and appraisal system –The paints shop manager did not follow a policy of effectively rewarding good performance and for providing an evaluative objective appraisal incorporating Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. Trying to effect a change in policy to consider hiring good performers earlier than normal – While it is correct to state that Mr. It must be explained to Mr. it should be considered in the light of his previous performance appraisal after his 3 month training. Sharma. Sharma’s intellect. He was more focused with the attitude of the trainee than on the underlying cause of it and took no effort to understand the rot cause of the problem. qualifications. While doing so. it was made known until later about the extent of the trainee’s frustration. willingness and perception. The company should define a policy for fast track employees to prevent future such incidents from dampening the enthusiasm and morale of potential high performers. No mutually satisfactory goals were established and measurements thereof defined. Retrain him in another area of specialization – If there is absolutely no scope for sourcing new avenues of opportunities within the same department. then the training department needs to do a costbenefits analysis of retraining Mr. Neither was there a periodicity attached to any such feedback. Sharma and also the company – This would be the first step and will act as a predecessor to any of the other options that can be discussed below. Source new avenues of opportunities for training – Assuming Mr. where he had performed well and also the fact that his department did not have the need for an elaborate training program and that Mr. I do not feel that the Paints Shop manager handled the trainee properly. 3. The Training Management needs to understand the rationale. There were a number of instances which I feel support my reasoning. has grasped all the basics needed for his normal departmental job and hence his demand to be made a permanent employee. 200308104 . Sharma’s current behaviour was far was satisfactory. Not asking for a self assessment by the trainee – The trainee was not asked to evaluate his performance objectively and bring to light the trainees interpretation of his performance with respect to the criteria applied for an appraisal. No follow up and no goal setting – The paints shop manager did not take it upon himself to follow up the activities of the trainee once he came to know about the trainees demand and decline in performance thereof. The aspirations. As a result. There was no sense of participation on the side of the trainee and hence no output for redressal of grievance and frustration. keeping in mind Mr. Neither was his frustrations addressed nor was there any management done on the part of the pants shop manager to assign a suitable set of activities for the trainee and to follow up on his progress on the same. Sharma for work in a different department (possibly related) where there would be scope for more challenging work. Not focused on solving the problem – The paints shop manager did not show the maturity and responsibility needed to solve the problem. Did the Paints Shop manager handle the trainee properly? No. motive and logic behind Mr.
How could you put Mr. Establish a concrete system of mutually accepted goals – Discuss with r. depending on future good performance. Reward for good performance – Once Mr. Sharma. 4. tracking of goals and problem solving become a part of the system. Sharma o opportunities for growth within the department or elsewhere that interests him and can also be mutually rewarding to the company and set goals for the various activities. get to hear from Mr. These goals should be measurable and understood by Mr. management should encourage managers to objectively asses employees and reward them for good performance. Sharma’s problem is understood and earnest efforts made to solve it instead of concentrating on his behaviour and acting negatively about it. Sharma back on the right Track? We could try to put Mr. Sharma’s problem is understood and efforts made to deal with it. 200308104 . Gayathri Shankarram Registration No. Provide an effective mechanism of periodic feedback – Make the various interested parties interact on a regular basis where self appraisals. where supported can be effected. Be committed to understanding and solving the problem instead of focusing on the behaviour – Bring about a culture change where Mr. Sharma on the right track by following a series of corrective steps as outlined below: Give a patient hearing – First of all. Policy changes too regarding fast track growth opportunities within the company. appraisals by the management. Sharma what is the problem being faced by him and the reason why he feels he is losing interest in the job and is getting the feeling of not being compensated enough for the work being done by him.HR Development and Training 44 both the good and bad aspects of the trainee’s performance and summarizing action points to improve upon.