P. 1
wikipedija efta

wikipedija efta

|Views: 117|Likes:
Published by Boris Tuckesic

More info:

Published by: Boris Tuckesic on May 17, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/03/2012

pdf

text

original

Europska slobodna trgovinska zona osnovana je 1960.

godine i reakcija je na osnivanje EEZ-a, kako bi se spriječila opasnost o ekonomskoj diskriminaciji. EFTA je izgubila na značenju kroz pristupanje država članica ovoj zajednici (Velika Britanija, Irska i Danska 1973., a Portugal 1986.). Europska zajednica je 1973. godine s EFTA-om zaključila Ugovor o slobodnoj trgovini. Od 1994. na snazi je europski ekonomski prostor između država Europske Zajednice i država EFTA-e. Nakon pristupanja Finske, Švedske i Austrije EU 1995. godine, EFTA obuhvaća samo još Lihtenštajn, Norvešku, Island i Švicarsku. Državljani EFTA-e, po principu reciprociteta, imaju pravo raditi u Europskoj Uniji.

Razvoj [uredi]

██ zemlje zemlje članice ██ koje su napustile EFTA-u

EFTA-u su osnovale Austrija, Danska, Norveška, Portugal, Švedska, Švicarska i UK. 1961. godine Finska je postala zemlja suradnik EFTA-e, a 1986. potpuna članica. EFTA-i se 1970. godine pridružio Island a 1991. Lihtenštajn. Od navedenih država sve su osim Lihtenštajna, Norveške, Islanda i Švicarske napustile EFTA-u zbog ulaska u EEZ ili EU

You are here : Home About EFTA The European Free Trade Association

The European Free Trade Association
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is an intergovernmental organisation set up for the promotion of free trade and economic integration to the benefit of its four Member States. The Association is responsible for the management of:

the EEA Agreement (EFTA-EU relations). Germany. have been at the core of EFTA activities from the beginning. Belgium. They were followed by Portugal in 1986 and by Austria. These last three are also known as the Benelux Union. Portugal. Liechtenstein. Denmark. The immediate aim of the Association was to provide a framework for the liberalisation of trade in goods amongst its Member States. Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Norway and Switzerland. and the EFTA Free Trade Agreements (third country relations). soon after the establishment of the 6nation EEC. EFTA was established as an economic counterbalance to the more politically driven European Economic Community (EEC). Based on these overall goals. followed by the countries in the Mediterranean area. EFTA's network of free trade agreements has reached across the Atlantic as well as into Asia. Relations with the EEC. In recent years. (France.• • • The EFTA Convention. France vetoed British membership. Furthermore. Since the beginning of the 1990s. later the European Community (EC) and the European Union (EU). Norway. and the EEA Agreement by the Brussels office. in 1994 the EEA Agreement entered into force.) . EFTA has actively pursued trade relations with third countries in and beyond Europe. Italy. In 1973. EFTA was founded by the following seven countries: Austria. The first partners were the Central and Eastern European countries. At the same time. EFTA was founded in 1960 on the premise of free trade as a means of achieving growth and prosperity amongst its Member States as well as promoting closer economic cooperation between the Western European countries. the EFTA countries wished to contribute to the expansion of trade globally. in 1960 (after the creation of EFTA). and The European Economic Area (EEA) Agreement. Consequently. EFTA today maintains the management of the EFTA Convention (intra-EFTA trade). which forms the legal basis of the organisation and governs free trade relations between the EFTA States. Britain was also preoccupied with the Commonwealth. The UK brought together several countries (including some bordering the EEC) and decided to form the European Free Trade Association in about 1959. EFTA was founded by the Stockholm Convention in 1960. the EFTA States concluded free trade agreements with the EC. Liechtenstein and Norway) to participate in the EU’s Internal Market. Finland joined in 1961. Luxembourg. which was in a critical period. Sweden. British reaction to the creation of the EEC was mixed and complex. Finland and Sweden in 1995. Iceland in 1970 and Liechtenstein in 1991. Today the EFTA Member States are Iceland. The EFTA Convention and EFTA free trade agreements are managed by the Geneva office. EFTA’s worldwide network of free trade and partnership agreements. which enables three of the four EFTA Member States (Iceland. In the 1970s. the United Kingdom and Denmark left EFTA to join the EC. and the Netherlands.

