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Index From Global Trade and Commercial Networks

Index From Global Trade and Commercial Networks

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– 263 –
INDEX
Afaytadi [Indian diamond company], 43
agents, role of in diamond trade, 70–1, 82,
110
American War of Independence, 160
Amsterdam, diamond trade, 6, 7, 42, 48–9,
61–2
Andries Pels & Sons [bankers], 61, 70, 90,
105–6
Antwerp, diamond trade, 6–7, 43, 64, 65,
115
Appiah, Kwame Anthony, 166
Ashkenazim [ Jewish traders], 5, 11–12, 49,
70
class diferences, 98–9
connections with James Dormer, 95–6,
104–9
family relationships, 99–104
language, 98
migration, 96–8
trade with India, 113–14
Atlantic history, 35–6, 38, 149
Bailyn, Bernard, 36, 192n101
Bandeira, José Rodrigues [company direc-
tor], 56
Ben-Amos, I., 4, 185n13
Bentley, Jerry, 37, 192n104
Benyon, Richard [English merchant], 156
Berthon, Paul [merchant], 54, 68t3.1, 75,
85, 123, 140, 142, 144, 145
Berthon, Peter, 144
Berthon & Garnault [company], 7, 61, 63,
65, 66, 68t3.1, 70, 74, 75, 82, 84, 89,
90–4, 123, 139, 163
in Lisbon, 142–8, 152–3
Berthon family, 139–40, 220–1n108
bills of exchange, 49, 52, 56–7, 92–5, 106–7,
106t4.1, 177
Blommaert, Samuel, 45
Board of Deputies of British Jews, 130, 217n44
Bonifas, Paul [Huguenot merchant], 148
Bonifas, Philippe [Catholic merchant], 148
Borneo, diamond trade, 11, 45
Braamcamp, Hermann Joseph [merchant],
54, 73, 74
Brame, Jaques [Dutch merchant], 152
Brant, Felisberto Caldeira [merchant], 52
Braudel, Fernand, 25, 36, 189n57, 192n100
Brazil
diamond trade, 5, 11, 41, 49, 50–7, 62,
72–6, 177
textile trade, 153–4
Bristow, John [merchant], 54, 73, 155, 172,
198n112
bullion trade, 107–9
Burke, Edward, 22
business correspondence
see trade correspondence, importance of
caixas [mining company representatives],
52–3, 54, 56, 57
capitalism, 15, 18, 19, 23
Carvalho e Melho, Sebastião José de
see Pombal, Marquis of
Italics have been used to identify fgures and tables.
Copyright
264 Global Trade and Commercial Networks
Catholic diaspora, 6
Chapman, Stanley, 8
Chardin, Daniel, 156
Chardin brothers [diamond merchants],
48, 58
chartering of ships, 157–8
cheating, efect on trade relationships, 2–3,
6, 13, 26, 28–9
see also reputations, of merchants; trust,
in trade relationships
Child, Josiah [English East India Com-
pany], 47
Child, Sir Joshua, 136
Civilisation matérielle, 25, 189n57
classical economic theory, 14–17, 23, 186n3
Cliford, George, 170
Clive, Robert, 172–3
Collier, Margaret, 145–6
commission sales, 112
Companhia de Pernambuco [diamond trad-
ing company], 56
competition between traders, 119–22
complimentary markets, 61–6
confdentiality between traders, 120–2
Coninck, Isabella de, 61, 68t3.1, 69–70, 74,
77, 119, 120
Constant, Benjamin, 15
contracts, 51, 52, 54–6, 73
Cooper, Frederick, 164
coral trade, 47, 49, 62, 195n44
cosmopolitanism, 164, 165–7, 179
Costa, Anthony da, 159
Costa, Mendes da, family, 127, 129, 136
Costa, Emanuel Mendes da, 161–2, 167–8,
228–9n139
Costa Quintela, Ignacio da [judge], 144
Coutre, Jaques de [Bruges diamond mer-
chant], 43
credit, 8, 11, 57, 83, 90–4, 104, 177,
207n141
Cruz, José Francisco da [company director],
56
culture, defnition of, 32
Cumberland [ship], 171
Curado, Patricio dos Santos, 144–5
Curtin, Philip, 25, 27–8, 62, 189n65
