Training as a tool for increasing manpower productivity

Adhir Singhal Dy General Manager, ALTTC, BSNL


‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Importance of Training Who Will Do the Training How Employees Learn Best Developing a Job Training Program ‡ Retraining ‡ Overcoming Obstacles to Learning



AND OF COURSE A PICTURE« The training these days is just so high tech but still inefficient! 4 .

involve me and I learn´ .DELIVERING CUSTOMISED TRAINING SUCCESSFULLY ³Tell me and I forget.Benjamin Franklin 5 . teach me and I remember.

unions to respond to the challenges of workplace skills development. economic growth and competitive advantage. .  Recognizing the importance of human capital. adaptable. efficient labour market A responsive strategy to meet employers needs for skilled workers A learned employee can retain customers and increase business & market share thro¶ proper behavior and good public relations 6 As a demand-driven approach to human resource and skills development. motivated and resilient workforce A flexible. the Training will build and strengthen relationships with and among workplace partners and better engage employers.The Workplace Skills Strategy  Human capital is increasingly regarded as one of the major drivers of productivity. the training manpower sets out to generate: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ A skilled.

An organization is only as good as it¶s employees. 7 . ‡ In order for an organization to produce professional career minded employees an investment has to be made.

What type of investment must an employer offer employees to gain this? ‡ An investment in training and education is a sure payoff. 8 .

Trends in Proportions Viewing Skill Shortages as a µSerious Problem¶ 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 48% 55% 57% 60% 55% 58% 59% 61 % 1996 31 % 30% 20% 10% 0% Private Managers Public Managers Private Labour Public Labour 2002 c 20% 2005 1 6% 9 .

Importance of Training Managers: Importance to overall business strategy Labour leaders: Importance to collective bargaining issues 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% not/sli tl i ortant i ortant very i ortant crucial 5% 9% 22% 29% 30% 25% anagers labour 44% 37% 10 .

Examples of Training Investments Industry and government in the United States spend approximately $90 billion each year on employee training and education. Over next 7 years. Average Japanese companies spends about 6% of budget on training.00 in return. profits increased 47% and it was estimated that each $1.00 in training yielded $30. S automakers spend about 40 hours training new employees compared to 300 hours for Japanese automakers. Motorola¶s CEO required all divisions to spend at least 2% of budget on training. Study of major automobile manufactures found U. 11 .


Case Study in Training to Support Industry Standards The British Health Service Project 13 .

3 million employees needed basic IT skills training Main objectives: ‡ Address productivity issues ‡ Prevent resistance to change by preparing for it ‡ Effect a change of behaviour and change of attitude 14 .The British National Health Service ‡ 1.

Factors to consider ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Training to benefit organisation Training to benefit employees Training to benefit the industry Provide a good return on investment? 15 .

Results .Independent Survey ‡ 99% rated training experience as µvery¶ or µquite¶ worthwhile. ‡ 83% wanted to progress to further training ‡ 94% ³much more´ or ³more´ confident in use of ICT ‡ Positive attitude to new systems up from 30% to 74% ‡ Negative attitude to new systems down from 30% to 3% 16 .

Return on Investment Hours spent learning less than hours saved by use of new skills H our 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 M i l lli N r S rt Pri r Ho u r L Ho u r S r i r i & H our v ( r r) 17 .

18 .Investment ‡ To invest properly. the employer must provide training as one of the needed tools for employees to get the job done.

Why Training? ‡ The sharing of information through training is our most valuable tool to develop our most valuable asset«our employees. 19 .

with enthusiasm and the positive attitude to give a full days work for a full days pay. 20 .Once employees have proper ³tools´ in their toolbox ‡ They will come to work on a daily basis.


3. . 22 . upport career development. 5. Adapt to increased diversity of the workforce. Respond to technology changes affecting job requirements. . Fulfill employee need for growth.Importance of Training ± contd« 1. Respond to organizational restructuring.

