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Detailed Engineering Design of Chargahawa River Bridge For evaluation

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VOLUMN-III

B. Design of Substructure

1.0 Design Data:

1.1. Materials and its Properties:

Concrete: M20

Reinforcement: Fe415

Permissible direct compressive stress, σco = 5.0 Mpa

Permissible flexural compressive stress, σc = 6.67 Mpa

Maximum Permissible shear stress, τmax = 1.8 N/mm2

Permissible Flexural Tensile stress, σst = 200 N/mm2

Permissible direct compressive stress, σco = 170 N/mm2

Design of Data:

Modular Ratio = 10.98

Neutral axis depth factor, n = (mσc)/( mσc+σst) = 0.268

Lever arm factor, j = (1-n/3) = 0.911

Moment of resistance coefficient, R = ½ x n x j x σc = 0.814

Concrete (cement-Reinforced) = 2.4 t/m3

Macadam (binder premix) = 2.2 t/m4

Water = 1.0 t/m5

Backfill = 1.92 t/m6

Effective Span of Bridge Deck = 18.0 m

Total length of each Span = 18.60 m

Angle of internal friction of backfill = 29 degree

Approach slab

Length, L = 3.5 m

Width, B = 7m

Depth, D = 0.26 m

Size of bearing

Length = 400 mm

Width = 250 mm

Thickness = 50 mm

High Flood Level, HFL = 1002.15 m

Mean scour depth from HFL = 3.28 m

Lowest Bed Level = 997 m

Bottom level of abutment = 999.600 m

Clearance above HFL = 0.9 m

Top level of abutment = 1003.00 m Fig.20

Depth of superstructure = 1.4 m

Total height of abutment = 4.85 m

h1 = 4.59 m b1 = 1m

h2 = 0.26 m b2 = 0m

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h3 = 1.45 m b3 = 0.25 m

h4 = 0.4 m b4 = 0.55 m

h5 = 3.00 m b5 = 0.9 m

h6 = 0.05 m b6 = 0.35 m

Cap overhang, b7 = 0.15 m

Length of abutment shaft = 6.9 m

(m2)

P1 3.00 49.68 0.5 1.50 1.50 4.50

P2 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00

P3 0.46 7.95 0.58 3.20 0.26 1.47

P4 0.3625 6.00 0.125 4.12 0.05 1.50

3.82 63.63 1.81 7.47

e= 0.125 m

Moment about back face = 30.13 t-m

Due to Dead Load

Dead load from superstructure, = 81.08 t

Weight of bearings, expansion joint etc. = 4.05 t

Total dead load from superstructure on each abutment, PDL = 85.14 t

Distance of bearing center from back of abutment = 0.6 m

Eccentricity of DL & LL from superstructure acting through bearing,

e= 0.125 m

Moment due to DL of superstructure about CG of abutment = 10.64 t-m

Due to IRC Class A wheel load, in longitudinal direction,

11.4 t 11.4 t 6.8 t 6.8 t 6.8 t 6.8 t

Fig. 21

Max. LL on abutment from right side = (11.4*18+11.4*16.8+6.8*12.5+6.8*9.5+6.8*6.5+6.8*3.5)/18

