European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.21 No.4 (2008), pp.693-699 © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc.


Children Attitude Towards TV Advertisements in Pakistan
Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir Business Department, International Islamic University Islamabad Pakistan E-mail: Shabana Kirmani International Islamic University Islamabad Pakistan Hafiz Faiz-Ul-Hassan Quaid-I-Azam University, Pakistan Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore Pakistani children’s attitude toward TV advertisement, their awareness about add and influence of add on their purchase behaviour. In Pakistan, most advertising agencies now target children through advertisement especially when advertising consumer products like children’s toys, chocolates, candy bars, tooth paste etc. Study shows that Pakistani children are very much aware about TV commercial’s features like: truthfulness, annoyingness, taste and influencing characteristics of the ad. Their behaviour Is also different about advertised and non-advertised brands. Keywords: Children attitude, Advertising, Consumer Product.

1. Introduction
‘Advertising, in all its forms, plays an important role in informing people’s choices of products and services. We welcome the industry’s efforts, channeled through Media Smart to help children understand and interpret advertising.’(Sachiko, 2004) Children are a key target for advertisers, as brand preferences often remain unchanged throughout life. Increasingly considered as potential consumers, children have ever-larger allowances and have a significant influence on their parents’ spending habits. French advertisers have spent as much as 150 million a year on advertising to children under the age of 12 and this figure is rising, particularly for food advertising. Children’s segment is now being target by many consumers’ product companies, because children are important potential customers as they not only decide about their own buying as they can influence the buying decisions of their parents. A greater percentage of parent’s income is spent on purchase of products only because of children’s influence. In Pakistan, advertising agencies understand the role of children in buying process of parents and their own. Most advertising agencies now target children through advertisement. If consumer products especially when advertising children’s toys, chocolates, candy bars like milk (Nestle, Haleeb), tooth paste (Colgate, Aqua Fresh)

which leads to less awareness about the products. When are kids watching? 694 To a large extent. while children who have positive attitudes toward advertisement. not better feeling about ad. 1. children do not access the written information available through print advertising. whether advertising claims are truthful. Objectives The objectives of this study are as follows:  To study children’s attention towards television commercials  To compare children’s response to different types of television commercials. in reality there seems to be very little ‘policing ’. their behavior remain consistent with their attitudes and they tend to make purchasing of that particular product whose advertisement they have seen. 3. The interaction of Advertising and consumption beyond advertisements. children gain marketplace information from the products they encounter. Television at its ‘worst ’can expose young children to sex. For example. Literature Review Attractive Advertisement makes a deep influence on children’s attitudes and behavior.  Early evening weekdays. kids are watching when they want. a primary consideration in adult decisions. Older children’s negative attitudes is not seen in their purchase behavior. which especially leads to purchase behavior as well as purchase request. Most kids said that they are allowed to watch whatever they want and this seems to be the case up until the watershed. Most kids talked about watching TV: In the morning before school. Through consumption. With Internet access. it can promote gender stereotypes and communicate commercial messages that can be interpreted as challenging parental authority. Children can be categorized into positive and negative attitudes. violence and bad language. children may come into contact with racial hatred.  During dinner.1. they usually pay less attention to the ad. advice from friends and relatives.Children Attitude Towards TV Advertisements in Pakistan 1.  Early and late evening weekends. Although some parents try to control the amount of TV their kids watch. and heir own consumption experiences.  To compare children’s response to their favorite commercials and their most disliked commercials. packaging. 2. Children often lack information about price. 1990).  While doing their homework. children who have negative attitude toward advertisement they do not take any step to purchase that particular advertised product.  Weekend morning. sales deteriorates. Vice versa. what brands they prefer. (Evra. therefore due to their negative attitudes towards the product. . As soon as they get home from school. until they are functionally literate. and labels. pornography and the risks of unsupervised and anonymous communication with strangers through the use of chat rooms. Benefits of Children’s Exposure to the Media Children’s exposure to media and advertising has raised a number of legitimate societal concerns.  To compare children’s perception of advertised and non-advertised brands.2. children learn what products are good and bad.

