Done by: Melissa Adams Sharmela Brijmohan

‡ Atomic number:20

‡ Atomic mass: 40.078

‡ It is the most abundant mineral in the body.

Benefits of adequate calcium throughout life may include:

± Prevention of osteoporosis ± Lowered blood pressure ± A lower incidence of colon cancer ± Weight maintenance

such as the blood. including: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Clotting of blood after injury Nerve conduction Muscle contraction Enzyme regulation Control of blood pressure .Benefits of adequate calcium throughout life ‡ Bones and teeth contain 99 percent of all calcium in the body. The other 1 percent is distributed within cells and in body fluids. This small percentage is extremely important in maintaining body functions.

pancakes. oranges. Some of the foods in the other group can be significant contributors to total calcium intake when eaten frequently as some foods are fortified with calcium GOOD CALCIUM SOURCES OTHER CALCIUM CONTAINING FOODS . carrots. eggs.HIGH CALCIUM SOURCES SOURCES OF CALCIUM than 100 Contain 200 mg or Contain 100-190 mg Contain less more of calcium per calcium per serving serving and include and include foods foods such as such as milk. mustard greens. dates. almonds. and salmon and sardines turnip greens. spinach. broccoli. figs. mg calcium per serving and include foods such as cottage cheese. cheeses. hard ice cream. with the bones. orange juice. custard. and blackstrap molasses. canned tofu. and molasses. corn tortillas. yogurt. dried beans. raisins.

300 mg 1.300 mg 1.000 mg .Recommended Daily value of Calcium AGE MALE FEMALE PREGNANT LACTATING Birth to 6 months 7-12 months 1-3 years 4-8 years 9-13 years 14-18 years 19-50 years 50+ years 210 mg 270 mg 500 mg 800 mg 1.000 mg 1.200 mg 1.300 mg 1.000 mg 1.300 mg 1.200 mg 210 mg 270 mg 500 mg 800 mg 1.000 mg 1.300 mg 1.300 mg 1.

METABOLISM OF CALCIUM( CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS) ‡ Calcium Homeostasis is an important mechanism adapted by body cells to keep normal levels in order for metabolic and physiologic functions to be carried out. and receptor cells. blood. Regulation is important to prevent Hypercalcaemia (high calcium levels) and Hypocalcaemia (low calcium levels) . The mechanism utilizes hormones.

The ability to decrease blood calcium levels at least in part by effects on two well-studied target organs: .METABOLISM OF CALCIUM( CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS) ‡ FUNCTION OF CALCITONIN ‡ Calcitonin is a hormone that controls the calcium concentration in the body by maintaining a proper calcium level in the bloodstream and is secreted from the parafollicular cells of the Thyroid gland. This function of calcitonin helps maintain normal blood levels of these minerals while helping to maintain a strong bone matrix. ‡ Hypercalcaemia triggers the stimulation of calcitonin and means that no more calcium will be removed from the bones until there is a real need for more calcium in the blood. ‡ Calcitonin decreases the reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from the bones to the blood thereby lowering blood levels of these minerals.

) ‡ Kidney: Calcium and phosphorus are prevented from being lost in urine by reabsorption in the kidney tubules.METABOLISM OF CALCIUM( CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS) ‡ FUNCTION OF CALCITONIN ‡ Bone: Calcitonin suppresses resorption of bone by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts. releasing calcium and phosphorus into blood. leading to increased rates of their loss in urine . (a cell type that "digests" bone matrix. Calcitonin inhibits tubular reabsorption of these two ions.

the concentration of phosphate ion in blood is reduced .METABOLISM OF CALCIUM( CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS) ‡ FUNCTION OF PARATHORMONE ‡ Parathyroid Hormone is secreted from the Parathyroid glands located behind the Thyroid gland and its effects are antagonistic to Calcitonin. ‡ In conjunction with increasing calcium concentration. ‡ It is secreted in response to low blood calcium levels and it' affect is to increase those levels.

