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across the bit Optimization of bit hydraulics Surface pressure drop Hydraulic criteria Comparison of BHHP and IF Optimum flow rate Field methods for optimizing bit hydraulics A practical check of the efficiency of bit hydraulic program Pressure Losses The circulation system consists of: pump, surface connections (stand pipe, hose, swivel and Kelly), drill pipe, drill collars, bit, annulus between drill collars and hole, annulus between drill pipe and hole, mud return lines, and mud tanks. Friction of fluid through these parts causes pressure losses The calculation of this pressure losses depend on four parts • Surface connection losses • Pipe losses • Annular losses • Losses across the bit Losses depend on the type of fluid used and the type of flow Surface Connection Losses Losses caused through surface connections Depend on the geometry and dimensions of surface connections These dimensions can vary with time Evaluated by: P1 = Eρ0.8Q1.8(PV)0.2 P1 ρ Q psi or bar

= pressure loss, psi or bar = Density, ppg or kg/l = flow rate, gpm, l/min

3x10-5 1. plastic viscosity.4x10-6 Four types of surface equipment Rotary Hose Swivel Kelly Surface Stand Pipe Equipment Length ID Length ID Length ID Length Type (Ft) (in) (Ft) (in) (Ft) (in) (Ft) 1 40 3.5 40 3 45 4.6x10-5 3.2x10-5 1.0 4 2.0 55 3.3x10-6 5. and yield point • Type of flow.0 40 2 40 3. laminar or turbulent Several models exist to measure pressure losses Only two are models will be used: the Bingham plastic and the power law The following are the equations used for calculations Bingham Plastic Model .8x10-6 9.0 40 ID (in) 2.5 55 2.5x10 8.0 40 2.25 3.25 3.0 5 3.0 55 3. cp E = constant depends type of surface connections Value of E Surface Equipment Type 1 2 3 4 Value of E Imperial Units Metric Units -4 2.25 4. weight.5 40 4 45 4.5 5 2.PV = plastic viscosity.0 6 3.00 Pipe and Annular Losses Pipe losses takes place inside drill pipe and drill collars They are designated as P2 and P3 Annular losses takes place around drill collars and drill pipe They are designated as P4 and P5 The magnitude of these pressures depends on • Dimension of pipe • Mud rheological properties.8x10-6 4.

8 0.2 P = 8.8 1. flow is turbulent. use −5 0.2 ρ D2YP ft /min ρD If Va > Vc.91x10 ρ Q (PV ) L psi D4.5Q 2 ft / min Dh2 − ODp Determine critical velocity 97 PV + 97 (PV )2 + 6.8 If Va < Vc.5Q ft / min D2 Determine critical velocity Vc = 97 PV + 97 (PV )2 + 8. use P= L ⎡YP + (PV )Va ⎤ psi ⎢ ⎥ 5D ⎥ 300D ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ Annular flow Determine average velocity Va = 24. flow is laminar.2 ρ De2YP Vc = ft / min ρ (Dh − ODp ) .Pipe Flow Determine average velocity Va = 24.

use −5 0.⎡ . use P= L(YP) L(PV )Va + psi 60. flow is laminar.8 If Va < Vc.32log 600 ⎟ ⎟ θ ⎟ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ k = 300 (511)n ⎡ 5. use 8.82(104 )k ⎤ ⎥ Vc = ⎢ ρ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ θ 300 ⎠ (1/(2−n)) 1.91x10 ρ Q (PV ) L psi D4.2 L psi P= (Dh − OD)3(Dh + OD)1.If Va > Vc.8 If Va < Vc flow is laminar. (3n +1) ⎥ psi 300D ⎢ D 4n ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ n Annular flow Determine average velocity .6 3n+1⎤ .8(PV )0.8 0. use ⎡ ⎤ P = kL ⎢1. ⎢ D 4n ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (n /(2−n)) ft /min If Va >Vc flow is turbulent.6Va .91x10−5 ρ 0.2 P = 8. flow is turbulent.8Q1.8 1.000(Dh − OD)2 200(Dh −OD)2 Power Law Model Determine n and k ⎞ θ n = 3.