= 68.26 t

impact factor = 1.188

Max LL including Impact, PLL = 81.06 t

Moment due to eccentric load = 10.13 t-m

Moment due to live load = 20.26 t-m

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70 t

Fig. 22

Max. LL on abutment from right side = 70x(20-1.8)/20

= 63.70 t

impact factor = 1.10

Max LL including Impact, PLL = 70.07 t

Moment due to eccentric load = 8.76 t-m

Moment due to live load = 24.52 t-m

20 t 20 t

Fig. 23

Max. LL on abutment from right side = 20+20x14.8/20

= 34.80 t

impact factor = 1.188

Max LL including Impact, PLL = 41.33 t

Moment due to eccentric load = 5.17 t-m

Moment due to live load = 14.46 t-m

Due to Earth Pressure

= 0.5γs×h1 ×tan2(45o-φ/2)×t

2

Horizontal force due to earth pressure

= 48.42 t

Which acts at a distance from abutment base = 0.42xh1 = 1.93 m

Magnitude of surcharge, q = 1.2xγs = 2.304 t/m2

2

Horizontal force due to surcharge = qxh1xtan (45-φ/2)xt = 25.32 t/m2

Which acts at a distance from abutment base = h1/2 = 2.295 m

Weight of backfill behind the abutment resting on foundation = 0.0 t

Moment due to earth pressure about abutment base = 151.45 t-m

o

Maximum temperature variation, T = 25 C

Coefficient of thermal expansion, α = 1.17E-05 /m/oC

Max. Elongation , δ = 4.68 mm

Shear Mdulus of bearing material, G = 1.00 Mpa

Depth of bearing = 50.00 mm

Longitudinal force / bearing = 1.053 t

The total resistance offered by bearing = = 3.159 t

Unbalanced force at the bearing = 3.16 t

This force acts at the bearing level, i.e. at a distance from pier base = 3.45 m

Moment due to temperature variation = 10.90 t-m

Due to Braking Effect

Effect due to class A loading = 0.2x70 = 14 t

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And at a distance from abutment base = 6.05 m

Moment due to braking about abutment base = 84.70 t-m

Description Total Load Seismic Lever arm (m) Moment (t-m)

(t) Load (t)

Superstructure DL 85.14 8.51 4.15 35.33

Abutment shaft P1 49.68 4.97 1.50 7.45

Abutment shaft P2 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00

Abutment shaft P3 7.95 0.79 3.00 2.38

Abutment shaft P4 6.00 0.60 4.12 2.48

Approach slab 15.288 1.53 4.72 7.22

Backfill 0 0.00 2.29 0.00

Total 164.06 16.41 54.86

The summary of loads and moments are tabulated below. The transverse forces and moments are

not considered, since it would not be critical due to high moment of inertia of abutment. Therefore

stresses are checked in longitudinal direction only.

Superstructure DL 85.14 10.64

LL including Impact 81.06 10.13

Self wt. of abutment 63.63 0.00

Braking effect 14 84.70

Temperature 3.16 10.90

Earth Pressure 73.74 151.45

Sub Total 229.82 90.90 267.83

Seismic Force 16.41 54.86

Total 229.82 107.31 322.69

As per standard design practice, design of abutment would be carried out for case A, and checked

for case B, as given below.

Vertical load (t) 229.82 229.82

Horizontal force (t) 90.90 107.31

Moment (t-m) 267.83 322.69

Abutment section will be designed for case A and the section adequacy will be checked for case B.

Design vertical load = 229.82 t

Design moment = 267.83 t-m

M

Depth of section required = = 691 mm < 910 O.K.

Rb

Clear cover to reinforcement = 75 mm

Effective depth provided = 910 mm

M

=

σ st × j× d

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VOLUMN-III

M

Area of steel required for tension, Ast = = 16160 mm2

σ st × j× d

Provide 38 nos. of 25 mm φ bars giving area of steel = 18653

mm2 and spacing 182 mm c/c.

Provide 16 mm φ bars @ 150 mm c/c at the front side of the abutment, giving

area of steel, Ast = 9651 mm2. Provided nos of bars = 48

Corresponding shear stress, τv = 0.14 N/mm2

Percentage area of tension steel, 100Ast/bd = 0.30 %

Shear strength increment factor = 1+5P/(Agxfck) = 1.083 < 1.5 O.K.

Design shear strength of concrete, τc = 0.26 > τv O.K.

Total horizontal force at the bottom of the cap = 17.16 t

Depth of abutment = 1000 mm

Effective depth, d = 893 mm

Corresponding shear stress, τv = 0.03 < tc O.K.

Load Type Load (t) Lever arm (m) Moment

DL of Superstructure 85.14 0.125 10.64

Live load (LL) 81.06 0.125 10.13

Breaking load 14 4.12 57.68

Temperature load 3.16 1.52 4.80

Earth Pressure 16.26 1.12 18.17

Surcharge 14.67 1.33 19.51

Total 120.94

Overall depth of abutment = 1000 mm

Effective depth of abutment = 893 mm

Area of tension reinforcement req. = 7436 mm2

Provide 23 numbers 25 mm φ bars and 0 numbers

20 mm φ bars, giving area of steel = 11290 mm2

Actual point of curtailment = 3.08 m from base of abutment.

NO CURTAILMENT IS DONE

Rear side Reinforcement

Provide 16 mm φ bars @ 150 mm c/c at rear side of the abutment.