Since Switzerland rejected the EEA in 1992. Despite this modest initiative. On 16 July 2009. For this reason most countries eased or eliminated their trade tariffs in preparation to join the EEC. Norway and Liechtenstein and Iceland. The main difference between the early EEC and the EFTA was the absence of a common external customs tariff.On 4 January 1960 the Treaty on European Free Trade Association was initialed in the Golden Hall of the Prince's Palace of Stockholm. EFTA began to falter. but experienced declining revenue which reduced the importance of EFTA. The last two governments of Norway have been unable and unwilling to advance the question. Figgures Sir John Coulson Bengt Rabaeus Charles Müller Per Kleppe Georg Reisch Kjartan Jóhannsson William Rossier Kåre Bryn The Norwegian electorate has rejected treaties of accession to the EU in two referenda. as they have both been coalition governments consisting of proponents and opponents. which has particularly affected the local economy. following the global financial crisis of 2008.[5] . Iceland applied for EU membership in 2009 following the 2008–2009 Icelandic financial crisis. the last time in 2001. the government formally applied for EU membership. Sweden and Finland. This was however rather less than the increase enjoyed by countries inside the EEC. These were rejected by clear majorities. on the other hand. general Secretaries of EFTA: • • • • • • • • • 1960-1965: 1965-1972: 1972-1975: 1976-1981: 1981-1988: 1988-1994: 1994-2000: 2000-2006: 2006–present: Frank E. This established the progressive elimination of customs duties on industrial products. referenda on EU membership have been initiated. After the accession of Denmark and the UK to the EEC. At the time of the first referendum (1972) their neighbour Denmark joined. but did not affect agricultural products or maritime trade. as it stimulated an increase of foreign trade volume among its members from 3 522 to 8 172 million US dollars between 1959 and 1967. and therefore each EFTA member was free to establish individual customs duties against trade with non EFTA countries. may join the EU in the near future. Iceland. The second time (1994) two other Nordic neighbours. the financial results were excellent. Currently there are only 4 members remaining: Switzerland. joined the EU.

U cilju osvajanja novih tržišta za hrvatske proizvode i otvaranja domaćeg tržišta međunarodnoj konkurenciji programom je predviđeno da se u roku od dvije godine stvore uvjeti da se preko 80% ukupne vanjskotrgovinske razmjene hrvatskog gospodarstva odvija pod uvjetima slobodne trgovine. i . povećala izravna ulaganja. kako bi se potaknuo rast trgovine među ugovornim stranama. američki pandan je NAFTA.[6] However. kao što su određeni poljoprivredni proizvodi. Razlika između slobodne trgovinske zone i carinske unije je u tome što unutar slobodne trgovinske zone ne postoji određena zajednička spoljna carinska tarifa. Definicija zone slobodne trgovine Zonu slobodne trgovine (FTA. EFTA-e i drugim europskim zemljama. S tim ciljem sklopljeni su preferencijalni trgovinski aranžmani na osnovi ugovora o slobodnoj trgovini s Europskom unijom.[7] The Faroes already have an extensive bilateral free trade agreement with Iceland.In mid-2005. te postigla veća transparentnost u trgovinskim politikama i poslovnim predviđanjima. according to Article 56 of the EFTA Convention. što znači da države zadržavaju svoje carine prema trećim državama. Principi na kojima se zasnivaju zone slobodne trgovine: 1. Ugovori o slobodnoj trgovini Ugovori o stvaranju zone slobodne trgovine između dvije ili više zemalja sklapaju se s ciljem uklanjanja carinskih i necarinskih barijera u međusobnoj trgovini. koji ih dozvoljava kao iznimku od općeg pravila o nediskrimninaciji. representatives of the Faroe Islands hinted at the possibility of their territory joining EFTA. Stvaranje zona slobodne trgovine mora biti potpuno u skladu sa člankom XXIV GATT-a. only states may become members of the Association. Free Trade Area) čine dva ili više carinska područja unutar kojih su ukinute sve carine i druga trgovinska ograničenja na gotovu svu robu podrijetlom iz tih područja koja se međusobno razmjenjuje. Zona slobodne trgovine je prihvatljiva u odnosu na uvjete koje postavlja GATT. the chances of the Faroes' bid for membership are uncertain because. pod uvjetom da one olakšavaju i potiču trgovinu između zemalja koje ih sačinjavaju i da pri tome ne stvaraju prepreke trgovini prema ostalim članicama WTO-a. Evropski primjer slobodne tgovinske zone je EFTA. known as the Hoyvík Agreement. zemljama CEFTA-e. Slobodna trgovinska zona Slobodna trgovinska zona je grupa od najmanje dva carinska područja između kojih su podignute carine i odstranjene druge mjere koje sprječavaju spoljnu trgovinu. Za razliku od carinske unije. samo najosjetljiviji proizvodi mogu biti izostavljeni od liberalizacije. zemlje pristupnice zoni slobodne trgovine zadržavaju vlastitu carinsku tarifu prema trećim zemljama. ako: • je liberalizacijom trgovine unutar zone obuhvaćen najveći dio međusobne trgovine.

SSP-a EU27 EFTA (Švicarska. 1. 2002. pravila konkurencije. 5. 19. (Island) Napomena Promjene vezane na proširenje EU su definirane Protokolom 7. u slučaju platnobilančnih teškoća ili u slučaju prekomjernog uvoza nekog proizvoda koji može izazvati poremećaj na domaćem tržištu. prosinca 2006.2003. Crna Gora. 2. godine u Bukureštu je potpisan novi Srednjoeuropski ugovor o slobodnoj trgovini (CEFTA 2006) kojeg je potpisalo osam zemalja: Albanija.) 1. Makedonija. 3. (za novih 10 zemalja članica EU od 1. (BiH) Kosovo. Moldova. Bosna i Hercegovina. antidampinške mjere. Uzajamne povlastice odobravaju se samo proizvodima koji su podrijetlom iz zemalja koje sačinjavaju zonu slobodne trgovine.1. (Lihtenštajn) 1. 22. U ugovorima o slobodnoj trgovini dozvoljava se primjena samozaštitnih mjera u opravdanim slučajevima.2007.7.2007. omogućavajući svim ugovornim stranama jednaku korist. 8. 22. zaštita intelektualnog vlasništva. - .• nakon stvaranja zone slobodne trgovine zemlje pristupnice prema trećim zemljama ne primjenjuju više carine i restriktivnije trgovinske mjere nego u razdoblju koje je prethodilo zoni slobodne trgovine.10. a za Rumunjsku i Bugarsku od 1. Island) - CEFTA 2006 (Hrvatska. Srbija te civilni upravitelj Ujedinjenih naroda na Kosovu u ime Kosova.8.2007. Makedonija. 24. državni monopoli. 2002. 5. 2002. Hrvatska. Norveška. 2004. 2002. Moldova.11. Ugovorima o slobodnoj trgovini uređuju se i sva ostala područja izravno vezana uz međusobnu trgovinu: unutarnje oporezivanje.2007. 2002. kako bi se spriječilo zaobilaženje ovog principa preko trećih zemalja. Albanija. 4. 1. Stanje potpisnih Ugovora o slobodnoj trgovini: Zemlja Datum početka primjene 1. Lihtenštajn. državna pomoć. 4. (Švicarska) 1. (Norveška) 1. Srbija) Turska 1.. Stoga je bitan sastavni dio ugovora o slobodnoj trgovini protokol o pravilima o podrijetlu. 1. npr. (Srbija) Crna Gora. Zone slobodne trgovine moraju u pravilu biti recipročne. BiH.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->