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Basic Guide on Train Operation

Basic Guide on Train Operation

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Published by Amar Singh
Basic information om rolling stock,various type of locos used in IR ,yards ,signaling and train operation ...
Basic information om rolling stock,various type of locos used in IR ,yards ,signaling and train operation ...

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Published by: Amar Singh on May 18, 2011
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Basic guide on Train operation **Indian Railway

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Collected BY:Amar Singh JE Mechanical KOTA WCR

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Freight Stock Coaching stock Yard operations Loco data Signal system

Index *** 1. Freight stock and it’s classification 2.

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Freight Wagons
Q. What are the loading gauge restrictions (maximum dimensions) on IR wagons? Please see the 1971 standards for rolling stock dimensions and also the older, 1929 standards for rolling stock dimensions. Also of potential interest in this connection are the dimensions of tracks.

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Q. How are freight cars classified by IR? The following codes are used now for classifying freight cars. The classification scheme is not entirely systematic. Older wagons especially have codes that are not easily explained in this way. But in general an optional gauge code is followed by a type code which is followed by an indication of the coupler and whether the wagon is air-braked.

Gauge code o M : (prefix) MG o N : (prefix) NG Wagon type code o B : (prefix) Bogie wagon (sometimes omitted) o BV : Brake van o V : Brake/parcel van (see above for brake van codes) o O : Open wagon (gondola) o C : Covered wagon (boxcar) o F : Flat car o FK : Flat car for container transport o FU : Well wagon o LA : Low flat car with standard buffer height o LB : Low flat car with low buffer height o LAB : Low flat car, one end with low buffers, the other with high buffers o R : Rail-carrying wagon o T : Tanker (additional letters indicate material carried) o U : Well wagon o W : Well wagon o K : Open wagon: ballast / material / refuse transport (older wagons) o C : Centre discharge o S : Side discharge o R : Rapid (forced) discharge, bottom discharge o X : Both centre and side discharge o X: (also?) High sided o Y : Low (medium?) side walls o L : Low sided o H : Heavy load

The ‘B’ indication is sometimes omitted as all new wagons are bogie stock. Following the type code in the classification code a letter may denote the type of coupler, nowadays optional, as all new freight cars are fitted with centre buffer couplers (CBC). An 'N' suffix is for 'pneumatic', or air-braked wagons. Most new stock that is air-braked also has CBC couplers, so the 'C' is usually dropped. E.g., BOXN for air-braked BOX wagons, not BOXCN. Almost all the older stock is vacuum-braked.

Coupler, brake, and other suffixes: o C = Centre buffer coupler (CBC) o R = Screw coupling only o T = Transition coupler (CBC with additional side buffers and screw coupling) o N = Air-braked o M = (suffix) Military 4

Most wagons are made of steel, except for a few special-purpose wagons. Some specialized wagons have been made with stainless steel or special steel alloys to reduce corrosion. Some Recently [12/04] with the rising price of steel IR has been looking into using steel substitutes, and plans have also been drawn up for the production of aluminum-body wagons (see BOBNAL, BOBRAL below). It is thought that about 750 aluminum wagons will be built in 2005-2006. Interestingly, some of these are said to be of a 4-wheel design. The tare weight is expected to be reduced by about 4.2 tones. A few aluminum wagons are already in use on a trial basis. Aluminum wagons besides being of a lower cost and having a lower tare weight also have the advantage of suffering less corrosion in many circumstances. A typical rake with aluminum wagons instead of steel ones would carry almost 240t more goods. As seen in the permanent way section, many BG routes have rails that allow axle loads of up to 25t, or in many cases 22.5t. However, normal operating procedures on IR restrict BG wagons to 20.3t of axle load. Now [3/05] it has been proposed that this be raised to 23t. Descriptions of some wagon types follow below. BOX:High-sided bogie open wagon. Side discharge arrangement 55 ton capacity, 25 ton tare. Used for coal and other bulk goods. About 7,000 of these are in use [2006]; this class is in decline since the advent of the BOXN and other variants. There used to be over 14,000 of these in the 1990s, and about 8,800 as late as 2005. BOXT, BOXR, and BOXC are the same with transition, screw, and CBC couplers, respectively. BOXN: High-sided bogie open wagon with pneumatic brakes, high tensile CBC couplers, CASNUB cast steel bogies, cartridge tapered roller bearings. Perhaps the most common wagon, there are around 64,000 or more of these in use [20022006]. Used for bulk movement of material commodities (coal, iron ore, stone, etc.). Max. axle load 20.32t Spring grouping per bogie - outer 12 Spring grouping per bogie - inner 8 Tare 22.47t Payload (RDSO spec.) 58.81t Payload (revised, incl. tolerance) 64+2 = 66t (RC 13/2007) Gross load (RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 81.28t Gross load (revised, incl. tolerance) 86.47+2 = 88.47t Capacity 56.3m3 Width 3.2m Height 3.225m Length over headstock 9.784m Length over coupler faces 10.71m Distance between bogie centers 6.524m Standard rake size (2007) 59 Total train load (incl. BVZC, RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 4809.3t Total train load (incl. BVZC, CC+8+2) 5399.32 (BOXNM1) A.L. - 22.9 tt Total train load (incl. BVZC, revised, incl. tolerance) 5233.53t 5

RDSO design speed (loaded) RDSO design speed (empty)

60 (CC+8+2), 75 (CC) 80 (CC+8+2), 80 (CC)

AAR 'E' high-tensile coupler with high-capacity draft gear. CASNUB 22 NLB Cast Steel bogies. Air brakes and parking brakes. Rated speed 80km/h (some older ones were rated at 75km/h). BOXN-HA: The BOXNHA type is a BOXN variant with improved bogies and higher capacity, fit for 100km/h. (Suffix 'HA' = 'high axle load'.) Uses IRF 108HS cast steel bogies with secondary suspension, CBC couplers, and single-pipe air brakes. The wagon is similar to the BOXN wagon in length and width, but taller by 225mm. Rake loads rise to 3783t from the 3411t of ordinary BOXN wagons. These wagons were designed for higher speed (100km/h) operations with higher axle loads (22.1t for coal, 23.5t for iron ore). 301 of these wagons were produced between Nov. 1999 and March 2000 and at first allocated to the Hospet - Chennai section. However, the track on this section could not handle the higher axle loads (the wagons required 52kg 90 UTS rails) and upgrade plans were dropped, so the decision was made to run the BOXN-HA wagons with reduced loading and stop the manufacture of more of them. About 400 more of them were eventually manufactured before production was halted permanently. RDSO later developed the BOXN-HS variants (see below) which later became more widely used for high-speed iron ore and coal loads. BOXN-HA production has not resumed although now many main line sections have 60kg rails and are quite capable of handling the wagons' higher axle loads. It appears that the poor condition of some bridges and other track structures may have been the reason behind halting the BOXNHA production. Had this wagon come into general use, freight rakes of 5220 tones could have been run. These wagons number about 731 as of 2006. Max. axle load Spring grouping per bogie - outer Spring grouping per bogie - inner Tare Payload (RDSO spec.) Payload (revised, incl. tolerance) Gross load (RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) Gross load (revised, incl. tolerance) Capacity Width Height Length over headstock Length over coupler faces Distance between bogie centers Standard rake size (2007) Total train load (incl. BVZC, RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) Total train load (incl. BVZC, CC+8+2) Total train load (incl. BVZC, revised, incl. tolerance) RDSO design speed (loaded) 22.9t Some variants 23.5t. 14 14 23.17t 65.23t 66+2 = 68t (RC 102/2007) 88.40t 91.17t NA 3200mm 3450mm 9780mm 10713mm NA 59 5229.4t NA 5392.8t 60km/h (22.9t), 100km/h (20.32t)

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RDSO design speed (empty) BOXN-HS- BOXNHS wagons are converted BOXN wagons fitted with CASNUB HS high-speed bogies raising the max. Speed to 100km/h. Developed by RDSO after the BOXN-HA wagons didn't work out; it has an 8% lower capacity compared to the BOXN-HA. Many BOXN-HS wagons have been seen [8/05] with a name, 'Pragati', stenciled on them. It is not known whether these represent some sort of class name or a variant design.

65km/h (22.9t), 100km/h (20.32tkm/h

1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

Length over head stock (mm) 9784 Length over couplers (mm) 10713 Length inside (mm) 9784 Width inside/Width Overall (mm) 2950/3200 Height inside/Height(max.)from RL. 1950/3233 Bogie centers (mm) 6524 Journal length × dia. (mm) 144x278 Journal centers (mm) 2260

9. Wheel dia. on tread (New/Worn) (mm) 1000/906 10. Height of C.B.C. from R.L. (mm) 1105 11. C.G. from R.L. (empty) (m) 1.016 12. C.G. from R.L. (loaded) (m) 1.974 13. Floor area (Sq.M) 28.87 14. Cubic Capacity (Cu.M) 56.29 15. Maximum axle load (tonne) 20.32 16. Tare Weight (tonne) 23.2 17. Pay load (tonne) 58.08 18. Gross load (Pay+Tare) (tonne) 81.28 19. Ratio gross load/Tare 3.5 20. Ratio (Pay load to tare) 2.5 21. Track Loading density (tonnes/meter) 7.59 22. No. of wagons per train 58 23. Brake System Air Brake 24. Coupler C.B.C. 25. Bearing R.B. 26. Maximum Speed (Loaded) 100KMPH (Empty)100KMPH

BOXN-HL: BOXNHL wagons are like BOXNHS wagons but about 250mm longer, and made of stainless steel and cold rolled sections. Air-braked, CBC couplers, roller bearings.

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Max. axle load Spring grouping per bogie - outer Spring grouping per bogie - inner Tare Payload (RDSO spec.)

22.9t 14 14 20.6t 71.0t 70t Payload (revised, incl. tolerance) (RC 29/2009) Gross load (RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 91.6t Gross load (revised, incl. tolerance) 90.6t Capacity 61.05m3 Width 3250mm Height 3301mm Length over headstock 10034mm Length over coupler faces 10963mm Distance between bogie centers 6690mm 58 Standard rake size (2007) (RC 05/2009) Total train load (incl. BVZC, RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 5326.6t Total train load (incl. BVZC, CC+8+2) NA Total train load (incl. BVZC, revised, incl. tolerance) 5268.6t RDSO design speed (loaded) 75km/h RDSO design speed (empty) 100km/h BOXN-CR: BOXNCR wagons are corrosion-resistant BOXN wagons built with 3CR12 stainless steel (a proprietary version of grade 409 stainless steel). Only about 580 of these (10 rakes) have been built so far [4/02] as part of ongoing service trials. Note: In 2006, IR's published statistics reported holdings of only 286 of these wagons; it's not clear whether this is a clerical error or whether nearly 300 of them have been retired/scrapped in recent years. BOXN-LW: The BOXNLW wagons are low-tare-weight BOXN wagons ('LW' = 'low weight') the tare weight is reduced by 1.8t compared to BOXN wagons, and the payload correspondingly increased by the same amount. This wagon has a stainless steel body to reduce corrosion. About 250 of these (4 rakes) have been bult so far [12/04] as part of ongoing service trials Air-braked, CBC coupler, roller bearings.. Max. axle load Spring grouping per bogie - outer Spring grouping per bogie - inner Tare Payload (RDSO spec.) Payload (revised, incl. tolerance) Gross load (RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) Gross load (revised, incl. tolerance) Capacity Width 20.32t 12 8 20.41t 60.87t 81.28t -t 61.09m3 3250mm 8

Height 3341mm Length over headstock 9784mm Length over coupler faces 10713mm Distance between bogie centers 6524mm Standard rake size (2007) 59 Total train load (incl. BVZC, RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 4809.32t Total train load (incl. BVZC, CC+8+2) NA Total train load (incl. BVZC, revised, incl. tolerance) -t RDSO design speed (loaded) 75km/h RDSO design speed (empty) 100km/h CRS sanctioned speed (loaded, SER) UP CRS sanctioned speed (empty, SER) UP BOXN-AL: BOXNAL wagons are BOXN wagons with an aluminum body on top of steel under frame. The aluminum alloy is 'RDE-40', also used in the BOBR-AL wagons. These wagons are naturally lighter and allow a higher payload to be carried for the same axle load. BOXN-EL: The BOXNEL wagons are BOXN wagons with 'enhanced loading' features, designed for transporting coal, ores, etc. CASNUB 22NLC bogies, CBC couplers, single-pipe air brakes. Max. axle load Spring grouping per bogie - outer Spring grouping per bogie - inner Tare Payload (RDSO spec.) 25t 14 14 22.47t 75.73t 75+2 = 77t Payload (revised, incl. tolerance) (RC 109/2007) Gross load (RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 98.0t Gross load (revised, incl. tolerance) 99.47t Capacity 56.29m3 Width 3200mm Height 3233mm Length over headstock 9784mm Length over coupler faces 10713mm Distance between bogie centers 6524mm Standard rake size (2007) 59 Total train load (incl. BVZC, RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 5795.8t Total train load (incl. BVZC, CC+8+2) NA Total train load (incl. BVZC, revised, incl. tolerance) 5882.5t RDSO design speed (loaded) 45+5km/h RDSO design speed (empty) 60+5km/h BOXS: BOX wagon with side discharge / flap doors, siding roof (rare)

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New low-height BOXN variants have been seen coupled in sets of 5 wagons just like the BLCA/BLCB formations (q.v.). Each coupled group of 5 wagons has a CBC at either end. Within each group the wagons have slack less drawbar connecting them to one another. Like the BLCA/BLCB, these are expected to allow IR to carry taller loads without running into problems with height clearances. BCN: Bogie covered 8-wheeler wagon, CASNUB bogies, air-braked, CBC. Originally developed in 1984 for carrying bagged commodities. Original model had entirely riveted construction. This variant has undergone some changes over the years. Newer ones have snubbers and nested coil springs under bolster, elastomeric pads, with secondary suspension system.

Max. axle load Spring grouping per bogie - outer Spring grouping per bogie - inner

20.32t 12 8 27.2t Tare Older: 25.9t Payload (RDSO spec.) 54.08t 61+1 = 62t Payload (revised, incl. tolerance) (RC 13/2007) Gross load (RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 81.28t Gross load (revised, incl. tolerance) 89.2t Capacity 104m3 Width NA Height NA Length over headstock 14500mm Length over coupler faces 15429mm Distance between bogie centers 10000mm Standard rake size (2007) 41 Total train load (incl. BVZC, RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 3346.28t 3674.28 (CC+6+2)(BCNM1) Total train load (incl. BVZC, CC+8+2) A.L. - 22.9t Total train load (incl. BVZC, revised, incl. tolerance) 3671.8t RDSO design speed (loaded) 60km/h (CC+6+2), 75km/h (CC) RDSO design speed (empty) 80km/h (CC+6+2), 80km/h (CC)

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BCNA: The BCNA wagon, also known as 'BCN/A', is a variant of the BCN design was developed to be less long but increased height to keep the capacity the same. It has welded construction compared to the original BCN which was riveted. BCNA wagons are covered bogie wagons (capable of being made water-tight for delicate commodities) with cartridge tapered roller bearings, cast steel bogie, air brakes. Two doors on each side. Uses BCN design's 2-tonne overload capacity. Also very common, there are more than 42,000 of these in use [2006]. Used for foodstuffs, cement, etc. (but see the BCCN wagon below, especially for cement transport, and BCX, which are also used for bulk food transport). Max. axle load Spring grouping per bogie - outer Spring grouping per bogie - inner Tare Payload (RDSO spec.) 20.32t 12 8 24.55t 56.73t 63+1 = 64t Payload (revised, incl. tolerance) (RC 13/2007) Gross load (RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 81.28t Gross load (revised, incl. tolerance) 88.55t Capacity 106.5m3 Width 3200mm Height 4017mm Length over headstock 13521m Length over coupler faces 14450mm Distance between bogie centers 9500 Standard rake size (2007) 43 Total train load (incl. BVZC, RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 3508.8t 3852.8 (CC+6+2) (BCNAM1) Total train load (incl. BVZC, CC+8+2) A.L. - 22.9t Total train load (incl. BVZC, revised, incl. tolerance) 3555.8t RDSO design speed (loaded) 60km/h (CC+6+2), 80km/h (CC) RDSO design speed (empty) 80km/h (CC+6+2), 80km/h (CC) AAR 'E' high-tensile coupler with high-capacity draft gear. CASNUB 22 NLB cast steel bogies. Snubbers and nested coil springs under bolster, elastomeric pads, etc., with secondary suspension system. Air brakes and parking brakes. Rated for 80km/h.

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BCNA-HS:BCNAHS wagons are a modified design of the BCNA wagons with CASNUB HS high-speed bogies raising the max. speed to 100km/h. These wagons are characterized by a patch of red/white horizontal stripes on the top left.

BCN-HL: This wagon was designed at 22.9t axle load in 2006.for Transportation of food grain, fertilizer and bag quantities. The design was made with CRF section and stainless steel materials.

STANDARD FEATURES OF ‘BCNHL’ WAGON1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Length over head stock (mm) Length over couplers (mm) Length inside (mm) Width inside/Width Overall (mm) Height inside/Height(max.)from RL. Bogie centers (mm) Journal length × dia. (mm) Journal centers (mm)
Wheel dia. on tread (New/Worn) (mm) Height of C.B.C. from R.L. (mm) C.G. from R.L. (empty) (m) C.G. from R.L. (loaded) (m)

8.
9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

10034 10963 10034 3345/3450 3024/4305 7153 144x278 2260
1000/906 1105 1134 2327 33.56 92.54

Floor area (Sq.M) Cubic Capacity (Cu.M) Maximum axle load (tonne) Tare Weight (tonne) Pay load (tonne) Gross load (Pay+Tare) (tonne) Ratio gross load/Tare
Ratio (Pay load to tare) Track Loading density (tonnes/meter)

22.9 20.8 70.8 91.6 4.4
3.4 8.35 58 Air Brake C.B.C. R.B. Loaded: 65 kmph, Empty: 65 kmph

No. of wagons per train Brake System Coupler Bearing Maximum Speed

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BCCN: BCN variants for carrying bulk cement. Loading is through ports at the top; unloading via chutes at the bottom. A few wagons also marked BCCN like the cement carrier class noted above are actually single- or double-decker wagons intended for carrying automobiles; these have a low platform with 840mm wheel diameter and are fitted with air brakes. Only about 50 of these are thought to exist. The explanation of the class code is that they are thought to have been made by taking old BCCN wagons and modifying them. These come in two varieties, 'A', and 'B', classified BCCNA and BCCNB. More recently another variation, BCCNR (BCCN-R).

BCCNR: Automobile carrier wagons introduced in 2004. these are single-deck covered wagons with 10t capacity and 28.5t tare weight, and a low platform with 840mm diameter wheels. Some of these were limited to 65km/h but later were apparently approved for 100km/h. These were designed to capture more automobile traffic, especially from the south where many automobile plants are, following the introduction of different car models by various manufacturers in recent years which could not be carried on the original wagons (taller and bigger cars can now be carried). These were built starting in 2000 after some trials of in early 1999 of several variant designs proposed by RDSO. BCCNR wagons are not thought to number more than about 35. Also see 'NMG' below. They were built in 1997 by the Golden Rock Workshops based on designs from RDSO, and were intended to carry Maruti brand automobiles. NMG: These are not narrow-gauge wagons, despite the classification code! These are usually single-decker automobile carriers constructed out of old ICF and BEML passenger stock. The design is not entirely uniform but generally all the windows and doors are welded shut, and a new end door created to allow vehicles to be driven into the wagon (or former coach!). Some NMG wagons are made from old double-decker passenger stock and are thought to allow double-deck carrying of automobiles. A few NMG units converted from old BCCN (cement wagons) have also been spotted. The class code 'NMG' stands for 'New Modified Goods'; but at the time of its introduction it was also common to hear the explanation that it stood for 'New Maruti Goods' (Maruti is an Indian car manufacturer). Other Automobile Carriers Several other converted coaches have been used for carrying automobiles. CONCOR has recently [1/05] announced plans for a 'CARTRAC' service to carry automobiles. This appears to use the old coaches from rakes of trains like the Gujarat Exp., formerly vacuum-braked, modified by 13

welding the side doors shut and adding openings at the ends to load cars. A movable ramp guides cars into one of two decks and then folds away when the wagon is in motion. BCX: Water-tight covered high-sided bogie wagon with cast steel bogies. Cartridge taper bearings on newer ones. Snubbers and nested coil springs under bolster, elastomeric pads, with secondary suspension system. Used for food grains, cement, etc. (BCXT, BCXR, BCXC are variants with transition couplers, screw couplers, and CBC) around 18,000 of these are in use. CASNUB cast steel bogies. There are over 7,700 of these [2006]. The class is in decline - there were 9,200 of these in 2004. Tare 27.2t Payload 54.1t / 104m3 Axle load 22.9t Length over headstock 14.5m Height 3.79m BOY: Low-sided bogie open wagon, CBC 91.4 tone load. Used for iron ore transport, etc. There are about 880 of these [2006]; the class is somewhat in decline - there were over 900 of these in the late 1990s. Max. axle load 22.9t Spring grouping per bogie - outer 14 Spring grouping per bogie - inner 10 Tare 20.71t Payload (RDSO spec.) 71.49t Payload (revised, incl. tolerance) 72+1 = 73t (RC 13/2007) Gross load (RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 92.2t Gross load (revised, incl. tolerance) 92.71+1 = 93.71t Capacity NA Width NA Height NA Length over headstock NA Length over coupler faces NA Distance between bogie centers NA Standard rake size (2007) 53 Total train load (incl. BVZC, RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 4900.4t Total train load (incl. BVZC, CC+8+2) NA Total train load (incl. BVZC, revised, incl. tolerance) 4980.43t RDSO design speed (loaded) 65km/h RDSO design speed (empty) 80km/h BOY-EL: BOYEL wagons are low-sided bogie open wagons - a BOY variant for 'enhanced loading'. Designed for transporting coal, ores, etc. CASNUB 22NLC bogies, CBC couplers, single-pipe air brakes. Max. axle load Spring grouping per bogie - outer Spring grouping per bogie - inner Tare 25t 14 14 20.71t 14

Payload (RDSO spec.)

77.29t 77+2 = 79t Payload (revised, incl. tolerance) (RC 109/2007) Gross load (RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 98.0t Gross load (revised, incl. tolerance) 99.7t Capacity 37.8m3 Width 3134mm Height 2450mm Length over headstock 11000mm Length over coupler faces 11929mm Distance between bogie centers 7330mm Standard rake size (2007) 53 Total train load (incl. BVZC, RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 5207.8t Total train load (incl. BVZC, CC+8+2) NA Total train load (incl. BVZC, revised, incl. tolerance) 5297.9t RDSO design speed (loaded) 45+5km/h RDSO design speed (empty) 60+5km/h BOBS:Open hopper car with bottom/side discharge (often used for ballast and ores) Similar to the BOBR/BOBRN wagons, except that the discharge is to the side (clear of the tracks). Underside doors on the wagons are operated pneumatically, and can be controlled by a line side triggering mechanism. The various 'BOB' variants together number about 1,500 wagons. Tare 30.4t Payload 61.2t, 34m3 Length 11.6m, width of carbody 3.02m, height 3.3m. AAR 'E' high-tensile coupler with highcapacity draft gear. CASNUB 22 NLB cast steel bogies. Air brakes and parking brakes. Rated for 100km/h. BOBS-NM1 Open hopper car with bottom/side discharge, variant of BOBS with different suspension and allowing a higher axle load of 25t. Used for ballast and ore transport. Several BOBS wagons were converted to BOBS-NM1 in 2006-2007. Max. axle load Spring grouping per bogie - outer Spring grouping per bogie - inner Tare Payload (RDSO spec.) Payload (revised, incl. tolerance) Gross load (RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) Gross load (revised, incl. tolerance) Capacity Width Height 25t 14 14 30.4t 67.6t 68+2 = 70t (RC 109/2007) 98.0t 100.4t NA NA NA 15

Length over headstock NA Length over coupler faces NA Distance between bogie centers NA Standard rake size (2007) 53 Total train load (incl. BVZC, RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 5207.8t Total train load (incl. BVZC, CC+8+2) NA Total train load (incl. BVZC, revised, incl. tolerance) 5335t RDSO design speed (loaded) 45+5km/h RDSO design speed (empty) 55+5km/h CRS sanctioned speed (loaded, SER) 45km/h CRS sanctioned speed (empty, SER) 60km/h BOBYN Open hopper car with side-bottom discharge, for carrying stone, track ballast, etc. These are air-braked.

Max. axle load Spring grouping per bogie - outer Spring grouping per bogie - inner Tare Payload (RDSO spec.)

20.32t 12 8 26.78t 54.5t 59+2 = 61t Payload (revised, incl. tolerance) (RC 13/2007 ) Gross load (RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 81.28t Gross load (revised, incl. tolerance) 85.78+2 = 87.78t Capacity NA Width NA Height 3.05m Length over headstock 10.718m Length over coupler faces NA Distance between bogie centers 7.47m Standard rake size (2007) 53 Total train load (incl. BVZC, RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 4321.64t Total train load (incl. BVZC, CC+8+2) NA Total train load (incl. BVZC, revised, incl. tolerance) 4666.14t RDSO design speed (loaded) 75km/h RDSO design speed (empty) 75km/h CRS sanctioned speed (loaded, SER) CRS sanctioned speed (empty, SER) 16

These wagons have the usual CASNUB 22 NLB bogies and newer ones are provided with CBC, although there are still many with transition couplers. BOBC Open hopper car with bottom/centre discharge BOBX Open hopper car with both bottom/side and bottom/centre discharge BOBR Open hopper car with rapid (pneumatic) bottom discharge doors. Same as BOBRN (see below) except that they have vacuum brakes and are rated for lower speeds (80km/h?). BOBRN Open hopper car with rapid (pneumatic) bottom discharge doors, air-braked. BOBRN and BOBR (see above) are most often used for carrying coal to thermal power plants, and also for ore, stone, track ballast, etc. Each wagon holds some 60t of coal loaded from the top and unloaded from the bottom by means of the pneumatically operated doors. The contents of the wagon can be discharged completely in about 15 seconds. The door-opening mechanism is triggered by lineside devices running on a 24V or 32V DC source. As the wagons in a rake pass by the triggering devices, their doors open and their contents are unloaded into the pits below the tracks (the 'merry-go-round' system). The versions used by the power plants have 12 bottom doors, whereas IR uses variants that have 8 doors. Max. axle load Spring grouping per bogie - outer Spring grouping per bogie - inner (CC+6+2)UP(CC) 20.32t (CC+6+2)UP(CC) 12 (CC+6+2)UP(CC) 8 (CC+6+2)UP Tare (CC) 25.6t Payload (RDSO spec.) (CC+6+2)UP(CC) 55.68t (CC+6+2)UP(CC) 60 +2 = 62t Payload (revised, incl. tolerance) (RC 13/2007 ) Gross load (RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) (CC+6+2)UP(CC) 81.28t Gross load (revised, incl. tolerance) (CC+6+2)UP(CC) 85.6+2 = 87.6tt Capacity 57.2m3 Width 3.5m Height 3.735m Length over headstock 9.671m Length over coupler faces NA Distance between bogie centers 6.79m Standard rake size (2007) (CC+6+2)UP(CC) 59 UP(CC) Total train load (incl. BVZC, RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) (CC+6+2) 4809.32t UP(CC) Total train load (incl. BVZC, CC+8+2) 5281.32t (CC+6+2) A.L. -22.9 tt Total train load (incl. BVZC, revised, incl. tolerance) (CC+6+2)UP(CC) 5182.2t UP (CC) 60km/h (CC+6+2) RDSO design speed (loaded) 75km/h (CC) 17

RDSO design speed (empty)

UP (CC) 70km/h (CC+6+2) 70km/h (CC)

Length over coupler faces 11.6m. AAR 'E' high-tensile coupler with high-capacity draft gear. CASNUB 22 NLB cast steel bogies. Air brakes and parking brakes. Rated at 100km/h. (Power plant versions without air brakes are rated at a lower speed.) BOBRAL / BOBR-AL- Some BOBRN wagons have been made of aluminum .In these, the under frame is made of steel while the rest of the body is made of aluminum. The maximum axle load is the same as that of the regular BOBRN (20.32t), but the tare weight is reduced by 3.2t and the payload correspondingly increased by the same amount. The aluminum alloy used is 'RDE40', and has 4% zinc, 2% magnesium, 0.35% manganese, and 0.15% zirconium. BOST An open bogie wagon, for carrying finished steel products, but also used for coal, stone, etc. BOST-HS is the high-speed version. Max. axle load Spring grouping per bogie - outer Spring grouping per bogie - inner Tare Payload (RDSO spec.) 20.32t 12 8 25t 56.28t 61+2 = 63t Payload (revised, incl. tolerance) (RC 13/2007) Gross load (RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 81.28t Gross load (revised, incl. tolerance) 86+2 = 88t Capacity NA Width 3.1m Height 3.08m Length over headstock 12.8m Length over coupler faces NA Distance between bogie centres 8.8m Standard rake size (2007) 43 Total train load (incl. BVZC, RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 3508.84t Total train load (incl. BVZC, CC+8+2) NA Total train load (incl. BVZC, revised, incl. tolerance) 3797.8t RDSO design speed (loaded) 60km/h (CC+6+2), 75km/h (CC) RDSO design speed (empty) 65km/h (CC+6+2), 80km/h (CC) CRS sanctioned speed (loaded, SER) Under process (UP) CRS sanctioned speed (empty, SER) Under process (UP) This has the usual CASNUB 22 NLB bogies (high-speed version fitted with CASNUB HS bogies), and non-transition CBC. Air-braked. BFK- Early version container flat car

18

BKFX- Container flat car for domestic 5-ton containers. Improved BFK with CASNUB bogies (not much used now with the move to standard containers). BFKI- Container flat car for ISO containers, with retractable anchor locks. Originally fitted with vacuum brakes. CONCOR bought about 1300 of these from IR in 1997-1998 and retrofitted them with air-brakes and put them to use on its domestic container traffic routes ('Contrack'). The ones fitted with air-brakes were generally reclassified 'BFKN' (see below). In all, there are about 1,571 of these now [2006]. BFKN- Converted BFKI flat cars with air brakes and CASNUB bogies. See 'BFKI' above. BFNS- Special flat wagons for transport of steel (coils, sheets, etc.) and also used for transporting rails. Air-braked. CASNUB 22 NLB bogies. Max. speed 100km/h. Max. axle load Spring grouping per bogie - outer Spring grouping per bogie - inner Tare Payload (RDSO spec.) 20.32t 12 8 23.63t 57.65t 62+2 = 64t Payload (revised, incl. tolerance) (RC 13/2007) Gross load (RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 81.28t Gross load (revised, incl. tolerance) 87.63t Capacity NA Width 3045mm Height 2650mm Length over headstock 13716mm Length over coupler faces NA Distance between bogie centres 9144mm Standard rake size (2007) 40 Total train load (incl. BVZC, RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 3265t Total train load (incl. BVZC, CC+8+2) NA Total train load (incl. BVZC, revised, incl. tolerance) 3519t RDSO design speed (loaded) 100km/h RDSO design speed (empty) 100km/h CRS sanctioned speed (loaded, SER) 75km/h CRS sanctioned speed (empty, SER) 100km/h ??? 'Crop' wagon for steel plants. Flat platform for finished steel goods, with low sidewalls. Tare 25t, payload 55t. Length 8.33m, width of carbody 2.66m, height 2.19m. Screw coupling, no continous brakes (only parking brake). Diamond frame bogies. Limited to 25km/h. BFR Bogie flat rail-carrying wagon (64 tonne load) BFU Bogie flat type wagon : for transporting motor vehicles. BOM Bogie open military wagon. 19

BRH:Bogie rail-carrying flat car with roller bearings. This has end-plates that can be removed.

BRHT: Bogie rail wagon, heavy load (80 tonne load), with UIC bogies, transition coupler BRN: Developed in 1994 as an improvement on the older BRH wagon. Air-braked wagon with CASNUB bogies, for rails and steel products and similar heavy loads. These were originally built with 58t capacity, but around 2,200 of them are being downgraded [10/02] to 48t capacity. BRNA-HS: is the high-speed version of these. Max. axle load Spring grouping per bogie - outer Spring grouping per bogie - inner Tare Payload (RDSO spec.) 20.32t 12 8 24.39t 56.88t 63+2 = 65t Payload (revised, incl. tolerance) (RC 13/2007) Gross load (RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 81.28t Gross load (revised, incl. tolerance) 89.39t Capacity NA Width NA Height NA Length over headstock NA Length over coupler faces NA Distance between bogie centres NA Standard rake size (2007) 40 Total train load (incl. BVZC, RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 3265t Total train load (incl. BVZC, CC+8+2) NA Total train load (incl. BVZC, revised, incl. tolerance) 3589.4t RDSO design speed (loaded) 65km/h RDSO design speed (empty) 75km/h BRNA :A variant of the BRN wagon developed in 1992. Air-braked, CBC couplers, roller bearings. Max. axle load Spring grouping per bogie - outer 20.32t 12 20

Spring grouping per bogie - inner Tare Payload (RDSO spec.)

8 23.54t 57.91t 62+2 = 64t Payload (revised, incl. tolerance) (RC 13/2007) Gross load (RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 81.45t Gross load (revised, incl. tolerance) 87.54t Capacity NA Width NA Height NA Length over headstock 13716mm Length over coupler faces 14645mm Distance between bogie centres 9144mm Standard rake size (2007) 40 Total train load (incl. BVZC, RDSO spec., excl. tolerance) 3271.8t Total train load (incl. BVZC, CC+8+2) NA Total train load (incl. BVZC, revised, incl. tolerance) 3515.4t RDSO design speed (loaded) 65km/h RDSO design speed (empty) 75km/h BRST: Bogie rail-carrying wagon, with transition coupler. BTO :Bogie tanker wagon for heavy oil, furnace oil, etc. BTORX, MBTORX :Bogie tanker wagon for vegetable oil, and its MG variant BTP, BTPN:The most common bogie tanker wagon seen today. Used primarily for liquid petroleum products (petrol, naphtha, kerosene, diesel, furnace oil, etc.), and also for molasses, vegetable oil, etc. An enhanced version, the BTFLN, has been developed recently (see below). The payload to tare ratio for this tanker is 2.0. There are about 7,300 of these [2006]. Tare 27.0t Payload 54.28t / 70.4m3 Axle load 20.32t Length over headstock 11.491m Length over coupler faces 12.42m Height 4.265m Width 3.126m Distance between bogie centres 8.391m Inside diameter of tanker is 2.85m. CASNUB 22 NLB bogies, CBC non-transition couplers. BTPN variants are air-braked. BTFLN: Improved frameless bogie tanker wagon, successor to the venerable BTPN (see above) Used primarily for liquid petroleum products (petrol, naphtha, kerosene, diesel, furnace oil, etc.), and also for vegetable oil and other liquid cargo. The BTFLN wagon was developed by RITES in 21

collaboration with Azovmash of Ukraine. The tankers are frameless and have no center sill. The tractive and buffing forces are taken up by the barrel body itself, so that it is subject to biaxial stresses. The tare weight is lower than that of the BTPN by nearly 3.5t, and the payload is higher for the same axle load. The payload to tare ratio rises to 2.4 with this tanker. Tare 23.53t Payload 57.75t / 76m3 Axle load 20.32t Length over headstock 11.491m Length over coupler faces 12.42m Height 4.265m (?) Width 3.126m Distance between bogie centres 8.391m Inside diameter of tanker is 2.85m. CASNUB 22 NLB bogies, CBC non-transition couplers. BTPN variants are air-braked. BTCS: Bogie tanker car for caustic soda. Tare 26.0t Payload 55.28t / 38.75m3 Axle load 20.32t Length over coupler faces 9.78m Width 2.56m, height 4.11m. Inside diameter 2.3m. CASNUB bogies, CBC. BTSA: Bogie tanker for sulphuric acid. BTAP :Bogie tanker car for alumina powder. Leakproof wagon with a special air fluidizing system for discharging alumina powder from the bottom through pipes like a fluid. Tare 27.9t Payload 58t / 62m3 Axle load 20.32t Length over coupler faces 9.78m Length 12.32m, width of tanker 3.2m, height 4.3m. CASNUB 22 NLB cast steel bogies, AAR 'E' high-tensile coupler with high-capacity draft gear. Air brakes and parking brakes. Rated for 100km/h. BTAL: Bogie tanker car for anhydrous ammonia BTPGLN: Bogie tanker, for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Tare 41.6t Payload 37.6t, 79.4m3 Axle load 20.3t 22

Length over couplers 18.9m, width 3.05m, height 4.29m. Inside diameter 2.4m. BWH: Well wagon (20.47m long, 22.9t axle load) with 3-axled bogies. These are used for loads like heavy transformers, etc., up to 92t. BWL, BWS, BWH, BWT, BWX: Different kinds of well wagons (tall wagons with inward sloping sides) BWZ: Heavy-duty well wagon, for loads up to 220t such as large transformers and power plant equipment. Tare 146t, payload 220t (some versions are limited to 180t). Length 37.81m, width of carbody 3.74m. Screw coupling. Cast steel bogies. No continuous brakes on most (retrofitted on some?), parking brakes only. Limited to about 40km/h. BVZI: Improved brake van with max. speed of 100km/h, and some improved comfort features compared to the BVZC. It uses friction snubbers instead of hydraulic dashpots for damping, and has a bogie-mounted brake system in place of the conventional arrangement.

1. Length over head stocks (mm) 13540
2. Length over couplers (mm) 14469 3. Length inside (mm) - - - - - 4. Width inside/Width Overall (mm) ------/3200 5. Height inside/Height(max.)from RL. 2448/3894 6. Bogie center (mm) 9026 7. Journal length × dia. (mm) 8. Journal centers (mm) 9. Wheel dia. on tread (New/Worn) (mm) 915/813 10. Height of C.B.C. from R.L. (mm) 1105 11. C.G. from R.L. (empty) (m) 0.981 12. C.G. from R.L. (loaded) (m) 0.981 13. Floor area (Sq.M) 14. Cubic Capacity (Cu.M) 15. Maximum axle load (tonne) 5.875 16. Tare Weight (tonne) 23.5 17. Pay load (tonne) -----18. Gross load (Pay+Tare) (tonne) 23.5+…. 19. Ratio gross load/Tare 1.00 20. Ratio (Pay load to tare) 21. Track Loading density (tonnes/meter) 1.624 22. No. of wagons per train 23. Brake System Air brake 24. Coupler C.B.C. 25. Bearing R.B. 26. Maximum Speed (Loaded)
(Empty) 100 kmph 100 kmph

23

BVZC: Four-wheeled brake van for block rakes, with CBC BVG, BVGT, MBVG, NBVG: Brake van for nonblock rakes. BGVT is the same with a transition coupler. MBVG is the MG version and NBVG is the NG version. 4-wheeled.

VVN :Milk tanker - these are special tankers for carrying milk at 4 degrees Celsius. The milk is carried in an inner barrel of stainless steel, surrounded by an outer barrel with insulation between the two. Pasteurized and chilled milk remains cool enough with such an insulated design so that it does not spoil on fairly long journeys; there is no need for refrigeration equipment. These tankers are attached to express trains and are treated on par with passenger stock, and rated for higher speeds (110km/h) than most freight stock. They have Flexicoil bogies. A different kind of milk tanker were the small tankers donated by New Zealand that were in use in the 1980s, for instance on the MirajPune Passenger. Two of these at a time were mounted permanently on a flat car with Flexicoil bogies, creating a two-tanker milk wagon with a single base. These appear to have been decommissioned now. Tare Payload Axle load Length 1 width of carbody height 33.7t 1.2t, 40m3 20.3t 4.07m, 2.91m, 3.96m.

Transition or screw couplers. CASNUB 22 NLB cast steel bogies. A buffer bogie is provided. Most have vacuum brakes, but some are air-braked. Parking brakes provided. Rated at 100km/h. BLAN/BLBN: Bogie low-platform container flats, in mating pairs 'A' and 'B'. These have largely been superseded by the newer designs used by CONCOR (BLCA/BLCB, below). 24

BLC/BLCA/BLCB: Bogie Low Platform Container flat (BLC) wagons has been designed for transportation of 20’ & 40’ long ISO containers at an operating speed of 100kmph.Lower height of under frame( floor) from R.L. has been achieved with introduction of hybrid design of bogie frame, bolster and use of smaller diameter wheel in LCCF 20( C) Bogie. BLCA (A-Car) wagons are placed at extreme ends in formation of one unit of 5- cars (with 3 BLCB wagons in middle ). Outer end of BLCA wagons are fitted with standard AAR-E/F TYPE Center Buffer Coupler (C.B.C.) and inner ends are fitted with Slackless Draw Bar (S.D.B.). Wagons are fitted with automatic twist locks to secure container . BLC Also known as 'CCF', Coaching Container Flats. These have light-weight welded 'skeletal' design underframes, automatic twist locks, a single-pipe air-brake system, and reduced wheel diameter (for the low beds). The low platform allows them to carry high-cube or Tallboy containers on routes where clearances would otherwise make this impossible. These are mostly used for international container traffic from Mumbai. The wagons come in two flavours. An 'A' type (BLCA, also BLC-A) has a normal (AAR 'E' type) CBC at one end and a slackless drawbar at the other end. The 'B' type wagon (BLCB, also BLC-B) has only the slackless drawbar couplers at either end. Usually 3, or sometimes 5 BLCB wagons are coupled together, with a BLCA wagon at either end, forming a semi-permanently coupled formation of 5 or 7 wagons.

Being longer than most other wagons, a rake can only have about 45 of these BLC flats, which at the rate of 2 TEU's per wagon works out to a carrying capacity of 90 TEU's per train. A lot of international container traffic (especially from Mumbai) is carried on these. SR's Golden Rock workshops are expected to take over manufacturing these wagons. Also see below. New versions have automatic load-sensing devices to provide optimum braking power with different loads. About 1905 of these were obtained first (in two batches) [6/02] and a third batch of another 1320 wagons were procured around 2002-2003. Since then there has been a steady growth in these and now [2006] ther e are about 4,700 of these in use. STANDARD FEATURES OF ‘BLCA’ WAGON1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Length over head stock (mm) 13625 Length over couplers (mm) 14566 Length inside (mm) –N/A Width over Headstock/Width over Bolster (mm) 2100/2200 Height inside/Height(max.)from RL. 1269/1009 25

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

Bogie centers (mm) 9675 Journal length × dia. (mm) 144x278 Journal centers (mm) 2260 Wheel dia. on tread (New/Worn) (mm) 840/780 Height of C.B.C./S.D.B. from R.L. (mm) 1105/845 C.G. from R.L. (empty) (m) 0.551 C.G. from R.L. (loaded) (m) 1.993 Floor area (Sq.M) Cubic Capacity (Cu.M) Maximum axle load (tonne) 20.32 Tare Weight (tonne) 19.1 Pay load (tonne) 61 Gross load (Pay+Tare) (tonne) 80.1 Ratio gross load/Tare 4.21 Ratio (Pay load to tare) 3.194 Track Loading density (tonnes/meter) 5.5 No. of wagons per train of 45 wagons 18 Brake System Air Brake Coupler C.B.C./S.D.B Bearing R.B. Maximum Speed (Loaded)100KMPH (Empty)100 kmph.

STANDARD FEATURES OF ‘BLCB’ WAGON1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Length over head stock (mm) 12212 Length over couplers (mm) 13165 Length inside (mm) –N/A Width over Headstock/Width over Bolster (mm) 2100/2200 Height inside/Height(max.)from RL.1009 Bogie centers (mm) 8812 Journal length × dia. (mm) 144x278 Journal centers (mm) 2260 Wheel dia. on tread (New/Worn) mm) 840/780 Height of S.D.B. from R.L. (mm) 845 C.G. from R.L. (empty) (m) 0.548 C.G. from R.L. (loaded) (m) 2.013 Floor area (Sq.M) Cubic Capacity (Cu.M) Maximum axle load (tonne) 20.32 Tare Weight (tonne) 18 Pay load (tonne) 61 Gross load (Pay+Tare) (tonne) 79 Ratio gross load/Tare 4.38 Ratio (Pay load to tare) 3.39 Track Loading density (tonnes/meter) 6 No. of B-Cars per train of 45 wagons 27 Brake System Air Brake Coupler S.D.B Bearing R.B. Maximum Speed (Loaded)100KMPH (Empty)100 kmph

26

BLLA/BLLB WAGON: These are variants of the BLCA/BLCB container flats, with an extralong 45' (13.7m) platform. The wagons have twist locks to secure containers.the BLLA wagons are intended to be the outer wagons in a coupled group of 5 wagons, with the inner 3 being the BLLB type. The outer couplers for the BLLA are AAR 'E' type, and the inner couplers are slackless drawbar couplers. Bogie Low Platform Longer Container flat (BLL) wagons has been designed jointly by RDSO & RITES for transportation of 22’ 24’ & 45’containers along with 20’ & 40’ long ISO containers at an operating speed of 100kmph.Lower height of under frame floor from R.L. has been achieved with introduction of hybrid design of bogie frame, bolster and use of smaller diameter wheel in LCCF 20( C) Bogie.BLLA (A-Car) wagons are placed at extreme end in formation of one unit of 5- cars (with 3 BLLB wagons in middle). Outer end of BLLA wagons are fitted with standard AAR-E/F TYPE Center Buffer Coupler (C.B.C.) and inner ends are fitted with Slackless Draw Bar (S.D.B.). Wagons are fitted with automatic twist locks to secure containers. STANDARD FEATURES OF ‘BLLA’ WAGON:

1
2 3 4 5 6 7

8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
26

Length over head stock (mm) 15220 Length over couplers (mm) 16161 Length inside (mm) Width over Headstock/Width over Bolster (mm) 2100/2200 Height inside/Height (max.) from RL. 1008 Bogie centers (mm) 10700 Journal length × dia. (mm) 144x278 Journal centers (mm) 2260
Wheel dia. on tread (New/Worn) (mm) 840/780 Height of C.B.C. from R.L. (mm) 1105 C.G. from R.L. (empty) (m) 0.604 C.G. from R.L. (loaded) (m) 1.998 Floor area (Sq.M) Cubic Capacity (Cu.M) -

Maximum axle load (tonne) 20.32 Tare Weight (tonne) 19.8 Pay load (tonne) 61 Gross load (Pay+Tare) (tonne) 80.8 Ratio gross load/Tare 4.08
Ratio (Pay load to tare) 3.08 Track Loading density (tonnes/meter) 5

No. of wagons per train of 45 wagons 16 Brake System Air Brake Coupler C.B.C./ S.D.B Bearing R.B.
Distance between centers BLCA9.675m,BLCB 8.812m Maximum Speed (Loaded) 100 kmph (Empty) 100 kmph

27

STANDARD FEATURES OF ‘BLLA’ WAGON: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Length over head stock (mm) 13810 Length over couplers (mm) 14763 Length inside (mm) Width over Headstock/Width over Bolster (mm) 2100/2200 Height inside/Height(max.)from RL. 1008 Bogie centers (mm) 9810 Journal length × dia. (mm) 144x278 27

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Journal centers (mm) 2260 Wheel dia. on tread (New/Worn) (mm) 840/780 Height of C.B.C./S.D.B. from R.L.(mm)845 C.G. from R.L. (empty) (m) 0.603 C.G. from R.L. (loaded) (m) 2.011 Floor area (Sq.M) Cubic Capacity (Cu.M) Maximum axle load (tonne) 20.32 Tare Weight (tonne) 19 Pay load (tonne) 61 Gross load (Pay+Tare) (tonne) 80 Ratio gross load/Tare 4.21 Ratio (Pay load to tare) 3.21 Track Loading density (tonnes/meter) 5.42 No. of wagons per train of 45 wagons 24 Brake System Air Brake Coupler S.D.B Bearing R.B. Maximum Speed (Loaded) 100 kmph (Empty) 100 kmph

AAR 'E' type CBC and slackless drawbar system. The slackless drawbar is lower than the normal couplers, at 898mm, while the CBC are at normal height (1080mm). Bogies are cast steel CASNUB bogies, a common variant in use now is denoted 'CONTR-LCCF-20(C)'. Air brakes, automatic load sensors. Max. speed 100km/h. Some refrigerated containers are also moved on BLCA/BLCB wagons. This service was introduced recently [2004] between ICD Tughlakabad and JNPT / NSICT ports at Mumbai. These refrigerated units have special power-packs for refrigeration power on the run. The containers are modified 40' containers. Each power-pack serves 12 FEUs, and as many as three of them, serving 36 FEUs, have been run by CONCOR on a single train. TCT: (Non-standard classification code) BG Long Covered Wagon, for defence use. Screw couplers and side buffers, fabricated 4-axle bogie, manual brakes. Tare 84.7t Capacity 65.0t Length over headstock 26400mm Height 4246mm Width 3200mm Distance between bogie centres 18850mm HTC : (Non-standard classification code) BG Long Covered Wagon, for defence use. Screw couplers and side buffers, CASNUB 22NLB bogie, air brakes. Has a 'hood transfer mechanism'. Tare Capacity Length over headstock Height Width 40.0t 40.0t 26400mm 4042mm 3100mm 28

Distance between bogie centres 18850mm MBC, MBCX: MG bogie box wagon, 34 ton capacity, 13.4 ton tare MBOC, MBOCX: MG bogie open wagon (coal, etc.), 35 ton capacity MBFU: MG bogie well wagon MBTPZ: MG bogie petroleum products wagon MBTW: MG bogie water wagon NOL: NG open wagon, 21 ton tare NCL: NG covered wagon, 21 ton tare NMG: Not an NG wagon! See entry above under BG wagons. DNMG: Heavy-duty flat car for military transport use (tare wt. 68 tonnes). Descriptions of some older wagons are given below. These ae 4-wheeled non-bogie wagons unless mentioned otherwise. BT: Ballast-carrying hopper wagon with bottom discharge. C: Covered rigid 4-wheeled wagon with ribbed body and hook coupling (old) BC, MBC: Early bogie version of the 'C' covered wagon, and its MG variant. CA: Variant of C, covered 4-wheeler ventilated wagon (for livestock) CMR :Variant of C, covered 4-wheeler cattle wagon CG: 'Covered Goods': covered 4-wheeler wagon rakes CR: Covered 4-wheeler wagon (rigid body (non-bogie), rather prone to derailment) CRT, CRC: These are CR variants fitted with transition couplers and CBC. These CR wagons are still in wide use, and have been retrofited with newer couplers and improved suspension. [7/00] These wagons are now scheduled to be withdrawn. CSI: Covered wagon (iron / general) K: Open low-sided wagon, coal / general (old) KC: Open high-sided unit wagon for construction material, refuse, etc. Now used for departmental rakes to carry sleepers, etc. KE: Open wagon elephant truck (!) KF: Open wagon, low-sided, 'falling' KL: Open wagon, low-sided 29

KM: K version for military use BKM, DBKM: Bogie versions of the KM military flat / low-sided wagons BKC: Bogie version of KC BKH:Bogie open hopper wagon with side and centre discharge (ballast transport) BT Hopper cars with bottom discharge, used for departmental rakes carrying ballast O: Open 4-wheeled wagon OM, MOM: Open military wagon. MOM is the MG version. TA: Tank wagon (acid) TB: Tank wagon (benzene) TBT :Tank wagon (bitumen) TCL: Tank wagon (chlorine) TCS :Tank wagon (caustic soda) TE: Tank wagon (liquid caustic soda) TF: Tank wagon (ammonia) TG: Tank wagon (LPG) THA: Tank wagon (hydrochloric acid) TK: Tank wagon (kerosene) TL: Tank wagon (heavy oil) TM: Tank wagon (molasses) TOH: Tank wagon (heavy oil) TORX, MTORX: Tank wagon (vegetable oil) and its MG version. TP, TPR: Tank wagon (petroleum), the latter with screw coupling? TPGLN, TPGLR: Tank wagon (petroleum/LPG products), the latter with screw coupling TR: Tank wagon (coal tar) TSA: Tank wagon (sulphuric acid) TV: Tank wagon (vegetable oil) 30

TW: Tank wagon (water) TX: Tank wagon (liquid chlorine) TZ: Tank wagon (lubricating oil) TOH Tank wagon (heavy oil, with heating arrangement) In addition, annotations "WT" (water-tested) or "NWT" (not water-tested) may appear on wagons. "Water-tested" means that the wagon has been tested to ensure that it is waterproof and can be used safely with cargo that would spoil in contact with water.

