MAE 241 - Statics Summer 2011

Dr. Konstantinos A. Sierros Office Hours: M and W 10:30 ± 11:30 (263 ESB new add) kostas.sierros@mail.wvu.edu Teaching Blog: http://wvumechanicsonline.blogspot.com

Chapter 2:Force vectors

Objectives ‡ To show how to add forces and resolve them into components using the Parallelogram Law ‡ Cartesian vectors ‡ Introduce dot product

2.7 Position vectors

xyz coordinates ‡ Positive z axis is directed upward ‡ x, y axes lie in the horizontal plane Locate A(4m,2m,-6m)

2.7 Position vectors
A position vector r is defined as a fixed vector which locates a point in space relative to another point (i.e from point O to P) ‡ Starting at origin O, one µtravels¶ x in the +i direction, then y in the +j direction and z in the +k direction, we arrive at point P r = xi+yj+zk

2.7 Position vectors
‡ In a more general case, the position vector r may be directed from point A to point B in space r=(xB-xA)i+(yB-yA)j+(zB-zA)k ‡ The i,j,k components of r are formed by subtracting the coordinates of the tail A from the coordinates of the head B

2.8 Force vector directed along a line
‡Often, in 3D problems the direction of a force is specified by two points through which its line of action passes ‡ F is directed along AB ‡ F (as a Cartesian vector) has the same direction and sense as the position vector r ‡ The common direction is specified by the unit vector u = r/r F=Fu=F(r/r)

2.9 Dot product
‡ The dot product, which is a method for µmultiplying¶ two vectors is used in order to solve 3D statics problems. 2D problems can be solved using geometry and trigonometry A‡B = AB cos Dot product

Laws of operation Cumulative law: A‡B = B ‡A Multiplication by a scalar: (A‡B)=( A) ‡ B = A ‡ ( B) Distributive law: A‡ (B+D) = (A‡B) + (A‡D)

2.9 Dot product
‡ To determine the dot product of two Cartesian vectors, multiply their corresponding x,y, z components and sum these products algebraically A‡B = AxBx + AyBy + AzBz

Applications of dot product in mechanics 1. The angle formed between two vectors or intersecting lines 2. The components of a vector parallel and perpendicular to a line

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