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( ]S : 2720- PART- 28 )
The dlY density of the compacted soil or pavement material is a! common measure of the amount of the compaction achieved during the constrection. Knowing the field! density and field moisture content, the dry density is calculated, Therefore field density ties! is importance as. a HeM centre I test for the eo rnpaction 0 f soil or any other pavement layer.
There are several methods for the deterndnation of field density of soils such as core cutter method, sand replacement method, rubber balfoon method, heavy oil method etc. One of the C0111unon methods of determining field density of fine-grained soils is core cutter method; but this method has a 11ITmjm· Iimitation III the case of soils containing coarse-grained particles sucb as graven, stones and aggregates. Under such circnmsrances, field density test by sand r·ep]ac.eme:IiJ[t metliod is adlvantageons., as the presence of coarsegrained particles will adverselyaffect the: test results.
The basic princip le 0 f sand rep lacement method is to measure the in. -situ volume 00 f ho Ie from which rhe material was excavated Hom the weight of sand with known density filling in rhe hole .. The in-situ dellJiSnty of material is given by the weight of the excavated material divided by the ill-situ volume ..
To determination of field density by sand replacement method.
a) Saud pourtng cylinder equiplIDlent:
(i) small pouring cylinder: sultable for fine and medinm grained soils. This consists of a metal cylinder of capacity 3 liters, moOmm i11 diameter and 380 man length. with an invested funnel or cone ail: one end and a shutter to. open. and close Hille entry of sandand a cap on the ot~le;l" encl. Metal. tray to excavate the bole with suitable shape and size. Calibration container ofthe small pouring cylinder (size: moOX150>nuu)
(mi) Large pouring cylinder: suitable for fine, medium amill coarse grained soils .. This consists a metal cylinder of capacjty 16 ... 5 liters, 200rltllimm diameter and 610mm length wfth aill!l arrangements mentioned above ... Calibration container size 200X250:mm
(iii) Merumn pouring cylinder: suitable tor fine, medium and coarse grained soils .. This cylinder with 1501mn diameter and length 4.50mm. The calibration container size is 150X2100rruTI.
h) Tools ;[or leveling and. excavating: Hand tools such as scraper with handle for leveling the surface; a dlJbtef or ail elongated trowel for digging andexcavaring the material.
f:) Containers: Metal containers of any convenient size (about 150n:uu diameter and 200mm. deptb) wmth removable lid for <collecting the excavated material,
d) Sand: Dry and dean test sand of uniform gradation, passmg LOnMIl and retained 600- micron sieve.
<e) Balance: A suitable balance of capacity 15 0]" 30 kg accuracy 1.0 g and necessary set ofweights,
The test may be conducted in two stages: 0) calibration of apparatus and (ii) measurement of field density.
(i) C3lib["at~OIl of apparatus:
The detennination of volume: ofthe excavated hole is based on the weight of sand filling the home: and the cone and the density of the sarnd. Calibration of apparatus includes (31) determination of dlemwty of test sand used in the experiment under identical height and pouring conditions of the sand into the testhole and (b) determinaticn of the: weight of the sand occupying the come of the sand-pouring cylinder.
Clean and dry test sand passing I.Omm sieve <lind retained 600-micron sieve is collected in sufficient quantity required for at leastthree to four sets of tests, Tile top C3lP of the sand-pouring cylinder is removed, the shutter is dosed, the cylinder is filled with dry test sand lLUP to about ] Onilllll~ from the top and the capis replaced. TIle weight ofthe cyfu:del" with the sand is determined accurate to one gram and is recorded =Wl.illn all! the subsequent tests for calibration as well as for the field density tests, every time the sand is filled into the cylinder slich that the initial weig~rut ofthe cylinder with sand is exactly WI. The sand! pouring cylinder is placed over the calibration cylinder or one of the ~est holes already excavated, the shutter fu:;. opened and tne sand equal to the volume of the calibration cylinder or the excavated test hole is allowed to flow out and the shutter is dosed.
The sand pouring cylinder is 11K!W placed mru ar clean plane surface (glass or Perspex plate), the shutter is kept open till. the sand fills up the cone fully and there is no visible movemeat of sand. as seen from the top of the cylinderby removing the cap. The shutter is dosed, theeylinder ThS removed and. tbe sandwbich occupied the cone is carefully collected from the plate a~M:W weighed = W2.
The sand pouring c.yillinder is refilled with sand such that the initial weight is again "VI. Now the cylinder is placed centrally on the top of the calibration container and the shutter
is opened ... When the sand fills up the calibration cOlwtooler and the cone completely and there is no movement of sand, the shutter is dosed and the sand. pouring eyfinder and the remaining sand! isweighed = W3.