Double-decker: automobile carriers are made by Golden Rock workshops. These are coupled in 5-car formations similar to the CONCOR container consists described below (the middle three cars having low buffers). These are (confusingly) also classified BCCN. The A cars can carry 9 automobiles each, and the B cars can carry 10 automobiles each, for a total of 48 for a 5-car formation. Some older 4-wheel (non-bogie) tank wagons (TK, TP, etc.) are being re-used in an inventive way: the tank and part of its base is fitted on to a frame that matches the shape of a half-size standard ISO container frame and which is then carried on normal container flat wagons. This allows the tank and its frame (which may still have years of useful life left) to be used even though the original 4-wheeled wagon base is no longer in use. Picture Special-purpose wagons of various kinds have been used by IR. Some 24-axle threaded beam well wagons and 18-axle well wagons with integral brake vans at either end are used by BHEL for transporting large transformers. BHEL, Trichy, has a 24-axle saddle wagon named 'Kaveri' for transportation of large electrical equipment, and BHEL also has an 18-axle well wagon. The Atomic Energy Commission has some 12-axle and 16-axle saddle wagons as do a few other heavy industrial concerns, power companies, NPC, etc. A 20-axle well hole wagon was built specially for GEC Alstom's use in transporting large electrical equipment. Several of these multiaxled heavy wagons were built by Golden Rock workshops. 'Merry-go-round' wagons used at power plants and mines can tilt sideways to unload their contents as each wagon in the rake passes by. Passenger coaches, including EMU stock, have often been converted by IR for use in carrying goods, by sealing the windows and removing all interior fittings. Milk vans, because of the perishable nature of their cargo, have the curious privilege of being treated as passenger coaching stock with corresponding speed limits. Milk vans are often attached to passenger trains and are rated for 100km/h. Most are vacuum-braked; however, newer ones are air-braked. Several of these wagons use 'CASNUB' bogies. These are cast-steel bogies with friction-damping arrangements (hence the name, from 'CAst steel SNUBber equipped'). These come in some variants, e.g. CASNUB HS is a high-speed variant allowing speeds up to 100km/h, CASNUB 22 NLB has additional correction and friction damping mechanisms, CASNUB HA has higher payload capacity, etc. Q. What are CONCOR container consists? 31

CONCOR is the organization that handles container traffic in India. More details here. CONCOR has about 1905 BLC type low-bed wagons for fast container traffic. CONCOR also plans to acquire new 45-foot wagons to carry 22-foot domestic containers as well as 45-foot international containers, and also to take over some BRN wagons from IR and convert them for use for highspeed container traffic. CONCOR acquired, in 1997-1998, about 1300 BFKI wagons from IR, upgraded them with air brakes, and deployed them for domestic 'Contrack' services. CONCOR still has many older container flat wagons obtained from IR when CONCOR was created in 1988. These are limited in speed and less reliable in transit. Double-stacking is generally not possible because of clearances, and there are not many flat cars with the requisite low bed height. For COFC, the general configuration is 6 trucks for 5 cars. RCF has recently developed a new model of container flats that can carry 3 ISO 20' containers. These are [12/01] undergoing trials by RDSO. Q. How many freight wagons does IR have in its fleet? As of 1998, IR had nearly 280,000 freight wagons. PER Goods Wagons Until the mid-1990s or so, it was not uncommon to see wagons with the marking 'PER' in regular service in freight trains on IR, especially in the east. These were wagons from the former East Pakistan (PER = Pakistan Eastern Railway) which were taken and deployed for use by IR during the 1971 hostilities with Pakistan. Many of these remained in India afterwards, and were in use until the 1990s, after which most of them were scrapped. As the PER stock was not particularly different from the standard wagons used on IR, they could be used interchangeably with the normal freight stock on the BG lines. Q. Where are IR's freight wagons manufactured? Most wagons today are manufactured by private firms such as CIMMCO, Texmaco, HDC, Besco, Binny Engineering Works, Titagarh, and Modern. Public-sector organizations such as Burn Standard Co., Braithwaite, Jessops, Bharat Wagon and Engg. Co. (these last four are held by the Bharat Bhari Udyog Nigam, Ltd.), Bridge and Roof, Indian Standard Wagon, etc., also make some wagons. (Many of these used to be private concerns but were taken over by the state.) A small fraction of the wagons come from IR workshops such as those at Golden Rock, Amritsar, and Samastipur. Golden Rock especially has built quantities of many different kinds of wagons over the years, and in recent years have stepped up production to make large numbers of the BLCA/BLCB container flats needed by CONCOR (see above). CASNUB and other bogies for IR's freight wagons are made by Burn Standard, Bhilai Engineering Corporation (BEC), Bharat Wagon and Engg. Co., and others. Mukund Ltd. is another company that in the past supplied large numbers of cast bogies.

Brakes
Q. What kinds of brake systems do IR coaches and freight cars have? In older stock, both passenger coaches and freight wagons, the continuous braking system consists of vacuum brakes. Newer stock is almost always air-braked. The guard often has 32

mechanical brakes acting on his van. In addition, each piece of stock has mechanical parking brakes. Continuous brakes were tried out by the various railway companies in the late 19th century. North Western Railway was the pioneer with trials of continuous vacuum braking in the late 1880s and early 1890s. Vacuum brakes were chosen for the simplicity of design and lower cost. They also did not have coupling cocks that could fail mid-train. Early examples of the use of air brakes on IR include the Metro Cammell EMU stock delivered between 1951 and 1953 (and similar stock later delivered by other manufacturers), which featured the Westinghouse twin pipe air brake system and electro-pneumatic application (the 1924 and 1928 EMUs (CR and WR) were vacuum-braked). In the 1960s, the Deluxe Exp. (25 Down) and the Frontier Mail (3 Down) are also said to have had air brakes of the graduatedrelease kind. (This information has not been verified -- it's likely that the Bombay Rajdhani was in fact the first long-distance train with air-brakes, which it acquired in 1984.) However, these were isolated examples and air brakes did not come into wide use until some time beginning in the late 1970s and the early 1980s. Perhaps the most notable 'convert' of the time was the Mumbai Rajdhani which switched to being air-braked in 1984, hauled by twin WDM-2 locos. The Howrah Rajdhani also switched to being air-braked around 1986. Many express trains were vacuum-braked until very recently (e.g., Madras-Howrah Coromandel Exp. was vacuum-braked until 1997.) Air-braked rakes are now very common. Generally the blue-coloured livery that is now common on IR for passenger coaches indicates air-braked stock. The air brakes are mostly of the twin pipe system, with a feed pipe and a brake pipe. Air-braking (with dual pipes) is now standard for all Rajdhani/Shatabdi and most other high-speed trains. (The twin pipe system fixes a problem with the single-pipe system where the air in the auxiliary reservoir can be used up faster than the brake pipe can charge it.) On the broad-gauge network, only a few passenger trains running on low-speed lines are now left with vacuum-braked stock, and most of these are being converted to air brakes rapidly. In some cases, as with the Sahyadri, Maharashtra, and Koyna Expresses which were vacuum-braked until [2/02], there was no convenient shed nearby for maintenance of air brakes (Kolhapur at the time did not yet have the required facilities). These trains have been converted to air brakes now [12/04], as has the Dakshin Express most recently, a vacuum-braked holdout for a very long time. The Viramgam Passenger is still vacuum-braked [1/05], the only train out of Mumbai Central now. The Tatanagar Passenger had 3 vacuum-braked rakes until recently [5/05]. The international Samjhauta Exp. is another notable passenger train with vacuum brakes. The Toofan Exp. and the Bokaro/Tatanagar - Alleppey Exp. may also be air-braked (uncertain) [12/04]. As of [5/04], about 7910 passenger coaches were vacuum-braked (out of the total fleet of 40,000 coaches). It is expected that the entire fleet will be converted to air brakes by March 2006 (about 4080 to be converted in the fiscal year 2004-2005). Most MG and NG coaches are still vacuumbraked, though. (The MG EMUs that ran in Chennai until 2004 were also vacuum-braked.) Dual-braked passenger coaches are rare, but some do exist, including sleeper coaches and AC 3tier coaches; most of these are not for general use but are saloons, inspection cars, or officer's cars, which may need to be attached to either air-braked or vacuum-braked rakes.

33

With later freight stock (often colored green) single-pipe or dual-pipe air braking is becoming standard. But there is still a lot of freight stock that is vacuum-braked. Much older freight stock is being retrofitted with air brakes –– the workshops at Lallaguda (SCR), Parel (WR), and Matunga (CR), among others, undertake such conversions. Air brakes are among the most significant changes undertaken by IR in recent decades. They have allow much higher speeds on most sections as trains can be safely braked in a shorter distance, leading to better track utilization. Earlier, for instance, it was standard practice to begin braking at an Attention signal (double yellow); now most trains speed past an Attention signal at the highest permitted speed and begin braking only when a Caution signal is sighted. Safety has also increased with the power and precision of air brakes. Changing locomotives is now a matter of minutes - the angle cocks are closed, the locomotive is detached, the new one attached and the cocks are opened once again. Earlier, disconnection of the vacuum hose meant that all the brake pistons under the coaches went into emergency mode and had to be manually released (by pulling a wire loop -- usually marked with a star -- under the coach). The process of releasing the brakes easily takes around 15 minutes for vacuum-braked stock. On the other hand air brakes do require more precise maintenance and care. The standard BCN/BOXN/BPTGLN/etc. wagons have frame-mounted cylinders for the brakes, as do the passenger coaches. Bogie-mounted brakes are only now [4/00] being introduced on passenger coaches from ICF and RCF, and also being retrofitted on older passenger stock in some zonal railways. BG EMU rakes have electro-pneumatic (‘EP’) brakes which are essentially air brakes, but where the application is controlled electrically at each brake unit. BG EMUs have had air brakes for many decades (see above). MG EMUs of the Chennai system were vacuum-braked. DMU rakes have standard twin-pipe graduated release air brakes. Brake blocks used to be made of cast iron. Later, various other materials were brought into use, including asbestos-based materials. More recently [4/01] RDSO has developed new kinds of asbestos-free composite materials for use in brake blocks. These are known as the 'L' type brake blocks and after being introduced for BG have also been recently [2005] introduced for MG stock. Q. What kinds of brake do IR's locomotives have? Locos in India typically have air brake systems these days. As there is still a lot of freight stock, and some passenger stock that is not air-braked, many locos do have dual braking capability where they can deal with both vacuum braked and air-braked stock. For instance, the original WDM-2 locos were vacuum-braked. As air braked stock came into wider use, many of these locos were retrofitted with air brake systems as well, hence the WDM2A locos have dual braking capability. Later locos such as the WDM-2B and most WDM-2C units have only air brakes. Almost all new locos (WDG-4, etc.) have only air brakes as the original equipment in most cases, although a few are now [9/01] being retrofitted with vacuum brakes because there is still a fair amount of vacuum-braked freight stock in use. The presence of air brakes or dual-braking capability is indicated by a number of ad hoc means, such as annotations ('DB', 'Dual Braked') or markings (thin blue stripes running along the bottom of a loco, for instance). The annotations 'FP' and 'BP' on a loco indicate the presence of the Feed Pipe or Brake Pipe, respectively. 34

Various forms of 'dynamic' braking are also used as supplementary systems where the kinetic energy of the loco is used to generate electricity which is dissipated in some manner (resistive grids are common ('rheostatic braking' or 'dynamic braking'); some old EMUs in Bombay used electromagnets acting close to the rails; some locos used the extra energy to heat water in tanks). In some locos dynamic brakes are part of the original equipment, whereas in others they are retrofitted, e.g., some WAP-4 locos that have had dynamic brakes with dissipation grids mounted on their roofs. In a variant known as 'regenerative' braking, the energy is fed back to the overhead cables; this was done by the DC locos (WCM series, definitely WCM-1 but not all of its successors). Feeding energy back to the cables is more complex with AC power, but the latest WAP and WAG series locos do have some provision for this. Q. What are 'auto-emergency' brakes? Many locos used in steep ghat sections also have an 'auto-emergency' ('AE' or 'AEB') brake system, which consists of an additional safety circuit which monitors the speed and applies the brakes to slow down or halt the locomotive if the speed rises above a certain threshold (sometimes 25km/h or so, but this varies with the route and the working rules in effect). There isn't a separate set of brakes, but rather, the loco brakes are applied independent of the driver's control when the system is armed. The system is armed by using a key that the driver then hands to the guard. If the brakes trigger automatically, the key has to be retrieved from the guard and used again to get the train going (and a lot of paperwork has to be filed as well!). AE brakes are used especially on the WDM-2/WDM-2C/WDG-2 locos from Gooty that work the Braganza ghat. The AE brake system is armed when the locos are going in the downhill direction; its use is mandatory as there are no other safety features such as catch sidings on this route.

Couplers
Q. What kinds of couplers are used on IR's trains? IR passenger stock is mostly built with side buffers and screw couplers that have to be manually connected. The side buffers have single helical spring elements. The notable exceptions are the new [2/00] Alsthom LHB design coaches that have CBC (centre-buffer-coupler). IR is now introducing tightlock CBC on passenger stock. This started as an experiment in the early 2000s. One rake of the Prayagraj Express was fitted with CBC as a trial. CBC overcome some of the limitations of the screw couplers -- limited draft load and energy absorption capacity, lack of anti-climbing feature, etc. CBC would also reduce the inter-coach distance. [12/05] More trains, such as the Godavari Exp. and Charminar Exp. now have CBC rakes. All new freight stock and container rake wagons for CONCOR, have CBC (MCB (or 'Janney' or 'knuckle' (US style) couplers). In particular newer freight stock has AAR type 'E' CBC usually with high-capacity draft gear. But there are still some older freight cars which have hook couplers with side buffers, as well as many with screw couplers. Transition Couplers There are also 'transition' couplers, which have a CBC mechanism for coupling to other CBC, but which also have a central screw coupling provision allowing coupling to wagons which do not have CBC. There are two side buffers provided as well. These were 35

useful when CBC were just being introduced and there was a lot of freight stock that had screw couplers, but they have now gradually lost their importance as more and more of the freight stock is fitted with CBC. These days only locos and brake vans tend to have transition couplers. Older BOX wagons, older diesels (many WDM-2's) and other older rolling stock had Henricot Transition Couplers with a double screw arrangement. Somewhat newer rolling stock had the socalled Alliance or Clevis Transition Coupler. This had a clevis to be locked under the knuckle before using the screw coupling. A locking pin indicates whether the CBC portion is properly coupled or not. Locomotives have transition couplers (see above) to allow them to hook up to either CBC or screw-coupled stock, and they also have side buffers. RDSO has recently [2004] come up with new design buffers for locos that have three times the energy storage capacity of the normal side buffers. These use packs of four rubber compression springs instead of the usual helical spring elements for energy storage. Plate Couplers are temporary or short-run couplers that can be used to couple locomotives without CBC couplers to CBC-fitted wagons. Pocket Couplers, similarly, are used for temporarily coupling incompatible wagons. Both of these types of temporary couplers do not perform well in practice. They were also generally in short supply at marshalling yards and elsewhere. The move to block rakes of CBC wagons in the 1980s greatly reduced the demand for these temporary coupler types. The Jones coupler (an adaptation of the Norwegian coupler) coupler is used on some MG and NG lines. Also known as the chopper coupler, this uses a hook (the chopper) which fits into a yoke on the coupler of the next car. A bar behind the yoke controls the tension in the coupler. MG wagons and coaches have a the chopper at one end and the non-chopper coupler at the other end, hence a rake of MG wagons has to have them all oriented in the same way. MG locos have the choppers at both ends. When coupling a loco to a wagon, the loco's chopper is used if coupling to the non-chopper end of the wagon, but the wagon's chopper is used if coupling to the chopper end. Jones couplers were developed in India and later spread to several east African and south-east Asian railways. Some NG lines still use a basic Norwegian (or 'chopper') coupling, which has a square or circular face with a slot coming down about half-way from the top. Some NG lines use(d) the ABC Patent Coupling (ex-GIPR: Arvi-Pulgaon, AchalpulpurMurtijapur-Yavatmal, Daund-Baramati, etc.). This has a disk that rotates and latches on to a horizontal loop from the mating coupler. The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway uses a rudder coupling system to deal with the severe curvature on some sections of its route. However, the Kishanganj branch of the DHR used chopper couplers, as can be seen on the DHR C class Pacific at Mumbai and the lone Garratt made for this line. EMUs use Scharfberg couplers which are a centre-buffer type which automatically connect the electricity and air links as well. The coupler face is rectangular (from above) and has semicircular ends. A large pin projects from the end of the coupler, which mates with a corresponding hole in the coupler of the other car. DMUs also use these couplers with regular twin brake pipes, although in some cases (e.g. Jallandhar DMUs) they are modified to have different brake hoses than the integrated ones that are part of the couplers. In IR parlance, these couplers are called 'Shaku' couplers. Screw Coupler Limitations 36

The screw couplers in use on passenger stock have some pretty restrictive limits on the tensile force they can handle. Below are the starting load limits specified for BG stock using screw couplers on different gradients: Gradient Rake weight Level 7000t+ 1 in 500 5000t 1 in 200 2800t 1 in 150 2250t 1 in 100 1700t With gradients of 1 in 60 or 1 in 50, the allowable load is as low as 1000t or less, which means that most Mail and Express trains running today, with 17-18 coaches or even longer rakes, need bankers for such gradients. Buffers The side buffers typically used on locomotives, coaches, and wagons mostly use helical springs for compression resistance. More recently, newer buffer designs have been brought into use that combine the use of helical springs with rubber or synthetic compression elements, including some buffer designs that rely entirely on multiple packs of rubber compression packs. Buffer capacity in the past was low, at about 450kgf-m and the standard loco buffer having a capacity of 490kgf-m. Higher capacity buffers of 1030 and 1225 kgf-m have been introduced and RDSO's most recent design is for a buffer of capacity 1225kgf-m. History of Couplers in India Originally, Indian coupling consisted simply of chains -- one in the middle and one on either side as back-ups -- and buffers that were extensions of the side structural members of the coaches ("dumb" buffers) for freight cars. Passenger cars often had buffers filled with materials like horsehair. Spring buffers were employed from about 1850, starting with under-wagon leaf spings, and evolving into the modern coil-spring buffers that contain the spring mechanism inside the buffer body. Five-link and 3-link chain couplings survived into the 20th century, especially for low-speed (under 40km/h) operations. The linking chains evolved to have a screw mechanism (hence "screw coupler") to keep buffers of adjacent cars touching and slightly in compression so as to provide a smoother transition on starting a train. By the 1920's chain couplings almost all disappeared, especially as vacuum braking came into wide use. The only steam class with automatic couplers were the WGx subclass used for heavy freights on SER. In 1980, IR made the move to using block rakes of CBC wagons as far as possible for goods movement. This meant that the problems of coupler incompatibility among wagons and among locomotives and wagons at marshalling yards and elsewhere were greatly diminished.

Power Generation - Lighting and Ventilation
37

Early trains The earliest passenger coaches had no lighting at all, and passengers were expected to bring their own candles or lamps on board. In the later decades of the 19th century and in the early 20th century, the most common lighting provision was through gas lamps (more common) or vegetable oil lamps. Electric ighting in passenger coaches was introduced starting around 1897, although it had been tried out experimentally a few times before that. The Jodhpur Railway was the first to make electric lighting standard on all its coaches, in 1902, along with an electric bell system to alert an attendant or the guard in case of an emergency. In general, only the first and second class coaches had lights and fans for every compartment, the 'inter' or intermediate class had only lights, and the third class coaches had just two lights, one at each end near the door. Provision of lights and fans as standard equipment in all compartments was legislated in 1952. It has been suggested that on some railways prior to 1950, steam locos were provided with 24V turbine generators to provide power for lighting in the coaches, but it is hard to find confirming evidence for this, and if true, must have remained confined to a few isolated experiments. Non-Rajdhani/Shatabdi trains Individual coaches are powered by axle-driven generators which charge storage batteries that power lights, fans and other electrical fittings. Older coaches have 24V (less often 48V) circuitry and have dynamos connected to the axles by belts. Newer coaches have 110V circuitry and use belt-driven 4.5kW, 110V alternators. Both systems use banks of 24V batteries (mostly lead-acid batteries of an 800Ah capacity) for back-up power. The old 1500V SIR MG EMUs used a separate 4-wheeled battery car to supply power for lights when the pantographs were not connected to the catenary. LHB stock uses 4.5kW alternators (6kW for air-conditioned stock). In the 1990s, there was a big push to convert all old stock with 24V systems to the 110V system. A few trains used a mid-rake generator car to supply power to the passenger coaches, but most of these special generator cars have now been withdrawn as self-generating coaches and EMUs have become more common; a few rare examples can be seen [9/01] on some MG trains (Mhow, Indore, Ujjain). These generator cars are mostly for 24V or 48V systems. Railbuses such as the ones manufactured by BEML use a 24V electrical system. Regardless of the voltage, such an axle-driven generating system is referred to as SelfGeneration (SG). Air-conditioned coaches In older stock, for powering air-conditioning equipment, 11kW/15kW inverters were used to convert the DC output of a set of batteries to 415V AC. For some time now, however, groups of 110V alternators delivering 18-22kW each have been used to power air-conditioning equipment (the voltage is stepped up to 415V). Most recently, RDSO has developed a newer 25kW 110V alternator with better power circuitry. Lights and fans are often on a separate DC supply from batteries, or stepped down and rectified from the alternators. Many air-conditioned coaches are not self-contained with regard to the power supply. For such coaches, a Mid-on generator (MOG) may be used; this is a 415V 3-phase alternator (either in one of the coaches or in a separate 'power-car'), the output from which is used both for the airconditioning, and (stepped down to 110V and rectified) for the lights and fans. Some End-on generators (EOG) also generate 415V 3-phase AC. Mid-on Generation has some disadvantages and IR is not currently introducing it for any new trains. 38

A few express trains (Deccan Queen, for instance) have used separate end-on power generation cars, although these days [3/00] separate power cars are used almost exclusively with Rajdhani / Shatabdi type trains as discussed below. Rajdhani/Shatabdi trains In these trains and a few others like the Garib Rath Expresses, the provision of dedicated rakes allows the use of a separate 'power-car' to supply electricity for all the coaches. There are usually 2 generators in each power car; each generator (an End-on Generator (EOG)) generates 3-phase 750V AC power, which is then distributed across the train, and stepped down to 415V AC (3phase) for the air-conditioning, or 110V (single-phase) for other appliances. The elimination of generation equipment also allows the coach bogies to be designed with higher speeds in mind. The power car capacity is 250kVA (older models) or 500kVA (newer models, 'high-capacity power cars'). For the higher-power EOGs, often each power car at one end of the rake provides power when the train is running in one direction while the other operates in the other direction. The lower power EOGs can usually power up to 18 AC coaches, but their peak efficiency is at a load in the range of 7 to 12 coaches, and so for longer trains both EOG cars are on simultaneously. The two EOGs and the coaches along the length of the train are connected by two independent sets of 3-phase cables so as to be able to handle a failure in a cable. In addition, there are usually 24V batteries in the coaches to power a couple of emergency lights at critical points in the coaches. These 250kVA power cars were introduced in 1992. Before that the power cars in use had a capacity of 125kVA and used 440V as the AC distribution voltage. With these, most Rajdhanis and Shatabdis needed three power cars -- one at either end, and one in the middle of the rake, which split the rake into two portions (termed 'Unit I' and 'Unit II'). As the power cars are (were) not equipped for anyone to walk through, there was no way to get from one portion of the rake to the other while the train was in motion. A very small number of other trains also use such EOG cars for power; these EOG cars tend to be different from the ones used for Rajdhani and Shatabdi trains (some are the older 125kVA versions). At various times, trains like the Howrah-Amritsar Mail, Poorva Exp., etc. had their own generator cars. Head-On Generation Another system, Head-On Generation (HOG) has been under research by IRIEEN and RDSO but not deployed yet to any trains. In this, power for the hotel load of the train is taken directly from the OHE through a separate pantograph mounted on a power car, or through a special separate hotel load winding tap provided in the main transformer of the locomotive. Locomotives such as the WAP-5 series already have the provision for the hotel load tap. A separate power car is still needed when taking the locomotive tap for hotel load power, because a transformer must still step down the power drawn for distribution to the coaches. If using a separate power car with a pantograph, the placement of the power car within the rake is likely to be at the rear to ensure safe inter-pantograph distance between it and the pantograph(s) of the locomotive and simultaneously to minimize coach shunting for forming the rake. Mechanisms like Locotrol need to be used to raise and lower the pantograph remotely from the locomotive cab. Whether the power is drawn from the OHE or from the locomotive tap, it still needs to be further converted to 415V 3-phase / 110V 1-phase as required for the coach air-conditioning and lighting 39

systems. This can be done in a Bulk Coach Converter in the power-car, or in individual coach converters provided in each coach (or in every two or three coaches. EOG Traction Independent of traction Two power cars provide full backReliability up Local noise and smoke pollution Environment from diesel generators Diesel generation costs of electricity Operating cost are high Additional staff needed to maintain Maintenance diesel generators in power-cars Economics Commercial space reduced - two Commercial space power cars in rake Dead weight from two power cars Economics - Weight with diesel generator sets Power supply Continuous power Catenary No impact to OHE HOG Electrified lines only No back-up in proposed configurations with single power car. Pollution is referred back to the electric power plant; far less noise. Standard grid power costs Maintenance by loco workshop possible for power-car. Single power-car: higher commercial space in train Lower dead-weight Power interrupted at neutral sections OHE wear increased if multiple pantographs used

EMUs/MEMUs/DEMUs Mumbai EMUs take power from the overhead 1500V DC line, and use a motor generator to convert it to 110V AC for powering lights and fans. Lights and fans are also powered in some cases (e.g. DMUs) by auxilliary generators in the locomotive. Chennai EMUs use the 25kV AC overhead supply, after stepping it down to 110V AC. Except for these EMU instances, OHE traction power is never used to supply hotel power on IR.

Miscellaneous
Q. Freight stock often has the words "Not to be loose shunted" –– what does this mean? In marshalling yards and elsewhere, a common technique of moving a wagon around is "loose shunting", where the wagon to be moved is not coupled to the shunting loco, and simply pushed to the correct location. Usually, a rake that is being built up is on one of several sidings branching off from a section of track where the shunting loco is working. The points are set to divert all wagons to the appropriate siding. The shunting loco pushes the wagon and imparts it sufficient speed so that it travels over to the selected siding under its own momentum. Once it reaches the rake that it is to be attached to, the "khalasi" staff couple it up to the rake. The loco driver has to judge the distances and the weight of the wagon precisely so that the wagon does not stop short of the rake (which would necessitate using the shunting loco again to push it further), and so that the wagon does not have too much momentum which would cause it 40

to crash into the rake being assembled with undue violence. Nevertheless, this process of loose shunting does involve a certain amount of violent impacts on all the wagons involved. Such impacts are not desirable for wagons that are carrying sensitive cargo, such as cattle, poultry, or even human passengers in the case of sectional carriages being reattached to rakes, and extremely dangerous in the case of cargo such as petroleum products where an impact can cause leakage and ignition of the cargo with disastrous consequences. Hence, such wagons are marked "not to be loose shunted", implying that they will always be shepherded gingerly into place coupled to a shunting loco.

Passenger Coaches and Other Coaching Stock
Q. What are the loading gauge restrictions (maximum dimensions) on IR coaches? Please see the 1971 standards for rolling stock dimensions and also the older, 1929 standards for rolling stock dimensions. Also of potential interest in this connection are the dimensions of tracks. Q. How are passenger coaches and coaching stock in general classified by IR? Coaching stock in general is divided into two categories, Passenger Coaching Vehicles (PCV) (sometimes 'Passenger Carrying Vehicles') which are coaches that carry passengers, and Other Coaching Vehicles (OCV), which include service coaches such as pantry cars, parcel vans, mail vans, etc. Coaching stock is classified using the codes shown below. Note that these codes are according to the structural features and used for rolling stock management. Separate codes are used for indicating the types of accommodations available in PCV coaches for ticketing and reservation purposes, etc. Those coach designations and class indications are explained in the section on travel.

Prefixes o W : (prefix) Vestibuled o Y : (prefix) Suburban o G : Self-generating (lighting by axle generators) (omitted) o E : 4-wheeled stock o L : (prefix) LHB coaches The 'W' prefix for BG is omitted in many cases (e.g., the new LHB coaches) since almost all new stock is now BG. The 'G' code to indicate a self-generating coach is omitted for the new LHB coaches, which get a '/SG' suffix. It is also omitted in other cases.

Classes of accomodation o F : First Class o S : Second Class o T : Third Class (obsolete) o M : Military Type of coach 41

CN : 3-tier sleeper coach CW : 2-tier sleeper coach CZ : Chair car CD : Dining Car CB : Pantry/kitchen car/buffet car CL : Kitchen car CR : State saloon CT : Tourist car (first class) (includes bathrooms, kitchen, and sitting and sleeping compartments) o CTS : Tourist car (second class) (includes bathrooms, kitchen, and sitting and sleeping compartments) o C : (except as above) With Coupe o D : Double-decker (?) o Y : (not as prefix) With Ladies' compartment (usually 6-berth compartment with locking door) o AC : Air-conditioned Parcel vans, etc. o L : Luggage van or luggage cubicle (suburban: motorman's cabin + luggage space) o R : Brake van / guard van o RA : Inspection carriage (administrative) o RB : Inspection carriage (divisional officers), also Rail Bus o RC : Inspection carriage (?) o D : (suburban) Motorman's cabin (EMU/DMU) o EN : Power supplied by end-on generator o V : Brake van, ordinary goods o VM : Brake van, medium goods o VH : Brake van, heavy goods o VP : Parcel van (8-wheeled) o VPH : High-capacity parcel van o VPAC : Air-cooled parcel van o VK : Motor van (8-wheeled) o VPU : Parcel van / motor car carrier composite (old, 8-wheeled)) o VF : Fruit van o VE : Fish van o VG : Poultry van o VR : Refrigerated parcel / fish van o VV : Milk van o BV : Brake van (also BVG : brake van, goods; BVZI : extra-long brake van) Postal facilities o PP : Postal Car (RMS/mail van) o PPS : Full postal van o PPT : Three-quarter postal van o PPH : Half postal van o PPQ : Quarter postal van o P : Full postal unit: RMS coach -- mail carried, letters can be posted on the train (less common now -- see PP codes above) See the section on train services for more on RMS and postal vans. Newer full postal vans have arrangements for some mail sorting, package sealing, etc.

o o o o o o o o

Miscellaneous, less common codes o A : Articulated coach o D : Vendor's compartment (non-suburban) 42

FF : Upper class (obsolete) HH : Horse box (rare) J : Ice compartment JJ : Refrigerator compartment K : Kitchen (obsolete) LL : Combined Luggage van and Lavatory (rare) M : (suffix) Equipped with generator N : Self-generating with diesel generator N : Non-vegetarian restaurant car (pre-1960's) Q : Attendants' compartment R : Restaurant, western style (pre-1960's) RQ : Staff van (training van) RR : (in combination) End-on Generator car for Rajdhanis, etc. RR : (by itself) Train crew rest van RZ : (by itself) Track recording car RU : (by itself) OHE inspection car S : Food stall on train (pre-1960's), also Special U : Kitchen car V : Vegetarian restaurant car (pre-1960's) W : Waiting Room (pre-1960's) ZZ : Self-powered: EMU, DMU, or Steam or Motor Rail car LHB Coach suffixes o /SG : Self-generating o /EOG : Non-self-generating, requiring EOG for hotel power.

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Codes may be aggregated to indicate composite coaches, E.g. FCS is a composite coach with first-class with coupe (FC) and second-class (S). For suburban EMU stock, YSYL indicates a composite second-class coach (YS) and a motorman's cabin / luggage coach (YL). A gauge indication code (Y for MG, Z for NG) may be prefixed; it is usually omitted. Examples : MEMU stock doesn't fit into this scheme. An MEMU trailer coach, for instance, may simply have the indication 'MEMU/TC' on it. 'GSDMU' is a code often seen on DMU cars with General (GS) accommodation. SYLR Second Class Ladies Coach with a Luggage Cubicle and a Guard's Cabin FC First-class coupe coach FAC (WGFAC) First-class air-conditioned coach FS First-class / second-class composite FCS Composite of First-class with coupe / second-class GS Second-class coach (self-generating), non-vestibuled. Note that 'GS' also stands for General Second-class in accommodation types, and this can be confusing as SLR coaches also have GS accommodation! WGS Vestibuiled second-class coach (self-generating) SC Second-class with coupe 43

ACFC Air-conditioned first-class with coupe WAC Air-conditioned coach, vestibuled WGSCN Vestibuled self-generating second-class 3-tier sleeper WGSCNY Vestibuled self-generating second-class 3-tier sleeper with ladies cabin WGSCZ Vestibuled self-generating second-class chair-car (used on InterCity Express trains) GSCZAC Self-generating AC chair car second-class WFSY Vestibuled first and second class coach with ladies cabin. WGACCN Vestibuled self-generating air-conditioned 3-tier sleeper WACCWEN Vestibuled AC 2-tier sleeper with end-on generated power supply WGACCNW (Proposed) BG 2-tier / 3-tier AC composite LACCN/EOG LHB AC 3-tier sleeper, non-self-generating LACCW/EOG LHB AC 2-tier sleeper, non-self-generating LACCW/SG LHB AC 2-tier sleeper, self-generating LFAC LHB AC First Class WGFACCZFirst Class Chair Car (Executive Chair Car) WGFACCWFirst Class / 2-tier AC Sleeper composite WGACCWAC 2-tier Sleeper WGACCZAC Chair Car LWLRRM LHB - EOG ?? LACCB LHB AC Pantry Car SLR Second-class Luggage/parcel van + guard van ('G' missing). See note for 'GS' above. SYLR SLR with ladies' cubicle WGSCNLR BG 3-tier sleeper with luggage cubicle and guard's compartment. YF Suburban first-class YS Suburban second-class YFYS Suburban first-class and second-class composite coach YSYL Suburban second-class with motorman's cabin / luggage compartment 44

YTYL Suburban third-class (?) with motorman's cabin / luggage compartment YSD Suburban coach, 2nd class, with motorman's cabin (older) YZZ Suburban coach, 2nd class, self-propelled (i.e., with motor and pantograph) SPPH Second-class / half postal van composite SPPQ Second-class / quarter postal van composite SRRM Second-class with brake van and generator WCD Restaurant / dining car (vestibuled) WCDN Vestibuled twin-set dining car WCDAC Vestibuled air-conditioned dining car WCB, WGCB Kitchen / pantry / buffet cars CB Pantry services (no access on the run) CD Non-vestibuled dining car (must enter and leave at specific stations) WP Older RMS coach VPU Older motor-cum-parcel vans (could carry 2 automobiles, with end ramps for loading/unloading). GSR Second-class car with guard's van WLRRMAC End-on Generator car for Rajdhani (??) (half for pantry facilities) WLRRMEN End-on Generator car for Rajdhani (??) MS Military special (obsolete?) TLR Third-class with luggage cubicle and brake van (obsolete) FSQ First and second class composite with attendants' van (obsolete) EVP 4-wheeled parcel van EVPU 4-wheeled parcel van with motor van EVK 4-wheeled motor van LR Luggage van / brake van composite CTAC Tourist car, air-conditioned ERA 4-wheeler inspection carriage 45

ERB 4-wheeler inspection carriage ERC 4-wheeler inspection carriage ERU 4-wheeler OHE inspection cars RU 8-wheeler (bogie stock) OHE inspection cars ECR 4-wheeler state saloon MK Military coach with kitchen (obsolete?) BVGT Brake van for goods, with transition coupling BVGC Brake van for goods, with CBC coupling BVZI An extra-long brake van for goods, developed by RDSO, providing greater comfort for the guard. Max 100km/h. HHVP Horse van / parcel van composite WPCTAC Saloon car for Palace on Wheels WRB Rail Bus VPH High-capacity parcel van (23t, 130km/h). VVN Milk van, air-braked (?) WGD Double-decker coaches?? See also the section on travel for information on codes used for indicating coach accommodations, etc. Pantry cars have various classifications. The standard pantry cars and kitchen cars are dedicated units with equipment and facilities for food service but no passenger accommodations. A few combination pantry or kitchen cars with passenger accommodation have been spotted. The Gharib Nawaz Express used to run with a composite pantry car / chair car. A similar one was used in 2002 for the MG Ahmedabad - Patan Intercity Express, marked GSCHCZ (number 81653). [12/03] The Egmore - Madurai Vaigai Express runs with a composite pantry/chair car. Q. How are coaches numbered by IR? Coaches usually have a 4-, 5-, or 6-digit number, where the first two digits denote the year of construction (e.g., 8439 denoting a coach built in 1984, or 92132 denoting a coach built in 1992). In some cases the first two digits may represent the year the coach was transfered to the zonal railway, and sometimes the year represented is the year the coach was rebuilt. One exception are some of the Rajdhani rakes of Northern Railway, which have coaches numbered 1XXXX (15XXX). (Not all NR Rajdhanis have such coach numbers; 2951/2, 2953/4 don't.) An alphabetic suffix may also appear (see below). Many older coaches which had 3-, 4-, or 5digit serial numbers are being renumbered to conform to this scheme. Often the zonal 46

abbreviation is prefixed to the number, so that a coach may be ‘ER 89472 A’, or ‘SE 978052 A’ for instance. From 2000 onwards, the year of manufacture is indicated ‘00’, ‘01’, etc., as expected, in the initial digits, e.g., ‘SE 018051 A’. Occasionally, some combination zonal prefixes are seen, e.g., ‘SK 01252 AB’ (seen on a WGSCN coach of the Hazrat Nizamuddin - Vasco Goa Express [6/03]), where the ‘SK’ indicates a coach jointly belonging to / maintained by South Central Railway and Konkan Railway. On SER, many coaches have 6-digit numbers (e.g., 898439/A) where an ‘8’ has been inserted as the third digit into a 5-digit number in the above scheme. ‘8’ is the zonal number of SER in the train numbering system. For some time (1998-99), ER and NFR also followed this pattern, adding a ‘3’ or ‘5’ as the third digit, respectively. Recently [3/05] it's been seen that some coaches with 5-digit numbers, e.g., on WR, have been renumbered with an extra '0' at the end, e.g., 00452AB is now renumbered as 004520AB. Following the first block of digits described above, the next 2 or 3 digits form a serially allotted number within ranges that usually indicate the type of coach, as shown below. (Recent coaches all have 3 digits for this (a 5 digit number on the whole), using a leading 0 for the 1-99 range.) The serial number is allotted chronologically in the order in which the coach is received by the zonal railway, within the range for the coach type.
         

001-025 : AC first class. On NER, some MG FC coaches from 2000/2001. 026-050 : Composite 1AC + AC-2T 051-100 : AC-2T 101-150 : AC-3T 151-200 : CC (AC Chair Car) 201-400 : SL (2nd class sleeper) 401-600 : GS (General 2nd class) 601-700 : 2S (2nd class sitting / Jan Shatabdi chair cars) 701-800 : SLR 801+ : Pantry car, VPU, RMS mail coach, generator car, etc.

So, for instance, a coach with number 92172 is the twenty-second AC Chair Car coach received by the zonal railway in 1992. If there are more coaches of a particular type than numbers available in the allotted range as described above, the excess coaches are allotted numbers in the high 800's, usually 875 and above. For instance, sleeper coaches have been spotted marked SR 96886A, and AC-3T coaches spotted marked SC 97906A. The ranges are also sometimes redistributed. In 1999, ER was to get a lot of AC-3T coaches for Rajdhani rakes and the new Sealdah Shatabdi. Hence, its only AC Chair Car of that year was renumbered ER 99181A, keeping 30 numbers between 151 and 180 free for AC-3T coaches (in the event, it turned out that these were not used after all). Suffixes An 'X' suffix indicates 110V DC electrical systems (upgraded from the older 24V systems). An 'A' or 'AB' suffix indicates air-braked stock (frame-mounted or bogie-mounted, respectively), especially for coaches upgraded from vacuum brakes (see below for more). A 'C' suffix indicates CBC couplers (as with the new LHB coaches). On WR, EMU coaches have alphabetic prefixes 47

(A for YFYS coaches, B for YSZZ, and C for YSYL). CR EMUs have 76xxx for YSYL, 70xxx for YSZZ and 72xxx for YFYS, where ‘xxx’ is a 3-digit serial number.

Air-brake indication An ‘A’ or ‘AB’ suffix (e.g., 92383 AB, or 93120/A) as mentioned above indicates air-brakes. 'AB' is thought to be used for coaches with bogie-mounted air-brake equipment, and 'A' for coaches with the air-brake equipment mounted to the bottom of the carriage. Sometimes symbols such as ‘/A’ or ‘/A-X’ are marked instead at either end or next to the coach serial number (as an additional annotation) to indicate an air-braked coach. Recently [4/05] it's been observed that in a few of the zonal railways the 'A', 'AB', or '/A' suffix has been removed or omitted upon repainting, possibly because it is now considered redundant since the majority of coaches are airbraked, and/or because all newer coaches have air brakes as original equipment. Update [7/06]: It appears that the trend of omitting the 'AB' or 'A' suffix for air-braked coaches appears to be spreading and it has been observed that newly repainted coaches of many zones have plain serial numbers. A few rare coaches that are dual braked have a suffix ‘A/V’ after the serial number. The newer dark blue / light blue livery also indicates air-braked stock, and for recent ICF stock, may be the only indication of air brakes, since there is no alphabetic suffix or anything else to indicate it. The blue on blue livery was introduced in the early 1990s or thereabouts; air-braked stock from before that (8xxxx series) continued for a while in the older maroon livery even after brake conversion. Zone Indication The railway zone that owns a coach is usually indicated by its standard initials in Roman characters and Devanagari characters on the sides of the coach (e.g., NR, 'u re' for Northern Railway). After the creation of new zones, it's been seen that in some cases rather than repainting the coaches, the zone indication has been redone in an ad hoc manner, sometimes with an extra letter just squeezed into the existing initials, e.g., 'N R' become 'NWR' or 'S R' becoming 'SWR', with similar contortions in the Devanagari initials. Q. What are the common configurations of IR coaches? Please consult Royston Ellis's ‘Rail Across India’ or other travel guides for up-to-date and specific information on different kinds of accommodation available on IR. The BG 3-tier sleeper coach is very common, and provides accommodation for 72 persons. Each compartment in it has 6 berths: 3 seats forming a bench on either side of the compartment; these form two bunks, the back-rests of the seats fold out to become bunks at night, and lastly, there are two bunks further up. Across the aisle from a compartment two shorter berths are provided along the length of the coach. Air-conditioned 2-tier sleeper coaches have 46 berths (there is space for 48, but two slots for berths are taken up by equipment, either overhead or on one side at one end. The LHB 2-tier AC coaches have 54 berths. The AC 3-tier sleeper coaches have 64 berths while the LHB AC 3-tier coaches accommodate 75. (Both the 2-tier and 3-tier AC conventional coaches have 8 bays or compartments while the LHB versions have 9; non-AC sleeper coaches have 9 bays.) Jan Shatabdi second-class sleepers accommodate 78, while the Jan Shatabdi AC Chair Cars accommodate 73 passengers. [12/06] IR is contemplating introducing a newer version of the AC-3T coach that will accommodate 81 passengers. First-class or AC chair cars have 64 seats. Until the late 1960s or so, they had three 2' windows for each compartment (two for coupes); later first-class coaches have two extra-wide (3') 48

windows (one for coupes). The later first-class coaches are also more spacious with seats 560mm wide (510mm earlier) and backrests 785mm high (645mm earlier). Older second-class chair cars have 72 seats (3 and 2 across the aisle). Newer second-class chair cars, since 1995, are more cramped, with 108 seats in the same space (seating 3 and 3 across)). Executive chair car coaches have seating and 2 on each side of the aisle. Jan Shatabdi chair cars have a capacity of 103. A sleeper coach with special accommodation for ladies ('Y' classification) usually has one compartment (6 berths) partitioned off with the provision of locking doors to form the ladies' cubicle. These have now generally been discontinued and are rarely seen. First class AC coaches have compartments with doors for privacy; the compartments are all along one side, without any seats or berths on the other side across the aisle. The first-class compartments are either cabins (two facing sets of berths), or coupes (one set of berths). The combination first and second class AC coaches (AC1 cum AC2T, also marked 'HA' in accommodation charts) have 10 berths, two cabins and a coupe in first class, and 20 (rarely 22 or 24?) berths in second class, arranged in 3 bays of 6 berths each and a 2 berths in a half-bay at the end. The 3-tier cars have extra-wide (3') windows (one per compartment). AC 2-tier cars used to have normal windows, A few AC 2-tier cars made by RCF had the extra-wide windows; now, since 2001, even the ICF-built AC 2-tier coaches have extra-wide windows. There are also a few composite AC first-class coaches with one section of the coach having sleeping accommodation and the rest being a chair car. In the mid-1990s a few trains such as the Coalfield Exp. had AC1 coaches with 2x2 sitting accommodation; these appear to have been short-lived experiments, and have disappeared after this train, as with most others, was changed to have air brakes. Two-tier sleeper cars (non-AC) are being discontinued in preference to the 3-tier sleeper cars which can carry more passengers. [9/00] A new composite first and second class coach has been introduced, which has two first-class compartments (one 4-berth, one 2-berth) in an otherwise second-class sleeper coach with 59 berths (7 full bays + one 3-berth formation). There are only a handful of these, all on NR (#12226A being one of them), and are seen occasionally [1/05] on trains like the Brahmaputra Mail. These are different from the older First Class / Second Class composite coaches which had 10 First Class berths with the rest being Second Class sleeper compartments. These are no longer in use now. Earlier there used to be an odd mixed accommodation coach which was like a 2-tier sleeper coach but provided sleeping accommodation only for some of the passengers in the upper berths (24); the lower berths were seated accommodation only, for the remaining passengers for the night (48). A 64-passenger version of this is also said to have been in use. In these the sleeping berth was often in a different compartment within the coach than where the passenger was allotted his or her sitting space! Some old 3-tier BG coaches could be seen until the late 1980s with wooden seats and accommodation for 75 passengers (in contrast to the 72 in today's 3-tier coaches). On MG, the composite AC1/AC2 coaches have 4+18 berths. First class (AC or non-AC) coaches have showers. A few AC1 / non-AC First Class composites, as well as a few AC1 / AC Chair Car composites are in service on a few routes. On MG AC1/FC composites have an AC coupe for 2, a saloon for 4, and a First Class compartment for 6. These composites are now rare. On NG, in addition to the usual Second Class sitting accommodation, there are a few First Class coaches (seen on the Gwalior - Sheopur Kalan route, Nagpur - Jabalpur 1 NHJ / 2 NHJ, 1 Up / 2 Dn Satpur Exp. and 1 BJ / 2 BJ Passengers between Jabalpur and Balaghat [2005]), as well as 49

some air-conditioned coaches (Jabalpur-Gondia Satpura Exp. had some). The Gwalior - Sheopur Kalan route used to have overnight trains with Second Class sleeper accommodation as well -the sleeping berths were aligned longitudinally, along the sides of the coach. (These sleeper coaches appear to have been withdrawn now.) In the First Class NG coaches three seat benches double as sleeping berths, and there are a further two berths that open out from the coach walls. The coaches are of the non-corridor type, with 4 to 6 berths per compartment and an attached bathroom. Air-conditioned coaches IR has many classes of air-conditioned accommodation, usually referred to by their acronyms:
    

Air-conditioned chair car: AC CC Air-conditioned executive class: AC Exec Air-conditioned three tier: AC 3T Air-conditioned two tier: AC 2T Air-conditioned first class: AC I

The ‘chair-car’ classes provide only seating accommodation, while the others have sleeping accommodations as well. LHB Coaches (See below for more information on the Alstom LHB coaches.) The AC 2-tier and AC 3-tier versions of the LHB coaches have 9 cabins instead 8 in the older stock. The GS and SCN versions have 10 cabins instead of 9 in the older stock. Q. What is the history of passenger stock and accommodations? As railway operations in India were handled by a large number of companies at first, there was a lot of variety in the kinds of stock used and the classes of accommodation provided. Larger railways tended to have three or four classes of accommodation, from First through Fourth (and many special-purpose luxury saloons and the like in addition). Many smaller lines started with a simple division of Upper and Lower class (e.g., Bengal and Northwestern Rly. (MG) and the Barsi Light Rly. (NG)) -- this economized on rolling stock, especially if (as was often the case), classes other than First and Third were not well patronized. At the 1870 Railway Conference, there were even suggestions to have just a single class of carriage as with the practice then in the USA, however, it was felt necessary to have at least two, perhaps more, classes to accommodate social distinctions. From 1874 onwards most large and medium railways standardized on roughly the same levels of accommodations for each of the three classes First through Third. Fourth class carriages were essentially like box cars as they did not have any seats, not even benches. Although most railways had them at some time or the other in the 1860s, they were already going out of favour by the 1870s so that by the early 1880s not many lines had Fourth class. In 1885 Fourth class was generally abolished by the expedient of providing benches in the carriages, and reclassifying the carriages as Third class. The existing Third class was then renamed the 'Inter' class (for Intermediate). Inter class was seen as providing an economical form of travel for those Indians who were better off than the poorer majority who could only afford the lowest class of accommodations, and where they would not be bothered by the 'low-class' travellers (Indians or Europeans) travelling in Third class. First class and Second class were 50

generally the domain of Europeans, although very wealthy Indians did occasionally travel in First class. From about the 1930s, Inter and Second began to be provided only in Composite carriages, reflecting a very low demand for the service. Some lines began to phase out Inter altogether, though this process was far from complete by 1947. In 1955, there was another reclassification, and the Second class became First class, and the Inter class became Second class. (Third remained Third.) The old super-luxurious First class coaches survived but were phased out over time. These pre1955 First class coaches were non-corridor coaches, so the compartment ran the full width of the car. They had one 6-berth compartment, two 2-berth compartments, and three 4-berth compartments. Each compartment had an attached shower and lavatory. These coaches usually also had one narrow compartment at one end with a bench and sometimes a single berth above, for the travellers' domestic servants; this was used as the compartment for cabin attendants later. Such coaches with these 'servant quarters' were built as late as 1940. Some First class coaches were composites. They all had timber bodies, on a 68-foot underframe. 1955 was the year that the ICF was established, and began producing the integral coaches on the 70-foot body. (Interestingly, the prototype ICF coach actually had an Inter compartment.) The post-1955 First class coaches are the corridor type which survive today. Some of the old woodenbodied non-corridor First class coaches were still running even as late as 1987 on MG, and some of the old composite First class coaches until 1980 on BG. Non-composite pre-1955 First class coaches were seen in some sections in the 1970s. In some ways, the successor of the old luxurious First class is today's air-conditioned First class. Second (ex-Inter) class was officially abolished on 1st July 1974, and the remaining Second Class compartments were redesignated Third class, so that for a short while there were only First and Third classes. But Third class was then renamed Second cass not too long after. Wooden seats and berths were the most common until the 1970s in Second and Third classes. Cushioned sleeping berths and seats began appearing in the late 1970s. The variations on airconditioned accommodations, and different kinds of chair-cars were introduced in recent years. The older non-airconditioned First Class coaches are gradually being phased out and no new coaches of this kind are being manufactured now [4/00]. They had much more spacious and wellappointed seating and sleeping accommodations than the Second Class coaches. Seating capacity 28 per coach. Until about the 1980's, there was still much old stock in use from the 1940's and 1950's where coaches were configured as non-corridor first class coaches, giving a measure of privacy and spaciousness not seen today. Composite coaches (first class / 1AC) survived on MG for quite a while, and all first-class coaches are still seen quite often on MG; these usually also had coupe and 4-berth compartments in addition to the more standard 6-berth compartments. There also used to be a few combined first-class / second-class coaches where half the coach was first-class, separated from the rest by a door in the aisle, with 32 berths for the second-class section. Only a few of the old first-class coaches have been retrofitted with air-brakes for use in air-braked rakes employed by the fast trains today, and so only a few trains such as the Nilgiri, Pandyan, and Kanyakumari Expresses have these coaches now. Q. Who were the early manufacturers of IR stock? 51