PTH stimulates this process. Vitamin D induces synthesis of a calcium-binding protein in intestinal epithelial cells that facilitates efficient absorption of calcium into blood. PTH puts a brake on excretion of calcium in urine. Bone calcium is bonded to phosphorus in a compound that is called calcium phosphate. phosphorus is released along with it. but indirectly by stimulating production of the active form of vitamin D in the kidney. This effect is mediated by stimulating tubular reabsorption of calcium..METABOLISM OF CALCIUM( CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS) ‡ FUNCTION OF PARATHORMONE ‡ Parathyroid hormone accomplishes its job by stimulating at least three processes: ± Mobilization of calcium from bone: PTH increases the stimulation of the number and the size of specialized bone cells called osteoclasts. Another effect of PTH on the kidney is to stimulate loss of phosphate ions in urine . thus conserving calcium in blood.. ± Enhancing absorption of calcium from the small intestine: Facilitating calcium absorption from the small intestine would clearly serve to elevate blood levels of calcium. So when calcium is released into the bloodstream. Suppression of calcium loss in urine: In addition to stimulating fluxes of calcium into blood from bone and intestine.

cyst like cavities appear in the bone and spontaneous fractures result. It may also lead to a bone disease called osteitis fibrosa cystica where the bone mass decreases. . ‡ Hyperparathyroidism or and excessive secretion of PTH leads to an increase in the osteoclast activity that removes calcium from the bones and excretes it into the bloodstream. which trigger muscle contraction.METABOLISM OF CALCIUM( CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS) ‡ FUNCTION OF PARATHORMONE ‡ Hypoparathyroidism or insufficient secretion of PTH leads to increased nerve excitability. This increase in calcium in the blood may lead to kidney stones or a buildup of mineral deposits that can be found in abnormal places. The low blood calcium levels trigger spontaneous and continuous nerve impulses. decalcification occurs.



Rickets in children: continued formation of collagen matrix of bone. diOH D3 CLINICAL APPLICATIONS: CLINICAL APPLICATIONS: Vitamin D deficiency causes a net demineralization of bone resulting in: matrix of bone.OH-D3 Main storage form of Vitamin D 1. NADPH. incomplete mineralization. continued formation of collagen Vitamin D deficiency causes a net demineralization of bone resulting in: increases . molecular oxygen Stimulated PTH.Dihydroxycholecalciferol 1. PHOSPHORUS Inhibited 1.diOH-D3 25-hydroxycholecalciferol 1-hydroxylase utilizing Cytochrome P450. of pre-existing soft pliable Osteomalacia in adults: demineralizationresulting inbone increases bones susceptibility to fractures Chronic Kidney Failure Leads to damage of the enzyme to convert inactive Vitamin D to Active form in order for calcium to be absorbed. 25.25. susceptibility to fractures Chronic Kidney Failure Leads to damage of the enzyme to convert inactive Vitamin Osteomalacia in adults: demineralization of pre-existing bone D to Active form in order for calcium to be absorbed.plants animals ergocalciferol cholecalciferol catalyzed by the liver by a specific hydroxylase 25. incomplete children: resulting in soft pliable bones Rickets inmineralization. 25.Hydroxycholecalciferol 25.

MAGNESIUM ‡ Atomic number: 12 ‡ Atomic mass: 24. the phosphate binds up the magnesium into magnesium phosphate. etc. ‡ Potassium and magnesium are the most abundant cations found within the cells of the body with magnesium being the most abundant divalent cation ‡ If a diet is high in phosphorus (common in many meat dishes as lunch meats. and also in soda drinks).3050 ‡ Magnesium is a critical co-factor in more than 300 enzymatic reactions in the human body. which isn't absorbed. Thus you need more magnesium for complete balance . hot dogs.

At least half of the magnesium in the body is combined with calcium and phosphorus in the bones. When large amounts of calcium are consumed. If a person is using diuretics (water pills). you need more magnesium.MAGNESIUM ‡ In disease and stress states. the more magnesium is needed. he should make sure his magnesium intake is adequate. The higher the protein you consume. and it makes the teeth harder. Children with magnesium deficiency are very often mentally backward. poor circulation and glandular disorders. The remainder is in the muscles. Approximately 70 percent of the magnesium in the body is found in the skeletal system. Potassium supplementation is usually needed also. Normal development apparently depends on the presence of magnesium. Adequate intake of magnesium counteracts acidity. Magnesium ensures the strength and firmness of the bones. red blood cells and the other tissues of the body. more magnesium is needed. ‡ ‡ .

