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DRAINAGE DESIGN HANDBOOK DATE: October 25, 1988
Revised: Board of Supervisors August 27, 2008
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS P.O. BOX 470 HANOVER, VIRGINIA 23069-0470 PHONE: (804) 365-6181
C. Introduction Construction Materials Curb and Gutter Streets Open Channels Lot Grading Ponds and Lakes Flood Plains Stormwater Management Checklists 2 . B. H. F. E. I. D. G.CONTENTS A.
Davis – Hanover Board of Supervisors Mr. Howard – Richmond Area Municipal Contractors Association Mr. and general goals. 3 . Goodfellow – Virginia Association of Surveyors Mr. Stanley – Hanover Association of Businesses Mr. G. Brooks – Home Builders Association of Richmond Mr. – County Engineer The help of the above committee members has been essential to the preparation of this handbook and their assistance is greatly appreciated. L. P. Wood. Michael Fiore – Virginia Society of Professional Engineers Mr. Williams – County Administrator Mr. William F. Jr. specific drainage requirements. Chapter 12 of the county code. This handbook has been prepared with the assistance of a citizen advisory committee composed of the following representatives from various organizations concerned with land development in Hanover County.A. Mr. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this handbook is to establish detailed design criteria for implementing the requirements of the County of Hanover’s Floodplain and Drainage Control Ordinance. The ordinance contains certain definitions. E. C. Richard F. the applicable design criteria shall be those of the Virginia Department of Transportation or the Virginia Soil and Water Conservation Commission. Cleek. and is included as a part of this handbook in Appendix A. Calvin L. The handbook is arranged under subject titles to address the instances where the Hanover County drainage requirements are different or more restrictive than those of the “Drainage Design Manual” prepared by the Virginia Department of Transportation and the “Virginia Erosion and Sediment Control Handbook” prepared by the Virginia Soil and Water Conservation Commission. Joseph P. M.E. In all cases where this handbook is silent on a particular issue. Allan T. – Virginia Department of Transportation Mr. R.
High density polyethylene pipe is approved for use as culverts at single family residential driveway entrances. requirements of this handbook cannot be waived. Downsizing of drainage pipe is not permitted as a storm sewer progresses downstream unless multiple pipes. 4. with the following exceptions: 1. including single family. 2. and for temporary installations. and as new and better design methods become available. it is likely that revisions or additions to this handbook will be issued. with an equivalent size at last equal to the upstream pipe. For proposed lots the two hundred foot distance will be measured from the required front yard set-back line. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS Construction materials for all drainage projects must conform to the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) Road and Bridge Standards. 3. The use of high density polyethylene pipe for drainage pipe shall not be permitted in any residential development. Bituminous concrete shall not be allowed as a channel lining or for curbs. • • 4 . townhouse. Unless specifically noted. for temporary installations. and for privately maintained storm drainage systems for commercial and industrial developments located outside of public rights-of-way and public easements. and for privately maintained storm drainage systems for commercial and industrial developments outside of public rights-of-way and public easements. Users of this handbook should note that it carries the same legal weight as the law upon which it is based. Solid walled plastic pipe is approved for use for temporary installations. Pipe and culvert materials and associated structures shall be of concrete and/or reinforced concrete construction (poured in place or precast) except as noted below: • • Corrugated metal pipe is approved for use for culverts at single family residential driveway entrances. Rip-Rap shall not be allowed for channel lining on slopes over 15% or for channel lining within two hundred feet of proposed or existing residences. are to be installed. B. current editions. and VDOT Instructional and Informational Memorandum. VDOT Road and Bridge Specifications.As State and/or Federal criteria and laws change. condominium and apartment developments except for piping installed by the owner of one individual residential lot and serving only that one lot.