Some early coaching stock was built in Great Britain and imported to India. This included 'pattern' coaches of the 1850s, many prototype steel coaches from 1913 and much EMU stock well into the 1960s until ICF's production built up. However, most coaching stock was built on underframes which had been imported ready-made or in completely-knocked-down (CKD) form from Great Britain. Imperial preference excluded most other suppliers. Virtually all railway workshops with a woodworking capability built coaching stock until well after Independence. including Parel, (old) Perambur, Hubli, Gorakhpur, Moghalpura, and others. Many of the smaller works did too, and there was much rebuilding and rebodying, which went on until the early 1950s at least. In fact some of the shops in Saurashtra were rebodying MG 4-wheel stock until the early 1950s! A rebody can often be spotted because of its unusual size or shape. For example, the standard NG carriage underframe is 34' 6", and new stock built since its adoption will be no longer than 35'. But many lines have modern-looking stock which is anywhere from 29' 6" to 42' in length, showing that it is a new body on an old underframe. Incidentally, wagon building in India followed a similar path, except that steel wagons began to be built around 1902, and three Calcutta firms, Martin Burn, Indian Standard, and Jessops, became dominant. Eventually the only imported components were wheels, and even this changed after the Wheel and Axle Plant took up production of wheels. Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL), at Bangalore, started producing all-metal railway coaches in 1950. Many of the workforce that were assigned to the coach-building unit of HAL were skilled aircraft engineers. HAL built about 10 coaches a month in the early 1950s. When the Toofan Mail suffered a collision in 1950, the only coach that was not completely destroyed turned out to be an all-metal indigenous coach built by HAL. Q. When were barred windows on coaches first introduced? A characteristic feature of most passenger stock on IR today [7/02] is the presence of welded bars on the windows. These were apparently introduced at first on night trains to provide security against theft by persons at stations, around the 1970s, but in the 1980s their use spread to most trains and now they are almost universal. Very few older coaches remain that have windows that open fully. The barred windows are obviously problematic in emergency situations, and IR is now introducing windows that can be opened from the inside in an emergency. Older stock is still occasionally seen with square windows and bars held in sockets on the side instead of being welded to the car body. Q. Where are present day IR coaches manufactured? Passenger coaches are manufactured at three principal places: Integral Coach Factory (ICF) at Perambur, Railway Coach Factory (RCF) at Kapurthala, and Bharat Earth Movers Ltd. (BEML) at Bangalore. A few coaches are (or were) also manufactured by Hindustan Aircraft Ltd. (HAL) and Jessop. Some auxiliary equipment and repair works are carried out at Liluah Carriage and Wagon Workshops. The Amritsar workshops manufacture ICF and UIC bogies for passenger and freight stock. [2007] A new coach factory with a capacity for producting 1000 coaches a year has been proposed to be set up at Lalganj in Rae Bareilly district. As of [1/10] production had not yet started, and was slated to begin in 2011. In 2010, plans were also announced for a new coach 52

factory at Kanjikode, or Palakkad, and another at Kanchrapara. There has also been mention of a possible site at Singur for a coach factory. In the past, coaches have been supplied by Burn Standard, Gloucester Railway Carriage and Wagon works, Brush, GEC, Indian Standard Wagon Co., Richardson & Cruddas (Bombay), Braithewaters (Calcutta), and other manufacturers as well. Kharapur Workshops manufactured many AC coaches. Most recently Alstom LHB have supplied a rake of coaches for the Swarna Shatabdi to Lucknow under a technology-transfer agreement with IR. (More information on these LHB coaches below.) The Matunga workshops of CR have been refurbishing some EMU coaches with stainless-steel interiors and new amenities. The Golden Rock workshops have built small quantities of various special-purpose coaches and vans. ICF accounts for most of the railway coaches seen in India today (more than 26,000 (?) of the 40,000+ regular coaches, and almost all (4,000+) of the suburban EMU coaches (4,600+). [2002]). Spotting BEML coaches ICF-built cars tend to have more rounded corners for windows, whereas BEML cars have sharper corners for the windows (especially at the bottom). BEML car ends are slightly tapered (the body shell tapers down at the ends). The roofs of the cars are also not as rounded as with ICF coaches, and have sharper edges. [10/04] Some newer coaches have padded grab rails for easier access to the middle & upper berths. They also sport grey upholstery instead of the normal blue. On the whole, the BEML coaches also have their floor level slightly higher than the ICF/RCF coaches. BEML coaches include GS and SLR units -- there used to be many GSCN coaches too, but most of those have been decommissioned. [12/08] A proposal to set up a railway coach factory at Rae Bareilly has been jeopardized by litigation over land acquisition. The history of BEML coaches Just after Independence, when the need for coaching stock was very acute, Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL) entered into a deal with M.A.N. of Germany to produce all-steel coaching stock for IR. Their first models were produced very soon after the War, and were originally to the old 10' width, standard until 10' 8" was sanctioned around 1948. Models 404 and 407, both centre-lav all-thirds on IRS standard underframes, were produced in large numbers. The first true integral stock for BG was the 41x series, recognizable by the small high window on the toilets (also found on 404/7) and by the bogies with swing-arm support for the axlebox. There was also a MG series, of boxy Thirds with four windows, a door, eight windows, another door, and four more windows. They were all 58' long, to fit the IRS MG standard underframes of 56' 6" length. The earliest version had lots of external rivets, but later production was welded and presented a smoother surface. These had a very flat side by comparison with the later and longer ICF integral stock. This part of HAL's business was hived off to BEML sometime during the 1970s, hence the stock tends to be referred to as BEML, not MAN/HAL, as it was in earlier years. Q. What's an ‘integral’ coach? The ‘integral’ coaches built by ICF have monocoque or single-shell bodies (based on a 1950's Swiss design, ‘Schlieren’ Swiss Car and Elevator Manufacturing Co.) with the floor being part of the body; it is an anti-telescopic design, which prevents coaches from being crushed lengthwise 53

in the event of a train collision. Since they were brought into use, they have substantially reduced the number of passenger deaths in various cases of head-on collisions of trains. They are welded coaches fabricated from steel. The single-shell design features a stressed skin. The shell acts as a hollow girder - the underframe, the walls, and the roof are joined with one another to form a single structural tube. The hollow girder offers resistance to bending and torsional stresses with efficient use of material, allowing reduction in the total weight of the coach compared to some earlier heavy designs that attempted to achieve strength and stability simply through increased weight of the frame structures. The hollow shell also features high resistance to compression stresses along the length of the passenger section. The compression resistance is further increased by providing pressed grooves or welded ribs on the walls, and by the use of corrugated sheets and carlines for the underframe and roof respectively. The end zones of the coach (normally the vestibules and/or lavatory or utility areas) are intentionally designed to offer lower resistance to compression. In the event of a collision, therefore, the areas at either end act as 'crumple zones' and preferentially buckle and absorb the kinetic energy of the collision while the passenger area of the coach remains safe from crumpling or telescoping. Before these were introduced various other non-integral designs (with shell separate from underframe) were in use (and continued to be in use for decades later too). Steel underframes were first introduced in 1885; prior to that coaches were entirely wooden. Wooden shells for coaches continued well into the 20th century. Q. What other coaches have been used lately? In the late 1990's RCF, under the auspices of a UN-assisted program, came out with some prototype coaches of new designs, classified IRX/IR15 (IRW?), IRY/IR20, and IRZ/IR30. The first part of the code (e.g., IRY) refers to the shell design, and the second part (e.g. IR20) to the bogie design.) The IR20 bogies are based on the Eurofima design (in fact, they are said to be more or less an exact copy of the design). The IRW coach is said to have had a variety of passenger-friendly and track-friendly features such as chemical toilets. As its production costs were projected to be too high, this design never entered serial production. The sole coach of this design made by RCF never entered service with IR (and is still [12/04] at RCF). The IRZ coach is said to have encountered various design problems and was abandoned after a few trials. The IRY/IR20 coach, which was designed for a max. speed of 140km/h, did enter serial production in small numbers (more below). One or two isolated examples of other RCF-built coaches with features different from the normal ICF coaches have been spotted on rare occasions (e.g., there is a report of one 3A coach used with the Grand Trunk Express in 2001), although information about these experiments (which is presumably what they were) is very sparse. Some of the IRY/IR20 coaches, with a ribbed or corrugated shell design for strength, were used for a while ([2/02] and are still used occasionally) with the Amritsar Swarna Shatabdi. Another rake of IRY/IR20 coaches was being used for the Bareilly Shatabdi. Apart from that these coaches do not seem to be in use elsewhere [5/01]. Update [12/04]: One of the IRY/IR20 rakes is no longer in service, being cannibalized as a source of spare parts for the second. Improvements in these IRY/IR20 coaches include better ride quality, larger windows, improved noise reduction, improvements in the air-conditioning system and ducts, and modified pantry equipment including trolleys, drink dispensers, etc. The bogies for these (IR-20) will continue to be manufactured for use with MG coaches with service speeds of 100km/h, besides also being exported (Vietnam, 54

some African countries). Meanwhile for coach bodies/shells, RCF has switched to production of the LHB coaches (see below). In November 1999, ICF manufactured an AC-2T coach fabricated out of stainless steel. This sole prototype has not been followed up by more units. Q. What are the maximum speeds at which IR passenger stock runs? The typical maximum speed specification for passenger coaches in good condition is 100km/h. Older coaches and those in poor condition can be seen with annotations restricting their maximum speed to something lower, such as 80km/h. Rajdhani and Shatabdi trains and other fast trains of course have stock that can be hauled at higher speeds. The newer LHB design coaches (see below) can also be hauled at high speeds, 160km/h for the air-conditioned cars and 120km/h for the non-air-conditioned ones. Recently [4/05] ordinary ICF integral coaches have been spotted occasionally bearing annotations for a maximum speed of 120km/h (e.g., on the Jammu Tawi - Howrah Exp.) Q. What are LHB coaches? [2/02] In February 2000, IR received a consignment of new lightweight all-metal passenger coaches from Alsthom LHB (Germany). The initial units were earmarked for the New Delhi Amritsar Swarna Shatabdi, but later [5/01] allotted to the new New Delhi - Lucknow Swarna Shatabdi. The coaches are approximately 2.2m longer than the standard ICF-built integral coaches (two additional rows for the chair cars, one additional sleeping bay for the sleeper coaches). The AC coaches are expected to carry 78 passengers. The body is by Alsthom LHB, with a stainless steel construction, mounted on Fiat bogies with disc brakes. The chair cars are lighter about 10% lighter than the standard IR integral coaches, having a tare weight of 40.3 tonnes. Improvements for the passengers' comfort include better air flow for the air-conditioning, larger windows, lamps for all seats, and sound insulation. The coaches are also provided with 'anticlimbing' features to reduce casualties in case of collisions. As a move to greater cleanliness at stations, the toilets are designed to allow waste discharge only when the train is in motion. LHB coaches have an IGBT-based battery charger. The air-conditioned stock uses a 6kW alternator while the non-air-conditioned stock uses a 4.5kW alternator. Air-conditioning equipment is roof-mounted. These coaches are not compatible with existing designs of ICF/RCF coaches, having two sets of brake and feed pipes and a different electrical coupler, and hence will initially be run in block rakes consisting entirely of the new coaches, until RCF begins producing them with modifications to make them compatible with existing passenger stock. A total of 24 new coaches are expected to be imported initially (19 second-class AC chair cars, 2 AC chair cars, 3 generator-cum-brake vans), following which a technology transfer arrangement will enable RCF, Kapurthala, to manufacture these models. Later shipments from Alsthom will include composite first-class / AC sleeper coaches, second-class AC sleeper coaches (2-tier and 3-tier), and AC buffet coaches. (See above for some information on the interior arrangements.) RDSO had the task (starting in June 2000) of developing specifications for all the variant designs of the LHB coaches. In addition to the layout of the compartments and specifications for the passenger accommodations, RDSO also worked on the design for the suspension, alternator 55

drives, and other such details. The design of the General Second Class (GS) coach was done by July 2002, and by 2003 ten variants of the LHB coaches had been designed by RDSO. These include self-generating versions as well as versions powered by end-on generator cars, of airconditioned first class, 2-tier, and 3-tier coaches, as well as general second class sitting and sleeper coaches. The speed potential for all the AC variants of the LHB coaches is 160km/h, while the non-AC variants have a speed potential of 120km/h. Now [2/03] ICF Perambur is also expected to produced these coaches. [1/03] Prototype versions of the AC 3-tier LHB coach have been spotted at New Delhi and are [3/03] undergoing trials on the New Delhi - Kanpur and New Delhi - Moradabad - Lucknow sections. [11/03] The second LHB rake, thought to be meant for the Mumbai Rajdhani, has been spotted around Mumbai (Jogeshwari yard, etc.). Update: [1/05] LHB rakes are used for the Mumbai Rajdhani as well as the August Kranti Rajdhani. In late 2001 the LHB coaches were taken out of service following a series of incidents where the couplers parted. They were brought back into service on Jan. 1, 2002. Some problems also developed with certain bearings used by these coaches, which were later resolved. Now [3/03] they are expected to also be brought into use for trains other than the Swarna Shatabdis, such as the Mumbai Rajdhani. Comparison of ICF and LHB coaching stock -- passenger carrying capacity EOG = Coach needs power from end-on generator car; SG = self-generating. Type Passengers - ICF Passengers - LHB AC-1 (EOG) 18 24 AC-2 (EOG) 46 54 AC-3 (EOG) 64 72 AC-1 (SG) 18 24 AC-2 (SG) 46 54 AC-3 (SG) 64 72 SCN (SG) 72 78 GS (SG) 90 99 SLR 24 36 See below for dimensions of LHB stock (and comparison of dimensions with ICF stock.) Q. What are the various marks and annotations on a passenger coach? There are a great many indications, marks, and annotations that can be found on the typical coach. The most prominent, of course, are the indications of the accommodations (class, whether sleeper or not, air-conditioned or not, etc.) along with the coach serial number that is on the side of the coach, above the windows. Small destination boards usually have the train termini or the name of the train on them; these are also above the windows, near the roof. On the ends of the coach the classification code of the coach may be found ('WGSCNY', etc.) along with annotations of the base shed that is responsible for its maintenance (e.g., 'BASE: JAT'). 'CDO' stands for 'Coaching Depot'; a notation such as 'CDO/MYS' indicates that the rake belongs to the Coaching Depot at Mysore. Overhaul dates are also shown ('IOH' followed by a 56

date for intermediate overhaul; and something like 'R-9/03' for a periodic overhaul date (the 'R' stands for 'Return'). Some other technical details and electrical data may also be found stencilled on at the ends. An annotation such as, e.g., '70T' refers to the 70-tonne rating for the couplers. On the ends, or near the ends on the sides of the coach, there are sometimes some annotations like 'Fit for 110km/h', 'Not to exceed 75km/h' or 'For passenger train only', etc. These are usually restrictions noted based on the age and condition of the coach. (Similar restrictions can sometimes be seen on older locomotives as well.) At the bottom left on the end of the coach, a small patch of yellow diagonal stripes indicates the coach has anti-telescopic construction. Larger patches of diagonal yellow stripes on the sides of the coach, above the last window indicate a general, unreserved second-class coach. Except that for EMUs, diagonal yellow (and red) stripes generally indicate first-class coaches! SR and SCR coaches sometimes have notations such as 'RAKE1', 'RAKE2', or a specific train number or numbers stencilled on them. These very likely indicate that the rakes in question have been earmarked for specific trains. A paint scheme indication is often seen. 'MAROON' is used when the coach is painted in the former IR standard rust-red colours. 'VIBGYOR' is used when the coach has the newer blue-onblue livery, although it is not clear why the colours of the rainbow are mentioned here! Other annotations are used for other paint schemes. The date of the last repainting is also indicated. Q. What are the dimensions of IR's passenger coaching stock? Length The IRS standard underframe for BG, adopted in 1925, was 68' long over headstocks. Side buffers are always 2' 2", giving a total length of 72'4" (22m) over buffers. After World War II, some stock was built on this underframe to 70' (21.3m) length, but most before that date was 68' or a fraction over. The ICF integral stock, and the similar all-steel stock built by Jessops and HAL/BEML was all to 70' (21.3m) length. BG EMU coaches are slightly shorter, at 66' or 18.2m. Width Up to the adoption of the new wider dimensions in the late 1940s, all IR stock was built to a maximum body width of 10' (3m), with an absolute maximum of 10' 6" to allow for projections. The new dimensions, which apply to nearly all modern steel stock, are 10'8" (3.25m) body width, with a tiny allowance for projections (about 2 inches) and requires all handrails and similar projections to be recessed. Height The height from rail level to cantrail before the 1940s was standardized at 11' 2-1/2"; it became 11'6" maximum. The first series of ICF coaches, with the centre lavatories, were 12'9" from rail level to rooftop; later this dimension was increased to 4025mm (13'2-1/2"), to provide increased space for water tanks. Comparison of ICF and LHB coaching stock -- Dimensions ICF coaches 21.77m LHB coaches 23.54m 57

Length over Body

Length over Buffers 22.28m 24.70m Width of Body 3.245m 3.240m Inside width 3.065m 3.120m Windows 1.220m x 0.610m 1.180m x 0.760m Q. How many passenger coaches does IR have in its fleet?

As of 2003, IR had over 40,000 passenger coaches, in addition to almost 4,500 EMU coaches. Q. Are there any double-decker coaches in use today in India? Much of the information here is likely out of date! Double-decker coaches are found on several WR trains such as the 9021 dn Flying Ranee running between Surat and Mumbai Central (WR), Saurashtra Exp., the Bharuch-Virar shuttle, Mumbai-Ahmedabad-Anand Passenger, and the Valsad Fast Passenger. The Pune - Daund Passenger on CR had double-decker rakes until late 2001 or early 2002. The Flying Ranee double-decker rake is air-braked. Recently [2/02] The Mumbai-Ahmedabad Gujarat Express acquired some double-decker coaches in its rake. These are believed to be vacuum-braked. Newer [3/03] reports are that around 12-14 double-decker coaches are allocated to the Gujarat Exp. rake. [1/04] The Gujarat express no longer runs with double-decker coaches. In the past, the Deccan Queen has briefly run with double-decker passenger stock; the doubledeckers were meant for monthly pass-holders. The Gujarat Mail from Ahmedabad and the Saurashtra Mail also had double-decker coaches as general coaches. The Sinhagad Exp. ran for quite some time with double-decker coaching. The Sinhagad's rake (10 double-decker coaches) is now used for the Pune-Daund-Baramati shuttle, and the Sinhagad has reverted to a normal 18-coach rake. There were proposals for an air-conditioned doubledecker rake for the Sinhagad but these came to naught. The Sahyadri Exp. (7303 down) ran with two double-decker coaches between Bombay and Pune; the coaches were re-used in the up direction by attaching to the Sinhagad rake. The Panchavati Exp. also ran with double-decker stock for some time. The Brindavan Exp. also ran with doubledecker coaches a few times (dates?). The Howrah-Dhanbad Black Diamond Exp. also had double-decker coaches (until 1994); the double-decker rake used to be stabled at Asansol. It was condemned at Bally yard and sold for scrap by 1995. Another train that had double-decker coaches at one time was the Ernakulam-Trivandrum Vanchinad Exp. (around 1981, for about 3 years). The Venad Express is also said to have had double-decker coaches at one time. The double-deckers in use today are ICF designs and modified from the basic integral shell used for most coaches. They have a single level at either end, with the double-deck portion forming most of the middle of the coach. The underframe of the coach has a well that gives the lower deck sufficient space. RCF is currently [2/02] working on producing new double-decker coaches based on a newer design (but still with the integral shell design which is used for most IR coaches). These newer coaches will have a seating capacity of 136.

58

Double-decker rakes in general were never very popular for a variety of reasons (too cramped -not enough space for luggage, restrictions on using the windows, too hot in the upper deck, inconvenient access from the windows to platform vendors, etc.). In 2010, IR started on a new push for double-decker coaches, with RCF manufacturing a new design of air-conditioned double-decker coaches seating 128 passengers and capable of being run at 160km/h. The shell design is said to be new. Suspension uses Eurofima bogies with air springs. The coaches are made of stainless steel. The overall height is about 4.5 inches more than that of normal coaches. Among other things, these coaches have controlled-discharge toilets and several safety-related features as well. Apart from these recent onces, the East Indian Railway tried out double-decker coaches in 1862. The BBCI Rly. also experimented with these in the 1860s (an illustration of one of these appears in several books on IR). These designs used 4-wheel stock with very limited headroom on both decks because of restrictions from the loading gauge. A vice-regal carriage was also in use which was a double-decker carriage, with the lower deck being an extremely constrained space for servants. In the 1890s, a double-decker using bogie stock was designed by Mr Pearce, the C&W Superintendent of the EIR, but this was never manufactured. Q. When were through vestibuled trains introduced in India? The GIPR's Poona Race Special trains had vestibuled rakes back in 1906. Later, the prestigious Deccan Queen (Bombay - Poona), starting in 1930, regularly had a vestibuled rake. Today most long-distance trains are vestibuled. NG trains, because of the short lengths of rakes (6-8, sometimes just 4 coaches) are not vestibuled, the sole exception being the 'Royal Saloon', a tourist train run by the SECR's Nagpur division. Q. What are the 'X' marks or concentric circles painted on the ends of some coaches? A large yellow 'X', or a series of concentric circles (yellow or white) are painted on the end of a coach which is used as the last coach in a rake -- it allows station crew or signalmen to visually check that the rake is intact by sighting this last vehicle indication. At night, a small red lamp is used at the end (this used to be an oil lamp in days past), and sometimes a board with the words 'Last Vehicle' can also be spotted. Q. What kinds of special-purpose coaches exist on IR? There are several kinds of special-purpose coaches that may be spotted on IR. There are various kinds of inspection cars and manager's saloons used by railway officials on their travels. These may often be spotted stabled at sidings off from the main tracks at various stations. Two very special coaches are the Presidential Saloon coaches. There are several variations on cars with pantry or kitchen facilities, accident relief vans and medical relief vans, tool vans, etc. The typical accident relief medical rake is configured with two coaches, one of which has rescue and repair equipment, a kitchen, a tool compartment, and a diesel generator set; and the other which has an air-conditioned operation theatre and 12 hospital beds and space for medical supplies. It is self-propelled with a diesel-hydraulic transmission and an underslung powerpack Various military cars can be spotted on IR. They range from minor variations on general coaches for troops, to luxuriously appointed saloons for officers and their families. Railfans please note 59

that, understandably, security is very tight around these, and attempts to inspect them or photograph them may land you in trouble, regardless of permits or other papers you may have. The military also runs its own versions of medical coaches, known as ward cars; these have 34 beds for injured personnel and have double-leaf doors for easy movement of stretchers. Finally, there are various flavours of OHE inspection cars, the NETRA car, tower cars, etc. See the multiple units / self-propelled units section for more information on these.

Air Conditioning
Q. When was air-conditioning introduced in IR? The North-Western Railway introduced air-conditioned stock in the late 1930's (the earliest was probably the Frontier Mail in 1936 or 1937). BBCI Railways also experimented with airconditioning at about the same time. By the early 1950's, air-conditioning was available on several long-distance trains. For example, in 1952-53 there were air-conditioned services between Bombay and Howrah, Delhi and Madras (Grand Trunk Exp.), Bombay and Delhi, Bombay-Amritsar (Frontier Mail), Bombay-Viramgam (Saurashtra Mail), and BombayAhmedabad (Gujarat Mail). These all used AC units that were mounted beneath the coach body (underslung), interconnected by pipes. Self-contained roof-mounted units appeared much later (1980's?). The first fully air-conditioned train was introduced in 1956 between Howrah and Delhi. Popularly known as the AC Express, it ran on the Grand Chord; later there were two, one running on the Grand Chord and the other on the Main Line. Another train popularly known as the AC Express was the Dakshin Exp. between Madras and New Delhi in the 1960s. AC Chair Car stock was introduced around 1955. Until about 1979, air-conditioning was available only in these and in AC First Class cars. Around 1979 the first two-tier AC coaches were introduced. The first 3-tier AC coaches were introduced in 1993 (RCF) and used on the Howrah Rajdhani via Patna. (The first such coach was ER 2301A, later changed to ER 94101A.) The first 60 or so of the three-tier AC coaches had 67 berths each, while all later ones have 64 berths. Q. What's the history behind air-conditioning in IR? Prior to the 1930's, various arrangements for cooling the interiors of passenger coaches existed, mostly for the first-class coaches. From the 1860's onwards, it was quite common to hang moistened mats of khas to cool the air by evaporation. In 1872, the Saunders system was introduced, which consisted of a long duct running along the length of the coach and beneath it, with a funnel for air intake on one side, and multiple sheets of wet khas matting in the middle, which both filtered the dust out of the air and cooled it by evaporation; the cooled air was admitted into the coaches by apertures in the floor. Often, the simple expedient of placing large blocks of ice (in bamboo or wicker containers) in the compartments was adopted. After electric fans were introduced, this method of cooling continued to be in use, with the ice placed in the path of a fan's air-stream. As late as 1958 on the Vijayawada division, for instance, passengers could rent an open zinc-lined box that carried a hundredweight (114lb, ~50kg) block of ice. The electric fans of the compartments would then be trained on it, and bottles or other containers could also be cooled in the box. 60

The ice could be replenished at any major station en route, and in fact the Conductor/Guard (the equivalent then of the Train Superintendent) would check on the ice blocks now and then and notify the station ahead if replenishments were needed. This was a popular service because it was easier and cheaper than riding in the air-conditioned cars (which often cost as much as twice the normal fare, besides rarely having space available). Most air-conditioned stock of recent decades was built with underfloor machinery with blowers located near the ends of the coaches. Newer air-conditioned coaches (since about 1999) have the machinery located on the roof, with an air-distribution duct that goes along the roof of the coach with diffusers in every compartment, providing a much more uniform cooling effect. Q. Are there / were there any meter-gauge or narrow-gauge air-conditioned coaches? A rarity and curiosity on IR, NG air-conditioned coaches do exist, and were (perhaps are still?) used on the Gondia-Jabalpur Satpura Express. MG air-conditioned coaches were comparatively more common. AC Chair Cars were present on the Tiruchi - Tambaram Cholan Exp., the Chennai - Madurai Vaigai Exp. (1977-1997), chennai - Tiruchirapalli Pallavan Exp. (1985-1997), Pink City Exp., Ashram Exp., Bangalore - Mysore Tipu Exp., Bangalore - Mysore Chamundi Exp. A newer version of the MG AC Chair Car Coach with a roof-mounted AC unit was introduced in 2005. Q. Who uses saloons on IR today? Saloon cars, commonly used for luxury travel by the nobility and high-ranking officials in the past, are now far less common. A few air-conditioned saloon cars are kept for the exclusive use of General Managers of zonal railways and members of the Railway Board. Divisional Railway Managers (DRMs) have exclusive use of a non-air-conditioned saloon at the divisional level. Other officials such as the ADRM, Senior DEE, Senior DME, Senior DOM, Senior DEN, Senior DPO, and others usually have to share one other non-air-conditioned saloon at the divisional level. (Also read about the presidential saloon.)

Preserved rollling stock
Q. Where can I see some preserved coaches, wagons, and other rolling stock? The National Railway Museum has the following: Broad gauge
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Oudh and Rohilkund Railway Saloon of 1890 4 wheel saloon Oudh and Rohilkund Railway Covered wagon 148 Central Workshops Alambagh, Lucknow 1879 Gaekwar's Baroda State Railway Saloon Parel workshops of BBCI 1886 MSMR 6 wheel Saloon built by Southern Railway at Perambur EIR Sheep wagon Lilluah Workshops 1929 GIPR Dynamometer Car WRK2483 Met Cammel 1930 BBCI hand crane Ransome and Rapier 1883 PWD Punjab 4WG (chain drive) Sentinel 6273/1926

Meter gauge
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BBCI Armoured Train Ajmer Workshops. wagons built 1886-1890 Nilgiri Railway Composite Coach Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co 61

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Rajputana Malwa Railway Prince of Wales Saloon Agra Workshops of RMR 1875 Mysore State Railway Maharaja's saloon, Bangalore Workshop 1899, at Morbi (Morvi) Maharaja's saloon from the old Gondal Railway, at the Palace Guest House hotel in Gondal (between Rajkot and Jetalsar). The saloon is used as guest accommodation by the hotel. BBCI Viceregal Dining Car Ajmer workshops 1889 Bikaner State Railway ET-1445 4 wheel 3rd class carriage Bikaner workshops 1902

The following Palace on Wheels carriages are in the museum:
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CT3 Bikaner 1889 CT9s Navanagar built 1922 at Bhavnagar Workshops CT17 Jaipur 1913 CT34756/56 Hyderabad 1917 for Nizam's State Railway CT3457/814 built for Maharajah of Porbunder in 1907

2'6" Gauge:
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Barsi Light Railway Composite brake/third BLR-32 Metropolitan Amalgamated Railway Carriage and Wagon Co 1905 Mourbhaji Light Railway 8 wheeled composite coach

2' Gauge:
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Matheran Light Railway Carriage-852 (3rd class) 4 wheeled Matheran Light Railway Carriage -812 1st class DHR 3rd class carriage ET/119 Tindharia workshops 1902

The Mysore Railway Museum has the following:
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South Central Railway Patent centre/side discharge wagon. Leeds Forge Company 1913 Southern railway Travelling Crane 033993 5 ton hand crane by Cowans Sheldon 1885 SR FD 034013 Crane support truck SR ECE 07327 inspection car Mysore workshops 1901 SRVH 38163 Brake van Stableford 1923 Mysore State Railway CR 7342 Maharani's saloon Mysore State Railway CR 7345 Dining/Kitchen car Mysore State Railway SR TLR No 45 coach of 1927

An old riveted wagon with striker castings with SIR number C 30178 and plate number 1853 has been preserved at Golden Rock Workshops. In addition to these, there are a number of old coaches, saloons, and special-purpose cars that are still maintained in working order and used now and then for special runs (often steam-hauled), heritage excursions, or even as luxury saloons for VIPs. Two very special coaches are the Presidential saloon cars.

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Locomotives
Chittaranjan Loco Works, Chittaranjan, West Bengal Inaugurated on Jan. 26, 1950, CLW produced its first locomotive by Nov. 1, 1950 (a WG loco, #8401, named 'Deshbandhu' for Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, an Indian freedom-fighter; incidentally it was his widow, Basanti Devi, who inaugurated the works). CLW, originally named just the Locomotive Manufacturing Works, was located near a village called Mihijam, which was shortly afterwards renamed Chittaranjan. It is said that originally the locomotive works, which were under planning even in the mid-1940s, were to be set up at Kalyani near Howrah, but a concern about losing such a strategic asset in the foreseen partition of British India resulted in the shift to Chittaranjan, on the border of West Bengal and Bihar (Chittaranjan railway station is in Bihar). CLW became a major producer of steam locomotives, producing a large number of BG and MG steam locomotives through 1972 (total count – 2351). The last BG steam loco made in India, a WG (#10560, 'Antim Sitara' ('The Last Star') was delivered by CLW on June 30, 1970, and the last steam loco made in India was the MG YG classloco (#3573), delivered on Feb. 5, 1972. CLW started early on the manufacture of electric locos, building the WCM-5 series DC locos starting in 1961. The first one was named 'Lokamanya', and delivered on Oct. 14, 1961. A few years later it began production of AC electric locos, starting with 'Bidhan', a WAG-1 class loco delivered on Nov. 16, 1963, which was also notable as the first fully Indian-built electric locomotive. Since then CLW has manufactured ever more sophisticated generations of electric locomotives, most recently delivering the advanced WAP-5 and WAP-7 3-phase AC locomotives. It has a capacity of around 200 or so electric locomotives a year. CLW has also manufactured many diesel locos, mainly diesel-hydraulic shunters such as the WDS-4 class (begun in 1967-1968, although large numbers were produced only in 1969). In the '70s and '80s it built some diesels in the ZDM series and some YDM-2 units (diesel-electrics). Total diesel loco count – over 660 BG diesel shunters, over 140 NG diesels, and over 40 BG mainline diesels. Diesel Loco Works, Varanasi DLW was set up in 1961 and rolled out its first locomotive on Jan. 3., 1964 – a WDM-2, assembled from an Alco kit. It has evolved into an integrated diesel locomotive manufacturing plant, capable of building all components of the locomotives in-house, including the engines, superstructures, fabricated bogies, and underframes. With technology transfer arrangements from manufacturers such as GM-EMD, DLW today produces advanced diesels with high efficiency and low maintenance costs. DLW has supplied a large variety of diesel locomotives (mostly diesel-electrics) to IR and numerous public-sector concerns (steel plants, power plants, ports, etc.). DLW has also exported locomotives to other countries such as Tanzania, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Malaysia. Recently [2004] it has also got orders for 1350hp Cape gauge locos for Sudan (3), 1350hp MG locos for Myanmar (11), 2300hp Cape gauge locos for Angola (6), etc. It has also branched out into manufacturing 63

non-railway items such as 2.4MW diesel generator sets (based on the Alco 251 engine!) to offset a recent decline in orders from IR. (Although, simultaneously, it has helped DMW (see below) and Parel Workshops (see below) to gain expertise in assembling locomotives as it hasn't been able to keep up with the demand for some classes of locos, especially industrial shunters.) DLW's production capacity is around 240 locomotives a year. Diesel Modernization Works, Patiala DMW, Patiala, formerly known as the Diesel Component Works(DCW) was set up in October 1981 for the manufacture of diesel and electric loco spare parts. DCW manufactures large components such as traction motors and locomotive power packs, rebuilds engine blocks, traction generators, etc. They have more recently been upgrading WDM-2 locos to WDM-2C class. Parel Workshops, CR Parel Workshops of CR have been manufacturing diesel shunters (WDS-6 class, mostly) using components produced by DCW and DLW, since 2006. The workshops are also a leading establishment for repairs and overhauls of locomotives. Established in 1879, they were engaged in steam locomotive repair and overhaul and since 1972 (after the decline of BG steam) switched to diesel locomotives. Today they also overhaul electric locomotives, and MG/NG locomotives and miscellaneous rolling stock such as cranes and breakdown equipment, as well as rehabilitation and conversions of coaches, and manufacture of some small diesel components.

Rolling Stock
Integral Coach Factory, Perambur ICF was set up in 1955 with the collaboration of the Swiss Car and Elevator Manufacturing Co. of Schlieren, Switzerland. The factory was set up originally with a capacity to produce 350 coach shells annually. ICF over the decades became very successful in producing the signature integral design (underframes, sidewalls, and roof integrated to form a single tube structure) antitelescopic coaches of IR, in many different configurations. It now has a capacity of over 1,300 coaches a year, and has thus far manufactured over 35,000 coaches for IR. ICF currently maintains production capability for 170 different kinds of coaches. In addition to coaches ICF also produces diesel railcars, EMUs, DMUs, and special purpose rail vehicles such as track recording vehicles and overhead equipment monitoring vehicles. It has also exported coaches to many countries ([6/03] 425 since 1971; 60 to Myanmar, 45 to South Africa, 113 (+100?) to Taiwan, some to Thailand, Tanzania, the Philippines, Vietnam, Sri Lankaetc.) History Indigenous manufacture of railway coaches had been contemplated for some time, with the first significant proposal being made in 1948 by N Gopalaswamy Ayyangar, then the Minister for Transport and Railways. Even earlier, however - in 1947 - interest had built up in the Schlieren company following a visit there by B Venkataraman, a senior mechanical engineer in the railways who was attending the International Railway Congress in Europe. Venkataraman was extremely impressed by the Swiss firm and made arrangements for apprentices from Indian Railways to train at Schlieren and study the technology of coach-building. However, it took some time before Venkataraman's report to the Railway Board and the results of the apprenticeship program resulted in Swiss Car and Elevator being picked for the technology transfer project. 64

An initial agreement was signed on May 28, 1949. In 1951, a detailed proposal for a coachbuilding factory capable of producing 300 unfurnished coaches annually was laid out. (The capacity was eventually raised to 350 by the time ICF was inaugurated.) Supplemental agreements with Swiss Car and Elevator were concluded on June 27, 1953 and October 2, 1953. The production unit was inaugurated on October 2, 1955. The integral design of coaches this company made was radically different from that of the wooden-framed coaches that had been used in India until then. Accordingly, a Technical Training School was established at Perambur on March 20, 1954, with a capacity to train around 75 personnel annually on the new technology. Swiss trainers were in charge of the technology transfer until 1961, when the school was eventually shut down. By then over a thousand coaches had been produced by ICF. Manufacture of coaches started with the import of shells and other components for seven third-class coaches in February 1956. On August 14, 1956, the first all-indigenous coach was commissioned. From 1958 ICF started furnishing the coaches it produced; a separate furnishing unit was added to ICF on October 2, 1962. In 1966, ICF began producing air-conditioned coaches. EMU production begain in 1962 with EMU trailer coaches, and motor units were produced from 1963. These were AC units. DC EMUs were manufactured starting in 1968. MG coaches were produced starting in 1963-64. Note: Some sources (and ICF's own web site) say that production started with 12 coaches in 1955, while other sources say it started in 1956. It is thought that '1955' refers to the fiscal year for the production unit. Rail Coach Factory, Kapurthala RCF was set up in 1987 (although the proposal for it came up in 1985) to augment the supply of passenger coaches to IR. The first coaches from RCF were delivered on March 31, 1988. In 1991, RCF started producing air-braked coaches, and coaches with a newer air-conditioning design with roof-mounted AC units. In 1997, it began production of MEMUs. It also undertook the design and development of new lightweight IRY coaches using the highspeed IR20 bogies. These have been used for some of the high-speed trains such as the Amritsar Swarn Shatabdi, although it appears that more recently their development has been put on hold following the introduction of the new lightweight high-speed coaches from LHB Alstom. Having been set up with a capacity of 1000 coaches annually, RCF manufactured around 900 or so coaches a year in the 1990s and is now [6/10] manufacturing around 1,400 coaches annually. Jessop & Co. Jessop & Co. is a private-sector manufacturer, originally formed from a merger in 1820 of two concerns, Jessops of Great Britain (formerly Butterfly Co., estd. 1790) and Breen & Co. of Calcutta (estd. 1788). Jessop & Co. has manufactured a large variety of railway products including many kinds of wagons, carriages, etc. In addition they have also built bridges, ships, waterworks, and other civil engineering works. Jessop's has also built one steam locomotive, delivered to the Nawab of Oudh in the 19th century. Jessop's has also delivered many EMU units used in IR's suburban systems. Their main workshops are at Dum Dum. [4/02] More recently, the company, which was nationalized in 1973 and made a subsidiary of the Bharat Bhari Udyog Nigam Ltd., a public-sector holding company, is being considered for privatization. Burn & Co. 65

Burn & Co. was a private-sector manufacturer, with its origins in 1781 as an English firm. Their first Indian workshop was set up at Howrah in 1901 to manufacture carriages and wagons to Indian railway companies. Apart from wagons and coaches, Burn & Co. have built trolleys, special-purpose saloon cars and luxury carriages, permanent way fixtures, signalling equipment, locomotive turntables, bogies, and underframes. It was merged with the Indian Standard Wagon Co. to form Burn Standard Co. Ltd. (BSCL), and taken over by the Indian government. It has manufacturing units at Howrah, Burnpur, and Jellingham, of which the first two are engaged in manufacturing railway rolling stock. It is now a subsidiary of the Bharat Bhari Udyog Nigam Ltd., a public-sector holding company. Braithwaite & Co. Braithwaite was set up in 1913 by the English firm Braithwaite & Co. Engineers. In 1934 it started manufacturing railway wagons. In 1976 it was taken over by the Indian government. It is now a subsidiary of the Bharat Bhari Udyog Nigam Ltd., a public-sector holding company. Bharat Wagon & Engineering Co. (BEWL) The Bharat Wagon & Engineering Co. Ltd. was set up in 1978 when the Indian government took over Arthur Butler & Co. and Britannia Engineering Co. Both those companies, located in Bihar (at Muzaffarpur and Mokameh) were manufacturing wagons and other engineering products from British times. (?? Dates uncertain). In 1986 the combined company became a subsidiary of the public-sector holding company Bharat Bhari Udyog Nigam Ltd. Titagarh Wagons Ltd. Titagarh Wagons is one of the few private manufacturers of wagons (perhaps the only one currently [2/05]), manufacturing a wide range of freight wagons including the common types BOXN, BCNA, BOST, BOBRN, etc., the container flats BLCA/BLCB, and specialty wagons for industrial and defence use. Titagarh also manufactures Bailey Bridges, prefabricated shelters, and other such systems for the railways and for the defence sector.

Axles & Wheels
Wheel and Axle Plant (now Rail Wheel Factory) WAP was set up in 1984 at Yelahanka, in Bangalore, for the manufacture of wheels and axles, since other local manufacturers such as the Durgapur Steel Plant were unable to satisfy IR's needs, and imports were costly. WAP uses some advanced techniques such as pressure-moulding of wheels. A lot of WAP's products are made from scrap metal generated by IR itself. WAP has a capacity of around 40,000 wheelsets, over 170,000 wheels and over 60,000 axles, annually.

Workshops
Jamalpur Workshop This was the first full-fledged railway workshop facilities in India, set up on Feb. 8, 1862 by the East Indian Railway. (There was an earlier attempt to set up workshop facilities at Howrah, but it proved unsuccessful because of problems with procuring supplies and getting skilled labour.) The 66

Jamalpur site was chosen for its proximity both to the Sahibganj loop (which was the main trunk route at the time), and to the communities of gunsmiths and other mechanical craftsmen in Bihar who would prove to be adept at picking up the skills required in a railway workshop. Another, possibly apocryphal account, though, has it that one of the Agents of the EIR Mr D W Campbell, was annoyed that the fitters and workmen of the then Howrah workshop were spending too much time away from their work in places of recreation in Howrah, and resolved to move the workshop facilities to a place far away where there would be no such distractions. At first the Jamalpur shops were merely repairing locomotives and also assembling locomotives from parts salvaged from other, damaged locomotives. By the turn of the century, however, they had progressed to producing their own locomotives. The first one, CA 764 'Lady Curzon', was produced in 1899. Jamalpur has always had extensive workshop facilities. In 1893, the first railway foundry in India was set up there. It also had a boiler workshop for repairing and building boilers. Today it has foundry and metallurgical lab facilities, extensive machine tool facilities, etc., in addition a captive power plant of 5MVA, making it fairly self-contained. It used to have a rolling mill of its own (set up in 1870, now closed). In addition to various repairs of wagons, coaches, cranes and tower cars, and locomotives, Jamalpur also undertakes repair and (small-scale) production of permanent-way fixtures. It also manufactures some tower cars (Mark II, Mark III) and break-down cranes of 10, 20, and 140 tonne capacities, besides various kinds of heavy-duty lifting jacks. Finally, it also manufactures wheelsets for coaches and wagons. In the past it was a significant supplier of cast-iron sleepers as well. Starting in 1961 it produced several rail cranes. It has also produced electric arc furnaces, ticket printers and other ticket machines (slitting, counting, and chopping). The high-capacity synchronized lifting jacks known as 'Jamalpur Jacks' were also produced by this workshop. The school attached to the Jamalpur workshops eventually became the IR Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. Alambagh Workshop The Alambagh workshop, near Lucknow, was set up in 1865 by the Oudh and Rohilkhand Raiilway. It started off doing minor maintenance and periodic overhaul of coaches and wagons, and eventually became one of the top workshops engaged in overhaul, repair, and restoration of carriages and wagons. Today the workshop specializes in the new high-speed coaches (LHB Alstom, IR20/IRY, etc.), air-conditioned coaching stock, etc. Charbagh Workshop Construction for this workshop was started by the Oudh and Rohilkhand Rly. in 1867 to prepare for its needs of locomotive and carriage maintenance in the Lucknow area after it secured a contract to build a large BG railway system in the area north of the Ganga. 1867 was also the year that the company had finished construction of the light MG line between Lucknow and Kanpur. Originally almost all the staff of the Charbagh workshop was from Great Britain, however within a few years a large number of Indians were also employed, including many from Bihar and also the Jamalpur workshop. 67

After Independence, the big locomotive overhauling facility in the north, at Moghulpura (belonging to the North-Western Railway), went to Pakistan. Charbagh workshops were therefore upgraded with manufacturing and major overhauling capabilities for locomotive. The workshop became the pre-eminent steam loco maintenance and overhauling workshop of NR through the 1960s and 1970s, but thereafter lost ground with the ascent of diesel and electric traction. The workshop switched to diesel loco maintenance in 1975, and to electric loco maintenance in 1985. In recent years, the workshop has found an additional niche in restoring steam locomotives for various special runs and for preservation, exhibitions, etc. For instance, the WP locomotives at the NRM being used for special excursions on the occasion of IR's 150th anniversary were completely overhauled at Charbagh. Ajmer Workshop Work on setting up the Ajmer workshops was begun in 1877 by the Rajputana-Malwa State Rly. The workshops were early on charged with a wide variety of repair and overhauling jobs, including permanent-way work. In 1895, the workshops achieved the distinction of building the first indigenous locomotive from India, an 'F' class 0-6-0 MG locomotive (#F-734). One notable feature of this workshop is the existence of a network of about 5km of 18"-gauge tram lines for transport of material among the various facilities. Liluah Workshops When the first EIR workshops at Howrah were found to be inadequate for locomotive maintenance, the bulk of its facilities were moved to Jamalpur as noted above. The remainder of the facilities at Howrah continued to perform carriage and wagon repair after 1863 and eventually were moved to Liluah, about 7km from Howrah. The workshop manufactured many kinds of rolling stock. Wagons were manufactured until about 1947, and coaches were manufactured until about 1972 (total coach count – over 3000). During World War II, the workshops also contributed to the Allied war effort by manufacturing road vehicles (ambulances, water cars, armoured vehicles, trucks, etc.) and machinery. Liluah workshops now form IR's biggest carriage and wagon workshops. They are engaged in periodic overhaul of all kinds of coaches and wagons, conversion of coaches to DMUs, and repair and overhaul of components such as alternators, transformers, motors, and generator sets. They have also undertaken one-off jobs such as building tourist rakes (Great Indian Rover, Buddha Parikrama) or other special trains (Exhibition-on-Wheels, etc.). Golden Rock Workshops The South Indian Railway Co. set up its major workshops at Nagapattinam, on the east coast. When new and expanded facilities were required, these workshops were moved to Golden Rock near Tiruchirapalli in 1928. The workshops here are equipped to deal with locomotives and carriages, carrying out overhaul, repair, and restoration work. They are today IR's premier workshops for restoration and rebuilding work for locomotives that are severely damaged in accidents. Many public-sector concerns also send their works shunters to Golden Rock for overhauling from locations all across India (10-15 locos annually). Carrying on with the experience from steam days, Golden Rock also carry out the periodic overhaul of the 'X' class locos of the Nilgiri Mountain Railway. They have also been working on 68

developing the new oil-fired replacements for the 'X' class locos. Two such locos have been turned out so far. Golden Rock also built some DMU rakes from old coaches. They have also repaired and (since 1962) built various wagons (BLBN/BLAN, BCCN (double-decker automobile carriers), box and covered wagons, special-purpose multi-axled heavy wagons, and many others), and performed conversion of wagon types (BOXC to BKH, etc.). In recent years they have taken on expanded manufacturing of BLCA / BLCB container flat wagons for CONCOR. Golden Rock has also restored YDM-4 MG diesel locos for export to places such as Myanmar, Malaysia, etc. More recently it has been working on regauging some YDM-4 locos to Cape gauge for export to Sudan. Kharagpur Workshops Kharagpur is the largest integrated workshop on IR with facilities to service all types of rolling stock and locomotives. The Bengal and Nagpur Railway had sanctioned the building of the workshop in 1900. The workshop began to operate from 1904. It took over all the BG maintenance work from Motibagh Workshop at Nagpur. The workshop is spread over an area of 610,000 square meters, 260,000 of which are covered, the workshop handles POH for Diesel-Electric and Electric locomotives, EMU trailer and Motor coaches, freight wagons, coaches and even Diesel cranes. Besides this, it carries out rewinding of traction motors and traction generators and a lot of other related work. The massive workshop underwent massive modernization in 1979 and again in 1985 with a combined outlay of around 400 million rupees. The Workshop went to SER after division of SER into SER, SECR and ECOR. Motibagh Workshop, Nagpur This workshop was originally set up by the Nagpur Chattisgarh Railway in 1879 to service its metre gauge stock. It was later taken over by the Bengal Nagpur Railway in 1887. When conversion of the Nagpur - Rajnandgaon MG line to BG was completed in 1888, the workshop was altered to cater to BG stock requirements in the area. From 1887 to 1908, Motibagh Workshop was the prime workshop facility of the Bengal Nagpur Railway. The Nagpur Chattisgarh Railway company would get locomotive kits at Mumbai port and then ship them to Motibagh via the GIPR route from Bombay to Nagpur. These locomotives would then be assembled and commissioned at the Motibagh Workshop. BNR used a similar system in the initial years of its formation. After the Nagpur - Asansol BG line was completed, the locomotive kits would be brought in to the Damodar rail head by river. At a makeshift workshop there, the shell was assembled and wheeled so that it could be moved on its own wheels. This skeleton would then be moved to Motibagh via the BNR route for full assembly and commissioning. This practice continued till the extension of the Nagpur - Asansol line to Howrah and completion of facilities at Shalimar terminus for unloading ships. When the NG Satpura lines were built, Motibagh Workshop regauged two BG locomotives to NG for working on the Satpura lines. The importance of Motibagh diminished soon after establishment of the Kharagpur Workshop in 1904 as BNR decided to shift all BG work to Kharagpur and Motibagh continued to handle only 69

the NG locomotives and stock. However, Motibagh is known to have done some BG work intermittently since then. The workshop still has BG-NG dual gauge track leading inside. Today, Motibagh Workshop overhauls NG locomotives and rolling stock from all over Central India and even from several other lines. Tindharia Workshop This is the workshop catering to the steam locomotives of the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway. The extreme resourcefulness and ingenuity demonstrated by the staff of this workshop has kept the 'B' class locos of the DHR working today despite their age. The workshop was set up towards the end of the 19th century, but moved to its current location in 1913. Coonoor Steam Shed Coonor, Rewari and Tindharia of the DHR, are the only active steam sheds of IR. This shed caters to the maintenance of the 'X' class rack steam locos of the Nilgiri Mountain Railway.

Others
Rail Spring Karkhana A specialized manufacturing unit for the production of coil springs for IR. Set up in 1989 in collaboration with Ernst Komrowski & Co. and Grueber (both of Germany), the plant produces about 4,200 metric tons of springs

70

Sheds and Workshops
Contents
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Home Shed Markings Western Region Central Region Southern Region Northern Region Eastern Region Konkan Railway Marshalling Yards

Locomotive Sheds
Q. How can I tell which home shed a loco belongs to? Home sheds for locos are often, but not always, indicated somewhere on the loco itself. For instance, the station code of the home shed may be painted on the side of the loco, or the full name of the shed may appear on the front. Some sheds have elaborate logos, whereas others may just bear stylized renditions of the shed names. Logos often appear on the front, but are sometimes on the sides of locos (e.g., Erode, Lallaguda, Vadodara). Some sheds don't use any logos, e.g., Santragachhi, Mughalsarai. Station codes often appear near the buffers on one side. For many sheds (e.g., Howrah, Kanpur, Mughalsarai) the shed station code appears in Roman letters on one side and the full name of the shed in Devanagari on the other. Many Pune shed locomotives, esp. diesel, bear a navy blue disc shaped logo up front with the full name 'Pune' painted thereon, in the local language Marathi. Erode has a flying deer logo. Itarsi based engines also have the 'Itarsi' displayed in full. Baroda locos have 'BRC' painted on with toand-fro arrows above and below it. Some flat-faced steam locos used to have station codes of their sheds painted (sometimes in a stylized manner) at the centre of the face of the loco, e.g., Baripada (BPO) and Nainpur (NIR) locos (ZD's, ZE's). However, not all locos have home shed indications. Many CR locos have no indication of their home sheds. Golden Rock locos are often unmarked when on test runs or after being rebuilt (major overhauls). Q. Where are the loco sheds, workshops, and trip sheds? Given below are some of the more important loco sheds. 71

Western Railway Shed Ratlam Vatwa (for Ahmedabad) Diesel Type Loco / MU's WDS-4, WDS-6, WDM-2, WDM-3A, WDG-3A WDM-2, WDM-3A, WDM-3D, WDG-3A, WDS-4, WDS-6 Comments Formerly home for the double-headed dieselhauled Rajdhanis' locos. Homes locos for the Swarna Jayanthi Rajdhani Express. Used to have a large fleet of YDM-4's but they have been transferred/ scrapped. This shed used to have MG (YDM-1) locos and later, when YDM-1's were phased out. Also used to be a trip shed for Vatva WDS-4, WDS-6 shunters, some of which were permanently transferred here when Kandla port traffic increased. WDM-2 are marked WDM-2S and used for only shunting duties. Westernmost shed. Used to have one of the largest holdings of YDM-4 locomotives. However many have been transferred to Phulera and Mhow sheds owing to the isolation of lines towards Udaipur. [6/04] Nine YDM-4 locos from here have been sold to Togorail SA and shipped to Togo. As many as 40 YDM-4s have been transferred from other MG sheds to restart Mhow [3/05]. Locos now service the isolated MG section from Akola to Indore. Was a steam shed till the early 90's. Also homes a few MG DMUs. 72

Diesel

Gandhidham

Diesel

WDS-6, WDM-2

Sabarmati (for Ahmedabad)

Diesel (MG), (had a steam shed too)

YDM-4

Mhow

Diesel, MG

YDM-4

Valsad

Electric

Vadodara

Electric

Vadodara

Electric - MEMU

Bandra Marshalling Yard (BAMY)

AC/DC trip shed

Bandra Marshalling Yard (BAMY)

Diesel

Shed created in the 1970s specifically to home dual-power locos, but now has pure AC locos as well. 20 WAG5's transferred from Itarsi in 2004 to cater to WCAM-1, WCAM-2, the container traffic WCAM-2P, WAG-5 from JNPT, Mumbai. Now holds more than 30 WAG-5 class locomotives. A few WCAM-1's run in AC mode only. Holds 100+ locos (03/08). The main electric shed at Vadodara homes both passenger and freight locos. There is a trip shed attached to the main shed, used for passenger electric locos (this trip shed can WAM-4, WAP-4, accommodate WAP-5/7 WAG-5 locos), and there is a separate trip shed used for freight electrics. Used to have WCAM locos until the mid1990s; also had WAP-1 locos. Holds 130+ locos (03/08) Close to the main Vadodara electric shed, MEMU units provides for services towards Ahmedabad and Surat. Officially known as WCAMx locos Electric Loco Shed, BAMY, Khar Road Trip shed for some outstation WDM-2 and other locos. May have WDS-4 had some WDS-1, WDS-6 locos. Used to home some DMU units.

