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2
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ƒ<hehdhggh-hilbq_kdb_ebgbbk\yab ............................................................. 9
ƒHilbq_kdb_dhfivxl_ju.............................................................................. 10
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ƒBklhqgbdk\_lZkiheufdZlh^hf................................................................ 84
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3
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4
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5
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†Ki_dljZevgu_ijb[hjuk\h]gmlufb^bnjZdpbhggufbj_r_ldZfb ...... 239
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†Nmjv_-ki_dljhf_lj.................................................................................... 261
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6
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fhklv\wg_j]_lbq_kdbo_^bgbpZobaf_jy_lky\<lkf2 bebwj]kÂkf2 .
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yjdhklby\eyxlky<lkjÂkf2 bwj]kÂkjÂkf2 .
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_^bgbqghc iehsZ^dhc \ dZdhf-eb[h gZijZ\e_gbb hij_^_ey_lky lhevdh
\b^bfufb jZaf_jZfb iehsZ^db l_ ijhihjpbhgZe_g dhkbgmkm m]eZ i.
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emqZl_eyfb.
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emqZl_ey \ ihemijhkljZgkl\h fh`gh gZclb ijhbgl_]jbjh\Z\ \ujZ`_
gb_   L_e_kguc m]he dω  \ iheyjguo dhhj^bgZlZo khklZ\ey_l
dω = sin i di dϕ ihwlhfmihlhdd J0 jZ\_g
2π 2π π /2
dP0 = BdS ∫ cos i dω = B dS ∫ dϕ ∫ cos i sin i di = π BdS . (4 )
0 0 0
KjZ\gb\Zy  k  ihemqZ_f
R =πB. (5 )
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qZklhlhc ν beb^ebghc\hegu λ = c ν = 2π c ω Baemq_gbxj_Zevgh]hbk
lhqgbdZ khhl\_lkl\m_l gZ[hj ^bkdj_lguo qZklhl beb bgl_j\Ze qZklhl
Ki_dljZevgu_ oZjZdl_jbklbdb baemq_gby — ki_dljZevgu_ h[t_fgZy
iehlghklv fhsghklb baemq_gby uν , k\_lbfhklv rν  b yjdhklv bν , Z lZd`_
ki_dljZevgZy iehlghklv fhsghklb Pν —  k\yaZgu k bgl_]jZevgufb \_
ebqbgZfbu , R <bJkhhlghr_gbyfb * * )
∞ ∞ ∞ ∞
u = ∫ uν dν , R = ∫ rν dν , B = ∫ bν dν , P = ∫ Pν dν . (6 )
0 0 0 0

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\hc\hegu<ki_dljhkdhibbihgylb_bgl_gkb\ghklbmihlj_[eyxlqZklh

) LZd gZdZe_gguc  rZj gZijbf_j  Khegp_  bf__l  h^bgZdh\mx  yj
dhklv \p_glj_ \b^bfh]h ^bkdZ bgZ_]h djZyo 
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q_jdgmlv  aZ\bkbfhklv  jZkkfZljb\Z_fhc  \_ebqbgu  hl qZklhlu  l_fi_jZl m
ju b^jm]bo iZjZf_ljh\ [m^_l bkihevah\Zlvky aZibkv  bν (ν , T ) bli
15
\kfuke_\_ebqbguijhihjpbhgZevghcfhsghklbbaemq_gby\ij_^_eZo
aZ^Zgghc ki_dljZevghc ebgbb Z lZd`_ \_ebqbgu ijhihjpbhgZevghc
ki_dljZevghciehlghklbfhsghklbH[uqghbgl_gkb\ghklv\ujZ`Zxl\
hlghkbl_evguo_^bgbpZo
Yjdhklv b v bh[t_fgZyiehlghklvbaemq_gbybv ^eybahljhighbaem
qZxs_ckj_^uk\yaZgukhhlghr_gb_f
b v  bv cΠ(7 )
]^_k— kdhjhklvjZkijhkljZg_gbybaemq_gby
Djhf_ k\_lbfhklb b yjdhklb l_eZ fh`gh oZjZdl_jbah\Zlv ih]eh
sZl_evghc kihkh[ghklvx dhlhjZy jZ\gZ hlghr_gbx fhsghklb P ih]e ,
ih]ehs_gghc\l_e_diZ^Zxs_cgZl_ehJiZ^:
: Jih]eJiZ^ . (8 )
<kemqZ_q_jgh]hl_eZ:= 1 .
Baemq_gb_ dZd ihi_j_qgZy we_dljhfZ]gblgZy \hegZ fh`_l [ulv
iheghklvxbebqZklbqghiheyjbah\Zgguf_kebh^ghbagZijZ\e_gbcdh
e_[Zgbc beb \jZs_gby  we_dljbq_kdh]h \_dlhjZ y\ey_lky ij_bfms_kl
\_gguf<[hevrbgkl\_bklhqgbdh\k\_lZkhklhysboba[hevrh]hqbkeZ
g_ k\yaZgguo f_`^m kh[hc oZhlbq_kdb hjb_glbjh\Zgguo we_f_glZjguo
baemqZl_e_c Zlhfh\ fhe_dme  baemq_gb_ y\ey_lky g_iheyjbah\Zgguf
_kl_kl\_gguc k\_l  EZa_jgh_ baemq_gb_ [eZ]h^Zjy kh]eZkh\Zgghfm
ijhp_kkmbaemq_gbywe_f_glZjguobaemqZl_e_ch[uqghiheyjbah\Zgh
QZklbqgh iheyjbah\Zggh_ baemq_gb_ fh`gh ij_^klZ\blv dZd kh
klhys__ ba iheghklvx iheyjbah\Zgghc dhfihg_glu k bgl_gkb\ghklvx
I ihe b g_iheyjbah\Zgghc _kl_kl\_gghc  dhfihg_glu k bgl_gkb\ghklvx
I _kl. Kl_i_gviheyjbaZpbbh[uqghhij_^_eyxldZd
J = I ihe/(I ihe + I _kl). (9 )
Ijb hljZ`_gbb ij_ehfe_gbb k\_lZ ijb ijhoh`^_gbb q_j_a Zgb-
ahljhigmxkj_^mbijb^jm]bohilbq_kdbownn_dlZo_kl_kl\_gguck\_l
\ lhc beb bghcf_j_iheyjbam_lkyIheyjbamxsb_mkljhckl\Z iheyjb
aZlhju iha\heyxlihemqZlvba_kl_kl\_ggh]hk\_lZijZdlbq_kdbihegh
klvx iheyjbah\Zggh_ baemq_gb_ k l_f beb bguf \b^hf iheyjbaZpbb
ebg_cghcdjm]h\hcbebweebilbq_kdhc >@<Z`gufk\hckl\hfbaem
q_gbyy\ey_lky_]hdh]_j_glghklvDh]_j_glghklvoZjZdl_jbam_lkh]eZ
kh\Zggh_ijhl_dZgb_\ijhkljZgkl\_b\j_f_gb^\mobeb[hevr_]hqbkeZ
dhe_[Zl_evguo ijhp_kkh\ l _ gZebqb_ f_`^m gbfb klZlbklbq_kdhc
dhjj_eypbb Dh]_j_glghklv k\_lh\uo dhe_[Zgbc hij_^_ey_l bo kihkh[
ghklv ijb keh`_gbb \aZbfgh mkbeb\Zlv beb hkeZ[eylv ^jm] ^jm]Z bg
l_jn_jbjh\Zlv  ?keb ^\Z baemqZl_ey bf_xl h^bgZdh\u_ qZklhlu b ih
klhyggmx\h\j_f_gbjZaghklvnZalh\heguijboh^ysb_hlgbo\lhq
dmgZ[ex^_gbybgl_jn_jbjmxlf_`^mkh[hcLZdb_baemqZl_eby\eyxl
ky\aZbfghdh]_j_glgufb?kebwe_dljhfZ]gblgu_\heguhljZaguoba
emqZl_e_c ijboh^yl \ lhqdm gZ[ex^_gby k nZaZfb jZaebqZxsbfbky
kemqZcgufh[jZahflhbgl_jn_j_gpbyhlkmlkl\m_lbkdeZ^u\Zxlkyih
16
lhdb wg_j]bb —  baemqZl_eb g_dh]_j_glgu Ijbf_jhf g_dh]_j_glguo
baemqZl_e_cfh]mlkem`blvkihglZgghbaemqZxsb_Zlhfu
JZaebqZxl ijhkljZgkl\_ggmx b \j_f_ggmx dh]_j_glghklv Ijh
kljZgkl\_ggZy dh]_j_glghklv hlghkblky d we_dljhfZ]gblguf iheyfba
f_jy_fuf \ h^bg b lhl `_ fhf_gl \j_f_gb \ ^\mo jZaguo ijhkljZgkl
\_gguo lhqdZo FZdkbfZevgh_ jZkklhygb_ f_`^m wlbfb lhqdZfb ijb
dhlhjhf bkoh^ysb_ ba gbo \hegu _s_ fh]ml bgl_jn_jbjh\Zlv hij_^_
ey_l jZaf_j h[eZklb ijhkljZgkl\_gghc dh]_j_glghklb jZ^bmk dhjj_ey
pbb ihey  >ey [hevrbgkl\Z bklhqgbdh\ ijhkljZgkl\_ggZy dh]_j_gl
ghklvhij_^_ey_lky]_hf_ljbq_kdbfbjZaf_jZfbbklhqgbdZbaemq_gby
<j_f_ggZydh]_j_glghklvhij_^_ey_lkyg_fhghojhfZlbqghklvxba
emq_gbybklhqgbdZWlhihgylb_hlghkyldagZq_gbyfihey\h^ghcblhc
`_ lhqd_ ijhkljZgkl\Z gh \ jZagu_ fhf_glu \j_f_gb FZdkbfZevgZy
jZagbpZ \h \j_f_gb dh]^Z _s_ fh]ml gZ[ex^Zlvky bgl_jn_j_gpbhggu_
wnn_dlugZau\Z_lky\j_f_g_fdh]_j_glghklb
τdh] = 1 /ûv, (1 0 )
]^_ûv — ki_dljZevgZyrbjbgZbaemq_gby
>ebgZ dh]_j_glghklb — imlv ijhoh^bfuc k\_lh\uf imqdhf aZ
\j_fydh]_j_glghklb
l dh] F2dh] kûv, (1 1 )
hij_^_ey_lfZdkbfZevgmxjZaghklvoh^Zbgl_jn_jbjmxsboemq_c
Kj_^b kh\j_f_gguo bklhqgbdh\ hilbq_kdh]h baemq_gby gZb-
[hevr_c ijhkljZgkl\_gghc b \j_f_gghc dh]_j_glghklvx h[eZ^Zxl eZ
a_jug_ij_ju\gh]h^_ckl\by

17
=eZ\Z 1

HILBQ?KDB?F:L?JB:EU

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jZaebqgu_\_s_kl\Zl_fbebbgufh[jZahf\aZbfh^_ckl\mxsb_kbaemq_gb
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abcKs<] jZkl\hjbf\kibjl_
DRS- Ll<]-LlI) DjZkguc djbklZee lhdkbq_g g_ jZkdZeu\Z_lky 0,6-38
ihebjm_lkykljm^hfe_]dh^_nhjfbjm_lkypZjZ
iZ_lky
DRS- Ll<]- ;_kp\_lgucdjbklZeelhdkbq_g 0,4-30
LlKl)

22
IhdZaZl_ev JZkl\hjbfhklv L_fi_jZlmjZ Iehl- Dhwnnbpb_gl Djblbq_k-
ij_ehfe_gby \ ohe \h^_ ieZ\e_gby ghklv l_ieh\h]h jZk- dZy \eZ`-
]jZffu ƒK ]kf3 rbj_gby ghklv
gZ]G2H 10–6]jZ^ %
1,45 0 1700 2,2 0,5 —
ijb fdf
1,38 0,27 870 2,6 32 —
ijb fdf
1,42 1,6–3 1360 3,18 23 —
ijb fdf

1,47 0,16 1280 4,8 18,4 —


ijb fdf
1,75 0,064 822 7,76 — —
ijb fdf
1,77 9,8 –5 2030 3,98 \ijh^ —
ijb fdf \ihi_j_qghf
gZijZ\e_gbb
3,4 0 1410 2,33 ijbƒ —
ijb fdf
4,1 0 936 5,33 5,7 —
ijb fdf

1,52 36 801 2,17 39 77


ijb fdf
1,46 35 768 1,99 36 86,4
ijb fdf

1,67 127 723 3,13 40


ijb fdf —
1,74 124 636 4,5 50 —
ijb fdf
1,53 66 728 2, 75 41 84
ijb fdf
1,66 124 636 4, 5 48 —
ijb fdf
2,37 0, 05 415 7, 27 58
ijb fdf —

2,18 0, 32 424 7, 2 51 —
ijb fdf

23
>_lZeb ba khe_c ke_^m_l ojZgblv \ wdkbdZlhj_ ]_jf_lbq_kdb aZdjulhf
khkm^_ kdZdbf-eb[hhkmrbl_e_f\ha^moZIjbba\e_q_gbbbobawdkbdZlhjZ
gm`ghihevah\Zlvkyj_abgh\ufbgZiZevqgbdZfb^Z`__keb^_lZevbf__lf_
lZeebq_kdmx hijZ\m GZ ^_lZeb ba khe_c ke_^m_l klZjZlvky g_ ^urZlv Ijb
i_j_ghk_bobawdkbdZlhjZ\ijb[hjke_^m_lg_jZa]h\Zjb\ZlvbaZdju\Zlvghk
bjhlfZl_jb_c>eykhe_\uohilbq_kdbo^_lZe_chiZkguhldjulu_hdgZih
f_s_gbyIh^^_ckl\b_fkljmb\ha^moZ^_lZevhoeZ`^Z_lkyAZl_fgZg__ih
iZ^Z_l l_ieuc\ha^moihf_s_gby ijhbkoh^bl dhg^_gkZpby \eZ]bb khe_\Zy
ih\_joghklvihjlblky<ijb[hj_kkhe_\ufb^_lZeyfb\k_]^Z^he`ghgZoh
^blvkydZdh_-eb[h\_s_kl\h^eyhkmrdb\ha^moZ<kemqZ_aZ]jyag_gbykhe_
\u_ ih\_joghklb fh`gh ijhfu\Zlv lhevdh q_luj_ooehjbkluf m]e_jh^hf
IjhlbjZlvkhe_\u_ih\_joghklbg_evay
F_lZeebq_kdb_ih\_joghklbijbf_gy_fu_\dZq_kl\_a_jdZelZd`_lj_
[mxl hklhjh`gh]h h[jZs_gby :exfbgb_\u_ a_jdZeZ gZb[he__ klhcdb GZ
Zexfbgb_\hc ih\_joghklb kh \j_f_g_f h[jZam_lky ijhqgZy hdbkgZy ie_gdZ
lhesbghc hdheh  gf dhlhjZy aZsbsZ_l a_jdZeh hl ih\j_`^_gbc b g_
mom^rZ_l_]hk\hckl\:exfbgb_\h_a_jdZehfh`ghfulv^bklbeebjh\Zgghc
\h^hc k fy]dbf ^_lkdbf  fuehf k ihfhsvx fy]dhc dbklhqdb K_j_[jygu_
a_jdZeZagZqbl_evghf_g__klhcdb>eygbohiZkguiZjudbkehlb^jm]boZd
lb\guo\_s_kl\kh^_j`Zsboky\eZ[hjZlhjghf\ha^mo_
?keb gZ hilbq_kdmx ih\_joghklv iZ^Z_l MN baemq_gb_ hiZkgu iZju
fZkeZ ^uf hl dmj_gby b ^jm]b_ hj]Zgbq_kdb_ ijbf_kb ijbkmlkl\mxsb_
h[uqgh\\ha^mo_Ih^^_ckl\b_fmevljZnbhe_lZhj]Zgbq_kdb_\_s_kl\Zih
ebf_jbamxlky \ \b^_ lhgdbo ie_ghd gZ ih\_joghklyo hilbq_kdbo ^_lZe_c
IjhimkdZgb_ ^_lZe_c b hljZ`_gb_ a_jdZe \ke_^kl\b_ wlh]h fh]ml kbevgh
mom^rZlvky

†HILBQ?KDB?K<HCKL<:F:L?JB:EH<
Hilbq_kdb_ k\hckl\Z \_s_kl\ oZjZdl_jbamxlky hljZ`_gb_f ij_ehfe_
gb_f b ih]ehs_gb_f baemq_gby Wlb y\e_gby fh]ml [ulv fZdjhkdhibq_kdb
hibkZgu hilbq_kdbfb oZjZdl_jbklbdZfb \_s_kl\Z — ihdZaZl_eyfb ij_ehf
e_gby b ih]ehs_gby < h[s_f kemqZ_ h[Z wlb iZjZf_ljZ aZ\bkyl hl qZklhlu
baemq_gby Hl g_ebg_cghklb hilbq_kdbo kj_^ fu hl\e_dZ_fky kqblZy ihdZ-
aZl_ebij_ehfe_gbybih]ehs_gbyg_aZ\bkysbfbhlfhsghklbbaemq_gby

ƒHljZ`_gb_baemq_gbyhl]jZgbpujZa^_eZh^ghjh^guokj_^
Ba mjZ\g_gbc FZdk\_eeZ ke_^m_l qlh gZijy`_gghklv we_dljbq_kdh]h
ihey iehkdhc fhghojhfZlbq_kdhc \hegu k djm]h\hc qZklhlhc &  ΠjZk
ijhkljZgyxs_cky\kj_^_\gZijZ\e_gbbhkbz, baf_gy_lkyihaZdhgm
E ( z )  E (0)eiX t  z / v
, (1.1)
]^_
v c Fa (1.2)
—kdhjhklvjZkijhkljZg_gby\hegu\kj_^_k —kdhjhklvk\_lZ\\Zdmmf_

24

ε' = ε + i , (1.3)
v
0 — ^bwe_dljbq_kdZy ijhgbpZ_fhklv 1 — we_dljbq_kdZy ijh\h^bfhklv kj_
^u<_ebqbgZ0
k\yaZgZkihdZaZl_eyfbij_ehfe_gbynbih]ehs_gbyQke_
^mxsbfh[jZahf
ε ' = n' = n + inκ . (1.4)

:fieblm^guc dhwnnbpb_gl hljZ`_gby hl ih\_joghklb \_s_kl\Z ijb


iZ^_gbb\heguihghjfZebba\ZdmmfZbeb\ha^moZ n\ha^ = 1,0003 § hibku
\Z_lkykhhlghr_gb_f
Ehlj ε ' −1
r= = , (1.5)
EiZ^ ε ' +1
]^_ ?hlj b ?iZ^ — dhfie_dkgu_ Zfieblm^u hljZ`_gghc b iZ^Zxs_c \heg gZ
hljZ`Zxs_cih\_joghklbIZ^_gb_\heguihghjfZebdih\_joghklb\_s_kl
\Z y\ey_lky ijhkl_crbf gh gZb[he__ jZkijhkljZg_gguf kemqZ_f Dhwnnb
pb_glhljZ`_gbyihfhsghklbR jZ\_g
2
Ehlj
2
2 ε ' −1
R = =r = 2
. (1.6)
EiZ^ ε ' +1
<hafh`gujZaebqgu_kemqZbhljZ`_gby\heguhlih\_joghklbkj_^ub
jZkijhkljZg_gby__\kj_^_
   B ^ _ Z e v g u c  ^ b w e _ d l j b d 1 <_ebqbgZ0
ih  y\ey_l
ky^_ckl\bl_evghc\_ebqbghc0
= 0JZkkfhljbfkemqZb0> 0 b0< 0.
Ijb0> ihdZaZl_evij_ehfe_gbyi
— ^_ckl\bl_evgZy\_ebqbgZi
 i
Dhwnnbpb_glhljZ`_gbyih  hdZau\Z_lkyjZ\guf
2
 n −1
R=  . (1.7)
 n +1
<ujZ`_gb_   ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc qZklguc kemqZc nhjfme Nj_g_ey
MjZ\g_gb_  ijb1 kmq_lhf  ijbgbfZ_l\b^
 n 
−iω  t − z 
E(z) = E(0) e  c , (1.8)

k\b^_l_evkl\mxsbc h jZkijhkljZg_gbb  \hegu \  kj_^_  [_a  baf_g_gby Zf


ieblm^u\^hevhkbz. I_j_^ih\_joghklvxkj_^u\j_amevlZl_bgl_jn_j_gpbb
iZ^Zxs_cbhljZ`_gghc\hegh[jZam_lkyklhyqZy\hegZdZdihdZaZghgZjbk
1.1,Z[k fbgbfmfhfbebfZdkbfmfhfiheyG?G gZ]jZgbp_jZa^_eZkhhl\_l
kl\_gghijb0> 1 beb!0!QZklvwg_j]bbihklmiZ_l\kj_^m\\b^_[_-
]ms_c\hegu
Ijb0< ihdZaZl_evij_ehfe_gbyi ± ε = ± in1y\ey_lkyfgbfhc\_
ebqbghcDhwnnbpb_glhljZ`_gbyhlih\_joghklbjZ\_g_^bgbp_ihkdhevdm
ijbfgbfhfagZq_gbb F fh^meb\qbkebl_e_bagZf_gZl_e_\  h^bgZdh
\u

25
2
in1 − 1
R= 2
= 1. (1.9)
in1 + 1
Kh]eZkgh   fgbfhc hdZau\Z-
_lky b kdhjhklv jZkijhkljZg_gby
\hegu v . Nbabq_kdbckfukefgbfuo
agZq_gbc i b v \uykgy_lky ijb jZk
kfhlj_gbb Zfieblm^u ihey \gmljb
kj_^u<khhl\_lkl\bb k (1.1) ijb
0bf__f
ω n1
− z
E ( z ) = E (0) e−iω t e c
, (1.10)
hldm^Z\b^ghqlhihe_\gmljbkj_^u
m[u\Z_l \^hev hkb z [_a baf_g_gby
nZau∗ Ke_^h\Zl_evgh \ujZ`_gb_
  hibku\Z_l g_jZkijhkljZgyx
smxky \hegm JZkij_^_e_gb_ Zfieb
lm^u\hegui_j_^ih\_joghklvxkj_
^ub\kj_^_ihdZaZghgZjbk\<
j_amevlZl_ ihegh]h hljZ`_gby i_j_^
ih\_joghklvx kms_kl\m_l qbklh
klhyqZy \hegZ h^gZdh ihe_ qZklbqgh
ijhgbdZ_lb\gmljvkj_^u
2. Ih]ehsZxsZy kj_

^ Z , 0
= 0 + i , ε ' = n + inκ . Dhwn
ν
nbpb_gl hljZ`_gby hl ih\_joghklb
hdZau\Z_lkyjZ\guf
2
ε ' −1
Jbk  Lbibqgu_ kemqZb hljZ`_gby R= =
( n − 1) + n 2κ 2
2
.
fhghojhfZlbq_kdhc we_dljhfZ]gblghc
\hegu hl ih\_joghklb kj_^u b jZkijh ε +1
'
2
( n + 1)2
+ n κ
2 2

kljZg_gby\kj_^_Z [ b^_Zevguc^b


we_dljbd1 jZkijhkljZg_gb_\hegu (1.11)
[_a ihl_jv k qZklbqguf hljZ`_gb_f Z  Fh`gh ij_^klZ\blv \ujZ`_gb_
0![ !0!\ b^_Zevguc^bwe_d   \ ^jm]hf \b^_ m^h[ghf ijb
ljbd1 hkeZ[e_gb_ihey\kj_^_ijb jZkkfhlj_gbb f_lZeeh\ >ey wlh]h
hlkmlkl\bb ihl_jv b iheghf hljZ`_gbb \ujZabfnbiq_j_a1b. Ba  b
(0    ]  ih]ehsZxsZy kj_^Z k dhf  ihemqZ_f
ie_dkghc 0 jZkijhkljZg_gb_ \hegu k 2σ
= ( n + inκ ) .
2
ihl_jyfb^ b^_Zevgucijh\h^gbd1= 0L (1.12)
’ihegh_hljZ`_gb_[_aihl_jv ν


Ba^\mo\hafh`guoj_r_gbckhhl\_lkl\mxsbojZagufagZdZf\ihdZaZl_e_
wdkihg_gluijbhlkmlkl\bbih^dZqdbwg_j]bbnbabq_kdbckfukebf__lebrv\he
gZhkeZ[eyxsZyky\gZijZ\e_gbbhkbz.
26
JZa^_eyy^_ckl\bl_evgmxbfgbfmxqZklb\  gZoh^bf
1 4σ 2  1 4σ 2 
n2 =  ε 2 + 2 + ε  , n 2κ 2 =  ε 2 + 2 − ε  . (1.13)
2  ν 
 2  ν 

?kebijh\h^bfhklv1\_kvfZ\_ebdZdZdwlhbf__lf_klh\kemqZ_f_lZe
eh\lh0©1Lh]^Z\f_klh  ihemqZ_f

i§Q § σ ν . (1.14)

Kmq_lhfkhhlghr_gby  dhwnnbpb_glhljZ`_gby  jZ\_g


2
R §1 − 2 ν σ ≈ 1 − ≈ 1 − 2 nκ . (1.15)
n
< h[eZklb fZeuo qZklhl b ijb [hevrhc \_ebqbg_1 dhwnnbpb_gl hljZ
`_gby[ebahdd_^bgbp_
<ujZ`_gb_ ^ey we_dljbq_kdh]h ihey \kj_^_ k dhfie_dkghc ^bwe_dljb
q_kdhcijhgbpZ_fhklvxihemqZ_fba 
 n   n  2πκ z
−iω  t − z  − 2π nκ z −iω  t − z  −
E ( z ) = E (0 ) e  c e λ = E (0 ) e  c e λkj . (1.16)

A^_kvbkj = n —^ebgu\hegbaemq_gby\\Zdmmf_b\kj_^_Wlh\ujZ`_


gb_ hibku\Z_l \hegm jZkijhkljZgyxsmxky \^hev hkb z k hkeZ[e_gb_f Zf
ieblm^uihwdkihg_gpbZevghfmaZdhgm jbk] JZkklhygb_/gZdhlhjhf
Zfieblm^Z\hegum[u\Z_l\_jZagZau\Zxllhesbghckdbg-kehy
λ λcj
δ= = . (1.17)
2π nκ 2πκ
Mqblu\Zy  fh`ghaZibkZlv/bgZq_
k
δ= . (1.18)
2π νσ
HkeZ[e_gb_\hegu\ih]ehsZxs_ckj_^_m^h[g__aZibku\Zlv^eyfhs
ghklb ihlhdZwg_j]bbbaemq_gby J z)Zg_^eyZfieblm^u\hegu
J ( ] ) = 3 (0 ) H− 4π nκ λ = 3 (0 ) H− kz , (1.19)
]^_k — dhwnnbpb_glih]ehs_gbybf_xsbcjZaf_jghklvh[jZlghc^ebgu
4π nκ 4πκ
k= = . (1.20)
λ λkj
<_ebqbgZ k ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc jZkklhygb_ gZ ijhly`_gbb dhlhjh]hfhs
ghklvm[u\Z_l\_jZa<ujZ`_gb_  gZau\ZxlaZdhghf;m]_jZ–EZf[_jlZ
=em[bgZijhgbdgh\_gbyihey\f_lZeeqj_a\uqZcghfZeZGZijbf_jdZd
ke_^m_lba  baemq_gb_k^ebghc\heguffijhgbdZ_l\gmljvf_^b 1 =
5,14 ¸ 1017 k–1 \k_]hgZ/ gfKjhklhfqZklhlu]em[bgZijhgbdgh\_gby
ihey/m[u\Z_lijhihjpbhgZevgh –1/2H^gZdh\h[eZklb\ukhdboqZklhlgZ
qbgZ_lm[u\Zlvbijh\h^bfhklvf_lZeeh\ ^h\_ebqbguihjy^dZ1 §15k–1).

27
IhwlhfmlhesbgZkdbg-kehykjhklhfqZklhluf_gy_lkykeh`gufh[jZahfb
gZhilbq_kdboqZklhlZofh`_l[ulvlZdh]h`_ihjy^dZbeb^Z`_[hevr_q_f
\fbdjh\hegh\hch[eZklbki_dljZ
Ih aZdhgm khojZg_gby wg_j]bb kmffZ fhsghkl_c hljZ`_ggh]h b ijh
r_^r_]hihlhdh\ZlZd`_ihlhdZih]ehs_ggh]h\h[jZap_jZ\gZfhsghklb
iZ^Zxs_c\heguIhwlhfm\k_]^Z^he`gh\uihegylvkykhhlghr_gb_

5L:  (1.21)

]^_Lb:— \_ebqbguijhajZqghklb ijhimkdZgby bih]ehs_gbyij_^klZ\


eyxsb_kh[hchlghr_gbyijhoh^ys_cbih]ehsZ_fhcfhsghkl_cdfhsgh
klb iZ^Zxs_c \hegu LZd dZd \k_ f_lZeebq_kdb_ h[jZapu djhf_ hq_gv lhg
dboie_ghdfh`ghkqblZlvg_ijhajZqgufb L  lhkmq_lhf    
ihemqZ_f
ν 2 4π
A=1–R =2 = = δ. (1.22)
σ nκ λ
BlZd ^hey ih]ehs_gghc fhsghklb ijhihjpbhgZevgZ lhesbg_ kdbg-
kehy Q_f f_gvr_ ijh\h^bfhklv f_lZeeZ 1 \ur_ _]h we_dljbq_kdh_ khijh
lb\e_gb_  l_f [hevr_ ih]ehs_gb_ fhsghklb iZ^Zxs_c\heguNbabq_kdZy
ijbjh^Zih]ehs_gby\f_lZee_khklhbl\lhfqlhih^^_ckl\b_fwe_dljbq_
kdh]hihey\hegu\hagbdZ_llhdijh\h^bfhklb\uau\Zxsbc^`hme_\uihl_
jb
   B ^ _ Z e v g u c  i j h \ h ^ g b d 1 ’<wlhfkemqZ_: b/= 0;
ih]ehs_gb_hlkmlkl\m_lbihe_g_ijhgbdZ_l\gmljvDhwnnbpb_glhljZ`_
gby hl ih\_joghklb jZ\_g _^bgbp_ I_j_^ ih\_joghklvx h[jZam_lky qbklh
klhyqZy\hegZdZdihdZaZghgZjbk^.
DZd [m^_l \b^ghba ^Zevg_cr_]hhljZ`_gb_ baemq_gby hlih\_joghklb
h^gh]h b lh]h `_ \_s_kl\Z b jZkijhkljZg_gb_ \ g_f fh]ml khhl\_lkl\h\Zlv
jZaebqgufjZkkfhlj_gguf\ur_kemqZyf\aZ\bkbfhklbhlh[eZklbki_dljZ

2°. HljZ`_gb_ baemq_gby ih]ehs_gb_ b ijhajZqghklv hilbq_kdbo


fZl_jbZeh\\jZaebqguoh[eZklyoki_dljZ
>ey\uykg_gbyaZ\bkbfhklb0hlqZklhlubaemq_gbyijbf_f\h\gbfZgb_
Zlhfgmx kljmdlmjm \_s_kl\Z <gZqZe_ bkihevam_f deZkkbq_kdbc ih^oh^ b
[m^_fkqblZlv\_s_kl\Zkhklhysbfbbak\yaZgguo^jm]k^jm]hfaZjy`_gguo
qZklbpdhe_[exsbokyih^^_ckl\b_f\g_rg_]hwe_dljbq_kdh]hihey
MjZ\g_gb_\ugm`^_gguodhe_[ZgbchkpbeeylhjZkfZkkhclbaZjy^hf_
aZibku\Z_lky\\b^_
mr + f r + ar = eE '. (1.23)
A^_kvr — ebg_cgZydhhj^bgZlZZr — mijm]Zy\ha\jZsZxsZykbeZf r —kbeZ
lj_gbyoZjZdl_jbamxsZyihl_jbwg_j]bb?
—we_dljbq_kdh_ihe_\kj_^_
kmq_lhfiheyjbaZpbbJjZ\gh_?
 ?JŒ?—\g_rg__we_dljbq_kdh_
ihe_\hegu
Dhwnnbpb_glffh`_l[ulvhij_^_e_g_kebbkoh^blvijbmkj_^g_gbbih
\k_fhkpbeeylhjZfbalh]hqlhijbdZ`^hfZdl_ihl_jvwg_j]bbhkpbeeylhj

28
l_jy_lk\h_dhebq_kl\h^\b`_gbyiheghklvxH[hagZqbfq_j_aqZklhlmZd
lh\ ihl_jv h^gh]h hkpbeeylhjZ Lh]^Z ih aZdhgZf deZkkbq_kdhc f_oZgbdb
ihegh_ baf_g_gb_ dhebq_kl\Z ^\b`_gby h^gh]h hkpbeeylhjZ aZ  k jZ\gh_
PU^he`gh[ulvjZ\ghkbe_f r IjbwlhfmjZ\g_gb_  ijbh[j_lZ_l\b^

mr + mγ r + ar = eE ' . (1.24)

KlZpbhgZjgufj_r_gb_fmjZ\g_gby  y\ey_lky


eE '
r= ,
m (ω 02 − ω 2 ) − iω mγ
(1.25)

]^_\_ebqbgZ
ω0 = a m (1.26)
ij_^klZ\ey_l j_ahgZgkgmx qZklhlm dhe_[Zgbc aZjy^h\ k fZkkhc m. DZ`^uc
aZjy^\ghkbl\iheyjbaZpbxfhf_glj _r. ?keb\_^bgbp_h[t_fZbf__lkyN
aZjy^h\iheyjbaZpby_^bgbpu h[t_fZjZ\gZ
e2 E'
J = Nj = Ner =N .
m (ω 02 − ω 2 ) − iωγ
(1.27)

IheyjbaZpby\_s_kl\Z\ujZ`Z_lkyq_j_aiheyjbam_fhklvkj_^u.

J 1j 1Z? (1.28)

BamjZ\g_gby  bkihevamy  gZoh^bf\ujZ`_gb_^ey.WlZ\_ebqb


gZ \ k\hx hq_j_^v k\yaZgZ k ^bwe_dljbq_kdhc ijhgbpZ_fhklvx \_s_kl\Z 0

nhjfmehcEhj_gp-Ehj_gpZ
3 ε ' −1
α= . (1.29)
4π N ε ' + 2

Bkihevah\Z\ \ujZ`_gby   b 1.27)-   ihemqbf \ujZ`_gb_ k\y


au\Zxs__0
kqZklhlhc&JZa^_eyy\g_ffgbfmxb^_ckl\bl_evgmxqZklb
ihemqZ_fmjZ\g_gby^bki_jkbbdhlhju_\h[s_f\b^_aZibku\ZxlkylZd

Ni (ωi − ω 2 )
ei2 2

ε = n 2 (1 − κ 2 ) = 1 + 4π ∑
mi
, (1.30)
( )
2
i ωi2 −ω2 + γ i2ω 2
ei2
Ni γ iω
mi
n 2κ = 2π ∑ . (1.31)
i (ωi2 −ω )
2 2
+ γ i2ω 2
Kmffbjh\Zgb_\  b  ijh\h^blkyih\k_fkhjlZfiaZjy`_gguo
qZklbpdhlhju_fh]mlkh\_jrZlvdhe_[Zgby\jZkkfZljb\Z_fhf\_s_kl\_
IjhZgZebabjm_f ihemq_ggmx aZ\bkbfhklv \_ebqbg i b i hl qZklhlu
Iheh`bfqlh\\_s_kl\_fh]mldhe_[Zlvkyebrv^\ZkhjlZaZjy`_gguoqZk

29
lbp k j_ahgZgkgufb qZklhlZfb &1 b &2. KgZqZeZ [m^_f kqblZlv qlh ihl_jb
wg_j]bbhlkmlkl\mxlIheZ]Zy bamjZ\g_gby  ihemqZ_f
4π N1e12 4π N 2e22
ε = n2 = 1 + + . (1.32)
m1 (ω12 − ω 2 ) m2 (ω 22 − ω 2 )

<ujZ`_gb_  y\ey_lky^bki_jkbhgghcnhjfmehcA_evf_c_jZ


?keb\_ebqbgZifZehhlebqZ_lkyhl_^bgbpulhi2 — 1 ≈ 2(i — Lh
]^Znhjfmem^bki_jkbbfh`ghaZibkZlv\\b^_
2π e 2 Ni
n =1+ ∑ . (1.33)
i mi ωi2 − ω 2
Ijb ω → ∞ \lhjhcblj_lbc
qe_gu \   hljbpZl_evgu b n
klj_fblky d _^bgbp_ kh klhjhgu
agZq_gbyn2Wlhkhhl\_lkl\m_l
e_\hc qZklb djb\hc ^bki_jkbb
jbk Z  K mf_gvr_gb_f qZk
lhlubijb[eb`_gb_f ω di_j\hc
j_ahgZgkghc qZklhl_ agZq_gb_ n2
mf_gvrZ_lky Ijb ω = ω1 \_eb
qbgZ n2 h[jZsZ_lky \ # ∞  Ijb
^Zevg_cr_fmf_gvr_gbbqZklhlu
_keb [u \   g_ [ueh lj_lv_]h
qe_gZ agZq_gb_ n2 klj_fbehkv [u
d\_ebqbg_

4π N1e2
1+ = 1 + ∆n12 , (1.34)
m1ω12
Jbk>bki_jkby\^bwe_dljbdZodjb\u_ bah[jZ`_gghc gZ jbk Z imgd
^bki_jkbb Z ih]ehs_gby [ bhljZ`_gby lbjhf H^gZdh gZebqb_ ke_^mx
(\  \_s_kl\Z k ^\mfy j_ahgZgkgufb qZklh s_c j_ahgZgkghc qZklhlu kgh\Z
lZfb
h[jZsZ_l n 2 \ # ∞ ?keb\_s_kl
\hg_bf__l^jm]boj_ahgZgkguoqZklhlagZq_gb_ n 2 klj_fblkyd\_ebqbg_

4π N1e12 4π N 2e22
n2 = 1 + + = 1 + ∆n12 + ∆n22 , (1.35)
m1ω12 m2ω 22

jZ\ghcagZq_gbxklZlbq_kdhc^bwe_dljbq_kdhcijhgbpZ_fhklb\_s_kl\Z ε ∞ .
JZkkfhlj_gb_h[eZkl_cj_ahgZgkZgZqZklhlZo ω1 b ω 2 \mjZ\g_gbyo^bki_j
kbb  b  kmq_lhfihl_jvijb\h^bldlhfmqlhbkq_aZxljZaju\u\
djb\hc n2 (ω )  ijb ω = ωi  Wlh ihdZaZgh lhgdbfb ebgbyfb gZ jbk Z.
<[ebabj_ahgZgkguoqZklhl\_ebqbgZihdZaZl_eyih]ehs_gby nκ ijbh[j_lZ
_l[hevrh_agZq_gb_ qlhmdZau\Z_lgZkms_kl\h\Zgb_h[eZkl_cih]ehs_gby
jbk 
30
M^Ze_ggu_hlihehkih]ehs_gbymqZkldbdjb\hc^bki_jkbb]^_ihdZaZ
l_ev ij_ehfe_gby mf_gvrZ_lky k jhklhf ^ebgu \hegu gZau\Zxl h[eZklyfb
ghjfZevghc ^bki_jkbb MqZkldb \gmljb ihehk ih]ehs_gby ]^_ djb\Zy ^bk
i_jkbbbf__lh[jZlgucoh^ghkylgZa\Zgb_h[eZkl_cZghfZevghc^bki_jkbb
Wlb gZa\Zgby bf_xl bklhjbq_kdh_ ijhbkoh`^_gb_ ^h kha^Zgby l_hjbb ^bk
i_jkbb[uehba\_klghbawdki_jbf_glZbkqblZehkvghjfZevgufqlhkjhklhf
^ebgu \hegu ihdZaZl_ev ij_ehfe_gby iZ^Z_l <[ebab j_ahgZgkguo qZklhl
\_s_kl\Z g_ijhajZqgu ihwlhfm ZghfZevgmx ^bki_jkbx m^Z_lky gZ[ex^Zlv
wdki_jbf_glZevghlhevdhgZdjuevyoihehkih]ehs_gbyBadjb\uo^bki_j
kbb\b^ghqlh\_ebqbgZ0 = n2kbaf_g_gb_fqZklhluijbh[j_lZ_ldZdiheh
`bl_evgu_ lZd b hljbpZl_evgu_ agZq_gby Ijb \ukhdbo qZklhlZo e_\Zy
qZklvdjb\hc^bki_jkbb ]^_ ^bwe_dljbq_kdZy ijhgbpZ_fhklviheh`bl_evgZ
b f_gvr_ _^bgbpu Zih]ehs_gb_ hlkmlkl\m_l fu bf__f kemqZc khhl\_lkl
\mxsbcjbk,6. Dhwnnbpb_glhljZ`_gbyg_\_ebdbhij_^_ey_lkynhjfm
ehc  
Ijbm\_ebq_gbb ^ebgu\hegu mf_gvr_gbb&) \_ebqbgZ0fh`_lklZlv
hljbpZl_evghc DZd ke_^m_l ba jbk \ \ wlhf kemqZ_ ijhbkoh^bl ihegh_
hljZ`_gb_ baemq_gby hl ih\_joghklb kj_^u ohly hgh g_fgh]h b ijhgbdZ_l
\gmljv<wlhc`_h[eZklbqZklhlgZqbgZ_lkyihehkZj_ahgZgkgh]hih]ehs_
gby jbk [ Ijb wlhfdhwnnbpb_gl hljZ`_gby hibku\Z_lky m`_ nhjfm
ehc   Ijb kbevghf ih]ehs_gbb dhwnnbpb_gl hljZ`_gby klZgh\blky
[ebadbfd_^bgbp_dZdmf_lZeeh\;eZ]h^Zjywlhfmh[eZklbih]ehs_gby^b
we_dljbdh\ gZau\Zxl h[eZklyfb f_lZeebq_kdh]h hljZ`_gby AgZq_gby fb
gbfmfZbfZdkbfmfZ^bwe_dljbq_kdhcijhgbpZ_fhklbihh[_klhjhguhlh[
eZklb j_ahgZgkZ jZkiheZ]Zxlky ijb qZklhlZo ]^_ ihdZaZl_ev ih]ehs_gby i
^hklb]Z_liheh\bgufZdkbfZevgh]hagZq_gby
Ijb^Zevg_cr_fm\_ebq_gbb^ebgu\hegu kfjbkZ kgh\Zbf__lky
h[eZklv ijhajZqghklb ]^_ dhwnnbpb_gl hljZ`_gby hij_^_ey_lky nhjfmehc
 Z\_ebqbgZ0[hevr__^bgbpu<[ebabke_^mxs_cj_ahgZgkghcqZklhlu
^bwe_dljbq_kdZyijhgbpZ_fhklvi_j_oh^blq_j_a0 1. Ijbwlhfdhwnnbpb
_glhljZ`_gby^hklb]Z_lagZq_gby[ebadh]hdgmexAZl_f\_ebqbgZR bkiu
lu\Z_l j_adbc ih^t_f k\yaZgguc k i_j_oh^hf 0 \ h[eZklv hljbpZl_evguo
agZq_gbcb\hajZklZgb_fih]ehs_gby h[eZklvf_lZeebq_kdh]hhljZ`_gby 
H[eZklb \ukhdh]h hljZ`_gby h[uqgh kf_s_gu hlghkbl_evgh j_ahgZgkguo
qZklhl^eykbevguoihehkih]ehs_gby—\klhjhgmdhjhldbo\heg
DZdke_^m_lbanhjfmeu  j_ahgZgkgZyqZklhlZdhe_[ZgbcaZjy^h\
aZ\bkblhlbofZkkubmijm]hckbeuk\yabIhkdhevdmkbeuk\yabm\k_o\_
s_kl\ijbf_jghh^bgZdh\uiheh`_gbyihehkih]ehs_gby\ki_dlj_hij_^_
eyxlky \ hkgh\ghf fZkkhc dhe_[exsboky qZklbp LZd we_dljhggu_ ihehku
ih]ehs_gby jZkiheh`_gu \ dhjhldh\hegh\hc mevljZnbhe_lh\hc  h[eZklb
ki_dljZ bhggh_ `_ ih]ehs_gb_ ihy\ey_lky \ BD ki_dlj_ RbjbgZ ihehku
bhggh]hih]ehs_gby\_ebdZ^Z`_\gZb[he__ijhkluodjbklZeeZoqlhk\yaZ
ghkZg]Zjfhgbqghklvxdhe_[Zgbcj_r_ldbDhjhldh\hegh\ucdjZc__gZoh
^blky\aZ\bkbfhklbhlfZkkubhgh\\h[eZklb-fdf<keh`guodjbklZe
eZogZijbf_j\d\Zjp_ SiH2 gZ[ex^Zxlkyh[_jlhgubkhklZ\gu_ dhf[bgZ
pbhggu_ qZklhlu\j_amevlZl_q_]hh[eZklvih]ehs_gbyj_r_ldb_s_[he__

31
jZkrbj_gZ \ dhjhldh\hegh\mx klhjhgm DjbklZeebq_kdZy j_r_ldZ ba gZb[h
e__e_]dbobhgh\LiFh[eZ^Z_lj_ahgZgkghcqZklhlhc\[ebab^ebgu\hegu
fdfGZb[he__ly`_eu_bhgukhklZ\eyxsb_j_r_ldmdjbklZeeh\LlIbLl<]
h[mkeh\eb\Zxlih]ehs_gb_\h[eZklb-fdf<[he__^ebggh\hegh\hc
h[eZklbhilbq_kdh]hki_dljZ^bwe_dljbdbbihemijh\h^gbdbg_bf_xlj_ah
gZgkguoqZklhlihwlhfmhgbijhajZqgu>bwe_dljbq_kdZyijhgbpZ_fhklvbo
m`_ g_ bkiulu\Z_l baf_g_gbc b ^ey
[hevrbgkl\Zl\_j^uo\_s_kl\jZ\gy_lky
klZlbq_kdhc ^bwe_dljbq_kdhc ijhgbpZ_
fhklbbaf_jy_fhcgZihklhygghflhd_
K\yav f_`^m djb\ufb ^bki_jkbb
ih]ehs_gbybhljZ`_gby\g_y\ghf\b^_
aZdexq_gZ \ nhjfmeZo ^bki_jkbb  
b  Wlhiha\hey_ljZkq_lgufiml_f
ihemqZlv djb\u_ ^bki_jkbb b ih]ehs_
gby \_s_kl\ ih kjZ\gbl_evgh e_]dh b
^hklh\_jghbaf_jy_fufki_dljZfbohl
jZ`_gby<dZq_kl\_ijbf_jZgZjbk
ihdZaZgugZc^_ggu_lZdbfh[jZahfdjb
\u_^bki_jkbbbih]ehs_gby\d\Zjp_
Jbk  IhdZaZl_eb ij_ehfe_gby F_lZeeu y\eyxlky kj_^hc khk-
(Z  b ih]ehs_gby [  djbklZeebq_ lhys_c ba g_ih^\b`guo bhgh\ b [he__
kdh]hd\ZjpZ^eyh[udgh\_ggh]hem beb f_g__ k\h[h^gh ^\b`msboky f_`^m
qZihemq_ggu_jZkq_lgufiml_fih gbfbwe_dljhgh\We_dljhgu\f_lZeeZo
baf_j_gghfmki_dljmhljZ`_gby \) g_ bf_xl j_ahgZgkguo qZklhl lZd dZd
hlkmlkl\mxl kbeu dhlhju_ m^_j`b\Zeb
[uwe_dljhguhlghkbl_evghhij_^_e_gguop_gljh\
MjZ\g_gby^bki_jkbb^eyf_lZeeh\fh]ml[ulvihemq_gubamjZ\g_gbc
 b  _kebiheh`blv\gbo&i= 0:
4π N ee 2
ε = n2 (
1−κ 2 ) =1− m ω2 + γ 2 ,
( )
(1.36)

2π N ee2γ
n 2κ = . (1.37)
mω (ω 2 + γ 2 )
A^_kv Ne — dhgp_gljZpby k\h[h^guo we_dljhgh\ \ f_lZee_ LZdbf h[jZahf
ihhilbq_kdbfk\hckl\Zff_lZeeu\h[eZklb’!&! jbkZ khhl\_lkl
\mxl^bwe_dljbdZf\h[eZklbhl& ’^hi_j\hcj_ahgZgkghcqZklhlu kf
jbk H[eZklvih]ehs_gbyb\ukhdh]hhljZ`_gby h[eZklvIII) ijhklb
jZ_lkyhl& ^hqZklhlu& §AZl_fjZkiheh`_gZh[eZklvkiZ^Zih
]ehs_gby h[eZklv II), ]^_h^gZdh \_ebqbgZ 0 _s_ hljbpZl_evgZ A^_kv
hljZ`_gb_ lZd`_ \_ebdh Ijb ^Zevg_cr_f m\_ebq_gbb qZklhlu ^bwe_d
ljbq_kdZy ijhgbpZ_fhklv klZgh\blky iheh`bl_evghc h[eZklv I  b f_
lZee ijbh[j_lZ_l k\hckl\Z ^bwe_dljbdZ <_ebqbgZ 0 \ h[eZklb ijhajZq
ghklb f_lZeeZ f_gvr_ _^bgbpu ihwlhfm ijb iZ^_gbb k\_lZ gZ f_lZee
ba\ha^moZbeb\ZdmmfZgZ[ex^Z_lkyy\e_gb_ihegh]hhljZ`_gby

32
DZd\b^ghba  \_ebqbgZ0
iheh`bl_evgZ ^ey qZklhl ij_\u-
rZxsboqZklhlm
4π N ee2
ωc2 = − γ 2 . (1 .3 8 )
m
<_ebqbgm&k, qZklh\klj_qZxsmxky
ijb jZkkfhlj_gbb ieZafu gZau\Z
xl ieZaf_gghc qZklhlhc WlZ qZk
lhlZ y\ey_lky qZklhlhc hlk_qdb
dhjhldh\hegh\h_ baemq_gb_ ijhoh
^bl \ ieZafm ^ebggh\hegh\h_ —
hljZ`Z_lky <_ebqbgZ  h[uqgh
fgh]h f_gvr_ q_f &k, ihwlhfm
\f_klh  qZklhaZibku\Zxl
4π N ee 2
ωc2 = . (1.39)
m
M^h[gh jZkkfZljb\Zlv lZd`_ ieZa
f_ggmx^ebgm\heguc:
λc = 2π c / ωc = 3,34 ⋅ 106 N e−1 2 kf
Jbk  >bki_jkby \ f_lZeeZo Z  djb
A^_kv dhgp_gljZpby we_dljhgh\ N e \Zy ^bki_jkbb h[mkeh\e_ggZy we_dljh
baf_jy_lky\kf– 3 . gZfb ijh\h^bfhklb 6  ihehkZ ih]eh
< lZ[e  ijb\_^_gu gZ[ex s_gby khhl\_lkl\mxsZy i_j_oh^Zf
^Z_fu_ b l_hj_lbq_kdb jZkkqblZg we_dljhgh\ k \gmlj_gg_c h[hehqdb \
gu_ ieZaf_ggu_ ^ebgu \hegu ahgm ijh\h^bfhklb \  djb\Zy ^bki_j
 c wdki b  k l_hj ^ey s_ehqguo f_lZe kbb h[mkeh\e_ggZy wlhc ihehkhc ih
]ehs_gby ]  j_amevlbjmxsZy djb\Zy
eh\ gb`_ dhlhjuo wlb f_lZeeu \ ^bki_jkbb
lhgdbo kehyo ijhajZqgu LZd dZd
s_ehqgu_f_lZeeuh^gh\Ze_glgudhgp_gljZpbywe_dljhgh\N e ^eygbo
jZ\gZ iehlghklb Zlhfh\ \ f_lZee_ IeZaf_ggu_ ^ebgu \heg ^jm]bo f_
lZeeh\ jZkiheh`_gu \ [he__ dhjhldh\hegh\hc h[eZklb ki_dljZ LZd
Zexfbgbc m dhlhjh]h ljb \Ze_glguo we_dljhgZ bf__l ieZaf_ggmx ^ebgm
\hegugf

LZ[ebpZ
IeZaf_ggu_^ebgu\heg^eyg_dhlhjuof_lZeeh\

F_lZee Li NZ D Rb Cs
k wdkigf 205 210 315 360 440
kl_hjgf 150 210 290 320 360

Bkihevamy d\Zglh\uc ih^oh^ jZkkfhljbf lbibqgu_ wg_j]_lbq_kdb_


ko_fukhklhygbcwe_dljhgh\\l\_j^uol_eZo jbk I_j_oh^uwe_dljhgh\

33
ba\Ze_glghcahgu\ahgmijh\h^b
fhklb khhl\_lkl\mxl ihehk_ hk
gh\gh]h ih]ehs_gby >ebggh\he
gh\mx ]jZgbpm __  ]j  fh`gh gZc
lbagZyrbjbgmaZij_s_gghcahgu
û?
1,24
 ]j = fdf . (1.40)
∆E ( w< )
<_ebqbgu]j^bwe_dljbdh\e_`Zl\
MN h[eZklb ki_dljZ GZb[he__ ^Z
e_dh \ mevljZnbhe_l_ ijhajZq_g
nlhjbkluceblbcû? w<]j =
= fdfNlhjbklu_kheb^jm]bo
f_lZeeh\ lZd`_ bf_xl kjZ\gbl_ev-
gh rbjhdb_ aZij_s_ggu_ ahgu b
ihwlhfm ijhajZqgu \ mevljZ-
nbhe_l_ ^Zevr_ q_f kheb ^jm]bo
Jbk Ko_fZwg_j]_lbq_kdbokhklhygbc hkgh\Zgbc
we_dljhgh\ \ ^bwe_dljbdZo Z  ihemijh IhehkZhkgh\gh]hih]ehs_gby
\h^gbdZo [  b f_lZeeZo \): 1 — i_j_oh^ ihemijh\h^gbdh\ h[uqgh aZo\Z-
ba\Ze_glghcahgu\ahgmijh\h^bfhklb2 lu\Z_l \b^bfmx b [eb`gxx BD
— i_j_oh^kmjh\g_chklh\Z\ahgmijh\h h[eZklb ki_dljZ LZd rbjbgZ aZ
^bfhklb 3 — i_j_oh^u k mqZklb_f ijb ij_s_gghc ahgu \ ]_jfZgbb kh
f_kguomjh\g_c klZ\ey_lw<Z]jZgbqgZy^ebgZ
\hegu jZ\gZ  fdf M f_lZeeh\
\Ze_glgZy ahgZ b ahgZ ijh\h^bfhklb g_ jZa^_eyxlky hgb h[gZjm`b\Zxl
we_dljhggh_ih]ehs_gb_\iehlv^h ’
We_dljhggu_i_j_oh^uk\yaZggu_k\ha[m`^_gb_f\gmlj_ggbowe_dljh
gh\ ^ey \k_o \_s_kl\ khhl\_lkl\mxl \_ebqbgZf û? ihjy^dZ ^_kyldh\ we_d
ljhg-\hevlbjZkiheh`_gu\^Ze_dhcMNbj_gl]_gh\kdhch[eZklyoki_dljZ
Mg_dhlhjuof_lZeeh\khkeh`gufbwe_dljhggufbh[hehqdZfbmjh\gb\gml
j_ggbowe_dljhgh\fh]mlgZoh^blvky\[ebabahguijh\h^bfhklbIjbih]eh
s_gbbd\ZglZwlbwe_dljhgui_j_oh^yl\ahgmijh\h^bfhklbb\ki_dlj_gZ
[ex^Z_lky ihehkZ ih]ehs_gby jbk [  <b^ djb\hc ^bki_jkbb h[mkeh\
e_gghclhevdhwlbfih]ehs_gb_fbah[jZ`_ggZjbk\>_ckl\b_d\Zglh
\h]h ih]ehs_gby gZdeZ^u\Z_lky gZ deZkkbq_kdmx dZjlbgm ^bki_jkbb jbk
1.4,Z bj_amevlbjmxsZydjb\Zy^bki_jkbbijbh[j_lZ_l\b^ihdZaZggucgZ
jbk ] Dhwnnbpb_gl hljZ`_gby hl f_lZeeZ \ wlhc h[eZklb kbevgh f_gy-
_lky dZd b \ kemqZ_ ^bwe_dljbdh\ \[ebab ihehku ih]ehs_gby GZ dhjhldh
\hegh\hc klhjhg_ ihehku ih]ehs_gby ijb 0   hg [ebahd d gmex ijbf_j
kfgZjbk^eyk_j_[jZ 
We_dljhggh_ ih]ehs_gb_\hafh`ghlZd`_b\^ebggh\hegh\hch[eZklb
ki_dljZ _keb \ j_r_ld_ ^bwe_dljbdZ beb ihemijh\h^gbdZ bf_xlky dZdb_-
eb[h ijbf_kb Mjh\gb ijbf_k_c jZkiheZ]Zxlky \gmljb aZij_s_gghc ahgu
Ijbf_kbfh]ml[ulv^\mo\b^h\^hghjgu_kihkh[gu_hl^Z\Zlvwe_dljhgu\

34
ahgm ijh\h^bfhklb b Zdp_ilhjgu_ kihkh[gu_ ijbgbfZlv we_dljhgu ba \Z
e_glghc ahgu JZagbpm wg_j]bc f_`^m ^hghjguf mjh\g_f b gb`gbf djZ_f
ahguijh\h^bfhklbfh`ghgZclb_kebmq_klvqlh\\_s_kl\_k^bwe_dljbq_
kdhcijhgbpZ_fhklvx0wg_j]by\aZbfh^_ckl\byaZjy^h\mf_gvrZ_lky\0jZa
Ihwlhfm ihl_gpbZe bhgbaZpbb ZlhfZ ijbf_kb \ \_s_kl\_ jZ\guc jZkklhy
gbx û?ijbf hl mjh\gy ijbf_kb ^h djZy ahgu ijh\h^bfhklb f_gvr_ ihl_g
pbZeZbhgbaZpbbU wlh]h`_ZlhfZ\k\h[h^ghfijhkljZgkl\_\02 = n4jZa
U
∆Eijbf = . (1. 41)
n4
Ijbf_kgh_ ih]ehs_gb_fh`_l ijhklbjZlvky ^Ze_dh\BD-h[eZklvki_d
ljZ GZijbf_jijbf_kvkmjvfu\]_jfZgbbbf_xsZy^hghjgucmjh\_gvgZ
jZkklhygbbw<hlahguijh\h^bfhklbijb\h^bldih]ehs_gbx\h[eZklb
§fdfDhwnnbpb_glih]ehs_gbyk \h[eZklbijbf_kgh]hih]ehs_gby
kjZ\gbl_evgh g_\_ebd lZd dZd dhgp_gljZpby Zlhfh\ ijbf_k_c \k_]^Z gZ g_-
kdhevdhihjy^dh\f_gvr_dhgp_gljZpbbwe_dljhgh\bebhkgh\guobhgh\j_
r_ldbIhemijh\h^gbdblbiZdj_fgbyb]_jfZgbydjbklZeebq_kdZyj_r_ldZ
dhlhjuokhklhblbah^bgZdh\uobhgh\g_^he`gubf_lvBDihehkih]ehs_
gbyH^gZdh^Z`_\ij_^_evghqbkluodjbklZeeZogZ[ex^Zxlkyihehku\h[
eZklb-fdf Si b-fdf G_ dhlhju_fh`ghijbibkZlvdhe_[Zgbyf
j_r_ldb Ijbf_kgh_ ih]ehs_gb_ \k_]^Z bf__lky \ ^bwe_dljbdZo b ihemijh
\h^gbdZog_^hklZlhqghcqbklhluGZijbf_jihehkuih]ehs_gby\h[eZklyo
 fdf b  gf gZ[ex^Z_fu_ \ d\Zjp_ nlhjbklhf eblbb b fgh]bo ^jm]bo
^bwe_dljbdZo h[mkeh\e_gu ih]ehs_gb_f fhe_dmeZfb \h^u dhlhjZy qZklh
y\ey_lky\j_^ghcijbf_kvx\djbklZeeZo

Jbk H[sZydjb\Zy^bki_jkbb^bwe_dljbdZI —j_gl]_gh\kdZyh[eZklvb^Zev


gbcmevljZnbhe_lII —[eb`gbcmevljZnbhe_l\b^bfZyb[eb`gyyBDh[eZklb
III —^ZevgyyBDh[eZklvIV — K<QbjZ^bh^bZiZahg

<h[s_fkemqZ_djb\Zy^bki_jkbbfh`_l[ulvij_^klZ\e_gZko_fZlbq_
kdb\\b^_bah[jZ`_gghfgZjbk

ƒIjbf_g_gb_hilbq_kdbofZl_jbZeh\

Hilbq_kdb_fZl_jbZeuijbf_gyxlky^eyba]hlh\e_gbyih]ehsZxsbob
baemqZxsbo we_f_glh\ \ ijb_fgbdZo b bklhqgbdZo k\_lZ ijhajZqguo ij_
ehfeyxsbobebhljZ`Zxsbo^_lZe_c hdhgijbafa_jdZe).
35
Z  Ih]ehsZxsb_ b baemqZxsb_ we_f_glu JZkkfhljbf ih]ehsZx
smxieZklbgdmlhesbghclkdhwnnbpb_glhfhljZ`_gbyih\_joghklbR jbk
1.7,Z  ;m^_f kqblZlv qlh ihlhd baemq_gby IiZ^ aZdexq_g \ g_[hevrhf ki_d
ljZevghfbgl_j\Ze_bfh`ghij_g_[j_qvaZ\bkbfhklvxihdZaZl_eyih]ehs_
gbyhlqZklhluIj_^iheh`bflZd`_qlhihlhdbaemq_gbykbevghhkeZ[ey_l
ky \ lhes_ ieZklbgdb b hljZ`_gb_f hl aZ^g_c ih\_joghklb fh`gh ij_-
g_[j_qv <_ebqbgm ih]ehs_ggh]h \ ieZklbgd_ ihlhdZ gZc^_f dZd jZaghklv
ihlhdh\\gZqZe_b\dhgp_

Jbk  Ijhoh`^_gb_ baemq_gby q_j_a ieZklbgdm lhesbghc l \ kemqZyo [hevrh]h


(Z bfZeh]h [ ih]ehs_gbyR —dhwnnbpb_glhljZ`_gbyih\_joghklbk — dhwn
nbpb_glih]ehs_gby

Iih]e = IiZ^(1–R) – IiZ^(1–R)e–kl = IiZ^(1–R) (1– e–kl). (1.42)

Hlkx^ZihemqZ_f
: = Iih]e /IiZ^ = (1–R) (1– e–kl). (1.43)

Ba \ujZ`_gby   \b^gh qlh ohjhrbc ijb_fgbd beb kh]eZkgh aZdhgm
Dbjo]hnZ  bklhqgbd baemq_gby ^he`_g bf_lv g_ lhevdh [hevrmx \_ebqbgm
hilbq_kdhclhesbgukl, ghbfZeucdhwnnbpb_glhljZ`_gbyih\_joghklb
H^bgbakihkh[h\mf_gvr_gbyhljZ`_gby—q_jg_gb_ih\_joghklb<h
fgh]bo kemqZyo ^hklZlhqgZ ]jm[Zy h[jZ[hldZ __ r_jhoh\ZlZy ih\_joghklv
hljZ`Z_l agZqbl_evgh f_gvr_ ]eZ^dhc GZdhg_p gZ ih\_joghklv fh`gh gZ
g_klbijhk\_leyxsbcq_l\_jlv\hegh\uckehc^bwe_dljbdZ kf† 

36
<dZq_kl\_ih]ehsZxsbofZl_jbZeh\qZs_\k_]hbkihevamxlf_lZeeub
ihemijh\h^gbdbKi_dljZevgZyh[eZklvih]ehs_gbyf_lZeeh\hq_gvrbjhdZ
<ihemijh\h^gbdZohgZh[mkeh\e_gZrbjbghcaZij_s_gghcahgubgZebqb_f
\g_cijbf_kguomjh\g_c
[ IjhajZqgu_we_f_gluJZkkfhljbflZdmx`_ieZklbgdmgh[m^_f
kqblZlvih]ehs_gb_fZeufIhlhdbaemq_gbyfgh]hdjZlghhljZ`Z_lky\gml
jbieZklbgdb jbk[ dZ`^ucjZaqZklbqgh\uoh^ygZjm`m?kebfh`gh
g_ijbgbfZlv\h\gbfZgb_bgl_jn_j_gpbxemq_cijhr_^rbcihlhdgZoh^yl
keh`_gb_f ihlhdh\ h[jZamxsbo ]_hf_ljbq_kdmx ijh]j_kkbx Lh]^Z ijh
ajZqghklvieZklbgdbLie jZ\gZ

Tie = I ijhr I iZ^ =


(1 − R ) e − kl
2
. (1.44)
1 − e−2 kl R 2
?keb ij_g_[j_qv ih]ehs_gb_f e–kl §   b \hkihevah\Zlvky nhjfmehc
Nj_g_ey  \f_klh  ihemqZ_f

Lie = (1–R) / (1+R) = 2n/(n2+1). (1.45)


GZijbf_j ijhajZqghklv ieZklbgu ba ]_jfZgby ijb    fdf n = 4)
khklZ\ey_l \k_]h Lie   Ihl_jb ihlhdZ baemq_gby jZ\gu_  – Lie gZau
\Zxlnj_g_e_\kdbfbihl_jyfb jbk ihlhfmqlhhgb\hagbdZxlba-aZhl
jZ`_gbcgZih\_joghklyo
IjhajZqgu_ ^_lZeb h[uqgh
ba]hlZ\eb\Zxl ba ^bwe_dljbdh\ b
ihemijh\h^gbdh\ H[eZklb ijh
ajZqghklbbih]ehs_gbyfgh]boba
gbo ijb\_^_gu gZ jbk  Ih^
jh[gu_ k\_^_gby h ijhajZqghklb
hilbq_kdbofZl_jbZeh\fh`ghgZc
lb\kijZ\hqghcebl_jZlmj_∗.
< \Zdmmfghc MN h[eZklb
ki_dljZ k ^ebgZfb \heg f_g__ 
gf \k_ ^bwe_dljbdb b ihemijh\h^
gbdb g_ijhajZqgu < wlhc h[eZklb
ijboh^blky ihevah\Zlvky f_lZeeb Jbk IZ^_gb_ijhajZqghklbieZklbg
q_kdbfb ie_gdZfb dhlhju_ ijb db ba g_ih]ehsZxs_]h \_s_kl\Z k jhk
lhesbgZo – gf ijhajZqgu lhf ihdZaZl_ey ij_ehfe_gby n h[mkeh\
ijb qZklhlZo e_`Zsbo \ur_ ieZa e_ggh_nj_g_e_\kdbfbihl_jyfb
f_gghcqZklhluf_lZeeZ jbk 
Lhgdb_ f_lZeebq_kdb_ ie_gdb
ojmidb g_m^h[gu \ jZ[hl_ g_ \u^_j`b\Zxl [hevrh]h i_j_iZ^Z ^Z\e_gby
kd\havgboijhbkoh^blgZl_dZgb_]ZaZH^gZdh\wlhch[eZklbki_dljZ^jm]bo
ijhajZqguofZl_jbZeh\g_l


>Zggu_ h nbabdh-obfbq_kdbo b hilbq_kdbo k\hckl\Zo hilbq_kdbo fZl_-
jbZeh\ijb\_^_gu\kijZ\hqgbdZo>@ZlZd`_\dgb]Zo>@
37
JbkIjhajZqghklvg_dhlhjuohilbq_kdbofZl_jbZeh\Ihhkbhj^bgZlhleh`_gZ
\_ebqbgZijhajZqghklbLhesbgZh[jZaph\mdZaZgZpbnjZfbjy^hfkdjb\ufb

>eyi_j_^Zqbk\_lh\hcwg_j]bbgZ[hevrb_jZkklhygbybkihevamxllhg
db_ \hehdgZ baqj_a\uqZcghqbkluohilbq_kdbo fZl_jbZeh\>@Baemq_gb_
ijhoh^bl ih \hehdgm fgh]hdbehf_ljh\uc imlv ihwlhfm gZjy^m k ih]ehs_
gb_f gm`gh mqblu\Zlv b jwe__\kdh_ jZkk_ygb_ \_ebqbgZ dhlhjh]h h[jZlgh
ijhihjpbhgZevgZ 4 IjZdlbdZ ihdZau\Z_l qlh ^ey hilbq_kdbo ebgbc k\yab
gZb[he__ ijb_fe_f ieZ\e_guc d\Zjp d\Zjp_\h_ kl_deh  hilbfZevghc y\ey
_lky h[eZklv ki_dljZ – fdf jbk   Ihl_jb \ hilbq_kdbo \hehdgZo
ba hq_gv qbklh]h d\Zjp_\h]h kl_deZ khklZ\eyxl  beb ^Z`_  ^;df∗ ijb
^ebg_ \hegu  fdf l_gZimlb\df\gbol_jy_lkykhhl\_lkl\_ggh
bebwg_j]bbkb]gZeZ
>bki_jkbyihdZaZl_eyij_ehfe_gby baf_g_gb_nk^ebghc\hegu \eby
_lgZjZkrbj_gb_dhjhldbok\_lh\uobfimevkh\ \hegh\uoiZd_lh\ ijbi_


 < ^_pb[_eZo ^; \ujZ`Zxl hkeZ[e_gb_ kb]gZeZ hij_^_ey_fh_ dZd
10 lgP\o/P\uo ]^_ P\o b P\uo — \oh^gZy b \uoh^gZy fhsghklb HkeZ[e_gb_ \  ^;
khhl\_lkl\m_lijhoh`^_gbxgZ\uoh^ebgbb\oh^ghcfhsghklb
38
j_^Zq_ bo ih \hehdgm M^Zqguf h[klhyl_evkl\hf y\ey_lky lh qlh \ h[eZklb
 §–fdf^bki_jkby^eyieZ\e_gh]hd\ZjpZfbgbfZevgZ>@

Jbk  IjhajZqghklv ie_ghd ba Zex JbkLbibqgZyki_dljZevgZydjb\Zy


fbgby lhesbghc  gf b ba bg^by lhe aZlmoZgby baemq_gby \ hilbq_kdhf \h
sbghc gf k Al bk In – ieZaf_ggu_ ehdg_ ba ieZ\e_gh]h d\ZjpZ Imgdlbjhf
^ebgu\hegZexfbgbybbg^by ihdZaZgh aZlmoZgb_ aZ kq_l jwe__\kdh]h
jZkk_ygby b aZ kq_l ih]ehs_gby \ SiO2.
FZdkbfmfu gZ djb\hc aZlmoZgby \ua\Z
gu ih]ehs_gb_f ijbkmlkl\mxsbfb \
d\Zjp_fhe_dmeZfbG2O

GZ ijZdlbd_ ijboh^blky mqb


lu\Zlvbf_xlkyeb\^Zgghch[eZk
lb ki_dljZ ohjhrb_ bklhqgbdb b
ijb_fgbdbk\_lZ<gZklhys__\j_fy
k\_lh\h^u bkihevamxl ]eZ\guf h[
jZahf \ khq_lZgbb k GaAs-eZa_jZfb
b dj_fgb_\ufb  nhlhijb_fgbdZfb
( = 0,8-fdf).
Ijbba]hlh\e_gbbijbafij_^
gZagZq_gguo ^ey jZaeh`_gby baem
q_gby \ ki_dlj \u[bjZxl fZl_jbZ
eukgZb[hevr_c\_ebqbghc^bki_j
kbb dn/G b k \hafh`gh f_gvrbfb
ihl_jyfb Dhk\_ggu_ k\_^_gby h
^bki_jkbb ^Zxl djb\u_ ijhajZqgh
klb jbk   lZd dZd ^bki_jkby
fZdkbfZevgZ gZ djZyo h[eZklb ijh
ajZqghklb Djb\u_ ^bki_jkbb g_dh
lhjuo fZl_jbZeh\ ijb\_^_gu gZ
jbk
>ey ijbaf \ bgnjZdjZkghc h[ Jbk  Djb\u_ ^bki_jkbb g_dhlhjuo
eZklbki_dljZijbf_gyxlkl_deh ^h hilbq_kdbofZl_jbZeh\
39
 fdf  d\Zjp ^h  fdf  LiF ^h  fdf  NZK ^h  fdf  KBr ^h 
fdf  CsI ^h  fdf  < \b^bfhc h[eZklb gZbemqr_c ^bki_jkb_c h[eZ^Z_l
kl_deh<mevljZnbhe_l_^eyijbafbkihevamxld\Zjp hlfdf nexhjbl
hlfdf nlhjbkluceblbc hlfdf Ihk\hbfnbabdh-obfbq_kdbf
k\hckl\ZfgZb[he__m^h[gu\ijbf_g_gbbkl_dehbd\Zjp.
\ A_jdZeZ<dZq_kl\_a_jdZeqZklhbkihevamxl]eZ^db_f_lZeebq_kdb_
ih\_joghklbH^gZdhf_lZeeuh[eZ^Zxldhwnnbpb_glhfhljZ`_gby[ebadbf
d_^bgbp_lhevdh^eybaemq_gbyk^ebgZfb\heg[he__-fdfKmf_gv
r_gb_f^ebgu\hegudhwnnbpb_glhljZ`_gbyiZ^Z_l jbk <\b^bfhc

JbkDhwnnbpb_gluhljZ`_gbyhl]eZ^dboih\_joghkl_cg_dhlhjuof_lZeeh\
\aZ\bkbfhklbhl^ebgu\heguGZdjb\uoZ b[ ihdZaZgh\ebygb_l_ogheh]bbba
]hlh\e_gbyZexfbgb_\h]ha_jdZeZgZ\_ebqbgmdhwnnbpb_glZhljZ`_gby\kemqZ_
 a_jdZehgZiue_gh\\ukhdhf\Zdmmf_ 10−6 Lhj \kemqZ_  —k\_jo\ukhdhf
\Zdmmf_ –9Lhj

b MN-h[eZklyo ki_dljZ ijhy\ey_lky \gmlj_ggbc nhlhwnn_dl b oh^ djb\uo


mkeh`gy_lky HljZ`_gb_ k_j_[jZ gZijbf_j bf__l j_adbc fbgbfmf ijb  =
gf R  \ua\ZggucgZebqb_fihehkuih]ehs_gbyijb gf
K_j_[jygu_ ie_gdb fh]ml ^Z`_ kem`blv kjZ\gbl_evgh madhihehkguf k\_lh
nbevljhf^ey gf
<_ebqbgu dhwnnbpb_glh\ hljZ`_gby f_lZeebq_kdbo a_jdZe aZ\bkyl hl
l_ogheh]bbboba]hlh\e_gby ijbf_jijb\_^_ggZjbkZ).
<\Zdmmfghch[eZklbki_dljZ^ey^ebg\hegf_gvrboieZaf_gghc^eb
gu \hegu k hljZ`_gb_ hl f_lZeeZ klZgh\blky g_[hevrbf gZihfgbf qlh
f_lZeebq_kdb_ ie_gdb \ wlhc h[eZklb ki_dljZ ijhajZqgu  IhdZaZl_ev ij_
ehfe_gbyf_lZeeZijb < k f_gvr__^bgbpuihwlhfmgZqbgZykg_dhlhjuo

40
Jbk  <hajZklZgb_ dhwnnbpb_glZ
hljZ`_gby hl f_lZeebq_kdhc ih\_jogh
klbieZlbgubhdbkeb\r_]hkyZexfbgby
ijb dhkhf iZ^_gbb emq_c \ \Zdmmfghc
h[eZklbki_dljZ gf

JbkHljZ`_gb_hlih\_joghklbg_dhlhjuo^bwe_dljbdh\

m]eh\iZ^_gbybaemq_gbyba\ha^moZbeb\ZdmmfZijhbkoh^blihegh_hljZ`_-
gb_ b dhwnnbpb_gl hljZ`_gby ih\urZ_lky jbk   < dZq_kl\_ a_jdZe
fh`ghbkihevah\Zlv]eZ^db_ih\_joghklb^bwe_dljbdh\\h[eZklyof_lZeeb
q_kdh]hhljZ`_gby jbk ?kebihehkZih]ehs_gbymadZybj_adZyfZd
kbfmfhljZ`_gbyohjhrh\ujZ`_gLZdb_a_jdZeZgZoh^ylijbf_g_gb_\hl
jZ`Zl_evguo k\_lhnbevljZo iha\heyxsbo \u^_eblv baemq_gb_ \ ^h\hevgh
madhch[eZklbBDki_dljZ

†HILBQ?KDB?K<HCKL<:LHGDBOIE?GHD

Hilbq_kdb_k\hckl\Zie_ghdlhesbgZdhlhjuokjZ\gbfZk^ebghc\he
gubaemq_gbykms_kl\_gghhlebqZxlkyhlhilbq_kdbok\hckl\kiehrguofZ
l_jbZeh\ ba dhlhjuo hgb ba]hlh\e_gu =eZ\gZy ijbqbgZ a^_kv — bgl_jn_
j_gpbyemq_cfgh]hdjZlghhljZ`Zxsboky\gmljbie_gdb

41
ƒF_lZeebq_kdb_b^bwe_dljbq_kdb_ie_gdb

F_lZeebq_kdb_ ie_gdb qZklh bkihevamxl ^ey kha^Zgby gZ ih\_jogh


klyohilbq_kdbo^_lZe_cqZklbqghhljZ`Zxsbo ihemijhajZqguo ihdjulbc
<ke_^kl\b_[hevrh]hih]ehs_gbyk\_lZf_lZeeZfblZdb_ie_gdbijboh^blky
^_eZlv hq_gv lhgdbfb Ijb ijhoh`^_gbb baemq_gby q_j_a f_lZeebq_kdmx
ie_gdm lhesbgZ dhlhjhc fgh]h f_gvr_ lhesbgu kdbg-kehy hkeZ[e_gby
we_dljbq_kdh]hihey\g_cijZdlbq_kdbg_lH^gZdhie_gdZfh`_lhdZaZlvky
kbevghhljZ`Zxs_cbfZehijhajZqghcqlhgZi_j\uc\a]ey^dZ`_lkyiZjZ
^hdkhf
Ihykgbfwlhlwnn_dl jbk Ba-aZfZehklblhesbguie_gdbgZijy
`_gghklvihey?i_j_^ie_gdhcihqlbjZ\gZgZijy`_gghklb?ijhr ijhr_^r_c

JbkJZkij_^_e_gb_Zfieblm^we_dljbq_kdh]hbfZ]gblgh]hihe_cijbijhoh`
^_gbb\heguq_j_aijh\h^ysmxie_gdmijbl « /

\hegu H^gZdh agZq_gb_ \_dlhjZ G bkiulu\Z_l \ ie_gd_ kdZqhd \ua\Zgguc


gZebqb_flhdZijh\h^bfhklb<_ebqbgugZijy`_gghklbfZ]gblgh]hiheyGk
h^ghcb^jm]hcklhjhguie_gdbjZaebqZxlkygZ\_ebqbgmwe_dljbq_kdh]hlh
dZ gZ we_f_gl_ __ ^ebgu GiZ^  Ghlj – Gijhr = di/dl. LZd dZd gZijy`_gghklb
ihey?ihh[_klhjhguie_gdbh^bgZdh\ufh`ghgZibkZlv

Eijhr = ?iZ^+ ?hlj= ?iZ^(1+ r) = ?iZ^ t, l._. t = 1+ r, (1.46)

]^_rbt — Zfieblm^gu_dhwnnbpb_glhljZ`_gbybijhajZqghklvie_gdbIh
]ehs_gb_ : \ ie_gd_ gZoh^bf bkihevamy aZdhg khojZg_gby wg_j]bb  
khhlghr_gb_   b mqblu\Zy qlh ijb hljZ`_gbb hl f_lZeeZ ijhbkoh^bl
kdZqhdnZaul_r = – |r|:
A = 1– |t|2 – |r|2 = 2|r|(1– |r|). (1.47)

Ba  g_ljm^ghgZclbqlhfZdkbfmfmih]ehs_gbykhhl\_lkl\m_lmkeh\b_


|r_ bebR = |r|2 IjhajZqghklvih  \wlhfkemqZ_hdZau\Z_lky
42
jZ\ghc t =  ke_^h\Zl_evgh _t|2   Hlkx^Z fZdkbfZevgh_ agZq_gb_ :
jZ\gh
AZ\bkbfhklv dhwnnbpb_glZ hljZ`_gby b ijhajZqghklb f_lZeebq_kdhc
ie_gdbhllhesbgufh`ghjZkkqblZlv>@mqblu\Zyfgh]hdjZlgu_hljZ`_
gby hl ]jZgbp b hkeZ[e_gb_ \hegu \ ie_gd_Ijb ghjfZevghf iZ^_gbb nhj
fmeu ^ey dhfie_dkguo Zfieblm^guo dhwnnbpb_glZ hljZ`_gby r b ijhajZq
ghklbt bf_xl\b^
1 − exp  −2 (1 + i )l / δ 
r = rfZkk 2 exp  −2 (1 + i ) l / δ 
,
1 − rfZkk  
(1.48).
exp  − (1 + i )l / δ 
t = (1 − rfZkk
2 )
2 exp  −2 (1 + i ) l / δ 
.
1 − rfZkk  

A^_kvrfZkk —Zfieblm^gucdhwnnbpb_glhljZ`_gbyfZkkb\gh]hf_lZeeZIh
dZaZl_evwdkihg_glu\mjZ\g_gbyo  jZ\guc i)l/ihemq_gbaihdZaZ
l_ey wdkihg_glu mjZ\g_gby   jZ\gh]h i(&z/  k mq_lhf   b   ijb
mkeh\bb  
GZjbkZijb\_^_gujZk-
kqblZggu_ ih nhjfmeZf   djb-
\u_ aZ\bkbfhkl_c \_ebqbguR = |r|2,
L = |t|2 b :  1 – R – L ijh\h^ys_c
ie_gdbhlhlghr_gby__lhesbguld
lhesbg_ kdbg-kehy / ^ey ^\mo agZ
q_gbc dhwnnbpb_glZ hljZ`_gby hl
fZkkb\gh]h f_lZeeZ RfZkk = |rfZkk|2,
jZ\guob>@GZdjb\uo
:(l//  bf__lky fZdkbfmf : = 0,5),
khhl\_lkl\mxsbc jZ\_gkl\m dhwn
nbpb_glh\hljZ`_gbybijhajZqghk-
lb ie_gdb R = L   K mf_gv-
r_gb_f \_ebqbgu RfZkk wlhl fZd-
kbfmfkf_sZ_lky\h[eZklv[hevrbo
lhesbgie_gdbbk]eZ`b\Z_lkyIjb
[hevrboagZq_gbyoRfZkk fZdkbfZev
gh_ih]ehs_gb_gZoh^blky\h[eZklb
\_kvfZ fZeuo / LZd _keb ie_gdZ
ba]hlh\e_gZbaf_lZeeZ^eydhlhjh
]hRfZkk = fZdkbfZevgh_ih]eh- JbkHljZ`_gb_RijhimkdZgb_Lb
s_gb_ khhl\_lkl\m_l lhesbg_ ie_g ih]ehs_gb_ : ijh\h^ys_c ie_gdb JZk
db l = 0,04/ ?keb lhesbgZ ie_gdb q_lgu_ djb\u_ Z — RfZkk = 0,91; [ —
jZ\gZl = 0,3/dhwnnbpb_glhljZ`_ RfZkc = 0,54; \ —wdki_jbf_glZevgu_djb-
gby ie_gdb hdZau\Z_lky jZ\guf \u_ ^ey k_j_[jyghc ie_gdb \ \b^bfhc
ZijhajZqghklvkhklZ\ey_l\k_ h[eZklbki_dljZ
]hLZdbfh[jZahfie_gdZ\ljb
jZaZ[he__lhgdZyq_flhesbgZkdbg-kehyhdZau\Z_lkyihqlbg_ijhajZqghc

43
JZkkfhlj_ggu_ khhlghr_gby gZb[he__ lhqgh hibku\Zxl k\hckl\Z ie_
ghd \ bgnjZdjZkghc h[eZklb ki_dljZ ]^_ ^ey f_lZeeh\ fh`gh ihevah\Zlvky
fZdk\_eeh\kdbf ijb[eb`_gb_f Kms_kl\_ggZ lZd`_ lhesbgZ ie_ghd HgZ
^he`gZ[ulv^hklZlhqgh[hevrhc l!gf qlh[u_s_g_ijhy\eyeZkv]jZ
gmeyjgZy kljmdlmjZ b fZl_jbZe ie_ghd fh`gh [ueh kqblZlv h^ghjh^guf
H^gZdhj_Zevgu_f_lZeebq_kdb_ie_gdb\_^mlk_[yih^h[gufh[jZahf^Z`_\
\b^bfhch[eZklbki_dljZGZjbk\ijb\_^_guwdki_jbf_glZevgu_djb
\u_ihemq_ggu_^eyk_j_[jyguoie_ghd>@DZd\b^ghfZdkbfmfih]eh
s_gby lZd`_ khhl\_lkl\m_l jZ\_gkl\m dhwnnbpb_glh\ hljZ`_gby b ijhajZq
ghklb
Ij_^klZ\ey_l bgl_j_k ih\_^_gb_ f_lZeebq_kdbo ie_ghd \ kjZ\gbl_evgh
rbjhdhch[eZklbki_dljZHlghr_gb_l/kihfhsvxkhhlghr_gby  fh
`_l[ulvaZibkZgh\\b^_
l 2π
= νσ . (1.49)
δ c
< \b^bfhc b [eb`g_c BD h[eZklyo ki_dljZ ijh\h^bfhklv j_Zevguo
ie_ghdh[uqgh\hajZklZ_lkmf_gvr_gb_fqZklhluIhwlhfm\agZqbl_evghc
h[eZklb ki_dljZ \_ebqbgZ l/ fh`_l hklZlvky ijbf_jgh h^bgZdh\hc LZdb_
ie_gdb gZijbf_j bkihevamxlky \ dZq_kl\_ ijb_fguo we_f_glh\ \ hilbdh-
Zdmklbq_kdboijb_fgbdZoBDbaemq_gby ]e. 5).
>bwe_dljbq_kdb_ ie_gdb bkihevamxl ^ey ijhk\_leyxsbo beb a_j
dZevguoh^ghkehcguobfgh]hkehcguoihdjulbc
Imklvbakj_^u1 gZih\_joghklv^bwe_dljbdZ2, ihdjulmxlhgdbfkeh
_f ^bwe_dljbdZ 3k ihdZaZl_eyfb ij_ehfe_gby n1, n2 b n3 iZ^Z_l baemq_gb_
ki_dljZevghcrbjbguûijbq_f^ebgZdh]_j_glghklbbaemq_gbyldh] = cû
agZqbl_evghij_\urZ_lhilbq_kdmxjZaghklvoh^Zemq_cgZeZ]Zxsboky^jm]
gZ ^jm]Z ijb fgh]hdjZlguo hljZ`_gbyo :fieblm^gu_ dhwnnbpb_glu hljZ
`_gby^ey]jZgbpjZa^_eZhij_^_eyxlkynhjfmeZfbNj_g_ey
n − n3 n −n n − n2
r13 = 1 , r31 = 3 1 = − r13 , r32 = 3 . (1.50)
n1 + n3 n3 + n1 n3 + n2
Mqblu\Zyfgh]hdjZlgu_hljZ`_gbyhl]jZgbpihemqZ_fkmffZjgu_Zf
ieblm^gu_dhwnnbpb_gluhljZ`_gby

Ehlj ∑ t32 r32t13t31e−i 2 β L


r∑ = = r13 + (1.51)
EiZ^ 1 − t32 r32 r13e−i 2 β L
bijhajZqghklv
t3t13t32e−iβ L
t∑ = . (1.52)
1 − t32 r32 r31e−i 2 β L

A^_kv L — lhesbgZ b t3 — Zfieblm^gZy ijhajZqghklv kehy t13 , t31 b t32 —


Zfieblm^gu_ ijhajZqghklb ]jZgbp jZa^_eZ NZah\Zy ihklhyggZy \hegh\h_
qbkeh    (2πν c)n3  / mqblu\Z_l nZah\u_ kdZqdb / gZ ]jZgbpZo jZa^_eZ
kj_^

44
GZjbkihdZaZghdZdf_gy_lkydhwnnbpb_glhljZ`_gbyihfhsgh
klbR = |r|2\aZ\bkbfhklbhlhilbq_kdhclhesbgukehy^eyjZaebqguoihdZ
aZl_e_cij_ehfe_gbyn3.

Jbk  Dhwnnbpb_gl hljZ`_gby


^bwe_dljbq_kdhc ie_gdb gZg_k_g
ghcgZih\_joghklvkl_deZ n = 1,5),
\ aZ\bkbfhklb hl hilbq_kdhc lhe
sbgu ie_gdb ijb jZaebqguo agZ
q_gbyoi3 ^eyk\_lZk^ebghc\hegu
0. <g_rgyykj_^Z—\ha^mo i1 = 1)

ƒ>bwe_dljbq_kdb_ijhk\_leyxsb_ba_jdZevgu_ihdjulby

>ey ihemq_gby ijhk\_leyxsbo b a_jdZevguo keh_\ ij_^klZ\ey_l bgl_


j_kkemqZcdh]^Zhilbq_kdZylhesbgZkehy3 khklZ\ey_lg_q_lgh_qbkehq_l
\_jl_c^ebgu\hegu
 1  0
n 3L =  q −  ; q = 1, 2, 3,… (1.53)
 2 2
Ijbwlhfmkeh\bbbanhjfme    kmq_lhf  ihemqZ_fdhwnnb
pb_glhljZ`_gbybijhajZqghklv\\b^_
2
 n n − n32 
R =  1 2
2
,… (1.54)
n n +
 1 2 3 n
4n1n2 n32
T = …. (1.55)
(n1n2 + n32 ) 2

Dhwnnbpb_glhljZ`_gbyR  ijbgbfZ_lgme_\h_agZq_gb__keb


n3 = n1n2 . (1.56)

K nbabq_kdhc lhqdb aj_gby ijb wlhf ijhbkoh^bl ih]Zr_gb_ \heghljZ`_g


guohli_j_^g_cbaZ^g_cih\_joghkl_ckehyl_gZklmiZ_lijhk\_le_gb_
Ijhk\_le_gb_ ^hklb]Z_lky \ h]jZgbq_gghc h[eZklb \[ebab kj_^g_c ^ebgu
\hegu0, m^h\e_l\hjyxs_cmkeh\bx  LhesbgZijhk\_leyxs_]hkehy\
\b^bfhch[eZklbki_dljZkhklZ\ey_lh[uqgh /4.
45
BamjZ\g_gbc  b  ke_^m_lb^jm]h_\Z`gh_k\hckl\hq_l\_jlv
\hegh\h]h kehy — \hafh`ghklv m\_ebq_gby hljZ`_gby hl ih\_joghklb ih
kjZ\g_gbxkhljZ`_gb_fhllhc`_ih\_joghklb[_akehyIjbmkeh\byo
n32 » n1n2bebn32 « n1n2 (1.57)
\_ebqbgZR klj_fblkyd_^bgbp_LZdhcq_l\_jlv\hegh\uckehchdZau\Z_lky
a_jdZevgufGZjbk\_jogyyqZklv]jZnbdZ ijbR >  khhl\_lkl\m
_la_jdZevghfmhljZ`_gbxgb`gyy R <  bah[jZ`_ggZy\[he__djmighf
fZkrlZ[_—ijhk\_le_gbx
GZ ijZdlbd_ ijboh^blky ^h\hevkl\h\Zlvky g_[hevrbf dhebq_kl\hf ^b
we_dljbdh\^Zxsboijhqgu_ihdjulbyklhcdbodZlfhkn_jguf\ha^_ckl\b
yfijhajZqguo\^Zgghch[eZklbki_dljZbijQZs_\k_]hg_m^Z_lkyih^h[
jZlv^bwe_dljbdm^h\e_l\hjyxsbckhhlghr_gbx  bebl_f[he__  
>eyijhk\_le_gby\\b^bfhch[eZklbki_dljZh[uqghbkihevamxlnlhjbkluc
fZ]gbc MgF2 (n  bebdjbheblNZFÂ :F3 (i  IhdZaZl_ebij_
ehfe_gby^jm]boijbf_gy_fuo^bwe_dljbdh\ijb\_^_gu\>@
>eya_jdZek[hevrbfdhwnnbpb_glhfhljZ`_gbybhq_gvfZeufbihl_
jyfb dhlhju_ g_h[oh^bfu \ eZa_jghc l_ogbd_ bkihevamxl fgh]hkehcgu_
^bwe_dljbq_kdb_ ihdjulby ba q_j_^mxsboky q_l\_jlv\hegh\uo keh_\ k \u
khdbfbgbadbfihdZaZl_eyfbij_ehfe_gby
LZ[ebpZ
Dhwnnbpb_gluhljZ`_gby^bwe_dljbq_kdboa_jdZegZiue_gguogZ
kl_de_>@ ;eb`Zcrbfdkl_demy\ey_lkykehck[hevrbfihdZ
aZl_e_f ij_ehfe_gby a_jdZevguc kehc  Ijb\_^_gu ihdZaZl_eb
ij_ehfe_gby\_s_kl\\jZ[hq_ch[eZklbki_dljZû —rbjbgZih
ehku\ukhdh]hhljZ`_gby

Qbkeh PbF2 –djbhebl ZnS –djbhebl Ge-BaF2 Qbkeh Ge-BaF2 beb SrF2
keh_\ i = 1, 90 i< = 2, 30 beb SrF2 keh_\ i< = 4,0; nG = 1,34
<
nG = 1, 34 gZqbgZykhnlhjb^Z
nG = 1, 34 i< =4,0
iG = 1, 34
1 17,5 30,0 68,5 2 89, 7
3 44 67,6 95,6 4 98, 8
5 66,6 87,3 99,5 6 99, 99
7 81,7 95,7 99,95
9 90,5 98,5
11 95, 1 99,5
13 97, 6 99,8
15 98, 8
17 99, 4
û0 0, 2 0, 25 0,35 0, 35

Km\_ebq_gb_fqbkeZkeh_\dhwnnbpb_glhljZ`_gby^eyl_o^ebg\heg
^ey dhlhjuo lhesbgu keh_\ khklZ\eyxl /4, 3  b l ^ jZkl_l lZ[e
  NhjfZ djb\hc \ h[eZklb hljZ`_gby km`Z_lky b ijbh[j_lZ_l iehkdmx

46
Jbk  Ki_dljZevgu_ aZ\bkbfhklb hljZ`_gby fgh]hkehcguo ^bwe_dljbq_kdbo
a_jdZeZ [ jZkq_lgu_djb\u_^ey-kehcgh]ha_jdZeZbaZnS (i  bdjbheblZ
(n     gZiue_gguo gZ kl_de_ i     \  djb\Zy ijajZqghklb j_Zevgh]h -
kehcgh]h a_jdZeZ ba ZnS b djbheblZ gZ kl_deygghc ih^eh`d_ kehb dhlhjh]h y\ey
xlkyq_l\_jlv\hegh\ufb^ey0 fdf

\_jrbgm Z f_`^m h[eZklyfb \ukhdh]h hljZ`_gby nhjfbjmxlky g_kdhevdh


g_[hevrbo fZdkbfmfh\ b fbgbfmfh\ qbkeh dhlhjuo khhl\_lkl\m_l qbkem
keh_\a_jdZeZ jbkZ <rdZe_^ebg\heg jbk[ h[eZklb\ukhdh]h
hljZ`_gbybf_xljZagmxrbjbgmWlhk\hckl\hfh`ghbkihevah\Zlv^eykha
^Zgby hq_gv madhihehkguo a_jdZe GZ jbk\ bah[jZ`_gZ djb\Zy ^ey-
kehcgh]ha_jdZeZbaZnSbdjbheblZjZkkqblZggh]hgZ fdfgZkl_d
eygghc ih^eh`d_ A_jdZeh bf__l rbjhdh_ ieZlh \ukhdh]h hljZ`_gby \ BD
h[eZklbbmadh_—\\b^bfhcDjb\Zyijb\_^_ggZygZjbk\ihemq_gZ
baf_j_gb_fijhajZqghklba_jdZeZGZg_c\b^_gkiZ^ijhajZqghklb^hgmey\
h[eZklb < 360gf\ua\Zggucih]ehs_gb_f\kl_de_ih^eh`db
RbjbgZ û h[eZklb \ukhdh]h hljZ`_gby fgh]hkehcgh]h a_jdZeZ kh
klZ\e_ggh]h ba q_l\_jlv\hegh\uo keh_\ aZ\bkbl hl jZaghklb ihdZaZl_e_c
ij_ehfe_gby keh_\ q_f hgZ [hevr_ l_f rbj_ h[eZklv \ukhdh]h hljZ`_gby

47
lZ[e >eya_jdZeZbah[jZ`_ggh]hgZjbk\\BDh[eZklbhgZijh
klbjZ_lkyijbf_jghhl^hgfl_khklZ\ey_lhdhehgf
IjblhqghfjZ\_gkl\_hilbq_kdhclhesbgukeh_\q_l\_jlb^ebgu\he
guk\_lZdhwnnbpb_glhljZ`_gbyfgh]hkehcgh]ha_jdZeZijbiZ^_gbbk\_lZ
ih ghjfZeb ba \ha^moZ ih^kqblu\Z_lky ih ijhkluf nhjfmeZf ^ey q_lgh]h
qbkeZkeh_\ N keh_\ 
2
 n  n1  
2N
1 −   
 n0  n2   ;
R2 N =  2N 
(1.58)
1 + n  n1  
 n0  n2  
 
^eyg_q_lgh]hqbkeZkeh_\ N keh_\ 
2
 n1 n1  n1  
2N
1 −   
 n0 n  n2   .
R2 N +1 =  2N 
(1.59)
1 + n1 n1  n1  
 n0 n  n2  
 
A^_kvn —ihdZaZl_evij_ehfe_gbyih^eh`dbi1 bn2 —ihdZaZl_ebij_ehf
e_gby i_j\h]h b\k_og_q_lguo  b\lhjh]h b\k_oq_lguo  keh_\ kqblZy hl
ih^eh`dbn0 —ihdZaZl_evij_ehfe_gby\ha^moZ
LZ[ebpZ
Dhwnnbpb_gluhljZ`_gbykl_deygghcih\_joghklb
kgZg_k_ggufbgZg_cq_l\_jlv\hegh\ufbkehyfb

Qbkeh I_j\uckehcZnS I_j\uckehc—djbhebl


keh_\ n1 = 2,3 n1 = 1,35
0 0,04 0,04
1 0,31 0,009
2 0,392 0,101
3 0,676 0,168
4 0,728 0,487
5 0,874 0,559
6 0,897 0,782
7 0,955 0,82
8 0,963 0,919
9 0,984 0,934
10 0,987 0,971
11 0,994 0,977
12 0,996 0,990
13 0,998 0,992
14 0,9984 0,996
15 0,999 0,997

<lZ[eijb\_^_guj_amevlZlujZkq_lh\ihnhjfmeZf  b  


dhwnnbpb_glh\hljZ`_gbykl_deygghcih\_joghklb n  \aZ\bkbfhklbhl
48
qbkeZ b jZkiheh`_gby gZ g_c q_l\_jlv\hegh\uo keh_\ ZnS b djbheblZ
3NaFÂ :F3<i_j\hfkemqZ_[eb`Zcrbfdih^eh`d_y\ey_lkya_jdZevgh_ih
djulb_ ZnS, n1  \h\lhjhf —ijhk\_leyxs__ djbhebln1 = 1,35).
Fh`ghagZqbl_evghm\_ebqblvrbjbgmihehku\ukhdh]hhljZ`_gbygZ
deZ^u\Zy^jm]gZ^jm]Z]jmiiuq_l\_jlv\hegh\uokeh_\h[jZamxsboa_jdZeZ
khk^\bgmlufbihki_dljmh[eZklyfbhljZ`_gbyLZdgZeh`b\djZkgh_a_j
dZeh gZ kbg__ beb gZh[hjhl  fh`gh ihemqblv a_jdZeh hljZ`Zxs__ \h
\k_c \b^bfhc h[eZklb dZd f_lZeebq_kdh_ gh k dhwnnbpb_glhf hljZ`_gby
ihjy^dZ  b k fZeufb ihl_jyfb Rbjhdhihehkgh_ a_jdZeh fh`gh ihem
qblvlZd`_gZg_k_gb_fk_jbbkeh_\klhesbgZfbg_djZlgufbq_l\_jlbp_g
ljZevghc^ebgu\hegu
Lhgdb_ ie_gdb gZghkyl gZ hilbq_kdb_ ih\_joghklb jZkiue_gb_f \ \Z
dmmf_bebobfbq_kdbfhkZ`^_gb_fIhl_jb\a_jdZeZok\yaZgu\hkgh\ghfk
jZkk_ygb_fbaemq_gby\kehyodhlhjh_aZ\bkblhlfgh]boijbqbg—dZq_kl\Z
ih\_joghklb ih^eh`db qbklhlu jZkiuey_fh]h \_s_kl\Z kl_i_gb juoehklb
keh_\ Ijb k\_jo\ukhdhf \Zdmmf_ ihjy^dZ –9 ff jlkl b lsZl_evghc l_o
gheh]bb fh`gh ihemqblv a_jdZeZ k R §  b ihl_jyfb f_g__  Bk-
ihevah\Zgb_we_dljhggh]himqdZ^eyjZkiue_gby\_s_kl\ZlZd`_kihkh[kl\m
_l memqr_gbx a_jdZe Ih^ ^_ckl\b_f [hf[Zj^bjh\db we_dljhgZfb ijhbkoh
^blehdZevgucjZah]j_\\_s_kl\Zb_]hbkiZj_gb_>_j`Zl_ev\dhlhjhfgZ
oh^blky \_s_kl\h hklZ_lky oheh^guf b ihwlhfm g_ aZ]jyagy_l ihemqZ_fu_
kehbLZdbfkihkh[hffh`ghgZghkblvie_gdbijZdlbq_kdbex[uo\_s_kl\\
lhfqbke_h[eZ^ZxsbogZb[hevr_cklhcdhklvxbijhqghklvx SiO2, TiO2).
Dhgljhev lhesbgu keh_\ ijh\h^yl ih ijhajZqghklbbebhljZ`_gbxhl
kehybaf_jy_fuf\ijhp_kk_gZiue_gbyIjb^hklb`_gbb\_ebqbgudjZlghc
0 hljZ`_gb_ beb ijhajZqghklv kehy ijhoh^bl q_j_a wdklj_fmf kf jbk
 Ihkdhevdmijhp_kkgZiue_gbykehy^eblkyhlg_kdhevdbok_dmg^^hg_
kdhevdbo fbgml ^ey ijbgylby j_r_gby h ij_djZs_gbb gZiue_gby bf__lky
g_agZqbl_evgh_\j_fy
Ijb gZiue_gbb g_jZ\ghlhesbgguo bgl_jn_j_gpbhgguo kbkl_f dhg
ljhev g_h[oh^bf ih g_kdhevdbf ^ebgZf \heg >ey wlhc p_eb bkihevamxl
ki_dljhf_lju k Zdmklhhilbq_kdbfb nbevljZfb ]e   iha\heyxsb_ we_d
ljhggufiml_fi_j_dexqZlvjZ[hqmx^ebgm\heguihaZ^Zgghcijh]jZff_k
ihklhygghc\j_f_gbf_g__fbeebk_dmg^u

†:LFHKN?J:D:DHILBQ?KD:YKJ?>:

Ijb ijh\_^_gbb [hevrbgkl\Z wdki_jbf_glZevguo bkke_^h\Zgbc baem


q_gb_gZimlbhlbklhqgbdZdijb_fgbdmijhoh^blg_dhlhjucimlv\\ha^mo_
IjbwlhfhghhkeZ[ey_lkyaZkq_lih]ehs_gbyjZaebqgufb]ZaZfbbiZjZfbb
jZkk_b\Z_lkygZjZaebqguofhe_dmeyjguoqZklbpZob\Zwjhaheyo<eZ[hjZ
lhjghcijZdlbd_dh]^Z\ha^mrgucimlvemqZkhklZ\ey_lg_[he__g_kdhevdbo
f_ljh\kms_kl\_ggufy\ey_lkylhevdhih]ehs_gb_
GZmjh\g_ih\_joghklbA_feb\Zlfhkn_j_kh^_j`blkydjhf_dbkehjh^Z
  b ZahlZ   fgh]h iZjh\ \h^u b m]e_dbkeh]h ]ZaZ < \_jogbo kehyo

49
bf_xlkylZd`_hdbkvZahlZ1OhahgH3aZdbkvZahlZ12ODjhf_lh]hijb
kmlkl\mxlZlhfZjgucZahlbdbkehjh^f_lZgZffbZdm]Zjguc]Za\h^hjh^b
g_dhlhju_^jm]b_]Zau
Ki_dljih]ehs_gby\ha^moZbf__l[hevrh_dhebq_kl\hihehkdZ`^Zyba
dhlhjuokhklhblbahl^_evguoebgbcNhjfZebgbchij_^_ey_lkyl_fi_jZlm
jhc ]ZaZ _]h iehlghklvx b oZjZdl_jbklbdZfb ih]ehsZxsbo fhe_dme Ijb

JbkIjhgbdgh\_gb_\Zlfhkn_jmkheg_qgh]hbaemq_gbyDjb\ZyoZjZdl_jbam_l
\ukhlugZ^ih\_joghklvxA_febgZdhlhjuokheg_qgh_baemq_gb_hdZau\Z_lkyhk
eZ[e_gguf\_jZaLhqdbbdj_klbdbihdZau\ZxlfbgbfmfubfZdkbfmfudjb\hc
qZklbqghbah[jZ`_gghcibehh[jZaghcebgb_c
50
gZ[ex^_gbb\ki_dljZevgucijb[hjg_^hklZlhqgh\ukhdh]hjZaj_r_gbybeb
\ kemqZ_ kbevgh]h ih]ehs_gby hl^_evgu_ ebgbb keb\Zxlky ^jm] k ^jm]hf b
h[jZamxlihehkubebp_eu_h[eZklbih]ehs_gby
G_dhlhjh_ij_^klZ\e_gb_hih]ehs_gbb\Zlfhkn_j_fh`ghihemqblvba
jbk  oZjZdl_jbamxs_]h ijhgbdgh\_gb_ \ Zlfhkn_jm \_jlbdZevgh iZ
^Zxs_]hkheg_qgh]hbaemq_gbyDjb\u_jZkkqblZgugZhkgh\Zgbbkh\j_f_g
guoij_^klZ\e_gbchkljmdlmj_Zlfhkn_jubba\_klguoiZjZf_ljh\ih]ehs_
gbykhklZ\eyxsbo__]Zah\DZd\b^ghbajbkmgdZdhjhldh\hegh\h_baemq_
gb_k^ebghc\heguf_g__gfih]ehsZ_lkygZb[he__kbevghIh]ehs_gb_
gZklhevdh \_ebdh qlh ijb[hju jZ[hlZxsb_ \ wlhc h[eZklb ^he`gu [ulv
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djmiguc fZkrlZ[ ih hkb Z[kpbkk \b^gh qlh \ h[eZklb \Zdmmfgh]h mevljZ
nbhe_lZbf_xlkymqZkldbkf_gvrbfih]ehs_gb_fLZdb_mqZkldbgZau\Zxl
Zlfhkn_jgufbhdgZfb<h^ghbahdhggZijbf_jihiZ^Z_lebgby\h^hjh^Z
L. k^ebghc\hegugf
H^gZdh\wlhc`_h[eZklbki_dljZih]ehsZxl\h^ygu_iZjuijbkmlkl
\mxsb_\\ha^mo_LZdgZih\_joghklbA_febijb\eZ`ghklbbaemq_gb_
L. fh`_lijhclb\Zlfhkn_j_-ff[_akbevgh]hhkeZ[e_gbyGZwlhchkh
[_gghklbL. hkgh\Zgu]b]jhf_lju\dhlhjuo^eyj_]bkljZpbbL.bkihevam_l
kyijhkl_crZy\h^hjh^gZyeZfiZbnhlhwe_f_glkijhf_`mldhf\ha^moZf_
`^mgbfb
<MNh[eZklbki_dljZhl^hgfih]ehs_gb_h[mkeh\e_gh\hk
gh\ghf hahghf< eZ[hjZlhjguo mkeh\byo wlZ h[eZklvih]ehs_gby g_ bf__l
agZq_gby < BD h[eZklb ki_dljZ ih]ehs_gb_ hij_^_ey_lky \jZsZl_evgh-
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dhlhjuo kheg_qgh_ baemq_gb_ ^hklb]Z_l ih\_joghklb A_feb H^gh ba hdhg
aZgbfZxs__h[eZklvhlgf^hfdf\dexqZ_l\k_[y\b^bfh_baemq_gb_
AZf_lbfihimlghqlhfZdkbfmfqm\kl\bl_evghklbq_eh\_q_kdh]h]eZaZlZd`_
gZoh^blky \ h[eZklb  gf ]^_ h^gh\j_f_ggh h[_ki_qb\Zxlky g_ lhevdh
fZdkbfmfki_dljZevghciehlghklbbaemq_gbyKhegpZghb\ukhdZyijhajZq
ghklva_fghcZlfhkn_ju
Kj_^b^jm]bohdhgijhajZqghklbgZb[hevrbcbgl_j_kij_^klZ\ey_lhd
gh\h[eZklb-fdfH^ghba\hafh`guoijbf_g_gbcwlh]hmqZkldZki_d
ljZk\yaZghkbkihevah\Zgb_feZa_jZgZm]e_dbkehf]Za_k^ebghc\heguba
emq_gbyfdf
KjZ\gbl_evghkbevgh_ih]ehs_gb_\h[eZklbhl^hfdfijb\h
^bl d agZqbl_evghfm hkeZ[e_gbx baemq_gby ^Z`_ \ eZ[hjZlhjguo mkeh\byo
Ihwlhfm ijb[hju jZ[hlZxsb_ \ ^ebggh\hegh\hc bgnjZdjZkghc h[eZklb
ki_dljZgZihegyxldZdbf-eb[hg_ih]ehsZxsbf\^Zgghch[eZklb]ZahfgZ
ijbf_jZahlhfbeb\ZdmmfbjmxlKljmdlmjmZlfhkn_jguoihehkih]ehs_gby
qZklhbkihevamxl^ey]jZ^mbjh\dbBDki_dljhf_ljh\ih^ebgZf\heg

51
* *
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JZkkfhlj_ggufbijbf_jZfbg_bkq_jiu\Z_lkyjZaghh[jZab_nbabq_kdbo
k\hckl\ b \hafh`ghkl_c ijbf_g_gby kh\j_f_gguo hilbq_kdbo fZl_jbZeh\
;hevrh_agZq_gb_^eyjZa\blbyhilbdbbf__lkha^Zgb_gh\uo_s_[he__kh
\_jr_gguo hilbq_kdbo fZl_jbZeh\ khq_lZxsbo \ k_[_ \ukhdmx ijhajZq
ghklv gbqlh`gh fZeuc dhwnnbpb_gl l_jfbq_kdh]h jZkrbj_gby \ukhdmx
l_iehijh\h^ghklvf_oZgbq_kdmxijhqghklv

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 DZdbfb ijbqbgZfb k^_j`b\Zehkv hk\h_gb_ hilbq_kdh]h ^bZiZahgZ
ki_dljZ"
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0!0, ijb0"
GZibrbl_bihykgbl_aZdhg;m]_jZ–EZf[_jlZ
GZjbkmcl_djb\mx^bki_jkbb^bwe_dljbdZk^\mfyj_ahgZgkgufbqZk
lhlZfb
GZjbkmcl_djb\mx^bki_jkbbf_lZeeh\
QlhlZdh_ieZaf_ggZybebdjblbq_kdZyqZklhlZ"
Ijb\_^bl_agZq_gbyieZaf_gghc^ebgu\hegu^eyNa:
Fh`ghebk^_eZlvbaf_lZeeZijhajZqgh_hdghbeba_jdZeh\h[eZklb
k?
 H[tykgbl_ ijhbkoh`^_gb_ ijh\ZeZ \ djb\hc R   ^ey k_j_[jZ \ h[
eZklbki_dljZ\[ebabgf
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l_eZ
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Fh`ghebkihfhsvxfgh]hkehcguoihdjulbcihemqblvR = 1?
 Fh`gh eb k ihfhsvx fgh]hkehcguo ihdjulbc k^_eZlv a_jdZeh k
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 Ijb\_^bl_ ijbf_ju \u[hjZ fZl_jbZeh\ ^ey ^_lZe_c hdgh ijbafZ
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eb"
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ihfhsvxfgh]hkehcguoihdjulbc"
20. Ihykgbl_gZa\Zgb_\ZdmmfgZyh[eZklvki_dljZ
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22. QlhlZdh_Zlfhkn_jgu_hdgZ"

52
52
=eZ\Z2

BKLHQGBDBL?IEH<H=H
BAEMQ?GBY

†HKGH<GU?A:DHGUL?IEH<H=HBAEMQ?GBY

L_ieh\uf l_fi_jZlmjguf baemq_gb_fgZau\Zxlwe_dljhfZ]gblgh_ba


emq_gb_ bkimkdZ_fh_ l_ehf \_s_kl\h dhlhjh]h gZoh^blky \ khklhygbb l_j
fh^bgZfbq_kdh]hjZ\gh\_kbyboZjZdl_jbam_lkyhij_^_e_gghcl_fi_jZlmjhc
L_ieh\h_baemq_gb_ijbkms_\kydhfml_eml_fi_jZlmjZdhlhjh]hhlebqgZhl
gmey
< mkeh\byol_fi_jZlmjgh]h jZ\gh\_kbydh]^ZgZ]j_lu_l_eZh[f_gb\Z
xlky wg_j]b_c iml_f baemq_gby b ih]ehs_gby b m[uev wg_j]bb ijb baemq_
gbb\hkihegy_lkyijbjhklhf__aZkq_lih]ehs_gbyki_dljZevgZyyjdhklvb
bih]ehsZl_evgZykihkh[ghklv:k\yaZguf_`^mkh[hcWlZk\yav\ujZ`Z_lky
aZdhghfDbjo]hnZ]eZkysbfqlhhlghr_gb_b :^eyex[h]hl_eZbf__lih
klhyggmx \_ebqbgm jZ\gmx ki_dljZevghc yjdhklb Z[khexlgh q_jgh]h l_eZ
bν0 . <_ebqbgu bν , bν0 , b : \ h[s_f kemqZ_ aZ\bkyl hl qZklhlu baemq_gby b
l_fi_jZlmjubaemqZl_eyihwlhfmaZdhgDbjo]hnZfh`ghaZibkZlv
b(L : L) = bν0 (L). (2.1)
GZhkgh\ZgbbaZdhgZDbjo]hnZ\kydh_l_ehbaemqZ_lij_bfms_kl\_ggh\
lhc h[eZklb ki_dljZ ]^_ ijhbkoh^bl ih]ehs_gb_ baemq_gb_ l_f agZqbl_ev
g__ q_f [hevr_ ih]ehs_gb_ GZijbf_j jbkmghd gZg_k_gguc q_jghc djZk
dhcgZ[_ehfnZjnhj_\k_]^ZbaemqZ_lbgl_gkb\g__[_euomqZkldh\H^gZdh
ijbdhfgZlghcl_fi_jZlmj_dh]^Zkh[kl\_ggh_baemq_gb_fZeh\j_amevlZl_
kbevgh]h hljZ`_gby b jZkk_ygby iZ^Zxs_]h gZ nZjnhj k\_lZ [_eZy ih\_jo
ghklv\u]ey^blk\_le__jbkmgdZ?keblhl`_dmkhdnZjnhjZkbevghgZ]j_lv
yjq_k\_lblkyq_jgucjbkmghd>jm]hcijbf_jkl_deyggZyljm[dZijbl_fi_
jZlmj_\g_kdhevdhkhl_g]jZ^mkh\yjdhk\_lblkyklhjph\dhlhju_ijbdhf
gZlghcl_fi_jZlmj_dZaZebkvq_jgufbIjbwlhf[hdh\u_ih\_joghklbljm[
dbhklZxlky_s_ijhajZqgufb
Ki_dljZevgh_ jZkij_^_e_gb_ yjdhklb baemq_gby ijb l_jfh^bgZfbq_
kdhfjZ\gh\_kbb\ujZ`Z_lkynhjfmehcIeZgdZHklZgh\bfkygZnbabq_kdhf
kfuke_ nhjfmeu IeZgdZ b __ k\yab k ijhp_kkZfb ih]ehs_gby b baemq_gby
nhlhgh\\kj_^_
ImklvZlhfgZykbkl_fZk ^\mfywg_j]_lbq_kdbfbmjh\gyfbgZoh^blky\
l_jfh^bgZfbq_kdhf jZ\gh\_kbb L_jfh^bgZfbq_kdh_ jZ\gh\_kb_ y\ey_lky
^_lZevguf \k_ ijyfu_ ijhp_kku kdhfi_gkbjh\Zgu h[jZlgufb Kh]eZkgh
Wcgrl_cgm \hafh`gu ljb lbiZ hilbq_kdbo i_j_oh^h\ f_`^m mjh\gyfb
KihglZggh_baemq_gb_\hagbdZ_lijbkZfhijhba\hevghfi_j_oh^_kbkl_fuba
\_jog_]hwg_j]_lbq_kdh]hkhklhygby2 \gb`g__1ijbq_f\_jhylghklvwlh]h

53
ijhp_kkZ\_^bgbpm\j_f_gb qbkehi_j_oh^h\\_^bgbpm\j_f_gb jZ\gZ:21.
<_ebqbgm :21 gZau\Zxl dhwnnbpb_glhf Wcgrl_cgZ ^ey kihglZggh]h baem
q_gby Ih]ehs_gb_ oZjZdl_jbamxl dhwnnbpb_glhf Wcgrl_cgZ B12 <_jhyl
ghklvi_j_oh^Zkih]ehs_gb_f\_^bgbpm\j_f_gbaZ\bkblhl\_ebqbguh[t
_fghc ki_dljZevghc iehlghklb baemq_gby b b hl dhwnnbpb_glZ B12 b jZ\gZ
<12b. Ih^ ^_ckl\b_f \g_rg_]h ihey \hafh`_g ijhlb\hiheh`guc ih]ehs_
gbxi_j_oh^2:— \ugm`^_ggh_baemq_gb_<_jhylghklvi_j_oh^Zk\ugm
`^_ggufbaemq_gb_f\_^bgbpm\j_f_gbjZ\gZ<21b, ]^_<21 —dhwnnbpb_gl
Wcgrl_cgZ^ey\ugm`^_ggh]hbaemq_gby
ImklvaZk_e_gghklbmjh\g_c1 b2 dhebq_kl\hqZklbp\_^bgbp_h[t_fZ
gZoh^ysboky \ wg_j]_lbq_kdbo khklhygbyo 1 b 2) jZ\gu N1 b N2. GZibr_f
mjZ\g_gby[ZeZgkZ\ujZ`Zxsb_kdhjhklbbaf_g_gbyaZk_e_gghkl_cmjh\g_c
2 b1 aZkq_lhilbq_kdboi_j_oh^h\

dN 2 dN1
− = (A21 + B21u) N2; − = B12 u N1 . (2.2)
dt dt

<mkeh\byojZ\gh\_kbywlbkdhjhklb^he`gu[ulvh^bgZdh\u

(A21 + B21u) N2 = B12 u N1. (2.3)

Mql_f khhlghr_gb_ f_`^m aZk_e_gghklyfb N1 b N2 ijb jZ\gh\_kbb \ujZ


`Z_fh_nhjfmehc;hevpfZgZ

N 2 g 2 − hv
= e kT
, (2.4)
N1 g1

]^_ g1 b g2 — klZlbklbq_kdb_  \_kZ mjh\g_c   h — ihklhyggZy IeZgdZ k —


dhgklZglZ;hevpfZgZLh]^Zba  ihemqZ_f
g 2 A21
uν = hv kT
. (2.5)
g1B12e − g 2 B21
GZc^_f khhlghr_gby f_`^m dhwnnbpb_glZfb Wcgrl_cgZ dhlhju_ ih
a\heylgZfba\ujZ`_gby  ijbclbdnhjfme_IeZgdZIjbL:’\_eb
qbgm _h/kL ke_^m_liheh`blvjZ\ghc_^bgbp_IehlghklvjZ\gh\_kgh]hbaem
q_gby b ^he`gZ klj_fblvky d [_kdhg_qghklb lZd dZd mkeh\b_ L : ’  khhl
\_lkl\m_l [_kdhg_qghc \_ebqbg_ fhsghklb ih^\h^bfhc d gZ]j_\Z_fhfm l_
em<wlhfkemqZ_agZf_gZl_ev\  klj_fblkydgmexqlh^Z_l
g1 B12 = g2 B21. (2.6)
Ih^klZ\eyy  \  ihemqZ_f
A21
uv =
( )
. (2.7)
B21 ehv kT − 1

54
<hkihevam_fky^Ze__deZkkbq_kdhcnhjfmehcJwe_y–>`bgkZ
8πv 2
uv = 3 kT , (2.8)
c
hibku\Zxs_cbaemq_gb_q_jgh]hl_eZijbmkeh\bbK « kT. Ijbwlhfmkeh\bb
_h/kL § 1 + h/kL b\ujZ`_gb_  ijbgbfZ_l\b^

u = A21 kL/ B21 K (2.9)

KjZ\gb\Zy  k  gZoh^bf∗


8πhν3
A21 = B21. (2.10)
c3
Bkihevamykhhlghr_gb_  ba\ujZ`_gby  ihemqZ_fnhjfmemIeZgdZ
^eyki_dljZevghch[t_fghciehlghklbbaemq_gby
8πhν3 1
uν = = . (2.11)
c3 ehν kT − 1
H[t_fgmx iehlghklv jZ\gh\_kgh]h baemq_gby \ ij_^_eZo qZklhlgh]h
bgl_j\ZeZG gZoh^bfmfgh`b\ijZ\mxbe_\mxqZklb  gZG. Bkihev
amy  b  ihemqZ_fnhjfmemIeZgdZ^eyyjdhklbq_jgh]hl_eZ \ij_^_
eZoG):
2hν3 1
bν0d ν = ν
d ν, (2.12)
c 2 eh kT − 1
beb\^ebgZo\heg \ij_^_eZo G):
2hc 2 1
bλ0d λ = d λ. (2.13)
λ 5 ehc λkT − 1
Ijb [hevrbo L [hevrb_ ^ebgu \heg b \ukhdb_ l_fi_jZlmju  wdkih
g_glm \ agZf_gZl_e_ nhjfmeu   fh`gh ij_^klZ\blv \ \b^_  _hc/kL §  
hc/kL. Lh]^ZnhjfmeZIeZgdZi_j_oh^bl\nhjfmemJwe_y->`bgkZ

2ckT
bλ0 dλ =
dλ , (2.14)
λ4
dhlhjZy k ohjhrbf ijb[eb`_gb_f hibku\Z_l yjdhklv  q_jgh]h l_eZ ijb j_
Zevguol_fi_jZlmjZo\h[eZklb^ebg\heg•fdf
<kemqZ_fZeuoLij_g_[j_]Zy_^bgbp_c\  fuihemqZ_fnhjfm
em<bgZ
2hc 2
bλ0d λ = 5 e− hc λkT d λ, (2.15)
λ

?kebbkimkdZgb_d\Zglh\ijhbkoh^bl\kj_^_kihdZaZl_e_fij_ehfe_gby
8πhν 3 n 3
nlh A21 = B21.
c3

55
^Zxsmxohjhr__ijb[eb`_gb_\\b^bfhcb[eb`g_cBDh[eZklyoki_dljZ
Ba   b   \b^gh qlh i_j_oh^ nhjfmeu IeZgdZ   \ nhjfmem
<bgZ  khhl\_lkl\m_lg_mq_lmijhp_kkh\\ugm`^_ggh]hbaemq_gbyKe_
^h\Zl_evgh\h[eZklbki_dljZ]^_kijZ\_^eb\ZnhjfmeZ<bgZ\ugm`^_ggh_
baemq_gb_khklZ\ey_lij_g_[j_`bfhfZemx^hexl_ieh\h]hbaemq_gby<h[
eZklb ^ebgguo \heg jhev \ugm`^_ggh]h baemq_gby hdZau\Z_lky agZqbl_ev
ghcq_fgb`_qZklhlZl_ff_gvr_dhwnnbpb_glkihglZggh]hbaemq_gby:21
ih kjZ\g_gbx k dhwnnbpb_glhf \ugm`^_ggh]h baemq_gby <21, ijbq_f dZd
ke_^m_lba  wlhkhhlghr_gb_ijhihjpbhgZevghdm[mqZklhlu
Ij_^klZ\eyxlbgl_j_k^\_aZ\bkbfhklb\ul_dZxsb_dZdbal_jfh^bgZ
fbq_kdbo jZkkfhlj_gbc lZd b ba nhjfmeu IeZgdZ H^gZ ba gbo hij_^_ey_l
\_ebqbgmfZdkbfZevghcki_dljZevghcyjdhklbq_jgh]hl_eZ
c′′ 5
bλ0 = T = 0,414 ⋅ 10−15 T 5 ><lkj˜kf2˜fdf@ (2.16)
m π
<lhjZy aZdhgkf_s_gby<bgZ k\yau\Z_l^ebgm\hegum fZdkbfmfZba
emqZl_evghckihkh[ghklbkl_fi_jZlmjhc

c′ 3000
λm = ≈ >fdf@ (2.17)
T T
AZdhg kf_s_gby <bgZ iha\hey_l ih
l_fi_jZlmj_ baemqZl_ey _keb _]h ba
emq_gb_ [ebadh d baemq_gbx q_jgh]h
l_eZ gZclb iheh`_gb_ fZdkbfmfZ ba
emq_gbyLZdZyhp_gdZ[u\Z_lihe_agZ
\ijZdlbq_kdhcjZ[hl_
Kh]eZkgh nhjfmeZf   b
  k ih\ur_gb_f l_fi_jZlmju yj
dhklvq_jgh]hl_eZ[ukljh\hajZklZ_l
Z fZdkbfmf __ kf_sZ_lky \ klhjhgm
dhjhldbo \heg ?keb mq_klv lZd`_
nhjfmem Jwe_y->`bgkZ   lh hq_
\b^gh qlh \ ex[hc h[eZklb ki_dljZ
[he__ \ukhdbf l_fi_jZlmjZf khhl\_l
kl\m_l [he__ \ukhdZy yjdhklv ba-
emq_gby
Djb\u_ jZkij_^_e_gby ki_dl-
jZevghc yjdhklb q_jgh]h l_eZ ih^eb
gZf\hegijbjZaebqguol_fi_jZlmjZo
ijb\_^_gugZjbkYjdhklv[ukljh
kiZ^Z_l \ klhjhgm dhjhldbo \heg b
agZqbl_evgh f_^e_gg__ — \ klhjhgm
^ebgguo Yjdhklv q_jgh]h l_eZ ij_-
Jbk  Ki_dljZevgZy wg_j]_lbq_kdZy
\urZ_l  bm0 \ h[eZklb f_`^m
yjdhklv Z[khexlgh q_jgh]h l_eZ ijb
jZaebqguol_fi_jZlmjZo
0,25mbmGZijbf_j_kebq_jgh_

56
l_ehbf__ll_fi_jZlmjmL DlhyjdhklvfZdkbfZevgZijb = 1 fdfb
kiZ^Z_l^hbm0 m`_ijb fdf
AgZq_gbywg_j]_lbq_kdhcyjdhklbq_jgh]hl_eZ^eyjZaebqguo^ebg\heg
bl_fi_jZlmj^Zgu\>-@b\>@

§2. 2. BAEMQ?GB?G?Q?JGUOL?E

Ih]ehsZl_evgZy kihkh[ghklv j_Zevguo l_e f_gvr_ _^bgbpu Kh]eZkgh


aZdhgmDbjo]hnZ  hgbbaemqZxlf_gvr_q_jgh]hl_eZijbl_o`_^ebgZo
\hegbl_fi_jZlmjZo∗ Baemq_gb_g_q_jguol_eoZjZdl_jbamxlhlghkbl_ev
ghcyjdhklvx dhwnnbpb_glhfq_jghlubebkl_i_gvxq_jghlu baemq_gby
0(L jZ\ghchlghr_gbxyjdhkl_cjZkkfZljb\Z_fh]hl_eZbbq_jgh]hl_eZ
b0ijb h^ghcblhc`_^ebg_\hegubh^bgZdh\hcl_fi_jZlmj_
0(L) = b (L) / b0 (L). (2.18)
KjZ\gb\Zy   b   fh`gh m[_^blvky qlh hlghkbl_evgZy yjdhklv
j_Zevguo l_e jZ\gZ bo ih]ehsZl_ev
ghckihkh[ghklb
ε ( λ, T ) = A ( λ, T ) . (2.19)

L_eh ^ey dhlhjh]h dhwnnbpb_gl


q_jghlu 0f_gvr__^bgbpubg_aZ\b
kbl hl ^ebgu \hegu gZau\Zxl k_juf
l_ehf < h]jZgbq_gghc ki_dljZevghc
h[eZklb g_dhlhju_ l_eZ fh`gh kqb
lZlv k_jufb LZd baemq_gb_ eZfiu k
m]hevghc gblvx y\ey_lky k_juf \ ^h
\hevgh rbjhdhf ^bZiZahg_ \b^bfh]h
bBDki_dljh\
>ey\k_of_lZeeh\dhwnnbpb_gl0
jZkl_l \ klhjhgm dhjhldbo \heg ih
wlhfm k\_q_gb_ f_lZeeh\ ih kjZ\-
g_gbx k q_jguf l_ehf ijb lhc `_
l_fi_jZlmj_bf__l]hem[hchll_ghd< Jbk  Ki_dljZevgZy wg_j]_lbq_kdZy
dZq_kl\_ ijbf_jZ gZ jbk  ijb\_^_ yjdhklv q_jgh]h l_eZ 1  b \hevnjZfZ
gu djb\u_ baemq_gby q_jgh]h l_eZ b (2); (3) — ih]ehsZl_evgZykihkh[ghklv
\hevnjZfZijbh^bgZdh\hcl_fi_jZlm kl_i_gvq_jghlu \hevnjZfZ
j_
KjZ\gb\Zy   k jZ\_gkl\hf   fh`gh aZibkZlv kl_i_gv q_jghlu
0(L) j_Zevgh]hl_eZ\\b^_
0(,L) = [1 – R(,L)] (1 – _–k(,L)l). (2.20)

AZdhgDbjo]hnZkljh]h\uihegy_lkylhevdh\mkeh\byol_jfh^bgZfbq_kdh]hjZ\
gh\_kby<j_Zevguomkeh\byojZ[hlubklhqgbdh\k\_lZjZ\gh\_kb_kljh]h]h\hjy
g_h[_ki_qb\Z_lkyihwlhfmaZdhgDbjo]hnZ^eygboghkblijb[eb`_ggucoZjZdl_j

57
Q_j_ala^_kvh[hagZq_gZ]_hf_ljbq_kdZylhesbgZl_eZk(L)bR(L) —dh
wnnbpb_gluih]ehs_gbybhljZ`_gbyjZkkfZljb\Z\rb_ky\]eb\h[s_f
kemqZ_aZ\bkysb_hl^ebgu\hegubl_fi_jZlmju
<ujZ`_gb_   iha\hey_l k^_eZlv jy^ \Z`guo \u\h^h\ GZijbf_j
ijbagZqbl_evghfhljZ`_gbbgZ]jZgbp_l_eZyjdhklv_]hg_\_ebdZ^Z`__keb
fZl_jbZe l_eZ h[_ki_qb\Z_l ohjhr__ ih]ehs_gb_ \_ebqbgZ 0 hdZau\Z_lky
fZehc  Wlhl kemqZc hlghkblky \ hkgh\ghf d fZl_jbZeZfih\_joghklv dhlh
juo ohjhrh hljZ`Z_l =hem[hc hll_ghd k\_q_gby f_lZeeh\ h dhlhjhf mih
fbgZehkv \ur_ l_ jhkl kl_i_gb q_jghlu \ dhjhldh\hegh\hc h[eZklb ki_d
ljZk\yaZgdZdjZakl_fqlhhljZ`Zl_evgZykihkh[ghklvf_lZeebq_kdboih
\_joghkl_cmom^rZ_lkykmf_gvr_gb_f^ebgu\hegu
Ih]ehs_gb_ ^bwe_dljbdh\ b ihemijh\h^gbdh\ \_ebdh ebrv \ mqZkldZo
ki_dljZ hij_^_ey_fuo \ha[m`^_gb_f dhe_[Zl_evguo b we_dljhgguo i_j_
oh^h\\ \_s_kl\_Ihwlhfm^bwe_dljbdbbihemijh\h^gbdbbaemqZxlk_
e_dlb\ghIjb[hevrhchilbq_kdhclhesbg_k(L)lex[h_l_eh_kebhl
jZ`_gb_gZ_]h]jZgbp_ij_g_[j_`bfhfZehbaemqZ_ldZdq_jgh_l_eh
LZdbfh[jZahfbaemq_gb_gZ]j_luol_eg_hij_^_ey_lkyiheghklvx
bol_fi_jZlmjhcH^gZdhagZgb_bklbgghcl_fi_jZlmjul_eZLiha\hey
_lmklZgh\blvij_^_evgmx\_ebqbgmbaemq_gbydhlhjmxgZau\ZxlieZg
dh\kdbf ij_^_ehf beb ieZgdh\kdbf mjh\g_f baemq_gby L_fi_jZlmjgh_
baemq_gb_ ex[h]h l_eZ ijb aZ^Zgghc l_fi_jZlmj_ g_ fh`_l ij_\hkoh
^blvkhhl\_lkl\mxs_]hieZgdh\kdh]hij_^_eZ
>ey ijZdlbq_kdhc oZjZdl_jbklbdb baemq_gby j_Zevguo gZ]j_luo
l_e\\h^ylg_dhlhju_nbdlb\gu_l_fi_jZlmjudhlhju_hij_^_eyxlba
emq_gb_l_eZbfh]ml[ulvkhihklZ\e_guk_]hbklbgghcl_fi_jZlmjhc
GZb[he__ qZklh bkihevamxl ihgylby yjdhklghc b p\_lh\hc l_fi_jZlmj
[2 .3 ; 2 .5 ].
YjdhklgZyl_fi_jZlmjZLyjdl_eZjZ\gZlZdhcl_fi_jZlmj_q_jgh]h
l_eZijbdhlhjhcki_dljZevgu_yjdhklbbojZ\guYjdhklgmxl_fi_jZ
lmjmh[uqghhij_^_eyxlijb fdf
BklbggZybyjdhklgZyl_fi_jZlmjul_eZk\yaZguf_`^mkh[hckhhl
ghr_gb_fe_]dhihemqZ_fufbanhjfmeu<bgZ  
1 1 λk
− = ln ε (λ ,T ) . (2 .2 1 )
T T yjd ch
Bahij_^_e_gbyyjdhklghcl_fi_jZlmjubba\ujZ`_gby  ykgh
qlh\k_]^ZT yjd < LYjdhklgZyl_fi_jZlmjZh^gh]hblh]h`_bklhqgbdZ
baf_j_ggZy\jZaebqguomqZkldZoki_dljZg_h^bgZdh\Z^Z`_\kemqZ_k_
jh]h l_eZ >ey [hevrbgkl\Z f_lZeeh\ ijb l_fi_jZlmjZo ihjy^dZ -
D\\b^bfhch[eZklbki_dljZdhwnnbpb_glq_jghlubaemq_gby0(L)
khklZ\ey_l-byjdhklgZyl_fi_jZlmjZgb`_bklbgghcijbf_jghgZ
5 0 -4 0 0 °.
Yjdhklgmxl_fi_jZlmjmhij_^_eyxlkihfhsvxibjhf_ljZ<hkgh
\_^_ckl\byibjhf_ljZe_`blkjZ\g_gb_yjdhklbbkke_^m_fh]hl_eZkyj
dhklvx gblb gZdZeZ eZfihqdb ijh]jZ^mbjh\Zgghc ih q_jghfm l_em
KjZ\g_gb_h[uqgh\_^_lkyijb fdf

58
P\_lh\Zy l_fi_jZlmjZ y\ey_lkyiZjZf_ljhfijb[eb`_gghhibku
\Zxsbf hlghkbl_evgh_ jZkij_^_e_gb_ yjdhklb baemq_gby \ \b^bfhc h[
eZklb ki_dljZ l_e g_ kbevgh hlebqZxsboky hl k_juo m]hev f_lZeeu
hdbkeu b ^j  ?keb yjdhklv g_dhlhjh]h l_eZ ijb^ebgZo\heg1 b2 kh
klZ\ey_lkhhl\_lkl\_ggh bλ1 b bλ2 lh_]hp\_lh\Zyl_fi_jZlmjZLp\jZ\gZ
lZdhcl_fi_jZlmj_q_jgh]hl_eZijbdhlhjhc\uihegy_lkykhhlghr_gb_

(bλ0 / bλ0 )Tp\ = bλ / bλ


1 2 1 2
. (2.22)

>ebgu\heg1b2h[uqgh\u[bjZxl\djZkghcbkbg_ch[eZklyoki_d
ljZ1 fdf2 fdf\ujZ`_gb_  gZau\ZxldjZkgh-kbgbf
hlghr_gb_f Ijb \uiheg_gbb   hlghkbl_evgu_ jZkij_^_e_gby yj
dhkl_ch[hbol_e\\b^bfhch[eZklbki_dljZfZehjZaebqZxlkyZp\_lZ
l_eijZdlbq_kdbkh\iZ^Zxl
AgZy p\_lh\mx l_fi_jZlmjm l_eZ fh`gh gZclb _]h bklbggmx l_f
i_jZlmjm

ln  ε λ / ε λ  
1 1
− =  1 2 (2 .2 3 )
T Tp\ ch  1 − 1 
k  λ1 λ 2 
>ey f_lZeeh\ Lp\ > L \ke_^kl\b_ g_dhlhjh]h jhklZ dhwnnbpb_glZ
q_jghlu0\dhjhldh\hegh\hch[eZklb\b^bfh]hki_dljZ>eyk_juol_e
Lp\ = L < kemqZ_ k_e_dlb\guo l_e ihgylb_ p\_lh\hc l_fi_jZlmju bk
ihevah\Zlvg_ke_^m_l
P\_lh\mx l_fi_jZlmjm baf_jyxl eb[h ih djZkgh-kbg_fm hlghr_
gbx k ihfhsvx hilbq_kdh]h ibjhf_ljZ eb[h ih p\_lm baemq_gby k ih
fhsvxnhlhf_ljbq_kdhckdZfvb

†LBIUBKLHQGBDH<L?IEH<H=HBAEMQ?GBY

Bklhqgbdb l_ieh\h]h baemq_gby jZaebqghc fhsghklb gZoh^yl rb


jhdh_ijbf_g_gb_\jZaghh[jZaguoh[eZklyogZmdbl_ogbdbbgZjh^gh
]h ohayckl\Z Lbibqgufb ijbf_jZfb fh]ml kem`blv eZfiu gZdZeb\Z
gby we_dljbq_kdb_ jZ^bZpbhggu_ gZ]j_\Zl_eb b ij Baemq_gb_ fgh]bo
l_ieh\uobklhqgbdh\khkj_^hlhq_gh\hkgh\ghf\BDh[eZklbki_dljZ
\k\yabkq_fqZklhbkihevamxl\ujZ`_gb_l_ieh\u_emqb
< wdki_jbf_glZevghc hilbd_ ij_^klZ\eyxl bgl_j_k kjZ\gbl_evgh
fZehfhsgu_ bklhqgbdb l_ieh\h]h baemq_gby k g_[hevrhc ih\_jogh
klvxHq_\b^ghqlh\ex[hch[eZklbki_dljZgZb[hevr_cyjdhklvxh[
eZ^Z_lbaemqZl_evgZ]j_luc^hgZb[he__\ukhdhcl_fi_jZlmjub[he__
\k_]h ijb[eb`Zxsbcky d ieZgdh\kdhfm mjh\gx baemq_gby >Z`_ \ bg
njZdjZkghc h[eZklb ki_dljZ \u]h^gu bklhqgbdb baemq_gby k gZb[he__
\ukhdhc l_fi_jZlmjhc ohly ih\ur_gb_ l_fi_jZlmju khijh\h`^Z_lky
ihy\e_gb_f agZqbl_evgh]h dhjhldh\hegh\h]h baemq_gby <u[jZgguc
bklhqgbddZdijZ\beh^he`_gjZ[hlZlv\^hklZlhqghrbjhdhch[eZklb

59
ki_dljZ QZklh hdZau\Z_lky qlh baemqZl_ev ^he`_g jZ[hlZlv \ hdjm
`Zxs_c Zlfhkn_j_ [_a \klmie_gby \ obfbq_kdb_ j_Zdpbb beb gZoh
^blvky\\Zdmmf_
JZkkfhljbf lbibqgu_ bklhqgbdb baemq_gby \ dhlhjuo baemqZl_
e_f kem`bl gZdZe_ggh_ l_eh Bklhqgbdb l_ieh\h]h baemq_gby \ dhlh
juo baemqZl_e_f y\ey_lky gZ]j_luc ^h \ukhdhc l_fi_jZlmju ]Za hib
kZgu\]e
 Bklhqgbd [ebadbc d q_jghfm l_em fh`gh kha^Zlv hkms_kl
\b\ihqlbaZfdgmlmxihehklvgZ]j_lmx^hg_dhlhjhcl_fi_jZlmjuL.
Ijb dhgkljmbjh\Zgbb q_jgh]h l_eZ ^ey \ukhdbo l_fi_jZlmj \hagb
dZxlljm^ghklbk\yaZggu_kihl_jyfbl_ieZaZkq_ll_iehhl\h^ZZlZd`_
k l_f qlh ^ey gZ]j_\Zgby ihehklb agZqbl_evguo jZaf_jh\ gm`_g [hev
rhc lhd \ we_dljbq_kdhc p_ib GZ jbk  ihdZaZgh mkljhckl\h gbadh
l_fi_jZlmjgh]h bklhqgbdZ k ohjhrbf ijb[eb`_gb_f ^Zxs_]h q_jgh_
baemq_gb_^hl_fi_jZlmjihjy^dZDKlZevghcdebgkm]ehfjZkl\hjZ
ƒ gZ]j_\Z_lky \ i_qb k ohjhr_c l_iehbaheypb_c Ijb gZ]j_\Zgbb ih
\_joghklvklZebhdbkey_lkybq_jg__lKl_i_gvq_jghlubaemq_gbyhdbk-
e_gghc klZeb \ rbjhdhc h[eZklb ki_dljZ jZ\gZ 0   AZ kq_l fgh]h
djZlguo hljZ`_gbc baemq_gby \gmljb dhgmkZ dhwnnbpb_gl q_jghlu bk
lhqgbdZ^hoh^bl^h0§
 EZfiu gZdZeb\Zgby qZklh bkihevamxl\dZq_kl\_bklhqgbdh\k
ba\_klguf jZkij_^_e_gb_f wg_j]bb ih ki_dljm L_ehf gZdZeZ \ wlZehg
guo eZfiZo y\ey_lky lhgdZy e_glZ ba qbklh]h \hevnjZfZ rbjbghc -2
ff>eygZ]j_\Ze_glu^h\ukhdhcl_fi_jZlmjuh[_ki_qb\Zxs_cp\_lh

Jbk  Gbadhl_fi_jZlmjguc bk Jbk  AZ\bkbfhklv dhwnnbpb_glZ


lhqgbd baemq_gby bfblbjmxsbc q_jghlu baemq_gby \hevnjZfZ hl ^eb
q_jgh_ l_eh 1 —  klZevgZy ^_lZev k gu \hegu ^ey jZaebqguo l_fi_jZlmj
\uk\_je_ggufdhgmkhf 2 —  l_ieh [2 .6 ]
bahebjmxsbc dhjimk 3 —  \uoh^
gh_hl\_jklb_

60
\mx l_fi_jZlmjm baemq_gby 2 8 0 0 - D g_h[oh^bf agZqbl_evguc lhd
(1 0 -:\aZ\bkbfhklbhlk_q_gbye_glu DZ`^Zye_glhqgZyeZfiZbf_
_lbg^b\b^mZevgmxaZ\bkbfhklvp\_lh\hcbebyjdhklghcl_fi_jZlmjuhl
lhdZ gZdZeZ Dhwnnbpb_glu q_jghlu baemq_gby qbklh]h \hevnjZfZ oh
jhrhba\_klgu jbk>-@ ihwlhfmihyjdhklghcbebp\_lh\hc
l_fi_jZlmj_e_glhqghceZfiug_keh`ghgZclbki_dljZevgmxyjdhklvba
emq_gby^eyex[hc^ebgu\hegu\h\k_ch[eZklbjZ[hlueZfiu<h[uq
guoeZfiZogZdZeb\Zgbybkihevamxl\hevnjZfkijbf_kyfbZexfbgbyb
dj_fgby Hgb memqrZxl l_ogheh]bq_kdb_ k\hckl\Z gblb gh baf_gyxl
\b^ djb\hc 0 f(  ih kjZ\g_gbx k qbkluf \hevnjZfhf H^bgZdh\uc
p\_l k\_q_gby fh`gh ihemqblv ijb jZaebqghc nhjf_ djb\hc ihwlhfm
p\_lh\Zy l_fi_jZlmjZ g_ hij_^_ey_l ki_dljZevgh]h jZkij_^_e_gby yj
dhklbh[uqguoeZfi
<_ebqbgZ0eZfigZdZeb\ZgbykhkibjZevghcgblvxij_\urZ_lagZ
q_gby 0 \hevnjZfh\hc ih\_joghklb Wlh k\yaZgh k l_f qlh agZqbl_evgZy
^hey baemq_gby bkimkdZ_lky \gmlj_gg_c ih\_joghklvx kibjZeb ih
k\hckl\Zfijb[eb`Zxs_ckydihehklb
H[eZklv jZ[hlu eZfi kh kl_deygguf [Zeehghf h]jZgbq_gZ ^ebgZ
fb\heghlgf^hfdf?keb[ZeehgeZfiubf__lm\bhe_\h_hdgh
dhjhldh\hegh\Zy ]jZgbpZ k^\b]Z_lky ^h - gf \ aZ\bkbfhklb hl
khjlZkl_deZ
Kjhd kem`[u b fZdkbfZevgZy l_fi_jZlmjZ gblb eZfi gZdZeb\Zgby
h]jZgbq_gu ijhp_kkZfb jZkiue_gby \hevnjZfZ \ j_amevlZl_ dhlhjuo
gblvklZgh\blkylhgvr_bi_j_]hjZ_l<]Zeh]_gguoeZfiZojZkiue_gb_
gblbijhbkoh^bl\f_gvr_ckl_i_gbWlbeZfiubf_xld\Zjp_\mxdhe
[mgZiheg_ggmxZj]hghf^h^Z\e_gbyihjy^dZffjlklk^h[Z\dhc
1 - f] ch^Z Ijb jZ[hl_ eZfiu \hagbdZ_l ch^guc pbde BkiZjyxsbcky
kh kibjZeb \hevnjZf \klmiZ_l \ j_Zdpbx k ch^hf h[jZamy e_lmq__ \_
s_kl\h— ch^b^\hevnjZfZFhe_dmeu_]hihiZ^ZygZgZdZe_ggmxih
\_joghklv gblb ^bkkhpbbjmxl b gZ g_c hkZ`^Z_lky f_lZeebq_kdbc
\hevnjZf;eZ]h^Zjy wlhfm ijhp_kkm \hkklZgh\e_gby gblbkjhdkem`[u
ch^guo eZfi agZqbl_evgh [hevr_ q_f h[uqguo eZfi gZdZeb\Zgby >ey
ih^^_j`Zgby ]Zeh]_ggh]h pbdeZ gm`gZ l_fi_jZlmjZ dhe[u -ƒK
ihwlhfm dhe[m ^_eZxl fZe_gvdhc P\_lh\Zy l_fi_jZlmjZ ch^guo eZfi
fh`_l^hklb]ZlvDijbkjhd_kem`[uihjy^dZkhlgbqZkh\
 =eh[Zj kbeblh\uc baemqZl_ev  ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc kl_j`_gv
k_jh]h p\_lZ kij_kkh\Zgguc ba lm]hieZ\dh]h fZl_jbZeZ —  dZj[b^Z
dj_fgby S iC  l_fi_jZlmjZ ieZ\e_gby ƒK  KjZ\gbl_evgh ohjhrZy
ijh\h^bfhklv dZj[b^Z dj_fgby iha\hey_l gZ]j_\Zlv ]eh[Zj we_dljbq_
kdbflhdhf
DZj[b^ dj_fgby ijb gbadbo l_fi_jZlmjZo bf__l hljbpZl_evguc
l_fi_jZlmjguc dhwnnbpb_gl we_dljbq_kdh]h khijhlb\e_gby dZd m
[hevrbgkl\Z ihemijh\h^gbdh\ Z ijb \ukhdbo l_fi_jZlmjZo —  iheh
`bl_evgucdZdmf_lZeeh\Ihwlhfmkjhklhfl_fi_jZlmjukhijhlb\e_
gb_ ]eh[ZjZ iZ^Z_l ^hklb]Z_l fbgbfmfZ ijb - D Z aZl_f \ha
jZklZ_l

61
JZkdZe_gguc dZj[b^ dj_fgby ijb ^ebl_evghf ^_ckl\bb dbkehjh^Z
\ha^moZbiZjh\\h^uhdbkey_lkykh[jZah\Zgb_fhdbkbdj_fgby\u^_
eyxs_cky gZ _]h ih\_joghklb \ \b^_ [_eh]h gZe_lZ b m]e_dbkeh]h ]ZaZ
Hdbke_gb_ S iK khijh\h`^Z_lky ih\ur_gb_f we_dljbq_kdh]h khijhlb\
e_gbygZdhglZdlZo\hagbdZ_lbkdj_gb_Wlbijhp_kkuklZj_gbyh]jZgb
qb\Zxl ^himklbfmx jZ[hqmx l_fi_jZlmjm ]eh[ZjZ dhlhjZy h[uqgh g_
ij_\urZ_l  D <ukrZy jZ[hqZy l_fi_jZlmjZ ]eh[ZjZ khklZ\ey_l
 D ijb agZqbl_evghf khdjZs_gbb kjhdZ kem`[u =eh[Zj k gZg_k_g
guf gZ \g_rgxx ih\_joghklv aZsblguf keh_f ^\mhdbkb lhjby Lh H2
fh`_ljZ[hlZlvijbl_fi_jZlmjZo[he__D
FZdkbfmfbaemqZl_evghckihkh[ghklb]eh[ZjZijbDgZoh^bl
ky\h[eZklb§fdfKl_i_gvq_jghlubaemq_gby]eh[ZjZ\_ebdZ0 =
0 ,8 - <\b^m h^ghagZqgh]h obfbq_kdh]h khklZ\Z ]eh[ZjZ djb\Zy yjdh
klb _]h baemq_gby ohjhrh \hkijhba\h^blky b fh`_l kem`blv klZg^Zj
lhf

JbkAZ\bkbfhklvdhwnnbpb_glZq_jghlubaemq_gby]eh[ZjZhl^eb
gu\hegu>@ L = 1 3 7 5 K ; 2 ) T = 1 3 5 8 K ; 3 ) T y = D = 0 ,6 6 5
fdf
Baemq_gb_ ]eh[ZjZ bf__l ihqlb h^bgZdh\mx kl_i_gv q_jghlu
jbk   \ rbjhdhc h[eZklb ki_dljZ \ agZqbl_evghc f_j_ aZ kq_l lh]h
qlh ih\_joghklv ]eh[ZjZ hq_gv ]jm[Z b ke_^h\Zl_evgh fZeh hljZ`Z_l
< h[eZklb j_ahgZgkghc qZklhlu ih]ehs_gby j_r_ldbS iKe_`Zs_chdh
eh  fdf yjdhklv baemq_gby g_kdhevdh ihgb`_gZ Ijbqbghc y\ey_lky
[hevrhc dhwnnbpb_gl hljZ`_gby djbklZeeh\ S iK \ h[eZklb j_ahgZgkZ
<ke_^kl\b_wlh]h^Z`_]jm[Zyih\_joghklvohjhrhhljZ`Z_lbke_^h\Z
l_evgh om`_ baemqZ_l kf   Dhwnnbpb_gl q_jghlu baemq_gby
]eh[ZjZ kjZ\gbl_evgh \_ebd b \ ^Ze_dhc BD h[eZklb \ hkgh\ghf ba-aZ
we_dljhijh\h^ghklb dZj[b^Z dj_fgby ijb^Zxs_c _fm \ wlhc h[eZklb
ki_dljZk\hckl\Z[ebadb_dk\hckl\Zff_lZeeh\
 Rlbnl G_jgklZ ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc ojmidbc [_eh\Zlh-`_eluc
kl_j`_gv^ebghc-ffb^bZf_ljhf-ffba]hlh\ey_fucbalm]h
ieZ\dbohdbkeh\f_lZeeh\Z rH2 , Y 2 H3 Lh H2 l_fi_jZlmjuieZ\e_gbykh

62
hl\_lkl\_ggh   b ƒK  LbibqgZy kf_kv ijbf_gy_fZy ^ey
ba]hlh\e_gby rlbnlh\ G_jgklZ kh^_j`bl  hdbkb pbjdhgby 
hdbkb lhjby  hdbkb dZevpby  hdbkb fZ]gby b ke_^u [hjghc db
kehluI_j_qbke_ggu_\_s_kl\Zkf_rb\Zxlk]ebp_jbghf\h^ghjh^gmx
fZkkmbki_dZxl\ nhjf_ kl_j`gy k mlhes_gbyfb gZ dhgpZo \dhlhju_
aZi_dZxldhgpuieZlbgh\uowe_dljh^h\
< oheh^ghf khklhygbb rlbnl G_jgklZ y\ey_lky ohjhrbf baheylh
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klhygbb^jm]hl^jm]Zihwlhfmijboh^blkyijbgbfZlvki_pbZevgu_f_ju^ey
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68
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_l gZqZevgmx bhgbaZpbx hkgh\gh]h jZajy^gh]h ijhf_`mldZ   Zdlb\bjh\Z
gb_ih\_joghklbdZlh^Zkgb`Zxs__jZ[hlm\uoh^Zwe_dljhgh\ ij_^\Zjb
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\ur_gb_gZijy`_gbygZwe_dljh^Zo kha^Zgb_gZqZevghcbhgbaZpbbhl\u
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§3.FHSGHKLVBAEMQ?GBY=:AH<H=HJ:AJY>:

< ]ZahjZajy^guo bklhqgbdZo k\_lZ baemqZl_e_f y\ey_lky ieZafZ — bh


gbabjh\Zgguc d\Zabg_cljZevguc ]Za IeZafZ \hagbdZ_l b ih^^_j`b\Z_lky
ijb ]hj_gbb jZajy^Z \ h[t_f_ h]jZgbq_gghf kl_gdZfb beb ijhklh \ Zlfh
kn_j_KfZdjhkdhibq_kdhclhqdbaj_gbyieZafZ\[hevr_cbebf_gvr_ckl_
i_gbg_h^ghjh^gZihh[t_fm
OZjZdl_j baemq_gby ieZafu k\yaZg k kms_kl\h\Zgb_f [hevrh]h qbkeZ
we_f_glZjguo ijhp_kkh\ hij_^_eyxsbo aZk_e_gghklb wg_j]_lbq_kdbo kh
klhygbc fhe_dme Zlhfh\ b bhgh\ Baemq_gb_ \hagbdZxs__ \ _^bgbqghf
h[t_f_ieZafu\dZdhc-lhf_j_ih]ehsZ_lky\wlhf`_h[t_f_beb\khk_^
gboahgZoieZafu<ke_^kl\b_fgh]hh[jZabyijhp_kkh\ijhl_dZxsbo\ijh
kljZgkl\_ggh-g_h^ghjh^ghc ieZaf_ ZgZeblbq_kdh_ hibkZgb_ j_Zevghc ieZa
fu \ h[s_f kemqZ_ g_\hafh`gh Ihwlhfm h[uqgh jZkkfZljb\Zxl mijhs_g
gu_ fh^_eb ieZafu h]h\Zjb\Zy gZkdhevdh j_ZevgZy ieZafZ fh`_l [ulv
[ebadZdijbgylhcfh^_eb
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Bahebjh\ZggZyh^ghjh^gZyieZafZkhklhysZybab^_Zevgh]hh^ghZlhf
gh]h]ZaZbgZoh^ysZykyijbl_fi_jZlmj_Lfh`_l[ulvhibkZgZke_^mxsb
fbkhhlghr_gbyfb
>Z\e_gb_j\ieZaf_hij_^_ey_lkymjZ\g_gb_fkhklhygby
p = ∑ N s kT , (3.1)
s
]^_ ∑ N s , —kmffZdhgp_gljZpbc qbkeZqZklbp\_^bgbpeh[t_fZ Zlhfh\
s
Nabhgh\Nibwe_dljhgh\Ne .
JZkij_^_e_gb_qZklbpex[h]hkhjlZsihkdhjhklyfv \ujZ`Z_lky nmgd
pb_cFZdk\_eeZ
32
 Ms 
N s ( v) = 4πN s  v2e− M s v
2 /(2 kT ) d
 v, (3.2)
 2πkT 
]^_ Fs —fZkkZqZklbpu N s (v) — qbkehqZklbph[eZ^Zxsbokdhjhklyfb\
ij_^_eZohl v ^h v + d v, Ns — dhgp_gljZpbyqZklbp
69

N s = ∫ N s ( v) d v. (3.3)
0
Qbkeh qZklbp khjlZ s gZoh^ysboky \ \ha[m`^_gghf khklhygbb i, hij_
^_ey_lkynhjfmehc;hevpfZgZ
gi − E
Ni = N 0 e i kT , (3.4)
g0
]^_N0bg0 — aZk_e_gghklvbklZlbklbq_kdbc\_khkgh\gh]hkhklhygbyqZklbp
^Zggh]hkhjlZgi — klZlbklbq_kdbc\_k\ha[m`^_ggh]hkhklhygby?i — wg_j
]by\ha[m`^_ggh]hkhklhygbyhlkqblu\Z_fZyhlhkgh\gh]hmjh\gy
Dhgp_gljZpbb Zlhfh\bhgh\ bwe_dljhgh\ijbh^ghdjZlghcbhgbaZpbb
k\yaZguf_`^mkh[hcnhjfmehcKZoZ
N e N bhg 2(2πm)3 2 3 2 ubhg (L ) − E
= 3
( kT ) _ bhg kT , (3.5)
Na h uZl
]^_m —fZkkZwe_dljhgZ?bhg — wg_j]bybhgbaZpbbbbhg L buZl L — kmffu
ihkhklhygbyfbhgh\bZlhfh\

u (T ) = gi e− Ei kT . (3.6)
i
Ki_dljZevgZyyjdhklvbaemq_gbyb0 L hij_^_ey_lkynhjfmehcIeZgdZ
(2. 12).
<ieZaf_hibku\Z_fhckhhlghr_gbyfb  -  b  \uihegyxlky
mkeh\by^_lZevgh]hjZ\gh\_kbykhklhysb_\lhfqlhhilbq_kdb_bm^Zjgu_
ijhp_kku \ha[m`^_gby b ^_\ha[m`^_gby dZ`^h]h mjh\gy \ _^bgbp_ h[t_fZ
ijhbkoh^ysb_\_^bgbpm\j_f_gbmjZ\gh\_r_guBaemq_gb_\hagbdZxs__\
_^bgbp_h[t_fZlZdhcieZafuiheghklvx\g_f`_bih]ehsZ_lky^ey^Zg
gh]hbaemq_gbyieZafZy\ey_lkyhilbq_kdbiehlghcH^gZdhbaemq_gb_i_jb
n_jbq_kdboahg\uoh^blbajZajy^Zbfu_]h\b^bf<wlhf-hlklmie_gb_hl
jZ\gh\_kbyl_fg_f_g__ki_dljbaemq_gbylZdbobklhqgbdh\[ebahddbaem
q_gbxq_jgh]hl_eZ

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jZ\gh\_kby

QZklh \klj_qZ_lky khklhygb_ ehdZevgh]h l_jfh^bgZfbq_kdh]h jZ\gh\_


kby ELJ  LZd gZau\Zxl khklhygb_ ieZafu ijb dhlhjhf jZ\gh\_kgu \k_
nmgdpbbjZkij_^_e_gbydjhf_h^ghcdZkZxs_ckybaemq_gbyWlhhagZqZ_l
qlhdZdb\kemqZ_ihegh]hl_jfh^bgZfbq_kdh]hjZ\gh\_kbyijbf_gbfukh
hlghr_gby  -  k_^bgufiZjZf_ljhfLH^gZdhjZ\gh\_kb_hilbq_kdbo
ijhp_kkh\hlkmlkl\m_lbnhjfmeZIeZgdZg_ijb]h^gZ
L_jfbg ehdZevgh_ jZ\gh\_kb_ \hagbd ihlhfm qlh ^ey hibkZgby wlhc
fh^_evx j_Zevghcg_h^ghjh^ghcieZafu ijbrehkv \\_klb ihgylb_ ehdZev
ghc h^ghjh^ghklb ieZafu KqblZxl qlh ieZafm fh`gh jZa[blv gZ we_f_g
lZjgu_ h^ghjh^gu_ h[t_fu ¨V Qlh[u fh`gh [ueh ]h\hjblv h klZlbklbq_
kdhf mkj_^g_gbb iZjZf_ljh\ \gmljb wlbo h[t_fh\ dZ`^Zy qZklbpZ ^he`gZ
70
bkiulu\Zlv fgh]h khm^Zj_gbc ?keb q_j_a lwnn h[hagZqblv kj_^gbc k\h[h^
guc ijh[_] qZklbpu f_`^m ^\mfy klhedgh\_gbyfb Z q_j_a w — jZk-
kfZljb\Z_fuciZjZf_ljkhklhygbyieZafumkeh\b_ehdZevghch^ghjh^ghklb
aZibr_lky\\b^_
lwnngrad w w . (3.7)
JZkkfhljbfdZdb\]ekbkl_fmk^\mfywg_j]_lbq_kdbfbmjh\gyfb
b  k\yaZggufb f_`^m kh[hc hilbq_kdbfb b klhedgh\bl_evgufb i_j_oh^Z
fb < mkeh\byo ELJ ieZafu ^_lZevgh_ jZ\gh\_kb_ \ hlghr_gbb hilbq_kdbo
i_j_oh^h\gZjmr_ghihwlhfmp_e_khh[jZaghjZkkfZljb\Zlvbaemq_gb_bih
]ehs_gb_\hl^_evghklb
?keb ij_g_[j_qv ih]ehs_gb_f fhsghklv kihglZggh]h baemq_gby _^b
gbqgh]hh[t_fZieZafuJ\ij_^_eZoki_dljZevghcebgbbhij_^_ey_lky\_eb
qbghc d\ZglZ K21 \_jhylghklvx kihglZggh]h i_j_oh^Z :21 b aZk_e_gghklvx
N2 \_jog_]hkhklhygby
 wj] <l 
P = hν 21 A21N 2  , 3. (3.8)
 k ⋅ kf kf 
3

JZa^_eb\wlm\_ebqbgmgZŒ\kemqZ_bahljhigh]hbaemq_gbyihemqZ_ffhs
ghklvbaemq_gby_^bgbqgh]hh[t_fZieZafu\_^bgbpml_e_kgh]hm]eZ
A21  wj] <l 
P= hv21N 2  , 3
. (3.9)
4π  kj ⋅ F⋅ kf kj ⋅ kf 
3

<_ebqbgm J , hlg_k_ggmxd_^bgbqghfmki_dljZevghfmbgl_j\Zeml_ki_d
ljZevgmx iehlghklv fhsghklb _^bgbpu h[t_fZ J  gZau\Zxl dhwnnbpb_g
lhfkihglZggh]hbaemq_gbybqZklhh[hagZqZxlq_j_a0.
IeZafZ \ dhlhjhc baemq_gb_ ^Zgghc ^ebgu \hegu ijZdlbq_kdb g_ ih
]ehsZ_lky^eywlh]hbaemq_gbyy\ey_lkyhilbq_kdblhgdhc>eygZoh`^_gby
yjdhklb<ikhilbq_kdblhgdhcieZafuijbi_j_oh^_i :kg_h[oh^bfhkmffb
jh\Zlvihlhdbaemq_gby\gZijZ\e_gbbgZ[ex^_gby\ij_^_eZo\k_clhesbgu
ieZafuhll ^hl = lh:
l0 l0
Aik A
Bik = ∫ hvik Ni dl = ik hvik ∫ Ni dl . (3.10)
0
4π 4π 0
< ELJ ieZaf_bf__lkyjZ\gh\_kb_\klhedgh\bl_evguoijhp_kkZo\ha[m`^_
gby b ^_\ha[m`^_gby mjh\g_c ihwlhfm aZk_e_gghklb mjh\g_c hij_^_eyxlky
nhjfmehc;hevpfZgZ  ?kebdjhf_wlh]hijbgylvjZkij_^_e_gb_qZklbp
ih emqm aj_gby jZ\ghf_jguf Z l_fi_jZlmjm L h^bgZdh\hc yjdhklv hilbq_
kdblhgdhcieZafufh`ghgZoh^blvihnhjfme_
Aik g
Bik = hvik N 0l0 i e− Ei kT . (3.11)
4π g0
Ki_dljk\_q_gbyieZafu—ebg_cqZlucki_dljZevgu_ebgbbhij_^_ey
xlkyjZaj_r_ggufbhilbq_kdbfbi_j_oh^Zfbf_`^mmjh\gyfb
L_i_jv [m^_f jZkkfZljb\Zlv lhevdh ih]ehs_gb_ ij_g_[j_]Zy kihglZg
guf baemq_gb_f HkeZ[e_gb_ gZijZ\e_ggh]h ihlhdZ qZklhlu , jZkijhkljZ
gyxs_]hkyihieZaf_\gZijZ\e_gbbhkbz, jZ\gh
71
dP
− = hv21  B12 (v ) N1uv − B21 (v ) N 2uv  . (3.12)
dz
A^_kvB12( b<21() —dhwnnbpb_gluWcgrl_cgZ^eyih]ehs_gbyb\ugm`
^_ggh]hbaemq_gbygZqZklhl_ .
Mqblu\Zyqlh\gZijZ\e_gghfihlhd_ki_dljZevgZyfhsghklvJk\yaZ
gZkh[t_fghcki_dljZevghciehlghklvxbaemq_gbyukhhlghr_gb_f
J = uvc, (3.13)
]^_k–kdhjhklvjZkijhkljZg_gbybaemq_gbyba  ihemqZ_f
dPv hv21
− = Pv  N1B12 (v ) − N 2 B21 (v ) . (3.14)
dz c
HkeZ[e_gb_ ihlhdZ \ kj_^_ hibku\Zxl bkihevamy dhwnnbpb_gl ih]eh
s_gbyk (kf  GZqZklhl_ bf__f
dPv
− = kPv . (3.15)
dz
KjZ\gb\Zy\ujZ`_gby  b  ihemqZ_f
hv21
k (v ) = Pv  N1B12 (v ) − N 2 B21 (v ) . (3.16)
c
?keb qbkeh khm^Zj_gbc f_`^m qZklbpZfb \ ieZaf_ hdZau\Z_lky g_-
^hklZlhqguf qlh[u h[_ki_qblv bgl_gkb\guc h[f_g wg_j]byfb kj_^gb_db
g_lbq_kdb_ wg_j]bb jZaebqguo
qZklbp g_ \ujZ\gb\Zxlky b kh
klhygb_ ieZafu hldehgy_lky hl
ELJ Bkihevah\Zlv _^bguc iZjZ
f_lj L \ wlhf kemqZ_ m`_ g_evay
H[uqgh ijb wlhf jZkij_^_e_gb_
qZklbp ih \ha[m`^_gguf khklhy
gbyf\gmljbdZ`^h]hkhjlZqZklbp
ih^qbgy_lky nmgdpbb ;hevpfZgZ
k l_fi_jZlmjZfb L jZaebqgufb
^eyjZaguokhjlh\qZklbpGZijb
f_j aZk_e_gb_ mjh\g_c Zlhfh\ b
bhgh\ijhbkoh^bl\hkgh\ghfijb
Jbk  L_fi_jZlmjZ we_dljhgh\ L_ b ly khm^Zj_gbyo wlbo qZklbp k we_d
`_euo qZklbp L] oZjZdl_jbamxsZy bo ljhgZfb ieZafu Ihwlhfm ^ey
kj_^gxxdbg_lbq_kdmxwg_j]bxijbjZa ki_dljZevguo ebgbc Zlhfh\ b bh
ebqguo^Z\e_gbyo\jZajy^_\iZjZojlmlb gh\ fh`gh ihevah\Zlvky nhjfm
ehc ;hevpfZgZ k \_ebqbghc L,
[ebadhcdl_fi_jZlmj_we_dljhgh\
L_, oZjZdl_jbamxs_cbokj_^gxxdbg_lbq_kdmxwg_j]bx<dZq_kl\_ijbf_
jZgZjbkbah[jZ`_gZaZ\bkbfhklvl_fi_jZlmjuwe_dljhgh\L_ bly`_euo
qZklbpL] hl^Z\e_gby
72
ƒBaemq_gb_ijbhlkmlkl\bbjZ\gh\_kby

Ijbmf_gvr_gbb^Z\e_gby]ZaZbdhgp_gljZpbbwe_dljhgh\\ieZaf_fh
]mlgZklmiblvmkeh\bydh]^Zkdhjhklvijhp_kkh\we_dljhggh]h\ha[m`^_gby
mjh\gy qbkehZdlh\\ha[m`^_gby\_^bgbpm\j_f_gb kjZ\gbfZkhkdhjhklvx
hilbq_kdh]hjZkiZ^Zmjh\gy qbkehfZdlh\baemq_gby\_^bgbpm\j_f_gb beb
fgh]h f_gvr_ __ I_j\uc kemqZc hq_gv ljm^_g ^ey l_hj_lbq_kdbo jZkq_lh\
<h\lhjhfkemqZ_yjdhklvbaemq_gbyieZafufh`ghgZclbkjZ\gbl_evghijh
klh IheZ]Zy qlh i-c mjh\_gv dZdh]h-eb[h ZlhfZ \ha[m`^Z_lky we_dljhgguf
m^Zjhf lhevdh ba gb`g_]h khklhygby ihemqZ_f qbkeh Zdlh\ \ha[m`^_gby \
_^bgbp_\j_f_gbjZ\guf

dNi
= N 0 ∫ N e ( v)σ0i ( v) vd v. (3.17)
dt v 0i
A^_kv Ne( v ) — jZkij_^_e_gb_we_dljhgh\ihkdhjhklyf10i( v ) —wnn_dlb\
gh_k_q_gb_\ha[m`_gbyi-]hmjh\gywe_dljhgZfbh[eZ^Zxsbfbkdhjhklvx v ,
v 0i — fbgbfZevgZykdhjhklvgZqbgZykdhlhjhcwe_dljhgu\ha[m`^Zxl_]h
Fu ij_^iheZ]Z_f qlh kj_^gbc ijhf_`mlhd \j_f_gb f_`^m khm^Zj_gbyfb
fgh]h [hevr_ \j_f_gb `bagb \ha[m`^_ggh]h khklhygby ihwlhfm jZkiZ^
mjh\gyijhbkoh^bliml_fbaemq_gby
dNi
– = Ni Ai , (3.18)
dt
]^_:i —kmffZ\_jhylghkl_ci_j_oh^h\ki-]hmjh\gygZ\k_\hafh`gu_^jm
]b_IjbjZ\gb\Zy  b  gZoh^bf

N
Ni = 0
Ai ∫ Ne ( v)σ0i ( v) d v. (3.19)
v0i
Bkihevah\Z\  ihemqZ_fyjdhklvbaemq_gbyieZafu

A N l
Bik = ik hvik 0 0
4π Ai ∫ Ne ( v)σ0i ( v) d v. (3.20)
v0i

Ki_dljbaemq_gby—ebg_cqZlucdZdb\ij_^u^ms_fkemqZ_
Mkeh\by \ dhlhjuo ijbf_gbfh khhlghr_gb_   hkms_kl\eyxlky
ijbhq_gvgbadbo^Z\e_gbyogZijbf_j\kheg_qghcdhjhg_beb\\ukhdhl_f
i_jZlmjghcieZaf_dh]^ZNe < 1011kf–3.
>ey ih^kq_lZ yjdhklb baemq_gby ih nhjfme_   g_h[oh^bfh agZgb_
wnn_dlb\gh]h k_q_gby \ha[m`^_gby ^Zggh]h mjh\gy < jy^_ kemqZ_\ wnn_d
lb\gh_ k_q_gb_ \ha[m`^_gby mkj_^g_ggh_ ih jZkij_^_e_gbx we_dljhgh\ ih
kdhjhklyffh`_l[ulvgZc^_ghl_hj_lbq_kdbH^gZdhwdki_jbf_glZevghba
f_j_ggu_ \_ebqbgu wnn_dlb\guo k_q_gbc y\eyxlky [he__ gZ^_`gufb lZd
dZd \ gbo Z\lhfZlbq_kdb mql_gu \k_ ijhp_kku aZk_e_gby mjh\g_c \ ^Zgghc
kbkl_f_ Yjdhklv baemq_gby g_jZ\gh\_kghc ieZafu h[uqgh g_\_ebdZ ba-aZ
fZehklbqbkeZqZklbp\_^bgbp_h[t_fZ

73
†MRBJ?GB?KI?DLJ:EVGUOEBGBC

RbjbgZ b nhjfZ ebgbc baemqZ_fuo ieZafhc hij_^_eyxlky fgh]bfb


nZdlhjZfbk\yaZggufbdZdk_kl_kl\_gghcijbjh^hcbaemq_gbylZdbkjZa
ebqgufb\ha^_ckl\byfbdhlhjufbaemqZxsZyqZklbpZ Zlhfbhg ih^\_j]Z
_lky \ ieZaf_ JZkkfhljbf hkgh\gu_ ijbqbgu mrbj_gby ki_dljZevguo eb
gbc

ƒ?kl_kl\_ggZy jZ^bZpbhggZy rbjbgZki_dljZevguoebgbc

Bahebjh\ZggZyZlhfgZykbkl_fZ[m^mqb\ha[m`^_gghckZfhijhba\hev
ghbaemqZ_lwg_j]bxKlhqdbaj_gbydeZkkbq_kdhcwe_dljh^bgZfbdbbaemq_
gb_ khijh\h`^Z_lky aZlmoZgb_f dhe_[Zgbc hkpbeeylhjZ b mf_gvr_gb_f _]h
wg_j]bbihaZdhgm
w = w0e–W, (3.21)
]^_ —ihklhyggZyaZlmoZgby
<j_fy2aZdhlhjh_wg_j]byhkpbeeylhjZmf_gvrZ_lky\_jZajZ\gh_
1 3c3m 3cm
τ = = 2 2 2 = 2 2 λ2 , (3.22)
γ 8π e v 8π e
gZau\Z_lky\j_f_g_faZlmoZgbydhe_[Zgbc>ey\b^bfhch[eZklbki_dljZ\_
ebqbgZ2bf__lihjy^hd–8k
AZlmoZxsb_dhe_[Zgbyg_y\eyxlkyfhghojhfZlbq_kdbfbWdkihg_gpb
Zevgh_ aZlmoZgb_ dhe_[Zgbc ijb\h^bl d ^bki_jkbhgghfm∗) jZkij_^_e_gbx
ki_dljZevghciehlghklbfhsghklb

Pv (v ) = Pv (v0 )
( γ 2)
2
, (3. 23)
4π2 (v0 − v ) + ( γ 2 )
2 2

]^_ J(0) — ki_dljZevgZy iehlghklv fhsghklb \ p_glj_ jZkij_^_e_gby gZ


qZklhl_0.
JZkij_^_e_gb_ baemq_gby ih qZklhlZf hibku\Zxl qZklh nmgdpb_c S(),
ghjfbjh\Zgghcke_^mxsbfh[jZahf

∫ S (ν )d ν = 1 . (3.24)
0
<kemqZ_^bki_jkbhggh]hjZkij_^_e_gbyhgZbf__l\b^
γ
S (v ) = . (3.25)
4π2 (v0 − v ) + ( γ 2 )
2 2

Ki_dljZevgZy iehlghklv fhsghklb J() gZ ex[hc qZklhl_ k\yaZgZ k


iheghc fhsghklvx J \ ij_^_eZo ^Zggh]h jZkij_^_e_gby b k nmgdpb_c S()
\ujZ`_gb_f


 GZa\Zgb_ \hagbdeh ih ZgZeh]bb k \ujZ`_gb_f ^ey ki_dljZevgh]h jZki-
j_^_e_gbydhglmjZihehkuih]ehs_gby\l_hjbb^bki_jkbb kf]e 
74
J() =P S() , (3.26)
]^_

P = ∫ Pv (v )dv .
0
Rbjbghc ebgbb y\ey_lky jZkklhygb_ ih rdZe_ qZklhl beb ^ebg \heg
f_`^m lhqdZfb dhglmjZ ebgbb \ dhlhjuo fhsghklv jZ\gZ iheh\bg_ fZdkb
fZevghcBa  gZoh^bfqlh\lhqdZoiheh\bgghcfhsghklbqZklhlZjZ\
gZ
γ
v1 2 = v0 ± . (3.27)

Hlkx^Zkmq_lhf  ihemqZ_f_kl_kl\_ggmxrbjbgmebgbb
γ 1 4πe2v 2
∆vN = = = . (3.28)
2π 2πτ 3c3m
<\b^bfhch[eZklbki_dljZ]^_ihklhyggZyaZlmoZgby§8k–1_kl_kl
\_ggZy rbjbgZ ki_dljZevguo  ebgbc  khklZ\ey_l - F=p Mqblu\Zy qlh
¨ = – ¨k/2ba  ihemqZ_f_kl_kl\_ggmxrbjbgmebgbb\^ebgZo\heg

¨N §10–5gf (3.29)

BlZd kh]eZkgh deZkkbq_kdhc we_dljh^bgZfbd_ _kl_kl\_ggZy rbjbgZ \k_o


ki_dljZevguoebgbchq_gvfZeZ<\b^bfhch[eZklbki_dljZwlZrbjbgZe_
`blaZij_^_eZfb\hafh`ghklbgZ[ex^_gbyh[uqgufbhilbq_kdbfbf_lh^Z
fb
Klhqdbaj_gbyd\Zglh\hcwe_dljh^bgZfbdb_kl_kl\_ggZyrbjbgZebgbb
k\yaZgZ k g_hij_^_e_gghklvx \ \_ebqbg_ wg_j]bb khklhygby ZlhfZ Wg_j]by
kbkl_fuW fh`_l[ulvba\_klgZebrvklhqghklvx¨Wk\yaZgghckh\j_f_
g_f`bagb2khklhygby mjh\gy khhlghr_gb_fg_hij_^_e_gghklb

¨W 2 ≥ hŒ (3.30)

RbjbgZki_dljZevghcebgbbhij_^_ey_lkywg_j]_lbq_kdhcrbjbghc¨W
gZqZevgh]h b dhg_qgh]h mjh\g_c i_j_oh^Z <ujZ`_gb_ ^ey dhglmjZ ebgbb \
wlhfkemqZ_kh\iZ^Z_lk\ujZ`_gbyfb  b  klhcjZagbp_cqlh\f_
klh ihklhygghc aZlmoZgby  bkihevam_lky kmffZ h[jZlguo \_ebqbg \j_f_g
`bagbh[hbomjh\g_c
1 1
γ ik = γ i + γ k = + = Ai + Ak , (3.31)
τi τk
]^_ Ai b Ak — kmffu \_jhylghkl_c \k_o hilbq_kdbo i_j_oh^h\ k ^Zgguo
mjh\g_c
>ey kbevguo i_j_oh^h\ _kl_kl\_ggZy rbjbgZ ebgbb dZd b ijb deZkkb
q_kdhf jZkkfhlj_gbb hdZau\Z_lky ihjy^dZ –5 gf < ^jm]bo kemqZyo hgZ
fh`_l[ulv[hevr_bebf_gvr_

75
ƒ>hiie_jh\kdh_mrbj_gb_ki_dljZevguoebgbc

:lhfubbhgu\ieZaf_bklhqgbdh\k\_lZgZoh^ylky\ihklhygghf^\b
`_gbbQZklhlZbaemq_gbyZlhfZ^\b`ms_]hky\gZijZ\e_gbbemqZaj_gby ih
hkbz), ijb v z c kf_s_gZhlghkbl_evghqZklhlubaemq_gbyg_ih^\b`gh]h
ZlhfZ \khhl\_lkl\bbkwnn_dlhf>hiie_jZgZ\_ebqbgm
vz
v − v0 = v0 . (3.32)
c
IjboZhlbqghf^\b`_gbbqZklbp\ieZaf_jZkij_^_e_gb_boihkdhjhklyf v
\ujZ`Z_lkynmgdpb_cFZdk\_eeZ  >eyijh_dpbckdhjhkl_c vz jZkij_^_
e_gb_FZdk\_eeZbf__l]Zmkkh\mnhjfm

M M
dN (vz ) = N e− Mv z /2kT dvz = N e− vz
2 2 2
v
dvz. (3.33)
2πkT 2π kT

A^_kvF —fZkkZqZklbpk —ihklhyggZy;hevpfZgZQ_j_a

v\_j = 2kT / M = 2 RT / N , (3.34)

]^_ R — ]Zah\Zy ihklhyggZy — Zlhfguc \_k qZklbp h[hagZq_gZ gZb[he__


\_jhylgZy kdhjhklv qZklbp khhl\_l
kl\mxsZyfZdkbfmfmnmgdpbb  
JZkij_^_e_gb_ qZklbp ih ijh-
_dpbyf kdhjhkl_c vZ ij_^klZ\e_gh
gZ jbk Z Nmgdpby   bf__l
fZdkbfmfijbvZ = 0.QbkehqZklbpk
ijh_dpb_c kdhjhklb jZ\ghc v\_j  \
_ pZa f_gvr_ q_f qbkeh qZklbp k
gme_\hcijh_dpb_ckdhjhklb
Fhsghklv baemq_gby ijhihj-
pbhgZevgZ qbkem baemqZxsbo qZk-
lbpIhkdhevdmkf_s_gb_qZklhlu
 –0ijbwnn_dl_>hiie_jZkh]eZk
gh  ijhihjpbhgZevghkdhjhklb
vz  jZkij_^_e_gb_ ki_dljZevghc
iehlghklb fhsghklb ih qZklhlZf
J( – H) ih\lhjy_l \b^ nmgdpbb
 blZd`_bf__l]Zmkkh\mnhjfm
jbk[):
JbkJZkij_^_e_gb_qZklbpihijh_d
pbyfkdhjhkl_cvZ (Z bkhhl\_lkl\mxsbc Pv (v − v0 ) = Pv (v0 ) e− vz
2 2
v\_j
. (3.35)
_fm dhglmj ^hiie_jh\kdh]h mrbj_gby
ebgbb [) Mqblu\Zy   ij_h[jZam_f  
d\b^m

76
Pv (v − v0 ) = Pv (v0 ) e−(v − v0 )
2 2
c v02 v\_j
2
. (3.36)

H[hagZqbfq_j_a¨kkf_s_gb_qZklhlubaemq_gby – 0dhlhjh_^ZxlZlh
fukijh_dpbyfbkdhjhkl_c vz , jZ\gufb v\_j <_ebqbgm¨kih  jZ\
gmx

¨k= 0 v\_j /c, (3.37)

gZau\Zxl^hiie_jh\kdbfiZjZf_ljhf<djm]h\uoqZklhlZo
¨&k= 2Œ ¨k = k v\_j ; k = 2Œ/.

Ih^klZ\eyy \ujZ`_gb_   \   ihemqZ_f ^hiie_jh\kdh_ jZkij_^_e_


gb_fhsghklbihqZklhlZf\\b^_
Pv (v − v0 ) = Pv (v0 ) e−(v − v0 )
2
∆ν c2
. (3.38)

Hghfh`_l[ulv\ujZ`_ghlZd`_q_j_anmgdpbxSD():
e−(v − v0 )
1 2
∆ν c2
S D (ν ) = , (3.39)
π∆ν c
dZd wlh [ueh k^_eZgh jZg__ ^ey ^bki_jkbhggh]h jZkij_^_e_gby kf mjZ\g_
gby  -(3.26)).
GZc^_f ^hiie_jh\kdmx rbjbgm ebgbb ¨D Ih^klZ\eyy \   agZq_
gb_J( – 0)1/2 = J(0 ihemqZ_fZ[kpbkkmlhqdbiheh\bgghcfhsghklb
( – 0)1/2 = ¨k ln 2 . (3.40)

>hiie_jh\kdZyrbjbgZebgbbjZ\gZm^\h_gghc\_ebqbg_  – 0)1/2:

¨D = 2( – 0)1/2 = 2 ln 2 ¨k = ¨k /0,6 . (3.41)

Ih^klZ\eyyagZq_gbydhgklZglbf__f
¨D =˜–7  T / µ . (3.42)

Mqblu\Zyqlh¨/ = ¨/ ihemqZ_f\^ebgZo\heg

¨D = ˜–7  T /µ . (3.43)

DZd \b^gh ^hiie_jh\kdZy rbjbgZ ebgbb aZ\bkbl hl l_fi_jZlmju ]ZaZ L b


Zlhfgh]h\_kZbaemqZxsboqZklbpIjb\ukhdbol_fi_jZlmjZo^hiie_jh\
kdZyrbjbgZebgbce_]dbowe_f_glh\fh`_l[ulv\_ebdZLZd^hiie_jh\kdZy
rbjbgZ\h^hjh^ghcebgbbH  gf ijbDkhklZ\ey_lgf
KZfuf ly`_euf we_f_glhf bkihevam_fuf \ bklhqgbdZo k\_lZ y\ey_lky
jlmlv   <\b^bfhch[eZklbki_dljZijbL Debgbbjlmlbbf_

77
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BlZd^Z`_^eykZfuoly`_euowe_f_glh\^hiie_jh\kdZyrbjbgZebgbb
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jbgm>hiie_jh\kdmxrbjbgmebgbbfh`ghmf_gvrblvhoeZ`^_gb_fkl_ghd
dhe[u bklhqgbdZ baemq_gby H^gZdh ke_^m_l bf_lv \ \b^m qlh l_fi_jZlmjZ
Zlhfh\\jZajy^_\k_]^Z\ur_l_fi_jZlmjuhoeZ^bl_eybaZ\bkblhllh]hgZ
kdhevdh\_ebdbiehlghklvlhdZb^Z\e_gb_\jZajy^_bgZkdhevdh[ebadhjZa
jy^gZoh^blkydhoeZ`^Z_fufkl_gdZf
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gh\j_f_ggh\ebyxsb_gZdhglmjki_dljZevghcebgbbDZ`^Zy]jmiiZZlhfh\
khkdhjhklyfb vz baemqZ_lebgbxk_kl_kl\_gghcrbjbghcihwlhfmdZ`^uc
[_kdhg_qghmadbcmqZklhd^hiie_jh\kdh]hdhglmjZjZkrbj_g\khhl\_lkl\bb
knmgdpb_c  Ki_dljZevgZyebgbyij_^klZ\ey_lkh[hck\_jldm]Zmkkh\hc
  b ^bki_jkbhgghc   nmgdpbc  :gZeblbq_kdh_ \ujZ`_gb_ wlhc
k\_jldbghkblgZa\Zgb_nmgdpbbNhc]lZ>@

α e− y
2
S V (ν ) = ∫ α2 + (u − y ) 2 dy ,
∆vc π3 2 −∞
(3.44)

]^_
∆vN
α= ln 2,
∆vD
v − v0
u= 2 ln 2 .
∆vD
(3.45)
DZd \b^gh ba jbk  ]Zmkkh
\Z b ^bki_jkbhggZy nmgdpbb jZa
ebqgu ih nhjf_ GZ djuevyo ^bk
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hij_^_eyxlky^hiie_jh\kdbfmrb
j_gb_f Z djuevy ebgbb — mrbj_
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eyxsb_gZijbf_j>@

ƒMrbj_gb_ebgbcijb\aZbfh^_ckl\bbbaemqZxs_]hZlhfZ
khdjm`ZxsbfbqZklbpZfb

< bklhqgbdZo k\_lZ baemqZxsb_ Zlhfu b bhgu gZoh^ylky \ hdjm`_gbb


g_cljZevguobaZjy`_gguoqZklbpKi_dljZevgu_ebgbbbaemqZ_fu_\lZdbo
mkeh\byo^hihegbl_evghjZkrbjyxlky<_ebqbgZb\b^mrbj_gbyaZ\bkylhl
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78
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m[u\Zxsb_ k jZkklhygb_f ijhihjpbhgZevgh r–6 ?keb baemqZxsbc ZlhfgZ
oh^blkykj_^bih^h[guo_fmZlhfh\\aZbfh^_ckl\b_h[mkeh\e_ghh[f_ggu
fbkbeZfbh[jZlghijhihjpbhgZevgufbdm[mjZkklhygby<hafms_gb_ghkbl
j_ahgZgkguc oZjZdl_j b ijb\h^bl d [hevrhfm mrbj_gbx ebgbc ?keb \ha
fmsZxsbfbqZklbpZfby\eyxlkybhgubwe_dljhgubaemqZxsbcZlhfih^
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jy^_
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klhedgh\_gb_f\ijhf_`mldZof_`^mklhedgh\_gbyfbbaemqZxsbcZlhfg_
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j_r_gb_aZ^Zqb^he`ghijh\h^blvkyklZlbklbq_kdbfbf_lh^Zfb
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lbq_kdb_ dhe_[Zgby Z ijb m^Zj_ baemq_gb_ ij_djZsZ_lky FZl_fZlbq_kdh_
\ujZ`_gb_ ^ey dhglmjZ ki_dljZevghc ebgbb ihemq_ggh_ Ehj_gphf \ wlhf
kemqZ_ihnhjf_kh\iZ^Z_lk\ujZ`_gb_f  kl_fhlebqb_fqlhjhev_k
l_kl\_ggh]h \j_f_gb `bagb mjh\gy l_i_jv b]jZ_l kj_^g__ \j_fy 20 ijh[_]Z
qZklbp f_`^m klhedgh\_gbyfb Dhglmj ebgbb ihemqZxsbcky ijb klhedgh
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pσ2 pσ2 2
∆vL ≈ 1,5 ⋅ 10 20
, ∆λ L ≈ 5 ⋅ 10
9
λ , (3.46)
µT µΤ

]^_12 —wnn_dlb\gh_k_q_gb_khm^Zj_gby\kf2, j— ^Z\e_gb_\[ZjZo —


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pbhgZevgh_^Z\e_gbxLZdgZijbf_jj_ahgZgkgZyebgbygZljby gf
ijb^Z\e_gbbZahlZjZ\ghfffjlklbf__lehj_gph\kdmxrbjbgm¨L =
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79
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rbo^Z\e_gbyorbjbgZebgbb
2 e2 2 e2 p
∆v j_a = fN= f (3.47)
3π mv 3π mv kT
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WE?DLJHGGUFBIHLHD:FB

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klZ\eyxs_c_^bgbpufbeeb\Zll
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kdhjhklb k\_lZ gZ[ex^Zl_ev \hkijbgbfZ_l qZklhlm _]h baemq_gby kf_s_g
ghc

1− β 2
ν =ν ′ = ν ′F . (4.1)
1 − β cos ϕ
A^_kv = v / c , 3 — m]hef_`^mgZijZ\e_gb_fkdhjhklbbgZijZ\e_gb_fgZ
[ex^_gby\kbkl_f_gZ[ex^Zl_ey
Dhwnnbpb_gl F ij_h[jZah\Zgby qZklhlu fZdkbfZe_g _keb bklhqgbd
^\b`_lky d gZ[ex^Zl_ex 3=   ?s_ [hevr__ ij_h[jZah\Zgb_ qZklhlu F2)
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[ex^ZlvhljZ`_ggh_baemq_gb_
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jh]hbah[jZ`_gZgZjbk. 4.1,Zijb\_klb\^\b`_gb_kj_eylb\bklkdhckdhjh
klvx ^bZ]jZffZ \ulyg_lky \i_j_^ ih ^\b`_gbx jbk [  Fh`gh ij_^-
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m0c 2 1
θ = 1− β = 2
= , (4.2)
E γ

104
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jbk \ bah[jZ`_gh k_q_gb_ ^bZ
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KB `ms_]hkykj_eylb\bklkdhckdhjhklvx
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v/R jZ\gZy qZklhl_ h[jZs_gby we_dljhgZ ih hj[bl_ b \ukrb_ ]Zjfhgbdb
djZlgu__c<_jogyy]jZgbpZqZklhlijbf_jghjZ\gZh[jZlghc^ebl_evghklb
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jZ\gZ ^ebg_ hj[blu kbgojhljhgZ 0 = 2ŒRc/v Ijb h[uqguo jZaf_jZo kbg
ojhljhgZ R = 1–f wlhbaemq_gb_gZoh^blky\ij_^_eZojZ^bhqZklhl<h[
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Wlhfm kihkh[kl\mxl b jZaebqgu_ \hafms_gby we_dljhgh\ gZ hj[bl_ \ke_^
kl\b_dhlhjuokdhjhklbhl^_evguowe_dljhgh\g_kljh]hh^bgZdh\u
Km\_ebq_gb_fwg_j]bbfZdkbfmfbaemq_gby^ebgZ\hegudhlhjh]h m
hij_^_ey_lkynhjfmehc
4π R
 m>gf@  = 0,234 R E–3(R>f@? >=w<@  3)
3γ 3

kf_sZ_lky \ dhjhldh\hegh\mx h[eZklv Ijb wg_j]bb \ g_kdhevdh ^_kyldh\


Fw< fZdkbfmf e_`bl \ \b^bfhc h[eZklb ki_dljZ ijb wg_j]bb \ g_kdhevdh
=w<—\^Ze_dhcj_gl]_gh\kdhch[eZklb lZdijb? =w<bR = f m =
gf DZdke_^m_lba  b  KBijbwg_j]byowe_dljhgh\Fw<
b=w<ih^h[ghbaemq_gbxq_jgh]hl_eZkl_fi_jZlmjZfbkhhl\_lkl\_ggh˜
105 b8D
105
Wg_j]byl_jy_fZyh^gbfwe_dljhghfgZbaemq_gb_aZh^bgh[hjhlijhihjpbh
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88,5 E 4
∆E = [dw<] (4.4)
R
Ihkdhevdm qbkeh we_dljhgh\ \ k]mkld_ gZ hj[bl_ kbgojhljhgZ fh`_l ^hklb
]Zlv11 - 1012kmffZjgZywg_j]bybaemq_gby\_ebdZLZdbaemq_gb_k]mkldZ
we_dljhgh\ \ kbgojhljhg_ k wg_j]b_c\ g_kdhevdh khl_g Fw< \ \b^bfhc h[
eZklbki_dljZkjZ\gbfhihyjdhklbkbaemq_gb_f\hevlh\hc^m]b

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fZ gZijZ\e_gghklb baemq_gby we_d ljZevgh_ jZkij_^_e_gb_ fhsghklb ijb
ljhgZijb^\b`_gbbihdjm]h\hchj jZaebqguowg_j]byowe_dljhgh\
[bl_

Ihi_j_qgu_jZaf_juimqdZwe_dljhgh\khklZ\eyxl–2 - 10–4kf2Zm]
eh\Zy jZkoh^bfhklv baemq_gby gZijbf_j ijb  =w< g_ ij_\urZ_l ƒ
ijhc^yfimqhdjZkrbjy_lky\k_]hgZff KBfh`ghbkihevah\ZlvgZ
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baemq_gby
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ki_dljKB\dhjhldh\hegh\hch[eZklbfh`_lkem`blvlZdbf`_klZg^Zjlhf
dZdbki_dljq_jgh]hl_eZ\\b^bfhcbbgnjZdjZkghch[eZklyo

106
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dhfihg_glihwlhfmkmffZjgh_baemq_gb_kbevghiheyjbah\Zgh
Djhf_hlf_q_gguo^hklhbgkl\—g_ij_ju\gh]hki_dljZ[hevrhcyjdh
klb baemq_gby \ukhdhc gZijZ\e_gghklb b \ukhdhc kl_i_gb iheyjbaZpbb —
kbgojhljhggh_ baemq_gb_ih kjZ\g_gbxk ^jm]bfb bklhqgbdZfb k\_lZ h[eZ
^Z_l l_f ij_bfms_kl\hf qlh baemqZxsbc we_dljhgguc imqhd ^\b`_lky \
\ukhdhf\Zdmmf_WlhkgbfZ_lijh[e_fmaZsblu\Zdmmfgh]hh[t_fZhilbq_

Jbk  Ko_fZ ^_ckl\by fZ]gblgh]h hg^meylhjZ 1 — ljZ_dlhjby we_dljhgh\


KijZ\ZihdZaZghm]eh\h_jZkij_^_e_gb_ih^ebgZf\hegbaemq_gby\imqd_

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ijbf_j ijb bkihevah\Zgbb \h^hjh^guo eZfi ]e   ;he__ lh]h ijh[e_fZ
klZgh\blkyh[jZlghchilbq_kdbcijb[hjg_^he`_gmom^rZlv\Zdmmf\dZf_
j_kbgojhljhgZ>@

ƒHg^meylhjgh_baemq_gb_ HB

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emqZ_fhcwe_dljhghfwg_j]bbjZ\gmxhlghr_gbxm]eZjZkl\hjZKBdihe
ghfm m]em ih\hjhlZ ih hj[bl_ Œ — ihjy^dZ –4–10–5 hl \k_c baemqZ_fhc
wg_j]bb Mkljhckl\hf \ dhlhjhf wnn_dlb\ghklv bkihevah\Zgby baemq_gby
we_dljhgZ\ur_bdjhf_lh]hki_dljbaemq_gby[he__fhghojhfZlbq_gy\
ey_lkyhg^meylhj<hg^meylhj_we_dljhggucihlhdijhoh^blq_j_akbkl_fm
ihi_j_qguo agZdhi_j_f_gguo ihklhygguo fZ]gblguo ihe_c hldehgyxsbo
_]h\ihi_j_qghfgZijZ\e_gbb jbk 
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—ih^jZagufbm]eZfbbaemqZxlkyjZagu_^ebgu\heg jbk q_f^Zevr_
hl p_gljZl_f [hevr_ Wlh iha\hey_l ijhklhc^bZnjZ]fhc\u^_eblvgm`
gmx h[eZklv ki_dljZ LZdbf `_ k\hckl\hf h[eZ^Z_l b KB gh gZ[ex^_gb_
wlh]hwnn_dlZgZKBaZljm^gbl_evgh>@
?keb ljZ_dlhjby we_dljhgZ lZdh\Z qlh gZijZ\e_gb_ \_dlhjZ kdhjhklb
we_dljhgZbaf_gy_lkyf_g__q_fgZm]he. 1/dhgmk^bZ]jZffugZijZ\e_g

107
ghklb g_ moh^bl hl gZ[ex^Zl_ey Baemq_gb_ nhjfbjm_lky ijZdlbq_kdb gZ
\k_cdjb\hebg_cghcqZklbljZ_dlhjbbqZklbpu\hg^meylhj_
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gyxsbckyijbf_jghih]Zjfhgbq_kdhfmaZdhgmbfh`gh]h\hjblvh]_g_jZ
pbb [he__ beb f_g__ fhghojhfZlb
q_kdh]h baemq_gby FZdkbfmf
fhsghklb khhl\_lkl\m_l ^ebg_
\hegu \ 2 f_gvr_c i_jbh^Z fZ]
gblgh]h ihey \ hg^meylhj_ LZdh_
j_eylb\bklkdh_ khdjZs_gb_ ]_g_
jbjm_fhc ^ebgu \hegu ih kjZ\g_
gbx k i_jbh^hf kljmdlmju iha\h
ey_l \ ijb[hjZo [hevrbo jZaf_jh\
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emq_gb_
< gZklhys__ \j_fy ^ey ihem
q_gby KB b HB ij_^ihqblZxl bk
ihevah\Zlv gZdhibl_evgu_ dhevpZ
beb gZdhibl_eb jbk  Hgb
ij_^klZ\eyxl kh[hc mkljhckl\Z
Jbk  Ko_fZ gZdhibl_ey j_ey- ih^h[gu_ kbgojhljhgm gh ij_^gZ
lb\bklkdbo we_dljhgh\ 1 — \ZdmmfgZy agZq_ggu_ g_ ^ey ihemq_gby j_ey
dZf_jZ 2 — ih\hjhlgu_ fZ]gblu 3 — lb\bklkdbo we_dljhgh\ Z ^ey ojZ
fZ]gblgu_ ebgau 4 — mkdhjbl_ev- g_gbybo\l_q_gb_fgh]boqZkh\<
bg`_dlhj we_dljhgh\ 5 — <Q j_ahgZlhj gZdhibl_eyofZ]gblgh_ihe_g_f_
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^uKBbHB \ukhdhf \Zdmmf_ a–9 Lhj \ kbg
ojhljhg_ \Zdmmf –7 Lhj  AZ kq_l
gZdhie_gby qZklbp kj_^gbc lhd gZ hj[bl_ gZdhibl_ey ijbf_jgh gZ ihjy^hd
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r_jZ^bZpbhggucnhg\[ebabdZf_ju<dZq_kl\_ijbf_jZfh`ghmihfygmlv
gZdhibl_ev jZ[hlZxsbc \ Bgklblml_ Zlhfghc wg_j]bb :G J:G Wlhl gZ-
dhibl_evkjZ^bmkhfhj[blufjZkkqblZggZwg_j]bxqZklbp^hFw<b
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bffih]hjbahglZebl_y\ey_lkyijZdlbq_kdblhq_qgufbklhqgbdhfk\_
lZ

ƒEZa_jugZk\h[h^guowe_dljhgZo

GZ hkgh\_ hg^meylhjh\ kha^Zgu gh\u_ lbiu ]_g_jZlhjh\ — eZa_ju gZ


k\h[h^guowe_dljhgZo EKW <wlbomkljhckl\ZogZdhgpZohg^meylhjZjZk
iheh`_gu ^\Z a_jdZeZ b ]_g_jbjm_fZy \hegZ fgh]hdjZlgh ijhoh^bl ih hkb
kbkl_fu ;eZ]h^Zjy wlhfm m\_ebqb\Z_lky baemqZ_fZy fhsghklv \hajZklZ_l
fhghojhfZlbqghklv

108
=_g_jZpbxEKWkdeZkkbq_kdhclhqdbaj_gbyfh`ghjZkkfZljb\ZlvdZd
j_amevlZl \aZbfh^_ckl\by g_aZf_^e_gghc we_dljhfZ]gblghc \hegu nZah\Zy
kdhjhklv__jZ\gZkdhjhklbk\_lZk\k\h[h^ghfijhkljZgkl\_ kg_ijyfheb
g_cguf i_jbh^bq_kdbf we_dljhggufihlhdhf\dhlhjhfwe_dljhgu^\b]Z
xlky \ gZijZ\e_gbb hkb z kh kdhjhklvx vz, g_fgh]h f_gvr_c k GZihfgbf
qlh \ ljZ^bpbhgguo K<Q-]_g_jZlhjZo lZdbo dZd EH< dZjlbgZ ijh-
lb\hiheh`gZy ihlhd we_dljhgh\ kdhjhklv dhlhjuo fgh]h f_gvr_ kdhjhklb
k\_lZ—ijyfhebg_cgucZwe_dljhfZ]gblgZy\hegZihemqZxsZywg_j]bxhl
ihlhdZ—aZf_^e_ggZy
Fh`ghihdZaZlv>@qlh]_g_jbjm_fZy^ebgZ\heguEKW jZ\gZ
λ = L(c / vz − 1) . (4.5)

K]mklhd we_dljhgh\ ^\b`msbcky ih hkb EKW kh kdhjhklvx vz b bkiu


lu\Zxsbcihi_j_qgu_kf_s_gbykijhkljZgkl\_ggufi_jbh^hfLijbwlhf
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gyxs_c _]h kh kdhjhklvx k k\_lh\hc \hegu < lhjfhays_f ihe_ we_dljhgu
hl^Zxlwg_j]bxbwe_dljhfZ]gblgZy\hegZmkbeb\Z_lky
DZd b \ h[uqguo eZa_jZo j_ahgZlhj EKW ^he`_g gZkljZb\Zlvky lZdbf
h[jZahfqlh[u_]hj_ahgZgkgZyqZklhlZ[ueZ[ebadZdh[eZklbhljbpZl_evgh
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kbfmfhl[hjZwg_j]bbhlwe_dljhggh]hihlhdZ
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ebf_ljh\hch[eZklbki_dljZ>@bihjy^dZ_^bgbpfbeeb\Zll—\\b^bfhc
h[eZklb >Zevg_cr__ ih\ur_gb_ qZklhlu b fhsghklb lj_[m_l mf_gvr_gby
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jbh^bq_kdboihe_c\djbklZeeZob^jm]bofbdjhkdhibq_kdbokljmdlmjZo

ƒH[jZlgucwnn_dlDhfilhgZ

M\_ebq_gb_qZklhluijbhljZ`_gbbbaemq_gbyhla_jdZeZ^\b`ms_]hky
kj_eylb\bklkdhckdhjhklvx\i_j\u_gZ[ex^Zehkv\]HNDmebdh\uf
b ^j >@ A_jdZehf kem`beb we_dljhgu k]mkldZ gZ hj[bl_ kbgojhljhgZ k
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gh\h]heZa_jZ  gfwg_j]byd\Zglh\h = w< HljZ`_ggu_nhlhgu
ij_^klZ\eyebkh[hc]ZffZ-d\Zglukwg_j]b_cFw< ^ebgZ\hegu
gf  LZdbf h[jZahf dhwnnbpb_gl ij_h[jZah\Zgby qZklhlu ^hklb]Ze  ˜ 6.
Ih ZgZeh]bb k wnn_dlhf DhfilhgZ ijb dhlhjhf nhlhgu jZkk_b\Zxlky gZ
k\h[h^guowe_dljhgZokmf_gvr_gb_fwg_j]bbnhlhgZ^Zggucijhp_kkijh
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n:
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1
S( f )= S (0 ) . (5.5)
1 + 4π2 f 2 τ2
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kb]gZeZ
fij_^ = 1 (2πτ ) , (5.6)

116
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hlf ^hf = fij_^Ke_^h\Zl_evgh
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f
>* = N . (5.8)
1 + 4π2 f 2 τ2
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kljZgkl\_gghcfh^meypbb [2; 5.4; 5.5].
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K = (IfZdk – Ifbg)/(IfZdk+ Ifbg) , (5.9)
]^_ IfZdk b Ifbg — Zfieblm^u ijhkljZgkl\_gghc \hegu bgl_gkb\ghklb \ fZd
kbfmf_bfbgbfmf_
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klZgZ\uoh^_K\uobgZ\oh^_K\o:

Q = K\uo / K\o . (5.10)


117
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wnnbpb_gl khijhlb\e_gby fZl_jbZeh\ fh`_l ^hklb]Zlv khl_g b lukyq ijh
p_glh\gZ]jZ^mkH[eZklvi_j_oh^ZfZl_jbZeh\\k\_joijh\h^ys__khklhygb_
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i_j_oh^Zdk\_joijh\h^bfhklby\ey_lkygbljb^gbh[by aD 

125
Ijbihgb`_gbbl_fi_jZlmjumf_gvrZxlkyl_ieh_fdhklv[hehf_ljZbrm
fu Kh k\_joijh\h^ysbfb [hehf_ljZfb fh`gh ihemqblv hq_gv fZemx ih
klhyggmx\j_f_gb—^hfkGZbemqr_ch[gZjm`bl_evghckihkh[ghklvx
h[eZ^Zxl kZfu_ gbadhl_fi_jZlmjgu_ [hehf_lju LZd m]hevguc [hehf_lj
jZ[hlZxsbcijbl_fi_jZlmj_dbiys_]hijbhldZqd_]_eby D bf__l> = 4
⋅ 1010=p1/2Âkf<lijbqm\kl\bl_evghklbS =p  <<l=_jfZgb_\uc
[hehf_lj k ijbf_kvx ]Zeeby jZ[hlZxsbc lZd`_ ijb  D bf__l >  = 8 ⋅
1011=p1/2Âkf<lbqm\kl\bl_evghklvS =p  <<l
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l_jfh-W>K

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kdbfb beb ijb_fgbdZfb =he_y keh`g__ ^jm]bo l_ieh\uo ijb_fgbdh\ ih
126
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l_evgufb k\hckl\Zfb ie_gdb b ijhajZqghklvx hdgZ < dZq_kl\_ ih]ehsZx
s_cie_gdbbkihevamxlqZklbqghijhajZqgmxf_lZeebq_kdmxie_gdm kf]e
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lhesbg_ie_gdbdh]^Z__khijhlb\e_gb_ijbih\_joghklbkf2jZ\ghiheh
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gb_\ie_gd__s_ijhp_glh\gZ^_kylv

127
ƒIbjhwe_dljbq_kdb_ijb_fgbdb

Ibjhwe_dljbq_kdb_ ijb_fgbdb y\eyxlky gh\uf ihdhe_gb_f l_ieh\uo


ijb_fgbdh\ k\_lZ k lbibqghc ^ey ihke_^gbo rbjhdhc ki_dljZevghc h[eZ
klvx qm\kl\bl_evghklb gh k fZehc ihklhygghc \j_f_gb >@ >_ckl\b_ bo
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Qm\kl\bl_evgucwe_f_glkfbgbfZevgufl_iehhl\h^hfL_ieh\Zy
ihklhyggZy\j_f_gbibjhijb_fgbdh\klZdbfbwe_f_glZfbkjZ\gbl_evgh\_
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128
Jbk  Ko_fZ mkljhckl\Z ibjhijb_fgbdh\ k iehkdbfb Z   b lhjp_\ufb \ ])
we_dljh^Zfbbwe_dljbq_kdZyko_fZbo\dexq_gby ^): 1 — ibjhwe_dljbd—we_d
ljh^u gZko_f_[h^bgbagboihemijhajZqguc 3 —q_jgv4 — hljZ`Zxs__ih
djulb_5 —\u\h^uWe_dljh^u2h[jZamxldhg^_gkZlhjK; r — \gmlj_gg__khijh
lb\e_gb_ibjhwe_dljbdZRG —gZ]jmadZ r » RG); UR — kgbfZ_fuckb]gZe

dhg_qgZy l_fi_jZlmjZ ijhihjpbhgZe_g ih]ehs_gghc aZ \j_fy bfimevkZ


τ
wg_j]bb ûL ~ ∫ Pdt 2 — ^ebl_evghklv baf_jy_fh]h bfimevkZ baemq_gby 
0
Ijb2 « 2l_iegZ]j_\ûLwe_f_glZbibjh-W>K ε (T ) \hagbdZxsZygZlhjpZo
ibjhwe_dljbdZ \hajZklZxl ebg_cgh \h \j_f_gb jbk   ^hklb]Zy \ dhgp_
bfimevkZagZq_gbcijhihjpbhgZevguoP02, l_ wg_j]bbbfimevkZ
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dZ jbk^ kha^Z_liZ^_gb_gZijy`_gbygZkhijhlb\e_gbb RG

UR = iRg = KRH dU c , (5.12)


dt
]^_ K — f_`^mwe_dljh^gZy _fdhklv ijb_fgbdZ b Uc — gZijy`_gb_ gZ wlhc
_fdhklb Baf_g_gb_ gZijy`_gby UR \h \j_f_gb k mq_lhf ijhp_kkZ aZjy^db

129
_fdhklbKhlbklhqgbdZW>K ε q_j_akhijhlb\e_gb_RG hij_^_ey_lkymjZ\
g_gb_f
U R = RH C
d 
dt 
ε (
1 − e −t RH C
) = RHC ddtε (1 − e−t R C ) + ε e−t R C . (5.13)
H H

<aZ\bkbfhklbhl\_ebqbguihklhygghc\j_f_gbwe_dljbq_kdhcp_ib2we
= RGK\hafh`gZjZ[hlZijb_fgbdZ\^\moj_`bfZoZ baf_j_gb_wg_j]bbb[ 
baf_j_gb_fhsghklb
Z Baf_j_gb_wg_j]bbIjb2« RGKba  ihemqZ_f
UR = ε. (5.14)
ε
<_ebqbgZ \l_q_gb_bfimevkZgZjZklZ_lijhihjpbhgZevghgZ]j_\mûL.
GZijy`_gb_ UR jZkl_l lZd`_ ebg_cgh ^h \_ebqbgu \ dhgp_ bfimevkZ ijh
ihjpbhgZevghcwg_j]bbP02 jbkdjb
\Zy 1). Khijhlb\e_gb_ RG \u[bjZxl ih
jy^dZ 9–1012 Hf Ijb_fgbd \ wlhf j_
`bf_ h[eZ^Z_l \ukhdhc qm\kl\bl_evgh
klvx^hoh^ys_c^h<>`
[  Baf_j_gb_ fhsghklb   Ijb 2 »
RGK ^bnn_j_gpbjmxsZy \g_rgyy p_
ihqdZ bf__fba  

U R = RH C . (5.15)
dt
Ke_^h\Zl_evgh gZijy`_gb_ UR [ukljh
jZkl_l \ gZqZe_ bfimevkZ Z ^Ze__ khojZ
gy_lky g_baf_gguf jbk  djb\Zy 2) k
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f_j_gb_ijhbkoh^bliml_fkjZ\g_gbyiZ
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^`hme_\h l_ieh ihklmiZxl gZ ibjhijb_fgbd ihi_j_f_ggh k qZklhlhc -13
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130
Jbk H[gZjm`bl_evgZy kihkh[ghklv> l_ieh\uoijb_fgbdh\b ijb_fgbdh\ k
\gmlj_ggbfnhlhwnn_dlhf

dh-Zdmklbq_kdboijb_fgbdh\ijbhilbfZevghcqZklhl_fh^meypbb=p jbk
5.10).
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fZeZihjy^dZ–8kA^_kvlZd`_\hafh`gu^\ZkemqZy
Z  ?keb ^ebl_evghklv bfimevkZ 2 [hevr_ q_f 2l_ie kjZam `_ \hagbdZ_l
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131
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ijbf_jghgf λ0/ δλ ≈ 50).

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([  RbjbgZ ihehku ijhimkdZgby δλ 1 – SiO2–KCl; 2 – BaSO4–NaCl;
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q_gbydjb\uo^bki_jkbb 5 – PbMoO4–KCl; 6 – PbF2–KI;
7 – PbF2–KBr; 8 – PbF2–KCl;
9 – ZnS–KI; 10 – InP–CsI;
11 – ZnSe–CsI; 12 – ZnSe–KI

150
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klZee—`b^dhklvdjbklZee—djbklZee jbk fh]ml[ulvbkihevah\Z
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151
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m]he \ ij_^_eZo dhlhjh]h d gZ- k\_lZ — ]eh[Zj bf_xsbc fZdkbfmf
[ex^Zl_ex ihiZ^Z_l jZkk_yggh_ baem baemq_gby ijb λ   fdf [  Nbevlj
q_gb_ jZkiheh`_g1, 2 — \koh^ys_fkyimq
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152
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5°. Bkihevah\Zgb_hljZ`_gbyhlfZlbjh\Zgguoa_jdZe
^bnjZdpbhgguoj_r_lhdbyq_bkluoih\_joghkl_c

NbevljZfb hlj_aZxsbfb dhjhldh\hegh\h_ baemq_gb_ b \u^_eyxsbfb


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153
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emq_gbyeb[hlhevdh\b^bfh]h

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154
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qbebrbjhdh_jZkijhkljZg_gb_
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kdbf keh_f jbk Z  Baemq_gb_ ijhoh^ys__ q_j_a nbevlj bkiulu\Z_l
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hljZ`_gbya_jdZer1br2. <wlhfkemqZ_ihemqZ_f

2
 R1 − T3 ( R1 + T1 ) R2  + 4T3 R1R2 ( R1 + T1 )sin 2 β L
RΣ = rΣ =  
2
, (6.1)
( )
2
1 − T3 R1R2 + 4T3 R1R2 sin 2 β L
2 T3T1T2
TΣ = tΣ = , (6.2)
(1 − T3 )
2
R1R2 + 4T3 R1R2 sin 2 β L

A^_kvR1 = |r1|2, R2 = |r2|2, L1 , L2bL3 —dhwnnbpb_gluhljZ`_gbybijhajZqgh


klba_jdZe1 b 2 b kj_^u3 f_`^mgbfbihfhsghklb
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iZ^_gbyemq_cgZnbevljjZ\gZ

2βL = 2 nL cos ϕ . (6.3)
λ

155
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ihem\hegl_ijb
λ0
nL cos ϕ = q , q = 1,2,3..., (6.4)
2
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λ 0 bebhldjZlguo_c\_ebqbg
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gufb^bwe_dljbq_kdbfba_jdZeZfb jbk[).
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ba]hlh\e_ggh]hbakeh_\ZnSbdjbheblZ kflZd`_jbk[ RbjbgZh[
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gZdh\h\ukhd<^_ckl\bl_evghklbh[jZam_lkylhevdhh^bgfZdkbfmfijb0 =
gf
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6.10,^.
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`_ggu_ qZs_ < wlhf kemqZ_ \ h[eZklb \ukhdh]h hljZ`_gby a_jdZe fh`_l

*
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fb b bgl_gkb\ghklvjZkk_yggh]h k\_lZ klZgh\blkykjZ\gbfhckbgl_gkb\gh
klvxiZ^Zxs_]hebrvijb\uiheg_gbbmkeh\bynZah\h]hkbgojhgbafZ mkeh
\by;jw]]Z
k + D = k', (6.7)
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\hegBamkeh\bykhojZg_gbywg_j]bbqZklhlZjZkk_ygghc\hegu&
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ky hl qZklhlu iZ^Zxs_c & gZ qZklhlm a\mdZ Ω  Ihkdhevdm Ω & fh`gh
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= &0.
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k = 2ŒQ /0; k' = 2Œi
/0 ; D  2ŒI / V, (6.8)
]^_0 —^ebgZk\_lh\hc\hegu\\Zdmmf_ibi
— ihdZaZl_ebij_ehfe_gby
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Ba  b  ihemqZ_f
k1– k0 = Œûn / 0 = 2Œf / V, (6.9)

]^_ûn = |no — i_| —^\memq_ij_ehfe_gb_djbklZeeZHlkx^Z

0 = Vûn/f = Λ ûn.

I_j_kljhcdm\_ebqbgu0 ihki_dljmhkms_kl\eyxlh[uqgh\ij_^_eZohdlZ
\u gZijbf_j - fdf - fdf - fdf - fdf  khhl
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165
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gZevgZijhba\_^_gbxûnL:
û = û /  2 §ûiL.
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[hch[eZklbki_dljZkhklZ\ey_lkf–1.
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ghkl_c
<k_ ki_dljZevgu_ ijb[hju jZaebqZxlky lZd`_ ih qbkem h^gh\j_
f_gghj_]bkljbjm_fuobfbki_dljZevguobgl_j\Zeh\/ ihqbkemdZgZ
eh\ GZijbf_jnhlh]jZnbjmyki_dljkihfhsvxki_dljh]jZnZfuih
emqZ_fbgnhjfZpbxh^gh\j_f_gghhfgh]boki_dljZevguobgl_j\ZeZo
qbkeh dhlhjuo jZ\gh qbkem mf_sZxsboky ^jm] jy^hf k ^jm]hf bgl_j
\Zeh\/ \ij_^_eZo\k_cjZ[hq_ch[eZklbijb[hjZKwlhclhqdbaj_gby
ki_dljh]jZn y\ey_lky fgh]hdZgZevguf ijb[hjhf Fgh]hdZgZevguf y\
ey_lkybki_dljhf_ljkihebojhfZlhjhfQbkehdZgZeh\\^ZgghfkemqZ_

170
jZ\gh qbkem \uoh^guo s_e_c Ki_dljhf_lj k fhghojhfZlhjhf ij_^
klZ\ey_lkh[hcijbf_jh^ghdZgZevgh]hijb[hjZbgnhjfZpbxhjZaebq
guoki_dljZevguobgl_j\ZeZofuihemqZ_fihke_^h\Zl_evghgZkljZb\Zy
_]hgZjZagu_^ebgu\heg
GZjy^m k deZkkbq_kdbfb \ hkgh\m ihkljh_gby ki_dljZevguo ijb
[hjh\fh]ml[ulviheh`_gugh\u_f_lh^u\dhlhjuojZaeh`_gb_ba
emq_gby\ki_dljkhilbq_kdh]h ^bki_j]bjmxs_]h we_f_glZi_j_eh`_
ghgZwe_dljbq_kdmxko_fmijb[hjZ<hkgh\_^_ckl\bylZdboijb[hjh\
e_`bl k_e_dlb\gZy fh^meypby baemq_gby Z kZfb ijb[hju gZau\Zxl
fh^meypbhggufb
Ijb bkihevah\Zgbb wlbo f_lh^h\ baemq_gb_ \ dZ`^hf mqZkld_ gZ
[ex^Z_fh]h hilbq_kdh]h ki_dljZ fh^mebjm_lky qZklhlhc f h^ghagZqgh
k\yaZgghc k ^ebghc \hegu baemq_gby >Ze__ k ihfhsvx ijb_fgbdZ
ijbgbfZxs_]h h^gh\j_f_ggh \k_ ijhfh^mebjh\Zggu_ hilbq_kdb_ kb]
gZeu \ujZ[Zlu\Z_lky we_dljbq_kdbc kb]gZe \ dhlhjhf aZdh^bjh\Zg
i_j\hgZqZevguchilbq_kdbcki_dlj>eygZoh`^_gbybkoh^gh]hhilbq_
kdh]hki_dljZg_h[oh^bfhijh\_klb]Zjfhgbq_kdbcZgZebaihemq_ggh]h
we_dljbq_kdh]h kb]gZeZ b \hkihevah\Zlvky k\yavx hilbq_kdbo qZklhl k
fh^meypbhggufbqZklhlZfbaZeh`_gghc\^Zgghfijb[hj_<ijhkl_c
rbokemqZyolZdhcZgZebafh`_l[ulvijh\_^_ggZijbf_jkihfhsvx
ki_dljhZgZebaZlhjZ \ [he__ keh`guo kemqZyo lj_[m_lky dhfivxl_j
OZjZdl_j j_]bkljZpbb ki_dljZ \ ^Zgghf f_lh^_ y\ey_lky fgh-
]hdZgZevgufbih^h[_ggZijbf_jnhlh]jZnbjh\Zgbxki_dljZdh]^Z\
l_q_gb_\k_]h\j_f_gbj_]bkljZpbbijhbkoh^blgZdhie_gb_bgnhjfZpbb
kjZamih\k_fmki_dljm
Bf_xlky b h^ghdZgZevgu_ \ZjbZglu f_lh^Z k_e_dlb\ghc fh^mey
pbb\dhlhjuohilbq_kdbckb]gZefh^mebjm_lkylhevdh^eyh^gh]hbg
l_j\ZeZ/Zkhk_^gb_kgbfhklZxlkyg_fh^mebjh\ZggufbLZdhcijb
[hj i_j_kljZb\Zxl ih ^ebgZf \heg k ihfhsvx dZdh]h-eb[h we_f_glZ
dhlhjucihhq_j_^gh\u\h^bljZaebqgu_^ebgu\heg\iheh`_gb_\dh
lhjhfijhbkoh^blfh^meypbyHilbq_kdbcki_dljaZibku\Z_lky\rdZe_
hilbq_kdbo^ebg\hegbebqZklhldZd\deZkkbq_kdboki_dljhf_ljZo
< h[s_f \b^_ deZkkbnbdZpby ki_dljZevguo ijb[hjh\ ij_^klZ\e_gZ
\ lZ[e  < ^Zevg_cr_f baeh`_gbb hkgh\gh_ \gbfZgb_ m^_ey_lky
deZkkbq_kdbf ki_dljZevguf ijb[hjZf ihkdhevdm hgb ihemqbeb gZb
[hevr__jZkijhkljZg_gb_
LZ[ebpZ
DeZkkbnbdZpbyki_dljZevguoijb[hjh\
QbkehdZgZeh\ h^ F_lh^u\u^_e_gbybkke_^m_fuo
gh\j_f_ggh\u^_ ki_dljZevguobgl_j\Zeh\
ey_fuobgl_j\Z deZkkbq_kdb_f_lh^u gh\u_f_lh^u k_e_dlb\gZy
eh\ k_e_dlb\gZynbevljZpby fh^meypby
Fgh]h Ki_dljh]jZnki_dljhkdhi nmjv_-ki_dljhf_lj
ihebojhfZlhj
H^bg fhghojhfZlhj kbkZf
jZkljh\ucki_dljhf_lj

171
†HKGH<GU?O:J:DL?JBKLBDB
KI?DLJ:EVGUOIJB;HJH<

DZ`^uc lbi ki_dljZevgh]h ijb[hjZ oZjZdl_jbam_lky ijbkms_c


_fmZiiZjZlghcnmgdpb_cij_^klZ\eyxs_ckh[hchldebdki_dljZevgh]h
ijb[hjZ gZ fhghojhfZlbq_kdh_ baemq_gb_ NZdlbq_kdb ZiiZjZlgZy
nmgdpby ki_dljZevgh_ hdgh bgkljmf_glZevguc dhglmj  —  wlh
ki_dlj aZibku\Z_fuc \ujZ[Zlu\Z_fuc  ki_dljZevguf ijb[hjhf
ijbgZ[ex^_gbbfhghojhfZlbq_kdh]hbaemq_gby_^bgbqghcfhsghklb
:iiZjZlgZy nmgdpby bkdZ`Z_l j_]bkljbjm_fuc ki_dlj Imklv gZ
ijbf_j bklbggh_ jZkij_^_e_gb_ wg_j]bb \ ki_dlj_ ^Z_lky nmgdpb_c
-(  DZ`^hc ^ebg_ \hegu 
ki_dljhf_ljhfijbibku\Z_lkyhi-
j_^_e_ggZydhhj^bgZlZgZnhdZev-
ghc iehkdhklb ijb[hjZ Ihwlhfm
\f_klh-() aZbklbggh_jZkij_^_-
e_gb_ ijbf_f jZkij_^_e_gb_ 3(l)
jbk   dhlhjh_ j_]bkljbjh\Z-
ehkv [u ijb hlkmlkl\bb bkdZ`_-
gbc GZc^_f jZkij_^_e_gb_ f(l),
Jbk  D ihemq_gbx  gZ[ex^Z - dhlhjh_ fu aZj_]bkljbjm_f \f_
_fh ]h jZkij_^_e_gby  f(l  \ ki_dlj_  klh bklbggh]h 3(l). <u^_ebf \
babklbggh]h 3(l  kmq_lhf ZiiZjZ l bklbgghf ki_dlj_ 3(l) fh-
ghc nmgdpbb Z l ) ghojhfZlbq_kdmx dhfihg_glm
baemq_gby wg_j]by dhlhjhc 3(l)d l
ij_^klZ\e_gZ aZrljboh\Zgguf ijyfhm]hevgbdhf gZ jbk  RbjbgZ
_]h jZ\gZy d l, \ ^_ckl\bl_evghklb hq_gv fZeZ Ijb[hj k ZiiZjZlghc
nmgdpb_c Z l )  jZafZau\Z_l wlhl ijyfhm]hevgbd \ jZkij_^_e_gb_
Z l ) . Wg_j]byaZdexq_ggZy\g_fijbwlhfkhojZgy_lkylZddZdZiiZ
jZlgZynmgdpbyghjfbjh\ZgZihiehsZ^b

∫ a (l )dl = 1. (7 .1 )
−∞
Hij_^_ebf agZq_gb_ gZ[ex^Z_fh]h jZkij_^_e_gby f(l') \ lhqd_ l'.
>hey wg_j]bb fhghojhfZlbq_kdhc dhfihg_glu d l, aZ kq_l jZafZau\Z
gbyijb[hjhfihiZ\rZy\lhqdml'jZ\gZagZq_gbxZiiZjZlghcnmgdpbb
\wlhclhqd_Z( l — l'), mfgh`_gghcgZ\_ebqbgmwg_j]bb3(l)d lZ l— l')3(l)d l.
>jm]b_fhghojhfZlbq_kdb_dhfihg_glulZd`_^Z^mlk\hc\deZ^\agZq_gb_
gZ[ex^Z_fhcnmgdpbb\lhqd_l'<j_amevlZl_gZ[ex^Z_fh_jZkij_^_e_
gb_\ujZablkyk\_jldhcnmgdpbca (l) b3(l):

f(l') = f (l ' ) = ∫ a (l − l ' )ϕ (l )dl (7 .2 )
−∞
<ujZ`_gb_   fh`gh bkihevah\Zlv ^ey gZoh`^_gby bklbggh]h
jZkij_^_e_gby 3(l) ihgZ[ex^Z_fhfmf(l)_kebba\_kl_g\b^ZiiZjZlghc
nmgdpbba (l).

172
Kihgylb_fZiiZjZlghcnmgdpbbk\yaZgZjZaj_rZxsZykihkh[ghklv
ijb[hjZ//oZjZdl_jbamxsZy\hafh`ghklvjZa^_evghcj_]bkljZpbbkh
k_^gbo ki_dljZevguo bgl_j\Zeh\ /. K ihfhsvx ZiiZjZlghc nmgdpbb
djbl_jbc jZaj_r_gby \ujZ`Zxl ke_^mxsbf h[jZahf ^\_ ki_dljZevgu_
ebgbb jZaj_r_gu _keb jZkklhygb_ f_`^m gbfb ijb[ebabl_evgh jZ\gh
rbjbg_ZiiZjZlghcnmgdpbbgZiheh\bg_\ukhlu__dhglmjZ
GZijZdlbd_h[uqgh\hagbdZ_lg_h[oh^bfhklvhlukdZgbybklbggh]h
jZkij_^_e_gby wg_j]bb 3(l) ih gZ[ex^Z_fhfm f(l) b ih ba\_klghc ZiiZ
jZlghc nmgdpbb a (l). J_r_gb_ wlhc aZ^Zqb gZau\Zxl j_^mdpb_c d b^_
Zevghfmijb[hjmbebbkdexq_gb_fZiiZjZlghcnmgdpbb>@<h[s_f
kemqZ_^eywlh]hg_h[oh^bfhj_r_gb_ebg_cgh]hbgl_]jZevgh]hmjZ\g_
gby  Gm`ghbf_lv\\b^mqlhgZ[ex^Z_fh_jZkij_^_e_gb_\dexqZ_l
\k_[yjZaebqgu_hrb[dbbaf_j_gbcbg_\k_]^Z[u\Z_lba\_klghkg_h[
oh^bfhclhqghklvxihwlhfmaZ^ZqZj_^mdpbbdb^_Zevghfmijb[hjmy\-
ey_lkyg_dhjj_dlghc>@
H^gbfba\Z`guoiZjZf_ljh\ki_dljZevguoijb[hjh\y\ey_lkyk\_
lhkbeZ oZjZdl_jbamxsZy \_ebqbgm bkihevam_fh]h ijb[hjhf k\_lh\h]h
ihlhdZ.

†S?E?<U?KI?DLJ:EVGU?IJB;HJU
JZkkfhljbf s_e_\u_ ki_dljZevgu_ ijb[hju l_ ijb[hju k \oh^
guf hl\_jklb_f \ \b^_ s_eb jbk   GZ \uoh^_ lZdbo ijb[hjh\ fu
ihemqZ_f kh\hdmighklv fhghojhfZlbq_kdbo bah[jZ`_gbc \oh^ghc s_eb
— ki_dljZevgu_ebgbbRbjbgZs'b\ukhlZh' bah[jZ`_gbys_ebjZ\gu
f2 1 f2
s' = s , h' = h . (7.3)
f1 sin ε f1

A^_kv0— m]hef_`^miehkdhklvxki_dljZbhkvxdZf_ju
Ijb[hjoZjZdl_jbam_lkym]eh\hc^bki_jkb_cG/d  aZ\bkbfhklvxm]eZ
 hldehg_gby emq_c ^bki_j]bjmxsbf we_f_glhf hl ^ebgu \hegu  b eb
g_cghc^bki_jkb_c
dl dθ 1
= f2 , (7 .4 )
d d VLQ ε
]^_l — dhhj^bgZlZgZki_dlj_QZklhmihlj_[ey_lkyh[jZlgZyebg_cgZy
^bki_jkby d /d l, \ujZ`Z_fZy \_ebqbghc ki_dljZevgh]h bgl_j\ZeZ mf_
sZxs_]hkygZ^ebg_ki_dljZjZ\ghcffH[jZlgZyebg_cgZy^bki_j
kbybf__ljZaf_jghklv>gfff@

ƒ:iiZjZlgZynmgdpbyjZaj_r_gb_
<s_e_\uoki_dljZevguoijb[hjZogZb[he__\Z`gufby\eyxlky^\Z
\b^ZZiiZjZlghcnmgdpbb— ^bnjZdpbhggZybs_e_\Zy
>bnjZdpbhggZyZiiZjZlgZynmgdpby<wlhfkemqZ_mqblu\Z_lky
lhevdh ^bnjZdpby gZ ^_ckl\mxs_f hl\_jklbb ijb[hjZ b ZiiZjZlgZy
nmgdpbybf__l\b^

173
1 πl
a(l)= sin c 2 . (7.5)
s0 s0
A^_kv s 0 = f 2 /D . >bnjZdpbhggZyZiiZjZlgZynmgdpbyhij_^_ey_ll_hj_
lbq_kdbcij_^_ejZaj_r_gbyki_dljZevguoijb[hjh\Jwe_c\\_edjbl_jbc
jZaj_r_gby ^bnjZdpbhgguo bah[jZ`_gbc dhlhjuc \ ijbf_g_gbb d
ki_dljZevguf ijb[hjZf a\mqbl lZd ^\_ ki_dljZevgu_ ebgbb y\eyxlky
jZaj_r_ggufb jZa^_evgh gZ[ex^Z_fufb  _keb ]eZ\guc fZdkbfmf ^b
njZdpbhgghcdZjlbguh^ghcbaebgbcihiZ^Z_lg_[eb`_q_fgZi_j\uc
gmev ^bnjZdpbhgghc dZjlbgu \lhjhc ebgbb < ij_^_evghf kemqZ_ ijb
jZ\ghc bgl_gkb\ghklb \ fZdkbfmfZo h[_bo ^bnjZdpbhgguo dZjlbg hj
^bgZlZ lhqdb i_j_k_q_gby dhglmjh\ ijbf_jgh jZ\gZ  hl fZdkbfZev
ghc jbk   Kgb`_gby bgl_gkb\ghklb gZ  h[jZamxs_]hky f_`^m
ebgbyfb ijb gZeh`_gbb bo dhglmjh\ ^hklZlhqgh ^ey \bamZevgh]h jZa
^_evgh]h gZ[ex^_gby wlbo ebgbc Ijb jZkkfhlj_gbb jZaj_r_gby ki_d
ljZevguoebgbcihdjbl_jbxJwe_y\oh^gZys_evkqblZ_lky[_kdhg_qgh
madhc
Kh\j_f_ggZy j_]bkljbjmxsZy ZiiZjZlmjZ b f_lh^bdb h[_ki_qb\Z
xljZa^_evgh_gZ[ex^_gb_b[he__[ebadboki_dljZevguoebgbckhagZ
qbl_evghf_gvrbfijh\Zehfbgl_gkb\ghklbf_`^mgbfb bf_g__ 
LZdbf h[jZahf djbl_jbc Jwe_y y\ey_lky mkeh\ghc gh l_f g_ f_g__
m^h[ghcf_jhcjZaj_r_gbyki_dljZevguoebgbc
M]eh\h_ jZkklhygb_ f_`^m p_gljhf b i_j\uf gme_f ^bnjZdpbhg
ghcdZjlbgujZ\gh/= D , hldm^Z = /D . Kmq_lhffZehklb\_ebqbg

Jbk  >bnjZdpbhggu_  bah[jZ`_gby  ^\mo  fhghojhfZlbq_kdbo  ki_ d


ljZevguo  ebgbc  1 b 2  gZ nhdZevghc  iehkdhklb  ijb[hjZ  k jZagbp_c  ^ebg 
\heg  2 –  1   /\kemqZ_ \uiheg_gby djbl_jby Jwe_y bkmffZjgZy dZjl b
gZ 3 )

174
/b/aZf_gbfbo^bnn_j_gpbZeZfbd bd . Lh]^ZihemqZ_f
 / G
= D= D (7 .6 )
/ / G
BlZdjZaj_rZxsZykihkh[ghklvki_dljZevgh]hijb[hjZjZ\gZijhba
\_^_gbxm]eh\hc^bki_jkbbgZ\_ebqbgm^_ckl\mxs_]hhl\_jklby
>bnjZdpbhggZyZiiZjZlgZynmgdpbyhlghkblkydb^_Zevghfmkem
qZx[_kdhg_qghlhgdhc\oh^ghcs_ebbhlkmlkl\bydZdbo-eb[hbkdZ
`_gbc  ki_dljZ < j_Zevguo  ijb[hjZo bah[jZ`_gb_ fhghojhfZlbq_
kdhc ki_dljZevghc ebgbb ^hihegbl_evgh bkdZ`Z_lky dhg_qghc rbjb
ghc \oh^ghc s_eb Z[_jjZpbyfb hilbq_kdhc kbkl_fu b ih]j_rghkly
fb j_]bkljZpbb ki_dljZ jZkk_ygb_f k\_lZ \ nhlhwfmevkbb ijb nhlh
]jZnbjh\Zgbbbebbg_jpbhgghklvx j_]bkljbjmxs_]h mkljhckl\Zijb
nhlhwe_dljbq_kdhcaZibkb 
S_e_\ZyZiiZjZlgZynmgdpby<wlhfkemqZ_\k_fbmrbjyxsbfb
nZdlhjZfbdjhf_dhg_qghcrbjbgus_ebij_g_[j_]Zxl
Z S_e_\ZyZiiZjZlgZynmgdpbyki_dljh]jZnZbf__lnhjfmijyfhm]hev
gbdZ jbka):
1 s ' , l ≤ s' 2
a (l ) =  . (7 .7 )
 0, l > s' 2

Jbk  S_e_\u_ ZiiZjZlgu_ nmgdpbb Z  \ kemqZ_ ki_dljh]jZnZ [  b \  \


kemqZ_ fhghojhfZlhjZ ljZi_p_b^ZevgZy ijb g_jZ\guo s_eyo b lj_m]hevgZy
ijbjZ\guo

[  S_e_\Zy ZiiZjZlgZy nmgdpby fhghojhfZlhjZ ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc


k\_jldm^\moijyfhm]hevguonmgdpbcH^gZbanmgdpbckhhl\_lkl\m_l\u
oh^ghc s_eb \lhjZy —  bah[jZ`_gbx \oh^ghc s_eb gZ nhdZevghc
iehkdhklb ijb[hjZ beb mqblu\Zy qlh m\_ebq_gb_ \ fhghojhfZlhjZo
h[uqgh jZ\gh _^bgbp_ kZfhc \oh^ghc s_eb :iiZjZlgZy nmgdpby fh
ghojhfZlhjZijbwlhfbf__lnhjfmljZi_pbb jbk[ 
1 s 1 l ≤ s1 − s2 2,

 1  s1 + s2  s1 − s2 s +s
a (l ) =   − l , ≤ l ≤ 1 2, (7 .8 )
 s1s2  2  2 2
0,
 ( s1 + s2 ) 2≤ l ,

175
]^_s 1 bs 2 — rbjbgu\oh^ghcb\uoh^ghcs_e_c
< kemqZ_ jZ\_gkl\Z s_e_c fhghojhfZlhjZ s 1 = s 2 = s  ZiiZjZlgZy
nmgdpbyijbh[j_lZ_llj_m]hevgmxnhjfm jbk\) :
1  l 
 1 −  , l ≤ s,
a (l ) =  s  s  (7 .9 )
 0, l ≥s

krbjbghcihhkgh\ZgbxjZ\ghcs.
H[jZah\Zgb_ ljZi_p_b^Zevghc b lj_m]hevghc ZiiZjZlguo nmgdpbc
fh`gh gZ]ey^gh ij_^klZ\blv ke_^mxsbf h[jZahf Ki_dljZevgZy ebgby
rbjbghcsy\eyxsZykyfhghojhfZlbq_kdbfbah[jZ`_gb_f\oh^ghcs_
eb i_j_f_sZ_lky kdZgbjm_lky  k ihfhsvx f_oZgbafZ i_j_kljhcdb
^ebg \heg fhghojhfZlhjZ ihkl_i_ggh i_j_^\b]Zykv hlghkbl_evgh \u
oh^ghc s_eb aZ dhlhjhc jZkiheh`_g ijb_fgbd baemq_gby IhdZ ki_d
ljZevgZyebgbyijb[eb`Z_lkyd\uoh^ghcs_ebk\_lh\hcihlhdg_ijh
oh^bl kd\hav s_ev Ihlhd gZqbgZ_l ihiZ^Zlv \ s_ev k fhf_glZ dh]^Z
jZkklhygb_ f_`^m p_gljZfb ki_dljZevghc ebgbb b s_eb klZgh\blky
jZ\gufsAZl_fijhr_^rbck\_lh\hcihlhdjZkl_lebg_cgh ijbihklh
ygghc kdhjhklb kdZgbjh\Zgby  ihdZ \ky ki_dljZevgZy ebgby g_ mf_
klblky\\uoh^ghcs_ebIjb^Zevg_cr_fi_j_f_s_gbbebgbb_kebrb
jbgu \oh^ghc b \uoh^ghc s_eb jZ\gu ijhr_^rbc d ijb_fgbdm ihlhd
ebg_cgh m[u\Z_l ^h gme_\h]h agZq_gby lj_m]hevgZy ZiiZjZlgZy nmgd
pby ?keb`_s 1  s 2 , ijbi_j_^\b`_gbbebgbbijhr_^rbck\_lh\hcih
lhd g_dhlhjh_ \j_fy khojZgy_lky g_baf_gguf Z aZl_f ebg_cgh m[u\Z_l
^hgmey ljZi_p_b^ZevgZyZiiZjZlgZynmgdpby 
Bgl_j\Ze^ebg\heg/ki, gZdju\Z_fucZiiZjZlghcnmgdpb_cgZnh
dZevghc iehkdhklb gZau\Zxl ki_dljZevghc rbjbghc s_eb H[uqgh
ki_dljZevgZy rbjbgZ s_eb hij_^_ey_lky ^bnjZdpbhgguf mrbj_gb_f
ebgbb /^bnj b rbjbghc ]_hf_ljbq_kdh]h bah[jZ`_gby s_eb /s \ _^b
gbpZo^ebg\heg 
/ki= /^bnj/s . (7 .1 0 )
<_ebqbgZ /s \ kemqZ_ ki_dljh]jZnZ jZ\gZ rbjbg_ bah[jZ`_gby s_eb s',
mfgh`_gghcgZh[jZlgmxebg_cgmx^bki_jkbx
d
/ s = s ' . (7 .1 1 )
dl
<\b^bfhcbMNh[eZklyoki_dljZrbjbgZ^bnjZdpbhggh]hbah[jZ`_gby
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176
dhklbki_dljZGZijbf_j_kebrbjbgZbah[jZ`_gbys_ebs' = fdf
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− s' / 2

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179
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ki_dljZevguf bgl_j\Zehf \ ij_^_eZo rbjbgu û ?keb ^ey ijhklhlu
iheh`blv qlh ki_dljZevgh_ jZkij_^_e_gb_ yjdhklb bklhqgbdZ bf__l
nhjfm ijyfhm]hevgbdZ rbjbghc û ^ey hk\_s_gghklb ebgbb ?e fh`gh
aZibkZlv

N λ ∆ sin ε π 2
Ee = ' '
= bλ ∆ D T (7.22)
hs f 22 4

JbkH[jZah\Zgb_hk\_s_gghklbgZnhdZevghciehkdhklbki_dljZevgh]hijb[h
jZijbebg_cqZlhf û«/ki) (Z bg_ij_ju\ghf û»/ki) ([ ki_dlj_=hjbahglZev
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182
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[hevr_c hk\_s_gghklb ijb nhlh]jZnbjh\Zgbb ki_dljZevguo ebgbc
ke_^m_l\u[bjZlvijb[hjkdhjhldhnhdmkghcdZf_jhc
[  Kiehrghc ki_dlj < iehkdhklb ki_dljZ h[jZam_lky g_ij_ju\
guc jy^ ijyfhm]hevguo fhghojhfZlbq_kdbo bah[jZ`_gbc \oh^ghc
s_ebk^\bgmluo^jm] hlghkbl_evgh^jm]ZaZkq_l^bki_jkbbGZeh`_
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g_h[oh^bfh hk\_s_gghklv kha^Z\Z_fmx ihlhdhf \ _^bgbqghf ki_d
ljZevghf bgl_j\Ze_ ijhkmffbjh\Zlv \ ij_^_eZo /ki. ?keb ki_dljZev
gmx iehlghklv ihlhdZ - \ ij_^_eZo /ki ij_^iheh`blv jZ\ghf_jghc ih
ki_dljmkmffbjh\Zgb_aZf_gy_lkymfgh`_gb_fgZ/ki:
N  / ki sin ε s π 2
Ekie = = b DT (7.23)
h's ' f 22 f1 dθ d 

A^_kvfu\hkihevah\Zebkv^ey/ki \ujZ`_gb_f  


BlZd \ kemqZ_ kiehrgh]h ki_dljZ \ \ujZ`_gb_ ^ey hk\_s_gghklb
ih kjZ\g_gbx k hk\_s_gghklvx ^ey hl^_evguo ebgbc   \oh^yl ^h
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jbamxl hlghr_gb_f ebgby –  nhg en  dhlhjh_jZ\ghhlghr_gbxhk
\_s_gghkl_c?e?kie. Ih  b  ihemqZ_f

Ee ∆ ∆f1 dθ
e n= = = . (7.24)
Ekie / ki s d

<b^ghqlh^eymemqr_gbyhlghr_gbyeng_h[oh^bfhmf_gvrZlvki_dljZev
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183
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iehkdhklb kha^Z\Z_fZy ki_dl-
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ki_dljZevgZy ebgby bf__l \b^
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guoebgbc

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_lkyihû:

hs Π2
N e = N  ∆ b D T ∆ . (7.25)
f12 4
[ Kiehrghcki_dlj<iehkdhklb\uoh^ghcs_ebbf__lkykiehr
ghc ki_dlj h[jZah\Zgguc g_ij_ju\guf jy^hf fhghojhfZlbq_kdbo bah
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h ' s ' , gZc^_f mfgh`b\ \_ebqbgm - gZ rbjbgm bgl_j\ZeZ ki_dljZ

184
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dZ`^hclhqd_\uoh^ghcs_eb
hs 2 π D 2 1
N kie = N  / ki = b T. (7.26)
f12 4 dθ d λ
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\uoh^gmxs_eb
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ihemqZ_lkyba  b  \lhf`_\b^_qlhb\kemqZ_j_]bkljZpbb
hk\_s_gghklb  
û ûf1 dθ
e n = N e N kie = = . (7 .2 7 )
/ ki s d

3 ° . Hk\_s_gb_s_ebki_dljZevguoijb[hjh\
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185
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186
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187
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188
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α
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ij_ehfe_gbyi\_s_kl\Z
tg (.  ) = 1 n . (8.8)

204
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(n  khklZ\ey_lƒ

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ƒ kijZ\_^eb\hkhhlghr_gb_

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205
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2 2
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2

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206
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207
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ρ= = 2 . (8.16)
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< \b^bfhc b mevljZnbhe_lh\hc h[eZklyo ki_dljZ bkdjb\e_gb_ ebgbc


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(8.16)fh`ghijb\_klbd\b^m

208
f 2n 2 1
ρ= . (8.17)
2 ( n 2 − 1) tgi 1
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209
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210
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dψ cos ϕ
M]eh\h_ m\_ebq_gb_ hlkmlkl\m_l \ gme_\hf ihjy^d_ 3  –%) b ijb
bkihevah\Zgbbj_r_ldb\Z\lhdheebfZpbb 3 %).
M]eh\mx^bki_jkbxj_r_ldbd3dgZoh^bfbamkeh\by  
dϕ q
= . (9.4)
d λ d cos ϕ
>ey aZ^Zgguo \_ebqbg q b d m]eh\Zy ^bki_jkby aZ\bkbl lhevdh hl m]eZ
^bnjZdpbb ?keb 3   l_ gZ[ex^Z_lky ki_dlj ih ghjfZeb d j_r_ld_
ghjfZevgucki_dlj m]eh\Zy^bki_jkbykh]eZkgh  ihklhyggZ
dϕ q
= . (9.5)
dλ d
M]eh\u_jZaf_juki_dljZ\ijb[hjZoh[uqghg_ij_\urZxlg_kdhevdbo
]jZ^mkh\ Ihwlhfm ijb g_ hq_gv [hevrbo m]eZo ^bnjZdpbb ^ey baf_j_gbc
^ebg \heg ebgbc \ ^bnjZdpbhgghf ki_dlj_ ijZdlbq_kdb \k_]^Z fh`gh
ihevah\Zlvkyebg_cghcbgl_jiheypb_c
<hkihevah\Z\rbkv \ujZ`_gb_f   ba   ihemqZ_f ^jm]h_
\ujZ`_gb_^eym]eh\hc^bki_jkbb
dϕ sinψ + sin ϕ
= , (9.6)
dλ λ cos ϕ
dhlhjh_ihdZau\Z_lqlhm]eh\Zy^bki_jkbyex[hcj_r_ldbaZ\bkbllhevdhhl
jZ[hq_c^ebgu\hegubm]eh\iZ^_gbyb^bnjZdpbb
<Z\lhdheebfZpbhgghcko_f_sin % sin 3b\ujZ`_gb_  ijbgbfZ_l
\b^
dϕ /d λ = 2 tgϕ / λ . (9.7)

Ebg_cgZy ^bki_jkby dl/G b h[jZlgZy ebg_cgZy ^bki_jkby dZd b \ kemqZ_


ijbaf_gguo ki_dljZevguo ijb[hjh\ †   k\yaZgu k m]eh\hc
khhlghr_gbyfb
dl dϕ dλ 1
= ⋅ f2 ; = , (9.8)
dλ dλ dl f 2dϕ /d λ
]^_ f2 — nhdmkgh_ jZkklhygb_ h[t_dlb\Z nhjfbjmxs_]h ki_dlj gZ
nhdZevghciehkdhklbijb[hjZ
Ebg_cgZy ^bki_jkby dZd b m]eh\Zy ijb g_[hevrbo baf_g_gbyo m]eZ 3
ijZdlbq_kdb ihklhyggZ Ihklhygkl\h ^bki_jkbb hlebqZ_l ^bnjZdpbhgguc
ki_dlj hl ijbaf_ggh]h ih \g_rg_fm \b^m Hlebqb_ gZklhevdh \_ebdh qlh
ijb hlh`^_kl\e_gbb ebgbc \ ^bnjZdpbhgghf ki_dlj_ aZljm^gbl_evgh
ihevah\Zlvky ZleZkZfb ki_dljh\ knhlh]jZnbjh\Zgguo k ijbaf_gguf
ki_dljh]jZnhfbgZh[hjhl

219
>ey aZ^Zgghc j_r_ldb ^bki_jkby jZkl_l ijhihjpbhgZevgh ihjy^dm q
ki_dljZ h^gZdh \hajZklZ_l b i_j_djulb_ ki_dljh\ jZaguo ihjy^dh\
GZeh`_gb_ ki_dljh\ aZljm^gy_l jZ[hlm gh fh`_l [ulv b ihe_aguf ^Z\Zy
\hafh`ghklv ih ebgbyf k ba\_klgufb ^ebgZfb \heg \ h^ghf ihjy^d_
hlh`^_kl\eylvebgbb\ki_dlj_^jm]h]hihjy^dZ

4°. GZeh`_gb_ihjy^dh\

Bamkeh\by]eZ\guofZdkbfmfh\  ke_^m_lqlhijbZ\lhdheebfZpbb


l_dh]^Z% 3 kijZ\_^eb\hkhhlghr_gb_
q max = 2d sin T (9.9)
WlhhagZqZ_lqlhj_r_ldZkijhnbebjh\Zggufrljbohf\jZaguoihjy^dZoq
[e_klbl\k\_l_jZaguo^ebg\heg
λ1max q1 = λ2 max q2 = ⋅⋅⋅ = 2d sin β . (9.10)
<k_wlb^ebgu\heggZdeZ^u\Zxlky^jm]gZ^jm]Z>ey^jm]bo^ebg\heg1,
2, 3, ihjy^dh\q1, q2, q3, ... mkeh\b_gZeh`_gby
1q1 = 2q2 = 3 q3 =... = const. (9.11)
GZeh`_gb_ ki_dljh\ \ ijb[hjZo k j_r_ldZfb bf__l iheh`bl_evgmx b
hljbpZl_evgmxklhjhguIjbjZ[hl_khki_dljZfb[_^gufbki_dljZevgufb
ebgbyfb ebgbb ba ^jm]bo ihjy^dh\ fh]ml kem`blv ^hihegbl_evgufb
j_i_jZfbijbjZkrbnjh\d_ki_dljh\<lh`_\j_fy_klvhiZkghklvijbgylv
ebgbb ihy\eyxsb_ky ba khk_^gbo ihjy^dh\ aZ ebgbb ki_dljZ ^Zggh]h
ihjy^dZ Ijb ^hklZlhqgh [h]Zluo ki_dljZo \ gZeh`_gguo ^jm] gZ ^jm]Z
ki_dljZojZah[jZlvkyijZdlbq_kdbg_\hafh`gh
H[eZklv ^ebg \heg û k\h[h^gmx hl gZeh`_gby lZdbo `_ ^ebg \heg
khk_^gbo ihjy^dh\ q –  b q +  gZau\Zxl k\h[h^ghc ki_dljZevghc
h[eZklvxbebh[eZklvx^bki_jkbb?_\_ebqbgmgZoh^ylihnhjfme_
û = /q, (9.12)
ihemq_gghc ba hkgh\gh]h mjZ\g_gby   ijb ûq   GZijbf_j \ ki_dlj_
\lhjh]h ihjy^dZ ^ey    gf k\h[h^gZy ki_dljZevgZy h[eZklv û
khklZ\ey_lgf
Ebgbb f_rZxsbo ihjy^dh\ mkljZgyxl ih^[hjhf j_]bkljbjmxs_c
kbkl_fu g_ qm\kl\bl_evghc d g_gm`ghc h[eZklb ki_dljZ k\_lhnbevljZfb
bebiml_f^hihegbl_evghcfhghojhfZlbaZpbbbaemq_gby
I_j_^ \oh^ghc s_evx ^bnjZdpbhggh]h ijb[hjZ fh`gh mklZgh\blv
fhghojhfZlhj k g_[hevrhc ^bki_jkb_c gZagZq_gb_ dhlhjh]h — h[_ki_qblv
ihiZ^Zgb_\h\oh^gmxs_ev^bnjZdpbhggh]hijb[hjZbaemq_gby\ij_^_eZo
ki_dljZevghc h[eZklb g_ ij_\urZxs_c \_ebqbgm k\h[h^ghc ki_dljZevghc
h[eZklb û j_r_ldb LZdbf fhghojhfZlhjhf fh`_l kem`blv ijhklZy
dhf[bgZpby ba ^\mo ebga b ijbafu f_`^m gbfb k ^h\hevgh ]jm[hc b
rbjhdhc\oh^ghcs_evx

220
Fh`gh mklZgh\blv fhghojhfZlhj k ^bki_jkb_c gZijZ\e_gghc
i_ji_g^bdmeyjgh ^bki_jkbb j_r_ldb kdj_sb\Zgb_ ^bki_jkbc  dhlhjuc
^Zkl ki_dlj jZkiheh`_gguc \^hev \oh^ghc s_eb ^bnjZdpbhggh]h ijb[hjZ
Lh]^Z ki_dlju hl^_evguo ihjy^dh\ j_r_ldb jZahc^mlky \ gZijZ\e_gbb
^bki_jkbb ij_^\Zjbl_evgh]h fhghojhfZlhjZ b gZ ki_dljh]jZff_ h[jZamxl
gZdehggu_ kljhqdb Fu ihemqbf ^\mf_jgmx ki_dljh]jZffm rbjhdhc
ki_dljZevghch[eZklb
Ijbkdj_sb\Zgbb^bki_jkbc^hihegbl_evguc^bki_j]bjmxsbcwe_f_gl
j_r_ldmkg_[hevrhc^bki_jkb_cbebijbafmkg_[hevrbfij_ehfeyxsbf
m]ehf  h[uqgh jZkiheZ]Zxl \gmljb ijb[hjZ \ lhf `_ iZjZee_evghf imqd_
qlhbhkgh\gZyj_r_ldZ
GZjbkZbah[jZ`_gudjb\u_Nq(u i_j\uoiylbihjy^dh\^ey^ebg
\heg khhl\_lkl\mxsbo mkeh\bx Z\lhdheebfZpbb \ ^Zgghf kemqZ_ wlh 1 =
12000 Å, 2 = 6000 Å, 3 = 4000 Å, b l^ <b^gh qlh djb\u_ [he__ \ukhdbo

JbkJZa^_e_gb_ki_dljh\jZaebqguoihjy^dh\kihfhsvxijbafu^bki_jkby
dhlhjhc i_ji_g^bdmeyjgZ gZijZ\e_gbx ^bki_jkbb j_r_ldb kdj_sb\Zgb_
^bki_jkbc  Ijb\_^_g ijbf_j ^ey i_j\uo iylb ihjy^dh\ <\_jom Z  ihdZaZgu
p_gljZevgu_fZdkbfmfunmgdpbcNq(u \gbam [) —^\mf_jgZyki_dljh]jZffZ

221
ihjy^dh\ ijb hloh^_ hl iheh`_gby Z\lhdheebfZpbb [uklj__ m[u\Zxl ih
bgl_gkb\ghklb P_gljZevgmx qZklv ^bnjZdpbhggh]h fZdkbfmfZ N u  ]^_
\_ebdZbgl_gkb\ghklvgZau\Zxlh[eZklvx\ukhdhcdhgp_gljZpbbwg_j]bb
GZ jbk [ ihdZaZgZ ^\mf_jgZy ki_dljh]jZffZ khklhysZy ba 
kljhq_d ijb bkihevah\Zgbb ijbafu \ dZq_kl\_ ^_ebl_ey ihjy^dh\ k
j_r_ldhc–^_ebl_e_fkljhqdbij_^klZ\eyeb[ukh[hcijyfu_ebgbb\__jhf
jZkoh^ysb_ky \ ^ebggh\hegh\mx klhjhgm  >\_ imgdlbjgu_ ebgbb
h]jZgbqb\Zxl k\h[h^gmx ki_dljZevgmx h[eZklv û = /q \ dZ`^hf ba
ihjy^dh\ Pbnju ihdZau\Zxl ^ebgu \heg khhl\_lkl\mxsb_ djZyf h[eZklb
û. DZd fh`gh aZf_lblv ki_dljZevgu_ h[eZklb û i_j_dju\Zxl rbjhdbc
ki_dljZevguc^bZiZahg[_ai_j_ju\h\^Z`_g_fgh]h\gZoe_kl
GZc^_f dZd [m^_l baf_gylvky bgl_gkb\ghklv ijb i_j_oh^_ hl h^gh]h
ihjy^dZd^jm]hfm\^hevihki_dljmGZjbkZijb\_^_gudjb\u_Nq() =
 λ 
sinc2u ]^_ b  π  q − 1max  ^ey i_j\uo g_kdhevdbo ihjy^dh\ Djb\u_
 λ 
g_kbff_ljbqgu—hgb[he__iheh]b_k^ebggh\hegh\hcklhjhgu kflZd`_
jbk Z  Djb\u_ i_j_k_dZxlky ijb agZq_gbb hj^bgZlu [ebadhf d 
Ke_^h\Zl_evghjZ[hq_ch[eZklvxki_dljZ jZ[hq_c^ebghcki_dljZ ^Zggh]h
phjy^dZ y\ey_lky h[eZklv ]^_ Nq() •  K m\_ebq_gb_f ghf_jZ ihjy^dZ
^ebgZ ki_dljZ mf_gvrZ_lky wlh ke_^kl\b_ km`_gby djb\hc Nq(  k
mf_gvr_gb_f ^ebgu \hegu jbk Z  Kh\hdmighklv ki_dljh\ jZaguo
ihjy^dh\bf__l\b^nb]mjuihoh`_cgZljZi_pbx

JbkP_gljZevgu_fZdkbfmfunmgdpbb-q\aZ\bkbfhklbhl^ebgu\hegu Z b
\hegh\h]hqbkeZ [)

<rdZe_\hegh\uoqbk_ev = 1/\k_fZdkbfmfunmgdpbbNq(v) = sinc2 b


b  Œ(q —ν ν1max  h^bgZdh\u jbk [  ^ebgZ ki_dljh\ \k_o ihjy^dh\
h^bgZdh\ZbjZ\gZ\hegh\hfmqbkemv1max i_j\h]hihjy^dZ
;he__ ^_lZevgu_ jZkq_lu >@ ihdZau\Zxl qlh hj^bgZlZ i_j_k_q_gby
djb\uo Nq(  aZ\bkbl hl m]eZ [e_kdZ jbk Z   LZdbf h[jZahf ijb
[hevrbom]eZo[e_kdZbgl_gkb\ghklv\kljhqdZof_gy_lkykeZ[__—gZdjZyo

222
^h  hl fZdkbfZevghc \ p_glj_ djb\hc Nq(  ijbf_j bah[jZ`_g gZ jbk
9.6,[).
AgZqbl_evgu_ baf_g_gby bgl_gkb\ghklb hl p_gljZ d djZx jZ[hq_c
h[eZklb ki_dljZ — g_^hklZlhd ki_dljZevguo ijb[hjh\ k ^bnjZdpbhggufb
j_r_ldZfbH^gZdhwlh]hfh`ghba[_`Zlv_kebbkihevah\Zlvmgb\_jkZevgmx
^bnjZdpbhggmx j_r_ldm >@ < lZdbo j_r_ldZo ijhnbev rljboZ y\ey_lky

JbkAZ\bkbfhklvhj^bgZlui_j_k_q_gbydjb\uoNqhlm]eZ[e_kdZj_r_ldb
Z  b djb\u_ Nq(  jZkkqblZggu_ ^ey j_r_ldb-wr_ee_ k iehlghklvx rljboh\ 
rljffbm]ehf[e_kdZ ƒ\-ihjy^dZo>@

ijyfhm]hevguf beb [ebadbf d g_fm h[_ ]jZgb rljboZ hljZ`Zxsb_ l_


bf_xl \ukhdh_ dZq_kl\h b j_r_ldZ jZ[hlZ_l ih ijbgpbim m]hedh\h]h
hljZ`Zl_ey jbk   J_r_ldZ
[e_klbl ijb baf_g_gbb m]eh\
iZ^_gby \ rbjhdbo ij_^_eZo
hij_^_ey_fuo mkeh\b_f qlh[u
imqhd g_ wdjZgbjh\Zeky h^ghc ba
]jZg_crljboZDZd\b^ghbanhjfme
  b   m]eh\Zy ^bki_jkby ijb
wlhf baf_gy_lky agZqbl_evgh Baf_-
gy_lkyb^ebgZ\heguihiZ^ZxsZy\
fZdkbfmf Bgl_gkb\ghklv `_ \
mkeh\byo Z\lhdheebfZpbb \k_]^Z
khhl\_lkl\m_l fZdkbfmfm nmgdpbb
Nq(). JbkMgb\_jkZevgZy^bnjZdpbhggZy
Bkihevah\Zgb_ j_r_lhd jZ[h- j_r_ldZ>@
lZxsbo \ \ukhdbo ihjy^dZo
iha\hey_l dhgkljmbjh\Zlv dhf-
iZdlgu_ ki_dljZevgu_ ijb[hju k hq_gv \ukhdhc ^bki_jkb_c gZoh^ysb_
rbjhdh_ijbf_g_gb_>@

223
ƒDjb\bagZki_dljZevguoebgbc

Ki_dljZevgu_ ebgbb \ ^bnjZdpbhgghf ki_dlj_ dZd b \ ijbaf_gghf


g_fgh]h bkdjb\e_gu >ey gZdehgguo emq_c b^msbo hl djZcgbo dhgph\
\oh^ghcs_ebhkgh\gh_mjZ\g_gb_^bnjZdpbhgghcj_r_ldbbf__l\b^>@

d cos (sin % + sin 3) = T (9.13)

A^_kv  — m]he gZdehgZ emq_c hlghkbl_evgh ]eZ\ghc iehkdhklb j_r_ldb


KjZ\gb\Zy  k  fh`gh\b^_lvqlh^eygZdehgguoemq_cihklhyggZy
j_r_ldb dZd [u mf_gvrZ_lky ihwlhfm m]he hldehg_gby emq_c \hajZklZ_l<
j_amevlZl_ dhgpu ki_dljZevguo ebgbc hdZau\Zxlky hldehg_ggufb gZ
[hevrbc m]he l_ \ ^ebggh\hegh\mx klhjhgm ki_dljZ ijhlb\hiheh`gh
lhfmqlhbf__lf_klh\ijbaf_gguoijb[hjZoNhjfZbo[ebadZdiZjZ[heZf
kjZ^bmkhfdjb\bagu\\_jrbg_
df 2 cos ϕ f 2 cos ϕ
ρ= = . (9.14)
qλ sinψ + sin ϕ

Km\_ebq_gb_fihjy^dZb^ebgu\hegudjb\bagZebgbc\hajZklZ_l

ƒK\_lhkbeZJZaj_rZxsZykihkh[ghklv

K\_lhkbeZ ijb[hjZ k iehkdhc ^bnjZdpbhgghc j_r_ldhc hij_^_ey_lky


khhlghr_gbyfb ihemq_ggufb \ ]e  < ^hiheg_gb_ gm`gh mq_klv qlh ^ey
^ebg \heg ijboh^ysboky gZ djZy jZ[hq_c ki_dljZevghc h[eZklb
wnn_dlb\ghklv j_r_ldb ijbf_jgh \^\h_ f_gvr_ jbk  b  
khhl\_lkl\_ggh f_gvr_ b k\_lhkbeZ ?keb \ ijb[hj_ bkihevam_lky
mgb\_jkZevgZy^bnjZdpbhggZyj_r_ldZ jbk ih\hjhlhfj_r_ldbfh`gh
kh\f_klblvh[eZklvfZdkbfmfZnmgdpbbNq( kex[hc^ebghc\hegujZ[hq_c
h[eZklbki_dljZ
JZaj_rZxsmx kihkh[ghklv ^bnjZdpbhggh]h ijb[hjZ ihemqbf
ih^klZ\b\ \   m]eh\mx ^bki_jkbx   b \_ebqbgm ^_ckl\mxs_]h
hl\_jklby\gZijZ\e_gbb^bnjZdpbbjZ\gmxD = Nd cos3:

λ dϕ qNd cos ϕ
= D= = qN . (9.15)
δλ d λ d cos ϕ

Bkihevah\Z\  fh`gh\f_klh  aZibkZlv


λ W (sinψ + sin ϕ )
= , (9.16)
δλ λ
]^_W = Nd — rbjbgZaZrljboh\Zgghcih\_joghklbj_r_ldbLZdbfh[jZahf
ijb aZ^Zgghc  jZaj_rZxsZy kihkh[ghklv aZ\bkbl lhevdh hl rbjbgu
j_r_ldb b m]eh\ iZ^_gby b ^bnjZdpbb FZdkbfZevgZy \_ebqbgZ
jZaj_rZxs_ckihkh[ghklbjZ\gZW/l_jZ\gZm^\h_gghcrbjbg_j_r_ldb
\ujZ`_gghc\^ebgZo\heg

224
§BA=HLH<E?GB?>BNJ:DPBHGGUOJ?R?LHD

Ih kihkh[m ba]hlh\e_gby j_r_ldb [u\Zxl gZj_agu_ hjb]bgZevgu_ 


j_iebdb dhibb k hjb]bgZevguo j_r_lhd  b ]heh]jZnbq_kdb_ ihemqZ_fu_
iml_fnhlh]jZnbjh\Zgbybgl_jn_j_gpbhgguoihehk

ƒGZj_agu_^bnjZdpbhggu_j_r_ldb

J_r_ldb gZj_aZxlky ZefZaguf j_aphf k ihfhsvx ^_ebl_evguo fZrbg dZd


ijZ\beh gZ keh_ Zexfbgby lhesbghc - fdf gZiue_gghf gZ ihebjh\Zggmx
kl_deyggmxih\_joghklvaZ]hlh\dbkih^keh_fojhfZJ_r_ldbij_^gZagZq_ggu_
^ey^Ze_dhcMNh[eZklbki_dljZgZj_aZxlgZih\_joghklbkl_deZJ_r_ldb^ey
^Zevg_cBDqZklbki_dljZgZj_aZxlgZaZ]hlh\dZok^_eZgguoba^xjZexfbgby
jZaebqguo fZjhd bg\ZjZ g_j`Z\_xs_c klZeb f_^b b [jhgau <j_fy
gZj_aZgbyh^gh]hrljboZkhklZ\ey_l-k\aZ\bkbfhklbhl]em[bgubrbjbgu
rljboZ Q_f ]em[`_ rljbo l_f f_^e_gg__ ^he`gh [ulv ^\b`_gb_ j_apZ Ijb
gZj_ad_ lbibqghc j_r_ldb iehsZ^vx  × 1 0 0 ff k  rljff j_a_p
^he`_g ijhclb  df GZj_aZgb_ lZdhc j_r_ldb ^eblky  kmlhd Ijhp_kk
gZj_aZgbyj_r_ldb[hevrh]hjZaf_jZaZgbfZ_l[he__^\mog_^_ev
Hl_q_kl\_ggZy ijhfure_gghklv \uimkdZ_l ^bnjZdpbhggu_ j_r_ldb
jZaghh[jZaguo jZaf_jh\ >@ k jZagufb ijhnbeyfb b iehlghklvx rljboh\
J_r_ldbkgZb[he__f_edhcgZj_adhcbf_xlrljff jZkklhygb_f_`^m
rljboZfbfdf Wlbj_r_ldbijb]h^gulhevdh^eyMNh[eZklbki_dljZ
< \b^bfhc qZklb ki_dljZ bkihevamxlky j_r_ldb k  rljff b 
rljffJ_r_ldbij_^gZagZq_ggu_^ey^Ze_dhcBDh[eZklbki_dljZbf_xl
g_[hevrmx iehlghklv rljboh\ b fh]ml [ulv ba]hlh\e_gu gZ h[uqguo
klZgdZo \ukhdh]h deZkkZ GZijbf_j ^ey h[eZklb ki_dljZ - fdf
j_r_ldZfh`_lbf_lvrljboZgZfbeebf_lj
>bnjZdpbhggu_j_r_ldb^eyBDh[eZklbbf_xsb_hl^hrljff
b ij_^gZagZq_ggu_ ^ey jZ[hlu \ - ihjy^dZo h[uqgh gZau\Zxl
wr_e_llZfb J_r_ldb ij_^gZagZq_ggu_ ^ey jZ[hlu \ \ukhdbo ihjy^dZo b
ba]hlh\e_ggu_ k lZdbf jZkq_lhf qlh[u bo fh`gh [ueh bkihevah\Zlv \
ijb[hjZo kh kdj_s_gghc ^bki_jkb_c ^ey ho\ZlZ rbjhdhc h[eZklb ki_dljZ
gZau\Zxl wr_ee_2) H[uqgh wr_ee_ bf_xl g_kdhevdh ^_kyldh\ rljboh\ gZ
ff
K^bnjZdpbhgghcj_r_ldbfh`ghba]hlh\blvjy^dhibc j_iebd H^bg
ba kihkh[h\ ba]hlh\e_gby j_iebd khklhbl \ ke_^mxs_f GZ ih\_joghklv
j_r_ldb \ \Zdmmf_ gZiueyxl lhgdbc aZsblguc kehc aZl_f lhgdbc
jZa^_ebl_evguc kehc \_s_kl\Z g_ \aZbfh^_ckl\mxsbc k ih\_joghklvx
j_r_ldb gZijbf_j kehc fZggblZ beb nmdkbgZ K\_jom gZ wlhl kehc
gZiueyxlkehcZexfbgbylhesbghchdhehfdfGZg_]hgZghkblkykehc
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λ ' = λ 1 ± , (9.17)
 qN ' 

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^eyf_jb^bhgZevgh]hk_q_gby
cos 2 ψ cos 2 ϕ cosψ + cos ϕ
+ = ; (9.18)
f1 f2 ρ

229
^eykZ]bllZevgh]hk_q_gby
1 1 cosψ + cos ϕ
+ = . (9.19)
f1 f 2 + ∆ ρ
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dϕ q q ρ
= = , (9.20)
d λ d cos ϕ d f 2

230
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3 = Œ/2 – l/!. (9.21)
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dl dϕ q ρ2
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d dλ d f2
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H[jZlgmxebg_cgmx^bki_jkbxihemqZ_fba  b 
d q d FRV ϕ d l
= = = sin . (9.23)
dl ρ dϕ d λ qρ qρ ρ
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j_r_ldb rljff! f
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dλ dλ dλ d
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k_j_^bgZ kj_^g_]h rljboZ
Jbk  HilbfZevgZy rbjbgZ ^_c- HklZevgu_ qZklb j_r_ldb hlklm-
kl\mxs_]h hl\_jklby j_r_ldb \ iZxlhldjm]Zbq_f[eb`_ddjZx
aZ\bkbfhklb hl ^ebgu \hegu ^ey l_f [hevr_ < j_amevlZl_ ^ey
jZaebqguo m]eh\ iZ^_gby b jZ^bmkh\
emq_c hljZ`_gguo hl wlbo qZkl_c
djb\bagu ! j_r_ldb k  rljff \
i_j\hfihjy^d_ \hagbdZ_l ^hihegbl_evgZy jZaghklv
oh^Z Kh]eZkgh mkeh\bx Jwe_y wlZ
^h[Z\hqgZy jZaghklv oh^Z g_
^he`gZ ij_\urZlv  bgZq_ bah[jZ`_gb_ bkdZablky JZkq_lu ihdZau\Zxl
>@qlhjZaf_j^_ckl\mxs_]hhl\_jklbyj_r_ldbg_^he`_gij_\urZlv
g_dmxhilbfZevgmx\_ebqbgmDhil .

232
HilbfZevgu_ jZaf_ju \h]gmluo
j_r_lhd hdZau\Zxlky g_[hevrbfb
GZijbf_jj_r_ldZjZ[hlZxsZy\[ebab
ghjfZeb\\b^bfhch[eZklbki_dljZg_
^he`gZ [ulv rbj_ - ff Ijb
kdhevays_f iZ^_gbb \_ebqbgZ Dhil
hdZau\Z_lky agZqbl_evgh f_gvr_ jbk
  LZd ijb    gf b jZ^bmk_
djb\bagu j_r_ldb  f g_ ke_^m_l
ihevah\Zlvky rbjbghc imqdZ k\_lZ
[he__  kf GZ jbk  ijb\_^_gu
ki_dlju >@ ihemq_ggu_ k j_r_ldhc
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ijb m]e_ iZ^_gby %  84,4°,
ihdZau\Zxsb_ dZd mom^rZ_lky
dZq_kl\h ki_dljZ _keb j_r_ldZ
baebrg_ rbjhdZ Ijb nhlh]jZ-
nbjh\Zgbb ki_dljh\ j_r_ldZ ^bZ-
njZ]fbjh\ZeZkvihrbjbg_hl^h
ff hilbfZevgZy rbjbgZ hl\_jklby
khklZ\eyeZff
Ki_dljh]jZnu kdhevays_]h iZ-
^_gby kf jbk   kgZ[`Zxlky Jbk<ebygb_rbjbgu\h]gmlhc
j_]mebjm_fhc ^bZnjZ]fhc iha\h- j_r_ldbgZdZq_kl\hki_dljZ
eyxs_c hldju\Zlv mqZklhd j_r_ldb
gm`ghc rbjbgu < fhghojhfZlhjZo
ih^h[ghc ^bZnjZ]fu g_ ij_^mkfZljb\Zxl ihkdhevdm hgb jZ[hlZxl ijb
kjZ\gbl_evgh rbjhdbo s_eyo b d dZq_kl\m ki_dljZevguo ebgbc g_
ij_^ty\ey_lky\ukhdbolj_[h\Zgbc
>himklbfu_ jZaf_ju \h]gmlhc j_r_ldb bf_xl _s_ h]jZgbq_gb_
k\yaZggh_kl_ogbdhcgZg_k_gbyrljboh\M]hef_`^mjZ[hq_cih\_joghklvx
j_apZbohj^hckly]b\Zxs_cdhgpuaZ]hlh\dbijbjZ[hl_fZrbguhklZ_lky
ihklhygguf Ihwlhfm m]he f_`^m hljZ`Zxs_c ]jZgvx rljboZ b \h]gmlhc
ih\_joghklvxj_r_ldbf_gy_lky<j_amevlZl_wnn_dlb\ghklvhl^_evguoqZk-
l_cj_r_ldbhdZau\Z_lkyjZaebqghcqlhh]jZgbqb\Z_lj_Zevghbkihevam_fmx
rbjbgm j_r_ldb M gZj_aguo j_r_lhd ^h\hevgh \ukhdh]h dZq_kl\Z
hlghr_gb_jZaf_jZj_r_ldbdjZ^bmkmdjb\bagug_fh`_lij_\urZlv
:klb]fZlbaf :klb]fZlbq_kdh_ ^_ckl\b_ kn_jbq_kdhc ^bnjZdpbhgghc
j_r_ldb hij_^_ey_lky khhlghr_gb_f   ^Zxsbf m^Ze_gb_ f2  û
kZ]bllZevgh]hnhdmkZhl\_jrbguj_r_ldbIjbwlhflhqdZ\oh^ghcs_eb\
ki_dlj_ bah[jZ`Z_lky \_jlbdZevguf hlj_adhf H jZkiheh`_gguf gZ djm]_
JhmeZg^Z jbk Bkihevamy  gZoh^bf\_ebqbgmH:
 cos ϕ 
H =  sin 2 ϕ + sin 2 ψ  Lr (9.25)
 cosψ 
A^_kvLr — jZ[hqZy\ukhlZrljboZ

233
GZ jbk  ijb\_^_gu djb\u_ jZ\guo \_ebqbg G/Lr. Djb\u_
ihdZau\Zxl \h kdhevdh jZa ijb aZ^Zgguo % b 3 hlj_ahd dhlhjuf
bah[jZ`Z_lkylhqdZs_ebij_\urZ_l^ebgmrljboZj_r_ldbGZijbf_jijb
m]eZoiZ^_gby[he__ƒ^ebgZnhdZevgh]hhlj_adZij_\urZ_l^ebgmrljboZ
\ iylv b [he__ jZa Wlhl wnn_dl kms_kl\_ggh mf_gvrZ_l hk\_s_gghklv
ki_dljZevguo ebgbc Djhf_ lh]h _keb \ klb]fZlbq_kdbo ki_dljh]jZnZo k
iehkdbfb^bnjZdpbhggufbj_r_ldZfbbijbafZfb g_[hevrhcgZdehgs_eb
hlghkbl_evgh rljboh\ ijb\h^bl d gZdehgm ki_dljZevguo ebgbc lh \
ki_dljh]jZnZo k \h]gmlufb j_r_ldZfb gZdehg s_eb \uau\Z_l jZafu\Zgb_
ebgbc

JbkGhfh]jZffZ^eyhij_^_e_gby\_ebqbguZklb]fZlbafZ \h]gmlhcj_r_ldb
ijbjZaebqguom]eZoiZ^_gbyb^bnjZdpbb

JZkklhygb_ f_`^m ]hjbahglZevgufb b \_jlbdZevgufb nhdZevgufb


hlj_adZfbjZ\gh_
sin 2 ϕ + sinψ tgψ cos ϕ
∆=ρ , (9.26)
cos ϕ − sinψ tgψ

gZau\Z_lkyZklb]fZlbq_kdhcjZaghklvx
?keb \hkihevah\Zlvky k\hckl\hf h[jZlbfhklb k\_lh\uo emq_c b \
dZq_kl\_ bklhqgbdh\ k\_lZ kqblZlv ]hjbahglZevgmx s_ev \ iheh`_gbb II b
\_jlbdZevgmx\iheh`_gbbIlhemqbkh[_jmlky\lhqdm:Wlbfihevamxlky
ijbgZg_k_gbbfZjhdihq_jg_gbcgZnhlhieZklbgdm
:klb]fZlbaf \h]gmlhc j_r_ldb fh`gh bkijZ\blv ihf_sZy gZ imlb
emq_c ^hihegbl_evgu_ pbebg^jbq_kdb_ ebgau dhlhju_ ijb[eb`Zxl
bah[jZ`_gb_ nhdZevghc ebgbb II d djm]m JhmeZg^Z >jm]bf kihkh[hf
mf_gvr_gby Zklb]fZlbafZ y\ey_lky bkihevah\Zgb_ j_r_lhd k i_j_f_gguf
rZ]hf m dhlhjuo jZkklhygb_ f_`^m rljboZfb f_gy_lky ih ebg_cghfm
aZdhgm d = do(1 + .\), ]^_ . — hq_gv fZeZy \_ebqbgZ >@ < ki_dlj_ lZdhc
j_r_ldbkms_kl\mxllhqdb\dhlhjuoZklb]fZlbafkh\_jr_gghhlkmlkl\m_l

234
Bkihevah\Zgb_ j_r_lhd gZj_aZgguo gZ lhjhb^Zevguo weebi-
khb^Zevguo b ^jm]bo g_kn_jbq_kdbo ih\_joghklyo iha\hey_l iheghklvx
kdhfi_gkbjh\Zlv Zklb]fZlbaf \ ^\mo lhqdZo ki_dljZ Z \[ebab gbo k^_eZlv
_]h g_[hevrbf Lhjhb^ZevgZy j_r_ldZ h[eZ^Z_l jZagufb jZ^bmkZfb
djb\bagu \ f_jb^bhgZevghf !f b kZ]]blZevghf !k k_q_gbyo Nhdmkbjmxs__
^_ckl\b_ lZdhc ^bnjZdpbhgghc j_r_ldb hij_^_ey_lky hkgh\gufb
khhlghr_gbyfb   b   ijb bkihevah\Zgbb \ ijZ\uo qZklyo wlbo
khhlghr_gbbkhhl\_lkl\mxsbojZ^bmkh\djb\bagu!f —^eyi_j\h]hkhhlgh-
r_gbyb!k —^ey\lhjh]h?keb\u[jZlv!k!f, lhkZ]]blZevgucnhdmkfh`_l
[ulv agZqbl_evgh ijb[eb`_g d f_jb^bhgZevghfm qlh iha\hey_l
kms_kl\_gghkgbablv\_ebqbgmZklb]fZlbafZ
JZkq_lu jy^Z ko_f k \h]gmlufb ^bnjZdpbhggufb j_r_ldZfb gZ djm]_
JhmeZg^Z b \g_ _]h b bkke_^h\Zgby hilbfZevguo mkeh\bc bo jZ[hlu
baeh`_gu\>@

2°=heh]jZnbq_kdb_\h]gmlu_j_r_ldb

=heh]jZnbq_kdb_ j_r_ldb h[uqgh ba]hlZ\eb\Zxl gZ kn_jbq_kdbo


\h]gmluo ih\_joghklyo Kms_kl\m_l g_kdhevdh lbih\ lZdbo j_r_lhd
J_r_ldb lbiZ I ih nhdmkbjmxsbf k\hckl\Zf ih^h[gu \h]gmluf gZj_aguf
j_r_ldZf >ey bo ba]hlh\e_gby bkihevamxl ^\Z iZjZee_evguo dh]_j_glguo
imqdZdZdbah[jZ`_ghgZjbkRljbob]heh]jZnbq_kdboj_r_lhdlbiZI,
dZdbgZj_aguowd\b^bklZglguihohj^_<h]gmlu_]heh]jZnbq_kdb_j_r_ldb
g_ bf_xl h]jZgbq_gbc ih hlghkbl_evghfm hl\_jklbx fh`gh ba]hlZ\eb\Zlv
j_r_ldb k hl\_jklb_f ^h –  J_r_ldb lbiZ I p_e_khh[jZagh
bkihevah\Zlv \ l_o kemqZyo dh]^Z g_h[oh^bfu ihgb`_gguc mjh\_gv
jZkk_yggh]h k\_lZ b \ukhdh_ hlghr_gb_ kb]gZermf ijb j_]bkljZpbb
ki_dljZ
<h]gmlu_j_r_ldblbiZII nhdmkbjmxlki_dljgZdjm]_JhmeZg^ZdZdb
j_r_ldblbiZIh^gZdhhgbh[eZ^ZxlagZqbl_evghf_gvrbfZklb]fZlbafhfb
Z[_jjZpbyfb Ijb bo ba]hlh\e_gbb bkihevamxl ^\Z lhq_qguo dh]_j_glguo
bklhqgbdZ k\_lZ ^Zxsbo jZkoh^ysb_ky imqdb Bklhqgbdb fh]ml [ulv
jZkiheh`_gu \ ijhba\hevguo lhqdZo ]eZ\ghc iehkdhklb j_r_ldb
FZl_fZlbq_kdbf iml_f fh`gh gZclb lZdb_ iheh`_gby bklhqgbdh\ ijb
dhlhjuo ^ey aZ^Zggh]h ki_dljZevgh]h ijb[hjZ aZ^Zgghc h[eZklb ki_dljZ
^bki_jkbbbij Zklb]fZlbafhdZau\Z_lkymf_gvr_gguf\g_kdhevdhjZaih
kjZ\g_gbx k j_r_ldZfb lbiZ I Fh`gh lZd`_ fbgbfbabjh\Zlv b ^jm]b_
Z[_jjZpbb\h]gmlhcj_r_ldbJ_r_ldblbiZIIp_e_khh[jZaghbkihevah\Zlv\
l_o ko_fZo dhlhjuf k\hckl\_g_g Zklb]fZlbaf gZijbf_j \ ki_dljh]jZn_ ih
ko_f_B]eybeb\fhghojhfZlhj_K_cy–GZfbhdZ kf†.5).
J_r_ldb lbiZ III ^Zxl kh\_jr_ggh klb]fZlbq_kdh_ bah[jZ`_gb_ ^ey
lj_o ^ebg \heg ki_dljZ Z \ hklZevguo qZklyo ki_dljZ Zklb]fZlbaf fh`_l
[ulvg_\_ebdGZjbkZihdZaZgZko_fZjZkiheh`_gby\hegh\uonjhglh\
imqdh\ ijb ba]hlh\e_gbb gZ kn_jbq_kdhc ih^eh`d_ \h]gmlhc j_r_ldb lbiZ
III. H^bgbalhq_qguodh]_j_glguobklhqgbdh\ :) gZoh^blkykljh]h\p_glj_
djb\bagu ih\_joghklb j_r_ldb <lhjhc <) fh`_l gZoh^blvky \ ijhba\hev-

235
ghf f_kl_ < ij_^_eZo m]eh\h]h jZkl\hjZ dZ`^h]h ba imqdh\ ihdZaZgu
\hegh\u_ njhglu hlklhysb_ ^jm] hl ^jm]Z gZ 0 ]^_ 0 — ^ebgZ \hegu
dh]_j_glguo bklhqgbdh\ @bjgufb lhqdZfb hlf_q_gu imqghklb klhyqbo
\heg \ h[eZklb i_j_djulby imqdh\ kh\iZ^Zxsb_ k ih\_joghklvx j_r_ldb

Jbk  Ko_fZ ba]hlh\e_gby Z  b f_jb^bhgZevgu_ (I) b kZ]bllZevgu_ 2)


nhdZevgu_ djb\u_ [  \h]gmlhc ]heh]jZnbq_kdhc j_r_ldb : — p_glj djb\bagu
ih\_joghklb:<K— klb]fZlbq_kdb_lhqdb

Wlb lhqdb ihdZau\Zxl jZkiheh`_gb_ ihemqZxsboky rljboh\ \ ^Zgghf


k_q_gbb j_r_ldb NhdZevgZy djb\Zy j_r_ldb lbiZ III ^ey f_jb^bhgZevguo
imqdh\ e_`Zsbo\ ]eZ\ghciehkdhklb j_r_ldb ij_^klZ\ey_lkh[hcg_djm]
JhmeZg^Z Z djb\mx lbiZ e_fgbkdZlu ijhoh^ysmx q_j_a p_glj j_r_ldb b
p_glj __ djb\bagu dZd ihdZaZgh gZ jbk ,[ WlZ djb\Zy ljb`^u
i_j_k_dZ_l nhdZevgmx ebgbx kZ]bllZevguo imqdh\ imqdh\ iehkdhklv
dhlhjuoi_ji_g^bdmeyjgZ]eZ\ghciehkdhklbj_r_ldb —\lhqdZo:<bK
Ke_^h\Zl_evgh j_r_ldZ bf__l ljb klb]fZlbq_kdb_ lhqdb : < b K ?keb
bklhqgbdk\_lZ gZijbf_j\oh^gZys_evki_dljZevgh]hijb[hjZ gZoh^blky\
h^ghc ba wlbo lhq_d \ ^\mo ^jm]bo \hagbdZxl _]h klb]fZlbq_kdb_
bah[jZ`_gbyIjbwlhf\uihegyxlkykhhlghr_gby

0 = d sin, ! = kAB, ! = AC/k. (9.27)

236
A^_kv ! — jZ^bmk djb\bagu kn_jbq_kdhc ih\_joghklb j_r_ldb d —
jZkklhygb_f_`^mrljboZfbk — iZjZf_lj<_ebqbgmd ijb[eb`_gghfh`gh
kqblZlvihklhygghclZddZdbaf_g_gb_rZ]Z\^hevj_r_ldbhq_gvfZeh
LZ[ebpZ
>ebgu\heg\ki_dlj_ihiZ^Zxsb_\klb]fZlbq_kdb_lhqdb:
<bKijb jZaebqguoiheh`_gbyobklhqgbdZk\_lZ

Iheh`_gb_ >ebgZ\hegu\lhqdZo
bklhqgbdZ : < K
λ0 λ
: 0 k 0
q q
λ0 λ λ0
< 2 0 (k + 1)
q q q
λ λ λ0
K k 0 (k + 1) 0 2k
q q q

Bklhqgbd k\_lZ fh`gh ihf_sZlv \ ex[mx ba lj_o klb]fZlbq_kdbo


lhq_d<lZ[eijb\_^_gu^ebgu\hegkhhl\_lkl\mxsb_klb]fZlbq_kdbf
lhqdZfQ_j_aq h[hagZq_gihjy^hdki_dljZ?kebbklhqgbdk\_lZihf_s_g\
lhqdm < beb K fh`gh jZ[hlZlv \ Z\lhdheebfZpbb < wlhf kemqZ_ ki_dlj
gZ[ex^Z_lky lZf `_ ]^_ jZkiheh`_g bklhqgbd k\_lZ iehkdhklb iZ^_gby b
^bnjZdpbb emq_c dZd b \ ex[hc Z\lhdheebfZpbhgghc ko_f_ g_ ^he`gu
kh\iZ^Zlv^jm]k^jm]hf 
GZ jbk  ihdZaZgu nhdZevgu_ djb\u_ ijb jZaebqguo iheh`_gbyo
\lhjh]h bklhqgbdZ dh]_j_glguo \heg lhqdb <  GZ jbk Z m]he  b
ke_^h\Zl_evg h iehlghklv rljboh\ j_r_ldb aZ^Zgu
ihklhyggufbIjbi_j_f_s_gbblhqdb<baf_gy_lky^ebgZ\hegukGZjbk
9.19,[aZ^ZgZ^ebgZ\heguihiZ^ZxsZy\lj_lvxklb]fZlbq_kdmxlhqdmk =
 gf Ke_^h\Zl_evgh k = const b ]_hf_ljbq_kdbf f_klhf lhq_d < b K ih
 y\eyxlkyhdjm`ghklbkjZ^bmkZfbkhhl\_lkl\_ggh!/k bN! bp_gljhf\
lhqd_ : GZ jbkmgd_ ijb\_^_gu djb\u_ ^ey lj_o kemqZ_\ M]he  \ dZ`^hf
kemqZ_ jZaguc ihwlhfm iehlghklv rljboh\ jZaebqgZ F_jb^bhgZevgZy
nhdZevgZy djb\Zy \ ijhf_`mld_ f_`^m klb]fZlbq_kdbfb lhqdZfb ijhoh^bl
^h\hevgh [ebadh d nhdZevghc ebgbb ^ey kZ]bllZevguo imqdh\ < wlbo
h[eZklyoZklb]fZlbafg_agZqbl_e_g
Mf_gvr_gb_ Zklb]fZlbafZ ]heh]jZnbq_kdbo j_r_lhd \hafh`gh b ijb
g_dhlhjuo^jm]bomklZgh\dZo>@
=heh]jZnbq_kdb_ j_r_ldb lbiZ III ba]hlZ\eb\Zxlky k iehlghklvx
rljboh\ ^h  rljff Bo p_e_khh[jZagh bkihevah\Zlv \ l_o kemqZyo
dh]^Zg_h[oh^bffZeucZklb]fZlbaf\rbjhdhch[eZklbki_dljZIjbf_jhf
fh`_l kem`blv fbgbZlxjguc fhghojhfZlhj HR- njZgpmakdhc nbjfu
"Jobin — Yvon k hlghkbl_evguf hl\_jklb_f  ho\Zlu\Zxsbc h[eZklv
ki_dljZhl^hgfijbjZaj_rZ_fhfki_dljZevghfbgl_j\Ze_gf

237
DZd e_]dh \b^_lv rljbob \h]gmluo ]heh]jZnbq_kdbo j_r_lhd g_
ijyfhebg_cgu b g_ wd\b^bklZglgu q_f b hij_^_eyxlky Zklb]fZlbq_kdb_
k\hckl\Z wlbo j_r_lhd Mki_ob ^hklb]gmlu_ aZ ihke_^gb_ ]h^u \
kh\_jr_gkl\h\Zgbb ^_ebl_evguo fZrbg iha\heyxl l_i_jv ba]hlZ\eb\Zlv
j_r_ldb k lZdbfb `_ k\hckl\Zfb f_oZgbq_kdbf iml_f >@ RZ] b nhjfZ
rljboh\ ]heh]jZnbq_kdhc j_r_ldb aZ\bkyl hl jZkiheh`_gby bklhqgbdh\

JbkNhdZevgu_djb\u_\h]gmluo]heh]jZnbq_kdboj_r_lhdlbiZIII: Z)  const,
[) k = const; —f_jb^bhgZevgZynhdZev– – –kZ]bllZevgZynhdZev0 gf

238
k\_lZ ijb aZibkb gZj_aghc j_r_ldb — hl khhlghr_gby f_`^m \_ebqbghc
ih^Zqb aZ]hlh\db b ljZ_dlhjb_c ^\b`_gby j_apZ >ey baf_g_gby ih
aZ^Zgghfm aZdhgm rZ]Z gZj_adb b djb\bagu rljboh\ \h \j_fy gZj_adb
^_ebl_evgZyfZrbgZ\h[s_fkemqZ_^he`gZbf_lvijh]jZffgh_mijZ\e_gb_
=heh]jZnbq_kdb_ \h]gmlu_ j_r_ldb lbiZ I jZ\ghp_ggu ih nh-
dmkbjmxsbfk\hckl\ZfgZj_aguf\h]gmlufj_r_ldZfkijyfufbrljboZfb
bihklhyggufrZ]hfbfh]mlaZf_gylvbo\ex[uoijb[hjZo_keblj_[m_lky
mf_gvrblv nhg \ ki_dlj_ =heh]jZnbq_kdb_ j_r_ldb lbih\ II b III, Z lZd`_
gZj_agu_ j_r_ldb k i_j_f_gguf rZ]hf b djb\hebg_cgufb rljboZfb
wnn_dlb\gulhevdh^eyl_omklZgh\hd^eydhlhjuohgbjZkkqblZgu

§KI?DLJ:EVGU?IJB;HJUK<H=GMLUFB
>BNJ:DPBHGGUFBJ?R?LD:FB

< hkgh\_ [hevrbgkl\Z \ZjbZglh\ hilbq_kdbo ko_f ijb[hjh\ k


\h]gmlufb j_r_ldZfb e_`bl djm] JhmeZg^Z Ih^jh[guc ZgZeba jZaebqguo
ko_fbf__lky\>@JZkkfhljbfgZb[he__jZkijhkljZg_ggu_ko_fu
Ko_fZ IZr_gZ–Jmg]_ bkihevam_l \_kv djm] JhmeZg^Z gZ dhlhjhf
`_kldh mdj_ie_gu \oh^gZy s_ev b j_r_ldZ DZkk_lZ fh`_l jZkiheZ]Zlvky \
ex[hc lhqd_ djm]Z Ijb[hju ihkljh_ggu_ ih wlhc ko_f_ bf_xl djm]emx
nhjfm k ^bZf_ljhf jZ\guf ^bZf_ljm djm]Z JhmeZg^Z Ijb [hevrbo
jZ^bmkZodjb\baguj_r_ldb\ki_dljh]jZnijboh^blkyij_\jZsZlv[hevrmx
aZl_fg_ggmx dhfgZlm jZaf_sZy \ g_c gZ [_lhgguo hkgh\Zgbyo j_r_ldm
s_evbgZijZ\eyxsb_^eydj_ie_gbydZkk_lu
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fZeZ Ihwlhfm ^ey gZ[ex^_gby iheghc bgl_jn_j_gpbhgghc dZjlbgu gZ bg
l_jn_jhf_ljke_^m_lgZijZ\eylvfgh`_kl\hiehkdbo\heg\k_\hafh`guogZ
ijZ\e_gbcl_bkihevah\Zlvbklhqgbdk\_lZ[hevrbom]eh\uojZaf_jh\?keb
`_ gZ bgl_jn_jhf_lj iZ^Z_l h^gZ iehkdZy \hegZ gZ wdjZg_ h[jZam_lky ^b
njZdpbhggh_ bah[jZ`_gb_ lhqdb k mq_lhf jZaghklb nZa bgl_jn_jbjmxsbo
imqdh\
IjhajZqghklv bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ NZ[jb–I_jh ^ey fhghojhfZlbq_kdh]h
baemq_gby\ujZ`Z_lkynhjfmehc  Ijbh^bgZdh\uoa_jdZeZowlmnhjfm
emfh`ghaZibkZlv
T 2Tkj
TNI = . (10.1)
(1 − Tkj R ) (β L )
2
+ 4Tkj R sin 2

< aZ\bkbfhklb hl m]eZ gZdehgZ 3 emq_c hlghkbl_evgh hkb baf_gy_lky


jZaghklvnZaL kf  bke_^h\Zl_evghf_gy_lky\_ebqbgZLNIDZdb\
kemqZ_jZah[jZgghf\† kfjbk  fZdkbfZevgZyijhajZqghklvNZ[
jb–I_jhkhhl\_lkl\m_lhilbq_kdhcjZaghklboh^Zkhk_^gboimqdh\jZ\ghc
2 Ln cos ϕ = qλ , (10.2)
ZfbgbfZevgZy—hilbq_kdhcjZaghklboh^Z
 1
2Ln cos ϕ =  q +  λ, (10.3)
 2

245
]^_q —ihjy^hdbgl_jn_j_gpbbAgZq_gbyijhajZqghklb\fZdkbfmfZobfb
gbfmfZofh`ghgZclbba  kmq_lhf  b(10.3):
T 2Tcj T 2Tcj
TNI fZdk = ; TNI fbg = . (10.4)
(1 − Tkj R ) (1 + Tkj R )
2 2

Hlghr_gb_ LNI fZdk / LNI fbg gZau\Zxl dhgljZklhf bgl_jn_j_gpbhgghc


dZjlbgu
2
 1 + Tkj R 
K = 7NI fZdk / 7NI fbg =   . (10.5)
 1 − Tkj R 
 
?keb a_jdZeZ bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ b kj_^Z f_`^m gbfb g_ bf_xl ihl_jv
ijhajZqghklv\fZdkbfmfZojZ\gZ_^bgbp_Zdjb\u_ijhajZqghklbbhljZ`_
gby \aZbfgh ^hihegyxl ^jm] ^jm]Z
jbk Z,[  Ijb gZebqbb ihl_jv
ijhajZqghklv\fZdkbfmfZog_^hoh^bl
^h_^bgbpu
IjhajZqghklv bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ
hibku\Z_fZy \ujZ`_gb_f   g_
^hklb]Z_l gme_\uo agZq_gbc bf_xlky
lhevdh fbgbfmfu jZkiheh`_ggu_ ih
kj_^bg_ f_`^m fZdkbfmfZfb K nbab
q_kdhclhqdbaj_gbywlhy\ey_lkyke_^
kl\b_f g_jZ\_gkl\Z Zfieblm^ [_kdh
g_qgh]h qbkeZ bgl_jn_jbjmxsbo imq
dh\ \ hlebqb_ hl kemqZy ^bnjZdpbhg
ghcj_r_ldb]^_bgl_jn_jbjmxlN em
q_c jZ\guo Zfieblm^  H^gZdh qbkeh
bgl_jn_jbjmxsbo imqdh\ fh`gh kqb
lZlv[_kdhg_qgh[hevrbflhevdh\lhf
Jbk Djb\u_ ijhajZqghklb LNI kemqZ_ _keb iZ^Zxsbc imqhd h]jZgb
b hljZ`_gby R bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ q_g ih k_q_gbx i_j_^ bgl_jn_jhf_l
NZ[jb–I_jh  ijb  R = 0,6, T = 0,4, jhf Z a_jdZeZ bf_xl [hevrmx ijhly
Tkj = 1 `_gghklv b ijb [hdh\hf kf_s_gbb
jZks_ib\rboky imqdh\ g_ ijhbkoh^bl
h[j_aZgbyimqdh\hijZ\hcbgl_jn_jhf_ljZ

2°. M]eh\Zybebg_cgZy^bki_jkbb

?keb \ iZ^Zxs_f gZ bgl_jn_jhf_lj k\_lh\hf ihlhd_ ijbkmlkl\m_l ba


emq_gb_ jZaebqguo ^ebg \heg ^ey dZ`^hc ba gbo h[jZam_lky k\hy kbkl_fZ
bgl_jn_j_gpbhgguodhe_pkh^gbfbl_f`_p_gljhfghkjZagufbm]eh\u
fb iheh`_gbyfb fZdkbfmfh\ b fbgbfmfh\ l_ baemq_gb_ jZaeZ]Z_lky \
ki_dlj
M]eh\mx ^bki_jkbx bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ gZc^_f ^bnn_j_gpbjh\Zgb_f mk
eh\byfZdkbfmfh\  ih3bih

246
dϕ q
= . (10.6)
d  L VLQ ϕ
Ihkdhevdm m]he 3 fZe Z ihjy^hd bgl_jn_j_gpbb jZ\_g q=2L /   ba
 ihemqZ_f
dϕ 1
= , (10.7)
d λϕ
hldm^Z\b^ghqlhm]eh\Zy^bki_jkbyg_aZ\bkblhllhesbgubgl_jn_jhf_ljZ
HgZhq_gv\_ebdZ\p_glj_bgl_jn_j_gpbhgghcdZjlbgu ijb3: bm[u
\Z_l k jhklhf m]eZ 3 Ba   fh`gh ihemqblv \ujZ`_gb_ ^ey ebg_cghc
^bki_jkbb
dl f 2
= . (10.8)
d  l
A^_kvl —dhhj^bgZlZhlkqblu\Z_fZyhlp_gljZbgl_jn_j_gpbhgghcdZjlbgu
jZ^bmk dhe_p  f — nhdmkgh_ jZkklhygb_ h[t_dlb\Z Nhjfmem   fh`gh
aZibkZlv\\b^_m^h[ghf^eyjZkq_lZjZagbpu\^ebgZo\heg G bebqZklhlZo
dv f_`^mdhfihg_glZfbbgl_jn_j_gpbhgghcdZjlbguihbaf_j_ggufebg_c
gufjZkklhygbyfdl f_`^mgbfb
d dν l
= = dl . (10.9)
 ν f2
Hlkx^Z ohjhrh \b^gh qlh k m\_ebq_gb_f jZ^bmkZ dhe_p l \k_ f_gvrbc eb
g_cgucbgl_j\Zedlkhhl\_lkl\m_lh^gbfbl_f`_bgl_j\ZeZfGbebdv, l_k
jhklhfjZ^bmkZ^bki_jkbym[u\Z_l
>ey ihkljh_gby djb\hc ^bki_jkbb bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ \ dhhj^bgZlZo  =
f(D), ]^_D — ^bZf_ljdhe_pfh`gh\hkihevah\Zlvkynhjfmehc
0 −  D 2
= 2, (10.10)
0 8f
dhlhjmxe_]dhihemqblvba  ijbcos3 §– 32/2. Q_j_a0 \  h[h
agZq_gZ^ebgZ\hegu^eydhlhjhcfZdkbfmfbgl_jn_j_gpbbihjy^dZq khhl
\_lkl\m_lp_gljmdZjlbgul_Ln = T0.
=jZnbdhf ^bki_jkbb m^h[gh ihevah\Zlvky ^ey gZoh`^_gby jZaghkl_c
^ebg\heg1 b2 ihbaf_j_gguf^bZf_ljZfD1 bD2bo dhe_p\h^ghfblhf
`_ihjy^d_q.

ƒK\h[h^gZyki_dljZevgZyh[eZklv h[eZklv^bki_jkbb

< bgl_jn_j_gpbhgghc dZjlbg_ ijhbkoh^bl gZeh`_gb_ ki_dljh\ khk_^


gbo ihjy^dh\ bgl_jn_j_gpbb <_ebqbgm k\h[h^ghc ki_dljZevghc h[eZklb
h[eZklb ^bki_jkbb  jZ\gmx jZkklhygbx f_`^m khk_^gbfb fZdkbfmfZfb
\ujZ`_gghfm\^ebgZo\hegfh`ghgZclb^bnn_j_gpbjh\Zgb_f  ihq b
IheZ]Zyijbwlhfûq bcos3 §bf__f
û = 2/2L = /q. (10.11)
H[eZklv^bki_jkbbbgl_jn_jhf_ljZqZklh\ujZ`Zxl\kf–1bebF=p

247
1  −1  1
∆ν = kf   ∆ν = ⋅ −6[F=p] (10.12)
2L  2L
lh]^ZhgZaZ\bkbllhevdhhllhesbgubgl_jn_jhf_ljZH[eZklv^bki_jkbb\
kf–1gZau\Zxlihklhygghcbgl_jn_jhf_ljZ

4°. JZaj_rZxsZykihkh[ghklv

:iiZjZlghcnmgdpb_cbgl_jn_jhf_ljZy\ey_lkym]eh\h_jZkij_^_e_gb_
  dhlhjh_ bf__l fhghojhfZlbq_kdbc k\_lh\hc ihlhd gZ \uoh^_ ba bg
l_jn_jhf_ljZ ?keb \ baemq_gbb ijbkmlkl\mxl [ebadb_ ^ebgu \heg 1 b 2,
m]eh\u_ jZkij_^_e_gby bo k\_lh\uo ihlh-
dh\ qZklbqgh i_j_dju\Zxlky < dZq_kl\_
djbl_jby jZaj_r_gby wlbo ^\mo ^ebg \heg
ijbgbfZxlmkeh\b_i_j_k_q_gbybojZkij_
^_e_gbc\lhqdZoLNIfZdk jbk Ijb
wlhf kmffZjgZy djb\Zy bf__l \ k_j_^bg_
ijh\Ze]em[bghcijbf_jghLNIfZdk.
IjbjZ\gb\Zy ijhajZqghklv LNI (10.1)
iheh\bg_ fZdkbfZevgh]h agZq_gby LNIfZdk
(10.4  gZoh^bf agZq_gb_ sin L \ lhqd_ i_
j_k_q_gbydjb\uogZjbk
1 − Tkj R
(sin β L)1 2 = ± . (10.13)
2 Tkj R

Ihkdhevdm \_ebqbgZ / \ lhqd_ i_j_


Jbk  D gZoh`^_gbx jZaj_-
k_q_gby fZeh hlebqZ_lky hl TŒ, \_ebqbgm
rZxs_c kihkh[ghklb bgl_jn_
(sin /)1/2\\ujZ`_gbb  fh`ghaZf_
jhf_ljZNZ[jb–I_jh
gblvijbjZs_gb_fZj]mf_glZ/.IjbjZs_
gb_ / gZoh^bf ^bnn_j_gpbjh\Zgb_f \u
jZ`_gby  <j_amevlZl_ihemqZ_f
π
(sin β L)1 2 = sin  qπ + δ ( β L ) = δ ( β L ) = − 2 L sin ϕδϕ . (10.14)

Ih^klZ\eyy  \  bf__f
1 − Tkj R π
= ± 2 L sin ϕδϕ . (10.15)
2 Tkj R 
BlZdm]eh\h_jZkklhygb_hlp_gljZbgl_jn_j_gpbhggh]hfZdkbfmfZ^h
lhqdbi_j_k_q_gbydjb\uogZjbkjZ\gh
1 − Tkj R λ
δϕ = ± . (10.16)
2π Tkj R 2 L sin ϕ
>eygZoh`^_gbyfbgbfZevgh]hjZaj_rbfh]hbgl_j\ZeZ^ebg\heg ij_
^_eZjZaj_r_gby /= 2 – 1 ^_ebfm^\h_ggmx\_ebqbgm/3gZm]eh\mx^bk
i_jkbx  

248
d λ λ 1 − Tkj R
δλ = 2δϕ = . (10.17)
dϕ q π Tkj R
<_ebqbgZ / ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc rbjbgm bgkljmf_glZevgh]h dhglmjZ
beb ZiiZjZlghc nmgdpbb bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ NZ[jb–I_jh Ba   gZoh^bf
jZaj_rZxsmxkihkh[ghklvbgl_jn_jhf_ljZ

λ π Tkj R
=q = qN wnn , (10.18)
δλ 1 − Tkj R
]^_
π Tkj R
N wnn = (10.19)
1 − Tkj R

y\ey_lky wnn_dlb\guf qbkehf bgl_jn_jbjmxsbo emq_c l_ qbkehf h^bgZ


dh\uo ih Zfieblm^_ emq_c h[_ki_qb\Zxsbo lZdmx `_ jZaj_rZxsmx kih
kh[ghklvdZdb[_kdhg_qgh_qbkehemq_ckm[u\Zxs_cZfieblm^hc
DZd \b^gh ba   jZaj_rZxsZy kihkh[ghklv bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ aZ\b
kbl hl ihjy^dZ bgl_jn_j_gpbb b hl dhwnnbpb_glZ hljZ`_gby a_jdZe ijh
ajZqghklvkj_^uf_`^ma_jdZeZfbLkjh[uqgh[ebadZd_^bgbp_ 
Ba  b  fh`ghihemqblv
û = / Nwnn. (10.20)
LZdbfh[jZahfrbjbgZZiiZjZlghcnmgdpbbbgl_jn_jhf_ljZ/k\yaZgZ
k \_ebqbghc k\h[h^ghc ki_dljZevghc h[eZklb û q_j_a Nwnn AgZy \_ebqbgm
Nwnn fh`gh kjZam kdZaZlv dZdmx ^hex hl h[eZklb ^bki_jkbb û khklZ\ey_l
rbjbgZ ZiiZjZlghc nmgdpbb / >ey hp_ghd ihe_agZ lZ[ebpZ k\yau\ZxsZy
\_ebqbgmNwnnkR kflZ[e 
LZ[ebpZ
Wnn_dlb\gh_qbkehbgl_jn_jbjmxsboemq_cNwnn
ijbjZaguoagZq_gbyoTcpR

TkjR Nwnn TkjR Nwnn


0,80 14 0,95 61,5
0,85 19,3 0,97 103
0,90 30 0,98 156
0,92 38 0,99 314

<_ebqbgmNwnngZau\ZxllZd`_nZdlhjhfj_adhklbbgl_jn_j_gpbhgghc
dZjlbgu beb  hkljhlhc ihehk b h[hagZqZxl qZklh q_j_a F (finesse  NZdlhj
j_adhklbihdZau\Z_l\hkdhevdhjZarbjbgZbgl_jn_j_gpbhggh]hfZdkbfmfZ
f_gvr_jZkklhygbyf_`^mkhk_^gbfbfZdkbfmfZfb
Fh`gh ^mfZlv qlh k ih\ur_gb_f dhwnnbpb_glh\ hljZ`_gby a_jdZe
jZaj_rZxsZy kihkh[ghklv bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ [_a]jZgbqgh \hajZklZ_l Wlh

249
kijZ\_^eb\h h^gZdh lhevdh \ kemqZ_ b^_Zevgh]h bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ NZ[jb–
I_jh<j_Zevghfbgl_jn_jhf_lj_g_iZjZee_evghklva_jdZe^_n_dluboih
\_joghkl_c b ^jm]b_ ijbqbgu \ghkyl bkdZ`_gby \ m]eh\h_ jZkij_^_e_gb_
k\_lh\h]hihlhdZjZkrbjyybgl_jn_j_gpbhggu_fZdkbfmfubf_gyybonhj
fm >@ Ba]hlh\e_gb_ hilbq_kdbo ih\_joghkl_c k hlklmie_gbyfb hl iehk
dhklbg_ij_\urZxsbfbgZijbf_j^ey\b^bfh]hk\_lZij_^klZ\ey_l
kh[hcljm^gmxaZ^ZqmHkgh\ghcijh[e_fhcy\ey_lkydhgljhevklhevfZeuo
^himkdh\ IeZklbgu bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ h[uqgh ba]hlZ\eb\Zxl ihiZjgh lZd
qlh[u ^_n_dlu h^ghc ieZklbgu dhfi_gkbjh\Zebkv ^_n_dlZfb ^jm]hc gZ
ijbf_jqlh[u\uimdehklvgZh^ghckhhl\_lkl\h\ZeZ\h]gmlhklbgZ^jm]hc 
< ohjhr_f bgl_jn_jhf_lj_ NZ[jb–I_jh hlklmie_gby hl ihklhygkl\Z
lhesbgufh]ml[ulv§Bakhhlghr_gbyq = 2L/ gZoh^bfqlhbaf_g_gb_
lhesbgugZûL = kf_sZ_ldhevphgZihjy^dZWlhijb\h^bldjZa
fu\Zgbx dZjlbgu jZaj_r_gb_ mf_gvrZ_lky IZ^Z_l b hk\_s_gghklv dhe_p
ihkdhevdmh[s__dhebq_kl\hk\_lZijboh^ys__kygZ^Zggucihjy^hdhklZ_l
kyij_`gbfHq_\b^ghqlh\wlhfkemqZ_g_bf__lkfukeZbkihevah\Zlva_j
dZeZ k dhwnnbpb_glZfb hljZ`_gby ij_\urZxsbfb  dhlhju_ kh]eZkgh
lZ[e  \iheg_ h[_ki_qb\Zxl rbjbgm bgkljmf_glZevgh]h dhglmjZ /  =
û/20.
>eyih\ur_gbyjZaj_rZxs_ckihkh[ghklbj_Zevgh]hbgl_jn_jhf_ljZk
g_ hq_gv ohjhrbfb a_jdZeZfb ijboh^blky ^bZnjZ]fbjh\Zlv \oh^ghc imqhd
gZijZ\eyy_]hq_j_agZbemqrbcmqZklhdih\_joghkl_cieZklbgIjbjZ[hl_k
emqhf g_[hevrh]h ^bZf_ljZ  gZijbf_j eZa_jguf fh`gh bkihevah\Zlv a_j
dZeZkdhwnnbpb_glZfbhljZ`_gby-98%.

ƒFmevlbie_dk-bfgh]hijhoh^ghcbgl_jn_jhf_lju

Fh`ghh[hclbkhhlghr_gb_  l_jZkrbjblvh[eZklv^bki_jkbb


bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ û ijb aZ^Zgghf jZaj_r_gbb / beb gZh[hjhl ih\ukblv
jZaj_r_gb_ gh khojZgblv ij_`g_c \_ebqbgm h[eZklb ^bki_jkbb >ey wlh]h
bkihevamxl fmevlbie_dk-bgl_jn_jhf_lj — ^\Z ihke_^h\Zl_evgh jZkiheh
`_gguo bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ NZ[jb–I_jh k jZagufb lhesbgZfb jbk Z).
Ihkdhevdm m]eh\Zy ^bki_jkby bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ ih   g_ aZ\bkbl hl _]h
lhesbgu gZijZ\e_gby fZdkbfZevgh]h ijhimkdZgby h[hbo bgl_jn_jhf_ljh\
^eyh^ghcblhc`_^ebgu\hegukh\iZ^Zxl
:iiZjZlgZy nmgdpby fmevlbie_dk-bgl_jn_jhf_ljh\ y\ey_lky ijhba\_
^_gb_fZiiZjZlguonmgdpbc h[hbobgl_jn_jhf_ljh\ Z dhgljZkljZ\_gijh
ba\_^_gbx dhgljZklh\ Ijb hlghr_gbb lhesbg bgl_jn_jhf_ljh\ djZlghf
p_ehfmqbkemh[eZklv^bki_jkbbfmevlbie_dk-bgl_jn_jhf_ljZhij_^_ey_lky
h[eZklvx^bki_jkbblhgdh]hbgl_jn_jhf_ljZZjZaj_rZxsZykbeZhdZau\Z
_lkyg_kdhevdh[hevr_q_fmlheklh]hbgl_jn_jhf_ljZ
Qj_a\uqZcgh fZeZy ki_dljZevgZy rbjbgZ eZa_jguo ebgbc k^_eZeZ \ha
fh`gufbbkke_^h\ZgbykeZ[h]hfhe_dmeyjgh]hjZkk_ygbylhgdhckljmdlmju
djuev_\ebgbcjZkk_ygbyb^j>eywlbop_e_cbkihevamxlfgh]hijhoh^gu_
bgl_jn_jhf_lju \ dhlhjuo k\_l ijhoh^bl q_j_a bgl_jn_jhf_lj ^\Z`^u
ljb`^ubl^ jbk[\] >eyih\hjhlZemqZ\fgh]hijhoh^ghfbgl_jn_

250
jhf_lj_bkihevam_lkyljbiev-ijbafZij_^klZ\eyxsZykh[hcm]hedm[ZEmq
iZ^Zxsbc gZ ijbafm kh klhjhgu hkgh\Zgby ihke_ lj_odjZlgh]h ihegh]h

JbkFmevlbie_dk-bgl_jn_jhf_lj Z ^\mo- ([ lj_o- (\ biylbijhoh^guc


(] bgl_jn_jhf_lju

\gmlj_gg_]hhljZ`_gbyhl]jZg_cijbafu\uoh^blbag__h[jZlghiZjZee_ev
gh iZ^Zxs_fm emqm ijbq_f ijhba\hevgu_ gZdehgu ijbafu hlghkbl_evgh
iZ^Zxs_]hemqZg_gZjmrZxliZjZee_evghklbiZ^Zxs_]hbhljZ`_ggh]hem
q_c
J_amevlbjmxsZyhkljhlZihehkFn n-ijhoh^gh]hbgl_jn_jhf_ljZbdhg
ljZklKnjZ\gu

( )
−1 2
Fn = F1 21 n − 1 , (10.21)

Cn = C1n , (10.22)

]^_F1 bK1 hij_^_eyxlkynhjfmeZfb  b  

ƒHljZ`Zxsb_bgl_jn_jhf_lju

< ihke_^g__ \j_fy agZqbl_evgh_ \gbfZgb_ m^_eyxl hljZ`Zl_evghc bg


l_jn_jhf_ljbb>@DZd\b^ghbajbkoZjZdl_jbklbdZhljZ`_gbybg
l_jn_jhf_ljZh[jZs_gZihhlghr_gbxdoZjZdl_jbklbd_ijhimkdZgbyHgZ
bf__lrbjhdh_ieZlh\ukhdh]hhljZ`_gbybmadb_ijh\Zeu\b^_Zevghfkem
qZ_ ^hoh^ysb_ ^h gmey K mq_lhf ih]ehs_gby \ a_jdZeZo ijh\Zeu ke_]dZ
Zkbff_ljbqgu b g_fgh]h k^\bgmlu ih nZa_ hlghkbl_evgh fZdkbfmfh\ ijh
imkdZgby
HljZ`Zxsb_ bgl_jn_jhf_lju bf_xl jy^ ^hklhbgkl\ ih kjZ\g_gbx k
h[uqgufb LZd \ kemqZ_ nhlhwe_dljbq_kdhc j_]bkljZpbb ijb gZkljhcd_ gZ

251
fbgbfmf hljZ`_gby j_adh kgb`Zxlky ^jh[h\u_ rmfu nhlhijb_fgbdZ aZ
kq_llh]hqlh\wlhfkemqZ_nhlhlhdijb_fgbdZfbgbfZe_gZg_fZdkbfZe_g
dZdijbjZ[hl_kijhimkdZxsbfbgl_jn_jhf_ljhf Djhf_lh]hdjmlbagZoZ
jZdl_jbklbdbhljZ`Zl_evgh]hbgl_jn_jhf_ljZ[hevr_q_f\kemqZ_ijhimk
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jZdbaf_g_gbx^ebgu\heguk\_lZbebgZ[_]ZnZau
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§10.2. BKIHEVAH<:GB? BGL?JN?JHF?LJ: N:;JB–I?JH <


KI?DLJ:EVGUOIJB;HJ:O

ƒKdj_sb\Zgb_^bki_jkbc

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252
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jmxsZy kbkl_fZ ijb[hjZ <gmlj_g


gyy mklZgh\dZ [he__ dhfiZdlgZ h^
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n_j_gpbhgguo dhe_p kh\f_sZ_lky k Jbk  <b^ ki_dljZ ihemq_ggh]h
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2°. Nhlh]jZnbq_kdZyj_]bkljZpbybgl_jn_jh]jZff

Bgl_jn_j_gpbhggmx dZjlbgm fh`gh knhlh]jZnbjh\Zlv _keb gZ f_kl_


wdjZgZ4 jbk ihf_klblvnhlhieZklbgdmbebnhlhie_gdmIjbkdj_sb
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253
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bkdZ`_gu aZ kq_l Z[_jjZpbb h[t_dlb\Z ^bklhjkbb  Ih]j_rghklb \ghkbl
lZd`_djb\bagZki_dljZevguoebgbcGZdhg_pq_ldhklvbgl_jn_j_gpbhgghc
dZjlbgug_[u\Z_lh^bgZdh\hohjhr_cih\k_chdjm`ghklb\ke_^kl\b_
g_kh\_jr_gkl\Zih\_joghkl_cieZklbgbg_b^_Zevghcxklbjh\dbbgl_j
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g_h[oh^bfh kijh_pbjh\Zlv bgl_jn_j_gpbhggu_ dhevpZ gZ \oh^gmx s_ev
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Ki_dljhf_ljhfNZ[jb–I_jhfh`ghgZa\Zlvkbkl_fmkhklhysmxbadhe
ebfbjmxs_cebgau2 jbk bgl_jn_jhf_ljZNZ[jb–I_jhh[t_dlb\Z3 b
\uoh^gh]hhl\_jklbyjZkiheh`_ggh]h\nhdZevghciehkdhklb4. <oh^gh_hl
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bkihevamxl ^eymf_gvr_gby jZkk_yggh]h k\_lZ \gmljbki_dljhf_ljZjZkih
eZ]Zy \ iehkdhklb 1. Bklhqgbd k\_lZ ijh_pbjmxl gZ g_]h ^hihegbl_evghc
ebgahc B gZh[hjhl fh`_l [ulv lhevdh \oh^gh_ hl\_jklb_ Lh]^Z gZ f_kl_
\uoh^gh]h hl\_jklby jZkiheZ]Zxl ijb_fgbd baemq_gby ?keb ijhoh^ysbc
q_j_a bgl_jn_jhf_lj imqhd k\_lZ g_ rbjhd b mf_sZ_lky gZ ijb_fghc ieh
sZ^d_ijb_fgbdfh`ghjZkiheZ]Zlvg_ihkj_^kl\_gghihke_bgl_n_jhf_ljZ
<h[uqguoeZ[hjZlhjguomklZgh\dZoki_dljhf_ljNZ[jb–I_jhg_ij_^klZ\
ey_lkh[hc_^bgh]hp_eh]hZkhklZ\ey_lkybahl^_evguoi_j_qbke_gguo\ur_
we_f_glh\
GZ jbk Z ihdZaZgh jZkij_^_e_gb_ hk\_s_gghklb \ bg-
l_jn_j_gpbhgghfdhevp_gZoh^ys_fky\g_dhlhjhfm^Ze_gbbhlp_gljZdZj
lbgu >ey \u^_e_gby k\_lh\h]h ihlhdZ \ bgl_j\Ze_ / wlh]h dhevpZ g_h[oh
^bfZdhevp_\Zy^bZnjZ]fZiehsZ^vxS^, \ujZ`Z_fhcq_j_ajZ^bmku!b!/,
ke_^mxsbfh[jZahf
(
S^ = π ρ 2 − ρ 
2
δ . ) (10.23)

IheZ]Zycos 3 § 1 –32mkeh\b_fZdkbfmfh\  aZibr_f\\b^_


ϕ 2 qλ
1− = beb32 = 2– q/L. (10.24)
2 2L
I_j_oh^yhljZ^bmkh\dhe_pdbom]eh\ufjZaf_jZf! I3, ]^_f —nhdmkgh_
jZkklhygb_h[t_dlb\Zijh_pbjmxs_]hbgl_jn_j_gpbhggmxdZjlbgmihemqZ
_fba  b 
 q (λ + δλ ) qλ  π f 2q
( )
S^ = π f 2 ϕ λ2 − ϕ λ2 +δλ = π f 2 
 L

L
=
 L
δλ . (10.25)

254
Ihjy^hdbgl_jn_j_gpbbq \_ebdihwlhfm\ij_^_eZog_[hevrh]hbaf_g_gby
q iehsZ^b \k_o dhevp_\uo ^bZnjZ]f \u^_eyxsbo h[eZklv / h^bgZdh\u
H[uqghbkihevam_lky^bZnjZ]fZk\gmlj_ggbfjZ^bmkhfjZ\gufgmex!/
 jbk[ Djm]eh_hl\_jklb_m^h[g__dhevp_\h]hbdjhf_lh]hiha\h
ey_lbkihevah\Zlvbklhqgbdk\_lZfZeuojZaf_jh\
JZ^bmkdjm]ehc^bZnjZ]fulj_[m_fhc^ey\u^_e_gbybgl_j\ZeZki_dljZ
rbjbghc/gZoh^bfba  

Jbk   <u^_e_gb_ mqZkldZ bgl_jn_j_gpbhggh]h dhevpZ khhl\_lkl\mxs_]h


aZ^Zgghfmki_dljZevghfmbgl_j\Zem/

ρ ^ = S^ π = f qδλ / L = f 2δλ / λ . (10.26)

H[uqgh \_ebqbgZ \u^_ey_fh]h ki_dljZevgh]h bgl_j\ZeZ \u[bjZ_lky


jZ\ghc ij_^_evgh jZaj_rbfhc \_ebqbg_ < lZdhf kemqZ_ hlghr_gb_ //
klhys__ ih^ dhjg_f \ \ujZ`_gbb   ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc h[jZlgmx \_
ebqbgm jZaj_rZxs_c kihkh[ghklb bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ Q_f [hevr_ jZaj_rZx
sZykihkh[ghklv//l_ff_gvr_^he`_g[ulvjZaf_j^bZnjZ]fu
>ey jZkq_lh\ jZ^bmkZ ^bZnjZ]fu m^h[gh bkihevah\Zlv ^jm]h_ \ujZ`_
gb_dhlhjh_fh`ghihemqblvba  kmq_lhf  

δλ λ
ρ^ = f = f δ q λ L. (10.27)
∆λ L
Wlh\ujZ`_gb_k\yau\Z_ljZaf_j^bZnjZ]fukh[eZklvx^bki_jkbbbg
l_jn_jhf_ljZûbrbjbghc\u^_ey_fhch[eZklb/. Q_j_a/T = /ûh[hagZ
q_gZ ^hey ihjy^dZ bgl_jn_j_gpbb mf_sZxsZyky \gmljb \uoh^gh]h hl\_j

255
klby ?keb jZaj_rZxsZy kihkh[ghklv bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ bkihevam_lky ihegh
klvxl_/ — fbgbfZevgucjZaj_rbfucbgl_j\ZelhagZq_gb_/T jZ\ghh[
jZlghc\_ebqbg_wnn_dlb\gh]hqbkeZbgl_jn_jbjmxsboemq_cNwnn.
Ba   ke_^m_l qlh m]eh\hc jZaf_j = S^/f2 \uoh^gh]h hl\_jklby
k\yaZgkjZaj_rZxs_ckbehcbgl_jn_jhf_ljZfgh`bl_e_fŒ:
Ω = 2Œ/ 
KdZgbjh\Zgb_ki_dljZijhba\h^ylbaf_g_gb_fhilbq_kdhclhesbgubg
l_jn_jhf_ljZnL. Ijbwlhf\hafh`gu^\Zimlbbaf_g_gb_jZkklhygbyL f_
`^m a_jdZeZfb b baf_g_gb_ ihdZaZl_ey ij_ehfe_gby i kj_^u f_`^m gbfb
gZijbf_jbaf_g_gb_f^Z\e_gby]ZaZ 
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_l bkdexqbl_evghc lhqghklb bo ^\b`_gby dhlhjmx g_evay h[_ki_qblv ijh
klufbf_oZgbq_kdbfbmkljhckl\ZfbDZdijZ\beh^eywlh]hbkihevamxldZ
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lhkljbdpbxbebh[jZlguciv_ahwe_dljbq_kdbcwnn_dl
<ihke_^g__\j_fygZb[he__qZklhijbf_gyxliv_ahwe_f_glu<kdZgb
jmxsbo bgl_jn_jhf_ljZo lZdh]h lbiZ h^gh ba a_jdZe g_[hevrh_ b e_]dh_,
mdj_ieyxl gZ lhjp_ iv_ahd_jZfbq_kdh]h pbebg^jZ Z \lhjh_ a_jdZeh `_kldh
dj_iyl gZ dhjimk_ Ih^Z\Zy gZ h[deZ^db iv_ahwe_f_glZ f_gyxs__ky gZijy
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g_kdhevdhfbdjhg
KdZgbjh\Zgb_ki_dljZbaf_g_gb_f^Z\e_gby\gmljbbgl_jn_jhf_ljZy\
ey_lkyijhklufbgZ^_`gufkihkh[hfijbf_gbfufh^gZdhebrvijbkjZ\
gbl_evgh[hevrbolhesbgZobgl_jn_jhf_ljZ—[he__kfIhdZaZl_evij_
ehfe_gbyi]ZaZk\yaZgk^Z\e_gb_fjebg_cghcaZ\bkbfhklvx

n – 1 = (n0 – 1) p/p0, (10.29)

]^_n0 —ihdZaZl_evij_ehfe_gbyijbgZqZevghf^Z\e_gbbj0QZklh\dZq_kl
\_]ZaZbkihevamxl\ha^mobebZahlIhdZaZl_evij_ehfe_gbywlbo]Zah\ijb
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nhjfmeu  bgZqZevguoagZq_gbcj0bn0 fh`ghihemqblvqlhijbjhkl
^Z\e_gbygZ\_ebqbgmûjijb\h^bldm\_ebq_gbxihdZaZl_eyij_ehfe_gby

ûn = 4–7ûj. (10.30)

A^_kvûjdZdbj0\bkoh^guo^Zgguo\ujZ`Z_lky\ffjlkl
Bgl_jn_jhf_lj NZ[jb–I_jh kdZgbjm_fuc ^Z\e_gb_f h[uqgh ihf_
sZxl\]_jf_lbqgmxdZf_jmkijhajZqgufbhdgZfbDZf_jZq_j_agZl_dZl_ev
kh_^bg_gZk[Zeehghfkhk`Zluf]ZahfHp_gbfgZkdhevdhgm`ghbaf_gblv
^Z\e_gb_ qlh[u bgl_jn_j_gpbhggZy dZjlbgZ kf_klbeZkv gZ h^bg ihjy^hd
Imklv gfbL kfIhnhjfme_  bmkeh\bxfZdkbfmfh\  
ihemqZ_fûj ffjlklKe_^h\Zl_evghbaf_g_gb_^Z\e_gbyijbf_jghgZ
hlZlfhkn_jgh]h\^ZgghfkemqZ_^Z_l\hafh`ghklvkdZgbjh\Zlvbgl_j
n_j_gpbhggmx dZjlbgm \ ij_^_eZo h^gh]h ihjy^dZ l_ \_ebqbgu h[eZklb

256
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r_gby ^Z\e_gby \gmljb dZf_ju bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ Q_f [hevr_ lhesbgZ bg
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ff Dhevp_\h_ hk\_s_gb_ bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ khhl\_lkl\mxs__ bkihevam_fhc
dhevp_\hc^bZnjZ]f_kha^Z_lkyki_pbZevgufhk\_lbl_e_f
KdZgbjmxsbc bgl_jn_jhf_lj NZ[jb–I_jh fh`_l kem`blv \ dZq_kl\_
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ij_^\Zjbl_evgh]h fhghojhfZlhjZ bkihevah\Zg ^\hcghc fhghojhfZlhj k \u
qblZgb_f ^bki_jkbc Ijb ohjhr_c ^bki_jkbb j_r_ldb hg h[_ki_qb\Z_l fh
ghojhfZlbqghklv ihey aj_gby g_ ij_\urZxsmx rbjbgm k\h[h^ghc ki_d
ljZevghc h[eZklb bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ NZ[jb–I_jh >Ze__ k\_l ijhoh^bl q_j_a
bgl_jn_jhf_ljNZ[jb–I_jhdhlhjuckm`Z_lihehkmijhajZqghklb^hrbjb
guk\h_cZiiZjZlghcnmgdpbb

†K<?LHKBE:IJB;HJH<KBGL?JN?JHF?LJHF
N:;JB–I?JH

ƒK\_lhkbeZihhk\_s_gghklbbihlhdm

Hk\_s_gghklv?ijbfhghojhfZlbq_kdhfbaemq_gbbkha^Z\Z_fZygZbg
l_jn_jh]jZff_\fZdkbfmfZodhe_phij_^_ey_lkyyjdhklvxbklhqgbdZk\_lZ
<ijhajZqghklvxbgl_jn_jhf_ljZLNI fZdkbl_e_kgufm]ehfS/f2\ij_^_eZo
dhlhjh]h k\_l iZ^Z_l gZ nhdZevgmx ih\_joghklv (S — iehsZ^v ieZklbg bg
l_jn_jhf_ljZf —nhdmkgh_jZkklhygb_ijh_pbjmxs_]hh[t_dlb\Z 
S
E=B TNIfZdk . (10.31)
f2
K\_lhkbeZbgl_jn_jhf_ljZihhk\_s_gghklbjZ\gZ
E S
L = = TNIfZdk . (10.32)
B f2
IjhajZqghklvbgl_jn_jhf_ljZ\fZdkbfmfZo  h[uqghf_gvr__^b
gbpu Djhf_ lh]h ih\_joghklb a_jdZe j_Zevgh]h bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ \k_]^Z
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kgb`Z_lky
K\_lhkbeZihihlhdmjZ\gZk\_lhkbe_ihhk\_s_gghklb\fZdkbfmf_bg
l_jn_j_gpbhgghcdZjlbgumfgh`_gghcgZiehsZ^v\uoh^ghc^bZnjZ]fuS^:

257
S
Lihl = Lhk\ S ^ = S ^TNIfZdk (10.33)
f2
Mqblu\Zy  ihemqZ_fk\_lhkbemihihlhdm\\b^_
δλ
Lihl = 2π S TNIfZdk = Ω STNIfZdk , (10.34)
λ
ih^h[gh lhfm qlh bf_eh f_klh b ^ey s_e_\uo ki_dljZevguo ijb[hjh\ kf
\ujZ`_gb_  Ba  \b^ghqlhijhba\_^_gb_LihlgZjZaj_rZxsmx
kihkh[ghklv/^ey^Zggh]hbgl_jn_jhf_ljZ—\_ebqbgZihklhyggZy
Bgl_jn_jhf_lj NZ[jb–I_jh bkihevamxl h[uqgh kh\f_klgh k bgl_jn_
j_gpbhggufk\_lhnbevljhfbebs_e_\ufki_dljZevgufijb[hjhf<i_j\hf
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nbevlj_<h\lhjhfkemqZ_^_ehh[klhblkeh`g__GZijZdlbd_dZdijZ\beh
ih^[bjZxl ki_dljZevguc ijb[hj k ih^oh^ys_c ebg_cghc ^bki_jkb_c ba
bf_xsboky\jZkihjy`_gbb>eyihegh]hbkihevah\Zgbyk\_lhkbeubgl_jn_
jhf_ljZg_h[oh^bfhqlh[u\_kvk\_lh\hcihlhdijhoh^ysbcq_j_abgl_jn_
jhf_lj ijhoh^be b q_j_a fhghojhfZlhj G_h[oh^bfh lZd`_ qlh[u djm]eh_
hl\_jklb_ lj_[m_fh_ ^ey \u^_e_gby bgl_jn_jhf_ljhf baemq_gby aZ^Zggh]h
ki_dljZevgh]h khklZ\Z \ibku\Zehkv \ ]_hf_ljbq_kdb_ jZaf_ju s_eb fhgh
ojhfZlhjZ ?keb \ bkke_^m_fhf ki_dlj_ bf_xlky [ebadh jZkiheh`_ggu_
ki_dljZevgu_ ebgbb ijboh^blky ihevah\Zlvky madhc \oh^ghc s_evx fhgh
ojhfZlhjZIjbwlhfrbjbgZs_ebfh`_lhdZaZlvkykebrdhffZehcqlh[u\
g_cmf_klbehkv\k_djm]eh_hl\_jklb_<lZdhfkemqZ_^eyihemq_gbygZ^_`
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lbq_kdbfbf_lh^Zfb>@

2°KjZ\g_gb_k\_lhkbeuijbaf_gguob^bnjZdpbhgguo
ki_dljhf_ljh\bki_dljhf_ljZNZ[jb–I_jh

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KjZ\gbf jZaebqgu_ lbiu ki_dljhf_ljh\ ih k\_lhkbe_ ijb bo h^bgZdh
\hc jZaj_rZxs_c kihkh[ghklb bkihevah\Z\ gZ]ey^guc ijbf_j <u[_j_f
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rZxs_ckbehc/ ijb^ebg_\hegugf<wlhfkemqZ_\_ebqbgZ
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jZ\gZgfff ijb[hjkj_^g_c^bki_jkbb Ke_^h\Zl_evgh^ey\u^_e_gby
bgl_j\ZeZ^ebg\heg/ gfrbjbgZs_eb^he`gZkhklZ\eylvff
Ijb\ukhl_s_ebh ffiehsZ^v\oh^ghcb\uoh^ghcs_e_cijbaf_ggh]h
ki_dljhf_ljZhdZau\Z_lkyjZ\ghcff2>bki_jkbyijb[hjZk^bnjZdpbhg-

258
ghcj_r_ldhch[uqgh[hevr_Ijb^bki_jkbbgfff^eyihemq_gbyjZa
j_rbfh]hbgl_j\ZeZ/ gf^himklbfZkjZ\gbl_evghrbjhdZys_evs =
ffqlh\^Zgghfijbf_j_ijb\h^bldiehsZ^b\oh^gh]hhl\_jklbyjZ\
ghcff2?kebijbgylvf ffjZ^bmk\oh^gh]hhl\_jklbyki_dljhf_ljZ
NZ[jb–I_jhklZdbf`_jZaj_r_gb_fih  ihemqZ_lkyjZ\gufffqlh
khhl\_lkl\m_liehsZ^bdjm]ehc^bZnjZ]fuff2.
BlZd ijb jZ\ghf jZaj_r_gbb b kjZ\gbfuo ]_hf_ljbq_kdbo jZaf_jZo
ijb[hjh\ k\_lhkbeZ ^bnjZdpbhgguo ki_dljhf_ljh\ hdZau\Z_lky gZ ihjy^hd
\ur_ k\_lhkbeu ijbaf_gguo Z k\_lhkbeZ ki_dljhf_ljZ NZ[jb–I_jh [he__
q_f gZihjy^hdij_\urZ_l k\_lhkbem ^bnjZdpbhgguo ki_dljhf_ljh\Knb
abq_kdhclhqdbaj_gby[hevrZyk\_lhkbeZki_dljhf_ljZNZ[jb–I_jhihemqZ
_lky\j_amevlZl_hq_gv\ukhdhc^bki_jkbb\p_gljZevghcqZklbbgl_jn_j_g
pbhgghcdZjlbgu
Ohly ki_dljhf_lj NZ[jb–I_jh bf__l ij_bfms_kl\Z i_j_^ s_e_\ufb
ki_dljhf_ljZfbihk\_lhkbe_ba-aZhq_gvmadhck\h[h^ghcki_dljZevghch[
eZklb hg h[uqgh g_ dhgdmjbjm_l k ijbaf_ggufb b ^bnjZdpbhggufb ki_d
ljhf_ljZfbijbh^bgZdh\hfjZaj_r_gbb Bgl_jn_jhf_ljNZ[jb–I_jhg_aZ
f_gbf\l_okemqZyodh]^Zlj_[m_lky\ukhdZyjZaj_rZxsZykbeZ6-107g_
^hklb`bfZyk^jm]bfblbiZfbki_dljZevguoijb[hjh\
Bgl_j_kgufbk\hckl\Zfbh[eZ^Z_lbgl_jn_jhf_ljNZ[jb–I_jhkhkn_
jbq_kdbfb \h]gmlufb a_jdZeZfb _keb jZkklhygb_ L f_`^m gbfb jZ\gh bo
jZ^bmkm djb\bagu >@ DZd \b^gh ba jbk  jZaghklv oh^Z bgl_jn_-
jbjmxsbo emq_c \ lZdhf bgl_jn_jhf_lj_ jZ\gZ q_luj_f ijhoh^Zf f_`^m
a_jdZeZfbMkeh\b_fZdkbfmfh\L = q^he`gh\uihegylvky^ey\k_oemq_c
iZ^Zxsbo ih^ ex[ufb m]eZfb
K\_lhkbeZ bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ \ lZdhf
kemqZ_ aZ\bkbl lhevdh hl jZaf_jh\
a_jdZeH^gZdh^ey\g_hk_\uoemq_c
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gbdZ_l ^hihegbl_evgZy jZaghklv oh
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hq_gv rbjhdbf p_gljZevguf iyl
ghf Wlh p_gljZevgh_ iylgh \ ij_ Jbk  Kn_jbq_kdbc bgl_jn_jhf_lj
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q_kdhcj_]bkljZpbbki_dljZhlk_dZy D — ^bZf_lj^bZnjZ]fu
^bZnjZ]fhcdhku_imqdb
DZd ihdZau\Z_l ZgZeba >@ \
kn_jbq_kdhf bgl_jn_jhf_lj_ \ hl
ebqb_hliehkdh]hkjhklhfjZkklhygbyL f_`^ma_jdZeZfbm\_ebqb\Zxlkyb
jZaj_rZxsZykihkh[ghklvbk\_lhkbeZZhlghr_gb_bohklZ_lkyihklhygguf
K\_lhkbeZ kn_jbq_kdh]h bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ agZqbl_evgh ij_\urZ_l k\_lhkbem
iehkdh]hbgl_jn_jhf_ljZ_keblhesbgZihke_^g_]h[hevr_q_f^bZf_lj_]h
ieZklbgLZdbfh[jZahfkn_jbq_kdbcbgl_jn_jhf_lj^Z_l\ub]jur\k\_lh
kbe_ijb[hevrbolhesbgZol_ijb\ukhdhcjZaj_rZxs_ckihkh[ghklb

259
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260
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FH>MEYPBHGGU?KI?DLJ:EVGU?IJB;HJU

Fh^meypbhggu_ki_dljZevgu_ijb[hjuhlghkylkyddeZkkmgh\uo
ki_dljZevguo mkljhckl\ \ dhlhjuo jZa^_e_gb_ baemq_gby gZ ki_d-
ljZevgu_khklZ\eyxsb_ijhba\h^blkyg_hilbq_kdbfwe_f_glhfZwe_d
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iufh^meypbhgguoki_dljZevguoijb[hjh\[11.1-11.6].

†NMJV?-KI?DLJHF?LJ

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\hegu baemq_gby H[uqgh bkihevamxl bgl_jn_jhf_lj FZcd_evkhgZ
gZkljh_ggucgZihemq_gb_ihehkjZ\gh]hgZdehgZ jbkZ).

Jbk  IjbgpbibZevgZy ko_fZ nmjv_-ki_dljhf_ljZ Z  bgl_jn_jh]jZffu


fhghojhfZlbq_kdh]h baemq_gby [  b kiehrgh]h ki_dljZ eZfiu gZdZeb\Zgby k
ijb_fgbdhfPbS \ —\oh^gh_b\uoh^gh_hl\_jklby—k\_lh^_ebl_ev
gZyieZklbgZ—g_ih^\b`gh_bih^\b`gh_a_jdZeZ

261
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fZdkbfmfh\bfbgbfmfh\bgl_jn_j_gpbhgghcdZjlbgu jbk[):
B
N ( o ) % FRV 2 πν o = ( + FRV πν o ) . (11.1)
2
A^_kv<— yjdhklvgZ\oh^_bgl_jn_jhf_ljZx — jZaghklvoh^ZjZ\gZy
m^\h_gghc \_ebqbg_ i_j_f_s_gbya_jdZeZbebg_cghaZ\bkysZyhl\j_
f_gb —  qZklhlZ baemq_gby \ kf– 1  I_j_f_ggZy khklZ\eyxsZy bgl_j
n_jh]jZffukmq_lhf  jZ\gZ

- x  -0 c o s2 Œ[ -0 c o s2 Œ9W -0 c o s2 ŒIW, (11.2)

]^_N0 — Zfieblm^gucfgh`bl_evf = V v = V  — qZklhlZihemqZ_fhc


fh^meypbb
Ijb_fgbd j_]bkljbjm_l kbgmkhb^Zevguc kb]gZe Zfieblm^Z dhlh
jh]h ijhihjpbhgZevgZ yjdhklb iZ^Zxs_c \hegu Z qZklhlZ aZ\bkbl hl
kdhjhklb V i_j_^\b`_gbya_jdZeZb^ebgu\hegubaemq_gbyGZijbf_j
^eya_e_ghcebgbbjlmlb  gf ijbV = 1 0 – 3 ffkqZklhlZfh^mey
pbbjZ\gZ=p
LZdmxfh^meypbxk\_lh\h]hihlhdZgZau\Zxlbgl_jn_j_gpbhgghc
HgZ ijbgpbibZevgh hlebqZ_lky hl bkihevam_fhc \h fgh]bo ki_dljZev
guoijb[hjZo\g_rg_cfh^meypbbiml_fijhklh]hij_ju\Zgby ihlhdZ
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kemqZyodh]^Z\u]h^ghijh\h^blvmkbe_gb_kb]gZeZgZi_j_f_gghflh
d_
?keb bgl_jn_jhf_lj hk\_s_g baemq_gb_f ki_dlj dhlhjh]h kh^_j
`bl g_kdhevdh fhghojhfZlbq_kdbo dhfihg_gl ihemq_ggZy bgl_jn_jh
]jZffZ y\ey_lky kmffhc kb]gZeh\ khhl\_lkl\mxsbo dZ`^hc ba dhfih
g_gl < kemqZ_ ijhba\hevgh]h ki_dljZ aZgbfZxs_]h h[eZklv qZklhl hl
v 1 ^hv 2 bgl_jn_jh]jZffZbf__l\b^
ν2
N(o) ∫ %ν (ν ) FRV πν oGν  (1 1 .3 )
ν1
A^_kv B v — ki_dljZevgZy yjdhklv Wlh \ujZ`_gb_ _klv nmjv_-
ij_h[jZah\Zgb_ bkoh^gh]h ki_dljZ B v (ν ) . < dZq_kl\_ ijbf_jZ gZ jbk
1 1 .1 ,\ ihdZaZgZ bgl_jn_jh]jZffZ kiehrgh]h ki_dljZ eZfiu gZdZeb\Z
gby ihemq_ggZy k ijb_fgbdhf P b S  FZdkbfZevguc hl[jhk gZ bgl_jn_
jh]jZff_khhl\_lkl\m_lgme_\hcjZaghklboh^Z
>eygZoh`^_gbyi_j\hgZqZevgh]hhilbq_kdh]hki_dljZgm`ghijb
f_gblvh[jZlgh_ij_h[jZah\Zgb_Nmjv_
2L
Bν (ν ) 2 ∫ N ( o ) FRV πν oGo (1 1 .4 )
0

262
< \ujZ`_gbb   i_j_^ bgl_]jZehf bkihevah\Zg fgh`bl_ev 
ihkdhevdm bgl_jn_jh]jZffZ kbff_ljbqgZ hlghkbl_evghgme_\hcjZagh
klb oh^Z <_jogbf ij_^_ehf bgl_]jbjh\Zgby y\ey_lky \_ebqbgZ L —
fZdkbfZevgZy jZaghklv oh^Z bgl_jn_jbjmxsbo emq_c fZdkbfZevgh_
kf_s_gb_ih^\b`gh]ha_jdZeZjZ\ghL ) .
B^_yhibkZggh]hkihkh[Zihemq_gbyki_dljZ[ueZknhjfmebjh\ZgZ
_s_ FZcd_evkhghf \  ] h^gZdh [_a dhfivxl_jh\ \uiheg_gb_ h[
jZlgh]hnmjv_-ij_h[jZah\Zgbyg_ij_^klZ\eyehkv\hafh`guf

2 °. :iiZjZlgZynmgdpby

?keb [u fh`gh [ueh baf_jblv bgl_jn_jh]jZffm ijb baf_g_gbb


jZaghklboh^Zhl^h’ l_hl– ’^h’ihkdhevdmbgl_jn_jh]jZffZ
kbff_ljbqgZ ki_dlj\hkklZgZ\eb\Zeky[u[_abkdZ`_gbcij_h[jZah\Z
gb_f

Bν (ν ) ∫ N ( o )FRV πν oGo . (11.5)
−∞
< ^_ckl\bl_evghklb \_ebqbgZ x f_gy_lky \ ij_^_eZo hl  ^h L b
ijb\hkklZgh\e_gbbijh\h^blkyhi_jZpby  Ijbwlhf\f_klhi_j\h
gZqZevghc fhghojhfZlbq_kdhc ebgbb \hkklZgh\e_gguc ki_dlj bf__l
ebgbx dhg_qghc rbjbgu Wlh ki_dljZevgh_ jZkij_^_e_gb_ dZd b \
kemqZ_ deZkkbq_kdbo ki_dljZevguo ijb[hjh\ gZau\Zxl ZiiZjZlghc
nmgdpb_c
<ujZ`_gb_  fh`ghij_^klZ\blv\\b^_

Bν (ν ) ∫ N ( o ) ' ( o )FRV πν oGo (1 1.6)
−∞
]^_D (x ) — ijyfhm]hevgZynmgdpby
1 −2 L < o < +2 /,
D (o) =  (1 1 .7 )
0 o < −2 / b o > + /
:iiZjZlgZynmgdpbyijbwlhfhibku\Z_lky\ujZ`_gb_f
a() = 4L sinc[2Œ2L] (11.8)
jbk HljbpZl_evgu_h[eZklbdjb\hca ( g_^he`gukfmsZlvlZddZd
ZiiZjZlgZynmgdpby— wlhfZl_fZlbq_kdh_hibkZgb_bkdZ`_gbyijb[hjhf
^_evlZ-nmgdpbb \oh^gh]h kb]gZeZ Z g_ hldebd ijb_fgbdZ ijb kdZgbjh\Z
gbbki_dljZ
:iiZjZlgmxnmgdpbxfh`ghmemqrblvZih^baZpb_caZf_gb\ijyfh
m]hevgmxnmgdpbxD (x) ^jm]hcnmgdpb_c
?kebD (x) bf__llj_m]hevguc\b^ZiiZjZlgZynmgdpbya ( klZgh\blky
^bnjZdpbhgghc
a () = 2 L sin c 2 [Œ2 L ], (1 1 .9 )
dZdb\kemqZ_s_e_\uoki_dljZevguoijb[hjh\

263
H^gZdhdZd\b^ghbajbkhkeZ[e_gb_ih[hqguofZdkbfmfh\^hk
lb]Z_lky aZ kq_l mom^r_gby jZaj_r_gby dhglmj ZiiZjZlghc nmgdpbb jZk
rbjy_lkyDjhf_lh]h\^\ZjZaZmf_gvrZ_lkybgl_gkb\ghklv\p_glj_
:ih^baZpbx ijh\h^yl \ ijhp_kk_ aZibkb bgl_jn_jh]jZffu GZijb
f_jZih^baZpbyihlj_m]hevghcnhjf_fh`_l[ulv^hklb]gmlZ_kebkm\_
ebq_gb_fjZaghklboh^ZjZ\ghf_jghhkeZ[eylvk\_lh\hcihlhdH^gZdhijb
hkeZ[e_gbb ihlhdZ ijhbkoh^bl mf_gvr_gb_ hlghr_gby kb]gZe —  rmf gZ

Jbk  :iiZjZlgZy nmgdpby nmjv_-ki_dljhf_ljZ 1 —  [_a Zih^baZpbb


a ()= 4 L sin c (2 Œ 2 L ), 2 —  k Zih^baZpb_c ih lj_m]hevghfm aZdhgm a () =
= 2 L sin c 2 (Œ2 L )
\uoh^_ ijb_fgbdZ Wlh \_^_l d ihl_j_ bgnhjfZpbb <u]h^g__ ijh\h^blv
Zih^baZpbxijbh[jZ[hld_kb]gZeZmf_gvrZyihaZ^ZgghfmaZdhgmkb]gZe
ihklmiZxsbckijb_fgbdZIjbwlhfhlghr_gb_kb]gZe— rmfkhojZgy_l
kyg_baf_gguf
RbjbgZZiiZjZlghcnmgdpbbbke_^h\Zl_evghjZaj_r_gb_\ki_dlj_
aZ\bkyl hl \b^Z Zih^babjmxs_c nmgdpbb Ijb lj_m]hevghc Zih^baZpbb
rbjbgZ ZiiZjZlghc nmgdpbb jZ\gZ δ v = 1 /2 L  Hlkx^Z l_hj_lbq_kdZy jZa
j_rZxsZykbeZ
// = 2L. (11.10)
LZdbf h[jZahf dZd b \ deZkkbq_kdbo ki_dljZevguo ijb[hjZo jZa
j_rZxsZykihkh[ghklvijhihjpbhgZevgZfZdkbfZevghcjZaghklboh^Z
L_e_kguc m]he  \uoh^gh]h hl\_jklby dZd b \ kemqZ_ bgl_jn_-
jhf_ljZNZ[jb– I_jh  k\yaZgkjZaj_rZxs_ckbehckhhlghr_gb_f
// = 2 Πihwlhfm nmjv_-ki_dljhf_lj lZd`_ h[eZ^Z_l \ukhdhc k\_lh
kbehc Wlh ij_bfms_kl\h \ k\_lhkbe_ ^Zxs__ \ub]jur \ a  jZa ih
kjZ\g_gbxk^bnjZdpbhggufbijb[hjZfbkZgZeh]bqgufjZaj_r_gb_f
gZau\Zxl\ub]jur_f@Zdbgh

264
ƒHkh[_gghklbjZ[hlunmjv_-ki_dljhf_ljZ

Nmjv_-ki_dljhf_lju ih oZjZdl_jm j_]bkljZpbb ki_dljZ y\eyxlky fgh


]hdZgZevgufb ijb[hjZfb hgb h[_ki_qb\Zxl h^gh\j_f_ggmx j_]bkljZpbx
baemq_gby[hevrh]hqbkeZki_dljZevguobgl_j\Zeh\Fgh]hdZgZevgu_f_lh
^uj_]bkljZpbbki_dljZbf_xlij_bfms_kl\hi_j_^h^ghdZgZevgufb\qm\
kl\bl_evghklbb[ukljh^_ckl\bbIjb\_^_fijbf_jImklvgZh^ghdZgZevghf
kdZgbjmxs_fki_dljhf_lj_gZj_]bkljZpbxh^gh]hki_dljZevgh]hbgl_j\ZeZ
ljZlblkyh^gZk_dmg^ZZ\_kvki_dlj ki_dljZevguobgl_j\Zeh\ aZibku
\Z_lkyaZk fbg <nmjv_-ki_dljhf_lj_gZh^bgijhoh^a_jdZeZmoh
^blkijbwlhfaZibku\Z_lky\_kvki_dljkl_f`_kZfufhlghr_gb_fkb]
gZermfAZfbgfh`ghaZibkZlvki_dljjZagZeh`b\bo^jm]gZ^jm]Z
Ijbwlhf\hajZkl_lhlghr_gb_kr\ 900  jZa\hklhevdh`_jZa\ha
jZkl_lqm\kl\bl_evghklv
Wlhl \ub]jur \ qm\kl\bl_evghklb beb \ [ukljh^_ckl\bb gZau\Z_fuc
fmetlbie_dk-nZdlhjhfbeb\ub]jur_fN_e`_lZbf__lf_klhlhevdh_keb
rmfg_m\_ebqb\Z_lkyba-aZh^gh\j_f_ggh]hgZ[ex^_gby\k_oki_dljZevguo
bgl_j\Zeh\l_g_y\ey_lkynhlhgguf<\b^bfhch[eZklbki_dljZ]^_ij_
h[eZ^Z_lnhlhggucrmf\ub]jurN_e`_lZl_jy_lkbem gh\ub]jur@Zdb
gh hklZ_lky  < BD h[eZklb ki_dljZ ]^_ nhlhgguc rmf g_\_ebd nmjv_-
ki_dljhf_ljuy\eyxlkykZfufb[ukljh^_ckl\mxsbfbijb[hjZfbHgbhkh
[_ggh \u]h^gu \ ^Zevg_c BD h[eZklb ki_dljZ hl  ^h  fdf ]^_ hgb
ijZdlbq_kdb\ul_kgbebdeZkkbq_kdb_ijb[hju
< nmjv_-ki_dljhf_ljZo g_ kms_kl\m_l ijh[e_fu jZkk_yggh]h k\_lZ dh
jhldh\hegh\h]hbaemq_gbyihkdhevdm\ex[hcfhf_gl\j_f_gbbkihevam_lky
\_kvk\_l\k_o^ebg\heg
Bkke_^m_fZyh[eZklvki_dljZ\k_]^Zh]jZgbq_gZeb[hijbjh^hcbaemq_
gbyeb[hijhajZqghklvxfZl_jbZeh\bkihevam_fuo\bgl_jn_jhf_lj_eb[h
qm\kl\bl_evghklvxijb_fgbdZIhwlhfm\j_]bkljbjm_fhch[eZklbki_dljZv1
– v2 \k_]^ZmdeZ^u\Z_lkydhg_qgh_qbkehN = (v1 – v2) /Y ki_dljZevguobgl_j
\Zeh\ Ke_^h\Zl_evgh \ bgl_jn_jh]jZff_ fh`gh baf_jylv lZdh_ `_ qbkeh
lhq_dWlhiha\hey_li_j_^\b]ZlvdZj_ldmka_jdZehfiml_fhl^_evguorZ]h\
b j_]bkljbjh\Zlv bgl_jn_jh]jZffm ih lhqdZf LZdZy bgnhjfZpby m^h[gZ
^ey dhfivxl_jghch[jZ[hldb
Nmjv_-ki_dljhf_lj h[uqgh bf__l k\hc dhfivxl_j iha\heyxsbc jZk
kqblu\Zlvki_dljihf_j_baf_j_gbybgl_jn_jh]jZfful_ihf_j_gZjZsb
\ZgbyjZaghklboh^ZbjZaj_r_gbyGZwdjZg_^bkie_yfh`ghke_^blvaZw\h
expb_cki_dljZ
Hlkq_ljZaghklboh^Z\h\j_fyaZibkbbgl_jn_jh]jZffuijh\h^blkyim
l_fkq_lZbgl_jn_j_gpbhgguoihehkihemqZ_fuohl]_ebc-g_hgh\h]heZa_jZ
H^gh\j_f_gghkqbke_ggufij_h[jZah\Zgb_fki_dljZijhbkoh^bl_]hdZeb[
jh\dZih^ebgZf\heg
Kh\j_f_ggu_ nmjv_-ki_dljhf_lju kgZ[`Zxlky dZlZeh]Zfb fhe_dmeyj
guoki_dljh\ ^_kyldblukyq aZibkZgguogZ^bkdZoIjh]jZffuihbkdZih
a\heyxl bkihevah\Zlv wlb [b[ebhl_db ki_dljh\ jZaebqguf h[jZahf gZijb
f_j hl[bjZlv ki_dlju ih dZdhfm-eb[h ijbagZdm—ihkhklZ\m\_s_kl\Zih

265
fhe_dmeyjghc fZkk_ ih dZdhc-eb[h
kljmdlmjghc ]jmii_ b l^ Dhfivxl_j
nmjv_-ki_dljhf_ljZfh`_l[ulvk\yaZgk
h[s_c k_lvx ^ey bkihevah\Zgby ihklh
jhggbo[Zgdh\^Zgguo
< aZdexq_gb_ ijb\_^_f ijb-
gpbibZevgmxko_fmnmjv_-ki_dljhf_ljZ
nbjfuBrucker jbk Ko_fZbgl_j
n_jhf_ljZ bf__l g_kdhevdh hkh[_ggh
kl_c K\_lh^_ebl_evgh_ b ih^\b`gh_
a_jdZeZ jZ[hlZxl \ koh^ysboky emqZo
^bZf_ljk\_lh\h]himqdZgZgbog_\_ebd
— hdheh  ff G_[hevrb_ ih jZaf_jm
a_jdZeZ fh]ml [ulv ba]hlh\e_gu k \u-
khdhc lhqghklvx FZeu_ m]eu iZ^_gby
emq_c gZ k\_lh^_ebl_ev bkdexqZxl ih
eyjbaZpbhggu_ wnn_dlu dhlhju_ bf_
xlf_klhijbgZdehgghfiZ^_gbbemq_c
B gZdhg_p ^\Z iehkdbo a_jdZeZ bgl_j
n_jhf_ljZ FZcd_evkhgZ kh\f_s_gu \
h^ghf iehkdhiZjZee_evghf ^\moklhjhg
g_flZdqlh\hajZklZgb_^ebgu\h^ghf
Jbk Ko_fZ nmjv_-ki_dljhf_ljZ ie_q_ khijh\h`^Z_lky mf_gvr_gb_f \
nbjfuBrucker: 1 —bklhqgbdk\_lZ ^jm]hf LZdbfh[jZahf ih kjZ\g_gbx k
]eh[Zj beb jlmlgZy eZfiZ  2 — h[uqghc ko_fhc \^\h_ \hajZklZ_l jZa
\oh^gh_ hl\_jklb_ 3 — k\_lh^_eb ghklvoh^Zemq_c>ebgZoh^Za_jdZeZ—
l_ev 4 — ih^\b`gh_^\moklhjhgg__  kf \j_fy ijhoh^Z wlh]h jZkklhygby
iehkdhiZjZee_evgh_ a_jdZeh  —
—  fbg >bZf_lj \oh^gh]h hl\_jklby
\uoh^gh_hl\_jklb_
fh`_l baf_gylvky hl  ^h  ff JZaj_
r_gb_ijb[hjZkf–1.
Nmjv_-ki_dljhf_lju k [ukljuf ij_h[jZah\Zgb_f Nmjv_ iha\heyxl aZ
ibku\Zlvki_dljaZhq_gvdhjhldh_\j_fyLZdhcki_dljhf_ljnbjfuI_jdbg-
Wevf_jgZijbf_jj_]bkljbjm_l\_kvki_dlj\^bZiZahg_-kf–1 (2,3-
fdf aZk_dmg^uijbjZaj_r_gbb/ kf–1.

†KI?DLJHF?LJKBGL?JN?J?GPBHGGHC
K?E?DLB<GHC:FIEBLM>GHCFH>MEYPB?C KBK:F

< ijb[hjZo wlh]h lbiZ bgl_jn_j_gpbhggZy fh^meypby baemq_gby jZa


ebqguo^ebg\hegijhbkoh^blihhq_j_^ghZg_h^gh\j_f_gghdZd\nmjv_-
ki_dljhf_ljZoIhijbgpbimj_]bkljZpbbki_dljZwlbijb[hjuy\eyxlkyh^
ghdZgZevgufb
Hilbq_kdZy ko_fZ kbkZfZ jbk   \h fgh]hf ih^h[gZ ko_f_ nmjv_-
ki_dljhf_ljZ H^gZdh a^_kv a_jdZeZ bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ aZf_g_gu ^bnjZdpbhg

266
gufb j_r_ldZfb Baf_g_gb_ hilbq_kdhc jZaghklb oh^Z \ g_[hevrbo ij_-
^_eZog_h[oh^bfh_^eybgl_jn_j_gpbhgghcfh^meypbbhkms_kl\ey_lkyih
dZqb\Zgb_fdhfi_gkZpbhgghcieZklbgubgl_jn_jhf_ljZ
Ijb aZ^Zgghf iheh`_gbb j_r_lhd bgl_jn_jhf_lj gZkljh_g ^ey lhc
^ebgu\hegu^eydhlhjhchljZ`_ggu_hlj_r_lhdimqdbb^mlkljh]hihhkb
ijb[hjZ Bgl_jn_j_gpbhggZy dZjlbgZ dhe_p jZ\gh]h gZdehgZ gZ \uoh^_ bg
l_jn_jhf_ljZ h[jZam_lky lhevdh ^ey
wlhc ^ebgu \hegu b lhevdh ^ey g__
ijhbkoh^bl bgl_jn_j_gpbhggZy fh
^meypbyk\_lh\h]hihlhdZijbih\hjh
l_ ieZklbgu Baemq_gb_ hklZevguo
^ebg \heg kha^Z_l ebrv ihklhyggmx
aZk\_ldm ijb_fgbdZ AZ ijb_fgbdhf
ke_^m_l mkbebl_ev i_j_f_ggh]h lhdZ
gZkljh_gguc gZ qZklhlm bgl_jn_j_g
pbhgghcfh^meypbbGZ\uoh^ijb[h
jZ ihklmiZ_l we_dljbq_kdbc kb]gZe
dhlhjuc ijhihjpbhgZe_g fhsghklb
aZdexq_gghc \ \u^_ey_fhf ki_d
ljZevghfbgl_j\Ze_/v. JbkHilbq_kdZyko_fZkbkZfZ1
Ijb kh]eZkh\Zgghf ih\hjhl_ — \oh^gh_hl\_jklb_2 — h[t_dlb\u
h[_bo j_r_lhd bgl_jn_jhf_lj gZ 3 — k\_lh^_ebl_evgh_ a_jdZeh 4 —
kljZb\Z_lky ihhq_j_^gh gZ jZagu_ \jZsZ_fZy ieZklbgZ 5 — ^bnjZdpb
^ebgu\heggZ\uoh^ijb[hjZihhq_ hggu_ j_r_ldb 6 — \uoh^gh_ hl\_j
j_^gh ihklmiZxl kb]gZeu ijhihj klb_
pbhgZevgu_ fhsghklb \u^_ey_fuo
mqZkldh\ki_dljZ Ki_dljaZibku\Z_l
ky \ h[uqguo dhhj^bgZlZo dZd \ deZkkbq_kdbo ki_dljhf_ljZo GZeh`_gb_
ki_dljh\jZaguoihjy^dh\^bnjZdpbbg_y\ey_lkyihf_ohc—qZklhlZfh^m
eypbb aZ\bkbl hl ^ebgu \hegu k\_lZ b kh\_jr_ggh jZaebqgZ ^ey gZdeZ^u
\Zxsboky ihjy^dh\ K ihfhsvx mf_j_ggh k_e_dlb\gh]h mkbebl_ey fh`gh
mkbeblvkb]gZekhhl\_lkl\mxsbcki_dljmebrvh^gh]hihjy^dZ
KbkZfdZdbnmjv_-ki_dljhf_ljh[eZ^Z_lij_bfms_kl\hfi_j_^s_e_
\ufbijb[hjZfb\k\_lhkbe_;hevrhc^bZf_lj\oh^gh]hb\uoh^gh]hhl\_j
klbch[_ki_qb\Z_lagZqbl_evgmx\_ebqbgmijhoh^ys_]hq_j_aijb[hjk\_lh
\h]hihlhdZ
:iiZjZlgZy nmgdpby kbkZfZ ih^h[gZ ZiiZjZlghc nmgdpbb nmjv_-
ki_dljhf_ljZ   :ih^baZpbyijb^Z_l_c[he__m^h[guc^bnjZdpbhgguc
\b^  >eywlh]hgZj_r_ldbgZ^_\Zxl^bZnjZ]fu\\b^_jhf[h\mf_gv
rZxsb_^ebgmrljboh\j_r_ldbihf_j_m^Ze_gbyhl__k_j_^bgu
JZaj_rZxsZykihkh[ghklvkbkZfZdZdb^jm]boki_dljZevguoijb[hjh\
hij_^_ey_lky fZdkbfZevghc jZaghklvx oh^Z bgl_jn_jbjmxsbo emq_c dhlh
jZy\^ZgghfkemqZ_aZ^Z_lkyj_r_ldZfbIhwlhfmjZaj_rZxsZykihkh[ghklv
kbkZfZjZ\gZjZaj_rZxs_ckihkh[ghklb_]hj_r_lhd
G_fh^mebjh\Zggh_ baemq_gb_ \k_o ^ebg \heg djhf_ \u^_ey_fhc ih
klhyggh ihklmiZ_l gZ ijb_fgbd < BD h[eZklb ki_dljZ nhlhgguc rmf fZe

267
ihwlhfm rmfu [hevrbgkl\Z ijb_fgbdh\ baemq_gby g_ aZ\bkyl hl \_ebqbgu
iZ^Zxs_]hgZgbok\_lh\h]hihlhdZEbrgyyaZk\_ldZijb_fgbdZ\wlhfkem
qZ_g_m\_ebqb\Z_lrmfh\kbkl_fu<\b^bfhc`_h[eZklbki_dljZ]^_\_ebd
nhlhgguc rmf hlghr_gb_ kb]gZermf kbkZfZ iZ^Z_l qlh fh`_l kgbablv
\ub]jur\k\_lhkbe_
>ey mf_gvr_gby ih^\_j`_gghklb kbkZfZ jZaebqguf f_oZgbq_kdbf g_
klZ[bevghklyfbkihevamxlko_fmkh[jZlgh-djm]h\ufoh^hfemq_c>@ <
wlhcko_f_h[ZimqdZijhoh^ylh^bgblhl`_imlv\h\aZbfghijhlb\hiheh`
guo gZijZ\e_gbyo < h^ghf ba imqdh\ gZoh^blky \jZsZ_fZy kbkl_fZ — fh
^meylhj\^jm]hf—lZdZy`_ghg_ih^\b`gZyieZklbgZ-dhfi_gkZlhj
Ki_dljhf_ljukk_e_dlb\ghcZfieblm^ghcfh^meypb_cihdZg_ihemqb
eblZdh]hjZkijhkljZg_gbydZdnmjv_-ki_dljhf_lju\hkgh\ghfba-aZg_h[
oh^bfhklb ij_pbabhggh]h ba]hlh\e_gby f_oZgbq_kdbo qZkl_c ijb[hjZ b
ljm^ghkl_cgZkljhcdb

†J:KLJH<UCKI?DLJHF?LJ

< deZkkbq_kdhf s_e_\hf fhghojhfZlhj_ ^ey ihemq_gby ohjhr_]h jZa


j_r_gby\oh^gZyb\uoh^gZys_eb\u[bjZxlky^hklZlhqghmadbfbKhhl\_l
kl\_ggh fZe b bkihevam_fuc k\_lh\hc ihlhd :gZeba ihdZau\Z_l >@ qlh
\f_klh h[uqguo s_e_c gZ \oh^_ b \uoh^_ fhghojhfZlhjZ fh`gh bkihevah
\Zlvihke_^h\Zl_evghklvs_e_ckrbjbghcijhajZqguobg_ijhajZqguomqZ
kldh\f_gyxs_ckyih]Zjfhgbq_kdhfmaZdhgmhlrbjhdhc^hmadhc—jZklj
KmffZjgZyiehsZ^vijhajZqguoqZkl_cjZkljZagZqbl_evgh[hevr_iehsZ^b
h^ghc madhc s_eb — [hevr_ b ijhoh^ysbc k\_lh\hc ihlhd GZ nhdZevghc
iehsZ^bjZkljh\h]hfhghojhfZlhjZh[jZam_lkyfgh`_kl\hbah[jZ`_gbcjZk
ljZgZeh`_gguo^jm]gZ^jm]Zkhkf_s_gb_faZkq_l^bki_jkbb<ihemqb\
r_cky f_rZgbg_ aZdh^bjh\ZgZ bgnhjfZpby h[ bklbgghf ki_dlj_ >ey __
^_dh^bjh\Zgbybkihevamxl\uoh^ghcjZkljih^h[guc\oh^ghfmb\u^_eyxl
i_j_f_ggmxkhklZ\eyxsmxfh^mebjh\Zggh]hkb]gZeZ
< jZkljh\hf ki_dljhf_lj_ @bjZjZ jbk   \oh^ghc 1 b \uoh^ghc 2
jZkljubf_xl\b^jZ\gh[hdbo]bi_j[heGZ\oh^ghfjZklj_ijhajZqgu_ih
ehku q_j_^mxlky k a_jdZevgufb gZijbf_j gZ jbk Z [_eu_ ihehku —
ijhajZqgu_ q_jgu_ — g_ijhajZqgu_ a_jdZevgu_  K ihfhsvx a_jdZevgh]h
\jZsZxs_]hky fh^meylhjZ 3 \ fhghojhfZlhj gZijZ\ey_lky lh ijhr_^rbc
q_j_a \oh^ghc jZklj k\_l lh hljZ`_gguc hl g_]h GZ \uoh^_ ijb[hjZ ihi_
j_f_ggh h[jZam_lky lh ijyfh_ bah[jZ`_gb_ jZkljZ lh g_]Zlb\gh_ >ey lhc
^ebgu \hegu gZ dhlhjmx gZkljh_g ijb[hj bah[jZ`_gb_ \oh^gh]h jZkljZ
lhqghkh\iZ^Z_lk\uoh^gufihwlhfmbaemq_gb_wlhc^ebgu\hegufh^meb
jm_lky gZ  QZklhlZ fh^meypbb aZ^Z_lky \jZsZxsbfky fh^meylhjhf
>ey ^jm]bo ^ebg \heg bah[jZ`_gb_ \oh^gh]h jZkljZ kf_s_gh hlghkbl_evgh
\uoh^gh]haZkq_l^bki_jkbbijb[hjZbijbgZeh`_gbbboh[jZamxlkyfmZ
jh\u_ihehkujZkiheh`_ggu_\gZijZ\e_gbbkf_s_gby jbk[,\ I_jb
h^wlboihehkl_ff_gvr_q_f^Zevr_hlklhbl^ZggZy^ebgZ\heguhl\u^_
ey_fhc Ijb \jZs_gbb fh^meylhjZ ihkueZxs_]h \ ijb[hj lh ijhr_^rbc

268
q_j_ajZkljk\_llhhljZ`_ggucfmZjh\u_ihehkukf_sZxlkylh\h^gmlh\
^jm]mxklhjhgmgZihei_jbh^ZFh^meypbyk\_lh\h]hihlhdZihklmiZxs_]h
gZijb_fgbdijbwlhfhdZau\Z_lkyg_agZqbl_evghcZ^eyf_edbofmZjh\uo
ihehkijZdlbq_kdbhlkmlkl\m_lLZdbfh[jZahfZfieblm^Zfh^meypbb\_ebdZ
lhevdh ^ey \u^_ey_fhc ^ebgu \hegu Baemq_gb_ ^jm]bo ^ebg \heg kha^Z_l
ebrvihklhyggmxaZk\_ldmijb_fgbdZdZdwlhbf__lf_klhb\kemqZ_kbkZfZ
Ih wlhc ijbqbg_ ijbf_g_gb_ jZkljh\uo ki_dljhf_ljh\ \u]h^gh \ bgnjZ
djZkghch[eZklbki_dljZ]^_aZk\_ldZijb_fgbdZg_m\_ebqb\Z_lrmfh\kbk
l_fu

Jbk  Ko_fZ jZkljh\h]h ki_dljhf_ljZ @bjZjZ 1 — \oh^ghc 2 — \uoh^ghc


jZklju 3 — a_jdZevguc fh^meylhj 4 — ^bnjZdpbhggZy j_r_ldZ 5 — ijb_fgbd
baemq_gby

Jbk  =bi_j[hebq_kdbc \oh^ghc jZklj Z  b fmZjh\u_ ihehku \hagbdZxsb_


ijbkf_s_gbb\]hjbahglZevghfgZijZ\e_gbbbah[jZ`_gby\oh^gh]hjZkljZhlgh
kbl_evgh\uoh^gh]h [, \)

:iiZjZlgZy nmgdpby jZkljh\h]h ki_dljhf_ljZ k ijyfhm]hevguf jZk


ljhf bf__l \b^ ih^h[guc   >ey memqr_gby ZiiZjZlghc nmgdpbb ijh
\h^yl Zih^baZpbx baf_gyy nhjfm dhglmjZ jZkljZ Bkihevamxl gZijbf_j
jZkljkdhglmjhf\\b^_jhf[Zbeb]Zmkkh\uodjb\uo
JZaj_rZxsZy kihkh[ghklv ijb[hjZ hij_^_ey_lky gZb[he__ f_edhc
kljmdlmjhcjZkljZLZd_kebgZbf_gvrZyrbjbgZijhimkdZxs_cihehkujZk
ljZ khklZ\ey_l  fdf ki_dljhf_lj h[_ki_qb\Z_l lZdmx `_ jZaj_rZxsmx
kihkh[ghklvdZdbdeZkkbq_kdbcijb[hjkrbjbghcs_ebfdf<ub]jur\

269
k\_lhkbe_jZ\_ghlghr_gbxiheh\bguiehsZ^bjZkljZdiehsZ^bs_ebIjb
jZaf_jZojZkljZ× 30 ff2\ub]jurij_\urZ_lihjy^dZ
LZdbfh[jZahf\jZkljh\hfki_dljhf_lj_g_bkihevam_lkybgl_jn_j_g
pbhggZyfh^meypbyk\_lh\h]hihlhdZdZd\nmjv_-ki_dljhf_ljZobkbkZfZo
Ih ijhklhl_ mkljhckl\Z wlhl ijb[hj [ebahd d deZkkbq_kdbf s_e_\uf ki_d
ljhf_ljZfH^gZdhihk\_lhkbe_nhjf_ZiiZjZlghcnmgdpbbb^jm]bfoZjZd
l_jbklbdZfhg\hfgh]hfih^h[_gkbkZfm
Ijbkha^ZgbbjZkljh\uoki_dljhf_ljh\\klj_qZxlkyljm^ghklbk\yaZg
gu_ k ba]hlh\e_gb_f jZkljh\ b ihemq_gb_f \ukhdhdZq_kl\_ggh]h bah[jZ`_
gbyjZkljZ\rbjhdhcki_dljZevghch[eZklbjZ[hluijb[hjZ

* *
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JZkkfhlj_ggu_\wlhc]eZ\_gh\u_lbiuki_dljZevguoijb[hjh\^Ze_
dhg_bkq_jiu\Zxl\hafh`guof_lh^h\jZaeh`_gbybaemq_gby\ki_dljKh
\_jr_gkl\h\Zgb_ l_hjbb ki_dljZevguo ijb[hjh\ jZkkfhlj_gb_ bo dZd kbk
l_f^eyi_j_^ZqbbgnhjfZpbbkfbgbfZevgufbbkdZ`_gbyfbfh]mlijb\_klb
dihy\e_gbxgh\uob^_cbgh\uoijbgpbih\ihkljh_gbyki_dljZevguoijb
[hjh\kbkihevah\Zgb_fdhfivxl_jh\

<HIJHKU
Q_fhij_^_ey_lkyjZaj_rZxsZykihkh[ghklvnmjv_-ki_dljhf_ljZ"
QlhlZdh_Zih^baZpbybdZdhgZijh\h^blky\nmjv_-ki_dljhf_ljZo"
 < dZdhc h[eZklb ki_dljZ gZb[he__ \u]h^gh bkihevah\Zlv nmjv_-
ki_dljhf_lju"Ihq_fm"
Nmjv_-ki_dljhf_ljkbkZfjZkljh\ucki_dljhf_lj—dZdb_bagboy\
eyxlkyfgh]hdZgZevgufb"DZdb_ij_bfms_kl\Z^Z_lfgh]hdZgZevghklv"
QlhlZdh_\ub]jur@Zdbgh"
Q_fhij_^_ey_lkyjZaj_rZxsZykihkh[ghklvkbkZfZ"
 Ihq_fm kbkZf g_ ihemqbe lZdh]h jZkijhkljZg_gby dZd nmjv_-
ki_djhf_lj"
Y\ey_lkyebkbkZfijb[hjhfkhk_\hckbff_ljb_c"
Q_fhij_^_ey_lkyjZaj_rZxsZykihkh[ghklvki_dljhf_ljZ@bjZjZ"
Q_fhij_^_ey_lkyk\_lhkbeZki_dljhf_ljZ@bjZjZ"
<dZdhch[eZklbki_dljZ\u]h^ghbkihevah\Zlvki_dljhf_lj@bjZjZ"

270
270
EBL?J:LMJ:

HKGH<G:Y

1. E_[_^_\Z << L_ogbdZ hilbq_kdhc ki_dljhkdhibb F Ba^-\h F=M  
Wdki_jbf_glZevgZyhilbdZFBa^-\hF=M
2. ;hjgF<hevnWHkgh\uhilbdbFGZmdZ
3. FZl\__\:GHilbdZF<ukrZyrdheZ;mlbdh\?BHilbdZF<uk
rZyrdheZ
4. Rbreh\kdbc::IjbdeZ^gZynbabq_kdZyhilbdZFNbafZl]ba
5. DZebl__\kdbcGB<hegh\ZyhilbdZF<ukrZyrdheZ
6. NjbrKWL_ogbdZki_dljhkdhibbEBa^-\hE=M
7. AZc^_ev :G Hkljh\kdZy =< Hkljh\kdbc XB L_ogbdZ b ijZdlbdZ ki_dljh
kdhibbFGZmdZ
8. FZeur_\<B<\_^_gb_\wdki_jbf_glZevgmxki_dljhkdhibxFGZmdZ
9. AZc^_ev:GRj_c^_j?YKi_dljhkdhiby\Zdmmfgh]hmevljZnbhe_lZFGZm
dZ<ZdmmfgZyki_dljhkdhibyb__ijbf_g_gb_FGZmdZ
 L_ogbdZ ki_dljhkdhibb \ ^Zevg_c bgnjZdjZkghc km[fbeebf_ljh\hc b fbeeb
f_ljh\hch[eZklyoki_dljZIh^j_^LFEbnrbpZFFbj
11. Fbr_ll:HilbdZfy]dh]hj_gl]_gh\kdh]hbaemq_gbyFFbjJ_gl]_
gh\kdZyhilbdZLjm^uNB:GlFGZmdZ
12. \_elhHIjbgpbiueZa_jh\FFbj
KijZ\hqgbdiheZa_jZfIh^j_^A.MIjhohjh\ZFKh\jZ^bh
 Gh\u_ nbabq_kdb_ ijbgpbiu hilbq_kdhc h[jZ[hldb bgnhjfZpbb K[ klZl_c 
Ih^ j_^ K::ofZgh\Z b F:<hjhgph\Z F GZmdZ =e j_^ nba-fZl ebl
1990.
15. IbdZeh\ << Ij_h[jZ`_gkdbc G= J_dhgkljmdlb\gZy lhfh]jZnby \ ]Zah^bgZ
fbd_ b nbabd_ ieZafu F GZmdZ  E_\bg == <brgydh\ =G Hilbq_
kdZylhfh]jZnbyFJZ^bhbk\yav
16. <hjhgph\ F: RfZev]Zma_g <B Ijbgpbiu Z^Zilb\ghc hilbdb F GZmdZ
<hjhgph\F:Dhjy[bg:<RfZev]Zma_g<BMijZ\ey_fu_hilbq_
kdb_kbkl_fuFGZmdZ
17. :ofZgh\K:<ukehmo<:Qbjdbg:KHilbdZn_flhk_dmg^guoeZa_jguobf
imevkh\FGZmdZ
18. Hdhkb L Hilhwe_dljhgbdZ b hilbq_kdZy k\yav F Fbj  Q_h ID <heh
dhggZyhilbdZIjb[hjubkbkl_fuFWg_j]hZlhfba^Zl
19. FZg^_evrlZfKE<\_^_gb_\ki_dljZevgucZgZebaF=hkl_oba^Zl
20. Ijhdhnv_\ <D Nhlh]jZnbq_kdb_ f_lh^u dhebq_kl\_ggh]h ki_dljZevgh]h ZgZ
ebaZf_lZeeh\bkieZ\h\F=hkl_oba^Zl
21. QmeZgh\kdbc <F <\_^_gb_ \ fhe_dmeyjguc ki_dljZevguc ZgZeba F =hkl_o
ba^Zl
22. AZc^_ev:GHkgh\uki_dljZevgh]hZgZebaZFGZmdZ
 F_lh^u ki_dljZevgh]h ZgZebaZ f_lZeeh\ b kieZ\h\  XF ;mjZ\e_\
B:=jbdbl H:GbdblbgZ b ^j Ih^ j_^ XF;mjZ\e_\Z Db_\ L_ogbdZ
1988.
24. Lhihj_p:KFhghojhfZlhjuF=hkl_oba^Zl
25. LZjZkh\DBKi_dljZevgu_ijb[hjuEFZrbghkljh_gb_
26. I_ckZokhgB<HilbdZki_dljZevguoijb[hjh\EFZrbghkljh_gb_

271
27. GZ]b[bgZ BF Ijhdhnv_\ <D Ki_dljZevgu_ ijb[hju b l_ogbdZ ki_dljhkdh
ibbEFZrbghkljh_gb_
28. GZ]b[bgZ BF FboZceh\kdbc XD Nhlh]jZnbq_kdb_ b nhlhwe_dljbq_kdb_
ki_dljZevgu_ ijb[hju b l_ogbdZ wfbkkbhgghc ki_dljhkdhibb E FZrbgh
kljh_gb_
29. Kghidh<GIheyjbaZpbhggu_oZjZdl_jbklbdbhilbq_kdh]hbaemq_gbybf_lh^u
bobaf_j_gbyFbgkdGZ\mdZil_ogbdZR_jdebnnMIheyjbah\Zgguc
k\_lFFbj

>HIHEGBL?EVG:Y
D=E:<?
 KijZ\hqgbd l_ogheh]Z-hilbdZ  Ih^ j_^ KF Dmag_ph\Z b F: HdZlh\Z E
FZrbghkljh_gb_  KijZ\hqgbd ih ijhba\h^kl\m kl_deZ  Ih^ j_^
BBDblZc]hjh^kdh]hbKBKbev\_kljh\bqZlFK-KijZ
\hqgbddhgkljmdlhjZhilbdh-f_oZgbq_kdboijb[hjh\Ih^j_^FYDjm]_jZb
<:IZgh\ZF-EFZrbghkljh_gb_KijZ\hqgbddhgkljmdlhjZhilbdh-
f_oZgbq_kdboijb[hjh\FYDjm]_j<:IZgh\<<DmeZ]bgb^jEFZ
rbghkljh_gb_1980.
1.2. <Zj]bg<<Ih^mrdh?<KblZeeu—Ljm^u=HBl\uiFb
o_evkhgGGHilbq_kdb_l_e_kdhiuFGZmdZ
1.3 I_ljh\kdbc =L G_dhlhju_ gh\u_ imlb hilbq_kdh]h fZl_jbZeh\_^_gby 
<_klg:GKKKJ‹k
Hilbq_kdb_fZl_jbZeu^eybgnjZdjZkghcl_ogbdb?F<hjhgdh\Z;G=j_
qmrgbdh\=B>bkle_jFII_ljh\FGZmdZ
1.5. F_c_j:_clpW. MevljZnbhe_lh\h_baemq_gb_FBE
1.6. ;hjbk_\bqG:<_j_sZ]bg<=<Zeb^h\F:BgnjZdjZkgu_nbevljuFbgkd
GZmdZbl_ogbdZ
1.7. Khdheh\:<Hilbq_kdb_k\hckl\Zf_lZeeh\F=BNFE
1.8. FhkkLIhemijh\h^gbdh\Zyhilhwe_dljhgbdZFBE
1.9. E_[_^_\Z<<E_[_^_\B<H[hljZ`Zl_evghcbih]ehsZl_evghckihkh[ghklb
f_lZeebq_kdbokeh_\Hilbki_dljlk
1.10. Djueh\ZLGBgl_jn_j_gpbhggu_ihdjulbyEFZrbghkljh_gb_
1.11. Dhjhe_\ N: De_f_glv_\Z :X H[ m]eh\uo k\hckl\Zo bgl_jn_j_gpbhgguo
fgh]hkehcguo a_jdZe b bo ijbf_g_gbb  <_klg Fhkd mg-lZ k_j  NbabdZ
Zkljhghfbyl‹k42.
D=E:<?
2.1. :iZgZk_\bqI::ca_grlZ^lB.C.LZ[ebpujZkij_^_e_gbywg_j]bbbnhlhgh\
\ki_dlj_jZ\gh\_kgh]hbaemq_gbyFbgkdBa^-\h:GKKKJ
2.2. ;jZfkhgF:KijZ\hqgu_lZ[ebpuihbgnjZdjZkghfmbaemq_gbxgZ]j_luol_e
F
2.3. Jb[h=Hilbq_kdZyibjhf_ljbyF=LLB
L_ogbq_kdZywgpbdehi_^bylFKh\wgpbdehi_^bykLZ[ebpu
nbabq_kdbo\_ebqbgIh^j_^BDDbdhbgZF:lhfba^Zl
2.5. Kghidh<GKi_dljZevgu_f_lh^uhilbq_kdhcibjhf_ljbbgZ]j_lhcih\_jogh
klbFbgkdGZmdZbl_ogbdZ
2.6. >fbljb_\ <> Ohehih\ =D Ki_dljZevgZy emq_bkimkdZl_evgZy kihkh[ghklv
\hevnjZfh\hce_glu\\b^bfhcb[eb`g_cbgnjZdjZkghch[eZklyoki_dljZ
@IKl‹k

272
2.7. MoZgh\ ?< Nbebiih\ O.K. BaemqZl_evgZy kihkh[ghklv ]eh[ZjZ \ h[eZklb -
fdf@IKl‹kFitkh_llKA. Emissivity of Globar //
JOSA‹p. 341.
2.8. <rueg_l W. Physik und Technik der Ultrarotstrahlung // Hannover: Vincentz, 1951.
2.9. Kfhedbg BD N_^hjh\Z ?I QmjZdh\Z JK FZeh]Z[Zjblguc \ukhdhklZ[bev
guc bgnjZdjZkguc bklhqgbd baemq_gby  Hil-f_o ijhf-klv  ‹  k
69.
 F_lh^u bkke_^h\Zgby ieZafu  Ih^ j_^ <Ehol_-Ohevl]j_\_gZ F Fbj
Ki_dljhkdhiby]ZahjZajy^ghcieZafuJ_^KWNjbrEGZmdZ

D=E:<?
3.1. <allik E.A. // Appl. Opt., 1969, v. 5, p. 170; Dhjhe_\ N: E_[_^_\Z << Gh\bd
:? H^bgph\ :B Wdki_jbf_glZevgh_ hij_^_e_gb_ jZ^bZpbhgguo \j_f_g
`bagbj_ahgZgkguomjh\g_c:]IIbD]IIHilbki_dljL‹k
788.
3.2. NjbrKWHilbq_kdb_ki_dljuZlhfh\F=BLLE
3.3. E_[_^_\Z << Ki_dljhkdhibq_kdZy ^bZ]ghklbdZ ieZafu  IjZdlbdmf ih ki_d
ljhkdhibbIh^j_^E<E_\rbgZFBa^-\hFhkdmg-lZk
3.4. =jbf=Ki_dljhkdhibyieZafuF:lhfba^ZlMrbj_gb_ki_dljZevguo
ebgbc\ieZaf_FFbj
3.5. Ij_h[jZ`_gkdbc G= Ki_dljhkdhiby hilbq_kdb iehlghc ieZafu — Gh\hkb
[bjkdGZmdZ
 =ZahjZajy^gu_ bklhqgbdb k\_lZ ^ey ki_dljZevguo baf_j_gbc Dmj_cqbd DI
;_ae_idbg :B Ohfyd :K :e_dkZg^jh\ <<  Ih^ j_^ << =jm^bgkdh]h
FgMgb\_jkbl_lkdh_kDmj_cqbdDIBfimevkgZyZlhfgZyki_d
ljhf_ljbyF_lh^ubaf_j_gbc:iiZjZlmjZFbgkdMgb\_jkbl_lkdh_
3.7. A_fkdh\ZF<Bahlh\ZKENjbrFKb^jHnhjf_dhglmjZbaemq_gbyj_
ahgZgkguoebgbcjm[b^by\bg^mdpbhgguo\ukhdhqZklhlguo[_awe_dljh^guo
ki_dljZevguoeZfiZo<_klbE=MK_j‹K
3.8. E_[_^_\Z<<:e_dk__\Z@F=xg^_evL<IZgbgZE?Bkke_^h\Zgbynhjfu
ki_dljZevguoebgbc:]II\ha[m`^Z_fuo\ihehfdZlh^_@IKL
‹K
3.9. Lbcl<FRZpdbgZJ<:leZkfgh]hebg_cqZlh]hki_dljZfhe_dmeyjgh]h\h
^hjh^ZLZeebgg
3.10. Jhoebg=G.=ZahjZajy^gu_bklhqgbdbk\_lZKijZ\hqgZydgb]Zihk\_lhl_ogb
d_QI]eVFBa^-\h:GKKKJ
3.11. ;Zkh\ X= Ki_dlju dhjhldh\hegh\h]h baemq_gby bfimevkguo eZfi  @IK
L‹K
3.12. Abev[_jrl_cgOBKh\j_f_ggu_bklhqgbdbk\_lZ^eyhilbq_kdh]hwfbkkbhg
gh]hki_dljZevgh]hZgZebaZAZ\eZ[‹K
3.13. LhfikhgFMher>GJmdh\h^kl\hihki_dljhf_ljbq_kdhfmZgZebamkbg^md
lb\gh-k\yaZgghcieZafhcFG_^jZ
3.14. H]mjph\ZGGIh^fhr_gkdbcB<DZibeeyjgucjZajy^dZdbklhqgbdieZafu
^ey__dhebq_kl\_gguobkke_^h\ZgbcGbadhl_fi_jZlmjgZyieZafZFFbj
K
3.15. =hjrdh\ZE>=hjrdh\<:Ih^fhr_gkdbcB<Ihemq_gb_ieZafu\jZajy
^_ijb`Zlhfdkl_gd_fZ]gblgufihe_fL<LL‹KKi_d
ljhkdhibq_kdb_ bkke_^h\Zgby fhsgh]h H-ijb`Zlh]h jZajy^Z  L<L  L
‹K

273
D=E:<?
4.1. E_[_^_\B<L_ogbdZbijb[hjuK<QF<ukrZyrdheZ
4.2. =bga[mj]<EH[baemq_gbbfbdjhjZ^bh\hegbboih]ehs_gbb\\ha^mo_Ba\
:GKKKJK_jnbaLK
4.3. L_jgh\BFFboZcebg<<Kbgojhljhggh_baemq_gb_L_hjbybwdki_jbf_gl
FWg_j]hZlhfba^Zl
4.4. <Zkbev_\ :G FboZcebg << <\_^_gb_ \ ki_dljhkdhibx l\_j^h]h l_eZ F
Ba^-\hFhkdmg-lZ 1987.
4.5. <bghdmjh\ G: Kdjbgkdbc :G Hilbq_kdbc debkljhg  J_eylb\bklkdZy \ukh
dhqZklhlgZywe_dljhgbdZ=hjvdbcBa^BIN:GKKKJk
4.6. E_[_^_\:GEZa_jgZk\h[h^guowe_dljhgZoIjbjh^Z‹kFZj
rZeeLEZa_jugZk\h[h^guowe_dljhgZoFFbj
4.7. Dmebdh\HNL_evgh\XYNbebiih\?BYdbf_gdhFGDhfilhg-wnn_dlgZ
^\b`msbokywe_dljhgZo@WLNL‹
D=E:<?
5.1. BrZgbg == Ijb_fgbdb baemq_gby hilbq_kdbo b hilbdh-we_dljhgguo ijb[h
jh\ E FZrbghkljh_gb_  Baf_j_gb_ iZjZf_ljh\ ijb_fgbdh\ hilbq_
kdh]h baemq_gby  Ih^ j_^ EGDmj[Zlh\Z G< <Zkbevq_gdh F JZ^bh b
k\yav
5.2. ;ZjZq_\kdbc<:Ehrdh\=BP_ohfkdbc<:Nhlhojhfbafb_]hijbf_g_gb_
FObfby
Gh\u_j_]bkljbjmxsb_kj_^u^ey]heh]jZnbbJ_^<:;ZjZq_\kdbcEGZm
dZ
L_e_\babhggZyZkljhghfbyIh^j_^<;Gbdhgh\ZFGZmdZ
5.5. =m^f_g>`<\_^_gb_\nmjv_-hilbdmFFbj
G_k_j_[jygu_nhlh]jZnbq_kdb_ijhp_kkuIh^j_^:EDZjlm`Zgkdh]hE
Obfby
5.7. =hjhoh\kdbcXG;ZjZgh\Z<IK\hckl\Zq_jgh-[_euonhlh]jZnbq_kdboie_
ghd F GZmdZ  K\hckl\Z nhlh]jZnbq_kdbo fZl_jbZeh\ gZ ijhajZqguo
ih^eh`dZoK_gkblhf_ljbq_kdbckijZ\hqgbdIh^j_^XG=hjhoh\kdh]hb
KK=be_\ZF=BLLE=hjhoh\kdbcXGE_\_g[_j]LFH[sZyk_g
kblhf_ljbyL_hjbybijZdlbdZFBkdmkkl\hk
5.8. Gh\bd<D=Z\jbeh\ZG>N_ev^fZgG;Ibjhwe_dljbq_kdb_ij_h[jZah\Zl_
ebFKh\jZ^bh
5.9. ;_jdh\kdbc:==Z\Zgbg<:Zc^_evBG<Zdmmfgu_nhlhwe_dljhggu_ijb
[hjuFWg_j]by
5.10. Kh[he_\Z G: F_eZfb^ :? Nhlhwe_dljhggu_ ijb[hju F <ukrZy rdheZ
1974.
5.11. ;_eeJEWfbll_jukhljbpZl_evgufwe_dljhggufkjh^kl\hfFFbj
5.12. :cg[mg^FJIhe_gh\;<<lhjbqgh-we_dljhggu_mfgh`bl_ebhldjulh]hlb
iZbboijbf_g_gb_FWg_j]hba^Zl
Ihemijh\h^gbdh\u_nhlhijb_fgbdbMevljZnbhe_lh\uc\b^bfucb[eb`gbc
BD^bZiZahguki_dljZIh^j_^<BKlZn__\ZFJZ^bhbk\yav 1984.
5.14. ;hgq-;jm_\bq <E DZeZrgbdh\Z K= NbabdZ ihemijh\h^gbdh\ F GZmdZ
1977.
5.15. ;_j]:>bgIK\_lh^bh^uFFbj
 Ihemijh\h^gbdh\u_ nhjfbjh\Zl_eb kb]gZeh\ bah[jZ`_gby  Ih^ j_^
IB_ki_jkZb^jFFbj
5.17. K_d_gDLhfik_lFIjb[hjuki_j_ghkhfaZjy^ZFFbj

274
D=E:<?
GZ[hjk\_lhnbevljh\^ey\u^_e_gbyebgbcjlmlgh]hki_dljZ
6.2. ;ZjZgh\ KK Oem^h\ K< Rihevkdbc W< :leZk ki_dljh\ ijhimkdZgby hdjZ
r_gguoie_ghdFBa^-\h:GKKKJ
Kl_dehhilbq_kdh_p\_lgh_=HKL-FBa^-\hklZg^Zjlh\
6.4. <_j_sZ]bg<=Fhjhah\<<Gh\uclbih[j_aZxsbonbevljh\^ey^ebggh\he
gh\hcBDh[eZklbki_dljZ@IKL‹K
6.5. Jm^y\kdZyB=KlZg_\bq:?Q_jgy\kdZyG:Hilbq_kdb_nbevlju^ey^ebg
gh\hegh\hc bgnjZdjZkghc h[eZklb ki_dljZ  Hilbdh-f_o ijhf-klv  ‹
K
6.6. XZjjbd G Ki_dljhkdhiby \gmlj_gg_]h hljZ`_gby F Fbj  JZdh\ :<
Ki_dljhkdhiby lhgdhie_ghqguo ihemijh\h^gbdh\uo kljmdlmj F Kh\ jZ
^bh
6.7. Jha_g[_j]=<HilbdZlhgdhkehcguoihdjulbcFNbafZl]ba
6.8. <bgh]jZ^h\Z L: Bhnn_ K; Dmag_ph\ ;< Hilbq_kdb_ bgl_jn_j_gpbhggh-
iheyjbaZpbhggu_nbevljuLj=hkhilbqbg-lZ1989. L‹K. 1.
6.9. Holtom G., Teschke H. Biretringent Filter for High-Power Dye Laser // IEEE Y.Q.E1.
QE-‹p. 577-579.
6.10. <bgh]jZ^h\Z L: Dmag_ph\ ;<Kb^hj_gdh::DhgljZklgucbgl_jn_j_gpb
hggh-iheyjbaZpbhggucnbevlj^eyMNh[eZklbki_dljZHilbki_dlj. 1983.
L‹K
6.11. ;ZeZdrbc<BIZju]bg<GQbjdh\E?Nbabq_kdb_hkgh\uZdmklhhilbdb
FJZ^bhbk\yav
6.12. Khang I.C. Acousto-optic tunable filters // Opt. Eng. 1981. V‹p. 824.
6.13. IZju]bg<G;ZeZdrbc<BHilbq_kdZyh[jZ[hldZbgnhjfZpbbFBa^-\h
Fhkdmg-lZ
6.14. =Zebrgbdh\B<Dhiueh\KFFboZceh\EDb^j:dmklhhilbq_kdb_ki_d
ljZevgu_ijb[hju^eyl_ogheh]bq_kdh]hh[hjm^h\Zgby<ZdmmfgZyl_ogbdZb
l_ogheh]byL‹KDhiueh\KFEukhc;=FboZceh\EDb
^j Kdhjhklgu_ Zdmklh-hilbq_kdb_ ki_dljhf_lju b bo ijbf_g_gb_  We_d
ljhggZyijhfure_gghklv‹K

D=E:<?

7.1. JZmlbZgK=J_Zevgu_ki_dljZevgu_ijb[hjuMNGL‹K
7.2. Ij_h[jZ`_gkdbcG=IbdZeh\<<G_mklhcqb\u_aZ^Zqb^bZ]ghklbdbieZafu
Gh\hkb[bjkdGZmdZ
7.3. ;_eygbg <; G_dhlhju_ \hijhku kh\j_f_ggh]h ki_dljZevgh]h ijb[hjhkljh_
gby  EZa_jgh_ hilbq_kdh_ b ki_dljZevgh_ ijb[hjhkljh_gb_ Fbgkd Ba^-\h
BN:G;KKJK

D=E:<?

9.1. =_jZkbfh\ NF Ydh\e_\ W: >bnjZdpbhggu_ j_r_ldb Kh\j_f_ggu_ l_g^_g


pbb \ l_ogbd_ ki_dljhkdhibb  Ih^ j_^ K=JZmlbZgZ Gh\hkb[bjkd GZmdZ
k
9.2. Ijhdhnv_\<DH[sb_k\hckl\Zki_dljh\\ukhdh]hjZaj_r_gbyki_dljhf_ljh\
k^bnjZdpbhggufbj_r_ldZfbwr_ee_Ba\DjufZkljhnbah[k_j\L

275
 K  Nhjfbjh\Zgb_ nhlhf_ljbq_kdbo UVB-\_ebqbg ki_dljhf_ljZfb k
^bnjZdpbhggufb j_r_ldZfb wr_ee_ Ba\ DjufZkljhnbah[k_j\L
 K  Hlghkbl_evgh_ jZkij_^_e_gb_ bgl_gkb\ghklb \ ki_dljZo ^bnjZd
pbhgguoj_r_lhdwr_ee_LZf`_LK
9.3. Kdhdh\ B< @mjZ\e_\ >: @mjZ\e_\Z <I Ijh_dlbjh\Zgb_ ^bnjZdpbhgguo
ki_dljh]jZnh\F.: FZrbghkljh_gb_, 1991.
9.4. Handbook of diffraction gratings ruled and holographic (ijhki_dl nbjfu "Jobin-
Yvon").
9.5. DZebgbgKDNZcgW?I_j_\_jlmg<FIjbf_g_gb_^bnjZdpbhggh]hki_d
ljh]jZnZ>NK-  ^eyZgZebaZfbg_jZevgh]hkujvy:efZ-:lZBa^-\h:G
DZaKKJ
9.6. Ijhdhnv_\ <D Klb]fZlbq_kdb_ mklZgh\db k \h]gmlufb ^bnjZdpbhggufb j_
r_ldZfb  Ba\ Dj:H  L  K  Nhjfbjh\Zgb_ lhjhb^Zevghc ^b
njZdpbhgghc j_r_ldhc ki_dljZevghc ebgbb hl lhqdb \oh^ghc s_eb ki_dljh
f_ljZBa\Dj:HLK
9.7. Ijhdhnv_\ <D Klb]fZlbq_kdb_ mklZgh\db k \h]gmlufb kn_jbq_kdbfb ]heh
]jZnbq_kdbfb^bnjZdpbhggufbj_r_ldZfb@IKL‹K
9.8. Ijhdhnv_\ <D F_jb^bhgZevgu_ nhdZevgu_ djb\u_ \ mklZgh\d_ \h]gmlhc j_
r_ldbihko_f_K_cy–GZfbhdZBa\Dj:HLK

D=E:<?

10.1. Dhjhe_\ N: Ki_dljhkdhiby \ukhdhc jZaj_rZxs_c kbeu F =hkl_oba^Zl


1953.
10.2. LheZgkdbcKKi_dljhkdhiby\ukhdhcjZaj_rZxs_ckbeuFBE
10.3. @b]ebgkdbc := Dmqbgkdbc << J_Zevguc bgl_jn_jhf_lj NZ[jb-I_jh E
FZrbghkljh_gb_k
10.4. Ljhbpdbc X< Kh\j_f_ggh_ khklhygb_ b i_jki_dlb\u hljZ`Zl_evghc fgh]h
emq_\hcbgl_jn_jhf_ljbb:\lhf_ljby‹KFgh]hemq_\u_bg
l_jn_jhf_ljuhljZ`_ggh]hk\_lZGh\hkb[bjkdGZmdZ
10.5. Dbk_e_\ ;: NjbrfZg B= Bgl_jn_jhf_lju NZ[jb-I_jh ^ey ki_dljZevguo
bkke_^h\ZgbcHilbdh-f_oZgbq]kdZyijhfure_gghklv‹K-30.
10.6. DmeZ]bgEKMadhihehkguci_j_kljZb\Z_fucnbevlj^eygZ[ex^_gbcKhegpZ
Dbg_fZlbdZbnbabdZg_[_kguol_e‹K

D=E:<?

11.1. F_jpEBgl_]jZevgu_ij_h[jZah\Zgby\hilbd_FFbj
 BgnjZdjZkgZy ki_dljhkdhiby \ukhdh]h jZaj_r_gby  Ih^ j_^ =G @b`bgZ
FFbj
11.3. LhefZq_\ X: Gh\u_ ki_dljZevgu_ ijb[hju Ijbgpbiu jZ[hlu E Ba^-\h
E=M
11.4. ;_eeJ>`<\_^_gb_\nmjv_-ki_dljhkdhibxFFbj
11.5. Dbk_e_\;:b^jF_lh^ubgl_jn_j_gpbhgghcki_dljhkdhibbbkh\j_f_ggu_
nmjv_-ki_dljhf_lju  Ijb[hjhkljh_gb_ b Z\lhfZlbq_kdbc dhgljhev <ui 
FFZrbghkljh_gb_K
 Gh\u_ f_lh^u ki_dljhkdhibb  Ih^ j_^ K=JZmlbZgZ Gh\hkb[bjkd GZmdZ
1982.

276
IJ?>F?LGUCMD:A:L?EV

:[_jjZpby 191, 254 <j_fy `bagb mjh\gy 75


— kn_jbq_kdZy 191, 207 <lhjbqgh-we_dljhggucmfgh`bl_ev
— ojhfZlbq_kdZy 149, 207 <WM 136
:[khj[pbhggu_ ih]ehsZxsb_  <mZev nhlhieZklbgdb 119
k\_lhnbevlju 148 <m^Z nbevlj 149
:\lhdheebfZpbhggucki_dljZevguc <ub]jur @Zdbgh 265
ijb[hj 191 — N_e`_lZ 265
:ghfZevgZy ^bki_jkby 31 <ugm`^_ggh_ baemq_gb_ 54
:ghfZevgucle_xsbcjZajy^ 67 <ukhdhqZklhlgucjZajy^ 84, 96
:glb\bgv_lbjmxsZy ebgaZ 188 <uoh^ghc dheebfZlhj 170
:ih^baZpby 166, 263
:iiZjZlgZy nmgdpby 172 =_hf_ljbq_kdZyk\_lhkbeZ
— — Zdmklh-hilbq_kdh]h (]_hf_ljbb-
k\_lhnbevljZ 166 q_kdbcnZdlhj ijb[hjZ 181
— — ^bnjZdpbhggZy 173, 178 =bjhljhgu 103
— — bgl_jn_jhf_ljZNZ[jb– =eZ\gh_k_q_gb_ ijbafu 206
I_jh 248 — — j_r_ldb 229
— — ijbdh]_j_glghfhk\_s_gbb =eh[Zj 61
s_eb 179 =heh]jZnbq_kdb_^bnjZdpbhggu_
— — ijbg_dh]_j_glghfhk\_s_gbb j_r_ldb 235, 239
s_eb 179 =hfhp_gljbq_kdbc imqhd 207
— — jZkljh\h]hki_dljhf_ljZ 268
— — Nmjv_-ki_dljhf_ljZ 265 >\hcghc fhghojhfZlhj 195
— — s_e_\Zy 175 >\moebgah\Zykbkl_fZhk\_s_gby
:klb]fZlbaf 191, 206, 233, 241 s_eb 188
:klb]fZlbq_kdZy jZaghklv 207, 234 >_ckl\mxs__ hl\_jklb_ 169
:lfhkn_jgh_ ih]ehs_gb_ 51 >_ckl\mxsbc d\Zglh\uc \uoh^ 114
— hdgh 51 >_cl_jb_\Zy eZfiZ 90
:lhfguc imqhd 88 >_ebl_ev ihjy^dh\ 221
>_lZevgh_ jZ\gh\_kb_ 70
;_awe_dljh^gucjZajy^ 84 >_l_dlbjmxsZykihkh[ghklv ijb_f-
;e_kd 216 gbdh\ 114
;hehf_lj 123 >_pb[_eu 38
;hevpfZgZnhjfmeZ 70, 71 >bki_jkbb djb\u_ 29, 31, 35
;jxkl_jZ m]he 204 >bki_jkbhggh_ jZkij_^_e_gb_ 74
;m]_jZ–EZf[_jlZaZdhg 27 >bki_jkbhgguc k\_lhnbevlj 150
>bki_jkby ZghfZevgZy 31
<ZdmmfgucmevljZnbhe_l 37, 40, 51, — ebg_cgZy 173
240 — ghjfZevgZy 31
<_jhylghklb i_j_oh^Z 54 — h[jZlgZy ebg_cgZy 173
<bgv_lbjh\Zgb_ 187 — m]eh\Zy 173, 174
<g_hk_\h_ a_jdZeh 192 >bnjZdpbhggu_ j_r_ldb 214
<h]gmlu_ j_r_ldb 229 — —, ba]hlh\e_gb_ 225
<h^hjh^gZy eZfiZ 89 — —, iheyjbamxs__^_ckl\b_ 217
<h^k\hjlZ kbkl_fZ 241 — — ki_j_f_ggufrZ]hf 225
<hehdhggu_ k\_lh\h^u 38 — — klmi_gqZlu_ 215

277
>bnjZdpby ;jw]]Z 164 DZf_jguc h[t_dlb\ 170
>bwe_dljbq_kdb_ a_jdZeZ 45–49 D\Zglh\Zy wnn_dlb\ghklvijb_f-
>ebgZ dh]_j_glghklb 17 gbdZ 114
>hiie_jh\kdbc iZjZf_lj 77 D\Zglh\uc \uoh^ijb_fgbdZ 115, 142
>hiie_jh\kdh_mrbj_gb_ki_dl- D\Zglhf_lj 170, 199
jZevghcebgbb 76–80 Dbjo]hnZ aZdhg 53
>m]h\hcjZajy^ 67, 92 DeZkkbq_kdb_ ki_dljZevgu_ ijb[h-
>mob EZcfZgZ 226 ju 170
— JhmeZg^Z 226 Debgh\ucbgl_jn_j_gpbhgguc
k\_lhnbevlj 158
?kl_kl\_ggZyrbjbgZki_dljZevghc Dh]_j_glgh_ hk\_s_gb_ s_eb 179
ebgbb 74, 75, 78, 88 Dh]_j_glghklv 17
DheebfZlhj 170
@Zdbgh \ub]jur 264 Dhglbgmmf 90, 98
Dhkbgmkguc baemqZl_ev 15
AZ`b]Zgb_ jZajy^Z 68–69 Dhwnnbpb_gldhgljZklghklbnhlh-
AZdhg ;m]_jZ-EZf[_jlZ 27 ieZklbgdb 120
— Dbjo]hnZ 53 — hljZ`_gby 25, 41, 42
— kf_s_gby <bgZ 56 — ih]ehs_gby 28, 71, 72
AZk_e_gghklv mjh\g_c 53–54 — kihglZggh]h baemq_gby 71
A_evf_c_jZ nhjfmeZ 30 — q_jghlu 57
A_jdZevgu_ ihdjulby 44–49 Dhwnnbpb_glu Wcgrl_cgZ 54
Baemq_gb_ 13 DjZl_j m]hevghc ^m]b 64
— ]Zah\h]h jZajy^Z 68–69 Djb\Zy ^bki_jkbb 30, 32, 35
—, h[t_fgZy iehlghklv 16 — hljZ`_gby 30, 32, 42
— jZ\gh\_kgh_ 54, 68 — ih]ehs_gby 30, 32
—, kl_i_gv q_jghlu 57 — ihq_jg_gby 120
— l_ieh\h_ 53 Djb\bagZki_dljZevghc ebgbb 208,
224
Bfimevkgu_ eZfiu 95 Djbl_jbc Jwe_y 174
Bg_jpbhgghklv ijb_fgbdZbaemq_- Djm] JhmeZg^Z 253
gby 117
— j_]bkljbjmxs_]hmkljhckl\Z 177 EZa_j gZk\h[h^guowe_dljhgZo 108
Bgkljmf_glZevguc dhglmj 172 EZfiu [_awe_dljh^gu_ 84
Bgl_]jZevgZyqm\kl\bl_evghklvijb- — \h^hjh^gu_ 89
_fgbdZ 112 — ]Zah\u_ 94
Bgl_gkb\ghklv 15 — bfimevkgu_ 95
Bgl_jn_j_gpbhggh-iheyjbaZpbhgguc — gZdZeb\Zgby 60
k\_lhnbevlj 159 — jlmlgu_ 92
Bgl_jn_j_gpbhgguc k\_lhnbevlj 155 — kiheufdZlh^hf 87
Bgl_jn_jhf_lj FZcd_evkhgZ 263 Ebg_cgZy^bki_jkby 204
— NZ[jb-I_jh 244 EhdZevgh_l_jfh^bgZfbq_kdh_jZ\gh-
— — —, ZiiZjZlgZynmgdpby 248 \_kb_ 70
— — — fgh]hijhoh^guc 250 Ehj_gph\kdZy rbjbgZ ebgbb 79
— — — fmevlbie_dk 250 Ehj_gph\kdbc dhglmj 79, 159
— — — hljZ`Zxsbc 251
— — —, ihklhyggZy 248 FZa_jgZpbdehljhgghfj_ahgZgk_
— — — kn_jbq_kdbc 259  ]bjhljhg 103
FZdk\_eeZ nmgdpby 69, 76
Ch^gZy eZfiZ 61 FZl_jbZeu hilbq_kdb_ 18

278
FZlbjh\Zggh_ a_jdZeh 153 Hk\_s_gb_ s_eb 185
F_jb^bhgZevgh_ ]eZ\gh_ k_q_gb_ — — g_dh]_j_glgh_ 178
ijbafu 208 — — dh]_j_glgh_ 178
F_lZeebq_kdb_ a_jdZeZ 40 HklZlhqgu_ emqb 152
F_lZeebq_kdh_ hljZ`_gb_ 31, 40, 41 Hldebd ijb_fgbdZ 112, 116
FbdjhdZgZevgu_ ieZklbgu 136 Hlghkbl_evgZy yjdhklv 57
Fgh]hdjZlgu_hljZ`_gby 37, 44, 155 Hlghr_gb_ ebgby -nhg 183
Fgh]hkehcgh_ a_jdZeh 46, 156 — kb]gZe–rmf 114, 264
Fgh]hwe_f_glgu_ijb_fgbdbbaemq_- HljZ`_gb_ baemq_gby 24, 28, 40, 41
gby 112, 117, 145 Hlj_aZxsbc k\_lhnbevlj 147, 153
FhghojhfZlhj 169, 172
— ^\hcghc 195 Ibjhwe_dljbq_kdbc ijb_fgbdbaemq_-
— — k\uqblZgb_f^bki_jkbc 197 gby 128
— — khkeh`_gb_f^bki_jkbc 197 IeZafZ 65
— nhdZevguc 149 — hilbq_kdb iehlgZy 70
FmZj 269 — hilbq_kdb lhgdZy 71
Fmevlbie_dk-bgl_jn_jhf_lj 250 IeZaf_ggZy qZklhlZ ^ebgZ\hegu 33,
37
GZdhibl_ev 108 IeZafhljhg 97
GZeh`_gb_ ki_dljh\ 220 IeZgdZ aZdhg 55
G_dh]_j_glgh_ hk\_s_gb_s_eb 178 IeZgdh\kdbc mjh\_gv baemq_gby 58
G_q_jgh_ l_eh 57 IeZlbgh-d_jZfbq_kdbc baemqZl_ev 63
GhjfZevgZy ^bki_jkby 31 Ih]ehsZl_evgZy kihkh[ghklv 16
— rbjbgZs_eb 177 Ih]ehs_gby dhwnnbpb_gl 27, 72
IhdZaZl_ev ih]ehs_gby 25
H[gZjm`bl_evgZykihkh[ghklvijb_f- — ij_ehfe_gby 25, 37
gbdZ 114 IhebojhfZlhj 170
H[jZlgZy ebg_cgZy ^bki_jkby 173 Ihegh_\gmlj_gg__hljZ`_gb_ 153
H[jZlguc wnn_dl DhfilhgZ 109 Ihehku ih]ehs_gby 30, 51
H[t_dlb\u a_jdZevgu_ 191 Iheuc dZlh^ 84–87
H[t_fgZyki_dljZevgZyiehlghklv Ihjy^hd ki_dljZ 214, 220
baemq_gby 16 — nbevljZ 156
H^ghebgah\Zyhk\_lbl_evgZykbkl_- IhklhyggZy bgl_jn_jhf_ljZ 248
fZ 186 Ihl_jb nj_g_e_\kdb_ 37
Hdgh ijhajZqghklbZlfhkn_ju 51 Ihlhd baemq_gby 14
— ki_dljZevgh_ 172 Ij_^_evgZy qZklhlZ ijb_fgbdZ 117
Hg^meylhj 107–108 Ijb[hjukaZjy^h\hck\yavx
Hilbdh-Zdmklbq_kdbc ijb_fgbd 126  IAK 143
HilbfZevgZy qZklhlZfh^meypbb 116 Ijbafu :[[_ 210
Hilbq_kdZy d_jZfbdZ 19 — [jxkl_jh\kdb_ 204
— iehlghklv 148 — Dhjgx 209
Hilbq_kdb_ fZl_jbZeu 18 — Eblljh\Z 210
Hilbq_kdh_ \hehdgh 9, 38 — ihklhyggh]hhldehg_gby 211
Hiljhg 142 — J_a_jnhj^Z 210
Hk\_lbl_evgZy kbkl_fZ 185 —, kbkl_fuihklhyggh]hhldehg_-
— — ^\moebgah\Zy 188 gby 211
— — h^ghebgah\Zy 186 Ijb_fgbdbbaemq_gbyl_ieh\u_ 111
— — jZkljh\Zy 189 — — nhlhggu_ 111
— — lj_oebgah\Zy 188 IjhajZqghklvhilbq_kdbofZl_jbZ-
eh\ 37

279
Ijhk\_leyxsb_ihdjulby 45 K_jh_ l_eh 57
Kbgojhljhggh_ baemq_gb_ 105
JZaj_rZxsZykihkh[ghklv 174 KbkZf 266
— — ^bnjZdpbhgghcj_r_ldb 225, KblZeeu 19
232 KdZgbjh\Zgb_ki_dljZ 169, 176, 211,
— — bgl_jn_jhf_ljZNZ[jb–I_jh 256
248 Keh`gucbgl_jn_jhf_ljNZ[jb–I_jh
— — jZkljh\h]hki_dljhf_ljZ 268 fmevlbie_dk 250
— — j_ZevgZy 177 Kdbg-kehc 27
— — kbkZfZ 266 Kdj_sb\Zgb_ ^bki_jkbc 221, 252
— — l_hj_lbq_kdZy 174 Kheg_qgh-ke_iu_ nhlhdZlh^u 134
— — nmjv_-ki_dljhf_ljZ 262 Ki_dljh]jZn 169
JZkljh\Zyhk\_lbl_evgZykbkl_fZ 189 Ki_dljhf_lj 170, 192
JZkljh\uc ki_dljhf_lj 268 — Zdmklhhilbq_kdbc 166
J_Z[khj[pby baemq_gby 80–82 — kbgl_jn_j_gpbhgghck_e_dlb\ghc
J_ahgZgkgh_mrbj_gb_ebgbc 80 Zfieblm^ghcfh^meypb_c 266
J_eylb\bklkdbcwnn_dl >hiie_jZ 104 —NZ[jb–I_jh 254
J_iebdZ^bnjZdpbhgghcj_r_ldb 225 — Nmjv_ 261
J_r_ldb^bnjZdpbhggu_gZj_agu_ — jZkljh\uc 268
225 Ki_dljhkdhi 170
— — — ki_j_f_ggufrZ]hf 228, Ki_dljhnhlhf_lj 170, 192
236 Ki_dljZevgh_ hdgh 172
— — ]heh]jZnbq_kdb_ 235 Ki_dljZevguc ZgZeba 97, 197
Jlmlgu_ eZfiu 90–93 KlZg^Zjlki_dljZevgh]hjZkij_^_e_-
gbyyjdhklbbaemq_gby 62, 92, 106
Kl_i_gvq_jghlu dhwnnbpb_glq_j-
KZ]bllZevgh_ k_q_gb_ ijbafu 206 ghlu baemq_gby 57
KZfhh[jZs_gb_ki_dljZevghcebgbb — iheyjbaZpbb 16
82, 94 Klb]fZlbq_kdb_ lhqdb 236
K\_lh^bh^u 142 Klbehkdhi 170
K\_lhkbeZ 173, 180, 224, 258 Ko_fZ <h^k\hjlZ 241
— ]_hf_ljbq_kdZy 181 — B]ey 239
— ihhk\_s_gghklb 181, 257 —IZr_gZ–Jmg]_ 239
— ih ihlhdm 181, 257 —K_cy–GZfbhdZ 242
K\_lhnbevlju 147–164 —Q_jgb–Lmjg_jZ 228
— Z[khj[pbhggu_ 148 — W[_jlZ 228
— Zdmklh-hilbq_kdb_ 164
— ^bki_jkbhggu_ 150
— bgl_jn_j_gpbhggu_ 155 L_fi_jZlmjZ p\_lh\Zy 59
— bgl_jn_j_gpbhggh-iheyjbaZpb- — yjdhklgZy 58
hggu_ 159 L_hj_lbq_kdbc ij_^_ejZaj_r_gby 174
— dhgljZklgu_ 159 L_ieh\h_ baemq_gb_ 53
— Ebh 160 L_ieh\u_ ijb_fgbdb baemq_gby 111,
— hlj_aZxsb_ 147 123
— OjbklbZgk_gZ 151 L_jfhwe_f_gl 126
K\h[h^gZyki_dljZevgZyh[eZklv 220, Le_xsbc jZajy^ 65, 83
247 Lhgdb_ ie_gdb 41
K_e_dlb\gZyfh^meypbybaemq_gby Lj_oebgah\Zy hk\_lbl_evgZy kbkl_-
154, 171 fZ 188
— nbevljZpby baemq_gby 170

280
Ljb]hghf_ljbq_kdbcfgh`bl_ev QZklhlgh-dhgljZklgZy oZjZdl_jbklbdZ
ijbafu 203 QDO fgh]hwe_f_glguo ijb_fgb-
dh\ 121
M\_ebq_gb_h[t_dlb\h\ki_dljZevgh]h — — nhlhwfmevkbb 121
ijb[hjZ 202 — — l_jfhieZklbdh\ 122
— m]eh\h_ ijbaf 201 — — IAK 145
— — j_r_ldb 219 Q_jg_gb_ ih\_joghklb 36, 125
M]he [e_kdZ j_r_ldb 216 Q_jgh_ l_eh 56, 60
— ;jxkl_jZ 204 Q_l\_jlv\hegh\uc kehc 44
MevljZnbhe_lh\Zy ghjfZev 92 Qbkehbgl_jn_jbjmxsboemq_c
Mrbj_gb_ki_dljZevguo ebgbc 74 wnn_dlb\gh_ 249
— — — ^hiie_jh\kdh_ 76 Qm\kl\bl_evghklvijb_fgbdZbaem-
— — — ehj_gph\kdh_ 79 q_gbybgl_]jZevgZy 112
— — — j_ahgZgkgh_ 80 — — — ihjh]h\Zy 113
— — — rlZjdh\kdh_ 80 — — — ki_dljZevgZy 113, 121, 131,
134
NZ[jb–I_jh bgl_jn_jhf_lj 244
NZdlhjj_adhklbbgl_jn_j_gpbhgghc RbjbgZZiiZjZlghc nmgdpbb 172, 178
dZjlbgu 249 — ki_dljZevghc ebgbb 74
N_e`_lZ \ub]jur 265 — — — ^hiie_jh\kdZy 76
Nhc]lh\kdbc dhglmj 78 — — — _kl_kl\_ggZy 74, 88
NhdZevgZy baheypby 149 — — — ehj_gph\kdZy 79
NhjfmeZ ;hevpfZgZ 70, 71 — s_eb ghjfZevgZy 177, 179
— <bgZ 55 — — ki_dljZevgZy 177, 182
— ^bki_jkbbA_evf_c_jZ 30 Rmf ^jh[h\hc 115
— IeZgdZ 55 — l_ieh\hc 115
— Jwe_y–>`bgkZ 55 — nhlhgguc 115, 264
— KZoZ 70
Nhlh\_glbevgucj_`bfijb_fgbdZ Wcgrl_cgZ dhwnnbpb_glu 53
141 Wdkihabpby 119
Nhlh\hevlZbq_kdb_ ijb_fgbdb 138 We_dljhggh-hilbq_kdbcij_h[jZ-
Nhlh^bh^u 138 ah\Zl_ev WHI 136
Nhlhgguc rmf 115 Wg_j]_lbq_kdZy k\_lbfhklv 15
NhlhdZlh^u 132 — yjdhklv 15
Nhlhj_abklhju 138 Wnn_dl>hiie_jZ 76, 104
Nhlhmfgh`bl_eb 134 — RlZjdZ 79, 80
Nhlhwfmevkbb 118 Wnn_dlb\ghklv^bnnjZdpbhgghc
—, qm\kl\bl_evghklv 121 j_r_ldb 217, 218, 227
Nj_g_e_\kdb_ ihl_jb 37 Wr_e_ll 225
Nmgdpby FZdk\_eeZ 69, 76 Wr_ee_ 225
Nmjv_-ki_dljhf_lj 261–266
YjdhklgZy l_fi_jZlmjZ 58
OjhfZlbq_kdZy Z[_jjZpby 148, 208 Yjdhklv 14
— hlghkbl_evgZy 57
P\_lgu_ kl_deZ 148 — wg_j]_lbq_kdZy 15
P\_lh\Zy l_fi_jZlmjZ 57

281
Mq_[gh_ba^Zgb_

E?;?>?<:<_jZ<eZ^bfbjh\gZ
WDKI?JBF?GL:EVG:YHILBD:

Ih^ibkZgh\i_qZlv]
NhjfZl:;mfZ]Zhnk_lgZy
H[t_fieLbjZ`wda
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