Mana Analyse the relationship between management structure and culture and its effect on business performance
There is a ton of information out there on organizational culture and about every detail of it you can imagine. The relationship between organizational culture and organizational structure is an important theme that is often overlooked. The two can be difficult to clearly distinguish from one another and even more so to clearly define within an institution. Organizational structure works within an organizational culture, but it is not completely separate. The two are very much intertwined. Organizational culture is more of a larger picture, a more general term that refers to a large umbrella of smaller topics and issues within an organization. The structure refers to the infrastructure, and the various methods and practices within that infrastructure, that helps an organizational culture run with the efficiency and consistency that should be the hallmark of any healthy organizational structure, whether it is in a corporation, sports team, or any other set up that is large enough to create its own organizational culture. This makes the structure an integral part of any organizational culture, but also narrows out a very specific segment of the culture as its own responsibility. Organizational structure will deal primarily with the set up of the culture. How management works, which specific responsibilities supervisors have, how a complaint is passed through the ranks-these are all issues within the organizational culture that are directly tied to how an organizational structure works. The structure is not limited to those three examples, but it would certainly include all of them. Another common way to describe how structure works is to say that organizational structure is the way in which the interrelated groups within and organization are set up to allow them to function smoothly from a larger standpoint. The two main purposes of a successful organizational structure is to ensure effective communication between various parts of the company, as well as to increase coordination between different departments. Some theorists have even broken down the concept of organizational structure into several categories to describe the phases which businesses go through as they grow in size and scope. The first is the pre-bureaucratic structure, which is mainly known for lacking a structure that standardizes tasks. This set up is great for small businesses, and ones that don't have many repeat scenarios, and therefore have to be adaptive. The next level is bureaucratic, which is where there is larger organization which requires a degree of standardization in paperwork, processes, etc. While bureaucracy has a negative connotation, it can be a good thing in small doses, especially in tackling issues that will become recurring themes in larger businesses. There is also the post bureaucratic, which has a more nebulous definition and is seen as more of a theoretical term, but might be referred to more recent, cultural based models of leading. As you can see, the relationship between organizational culture and organizational structure can be hard to tell apart, but in a fully healthy culture that is exactly what should be expected when all is functioning normally.
An unadaptive culture can significantly reduce a firm's effectiveness. Such cultures possess high employee involvement. Additionally. it is characterized by managers paying close attention to all of their constituencies. strong internal communications and an acceptance and encouragement of a healthy level of risk-taking in order to achieve innovation. efficiency and reduce employee turnover and other counterproductive behavior.
. According to Kotter and Heskett (1992). especially customers. initiating change when needed. An adaptive culture translates into organizational success.Characteristics of Healthy Organizational Cultures
Organizations should strive for what is considered a ³healthy´ organizational culture in order to increase productivity. and taking risks. including:
y y y y y y y y y
Acceptance and appreciation for diversity Regard for and fair treatment of each employee as well as respect for each employee¶s contribution to the company Employee pride and enthusiasm for the organization and the work performed Equal opportunity for each employee to realize their full potential within the company Strong communication with all employees regarding policies and company issues Strong company leaders with a strong sense of direction and purpose Ability to compete in industry innovation and customer service. disabling the firm from pursuing all its competitive/operational options. organizations with adaptive cultures perform much better than organizations with unadaptive cultures. performance oriented cultures have been shown to possess statistically better financial growth. and employee knowledge
Additionally. as well as price Lower than average turnover rates (perpetuated by a healthy culture) Investment in learning. training. A variety of characteristics describe a healthy culture. organizational cultures that explicitly emphasize factors related to the demands placed on them by industry technology and growth will be better performers in their industries. growth.
Stability. collectivism . The model is not intended to measure how
. and the accumulation of wealth and material possessions.The degree to which a society expects there to be differences in the levels of power. recent researches have shown that high individualism may not necessarily mean low collectivism. However.Innovation.
Two common models and their associated measurement tools have been developed by O¶Reilly et al and Denison. and refers to the extent to which people are expected to stand up for themselves. While there is no single ³type´ of organizational culture and organizational cultures vary widely from one organization to the next. Respect for People. and Aggressiveness. for example.individualism is contrasted with collectivism. Hofstede looked for national differences between over 100. Team Orientation. Individualism vs. A high score suggests that there is an expectation that some individuals wield larger amounts of power than others. femininity . Some people and cultures might have both high individualism and high collectivism. Hofstede identified four dimensions of culture in his study of national influences:
Power distance . assertiveness. O¶Rielly. Their Organizational Profile Model (OCP) is a self reporting tool which makes distinctions according seven categories . Research indicates that the two concepts are actually unrelated. Outcome Orientation. or alternatively act predominantly as a member of the group or organization.refers to the value placed on traditionally male or female values.000 of IBM's employees in different parts of the world. Attention to Detail.Typologies of organizational cultures
Several methods have been used to classify organizational culture. Some are described below: Hofstede (1980) demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behavior of organizations. commonalities do exist and some researchers have developed models to describe different organizational cultures. Chatman & Caldwell (1991) developed a model based on the belief that cultures can be distinguished by values that are reinforced within organizations. in an attempt to find aspects of culture that might influence business behavior. Male values for example include competitiveness. ambition. and vice versa. Uncertainty avoidance reflects the extent to which a society accepts uncertainty and risk. Someone who highly values duty to his or her group does not necessarily give a low priority to personal freedom and self-sufficiency Masculinity vs. A low score reflects the view that all people should have equal rights.
Formulate the factors which influence individual performances in the workplace
This is a review of the relation between the five-factor model of personality and performance in the workplace. In general. who are likely required to be extraverted in order to succeed at their job. this study does not lend much support for a general model or theory correlating the five-factor model with job performance. and agreeableness are positively correlated with job
. These two subsets of motivation lead to sales performance. & Piotrowski.
Job Satisfaction The five-factor model is correlated with overall level of job satisfaction experienced by employees. Each of these general dimensions is further described by the following three sub-dimensions:
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Mission -Strategic Direction and Intent.organizational culture effects organizational performance. Team Orientation and Capability Development Consistency -Core Values. Goals and Objectives and Vision Adaptability -Creating Change. job satisfaction. Involvement and Consistency. The model has been typically used to diagnose cultural problems in organizations. Research in this field has yielded correlations between the five-factor model and aspects of job performance such as motivation. Because extraversion is such an integral aspect of being a salesperson. 2002). This study is questionable in that it studied sales representatives. deviation. Stewart. satisfied employees are more likely to remain in a position and to avoid absences than are dissatisfied employees.
Initial research indicated that neuroticism is negatively correlated with job satisfaction. Daniel Denison¶s model (1990) asserts that organizational culture can be described by four general dimensions ± Mission. To say that extraverted sales representatives perform better is a bit redundant. Adaptability. Customer Focus and Organizational Learning Involvement .
Motivation in the Workplace
Studies of sales representatives have defined two aspects of motivation--status striving and accomplishment striving--and they are correlated with extraversion and conscientiousness.or internallyfocused as well as flexible versus stable. Coordination/Integration
Denison¶s model also allows cultures to be described broadly as externally. although the data imply that status striving leads to performance and accomplishment striving leads to performance only indirectly via a relation between accomplishment striving and status striving (Barrick. Agreement. extraversion. respectively.Empowerment. rather it measures associations between the personalities of individuals in the organization and the organization¶s culture. whereas conscientiousness. shy sales people do not go far.
has only been able to replicate correlations among the factors of neuroticism and extraversion. Introverts.
Absences Job absence is very much a part of job performance: employees are not performing effectively if they do not even come to work. Openness to experience has a negligible impact on job satisfaction. 2000). neuroticism is not highly correlated with absence (Judge. Martocchio. Stealing and withholding effort are categorized as organizational deviance. Another entirely different factor to consider is perception of the workplace. whereas hostile and rude behavior toward coworkers are categorized as interpersonal deviance. whereas those who are agreeable are less likely to be hostile to their coworkers. or agreeableness was low (Colbert. Mount. as opposed to extraverted employees who are low on conscientiousness. are more likely at their optimal level of arousal outside of the workplace. where there is less stimulation. Witt.
Performance in the Workplace
Of the five factors. hostile behavior towards coworkers. however. with extraversion being positively correlated with job satisfaction and neuroticism being negatively correlated.satisfaction. This finding may be due to the low level of arousability for extraverted individuals (Hebb's theory). This could be due to the social nature of the workplace (Judge. This implies that individuals who are emotionally stable and conscientious are less likely to withhold effort or steal.