Mumbai Central Mumbai Central Kandivali

Trip shed for some Valsad locos Car shed for WR EMUs Car shed for WR

(Also known as Mahalaxmi car shed) WR's dual-power AC73

DC EMUs are homed and maintained here. Does most of the POH / maintenance on its own Pratapnagar NG Diesel ZDM-5 locos, however sometimes locos are sent to Motibagh. "Sub-shed" of Sabarmati but handles all primary maintenance of locos that operate in Jetalsar MG Diesel YDM-4 isolated MG pockets of Saurashtra (Veraval, Wansjaliya, Delvada etc;). Locos are marked "Sabarmati". WR's EMUs are stabled at: Churchgate (8 rakes [6]), Mumbai Central (7 rakes [4]), Mahalakshmi (1 rake [1]), Mahim (5 rakes [4]), Bandra (6 rakes [2]), Andheri (14 rakes [5]), Kandivali (11 rakes [6]), Borivali (11 rakes[6] and Virar (7 rakes [7]). The figures in square brackets indicate 12-coach rakes with respect to total holdings. WR Workshops Lower Parel Periodic overhaul of BG coaches. Periodic overhaul of EMU, traction motor rebuilds. More recently, [4/00] EMU Mahalaxmi conversion to AC/DC. Used to house the air-conditioned EMU coaches? Only one coach with an AC section there now [9/04]. Ajmer Loco workshop (MG diesel) and a carriage and wagon workshop (BG/MG). BG electric locomotive workshop; POH for WAM-4/WAG-5 locos. Formerly WR mechanical workshop and also a BG steam POH workshop. Carries out Dahod rebuilding of WAM4 / WAG5 locos with advanced features like Dynamic Brakes, Microprocessor Control, Static Converters etc. Pratapnagar Maintenance of BG and NG wagons/coaches, and BG oil tanker wagons. Bhavnagar MG passenger coach maintenance Junagadh MG wagon maintenance Mumbai Central Coaching depot Kandivali AC-DC EMU carshed Shed Bhagat ki Kothi (for Jodhpur) North Western Railway Type Loco / MU's Comments WDM-2, Former MG shed converted to BG in the 1990s. BG Diesel WDM-3A, Some WDM-2's are marked 'Jodhpur'. [1/09] (was MG) WDG-3A, Received first WDG-4. Some 50+ units are expected WDG-4 over the next two years. Currently holds 100+ locos. Formerly premier shed for YDM-4s (MG); converted WDM-2, to BG in the 1990s. Home to some of the most Diesel WDM-3D, distinctly liveried locomotives. Has had WDM-3D WDG-3A locos from March 2007. Holds around 85 locos. Diesel For NWR/NR MG lines in Haryana / Rajasthan. YDM-4/4A (MG) Holds around 60 locos. NWR Workshops 74

EMUs

Abu Road

Phulera

Ajmer Bikaner (Lalgarh) Jodhpur

Opened in 1876 it is one of India’s premier workshops. Loco workshop (MG diesel) and a carriage and wagon workshop (BG/MG). BG C&W Workshop maintains the Palace on Wheels rake. Also performs POH of MG locos, DHMUs, Railbuses & other rolling stock. Commissioned in 1926. POH of MG coaches and wagons. Established in 1986, it was formerly an MG workshop. Currently performs POH of BG passenger coaches. Central Railway Type Diesel DC, AC-DC trip shed Loco / MU's Comments WDS-4, WDS-6 Had WDS-2 shunters earlier. shunters Located near Vidyavihar. Mainly serves trains from LTT. Locos usually marked 'KYN', or the name WDM-2, Kalyan in Devanagari. Mostly old WDM-2 WDM-3A, (180XX), the second WDM-2 imported from WDM-3D, ALCo. (18041) is here. Some WDM-2 locos WDG-3A, relegated to shunting duties and marked WDS-6 'WDS-2'. Locos usually marked 'KYN' or the name Kalyan in Devanagari. Kalyan had WCM-1, WCM-2, WCM-5 locos until the mid-1990s which have been decommissioned. POH facilities for WCAM-3 / WCAG-1 locos; WCG-2, WCAM-1 and WCAM-2 locos are sent to WCAM-3, Parel for POH (perhaps also Vadodara?). WCAG-1, WCAM-3 and WCAG-1 locos go to BHEL, WAG-5, WAGJhansi, for POH. WAG-5 and WAG-7 added 7 recently to handle banking duties on the Kasara-Igatpuri AC section. Used to hold two WCM-6's but these have now been coverted to pure AC and transferred to Bhusaval.

Shed Kurla (for Mumbai) Kurla / LTT

Kalyan (for Diesel Mumbai)

Kalyan (for Electric (AC, DC Mumbai) and AC-DC)

CSTM (for Mumbai) Pune

DC, AC-DC loco trip shed Diesel WDM-2, WDM3A, WDM-3D, WDG-3A, WDS-6 WCG-2, WCAM-3, WCAG-1 One for WDS-4 shunters and another for Pune-Lonavla EMUs. 75 Locos usually marked with 'Pune' in Devanagari script. Homes only one DLW built WDM-3A, rest of the 3A fleet are rebuilts. WCM-1, WCM-2, WCM-5 locos until the mid-1990s, now these have been decommissioned. Performs light maintenance for WR WCAM-1/WCAM-2 locos in addition to the CR AC-DC locos.

Pune

DC, AC-DC trip shed

Pune

Trip sheds (2)

Bhusawal

Electric

WAM-4, WAP-4, WAG5, WAG-7, WCM6

Igatpuri

Electric trip shed

Ajni (for Nagpur)

Electric shed, diesel trip shed

WAG-7, WAG9

Murtazapur NG diesel

Neral

NG diesel and Steam

Kurduwadi Sanpada

NG diesel EMU carshed for Harbour Line

ZDM-4 (#213), ZDM-5 (#515, #516) NDM-1 (2), The DHR B class is being used for steam NDM-6 (5), and trials on the Neral-Matheran line [2002]. one ex-DHR BPOH of locos done at Parel. class steam loco Loco's used to service the famed Barsi Light ZDM-4 Railway (Miraj-Latur). [09/08] Holding is now 3 locos.

Bhusawal used to be the largest steam shed (after WW 2). Had WAP-1 locos until recently, as well as the rare Mitsubishi WAG-2's. The WAP-1 locos here were not converted to WAP-4 locos as elsewhere; they were eventually transferred to Ghaziabad. Received WAP-4 locos in 2005 and WAG-7 in 2006. WAG-5 locos handle banking duties on some CR sections. [11/07] Jhansi's entire fleet of WAP-4's were transferred here. WCM-6 locos from Kalyan converted to WAM4 specifications & used for departmental duties. 135+ locos (03/08) Separate sheds for AC locos and AC/DC locos. [11/03] Up to 15 WAG-9 transferred from Gomoh. [9/04] Shed got three new WAG-9s. [5/07] Now holds more than 30 locos of this class. [6/02] Had some WAM-4, WAG-5, which appear to have been transferred elsewhere (possibly Bhusawal). Some of the WAG-5 locos used to be marked 'Nagpur' earlier; all were later marked 'Ajni'. There is also a trip shed for WAM and WAG series locos here, as well as for visiting WDM-2's. Used to have a steam shed; electric shed opened on 1992-04-06. Carries out POH of some of its own locos. Maintains locos for the famous 'Shankuntala' route. About 80km from Badnera on the Bhusawal - Nagpur line.

Kalwa (near EMU carshed Thane) Kurla EMU carshed Decommissioned, Wadi formerly WCGwas a DC loco trip Bunder 1 locos shed Lonavla DC trip shed WCG-2 bankers Manmad Electric trip shed CR Workshops 76

Periodic overhaul of BG coaches and EMUs. Also workshop facilities for major Matunga repairs to diesel locos; used by other zones too, even WR (many 'unusual' locos can be seen coming to Mumbai for this). Kurla Periodic overhaul of tank wagons. Periodic overhaul of DC and AC/DC locos (from CR and WR), and Alco diesel locos. They also have facilities to repair emergency equipment such as the 140-ton cranes. Many locos from other zones come here for high-end repairs. Neral-Matheran NDM-6 Parel locos and some CR ZDM locos come here for POH. One of the really old loco workshops; earlier specialized in the 1.5kV DC locos of the Mumbai area. Workshop now assembles WDG-3A locos which have been sent in kit form by DLW. Nagpur Coach maintenance workshop Ajni Goods wagon repair facility Wagon repair workshop, also carries out POH on 3-phase locos and conversions of WAP-1 locos to WAP-4 from all over the northern and central parts of the country. Bhusawal One of the oldest loco workshops, from the steam days when Bhusawal had a large steam shed. It also specializes in rebuilding fire-damaged locomotives. West Central Railway Shed Type Loco / MU's Comments This shed is a WCR shed on NR territory! It belongs to the Kota division. This was a WR shed until 2003. The shed was originally built to handle locos for the freight WAG-5, Tughlakabad traffic on the busy New Delhi - Bombay route. Has Electric WAG-7, (for Delhi) received a few WAG9 starting 02/08. Locos used for WAG-9 hauling the priority Container Rajdhanis (ConRajs) between Delhi & Mumbai. Close to large marshalling yard and inland container depot. 140+ locos (03/08) WDM-2, Was in CR until 2003. Shed serves routes all across WDM-3A, central India, with locomotives going all the way to Itarsi Diesel WDM-3C, Bangalore with the Karnataka Express. Holds 120+ WDM-3D, locos. WDS-6 This shed came up in the 1980s. Was in CR until 2003. WAM-4, Some WAM-4 locos transferred here from Vadodara. Itarsi Electric WAP-4, Its WAG-5 locos perform banking duties on the Budni WAG-5 - Barkhera ghat section. Shed has the largest WAM-4 holdings. Has received WAP-4s in starting June 2008. This is located at New Katni Jn. (SECR), but the diesel locos always carry the marking that says simply 'Katni' WDM-2, (in Devanagari) or 'KTE'. This is one of IR's biggest WDM-3A, Katni Diesel diesel sheds. This is a separate shed about 3km from WDG-3A, the Katni electric shed (below). It is on the ItarsiWDG-3C Allahabad line. The shed used to be in CR until 2003. Holds the only WDG-3C ‘Cheetah’ Located at New Katni Jn. The shed used to be in CR until 2003. Had WAM-4/WAM-4P until the early 1990s or so. Electric locos are marked 'NKJ' (for New WAG-5, New Katni Jn. Electric Katni Jn.) in contrast to the diesels (above) that say just WAG-7 'Katni'. The shed is about 3km east of the diesel shed, near the junction of track going to Singrauli and Bilaspur. It has a large marshalling yard attached. 120+ 77

locos (03/08) WCR Workshops Kota BG wagon repair workshop BG coach rehabilation workshop. Handles rebuilding and overhaul of old passenger Bhopal stock. South East Central Railway Shed Type Loco / MU's Comments Shed used to be in SER until 2003. Some WAM-4's exTatanagar. Bhilai also has an MEMU carshed. Known for its distinct liveries, the shed used to have elaborate suffixes for its WAM-4 locos e.g. WAM-4P-6D-HS+ABC! One of the largest sheds with 150+ locos (03/08) Shed used to be in SER until 2003. WDS-6 in dark blue / red livery, not standard shunter colours. [2/05] All locos now painted in red-cream livery. Holds WDM-3A and WDG-3A from 2004. Has received a few WDM-3Ds as well. Has an NG yard. Refuelling facilities for BG diesel locos. A steam shed here was recently [2001] demolished. However it does have [7/02] a working Bagnall steam locomotive used for special heritage runs. Carries out POH/maintenance for its own locos and also for other NG sheds. Was in SER until 2003.

Bhilai

WAM-4, Electric WAG-5, WAG-7 WDM-2, WDM-3A, WDM-3D, WDG-3A,

Raipur

Diesel

Motibagh (for Nagpur)

NG Diesel

ZDM-2, ZDM-3, ZDM-4A

SECR Workshops A very important NG/BG workshop. It performs POH on NG coaches and locomotives Motibagh from all over central and south-eastern India. Southern Railway Shed Type Comments Also had WDM-7 locos, now at Tondiarpet. WDM-2, Many WDM-3A and WDG-3A transferred to WDM-3A, Ernakulam and other sheds. Holds one of the WDM-3D, largest fleets of WDM-3D locos. Has WDG-3A modified WDM-3D #11121 with a full cab forward design. Erode Electric shed came up in the late 1990s. WAP-4 locos transferred here in 2001 WAG-5, from Arakkonam. Now home to the second WAG-7, WAPlargest fleet of WAP-4's on IR, the shed 4 handles some of the longest routes for electric trains in the country. WDM-2, All WDM2 locos fitted with Anti Collision WDM-3A, Device (ACD). Southernmost loco shed. 78 Loco / MU's

Erode

Diesel

Erode

Electric

Ernakulam

Diesel

WDS-6

Arakkonam (for Electric Chennai)

WAP-4, WAM-4, WAG-5 variants

Originally the only shed to have WDM-7 locos (now transferred to Tondiarpet). Has received many WDM-3A locos from Erode. This electric shed came up in the 1980s, but Arakkonam had a big steam shed earlier. This shed had 5 WAP-1 locos until 2002, were transferred to Ghaziabad. It later got WAP-4 locos -- the entire SR fleet -- which were then moved to Erode/Lallaguda. New WAG-7 locos were acquired but later transferred to Erode. Started receiving new WAP-4's in late 2004. Holds more than 10 WAP-1 locos transferred back from Ghaziabad. Total holding 130+ (03/08) One YDM-4 loco retrofitted to run on biodiesel. Recently [05/06] home to WDG-3A locomotives. Used to hold YDM-2 locos. WDM-7 locos were transferred here from Ernakulam and serve the ChengelpetArakkonam passenger trains [4/04]. [6/07] Some WDM-2's from Erode have been transfered here. Also refuelling point for WDM-2's and WDP-2's coming to Egmore. Shed created recently [10/06] to cater to the isolated Punalur-Shencottah-Tirunelveli MG section. Holds 12 locos, all transferred from Golden Rock. Serves the Nilgiri Mountain Railway

WDM-2, Golden Rock WDM-3A, Diesel BG and (for WDP-3A, MG Thiruchirapalli) WDG-3A, YDM-4 WDM-2, WDM-7, WDS-4B, WDS-6,

Tondiarpet (for Chennai)

Diesel

Shencottah

Diesel

YDM-4 'X' class (steam) and YDM-4

Coonoor Basin Bridge (for Chennai) Egmore

Steam, Diesel Electric trip shed Electric/Diesel trip shed Electric trip shed Electric/Diesel trip shed Electric

Tondiarpet Jolarpettai Royapuram

This was an important MG shed with several YDM-2's stabled here, but now the lines out of it are BG, and the shed stands demolished. [2/04] Recently created to lessen load on Basin Bridge. Also serves as crew change point for freights.

New electric shed under construction. Commisioning expected in early 2009.

Golden Rock near Thiruchirapalli

SR Workshops IR's premier diesel loco restoration and rebuilding workshop; also undertakes the POH of diesels from all over the south. Currently [3/05] it handles both BG and MG, but the MG repair facilities (which have been here for a century!) will likely soon be shifted to Tiruvarur as 79

gauge conversion leaves Tiruchy entirely on BG. Another facility may also come up at Pollachi. Carriage and Wagon Workshops, Perambur (Aynavaram), Chennai BG coaches and wagons

This was the premier BG steam loco repair shop in the south; now it deals with repair and maintenance / POH of electric locos from all over the south. SR, SCR, SER, and other zones' locos are often repaired here Locomotive Workshops, and sent for POH; sometimes locos from even farther afield such as Perambur (Chennai) from Tughlakabad can be seen being worked on. KR's DMU sets also come here for their POH. Also performs yearly overhaul of the Fairy Queen steam locomotive. Aynavaram Locomotive POH, recabling, dual brake conversion, etc. Workshops (Chennai) Mysore Central Workshops, BG coaches, railcars Ashokapuram Former electric shed and home to the YAM-1 locomotives. Now a BG Tambaram EMU maintenance and car shed. Avadi BG EMU maintenance and car shed. Arakkonam Engineering workshops Basin Bridge Carriage maintenance works South Central Railway Comments One of the largest sheds (120+ locos). Most WDM-2 locos were rebuilt as WDM-3A's and later transferred to WDG-3A, Guntakal. Many locos fitted with Auto WDG-3B, Gooty Diesel Emergency brakes for service on WDM-3A, Braganza Ghats in Goa. Also handles WDM-3D routine maintenance on WDG-4 locos. Received WDM-3D locos in 8/06. Gooty used to be a BG steam shed. Serves passenger traffic on SCR / SWR routes sector. Many old WDM-2 units WDM-2, rebuilt to WDM-3A specs. Large batch of Diesel, WDM-3A, WDM-3A's transferred here from Gooty Guntakal BG and a WDM-3C, in 2005. Former MG shed; BG shed was few MG WDM-3D, inaugurated in 1995 after gauge YDM-4A conversion of the Guntakal and Hubli divisions. Remaining MG locos serve the Dharmavaram - Pakala line. Built on the site of the former steam shed and inaugurated in Sep 05. Some WAP-4s WAP-4, are ex-Arakkonam. Had 15+ WAM-4 WAP-7, Lallaguda (for locos until about 2002 which then moved Electric WAG-5(HA), Secunderabad/Hyderabad) to Vijayawada. Interestingly, Lallaguda WAG-7, WAG-5 locos are actually CLW-built WAG-9 WAG-5HA locos, but Lallaguda is the only shed that doesn't show that 80 Shed Type Loco / MU's

classification code on the locos. Received new WAG-9 locos startng 2007. WAP-7 locos are also being homed here starting Jan. 2009. 110+ locos (06/08) Sanatnagar (for Hyderabad) Diesel and Electric trip sheds A diesel refuelling point (with Indian Oil bulk terminal near it). Had 27 WDM-2C locos (the 'original' models of this class); [4/02] moved to WDM-2, Gooty and Vishakhapatnam. [6/07] Many WDM-2A, WDM-3A transferred here from WDM-2B, Guntakal. Ex-Gooty WDG-3A locos WDM-3A, moved to service the SanathnagarWDG-3A Raichur sector. Had WDP-1 locos, transferred to Vijayawada. Inaugurated in 2006, it received all but eight WAG-7 locos based at Lallaguda. WAG-7 Has received new units as well. 100+ locos (05/08) WDP-1 locos transferred from Kazipet. WDS-4 units were to be decommissioned and/or scrapped by late 2001. However 6 were transferred to Kurla (CR) and the WAG-5, rest retained [8/04]. Home also to 2 WAM-4, BEML railbuses that run on the Kakinada WDS-4, - Kotipalli line. Many WAG-5 locos are WDP-1, re-fitted and used for passenger DEMUs (30+) operations only including the modified and 2 Railbus #23989 'Krishnaveni'. The electric shed here was inaugurated in April 1980 with a capacity to maintain 100 locos. Electric shed is among the largest holding 170+ locos (06/08).

Kazipet

Diesel

Kazipet

Electric

Vijayawada

Electric and Diesel

Renigunta

Diesel shed, Electric trip shed Former MG shed; converted to BG in the late 1990s, completely converted to BG in 2003. YDM-2 and YDM-4 transferred to WR/NWR sheds. WDM-2 locos: 10 old WDM-2, units (182xx series from GY/GTL/KZJ) Diesel & WDS-4, were assigned in for shunting duties, out EMU car DHMUs (3of which 6 have been decommissioned. shed car & 6-car) Later, more WDM-2 locos were (9) and EMU's transferred from other sheds for mainline duties on the northern Hyderabad & Nanded division routes. [9/08] Holds 12 WDS-4 locos. Electric shed caters for suburban EMU service. 81

Maula Ali (for Secunderabad)

Hyderabad

Electric trip shed Electric (MEMU) Has SCR entire fleet of MEMU cars. Handles primary maintenance and rebuilding of damaged units. Setup on the site of the erstwhile steam shed.

Rajahmundry

SCR Workshops South Lallaguda Coaches and wagons Rayanapadu Wagons Tirupati Coaches ROH depots for wagon maintenance at Gooty, Vijayawada, Ramagundam, Sanatnagar, Raichur and Bellampally Coaching maintenance depots at Secunderabad, Hyderabad, Kacheguda, Nanded, Vijayawada, Tirupati, Guntur, Kakinada, Narsapur, Purna, Kazipet, Guntakal and Machilipatnam. Shed Hubli Type Diesel South Western Railway Loco / MU's Comments Initially received all the new EMD locos. WDG-4 Transferred all but 4 WDP-4s to KJM in (150+), WDP2005 and later WDP-4 and WDG-4 to the 4 (10) newly Siliguri Jn in 03/07. Shed opened in 1983, holding 9 locos, after construction began in 1980. Initial holding capacity was 60 locos; in 1990 WDS-6, this was improved by providing covered WDM-2, shed facilities for holding all 60 locos. WDM-3A, Capacity raised to 65 locos in 1993, and WDP-4, to 125 locos in 2003; eventually the shed WDG-3A, is to hold 150+ locos. [3/05] WDP-4 WDG-3B locos (starting with #20023) have been homed here. First 5 WDM-3D units were homed here; these were later transferred to Erode. Was in SR until 2003. Electric Trip shed. Was in SR until 2003. WDS-4 Was in SR until 2003. Locos had a distinctive dark green livery.

Krishnarajapuram (for Bangalore)

Diesel

Bangalore City Bangalore Cantonment Mysore

Diesel, electric trip shed Diesel

Decommisioned YDM-4 MG diesel shed

SWR Workshops Hubli Coaches, ROH depot for wagon maintenance, coaching maintenance depot. Shed Type East Coast Railway Loco / MU's Comments One of IR's largest sheds it used to be on SER until WDM-2, 2003. There was a shed at Simhagiri which shut WDM-3A, down and the new diesel shed at Waltair took over. WDG-3A, Rarely, diesel locos can (could) be seen with WDS-6 Simhagiri markings [2001]. 82

Vishakhapatnam Diesel (Waltair)

This shed used to be on SER until 2003. Most electrics from here work on the KirandulKottavalasa heavy mineral freight line and are rarely seen elsewhere. The shed does not have any locos for passenger operations [3/03]. The WAG-5 WAG-5 locos are quite old, converted from the original Vishakhapatnam (100+), WAGElectric 211XX series of WAM-4B locos. [1/04] The (Waltair) 6A/6B/6C WAG-6 classes are now back in service after being (12?), WAM-4 idle for want of spares and maintenance. Carries out POH for WAG-6A/6B/6C locos; others are sent to other sheds, such as Kanchrapara. WAM-4 originally intended for Angul, were transferred here. Started life on paper as a diesel shed but soon converted to an electric shed. Received locos even when the shed building was not complete. Received Angul Electric WAG-5 WAM-4 and WAG-5 locos from other sheds (notably from GZB). After a short while, all WAM4 were transferred to VSKP. Currently (4/08) retains nearly 50 WAG-5. ECoR Workshops Carriage repair workshop. Commissioned in Nov. 1981. Performs POH Mancheshwar maintenance on about 100 coaches a month ([5/10] to be expanded to 150/month). Northern Railway Shed Type Comments This shed was originally built to cater to passenger traffic in the Delhi area. Received the first WAP-1s. Some WAP-4s were transferred to Arrakonam shed in 2007. Retains 47 WAP-1 locos as of 04/2008 including WAM-4, WAP-1, the beautifully decorated #22021 WAP-4, WAP-5, 'Babasaheb'. Used to have WAP-3 WAP-7, WAG-5HA locos, including the first #22005, which had been been converted *back* to a WAP-1. [3/05] Received new WAP-4 locos and older ones from other sheds like Kanpur & Howrah. Retains only 1 WAM-4 and 14 WAG-5 locos (04/2008). Large shed homing more than 150 locos. One of only sheds on IR to WDM-2, WDM-3A, home the WDP-1 and WDP-3A locos. WDM-3C, WDM-3D, Locos also serve the prestigious WDP-1, WDP-3A Palace on Wheels train. [6/07] WDM3D's being added to the roster. Also a BG/MG trip shed for WDM-2, WDS-4A/4B/4D (92), WDG-3A & YDM-4 locos. WDSsome DEMUs, WDM4A/4B/4C/4D shunting locos are sent 2 here for annual / semi-annual 83 Loco / MU's

Ghaziabad (for Electric Delhi)

Tughlakabad (for Delhi)

BG Diesel

Shakurbasti (for Delhi)

Diesel

Ludhiana

Diesel

Ludhiana

Electric

Lucknow

Diesel

Mughalsarai

Diesel

Ambala

Diesel

maintenance. Homes DMUs for Delhi region including the country's first CNG run DMU which was converted in-house from diesel. The first WDS4A ('Indraprastha', #19057) is homed here [10/05]. This shed had some (16) WDM-2 locos for a brief period, about 6 months or so, before they were sent on to Tughlakabad, Ludhiana, and Bhagat-ki-Kothi sheds. Currently has only 1 or 2 WDM-2 used for local duties. A large shed: 175+ locos [3/03]. WDM-2, WDM-3A Locos serve a large swathe of WDG-3A Northern and North-western India. Commisioned in 2001 when most GZB WAG-5's transferred here. WAM-4, WAG-5, Newer WAG-7s since 2003 with WAG-7, WAP-4 some locos transferred from Kanpur. Retains only 1 WAM-4. 10 WAP-4s, mostly transferred from Ghaziabad. 'Alambag Diesel Shed'. 130+ locos including the first 3300hp WDM-3A WDM-2, WDM-3A, rebuilt by DMW Patiala (earlier WDM-3D DCW). Locos seen in blue-grey livery with the words 'Prabal' written in Devnagari script on the side. This shed was an NR shed on ER territory! This was just adjacent to the Decommissioned. Had (still existing) ECR (formerly ER) WDM-4 locos (was at diesel shed. It lost the role it had the time the only shed earlier as the WDM-4's were phased to have these). out, and more recently [2001] was decommissioned. Shunters have minor maintenance carried out here but are sent to WDS-4 Shakurbasti for major maintenance or repairs. Northernmost shed. WDS-4A, belong to Shakurbasti, but kept here for long periods. Received some ZDM-4 locos in 2007, possibly from CR/WR.

Pathankot

Chakki Bank (for Pathankot) Kalka

NG Diesel, also BG trip shed. WDS-4A/4B ZDM-3, ZDM-4/A shunters are kept here for long periods. Was a steam shed, now diesel. [5/04] Steam shed now decomissioned. NG diesel ZDM-3, ZDM-5

Carries out POH of these NG NR locos. 84

Rewari

Steam

WP, YP, YG, AWD

New Delhi

Trip shed

Jalandhar

Diesel (DMU and Railbus)

Jammu Tawi Chipyana Buzurg

Diesel trip shed Electric (EMU and MEMU)

WAP-4, WAG-7

EMU and MEMU

[3/02] The Rewari steam shed has been restored and houses BG and MG steam locos. Caters to visiting electric and diesel locomotives with maintenance for both IR's first and biggest DMU shed. Holds 90 units that service much of rural Punjab and Haryana. Also holds two BEML built railbuses which operate on the Beas-Goindwal Sahib line. Trip shed for visiting locos. WDS-4 homed at Shakurbasti are retained here for long periods. Shed located near Ghaziabad. [9/08] Holds 216 EMU cars and 221 MEMU cars.

NR Workshops Locomotive workshops. Performs POH and other maintenance on many locos from Charbagh NR, WCR, etc. Jagadhari Carriage and Wagon workshop, Bridge workshop Amritsar POH of WDS-4 and breakdown cranes, bogie manufacture Shed Kanpur Central North Central Railway Type Loco / MU's Comments Shed used to be in NR until 2003. Had some older WAP models earlier. Homed the last WAG-2 and Electric WAP-4, WAG-7 WAG-4 locos. Some WAP-4 transferred to Bhusaval, Ghaziabad and Lallaguda. WDM-2, WDM-3A, Shed used to be in CR until 2003. Received the Diesel WDM-3B, WDGWDM-3B class mid 2006. Shed holding 105 locos + 3A, WDS-6 150+ locos [6/08]. Shed used to be in CR until 2003. Home to IR's entire WAG-5HB fleet, since these were manufactured by BHEL, and BHEL's Jhansi WAG-5HA / Electric unit maintains the WAG-5HB locos. First shed to WAG5HB, WAG-7 receive WAP-4 locos before some were transferred to Lallaguda & Arrakonam. In late 2007, all remaining WAP-4 transferred to Bhusaval shed. NG Locos marked 'GWL'. Carries out POH of these NDM-5, Railcars diesel locos. NG ZDM-3 Locos for Dhaulpur – Tantpur / Sirmuttra section diesel Diesel shed here homes 32 WDS4. The shed caters to Diesel WDS-4 the loco requirement for shunting at major NCR stations and the Jhansi Workshop. NCR Workshops Allahabad Engineering workshops 85

Jhansi

Jhansi

Gwalior Dhaulpur Agra

Gwalior Jhansi

Coaching workshop for NG stock Largest POH workshop for freight wagons on IR. Reputed to handle more than 20% of wagon POH on IR. North Eastern Railway Type Loco / MU's WDM-2, WDM3A, WDM-3B, WDM-3C, WDM3D, WDS-6, YDM4 YDM-4 and some other YDM series locos YDM-4 Comments Has one WDM-1 (not working). Locos seldom seen far from shed; sometimes at Allahabad and at Delhi. The last WDM-2 made by DLW (#16887) is homed here. Received WDM-3B class in late 2006 and WDM-3D in early 2007. For NER trains on the MG network Loco's are mostly from Izzatnagar.

Shed

Gonda

Diesel

Izzatnagar (for MG Bareilly) Diesel Chhapra Kachehri Izzatnagar Shed Malda Town MG Diesel

NER Workshops Workshops for both MG coaches and diesel (YDM-4) loco overhaul Type Diesel Northeast Frontier Railway Loco / MU's Comments WDM-2, This shed is an NFR shed on ER territory!! WDM-3A BG holdings started with a few WDS-6 shunters in the early 1990s. Used to be an MG shed for YDMWDS-6, 4 locos; those were transferred to Lumding. The WDG-3A, shed is located within the Guwahati Goods Yard, WDM-2, about 5km east of Guwahati (GHY) station WDM-3A towards Lumding. Locos fitted Anti-Collision Device(ACD). When the MG line from Guwahati to Lumding / Tinsukia / Dibrugarh was converted to BG, the Lumding - Badarpur (and beyond) section became YDM-4 isolated and at the same time the MG diesel shed at NGC was closed, with the locos from there transferred here. Easternmost shed of IR. YDM-4 YDM-4, WDP-4, WDG-4, WDM-3D YDM-4 Trip shed only. Locos home at Lumding. BG shed inaugurated in 3/07 with WDP-4 and WDG-4 locos transferred from Hubli. Also homes the famous WDP-4 #20012, ‘Baaz’. Locos used for operating the line to Murkongselek and Tezpur. Units transferred from New Guwahati. Eastern Railway

New Guwahati Diesel (NGC)

Lumding

MG Diesel

Badarpur

MG Diesel trip shed Diesel

Siliguri

Rangapara North

MG Diesel

Shed Howrah

Type Diesel

Loco / MU's Comments WDM-2, Locos serve mail / express trains north and west of WDM-3A, Howrah. 86

WDS-6 Commissioned at the end of 2001. Had 18 or so WAP-1 locos that were sent to Ghaziabad later. One of the largest WAP-4 sheds in IR with 70+ locos of WAP-4 the class stabled here. Most WAP6 locos from Asansol shed converted to WAP4 snad transferred here. Also an electric trip shed for Asansol, Mughalsarai, Gomoh locos. Locos are marked 'HWH'. Also an EMU car shed WDM-2, here. One WDS-4 unit fitted with vacuum WDS-4, WDSequipment for station apron cleaning, named 6 ‘Swachhata’.

Howrah

Electric

Bamangachi (for Howrah) Belaghata (for Sealdah) Andal

Diesel

Diesel WDS-6, WDM-2, WDM-3A, WDG-3A WDG-3A, WDM-6, WDM-2, WDM-3A WDM-2, WDM-3A, WDS-6 Has the first WDM-2 manufactured by DLW, No. 18233 The only two WDM-6 units ever built are here. Burdwan also has parking slots for EMUs. Locos haul the trans-border 'Moitree Express' between Kolkata and Dhaka. Has a large workshop, one of the oldest; BG diesels from many parts are sent here for POH. This shed used to have the WAM-1/2/3/4, WAG3/4, and WAP-4 locos. It also had the only (?) 4 WAP-2 locos, and the only WAM-3 locos: #20333, #20337. [1/08] Asansol also had 16 WAP-6 locos which were converted and transferred Howrah. [6/08] Some old WAM-4's from Mughalsarai have been tranferred here recently. This is the oldest electric shed of IR.

Diesel

Burdwan

Diesel

Jamalpur

Diesel

Asansol

Electric

WAG-5, WAM-4

Liluah (for Howrah?) Sealdah Narkeldanga ('NKG', for Sealdah) Gholsapur (Majerhat) Barasat Bandel Howrah Sealdah

Diesel Diesel Electric trip shed EMU car shed EMU car shed EMU car shed EMU car shed EMU car Not a separate loco shed but shared space in the passenger coach shed. Used to have some WAM-1, WAM-2 locos. This is not a separate loco shed but an EMU carshed now used to stable some locos and for loco maintenance.

This is the EMU car shed at Narkeldanga Canal, 87

Sonarpur Tindharia

shed EMU car shed Steam

which also houses some locomotives.

Darjeeling Himalayan Railway. All POH and 'B' class tanks, maintenance for the DHR 'B' class locos happens etc. here.

ER Workshops

Jamalpur Locomotive Workshops

Established in 1862, Jamalpur was assembling locos very early, and began manufacturing locos from scratch by 1899. Established in 1862, Jamalpur was assembling locos very early, and began manufacturing locos from scratch by 1899. Also manufactures 140 tonne cranes , BOXN/H wagons and other equipment. Maintenance & POH of passenger coaches, freight wagons & PW vehicles POH on BG AC locos from all over the east (Howrah, Santragachhi, Mughalsarai, Asansol, Gomoh), including the WAG-7 locos. One of the oldest loco workshops setup in 1863; originally was the site for 3kV DC electric locos of the Calcutta area.

Liluah Carriage & Wagon Workshops

Kanchrapara

Bamangachi

Coach maintenance

Tikiapara

Coach maintenance

Shed

Type

Mughalsarai

Diesel

Mughalsarai

Electric

East Central Railway Loco / MU's Comments There was also an NR diesel shed at WDM-2, Mughalsarai just adjacent to this one which WDM-3A, was decommissioned 200. One of the only WDS-5 two sheds to home the rare WDS-5 shunter class. WAM-4, First shed to get the WAG-7. WAP-1 locos WAP-4, from here were transferred to GZB. Holds WAG-7 some units converted from WAP-1 to WAP(70+) 4 (e.g. #22064) many WAP-4 locos were 88

Gomoh

Electric

WAG-7, WAG-9, WAP-7 WDM-2, WDM-3A, WDM-3D WDM-2, WDM-3A, WDG-3A

Patratu (for Diesel Adra/Purulia/Gomoh)

Samastipur

Diesel

Narkatiaganj

Diesel (MG) YDM-4

also transferred to Howrah. Holds 150 + locos (06/08) Had WAG-5A locos (1990s?). Was in ER until 2003. Some WAG9 units transferred to Ajni. WAP-7 locos serve the prestigious Howrah Rajdhani link. Shed holding 125+. On the Katni - Chopan line, Central Indian Coalfields (CIC) section, Dhanbad division, Jharkhand (near Barkakana and Gomoh). Was in ER until 2003. Locos are very rarely seen further afield. Former MG shed converted to BG in the 1990s. Locos rarely seen far afield; observed sometimes at Allahabad, very rarely at Delhi. Used to be in NER until 2003. Shed was setup with transferred locos from Siliguri and Izzatnagar.

ECR Workshops Harnaut (near Patna) Mughalsarai A new railway coach maintenance workshop is under construction here [6/03], which will have the capacity to repair and refurbish 500 coaches or more every year. IR's largest wagon repair workshop. South Eastern Railway Shed Kharagpur Diesel Type Loco / MU's WDM-2, WDM-3A, WDM-3B WDM-2, WDM-3A, WDM-3D, WDG-3A, WDS-5, WAG-5, WAG-7 Comments With the electrification of the SER tracks upto VSKP, locos mainly serve routes south west and north west of KGP and freight. Had a few of the WDM-1 class, now withdrawn. Also home to the rare WDS-5 class of shunters. WDM-3D's inducted in early 2007. One of the largest sheds with a holding of 160+ locos. Has the largest holding of WAG-7 locos. Slated to WAG-9 class as well. Holds SER’s entire fleet of WAM-4 locos. The shed once had WAP-4 locos: #22253, #22254, the first of the class with SER were here in Jan. 1999 when the Super Deluxe Exp. was inaugurated. These were later transferred to Santragachhi. Received WAG-7 locos in 2002. [6/07]. Came up in 1999. Used to have WAM-4s. Also outstation / trip shed for SER electrics 89

Bondamunda

Diesel

Bondamunda

Electric

Tatanagar (for Jamshedpur)

Electric

WAM-4, WAG-5, WAG-7

Santragacchi

Electric

WAP-4

Bokaro Steel City Nimpura (for Kharagpur) Dongargarh (for Nagpur) Tikiapara (for Howrah) Panskura Kharagpur

Diesel Electric BG diesel, now decommissioned EMU carshed EMU carshed EMU carshed

WDM-2, WDM-3A

near Howrah, and for Kharagpur locos. Shed holding 50+ locos. Also large yard for Bokaro Steel Plant. Loco spotted in a distinctive green/red livery.

Was in use until a few years ago (late '90s). All SER diesels for Nagpur are now from Raipur shed. Would have been in SECR territory.

SER Workshops Kharagpur Loco and C&W Workshop Locomotive, carriage, and wagon overhaul Santragachhi Rake maintenance Konkan Railway Loco / MU's

Shed

Type

Comments Was in use for Panvel, Roha, Pen, Uran, JNPT traffic earlier

Panvel Diesel [decommissioned] Verna

Diesel [planned but later 'cancelled'; construction was never completed] KR currently does not have locos or sheds of its own. It uses locos from Ernakulam, Golden Rock and Erode [SR]; Pune and Kalyan [CR]; and Gooty [SCR]. There is currently only diesel traction on this railway. Verna C&W Workshop Madgaon KR Workshops Workshop for carriage maintenance at a site close to the still-born loco shed site. Rake maintenance

90

Goods Sheds
Q. Where are the important goods sheds? Shed Trivia The distribution of sheds seen on the map is not all that uniform and reflects the greater need for locomotives in some areas compared to others. The Howrah-Dhanbad-Gomoh corridor is especially dense, having six sheds within a stretch of about 289km (Howrah, Bardhhaman, Andal, Asansol, and Gomoh). This is not surprising as the section caters to a lot of freight traffic including the heavy ore rakes from this mineral-rich area. Guntakal and Gooty are an odd pair of sheds, being amazingly close -- just 26km or so apart! Q. Where are the important goods sheds and transshipment points of IR? Here are the goods sheds attached to major centres:
  

              

Agra: Raja-ki-Mandi Ahmedabad: Sabarmati Bombay (Mumbai): Carnac Bunder, Wadi Bunder, New Mulund, with additional freight yards at Bandra, Sion, Vashi, Kalyan, Borivli, Wadala / Raoli Junction; Wadala and Trombay have oil sidings. Turbhe in New Bombay (Navi Mumbai) deals with some parcel freight traffic. Asarva (?) Calcutta: Shalimar Delhi: Shakurbasti and Sabzi Mandi; container depots at Pragati Maidan and Tughlakabad Hyderabad: Secunderabad, Sanatnagar Jaipur: Durgapura Madras (Chennai): Royapuram, Salt Cotaurs Bangalore: Whitefield, Yeshvanthpur Nagpur: Ajni (has CONCOR depot sidings) Khapri (CR): Oil rake yards Borkhedi (CR): Oil rake yards Pathankot: Chakki Bank (much military freight) Pune (Poona): Gadital; additional yards at Hadpsar and Chinchwad; oil sidings at Loni Kalbhor; container depot at Chinchwad; military sidings at Khadki and Dehu Road Guwahati: Amingaon Khapri: Rail transhipment terminal As usual, further information is welcome...

Additionally, there are large marshalling yards at Daund, Mughalsarai, Itarsi, Jabalpur, Tondiarpet (Chennai), Wadala (Mumbai). Some of these see a large amount of freight traffic. Also see the list of CONCOR terminals below. There was a huge MG freight marshalling yard at Tambaram for Chennai, but that has since closed. See also

91

CONCOR Terminals
Q. What are CONCOR depots and where are they located? CONCOR (Container Corporation of India) operates several container depots throughout the country. As of [1/00] there were 31 Inland Container Depots (ICDs) with facilities for international freight and connected to ports. These are classified based on whether or not they have a Container Freight Station (CFS), and whether they are equipped to handle port freight. A CFS facility allows freight to be loaded / unloaded to or from containers, and aggregated or distributed; at an ICD without a CFS, containers can only be routed to different destinations without being opened and loaded or unloaded. There are 9 depots with facilities only for domestic freight, known as Domestic Container Terminals (DCTs). Some of the depots are purely road-fed (Pithampur in Indore, Mulund in Mumbai, Milavittan in Tuticorin, Babarpur in Panipat, and Malanpur in Gwalior), but the rest are connected to IR's rail network. Some 35-40 rail corridors on IR have been identified for fast containerized goods services (CONTRACK). Some of CONCOR's container depots are listed below (this is not a comprehensive list!):

Inland Container Depots with CFS (Container Freight Stations) o Tughlakabad (New Delhi) o Whitefield (Bangalore) o Sanatnagar (Hyderabad) o Coimbatore o Nagpur o New Mulund (Mumbai) o Mulund (Mumbai) o Belaganj (Agra) o Tondiarpet (Chennai) o Amingaon (Guwahati) o Anaparthi o Guntur o Chirala o Moradabad (at site of former steam shed) o Sabarmati (Ahmedabad) o Madurai o Pithampur (Indore) o Malivitan (Tuticorin) o Baburpur (Panipat) o Daulatabad (Aurangabad) o Malanpur (Gwalior) o Mandideep (Bhopal) o Mirzapur (UP) [2006] o Sonepat (Haryana) [2006] o Dhapad (Punjab) [2006] Inland Container Depots without CFS (Container Freight Stations) o Dhandarikalan (Ludhiana) o Wadi Bunder (Mumbai) o Chinchwad (Pune) o Cochin o Cossipore (Calcutta) 92

o 

Surat SEZ

Port-side Container Terminals o Madras Harbour o Kakinada o Kandla o Cossipore Road (Calcutta) o Haldia (Calcutta) o Shalimar (Calcutta). Domestic Container Terminals o Tughlakabad (New Delhi) o Dhandarikalan (Ludhiana) o Whitefield (Bangalore) o Salem Market o Tondiarpet (Chennai) o Cossipore Road (Calcutta) o Shalimar (Calcutta) o Kankaria (Ahmedabad) o Wadi Bunder (Mumbai) o Fathua (Patna) [1/03] Proposed container terminals... [2/02] o Balasore o Bhusawal o Raipur o Vadodara o Kanpur o Jamshedpur o Jaipur o Jodhpur o Rajkot o Turbhe (Mumbai) o Miraj o Dadri o Ankleshwar o Shalimar / Kolkata (proposed additional ICD) o New Delhi (additional terminal) o Arakkonam (under construction) o Pondicherry (under construction) o Tatanagar (under construction) Proposed container terminals... [5/05] o Varanasi o Vishakhapatnam o Khodiyar (extension of Sabarmati ICD)

Recently [4/10] an International Container Traffic Terminal (ICTT) has been opened at Vallarpadam near Kochi.

93

Marshalling Yards
Q. Where are the important marshalling and stabling yards? Most of the bigger stations that are junctions or termini for various routes have large yards for stabling and marshalling rakes. E.g., Chennai Central homes rakes for many trains originating from there. Pune has a fairly large yard, as does Ernakulam. The Juhi marshalling yard is pretty big as well. Mughalsarai is the biggest marshalling yard in Asia, capable of handling over 6,000 wagons a day. It may also be the biggest marshalling yard in the world; it appears [need confirmation] that the only one bigger was the one at Ulm, Germany, which was destroyed in Allied bombings in the second world war. A (partial) list of marshalling or classification yards follows [12/01]. Those marked with '?' are based on uncertain information. Numbers indicate the numbers of tracks available for classification operations. 'Flat' indicates a classification yard known to be flat (not a hump yard). Marshalling / classification yards (especially hump yards) for freight wagons have been in decline since the 1980s with the increasing tendency to use block rakes for goods. (See below for a list of closed yards.)
                               

Ambala Cantt.? Andal (mechanized hump yard with retarders) Bardhaman (flat) Bayappanahalli Bhilai (mechanized hump yard with retarders) Bhusawal (16+14) Bokaro Steel City (40, may have retarders?) Bondamunda (27, mechanized hump yard with retarders) Chitpur (flat) Cuttack? Dankuni (flat) Daund Erode? Ghorpadi (flat; hump closed) Hirarpur? Itarsi? Jamshedpur (mechanized hump yard with retarders) Jasai (near Uran; flat; for petroleum tankers) Juhi (18) Kalyan? (for Mumbai) Kurla (for Mumbai) Mangalore? Marippalam? (for Vishakhapatnam). Maula Ali? (BG) Mughalsarai (48+37, mechanized hump yard with retarders) Naihati (18) (flat; hump yard closed) New Katni Jn. Nimpura (mechanized hump yard with retarders) Pune Ratlam? Sanatnagar (for Secunderabad) Shalimar 94

       

Surat? Tikiapara Tondiarpet Dn (hump) Tughlakabad (mechanized hump yard with retarders) Vijayawada (mechanized hump yard with retarders) Wadala (for Mumbai) Wadi Waltair (Vishakhapatnam)

ER's Dhanbad and Asansol divisions' coal yards have small hump yards, (Pathardih, Kusunda, Kathrasgarh, Sitarampur, etc.), which are becoming obsolete as coal (as is the case with other freight) now moves increasingly in block rakes. For information on hump yards worldwide including Indian yards, check the Yahoo Group on Hump Yards. There are several satellite photographs of hump yards available in the links section of that group. Q. Have any marshalling yards been closed down? Yes, many marshalling yards have been closed over the years, especially since the 1980s, with the move towards using block rakes that do not need to be broken up and re-classified all the time. A list of closed yards is given below. Central Railway
      

Amla (BG) Agra Cantt (BG) Wardha (BG) Nishatpura (BG) Balharshah (BG) Bina (BG) Jabalpur (BG)

Eastern Railway
               

Kiul (BG) Gomoh Dn (BG) Barwardih (BG) Barkakana (BG) Naihati Hump (BG) Jha Jha Hump (BG) Danapur Up (BG) Garhara Hump (BG) Burdwan Dn (BG) Malda Town (BG) Sahibganj (BG) Rampur Hat (BG) Howrah Goods (BG) Asansol East Hump (BG) Mughalsarai Up (BG) Garhara (Transhipment and sorting) (BG)

Northern Railway 95

                                

Prayag Ghat (BG) Jammu Tawi (BG) Chakki Bank (BG) Rewari (MG) Ratangarh (MG) Churu (MG) Sadulpur (MG) Sirsa (MG) Hanuman Garh (MG) Bhagat Ki Kothi (MG) Shakurbasti (MG) Khan Alampura (BG) Kanpur (GMC) (BG) Bhatinda (BG) Lucknow (BG) Firozepur (BG) Moradabad (BG) Allahabad (BG) Tundla (BG) Chheoki (BG) Jaunpur (BG) Faizabad (BG) Varanasi (BG) Bareilly (BG) Laksar (BG) Roza (BG) Shakurbasti (BG) Ghaziabad (BG) Jakhal (BG) Ludhiana (BG) Jallandhar City (BG) Amritsar (BG) Merta Road (MG)

North Eastern Railway
          

Manduadih (MG) Chupra Key (MG) Kasganj (MG) Kanpur Anwarganj (MG) Mailani (MG) Aishbag (MG) Nakha Jungle (MG) Samastipur (MG) Saharsa (MG) Darbhanga (MG) Garahara (MG)

Northeast Frontier Railway

Siliguri (MG)

Southern Railway 96

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Tondiarpet Up Hump (BG) Virudunagar Flat (MG) Jolarpettai (BG, mechanized hump yard with retarders) Baiyyappanahalli (MG) Yesvantpur (MG) Tambaram Flat (MG)

South Central Railway
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Vijayawada (BG, mechanized hump yard with retarders) Kazipet (BG) Guntakal (MG) Maula Ali (MG)

South Eastern Railway

Bilaspur (BG)

Western Railway
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Vadodara (BG) Bandra (BG)

Kinds of Yards:Marshalling yards, depending on the kind of shunting they employ, may be classified into the following three types : 1. Flat yards 2. Gravity yards, and 3. Hump yards Below in Figure 1 we see an example of a flat yard which shows the three basic ingredients of every yard, namely, the reception yard, the classification yard (also known as the sorting yard), and the departure yard. On arrival, a goods train is received in the reception yard and the engine is sent to the loco shed (not shown). Adjacent to the reception yard, we see the classification yard, where each line is reserved for wagons going in a particular direction. The subject of nomination of lines is dealt with in greater detail at a later stage; for the present it is enough for us to know that the process of sorting consists of breaking up a train and depositing wagons in the sorting yard on lines nominated for various destinations.

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To sort a train that has arrived a shunting engine attaches to the train from the left end in the figure and draws it out of the reception yard onto the shunting neck AB. The first four wagons remote from the engine have to be deposited on line No.3, let us suppose, so the pointsman on duty uncouples these wagons and signals to the driver. The engine pushes the train towards the sorting yard after which it draws back into the shunting neck. The 'first cut' of wagons at the front which have been set rolling move into the nominated line where they are brought to rest by brake porters who run alongside the wagons pinning down the handbrakes. How do the men operating the sorting yard points know which line a 'cut' is to be sent to? There are various methods employed for this, one of which we shall describe shortly. A second push-pull operation will deposit another set of wagons (i.e., the second cut) on the appropriate line in the sorting yard. The push-pull method is employed in flat yards where the whole layout is built on level ground. This is the simplest arrangement, but it also turns out to be more costly to operate as the shunting engine continually moves up and down while sorting is in progress. Flat yards have been traditionally used on the metre gauge in Indian Railways; they may also be found on the broad gauge at places where goods traffic is light. Though simple in construction, they are incredibly slow in operation, with an average goods train with about 50 cuts taking as long as 2 - 3 hours to sort out. Another kind of yard is the gravity yard where a gentle slope on the shunting neck falling towards the sorting lines assists wagon cuts in rolling down by themselves without engine assistance. Gravity yards are considered ideal, but topographical features often do not favour such an arrangement. The best compromise is the hump yard. This is illustrated in Fig. 2 below which shows reception lines joining up into a single line which slowly begins to ascend an artificially made 'hump' or hill. When the track has risen to a height of around 8 - 10 feet it levels off and begins to descend towards the sorting yard. The descent grade could be anywhere from 1 in 25 to 1 in 35 up to the first point of divergence which is known as the King point. Beyond this is a gentler grade (1 in 80 to 1 in 200) which eases off into a still gentler grade of 1 in 400 to 1 in 600 where the fans of lines commence. The entire sorting yard is thus laid on a downward grade.

The sorting yard points were operated from a set of ground frames, although in later days these came to be replaced by a single elevated cabin. It will be seen that the yard above doesn't have a shunting neck as in the flat yard shown earlier. The shunting neck is not needed in this case as the reception and sorting yards are in continuation and a train can be directly pushed from the reception area onto the hump for sorting work. 98

The process of sorting a train in a hump yard in earlier days was as follows: The Assistant Yard Master (AYM) who sits in an elevated cabin with windows all around prepares a 'cut list' for the train showing the number of wagons in each successive cut and the line on which the cut is to be sent. A copy of the cut-list is given to the shunting master operating from the same cabin, who uses the document to issue orders on loudspeakers (some of them of the talk-back type) placed at strategic locations within the yard. Each shunting master has under his charge a shunting engine and a set of pointsmen. Under directions from the shunting master, a shunting engine attaches itself to the rear of the train and begins to push it out of the reception area towards the hump, movements taking place at normal shunting speed. The shunting master has a full view of what is taking place from his look-out cabin and when he finds that the leading wagon is nearing the summit of the hump, he issues his first order on the microphone: "Chaar gaadi kato ... saat line par dalo!" (uncouple the first four wagons and send them rolling down line No. 7). A pointsman stationed on the hump signals to the driver to slow down, the signal being picked up by a relay pointsman standing midway down the line who transmits the message to the driver. When the train has slowed down to a snail's pace (about 1 kmph) the hump pointsman steps between the wagons crouching under the buffers and disengages the coupling link, while another pointsman a little way off pins down the hand-brakes partially so that the wagon cut doesn't hurtle down the incline at dangerous speed. In the mean time, those at the ground frames (or cabin as the case may be) have set the points on hearing the announcement, while the brake porter will have moved to the appropriate line in the sorting yard in readiness for the wagon-cut as it comes gently rolling along. Despite the application of handbrakes by brakeporters stationed at the appropriate place, wagons hurtling into a sorting yard would often bang against those lying further down the line. Loose shunting of this kind, when carried out roughly, often led to troubles such as loads on open wagons shifting out of place, or hot axles occurring at a later stage. Brake porters often carried with them a mechanical contrivance known as a skid used to further slow down a rolling wagon. The action of the device is simple : when a wagon wheel comes across a skid clipped onto the track, it rides on top of it and drags it along, the skid preventing any further rotation of the wheel. Humpyard sorting can be quite a slow process, a train with 40-50 cuts taking about half to one hour's time to sort. But it is still quicker and requires less engine movement when compared to a flat yard. The humpyard design is thus ideally suited for places which deal with a substantial number of wagons each day. The Marshalling Yard Layout There are two ways in which a marshalling yard layout can be planned. In one arrangement, known as a multiple yard, there are two sets of reception, classification and departure yards, one for the Up direction and the other for the Down direction, lying side by side. With the exception of the New Itarsi and New Katni yards and a few other places, Indian Railways have traditionally followed this design on its layouts. From 1930 onwards, most European countries abandoned the idea of multiple yards and changed over to the idea of single yards. A single yard, as its name indicates, has just one set of reception, classification and departure yards serving both up and down directions. A yard of this type 99

requires less space to construct, and saves not only on capital cost but also on staff. It is also a lot more easy to understand. Single Yards To see how a yard works consider Fig. 3 below. This is a single (or unitary) yard with reception, sorting and departure yards in series, having connections as shown. An up train arriving from the left enters the reception area where the engine detaches and returns to the locoshed using connection B. For a train arriving from the right, entry will be via the dotted line, the engine leaving for the shed using crossover A. To the right side of the sorting yard we see a shunting neck which allows wagons to be drawn out of the sorting yard and placed at 'local installations' such as the repacking shed, sick yard and weigh bridge. The shunting neck is usually a short piece of track since only a few wagons have to be drawn out at a time.

The first and foremost of these local installations is the sick yard (see inset), the place where wagons are brought in for repairs. On arrival in the reception yard, a train is first examined and wagons needing repairs are marked out. During sorting operations on the train, defective wagons are thrown on one or more lines in the sorting yard which are specially reserved for this purpose. Light repairs are carried out in the sorting yard itself, whereas wagons needing more extensive treatment are drawn out via the shunting neck and placed in the sick yard. As repair work in the carriage & wagon workshop may take some time, the usual procedure is to shunt these wagons to a platform known as the transhipment platform where hamals are employed to transfer the contents of defective wagons on one side of the platform to another set of wagons lined up on the other side. Following transhipment of goods, the newly loaded wagons are returned to the sorting yard whilst those which needed repairs, now empty, are shunted away to the workshop. At break-of-gauge junctions a transhipment platform of another kind may also be found having tracks of different gauges alongside, this facility allowing goods arriving on one gauge to be 100

transferred to wagons of the other gauge before they can resume their onward journey to their final destination. Repacking wagons arriving on road van trains are laid out on a separate line in the sorting yard from where they are periodically drawn out and deposited at the repacking shed, an engine shunting them back into the sorting yard when repacking has been done. A weighbridge is also illustrated, the position indicated being suitable for occasional wagons that need weighing. However, at places where each wagon entering the yard needs to be weighed, a more suitable location for the weighbridge would be somewhere on the hump itself. Wagon cuts deposited on sorting lines are generally separated by gaps of varying lengths. Once a train-load of wagons have accumulated on a line, the cuts are coupled, a guard's brake van added, and the train is shunted to the departure yard. For an up train (proceeding towards the right), an engine from the locoshed makes its way along the loco line entering the departure yard from the right hand end, attaches to the train, and draws out. An analogous procedure exists for a down departing train which is left as an exercise for the reader. Those who are familiar with railway working will have noticed that the layout above doesn't show a goods shed. A goods shed is essentially a loading - unloading point : a place where consignments arriving by road transport are unloaded, booked, stored and finally loaded into railway wagons, facilities also being provided for the reverse process, namely, unloading of wagons and handing over the material to the consignee. The railway goods shed which serves this function is usually situated in the vicinity of the passenger station area. If you are wondering why there is no goods shed in the figure above, the reason is simply that the layout above is an example of a yard located a few miles away from the passenger station area. It is not unusual to find such a configuration : at Nagpur, for example, the marshalling yard is at Ajni which is a good 2 kilometers from the main station. Another example is the Itarsi New Yard. When yard and railway station are remotely situated, a daily shuttle service is introduced between yard and shed. During hump-shunting, goods shed wagons (for the town in question) are collected on a line in the sorting yard, and at the appointed time, an engine picks up these wagons and proceeds towards the passenger station area, often without a brake van, to deposit them at the goods shed for unloading. Then picking up loaded wagons from the shed, it returns to the yard where the wagons are hump-sorted and placed on the appropriate lines in the sorting yard. Multiple Yards The single yard described above has all the essential features that will be found in a marshalling yard. On Indian Railways, though, the system, as noted earlier, has been to have separate installations for up and down directions. A multiple yard will consist of the following key elements : (1) Up reception, sorting and departure yards laid usually in continuation, (2) Down reception, sorting and departure yards laid alongside and parallel to the up yard, and pointing the other way, (3) separate humps for up and down yards, (4) connections between the two yards for the movement of cross-traffic and, (5) various auxiliary installations such as locoshed, sick yard, transhipment platform, repacking shed, weighbridge, goods shed, etc., each of these having suitable connections with the yard. Marshalling yards can show an almost infinite variation in the way the constituent elements can be grouped together. Consider for example a case in which a yard is to be designed with limited funds in hand. If the traffic passing through the station is low the general procedure would be to adopt a flat yard design, combining the reception and departure yards into one unit. Below we find one such example. This flat yard has separate up and down yards, each made up of reception-cum-departure lines, and sorting lines which are dead end sidings. Once a train is 101

formed in the sorting area it is carried to the reception-cum-departure yard where it awaits departure. In the example below, the yard is attached to the passenger station. The passenger platform area and station building are sandwiched between up and down yards, and can be reached by the foot overbridge. To keep things simple, we have omitted the repacking shed and transhipment platform, however it is worth noting that the goods shed is within the yard area, thus doing away with the need for a special shuttle service connecting yard and goods shed.

The Sorting Process The hub of every marshalling yard is the classification yard where trains are broken up routewise. The number of lines here will depend, in general, on the amount of traffic handled by the yard. There may be as few as 5 or 6 lines, while at the other end, in a large yard where traffic is dense there may be as many as two dozen lines in the sorting yard. The actual number of lines needed is worked out at the time when the yard is in the design stage. Each line is set aside for a certain purpose, and when the yard becomes operational every effort is made so that the nomination is not altered. As an example, let us suppose that an analysis of traffic passing through a station is made and it is found that each day enough wagons arrive on incoming goods trains to form (a) one full train load for a certain destination A, and (b) two full train loads each day for another destination B. Then one line in the sorting yard will be reserved for destination A, and two lines for B. In an actual yard the nomination of lines could be something like this : Line No. 1 Long distance wagons for destination A Line 2 and 3 Long distance wagons for destination B Line 4 Section train wagons for route 1 Line 5 Section train wagons for route 2 Line 6, 7 and 8 For sorting section train into geographical order Line 9 Repacking wagons Line 10 Goods shed wagons Line 11 Coal wagons for loco shed 102

Line 12 Line 13 Line 14

Sick wagons needing light repairs Sick wagons to be sent to sick yard Guard's brake vans

The table above should be regarded with caution for it can easily convey the feeling that a sorting yard needs at least a dozen lines in it. In practice, when traffic is low, two or more kinds of wagons are often allotted to a single line in the yard. Sorting is a continuous process and may be compared to a man who's receiving a steady stream of coloured lollipops, and must pack them in boxes, red ones in red boxes and so on. He must pack each box to capacity before he can pass it on for delivery, and what is more, he must keep pace with the volley he is receiving. If more lollipops arrive than he can handle in a given time he'll find his room getting congested and must therefore halt the process so that he is able to clear out his room. Bearing this analogy in mind we turn to the yard where we find that a section train has arrived in the reception area, awaiting sorting. A shunting engine attaches to the train from the rear and begins to push it up the hump. The Assistant Yard Master has full details of the train with him, and he has prepared his cut-list so that (a) section wagons for route 1 are sent to line 4, (b) section wagons for route 2 are sent to line 5, (c) any long distance wagons go to line 1, 2, or 3, as the case may be, (d) goods shed wagons are dispatched to line 10, (e) sick wagons, if any, are sent to 12 or 13 as the case demands (see table above), and (f) the guard's brake van rolls into line 14. It is important to realize that all that this process has accomplished is to isolate section wagons route-wise : wagons for route 1 are all on one line, but they are still mixed up as far as stations along the route are concerned. When enough section wagons have accumulated on a line, the next thing to do is to arrange them in station-order. Making its way to the sorting yard the shunting engine picks up these wagons and draws back into the reception yard using a line which bypasses the hump, for a second round of hump shunting. Five or six (or even more) 'humping operations' may be required to juggle these wagons (using lines 6, 7 and 8) before they are all on one line in geographical order. This secondary sorting is usually done in the main classification yard itself but in some cases a separate yard is built for detailed classification work of this kind. This is known as a subsidiary yard. In the meantime the shunting engine is running short of water, so it makes its way to a nearby line having an ash-pit, coal stack and water column. This arrangement can save a good deal of time as the shunting engine doesn't have to make its way to the loco shed every time it needs to be coaled or watered. While all this is in progress a shuttle service has arrived from the station goods shed with 5 wagons for destination A, and 4 wagons for wayside stations along route 2. The shunting loco picks up the rake and in one humping operation deposits the first 5 wagons on line 1 (for destination A) and the rest on line 5. Long distance trains consisting of loads for destinations A and B are dealt with in a manner similar to the procedure described above. Coal wagons meant for the loco shed are reserved for line 11. On completion of its shift of duty, the shunting engine picks up these wagons and makes its way to the shed. As yard operation takes place round the clock, another engine at the shed takes over, picking up empty coal wagons from the shed and returns to the yard.

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While the process of sorting forms the principal function of a yard, it is by no means the only object of concern. Each yard has to deal with a large number of empty wagons held in storage on lines close to the sorting yard. Empties are attached to section and van trains for clearing traffic booked at wayside stations. In addition, most yards are required to fulfill certain marshalling commitments such as supplying a fixed number of empties each day to a cement factory or colliery. Any shortage of wagons will mean that one or more train loads of empties will have to be ordered from a nearby division which has a surplus. While standing on an overbridge watching an empty goods train rumble by, it is good to bear in mind that the movement of empty wagons from one place to another is as much a vital link in the transportation of goods by rail as anything else. As sorting work progresses in a yard, wagons begin to accumulate on various lines - long distance trains on the lines appointed, section trains, and so on. How long does it take to form a train? This depends in general on the way the wagons are distributed within the yard. A railway official I spoke to recently said that once a train has arrived you can never say with certainty when it will resume its onward run. Another factor that creeps in is the availability of sufficient load : are there enough wagons on a line to dispatch the train? A train may be dispatched underload, but this practice, if continued long enough, can prove to be uneconomical as we are not making full use of available engine power. Wagons bound for a certain direction may thus have to be left waiting in the sorting yard till such time as a sufficient quantity of load materializes. Some Thoughts on Goods Loading and Unloading Points The goods train of today is composed of BOX wagons, some closed, others open, each running on pivoted bogies and coupled together with center buffer couplers. Prior to the 1950s, BOX wagons were unknown ; most wagons were simple 4 - wheelers. There were specially designed wagons with appropriate ventilation for carrying livestock, other kinds for perishables, and oil tankers, all running on four wheels. If you were to move around in a yard you would most certainly discover that the railways have a tremendous job to perform, moving goods from one place to another. Statistics indicate that about 60 -70 percent of the total earnings of the railways come from the movement of goods. Have you ever stopped to wonder where do all these loaded wagons originate, and how do they find their way into a marshalling yard? Goods loading points can be broadly classified into the following 3 categories : 1) Railway Station Goods Sheds The amount of traffic booked here will depend in general on the size of the station. At large stations and important junctions 10 - 15 wagons may be booked each day. On the other hand, at smaller stations along the way, the number could be 4 or 5, or even less, depending on conditions of trade. At large stations which have a marshalling yard, wagons loaded at the station goods shed are taken to the yard, sorted and attached to various section and through trains, as we have seen earlier. At wayside stations the procedure is somewhat different. Wagons loaded here are picked up by a section train when it comes along, and conveyed to the next yard down the line where they are sorted and attached to various trains as appropriate. Scattered Loading and Unloading Points Around a City 104

An industrialized area may have several production units and factories scattered around a city, each with its own siding together with connections leading to the main line. For loading and unloading, shuttle services (also known as pilots) are run connecting the marshalling yard with these units. Wagons containing raw material arrive by train and are laid aside on a marshalling yard siding from whence they are picked up and taken (together with any empties needed) to the industrial siding for unloading of material. The engine then picks up wagons loaded with finished goods and returns to the yard where the load is attached to various trains and dispatched onwards. Large Industrial Sidings, Railway Goods Terminals, and Collieries These are places distinguished by the fact that train loads of material are loaded and unloaded each day. Let us take the case of a steel plant. Train loads of iron ore arriving in the nearest marshalling yard are taken to the plant and unloaded. The wagons, now empty, are loaded with finished steel goods and returned to the yard for onward dispatch. Large sized railway goods terminals work in much the same way. Wadi Bunder railway goods shed, which is close to Bombay Victoria Terminus, is perhaps the finest example. This is no ordinary goods shed with a single platform and four wagons parked in a row. Wadi Bunder, in earlier days, had a total of 14 sheds for loading and unloading of commodities. The main yard that serves the Bombay area was at Kalyan where two lines converge : one coming from Igatpuri, the other from Poona. The function of Kalyan marshalling yard was to receive incoming trains, sort them out, and dispatch loads to (1) Wadi Bunder, (2) Bombay Port Trust Railway, and (3) send trains/pilots to unload goods at Byculla and other places lying to the south of Kalyan. Each day something like 4 - 5 loaded trains were dispatched from Kalyan towards Wadi Bunder. As there is dense suburban traffic on the Bombay - Kalyan route during the day, these trains would have to be dispatched only during the night. Unloading would begin at Wadi Bunder during the early hours of the morning. Following this, the wagons were shunted into place for loading of goods, and train loads dispatched to Kalyan the following night where they were sorted and dispatched onwards. While this is an oversimplification of what actually took place at Wadi Bunder, it does give the reader the feel of what goes on in a large railway goods shed where material is handled each day in train loads. We have been laboring over a seemingly unimportant issue here, trying to discover the source at which goods items actually originate. But this exercise, though apparently pointless, is meant as a drill for the beginner who is finding himself muddled and who wishes to have his concepts cleared. The first thing that emerges is that a marshalling yard is by no means a place where goods are loaded or unloaded. Loading is always done at a railway goods shed, industrial siding, colliery, oil refinery, a food godown, or some such place. The principle is the same almost everywhere : wagons loaded at one or more of these places are carried to a marshalling yard, sorted out and attached to various loads (section and through trains, etc.) depending on the destination booked for. Secondly, when a train is formed in a yard for the purpose of dispatch, it is said to start from the yard. After it has travelled a certain distance and pulls into a yard where it is broken up, it is said to terminate at this yard. Termination therefore occurs at a place where the train is split up, some parts resuming their onward journey on other trains, while some will make their way to a goods shed or siding for unloading of material. 105

David St. John Thomas, a noted authority on railways, said in one of his books that most goods trains begin and end their careers in a marshalling yard. The reader who has followed the reasoning so far will have no trouble in seeing what John Thomas means. Yard Operation At the heart of a marshalling yard organization is the Yard Master having a number of Assistant Yard Masters under him working in 8 hour shifts. At multiple yards dealing with heavy traffic, separate Assistant Yard Masters are assigned to up and down yards. AYMs need to be fully conversant with the yard layout, the procedures to be followed, and the general programme followed each day : a yard could easily turn into a hopeless mess were it not for these men who hold charge of all that takes place which includes sorting, formation and dispatch of trains together with all the necessary planning done in consultation with the Control Office. Shunting work is performed by Shunting Masters working under the direction of the AYM on duty. Each such shunting master is in charge of a shunting engine and is assisted by 3 - 4 pointsmen allotted to hump sorting and other related work. Besides this, there's other staff to take care of various auxiliary functions : the Train Examiner and his men, repacking shed foremen, transhipment clerks, carriage & wagon repair staff, cabinmen, call boys, brake (or skid) porters, and others. The staff above comprises the executive side of the yard organization. Together with the executive staff, the Yard Master has another organization under him known as the Trains Branch, made up of a Head Trains Clerk, one or more Assistant Head Trains Clerks and several Trains Clerks. The trains branch is solely concerned with statistical work which involves daily stock taking of wagons, entering wagon particulars in yard registers, and preparing marshalling yard statistics. Let us try to follow the sequence of events when a goods train (or a shuttle) has arrived in the reception yard. The first thing to do is to send the engine to the shed. Loco sheds are protected by a cabin which control both entry and exit; the AYM therefore phones the CASM of this cabin informing him of the arrival of the train. The CASM in turn phones the loco foreman and on getting permission, he will set the points and lower the signals for the engine to return to the shed. In the meantime, the Guard has made his way to the AYM's office where he hands over the wagon way bill before signing off duty. Trains are generally sorted in the order in which they arrive, and it may be several hours before the load will be backed up on the hump for shunting. Meanwhile, there are other important things to do, such as number taking and train examination. If you are standing in the reception yard, you will find a man slowly moving along the length of the train taking down particulars from wagon labels in a handbook he is carrying. This is the trains clerk (or number taker as he is known), and he is noting down details of each wagon wagon number and type, owning railway, starting point and destination, tare and gross weight, and whether loaded or empty. He will also record the load of the train and net tonnage (e.g., 60/2000) together with the position of wagons carrying livestock or perishables, if any. Following the process of number taking the load is subjected to an intensive examination by the train examiner and his staff. A memo issued by the TXR tells the Assistant Yard Master which of the wagons were found sick so that they may be placed on the appropriate lines in the sorting yard during humping operations on the train. In the meantime, the TNC will have handed over his record to the trains branch where wagon particulars will be entered in various yard registers maintained in the office 106

Yard and Control As a through train moves from starting point to destination it often calls on intermediate yards, halting only briefly for engine watering and C & W examination. At these yards, therefore, only a limited number of trains are broken up, and the main activity revolves around passing through trains. On the other hand, there are yards whose geographical position will mean that nearly every train that arrives has to be broken up and new trains formed. Bhusaval, which was a multiple yard with separate up and down humpyards, makes an interesting case for study. This can be seen in the map appearing in Figure 6, which shows the areas for which trains were formed by Bhusaval UP yard. Like every other yard, Bhusaval UP yard developed a certain fixed pattern of traffic over the years. Thus, each day the yard would receive terminating through trains containing a mixture of loads, sort them out, and form through trains for the following destinations: (1) Wadi Bunder, (2) Bombay Port Trust Railway, (3) South of Kalyan, (4) Raichur, (5) via Hotgi, and (6) beyond Sabarmati, etc. Lines were therefore allotted in the sorting yard for each of these destinations. A word of explanation is in order here. A term such as South of Kalyan means wagons meant for various goods sheds and industrial sidings in the Bombay area. In a similar way, via Hotgi is used to denote loads bound for stations beyond Hotgi: these will travel together as a through train right up to Hotgi where they are sorted out and dispatched onwards. Since the destinations and vias for which trains are formed constitute a fixed pattern, it will be helpful if the yard maintains particulars showing the total number of wagons it has in each group. Thus for example, Bhusaval Up Yard, at a certain time, may contain a total of :
             

120 wagons for Wadi Bunder (WB load) 60 wagons for Bombay Port Trust Railway (BPT) 75 wagons for South of Kalyan (SOK) 45 wagons for via Hotgi 75 wagons for Raichur 20 section wagons for Manmad - Dhond 130 wagons for beyond Sabarmati -----------------------------------125 empty wagons 8 wagons for Bhusaval goods shed 3 wagons for Bhusaval repacking shed 4 coal wagons for Bhusaval loco shed 5 sick wagons 7 goods brake vans

Tabulated data of this kind showing the current yard composition is available in a register maintained in the yard known as the Running Balance Register. Each time a train arrives in the yard, a TNC goes out and takes down wagon details which are counted up and added to the appropriate columns of the register. In much the same way, when a train is about to leave the yard, wagons details are noted by a TNC which will be counted and figures subtracted from the columns. The current yard composition is relayed to the Control Office at 4 hourly intervals or more often as required. Control requires this data for the following three reasons: (1) to study the loads lying in the yard and see if there is sufficient load for a certain train, (2) to check and see if there is a sufficient stock of empties in the yard, and (3) to keep a constant watch on the total yard balance 107

; this figure is important, for if it goes beyond the working capacity of the yard, congestion sets in and work comes to a standstill. Control, with its ever watchful eye, acts as the nerve centre that coordinates the activities of various yards within the division. Each day in the morning, the control office prepares a table known as the Divisional Wagon Balance. This is an extensive table prepared with the help of particulars collected from various stations and yards during the night. The divisional wagon balance is usually recorded on a blackboard in the control office and shows the number of wagons in different marshalling groups (e.g., Wadi Bunder wagons, Raichur load, empty wagons, etc.) for each of the yards and line sections of the division. An example of a divisional wagon balance table, in shortened form, can be seen below:

The divisional wagon balance tells us at a glance what is the position with respect to different wagons groups both on trains which are running on various sections, as well as those in yards within the division. This information is vitally important for it enables the officials in charge to see what is taking place all over the division and plan out things accordingly. The balance will tell for instance whether there is a sufficient number of empty wagons at a break-of-gauge transhipment point, and in case of a shortage, from where empties could be ordered. More importantly, the divisional wagon balance enables the officials in charge to work out a tentative schedule for the whole of the day: the trains to be run over the division, their composition, what time they are expected to arrive at various yards, and so on. Turning now to the yard, we find that number - taking is done both for trains as they arrive in the yard and those that are ready for departure. Besides this, a line-to-line position is also taken at the beginning of each shift of duty and relayed to control. On reporting for duty, the first thing an AYM does is to study the line position which tells him about the trains in the reception yard, the loads lying in the sorting yard, and trains awaiting dispatch in the departure area. To take an example, Bhusaval UP yard could have a line position at a certain time as depicted below: 108

It is clear that each line in the reception yard holds a full length train : line number 2, for example, has a load consisting of 10 wagons for Bombay Port Trust Railway (all together, of course) and 50 wagons for Raichur, together with the goods brake van. The line position is meant to assist the AYM in assessing what he has in hand and plan out things accordingly. He must also get in touch with control over the phone to discuss which trains are likely to arrive during his shift of work, what loads can be formed in the sorting area, and so on. The idea underlying planning is a simple one and its purpose is to decide how best to recombine the wagons lying in the reception area with those in the sorting yard so as to (1) form through trains to the farthest possible destination , and (2) dispatch loads lying in the yard with the least amount of detention. An example should make this clear. Each day, Bhusaval UP yard forms a through train for each of WB, BPT, South of Kalyan, via Hotgi, and Raichur (see line position and map above). It also dispatches a train-load of wagons for the Manmad-Dhond section ; these travel as a through train to Manmad where they are sorted and dispatched onwards as a section train headed towards Dhond. Today, however, it turns out that owing to a slump in trade, only 15 Manmad-Dhond wagons have materialized at Bhusaval. When control sees that there is no prospect for more wagons in this direction, it is likely to advise the Bhusaval AYM to attach these 15 wagons on line 6 of the sorting yard to the Wadi Bunder load on line 1 and dispatch it as a through train to Manmad (see map above). Once the train reaches Manmad, these 15 wagons are detached and what fate awaits them will now depend on the circumstances. But at least they have reached Manmad, and this is better than to lie idle, perhaps for several weeks, in the Bhusaval up sorting yard. Local Traffic in a Yard About 40 % of the total number of wagons in a yard turn out to be local wagons, or home loads as they are known. These are wagons for which the yard serves as a terminal, and include coal 109

laden wagons for the loco shed, goods shed wagons, repacking wagons, and sick wagons. Experience shows that home loads show a tendency of increasing to alarming proportions unless they are dealt with promptly, so in most yards a programme is drawn up to expedite work. This would mean, for instance, that when a new batch of staff report for work in the morning, the first thing to do is shunt sick wagons which have accumulated in the sorting yard to the sick yard. Similarly, at a preset time repacking wagons would have to be taken to the repacking shed, and brought back after the repacking foreman has issued a memo certifying that his work is accomplished. Even goods shed wagons are picked up from the sorting yard according to the programme laid down. Drawing up a programme is a fine thing ; keeping to the schedule is another matter and requires sustained effort. An AYM of a large yard is likely to find that it is almost impossible to deal with local wagons according to the guidelines laid down. He then has to do the next best thing, and that is to see that posting of local traffic is not postponed indefinitely, for a yard is essentially a place where traffic flows, and wagons left stagnating in one place, if not dealt with on time, will sooner or later lead to trouble at some other spot. Ordering a Goods Train An assistant yard master has four main functions to perform: (a) Receive incoming trains without detention. For this, he must expedite sorting work so that room is made in the reception yard to receive an incoming train. (b) Form trains according to the 'marshalling orders' of the yard in consultation with control. (c) Dispatch trains, again in accordance with instructions laid down by control. (d) Deal with local wagons, as far as possible according to the programme laid down by the yard. On reporting for work, an AYM will find a certain number of trains awaiting departure in his yard. These were formed during the previous shift of work. The loads which our AYM will form during his shift will be shunted away to the departure yard and will be dispatched by the AYM who next turns up for work. How does our AYM decide what time a train is to be dispatched? It works something like this. Once a train is formed in the sorting yard, the cuts are coupled up, a brake is added and the load is hauled into the departure yard. Control is informed that a load has been formed to a certain destination, and having done this, the AYM can take his hands off the matter and turn his attention to other things. Control now turns to the important task of fixing a suitable time for departure. This is a matter that will be influenced by two main considerations. To begin with, the Power Controller who is in constant touch with loco sheds in his area, has to check and see when an engine is available. Secondly, a goods train has to be dispatched during the interval between two consecutive passenger trains, and certain 'gaps' can be highly undesirable. For express through trains, controllers generally select a gap that will give a clear run of several miles before the train is held up on the way for precedence. The progress that a train will make when dispatched at a certain time is often worked out graphically and is known as a 'path'. Each day several such paths are worked out in advance. 'Very good paths', giving a clear run of several miles are reserved for express through trains, whereas 'normal' paths are meant for ordinary through trains. There are paths for section and van trains, as well as 'uneconomic' paths where a train would make very poor progress, and are to be used only in emergencies. 110

Having decided on a suitable time, control now issues a 'train notice' to the yard and shed. The process is known as 'ordering a train' and consists of issuing written (or more often telephonic) advice to the yard and locoshed stating the time at which the load is to be dispatched. A train notice will say for instance that : "Raichur load will leave as C-30 (i.e., at 3-30 hours) ; book driver and guard to work on C-30 with Engine number." Details of the notice are taken down by the loco foreman, as well as by the trains clerk in the yard in a register known as the train notice register. Together with the departure time and date the notice also specifies the engine number : clearly then, the notice could be issued only after control has finalized matters with the loco foreman concerning the engine that is to work the train. In earlier days, no train could ever leave the yard without being ordered in the manner described above. Even a goods shuttle had to be ordered by control before it could make its way from yard to goods shed. Section trains were generally ordered to leave sometime near about midnight, while Road Van trains were ordered during the day. A goods shed shuttle would be ordered during the night. A train notice is generally issued 3 - 4 hours prior to the departure of the train. This generous space is allowed so that the following things may be done : (i) The AYM's office books a guard to work on the train. In booking a guard (as well as a driver) the criterion followed is that the person who was the first to return after completing a stretch of duty will be booked out first, provided he has received at least 12 hours rest. A call boy makes his way to the guard's home with a call-book some 3 hours before departure, so that the guard may be able to report for duty well in time and sign-on in the duty register. (ii) The loco shed books a driver who has to report at the driver's lobby in the shed about an hour and a half before the engine leaves the shed. (iii) A TNC goes out and takes down wagon details in his handbook - these will be used to update the Running Balance Register, and also to prepare the Wagon Way Bill to be given to the guard of the outgoing train. (iv) The AYM issues a memo to the train examiner (TXR) asking him to examine the train. This is again an elaborate examination taking nearly an hour or two during which everything from wheels and brake-blocks to couplings and vacuum connections are checked. The men will also check up open wagons to see if any of the loads have shifted due to rough shunting, whether wagons doors are properly closed, seals are intact, and so on. Once the engine is 'on the load' it is customary for the driver and guard to walk along the length of the train to see if everything is in order. The driver also checks the vacuum on the train and when he is satisfied with the reading on the gauge, both he and the guard sign a vacuum certificate furnished by the TXR. Carbon copies of this certificate are given both to the driver and the guard, while the original remains in possession with the Train Examiner. Armed with the vacuum certificate, the TXR is now in a position to inform the assistant yard master that the train is ready to run. On receipt of this message, the AYM phones the end cabin asking the CASM in charge to take line clear from the station ahead. Once line clear is granted, the cabin sets the points and signals and the goods train is ready to move out. Mechanised Yards A mechanised yard is a term used to describe a humpyard that has been upgraded by the addition of appropriate electrical and electro-pneumatic control devices so as to speed up the rate of 111

sorting of a train. Mechanisation can thus be looked upon as a refinement that allows more trains to be sorted in a given period than would be possible in a yard of conventional design. The principal features of a mechanised yard are as follows: (i) A hump with a height ranging anywhere from 10 to 20 feet (it was 11 feet 6 inches at Mughalsarai). Increasing the height of the hump means that wagons will roll down towards the sorting yard at faster speed. (ii) A weigh-rail a little beyond the apex of the hump with coil springs and pressure transducers below which give a visual indication to the control cabin of the weight of the wagons passing over the hump. (iii) A set of retarders to slow down wagon cuts rolling down the hump. A retarder is an electropneumatic device operated from the control cabin and consists of two pairs of horizontal brake beams at track level, one pair for each rail. When operated, beams of each pair draw closer gripping the wheels of a passing wagon at their lower extremity in a nutcracker fashion, thereby slowing down the movement of the vehicle. (iv) The points are set electro-pneumatically. Switches on a panel in the control cabin allow routes to be set individually for each successive shunt as it comes rolling along. Alternatively, a perforated tape is prepared which when fed into a machine, sets the routes automatically without the need for intervention from the operator.

The first yard in India to be upgraded was Mughalsarai UP yard which was mechanized in May 1962. In a mechanised yard, wagons are not uncoupled as they go over the hump. Instead, the train is split up while it is still in the reception yard. Following the process of train examination, a shunting jamadar walks along the length of the train, uncoupling wagons as he goes along and enters details (e.g., first two wagons go to line 7, etc.) in a tally. This is checked by the office and a tele-typed copy sent to the control cabin which prepares a perforated tape for automatic route setting for successive shunts. 112

Two WG class engines were used at Mughalsarai to push the train continuously up the hump. The speed was around 3-4 kmph, which meant that a 60 vehicle train could be broken up in about 10-12 minutes thus making it possible to sort about 40 trains each day. As wagons pass over the weigh-rail, bulbs light up in the control cabin giving the following indications : X (extra light) up to 9 tons L (light) 9 - 15 tons M (medium) 15 - 24 tons H (heavy) Over 24 tons These indications are for the operator so that he can decide on the extent of application of the retarder. The correct use of the retarder, however, is a job that requires some skill as the amount of braking needed will also depend on the distance the shunt has to move before coming to halt on a sorting line. Despite the use of retarders, wagon shunts acquired speeds of around 25 kmph in rolling down the hump : skids were therefore employed additionally to prevent violent collisions. Finally, each sorting line has axle counters fitted which give an indication of the space left on the line in terms of number of wagons, the figure changing with each vehicle that is deposited on the line. A Peek at Mughalsarai "If you are interested in it now," said Dale Carnegie, "it is because you have learned a new and strange fact about it." This brief treatise on marshalling yards is meant to do just that : to fire the reader's imagination and arouse in him a new sense of enthusiasm for the multitudinous activities that took place in a goods yard. If you are one of those who are beginning to find the adrenaline rushing at the mere sight of a goods train winding its way out of a station, here's something that will send your pulse racing still further. You have been waiting for ages to see what it was like, and now it's there for you to browse and study at will, to move around amongst the labyrinth of lines and turnouts, and marvel at the piece of wizardry devised by those grand old men of the railways. Have a good day exploring Mughalsarai yard !

Mughalsarai Marshalling Yard. Click for a larger view.

Some other yards A few scanned photographs of Howrah and Mughalsarai yards in years past, provided by Harsh Vardhan. 113

Howrah Marshalling Yard. Click for a larger view.

Howrah Marshalling Yard. Click for a larger view.

Mughalsarai Marshalling Yard. Click for a larger view.

Mughalsarai Marshalling Yard seen from the road, Feb. 28, 1979. Click for a larger view.

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Another view of Mughalsarai Marshalling Yard seen from the road, Feb. 28, 1979. Click for a larger view.

Q. What are the typical freight loads carried by IR? IR carries the entire gamut of goods, ranging from parcel traffic and small consignments, agricultural products, raw materials like iron ore and petroleum, and finished goods like automobiles. Over the last few decades, IR has made an effort to move away from small consignments or piecemeal freight, and to increase the number of block rakes where a shipper contracts for an entire rake assigned to carry a shipment. These are more profitable for IR as the rake does not have to be split up into or amalgamated from individual wagons going to or coming from different points, saving on marshalling time, transit time, and scheduling. Most of IR's freight revenue now comes from such block rakes carrying bulk goods such as coal or cement. A typical load (full rake) consists of 40 BCN wagons (2200t). Sometimes half loads (mini-rake) of 20 BCN wagons (1100t) are also available for contracts (see below for more on the mini-rake scheme). In late 2004, some of the specifications for wagon loading were modified, so as to allow greater loads to be carried. For materials such as iron ore, an additional 4t can now be loaded, allowing a BOXN wagon to carry 62t. Of course, IR does also carry container traffic and also smaller consignments, and there has been talk recently [10/01] of possibly re-entering the piecemeal freight business actively. Some dedicated parcel trains have been introduced. Parcel vans are still used a lot for small consignments; these vans are generally attached to passenger trains. They used to be more numerous in the past, but had been diminishing in importance in the 1980s and 1990s as IR focused on larger loads of freight. [4/00] High-capacity parcel vans ('Green Parcel Vans') have been used in special-purpose rakes intended for carrying fruits and vegetables. The high-capacity parcel van carries 23t as opposed to the ordinary parcel van which carries 18t of goods. Single high-capacity parcel vans have been seen attached to passenger trains (e.g., GT, Lokshakti and Karnataka Exps., Saurashtra Mail, Flying Ranee); the vans are marked 'Blue Parcel Service' and have a dark-blue livery. Recently [1/03] new parcel vans formed by converting old general passenger stock (GS coaches) have been spotted at various places. These are being used for transporting cars and other automobiles. Refrigerated parcel van service is available on a few sections. One such service proposed [2/03] for the Ernakulam-Thiruvananthapuram Jan Shatabdi will have a refrigerated parcel van that can accommodate 5t of frozen goods at -20C and 12t of chilled goods at +4C. This coach, manufactured by RCF, has a maximum allowable speed of 130km/h and has a diesel-powered refrigeration unit that can run for 15 days without refuelling. Similar services are expected to be introduced on most major routes. RCF plans to produce 9 of these refrigerated vans in 2003. CR and WR are also introducing such services. Now [10/04] IR has around 10 of these new design refrigerated vans. 115

In addition, a mini-rake scheme has been introduced [7/03] where loads smaller than full freight rakes (usually half-size, i.e., 20 wagons, also known as half rakes) are booked for transport by IR at full train-load prices, for distances up to about 300km with connecting services for transshipment to road transport. Not only is the half-rake service more convenient for many industrial concerns, the number of sidings at goods sheds and transshipment points where halfrakes can be loaded or unloaded is much larger than the number of sidings where full rakes can be handled. Bulk freight transport rates also vary based on the number of times a rake may be loaded or unloaded. A so-called two-point rake is one that can be loaded or unloaded at two points, usually a half-rake at a time, at approved combinations of two loading or unloading locations. Some freight rakes are used continuously in dedicated operations over a closed loop journey. These are known as closed-circuit rakes, and typically consist of 40 BCN or BCNA wagons (cement), or 58 BOXN wagons (coal), or 48 BTPN tankers (petroleum products). Much of the bulk goods movement of SCR, for instance, occurs on such closed-circuit rakes. These rakes are often also subjected to a more rigorous maintenance regime, known as the super-intensive examination, and have brake power certificates (BPC) issued for 6000km / 35 days at a time. The 'Green Bogey' (Green Bogie) service provides for the transport of perishable agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) in refrigerated and non-refrigerated wagons attached to passenger trains. There are a few other timetabled and guaranteed delivery time parcel operations run by IR, such as the 'Tej Shree Parcel Sewa' services (introduced [9/09]) run by NR between Patel Nagar (earlier, Tughlakabad) to Vapi and to Howrah. The parcel trains run on the allocated route, and customers can book parcel vans ('VP') for attachment/detachment at specified stations along the route. Q. What is 'Scale R' or 'Scale S', etc., in the context of parcel service? IR has several freight rate scales for parcel traffic. Scale R or Rajdhani Parcel Service is applicable to parcels carried on the Rajdhani Express trains and thereby being assured of the speediest delivery of all IR's services. Scale P (Premium Parcel Service) applies to parcels carried on certain Shatabdi Express trains, certain other Mail/Express trains, and all Special Parcel trains (including the Green Parcel vans, Blue Parcel Service, etc.). Scale S (Standard Parcel Service) applies to all parcels carried on other passenger trains. There also used to be a Scale E (Economy Parcel Service) which was applicable to parcels carried on ordinary passenger trains, but that has since been abolished [3/05] and the category merged with Scale P. Newspapers, magazines, and certain other goods always get classified as Scale S traffic (earlier, Scale E). How are freight trains scheduled? Some goods trains are run as pre-scheduled or timetabled services (Link and Crack trains, Quick Transit Service, etc.). The majority of goods trains, however, are run as requirements arise. The process of arranging for a goods train to run is known as ordering a goods train. Ordering a goods train involves the issuance of written advice to the yard or station and loco shed that a certain train will run, starting from the station or yard at a certain time and running to a certain schedule. The written advice is known as the Train Notice. The train notice is normally issued at least 3 hours before the advertised departure of the train, so that the rake can be marshalled and the locomotives prepared for the trip. Once the train departs, it is under the control of the section controllers until it reaches the next goods yard (where the next section controller picks it up). 116

Apart from coordinating with station staff for through running on the main or loop lines, normally goods trains run without attention from station staff. Q. How are freight trains numbered or named? The rakes are assigned names in alphabetic sequence starting with a name that begins with an 'A' for the first formation out of a marshalling yard after 0100 hrs, along with a number. This designation can change if the rake is broken up at another yard and regrouped. Thus, freight trains have names such as 'Ahmedabad 10', or 'Bombay 21', or 'India 38'. The letters 'J' and 'U' are not used, so that there are 24 letters available, one for each hour of the day. The number following the alphabetic part of the name indicates the time (minutes past the top of the hour) when the train departed the yard; e.g., 'India 38' is a freight train that left the yard at 0938 hrs. Trains leaving between midnight and 0100 hrs use the letter 'Z'. The words used to signify the letters of the alphabet are not standardized; 'Z' could be indicated by 'Zebra' or 'Zimbabwe'. Some special freight trains are named differently (e.g. the Shalimar Special out of Mumbai (Wadi Bunder to Shalimar near Calcutta), or the 'Salt Cotours' freight (Wadi Bunder to Salt Cotours near Chennai)); these tend to be 'privileged' trains and they carry goods with guaranteed delivery schedules. The 'Ahmedabad Arrow' used to run between Bombay and Ahmedabad. Other such named freight trains (past and present) include the 'Green Arrow', 'Blue Flame', 'Red Star', 'Black Gold', and 'Green Bullet'. Other special freight trains include the 'Freight Chief' and the 'Super Link Expresses'. CONCOR introduced several new dedicated timetabled container trains in 2000 (Shalimar - Chennai, Shalimar - Hyderabad, Cossipore - New Delhi) and 2001 (Cossipore - Haldia, for international container freight), with more planned (Shalimar - Mumbai, Shalimar - Nagpur). Recently [12/00] special timetabled parcel trains have been introduced by SER. One is the 'Dakshin Parcel Express' between Calcutta and Chennai, and another is the 'Pashchim Parcel Express' between Calcutta and Mumbai. These run at 90-105km/h. The 'Millennium Parcel Express' is slated [5/01] to run between Chennai and New Delhi, and also perhaps Shalimar Ahmedabad, Shalimar - Sanatnagar, Sanatnagar - Tughlakabad, and Turbhe (New Bombay) Shalimar. Q. Who carries container traffic in India? Most rail container traffic in India is handled by CONCOR (the Container Corporation of India) which until recently was the only such organization. CONCOR is a public-sector concern, but it maintains its own fleet of wagons and other assets that are separate from IR's, although the traffic moves on IR's tracks. Recently [2/06] the government has given approval to the Pipavav Rail Corporation (PRCL) to offer container services in India. It is expected that PRCL will run container services from the ports of Pipavav, Mundra, Chennai/Ennore, Vishakhapatnam, and Kochi (Cochin). PRCL is a joint venture between IR and the Gujarat Pipavav Port Ltd. Originally, PRCL was set up to construct and operate a 270km BG railway line between Pipavav port and Surendranagar on the Western Railway. Private operators [8/07] Private companies have only very recently been given approval to operate in India. Generally speaking the private companies are given limited licences to operate container services on specific routes and for a specific number of years. In April 2007, Boxtrans Logistics, belonging to the JM Baxi Group, became the first private player to operate container services, with a rake of 45 Texmaco flat wagons running between Cossipore (ER) and Loni near 117

New Delhi and Mundra port (Gujarat). The initial runs carried about 90 TEUs. Boxtrans also expects to run services on the Loni - Vishakhapatnam route. Its licence allows it to run on all routes except the premier New Delhi - JNPT route. It is expected to maintain 3 rakes of its own. Another company, APL (formerly American President Lines), belonging to the Singapore-based Nepture Orient Lines began container operations in May 2007 with a rake from Loni to JNPT. APL holds a so-called 'Category 1' licence allowing it to run container services on all routes in India, for a period of 20 years. APL is initially buying seven 45-flat-wagon rakes from Titagarh Industries. A joint venture between Hind Terminals (of the Sharaf Group, UAE) and MSC Agency (belonging to the Mediterranean Shipping Company, Geneva) also has a Category 1 licence. Another private operator, Innovative B2B Logistic Solutions, has a limited licence to run container services on some routes. Other licensees include Reliance Infrastructure Engineers, Adani Logistics, Central Warehousing Corporation, and Delhi Assam Roadways Corp. Other private opearators are gradually entering the field. Arshiya International, a supply-chain management company, began operations in Jan. 2009 with dedicated rakes and custom-built containers to carry freight for Vedanta Aluminium Ltd. Q. What are CONTRACK trains? And ConRaj trains? And CARTRAC? Recently [1999] CONCOR has begun running some fast (up to 100km/h) guaranteed delivery container freight trains on certain routes (35 rail corridors have been identified as suitable for such service). The rakes consist of 5-wagon groups of flat cars; the flat cars are low flat cars which allow loading 'Tallboy' containers. A particular freight service of this kind inaugurated recently [6/00] goes by the name of CONTRACK and is a time-tabled weekly train between Shalimar Terminal and Tondiarpet (Chennai). Some of the fast (up to 100km/h [8/00]) freight trains, especially on the Mumbai-Delhi route, are informally named 'Con-Raj' (for Container Rajdhani). Some of these even go straight through Vadodara without a halt, with crew changes only at Valsad and Godhra. CONCOR has obtained several high-speed flat wagons which are rated for service at 100km/h. (These are also known as 'low belt container flat wagons', and abbreviated 'BLC'.) These have several advanced features, such as automatic twist locks, slackless drawbars, and small-diameter wheels allowing a low bed height. These are currently [12/00] in use on the TughlakabadMumbai container route for the Con-Raj trains mentioned above. More are being ordered, under the auspices of a World Bank loan and the IBRD. Newer versions [9/04] have automatic load sensing devices to allow optimum braking under varying loads. The wagons have a single-pipe air-brake system. CARTRAC is the name given to CONCOR's automobile transport service. It uses converted passenger coaches to hold automobiles in two decks. A typical CARTRAC rake has about 21 such modified coaches. Q. What is the Dedicated Freight Corridor (DFC)? The Dedicated Freight Corridor is a project for new railway lines exclusively for carrying freight isolated from normal IR traffic and passenger trains. Conceived in 2004-2005, planning began in 2006, and in 2007 initial proposals have been drawn up. The entire DFC project will include 2,700km or so of exclusive freight lines (new construction), and about 5,000km of feeder lines that will include some new construction and many existing lines that will be upgraded.

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In the first phase, the Western Corridor will connect the Jawaharlal Nehru Port to New Delhi via Vadodara, Ahmedabad, Palanpur, Jaipur, and Rewari and further on to Tughlakabad and Dadri. There will also be a link between Dadri and Khurja, and feeder routes connecting other ports of Gujarat. There will also be four logistic terminals, one each near New Delhi, Jaipur, Ahemdabad, and Vadodara. The Western Corridor is expected to carry mainly container traffic. The Western Corridor is expected to be unelectrified, using diesel traction. The Eastern Corridor is expected to connect Ludhiana to Sonnagar via Ambala, Saharanpur, Khurja, Shahjahanpur, Lucknow, Allahabad, and Mughalsarai. The primary feeder routes for this will be from Sonnagar to Durgapur via Gomoh, Sonnagar to Tatanagar via Garhwa Road, and Barkakana to Bokaro via Chandrapura. Eventually the Eastern Corridor will be extended to Dankuni, near Kolkata, where there will be a new freight terminal, and to a new (to be built) deep-water port off the coast of West Bengal near Kolkata, with a total length of 1,805km. The Eastern corridor will be single line on the Ludhiana-Khurja portion (426km) and double line on the remaining portions. The Eastern Corridor is expected to carry more heavy mineral traffic and less container traffic. The Eastern Corridor is expected to be electrified. Work on the Eastern Corridor was inaugurated on Feb. 10, 2009, with construction commencing on a 105km section between New Ganjkhwaja near Mughalsarai to New Karwandia near Sonnagar. It is expected that trains running on the DFC lines will be up to 1.5km long (100 wagon rakes) and running at up to 100km/h. Double-stacking of containers is expected to be the rule, especially on the Western Corridor which will be unelectrified. Transit time for freight between Mumbai and New Delhi is xpected to drop to about 36 hours from the current 60 hours. In the busiest freight routes such as Ahmedabad - Marwar, the number of freight trains running is expected to rise from 15 each way each day (currently) to 72 each way; between JNP and Vadodara the increase will be from 9 to 49. Expected completion time for the first phase of the DFC project (the routes described above) is around 5-7 years (i.e., completion by 2012-2014). RITES is the agency carrying out the initial feasibility studies for the project. Q. International freight: Are there direct freight trains running between India and neighbouring countries? Freight trains run regularly between India and Pakistan via the Attari (Punjab) - Lahore route. The Munabao - Khokhrapar route is under consideration [2007] for goods traffic (it is currently only used for the Thar Express passenger traffic). Freight trains have also been running regularly between India and Bangladesh on the Gede-Darshana and Petrapole - Benapole routes. Another route connecting India and Bangladesh is Singhbad (India) - Rohanpur (Bangladesh). The Bongaon (India) - Jessore (Bangladesh) direct BG route has been proposed, and needs a 10km link constructed between Akhaura and Agartala. Nepal is connected to India by rail by the Birgunj - Raxaul line. See the international section and also the international links list. Q. How heavy are the freights carried by IR? What are the heaviest freights? [3/99] Among the heaviest freights regularly hauled in India are the 4700+ tonne loads hauled by two (sometimes one, depending on the gradient, etc.) WAG-9 locos in the Dhanbad Division. Earlier, these freights required multiple WAG-5 locos to haul them. Typical heavy freight trains in many sections use two or three WAG-5's at the front and two or three WAG-5's at the rear. Iron ore trains on the Kulem-Londa section, as well as other heavy freights in other sections such as on the SER can have up to 7 locos, for instance with 3 at either end and 1 in the middle, connected and operated through a system known as 'Locotrol'. The Kirandul-Kottavalasa line, before it was electrified, often had many freight rakes hauled by 5 or 6 diesel locos (1960s). (Today 2 or 3 WAG-5 locos are usual for these.) 119

[5/01] On May 17, 2001, a single WAG-9 achieved a top speed of 100km/h while hauling a rake of 58 BOXN-HA wagons (4700t) on the Sonenagar-Mughalsarai section of ER. The 123km section was covered in 100 minutes, at an average speed of 72km/h. Trials have been conducted with a single WAG-7 hauling a 6000 tonne rake on level track near Gomoh; 5500t rakes have sometimes been hauled double-headed by WAG-9 locos; and 5500t rakes have also been hauled by two or three WAG-7 (?) locos. In 1998 a single WAM-4 hauled a 9000t (!) rake near Ghaziabad. In the early 1990s, a kilometer-long coal rake for NTPC's Dadri power plant was hauled on the Grand Chord. Diesel traction: a single WDG-4 has been used to haul a 4700t rake (58 BOXN wagons). 'Midhaul' operations where locomotives are used in the middle of a rake are not common in IR. Locos are more often added at the front and rear of a rake. SCR has run [2/02] some trials using up to 7 locomotives (3 in the front, 3 at the rear, and one in the middle) for a 54-wagon rake on the Castle Rock - Kulem ghat section. Trials on the Hassan-Mangalore section with 58-BOXN wagon rakes were carried out with six WDG-3A locos, 3 in the front and 3 at the rear. Even though the newer locomotives such as the WAG-9 or WDG-4 can haul these heavy loads singlehandedly, many of the older bridges and other structures on IR's lines cannot withstand the higher longitudinal stresses that these locos exert, hence often these loads are hauled by multiple lower-powered locos. Brake power is also an issue on gradients. Three WDG-3A locos are said to be able to keep a fully-loaded 58-BOXN rake at 30km/h on a 1:50 down gradient using train brakes and dynamic brakes. The BOXN-HA wagons (see the section on wagon types) was planned for heavier axle-loading and would have eventually allowed the routine hauling of 5220t rakes without the need for longer sidings or loops; however the experiments with this wagon type didn't work out and they were never manufactured after the initial batch of about 301. Top Speeds : [Times uncertain here] For 4700t loads on level track: A WDG-2 can attain 68km/h in about 56 minutes (? not certain); a WDG-4 can reach 82km/h in 30 minutes; a WAG-5 can attain a top speed of 80km/h in 33 minutes; for a WAG-7, the figures are 92km/h and 38 minutes (or 70km/h in 15 minutes); and for a WAG-9, 100km/h and 17 minutes. In 2000, successful trials were conducted of running BOXN wagon rakes at 100km/h on the Gomoh-Mughalsarai section, and even up to Ghaziabad. Goods trains on mainline BG routes are generally restricted to 75km/h, with a few exceptions and special operations. (Parcel vans and milk vans or refrigerated vans for perishables attached to passenger trains can of course go faster.) the average speeds of goods trains on the main trunk routes are around 40-45km/h. There is now [9/04] a proposal to raise the maximum permissible speed limit for goods trains to 100km/h on the trunk routes connecting New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata. These six routes (the quadrilateral and its diagonals) total about 10,000km, about 15% of the total IR network, but they account for 75% of the total freight traffic. The raising of the speed limit is expected to raise the average speed to 55km/h, which can potentially increase the utilization of the track substantially. Q. Do double-stacked container trains run on IR? IR has only recently [3/06] begun running a few double-stacked container trains. This is primarily because most of IR's main routes are electrified and raising OHE clearances is not permitted under the present Schedule Of (moving) Dimensions. (But see below.) Other reasons include low axle loads permitted on certain lines and types of wagons (20.32 tonnes on most lines and for most wagons, and 22.9 tonnes for few routes and type of wagons). 120

RDSO has been exploring the possibilities for double-stacking and some trials have been run. Normally, BLCA and BLCB flat wagons used for 9.5' high containers have 840mm diameter wheels with a floor heigh tof 1009mm above the rails. A single rake (45 BLCA/BLCB) can carry 90 20' long ISO containers or 45 40' long containers and this standard configuration can run at 100km/h on most of the important IR routes. In late 2003, RDSO ran trials on the Sidhapur Umerdasi section of WR using double-stacked 40' long (and 9.5' high) containers on unmodified BLCA/BLCB wagons. Satisfactory ride characteristics were observed up to 85km/h on straight track, and also at lower speeds in yards, over complex points, and on 2-degree curves. The vertical clearance needed for double-stacking is a minimum of 6809mm from rail level, or about 7m. RDSO has submitted reports on this to the Railway Board and occasionally [2004, 2005] IR has made reference to the possibility of double-stacking, but this had not materialized anywhere except for extremely limited trials until 2006, when the first double-stacked container service was begun between Jaipur and Pipavav (starting on March 24, 2006). Jaipur - Pipavav was chosen because of the lack of electrification which eliminated the height constraint, and easy elimination of other obstructions which might have infringed on double-stacked train moving dimensions (and of course the availability of container freight from Pipavav port). The Jaipur-Pipavav section uses the usual BLCA/BLCB flat wagons for the containers. It is likely that other sections where double-stacking is introduced will see the use of different wagons with lower floors to allow vertical clearances to be met. Axle loads are expected to rise to 32.5 tonnes for doublestack container trains. CONCOR is [8/07] in an agreement with Gateway Rail Freight, Pvt Ltd., to construct and operate a rail-linked double-stack container terminal at Garhi Harsuru near Gurgaon in Haryana, connecting the National Capital Region to the western ports. [6/07] The proposed new wagon factory to be set up at Dalmia Nagar in Bihar is expected to manufacture 32.5 tonne axle-load wagons which will be used for double-stack container trains. [7/08] Trials have been run (July 6-9, 2008) between Jakhapura and Tomka on the JakhapuraDaitari section of East Coast Railway with double-stacked containers cargo hauled by electric locomotives, under a high catenary (where the OHE clearance is 7.45m). This section was sanctioned for electrification in January 2007. In June 2008, Stone India developed a special pantograph for IR which can handle the high catenary. For comparison, the catenary height for double-stacked container movement in China is 6.6m, and in the USA it is 7.1m. The plan is to eventually have double-stacked container traffic running under electric traction on a larger number of routes, especially including the Dedicated Freight Corridor stretches. [4/07] Even triple-stack container trains with special-purpose automobile-carrier containers have been proposed for the New Delhi - Pune route. The railway ministry announced [4/07] a pilot project to run such triple-decker container trains to carry cars, scooters, and motorcycles in preparation for the eventual operation of such trains on the western section of the proposed Dedicated Freight Corridor (Mumbai - Ahmedabad - Palanpur - Rewari). The triple-stack trains are expected to be hauled by diesel locomotives as this western freight corridor is (in the initial planning stages, anyway) expected to be unelectrified. Q. How has IR developed its hauling capacity? Rakes of the old freight wagons, classified 'CG', for Covered Goods, consisting of the old 4wheeled C or CR wagons) up to 1850 or so tonnes (2350t for some types of wagons). With the introduction of bogie stock, mixed CRT/CRC/BCX rakes became more common and brought the maximum up to 2750 tonnes. As noted above, even today the standard load for a typical shipment by a 'full rake' of miscellaneous goods is about 2200t. 121

The introduction of bogie wagons and air-braked stock has allowed larger and heavier formations to be hauled, and 3660t rakes of box wagons became common. The so-called 'Jumbo' rakes, consisting mostly of BCX and similar bogie stock are up to 3500-3750 tonnes (these are airbraked today, but vacuum-braked rakes of this size have been used), and beyond these are what are known in IR parlance as 'Super-Jumbo' rakes, carrying up to 4500-4700 tonnes. The superjumbo rakes consist entirely of the newer BCX/BCN/BCNA/etc. wagons and are air-braked. The 'Green Arrow' rakes have only BCN/BCNA wagons, up to about 40 of them. The name comes from the green paint scheme used for these air-braked wagons. Forty BCN wagons are about the limit for most parts of IR's network because of the restriction imposed by the lengths of loops where freight trains can be diverted to allow passenger trains to pass. The standard loop length is 650m, although many places are now getting loops of 900m to cope with freight formations that are up to 850m long. BOXN formations up to 58 cars are also common (again, this is the maximum length allowable on most loop lines). The 'Green Bullet' trains have BOXN rakes usually carrying a bulk commodity like iron ore for thermal power plants. (The ones carrying coal are often known as 'Black Bullet' trains.) BCNA rakes can be up to 58 cars too, but more commonly 40+ cars or so. BCN wagons being a bit longer, only 40 cars or so are formed into a single rake. In several places, IR has run, as experiments, longer freight trains formed by combining two or three freight rakes for part of a route and then splitting them later as they go on to their respective destinations. However, when running combined the extra-long rake has to be scheduled carefully as it places severe constraints on the movement of all other traffic on the same track because it cannot fit on any loop at any station, and any problem with the rake can result in major delays. Upgraded versions of the BOXN wagons (class BOXN-HA, see the section on wagons) with payloads of 66t (and axle loads of up to 23.5t are planned to be run on several sections after track upgrades. Sixteen sections have been identified for this [4/05]: Gua-Barajamda-Rajkharasawan-Sini-Chandill Gardhrubeswar-Joychandpahar-DamodarBurnpur-Asansol, Bondamunda-Sini-Adityapur, Bolanikhadan-Barajamda, BondamundaBarsuan, Bimalgarh-Kiriburu, Bhilai-Dalli Rajhara, Damodar-Kalipahar, Padapahar-Banspani, Bondamunda-Nawagaon-Puranpani, Bhilai-Ahlwara, Waltair-Kirandul (the 'KK' line), VascoHospet-Guntakal-Renigunta-Chennai, Nawagaon-Hatia-Muri-Bokaro, Purulia-Kotshila, DaitatriJakhapura-Paradeep and Sambalpur-Titlagarh-Rayagada-Vijayanagaran-Visakhapatnam. Q. What is the state of intermodal transportation in India? Are roadrailers, road trailers on rails, etc. used in India? Currently [7/00] a trial Wabash / Kirloskar roadrailer runs between Konkan Railway (or JNPT) and Nagpur. Konkan Railway has also made some trials of TOFC (trailer on flat car). Intermodal cars are used quite a bit. They are configured with 6 trucks for 5 cars, but double-stacking is not used as the floor height of the cars is usually the same as for regular COFC (container on flat car) services. CONCOR does have flat cars with low bed height for Tallboy containers. (Currently [2/02] around 1875 flat cars in its fleet; to increase by another 1000 or more in 2002.) Spine cars, well cars, freight DMUs, CargoSprinter, etc. are not in use in India currently. [7/00] Konkan Railway pioneered the 'roll-on, roll-off' ('RORO' or 'RO-RO') concept in India on its route between Mumbai (Kolad) and Goa (Verna). Starting in 1999 with 5 trucks being transported at a time, today [1/05] the service handles 50 trucks on its route each day. In this service, trucks belonging to commercial private trucking companies loaded with their goods drive 122

on to a rake of flat cars and are carried (trucks and their cargo, and their drivers!) by train to the destination where they simply drive off the train; this obviously eliminates a lot of time lost in intermodal transshipment. Loading and unloading at either end can be as short as 10-15 minutes. The RORO rake normally achieves speeds of about 75km/h. The Kolad-Verna stretch takes about 10 hours with RORO while it can be a full day's driving or more if the trucks take the road instead. The trucks are restricted to 25 tonnes for 2-axle trucks and 40 tonnes for 4-axle trucks. RORO service is also available now until Mangalore (Surathkal) on the KR route. Recently [7/04] it was proposed that KR get monopoly rights to operate such RORO services on the rest of the IR network. Mumbai-Ahmedabad and Mumbai-Kochi are said to be among the routes being considered for this. Q. How are the different kinds of freight cars classified? .... And information on brakes, couplers, etc. Please see the section on freight cars in the page on rolling stock for more details on wagons and their features, freight consists, etc.