3. The average lot front width measured at the required set-back line. or R-6. In this case. Commercial) Road side channel type streets are encouraged because they result in less paved areas and slower run-off velocities. Exceptions for alternative pipe materials may be granted by the Director for special maintenance installations. In developments where the longitudinal slope of road side channels will be relatively flat (1% or less) or.0% or greater). or manufacturer’s recommendations. 2. experience has shown that it becomes difficult to construct and maintain grassed channels. as defined by the Hanover County Subdivision Ordinance. All other drainage pipe and associated structures shall be in accordance with the latest VDOT Road and Bridge Standards. where driveway culverts will be close together (80-foot wide lots or less). (Road side channels may be used on longer connecting or entrance roadways if the channel slope is 1. curb and gutter will be required on all parking lots and on connecting roadways less than 300 feet long. VDOT Road and Bridge Specifications. R-5. is equal to or less than 80 feet. and for purposes of yard drainage utilizing pipe diameters less than 15 inches. and VDOT Instructional & Informational Memorandum. VDOT Road and Bridge Specifications.Except as noted above. C. the average lot front width measured at the required set back line is less than 125 feet. CURB AND GUTTER ROADWAY REQUIREMENTS (Residential. Notes: 5 . all drainage pipe and associated structures to be constructed in County drainage easements or public rights-of-way shall be in accordance with the latest VDOT Road and Bridge Standards. The longitudinal slope of the road side channel (not including short lengths at vertical curves or tangent sections less than 200’ in length) is less than 1.0% and. The use of curb and gutter type streets shall therefore be required whenever one or more of the following conditions exists: 1. These have less effect on downstream areas through curb and gutter streets. The project is zoned R-4. unusual circumstances where the use of alternative materials is necessary for structural or environmental reasons. and VDOT Instructional & Informational Memorandum.
6 .a. b. publicly maintained road. When intersecting a street that does not have or will not have curb and gutter. All curb and gutter shall be constructed in accordance with VDOT standards for design and construction. Grate inlets located in vertical curve sags or at intersections shall lie on continuous grades and shall intercept all of the gutter flow passing over. it will be required on both sides of the publicly maintained road. Whenever curb and gutter is required it shall be installed on both sides of the street and shall be complete between street intersections. d. the design shall be in accord with figure C-1. and curb and gutter is required. c. When a development is proposed on one side of an existing.
Designers should note that Paragraph 2. Open channels shall be designed and constructed to preclude erosion during the 2year storm and to contain the 10-year storm.0%. All calculations shall anticipate development of the upstream watershed as indicated by the County Comprehensive Plan. of the VDOT Drainage Manual requires initial flow velocity calculations assume channel linings are bare earth. OPEN CHANNELS Where open channels are used in residential areas. This requires flat side slopes. Natural receiving channels within.2 A-F. and a longitudinal slope sufficient to allow all stormwater to drain out following a storm. maximum side slopes in that part of the ditch greater than 2 feet above the ditch invert must not exceed 3H:1V. This section of the VDOT Manual and GC-7 of the “Virginia Erosion and Sediment Control Handbook” allow the use of detention basins to control erosion at the developers option. The Manning’s “n” Factor in this situation must therefore not exceed the appropriate value for the soil type. 7 . Maximum side slopes for concrete paved ditches less than or equal to 2 feet in depth shall not exceed 2H:1V. Minimum longitudinal slope for grassed linings = 1. paragraph 2.20 where d=depth of flow and w=top width of the water surface.D. the channels shall be constructed in a manner to permit maintenance by the residents with normal yard care. Where concrete paved ditches exceed 2 feet in depth.3. and downstream from the boundary of residential and commercial projects shall be protected from erosion for the 2-year storm event and shall contain the 10-year storm event. 2. rounded at the top. 4. All erosion and capacity calculations shall be in accordance with the VDOT Design Manual.D. Design calculations shall be submitted that clearly indicate erosion will not occur.7. Maximum side slopes for grassed channels to facilitate maintenance = 3H:1V. 3. along. The Manning roughness coefficients tabulated in the VDOT drainage manual are appropriate for use here. The minimum depth to width ratio allowed for the 2-year storm erosion calculations is d/w=0. contains requirements which specify the conditions under which detention basins may be allowed in Hanover County. Section H (Stormwater Management) of this handbook. Manning’s “n” is then corrected for the lining chosen when the capacity calculation is made for the 10-year storm. The minimum criteria for open channel designs shall be as follows: 1. Maximum longitudinal slope for grassed linings shall be calculated to preclude erosion during a 2-year storm event. except for Chapter 11.