Bending Moment = 322.69 t-m

Stress in steel = 208.75 N/mm2 < 300 O.K.

Horizontal force = 107.31 t

Corresponding shear stress = 0.17 N/mm2 < 0.45 O.K.

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VOLUMN-III

Live load including impact, PLL/3 = 27.02 t

Total vertical reaction = 55.40 t

Providing minimum area of steel @ 1% assuming cap thickness 225 mm, area of steel required /m

of cap = 2250 mm2 (for both top and bottom layer).

Provide 16 mm φ bars @ 150 mm c/c, at both top and bottom layers in both ways, giving area of

steel, Ast = 2680 mm2.

As per IRC:78-2000, clause 710.10.4 the two layers of mesh reinforcement, one at 20 mm from

top and the other at 100 mm from top of abutment cap each consisting of 8 mm φ bars @ 100 mm

c/c in both directions, shall be provided directly under the bearings.

The allowable bearing pressure with nearly uniform distribution on the loaded area of a footing or

base under a bearing or column shall be given by following equation,

A1

C= C 0 ×

A2

C0 = 6.25 MPa, permissible direct compressive stress in concrete

A1 = 0.52 m2, dispersed largest concentric area similar to A2

A2 = 0.1 m2, loaded area

Therefore, Α1/Α2 = 5.2 >2

And, C = 8.84 Mpa

Design of Backwall:

Horizontal force due to earth pressure = 0.5γs×(h3- h2) ×tan (45 -φ/2) =

2 2 o

0.47 t/m

Which acts at a distance from backwall base = 0.4998 m

Magnitude of surcharge, q = 2.304 t/m2

Horizontal force due to surcharge = q×(h3-h2)×tan2(45o-φ/2) = 0.95 t/m

Which acts at a distance from backwall base = 0.595 m

Self weight of backwall /m width = 0.714 t/m

Live load on back wall considering class AA loading = 10 t

This acts at a distance from backwall toe = 0.125 m

Moment due to self weight and LL = 1.34 t-m/m

Total Moment = 2.14 t-m/m

Effective depth of backwall = 194 mm

Area of steel required, Ast = 606 mm2

Provide 12 mm φ bars @ 150 mm c/c, giving area of steel, Ast = 753 mm2. And provide 10 mm φ

bars @ 200 mm c/c as distribution bar.

Return wall will be monolithic with the backwall. They are joined together through 30 cm x 30 cm fillets.

The load acting on the wing walls would be earth pressure and is designed to withstand a live load

equivalent to surcharge of 1.2 m height of earth fill according to IRC:78-2000.

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VOLUMN-III

h1 = 1.65 m

h2 = 1.2 m

h3 = 1.30 m

h4 = 0.4 m

b1 = 2.25 m

Thickness of return wall assumed = 250 mm

Average value of earth pressure = 0.5γs×(h1/2+h2/2+1.2) ×tan (45 -φ/2)

2 2 o

= 1.84 t

Acting at a distance from wing wall bottom = 0.7125 m

Moment due to earth pressure = 3.68 t-m/m

Depth required = 178 mm < Provided O.K.

Effective depth provided = 194 mm

Area of steel required = 1369 mm2

Provide 16 mm f bars @ 150 mm c/c, giving area of steel, Ast = 1910

mm2. And provide 12 mm φ bars @ 150 mm c/c as distribution bar in vertical

direction. In the fillet at the joint provide nominal reinforcement of 10 mm φ bars @ 200 mm c/c.

The wing wall would be properly anchored to the abutment, backwall and cap.

The approach slab is resting over the abutment and the other end supported by the soil underneath.

It should be designed on the basis of elastic base theory, which is complicated. Hence the

dimensions and reinforcement is provided as per the standard design practice.

Weight of pavement = 0.176 t/m

Maximum live load = 11.44 t/m2

Total udl = 12.24 t/m

Assuming maximum cavitation of 1.2m behind the abutment,

Maximum bending moment = 22.03 kN-m/m

Effective depth of slab required = 164 mm

Effective depth provided = 212 mm

Area of steel required = 751 mm2

Provide 16 mm φ bars @ 150 mm c/c both top and bottom, in both direction

Provided area of steel, Ast = 1340 mm2.