5Q 2 ft / min Dh2 − ODp Determine critical velocity ⎡ 5.8 0. use ⎡ ⎤ kL ⎢ 1.91x10 ρ Q (PV ) L psi De4.8 If Va < Vc. flow is turbulent.Va = 24. (3n +1) ⎥ psi P= 300(Dh − OD) ⎢ (Dh −OD) 4n ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ n Pressure loss across bit Need to be optimized to achieve maximum cleaning For given length of drill string and given mud properties.2 P = 8.82(104 )k ⎤ ⎥ Vc = ⎢ ρ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (1/(2−n)) ⎡ 1. pressure from 1 to 5 remain constant The smaller the nozzle the greater the pressure drop For soft formation.⎢ .6Va .8 1.6 3n+1⎤ . large nozzle is required To calculate pressure loss across and nozzle size use P =P − (P + P + P + P + P ) psi bit stand pipe 1 2 3 4 5 Nozzle velocity P Vn = 33. use −5 0. ⎥ ⎢ (Dh −OD p ) 4n ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (n /(2−n)) ft / min If Va > Vc.36 bit ft / s ρ Total area of nozzles . flow is laminar.

in = inside diameter. cp = yield value. except bit. lb/100ft2 Optimizing bit hydraulics All hydraulic programs start by calculating pressure drops in the various parts of the circulating systems The pressure loss in the circulating system. is given the symbol Pc Several hydraulic slide rules are available for calculating Pc The slide rule is inadequate for calculating annular pressure loss Either annular pressure loss is beyond the sale or flow is laminar and most slide rules used turbulent flow Surface pump pressure The system pressure shoes how much pressure loss can be tolerated at bit The value of Pbit is controlled by the maximum allowable surface pump pressure Most rigs have limits on maximum surface pressure with high volume rates (500 gpm) On land rigs typical limits on surface pressure are in the rang 2500 to 3000 psi for well depth of around 12000 ft For deep wells.32 Q in2 Vn Nozzle size dn = OD D L PV YP ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 4 A ⎞. optimization of bit hydraulics is necessary Hydraulic criteria Two criteria for optimization . in = length.A = 0. ft = plastic viscosity. heavy-duty pump can give 5000 psi surface pressure Therefore.32 ⎟ ⎟ 3π ⎟ ⎠ = outside diameter.

HHPc BHHP = BHPs .HHPc Hence HHP = PQ/1714 Then PQ PQ BHHP = s − c 1714 1714 Pc = KQn K = constant n = index represents degree of turbulence in the circulating system n+1 PQ BHHP = s − KQ 1714 1714 Differentiating equation with respect to Q Ps = (n+1)KQn .• Maximum bit hydraulic horsepower (BHHP) • Maximum impact force (IF) Each criteria yields different value of bit pressure loss Engineer is faced with the task to decide which one to choose In most drilling operations the circulation rate is kept constant Pbit is the factor to be optimized Maximum bit hydraulic horsepower The bit pressure is the difference between stand pipe pressure and Pc For optimum hydraulic Pbit must be fraction of stand pipe pressure Surface hydraulic horsepower (HHPs) is the sum of hydraulic horse power at bit (BHHP) and hydraulic horsepower in the circulating system (HHPc) BHPs= BHHP .

Ps = (n+1) Pc Also Pc = Ps .8 – 1.86 For n = 1. Pbit = 0.86. of pressure drop across bit is given by the BHHP criteria and IF criteria n P R = n +1 s n P n+2 s or R = n+2 n +1 . the pressure drop across the bit is 65% of surface pump pressure The actual value of n can be determined in fields by running the pump pressure at several speeds and reading the resulting pressure A graph of Pc=(Ps – Pbit) against Q is then drawn The slope of the graph is taken as the index n Maximum impact force P = n Ps bit n + 2 Impact force is given by Q ρP bit IF = 58 Comparison of BHHP and IF criteria The ratio R.65 Ps This means the for optimum hydraulic horsepower.Pbit P = n Ps bit n +1 The value of n falls in the range 1.

run the pump at four or five speeds and record the resulting stand pipe pressure From current nozzle size and stand pipe pressure and mud weight determine pressure loss across the bit Subtract Pbit from stand pipe pressure to get Pc Plot a graph of Pc against Q on log-log paper and determine the slope to get n For the next bit run calculate Pbit using BHHP or IF equations Select nozzle size to for the value of Pbit calculated For particular rig and field the index n will not vary widely if the same parameters are used .0 1.50 1.5 1.The following table shows the value of n and R It shows that R decreases parabolic ally with increasing value of n.4o 1.8 1.45 1.2 1. but never assumes unity It means that the pressure loss calculated by BHHP is greater than that calculated by IF R as a function of n N R 1 1.36 2.33 Optimum flow rate Optimum flow rate is obtained by plotting circulating pressure versus Q The intersection of optimum Pc with the curve gives the optimum flow rate Field method of optimizing bit hydraulics Prior to POH current bit for next bit change.

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