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P. 1

On Generalized Choral Sequences|Views: 14|Likes: 0

Published by Joel Reyes Noche

Presented at the Mathematical Society of the Philippines 2011 Annual Convention held at the University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines on May 20-21, 2011

Presented at the Mathematical Society of the Philippines 2011 Annual Convention held at the University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines on May 20-21, 2011

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/55709873/On-Generalized-Choral-Sequences

05/18/2011

text

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Joel Reyes Noche Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Ateneo de Naga University Naga City, Camarines Sur email: jrnoche@adnu.edu.ph

Abstract Generalized choral sequences are inﬁnite binary words (cn )n≥0 deﬁned by c3i+r0 = 0, c3i+r1 = 1, and c3i+rc = ci (where the r’s are distinct ﬁxed elements of {0, 1, 2}) for all non-negative integers i. We present some of their properties. In particular, we show how each is generated by a deterministic ﬁnite automaton with output and how each is a ﬁxed point of a uniform morphism. We also look at their subword complexity and Lyndon factorizations.

1

Introduction

We use deﬁnitions and notation from Allouche and Shallit [1]. Denote by N the set of non-negative integers and by Z+ the set of positive integers. A word is a concatenation (a sequence) of letters chosen from an alphabet (a non-empty set of letters). A ﬁnite word has a ﬁnite length (the number of letters it contains) and is denoted by a lowercase italic letter. The length of a ﬁnite word w is denoted by |w|. The empty word, denoted by , has a length of zero. A one-sided right-inﬁnite word (which we will simply call an inﬁnite word) is a map from N to an alphabet and is denoted by a lowercase boldface letter. We call a word over the alphabet {0,1} a binary word. Concatenation of words is denoted by the juxtaposition of their symbols. For example, if w = 0 and x = 01, then wx = 001, xw = 010, w1 = x, and wwxwx = w(wx)2 = 03 102 1. We deﬁne w1 = w and w0 = for any ﬁnite word w. If x is a ﬁnite non-empty word, then xω is the inﬁnite word xxx · · ·. A word y is a subword of w if there exist x and z such that w = xyz. If x = , then y is a preﬁx of w. If z = , then y is a suﬃx of w. If x = and z = , then y is a proper preﬁx of w. If x = and z = , then y is a proper suﬃx of w. We extend these deﬁnitions to inﬁnite words. An inﬁnite word w can be written as an inﬁnite sequence of ﬁnite subwords (wn )n≥0 = w0 w1 w2 · · ·. A word y is a subword of w if there exist x and z such that w = xyz. If x = , then y is a preﬁx (and a proper preﬁx) of w. A word z is a subword (and a suﬃx) of w if there exists a y such that w = yz. If y = , then z is a proper suﬃx of w. The set of all ﬁnite words made up of letters chosen from an alphabet Σ is denoted by Σ∗ . Note that ∈ Σ∗ . If a ∈ Σ and w ∈ Σ∗ , then |w|a denotes the number of occurrences of the letter a in the word w. The frequency of a letter a in an inﬁnite word w = (wn )n≥0 1

1 (where the w’s are letters), denoted by Freqw (a), is limn→∞ n |w0 w1 · · · wn−1 |a , if this limit exists. Let Σ and ∆ be alphabets. A morphism is a map µ from Σ∗ to ∆∗ that obeys the identity µ(wx) = µ(w)µ(x) for all words w, x ∈ Σ∗ . If Σ = ∆, then the application of a morphism can be iterated. For example, if µ is the morphism mapping 0 to 1 and 1 to 10, then µ(0) = 1, µ2 (0) = µ(µ(0)) = µ(1) = 10, and so on. We deﬁne µ1 (w) = µ(w) and µ0 (w) = w for any word w. A morphism µ : Σ∗ → ∆∗ is k-uniform if there is a constant k such that |µ(a)| = k for all a ∈ Σ. A coding is a 1-uniform morphism. A ﬁxed point of a morphism µ : Σ∗ → Σ∗ is a ﬁnite word w (or inﬁnite word w) such that µ(w) = w (or µ(w) = w). If there exists a letter a ∈ Σ such that µ(a) = ax and x is a word composed of letters xi ∈ Σ such that µm (xi ) = for any m ∈ Z+ , then the morphism µ is prolongable on the letter a. If so, then limm→∞ µm (a) (denoted by µω (a)) is the ﬁxed point of µ iterated on a, where the length of the iterates from the letter a tends to inﬁnity. Let w denote the complement of the ﬁnite binary word w (and w denote the complement of the inﬁnite binary word w) where the overbar represents the morphism mapping 0 → 1 and 1 → 0. For example, if w = 001, then w = 110. Given a ﬁnite word w = a0 a1 · · · an , where the a’s are letters, its reversal, denoted by wR , is an · · · a1 a0 .

Deﬁnition 1. A generalized choral sequence is an inﬁnite binary word c(r0 , r1 , rc , z) = (cn )n≥0 deﬁned by c3i+r0 = 0, c3i+r1 = 1, c3i+rc = ci , and c0 = z (where the r’s are distinct ﬁxed elements of {0, 1, 2} and z = 0 if r0 = 0, z = 1 if r1 = 0, and z could either be 0 or 1 if rc = 0) for all i ∈ N. There are eight distinct choral sequences: (Spaces have been inserted to improve readability.) c(0, 2, 1, 0) = 001 001 011 001 001 011 001 011 011 · · · c(1, 2, 0, 0) = 001 001 101 001 001 101 101 001 101 · · · c(0, 1, 2, 0) = 010 011 010 010 011 011 010 011 010 · · · c(2, 1, 0, 0) = 010 110 010 110 110 010 010 110 010 · · · c(1, 2, 0, 1) = 101 001 101 001 001 101 101 001 101 · · · c(1, 0, 2, 1) = 101 100 101 101 100 100 101 100 101 · · · c(2, 1, 0, 1) = 110 110 010 110 110 010 010 110 010 · · · c(2, 0, 1, 1) = 110 110 100 110 110 100 110 100 100 · · · Sequence c(0, 2, 1, 0) is Stewart’s choral sequence. (Stewart [11] presented the sequence (cn )n≥1 and not (cn )n≥0 .) Sequence c(0, 1, 2, 0) is from Berstel and Karhum¨ki [2]. a Deﬁnition 2. A generalized choral sequence c(r0 , r1 , rc , z) is called a type-012 sequence if (r0 , r1 , rc ) is a circular permutation of (0, 1, 2). Otherwise (if (r0 , r1 , rc ) is a circular permutation of (2, 1, 0)), it is called a type-210 sequence.

2

Some Properties

A previous work [8] presented a characteristic function for generalized choral sequences as well as proofs of the following two theorems. Theorem 1. A generalized choral sequence is cube-free, that is, it does not contain any subword of the form xxx, where x is a non-empty ﬁnite subword. 2

Theorem 2. Given two generalized choral sequences, if they are both type-012 (or if they are both type-210) then any ﬁnite subword of one is a subword of the other. Otherwise, any ﬁnite subword of one is the complement of a subword of the other. The following theorem is related to the previous theorem and their proofs are similar. Theorem 3. Given a type-012 sequence and a type-210 sequence, any ﬁnite subword of one is the reversal of a subword of the other. Proof. Let v = (vn )n≥0 be the given type-012 sequence and w = (wn )n≥0 be the given type-210 sequence. We will show that any ﬁnite subword of v is the reversal of a subword of w. (The proof that any ﬁnite subword of w is the reversal of a subword of v is similar.) Because any generalized choral sequence has all the subwords 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, and 110 [8], any length-3 subword of v is the reversal of a subword of w. That is, for a given j ∈ N, there exists a k ∈ N such that vj vj+1 vj+2 = wk+2 wk+1 wk . By Deﬁnition 2, there exists a subword v3j+rc v3j+rc +1 v3j+rc +2 v3j+rc +3 v3j+rc +4 v3j+rc +5 v3j+rc +6 = vj 01vj+1 01vj+2 and a subword w3k+rc w3k+rc +1 w3k+rc +2 w3k+rc +3 w3k+rc +4 w3k+rc +5 w3k+rc +6 = wk 10wk+1 10wk+2 such that vj 01vj+1 01vj+2 = wk+2 01wk+1 01wk . Any length-5 subword of v is a subword of a length-7 subword of the form v3j+rc v3j+rc +1 v3j+rc +2 v3j+rc +3 v3j+rc +4 v3j+rc +5 v3j+rc +6 . Thus, any length-5 subword of v is the reversal of a subword of w. (This is also true for subwords of length less than 5.) Extending this reasoning to arbitrarily long ﬁnite subwords of similar form yields the result that any ﬁnite subword of v is the reversal of a subword of w. Remark 1. For any generalized choral sequence c, Freqc (0) =

1 2

and Freqc (1) = 1 . 2

We ﬁrst show that Freqc (0) = 1 . Let c = (cn )n≥0 . Consider the subword c0 c1 · · · cn−1 2 with length n. As n → ∞, around 1 of the letters of c0 c1 · · · cn−1 will be due to the subwords 3 1 c3i+r0 , around 1 will be due to c3i+r1 , and around 3 will be due to c3i+rc , for i ∈ N such 3 that 3i + r < n. Since c3i+r0 = 0, the number of occurrences of 0 due to the subwords c3i+r0 approaches n as n → ∞. Since c3i+r1 = 1, the number of occurrences of 0 due to the subwords c3i+r0 3 and c3i+r1 still approaches n as n → ∞. 3 Now consider the subwords c3i+rc . Since c3i+rc = ci , one third of the subwords c3i+rc will be 0, and one third will be 1. Of the remaining subwords, one third will be 0, one third will be 1 and so on. Thus, the number of occurrences of 0 in the subword c0 c1 · · · cn−1 as n → ∞ approaches n 1 n n 1 n n 1 + 3 1 + 1 (1 + · · ·) = n + 32 + 33 +· · · and Freqc (0) = limn→∞ n n + 32 + 33 + · · · 3 3 3 3 =

∞ 1 i=1 3i

= −1 +

∞ i=1

1 i−1 3

= −1 +

1 1 1− 3

= 1. 2

1 Using similar reasoning, we can show that Freqc (1) = 2 .

Proposition 1. c(1, 2, 0, z) = zc(0, 1, 2, 0) and c(2, 1, 0, z) = zc(1, 0, 2, 1) Proof. We ﬁrst show that c(1, 2, 0, z) = zc(0, 1, 2, 0). Let (an )n≥0 = c(1, 2, 0, z), (bn )n≥0 = c(0, 1, 2, 0), and (cn )n≥0 = zc(0, 1, 2, 0). Thus, a3i+1 = 0, a3i+2 = 1, a3i = ai , b3i = 0, b3i+1 = 1, and b3i+2 = bi for all i ∈ N. Also, ci+1 = bi for all i ∈ N so c3i+1 = b3i = 0, c3i+2 = b3i+1 = 1, and c3i+3 = b3i+2 = bi = ci+1 for all i ∈ N. Since c3(i+1) = ci+1 for i ∈ N and c3·0 = c0 , c3i = ci for all i ∈ N. Also, a3i+1 = 0 = c3i+1 and a3i+2 = 1 = c3i+2 for all i ∈ N. 3

We will prove that (an )n≥0 = (cn )n≥0 using induction. Assume an = cn for all n ≤ k, where n, k ∈ N and k is ﬁxed. There are three possibilities: k ≡ 0 (mod 3), k ≡ 1 (mod 3), and k ≡ 2 (mod 3). If k ≡ 0 (mod 3), then k + 1 = 3i + 1 for some i ∈ N and ak+1 = a3i+1 = c3i+1 = ck+1 . If k ≡ 1 (mod 3), then k + 1 = 3i + 2 for some i ∈ N and ak+1 = a3i+2 = c3i+2 = ck+1 . If k ≡ 2 (mod 3), then k + 1 = 3i for some i ∈ Z+ and ak+1 = a3i = ai = ci = c3i = ck+1 (where ai = ci because i ≥ 1 and i ≤ 3i − 1 = k). Thus, if an = cn for all n ≤ k, then an = cn for all n ≤ k + 1. Since a0 = c0 = z (that is, an = cn for all n ≤ 0), it follows that an = cn for all n ∈ N. The proof that c(2, 1, 0, z) = zc(1, 0, 2, 1) is similar. Proposition 2. The complement of a generalized choral sequence is also a generalized choral sequence. Proof. Let c(r0 , r1 , rc , z) = (an )n≥0 . Thus, a3i+r0 = 0, a3i+r1 = 1, and a3i+rc = ai for all i ∈ N. Also, a0 = z where z = 0 if r0 = 0, z = 1 if r1 = 0, and z = 0 or z = 1 if rc = 0. Let (bn )n≥0 = (an )n≥0 so that bi = ai for all i ∈ N. Thus, b3i+r0 = a3i+r0 = 1, b3i+r1 = a3i+r1 = 0, and b3i+rc = a3i+rc = ai = bi for all i ∈ N. Also, b0 = a0 = z where z = 1 if r0 = 0, z = 0 if r1 = 0, and z = 1 or z = 0 if rc = 0. Thus, c(r0 , r1 , rc , z) = c(r0 , r1 , rc , z ) where r0 = r1 , r1 = r0 , rc = rc , and z = 0 if r0 = 0, z = 1 if r1 = 0 and z = 0 or z = 1 if rc = 0. We follow Cassaigne and Karhum¨ki [3]. Let Σ be an alphabet and ? be a letter not a in Σ. For a word w = xy with x ∈ Σ and y ∈ (Σ ∪ {?})∗ , let T0 (w) = wω and let Ti (w) for i ∈ Z+ be the word obtained from Ti−1 (w) by replacing the ﬁrst occurrence of ? in Ti−1 (w) by the i-th letter of Ti−1 (w). The Toeplitz word determined by the pattern w is T (w) = limi→∞ Ti (w), an inﬁnite word over Σ. Using this deﬁnition of Toeplitz words and Deﬁnition 1, we see that some generalized choral sequences are Toeplitz words over {0,1} [3, Example 4]. Remark 2. The sequences c(0, 2, 1, 0), c(0, 1, 2, 0), c(1, 0, 2, 1), and c(2, 0, 1, 1) are the Toeplitz words T (0?1), T (01?), T (10?), and T (1?0), respectively. The other generalized choral sequences are not Toeplitz words (unless we relax the condition that w start with a letter from Σ [3, Example 2]).

2.1

Automatic Sequence

We follow Allouche and Shallit [1] again. A deterministic ﬁnite automaton with output (DFAO) is a model of computation deﬁned by a ﬁnite set of states Q, a ﬁnite input alphabet Σ, a transition function δ : Q×Σ → Q (which we extend to δ : Q×Σ∗ → Q so that δ(q, ) = q and δ(q, xa) = δ(δ(q, x), a) for all q ∈ Q, x ∈ Σ∗ , and a ∈ Σ [1, p. 129]), an initial state q0 ∈ Q, a ﬁnite output alphabet ∆, and an output function τ : Q → ∆. A DFAO has a word w ∈ Σ∗ as input and it moves from state to state according to δ while reading the letters of w (in order from left to right). When the end of w is reached, the automaton halts in a state q and outputs the letter τ (q). A DFAO with representations of base-k numbers as input is called a k-DFAO. A ﬁnitestate function f : Σ∗ → ∆ is one that can be computed by a DFAO such that f (w) = τ (δ(q0 , w)). Informally, a word w = (wn )n≥0 is k-automatic if wn is a ﬁnite-state function of the base-k digits of n (starting with the most signiﬁcant digit). (Note that the input can have an arbitrary ﬁnite number of leading zeros.) A k-automatic inﬁnite word has an associated k-DFAO. 4

Proposition 3. A generalized choral sequence is 3-automatic. Proof. The 3-DFAO of a generalized choral sequence c(r0 , r1 , rc , z) is shown below as a table and as a transition diagram, where Q = {qr0 ,0 , qr1 ,1 , qrc ,0 , qrc ,1 }, Σ = {0, 1, 2}, ∆ = {0, 1}, and the initial state is q0,z . ...... ......

...... .......... ........ ........... .... ... ... .... .. ... .. .. . . .. .. ...... .. .. 1 ...... . . ..... 0 .. ........................... . 1 . . ................................ .. ....... ... ......... .. . ..... .................... ......................................................................................... ......................... ... .. . . ....... ... .. ... ... ... .. . .. .. . . .. . .... . . . .................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. r1 ,1 .. r0 ,0 . . .. .. ... ... ... ... 0 .... .... .... .... . . ........ .. . ...... ........ .. . ..... ......... ....................................... . . . .. ... . ..... ........ . .. . . . ... ................... . . . ... . .... . . .. ..... . . . . .... .... . . . . ....... . . . . .... . .... . . . . . . . . .... . .... . . . . . . . .... ...... . . . . . . . . .... .... . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . 0 . 1 . . c . c . ............ . . . . . . .... . .... . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . .... . .... . . . . . . . ...... . .... . . .... . . . . . . .... .. ...... . .... .. . . .... . . . .. .... . . . . .......... ................................ .. . ......... ....................... ..... 1 0 ................ .... .... . .... ... ... .. .. .. .. ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. rc ,1 .. rc ,0 . . .. .. ... ... ... ... .... ................... .... .. ...... ...... ............. ..... .. ........ ........ ..... .. ......... .. .... ................................. ......... . .. ...... ..... ... .. .. ................ .. . ..... . .. . ... . c ..... . c ... .. .. ... .. ..... .. ..... .................... ....................

r

r r

r

q

/0

q

/1

q qr0 ,0 qr1 ,1 qrc ,0 qrc ,1

δ(q, r0 ) qr0 ,0 qr0 ,0 qr0 ,0 qr0 ,0

δ(q, r1 ) qr1 ,1 qr1 ,1 qr1 ,1 qr1 ,1

δ(q, rc ) qrc ,0 qrc ,1 qrc ,0 qrc ,1

τ (q) 0 1 0 1

r

r

r

r

r

r

q

/0

q

/1

r

r

Let w = (wn )n≥0 be the word generated by this automaton. Each wn is a ﬁnite-state function of s = s0 s1 · · · sk−1 , a base-3 representation of n. (Because leading zeros are allowed, this representation is not unique.) We will show that w = c(r0 , r1 , rc , z). Let i be the number of leading zeros of s. Thus, 0 ≤ i ≤ k and s = 0i si · · · sk−1 . The automaton starts at state q0,z . Note that δ(q0,z , 0i ) = q0,z , that is, leading zeros cause the automaton to remain in the initial state. If i = k, then n = 0 and wn = w0 = τ (δ(q0,z , s)) = τ (δ(q0,z , 0k )) = τ (q0,z ) = z. Note that δ(q, r0 ) = qr0 ,0 for any q ∈ Q. Thus, if sk−1 = r0 , then wn = τ (δ(q0,z , s)) = τ (δ(δ(q0,z , s0 s1 · · · sk−2 ), sk−1 )) = τ (δ(δ(q0,z , s0 s1 · · · sk−2 ), r0 )) = τ (qr0 ,0 ) = 0. If the last ternary digit of n is r0 , then n ≡ r0 (mod 3), that is, n = 3i + r0 for a unique i ∈ N (since n ≥ 0 and r0 ≥ 0). Thus, w3i+r0 = 0 for all i ∈ N. Also, since δ(q, r1 ) = qr1 ,1 for any q ∈ Q, we see using the same reasoning that w3i+r1 = 1 for all i ∈ N. If the last ternary digit of n is rc , that is, if sk−1 = rc , then n = 3i + rc for some i ∈ N. Since s0 s1 · · · sk−2 sk−1 = s0 s1 · · · sk−2 rc is the base-3 representation of 3i + rc , then s0 s1 · · · sk−2 is the base-3 representation of i. Let q = δ(q0,z , s0 s1 · · · sk−2 ) so that wi = τ (δ(q0,z , s0 s1 · · · sk−2 )) = τ (q ) and w3i+rc = τ (δ(q0,z , s0 s1 · · · sk−2 rc )) = τ (δ(δ(q0,z , s0 s1 · · · sk−2 ), rc )) = τ (δ(q , rc )). Note that τ (q ) = τ (δ(q , rc )). Thus, w3i+rc = wi for all i ∈ N. By Deﬁnition 1, w = c(r0 , r1 , rc , z).

2.2

Fixed Point of a Uniform Morphism

Since a generalized choral sequence is 3-automatic, then (by Cobham’s theorem [1, p. 175]) it is the image, under a coding τ , of a ﬁxed point of a 3-uniform morphism µ. That is, c = τ (w) where w = µ(w). The following theorem is a generalization of one by Noche [7] stating the well-known fact that c(0, 2, 1, 0) is the ﬁxed point of the morphism 0 → 001 and 1 → 011 iterated on 0.

5

Proposition 4. A generalized choral sequence c(r0 , r1 , rc , z) = (cn )n≥0 is the ﬁxed point of the morphism µ iterated on z mapping 0 → a0 a1 a2 and 1 → b0 b1 b2 , where ar0 = br0 = 0, ar1 = br1 = 1, arc = 0, and brc = 1. Proof. Recall that z = 0 if r0 = 0, z = 1 if r1 = 0, and z could either be 0 or 1 if rc = 0. If z = 0, then either r0 = 0 or rc = 0. Either way, a0 = 0 and 0 maps to 0a1 a2 . If z = 1, then either r1 = 0 or rc = 0. Either way, b0 = 1 and 1 maps to 1b1 b2 . Since a1 , a2 , b1 , b2 ∈ {0, 1}, the morphism µ is prolongable on the letter z. Thus, µ iterated on z has a unique ﬁxed point µω (z) which we will call w = (wn )n≥0 , where the w’s are letters. Note that w0 = z. The morphism µ is 3-uniform (because µ(0) = a0 a1 a2 and µ(1) = b0 b1 b2 ). Thus (by a lemma in [1, p. 174]), µ(wi ) = w3i+0 w3i+1 w3i+2 for all i ∈ N. If r0 = 0, then µ(0) = 0a1 a2 and µ(1) = 0b1 b2 . If r0 = 1, then µ(0) = a0 0a2 and µ(1) = b0 0b2 . If r0 = 2, then µ(0) = a0 a1 0 and µ(1) = b0 b1 0. In any case, w3i+r0 = 0 for all i ∈ N. Similarly, it can be seen that w3i+r1 = 1 for all i ∈ N. If rc = 0, then µ(0) = 0a1 a2 and µ(1) = 1b1 b2 . If rc = 1, then µ(0) = a0 0a2 and µ(1) = b0 1b2 . If rc = 2, then µ(0) = a0 a1 0 and µ(1) = b0 b1 1. In any case, w3i+rc = wi for all i ∈ N. By Deﬁnition 1, c = w = µω (z). A morphism µ : Σ∗ → Σ∗ is said to be primitive if there exists an integer n ≥ 1 such that for all a, b ∈ Σ, a occurs in µn (b). The morphism µ in Proposition 4 is primitive because 0 occurs in µn (1) and 1 occurs in µn (0) for any n ∈ Z+ . An inﬁnite word w is uniformly recurrent if, for every ﬁnite subword y of w, there exists an integer k such that every subword of length k of w contains y. If µ is a primitive morphism prolongable on z, then µω (z) is uniformly recurrent [1, Theorem 10.9.5]. Remark 3. A generalized choral sequence is uniformly recurrent.

2.3

Subword Complexity

Let Subw (n) denote the set of all subwords of length n of an inﬁnite word w and pw (n) denote the subword complexity function of w, the function counting the number of distinct length-n subwords of w. For a generalized choral sequence c, Subc (1) = {0, 1}, Subc (2) = {00, 01, 10, 11}, and Subc (3) = {001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110}. Thus, pc (1) = 2, pc (2) = 4, and pc (3) = 6. If c is a type-012 sequence, then Subc (4) = {0010, 0011, 0100, 0110, 1001, 1010, 1011, 1101}; if c is a type-210 sequence, then Subc (4) = {0010, 0100, 0101, 0110, 1001, 1011, 1100, 1101}. In either case, pc (4) = 8. Theorem 4. For a generalized choral sequence c, pc (n) = 2n for all n ∈ Z+ . Proof. Let Sn = {cj cj+1 · · · cj+n−1 : j ∈ N} be the set of all length-n subwords of a generalized choral sequence c(r0 , r1 , rc , z) = (cn )n≥0 . The set Sn can be partitioned into three subsets: Sn,0 contains only all the subwords with initial index j ≡ r0 (mod 3), Sn,1 contains those with j ≡ r1 (mod 3), and Sn,c contains those with j ≡ rc (mod 3). Let |S| denote the number of elements in a set S. Thus, pc (n) = |Sn | = |Sn,0 | + |Sn,1 | + |Sn,c |. The proof is by induction: given pc (i) = 2i for all i ≤ k where i, k ∈ Z+ and k is ﬁxed, we will show that pc (i) = 2i for all i ≤ k + 1. It is easy to see that pc (i) = 2i for all i ≤ 3, so we only need to look at k ≥ 3. If c is, say, a type-012 sequence then length-k subwords of c can be visualized as shown below, where the bottom overline shows a subword from Sk,0 , the middle overline shows 6

a subword from Sk,1 , and the top overline shows a subword from Sk,c . (If c is a type-210 sequence, then the subwords would be of the form · · · 10ci 10 · · ·; the end result is the same.) If k ≡ 0 (mod 3): If k ≡ 1 (mod 3): If k ≡ 2 (mod 3): ··· ··· ··· 0 0 0 1 1 1 ci ci ci 0 0 0 1 1 1 ··· ··· ··· ci+m−1 ci+m−1 ci+m−1 0 0 0 1 1 1 ci+m ci+m ci+m 0 0 0 1 1 1 ··· ··· ···