Wagon Pooling
What is Wagon Pooling? Each zonal railway of IR has a fleet of freight wagons that it owns. Of necessity, most freight trains traverse through territory of more than one zonal railway, and wagons of one railwy may end up outside their home zone after a run. Wagon Pooling refers to the practice of allowing other zonal railways to use the wagons for their own freight trains. In effect, the wagons from all zonal railways are 'pooled' together and scheduled for goods trains indiscriminately, without a zone giving preference to wagons it owns. Pooling generally increases wagon utilization, since it avoids transshipment from one zone's wagons to another zone's wagons at zonal boundaries, and also avoids having wagons return empty to their home railway. It also minimizes shunting as a result and improves yard and siding utilization. Generally speaking, most wagons used for long-distance freight are pooled wagons and participate in the pooling. See below for non-pooled and local traffic wagons which do not participate in wagon pooling. Wagon pooling is also applied outside IR. Wagons may be pooled with non-IR organizations such as industrial plants (power stations, collieries, mines, cement works, etc.). Additional, wagons are also pooled with foreign railways such as Bangladesh Railway and Pakistan Railways. IR wagons venture on to the Pakistani and Bangladeshi networks as part of crossborder goods traffic, and similarly wagons from those railways enter IR's network. These wagons do not have to return immediately, and may be used for goods movements outside their home railways - but usually these are returned fairly soon. Obviously, with wagon pooling a concern that arises is how wagons are to be maintained and overhauled. As a general rule, wagons are to return to their home railways every 3 years for periodic overhaul (POH). This is usually indicated as a stencilled notation, e.g., 'Return 7/93' indicating a return required to the home railway by June 1993. Ordinary inspection and most minor maintenance at yards and at stations en route is of course carried out by whichever railway happens to have the wagons at the time. (In fact, wagons cannot be interchanged if they have serious defects; the railway which has the wagon at the time then must fix the defect.)

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The Directorate of Wagon Interchange (DWI) under the IRCA is responsible for coordinating all wagon interchanges across IR. Officers in charge of wagon interchange are assigned to each nodal point where interchange occurs. Each railway's wagons are enumerated and kept track of. Based on the goods traffic needs of a particular railway, it may require more or fewer wagons than it actually owns. A creditor railway is one which needs fewer wagons than it needs, so that its surplus wagons are, in effect, 'loaned' out to other railways. A debtor ralway, similarly, is one which needs more wagons than it has, so that it has to 'borrow' wagons from the wagon pool for its operations. For the privilege of using wagons over the number that a railway owns, it has to pay rental charges. These hire charges vary by type of wagon. As an example, 4-wheeled BG wagons had hire charges of Rs 66 a day in the 1970s. Currently [2010] they are around Rs 387 a day. Industrial (non-IR) users were charged Rs 1038, Bangladesh Railway Rs 665, and Pakistan Railway Rs 1000. Hire charges for MG wagons are around Rs 204 a day, for non-railways users Rs 464, and for BR, Rs 290. The DWI computes the Pool Target for each zonal railway which is the number of pooled wagon it can have at any time in order to run its expected goods operations smoothly. These are often denoted relative to the number of wagons the railway owns: A pool target of +2000 implies that the zonal railway must do with 2000 fewer wagons than it owns, and therefore must be a creditor railway. Similarly, a pool target of -2000 implies the railway is a debtor railway and will use 2000 more wagons than the number it owns. As excessive holdings of wagons by a particular zonal railway leads to inefficiency, the DWI is empowered to instruct railways to reduce their holdings, and impose fines when pool targets are not maintained. At each Interchange Point, or junction where interchange occurs between railways, goods traffic needs to be regulated to maintain traffic flow, as well as to ensure adherence to pool targets. For this purpose, Junction Quotas are determined, which specify the number of wagons to be interchanged each day between individual railways at the interchange point, in each direction. Junction quotas in the case of highly asymmetric traffic routes may specify a particular number of empties to be returned in the reverse direction. The railway that works the junction or interchange point is known as the Working Railway, and the other railways interchanging their wagons at that junction are called the Using Railways. A wagon is interchanged between the working railway and the using railway when it enters or leaves the junction. Equalization is the process of ensuring that the flow of wagons between two interchanging railways is equal in both directions at the interchange point. This is not always the case, when traffic flows are not symmetric. Overequalization refers to a railway handing over more wagons than it receives in return; the opposite situation is Underequalization. For instance, NR hands over coal wagons from ER to WR at Agra East Bank, and is overequalized with WR, because WR does not return the wagons to NR by the same route. WR hands over the released empties to CR in the return direction - it is overequalized with CR; the empties pass over CR to Ajni and Katni to SER and back to the colliery regions. The situation can be more complex if the wagons are not returning empty but being used for some other highly directional goods traffic on the return trip. The DWI issues instructions regarding junction quotas and equalization. Strict equalization is not always required - railways often overequalize with another railway at one junction but underequalize by a matching amount at another. As the working railway is placed at a disadvantage since it holds wagons at its junction even though it is not utilizing them, a Junction Allowance used to be specified to compensate for the extra wagon hours at the junction; this has since been dispensed with. An Interchange Message noting the total numbers of wagons interchanged over a day may look like the following (example from Railway Operation by Francis DaCosta). 124

MGS 5/1 RAILCON-NDLS C/-COPS NDLS CCC DS NR 20 JN - Interchange midngiht ending 4.1.80 AD 2813 CL 1073 CE 28 OL 1709 OE 3 DA 3085 CL 493 CE 826 OL 1125 OE 641 In the above interchange message which records the total interchanges as of midnight following the working day, A stands for ER, and D for NR. C = Covered wagons and O = Open wagons. L = Loaded, E = Empty. In addition to the aggregate information about numbers of interchanged wagons, individual car movement records are also maintained, so that overdue or missing wagons can be identified easily. The divisional wagon balance is calculated as of midnight each day. At each interchange junction, wagons to be interchanged are inspected. A defect found in a wagon may be classified as a Penalty Defect in some cases, and is racked up as a debit to the railway offering the wagon. A defect that is serious enough that the wagon cannot be used is classified as a Rejection Defect and the wagon remains with the offering railway, which may offer it again after fixing the problem. No actual monetary fines are levied; but the statistics on defects provide an indication of the level of maintenance of wagons by a railway. Rejection defects increase the holdings of wagons on a railway's books, and therefore may render it liable for fines if it exceeds its pool targets as a result. History: Originally, with the separate railways that existed in India, there was no concept of wagon pooling. Each railway useds its own wagons on its lines, and wagons from foreign railways were operated only by specially negotiated agreements among the railways. For instance, much coal loaded by the East Indian Railway was done on its own wagons, and transshipped to wagons of other railways at transshipment points. The inefficient utilization of the wagons in the prevailing system became very apparent during World War 1 when the demands of goods traffic rose sharply. Emergency orders were issued allowing indiscriminate loading of goods on any available wagons regardless of which railway owned them. The Indian Railway Conference Association (IRCA) carried out a review of the new practice and after further experiments, in 1925 it was decided as a policy that wagons should generally be pooled. The IRCA was given control over the wagon interchange policies and procedures. Wagon pooling at first applied only to BG wagons. As there were many more - and very small railways operating on MG, it took longer to coordinate the arrangements for wagon pooling among them. The MG network of northern India had wagon pooling from 1939, and the southern MG network had wagon pooling from 1950. Where are IR's wagon interchange points? There are many interchange points between zonal railways for BG goods wagons - practically any junction near a zonal boundary which sees significant BG goods traffic counts as one. For MG wagons, there are four principal interchange points: Khandwa for SCR/WR, Himmatnagar for WR/NWR, Purnia for NFR/ECR, and Forbes Ganj for NFR/NER. International interchange points include Attari for NR with Pakistan Railway, Ranaghat and Petrapole for ER with Bangladesh Railway, Singhabad for NFR with Bangladesh Railway (all BG), and Radhikapur and Mahishasan for MG interchange between NFR and Bangladesh Railway. What are non-pooled wagons and local traffic wagons? 125

These are wagons that do not participate in wagon pooling. Some wagons may be marked as Non-Pooled Wagons (usually stencilled 'N.P.' on the wagons) - these are usually some specialpurpose high-capacity wagons used by various railways that generally earmarked for some particular operations on that railway or on particular routes. They do travel to other zones, but are not scheduled for further trips by the other railways. When they are loaded to adjoining railways, they are usually marked to be sent back to a station on the route they took, or back to their home railway by any route. A few other wagons in each railway may also not participate in wagon pooling - these are local traffic wagons, which are usually low-capacity wagons used for internal movements such as departmental trains and which do not venture outside their home zone.

Types of Freight Trains
Q. What are the different types of goods trains? Goods trains are classified into a few different categories. Departmental trains are trains run for internal purposes of the railway, such as track maintenance or conveying equipment. They may be ballast trains or other material trains. Breakdown trains and other special-purpose trains for dealing with accidents are also considered to be departmental trains. Work trains are trains used for short-distance movements of freight, especially small packages ('smalls') transshipped from long-distance freight trains. Shunting trains are used for moving wagons to different stations in a section, and are involved only in attaching and detaching such wagons. They are also known as section trains (especially on CR) and pick-up trains elsewhere. They are known as pilots if they run for a very short distance, for just a few stations. Trains with wagons that are actually loaded or unloaded with smalls at various stations are called Road Vans, or transship trains (CR) or smalls quick transit (SQT) on ER. Road vans are a vanishing breed these days with the widespread use of block rakes and container traffic and increasing reliance on transshipment of goods from freight terminals to road transport for onward delivery rather than transporting smalls by rail. Through goods trains are freight trains transporting goods from one goods yard to the next without stoppage at intermediate points. Long-distance goods, also known as solid trains include various special long-distance freight trains that get precedence, such as the Freight Chief or other Express Goods trains with timetabled operations and guaranteed delivery time (including QTS or Quick Transit Service goods), Jumbo trains, and Sherpa trains. The remainder of the through goods trains, which run at lower precedence, are known as Ordinary Through trains. Q. What's a 'mini-rake'? A half-size goods rake (20 wagons), available for booking under special tariffs. See above. Q. What's a 'jumbo' or 'super-jumbo' rake? The term 'jumbo' originated when longer and heavier freight rakes could be hauled as better wagons (bogie stock), more powerful locos, and air-braking begin to come into use. A 'jumbo' rake is usually a BCX/BOY/etc. rake of up to 3500-3750 tonnes, which is much larger than the old 'CG' rakes which used to be limited to 1800 tonnes or so. All air-braked rakes of BCN/BCNA wagons up to 4500-4750 tonnes are known as 'super-jumbo' rakes. See the section on freight. Q. What are Link Trains? 126

Among goods trains, Link Trains are or were those with a pre-specified regular weekly or daily schedule (the 'link' for the train). Often, these goods trains had dedicated sets of crew, and these trains were usually given priority by the controllers as well. High utilization is achieved by extended running with longer distances between rake examinations. Today, the term is not used much, and there are a variety of high-priority timetabled goods services that use the same management principles. Historically, the introduction of Link Trains was a significant step in improving the efficiency of goods services. Very early, in steam days, generally the Assigned Crew system was followed, where a single set of crew members (one driver and two firemen) were attached to a locomotive permanently, and travelled with it on all trips. The sense of ownership and dedication resulted in the crew taking very good care of the locomotive, and the system worked while goods traffic requirements remained low. However, utilization was lower than it could be, since the locomotive had to remain stabled any time the crew were resting, as required for instance by the rules around hours of running duty. In the 1930s, the Pooled Crew system was introduced, where crew were not assigned permanently to a locomotive, but instead assigned to an engine when it was ready to run. This increased the utilization of the engines. With the outbreak of World War II, there were greatly increased demands for goods traffic, there was a shortage of spares, and many junior staff on account of large numbers of promotions given to cope with the need to run more trains. All this combined, especially on CR, to lead to massive congestion of goods traffic, and average goods train speeds dropped to below 30km/h. It was in an effort to alleviate this situation that Link Trains were introduced. Daily paths were set up - these schedules were known as links. The link trains were organized so they would skip some intermediate stops for coaling/watering. A few sets of crew members were allocated to each locomotive. When a link train was to be run, one set of crew would run the loco all the way to the destination point (the out-station), and sign off there, and another set would make the return journey. The first link train on this system was run in 1942, using two XP engines to haul goods ont he 395km Bhusaval-Nagpur section. The engines were able to log 9500km a month, far higher than the typical engine utilization of the time. In 1945 the system was extended to the then new and powerful AWE engines on the Bhusaval division. Five goods trains were run on fixed links using 9 AWE engines from Bhusaval to Igatpuri. The system was further improved by using extended engine runs that used lineside coaling and watering facilities outside the sheds to allow engines to skip sheds and save time. Trains were not remarshalled at intermediate points. This was used for instance on the approximately 400km route between Daund and Raichur, and between Jhansi and Delhi. Watering stations were staggered, so that successive trains on a route used alternating watering stations - this was especially helped by the introduction of WG and YG locomotives with high tender water capacity. C&W examination was also extended to happen only once in 360km or so. Engines and rakes were allowed to run 800km after an extended examination, and 300km yard to yard after a 'safe-to-run' examination. Even today, Jumbo rakes and other high-priority goods rakes are allowed to run without detailed examination at intermediate points. Of course, with the introduction of diesel and electric traction considerations of watering and coaling points are no longer a concern. Q. What are Crack Trains? Crack Trains were introduced on ER for similar reasons as for Link Trains on CR. A crack train is run on a link system (scheduled engine and staff). However, as ER is a dense and relatively compact railway zone where extended runs are difficult (200km might constitute an interdivisional movement), the idea was to run these trains with one set of crew for the outward and homeward journeys, by having a very quick turn-around (1 hour or less) at the out-station. The outward and homeward journeys together constituted just one cycle of duty for the crew. The turn-around was done if possible in the outstation yard itself without visiting the outstation shed. 127

A goods rake for the return journey was kept ready and waiting in the other portion of the yard so that the engine could be coupled to it and start on its return journey as soon as possible. Because the same crew comes back on the homeward journey, the entire trip has to be fairly short, within about 10 hours to comply with regulations on running duty hours, and definitely within 12 hours. None of the other refinements of CR's link trains such as staggered watering stations were used. The first crack train was run on March 30, 1958 between Gaya and Mughalsarai. On this section, 25 to 30 goods trains ran daily - 24 through goods trains on the Gaya - Son Nagar section and 29 on the Son Nagar - Mughalsarai section. The speeds of these trains in 1958 had come down to about 20km/h. The introduction of crack trains raised the average speed by the end of March 1958 to 40km/h. Crack engines had utilizations up to 9500km per month. Later the system of crack trains was introduced on NR on the Kanpur - Tundla (230km) route, and Mughalsarai Allahabad (150km). The former was covered (460km round trip) in 12 hours with 40 minutes of outstation detention. To motivate the crew and ensure high performance, crew were made eligible for higher payments when running crack train (in addition to the higher mileage earnings accrued). However, bad performance was punished by summary removal from the roster of crack train crews. In addition, cabin crew and other lineside staff were instructed to be extra vigilant in checking for hot axles and other problems on these crack trains. Special procedures were introduced to detach a wagon with a hot axle within 20 minutes. It is said that an IR officer, MS Gujral, who was familiar with how much more effective and popular among soldiers military marches were when they included returning home to barracks on the same day rather than camping out or at remote barracks, was the one who came up with the key idea behind crack trains. Crack trains persisted in large numbers until about 1973 when the 10 hour rule on running duty was introduced, which led to shorter cycles that were sometimes not as effective. Also, the increasing use of diesels and electrics, where the emphasis was on utilization measured in other ways, slowly led to the diminishing importance of crack trains. They continued to be used on SER for a long time. Special freight trains such as the Rockets, Green Arrow, etc., were all operated on the crack train principle. Later the term 'crack train' was extended to include trains operated on the link train principle (fixed schedule for engine and staff) and skipping at least one locomotive changing station without change of crew, even if the crew did not make the trip back with the same engine right away. Link trains and crack trains both represent landmarks in goods train management in India.

Miscellaneous
Q. Why does a goods train sometimes move backwards briefly before starting to move ahead from a stop? There are a few different reasons that this happens. One reason (and the official one stated in working timetables) has to do with ensuring the couplers (CBC's) along the rake are all engaged and locked before starting off. The backward push forces the couplers to engage if they are loose, not fully engaged, or if the coupler pins had been inadvertently (or maliciously) lifted while the train was stopped. Another reason is to compress the couplers along the length of the rake, so that when the loco starts moving forward, it has an easier time setting the wagons at the front in motion first before the rear wagons as the slack in the couplers plays out along the length of the rake -- it doesn't have to set the entire train in motion all at once. This is more important with poor track conditions where the loco cannot develope its full tractive effort before its wheels slips, or with 128

older style bearings on the wagons which have much higher starting friction than the rolling friction encountered when on the move. Bad or older designs of bearings can also stick or bind and increase the starting resistance. A third reason for the backward push is to release brakes where the blocks have stuck to the wheel treads (brake binding); once released by the backward push, there is no further resistance to forward motion. This was more of a problem in the vacuum brake days with poorly maintained brakes. Lastly, in the age before walkie-talkies, the backward push was a way to inform the guard at the rear end that the train was about to set off -- with really long rakes and noisy environments, horn signals might not always work. Q. Why are there sometimes empty (or water-filled) tankers or other wagons at the end and beginning of rakes carrying petroleum products or other inflammable substances? These empty or water-filled tankers or other wagons are known as 'guard wagons' and are intended to provide a safety buffer for the tankers carrying inflammable cargo. They are intended to take the brunt of any minor collision so that the tankers carrying the inflammable substances are not themselves damaged leading to possible explosions or major fires. At the head of the rake, next to the loco, another reason for providing guard wagons is to prevent inflammable vapours from the tankers from catching fire either from the hot diesel exhaust from the loco, or sparks at the pantograph from electric locos. Q. Where are IR's goods yards, marshalling yards, etc.? See the section on goods marshalling yards, CONCOR depots, etc.

Classification of Locos
Q. What do the designations such as 'WDM-2' mean? Locos, except for older steam ones, have classification codes that identify them. This code is of the form '[gauge][power][load][series][subtype][suffix]' In this the first item, '[gauge]', is a single letter identifying the gauge the loco runs on:
   

W = Broad Gauge Y = Meter Gauge Z = Narrow Gauge (2' 6") N = Narrow Gauge (2')

The second item, '[power]', is one or two letters identifying the power source:
    

D = Diesel C = DC traction A = AC traction CA = Dual-power AC/DC traction B = Battery electric(rare)

The third item, '[load]', is a single letter identifying the kind of load the loco is normally used for:
  

M = Mixed Traffic P = Passenger G = Goods 129

   

S = Shunting L = Light Duty (Light Passenger?) (no longer in use) U = Multiple Unit (EMU / DEMU) R = Railcar (see below)

The fourth item, '[series]', is a digit identifying the model of the loco. Until recently, this series number was simply assigned chronologically as new models of locos were introduced. Revised class notation for diesels, 2002: However, starting in 2002, for diesel passenger, goods, and mixed locos, i.e., WDP, WDG, and WDM sequences, (and only for them, apparently, not for electrics, nor for diesel shunters), the series digit identifies the horsepower range of the loco, with '3' for locos with over 3000hp but less than 4000hp, '5' for locos over 5000hp but less than 6000hp, etc. This new scheme will be applied to all passenger/goods/mixed-haul diesel locos starting in June 2002, except for the WDM-2 and WDP-1 classes of locos. The fifth item, '[subtype]', is an optional letter or number (or two of them) that indicates some smaller variation in the basic model or series, perhaps different motors, or a different manufacturer. With the new scheme for classifying diesel locos (see above), the fifth item is a letter that further refines the horsepower indication in 100hp increments: 'A' for 100hp, 'B' for 200hp, 'C' for 300hp, etc. So in this scheme, a WDM-3A refers to a 3100hp loco, while a WDM3F would be a 3600hp loco. The last item, '[suffix]', is an optional indication that indicates something special about the loco, such as a different gearing ratio or brake system than usual. So, a WCM-2 is a broad-gauge (W) DC electric (C) mixed traffic (M) engine, model 2. Likewise, a WDS/5 is a broad-gauge diesel shunting engine, model 5, and a ZDM-5 is a narrow-gauge diesel mixed-traffic model 5 loco. YAU-1 is the old series of MG EMUs run on the MadrasTambaram line. The subtype indication of minor variations is not very systematic. Often successive variants of a model are given subtypes 'A', 'B', etc. in alphabetic order, e.g. ZDM-5A, WAM-4A, WAM-4B, etc., but not always. For many loco classes (WDM-2A, WDP-2A, notably), the 'A' also indicates dual braking systems (capable of hauling air-braked and vacuum-braked stock). But in some, such as the WDM-2CA, the 'A' indicates a loco with only air-brakes. A WAM-4R is a faster version ('R' for rapid?) of the WAM-4, and WAM-4P is a version of the WAM-4 designed specifically for passenger use ('P'). But a WAM-4 6P is a version regeared and allowing allparallel operation of the traction motors. A WDM-2P is a prototype version of a WDM-2 class. Similiarly, a WAG-5HA is a WAG-5 with Hitachi motors ('H') built by CLW; a WAG-5HB is the same, but built by BHEL. A WAG-5P, interestingly, is a WAG-5 loco (a goods loco in its original design, as indicated by the 'G') which has been modified by re-gearing to haul passenger trains (the 'P' indicates 'passenger')! An 'E' suffix often indicates a variant that is purely airbraked (WAP-1E, WAM-4E, etc., but redundant with a WAP-4E.). [5/02] As indicated above, a new system of classifying mainline diesels has been introduced. The new scheme got off the ground with rebuilt WDM-2C locos being reclassified as WDM-3A (as they have a power rating of 3100hp). It is likely that the new classifications will coexist with the old ones for some time. With the optional suffix, things get even less predictable and less systematic. A WDM-2 5PD is a WDM-2 with a different gearing ratio (the '5P', usually a 'P' in such a suffix indicates a gearing ratio suitable for passenger service). On the other hand a WAM-4 6P indicates all 6 traction 130

motors permanently connected in parallel — in electric locos 'S' and 'P' often stand for 'series' and 'parallel' combinations of traction motors. Dual brake systems ('D'); similarly with a WAM-4 6PD, another common designation. (It's been reported that the 'PD' in these may actually refer to suitability for push-pull operation...??) A WAP-1 FMII is a variant of the WAP-1 using Flexicoil Mark II bogies. Ad hoc combinations of many such suffixes are possible, as with 'WAM-4 P HS DB 6P' (HS = high speed, DB = dual-brake compatible, P = regeared for passenger operations, 6P = all 6 traction motors may be placed in parallel operation). The WAM-4 locos, in particular, are notorious for having countless minor variations as CLW and various workshops keep making minor experimental changes to them. Some sheds follow their own schemes too. Bhusawal shed, for instance, adds 'DBC' or 'ABC' to loco classes to indicate locos that have undergone conversion of the braking systems ('dual brake converted', and 'air brake converted'). The model numbers are assigned chronologically as new loco types are brought into use in IR, but there are some exceptions. Sometimes model numbers are assigned to some experimental locos which are never brought into regular use, e.g., WAG-8. Some sheds have been known to use non-standard classifications; marking a WDM-2 loco as a 'WDS-2' to indicate it is used only as a shunter is perhaps one of the more egregiously confusing practices seen in some sheds. 'WDM-2S' is another notation seen at some sheds for WDM-2 locos relegated to shunting duties. [4/09] Golden Rock Workshops has embarked on a program to convert old MG engines (YDM4's?) to broad-gauge; these are designated 'WCDS-6' where the 'WC' presumably stands for 'Broad-gauge, Converted'. Some classification codes break the system above: e.g., 'RD' is used as a code indicating the power and the load for diesel railcars, and not 'DR' as one might expect: YRD-1 is a series of MG railcars, NRD-1 similarly an NG series of railcars. Railcars used on the Tambaram line were classified simply 'RU'. 'RB' is used for railbuses, e.g., the WRB railbuses built on Ashok Leyland bus frames operating between Bangarpet and Kolar. EMUs followed this system for some time through the 1950s, but for quite some time now have not done so. There are numerous different models of EMUs with minor and major variations in use in the Mumbai system and in other systems, and they are no longer distinguished by 'WCUxxx' class codes for them. See the DMU/EMU section for more information on types of these multiple units. There are many ways in which the classification code appears in IR documents, painted on locos, etc.:
   

WDM 2 WDM – 2 WDM / 2 WDM2

The Hindi version is usually a phonetic transcription of the way the classification code would be pronounced in English ('double-you-dee-em') with the series number in Hindi. The last few models of steam locomotives used in India had this system of classification too, with one change, which was that the 'power' code was dropped. Hence: 'WG' = BG Goods steam loco, 'WP' = BG passenger steam loco, 'YP' = MG passenger steam loco, etc. However, there are 131

literally hundreds of types of steam locomotives that have been used in India, and locos classified 'WG', 'WP', etc. are the exception rather than the rule. Steam locos were classified in a myriad of ways in India, with different systems used by different railways. Some standardization began with the IRS classifications (see below). Note: Sometimes these steam locos had additional notations, e.g., WGx referred to WG locos fitted with CBC couplers for working block freight rakes. The serial number of a particular loco usually follows the classification code on the sides and the front or rear (between the buffers) of the loco. See the item on numbering below. Q. What is the history of the classification schemes for locos? Early locomotives in India had a bewildering variety of classification schemes. Regional railways had their own classification schemes too. For more details on this, refer to reference works such as Hugh Hughes' classic 4-volume work on Indian locomotives. The first BESA standard classes appeared in 1903. The HPS, SPS, HGS, and SGS steam loco classes were quite popular. HP = Heavy Passenger, SP = Standard Passenger, HG = Heavy Goods, SG = Standard Goods. In these, the suffix 'S' stands for 'superheated'. An alternative suffix 'C' indicates a conversion to superheating, e.g. SGC. A suffix 'M' was sometimes used to mean 'modified', for variant designs. However, these classification codes were by no means universally adopted, and various railways had their own schemes. In 1924, when IR decided to classify engines, the initial notation was:
   

X for broad-gauge Y for meter-gauge Z for 2' 6" narrow-gauge Q for 2' 0" narrow-gauge

The IRS (Indian Railway Standard) classes XA, XB, XC, XD, XE, and others in the 'X' series for BG; YA, YB, YC, YD, and YE for MG; and ZA, ZB, ZC, ZD, ZE, ZF for 2'6" NG; and QA, QB, QC for 2' NG, were all adopted as standards by the Locomotive Standards Committee by 1925 or soon thereafter. In fact the Q classes were never built, and of the Z classes, only ZB and ZE (and a modified version of ZF to agree with existing locos) classes were built. Not all locos of a given class were built by the same manufacturer. Some of these class designations were re-used later (e.g., ZD). In 1945, 'IRS' became 'IGR' (Indian Government Railway Standard), although the class notations remained the same. 'W' was used for broad-gauge instead of 'X' soon after World War II, with the introduction of the WP and WG locomotives. 'Q' was also replaced by the 'N' code. Some early electrics had codes beginning with 'E' (EF, EM, EG, etc.), but after about 1945, when diesel and electric locos were included in the scheme, the codes for motive power were added (D, A, C, CA, B), which have remained unchanged. Post-independence history of 'mixed' vs. dedicated loco models In the early days locos were classified strictly according to the load: goods engines (G) (e.g. WG, YCG, WCG, WAG, etc), or passenger engines (P) (e.g. WP, WCP, etc). Then the trend was towards a whole fleet of mixed traffic (M) engines (e.g. WDM, YAM, WAM, WCM, etc.) Between 1960 and 1985 or so, almost every loco design was of the 'M' variety, with the only two 132

exceptions being the WCG/2 (built 1971 or so) and the WAG series (WAG 5/5B/5HA/6A/B/C/7). The introduction of the WAP engines in the early '80s indicated a reversal of IR policy in dedicating engines exclusively for passenger operations once again. Some dedicated diesels (WDP, WDG series) are also now under development.

Locomotive Manufacturers
Q. Where were/are locomotives used in India manufactured? Early locos (late 19th century) were almost all imported. The first steam locomotive was built in India in 1895 at the Ajmer workshops. Details of some of the more important manufacturers are to be found in the section on production units and workshops. Domestic Manufacturers CLW: Large-scale loco production in India did not begin until the establishment of the Chittaranjan Locomotive Works (CLW) in 1950. More details on CLW here. DLW: The Diesel Loco Works set up at Varanasi began producing diesel locos in 1967, and has since then produced a large number of mainline and shunter diesels. Variants of various classes in the WDS and WDG series are supplied to industrial concerns as well. More details on DLW here. BHEL: Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL) supplied some WAG-5 and three NBM-1 units in the '80s, and more recently has suplied WCAM-2's, WCAM-3's, WAG-8's, and NDM-6's. BHEL also makes electrical transmission components, traction motors, alternators, and other components for both three-phase and tap-changer locomotives. The locomotives are made at BHEL's facilities at Bhopal and Jhansi. Recently [2008] BHEL has entered an agreement with IR to supply several dozen high-horsepower locomotives. As its expertise extends currently only to 6,000hp diesel locos, BHEL is exploring foreign partnerships with GE, Toshiba, and others for production of 10,000hp locomotives. DCW: Diesel Components Works, Patiala - now renamed the Diesel Modernization Works or DMW, supplies components for some locomotives to DLW. It also works on rebuilding and upgrading locos (e.g., older WDM-2's being converted to WDM-3A locos). More details on DCW here. NGEF and Crompton Greaves are other domestic suppliers of traction motors, alternators, etc. TELCO: Tata Electrical and Locomotive Co. (TELCO) supplied some YP and YG units in the 50's and 60's. Cummins India makes the diesel engines for DMU's, HPDMU's, and some MG locos. Suri and Nayar (SAN), located in Bangalore, have supplied some shunters and other locos, and parts such as transmissions. Ovis Loco, based in Hyderabad supplies some shunting locos (mainly for industrial customers). Venkateshwara Transmissions (Ventra) of Medak (Andhra Pradesh) is another manufacturer who supplied some locomotives and locomotive parts to IR. 133

ICF: Integral Coach Factory has been making EMUs for suburban systems (e.g., the YAU-1 MG 4-car EMU) since 1966. It also makes some self-propelled special-purpose units, such as the diesel Medical Relief Van and diesel-electric tower cars. More details on ICF here. Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) Formerly a state owned enterprise, Bangalore-based BEML manufactures heavy engineering products, including a wide variety of Railway vehicles made at its Bangalore and Mysore facilities. BEML makes coaches based on the standard ICF type design. A recent addition to the company's lineup were high tech trainsets (broad gauge and (as of [8/09]) standard gauge) destined for the Delhi Metro. DMRC rolling stock is manufactured in technical collaboration with the Korean firm ROTEM. In addition, BEML also manufactures Railbuses, OHE vans and track-laying equipment. BEML had manufactured coaches for the now scrapped MG EMUs service in Chennai. The company is very likely to supply coaches for planned Metro systems in Bangalore, Mumbai and other places. Bombardier Transportation makes train-sets for the Delhi Metro at its plant in Vadodara, Gujarat. The Jamalpur Workshop of ER manufactures diesel self-propelled units such as cranes for clearing wreckage and construction work. More details on Jamalpur here. The Izzatnagar Works manufactures railbuses and railcars using Ashok Leyland Iveco engines, and Hindustan Motors or Kirloskar Pneumatics converters and transmissions. Jessop & Co., an engineering company founded in 1788 (and now in the public sector) has manufactured wagons, cranes, and EMU rakes (many of the old EMU rakes in the Calcutta and Mumbai systems were built by Jessop). More details on Jessop here. Parel Workshops of CR has been assembling BG diesel locomotives since 2006, mostly WDS-6 class shunters, using components from DLW, DCW, and elsewhere. Between 2006 and 2009 it manufactured about 88 such locomotives, about half of which went to private companies (industrial shunters) while the others were purchased by IR. [2007] A new diesel locomotive production facility has been proposed to be set up at Marhora (Marhowra) in the Saran district of Bihar, near Chhapra. IR is expected to procure 1000 diesel locos of varying power capacities (4,500hp-6,000hp) from this factory over 10 years. This is expected to be a joint venture with a private (foreign or Indian) manufacturing entity - GE and EMD are considered candidates [2/09]. [2007] A new electric locomotive production facility has been proposed to be set up at Madhepura in Bihar, with a capacity to produce 120 locos a year. IR is expected to procure 800 electric locos of 12,000hp power capacity from this factory over 10 years. This is expected to be a joint venture with a private (foreign or Indian) manufacturing entity - Siemens, Alstom, and Bombardier are considered candidates [2/09]. Foreign Manufacturers There are many foreign suppliers of early locos: dozens of manufacturers are represented, including Bagnall, Beyer-Peacock, Vulcan Foundry, Nasmyth Wilson, SLM, Kerr-Stuart, Henschel, Hunslet, Dubbs & Co. (Glasgow), Metropolitan Carriage and Wagon Works, Sentinel Carriage and Wagon Works (Shrewsbury), Freid Krupps, Sharp Stewart, Kitson-Meyer, Kawasaki, General Electric, etc. More recent foreign suppliers of locos include Alco (WDM-1, some WDM-2, some YDM-4), GM (WDG-1, WDM-4, YDM-3, YDM-5), English Electric (WCM-1, WCM-2), Henschel 134

(WDM-3), Maschinenbau Kiel (WDS-3, ZDM-2), Montreal Loco Works (YDM-4A), Hitachi (WCM-3, WCM-4, some WAG-2), Mitsubishi (WAM-2, WAM-3, YAM-1, some WAG-2), Asea Brown-Boveri (WAP-5, some WAG-9), Toshiba (some WAG-2), Krupp (some WAM-1), Alsthom (some WAM-1), Kraus-Maffei (some WAM-1), General Motors EMD (WDP-4, WDG4, some WDM-4), and Arn. Jung (NDM-1). Cranes and other equipment have been supplied by Gottwald, Sheldon, ABB, etc. Jamalpur workshops makes many kinds of break-down cranes. Tower cars and track and OHE inspection vehicles are manufactured by CLW and Jamalpur Workshops. Industrial locomotives of various kinds were supplied by Andrew Barclay, Brookville, Baldwin, Henschel, Canadian Loco. Co., Greenwood Batley, Ruston & Horsnby, TELCO, Arn. Jung, Kraus-Maffei, GE, and many others. Soviet Locomotives Post-Independence India had a pretty close relationship with the USSR, and had access to a wide range of Soviet technology in many fields. Interestingly, though, Soviet influence was extremely limited in the area of locomotives, which was dominated by European and American suppliers as mentioned above. The Soviet Union helped build some of the steel plants and other industrial sites in India in the 1950s and 1960s, and a few industrial locomotives did seem to have made their way to India from the USSR. In particular, 36 type TEL Bo-Bo DE locomotives, of 5'6" gauge, variants of the TGM-3 750hp end cab switchers are listed in some locomotive compilations as intended for India. These were built around 1957 at Lugansk. A TEV version appears to have been built at 1958, also at Lugansk. While it is not entirely certain, it seems likely these were intended for the Bhilai Steel Plant which was built with Soviet help and commissioned in 1959. Iron ore for the plant was mined at Dalli-Rajhara and transported over a 85.5km railway line to Bhilai, which opened on May 14, 1958. A 20km line connected Bhilai to Ahiwara where limestone was quarried; this line was opened on April 1, 1960. (Information from the WDL mailing list, posted by John Middleton. Reference: Vitaly Rakov, Locomotives of our country's railways, 1995, Moscow, ISBN 5-277-00821-7.)

Early non-steam locos
Q. Which were the earliest diesel locomotives in the Indian subcontinent? In 1915, a 2'6" gauge diesel loco was supplied to the India Office by Avonside (Bristol). This is presumed to have worked on some tea plantation in Assam. In 1921, a 2'0" gauge 0-4-0 diesel loco built by Baugleys of Burton-on-Trent was delivered to Bengal. In 1923, two diesel locos built by Ruton Proctor of Lincoln were used on the Barsi Light Railway. In 1929, a 2'0" gauge 0-4-0 diesel loco was supplied by Maffei (Germany) to C K Andrew, London, for delivery to India. Their ultimate use and disposition in India is not known. Two 420hp (or 350hp?) dual-cab BG diesel shunters from William Beardmore (with electrical components from GEC) were used by the North-Western Railway (now in Pakistan) in 1930. In 1934, an Armstrong-Whitworth diesel-electric railcar was delivered to NWR for use on the 2'6" Kalka-Simla. 135

In 1935, two 1200hp BG diesel-electric locos with 8-cylinder Armstrong-Sulzer engines, built by Armstrong-Whitworth, were obtained by NWR for trials on the Karachi-Lahore line in preparation for a proposed new Karachi-Bombay route. They had a 1A-C-2 wheel arrangement. None of these experiments proved successful and the locos were in all cases withdrawn very soon. Ceylon Government Railways obtained one diesel-electric shunter and two diesel-electric mixed traffic locos in 1934 from Armstrong Whitworth. The two mixed traffic locos were actually made for the Indian State Railways (as they were then known) but turned out to be of too low a power for their requirements and were sold to CGR. These proved unsuitable and were sent to Argentina in 1937, and ultimately scrapped soon thereafter. Between 1930 and 1940, various Indian industrial concerns obtained 14 diesel locos. Bagnall in conjunction with Duetz supplied a 4-speed 22-25hp diesel loco (Duetz PM 2117 design) in 1934 to Bundla Beta Tea Co., Assam for the Pengarie-Digboi trolley line. It had a top speed of about 15km/h. In 1936, BBCI obtained one diesel-electric shunter from Armstrong-Whitworth which survived into the 1950's. In 1940, the Jamnagar and Dwarka Railway obtained one MG diesel from Brookville (USA). In the mid-1930s, the Nizam's State Railways obtained a few diesel railcars from Ganz. These were in use until the 1950s or so. Ganz supplied NWR in 1939-40 with some diesel railcars as well. Some of these were allocated to India when NWR assets were split following the partition of British India. In 1944-45, the USATC supplied 15 GE-built BG Bo-Bo diesel locos with Caterpillar engines to WR. These were mid-cab machines with short and narrow hoods on either side. Several of these were working until about 1990, when they were withdrawn and scrapped. One is preserved at the Diesel Loco Works, Varanasi. In 1949, a few MG diesel-mechanical locos built by Fowler were imported by IR for use in the arid regions of Saurashtra. One of these is preserved at the National Rail Museum, New Delhi. In 1955, 20 'DY' diesels by North British were imported for use, also in Saurashtra (MG). The locos of the second batch were reclassified as YDM-1's, and a few still survive [1/00]. Q. Which were the earliest electric locomotives in India? Two MG electric locos using overhead electrification were supplied to the Mysore Gold Fields in 1910 by Bagnalls of Stafford. Electrical equipment for these was supplied by Siemens. Electrically operated rail trolleys (patented by T A White, an EIR engineer, and hence known as White's Patented Rail Motor Trolleys) were used in a few places beginning in 1910. EIR's Liluah Carriage and Wagon works used one between Liluah and Howrah; the Oudh and Rohilkand Rly. also used one for track inspections. In the following years Jessop and Co. supplied a few more of these to various railways. In 1922 an electric loco (unknown gauge) using overhead electrification was supplied to the Naysmyth Patent Press Co. in Calcutta by British Electric Vehicles. Q. Other than diesels, were there other internal-combustion locos used in India? For contemporary applications, see the section on alternative fuels.

136

In 1905 Kerr Stuart delivered a 12hp 0-4-0 petrol-driven 2'6" loco to Morvi Railway and Tramways. In 1909, a railcar with a Dodge petrol engine was supplied to the Matheran Light Rly. In 1909, a 0-6-0 petrol-driven MG loco was supplied by McEwewn Pratt and Co. of Wickford in Essex to Assam Oil Co. In 1910, Morvi Railway and Tramways obtained a 30hp 0-4-0 petroldriven 2'6" loco from Nasmyth Wilson. In 1910 and 1911, a few petrol-driven parcel delivery vehicles were supplied to EIR by Thornycroft. Another 13 petrol-driven locos were delivered by various builders up to 1920, and a further 75 between 1920 and 1930. Their use started declining after that, and only 27 more were ordered later (until 1940). Some petrol-driven railcars were built by the Motor Rail and Tram Co., Ltd., and supplied to the South Indian Rly. in 1925. Their engines were rated 65bhp at 1000rpm; a railcar seated 85. They were refitted with diesel engines in the late 1930s. The Shahdara-Saharanpur 2'6" Light Railway had a petrol railcar supplied by D Wickham Co. in 1935. A Brookville petrol locomotive was used by the Matheran Light Railway in 1928. Two railcars (one seating 8, the other seating 14) with Dodge petrol engines and chain drives were also used by this railway (1909, 1927). Three alcohol-fuelled MG locos with mechanical transmissions were supplied by Davenport Locomotive Works (Iowa, USA) to some unknown Indian industrial concern in 1949.

Locomotive Specifications
Data shown here is mainly drawn from "Diesel and Electric Locomotives of Indian Railways" by Jal E Daboo, published by the British Overseas Railways Historical Trust (BORHT), with updates and additions from the IRFCA mailing list. Permission is granted to copy this document in whole or part for any non-commercial (non-profit) uses only. Please see the disclaimer text below. This notice and the disclaimer text below must be retained in any reproduction of this document. Questions and comments may be directed to webmaster@irfca.org. A Palm OS PDA version of this database is also available. Class names for mainline diesels are according to the old classification scheme. See the diesel loco page for the new codes and the general loco page for an explanation of the new scheme. Note: For some of the older loco classes (e.g., WCG-2, etc.), the power ratings in hp (horsepower) may be slightly incorrect -- locos with European designs often used 'PS' (pferdestarke, a German version of horsepower), or in some cases, other units, to quote power. These units are all close to the British horsepower, but not quite the same.

Diesel Locomotives Class Year Maker Wheels Power (hp) Speed Weight (km/h) (tonnes) Starting TE Quantity (kg Serial Nos. 137

force) WDM-1 195758 Alco BG Diesels 1950 Co-Co 104 (1800 net) 111.2 27900 100 17000+

WDM-2

1962+

Alco / DLW

Co-Co

2600 (2400 net)

120

112.8

30450

WDM-3A (WDM-2C)

1994+

DLW

Co-Co 3100/3300

120

112.8

30450

1600016887/1710017999/ 18040-079/1811218514/ 1852318900/1890318999. Above list includes WDM-2A's. 1779617895 (?) are the 'Jumbo' versions. Many (17802+, etc.) now rebuilt as WDM-2C, new name WDM-3A. 2700+ Numbers are *not* chronological! 18040 was the first ever WDM-2, from Alco. The first kit-built from DLW was 18233. The first fully-built from DLW was 18299. The last ones were in the 16000 series, when the older number range was reused. 14001-14079 14080-14143? 14144? (incl. WDM2CA) 115+ Some rebuilds of WDM-2 locos now classed WDM2C,WDM-3A with 18xxxR numbers. 8 18515-18522 Various 18833R, 18893R etc. (WDM2 rebuilds), 14147 (WDM-3A rebuild) 138

WDM-3

1970 Henschel DCW, 2002? Patiala

B-B

2500 80/120 (2440 net) 3300 120

??

22000/ 25000 ??

WDM-3C

Co-Co

??

2?

WDM-3D WDM-3E WDM-3F WDM-4

2003 2008 2008 1962

DLW DLW DLW GM

Co-Co Co-Co Co-Co Co-Co

3300 3500 3600 2600 (2400 net) 1350

160 120 120 130 in use, 145+ trials 75

117 118.2 120 112.8

36036 38060 (?) ? 28200

11+ ? ? 72

11101 - 11111+ 11263 and others 11287 and others 18000-039 / 18080111 18901, 18902 11001-11015 15001-15069 15501-15569 Prototype only, no IR number 20000-09 (GM) 20010, 20011 (GM kits) 20012-20103+ (DLW) Except: 20042, 20047, 20075 (WDP-4B prototypes) 20042, 20047, 20075 (prototypes) 40001-40020+ 14501-14999 14962 WDG-3C New 13000-13156+ 14962, others? ?? 12001-12013(GM) 12014-12021(GM kits) 12022-12066+ (DLW, some 1203x are GM kits) 19000-014 19016-045 19046139

198182 1987WDM-7 89 1995WDP-1 99 WDP-2 (WDP- 19983A) 2002 WDM-6 WDP-3 (?) 1996

DLW DLW DLW DLW DLW

Bo-Bo Co-Co Bo-Bo Co-Co Co-Co

70 96 80.1 117 ??

19200 ?? ?? ?? ??

2 15 69 69 ??

2000 105/100 (1800 net) 2300 3100 2300 140 140 ??

WDP-4

2001

GM + DLW

Bo11Bo

4000

160

119

27500

100+

WDP-4B WDG-3A (WDG-2) WDG-3C WDG-3D

2010

DLW

Co-Co

4500

130

121.2

39180

20+

1995+ 2002 2004

DLW DLW DLW

Co-Co Co-Co Co-Co

3100 3300 3400

100 100 100

123 123 123

?? ?? ??

550+

??

WDG-4

1999+

GM + DLW

Co-Co

4000

100/120

126

55100

60+

WDS-1 WDS-2 WDS-3

194445 195455

GE

Bo-Bo C C

2x193

56

41-46 51.4 57

Kraus Maffei Maschi1961 nenbau Kiel

440 (400 54 / 28 net) (ML / S) 618 65 / 27 (ML / S)

10570 / 11500 9200/ 15420 10400 / 17100

16? 30 7

WDS-4 WDS-4A

19681969 1968

CLW CLW

C C

600 660

65 / 27 (ML / S) 65 / 38 (ML / S) 65 / 27 (ML / S) 65 / 27 (ML / S) 60 / 25 (ML / S) 109

60 60

9500 / 18000 16700 / 18000 11500 / 18000 11500 / 18000 18000 31500

27 5

1906219086/19108-19109 (Some to PS) 19057-061 19110-19541 19660-19732 (includes WDS-4D) (Some to PS.) 19046-19052 19542-19659 19660-19732 (includes WDS-4B) 19087-19107

WDS-4B

1969+

CLW

C

700

60

450+

WDS-4C WDS-4D WDS-5

1976CLW (??) 78 198497 1967 CLW Alco

C C Co-Co

700 700 1065 / (994 net)

60 60 126

7 120+ 21

WDS-6

1975+

DLW

Co-Co

1400 (1328 net)

71 / 63

120129

34000

WCDS-6 WDS-8 DLW Works Shunters

2009 197982 196667 195556 198690 196162 196190 196469 1964

Golden Rock CLW DLW Bo-Bo 0-B-0 700 250 35 ?? MG Diesels ?? ?? 22000 ??

36000-36252+ (includes WDS-6R) 19459-19468 (to 260+ PS, renumbered). 19459+ chronologically after 36000+ series. ? ? PS only, no IR 5 numbers 19053-19055 4 19056 ex-MG No. 1007 20 41 30 6000-6019 2001-41 6050+ 6020-6049/61056129 (Alco) 6199-6258/62896769+ (DLW) 6130-198/6259-288 6080-6184 1009 1007 converted to BG No. 10956 1008 unknown 140

YDM-1 YDM-2 YDM-3

North British CLW GM Alco / DLW MLW GM

B-B B-B

700 (625 net) 700

88 75 80

44 48 59

10920 14400 14300

1-B-B1390 1 (1260 net) Co-Co 1400 (1300 net) 1400 (1300 net) 1390 (1260 net) 250

YDM-4

96

72

18935

572

YDM-4A YDM-5

Co-Co C-C

96 80

72 69

18935 21790

99 25

DLW Works 1967+ Shunters (MG)

DLW

0-B-0

??

??

??

2 (3?)

NG Diesels ZDM-1 1955 Arn. Jung B+B Maschi1964nenbau 65 Kiel 197082 197577 198290 1989+ CLW 2x145 700 (650 net) 700 33 29 8790 5 543-547 (543-546 rebuilt as NDM-1) 123-147 148-167/178-187 168-177 (ex-ZDM4) 168-177 (later rebuilt as ZDM-3) 198-236 501+ 500-506 (500, 504-506 exZDM-1) 801-811 600-605?

ZDM-2

B-B

50 50 down / 32 up 50 50 50 33/16 50 ??

32

10560

25

ZDM-3

B-B 1-B-B1 1-B-B1 B-B

35

10500

40

ZDM-4 ZDM-4A ZDM-5 NDM-1 NDM-5 NDM-6

CLW CLW CLW

700 700 450 2x145 450 335

39 39 23 29 22 ??

7800 7800 ?? 8790 ?? ??

10 39 41+ 7 11 6?

1955 Arn. Jung B+B 198789 1997 CLW BHEL B-B B

Electric Locomotives Class Year Maker Wheels Power (hp) Speed (km/h) Starting Weight TE Quantity (tonnes) (kg force) Serial Nos.

Broad-gauge DC Electrics WCP-1 1928- SLM / 2-Bo30 MetroVick A1 2160 (1860 cont.) 2160 (1860 cont.) 120 102-105 15240 22 20002-023

SLM / 2-BoWCP-2 1938 MetroVick A1 WCP-3 1928 HL / GEC WCP-4 1928 HL / BB 1954WCM-1 VF / EE 55 WCM-2 1956VF / EE 57

120

102-105 15240

1

20024

2250 2-Co-2 (2130 cont.) 2-Co-2 2390 3700 Co-Co (3170 cont.) Co-Co 3120 (2810

120 120 105-120 105-120

113 111 124 113

10890 (1 1 hr) 11300 (1 1 hr) 31300 31300 7 12

20000 20001 20066-072 20175-186 141

cont.) WCM-3 1958 Hitachi 3600 Co-Co (2460 cont.) 4000 Co-Co (3290 cont.) Co-Co 3700 Co-Co 5000 cont. 26002890 (2230 cont.) 105-120 113 28200 3 20073-075

WCM-4 1960 Hitachi WCM-5 1961CLW 63

105-120 105-120 105

125 124 123

31300 31300 ??

