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Posted on | April 23, 2009 | No Comments Checklist is a list of specific traits or behaviour arranged in logical order. Marks or check only when they are present. All checklist items should be positive, short, descriptive, understandable, parallel in constructions, objective, not judgemental, not repeated, and representative of behaviour. Advantages:
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Easy, quick, efficient Don¶t have to be trained to use it Can use in presence of the child or later Several observers can gather the same information to check for reliability Focus on many behaviours at one time Useful for curriculum planning for individuals
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³Closed´ in nature, can only observe what is stated in the checklist Limited to ³presence´ or ³absence´ of behaviour Lack of information about quality and duration of behaviour and a description
Posted on | April 16, 2009 | No Comments Time sampling
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Observe what happens in a given period of time Record the frequency of certain behaviour occurrence over time Behaviour must be overt and frequent (at least every 15 minutes) Observe specified behaviour of an individual or a group Record presence or absence of behaviour Can record whom children interact with Can record what experience they engaged with Can record experience of routine time Must prepare ahead of time (the specific behaviour, time interval, how to record) Duration recording, simply record ³1 (behaviour occur) or ³0 (does not occur) Event recording, shows the frequency of the behaviour event
wait for it to occur ABC analysis event sampling y y y y y Causes and result What precedes and what follows A = antecedent event B = behaviour C = consequent event . may miss important behaviour Does not describe the behaviour Does not keep units of behaviour intact Might be biased Limited to observable behaviours that occur frequently Focuses on one type of behaviour Event Sampling y y y y y y y y y Wait and record specific preselect behaviour Study condition under which particular behaviour occur Learn what triggers a particular behaviour How man time a certain behaviour occurs When behaviour occurs at odd times or infrequently Analysis of cause and effect Must define the event Determine setting Takes most advantageous position to observe the behaviour. one for observation and another for coding Advantages: y y y y y Less time and effort compare to narrative recording Objective and controlled Record one child or more child at one time Useful information on intervals and frequencies of behaviour Qualitative result Disadvantages: y y y y y y Not an open method.Concurrent time-sampling technique y y Single time unit stipulates how long the observer observes and records before moving on to next subject Observation and recording done at the same time Delayed time-sampling technique y Two separate time units.
Advantages: y y Flexible For research interests and questions Disadvantages: .net/2009/04/16/sampling-observation/ Observation using Target Child Method Posted on | April 26.irenelaw.Tally event sampling / frequency count / frequency event sampling y y y y y y Similar to ABC analysis event sampling Determine how often a specific event or behaviour occurs Record a tally or tick every time the behaviour occurs Qualitative data Useful for research Wide range of topics Advantages: y y y Event or behaviour intact. 2009 | No Comments Following the particular child around and take detailed field notes for analysis later. Favoured by education practitioners as it can help in improving learning environment for children. Recording on a pro forma or observation sheet in form of short-hand codes and long-hand details providing an account of what the child said. Use specifically on ³new´ child or ³problematic´ baby or whenever there is an obvious reason to get detailed observation of that particular child. allows easy analysis More objective as it¶s defined ahead of time Useful in examine infrequent or rarely occur behaviours Disadvantages: y y y Take the event out of context Closed method Misses the richness of detail http://www. do and with whom.
y y Hard to use Need qualified observer http://www. Must know the child well. Easier to construct but not easy to use. make objective judgment within limited time. shyness. scored by number of the behaviour that is circled Rate children for as long as it takes. will overlook other important traits/behaviour .net/2009/04/26/observation-using-target-child-method/ Observation using Rating Scales Posted on | April 24. friendliness Anyone can use Easier to score and quantify Disadvantages: y y Closed method Only for specific traits/behaviour. can average the scores if observe on daily average Number on scale also represent words Osgood scale aka semantic differential y y y Not easy to use 7-point range with adjectives of opposite (bipolar) meanings at either end A number of traits have to be included to have a comprehensive profile of the child Advantages: y y y y y y Easy to design Convenient Observe large number of traits at one time or more than one child aa time Measure difficult-to-quantify traits e.g. 2009 | No Comments Graphic Scales y y y y Similar behaviour could be listed on the same scale. interpret behaviour. Numerical scales y y y Numerical in form. Drawn horizontally or vertically.irenelaw.