Davenant, Charles [writer], 124, 215n5
Davis, Natalie Zemon, 96, 208n4
Defoe, Daniel, 136
denizen status, 136–7
diamond cutting, 42–3, 48–9, 58–9, 62,
64, 74
diamond trade
1753 crisis, 52–3, 73
agents, role of, 70–1, 82, 110
Anglo-Indian trading, 45–50
Brazil, 5, 11, 41, 49, 50–7, 62, 72–6
cities, role in, 62
commission sales, 112
competition between traders, 119–22
complimentary markets, 61–6
confdentiality between traders, 120–2
contracts, 51, 52, 54–6, 73–4
cultural value, 58–9
demand, 63–4, 66
early history, 41–5
exchange sales of polished and rough
diamonds, 111–12
exports, 45–6
factors afecting supplies, 62–3
fairs, 116–17
fnancial transactions, 70–1, 77, 78,
92–4, 104–9
import duties, 46, 47
India, 11, 41, 43–4, 55, 113–14,
113t4.2
and jewellery, 58
nature of, 4–5, 11
partnership agreements, 46–7, 48
prices, 111, 112, 119
sales, 63, 110–11
sales percentages, 79, 79f3.1
diaspora communities, 3, 9, 25, 26, 96–9,
123–6, 146–7
disputes between merchants, 74–5, 105–6,
108–9
Doerfinger, Tomas, 166, 228n127
Dormer, James [merchant]
and Ashkenazi diamond traders, 11–12,
79, 95–6, 109–10, 114–15
correspondence with other merchants,
5–7, 8, 54, 68–9, 68t3.1, 147–8,
150–2, 163–4, 176
death, 75–6
Copyright
Index 265
early life and career, 59–60
insurance company, 80, 150, 154
involvement in diamond trade, 60–1,
62–3, 64–6, 69–71, 72–5
personal characteristics, 60
personal meetings with other merchants,
116
relationship with Ruben Levy &
Company, 104–9, 110–12, 115–16,
118–19, 120–2
reputation, 89–90, 107, 121–2
textile trade, 152–4
see also merchants; trade correspondence,
importance of
Dormer, Joseph Albert, 76
Durkheimian theory of economic analysis,
2, 21
Dutch East India Company, 34, 44–5, 117,
192n103
East India Companies
see Dutch East India Company; English
East India Company
economic man, 14–18, 19–20, 22, 24–5
economic sociology, 20–4
economic theory, 10, 13–17, 20–1
Endelman, Todd, 98, 130, 208n15
England, trade with Portugal, 142–3
English East India Company, 41, 45–8, 100,
113, 114, 155, 157, 158, 172–3
English Factory of Lisbon [trade commu-
nity], 142–8, 222n132
entrepreneur, defnition, 17
ethics, 16, 20, 87
Eurocentric viewpoints of history, 165,
184n3
fairs, 116–17
Fenwicke, Edward [English merchant], 156
Fielding, Henry [English writer], 145–6
Fischel, Walter, 155–6
Fisher, Kitty [courtesan], 134, 219n72
Flynn, Dennis, 35, 191n93
Francis & Joseph Salvador [company], 9, 63
chartering of ships, 157–8
links with James Dormer, 6, 7, 61, 68t3.1,
69–75, 83–8, 150–2
trade with India, 154–8, 157t6.1
trade with North America, 158
see also Salvador family; Salvador, Fran-
cis; Salvador, Joseph
Francisco José & Manoel Lopes [company],
153
Franco family, 127
Franks, Naphtali, 168
free trade, 10, 14–15
see also trade
friendship
see merchants, commercial friendships
Fukuyama, Francis, End of History, 10
game theory, 2, 13, 29
Garnault, John, 144
Garnault, Peter [merchant], 61, 123, 140,
142, 144, 148
Garnault family, 140–1, 220–1n108
George Cliford & Sons [bankers], 61, 65,
68t3.1, 70–1, 73, 77, 82–3, 90, 105, 123
George III [King of England], 130
Gideon, Samson [18th-century fnancier],
126, 129, 130, 155
Gildemeester, Daniël [merchant], 55–7
Giraldez, Arturo, 35, 191n93
globalization
defnition of, 3, 13, 33–5
history, 36
interconnectedness, 149–50, 166
merchants role in, 162–7, 178–9