Importance of Training and Development ‡ Maintain skill levels ‡ Advance skill and knowledge to improve ± Performance (efficiency) ± Service delivery (error rate) ± Profitability (productivity. manpower) ‡ Integrate new technologies into work ‡ Establish standards for work practices 23 .

engaged in best practice routines ‡ Personal satisfaction ± felt valued ‡ Recognised qualification to add to CV 24 .Benefits of Training Individuals ‡ Do job more efficiently ± learn new methods ‡ Professional approach to work.

The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ‡ What Does Employee Training Do For Your Business? ± Keeps Good Employees ± Expands Your Offerings = Business ± Provides Better Customer Service ± Makes you MONEY!! 25 .

They quit bosses!´ 26 .The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ‡ Keeps Good Employees ± No training program says to your employees: ‡ you¶re not worth it ‡ you can¶t be trained ± Training programs say: ‡ We value you enough to put some time (money!) into making you better! ‡ We value your thinking ³Employees don¶t quit companies.

The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ³We¶re in this thing together´ 27 .

The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ‡ Expands your offerings . thinking employees can provide a fresh outlook = ‡ new business opportunities ‡ better ways of doing things 28 .your business: ± training = thinking ± training exposes employees to: ‡ ³how we do it´ = in-house training ‡ ³how others do it´ = outside training ± Well trained.

The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ‡ Customer Service: Is it Selling or Marketing?? Selling: providing a product to customers for money Marketing: convincing customers they need the product + = 29 .

The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ‡ Better Customer Service: ± Direct Customer interaction changes as a business grows ± With a small business. the chance of interacting may be 100% customer owner 30 .

The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ‡ What are your employees saying to the customers? I require«!! We don¶t know We can¶t help you We don¶t sell anything like that customer 31 .

The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ‡ Good Employees ‡ Expanded Business ‡ Better Customer Service ‡ Makes you MONEY!! 32 .

boost morale and job satisfaction. less absenteeism. 33 . reduced tension. less turnover.The Benefits of Training ‡ Gives the supervisor more time to manage. lower costs. more customers. ‡ Gives the business a good image and more profit. standardized performance. reduces tension. consistency. gives them a chance to advance. reduces injuries and accidents. better service ‡ Gives the workers confidence to do their jobs.

reactive employees 34 .Benefits of Training-a summary ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Improved customer service and public relations Fewer complaints Better morale and attitudes Less turnover and absenteeism More involved and caring employees Proactive vs.


Then why is training often neglected? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Urgency of need Training time Costs Employee turnover Short-term worker Diversity of worker Kinds of jobs (simple-complex) Not knowing exactly what you want your people to do and how 36 .

I have no time´ ‡ ³I suppose that¶s my weekends shot for months!´ ‡ ³Are they trying to get rid of me?´ Employer: ‡ How can I be sure the organisation will benefit? ‡ Training is so expensive ± how will I know if it has been effective? ‡ Will this effect the goal of developing and implementing standards and protocols for the organisation? ‡ ³If I train them.Attitudes to training Individual: ‡ How is that related to what I do? ‡ ³I¶m good at my job and anyway. they¶ll 37 leave´ .

‡ Yet they are the ones who hold the most ³thankless´ job. Their role and their understanding of their role is the vital key towards their development and their ability to provide excellent customer service. 38 .Our front-line employees are often ³good´ will ambassadors.

Retraining. crisis. and Orientation. ‡ When good training is absent there is likely to be an atmosphere of tension. 39 . and conflict because nobody knows what to do.Importance of Training Teaching people How to do Their Jobs: ‡ There are three kinds of training: Job Instruction. ‡ The big sister/ big brother system is when a old hand dominates a newcomer.

Training Process Model II. Developing & Conducting Training I. Needs Assessment III. Evaluating Training 40 .

I. Needs Assessment 1. Organizational Level 2. Job Level 3. Individual Level

1. Organizational Level
‡ Technology change. ‡ Organizational restructuring. ‡ Change in workforce. ‡ Marketing Plans. ‡ Productivity measures

2. Job Level
‡ Job and task analysis. ‡ Identify Key areas. ‡ Review procedural and technical manuals.
Design Training Program

‡ Prior training and experience.3. 44 . ‡ Tests. ‡ Performance review. ‡ Career assessment. Individual Level Determine who needs training and what kind.

o Onsite facilities vs. outside vendors. 45 . o Consider appropriateness and cost. o Considering learning principles. Determine location and who will conduct the training. 3. Developing and Conducting Training 1. Based on job/task analysis and individual needs. offsite. o Inside training staff vs. elect training methods. . Develop training curricula.II.