It attempts to record everything that happens. where and when it happened in a factual objective manner Records after the observation. therefore a camcorder is recommended to ensure nothing is being left out Qualitative in nature Provides clear. an writing summaries for portfolios and useful for parents conference Disadvantges: y y y y Does not give complete picture Depend too much on memory as it¶s recorded after the event Incident taken out of contest.net/2009/04/24/observation-using-rating-scales/ Narrative Observation Posted on | April 13. 2009 | No Comments Narrative observation is the most popular. oldest. true-life account Conclusion in past tense Advantages: y y y y y y No special training Open-ended. how. and most informative method to record observation done on child. such as language development Useful for curriculum and instruction planning. record everything not restricted to one kind of behaviour Catch unexpected incident no matter when it occurs Look for and record the significant behaviour and ignore the rest Rich source of documentation for charting developmental growth. not useful in scientific studies .irenelaw. designing environment.y y y y Feature negative and also positive side of each trait Differentiating between each point and sometimes can be difficult Difficult to eliminate bias when judgment needs to be made immediately Different people has different way of interpreting a trait or behaviour http://www. interpreted incorrectly or in a biased manner Difficult to code/analyze narrative record. Anecdotal records y y y y y y Brief narrative Describes what happen.
comprehensive record not limited to particular incident Open-ended.irenelaw. more accurate No need special skill Can be referred to throughout the year Useful instructional planning Disadvantages: y y y y Time consuming Might be interrupted by the children along the way and cannot record accurately Not suitable for observing a group Keep away from the children but it¶s not easy for a teacher Common observer errors: y y y y Insufficient evidence Omitting some facts Record things that did not happen Record things out of order Guidelines: y y y y y y Record only the facts Record every details without omitting anything Do not interpret what you observe Do not record anything you do no see Use words that describe and not judge or interpret Record facts in order http://www. record anything. complete.Running records y y y y y Detailed narrative in sequential manner Sits or stands apart from the children and write everything at specific period Does not interpret any specific information Qualitative in nature Conclusion in past tense Advantages: y y y y y y Rich. not restricted Written at the time the incident happens.net/2009/04/13/narrative-observation/ .
Offer explanation of what is intended to be observed. Link theory and practice. Strategies for creating desired effects.Observation &Assessesment Posted on | April 7. Personalities and temperaments. Information is confidential. . Understand the child. Develop realistic curriculum and goals. Level of cognitive and social development. Attributes to observe: y y y y y Interest and preferences. Help in child growth and learning. Children needs to be involved as partners in process and documentation. 2009 | No Comments These are all short notes for my own reference. Ask questions that are developmentally appropriate. Offer child rights to refuse at anytime. Ethical issues: y y y y y y y Ensure families are comfortable with the observation and allow access to information if they request for it. Who to observe? y Children from own class or other class Who can observe? y y y Teacher/teacher¶s assistant Other staff in the child care centre or kindergarten if the teacher is busy. Most effective way to assess and determine the child progress. Why observe? y y y y y y y y Different child reacts differently. Take place in naturalistic environment. Help parents keep up to the the child¶s progress. Solve problem. Student interns. Skills and accomplishments.
Do not be act too obvious when you are observing certain child. The observer records everything seen. when to observe.net/2009/04/07/observation-assessesment/ Methods of Observing Young Children I Narrative The most popular method of recording child observations is "narrative recording. 4. If a child ask you what are you doing in the class." or a written description of children's actions. If a child ask you for help. http://www.When to observe? y Anytime of the day that is considered appropriate. Keep in the background. have balance of positive and negative feedback. Involve the children ± let children keep their records with materials. direct him/her to the teacher. Steps of observation: 1. Guidelines y y y y y y y Find comfortable place and with good view. Not limited to a particular incident like an anecdotal record. Include ³staff comments´. 6. 1. just tell something ambiguous such as you are writing. 2. Prepare to observe ± identify time that all staff can meet to discuss and determine techniques for observation. 3. Clarify observation goals ± why. Running records (or Descriptive Narrative Record) A detailed narrative account of behavior recorded in a sequential manner as it happens. Visit the classroom ± find a suitable spot in the classroom to do observation that will not cause distractions to the learning process. what. Describe records objectively without interpretation. 5. Ethics and confidentiality ± all information should be confidential. Organize for success ± prepare materials and identify place to keep records.irenelaw. .