and scientifc networks, 170
theory of, 1–2, 9, 12
Goody, Jack, 18, 32, 38
Gore, John [English merchant], 55
Granovetter, Mark, 2, 20, 22, 23, 37–8
Grão Pará e Maranhão Companhia [dia-
mond trading company], 56
Greif, Avner, 21, 25, 29, 82, 188n38
Hancock, David, 9, 149–50, 162, 164
Hanway, John [English merchant], 138–9,
220n103
Hindu merchants, 43
Hirschman, Albert O., 4, 15
História Chronológica, 52
homo economicus
see economic man
Copyright
266 Global Trade and Commercial Networks
Hope & Company [bankers], 57, 61, 65, 66,
70, 89, 119–20
Huguenots, 12, 123–4, 139–42, 221n121,
221n122
see also Berthon & Garnault [company]
human behaviour
and economic theory, 22
efect on trade, 2–3, 15, 16–17, 17–20, 39
Hume, Alexander [colonial of cial], 59, 60
import duties, 46, 47
India
diamond trade, 11, 41, 43–4, 55,
113–14, 113t4.2
trade with England, 45–50
individualism, 14–15, 17, 22
Indonesia, 34
information sharing, importance of, 8, 11,
13, 26, 29, 88–92, 90–4, 105, 163–4,
176, 206n115
Ingham, Geofrey, 14
institutional economics, 15–16, 20–4
Israel, Jonathan, 37, 96
Jacob, Margaret, 9, 165–6
Jain merchants, 43–4
Jannesone, Robert [tick manufacturer], 152
Jefries, David [English jeweller], 48, 49, 64
Jew Bill [1753], 137–9, 159, 178, 220n99
Jewish community, London, 158–9
Jewish merchants, 5, 37, 46–7, 126
acculturation in English society, 131–2,
134–5, 216n14
denizen status, 136–7
naturalization, 137–9
see also Ashkenazi diamond traders;
merchants; Sephardic traders
Joan Osy & Son [company], 61, 68t3.1, 71, 77
Jon, Paolo du [diamond merchant], 44
Jones, Eric, 16
Kant, Immanuel, 167
Katz, David, 129, 130, 167
Kessler, Amalia, 4
Keyser family, 103
Kooijmans, Luuc, 8, 84
La Bourdonnais, Bertrand-François Mahé de
[French naval captain], 72–3, 148
Labourdette, Jean-François, 146–7, 222n151
Laurens, Henry [American merchant], 159
Lenzen, Godehard, 59
letters of recommendation, 82, 89–90, 167
Leur, J. C. van, 34
Levy, Jacob Elias [diamond merchant], 70,
110, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120
Levy, Ruben, 109, 111–12, 119, 121–2
Levy & Ruben Salomans [company], 102,
113, 113t4.2
Levy family, 99–104, 101f4.1, 123
liberalism, 15
Linnaeus, Carl [botanist], 170
Lisbon
community of English merchants, 142–8,
222n132
diamond trade, 6, 43, 44
earthquake 1755, 131, 148, 150, 154,
203n43
French traders’ community, 146–7
Lobo, Bernado Fonseca, 50, 195–6n65
London, diamond trade, 6, 7, 61
Lyons, Israel [ Jewish scientist], 168–9,
229n154
Manning, Patrick, 125–6
Mannock, Francis, 68t3.1, 71, 85, 86, 123,
152, 163
Mannock & Ryan [English company], 152
Marcour, Joseph de [diamond merchant],
68t3.1, 69, 71, 74, 77
market exchanges, 24, 37
Markovits, Claude, 25, 189n58
Marranos
see New Christians
Marshall, Alfred, Principles of Economics, 14
Marshall, Gordon, 23, 188n49, 188n50
Mauro, Frédéric, 165
Mediterranean sea, 35–6
Meel, Erika, 60
Mendes da Costa, Emanuel
see Costa, Emanuel Mendes da
Mendes da Costa family
see Costa, Mendes da, family
merchants
business contacts, 5–6
commercial friendships, 84–8, 115–19,
191n82
commission sales, 112
competition with others, 119–22
Copyright
Index 267
confdentiality, 120–2
denizen status, 136–7
disputes between merchants, 74–5,
105–6, 108–9, 118–19, 144–5
embeddedness in state and society, 123–48
English merchants in Lisbon, 142–8,
222n132
fnancial transactions, 70–1, 77, 78
kinship ties, 69, 77, 95–6, 99–104,
117–18, 156
loyalty, 119–22
mercantile relationships, 8, 20, 21, 24,
67–72, 78–9, 80–3, 167
mercantile society, characteristics, 32, 67
personal meetings with other merchants,
116, 117–18
reputations, 3–4, 8, 11, 26, 28–33,
38–9, 67, 83, 88–91, 92, 105–6, 107,
118–19, 176–7
self-interest, 4, 8, 10, 14–15, 16, 17–20,
21, 76–7, 81–2, 83–4, 112, 121, 125,
176, 216n11
and social environment, 9–10, 12,
124–6, 170–1
travel, 116–17
see also trade correspondence, importance
of; trust, in trade relationships
Merlen Bernadus Edmundus van [mer-
chant], 61, 68t3.1, 69–70, 74, 77, 107,
201n8
Methuen Treaty, 143
Michman, Jozef, 96, 208n2
Minas Gerais [Brazil], 11, 50–1, 54, 153, 177
mining, regulations, 51–2, 54, 56–7
Mokyr, Joel, 19, 187n30
monopolies, 51, 53–7, 171
Moriencourt, Comtesse de [courtesan], 133,
218n67
Moriencourt, Joseph Salvador, 133
Möser, Justus, 125, 216n8
Moses, Lopes Suasso, Abraham van, 119
Moses, Samuel [diamond merchant], 113
Moses family, 114
Muilman, Henry and Peter [bankers],
113t4.2, 114
Muslim merchants, 43
Neal, Larry, 92, 206n126
Neck, Joshua van [merchant], 55
network, defnition, 22, 76–7
network analysis, 13, 24–8, 31–3, 37–9,
175, 181
New Christians, 46
Newcastle, Duke of, 172
Norden, Alexander, 99, 104
Norden, Jacob, 99, 116, 117
Norden family, 99–104, 101f4.1, 123,
209n30
North, Douglass, 21, 188n37
Nunes, Aaron and David Fernandes [dia-
mond merchants], 61, 65, 66, 68t3.1, 69,
85, 86, 129
Nunes family, 123
Oliveira, João Fernandes de [Portuguese
merchant], 51–2, 56
Oswald, Richard [slave trader], 159
Pacifc ocean, history, 36
partnership agreements, 46–7, 48
Pereira, Ephraim Lopes [2nd Baron
d’Aguilar], 129, 131
Pinheiro, Francisco [Lisbon merchant], 50
Pinto, Isaac de, 127, 216n26
Pitt, Tomas [English East India Company],
47–8
Pitt diamond, 48, 49, 57–8
Pol, Lotte van de, 98, 208n13
Polanyi, Karl, 20
Pombal, Marquis of, 52, 53–4, 55–6, 171–2,
197–8n101
Portugal, 35
diamond trade, 43, 44, 46
trade with England, 142–3
see also Lisbon
Pratviel, David [merchant], 155
proft, 17, 21, 78, 82, 104, 121
protestantism, 23
punishment, for cheating, 29
Purissima Concepcion [ship], 151–2
Rabin, Dana, 138
rationality, 15, 16, 17–20
religion
infuence on social attitudes, 22–3, 71,
123–6, 146, 178–9
tolerance, 148
Copyright
268 Global Trade and Commercial Networks
reputations, of merchants, 3–4, 8, 11, 26,
28–33, 38–9, 67, 83, 88–91, 92, 105–6,
107, 118–19, 176–7
see also confdentiality between traders;
trust, in trade relationships
Richardson, Samuel [English writer], 145–6
Rodrigues, Salvador, 155–6
Rothschild, Emma, 16
Royal Society, 167–8, 169
Ruben Levy & Company
family relationships, 99–104
relationship with James Dormer, 104–9,
115–16, 117–19, 119–22
remittances to James Dormer, 106t4.1
Rudd, Margaret Caroline [courtesan],
133–4, 218n67
Sahlins, Marshall [anthropologist], 19, 173,
187n25
sales percentages, 79, 79f3.1
Salomon Norden & Company, 99, 102, 104,
148
Salomons family, 99–104, 101f4.1, 123
Salomons, Michael, 113t4.2, 114
Salvador family, 123, 126–9, 128f5.1,
136–7, 155–6, 217n31
Salvador, Francis, 64–5, 75, 120, 121, 129,
130–1, 136–7, 150, 155, 159, 171–2,
227n94
Salvador, Francis [son-in-law of Joseph
Salvador], 160
Salvador, Joseph
afairs with women, 133–4
attachment to Jewish religion, 130, 131
as community leader, 129–30
links with James Dormer, 80, 89, 93–4,
120, 130, 150–2, 163, 167
and English East India Company, 158,
172–3, 218n57
English patriotism, 137–8
fnancier to British government, 130–1,
172
houses and land ownership, 131–2, 138,
217–18n50
interest in science, 9, 169–70
pamphlets, 137–9
and Royal Society, 167–8, 169
social position, 134-5, 177–8
and South Carolina property purchases,
9, 159–62, 169–70
will, 160, 218n62
Samuel, Edgar, 156
Santos Curado, Patricio dos
see Curado, Patricio dos Santos
Schumpeter, Joseph, History of Economic
Analysis, 17–18
scientifc networks, 170
self-awareness, 18, 30, 164–5, 179
self-interest, 4, 8, 10, 14–15, 17–20, 21,
76–7, 81–2, 83–4, 112, 121, 125, 176,
216n11
Sephardim [ Jewish traders], 10, 37, 113,
123, 129–30, 135, 156, 158–9
and Ashkenazim, 95–9, 109
sexual morality, 132–4
ships, chartering of, 157–8
silver trade, 47, 49, 62
Simmel, Georg, 19, 187n28
slavery, 34, 52
Smith, Adam, 14, 15, 17, 31
smuggling, 5, 49, 56, 113
social embeddedness theories of trade, 2, 3,
10, 13, 20–4, 26–7, 28, 29, 38, 123–48,
166, 176
social relationships, importance to trade,
13, 21
social values
see ethics; reputations, of merchants;
trust, in trade relationships
Sohrabi, Nader, 165
Solow, Robert, 18–19, 187n24
South Asian diaspora, 25
state policy and trade, 136, 147
Suasso, Alvaro Lopes, 159
Suasso, Antonio Lopes, 127
Suasso, Lopes, family, 129
Sulivan, Laurence, 172–3
Superbe [ship], 151
Sutherland, Lucy, 126, 216n15
Swedburg, Richard, 22, 188n46, 188n47
textile trade, 152–4
ticks [mattress coverings], 152–4
trade
cross-cultural aspects, 3, 27, 30, 37, 166
diaspora, 3, 9, 26
Copyright
Index 269
efect on development of globalization,
33–5
importance of social relationships, 13, 21
networks, 3, 4–5, 6, 10, 24, 25–7, 28,
35–6, 67–94
routes, 33, 35, 41, 42–3
social attitudes to trade, 124–6, 135–6
social embeddedness, 2, 3, 10, 13, 20–4,
26–7, 28, 123–48
and society, 4
and state policy, 136, 147
textiles, 152–4
transatlantic trade, 9, 33, 149
see also diamond trade; merchants
trade correspondence, importance of, 5–8,
11, 31, 68–9, 68t3.1, 77–8, 176
fnancial transactions, 91–4
role in information sharing, 88–92
social function, 84–8
use in establishing mutual interests, 80–4
transaction cost economics, 21
Treaty of Peace and Alliance, 142, 221–
2n129
Trivellato, Francesca, 5, 10, 25, 27, 31,
189n64, 190n77
trust, in trade relationships, 5, 28–33, 38–9,
83–4, 86–7, 89–90, 93, 115–19, 175–6,
190n75
Turgot, 20, 91, 187n31
Tyrawly, Lord [English minister at Portu-
guese court], 150
Tyrry [English company], 151, 152, 154
Vanderton, Sebastian and Manuel [diamond
merchants], 52–3
Veblen, Torstein, 19, 187n27
Vega, Balthasar da [diamond merchant], 44
Venice, 42–3
V.O.C.
see Dutch East India Company
Vora, Virji [Hindu merchant], 43–4
Vries, Jan de, 33, 35, 191n85
Wang Gungwu, 165, 228n119
Wealth of Nations [Smith], 14
Weber, Max, 2, 21, 22–3, 24, 87
West Indies, 150–4
Western society, infuence on trade, 14–15,
34, 165
Wigen, Kären, 35, 192n98
William I [Dutch king], 129
Woolf, Maurice, 129, 133, 150, 151
world history, defnition, 36
Ximenes, David and Joseph [diamond mer-
chants], 89–90
Yogev, Gedalia, 47, 49, 100, 209n31
Young Turk Revolution 1908, 165
Zaveri, Shantidas [Hindu merchant], 43–4

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