Having the employee do it (right).Developing a Unit Training Program ‡ This is taught in several sessions. 2. ‡ Training materials should be the same as used on the job. Showing and telling the employee what to do. ‡ It should provide check points to measure progress. ‡ Location should be ambient. 46 . ‡ Should include two elements: 1.

Who will do the Training? ‡ The magic apron method: people train themselves the easiest ways to get the job done. ‡ The logical person to train new workers is The employer! 47 . ‡ Big sister. big brother method: passes on bad habits and may resent new person as a competitor. ‡ The person that is leaving trains: teaches shortcuts and ways of breaking the rules.

knowledge. or attitudes. ‡ The adult learning theory is a field of research that examines how adults learn. A number of the following tips come from the adult leaning theory. 48 .How do Employees Learn the Best? ‡ Learning is the acquisition of skills.

‡ Training is relevant and practical. ‡ Training is in an informal. 49 . ‡ When they receive feedback on performance. ‡ Training material is organized and presented in chunks.How employees learn the best: ‡ When they are actively involved in the learning process-(to do this choose a appropriate teaching method). and comfortable setting. quiet. ‡ When they are rewarded. ‡ When they have a good trainer.

involve me and I learn´ .Benjamin Franklin 50 . teach me and I remember.How do Employees Learn the Best? ³Tell me and I forget.

³phone a friend´ ‡ Formal ± ³attendance´ or ³completion´ ‡ Formal ± certified.Kinds of training ‡ Informal ± on the job. vindicated ± Evidence of Return on Investment ± Must be planned ± Allows for customisation. relates to workplace standards 51 .

Demonstrate the task 3.Job Instruction Training (JIT) ‡ Also called on the job training. 52 . Have the worker do the task 4. correcting and supporting as nessicary. ‡ Consists of 4 steps: 1. Follow through: put the worker on the job. Prepare the learner 2.

‡ Avoid time wasters. ‡ Handle problem behaviors in an effective manner. ‡ Watch how you talk to employees. ‡ Use visual aids to avoid constantly referring to notes. ‡ Facilitate employee participation and discussion.Classroom Training Skills ‡ Be aware of appropriate body language and speech. 53 . Covey respect and appreciation.

The you won¶t make as many at work in the li e en ironment! 54 . MAKE MISTAKES  Training is a great place to make mistakes.DELIVERING CUSTOMISED TRAINING SUCCESSFULLY MAKE IT FUN ± RULES FOR LEARNING: 1. ASK QUESTIONS  The only dumb questions are the ones you don¶t ask! 2.

DELIVERING CUSTOMISED TRAINING SUCCESSFULLY MAKE IT FUN ± RULES FOR LEARNING 3. CHEAT  Watch how other people do things or yell for help Continued« 55 . HAVE FUN  This rule is ery important 4.

Team Training. 8. 6. Types Training 1. Literacy Training. 4. Diversity Training.Types ofof Training 3. 3. 5. 2. 56 . Creativity Training. Retraining. Skills Training. Customer Service. 7. CrossFunctional.

SKILLS TRAINING Focus on job knowledge and skill for: ‡ Instructing new hires. 57 . ‡ Overcoming performance deficits of the workforce.1.

Retraining Maintaining worker knowledge and skill as job requirements change due to: ‡ Technological innovation ‡ Organizational restructuring 58 .2.

Cross-Functional Training Training employees to perform a wider variety of tasks in order to gain: ‡ Flexibility in work scheduling.3. 59 . ‡ Improved coordination.

‡ Cross-functional skills. ‡ Coordination skills.4. 60 . Team Training Training self-directed teams with regard to: ‡ Management skills.

61 . Creativity Training Using innovative learning techniques to enhance employee ability to spawn new ideas and new approaches.5.