7 21 2

20076-082 20083-103 20187, 20188

WCM-6 1995 CLW

1928- SLM / VF / WCG-1 C+C 29 MetroVick

72-80

125

30480

41

20025-065

WCG-2

1970CLW 76

4200 (1640 Co-Co 1hr cont. 80 in series mode) 3010 (2870 cont.) 2910 (2790 cont.) 2910 (2790 cont.)

132

35600

57

20104-160

Broad-gauge AC Electrics K-M / 1959- Krupp / WAM-1 B-B 60 Alst / Niv./ SFAC WAM-2 1960Mitsubishi Bo-Bo 64 112 74 25000 100 20200-20299

112

76

25240

36

20300+

WAM-3 1964 Mitsubishi Bo-Bo

112

76

25240

2

20336 & 20337

1970WAM-4 CLW 1983

3850 Co-Co (3640 cont.)

110-120

113

33840

20338 (renumbered 20400) 500+ 20400-20699/ (incl. 21200-21399 WAM-4A) 21100-21138 WAM-4B -> WAG5/5B (see (see WAM-4) WAM-4) 22000-22076 Many being converted to WAP4. 22061 first converted to WAP4 142

WAM4A

1979CLW ??

3850 Co-Co (3640 cont.)

80

120

??

1980WAP-1 CLW ??

3900 Co-Co (3760 cont.)

130

112

22400

77+

1987WAP-3 CLW ?? WAP-4 1994+ CLW

3900 Co-Co (3760 cont.) 5350 Co-Co (5000 cont.) 6000 (5440 cont.)

140

112

22400

5?

22005-22009 Now reverted back to WAP-1. 22061 22200-22399, 22500-22603+ 30000-30016+ 30008 not in use. 22400??, 2240122416+ 30201-30222+ 20700-20709 (Niv. / SFAC) 20710-20791 (CLW) 20849-20868 (Niv. / SFAC) 20804-848

140

113

30800

305+

WAP-5 1995+ ABB / CLW Bo-Bo

160

79

26300

14+

WAP-6 1997 CLW WAP-7 2000 CLW

5350 Co-Co (5000 cont.) Co-Co 6350 2930 (2900 cont.) 3450 (3180 cont.) 3590 (3180 cont.) 3590 (3180 cont.)

160 design 105(restricted) 113 170(upgrade) 140 123

30800 36000

16? 18+

WAG-1

1963- Niv./SFAC/ B-B 66 CLW

80

85

30000

112

WAG-2

Hitachi / 1964Toshiba / B-B 65 Mitsubishi B-B

80

86

30000

45

WAG-3 1965 Henschel 1966WAG-4 CLW 71

80

87

30000

10

20869-878

B-B

80

88

30000

186+

20900-21085

WAG-5

1988- CLW / 98 BHEL

4360 Co-Co (3850 cont.) 4360 Co-Co (3850 cont.) 4360 Co-Co (3850 cont.) 6110 Bo-Bo(6000 Bo cont.) 6110 Bo-Bo(6000 Bo cont.) Co-Co 6110 (6000

80-100

119

33500

23275-23355 (incl. WAG-5A) 1100+ 23356-23800+ incl. (incl. variants variants) WAG-5HB 2400124075+ 23000-23275 (see 23275-23355 WAG-5) (incl. WAG-5) 54 21100-21138 (exWAM-4B) 21139-21153 26000-26005

WAG5A WAG5B WAG6A WAG6B WAG6C

1983CLW 88 1978CLW 83 1988ASEA 89 1988 Hitachi 1988 Hitachi

80 (100?)

119

33500

80

119

33500

100

123

44900

6

100 100

123 123

44950 44950

6 6

26010-26015 26020-26025 143

cont.) 5350 Co-Co (5000 cont.) 5000 cont. 41000 123 (WAG(WAG7H 7H 132) 45000) ?? ?? 27001-27699+ except 27061 converted to WAG7H 27002 tried as WAG-7H Prototype; no IR numbers? ABB 31000-31021 CLW 3102231069+ 31030 : WAG-9H

WAG-7 1992+ CLW

100

200+

WAG-8 1996 BHEL

Co-Co

100

1 or 2?

6125 WAG-9 1996+ ABB / CLW Co-Co (6000 cont.) Broad-gauge AC-DC Electrics

100

46900 (52000 123 (135 WAGWAG9H) 9H) 36000 cont.

69+ [11/04]

WCAM- 1975CLW 1 79

3850 AC (1 hr) 2930 DC 80-100 DC / Co-Co / 3640 120 AC AC cont.)

113

28200 DC / 33840 AC

53

21800-852

WCAM- 1995BHEL 2 96

3780? DC / 4720 AC 105 DC / 120 Co-Co 113 cont. AC 4950 starting 4600 (4700?) Co-Co 105 DC / 5000 AC 2930 DC / 4720 Co-Co 100 AC cont. (?) Bo+Bo 640 64 (4x160) 1740 80 113

26000 DC / 33400 AC 26000 DC / 33400 AC 29600 DC / 43500 AC ?? 19500

20

21861-880

WCAM1997+ BHEL 3

50

21881-900 / 21931-960

WCAG- 1999BHEL 1 2000 Meter-gauge Electrics YCG-1 YAM-1 1930 HL / EE

128

12+ (20?) 21971+

43 52

4 20

21900-903 21904-21923

1964Mitsubishi B-B 66

Battery Electrics WBC, BBCI 1927 English shunters Electric NBM-1 1987 BHEL Bo-Bo Bo-Bo 240 80 ?? ?? 58 ?? 9530 ?? 2 3 21951+

Additional comparative specifications of electric locomotives can be found here. 144

Notes: 1. Power quoted for diesels is gross power. For some entries net power has also been mentioned. 2. Power quoted for electrics is the 1-hour rating. For some entries the continuous power is quoted. 3. Speed is rated maximum speed. 4. TE = Tractive Effort. Figures quoted are starting TE unless otherwise noted. 5. ML / S = Mainline / Shunting max. speed Abbreviations 1. CLW = Chittaranjan Locomotive Works; DLW = Diesel Locomotive Works (Varanasi) 2. BHEL = Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.; ABB = Asea Brown-Boveri; GE = General Electric 3. GM = General Motors; Alco = American Locomotive Co.;BB = Brown Boveri; HL = Hawthorn Leslie 4. Niv = La Brugeoise & Nivelles (Belgium); SFAC = Soc. des Forges et Ateliers (Belgium) 5. EE = English Electric; K-M = Kraus-Maffei; Alst. = Alsthom; SLM = Schweizerische Lokomotiv Fabrik (Switzerland)

Broad Gauge Diesel Locomotives
Note: Class names for mainline diesels are according to the new classification scheme, with references to the class names in the old system for those classes that were renamed, or for older classes that are out of use. See the general loco page for an explanation of the new and old schemes. WDM–1(Class name carried over from old system.) 1957 Alco models ("World Series" DL500 or 'FA' loco), Co-Co 12-cylinder 4-stroke turbo-supercharged engine; 1800/1950 hp. 100 of these were supplied in all. Initially (1957-1958) 20 were supplied and used for ore/coal freight on SER, but later also used for the first dieselized expresses on ER and SER, e.g., the Howrah-Madras Mail (double-headed by WDM-1's before WDM-2's and WDM-4's were introduced). Most of the WDM-1 locos had Co-Co wheelsets (thus differing from FA units in other countries), although some are thought to have had A1A-A1A bogies. The remaining units of this class arrived in 1959. In the late 1990s, the remaining units were all in SER, based at Bondamunda and perhaps some at Waltair and relegated to shunting or piloting duties as they were withdrawn / condemned. There used to be some at Gonda and Gorakhpur, a few used for carrying sugarcane traffic. Today all have been withdrawn. One loco (not working) is at Gonda shed. The very first WDM-1 (#17000) has been ear-marked for preservation at the National Rail Museum ([2/01] not yet refurbished). Comparative Specifications

145

WDM–2 (Class name unchanged after reclassification.) 2600 hp Alco models (RSD29 / DL560C). Co-Co, 16-cylinder 4stroke turbo-supercharged engine. Introduced in 1962. The first units were imported fully built from Alco. After DLW was set up, 12 of these were produced from kits imported from Alco (order no. D3389).

After 1964, DLW produced this loco in vast numbers in lots of different configurations. This loco model was IR's workhorse for the second half of the 20th century, and perhaps the one loco that has an iconic association with IR for many people. These locos are found all over India hauling goods and passenger trains — the standard workhorse of IR. Many crack trains of IR used to be double-headed by WDM-2 locos; this has decreased now owing to the electrification of most important sections and the use of more powerful locos. A single WDM-2 can generally haul around 9 passenger coaches; twin WDM-2's were therefore used for 18-coach trains.

Jumbos – A few locos of the WDM-2 class produced in 1978-79 have a full-width short hood; these are unofficially termed 'Jumbos' by the crew. These range from serial numbers around 17796 or so to about 17895 or so (17899 and above are known to be 'normal' WDM-2s). These were apparently produced with the idea of improving the visibility for the drivers, but it was learned later that it did not make much of a difference under the typical operating conditions of these locos. Some of these were later modified to have narrower short hoods to look more like the other WDM-2's. Two locos, #17881 and #17882, were trial locos produced by DLW when they were considering shutting down Jumbo production; these look like ordinary WDM-2 locos, even though there are other Jumbos with higher road numbers than them. Some Jumbos have undergone further modifications: Loco #17854 was a Jumbo based at Jhansi in 1981; now [6/04] it has been rebuilt as a WDM-3A locomotive (based at Pune) by DCW, Patiala. 146

The classification WDM-2A is applied to those that were re-fitted with air brakes (most of these therefore have dual braking capability), while WDM-2B is applied to more recent locos built with air brakes as the original equipment (these very rarely have vacuum braking capability in addition, especially if they have been rebuilt by Golden Rock). (However, in the past, before the widespread use of air-brakes, a few modified versions with a low short hood at one end like the WDS-6 were also classified WDM-2A.) A few WDM-2 locos of the Erode shed have been modified and sport a full-forward cab at one end, with the dynamic brake grid, blower, etc. moved between the cab and the traction alternator. The original Alco designs had a 10-day, 3000km maintenance schedule, which was later extended by some modifications to a 14-day schedule. Now [1/02], the schedule is being extended to 30 days by increasing the capacities for various fluids (lubrication oil, etc.), and improving some bearings (mainly, using roller bearings for the suspension). The original WDM2 bearings were very susceptible to failure. However, given the age of this model, unsurprisingly even locos that have been modified for a 14-day schedule do often require more frequent maintenance or minor repair so they end up being put on a 7-day schedule anyway. WDM-2 locos are excepted from the new mainline diesel classification scheme and will remain classified as WDM-2 and not 'WDM-2F' as they might be in the new scheme based on their horsepower. The first one supplied by Alco was #18040. This one is no longer in use and is now preserved at the National Railway Museum at New Delhi. The second one from Alco, #18041, is currently [7/05] homed at Kalyan shed and is often seen hauling the Diva - Vasai DMU service. The first WDM-2 built by DLW, #18233, is now at Andal shed (not much in use). The last WDM-2's were in the 16000 series. The very last one is #16887. The WDM-2 locos have a max. speed of 120km/h. There are generally speaking no restrictions for running with the long hood leading, although it's been reported that in some cases the practice was to limit it to 100km/h. The gear ratio is 65:18. Some WDM-2 units are being converted [2/02] to have AC-DC transmission (alternator driving DC traction motors) by DCW, Patiala. Golden Rock workshops have also been renovating some WDM-2 locos with new features such as twin-beam headlamps. Only one WDM-2 loco (#16859, Ernakulam shed) is known to have had cab air-conditioning fitted. This was the first loco to have air-conditioning in India; this was done by the ERS shed in 1997 right after receiving the loco from DLW, but it was disabled later as the auxiliary alternator proved too weak to run the air-conditioner well. A few WDM-2 locos downgraded for shunting duties have been seen marked with a WDM-2S class name; e.g., some at Itwari shed [2003] and some at Kurla. A few have also been spotted bearing the class name WDS-2, e.g., those at the Kalyan shed where they are used for shunting. These appear to be quirks of the local shed staff and not officially recognized classifications. 147

DCW Patiala has rebuilt some WDM-2 units to class WDM-3A/WDM-2C specifications. These are a little different from the normal WDM-2C from DLW. They look very similar to WDM-2's, except for a bulge on one of the doors of the hood; this is due to the presence of a centrifugal fuel filter which moved there because the model required larger aftercoolers. There are some other slight differences in appearance. These units have a GE turbocharger and a different expressor with integral air drying facility. They have a Woodwards governor which leads to even running and idling, and (to the great disappintment of Alco smoke fans) reduces the amount of black smoke during intense acceleration. These also have roller bearings for the suspension, improving on the longstanding problem of bearing failures on the regular WDM-2 model. Following the new mainline diesel classification scheme, new WDM-2C's converted or overhauled by DCW, Patiala, are being labelled WDM-3A (new).

Brief Notes
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Builders: Alco, DLW Engine: Alco 251-B, 16 cylinder, 2600hp (2430hp site rating) with Alco 710/720/?? turbocharger. 1000rpm max, 400rpm idle; 228mm x 266mm bore/stroke; compression ratio 12.5:1. Direct fuel injection, centrifugal pump cooling system (2457l/min @ 1000rpm), fan driven by eddy current clutch (86hp @ engine rpm 1000). Governor: GE 17MG8 / Woodwards 8574-650. Transmission: Electric, with BHEL TG 10931 AZ generator (1000rpm, 770V, 4520A). Traction motors: GE752 (original Alco models) (405hp), BHEL 4906 BZ (AZ?) (435hp) and (newer) 4907 AZ (with roller bearings) Axle Load: 18.8 tonnes, total weight 112.8t. Bogies: Alco design asymmetric cast frame trimount (Co-Co) bogies (shared with WDS6, WDM-7, WAM-4, WCAM-1, WCG-2). Starting TE: 30.4t, at adhesion 27%. Length over buffer beams: 15862mm. Distance between bogies: 10516mm.

For details, refer to the loco specifications page. Comparative Specifications WDM-2D There are a few WDM-2D units in ER used for push-pull operations (SealdahHasnabad, Ranaghat-Krishnagar, Lalgola-Murshidaba, Bardhaman-Rampurhat). It is not known how they differ from the WDM-2 / WDM-2C classes. WDM–3

148

(Old class name.) Rarities. Diesel locos with hydraulic transmission -- only 8 were produced, by Henschel (model DHG2500BB). Mercedes Benz MD108DZ20 engines, B-B axles. Built around 1970, IR numbers 18515-18522, works numbers 31300-7. No longer in use, decommissioned at Gooty shed, 1995. The first two had Maybach Mekydro transmissions and the rest had the indigenous Suri transmission. Note:The WDM-3A has nothing to do with the original WDM-3 Henschel locos, and is the new class code for the WDM-2C loco based on the power rating of 3100hp (see below). Comparative Specifications

WDM-3A / WDM–2C (Old class name WDM-2C, new class name WDM-3A.) These 3100hp locos are more powerful versions of the WDM-2. The first one was delivered on August 22, 1994. A single WDM-2C could haul a 21-coach passenger train, something that required two of the older WDM-2's. The WDM-2C / WDM-3A also has a rated top speed of 120km/h, and has the same power-pack as the WDG-2 and WDP-2 locos. Early units were air-braked but lately many have been provided dual-braking capability. Dynamic brakes are also provided. The loco has a single cab. Gear ratio 65:18 as with the WDM-2. All recent units have a square profile, but a few early versions have a rounded appearance. Starting in [11/02], even higher powered units (3300hp) have been turned out by DLW, Varanasi, and DCW (DMW), Patiala -- all recent WDM-3A are of 3300hp power rating. DLW has also experimented with improvements to the Alco 251 powerpack to extract 3900hp out of it, and this is being [4/02] tested in a few locomotives.The new class name for these is WDM-3A. WDM-2CA is a variant of the WDM-2C (numbers beyond #14080). Dual brakes? (not confirmed) These units all had right-hand seating for the driver. Later these were all reclassified WDM-3A along with the WDM-2C locos, but a few remain at Erode shed with the old class name on them [7/05]. Brief Notes
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Builders: DLW Engine: Upgraded (by DLW) Alco 251-C (16 cylinder), 3100hp (2900hp site rating) early models, 3300hp from 2003, 1050rpm max / 400rpm idle; direct fuel injection. Cooling and fans as with WDM-2. ABB VTC304-15 or Napier NA 295 IR turbocharger. Governor: GE 17MG8 / Woodwards 8574-650. Transmission: Electric with BHEL TA 10102 CW alternator, 1050rpm, 1130V, 4400A. (Earlier used BHEL TG 10931 AZ alternator.) Axle Load: 18.8 tonnes. Wheelset: Co-Co trimount bogie. 149

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Starting TE: 30.4t, at adhesion 27%. Length over buffer beams: 15862m

Distance between bogies: 10516mm.

Comparative Specifications WDM–3CUpgraded, higher-power versions of the WDM-2C (WDM-3A) loco. These are rated at 3300hp and built by DMW (DCW), Patiala. Since this class appeared only a few have been seen. Two were thought to be undergoing trials [11/03]. The total number is not known. These locos are all thought to be rebuild or upgrade jobs and numbered in the 18xxx range with an R suffix as they are rebuilds (e.g., one probably 18833R at Lucknow [11/03], another 18893R at Gooty [9/04], now [2/05] at Guntakal). It is believed that this class was the trial platform for leading up to the WDM-3D design, and so with the introduction of that class (see below), this line is no longer in production. (Note: Some locos of the WDM-3D class (see below) were initially classified as 'WDM-3C+'.) More recently [7/05] a loco marked WDM-3C, #14147, has been spotted. Its road number puts it in the WDM-3A series, but in its construction it appears to share the body shell, bogies, fuel tank, cowcatcher, and so on with the WDM-3D. It is thought that DLW may be trying out a new variant design as a compromise between the 3100hp WDM-3A which is no longer being produced, and the 3400hp WDM-3D model which has suffered many problems with its electronic systems. For instance, it is possible (this is speculative) that this loco #14147 had a 3300hp powerpack with WDM-3D style (WDG-3A style) high-adhesion bogies, a bigger fuel tank (from the WDG-4) and without the electronic complexity of the WDM-3D. Comparative Specifications WDM–3DA higher-powered version of the basic WDM-2C (WDM-3A) class, these locos have a 3300hp powerpack, with available traction power of 2925hp. The engine is an enhanced version of the 16-cylinder Alco 251C model. Max. speed 160km/h. Fabricated (welded) Alco High-Adhesion Co-Co bogies. Starting TE is 36036kgf (353kN). Dual braking systems.

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Left hand drive, WDG-3A style High Adhesion bogies, air cylinder under footboard, WDP-4 style fuel tanks, engine doors like WDP-4, marker lights outside cabin doors, electronic horn. Improved bogies with stem type vertical and lateral dampers in place of 'eye' type for easier maintenance. High capacity buffers. Components and auxiliaries improved with the aim of making the duty schedule longer between maintenance visits to the shed. Fuel tank capacity 6000l, engine oil sump capacity 1210l. The WDM-3D is the result of a concerted effort by DLW to incorporate some of the best features of the GM/EMD locomotives (WDP-4/WDG-4) into the proven Alco base technology with which DLW has enormous experience. The WDM-3D uses General Electric's 'Bright Star' microprocessor control system to monitor and control various engine parameters, to detect wheel slip, and to supply power in a phased manner to the traction motors under slipping conditions. (Some later units may have switched to a control unit from Medha.) An oil cooler is provided in this loco, a first for the Alco-based models produced in India. The cab in the first units of this class is a normal metal one, but later units are expected to feature a fibre-glass cab as seen in the WDP-4 (e.g., #20012). (This will result in the dynamic brake resistor grid being moved to behind the cab.) The control desk will also be changed to be similar to that of the WDP-4. [11/08] Only one locomotive (#11121) so far has had cab this modification. Rest of the fleet retain the classic Alco hood design but have had the dynamic brake resistor moved to the roof on the short hood (#11200 onwards?). The first one was built in July, 2003, numbered #11101. Launch livery deep blue with cream stripes, but has possibly been repainted very soon after. Spotted with damaged sandboxes in December 2003 at Bangalore. Maker's plate read 'DM-3D-001, July 2003'. The first few units (five, [11/04]) were all homed at Krishnarajapuram but later transferred to Erode. Serial production started in late 2005 with locos being alloted to almost all major BG diesel sheds. Nomenclature: The class name 'WDM-3D' would normally imply 3400hp, however this loco is rated at 3300hp, just like the WDM-3C. Originally when this was developed, it was named WDM-3C+, but apparently IR decided that this was too confusing, and re-classified it as 'WDM3D' to avoid confusion with the WDM-3C class. In addition, the 3500hp WDM-3E class (see below) is referred to as 'WDM-3D without equalizer' in IR documents, so the class name 'WDM3D' is somewhat ambiguous as it may refer to either the 3300hp or the 3500hp loco.. Brief Notes
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Builders: DLW Weight: 117t Axle Load: 19.5t Bogies: Alco High-Adhesion Co-Co fabricated bogies. Length: 18626mm Width: 2950mm Height: 4077mm Starting TE: 353kN (36036kgf) Gear ratio: 18:65 Traction Alternator: BHEL TA 10102FV Traction Motor: BHEL 5002AZ CGL 7362A Compressor: 6CD4UC RPM: 390rpm-400rpm idling, 1050rpm at 8th notch Main brake reservoir pressure: 10.4kg/cm2 151

Comparative Specifications WDM–3E This is a 3500hp loco developed by DLW in 2008, based on the WDM-3D design. (RDSO circulars suggest that some prototypes or early versions may have been rated at 3300hp.) It has a high-adhesion bogie ('HAHS') which has a design modified from similar high-adhesion bogies by the removal of equalizing and compensating mechanisms in order to reduce the unsprung underframe weight of the locomotive (and also to circumvent problems seen with the equalizing and compensating mechanisms in the bogie). It has a permitted speed of 105km/h and a maximum design speed of 120km/h. GM-style dynamic brakes spotted on some. Air-braked. This loco was later redesignated as WDM-3D without equalizer in IR documents, which creates confusion with the 3300hp WDM-3D class noted above. Brief Notes
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Builders: DLW Weight: 118.2t Axle Load: 19.7t Bogies: HAHS bogie without equalizers and compensating mechanisms Starting TE: 373kN (38060kgf) Traction Motor: BHEL 4097

Comparative Specifications WDM–3F This is a 3600hp loco developed by DLW, based on the WDM-3D design (continuing the development that resulted in the WDM-3E loco). It has a high-adhesion bogie without equalizers ('HAHS' bogie) just like the WDM-3E. It has a permitted speed of 105km/h and a maximum design speed of 120km/h. Locos of this class are air-braked. They have been spotted with conventional dynamic brake equipment. Brief Notes
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Builders: DLW Weight: 120.0t Axle Load: 20.0t Bogies: HAHS bogie without equalizers and compensating mechanisms Starting TE: ? Traction Motor: GE 752NR

Comparative Specifications

152

WDM–4 (Class name carried over from old system.) There were 72 of these export model SD-24 GM-EMD locos, supplied in 1962. Rated at 2600hp (some earlier units were 2400hp) and 140km/h. Co-Co, 16-cylinder 2-stroke turbo-supercharged engines. They were considered a potential alternative to the WDM-2 design from Alco and were superior in many ways, but eventually the Alco loco won as GM did not agree to a technology transfer agreement. They are 2-stroke engines fitted with Woodwards governors. All units of IR were equipped only for vacuum brakes. Top speed generally limited to 120km/h, although they were run at 130km/h regularly for the Howrah Rajdhani, and even run in some speed trials at 145km/h. Haulage capacity 2400t. The Co-Co bogies used for this loco were Flexicoil 'Mark 1' cast steel types. All were eventually based at NR's diesel shed at Mughalsarai. The Doon Exp. was one of the first to get these locos (it was also one of the first major trains to switch from steam). Most prominently, the Howrah Rajdhani was hauled by a WDM-4 at one time, as were many other prestigious trains (AC Exp. (now Poorva), Himgiri, and Kashi-Vishwanath Exps.). Later they used to haul local area passenger trains on the Dehradun - Moradabad - Lucknow - Varanasi Mughalsarai - Buxar - Patna - Howrah sections. The Bareilly-Mughalsarai Passenger was probably the last train to get these locos. These locos could haul around 9 passenger coaches; for the 18-coach Rajdhani and other trains they were invariably used with two locos coupled together. All are now decommissioned [7/00]. About 20 are at Mughalsarai shed [7/01], and the rest at Alambagh stores depot destined for scrapping. One (#18001, second of class) is now [2/01] at the NRM. IR numbers 18000-39, 18080-111. Interestingly, the gap in serial numbers corresponds to the 40 units of this model delivered by GM to Pakistan at the same time. Four units (18004, 18022, 18098, and 18107) were purchased by IRCON in 2000, and sent to Bangladesh for construction work. Comparative Specifications

WDM–6 (Class name carried over from old system.) Rarities! DLW built just two of these locos, which have a short centre-cab with a long hood and a short hood. Nos. 18901, 18902, assigned to ER, built in July 1981 and in 1982, and currently [4/00] based at Burdwan and handling departmental duties and occasional shunting. Known as 'Maruti' or 'chutka gari' by the staff. They are 1350hp Bo-Bo locos with the same 6-cylinder inline engine (Alco 251D-6 variant) and traction motors (4), and hood superstructure, as the YDM-4 locos, with a WDM-2 underframe. The power rating of the YDM-4 powerpack is too low to haul anything more than very small rakes, so it's not clear exactly what IR had in mind when these locos were designed and built. Perhaps they were to take on short-haul commuter and suburban services, a task which the DMUs and MEMUs have proved good at. The Bo-Bo bogies of these locos are of a fabricated design, similar to those seen on the WDP-1, apparently not related to any other diesel loco bogies found on IR although perhaps loosely based on the Flexicoil models. 153

Comparative Specifications

WDM–7 (Class name carried over from old system.) Fifteen of these locos were built from June 1987 through 1989. A few were at Erode earlier but later all were transferred to Ernakulam. More recently [8/02-11/02] several (#11003/06/07/08/09/13) have been seen being used as shunters at Chennai Central or for light passenger haulage. Some are now in Golden Rock livery while others are still in Ernakulam livery. A few may [11/02] still be at Ernakulam, but it appears that all are destined to be moved to Chennai or Golden Rock to work odd jobs. These Co-Co diesel-electrics were designed for branch-line duties (top speed 105km/h). They have bodies with two 3-axle bogies and are similar to the WDM-2 in appearance. The powerpack is a 12-cylinder Alco 251B unit. They are now used mostly for shunting, and occcasional branch-line duties on the Trivandrum - Kottayam, Cochin - Alleppey, and Cochin - Trivandrum sections. The first 10 have generators and a top speed of 105km/h. The last 5 in this series have dynamic brakes, alternators, and a top speed of 100km/h. Both batches have a 94:17 gear ratio. Brief Notes
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Builders: DLW Engine: Alco 251B-12 variant, 2000hp Transmission: Electric, with BHEL TG 10931 AZ generator — DC shunt wound (first 10), or BHEL TA 10105 AZ alternators — 3 phase star (the last 5) Gear ratio: 94:17 Fuel capacity: 5000l

Comparative Specifications

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WDP–1 (Class name carried over from old system.) A poor adaptation of the WDM-2 intended for hauling commuter trains with small numbers of coaches, this model never performed well and has always had a lot of ride quality and maintenance problems. With a 12-cylinder engine and low overall weight, the decision was made to use a Bo-Bo wheelset for it, unsual for IR diesels. These locos have a left-hand driving position in the cab and thus are often manned by a single driver when working long hood forward (the left-hand position enables easy token collection by the driver). Homed at Tughlakabad and Vijaywada. Used mostly for ordinary passenger trains. Rated at 2300hp. Bo-Bo fabricated bogies. Produced from April 1995, last loco on March 26, 1999. WDP-1 locos are excepted from the new mainline diesel classification scheme and will remain known as WDP-1 and not WDP-2C or some such.
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Builders: DLW Engine: Alco 251C-12 variant, 2300hp, with Napier NA 295 or ABB VTC304 turbocharger. 1000rpm max / 400rpm idle. Fuel injection, cooling, fans, governor as with WDM-2. 228mmx266mm bore/stroke. 12.5:1 compression ratio. Transmission: Electric, with BHEL TA 10106 AZ alternator (1000rpm, 750V, 4200A). Axle Load: 20t. Wheelset: Bo-Bo fabricated bogies (an odd design, shared with the WDM-6, apparently loosely based on the Flexicoil models). Starting TE: 20t at 25% adhesion. Length over buffer beams: 14810mm Distance between bogies: 8800mm

Comparative Specifications

WDP–2(Class name carried over from old system, new name WDP-3A.) New 3100hp dedicated passenger diesel loco. Twin full-forward cabs, streamlined design, Alco 251-C V-16 power unit, with an ABB/GE turbo supercharger and provided with an electronic governor to control the engine's power output. The first one, #15501, rolled out in October 1998. Used on KR (e.g., Trivandrum Rajdhani) ,some SR sections [8/00] (Chennai Egmore - Kanyakumari) and NR. Rated top speed is 160km/h (in both directions). Two-stage suspension with Flexicoil Mark IV fabricated bogies (Co-Co). Air-braked. The WDP-2A variant is essentially the same, but with dual brakes. The new class name for these is WDP-3A.
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Builders: DLW Engine: Alco 251C-16 (upgraded by DLW), 3100hp. 1050rpm max / 400rpm idle. Napier NA 295 IR or ABB VTC304-15 turbocharger. 228mm x 266mm bore/stroke, 12.5:1 compression ratio. Unit fuel injection. Cooling system has centrifugal pump with 3785l/min capacity @ 900rpm; fan driven by an AC motor, 35kW. Transmission: Electric, with BHEL TA 10102 BW alternator (1050rpm, 1130V, 4400A) Axle Load: 19.5t. Bogies: Co-Co Flexicoil Mark 5 (fabricated bogie frame and bolster assembly) 155

Comparative Specifications WDP–3(Class name carried over from old system.) Prototype design with WDP-1 power-pack and Co-Co wheelset; never entered serial production. (1996) It's not clear how widely the class name 'WDP-3' was applied to this design, since it never entered service, but some documents refer to it in this way and we have followed that practice since this prototype design fills an otherwise empty slot in the WDP series. (However, note that WDP-3A is the new class name for what used to be known as the WDP-2 -- see above.) Comparative Specifications

WDP–4These are GM EMD GT46PAC locos. Starting in June 2001, 10 of them (#20000 to #20009) were provided by GM, operating out of Hubli (but frequently seen at Guntakal, Gooty, Bangalore and Secunderabad). In April 2002 DLW started producing these locomotives with 20011, 20013 and 20014 being assembled from completely knocked down kits. 20012 was the first indigenously manufactured WDP-4 and features a modified fibre glass shell over the standard cab. DLW had plans only for these 5 in its first production batch, but started to produce them in large numbers starting in late 2003. These are 4000hp locos with the 16-cylinder EMD 16-710 (16-V-710G3B-EC) turbocharged engines (AC-AC transmission) with unit fuel injection. The fabricated underframe has a rigid design. The bogies are GM's light-weight cast HTSC bogies similar to those of WDG-4 locos but meant for passenger use. (See the WDG-4 notes for some more information.) The bogies are said to have a 'million mile' overhaul interval because of a reduction in the number of wearing surfaces. The suspension is a two-stage suspension. They have an interesting Bo1-1Bo wheel arrangement. At 119t they are 7t lighter than the WDG-4 because they have 2 fewer traction motors. Max. speed 160km/h, although in trials it is said to have been run at speeds up to 180km/h. However, in most cases today [2/05] the loco is restricted to 110km/h or so since it used for hauling heavier 24-coach passenger trains. Factor of adhesion is claimed to be around 32% (all-weather). The EM2000 onboard microprocessor system provides a flexible and expandable control system with complete self-diagnostic and unit history features. The cab body is made of fibreglass. It is expected that these will need to return to their home sheds only once in about 90 days for regular maintenance. However, the links at Hubli [1/05] are such that these end up being 'home' every 15 days in any case. Indigenization has proceeded well with many components being made in India now: motors by Crompton, alternators by Kirloskar, etc. Unusually for IR locos, the DLW-built WDP-4's have cab air-conditioning factory-installed. However, the Hubli shed apparently discourages the use of the air-conditioning equipment for fear it affects fuel consumption adversely [10/04]. 156

Starting in April 2005, these locos were allocated in large numbers to Krishnarajpuram shed of the SWR with Siliguri in the NFR receiving a few locos in late 2006. [12/08] More sheds are expected to home these locos, but currently, along with Hubli, these are the only sheds that handle this class. The current holding of all sheds combined is 75+. #20040 homed at KJM shed is the first IGBT based WDP-4. The traction conversion system was supplied by Siemens.
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Builders: GM EMD, DLW Engine: GM-EMD 16-710, 4000hp Transmission: Electric (AC - AC), GM components? Weight: 118t Tractive Effort: 27.0t (264.8kN). Some sources say 27.5t (269.8kN) Brake horsepower: 3939hp Engine rpm: 950 Weight: 118t Fuel tank capacity: 6000l

A 24-coach (1430t) passenger rake can be accelerated to 110km/h in 1020 seconds (over 25.7km) by a WDP-4. Comparative Specifications WDP–4B These locos are modified versions of the WDG-4 class locos, used for passenger operations. They have a reduced axle load of 20.2t (compared to the WDG-4's 21t axle load), achieved mainly by trimming the weight of the underframe. The gear ratio is 17:77, horsepower rating of 4500hp (brake horsepower 4150hp), and the maximum tractive effort is 384.4kN. It has an operational design speed of 130km/h and a maximum speed of 150km/h. All other features are essentially the same as with the WDG-4. Please see the WDG-4 class information for more details on this loco. Initially two prototypes of the WDP-4B class were built using components for the WDP-4 class loco were built (#20047, #20075 - in the number series for the WDP-4 class). Serial production of these locos began in March 2010. Note that although the class designation makes it seem like a minor variant of the WDP-4 class, it has significant differences from it, being much closer to the WDG-4 class. In particular, the WDP-4 has 4 PAC traction motors (Bo-Bo) whereas the WDP-4B has 6 traction motors (Co-Co). In addition, the traction motors have individual inverters, so that in the case of one inverter failing, 5 traction motors are still available, allowing the loco to reach its destination under reduced power. The WDP-4B also has a provision for an inverter-driven head-end power unit, allowing running trains without a generating car (EOG) for hotel power. Comparative Specifications WDG–1 Non-existent!! :-) There does not appear to have been a WDG-1 class; Jal Daboo's book and some other documents refer to such a loco class, but that class is what was later classified as the WDG-4. (There was originally no WDG-3 either, in the old classification scheme. But with the new classification scheme there are of course new classes in the WDG-3 series.) WDG-3A / WDG–2(Old class name was WDG-2, new class name is WDG-3A.) This 3100hp model was developed in response to problem areas noted with the WDM-2, such as ride quality, 157

lateral oscillations, and poor traction with heavy loads. Power-pack is the same as that of the WDP-2.

First loco delivered on July 18, 1995. A WDG-3A / WDG-2 can haul about 3000 tonnes on ordinary gradients. Shares bogie design with WCAG-1, WCAM-3, WAG-7 (high-adhesion trucks). They are the most common goods locos seen on KR. The gear ratio is 74:18. Most of these are air-braked, but some (e.g., at Pune) are being retrofitted with vacuum brakes to make them dual-braked to handle the vacuum-braked freight stock (TP, TK petroleum tankers between Loni petrol depot and Miraj; some BCX rakes, etc.). Balancing speed of 69km/h with a 58 BOXN wagon load. Max. speed 100km/h. The WDG-2A variants are dual-braked. Some older WDG-3A units were made with left-hand-side driving position in the cab. [7/02] Newer units of the class are being fitted with microprocessor governors. The first of these variants, Garuda (#14951) is at Gooty. One WDG-3A, #14944 at Erode, has an air-conditioned cabin.
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Builders: DLW Engine: Alco 251C-16 upgraded by DLW, 3100hp. 1050rpm max / 400rpm idle. Fuel injection, cooling, fan, bore/stroke as with WDM-2C. Compression ratio 12.5:1. NAP NA2951R or ABB VTC304-15 turbo-supercharger. Transmission: Electric, with BHEL TA 10102 CW alternator (1050rpm, 1130V, 4400A). Axle Load: 20.5t; total weight 123t. Bogies: Alco High-Adhesion Co-Co fabricated bogies Starting TE:37.9t at 30.8% adhesion. Length over buffer beams: 17850mm Distance between bogies: 11500mm

Comparative Specifications WDG–3B : A few locos are known to carry this class marking (4 units at at Gooty [2/05] in a distinctive blue-cream livery, some seen around Bangalore too). Thought to be an upgraded version of the WDG-2 (WDG-3A), but details are not known. Numbered in the #149xx range. Comparative Specifications WDG–3C : New 3300hp loco with microprocessor governor from DLW. First of class is [8/02] at New Katni Jn., named 'Cheetah', #14962 (plate DG-3A-465, May, 2002). Upgraded powerpack on basic WDG-2 model. Fabricated High-Adhesion bogies. 158

Comparative Specifications WDG–3D : [8/02] New 3400hp loco with microprocessor governor from DLW. Upgraded Alco powerpack with basic WDG-2 model; microprocessor governor, creep control, improved cab ergonomics. Improved components and auxiliaries geared towards a longer period between scheduled maintenance jobs. Comparative Specifications

WDG–4 New dedicated goods diesel locos. These are GM's GT46MAC models. First units were imported in 1999 (13 fully built, 8 in kit form). Now [4/02] DLW has begun local production; 3 have been built and a further 25 or so were built in 2002. As of [1/06] 60+ units have been built. The loco shed at Hubli has been modified to handle these; initially all will be based at Hubli and will be used to haul mineral ore freight from Bellary or Hospet to Vasco da Gama. The locos are rated at 4000hp and use 3-phase AC traction motors. They can start a load of 58 BOXN wagons on a 1 in 150 grade and have a balancing speed of 85km/h for such a load on level track. Max. speed is 100km/h. They can be MU'd with up to 4 units operating in tandem. Gear ratio 85:16. Axle load 21 tonnes. They have an evaporation-bath-cooled converter system, and the Siemens SIBAS 16 traction control system. The locos also have slip-control mechanisms. They are expected to have lower maintenance costs, as they need to return to the home shed only once in 90 days instead of every 7-10 days as with the earlier diesels. Fuel costs are also about 20% lower than with the WDM-2. [1/05] Earlier plans to home more of these at Golden Rock seem to have been dropped; instead more are expected to go to the northeast (Siliguri? New Alipurduar?). The first units from GM were #12001-12013 manufactured between 7/97 and 9/98; followed by a second order (#12014-12021) manufactured around 12/98. The first unit, #12001, has been seen often [1/05] in a green-black livery with no IR markings and instead '9001 / General Motors' painted on it.
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Builders: GM, DLW Engine: GM-EMD 16-710 G3B, 4000hp, with EMD 'G' turbocharger. WW PGR governor. Unit fuel injection, centrifugal pump as with WDP-2, cooling and fan as in WDP-2. Transmission: Electric with TA-17-CA6A alternator, 900rpm, 2200V AC / 3000V DC, 1600A AC, 2100A DC. Wheelsets: Co-Co bogies Starting TE:55t at 41% adhesion. Length over buffer beams: 19964mm Distance between bogies: 13888mm (? or 13666mm?) 159

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Weight: 128t Fuel tank capacity: 6000l

Comparative Specifications A modified version of this loco with reduced weight is designated WDP-4B and is used for hauling passenger trains. WDS–1These are significant as the first widely deployed and successful diesel locos in India. The original locos of this class were a batch of 15 built by GE and supplied by USATC in 194445. They had centre cabs and short and narrow hoods on either side, with two powerpacks (one under each hood). Most of these were with WR, although three units went to ER in 1945. They were very quiet in operation (in contrast to the WDS-2 locos, see below.) Some were working up till 1990 or so, when most were withdrawn or scrapped. Bo-Bo, twin 8-cylinder 4-stroke engines, 2 x 190hp. Comparative Specifications WDS–2 Krauss-Maffei supplied these o-C-o bogie diesel-hydraulic locos in 1954-1955. 8cylinder 4-stroke turbo-supercharged engine (MAN W8V-17.5/22A) with a Voith L37-V hydraulic transmission, delivering 440hp. Single cab placed asymmetrically (one hood short, one long). Most of these were with CR, and were known for being assigned to haul the 'Garbage Special' trains from Mahalaxmi to Chembur. These were very noisy in operation. Axle load 17.3t. Note: A few WDM-2 locos downgraded and used only for shunting duties are marked 'WDS-2', e.g., at the Kalyan shed, but this appears to be an error on the part of the shed. Comparative Specifications WDS–3Built by Mak GmbH in 1961, these are o-C-o bogie locos, with 8-cylinder 4-stroke turbo-supercharged engines. Side rod drives with Suri transmission. These were all rebuilt with new engines and transmissions and reclassified as WDS-4C in 1976-1978. 618hp. Comparative Specifications

WDS–4, WDS–4A, WDS–4BCLW produced some of these diesel-hydraulic locos beginning in 1967-1968, but bulk production began only in 1969. (Some of the later units were probably built at the Diesel Loco Works, Varanasi.) Wheel arrangement: 'C'. 6-cylinder 4-stroke turbosupercharged engines. WDS-4 models are rated at 600hp, WDS-4A at 660hp, and WDS-4B at 700hp. (The same power-pack is used on all the models, upgraded for each.) Many of these were used by public-sector units and some private companies for industrial uses. (These are the only IR locos in use today with hydraulic transmission.) WDS-4B numbers are shared in a range with WDS-4D locos. The first WDS-4A, #19057, named 'Indraprastha', was homed at Shakurbasti for a long time (still is [10/05]) but is due to be decommissioned and sent to the NRM shortly. Some WDS-4A locos (e.g., #19063) have over the course of time 'lost' their 160

sub-class marking and are marked simply as WDS-4 -- it's not clear whether this is just a sloppy job by the painters or indicates some real variation in the locos. Brief Notes
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Builders: CLW Engine: Mak/CLW 6M 282 A(K), slight variations and power differences for WDS-4A, WDS-4B, etc. Transmission: Mak-Suri 2-speed hydromechanical transmission (WDS-4), Voith hydraulic transmission (WDS-4A), Suri hydromechanical transmission (WDS-4B)

Comparative Specifications WDS–4CRebuilt WDS-3 locos with new engines (Mak/CLW 6M 282 A(K), 700hp) and Suri hydromechanical transmission, etc. in 1976-1978. Comparative Specifications WDS–4D700hp shunters. Numbers are in a range shared with the WDS-4B locos. Made by CLW with Mak/CLW 6M 282 A(K) engines and Voith hydraulic transmission. Comparative Specifications

WDS–5A model based on an Alco design (DL531B), and erected by DLW. The loco has a flatended cab at one end. Appearance: On the whole it is somewhat bigger than the WDS-6, and with a round fuel tank instead of the integrated body fuel tank that the WDS-6 has. Co-Co, 6-cylinder 4-stroke turbo-supercharged engine (Alco 251B-6, 1065hp), electric transmission. Some of these were used for industrial shunting. A few are [6/03] at Mughalsarai and Bondamunda sheds. Comparative Specifications

WDS–6 Heavy-haul shunters made in large numbers for industrial concerns as well as for IR, starting in 1975. These locos consist of the YDM-4 powerpack (6-cylinder 4-stroke inline Alco engine, turbo-supercharged) placed on WDM-2 frames. Same bogies as the WDM-2, WAM-4, WCAM-1 locos (Alco cast asymmetric trimount bogies). 1200/1350hp net (1400hp gross). Max. speed 62.5km/h. Several of them have a so-called 'creep control' system which allows them to be operated at a sustained speed of between 1 to 7 km/h for hauling special or heavy loads. 161

The first ten were numbered 19459-19468 but later renumbered as they were all allocated to public-sector industrial concerns. Many of the later units built for IR (as opposed to the earlier ones which went to the public-sector concerns in large numbers), numbered 36000 and above, are classed WDS-6R. A few locos of a variant design classified WDS-6SL were sent to Sri Lanka (Puttalam Cement Co.). Brief Notes
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Builders: DLW Engine: Alco 251D-6, 6 cylinder Transmission: Electric Wheelsets: Alco asymmetric cast Co-Co trimount bogies. Axle load: 21 tons.

Comparative Specifications WCDS–6 'C'='Converted'. These are MG locomotivs (YDM-4) converted by Golden Rock Workshops to broad gauge by swapping in BG bogies and underframes. The power-pack, radiator, generator, and electrical controls are retained from the MG loco; new water and air lines are added. The modified engines have an improved control stand and a dual-brake system. These locos are targeted at large industrial concerns. The first one was delivered on April 1 by Golden Rock to RITES. Comparative Specifications WDS–8Only five of these were made, and all were transferred to steel works (no IR numbers). Short cab and single long, narrow hood. The cab appears to have been the same design as used for some of CLW's electric locos. MAK 800hp diesel engine. Comparative Specifications DLW Works ShuntersDLW built a few low-power (250 hp??) diesel-hydraulic works shunters for use at ICF, CLW, and DLW. Three were built for BG in 1966-67, and two more with the same equipment for MG in 1967 or so. Of the two MG units, one was later converted to BG. It is unknown whether there was another MG unit which would account for a skip in serial numbers. #19053 was used at DLW itself, #19054 at ICF, and #19055 at CLW. Comparative Specifications

Battery Locomotives
NBM–1Battery-electric locomotives used by CR on the Gwalior lines. These were built by BHEL in 1987; only three units were built. Comparative Specifications BBCIThe BB&CI Railway had two battery-powered shunters for use in yards at Bombay. There were only two of this class, and they were imported from the UK in 1927. 162

Comparative Specifications

AC Electric Locomotives
WAM–1

Early 2800 hp SNCF design for 25kV AC, with ignitron rectifiers. Introduced in 1959, they were mostly deployed by ER in the Howrah-Asansol-Dhanbad-Mughalsarai section. They were less frequently found 'upstream' in the Delhi-Kanpur-Mughalsarai section, and in the IgatpuriBhusaval section of the Central Railway. Mostly used for non-express passenger trains, but some were used double-headed for freight service. Some were still [12/98] in operation on ER (Sealdah-Lalgola passenger, etc.). WAM-1's are significant in the history of electric traction in India as they were among the first AC electrics to run in India. Like the WAG-1's, some of their advanced features turned out to be unsuitable for Indian conditions. Manufactured by Kraus-Maffei, Krupp, SFAC, La Brugeoise & Nivelle (50 cycles European group). Ignitron rectifiers feeding four DC traction motors accepting pulsating current input. Motors are connected to the axles by a Jacquemin drive. Speed control by tap-changer on input transformer (motors permanently wired in parallel). Superstructure mounted on bogies with pendular suspension with equalizer beams. Electricals from ACEC, AEG, Alstom, Brown Boveri, Siemens and others. B-B (monomotor bogies). Jeumont transformer (20 taps), Oerlikon exhauster, Arno rotary converter. Air loco brakes, vacuum train brakes.
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Manufacturers: Kraus-Maffei, Krupp, SFAC, La Brugeoise & Nivelle (50 cycles European group) Traction Motors: Siemens/ACEC/Alstom MG 710A (740hp, 1250V, 480A, 1000 rpm, weight 2750kg). Fully suspended, force-ventilated. Rectifiers: Four water-cooled ignitrons from SGT, each rated for 575kW / 1250V. Pantographs: Two Faiveley AM-12.

Comparative Specifications WAM–22790hp Mitsubishi locos. The first batch of 10 locos had air brakes for the loco and vacuum train brakes, and the second batch of 26 had only vacuum brakes. These have not been retrofitted with air train brakes, hence today they haul only local passenger trains. These were used on ER, and sometimes ran all the way to New Delhi via Kanpur. They were also used double-headed for freight trains. Four traction motors permanently coupled in parallel are fed by 163

ignitron rectifiers. Speed control is by a tap changer on the input transformer. Mitsubishi transformer, 20 taps. Oerlikon exhauster and compressor, Arno rotary converter.
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Manufacturers: Mitsubishi Traction Motors: Mitsubishi MB 3045-A (745hp, 725V, 815A, 1000 rpm, weight 2200kg). Rectifiers: Mitsubishi water-cooled ignitrons (GU 31), rated at 725V / 390A. Pantographs: Two Faiveley AM-12.

Comparative Specifications WAM–3[2/00] Only two of these locos existed (both at Asansol, #20333, #20337). These are basically the same as WAM-2 locos, but with reversed pantographs and Mitsubishi traction motors from a different batch, and silicon rectifiers instead of ignitrons. They came along with the second batch of (26) WAM-2 locos. These were used to haul the Kalka Mail, Toofan Exp., Amritsar Exp. at first, and then when the WAM-4P and other variants arrived they were relegated to hauling lower priority trains such as the Sealdah-Lalgola Pass. or the Howrah-Azimgunj Pass., among others. By Jan. 2000, they were relegated to shunting duties at the Asansol shed.
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Manufacturers: Mitsubishi Traction Motors: Mitsubishi MB 3045-A (745hp, 725V, 815A, 1000 rpm, weight 2200kg). Rectifiers: Two Silicon , type SF-0C20R (725V / 2260kW), rectifier cell SR200F, weight 2400kg with auxiliaries. Pantographs: Two Faiveley AM-12.