b. Selection of an appropriate material is based upon an analysis of the natural stream bed. Final inspection and 8 . and site plans shall indicate all lawns. wooded areas. The floor elevations of all habitable space shall be above run-off and flood levels equivalent to a 100-year return frequency after full development. buffers. d. Jute Mesh or other non-permanent material will not be acceptable for this use. Minimum grades at buildings and at openings into basements and crawlspaces shall be at elevations which prevent adverse effect by stormwater from flood levels equivalent to a 50-year return frequency after full development. Road. shall be designed in accordance with the appropriate minimum criteria established in this manual. All open channels. Should an on-site inspection reveal pockets of standing water. Crawl spaces shall not be subject to ponding water or to prolonged dampness. natural areas and paved parking areas shall drain. paved or grassed. Plans shall show slabs on grade and crawlspace grades equal to or higher than exterior lawns. Rip-Rap thickness of 18-inches. Rip-Rap shall be placed over a layer of filter fabric or bedding material. Residential lots exhibiting topography suggestive of yard drainage problems or which may cause flooding of adjacent properties shall be identified by the county engineer during the construction plan review process. yards. Maximum side slopes of 2:1. Rip-Rap Lined Channels shall meet the following criteria: a. For lots that require filling to meet floodplain requirements. and water supply wells shall be provided with protective slopes to divert surface water. drainage. fields. Lot grading plans shall be required in order to obtain building permits for construction on these lots. All walls. topographic plans shall provide for positive drainage of all lands within the boundaries of the project to a natural watercourse over public easements. common areas. A statement giving the minimum finished floor elevation shall accompany the grading plan. building foundations. Minimum depth 18-inches. E. Measures to allow for rapid and efficient dissipation of stormwater to detention facilities and to natural watercourses shall be provided on all plans for construction in Hanover County. the existing and proposed contours and an assumed building footprint shall be shown on the road and drainage plans.5. c. improvements or regrading to provide adequate drainage shall be required. LOT GRADING Lot grading for all projects shall be designed and executed to limit damage due to flooding. In all single and multi-family projects.
All unpaved areas shall slope continuously at the above gradient to lower elevations off the lot. When a permanent dam is proposed within any subdivision or site development. except as restricted by side lot lines or other major considerations. The horizontal length of such slopes may be reduced as necessary at building corners and side yards. Individual lot grading plans consistent with the approved overall plan shall be submitted and approved prior to site plan approval. the County regulates the design. Provide minimum fall of 6 inches away from structure in 10 feet. b. and maintenance of the dam for safety purposes and to prevent wash-outs that may cause downstream siltation or 9 . and longitudinal gradient to carry away the maximum predictable volume of storm water run-off as described in Section D. without regard to soil type or ground frost conditions. Provide at least 6 inches in 25 feet (2% gradient) in all other unpaved areas subject to ground frost. expansive soils or collapsible soils. F. 2. Individual lot grading plans for commercial and industrial property shall be evaluated with respect to their impact on adjacent properties in accordance with Section H. Commercial or industrial property shall require an approved overall stormwater management plan with dedicated drainage easements which shall be developed in accordance with Section H of this manual prior to recordation. PONDS AND LAKES Proposed Permanent Dams All dams modified or constructed in Hanover County or impacted by development within the County shall conform to the requirements of the Virginia Dam Safety Regulations published by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Historic Resources’ Division of Soil and Water Conservation. the 6-inch fall may not be reduced. width. construction. Gradient requirements of unpaved swales shall not be less those of other unpaved areas. or when an existing dam is affected by development.acceptance by the county engineer shall be required to obtain a certificate of occupancy for the finished structure. Drainage swales or valleys formed by intersecting slopes shall have adequate depth. All lot grading plans shall comply with the following minimum criteria: lot grading plans: 1. or at least 3 inches in 25 feet (1% gradient) in unpaved areas not subject to such conditions. or to a drainage structure on the lot. 1. a.
FLOODPLAINS For the purpose of this handbook the criteria concerning floodplains in Hanover County fall into two classifications: 3. 2. A maintenance agreement satisfactory to the County Engineer that requires the dam and lake to be maintained as designed shall be established by the developer to provide for maintenance of the dam and lake. Federally Designated Floodplains Determined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency under H. 10. the professional design engineer shall prepare a written document stating the dam has been constructed in accordance with project plans and specifications.flooding. All existing dams shall be investigated by registered professional engineers in accordance with the above criteria. c. Drainage and Erosion and Sediment control plans shall be required for all impoundments to be drained. Chapter 81-16. e. Hanover County approved construction.U. The impoundment shall be coordinated with the watershed master drainage plan. A copy of the Hanover County Floodplain Ordinance.D. Any such dams shall be designed or inspected by a registered professional engineer and shall meet the following criteria: a. and 100-year storms are not significantly altered by construction of the impoundment. The dam shall pass the 100-year storm without structural failure or overtopping.. is included in this handbook as Appendix B and governs all development adjacent to the watercourses mapped. d. 1. b. The dam shall be structurally able to withstand the intended depth of the impoundment. or routing computations shall indicate inflow and outflow hydrographs of the watershed for the 2. G. 2. Following completion. copies of the maps depicting these floodplains are furnished by the Federal Government and will be distributed free of charge by the Public Works Department as long as copies are available. Floodplains along watercourses which were not mapped by the Federal Floodplain Study 10 .
Also.These floodplains shall be determined by the developer for all projects adjacent to a watercourse unless. a. Approximate methods include any of the methods described in the Virginia Department of Transportation Manual. in the opinion of the County Engineer. the development is so high above the watercourse that all of the construction proposed is out of the floodplain. The floodplain shall be determined using methods developed by the Army Corps of Engineers utilizing their HEC-1 and HEC-2 computer programming. These floodplains shall be computed. Any method used must assume the contributing watershed will be developed in accordance with the Hanover County Comprehensive Plan. If the developer does not wish to wait until the Corps can complete it’s studies. For watercourses with drainage areas of less than one hundred acres. The methods of computation and the rules governing the development within floodplains are stated herein and are not necessarily the same as those for Federally designated floodplains. In either case. he may elect to have the work done by an appropriate registered professional who can demonstrate that he is experienced with this method of computation. Section 7 of the Hanover County Floodplain and Drainage Control Ordinance. it shall be the responsibility of the developer to provide all survey and engineering services in connection with the preparation of these computations. Stream cross sections within the floodplain shall be measured in the field. Computations and survey data shall be submitted to demonstrate that: 1) the 100-year flood level for the developed watershed will not increase on adjacent 11 . c. The hydrology should be done using the most appropriate method for the watershed. will not cause flooding shall be incorporated in the design. a determination of the flood level that will occur if debris that normally washes downstream during large storms blocks culverts. b. The computations must be completed by an appropriate registered professional. For watercourses with drainage areas in excess of 640 acres (one square mile). A secondary relief system which. Soil Conservation Service. The hydraulic and hydrologic methods used for computing floodplains need not be those of the Army Corp of Engineers.S. the U. For watercourses with drainage areas less than 640 acres but greater than 100 acres. The authority for this requirement is Chapter 12. If requested by the developer. the County shall in turn request that these studies be done by the Army Corps of Engineers. The head water (back up from the drainage structures) for the 100-year storm shall be determined. The computations must be based on field surveyed stream cross sections or on cross sections taken from topographic maps with contour intervals of 2’ or less. Such maps may be prepared using aerial photographic methods but may not be office interpolations of topographic maps with larger contour intervals. when fully developed. or the U. Army Corps of Engineers.S.
The exact elevation is to be determined from calculations of the 100-year flow through the culvert and the water flow over the road. and 2) proposed structures will be above the 100-year flood. The designer must assume some blockage. Any fills or grading necessary to accomplish this shall be shown on the road and drainage plans. In cases as shown in Figure G-1 where a permanent structure is proposed upstream of a proposed road fill. The existing upstream watershed shall be examined to evaluate the possibility of debris blocking culverts. or raise the proposed structure above the fill low point. 12 . the structure shall have a finished floor elevation 1’ or more above the low point of the road.properties up stream of the proposed fill.
this handbook will address items 1 and 2 only. A drop in groundwater levels Based on current knowledge of the extent to which these problems affect Hanover.e. The second stage of item 3 (grit and debris from urban areas) and items 4 and 5 are long term problems.30 shall be subject to the following stormwater management requirements: 1. 5. A downstream watercourse may be considered adequate at 13 . 3.H. Efforts to develop regional and local management methods to control stormwater pollution and groundwater recharge problems is continuing and measures will be adopted as they became practical. All development. 4. 2. Item 3 is a two-stage problem in which the first stage (erosion and resulting sedimentation that occurs while developments are under construction) is addressed by County and State Erosion and Sediment Control regulations. All such projects shall discharge runoff to watercourses that will not flood downstream existing residences or commercial buildings after ultimate development of the watershed during the 100-year storm and will not develop erosive flow velocities after development of the 2-year storm. the Chickahominy River) and need to be addressed by regional or state laws. pesticides. STORMWATER MANAGEMENT Stormwater Management refers to the attempt to mitigate detrimental effects on downstream areas that may occur following upstream development. Items 4 and 5 have their greatest effect on the larger watercourses and aquifers that are also impacted by other localities (i. In the meantime. which will result in a runoff coefficient (“c” in the rational method of determining peak discharge) greater than 0. Although not specifically addressed by the management solutions required for flooding and stream erosion. More frequent flooding Erosion of stream banks Sediment and debris build-ups Water pollution problems from nutrients. etc. metals. they will be mitigated to some extent by these solutions. specific local problems that can be foreseen will be addressed on a individual basis during the zoning and site plan processes. the technology available to solve those problems and the existing state and federal regulations. The most noticeable detrimental effects are: 1. Any existing buildings within floodplains established by FEMA will not be included in the above.
any point where the total contributing drainage given is at least 100 times greater than the drainage area of the development site. Basin outlet works shall not be accessible to persons. When the Board of Supervisors adopts any such project as a County Project. Developers who wish to proceed with a project discharging to a watercourse that does not meet these requirements and does not have an adopted master plan must provide the master plan and have it adopted or incorporate the following interim solution. must not be deeper than 4 feet during the 2-year storm. Easements for any such facilities shall be dedicated to the County. 14 . interim facilities must not increase the peak rate of runoff from the project area for the 100-Year and 2-Year storms and must not create erosive channel flow velocities. all entities which develop land in a watershed shall be required to pay their prorated cost share as explained in Section 12-10 of the County Code. 0. Any stormwater detention basins must be designed by an appropriate registered professional. 100-Year floodplains shall be shown on final plats. All such projects will have preliminary plans and cost estimates. Open basins within residential areas must have side slopes that do not exceed 3 horizontal to 1 vertical. Detention and retention basins must pass the 100-Year storm without structural failure. to develop watershed master plans and computer models to identify stormwater management projects for each watershed. Interim Solution: If the master drainage plan for the drainage basin has not been adopted by the Board of Supervisors. The use of stormwater detention or retention basins shall be limited to watersheds where master drainage plans or computer models have been prepared that will allow the Director of Public Works to assess the regional impact of any such basin.25% if paved. and must have a minimum grade to the basin outlet of 2%. Basins in subdivisions shall not flood any part of residential lots during the 2-Year storm. Retention basins (detention provided in ponds or lakes) shall meet these requirements whether intended as stormwater management structures or not. Some of the projects will likely be channel or culvert improvements or detention/ retention basins. 3. Any buildings subject to flooding with no development in the watershed will not be included in the above. if grassed or. as funds allow. The County will proceed. Any buildings constructed without site plan approval by the County will not be included in the above. 2.
Other information may be required by other departments or agencies.A maintenance plan and agreement satisfactory to the County engineer requiring the detention and retention facilities to be maintained as designed shall be submitted and recorded with construction plans. 15 . If an item on the checklist does not apply to the project the “NA” column should be checked. Meetings with developers. possible complications. their design professionals and the County are encouraged as early in the project as possible to discuss the status of the County’s planning. The Department of Public Works will maintain maps indicating which watersheds require stormwater management (based upon current editions of the Comprehensive Plan). and other factors. I. CHECKLISTS The checklist in Appendix C indicates the minimum information required on construction plans for review by the Public Works Department. One copy of the checklist must be enclosed with all construction plans submitted for review to the Public Works Department.
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