The above steps are repeated three times and the mean values of W2 and '¥3 <lire determined such. that the mean value of the weight of sand required to fill the calibration container um:> to the level top, cain be determined.
The volume of the calibrating container, V is determined either by measuring the internal dimensions or by filling with water and weighing. From the weight of sandWa and its volume V in the calibratingcoetainer, the: density of sauld, is determined ..
(~i) Measueement of fi.eb. density:
The site where the field densility test is to' be conducted is cleaned and ~eveled using <li SC1"<lJpel· for an area of about 450 nUITII squaLre. TIle metal tray central hole ills placed on the prepared surface .. Using this central hole as pattern, l:lhe soil/material is excavated! using a dibber or 31 trowel up to a re-quired depth and the loose material removed is carefully collected in the metal container and is weighed = W ... The sand-pouring cylmder is refilled with sand slich that its weight is again Wl. The metal traywith central hole is. removed and the send-pouring cylinder is phl.ced centrally over the excavated hole .. The shutter is opened till the sand ftl!1s the excavatedhole and the cone completely <'l111d there is no further movement of sand in the cyllinder .. TIlle shutter is dosed and the cylinder is weighed again = W4, so that the weight of sand filling the excavated hole alone = Wb can be found ..
The moisture content of theexcavated soil,w% is. determined by taking a sample 0 f soil from it in a moisture content dish, weighing, drying un oven at 110°(: <'l111d re-weighing, Alternatively, the moisture content (w%) is. determined by placing theentireexcavated soill collected from the hole (of weight \V) In the oven <'l1111d findfung its dryweight = Wd.
Theabove steps for the determination of the weights of excavated soi.~ the we;ight of the: sand filling the hole and the weigbts of samples for tile moisture content determination are repeated ail: least three times auld the average values taken fOl: the determination of field d1emility (wet auld dry) values,
Calruhlflions and Results:
\VI = weight 0 f sand pourmmg cylinder and sand filled up to l Omm from top edge, g \V2= weight of sand in rhe cone, rneaa value, g
W3 = weight of cylinder and sand <lifter pouring ~1llito the ealibration containerand come, g \V 4 = weight of cylinder and sand <lif®er peering into the excavated hole and cone, g
Va = volume of the excavating container, Cllr1ll3
W = weight of the soil from the-excavated hole, g
wet = oven dry weight of the soil excavated frons the hole, g w = moisture content of the soil, %
The weight of sand filling the calibrating container only = \Va = (\Vl - W.3 -W2), g
(1) Bulk density of sand, ·:1
W'ei.ght of sand fillmg the: excavated hole alone = Wb = (Wl - W4 -W2), g
Volume of sand filling the excavated hole alone = V =
(it) In-swill bilk density of the: wet excavated SQiil, .-=
I 3, ,gem
Om) Moisture content of soil, w% =
3 , g/cm
(iv) In-situ dry buill denshy ofthe excavated soj], • d = _
The results are reported as the average value of ail: least three sets oftests in the following:
(1) In-place wet d,ensillty of soil in g/cm', correct to second decimal place or in kg!m3, correct to nearestwholenumber,
(ii) In-place dry d1emility ofsoil in. glc_inw.3 or in kghn3 (as above).
(im) Moisture content ofthe soil in percent, correct to first decimal place.
I TEST: FIELD COMPACTION TEST BY SAND REPLACEMENT METHOD
( IS : 2720 PART - 28 )
Frequency of Tests Permissible Limits
Embankment 1Tests I Embankment Min. 95 %
Subgrade 1000m' Subgrade Min. 97 %
Granular Sub Base 1Test! Granular Sub Base Min. 98 %
Lab Ref No Date of Sampling.
Type of Material Date of Testing
Determination of Weight of Sand in Cone
S.No Test No. 1 2 3
a lntial weigllt of container and sand (gms)
b Fi nal weiqht of container and sand after fill illQ cone ( qms )
c Weight of sand in cone - (a) - (b) (gms)
Average Value (Qms)
Note : '1 Before test, remove from initially filled container a vplume of sand approxi mately equal to that of the
cali brating cylinder
2. Use density plate in each test
3. Place container with cone 011 level ground / glass plate.
Determination of Bulk Densi~ of Sand:
S.No Test No. 1 2 3
c Weight of sand in cone (gms)
d Weight of sand before pourinq (gms)
e Weight of sand after pouring (gms)
f Weight of sand in calibrafion cylinder [ ( d ) - ( c ) - ( e ) 1 (gms)
g Volume 01 calibration cylinder (cc)
h Bulk density of Sand ( 1 1 ! ( Q 1 (qms/cc)
Average Value (gms Icc)
Tested by . Checked by:
( For Contractor) ( For Contractor) ( For Engi neer )