. collected over the school year They are often written after the incident.Advantages 1. Rich in detail. Focus on behavior of interest and ignore other behaviors. Anecdotes describe y y y y y what happened how it happened when where what was said and done These are brief y y describe one incident they are cumulative. Time consuming. 3. Understand not only what behaviors occurred but also the context in which the behavior occurred. Does not require a great deal of training. not just one particular behavior. Advantages 1. 2. 4. 3. Focuses on all behaviors. 2. Observers keep themselves apart from the children which would be difficult for a teacher to do. but is difficult to use when observing a group. Works well for observing one individual. Anecdotal records A brief narrative account describing an incident of a child's behavior that is of interest to the observer. Disadvantages 1. 2.
II Samples Written samples of certain behaviors to discover how often. Observer can catch an unexpected incident no matter when it occurs. Time sampling: The observer records the frequency of a behavior's occurrence over time Involves observing specified behaviors of an individual or group. Disadvantages 1. Disadvantages 1. 3. 3. Counts of behavior can be used for research purposes.2. and limited Provides quantitative data or number of events Advantages 1. It provides useful information about the intervals or frequency of behavior. 2. how long. Less time consuming than running record. 4. Can record data on many children at once. 2. Depends on the memory of the observer. for it is usually recorded afterwards. Does not focus on all behaviors. Takes less time than running record and anecdotal records. and recording the presence or absence of this behavior during short intervals of uniform length Behavior is specified. or when a particular behavior occurs. may overlook important behaviors. defined. No special training needed for the observer. 4. . May miss important behaviors. Difficult to use for research purposes. 3.
2. 2. Does not have as much detail as running record or anecdotal record.2. Focuses on only one or a few behaviors. Notes the antecedents and consequences of the behavior unlike time sampling. 3. Advantages 1. Disadvantages 1. 2. does not focus on the causes and consequences of the behavior. It is limited to behaviors that occur frequently and not rare behaviors that might also be important. then an ABC analysis is used A = antecedent event B = behavior C = consequent event If frequency of occurrence is the focus. Context of behavior not noted. III Rating Scales Rating scales are observation tools that indicate the degree to which a person possesses a certain trait or behavior Each behavior is rated on a continuum from the lowest to highest level . note them each time they occur. A "unit of behavior" is defined and the setting in which it occurs is determined If studying causes or results of behaviors. Event sampling: The observer waits for and records a specific preselected behavior Used to study the conditions under which particular behaviors occur or the frequency of behaviors. Can be used to study infrequent behaviors. the recorder can record by counting rather than description.
Disadvantages 1. and where there is a distinct difference in the behavior 1. 3. Easy to score for research purposes. 2.. 5. or they can observe on a daily basis and then average the scores. The numbers on the scale also represent words. 4. Takes relatively little time to complete. It is a convenient way to observe may traits at once. . 3. Easy to use. They examine only specific behaviors/traits and may overlook other important behaviors. Ratings are subjective and raters may give biased responses.Rating scales work best where particular degrees of behavior are well defined. context of the behavior).g. 2. Sematic Differential: A rating scale using adjectives with opposite meanings at either end Advantages 1. Not as much detail about the behavior as other methods (e. Numerical Scales: A rating scale that is numerical in form Raters observe children for as long as it takes to circle a number for each item. Degrees of behavior/characteristic can be noted. rather than did the behavior occur or did it not occur. 1 = not at all like the child 2 = somewhat unlike the child 3 = neither like or unlike the child 4 = somewhat like the child 5 = a lot like the child 2.
Helps to focus observations on many behaviors at once. 5. one person who views the behavior of the child may believe the behavior occurs "often" and another observer may believe that it occurs "sometimes. 4. 3.4. Not very detailed. May miss important information not included on the checklist. Little information about the context or sequence of events. V Media Technique . 2. They can be used in the presence of the child or recorded later. Notes if a behavior occurred but not how often it occurs or the duration of the behavior. 4. Little training required. 6. Disadvantages 1. The response categories may be subject to personal interpretations. Something that happens once may not be very meaningful. activities can be planned to encourage certain behaviors that have not yet been observed." IV Checklists Checklists are lists of specific traits or behaviors arranged in logical order Check lists are especially useful for types of behavior or traits than can be easily and clearly specified Information from anecdotal and running records can be transferred to checklists to make interpretation easier Advantages 1. 2. Can be used to condense information from running record or anecdotal records. They are easy and quick to use. 3. Can be used for curriculum planning.
3. 2.. Current date.. Classroom location.htm . Videotapes: Record live actions of children for later observations and discussions Staff may observe with a checklist A group discussion of the tape can be recorded and added to the observational data.. Audiotapes: A tape can add depth to a written observation by recording a child's spoken language and/or verbal interactions with other children Speak child's name.edu/~mandrews/mary/obs__methods.msu.Capture moments on film and then write notes about what happened 1. what would be an appropriate plan for the student or patient? What should be done? What would be helpful? https://www. what conclusions did your reach? Are further assessments needed? Planning: Given what you know. Photographs. Objective: What did you actually observe? What are the objective behaviors that anyone could observe? What behaviors did you observe that led to your subjective impression? Assessment: Based on what you observed and your impressions. before placing the recorder on a table or counter Some observers speak into a cassette recorder instead of writing their observations Uses of Observations Subjective: What is impression of what happened during the time that you observed. Useful for discussion with other staff members who may not have witnessed the incident you observed Photo should be dated and placed with the recorded notes.
checklists and verbatim reporting. Child Observation Methods ± Time Sampling . interactions and behaviours.Be the change you want to see in the world . Narrative reports must be written in the present tense without the use of jargon and extra information may be beneficial in regards to setting the scene. time sampling. This form of child observation typically lasts for a short period of time and requires the observer to try to remain as unnoticed as possible as any interaction with those being observed is likely to have an impact upon the child¶s behaviour. effective observational skills include being able to record data using a variety of observation methods such as event-sampling. Through observing children powerful insight may be gained into children¶s progress. Benefits of Child Observation The main benefit of undertaking child observations is that in doing so one is able to learn more about developmental issues such as language. event sampling. There are five key child observation methods including: Narrative reports Time sampling Event sampling Checklists Verbatim reporting Child Observation Methods ± Narrative Reports Narrative or written reports basically involve simply watching an individual child or group of children and writing down in note-form what has been seen. head and eye movements and how the child uses objects such as toys or play materials. time-sampling and narrative reports. 2010 | Author:admin | Filed under:Child Development | Tags:Development | No Comments » Five key observation methods used to assess young children include narrative reports.Gandhi Observation Methods for Assessing Child Development Posted: June 1st. learning. Observation is a practical research tool which provides valuable sources of information in terms of others people¶s development. communication and social skills. Within child research. Observation is also recognised by childcare and health professionals an important means of being able to asses children. facial expressions. The observer must try to record in as much detail as possible verbal utterances. abilities and weaknesses.
checklists and verbatim reporting. As highlighted above. Different intervals of time are selected in order to best suit the purpose of the observation and provide as much information as possible.com/article.suite101.Time sampling is a economical and efficient approach to child observation involving recording at regular intervals what a child is doing and this approach also focuses on pre-selected behaviours taking place within certain time periods. there are several benefits of child observations which include providing essential information for assessment of areas such as language or social development. event sampling.org/?p=5132 . Key observation methods including time sampling.cfm/observation-methods-for-assessingchild-development Tags: Development http://socato. Source: Woods et al. (1998) Early Childhood Studies: An Holistic Introduction http://early-childhood-development. Examples of time sampling observations include recording a child¶s concentration whilst being read to in the home environment or observing a child¶s level of social interaction at playtime in the pre-school or nursery setting. narrative reports. A key benefit of the time sampling method is that it offers no restrictions on the types of behaviour to be observed whilst allowing for multiple recording techniques.
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