Maximum shear force = 73.4 kN/m

Shear stress = 0.35 N/mm2

Percentage area of steel = 0.63 %

Permissible shear stress = 0.365 N/mm2 > actual shear stress O.K.

Top width of sttoper, b2 = 0.3 m

Height above abutment cap, h1 = 0.45 m

Length of sttoper, l = 0.8 m

Horizontal force acting on the stopper above pier cap @ 10% of vertical load= 7.94 t

Friction resistance = 11.92 t

However as additional factor of safety, assuming an extra lateral force in excess of frictional

resistance taking αR = 0.20 in worst case, Fs = 15.89 t

Difference = 3.97 t

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Effective depth required = 166 mm

Effective depth provided = 342 mm

Area of steel required = 287 mm2

Provide 12 mm f bars @ 150 mm c/c. Area of steel provided = 716 mm2

Max. Shear stress, tv = 0.15 N/mm2

Percentage area of steel provided, p = 0.26 %

Permissible minimum shear strength of concrete =0.226 N/mm2 > tv O.K.

Provide nominal shear reinforcement of 8 mm φ bars @ 100 mm c/c.

4.2 Geometrical Properties:

High Flood Level, HFL = = 1002.2 m

Maximum depth of scour from HFL = = 3.28 m

Elevation of maximum scour level (MSL) = = 998.87 m

Max. Water depth in the river = = 3.28 m

Water depth near the abutment = = 3.280 m

Proportionate scour depth near the abutment = 3.280 m

Elevation of MSL near abutment = = 998.87 m

Lowest Bed Level = = 997 m

Elevation of top of foundation base = = 999.600 m

Bottom level of foundation = = 998.500 m

h1 = 4.59 m

h2 = 0.26 m

h3 = 1.45 m

h4 = 0.4 m

h5 = 3.00 m

CL of Bearing

4

HFL

MSL

2

LBL

h6 = 0.05 m

HFL above MSL, h7 = 3.28 m

HFL above min. bed level h8 = 5.15 m

MSL below min. bed level, h9 = -1.87 m

Top of foundation base below MSL, h10 = -0.73 m

Depth of pile cap, h11 = 1.1 m

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b1 = 1.0 m

b3 = 0.25 m

b4 = 0.55 m

b5 = 0.9 m

b6 = 0.35 m

b7 = 0.15 m

b8 = 0.4 m

b9 = 3.5 m

b10 = 3.1 m

b11 = 1 m

b12 = 3.1 m

Foundation base length, b13 = 7.2 m

Foundation projection beyond abutment stem 0.15 m

Total width of foundation 7.2 m

Angle of internal friction of soil 29 degree

Safe bearing capacity of soil 0 t/m2

Load bearing capacity of pile = 40 t

Numbers of piles along longitudinal dirrection = 4 m

Numbers of piles along transverse dirrection = 4 m

Total numbers of piles = 16

Diameter of piles = 700 mm

Length of piles = 16 m

Soil Type : Clayey Silt

Determination of depth of fixity of piles:

Unconfined compressive strength, S = 0.46 kg/cm2

Modulus of subgrade reaction, K = 13.2 kg/cm2

Therefore, Lf/d = 7 from figure 1 and 2.

