History According to Bullington: The Study Guide

Test 1, Sept. 8-9: WWI and Handouts
Important note: Summarizing Bullington lectures is a somewhat subjective process. They are just slightly ADD. So these study guides are an approximation of the subjectivity, anecdotes, and opinion that he teaches; they come as close as can be estimated to what’s on the tests.

I The PRAISE Model
Way to study multiple characteristics & causes of an event

P olitics R eligion A rts → Most important acc. to Sir Kenneth Clarke I ntelligentsia S ociety E conomics → Most important acc. to Bullington

II Long Term-Causes of WWI: the four-part list
The four most important and universal causes of war, acc. to Bullington and A.J.P. Taylor.


Sense of patriotic superiority; only extreme cases are harmful, eg. Racism: “God is an Englishman”

Sub-category: Group of people, previously an imperial colony, self-determination desiring independence. RESULT of imperialism.


Economic and political dominance of one people over another for economic gain.

NOT to be confused Colonialism, the spreading of a people to with: unoccupied land.

Militarism Alliances2

Stopping of diplomatic relations in favor of glorification of war—leads to an arms race. System of hypothetical agreements in which each nation promises to help the other in case of war

III European Revolutions, pre-war period
Agricultural: Genetic experimentation → More Food More Food → Population growth Industrial: Machines replace People Economic wealth leads to social status Spencerism: aka “Social Darwinism” – Some people are smarter and thus superior to others; WEALTH = SUPERIORITY e.g., CASTA system in Spain; divided by birth,

but as economics and capitalism change, wealth becomes a factor.

PRE-WWI: GERMANY leads economic market.
Remember, NATIONALISM: Determined by Ethnicity, Religion, and Racism.

IV World War I Alliances
Dates are for relative purposes only; don’t worry much about them.

1873: Three Emperors’ League Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia 1879: Dual Alliance Germany + A-H Defensive against Russia; neutral to France 1882: Dual → Triple Alliance (Italy joins) Then Bismarck gets fired. Three Emperor’s League changes: Russia out. New Dual Alliance: Opposing the Triple Alliance Russia + France Boer War: Britain is feeling isolated—they try, and fail, to ally with Germany 1904: Entente cordiale Britain + France: big shock to Europe! 1907: Entente cordiale becomes Triple Entente Russia joins Britain and France

Germany sees this as encirclement. Pre-WWI: Irredentia/Treaty of London Italy leaves Triple Alliance for Triple Entente Because they are promised Adriatic land. No firm statements existed about what would happen if war broke out. Acc. to Fitzgerald, “the alliances were not rigid or static”—which meant anything could happen.

ALLIANCES as of July 28, 1914
Triple Entente Triple Alliance Britain Germany France A-H Russia (Bulgaria) ITALY: Now allied with Entente.

V Events leading to War in Europe
1. Annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovinia by AH, 1908 Imperialism leads to self-determination! “Union or Death” and “Black Hand Society” Pan-Slavism 2. First and Second Moroccan Crises 1st: Algercias conference: Germany isolated. 2nd: Germany resorts to militarism 3. First and Second Balkan Wars, 1912-1913 Slavs and Greeks v. Ottoman Empire

4. 28 June 1914: Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand at Sarajevo (in Serbia) by Gavrillo Princip

This IS an important date. Memorize it.
VI War begins: Characters and Actions
1. Austria-Hungary blames Serbia for assass’n: 24-HOUR IMPOSSIBLE ULTIMATUM3 (see last page) 2. A-H diplomats von Holtzendorf and von Berchtold go to Germany to ask assistance of German diplomat Bethmon-Holweig

->BLANK CHECQUE from Germany—huge incentive to A-H!
3. 28 July: Franz Josef declares war on Serbia. A-H mobilizes half its troops—the true first act of war 4. Russia, “protector of the Slavic people,” reluctantly follows suit: Russia mobilizes against A-H to defend Serbia 5. Kaiser Wilhelm thinks Russia is mobilizing directly against Germany, so Germany mobilizes against Russia

A.J.P. Taylor: “Once the trains start moving, they cannot be stopped.” Germany forms SCHLIEFFEN PLAN:
France is Germany’s greatest threat; troops are concentrated there. Russia is second. To attack France, Germany will go through Belgium, around Paris, and toward French/German border from behind. Last-minute peace attempt: by the Kaiser Offer of Alsace-Lorraine (then belonging to Germany) for French neutrality Helmut von Moltke in Stoessinger: the IRON DICE are rolling. It’s too late to stop. Peace attempt is abandoned.

1 AUGUST 1914
German Troops enter Luxembourg through Lichtenstein, heading for France. “God Help Us.” End Test Timeline Special Notes 1: Bullington considers Nationalism, and especially the desire for self-determination, the most important of the four causes of war. 2: Fitzgerald claims that the confusing lattice of Alliances were the most important cause, or at least excuse, for war. 3: Austria-Hungary’s Impossible Ultimatum to Serbia:

1 Dissolution of Serbian Nationalist Groups 2 Dismissal of Key Military Officers 3 Arrest of leading politicians 4 24 hour response
That’s it for the study guide! Other advised study materials: Three readings: Fitzerald pts 1 and 2, and Stoessinger’s Iron Dice Lecture notes Bullington one-page summary handout

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