Note that 0 < 3m ≤ k since k ≥ 3. Thus, m < k and m + 1 < k. We are given |Sk,0 | + |Sk,1 | + |Sk,c | = 2k. Consider what happens when k ≡ 0 (mod 3) and we now look at subwords of length k + 1: ··· 0 1 ci 0 1 ··· ci+m−1 0 1 ci+m 0 1 ···

All the subwords in Sk+1,0 are just the subwords in Sk,0 with the letter 0 concatenated at the end; the number of subwords remains the same. That is, |Sk+1,0 | = |Sk,0 |. All the subwords in Sk+1,1 are just those in Sk,1 with a 1 concatenated at the end. Thus, |Sk+1,1 | = |Sk,1 |. Note that |Sk,c | is equal to the number of distinct subwords ci ci+1 · · · ci+m−1 , that is, |Sk,c | = |Sm,c |. Since m < k, |Sm,c | = 2m. Also, |Sk+1,c | is equal to the number of distinct subwords ci ci+1 · · · ci+m , that is, |Sk+1,c | = |Sm+1,c | = 2(m + 1) = 2m + 2 = |Sm,c | + 2 = |Sk,c | + 2. (Since m + 1 < k, |Sm+1,c | = 2(m + 1).) Thus, |Sk+1 | = |Sk+1,0 | + |Sk+1,1 | + |Sk+1,c | = |Sk,0 |+|Sk,1 |+(|Sk,c |+2) = |Sk |+2 = 2k+2 = 2(k+1), that is, pc (k+1) = 2(k+1). Thus, pc (i) = 2i for all i ≤ k + 1. Using similar reasoning, we ﬁnd that when k ≡ 1 (mod 3), |Sk+1,0 | + |Sk+1,1 | + |Sk+1,c | = |Sk,0 | + (|Sk,1 | + 2) + |Sk,c |; when k ≡ 2 (mod 3), |Sk+1,0 | + |Sk+1,1 | + |Sk+1,c | = (|Sk,0 | + 2) + |Sk,1 | + |Sk,c |. In any case, the end result is the same. It is easy to see that pc (i) = 2i for all i ≤ 3, i ∈ Z+ . Thus, pc (n) = 2n for all n ∈ Z+ .

2.4

Lyndon Factorization

We now follow Richomme [9]. Words may be ordered lexicographically. Let the alphabet {0,1} be ordered such that 0 < 1. We say that v ≤ w (or w ≥ v) if and only if either v is a preﬁx of w or there exist words x, y, z and letters a, b such that v = xay, w = xbz, and a < b. We say that v < w (or w > v) if v ≤ w and v = w. Remark 4. [4, p. 82] Let a, b, c, and d be ﬁnite words over an ordered alphabet. If a < b and |a| ≥ |b|, then ac < bd. We extend lexicographic order to the set of ﬁnite or inﬁnite words [6]. We say that v < w if and only if either v is a preﬁx of w or there exist words x, y, z and letters a, b such that v = xay, w = xbz, and a < b. We say that v < w if and only if there exist words x, y, z and letters a, b such that v = xay, w = xbz, and a < b. We say that v < w if and only if there exist words x, y, z and letters a, b such that v = xay, w = xbz, and a < b. Chen, Fox, and Lyndon [4] introduced what they called standard sequences but which are now called Lyndon words. A Lyndon word is a word that is less than any of its non-empty proper suﬃxes. Lyndon words were originally deﬁned as ﬁnite words [4] but the deﬁnition was eventually extended to include inﬁnite words [10, Proposition 2.2]. For example, letters are Lyndon words; 01011 is a ﬁnite Lyndon word while 01101 is not; and 01ω = 0111 · · · is ω an inﬁnite Lyndon word while (01) = 010101 · · · is not. 7

Lemma 1. [10] An inﬁnite word is an inﬁnite Lyndon word if and only if it has an inﬁnite number of preﬁxes which are Lyndon words. A morphism µ over an ordered alphabet Σ is order-preserving if for all u, v ∈ Σ∗ , u ≤ v implies µ(u) ≤ µ(v) [9]. For an order-preserving morphism µ, if u < v then µ(u) < µ(v) [9, Lemma 3.2]. Remark 5. For an order-preserving morphism µ, if u < v then µn (u) < µn (v) for n ∈ Z+ . A morphism is a Lyndon morphism [9] if it preserves (ﬁnite) Lyndon words. A morphism µ on {0,1} such that 0 < 1 is a Lyndon morphism if and only if µ(0) and µ(1) are Lyndon words and µ(0) < µ(1) [9, Proposition 4.7]. Remark 6. The morphism µ mapping 0 → 001 and 1 → 011 is a Lyndon morphism. Lemma 2. For the morphism µ mapping 0 → 001 and 1 → 101, µn (0i 1j ) for n, j ∈ N, i ∈ Z+ is a Lyndon word. Proof. We ﬁrst show that µn (0) for n ∈ N is a Lyndon word (the case where i = 1 and j = 0). The words µ(0) = 001 and µ(1) = 101 diﬀer only in the ﬁrst letter. The words µ2 (0) = µ(0)µ(0)µ(1) and µ2 (1) = µ(1)µ(0)µ(1) also diﬀer only in the ﬁrst letter because µ(0) and µ(1) diﬀer only in the ﬁrst letter. Continuing this reasoning, it can be seen that µn (0) and µn (1) for n ∈ Z+ diﬀer only in the ﬁrst letter and that if µn (0) = 0x then µn (1) = 1x. Assume that µk (0) is a Lyndon word for some k ∈ Z+ . Now, µk+1 (0) = µk (0)µk (0)µk (1) = 0x0x1x for some x = a1 a2 · · · an where the a’s are letters. Since µk (0) is a Lyndon word, it is less than any of its non-empty proper suﬃxes. Thus, 0x < a1 a2 · · · an , 0x < a2 · · · an , and so on up to 0x < an . Using Remark 4 and starting from 0x < x, we get 0x0x1x < x0x1x. From 0x < a2 · · · an , we get 0x0x1x < a2 · · · an 0x1x. Similarly, we go on up to 0x0x1x < an 0x1x. Clearly, 0x0x1x < 0x1x. Using Remark 4 and starting from 0x < x, we get 0x0x1x < x1x. Similarly, 0x0x1x < a2 · · · an 1x and so on up to 0x0x1x < an 1x. Clearly, 0x0x1x < 1x. Using Remark 4 and starting from 0x < x, we get 0x0x1x < x. Similarly, 0x0x1x < a2 · · · an and so on up to 0x0x1x < an . Because 0x0x1x is less than any of its non-empty proper suﬃxes, µk+1 (0) is a Lyndon word. Now, µ0 (0) = 0 is a Lyndon word. Also, µk (0) is a Lyndon word for k = 1. Thus, µn (0) is a Lyndon word for any n ∈ N. The proof that µn (0i 1j ) for n, i, j ∈ Z+ is a Lyndon word is similar, but now we use k i j µ (0 1 ) = (µk (0))i (µk (1))j = (0x)i (1x)j . Lemma 3. For the morphism µ mapping 0 → 001 and 1 → 011, µn (1) > µn+1 (1) for n ∈ N. Proof. By Remark 6, µ is a Lyndon morphism. Thus, it is order-preserving [9, Proposition 4.2]. From Remark 5, since 011 < 1, then µn (011) = µn+1 (1) < µn (1) for n ∈ N. Lemma 4. For the morphism µ mapping 0 → 001 and 1 → 101, µn (01m ) > µn+1 (01m ) for n, m ∈ Z+ . Proof. The morphism µ is order-preserving because µ(01) < µ(1) [9, Lemma 3.13]. Fix m ∈ Z+ . From Remark 5, since 001(101)m < 01m , then µn (001(101)m ) = µn+1 (01m ) < µn (01m ) for n ∈ Z+ . 8

To factorize a word is to express it as a sequence of subwords. Theorems 5 and 6 describe Lyndon factorization. Theorem 5. [4][5, Theorem 5.1.5] Any non-empty ﬁnite word w may be uniquely factorized as a non-increasing ﬁnite sequence of ﬁnite Lyndon words ( k )0≤k≤n . That is, w = 0 1 · · · n where 0 ≥ 1 ≥ · · · ≥ n . For example, the Lyndon factorization of 01011 is (01011) while that of 01101 is (011)(01). Theorem 6. [10, Theorem 2.3] Any inﬁnite word may w be uniquely factorized as either a non-increasing inﬁnite sequence of ﬁnite Lyndon words ( k )k≥0 or a non-increasing ﬁnite sequence of ﬁnite Lyndon words ( k )0≤k≤n followed by an inﬁnite Lyndon word x ≤ n . That is, either w = 0 1 2 · · · where 0 ≥ 1 ≥ 2 · · · or w = 0 1 · · · n x where 0 ≥ 1 ≥ · · · ≥ n ≥ x. For example, the Lyndon factorization of 01ω = 0111 · · · is (0111 · · ·) while that of ω (01) = 010101 · · · is (01)(01)(01)· · ·. We will show that the Lyndon factorizations of the generalized choral sequences are as follows: c(0, 2, 1, 0) = (001001011001001011001011011 · · ·) c(1, 2, 0, 0) = (001001101001001101101001101 · · ·) c(0, 1, 2, 0) = (01)(001101)(001001101101001101) · · · c(2, 1, 0, 0) = (01011)(001011011)(001001011001011011001011011) · · · c(1, 2, 0, 1) = (1)(01)(001101)(001001101101001101) · · · c(1, 0, 2, 1) = (1)(011)(001011011)(001001011001011011001011011) · · · c(2, 1, 0, 1) = (1)(1)(011)(001011011)(001001011001011011001011011) · · · c(2, 0, 1, 1) = (1)(1)(011)(01)(001101101)(001101) · · · Proposition 5. The sequence c(0, 2, 1, 0) is an inﬁnite Lyndon word. Proof. By Proposition 4, c(0, 2, 1, 0) = µω (0) where µ maps 0 → 001 and 1 → 011. Note that µk (0) = c0 c1 · · · c3k −1 for k ∈ N. From Remark 6, µ is a Lyndon morphism. Thus, since 0 is a Lyndon word, then µk (0) is a Lyndon word for k ∈ N. The proper preﬁxes c0 c1 · · · c3k −1 for k ∈ N are all Lyndon words and by Lemma 1, c(0, 2, 1, 0) is an inﬁnite Lyndon word. Proposition 6. The sequence c(1, 2, 0, 0) is an inﬁnite Lyndon word. Proof. By Proposition 4, c(1, 2, 0, 0) = µω (0) where µ maps 0 → 001 and 1 → 101. Note that µk (0) = c0 c1 · · · c3k −1 for k ∈ N. From Lemma 2, µk (0) is a Lyndon word for k ∈ N. The proper preﬁxes c0 c1 · · · c3k −1 for k ∈ N are all Lyndon words and by Lemma 1, c(1, 2, 0, 0) is an inﬁnite Lyndon word. We deﬁne

b n=a

f (n) to be 0 if b < a.

Proposition 7. The sequence c(0, 1, 2, 0) is an inﬁnite non-increasing sequence of ﬁnite Lyndon words ( k )k≥0 with 0 = 01 and k = µk ( 0 ) for k ∈ Z+ , where µ is the morphism mapping 0 → 001 and 1 → 101. 9

Proof. Let c(0, 1, 2, 0) = (cn )n≥0 and ( k )k≥0 = (wn )n≥0 where cn , wn ∈ {0, 1}. From Deﬁnition 1, c3i = 0, c3i+1 = 1, and c3i+2 = ci for i ∈ N. From k = µk (01) for k ∈ Z+ and given that µ is 3-uniform, we get | k | = 2 · 3k . Thus, k j−1 . From Deﬁnition 1 and Proposition k = wm wm+1 · · · wm+2·3k −1 where m = j=1 2 · 3 4, wm+3p = wm +p , wm+3p+1 = 0, and wm+3p+2 = 1 where m = j=1 2 · 3j−1 and p goes from 0 to 2 · 3k−1 − 1. Note that as k goes from 1 onwards, the indices m + 3p, m + 3p + 1, and m + 3p + 2 cover all the integers from 2 onwards. Thus, the wn ’s are characterized by w0 w1 w2 = 010, wm+3p = wm +p , wm+3p+1 = 0, and k k−1 wm+3p+2 = 1 where m = j=1 2 · 3j−1 and m = j=1 2 · 3j−1 , for all p ∈ N such that p ≤ 2 · 3k−1 − 1, and for all k ∈ Z+ . We show that (cn )n≥0 = (wn )n≥0 . Clearly, c0 c1 = w0 w1 , so we now consider n ≥ 2. k Since m = 2 + j=2 2 · 3j−1 , if follows that m ≡ 2 (mod 3) for k ≥ 1 (that is, for n ≥ 2). If n ≡ 0 (mod 3), then cn = c3i for some i ≥ 0 and wn = wm+3p+1 for some m and p for k ≥ 1. If n ≡ 1 (mod 3), then cn = c3i+1 and wn = wm+3p+2 . If n ≡ 2 (mod 3), then cn = c3i+2 and wn = wm+3p . Now, c3i = 0 = wm+3p+1 and c3i+1 = 1 = wm+3p+2 , so all we need to show is that c3i+2 = wm+3p . Consider the letter cn = c3i+2 where i ≥ 0 and n ≥ 2. It is part of a subword k k for some k ≥ 1, that is, since k = wm wm+1 · · · wm+2·3k −1 , then m ≤ 3i+2 ≤ m+2·3 −1. k k But 3i+2 ≡ 2 (mod 3), so m ≤ 3i+2 ≤ m+2·3 . Thus, (m−2)/3 ≤ i ≤ (m+2·3 −2)/3. But k k k−1 (m − 2)/3 = ( j=2 2 · 3j−1 )/3 = j=2 2 · 3j−2 = j=1 2 · 3j−1 = m and (m + 2 · 3k − 2)/3 = m + 2 · 3k−1 . Thus, m ≤ i ≤ m + 2 · 3k−1 , and ci is part of the subword k−1 , that is, ci = wm +p . Finally, c3i+2 = ci = wm +p = wm+3p . From Lemma 2, k = µk (01) is a Lyndon word for k ∈ N. Clearly, 0 = 01 > 1 = 001101. From Lemma 4, 1 > 2 > 3 > · · ·. The proof of Proposition 7 is relatively detailed. For brevity, we omit some details in the remaining proofs. Proposition 8. The sequence c(2, 1, 0, 0) is an inﬁnite non-increasing sequence of ﬁnite Lyndon words ( k )k≥0 with 0 = 01011 and k = µk (011) for k ∈ Z+ , where µ is the morphism mapping 0 → 001 and 1 → 011. Proof. Let c(2, 1, 0, 0) = (cn )n≥0 and ( k )k≥0 = (wn )n≥0 where cn , wn ∈ {0, 1}. Now, c3i = ci , c3i+1 = 1, c3i+2 = 0, and c0 = 0 for i ∈ N. The wn ’s are characterized by w0 w1 w2 w3 w4 = 01011, wm+3p = 0, wm+3p+1 = wm +p , and wm+3p+2 = 1 where m = k−1 k 2 + j=1 3j and m = 2 + j=1 3j , for all p ∈ N such that p ≤ 3k − 1, and for all k ∈ Z+ . Clearly, c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 = w0 w1 w2 w3 w4 . Because m ≡ 2 (mod 3), it follows that c3i = wm+3p+1 , c3i+1 = wm+3p+2 , and c3i+2 = wm+3p . Subword 0 is a Lyndon word and so is each k for k ∈ Z+ because µ is a Lyndon morphism (Remark 6) and 011 is a Lyndon word. Clearly, 0 = 01011 > 1 = 001011011. Note that k = µk+1 (1). From Lemma 3, 1 > 2 > 3 > · · ·. Proposition 9. The sequence c(1, 2, 0, 1) is an inﬁnite non-increasing sequence of ﬁnite Lyndon words ( k )k≥0 with 0 = 1, 1 = 01, and k = µk−1 ( 1 ) for k ≥ 2, where µ is the morphism mapping 0 → 001 and 1 → 101. Proof. Let c(1, 2, 0, 1) = (cn )n≥0 and ( k )k≥0 = (wn )n≥0 where cn , wn ∈ {0, 1}. Now, c3i = ci , c3i+1 = 0, c3i+2 = 1, and c0 = 1 for i ∈ N. The wn ’s are characterized by 10

k−1

w0 w1 w2 w3 = 1010, wm+3p = wm +p , wm+3p+1 = 0, and wm+3p+2 = 1 where m = 1 + k k−1 j−2 and m = 1 + j=2 2 · 3j−2 , for all p ∈ N such that p ≤ 2 · 3k−2 − 1, and for j=2 2 · 3 all k ≥ 2. Clearly, c0 c1 c2 = w0 w1 w2 . Because m = 3 + j=3 2 · 3j−2 and m ≡ 0 (mod 3), it follows that c3i = wm+3p , c3i+1 = wm+3p+1 , and c3i+2 = wm+3p+2 . Subword 0 is a Lyndon word and, by Lemma 2, so is each k+1 = µk (01) for k ∈ N. Clearly, 0 = 1 > 1 = 01 > 2 = 001101. From Lemma 4, 2 > 3 > 4 > · · ·. Proposition 10. The sequence c(1, 0, 2, 1) is an inﬁnite non-increasing sequence of ﬁnite Lyndon words ( k )k≥0 with 0 = 1 and k = µk ( 0 ) for k ∈ Z+ , where µ is the morphism mapping 0 → 001 and 1 → 011. Proof. Let c(1, 0, 2, 1) = (cn )n≥0 and ( k )k≥0 = (wn )n≥0 where cn , wn ∈ {0, 1}. Now, c3i = 1, c3i+1 = 0, and c3i+2 = ci for i ∈ N. The wn ’s are characterized by w0 = 1, wm+3p = 0, k k−1 j−1 j−1 wm+3p+1 = wm +p , and wm+3p+2 = 1 where m = and m = , for j=1 3 j=1 3 k−1 + all p ∈ N such that p ≤ 3 − 1, and for all k ∈ Z . Clearly, c0 = w0 . Because k m = 1 + j=2 3j−1 and m ≡ 1 (mod 3), it follows that c3i = wm+3p+2 , c3i+1 = wm+3p , and c3i+2 = wm+3p+1 . Subword 0 is a Lyndon word and so is each k for k ∈ Z+ because µ is a Lyndon morphism (Remark 6). From Lemma 3, 0 > 1 > 2 > · · ·. Proposition 11. The sequence c(2, 1, 0, 1) is an inﬁnite non-increasing sequence of ﬁnite Lyndon words ( k )k≥0 with 0 = 1 = 1 and k = µk−1 ( 1 ) for k ≥ 2, where µ is the morphism mapping 0 → 001 and 1 → 011. Proof. Let c(2, 1, 0, 1) = (cn )n≥0 and ( k )k≥0 = (wn )n≥0 where cn , wn ∈ {0, 1}. Now, c3i = ci , c3i+1 = 1, c3i+2 = 0, and c0 = 1 for i ∈ N. The wn ’s are characterized by k w0 w1 = 11, wm+3p = 0, wm+3p+1 = wm +p , and wm+3p+2 = 1 where m = 1 + j=2 3j−2 and m = 1 +