All the questionnaires distributed were collected with 98. Children also keep the realities and belief about the products and show their priorities accordingly. (Wartella et al. It is also examined that older children are less doubtful to make choices.695 Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir. Children who are 11 or older see the advertisement in order to form an attitude toward the advertised product. how that particular brand can be used. which is considered important for forming consistent attitude.. 1977). (Peter & Olson. Reiken and Yavas(1990) states that children do not believe many ads claims and they do not always keep positive attitude towards these ads . 4. They always keep a room about the credibility of advertised products. 2002) As the change in media taking palace.(Mcneal & Ji. From the experimental study of Wartella and Ettema (1974) and in-home observation Ward and Wackman (1973) it has been found that younger the child. For example. Research Methodology 4. 1977) study. they remain skeptic about the truthfulness of these ads. 2002). 1994) Children use the ad for the sake of getting acquaintance with the new brands and products.1979) Another Study by Austen.they are aware . meaningful ads and ads based on public service announcements. Therefore rather than comparing alternatives and choosing from its. (National Twine Study. more then half of the twins interviewed indicated they want to get message about product through various mediums such as television. . They also have strength to make comparison with various alternatives. Ruble. children are also expecting the marketing communication should also change. The questionnaire was also translated into the Urdu language (domestic language) to bring out better understanding from the children. magazines and online and it also helps them to memorize the product in more better and effective way. ( is to deal with ads clutter. A total of 150 Pakistani children aged 10–15 years were selected on the basis of (Kobasigawa. Sampling Procedure This survey involved 5 Pakistani high schools from different vicinities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.. Younger children are more confident about the advertised product as compared to the older children. (Chan & McNeal. young children usually prefer to make attitude toward the advertised product and make decision about purchase based on this. Wartella et al. Young children are more inclined towards funny and song –oriented ads. which are not matched with their attitudes.(Kobasigawa 1977. 1999). 1979) In 1999. more the impact of perceptual characteristic of add on the child and able to grab his attention in the effective way. Children give their views on family purchases and parents encourage them to participate and give ideas about purchase.5% response rate. and while older children like and pay attention on funny. It plays an important role in the development of young people’s consumer behavior. Older children are most influenced by the content of the advertisement rather then perception. Children age 10 or younger feel difficulty to recall previous stored information and in making comparative decision (Kobasigawa. These realities and belief further help them to make purchase or they ask from their parents what is to purchase. The Convenience sampling method was used according to the convenience of getting data from the schools of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Older children do not rely on the quality of the advertised product. 2002). So the marketers are very much conscious about this tendency and measuring its impact on their business and making compatible strategies for this new factor. The capital. and Trabasso (1977)describes younger children are more tend to form an attitude toward the advertised product because message being diffused is not complex in nature and decision follows the exposure to the message in ad. Shabana Kirmani and Hafiz Faiz-Ul-Hassan Television Advertisement is the important tool of diffusing the communication. John Power conducted the survey for Nickelodeon and found that almost 70% of children are involved in the automobile shopping process and 75% influence the actual automobile purchase decision.

The first is related to the cost involved in undertaking the research and the time constraint. and objectivity in describing advertised products. The selected scale focuses on the range of cognitive and affective reactions towards television advertising in terms of watching of TV. 5. Designing the Questionnaires Every question was given five answers strongly disagree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree. Two new questions were included.3.Questions scale was used to measure the degree of awareness of Children’s Awareness of TV Commercials. 2. 5. Currently researchers tried to find out that Pakistani children have considerable know how of TV advertisements or not. potential annoying qualities. The study focuses exclusively on high school children in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Hence the study represents only part of Pakistan population. 6. Annoy: Most TV commercials are in poor taste and very annoying Good only: Television commercials tell only the good things about a product. Second. and perceived persuasive power. Seven questions were formed and adapted from (Rossiter. and trustworthiness as guidance to product purchases and wants to buy the product after watching TV commercials. Measuring Children’s Awareness of TV Commercials 9. believability of characters. overall liking. 3. A study conducted by Noor and Osman (2004) about the children’s awareness of the TV advertising. Children were given self assistance in filling the questionnaire. Preparation for measurement 696 Nine items were used to measure children’s television advertising responses. Entire study was selfadministered. We had very limited span of time to conduct a vast research. Limitations of the Study The limitations of this study can be summarized under two main headings. and factor-analyzed to determine single dimensions of children’s advertising responses were realized: children’s awareness of TV advertising. Watch: Do you watch TV? Truth: Television commercials tell the truth. 4. Believe: You can always believe what the people in commercials say or do.2. Want: After watching TV commercial I want to buy the product advertised. 9. was used. A 5-point Likert scale (Likert. 8. 7. Table 1: 1. Best: The products advertised the most on TV are always the best products to buy. strongly agree to strongly disagree.Children Attitude Towards TV Advertisements in Pakistan 4. . 4. 4. although a convenience sample method was used since then researcher was allowed to involve few classes from each school or academy and no probability was assigned to any class or student for being selected in the sample it was based on only researcher’s choice. perceived truthfulness of commercials. 1932). 1977) scale. Like: I like most television commercials Persuasive: Television commercials try to make people buy things they don’t really need.4.