± Activates cellular enzymatic activity. vitamin C. ± Important for calcium. ± Anti-stress . ± Important for converting blood sugar into energy. phosphorus.FUNCTIONS OF MAGNESIUM ± Needed for the proper functioning of muscles and nerves (inhibitory to muscle contraction). sodium and potassium metabolism.

and can even aid in the recovery from a heart attack or stroke. ± Magnesium also aids in maintaining healthy blood pressure levels. . Because of its benefits in relieving stiff muscles. ± The mineral magnesium can significantly lower the chance of heart attacks and strokes. ± Magnesium also helps maintain proper muscle function. bladder and in the joints. ± Magnesium is useful in preventing unwanted calcification in the kidney. magnesium can be especially beneficial to fibromyalgia patients. It works to keep muscles properly relaxed.BENEFITS OF MAGNESIUM ± Magnesium also is vital for maintaining a healthy heart. ± Magnesium helps stabilize the rhythm of the heart and helps prevent abnormal blood clotting in the heart.

dry roasted. 1 cup Potato. ½ cup Nuts. baked w/ skin. instant. ½ cup Spinach. 1 ounce MILLIGRAMS (mg) 90 80 75 75 75 65 55 55 50 50 % DV 20 20 20 20 20 15 15 15 15 15 . cooked. cooked. 1 ounce Cereal.SOURCES OF MAGNESIUM FOOD Halibut. 3 ounces Almonds. 1 ounce Cashews. dry roasted. cooked. prepared w/ water. fortified. 2 rectangular biscuits Oatmeal. frozen. 1 medium Peanuts. dry roasted. mature. dry roasted. 1 ounce Soybeans. mixed. shredded wheat.

½ cup Wheat Germ. 2 Tablespoons Black-eyed Peas. long-grained. ½ cup Pinto Beans. cooked. raw.SOURCES OF MAGNESIUM FOOD Wheat Bran. ½ cup Rice. plain. ½ cup Avocado. cooked. skim milk. ½ cup pureed Kidney Beans. ½ cup Yogurt. ½ cup Vegetarian Baked Beans. canned. brown. ½ cup Lentils. mature seeds. cooked. cooked. California. crude. 8 fluid ounces Bran Flakes. 1 medium MILLIGRAMS( mg) 45 45 45 40 40 40 35 35 35 35 35 33 30 % DV 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 . crude. 2 Tablespoons Chocolate milk. 1 cup Banana.

RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE OF MAGNESIUM LIFE STAGE Infants Infants Children Children Children Adolescents Adults Adults Pregnancy Pregnancy Pregnancy Breast Feeding Breast Feeding Breast Feeding AGE 0 ² 6 months 7 ² 12 months 1 ² 3 years 4 ² 8 years 9 ² 13 years 14 ² 18 years 19 ² 30 years 31 years & older 18 years & younger 19 ² 30 years 31 years & older 18 years & younger 19 ² 30 years 31 years & older MALES mg/day 30 (AI) 75 (AI) 80 130 240 410 400 420 - FEMALES mg/day 30 (AI) 75(AI) 80 130 240 360 310 320 400 350 360 360 310 320 .

medullary-thyroid and the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans ± It is interesting to note that the three types of glands that control calcium and potassium metabolism (medullary-thyroid. parathyroid. and the amounts of calcium.METABOLISM OF MAGNESIUM( MAGNESIUM HOMEOSTASIS) ± Four types of glands are involved in magnesium homeostasis: medullary-adrenal. phosphate and lactose (milk sugar) in the body . parathyroid and the beta pancreas) exercise in parallel fashion added regulatory effects on magnesium metabolism ± The absorption of magnesium from the intestines may be influenced by ‡ the parathyroid hormone. ‡ the condition of the intestines ‡ the rate of water absorption.

and the rest is distributed between the blood. about 1% is found in extracellular fluid (20-30% bound to protein. this process is thought to occur by means of calcium channels and ion transport mechanisms. The kidney controls the homeostasis of magnesium. organs and other tissue ± Over half of the body s magnesium is stored in the bone. particularly muscle. the rest free) and the rest is in soft tissues. magnesium appears to influence the properties of various cell membranes. ± Extracellular magnesium in serum is 33% protein bound. . of which approximately 65% is found in bone and teeth. 12% complexed to anions. At the cellular level.METABOLISM OF MAGNESIUM( MAGNESIUM HOMEOSTASIS) ± There are about 19 g of Mg in the average 70 kg adult body. and 55% in the free ionized form. body fluids.

through competition for binding sites on actin and via changes in the adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP system. ± ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ± At the cellular level. . It is also involved in DNA transcription and protein synthesis. the main source of energy in cells. must be bound to a magnesium ion in order to be biologically active. magnesium also serves as a cofactor for many intracellular enzymes that generate energy via hydrolysis of ATP.METABOLISM OF MAGNESIUM( MAGNESIUM HOMEOSTASIS) ± Calcium flux is inhibited by magnesium from sarcolemmal membranes. The next known physiologic role of magnesium involving cell membranes pertains specifically to its interrelationship with the sodium-potassium-ATPase pump. Magnesium is responsible for the maintenance of transmembrane gradients of sodium and potassium.