k−1 j=2 k

**3j−2 , for all p ∈ N such that p ≤ 3k−2 − 1, and for all k ≥ 2. Clearly,
**

k

c0 c1 = w0 w1 . Because m = 2+ j=3 3j−2 and m ≡ 2 (mod 3), it follows that c3i = wm+3p+1 , c3i+1 = wm+3p+2 , and c3i+2 = wm+3p . Subwords 0 and 1 are Lyndon words and so is each k for k ≥ 2 because µ is a Lyndon morphism (Remark 6). Note that 0 = 1 = 1. From Lemma 3, 1 > 2 > 3 > · · ·. Proposition 12. The sequence c(2, 0, 1, 1) is an inﬁnite non-increasing sequence of ﬁnite Lyndon words ( k )k≥0 with 0 = 1 = 1, 2 = 011, 3 = 01, and k = µ( k−2 ) for k ≥ 4, where µ is the morphism mapping 0 → 001 and 1 → 101. Proof. Let c(2, 0, 1, 1) = (cn )n≥0 and ( k )k≥0 = (wn )n≥0 where cn , wn ∈ {0, 1}. Now, c3i = 1, c3i+1 = ci , and c3i+2 = 0 for i ∈ N. Note that for k = 2j + 2 and j ∈ Z+ , k is an even number greater than or equal to 4. For k = 2j + 3 and j ∈ Z+ , k is an odd number greater than or equal to 5. From 2j+2 = µj (011) for j ∈ Z+ , we get | 2j+2 | = 3j+1 . Thus, 2j+2 = wq wq+1 · · · j wq+3j+1 −1 where q = 2 + i=1 (3i + 2 · 3i−1 ). Also, wq+3p = wq +p , wq+3p+1 = 0, and j−1 wq+3p+2 = 1 where q = 2 + i=1 (3i + 2 · 3i−1 ) and p goes from 0 to 3j − 1. j From 2j+3 = µ (01) for j ∈ Z+ , we get | 2j+3 | = 2 · 3j . Thus, 2j+3 = wr wr+1 · · · j wr+2·3j −1 where r = 5 + i=1 (3i+1 + 2 · 3i−1 ). Also, wr+3p = wr +p , wr+3p+1 = 0, and j−1 wr+3p+2 = 1 where r = 5 + i=1 (3i+1 + 2 · 3i−1 ) and p goes from 0 to 2 · 3j−1 − 1. 11

Now, c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 = w0 w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 . Note that q = 7 + i=2 (3i + 2 · 3i−1 ) and j r = 16 + i=2 (3i+1 + 2 · 3i−1 ) so that q ≡ r ≡ 1 (mod 3). Thus, it follows that c3i = wq+3p+2 = wr+3p+2 , c3i+1 = wq+3p = wr+3p , and c3i+2 = wq+3p+1 = wr+3p+1 . Subwords 0 and 1 are Lyndon words and, by Lemma 2, so is each 2j+2 = µj (011) and each 2j+3 = µj (01) for j ∈ N. Clearly, 0 = 1 = 1 > 2 = 011. Note that µj (01)µj (1) = µj (011) > µj (01) for j ∈ N. Thus, 2j+2 > 2j+3 for j ∈ N, that is, 2 > 3 , 4 > 5 , and so on. The morphism µ is order-preserving because µ(01) < µ(1) [9, Lemma 3.13]. From Remark 5, since 01 > 001101101, then µj (01) > µj (001101101) = µj+1 (011) for j ∈ N. Thus, 2j+3 > 2j+4 for j ∈ N, that is, 3 > 4 , 5 > 6 , and so on. We then get 2 > 3 > 4 > 5 > 6 > · · ·.

j

Acknowledgment

I thank an anonymous colleague for pointing out the connection to Toeplitz words.

References

[1] Jean-Paul Allouche and Jeﬀrey Shallit. Automatic Sequences: Theory, Applications, Generalizations. Cambridge University Press, 2003. [2] J. Berstel and J. Karhum¨ki. Combinatorics on words—a tutorial. Bulletin of the a European Association of Theoretical Computer Science, (79):178–228, 2003. [3] Julien Cassaigne and Juhani Karhum¨ki. Toeplitz words, generalized periodicity and a periodically iterated morphisms. European Journal of Combinatorics, 18:497–510, 1997. [4] K. T. Chen, R. H. Fox, and R. C. Lyndon. Free diﬀerential calculus, IV. The quotient groups of the lower central series. Annals of Mathematics, 68(1):81–95, 1958. [5] M. Lothaire. Combinatorics on Words. Cambridge Mathematical Library. Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition, 1997. [6] Guy Melan¸on. Lyndon factorization of inﬁnite words. In STACS 96, volume 1046/1996 c of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 147–154. Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 1996. [7] Joel Reyes Noche. On Stewart’s choral sequence Gib´n, 8(1):1–5, 2008. o [8] Joel Reyes Noche. Generalized choral sequences. Matimy´s Matematika, 31(1–3):25–28, a 2008. [9] G. Richomme. Lyndon morphisms. Bulletin of the Belgian Mathematical Society, 10:761–785, 2003. [10] Rani Siromoney, Lisa Mathew, V. R. Dare, and K. G. Subramanian. Inﬁnite Lyndon words. Information Processing Letters, 50(2):101–104, 1994. [11] Ian Stewart. Mathematical recreations: The never-ending chess game. Scientiﬁc American, 273(4):158, 160, October 1995.

12

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Enhancing Engineering Education through Undergraduate Student Projects

Systematic Errors in Arithmetic of Some College Students (conference paper)

Implementations of Delay-Insensitive Circuits

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