and, depth of fixity, Lf = 4.9 m

Due to Dead Load

Superstructure = 85.14 t

Backwall = 6.00 t

Abutment cap = 7.95 t

Abutment shaft = 49.68 t

Soil behind abutment = 196.70 t

Approach slab = 15.29 t

Soil in front of abutment = 0.00 t

Total = 360.76 t

Due to Live Load

Maximum live load including impact = 81.06 t

Depth of abutment shaft below HFL = 2.55 m

Abutment width at HFL = 1.000 m

Loss in weight of abutment shaft = 17.59 t

Loss in weight of soil behind abutment = 56.92 t

Loss in weight of soil in front of abutment = 0.00 t

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VOLUMN-III

Due to superstructure DL+LL

Total superstructure DL+LL = 166.19 t

Eccentricity of load about pile cap transverse axis = 0m

Corresponding moment = 0.00 t-m

Superstructure DL = 85.14 t

Moment at foundation toe due to DL = 0.00 t-m

A. Maximum Load Condition

i) Due to abutment body

Load = 63.63 t

Lever arm = -0.13 m

Moment = -7.95 t-m

ii) Due to Backfill and approach slab

Load = 196.70 t

Lever arm = -2.1 m

Moment = -413.07 t-m

iii) Due to soil fill in front of abutment

Load = 0.00 t

Lever arm = 2m

Moment = 0.00 t-m

Total moment due to abutment + soil filling DL = -421.03 t-m

B. No LL + Buoyancy Condition

i) Due to abutment body

Load = 85.14 t

Lever arm = -0.13 m

Moment = -10.64 t-m

ii) Due to Backfill and approach slab

Load = 133.93 t

Lever arm = -2.1 m

Moment = -281.25 t-m

iii) Due to soil fill in front of abutment

Load = 0.00

Lever arm = 1.55

Moment = 0.00

Total moment due to abutment + soil filling DL = -291.89 t-m

Earth pressure = 48.42 t

Lever arm = 3.03 m

Surcharge = 25.32 t

Lever arm = 3.395 m

Total Moment = 232.57 t-m

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VOLUMN-III

a) Due to tractive effort or braking = 14 t

Which acts at a distance above foundation bottom = 6.05 m

Moment due to tractive effort or braking about foundation base = 84.70 t-m

b) Force due to resistance in bearings due to temperature = 3.16 t

Which acts at a distance above foundation bottom = 3.4 m

Moment due to tractive effort or braking about foundation base = 10.90 t-m

Due to Seismic Forces:

A. Along longitudinal direction for maximum load condition

Description Load (t) Seismic Load (t) Lever arm Moment (t-m)

Superstructure DL 85.14 8.51 4.15 35.33

Abutment shaft P1 49.68 4.97 1.50 7.45

Abutment shaft P2 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00

Abutment shaft P3 7.95 0.79 3.00 2.38

Abutment shaft P4 6.00 0.60 4.12 2.48

Approach slab 15.29 1.53 4.72 7.22

Backfill 196.70 19.67 2.1 41.31

Total 360.76 36.08 96.17

B. Case of buoyancy and no live load

The seismic load will be lesser than that for N+T case due to submerged part of the sub structure which

will be under buoyancy.

Moment

Description Load (t) Seismic Load (t) Lever arm (m)

(t-m)

Superstructure DL 85.14 8.51 4.15 35.33

Abutment shaft P1 above HFL 7.45 0.75 3.875 2.89

Abutment shaft P1 below HFL 24.63 2.46 2.375 5.85

Abutment shaft P2 above HFL 3.73 0.37 3.80 1.42

Abutment shaft P2 below HFL 0.00 0.00 #DIV/0! #DIV/0!

Abutment Cap P3 7.95 0.79 3 2.38

Abutment backwall P4 6.26 0.63 4.125 2.58

Approach slab 15.29 1.53 4.72 7.22

Backfill above HFL 109.28 10.93 4.67 51.03

Backfill below HFL 79.68 7.97 2.375 18.92

Total 339.41 33.94 #DIV/0!

Vertical Loads

Max. Buoyancy+No LL Case I + Seismicity

Load

DL from superstructure + abutment 360.76 282.70 360.76

DL of foundation base 136.86 79.83 136.86

Live load 81.06 - 81.06

Total 578.67 362.53 578.67

Horizontal Forces

Max. Buoyancy+No LL Case I + Seismicity

Load

Earth Pressure 73.74 73.74 73.74

Tractive effort or braking 14 - 14

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VOLUMN-III

Seismic Force - - 40.41

Total 90.90 76.90 131.31

Resulting Moments

Max. Buoyancy+No LL Case I + Seismicity

Superstructure DL+LL -291.89 0.00 -291.89

Abutment +Soil filling DL -421.03 -291.89 -421.03

Earth pressure 232.57 232.57 232.57

Tractive effort or braking 84.70 - 84.70

Temperature effect 10.90 - 10.90

Seismic force - - 171.28

Total -384.75 -59.32 -213.47

Summary of loads

Max. Load Buoyancy+No LL Case I + Seismicity

Vertical T 80.37 50.35 80.37

Horizontal T 12.62 10.68 18.24

Moment t-m -53.44 -8.24 -29.65

Case: I

Deducting the bearing capacity of pile cap as a open footing, vertical loads to be taken by piles

= 80.37 t

Loads on each pile due to vertical load = 5.02 t

Axial load on extreme pile due to moment = 12.62 t

Axial load on second row of pile due to moment = 4.02 t

Resultant compressive force on extreme pile = 21.67 t < 40.00 t O.K.

Resultant tensile force on extreme pile = 0.00 t < 40.00 t O.K.

Resultant compressive force on second row of pile= 17.34 t

Coefficient of friction between concrete and clay = 0.20

Friction resistance of cap = 0.00 t

Horizontal force on each pile = 11.17 t

Moment on each piles = 54.72 t-m

Design of piles:

Length of pile, L = 16 m

Diameter of pile, D = 0.7 m

L/D = 22.86 > 12 Hence the pile is designed as long column.

Least radious of gyration, r = 17.5 cm

Reduction coefficient for reduction of stress values is given as,

cr = (1.25-L/48B) = 0.774

Safe stress are,

Permissible direct compressive stress, σco = 3.87 N/mm2

Permissible flexural compressive stress, σco = 5.16 N/mm2

Permissible Flexural Tensile stress, σst = 154.76 Mpa (in steel)

Maximum compressive stress in concrete = 1.50 N/mm2 < 3.869 N/mm2

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Asc = 4811 mm2

Provide 15 nos. of 25 mm φ bars, giving area of steel = 7363

Check for combined stress:

Percentage area of steel provided, pt = 2.400

p/fck = 0.120

d'/D = 0.091

Pu/fckD2 = 0.088

From chart, Mu/fckD3 = 0.12

and Mu = 82.32 t-m

Working moment, M = 54.88 t-m > 54.72 t-m O.K.

Shear stress due to horizontal force = 0.29 N/mm2

Permissible shear strength of concrete = 0.45 N/mm2 O.K.

Case: C

Axial load on extreme pile due to moment = 27.49 t

Resultant compressive force = 65.07 t < 90.00 t O.K.

Resultant tensile force = 0.00 t < 90.00 t O.K.

Horizontal force on each piles = 6.18 t

Moment on each piles = 30.27 t-m

Pu/fckD2 = 0.100

From chart, Mu/fckD3 = 0.106

and Mu = 72.72 t-m

Working moment, M = 48.48 t-m > 30.27 t-m O.K.

Shear stress due to horizontal force = 0.16 N/mm2

Permissible shear strength of concrete = 0.56 N/mm2 O.K.

Lateral Reinforcement:

Lateral reinforcement should be 0.2% of the gross volume. Using dia. 10 mm ties,

we have the volume of one tie = 145577 mm3

If p be the pitch of the ties in mm, then

Volume of pile per pitch length = 384845 p

Hence equating, we get, p = 189 mm

Hence provide dia 10 mm ties at 160 mm c/c in the main body of the pile.

Maximum bending moment in the pile cap due to vertical load,

At center of cap = 312.91 t-m

At face of abutment = 375.77 t-m

Bending moment due to moment on steam = 233.3 t-m

Maximum bending moment = 609.0 t-m

The effective depth required is given by,

dreq = 999 mm

Adopt 1030 mm effective depth and overall depth = 1100 mm

Area of steel required along width of cap = 32466 mm2

Using 25 mm dia. bars, spacing would be 113 mm

Provede 25 mm dia bars @ 120 mm c/c, provided area = 33469 mm2

at both top and bottom.

Distribution reinforcement @ 0.12% = 9900 mm2

Provide 20 mm dia bars @ 150 mm c/c, giving area of stee = 15708 mm2.

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Shear stress, tv = 0.53 N/mm2

Percentage area of steel, pt = 0.43 %

Permissible shear strength of concrete, tc = 0.28 N/mm2 < tv

Shear reinforement is required.

Assuming 10 mm dia 20 legged vertical tirrups, then Asv = 1571 mm2

And spacing of stirrups, S = 163 mm

Provide 10 mm dia 4 legged vertical tirrups @ 160 mm c/c.

Shear force = 269.49 t

bo = 20.32 m

tv = 0.13 N/mm2

Punching shear strength, tc = 0.716 N/mm2 > tv Safe.

Check for punching shear along pile,

Shear force = 57.69 t

bo = 5435.0 m

tv = 0.10 N/mm2

Punching shear strength, tc = 0.72 N/mm2 > tv Safe.

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