6. responsibility. writing.etc. and effective employee behaviors such as punctuality. cooperation. 62 . Literacy Training Improving basic skills of the workforce such as mathematics. reading.

respect. and different backgrounds. tolerance. gender.7. 63 . and acceptance of persons of different race. etc. Diversity Training Instituting a variety of programs to instill awareness.

Customer Service Training Training to improve communication. and ways to enhance customer satisfaction. better response to customer needs.8. 64 .

Training Methods Classroom Video Computer Assisted Instruction Simulation On-the-Job 65 .

‡ Limited practice. Classroom Instruction PROS CONS ‡ Efficient dissemination of large volume of information. 66 .1. ‡ Learner does not control pace or content ‡ Does not consider individual differences. and principles. theories. ‡ Provides opportunity for discussion. ‡ Effective in explaining concepts. ‡ Limited transfer to job. ‡ Limited feedback.

‡ Limited feedback.2. ‡ Allows scheduling flexibility. ‡ Limited practice. ‡ Allows exposure to hazardous events. Video and Film PROS ‡ Provides realism. CONS ‡ Does not consider individual differences. ‡ Adds interest. ‡ Allows distribution to multiple sites. due to: * Script writers * Production specialists * Camera crews 67 . ‡ Adds additional cost.

(Good for computer work. ‡ Transfer depends on particular job. ‡ Considers individual differences.) 68 . ‡ Provides immediate feedback to tasks.) ‡ High development cost (40-60 hours per hour of instruction at approx Rs.000 per hour. ‡ Limited in presenting theories and principles. ‡ Allows scheduling flexibility. Computer Assisted Instruction PROS CONS ‡ Efficient instruction. ‡ Allows learner control. ‡ Allows active practice for some tasks.3. 10. ‡ Limited discussion.

Provides immediate ‡ Can be very expensive (for feedback. example.5. reality´ simulators). ‡ Limited number of trainees. Lowers trainee stress. ³aircraft Allows exposure to simulators´ and ³virtual hazardous events. High transfer to job. No job interference. Simulation ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ PROS CONS Provides realism. 69 . ‡ Cannot cover all job aspects. Allows active practice.

Lack of systematic feedback. Inconsistent across departments. Transfer of improper procedures.6. ‡ Lowers training cost. ‡ Allows active practice. ‡ High transfer to job. 70 . Inadequate focus on underlying principles. ‡ High motivation. Trainee stress. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ CONS Disruptions to operations. ‡ Provides immediate feedback. On-The-Job Training PROS ‡ Provides realism. May damage equipment.

indifference. build in incentives and rewards. ‡ Limited abilities: adjust teaching to learners level. make the program form a series of small successes. resistance: May mean a problem worker. 71 .Overcoming Obstacles to Learning ‡ Reduce fear with a positive approach (convey confidence in the worker). ‡ Laziness. ‡ Increase motivation: emphasize whatever is of value to the learner.

keep it simple. involve all the senses. 72 . etc. helpful. ‡ Poor training program: revise to include objectives. ‡ Poor instructor: The trainer needs to know the job. sensitive. be a good communicator + leader. patient.Overcoming Obstacles to Learning ‡ Teaching not adapted to learners: Deal with people as they are (teach people not tasks).

III. Behavior 4. ‡ Summative evaluation: measures results when training is complete in five ways: 1. Evaluating Training Effectiveness ‡ Formal evaluation: uses observation. and surveys to monitor training while its going on. Reaction 2. interviews. Knowledge 3.Productivity 73 . Attitudes 5.

Measure Train Measure Pre-test with Post-test. Detects a change. Cannot tell if there is a change in knowledge or skill. 74 . but cannot tell if training was responsible.Types of Evaluation Designs Train Measure Post Test Only.

it can be attributed to a training effect.Types of Evaluation Designs Measure Measure Train No Train Measure Measure Scientific Method: Training Group and Control Group. If Training Group has higher performance. 75 . Compare performance of Training Group and Control Group after training.

76 . ‡ Follow-up instruction and support. practice. Transfer Transfer refers to the trainee¶s application of knowledge and skills gained in training on the job. and feedback principles. It is affected by: ‡ Relevance and effectiveness of the training ± readiness. ‡ Reinforcement to use new knowledge and skills.IV.

77 .

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