including those associated with DNA and RNA synthesis. Muscle potassium becomes depleted as magnesium deficiency develops. . ± Magnesium depletion depresses both cellular and extracellular potassium and exacerbates the effects of lowpotassium diets on cellular potassium content.METABOLISM OF MAGNESIUM( MAGNESIUM HOMEOSTASIS) ± Magnesium plays a role in the stability of all polyphosphate compounds in the cells. and tissue repletion of potassium is virtually impossible unless magnesium status is restored to normal.

METABOLISM OF MAGNESIUM( MAGNESIUM HOMEOSTASIS) ± Calcium and magnesium belong to a group of "parasympathetic" elements (which includes chromium and copper). Cu. Mg. which are proinflammatory when high: INFLAMMATORY LOW AMOUNTS DEGENERATIVE HIGH AMOUNTS <--------------------------------------. in contrast to elements such as potassium or iron. that exhibit anti-inflammatory or degenerative properties at higher amounts. magnesium and phosphorus .Ca. Cr------------------------> ‡ Adequate Vitamin D levels will assist intestinal absorption of calcium.

probably by inhibition of Mgdependent adenylate cyclase. ‡ Magnesium overload (MO). directly causes an increased production of cAMP in the cell. like an excess of catecholamines.METABOLISM OF MAGNESIUM(MAGNESIUM HOMEOSTASIS) ‡ UNDERSTANDING NEUROENDOCRINE FEEDBACK ‡ Magnesium deficit (MD) falling short of the amount) directly causes a reduced production of cAMP in the cell. probably by stimulation of adenylate cyclase . (cAMP acts as a second messenger system under the stimulation of the autonomic nervous sytem) ‡ The organism responds by stimulation of the presynaptic sympathetic fibers (and of the medullary-adrenal glands which produce catecholamines (especially noradrenalin) which in turn stimulate the cAMP-responsive beta receptors.

. 1&2) which then activates enzymes such as adenylate cyclase or phospholipase C.UNDERSTANDING THE NEUROENDOCRINE FEEDBACK ‡ The organism reacts by slowing the response of the sympathetic fibers and of the medullary-adrenal glands which inhibits production of catecholamines and therefore of cAMP. ‡ Excess secretion of adrenaline/ noradrenalin (epinephrine/norepinephrine) ultimately stimulates adrenergic receptors ( 1 &2.



Philadelphia USA Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Calcium < 2008.DR.htm>(2009/08/10) Calcitonin<http://www.colostate. 2008/05/20. Saunders-Elsevier. FERRIER.html> (2009/08/10) MICHAEL B. Philadelphia USA LINDA S. SCHACHTER 1996 <http://www.R Donnelley & Sons.htm> (2009/08/10) On the importance of Magnesium.BIBLIOGRAPHY ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ PAMELA C.H. HENRY & DENISE 2006.nih. COSTANZO.asp> (2009/08/11) Calcium (2009/07/09) <> (2009/08/10) . . <http://www.chelationtherapyonline. Lippincott s Illustrated Reviews. PHYSIOLOGY 3RD EDITION. Biochemistry 4th Edition.html>(2009/08/10) Parathyroid Hormone <http://www.RAY> (2009/08/11) Endocrine System 1 for Medical Assistants <http://www. RICHARD

com/durexfgs.BIBLIOGRAPHY ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Benefits of> (2009/08/11) Magnesium <http://www. 2005/04/09.shtml> (2009/08/11) Hypermagnesaemia 2007/10/11< http://emedicine.htm> (2009/08/10) Magnesium.nih. <http://health.hoptechno.vitaminsupps.htm> (2009/08/10) Function of Magnesium in the body <http://hubpages. <http://ods.od.asp> (2009/08/10) Magnesium Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA).com/hub/Function_of_Magnesium_in_the_Body> (2009/08/10) Food sources of Magnesium<> (2009/08/10) Magnesium metabolism. 2008/04/10 <http://www.htm> (2009/08/11) Magnesium <http://www.blogspot. ELIZABETH <> (2009/08/10) Magnesium in Biology<>(2009/08/11) .html> (2009/08/11) Magnesium Online Library <> (2009/08/10) <

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful