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The Journal of Social Psychology
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Is Emotional Intelligence an Advantage? An Exploration of the Impact of Emotional and General Intelligence on Individual Performance
Laura Thi Lama; Susan L. Kirbyb a College of Arts and Sciences, Texas Tech University, b Department of Management, Southwest Texas State University, Online publication date: 02 April 2010
To cite this Article Lam, Laura Thi and Kirby, Susan L.(2002) 'Is Emotional Intelligence an Advantage? An Exploration of
the Impact of Emotional and General Intelligence on Individual Performance', The Journal of Social Psychology, 142: 1, 133 — 143 To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/00224540209603891 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224540209603891
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2002. Salovey. systematic analysis substantiating that claim. there has been a general lack of independent. P. As measured by the MEIS. The authors measured emotional intelligence with the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS. and emotional regulation uniquely explained individual cognitive-based performance over and beyond the level attributable to general intelligence. 133-143 Is Emotional Intelligence an Advantage? An Exploration of the Impact of Emotional and General Intelligence on Individual Performance Downloaded By: [Romanian Ministry Consortium] At: 22:04 2 May 2011 LAURA THI LAM College of Arts and Sciences Texas Tech University SUSAN L.142(1). Proponents claim that increasing emotional intelligence can do everything from improving the general quality of work life to enhancing 133 .The Journal of Social Psvcholoav. Salovey. overall emotional intelligence is a composite of the 3 distinct emotional reasoning abilities: perceiving. & D. understanding. and regulating emotions (J. J. emotional intelligence affects individual performance. The authors investigated whether emotional intelligence would account for increases in individual cognitive-based performance over and above the level attributable to traditional general intelligence. KIRBY Department of Management Southwest Texas State University ABSTRACT. 1997). however. managers. the authors found that overall emotional intelligence. Caruso. Mayer & P. Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale THE IDEA THAT HIGH EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE may lead to personal and professional success has generated a great deal of excitement among the general public. emotional intelligence increases performance and productivity. Key words: cognitive-based performance. Mayer. emotional intelligence. Although further psychometric analysis of the MEIS is warranted. and business consultants alike. According to popular opinion and work-place testimonials. academics. D. emotional perception. 1997). general intelligence. D. Emotional intelligence is an increasingly popular consulting tool. According to popular opinion and work-place testimonials. R.
. or general intelligence. General intelligence is the ability to acquire basic knowledge and use it in novel situations. 1998). . Perceiving emotions consists of recognizing and interpreting the meaning of various emotional states. Department of Management. 24). According to Gottfredson. “Emotional intelligence gives you a competitive edge. There are basic assumptions underlying the theory of general intelligence: (a) People are born with a fixed. The measurement of general intelligence consists of completion of number series. 76).134 The Journal of Social Psychology Downloaded By: [Romanian Ministry Consortium] At: 22:04 2 May 2011 career success. potential intelligence. understanding. San Marcos. and spatial-visualization abilities. and regulating emotions. systematic analysis of the claim that emotional intelligence increases individual performance over and above the level expected from traditional notions of general intelligence. Therefore. “Intelligence as measured by IQ tests is the single most effective predictor known of individual performance at school and on the job” (p. Southwest Texas State University. there has been a general lack of independent. Although much work has gone into the development and application of emotional intelligence in people’s lives. Understanding emotions involves Address correspondence to Susan L. sklO@swt. however. only one appears to consider both emotions and cognition equally. and analogies designed to capture mathematical-reasoning. .edu (e-mail). as well as their relations to other sensory experiences. Gottfredson. in the present study. rather. pattern recognition. and (b) general intelligence can be measured (Gardner. p.Having great intellectual abilities may make you a superb fiscal analyst or legal scholar. . researchers have proposed many definitions of emotional intelligence. emotional intelligence reflects not a single trait or ability but. Kirby. is orthodoxy both among psychologists and in the general public (Gardner. a composite of distinct emotional reasoning abilities: perceiving. verbal. As one of the best known supporters of the importance of emotional intelligence has stated. we os examined the impact of emotional intelligence on individual performance: D e emotional intelligence account for increases in individual cognitive-based performance over and above the level attributable to general intelligence? General Intelligence The existence of a single measure of intellectual ability. College o Busif ness Administration. Emotional Intelligence With increasing usage of emotional intelligence by managers and scholars. People’s understanding of that relationship is largely from anecdotal sources such as those noted earlier. TX 78666. 1998). but a highly developed emotional intelligence will make you a candidate for CEO or a brilliant trial lawyer” (Goleman. 1997. According to Mayer and Salovey (1997).
and whether various emotional reactions are likely in given social settings. & Caruso. and the relationship is positive. and individual cognitive-based performance. it is possible to investigate more thoroughly the relationship between emotional intelligence and individual performance. how emotions are affected by events surrounding experiences. Salovey. Hypothesis 3 Understanding emotions contributes to individual cognitive: based performance over and above the level attributable to general intelligence. We explored whether overall emotional intelligence and its distinct emotional reasoning abilities would positively contribute to individual cognitive-based performance over and above the level explained by general intelligence. and regulates emotions. An individual’s emotional intelligence is an indication of how he or she perceives. Weisinger. Salovey & Sluyter. Hyporhesis 4: Regulating emotions contributes to individual cognitive-based performance over and above the level attributable to general intelligence. Hypothesis 2: Perceiving emotions contributes to individual cognitive-based performance over and above the level attributable to general intelligence. understands.Lam & Kirby 135 Downloaded By: [Romanian Ministry Consortium] At: 22:04 2 May 2011 comprehension of how basic emotions are blended to form complex emotions. 1997. the short version of the MEIS (Mayer et al. Each participant completed a paper-andpencil measure of individual cognitive performance. and the relationship is positive. 1967). 1997). the Shipley Institute of Living IQ Scale (Western Psychological Services. Goleman. Regulating emotions encompasses the control of emotions in oneself and in others. 1997. 189). p.. and the relationship is positive. In sum. general intelligence. Method Sample and Design The participants were 304 undergraduates (152 men and 152 women) at a university in the western United States. 1997). 1990. With the recent development of a comprehensive emotional intelligence scale. To assess the soundness of claims that emotional intelligence accounts for personal performance gains over and above those attributable to general intelligence (Cooper & Sawaf. and the relationship is positive. 1997). emotional intelligence is a form of intelligence that involves “the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions. We formulated the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Overall emotional intelligence contributes to individual cognitive-based performance over and above the level attributable to general intelligence. the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS. and a questionnaire assessing demographic char- . to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions” (Salovey & Mayer. we examined the relationships between emotional intelligence. 1997. Mayer.
Level of difficulty was based on solution scores to the Bumey test observed by Lam. 1997).85 with the WAIS-R (Zachary. Paulson. The total raw score is used to estimate an IQ equivalent on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R. The primary researcher reviewed the testing instructions with the participants to ensure optimal understanding of what was required to perform each of the tasks as accurately as possible.e. The MEIS is scored by an expert scoring method. the response that the MEIS experts believe is the most accurate assessment of a particular ability (Mayer & Geher. measures. the percentage of correct answers (as determined by the MEIS developers) serves as the component score. 1997). Mayer et al. 1958). General intelligence. Sorell. Crumpton. To simulate the time pressures faced in the modem work place (Cooper. Paulson. individual cognitive-based performance. written instructions..4) and were primarily Caucasian (88. The three component scores are summed to obtain a measure of overall emotional intelligence. Mayer & Salovey.136 The Journal of Social Psychufogy acteristics. & Speigel. and response sheets). we placed the participants in a stressful situation by choosing very difficult cognitive reasoning problems and limiting the time given to complete them. Wechsler. SD = 2.8 years. 1985. Bell.. The short version of the MEIS consists of 258 items and takes approximately 40 min to complete. The scale yields four scores: an overall score reflecting general emotional intelligence and a score for each of the three emotional reasoning abilities. A raw score is calculated for each of the subtests along with a raw total (sum of the two subtests). Each participant received a folder containing all the necessary materials (i. 1996. 1997. and Yang (1998).5%). We used the Shipley Institute of Living IQ Scale (Westem Psychological Services. with 8 problems selected from the Bumey (1974) logical reasoning test. We assessed the dependent measure. & Gorsuch. and regulating emotions (Mayer et al. The MEIS consists of eight tasks that are divided into components representing three levels of emotional reasoning ability: perceiving. For each component.. et al. 1997). The Shipley provides a reliable estimate of general intelligence and has been correlated as high as .. This test is timed and takes exactly 20 rnin to complete (10 min for the vocabulary test and 10 min for the abstract-thinking test). 1985). Taylor. which is used to estimate an I score with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 Q (Zachary. understanding. in which each response is compared with an expert answer-that is. To Downloaded By: [Romanian Ministry Consortium] At: 22:04 2 May 2011 . Measures MEIS (short version). Individual cognitive-based pedormance. we selected the 8 most difficult for the performance task. 1967) to assess the participants’ general intelligence. The participants ranged in age from 18 to 33 years (M= 20. 1985). Zachary. Of the original 21 items.
We collected SAT scores as part of the demographic information for each participant. see Table 1). Given that overall emotional intelligence is a composite of Variables 1 through 3.).05 and reran the reliability tests. we gave the participants 1 min to solve each problem. overall . Descriptive statistics providing the mean values for the emotional intelligence measures and general intelligence appear in Table 2. We removed items with correlations to their respective subscales of less than ..001. We based the timing on the finding that both easy and difficult problems took an average of 1. (b) that they should try to complete all items within the allotted time. The percentage of problems answered correctly was the measure of performance. Because the Shipley Institute of Living IQ Scale (Western Psychological Services. 1998). such as standardized academic achievement tests (Gottfredson. the correlation provided evidence of concurrent validity for the Shipley scale. In the case of the understanding component. we conducted an analysis of the item-to-total correlation. The participants’ IQ and SAT scores were significantly and positively correlated. The 8 items consisted of a variety of verbal analogies. The monetary reward ensured that the participants maintained high levels of motivation while performing the task.Larn&Kirby 137 Downloaded By: [Romanian Ministry Consortium] At: 22:04 2 May 2011 elicit performance-related stress. The revised emotional intelligence scale used in subsequent analysis contained more than 75% of the original items (for results of the reliability analysis. we retained only the Relativity subscale (the only understanding subscale with an acceptable a level) because the reliability analysis indicated that the removal of more items from the Blends. and Transition subscales did not result in acceptable alpha levels for these subscales (Nunnally.4 min to complete (Lam et al. 1967. syllogisms. 1978). Results We computed subscale reliabilities for each component of the MEIS (Mayer et al. and (c) that they should solve correctly as many problems as possible. The participant with the highest score (or the participants who tied for the highest score) on his or her individual performance task received $25. thus. We told the participants (a) that the measure of performance emphasized both accuracy and speed. 1997). 1967) measures intellectual ability. and problems similar to the Piagetian tasks in more traditional assessments of formal reasoning abilities (Burney). To address multicollinearity problems. we tested the hypotheses by using four separate multiple regression analyses with ordered predictor variables.42. Because of low alpha coefficients for some of the original emotional-intelligence measures. Because overall emotional intelligence is the sum of the individual components. r = . we expected it to be correlated with other measures of the same ability. p < . we expected significant correlations between those variables. We conducted an additional analysis to assess the validity of the generalintelligence measure. Progression.
63 .58 14 1 8 . R2change = .074.291) = 11.37. the omnibus F was significant. & Caruso. F(2.5 I 42 60 28 .65 8 6 I5 28 Regulating emotions Managing Emotions in Oneself Managing Emotions in Others . F(2. 1997) Original Items Revised Items Subscale a a Perceiving emotions Downloaded By: [Romanian Ministry Consortium] At: 22:04 2 May 2011 Perceiving Synesthesia Feeling Bias . The results also supported Hypothesis 2: Perceiving emotions contributed to individual cognitive-based performance over and above the level attributable to general intelligence. The results did not support Hypothesis 3: Understanding emotions did not contribute to individual cognitive- .69 31 55 24 27 Understanding emotions Blendinga Progression* Transitiona Relativity . Saiovey.60 .22 . p < . As expected (Gottfredson. and the components cannot be entered into regression equations together.001.49 . we entered I first into all four ordered predictor regression models. The results supported Hypothesis 1: Overall emotional intelligence contributed to individual cognitive-based performance over and above the level attributable to general intelligence. p c . R2 change = .37 24 24 -70 . emotional intelligence cannot be entered into an equation containing its components.001.138 The Journal of Social Psychology TABLE 1 Cronbach’s Alpha (a) Reliability Statistics for the Subscales of the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer. 1998).3 1 . Because we were interested in the impact of emotional intelligence on individual performance over and above the level of performance attributable to general intelQ ligence.I6 . and general intelligence was significantlyand positively related to cognitive-based individual performance in all four models.034. and the relationship was positive.48 excluded from further analysis these subscales of the understanding component of emotional intelligence because of unacceptable reliability measures.24.46 . and the relationship was positive.3 I .3 I .52 8 8 24 40 .292) = 23.
1997) to investigate how an individual’s ability to perceive. We examined individual performance in relation to general intelligence and to overall emotional intelligence and its components: perceiving. p > .32** - . The results supported Hypothesis 4: Regulating emotions contributed to cognitive-based performance over and above the level attributable to general intelligence. General intelligence * p < . we used the conceptualization of emotional intelligence) Mayer et al.64 . understanding emotions did not add to the explanation of variance in individual cognitive-based performance over and above the level attributable to general intelligence. however. 1998). As expected.75. Regulating emotions 4. p < .).73 . Overall emotional Downloaded By: [Romanian Ministry Consortium] At: 22:04 2 May 2011 . Perceiving emotions 2. general intelligence made a significant contribution to the prediction of individual performance of a cognitive task (Gottfredson.10 1 2 3 4 5 . and the relationship was positive.66 SD . 291) = 7.01.18 .46 .01. .008. Discussion In the present study.024. and regulating emotions all contributed positively to individual cognitive-based performance.66 106. Standard Deviations. overall emotional intelligence.08 .I1 intelligence 5.. F(2.69 .001.56** . R2 change = . 22).73** .38** based performance over and above the level attributable to general intelligence. According to Gardner (p. and regulating emotions.02 . In addition. R2 change = . whereas regulating emotions encompasses the control of emotions in oneself and in others. understanding.23* . and Correlations for the Measures of Emotional and General Intelligence Measure 1.05. Perceiving emotions consists of recognizing the presence and interpreting the meaning of various emotional states. perceiving emotions.291) = 2. and regulate emotions is related to performance. Understanding M . F(2.Lam & Kirby 139 TABLE 2 Means. We addressed the limitations in the extant literature concerning the relationship between emotional intelligence and individual performance and examined the utility of the MEIS (Mayer et al.08 . **p < . understand. Perceiving and regulating emotions are likely tapping into the two main components of emotional intelligence put forth by the original proponent of multiple intelligences (Gardner.59. 1998).05 - emotions 3. “accurately deter- .08 .25* - 6.
1990). Buffering is a common way to control undesirable emotions. Further analysis as the MEIS is refined may allow for a more thorough examination of the understanding component of emotional intelligence and may uncover a relationship to performance that we were unable to discover. rather than the presence of emotions per se. they tend to interfere with task achievement (Ashforth & Humphrey. In the present study. 1996. or emotional involvement in tasks. 1995). 1995). The ability merely to describe emotions and their relations to other sensory experiences may have very little impact on one’s ability to harness emotions in the service of performing cognitive tasks.I0 4 The Journal o Social Psychology f Downloaded By: [Romanian Ministry Consortium] At: 22:04 2 May 2011 mining moods. whereas regulating emotions relates to controlling and using information about emotions. once emotions occur and are recognized by the cognitive systems of the brain. the ability to guard against distracting emotions and to build on enhancing emotions facilitates individual task performance as well as team performance. However. reflects the highest level of motivation and results in high performance. may cause problems for task performance. as measured in the present study. understanding emotions did not contribute to cognitivebased performance over and above the level attributable to general intelligence. We believe that the specific emotions experienced and their interpretation and regulation.. p. 19). feelings and other mental states in oneself (intrapersonal intelligence) and in others (interpersonal intelligence) and using the information as a guide for behavior” defines a key component of emotional intelligence. Understanding. Both elements of emotional intelligence are concerned with the perception and regulation of emotions in oneself and others (intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence). when emotions are intertwined with role. Personal engagement has been likened tofrow (Csikszentmihalyi. Depending on whether the emotions are perceived as enhancing or distracting. 1997). However. because the “connections from the emotional systems to the cognitive systems are stronger than connections from the cognitive systems to the emotional systems [of the brain]” (LeDoux. buffering involves encapsulating and segregating emotions so that they do not interfere with the task at hand (Ashforth & Humphrey. Perceiving emotions is the ability to accurately determine emotions. On the other hand. On the one hand. or both. or a state of peak . Individuals do not cause their emotions to occur and have little control over which emotions they experience. 1992) hypothesized that personal engagement. the perception and regulation of emotions operate through two opposite emotional control mechanisms: bufering and personal engagement. Pe8ormance Implications It is a common belief that. Kahn (1990. we were able to test only one of the four components of understanding emotions because of internal-consistency problems with that component of the MEIS (Mayer et al. performance. is the ability to describe the likeliness of emotions in a given social setting.
energized.Lam&Kirby 141 performance in which “emotions are not just contained and channeled. we acknowledge that solving reasoning problems may not provide the same information as solving problems involving social tasks. Downloaded By: [Romanian Ministry Consortium] At: 22:04 2 May 2011 Limitations The use of cognitive reasoning problems for the individual performance task may restrict the generalizability of the present findings beyond behaviors specific to that type of paper-and-pencil activity. We selected the task on the basis of the representativenessof problem-solving behaviors. the fact that our sample consisted of undergraduate students should not affect the generalizability of our findings. Although the ability to perceive and regulate emotions explained individual performance over and above the level attributable to general intelligence in the present study. 1991).. p. 1997). Conversely. However. hijacked by negative emotions. especially on the understanding component. Examining emotional intelligence in established work places may provide insights into how people manage emotions in contexts that last for several years. people may use the same control to channel positive emotions and use them to achieve maximum personal engagement and productivity in themselves and others. 90). and strangled by anxiety. Because individuals with well-developed emotional intelligence are able to identify and control their own emotions and those of others. Individuals with high emotional intelligence may use buffering techniques to internally encapsulate and segregate emotions so that they do not interfere with task performance. 1997). different findings may occur with different populations and in different settings. 1997. they are less likely to be paralyzed by fear. given the basic nature of the task and measures involved in the present study. such as team performance. because our sample consisted of a relatively homogeneous group of participants. and aligned with the task at hand (Goleman. which are required in all domains of life (Burney. it is difficult to duplicate that construct in questionnaire format. 1974). We also realize that there are reliability issues associated with the MEIS (Mayer et al. In fact. but we believe that more work is needed on the scale. We increased the reliability of the component subscales by eliminating items. Measuring performance of social tasks may yield different information about emotional intelligence and how it affects performance in an interpersonal setting. all of which have negative effects on both individual and team performance (Seipp. one would expect greater gains in social situations such as those found in the work place. but positive. That component is especially difficult to measure because it involves measuring how individuals account for the impact of social context on the interpretation of emotions. However. Because contexts vary widely. the ability to perceive and manage emotions may increase the motivation and effectiveness of teams as well. Last. where deeper social rela- . where getting along with others is critical to success (Goleman.
or even group tasks. . H. Xerox University Micmfilms (No. Executive EQ: Emotional intelligence in leadership and organization. However. if they exist. Geary. organizational commitment. Cooper. may provide interesting findings. A. 1997) allowed for the investigation of how emotional intelligence affected performance by providing both an overall emotional intelligence score and subscale scores that represented its components. 1998).or job satisfaction warrants investigation. and where people from different races and ethnic backgrounds come together to work toward common goals. it is likely that there are also other emotional differences related to emotional intelligence. the usefulness of the MEIS was demonstrated by its versatility in examining either the overall construct or its components. E. Thus. (1997). researchers have reported gender differences in emotional expressions (cf. (1974). How such differences. B. then it would be advantageous to explore and understand the nature and sources of those differences. Emotions in the workplace: A reappraisal. There are numerous opportunities for future explorations of significant gender differences in the individual components of emotional intelligence as well as in overall emotional intelligence.. G. In addition. Overall emotional intelligence was related to performance inzhat higher emotional intelligence was associated with better scores on one measure of cognitive performance. Last. REFERENCES Ashforth. R. K. First. affect individual and team performance may also be of interest to researchers and practitioners alike. R. 3 1-38. Training & Development. New York: Grosset-Putnam. For example. M. Burney. 97-125. because we selected cognitive-based activities for the individual tasks. Because there are differences in emotional expression between men and women. (1997). R. 48. Future Directions The present study has provided many potential paths for future researchers. Second. Applying emotional intelligence in the workplace. Conclusion Downloaded By: [Romanian Ministry Consortium] At: 22:04 2 May 2011 The investigation of how an individual’s ability to perceive and regulate emotions affects performance yielded some interesting insights into how people may use such abilities in performing stressful cognitive tasks.. (1995). & Sawaf. the MEIS (Mayer et al. The construction and validation of an objective formal reasoning instrument. 38. the relationship between emotional intelligence and individual cognitive performance was the major variable of interest. 75-5403). & Humphrey.142 The Journal of Social PsychoIogy tionships may be present. Cooper. exploration of how emotional intelligenceregulates other areas in life may be fruitful. the question of how emotional intelligence affects task-interdependent activities.. K.If researchers find such differences. Human Relations. different types of problem solving.
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