0000 0.0000 . believe). it means that these items are negatively correlated with each other. As it is a fact that TV advertisement’s purpose is to increase the sale of the product advertised. Mean value for believability and always advertised products are best are respectively 3.6703 1.6567 Standardized item alpha = 0.0780 0.3330 0. Shabana Kirmani and Hafiz Faiz-Ul-Hassan Frequency N 86 69 155 Percent % 55. 1977).0368 0.3592 0. According to Guilford (1973) guidelines. want) are not significant i.1049 0.29 are showing the same. On the other hand (annoy.1722 0.521 1.0759 0. for a wellconstructed test.10 to 0.31. that’s why it tells only good aspects of the product.0000 0.10 and 0. About the likeliness of TV advertisements in Pakistan. (annoy.006 WANT 0.0000 GOOD ONLY 0. persuadable). best). annoy).697 Table 2: Description Gender Male Female Total Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir.1515 PERSUADABLE -0.2616 1.60 although it is not negative. TV Advertisings do create purchase desire as indicated by mean value which is 2. Similarly Mean results 2.04 shows that they are neither agree nor disagree with the said statement.0742 N of Cases= 148. Pakistani children are aware of this fact and Mean results 2.24 which shows children are neither agree nor disagree with said statements. This means that children understand the language of advertisement.0902 1. Research Results The sample characteristics for the 155 respondents are summarized in table-2.2951 1.0.0040 0.0000 0.056 BELIEVE 0.0 Reliability coefficient 8 items Alpha= 0.1956 0. most of the children dislike ads. And response about the claim that TV adds influence people to buy the product they don’t need. Mean 3.0953 BEST 0.2190 0. like).57. (annoy. The present findings shows that Rossiter’s (1977) scale can be applied usually among the Pakistani children while measuring their understanding of TV commercials as inter-item correlation among (truth. (annoy.48 44.1354 1.1775 0. Results and findings are summarized in Table-3. also don’t have significant inter-Correlation they are not in the range of 0.Scale (Inter-item Correlation Matrix) Truth Annoy Good Only Like Persuasive Believe Best Purchase Desire TRUTH 1. (good-only.0044 -.0000 ANNOY -0.4084 0.1054 .0000 LIKE 0.0000 0. best). (good-only. (truth.e. all inter-correlations are negative. persuadable). want). Table 3: Reliability Analysis .1335 0.60 (Rossiter.1501 0.24 and 3.0968 -0. Table 4 shows that children know that all TV adds do not tell the truth as greater percentage of respondent children were disagreeing to the claim that TV add tells the truth indicated by the Mean value of 3. Reliability analysis was used that is inter-item correlation among the items listed in the Table-1. item inter-correlations should be between 0.85 shows in table that children feel the annoying qualities of advertisements and are agreeing that most TV commercials are of poor taste and very annoying. Remaining items have significant inter-correlation. (good-only.52 100 6.2810 1.

TV advertisements influence children’s behavior about brand advertised.85 1. Lastly advertisers can not rely only on comic and colors in children related advertisements. Children also know the degree of truthfulness in add.Children Attitude Towards TV Advertisements in Pakistan Table 4: Watch N Valid Missing Mean St. . As children’s behavior change it also changes their buying pattern and this is the purpose behind the advertisements. So for the advertisers it’s very important to realize that children are not ignorant from the content of their campaigns.57 1. It is also clear that advertisement can be a good effective media to convey the required message in child segments if they are created professionally. eviation 698 Results Truth 155 0 1.26 Persuasive 155 0 3. As children are very much aware of TV advertisements and they know good and bad aspects of them.40 Like 153 2 2.13 Good Only 153 2 2. they do need to focus on the content of the advertisements.31 1.23 7. they must avoid over promising in their advertisement campaigns. Conclusion Data shows that Children are very much aware of TV advertisements in Pakistan and advertising has a impact on their purchase behaviors.24 1.37 Believe 154 1 3.04 1. and while developing their campaigns they must address the issues with a professional approach.25 Desire 155 0 2.24 1.00 0 Annoy 153 2 3.29 1.28 Best 155 0 3.22 1. We also got that they evaluate and compare the different product’s TV Advertisements.28 Purchase 154 1 3. Marketer should understand the children’s psychic before launching any advertisement.

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