Deviation in the Workplace Workplace deviance occurs when an employee voluntarily pursues a course of action that threatens the well-being of the individual or the organization. whereas at their home there is less stimulation. the single factor of conscientiousness is the most predictive of job performance (Hurtz & Donovan. and withholding effort. Heller. Employees who had a positive perception of their workplace were less likely to pursue deviant behavior. Research indicates that personality acts as a moderating factor: workplace deviance was more likely to be endorsed with respect to an individual when both the perception of the workplace was negative and emotional stability. Interpersonal deviance is negatively correlated with high levels of agreeableness. on the other hand. Introverted. Interestingly enough. 2002). &
. & Mount. Harter. and therefore are more likely dissatisfied with the level of stimulation that they experience while at work.
Workplace deviance is related to the five-factor model of personality. & Barrick. If the workplace is a social environment. Organizational deviance is negatively correlated with high levels of conscientiousness and positively correlated with high levels of neuroticism. then extraverted employees are more likely to be at a low level of arousal while at work. Additional research. Examples include stealing. 2004). conscientious employees are much less likely to be absent from work. conscientiousness.
This behavior might imply either that introverts are more conscientious or simply that introverts have no compelling reason not to go to work (whereas extraverts may have friends who urge them to skip work and go see a movie).
Perhaps another factor in absenteeism is that. 1997). it is easy to believe that employers will seek out that factor or the traits that coincide with it. the leaders make decisions and the followers abide by them.
Research into the relation between the five-factors model and personnel hiring provides additional evidence that conscientiousness is the most valid predictor of job performance (Schmidt & Ryan. Combining the results of these two studies suggests that conscientiousness is the deciding factor regarding job absence.
Teamwork Oftentimes in the workplace the ability to be a team player is valued and is critical to job performance. This evidence is consistent with the long-standing idea that in teams there are leaders and there are followers. The Judge et al. 1993). Although this fortifies the case that job performance is related to the five-factor model via increased cooperativeness among coworkers. however. Given that conscientious individuals have a tendency to perform better as employees. but extraversion is positively correlated with leadership abilities (Lim & Ployhart. Recent research has suggested that conscientiousness. because introverts might be tempted to skip work to avoid the extra stimulation and might perhaps stay home and read a book (a book on psychology. 2001). Contrary to what the researchers hypothesized. whereas those who blindly agree are left as followers.Thoresen. Although agreeableness is positively correlated with working with a team. because work gives them an opportunity to experience an optimal level of arousal. The results of the latter research suggests that extraverted individuals are more satisfied in the workplace. Judge and his colleagues will likely continue their research and perhaps provide answers in the future. especially for individuals who aspire to move up into the ranks of management.
Leadership abilities are often essential in the workplace. they go to work anyway. it lays siege to the role of personality by implying that actual job performance (task performance) is related to cognitive ability and not to personality (LePine & Dyne.
. no doubt). (1997) study is interesting considering the Judge et al. 2004). agreeableness is negatively correlated with leadership abilities as well. Studies of Asian military units have found that neuroticism is negatively correlated with leadership abilities. (2002) research on job satisfaction and the five-factor model. whereas introverted individuals are less satisfied in the workplace due to too much stimulation. it is negatively correlated with being a leader. Openness to experience is unrelated to leadership abilities. Those followers who do not always agree and are willing to voice their own opinions end up moving up the ranks. This conclusion is debateable. extraversion. although introverts may be less satisfied in the workplace. and agreeableness are all related to cooperative behavior but that they are not related to task performance.
If these employees lack the motivation to produce completed products to meet the demand. but mostly wrong for the reason that it does not satisfy others (to a lasting degree).
What is Motivation?
Motivation is the force that makes us do things: this is a result of our individual needs being satisfied (or met) so that we have inspiration to complete the task. behaviour and attitudes as you will find out from the following content. and it is therefore important they learn and understand the factors that determine positive motivation in the workplace. then you face a problem leading to disastrous consequences. it may further determine the effort we put into our work and therefore increase the standard of the output. The aim of this article is to help you (as a manager) to understand the importance and effects of motivation by identifying key factors that determine the rate of motivation in your employees.
. it is no match for the effectiveness and efficiency of your staff. everyone needs some form of motivation. When we suggest factors (or needs) that determine the motivation of employees in the workplace. This supports the statement that human motivation is a personal characteristic. The size of your business is irrelevant: whether you are trying to get the best out of fifty of your staff or just one. See it this way: your business relies heavily on the efficiency of your production staff to make sure that products are manufactured in numbers that meet demand for the week. almost everyone would immediately think of a high salary. it is the business owner who must initiate motivation as a strategy to attain corporate goals. Your employees are your greatest asset and no matter how efficient your technology and equipment may be. However.
The Importance of Motivation
Motivation can have an effect on the output of your business and concerns both quantity and quality. This answer is correct for the reason that some employees will be motivated by money. These needs vary from person to person as everybody has their individual needs to motivate themselves. Motivation is something that is approached differently by different businesses and the responsibility of its integration lies with all immediate supervisors of staff. These factors are linked directly to their individual needs. The number of scenarios is extreme but you get the general picture.1 Write about different motivational theories and their application and performancewithin the workplace
Many business managers today are not aware of the effects that motivation can (and does) have on their business. Depending on how motivated we are. and not a one fits all option.3 Understand the relationship between two motivational theories 3.
we will use Fredrick Herzberg¶s (1966) research to outline the main issues concerning motivation. if not satisfied.
Those factors that prevented job dissatisfaction
These were identified as factors that prevented job dissatisfaction. His research concluded that some factors fell into both categories although they held a stronger position in one of them. the way the business is run. As a result.Motivational Theory: Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory
Motivation has been studied for many years stretching beyond the 19th century. They are also referred to as µhygiene¶ factors. Herzberg believed that all factors fell into one of these categories and therefore had separate consequences. See the diagram below for examples of the factors that he determined for each category. it shows that a sense for achievement. Herzberg interviewed a number of people in different professions at different levels to find out two things:
Those factors that motivated them in the workplace
These were identified as factors that gave employees an incentive to work resulting in job satisfaction. At the bottom of the diagram.
By looking at the diagram. In 1966. Such hygiene factors. These did not make the employees happy (or have job satisfaction): it just removed the unhappiness out of working. They are also referred to as µmotivators¶. recognition of their effort. Without going into the fine details and depth of all the motivational theory. the nature of the work itself. These motivators increased the job satisfaction of the employee and further increased their efficiency. and the desire for responsibility are all strong factors for motivation. how they are
. a number of theorists have compiled their own conclusions and consequently a wide variety of motivational theory has been produced. had an effect of reduced employee efficiency.
supervised. say. it may be for your benefit that you offer an additional incentive to keep the employee further satisfied to prevent this on-going cycle from occurring. but in time (can be as low as days) the employee will increase their personal spending to what they are earning and will eventually. it is something that is only acquired for a short term and is therefore an ongoing need that is searched for over and over again. it is a huge motivational factor for them: hence the long extension of the bar more on the motivation side of the diagram. a good personal sales figure.
. but when people do seek responsibility. This is to illustrate that. are all factors that can lead to job dissatisfaction if not met to the standards of the employee. You will further notice that those factors encouraging motivation (job satisfaction) have little connection with money and are more associated with personal development and achievement. the work conditions and their pay. The size (or width) of the bars that represent each factor compensate for the level at which it is a concern. The Pay factor (salary) also has a similar concern: you may increase an employee¶s salary that removes job dissatisfaction at first. You may also have noticed that two bars on the diagram (achievement and pay) are shaped differently. You may look at µpay¶ and think that this bar should be a lot wider on the job dissatisfaction side. again. For example. In such a case. Take another example: the employee does not see the lack of personal responsibility as a major job dissatisfaction. In other words: one week you may achieve. for Achievement. Hygiene factors concern more the employees personal attitudes towards the context of their job and involve money in most cases to provide a solution to the issue. the way the business is run is a higher dissatisfaction cause (if it is run badly) then the concern of bad working conditions. become dissatisfied. and the following week your standard drops to a disappointing level in which you seek to achieve this figure yet again. from the diagram. but most people would not take the job in the first place if they considered the pay as µtotally unacceptable¶.
and personal accountability.1 Propose factors that may curtail the success of teamwork
4. This will require that each team member emotionally commits to actively and openly participate in the team¶s processes in the pursuit of the team¶s goals. their expectations of the team. 1. Supportive Sponsor Leadership teams are usually formed by a sponsor who recognizes that reaching an organizational goal will require a group of individuals working together to provide the leadership necessary to move a company. achievable. Without SMART goals. Engaged team members enthusiastically support each other and add value to other team members.
4. Mutual Trust The most important element of successful team work is the establishment of a platform of mutual trust that enables the leadership team to engage in ope n debate and decision making that leads to commitments to action by individual members of the team. The sponsor will also select the team leader and gain his or her commitment to lead the leadership team in defining and carrying out the needed actions. the sponsor establishes specific goals the leadership team is to accomplish. for leading the team through processes that insure the team¶s goals are reached. The team member must willingly commit to carry out action plans to complete individual actions necessary for the team to reach their team goals. realistic and time-bound goals should be established by the team¶s sponsor and then broken into sub -goals by the leadership team. <Click here> to learn about our Dynamic Teamwork Readiness Review Program that leadership team sponsors use to help prepare leaders of the teams they have formed focus on these critical success factors. Building this trust requires an openness that allows team members to know and understand the beliefs and behaviors of all members of the team so that team actions can be structured to take advantage of each member's uniqueness and talents. measurable. Smart Goals Specific. It is the sponsor¶s responsibility to create a µcharter¶ that establishes the leadership team and it¶s primary focus. 2. the team will lack the milestones necessary to drive action.4. They prepare for team processes and choose to engage others in a positive manner to find solutions to issues and challenges they individually or as a team
. The team leader must engage each team member in the processes of the team and build a platform of mutual trust that leads to open debate. 5. individual commitment. 4. This individual must be committed to the team¶s results and must be willing to be held ac countable by the team¶s sponsor and other stakeholders. collaboration. Engaged Leadership Team Members An effective leadership team will have team members who are actively engaged in the work and focus of the team. Committed Leadership Every leadership team needs a leader who focuses the members of the team on the mission. The team member must be dependable and carry the full weight of personal responsibility to complete their individual commitments by the date committed to. and the values the team embraces is essential to create the focus needed as the leadership team members plan and execute the actions necessary to achieve the team¶s goals. Behavioral and values assessments are powerful tools <Click here to learn more> in developing an understanding how each member of the leadership team views themselves and responds to others in the team. purpose.1 The Six Core Factors
There are six critical success factors that must be in place before any group begins to function as a leadershp team. 3. Focus on Stakeholder Outcomes A shared understanding of the leadership team¶s stakeholders. and goals of the team. division or unit towards the organization's goals.1 Understand teamwork and group dynamics. In addition. 6.
<Click here to learn how we help establish personal accountability > 10.
9. When a team has developed a plan of actions that are necessary to achieve their goals or overcome barriers. 7. Identifies and Removes Barriers Barriers to team and individual progress will occur in every leadership team effort and must be dealt with quickly to continue progress towards the team's goals. The leadership team's collaborative processes must include steps to: y y y y Define individual actions. Patrick Lencioni's book "Death by Meeting" <Click here to learn more> provides excellent guidance in planning and conducting team meetings.
The Four Factors of Execution
The following four critical success factors will insure the leadership team carries out the actions necessary to reach their designated goals. issues. as scheduled. Obtains Individual Commitments The work of a leadership team is carried out by individual members of the team. Establishes Discipline Of Personal Accountability Team goals will usually not be realized until individual commitments are completed. The team leader must continuously monitor the status of each individual's commitments and initiate barrier removal processes where appropriate.
. individual members must commit to carrying out specific actions which in many cases will include actions by the individual teams they in turn lead. Each leadership team member must continuously report the status of their open commitments to the team so that barriers to completion can be identified early in order to permit the leadership team leader and other team members the opportunity to deal with the issues before overall deadlines are impacted. Gain the commitments by individual team members to complete the actions. Our research indicates the most effective leadership teams include at least three but no more than six individuals who follow a meeting methodology that is focused on dealing with issues requiring the leadership team's attention and maximizes the power of the collective knowledge and skills of the team members. and problems. Team leaders must carefully manage the processes of team meetings in order to maximize the power of the collective knowledge and skills of the team members. and Establish status reporting processes. Document due dates. Collaborates To Set Direction And Solve Problems The power of teamwork dynamics is engaged when the leadership team members come together to focus collectively on goals. Team-based processes for developing action plans to overcome barriers impacting individual commitments should be instilled as a part of the team's culture. challenges.face. They constantly seek to improve themselves for the benefit of the team and never. 8. the commitments each person has made to the team. never quit. They must agree to hold each other personally accountable for completing. Leadership team members must embrace a discipline to complete their commitments as scheduled. never.