Comparative Specifications

WAM–4The problems with the WAM-1 series prompted IR to come up with better models, and after some variations, the WAM-4 model was produced, the first indigenously designed and built electric loco (first units delivered by CLW in 1970-71). They were produced until about 1997. They use the same Alco asymmetric trimount bogies as the successful WDM-2 diesel class. These locos feature rheostatic braking, and MU capability. They have silicon rectifiers. MU operation up to 4 units possible. Air brakes for loco and vacuum train brakes fitted as original equipment. Rheostatic braking also provided. Speed control by three series-parallel motor combinations and weak field operation. Auxiliaries from Westinghouse and Kirloskar (compressors), S F India (blowers), Northey (exhauster), etc. This class proved so successful by virtue of its ruggedness suitable for Indian conditions and simplicity of maintenance, that IR used this basic design for a number of other locos later 164

(WCAM-1, WAG-5A, WCG-2, and some WAP models). WAM-4B's were regeared versions for freight use and many were later modified and converted to other classes (See below). WAM-4P locos are intended for passenger operations, with some regearing and usually allowing all-parallel operation of some or all of the traction motors. The WAM-4P loco is still among the most heavily used electric locos of IR. A single WAM-4 can generally haul up to a 24-coach passenger rake. This loco class has been seen in many variations, as a lot of workshops and sheds have carried out their own enhancements or modifications to the basic loco design. Variants include WAM4P D (dual brakes), WAM-4P R, WAM-4P DB 6P, WAM-4 6P DB HS, and WAM-4 6P D (these are for superfast trains), WAM-4P DB 3P and WAM-4 2S-3P (some superfasts, passengers), and WAM-4P DB 4P (generally for stopping passengers). The 'DB' or 'D' generally, but perhaps not always, indicates dual-brake capability. 'HS' may be for 'high speed'. '2S', '3P', '6P', etc. indicate traction motors connected in series or parallel. The WAM-4 has six traction motors, and originally they were wired to be available in different configurations at different power settings. At notches up to 14, all motors were in series (at notch 14 all resistors dropping out); up to notch 21 in series-parallel combinatons (three pairs of motors in series, the pairs themselves being in parallel); and further notches with all motors in paralell (at notch 30 all motors are in parallel with resistors dropping out). This is the original configuration of the WCAM-x series of locos too. The WAM-4 locos were later reconfigured to have all motors always in parallel (6P variants) or with the three series-connected pairs in parallel (2S 3P variants). Some WAM-4 locos from CLW are thought to have had the 2S 3P configuration right from the start. The 2S 3P configuration was better for the mixed traffic loads especially as it allowed the locos to start hauling larger loads without stalling. With increasing use of the WAM4 locos for passenger traffic the all-parallel configuration was deemed more desirable since it allowed higher speeds and higher acceleration. Some other odd combinations of these suffixes have been sighted, such as WAM 4+6P+DB+HS and WAM4 6P-E (?? is this one air-braked or dual-braked?). A goods version of the WAM-4 is classified WAM-4G. WAM-4H is a variant with Hitachi motors. The WAM-4E is purely airbraked. All these locos share bogie design with WCAM-1, WAG-5, WDM-2, and WCG-2 (Alco cast trimount bogie). Although the code indicates a mixed-use loco, most WAM-4's ended up hauling passenger trains. They have been used for regularly hauling freight only in a few locations (Arakkonam - Renigunta, Kirandul-Kottavalasa and other SER sections). Max. speed 110km/h. [1/05] Most of the WAM-4 locos now have their MU capability disabled as RDSO disapproves of these locos running MU'd over 100km/h. WAG-5 / WAG-5B locos with road numbers 21101 to 21138 all used to be WAM-4B locos. They were regeared and modified to be suitable for hauling heavier freight loads. A few WAM4s have been fitted for OHE monitoring by the Itarsi shed. They have CCTV cameras mounted on top of the headlamp assembly pointing towards the OHE and a separate lamp to illuminate the OHE. Monitors are installed inside the cabs. These locos even have rear view mirrors.
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Manufacturers: CLW Traction Motors: Alstom TAO 659 A1 (575kW, 750V). Six motors, axle-hung, nosesuspended, force-ventilated. Gear Ratio: 15:62 originally (and still for WAM-4 2S3P), now many variations, 21:58 being common for WAM-4 6P locos.. 165

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Transformer: Heil BOT 3460 A, 22.5kV / 3460kVA. Rectifiers: Two silicon rectifier cells, 1270V / 1000A each cubicle. Pantographs: Two Faiveley AM-12. Axle load: 18.8t Bogies: Alco asymmetric trimount (Co-Co), same as with WDM-2, WDS-6, etc. Hauling capacity: 2010t Current Ratings: (WAM-4 6P) 1100A/10min, 750A continuous

Comparative Specifications

WAP–1 Built by CLW to RDSO specifications. First in the dedicated electric passenger loco series. Production began in 1980 and the locos were at first used solely for the Howrah-Delhi Rajdhani. A single WAP-1 (#22001) was all that was needed to haul the 18-coach Rajdhani at a max. speed of 120 km/h. and an average speed of around 82km/h. Continuous power 3760hp; starting TE 22.2t, continuous TE 13.8t. Loco weight is 112.8t. The original WAP-1 locos were modified and regeared versions of the WAM-4, originally classified WAM-4R. Rated max. speed is 130km/h (some documents suggest 140km/h). Some (5?) with Flexicoil Mark II bogies were classified WAP-1 FM II and later WAP-3. Two WAP-1 units were also converted to WAP-6. [10/02] One of them, #22212, the first prototype WAP-6, was then converted to a WAP-4 and was based at Jhansi (now [8/03] at Mughalsarai). Many remaining WAP-1's are being converted to WAP-4's by a complete retrofit including new traction motors, new transformers, etc. These upgrades do not result in the 'R' suffix in the road number that is typical for rebuilt locos. Ghaziabad shed locos are currently [1/05] the only ones not scheduled for such upgrades and are expected to remain as 'pure' WAP-1 units. The WAP-1E has only air brakes. Earlier WAP-1's had loco air brakes and vacuum train brakes but were retrofitted for dual train brakes. Motors are grouped in 2S-3P combination and weak field operation is available. Elgi compressors, Northey exhausters, S F India blowers. The locos were originally not designed for MU operation but were later modified to allow MU'ing.
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Manufacturers: CLW Traction Motors: Alstom/CLW - TAO 659 (575kW (770hp), 750V, 1095 rpm) Axlehung, nose-suspended, force-ventilated. Gear Ratio: 58:21 Transformer: BHEL type HETT-3900, 3900 kVA. 32 taps. Rectifiers: Two silicon rectifiers, with S18FN35 cells (by Hind Rectifier) with 64 cells per unit. 2700A/1050V. Axle load: 18.8t. Bogies: Co-Co Flexicoil (cast steel bogies); primary and secondary wheel springs with bolsters 166

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Pantographs: Two Faiveley AM-12. Current Ratings: 900A/10min

Comparative Specifications WAP–2Regeared versions of some WAM-2 (perhaps also WAM-3?) locos, fitted into a WAP-1 shell. Bogies were improved versions of the WAM-2 bogies, allowing for somewhat higher speeds. These locos were found only on ER. On rare occasions these locos were used to haul the Howrah Raj in the early 1980s. There are thought to have been only 4 of these, and they were decommissioned in the late 1980s. Comparative Specifications

WAP–3A variant of the WAP-1, originally classified WAP-1 FMII, produced in 1987 by CLW. There were 5 of these converted from WAP-1 locos. The first WAP-3 "Jawahar", #22005, Jan. 4, 1987) was used for the Taj Exp. for some time. Essentially the same as WAP-1 but with different Flexicoil bogies (Flexicoil Mark II for the earlier ones, and Flexicoil Mark 4 (fabricated bogies) for some of the later ones, etc.). These locos could only haul 19-coach rakes for the Rajdhani and other prestigious Express trains for which they had been designed, and further required assisting locos on moderately graded sections, and so did not meet their design goals. Max. speed 140km/h. Note: All units have been converted back to the 'WAP-1' class (since about 1997?). #22003, #22005 were among the first to be so converted and and are still [7/02] in use.
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Manufacturers: CLW Traction Motors: Alstom/CLW - TAO 659 (575kW (770hp), 750V, 1095 rpm) Axlehung, nose-suspended, force-ventilated. Transformer: BHEL type HETT-3900, 3900 kVA. 32 taps. Rectifiers: Two silicon rectifiers, with S18FN35 cells (by Hind Rectifier) with 64 cells per unit. 2700A/1050V. Axle load: 18.8t. Bogies: Co-Co Fabricated bogie assembly (Flexicoil Mark II and later Mark IV; the latter are somewhat similar to Alco's HiAd bogies). Pantographs: Two Faiveley AM-12.

Comparative Specifications

167

WAP–4Variant of WAP-1 with Hitachi H5 15250 motors (built by CLW), built in 1994 to RDSO specifications. The need to run longer passenger trains (24 to 26 coaches as against the 19-coach capacity of the WAP-1 / WAP-3 locos), and also to eliminate the need for bankers in graded sections (e.g., the busy Itarsi-Nagpur section) led RDSO to consider an upgraded design of the WAP-1 loco and the WAP-4 loco design was published in November 1993. Indigenously designed, higher power rated silicon rectifiers and indigenously-designed 5400kVA transformer. Locomotive reliability is also increased by the use of Hitachi traction motors. Air brakes for loco and train. Different underframe design to handle larger buffing loads. Cast bogie, Flexicoil Mark 1 design. Weight kept to 112t by the use of aluminium plates, thinner underframe, and reducing some components such as sanders. Motors grouped in 6P combination; weak field operation possible. [2/00] New versions of these with twin-beam headlights, speed recorders and some changes to the control electronics have been rolling out recently [7/00]. WAP-4E are most likely just regular WAP-4 locos from the Vadodara shed. The 'E' suffix is thought to come from the short-lived RDSO directive to denote all air-braked locos and is redundant with the WAP-4 locos (e.g., WAP-1E). There is speculation that some of these locomotives may have some additional features such as an electronic sensor for detecting loss of pressure in brake pipes (hence, sometimes the 'E' suffix is explained as 'electronic', although this seems unlikely). More recently [1/05] many of these have been fitted with train-parting / pressure loss alarms, and data recorders for speed, energy consumption, etc. All the new ones have roof mounted twin beam headlights, square WAP-5 type windscreens and a digital notch repeater along with a better layout and good seats for the drivers. Some [12/04] even have windshield washers. A few were provided with signalling lamps on the sides but this does not have seem to have continued with the newer units. [1/03] Although these are officially rated at 140km/h, there are reports that one or more of these have been tested by CLW at up to 169.5km/h. As of [11/04] this class is still in production at CLW. Note on the traction motors : The Alstom-designed 770hp TAO motors used in the WAP-1 and WAP-3 were seen as the weak link in the reliability of the locos for passenger train use. At the time, Hitachi motors of 840hp were in use on freight locos and had very high reliability, but adapting them for use with a passenger loco proved a formidable challenge because of the weight constraints. The WAP-4 design efforts involved many modifications for weight reduction, including a lighter underframe, aluminium foil-wound transformer, and the use of aluminium chequered plates, and these have allowed the use of the heavier, but more powerful and more reliable Hitachi motors on the WAP-4 locos.
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Manufacturers: CLW Traction Motors: Hitachi HS15250 (630kW, 750V, 900A. 895rpm. Weight 3500kg). Axle-hung, nose-suspended, force ventilated, taper roller bearings. Gear Ratio: 23:58 (One loco, #22559, is said to have a 23:59 ratio.) Transformer: 5400kVA, 32 taps Rectifiers: Two silicon rectifiers, (ratings?). Axle load: 18.8t. Bogies: Co-Co Flexicoil Mark 1 cast bogies; primary and secondary wheel springs with bolsters Pantographs: Two Stone India (Calcutta) AM-12. Current Ratings: 1000A/10min, 900A continuous Tractive Effort: 30.8t 168

A 24-coach (1430t) passenger rake can be accelerated to 110km/h in 338 seconds (over 6.9km) by a WAP-4; to 120km/h in 455 sec. (10.5km); and to 130km/h in 741 sec. (20.5km). Comparative Specifications

WAP–5 This class started with a batch of 10 locos (#30000-30010, skipping #30008) imported from ABB / AdTranz in 1995 (Actually 11 were imported but one (#30008) was damaged by fire in transit and deemed unusable on arrival. It was then used as a bank of spare parts for the others.) These are among the few currently [5/99] with IR to have an advanced design with GTO thyristor converters and 3-phase asynchronous motors. CLW has been manufacturing the motors since Feb. 24, 2000. Rated top speed is 160km/h, although in trials a WAP-5 loco is said to have been run at 184km/h. Continuous power at wheel rim is 4000kW (5450hp). A WAP-5 can take a 24-coach passenger train to 110km/h in 324 seconds. Wheel arrangement is Bo-Bo. Auxiliaries from ABB, Howden Safanco, BEHR, etc. [1/03] Although these are officially rated at 160km/h, one of these has been tested by CLW at up to 184km/h. These locos are intended for use with high-speed medium load trains such as the Rajdhani and Shatabdi trains, in contrast to the WAP7 (see below) which is more powerful but which is intended for lower-speed haulage of heavier trains. Other notable features of this loco are the provision of taps from the main loco transformers for hotel load, pantry loads, flexible gear coupling, wheel-mounted disc brakes, and a potential for speed enhancement to 200km/h. 78t weight. Braking systems include regenerative braking (160kN), loco disc brakes, automatic train air brakes, and a charged spring parking brake. MU operation possible with a maximum of two locos. [2/00] Currently, [9/03] four indigenous WAP-5's from CLW (first one built May 17, 2000) with somewhat different contours, and electricals from BHEL, are homed at Ghaziabad shed. (#30011 'Navodit', #30012, 'Navajagaran', #30013 'Navakriti', and #30014). Being homed at sheds in the north, they are understandably in use for northern routes, but recently [12/01] some have been spotted regularly as far south as Chennai. In 2000, plans were announced for variants with 6000hp power and 200km/h capability to be manufactured, but nothing has been heard since on that front. After the first four were built by CLW, there seems to have been a pause in the manufacture of this class at CLW, and as of [11/04], more were expected to be produced but it was not known when production would resume. A problem with the Hurth coupling and its indigenous replacement seem to have been part of the delay, but the locally manufactured components have now [12/04] passed trials. Air-conditioning: The original design called for these locos to have air-conditioned cabs. This, however, has been dogged by controversy over costs and fitment, and the first units made by CLW do not have air-conditioned cabs. One of the ABB units, #30000, does have airconditioning, fitted by the Ghaziabad shed as an experiment. The Ghaziabad shed may be planning to retrofit some of its other WAP-5 locos with air-conditioning. 169

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Manufacturers: ABB / CLW Traction Motors: ABB's 6FXA 7059 3-phase squirrel cage induction motors (1150kW, 2180V, 370/450A, 1583/3147 rpm) Weight 2050kg. Forced-air ventilation, fully suspended. Torque 6930/10000Nm. 96% efficiency. Gear Ratio: 67:35:17. (3-stage gears) Transformer: ABB's LOT-7500. 7475kVA primary, 4x1450kVA secondary. Power Drive: Power convertor from ABB, type UW-2423-2810 with SG 3000G X H24 GTO thyristors (D 921S45 T diodes), 14 thyristors per unit (two units). Line convertor rated at 2 x 1269V @ 50Hz, with DC link voltage of 2180V. Drive convertor rated at 2180V phase to phase, 953A output current per phase, motor frequency from 0 to 160Hz. Axle load: 19.5t Bogies: Bo-Bo Henschel Flexifloat; bogie centre distance 10200mm; bogie wheel base 2800mm Unsprung mass per axle: 2.69t Pantographs: Two Stone India (Calcutta) AN-12. Wheel diameter: 1092mm new, 1016mm worn Wheel base: 13000mm Length over buffers: 18162mm Length over headstocks: 19280mm Body width: 3142mmn Cab length: 2434mm Pantograph locked down height: 4537mm Tractive Effort: 26.3t

A 24-coach (1430t) passenger rake can be accelerated to 110km/h in 312 seconds (over 6km) by a WAP-5; to 120km/h in 402 sec. (6.9km); and to 130km/h in 556 sec. (14.2km).

Comparative Specifications

WAP–6[12/08] All locos in the class have been converted to WAP-4. This class was really a variant of the WAP-4 design. One or two prototypes were built early from existing WAP-1 or WAP-4 locos without renumbering. WAP-4 #22212 (formerly a WAP-1) was the first to be converted to a WAP-6; it was provided with Flexicoil bogies and other upgrades. Later this particular loco was later converted back to a WAP-4 (and even refitted with the standard WAP-4 bogies). Curiously, it spent a long time with both class codes WAP-4 and WAP-6 on it. Later, more WAP-1 locos were regeared and provided with high-adhesion fabricated bogies (Flexicoil Mark IV) which are somewhat similar to the Alco Hi-Adhesion bogies. About 16 (perhaps more) of these were built (All in the number series 22400-22416.) Of railfan interest is the fact that some of them reveal their origins in the form of the old WAP-4 class code being still evident -often a '6' is crudely repainted over the '4' which is still visible.

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They were intended for service at 160km/h but failed trials and were restricted to a top speed of 105km/h. They were then used for less prestigious trains such as the Amritsar Exp., Doon Exp., or Janata Expresses. The remaining ones (thought to be 13 in number) are now [4/02] homed at Asansol. It is reported [5/02] that some of these (perhaps only two, #22406, #22408) have been upgraded with better wheelsets, etc., so that they are now capable of higher speeds (max. 160km/h?). [1/05]One loco #22410 looks to have been converted to a WAP-4 and is now homed at Howrah. Air brakes for loco and train provided as original equipment. Auxiliaries from Best & Crommpton, S F India, Accel/Flakt, Elgi, etc It appears that the WAP-6 were a failed experiment in upgrading the basic WAP design using different Flexicoil bogies and other changes.. When the performance of these units proved unsatisfactory, IR switched to improving the WAP-4 loco and stuck to that design instead.
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Manufacturers: CLW Traction Motors: Hitachi HS15250 (See description under WAP-4.) Axle-hung, nosesuspended, force-ventilated. Gear Ratio: 58:23 Transformer: CCL make, aluminium coil. 5400kVA. 32 taps. Rectifiers: Two silicon rectifier cubicles. 2700A/1050V. Axle load: 18.8t. Bogies: Fabricated Flexicoil Mark IV bogies.

Comparative Specifications

WAP–7[11/00] Identical to WAG-9 (see below) with modified gear ratio (72:20) and application software. 140km/h (130km/h?) top speed. 6125hp max. power; 6000hp continuous at wheel rim. At 123t, it is much heavier than the 78t WAP-5. Intended to haul heavier, 26-coach passenger trains and passenger/parcel mixed trains. The first one, Navkiran, #30201, which was commissioned in 2000, is homed at Gomoh although it has been seen [8/00] at Ghaziabad as well. Initial models were rated at 6125hp total power and 33000 kgf (323kN) tractive effort. Modifications during continuing trials resulted in improved performance with the loco now yielding 6350hp total power and 36000 kgf (352.8kN) tractive effort. In the trial runs [7/02] the upgraded WAP-7 #30203 was shown able to take a 24-coach train to 110km/h in just 235 to 245 seconds (compare: 324 seconds for a WAP-5). Braking systems as in the WAP-5, with regenerative braking rated at 183kN in the first units and 260kN in the later ones.

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Earlier trials with WAP-7 locos had yielded times around 390 seconds for the same test, which had cast doubts on the future of this loco class which was designed to perform better than the WAP-5. After some trials with the Prayagraj Exp. in early 2002, now [11/02] the WAP-7 is being used to haul the 24-coach rake of ER's Poorva Exp. and will presumably soon be used for other trains as well. Max. tested speed is 160km/h, rated for 140km/h. Better performing variants of the WAP-7 have been under development [9/04]; changes are said to include higher capacity components (including the main transformer) to allow stall-free running on 1:100 gradients, and a higher tractive effort of 42000 kgf (411kN). Some of the units starting around #30212 are also thought to have some enhancements in comparison to the very first ones. [11/04] Other plans by CLW for this loco class are said to include the provision of IGBT control, greater automation of some control tasks, and in-cab signalling. MU operation possible with a maximum of two locos. The WAP-7 appears to have returned to the older (WAM, earlier WAP) style of pantograph with a single collector bar instead of the double collector bar used for the WAG-9.
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Manufacturers: CLW Traction Motors: 6FRA 6068 3-phase squirrel-cage induction motors (850kW, 2180V, 1283/2484 rpm, 270/310A. Weight 2100kg, forced-air ventilation, axle-hung, nosesuspended. Torque 6330/7140Nm. 95% efficiency.) Gear Ratio: 72:20 Axle load: 20.5t Wheel diameter: 1092mm new, 1016mm worn Wheel base: 15700mm Bogies: Co-Co, ABB bogies; bogie wheel base 1850mm + 1850mm Unsprung mass per axle: 3.984t Length over buffers: 20562mm Length over headstocks: 19280mm Body width: 3152mmn Cab length: 2434mm Pantograph locked down height: 4525mm Tractive Effort: 36.0t

A 24-coach (1430t) passenger rake can be accelerated to 110km/h in 240 seconds (over 4.7km) by a WAP-7; to 120km/h in 304 sec. (6.7km); and to 130km/h in 394 sec. (9.9km). Comparative Specifications

WAG–1Among the first AC electrics to run in India. Early ones were imported from European manufacturers (1963). The first one built in India was named 'Bidhaan' (Nov. 16, 1963). Typically French features include elongated 'D'-shaped buffers. The Indian modifications included addition of a cowcatcher, CBC couplers, and a large roof-mounted searchlight-style 172

head lamp. Although sterling performers, some of their highly advanced features such as the spring-borne traction motors, etc., did not suit Indian conditions. They had monomotor bogies with B-B wheel arrangements, Jacquemin drives (?), and excitron rectifiers. Air brakes for loco, vacuum train brakes as original equipment. Regenerative braking provided. MU operation up to 4 units. Motors are permanently connected in parallel; speed control by transformer taps. Several were based at Arakkonam, Vijayawada, and other places. Most were decommissioned by the 1990s, although a few were seen still in use in 2000 or so (Godhra, Renigunta-Gudur, etc.). None were known to be in use after 2002. Two units (the last ones) built by CLW in 1964 are sometimes denoted WAG-1S; it is not clear how they are different from the others.
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Traction Motors: AEC/Alstom/Siemens MG1420. Two motors (monomotor bogies), force-ventilated, fully suspended. Gear Ratio: 3.95:1 Transformer: MFO, type BOT 3150. 22.5kV / 3000kVA. 32 taps. Rectifiers: Secheron A268 Excitrons (four). 510A / 1250V. Axle load: 21.3t Max. Haulage: 1820t Pantographs: Two Faiveley AM-12

Comparative Specifications WAG–2 A few can still [5/01] be seen near Bhusawal and Agra. The DC traction motors were supplied power through silicon rectifiers. Just after they were imported from Japan, they were based at Asansol shed of ER and transferred to Bhusawal and Itarsi sheds of CR in 1985. Bhuawal had large numbers of them into the 1990s. Monomotor design: two bogie-mounted traction motors, permanently coupled in parallel; speed control is by transformer taps. Each traction motor is coupled to two axles. Air loco brakes and vacuum train brakes are original equipment. Rheostatic braking provided. Westinghouse compressor, Northey exhauster. MU operation possible (? how many units).
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Traction Motors: Hitachi EFCO HKK (1270kW, 1250V, 1080A, 695rpm, weight 5300kg). Transformer: Hitachi AFI AMOC. 32 taps. Rectifiers: AEV-48 silicon rectifiers, 2040A / 2550kW. Pantographs: Two Faiveley AM-12

Comparative Specifications WAG–3Ten locomotives of this class were supplied by the 50 cycles group in Europe. Monomotor bogie design. 3150hp, silicon rectifiers. MU operation up to 4 units possible. Air loco brakes, vacuum train brakes are original equipment, as is rheostatic braking.

Traction Motors: AGEC make, type 1580 A1 (1270V, 1040A, 680 rpm. Weight 5850kg.) Bogie mounted. 173

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Gear Ratio: 3.95 : 1 Transformer: Oerlikon BOT 3460. 32 taps. Rectifiers: Two GL 82220 silicon rectifiers, 1000A/1270kW/1270V. Weight 650kg each. Pantographs: Two Faiveley AM-12

Comparative Specifications WAG–4 3150hp. Built by Chittaranjan with components from the 50 cycles European consortium. B-B monomotor bogies, silicon rectifiers. Some on NR at Kanpur. Air loco brakes, vacuum train brakes, rheostatic brakes. The DC traction motors for these were the first to be manufactured indigenously by CLW. CLW built 339 of these motors starting in 1964, until about 1993.
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Traction Motors: AGEC make, MG 1580 A1 (1160kW, 1270V, 1040A, 690 rpm, weight 5850kg). Fully suspended, bogie-mounted. Gear Ratio: 3.95 : 1 Transformer: Oerlikon BOT 3460. 32 taps. Rectifiers: Two GL 82220 silicon rectifiers, 1000A/1270kW/1270V. Weight 650kg each. Axle Load: 21.9t Hauling capacity: 2000t

Comparative Specifications

WAG–5Introduced in 1984. Power 3850hp (some documents say 3900hp, which may be a later modification), 6-axled (Co-Co). Starting TE 382kN (33500kgf); continuous TE 202kN (20600kgf). Adhesion 29%. A very successful class, and probably the one with the most numbers produced. There are many variants of these, starting with the plain WAG-5. WAG-5A locos have Alsthom motors. Later versions were WAG-5H and variants with Hitachi motors: WAG-5HA by CLW, with high-adhesion bogies, and WAG-5HB built by BHEL to RDSO's specifications. (Note: Lallaguda shed uses the simple code 'WAG-5' for locos that would normally be denoted 'WAG-5HA'.) [4/02] Newer versions have been spotted: WAG-5HG, WAG-5HR, WAG-5RH (here the 'R' is believed to denote rheostatic braking, but not all WAG-5 class locos that have rheostatic braking use this suffix), WAG-5D, WAG-5P for fast passenger traffic (mail and express trains) with gear ratio 21:85. etc,. WAG-5HE variants are believed to have Hitachi traction motors and only air brakes. The detailed differences among these variants are not precisely known. Specifications for the base WAG-5 model are given below. Some of the variants are known to have different gearing and equipment, and different rated speeds. The original WAG-5 units had a top speed of 80km/h. Many variants have a gear ratio of 21:58, the same as that of the WAM-4 6P, which allows these WAG-5 locos to be used for mixed applications including hauling passenger trains at 100km/h. 174

Auxiliaries are from many sources: typically Elgi compressors, Northey exhausters, and other equipment from S F India, but many variations exist. Speed control by parallel combinations of motors and weak field operation. Air brakes for loco, dual train brakes are original equipment. Although a great improvement over earlier locomotive classes, the WAG-5 models do have limitations, one of which is the inability to start and haul large loads (4700t -- 58 BOXN wagons) on gradients steeper than 1:200 or so.WAG-5 locos can be used as multiple units in configurations of 2, 3, 4, or more locos. With the large influx of WAG-7 and WAG-9 locos in recent years, many WAG-5 locos are now also being put to use hauling local passenger trains. Some such as the WAG-5E loco #23989 'Krishnaveni' (of Vijayawada [1/04]) have also been modified for this purpose in their interior equipment as well as some of the exterior aspects. For some reason, the BHEL-built WAG-5HA / 5HB locos are never seen used with passenger trains. All of the WAG-5HB units are at Jhansi near BHEL's own installations so that BHEL can handle their maintenance. The WAG-5B locos are converted WAM-4 units. These have road numbers in the range - 21101 to 21138. This is believed to have stemmed from a decision to have a separate line of freight loco models based on the highly versatile and successful WAM-4 family of locos. In the external appearance of WAG-5 locos, it can be seen that locomotives with road numbers up until 23293 have side louvres and round glass windows like the WAM-4 locos showing the legacy of the WAM-4 design. From number 23294 onwards the locos have the newer WAP4/WAG-7 style of louvres, thought to be for better ventilation. More recently WAG-5 locos of all types have been retrofitted with data loggers, flasher lights, train parting alarms, etc. WAG-5 #23026, homed at Bhusawal, was selected for a trial project by the RDSO to develop designs for adoption of thyristor controlled electricals for the tap changer based locomotives in 1995. The project was began in 1992 because there was an increasing dearth of suppliers for the tap changer control, it was inefficient and so the new system, promising better performance, was to be retrofitted after trials into all the older locos. A prototype system, developed in collaboration with Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, was fitted in this locomotive and trials were carried out between 1997 and 1998. However, due to several problems, the biggest of which was intereference caused with signalling equipment, the project was dropped in 1999. The loco was then refitted with the standard equipment and brought into service as a WAG-5P which it is till this date [1/05].
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Traction Motors: Alstom TAO 659 (575kW, 750V, 1070 rpm) or TAO 656; or Hitachi HS 15250A (See description under WAP-4.) Axle-hung, nose-suspended. Six motors. Gear Ratio: 62:16 or 62:15 with Alstom motors, some 64:18 (Hitachi motors), many now 58:21 for mixed use. Transformer: BHEL, type HETT-3900. 3900kVA, 22.5kV, 182A. 32 taps. Rectifiers: Silicon rectifiers (two) using 64 S-18FN-350 diodes each from Hind Rectifier. 2700A / 1050V per cubicle. Bogies: Co-Co cast bogies (Alco asymmetric trimount -- shared with WDM-2, WAM-4). Axle load: 20t Max. Haulage: 2375t Pantographs: Two Faiveley AM-12 Current Ratings: 1100A/10min, 750A continuous

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Comparative Specifications

WAG–6 WAG-6A models are from ASEA (bodies by SGP in Austria and transported to ASEA, V•äster•ås, Sweden on freight wagon type bogies. Trivia: The second body (26001) passed Malm•ö in southern Sweden on 1987-09-01). ASEA had a specially constructed piece of 1.676m Indian broad-gauge line to allow testing of the locomotives before delivery. Delivery was to G•öteborg harbour on standard-gauge bogies, where they were fitted with broad-gauge bogies before they were placed on board. The first shipping was planned to begin December 1987 with another batch in January 1988, although the actual shipping dates were probably later. The WAG-6B and WAG-6C models are from Hitachi. They are all 6000hp locos with thyristorcontrolled DC traction motors. Until about 1993 they were the most powerful freight locos in IR's fleet. The development of this technology (chopper control) stopped when the (better) AC motor technology was introduced in IR in the form of the WAP-5 and WAG-9 locomotives. Six bogie-mounted separately excited DC traction motors are used, and speed control is via the manipulation of the phase angle by a thyristor converter and a separately powered field coil. Microprocessor control with ground speed detection (slip control) and creep control system to maximize adhesion. Air brakes for loco and train; dynamic brakes provided. WAG-6A and WAG-6B locos have Bo-Bo-Bo wheel arrangements, whereas the WAG-6C locos have a Co-Co arrangement. The WAG-6 series locos are the only ones with 'vestibules' to connect between MU'd locos. WAG-6A locos have half-height vestibules and WAG-6B and WAG-6C locos have full-height vestibules. The WAG-6A body shells were built by SGP in Austria; the rest of the locos were built and the entire units assembled in V•äster•ås, Sweden by ASEA. ASEA constructed a special length of 1.67m (BG) track for testing these before delivery. The locos were fitted with BG bogies at G•öteborg harbour after being transported there on standard gauge bogies. The first WAG-6A was delivered around December 1987 and the remaining five in January 1988. All WAG-6 locos were (are [1/04]) at Waltair (Vishakhapatnam) and have generally been used for ore freights and material trains on the Kirandul-Kottavalasa line. Until about 1999 or 2000, they were in regular service, although maintenance problems began affecting their service from about 1997. Later, repeated problems have been experienced with the unavailability of spare parts which kept them from getting needed periodic overhauls. In Oct. 2002 the WAG-6A were technically suspended from operations for POH for a while. Most of the WAG-6B and WAG-6C were also similarly suspended at different times. However, many of them still labour on – see below. Spare parts have since been ordered for them [12/03] as special case procurement in some cases, and indigenous manufacturers have been invited to duplicate parts that are no longer available from the original manufacturers. In some cases parts are cannibalized from one loco for another. A particular electronic card for the onboard computer is said to be [1/04] in severe short supply and unavailable from ABB and Hitachi; ECIL and DRDO are attempting to duplicate them. It is alleged that these locos were 176

procured by the Railway Ministry without consultation with RDSO, hence the problems with maintenance and spares. For political reasons, it is also considered not feasible to simply scrap these locos right away. Status [1/04] WAG-6A locos #26000, #26001, #26002 and #26005 were in working order and used on the KK line. #26003 and #26004 were awaiting POH. WAG-6B locos #26010, #26011, #26012 and #26013 were under POH. #26010 went on a trial run to S. Kota and returned with some minor problems but will be ready to re-enter service MU'd with #26011 which is almost ready. WAG-6B locos #26014 and #26015 were waiting their turn for POH. Of the WAG-6C locos, all six (#26020 - #26025) were in regular use on the KK line; one or two of them have shown issues with wheel slip. Status [8/05] Of 18 locomotives, 14 are said to be in service, 2 getting their POH, and 2 are out of service awaiting POH. The WAG-6A models are said to be upgradable to 160km/h but IR never tried this out. All WAG-6 variants can be used in MU pairs but not with more than 2 locos.

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Traction Motors: ASEA make (WAG-6A), L3 M 450-2. Six motors, fully suspended, force-ventilated, separately excited, 3100kg ; (WAG-6B) Hitachi HS 15556-OIR, bogie mounted, force-ventilated, compound-wound, 3200kg ; (WAG-6C) Hitachi HS 15256UIR, axle-hung nose-suspended, force-ventilated, compound-wound, 3650kg. Transformer: (WAG-6A) ASEA: TMZ 21, 7533kVA; (WAG-6B/C) Hitachi AFIC-MS, 6325kVA. Thyristor controller: (WAG-6A) 24 YST 45-26P24C thyristors each with 24 YSD35OIP26 diodes, 2x511V, 2x4500A; (WAG-6B/C) 32 CGOIDA thyristors each with 24 DSP2500A diodes. 2x720A, 850V. Pantographs: (WAG-6A) Two Stemman BS 95; (WAG-6B/C) Two Faiveley LV2600

Comparative Specifications

WAG–7Built by CLW to RDSO specifications, these represent the next indigenous design step up from the WAG-5 locomotives. Used primarily for goods haulage, these locos have a Co-Co 177

wheel arrangement with high-adhesion bogies (shared with WCAG-1, WCAM-3, WDG-2/3A) and Hitachi motors providing 5000hp. Starting TE 402kN (41000kgf); continuous TE 235kN (24000kgf). Adhesion 34.5%. The higher tractive effort compared to the WAG-5 locos allows them to attain higher balancing speeds under load. The first 71 of these all went to the Mughalsarai shed. Kanpur was the second shed to get these locos. Traction motors are permanently coupled in parallel and speed control is through the use of transformer taps. Max. speed is 100km/h. Air brakes and dynamic (rheostatic) brakes for loco, dual train brakes. MU operation with up to 4 units is possible. Traction equipment such as the smoothing reactor, etc., are all higher rated than in the WAG-5 due to the higher currents this loco draws. Auxiliaries include Rigi compressor, Arno rotary converters, Siemens smoothing reactor, Northey exhauster; other auxiliaries such as blowers from S F India. A number of these locos have been retrofitted with static converters to power the auxiliaries, replacing the older Arno rotary converters. These static converters are more efficient and require less maintenance, besides having self-diagnostic systems to make troubleshooting easier. These locos too, have limitations similar to the WAG-5 in not being able to start and haul 45004700t loads on gradients steeper than 1:200. When they were being designed and introduced, experiments were carried out to vary the gear ratio. The high-adhesion bogies also underwent some modifications for reduction of weight transfer.

The WAG-7H designation is applied to two locomotives of the WAG-7 class that were experimentally modified to provide higher TE by increasing their weight. Oscillation trials were conducted on a ballasted WAG-7 (#27002) around 1995, and then a new WAG-7 loco was built by CLW to have higher weight using thicker plates in the underframe of the loco (#27061, 1995). Weight is 132t, max. TE 441kN (45000 kgf). Traction motors are Hitachi HS15250-G, perhaps a minor variant of HS15250. [4/04] Newer WAG-7's have been spotted (e.g., #27455 'Samrat') that externally look somewhat like a WAG-9 and with several improvements such as closed-circuit cameras for monitoring the pantograph and GR, a spotlight to illuminate the pantograph at night, large green lamps to exchange signals on the run, fog lamps, and single-piece windshield. New Katni shed is especially known to add the OHE monitoring equipment to WAG-7 locos. Cabs of some units are air-conditioned. Newer batches of WAG-7's [12/04] also have data loggers and train parting alarms (based on sensors for detecting loss of brake pressure), as standard equipment. They are also said to have 'microprocessor control' although it is not clear what this implies.

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Traction Motors: Hitachi HS15250-G (a variant of the standard HS15250 with higher current rating (thicker wire gauge, better insulation); see description under WAP-4.) Motors built by CLW and BHEL. Gear Ratio: 65:18 (65:16?) Transformer: CCL India, type CGTT-5400, 5400kVA, 32 taps. 178

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Rectifiers: Two silicon rectifiers, cell type S18FN350 (from Hind Rectifier), 64 per bridge, 2700A / 1050V per cubicle. Axle load: 20.5t Bogies: Alco High-Adhesion bogies, fabricated bogie frame assembly, with unidirectional mounting of traction motors, primary and secondary suspension. Hauling Capacity: 3010t Pantographs: Two Stone India (Calcutta) type AN-12. Current Ratings: 1350A/2min, 1200A/10min, 960A/hr, 900A continuous

Comparative Specifications WAG–8Extremely rare, is about all one can say about this experimental class. These locos (not sure if there was just 1 or 2) were built by BHEL in 1996 and are similar in appearance to the WCAM-2 locos. In power, similar to the WAG-7 at 5000hp. Thyristor chopper control of the DC motors. It probably shared some components with the WCAM-3 which BHEL was building at the time. Thought to have Flexicoil Mark IV hi-adhesion bogies. More details?? Comparative Specifications

WAG–9These are essentially the same as the WAP-7 units, with some differences in gearing and the control software to make them suitable for freight operations. The first few were imported from ABB (6 fully assembled and 16 in kit form (7 completely knocked down, the rest partially assembled), in 1996). These are numbered 31000 to 31021. In November 1998, CLW started producing these with indigenous components. The first one, 'Navyug' (translated, 'New Era'), was flagged off on Nov. 14. They have (like the WAP-5 units) GTO thyristor converters and 3-phase asynchronous motors. Manufacture of the traction motors at CLW started on Jan. 11, 1999. Rated at 6125hp each, two units can haul 4500t trains on gradients of 1:60. A single unit can start a 4700t load (58 BOXN wagons) on a gradient of 1:180 (some CLW documents say 1:150), a great improvement over the WAG-5/WAG-7 locos that were restricted to hauling such loads in sections of gradients 1:200 or less (this was the primary motivation behind the induction of the 3-phase technology for freight locos). Total weight 123t. Continuous power at wheel rims 4500kW (6000hp). Starting TE 520kN; continuous TE 325kN. They also generally have better adhesion than the WAG-5/WAG-7 locos, partly because of the computerized slip control. Rated top speed is 100km/h. Axles Co-Co. Pantograph has a double collector bar in the Adtranz-built units; the CLW-built units use a pantograph with a single collector pan, as in other AC electrics. Multiple unit operation possible; although the locomotive designs provide for several units to be MU'd together, IR restricts these to just two units being coupled at a time because of dynamic loading restrictions on most bridges. 179

Auxiliaries from ABB, Landert, Behr, Howden Safanco, etc. Regenerative brakes provide about 260kN of braking effort. [7/02] So far about 49 are in service (22 imported as mentioned above, the rest from CLW). One (#31008) was damaged by fire while working a train on NR.
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Manufacturers: ABB, CLW Traction Motors: ABB's 6FRA 6068 (850kW, 2180V, 1283/2484 rpm, 270/310A. Weight 2100kg) Axle-hung, nose-suspended. Gear Ratio: 77:15 / 64:18 Transformer: ABB's LOT 6500, 4x1450kVA. Power Drive: Power convertor from ABB, type UW-2423-2810 with SG 3000G X H24 GTO thyristors (D 921S45 T diodes), 14 thyristors per unit (two units). Line convertor rated at 2 x 1269V @ 50Hz, with DC link voltage of 2800V. Motor/drive convertor rated at 2180V phase to phase, 971A output current per phase, motor frequency from 0 to 132Hz. Hauling capacity: 4250t Bogies: Co-Co, ABB bogies; bogie wheel base 1850mm + 1850mm Wheel base: 15700mm Axle load: 20.5t Unsprung mass per axle: 3.984t Length over buffers: 20562mm Length over headstocks: 19280mm Body width: 3152mmn Cab length: 2434mm Pantographs: Two Secheron ES10 1Q3-2500. Pantograph locked down height: 4525mm

Comparative Specifications WAG–9HA heavier variant of the WAG-9 (12t extra ballast, welded at four locations in the machine room behind the cabs -- a design proposed by CLW and approved by AdTranz) and consequently higher TE. Everything else was just as in the WAG-9 class, except for some application software changes. This was expected to be used in haul heavy freights (58 BOXN wagons, 4700t) without the need for multiple units even on incline sections of 1:150. The ballasting raised the starting TE from 460kN to 520kN. Continuous TE 325kN. The first (and only, as it turned out) of this class was was commissioned on June 30, 2000. This locomotive, #30130, 'Navshakti', then homed at Gomoh, cleared trials but because of concerns about the weight, did not enter regular service. It was deballasted and converted to a plain WAG9 by mid-2002. That was the only unit of this class ever tried out. The class was intended for MU operation (2 units). Trivia: This reclassified loco, now [11/04] at the Ajni shed, still sports its variant livery with two white stripes instead of the single yellow stripe characteristic of other WAG-9 locos.
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Manufacturers: ABB, CLW Traction Motors: ABB's 6FRA 6068 3-phase squirrel-cage induction motors (850kW, 2180V, 1283/2484 rpm, 270/310A. Weight 2100kg) Axle-hung, nose-suspended. Gear Ratio: 77:15 / 64:18 Transformer: ABB's LOT 6500, 4x1450kVA. 180

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Power Drive: Power convertor from ABB, type UW-2423-2810 with SG 3000G X H24 GTO thyristors (D 921S45 T diodes), 14 thyristors per unit (two units). Line convertor rated at 2 x 1269V @ 50Hz, with DC link voltage of 2800V. Motor/drive convertor rated at 2180V phase to phase, 971A output current per phase, motor frequency from 0 to 132Hz. Axle load: 22.5t Hauling capacity: 4700t Bogies:Co-Co Pantographs: Two Secheron ES10 1Q3-2500.

YAM–1 These cute little B-B MG electrics, 20 in number (18 ordered first, two later) were supplied by Mitsubishi in 1964 and worked on SR, especially in the Madras area, until the recent conversion to BG of the mainline tracks. These were later [12/03] run on the Tambaram - Villupuram section of the mainline. On June 30, 2004, the last YAM-1 run took place, minutes after the last MG EMU service on the Chennai network reached the Tambaram station. The remaining YAM-1 locos are now at Tambaram, only occasionally energized for departmental work. One unit is [2/05] at CLW, apparently undergoing preservation work prior to being plinthed. They have monomotor bogies, with two bogie-mounted DC motors permanently coupled in parallel. They are not very powerful, although they have been used to haul some longish (50wagon) goods trains on occasion. Air brakes for loco, vacuum train brakes. Oerlikon compressor and exhauster, Arno rotary convertors. Now [11/01] one is said to be at the Chittaranjan Loco Works. There are rumours that some or all of them may be refurbished and exported to some other country.
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Manufacturers: Hitachi Traction Motors: ACEC/Alstom/Siemens MG1420 (two). Fully suspended, forceventilated. 5600kg. 1080kW, 1250V, 920A, 630 rpm Gear Ratio: 3.95 : 1 Transformer: Mitsubishi 'Shell Sub', 1690kVA, 25 taps. Rectifiers: Secheron excitron rectifiers, type A268 (four). 510A/1250V Pantographs: Two Faiveley AM-12.

Comparative Specifications

DC Locomotives
EMU'sThe first 1500V DC EMUs used around Bombay (the first EMUs in India, 1925) were from Cammell Laird (UK) (later Metro Cammell) and Uerdingenwagonfabrik (Germany). Later units were supplied by Breda (Italy) as well. Read more about EMU's. 181

WCM–1 Manufactured by English Electric / Vulcan Foundry. Auxiliaries from Westinghouse. The first electrics with the now familiar Co-Co wheel arrangement to be used in India. They are characterized by their large size and unusually long hoods. The position of the entrance doors is also unusual, being not at the sides of the cabin, but through an entrance in the middle of the loco body side. Introduced in 1954, several were rebuilt in 1968. They were used on superfast trains such as the Indrayani Exp. and the Deccan Queen (?) until quite recently (the 1990's). They were rarely used for freight. Air brakes for loco, and regenerative braking. Vacuum train brakes. Three different series-parallel motor combinations are available, as well as weak field operation. MU operation not possible. [11/99] There are now two of these left, which were homed at Kalyan, and occasionally used for the Pune-Karjat shuttle, piloting duties, or departmental trains. One is reported [4/01] to have been sent to the National Rail Museum, and supposedly earmarked for delivery to the proposed new museum at Chennai. [1/03] The refurbished loco is now the main exhibit at the Chennai Rail Museum.
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Manufacturers: English Electric / Vulcan Foundry Traction Motors:6 axle-hung, nose-suspended, force-ventilated English Electric 514/2C DC motors (615hp, 700V, 700A, 738 rpm, weight 3594kg). Gear Ratio: 59:16 Pantographs: English Electric, PNL4-F1. Two provided.

Comparative Specifications

WCM–2 Manufactured by English Electric / Vulcan Foundry. Auxiliaries by Westinghouse (compressor, etc.) and North-Boyce (exhauster).Slightly smaller than the WCM-1, but with normally positioned entrance doors, the these were initially built to run on the 3kV DC sections in the Calcutta area. They were rendered obsolete when still quite new when the Calcutta area was converted to 25kV AC. The RDSO Lucknow modified them to work on 1.5kV DC without 182

loss of power, and they were subsequently moved to the Bombay VT - Poona - Igatpuri area. Built in 1956-57, several were still in service until the 1980s. Mostly used for passenger duties despite the M=mixed classification. Three series-parallel combinations possible, and weak field operation. Air brakes for loco, vacuum brakes for train.[11/99] Four of these are still in use on the Mumbai-Igatpuri route; for the Pune-Karjat shuttle. Homed at Kalyan.
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Manufacturers: English Electric / Vulcan Foundry Traction Motors:English Electric 531A (520hp, 1450V, 260A, 1165 rpm, weight 3445kg). Six motors, axle-hung, nose-suspended, force-ventilated. Gear Ratio: 62:16 Pantographs: English Electric PNL6-B1. Two provided.

Comparative Specifications

WCM–3 Built by Hitachi. Auxiliaries by Westinghouse and North Boyce.Built in 1957-58, the smallest of the WCM series, also built for the 3kV Calcutta area and later converted to run on 1.5kV DC. Only three were built, nos. 20073-5, all now withdrawn. The WCM-3 units were characterized, apart from their dimunitive size, by separate light enclosures for the parking / marker lights (next to the headlight) and the tail lamps (just above the buffers). Later used mostly for freight. Three series-parallel motor combinations, and weak field. Air brakes for loco, vacuum train brakes.
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Manufacturers: Hitachi Traction Motors: Hitachi HS 373-AR-16 (600hp, 1450V, 330A, 927 rpm) Six motors, axle-hung, nose-suspended, force-ventilated. Gear Ratio: 51:16 Pantographs: Two

Comparative Specifications

WCM–4 Built by Hitachi. Auxiliaries by Westinghouse and North Boyce. Built in 1960, larger and more powerful versions of the WCM-3, with normal light enclosures. Initially used to haul 183

superfasts and other express trains, but relegated to freight operations due to technical difficulties. These are the only WCM series locos to be used almost exclusively for freight duties (despite the M=mixed classification). Several were fitted with CBC couplers. These are also the last imported engines to come with bonnets (noses) at either end. Only seven of these units were built. Three series-parallel motor combinations, and weak field operation. Air brakes and regenerative braking for loco, vacuum brakes for train.
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Manufacturers: Hitachi Traction Motors: Hitachi HS 373-BR (675hp, 700V, 765A, 850 rpm, weight 4500kg). Six motors, axle-hung, nose-suspended, force-ventilated. Gear Ratio: 73:16 Pantographs: Two, type KP-120

Comparative Specifications

WCM–5 Built by Chittaranjan to RDSO's design specifications. Auxiliaries by Westinghouse and North Boyce. Built in 1962, these are India's first indigenously designed DC electrics. Similar to the WCM-4 locomotives in traction motor arrangement, etc. The first was named 'Lokamanya'. In the WCM series, these are the first to use half-collector pantographs. There is a wide variation in the side window grille profiles, and very few of these units look alike. Several are nowadays fitted with CBC couplers. Mostly used for passenger duties. The series is due to be withdrawn soon, but one has been offered to the National Rail Museum (this is probably the one later reported to be at CLW [2/05]). [11/99] Two are still in use (departmental use, etc.), homed at Kalyan, and several decommissioned examples are also at Kalyan. Three series-parallel combinations of motors, and weak field operation. Vacuum brakes and regenerative braking.
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Manufacturers: CLW Traction Motors: Hitachi HS 373-BR (675hp, 700V, 765A, 850 rpm, weight 4500kg). Gear Ratio: 59:16 Pantographs: Two Faiveley AM28 BB

Comparative Specifications

184

WCM–6 Built in 1996 by CLW, to RDSO's specifications. AC auxiliaries, underslung compressor, Siemens static converter, Elgi compressor. Used for light freight duties, especially on the Kalyan-Karjat section. Only two of these were built (#20187, #20188), perhaps because CR preferred the WCAM-3 instead. One was seriously damaged in a fire, but was restored by the Kalyan loco shed. For a time [1999] it appears that they were used mostly for shunting duties around Bombay (Byculla yard, etc.). But more recently [2/02] both have been spotted hauling passenger trains (Diva - Panvel route, Kasara, and around Bombay. Also thought to be used for banking operations up to Lonavala. They have high-adhesion bogies similar to those on the WAG-7. Often coupled with WCG-2 locos. Speed control by three series-parallel motor combinations and weak field operation. Air brakes for loco, vacuum train brakes.
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Manufacturers: CLW Traction Motors: Hitachi H5 15250. Axle-hung, nose-suspended, force-ventilated. Wheelsets: High-Adhesion Co-Co fabricated bogies. Gear Ratio: 18:64 Pantographs: Two, Faiveley AM-18B

Comparative Specifications WCP-1, WCP-2 (GIPR EA/1 and EA/2) Wheel arrangements not seen these days, 1-Co-2. The EA/1 locos were supplied from 1930 by Vulcan Foundry, UK, and were rated at 2610hp. Electricals from Metropolitan Vickers, UK. The first of the EA/1 was named 'Sir Roger Lumley'.

Comparative Specifications

WCP-3, WCP-4 (GIPR EB/1 and EC/1) Wheel arrangements not seen these days, 2-Co-2.

185

WCG-1 (EF/1) ‘Crocodile / Krokodil’ 1925. Rod-driven C+C electric locos supplied to the GIPR in 1928 for use on the Bombay-Poona section for heavy freights. Originally classed EF/1. The first few were made by the Swiss Locomotive Works, Winterthur, and more by the Vulcan Foundry (with electricals from Metropolitan Vickers. They had four 650 hp motors (total power often quoted as 2610hp), driving two three-axle bogies through connecting rods.

Locally they were known as "khekda" ("crab") They make a curious moaning sound when at rest, and while on the run an unusual swishing sound from the link motion can be heard. Their unusual features included an articulated body (made them ideal for use in heavily curved ghat sections). They also featured regenerative braking (Newport-Shildon, UK). They were known for their superior tractive characteristics on the ghat sections; however, the exposed link mechanisms had to be oiled very frequently in all kinds of weather. They were later used as bankers on the Karjat-Lonavla section, and they were in operation as shunting locos and station pilots until fairly recently (1992) at BBVT. Today [1/00] the (2? or more?) remaining ones are at the Wadi Bunder loco trip shed. The first one was named "Sir Leslie Wilson". Comparative Specifications

WCG–2 Custom-built freight loco for the 1.5 KVDC section of the CR Mumbai Division. Better adhesion available through the provision of a vernier control on the starting resistance. AC auxiliaries — compressor and alternator from Kirloskar, exhauster by Northey (?), others by S F India. Air brakes for loco, and regenerative brakes; vacuum train brakes. Three series-parallel motor combinations weak field operation. Bogie design as with WDM-2. RDSO designs, based on Japanese models but final design and manufacture was by CLW. These locos can be MU'd up to 3 units. Some units of the WCG-2 model have a different gearing ratio for banking duties and are classified WCG-2A. This loco has a very loud noise caused by the blowers used to cool the dynamic brake resistors. Mumbai division has about 50 WCG-2s, 57 in all. The WCG-2 locos, normally coupled in pairs 186

or triples, haul freight trains in the Bombay - Igatpuri/Pune sections. They are also used as bankers on the ghat sections. There was a period around 1992 -1996 when the Mumbai division were desperately short of motive power due to the aging and failure prone WCM-1/2/4/5 fleet. The punctuality of trains in and out of CSTM went haywire due to loco failure. During this period the WCG-2 was used on many Mail / Express runs. But the 'Deccan Queen' has been hauled only once by a WCG-2 and only a few times by a WDM-2 when its power, the WCM-1, failed. The Ghat banking duties in the Bhore ghat (Karjat - Lonavala) and Thull ghat (Kasara - Igatpuri) are exclusively handled today by WCG-2s. On some occasions some express trains are hauled by these (Sinhagad, Cape, Dadar - Chennai, Sahyadri, Koyna, Pragati, etc.). Because of speed restrictions (90km/h) on the Mumbai (CSTM) - Igatpuri route, even superfast trains can be hauled on this section by WCG-2 locos. The WCG-2 shares bogies with the WAM-4, WCAM-1, WCAM-2, WDM-2/2C, WDS-6, WDM-7 locos (Alco type cast trimount (Co-Co) bogies). Now [2/05] the WCG-2 locos are often seen only performing banking duties. Until recently the Koyna Express and Mumbai Passenger were routinely hauled by WCG-2 locos. The Mumbai-Pune Intercity Exp. is also sometimes hauled by WCG-2 locos.
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Manufacturers: CLW Traction Motors: Heil TM4939AZ (690hp, 700V, 800A, 1070 rpm, weight 3670kg) Six motors, axle-hung, nose-suspended, force-ventilated. (4200hp total power, 1640 1-hour continuous rating in series mode.) Rated Speed: 80km/h (originally), 90km/h with upgrades. Pantographs: Two, Faiveley AM-18B

Comparative Specifications YCG–1 Goods locos used on the early DC electrified network of SR, and later withdrawn when SR switched to AC traction. They had a provision for coupling to 'ET' class 4-wheeled battery tenders to allow operating on unelectrified sidings, loop lines, etc. These locos had a roughly rectangular, box-like body with a cab at either end, with a short platform extending from each cab. The cabs each had a door opening on to the platform, and a window (on the right) at the ends. The two bogies had interconnecting linkages to allow easier negotiation of sharp curves. Two 'diamond' style pantographs for current collection. There were only four of these locos; one is now preserved at the NRM (#21900).
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Manufacturers: Hawthorne Leslie, English Electric Year manufactured: 1930 Weight: 43t Max. speed: 65km/h Length: 9754mm Wheelbase 7415mm Bogies: Bo-Bo Bogie wheelbase 2438mm Power (cont.): 650hp

Comparative Specifications

Dual Current Locomotives
187

WCAM Locos WCAM is the dual-power AC-DC series. Virar is the change-over point the traction, being DC inwards near Bombay and AC on the outer side. The WCAM class of locos on WR have never operated north of Baroda on the mainline and are generallky restricted to BCTBRC-ADI section. Apart from WR they can be found working on the harbour line of CR in Bombay into the dockyard railway changeover point a Wadala Road. See the electric traction section for more information on AC/DC traction changeover. All the WCAM locos (and the WCAG-1) were made by BHEL. They have 750V DC traction motors, using resistance banks in DC mode and a variable ratio auto-transformer with rectifier units in AC mode, for power control (WCAM-1 is slightly different, see below). Except for the WCAM-1, the availability of the variable input voltage allows the traction motors to be coupled in a fixed 2S-3P grouping for AC mode. In DC mode, all three models allow 6S and 3S-2P grouping, and the WCAM-3 also allows 2S-3P. [2/02] Most of CR's WCAM-3 locos do not go north of Igatpuri; a few reach all the way to Manmad (Panchavati, Devagiri, Tapovan, and Godavari Expresses) but not beyond, as the maintenance facilities for these locos do not exist beyond there. On WR, WCAM models generally do not venture beyond Vadodara (main-line trains to New Delhi change to purely AC locos there). Trains to Ahmedabad from Mumbai are usually hauled by WCAM locos all the way. Generally the WCAM locos are restricted to Valsad / Surat.

WCAM–1 Introduced in 1975. This class of loco was generally found only in the Bombay Central - Ahmedabad section. An occasional loco has also appeared on the Bombay V.T. Igatpuri route. One of the single pantographs on the WCAM-1 is used in dc traction; the other one carries ac current. The two pantographs are not identical, though similar in design. Bogie design as for WDM-2, WCG-2, and WAM-4 (Alco asymmetric trimount (Co-Co) bogie with cast frames). These locos perform poorly in DC mode compared to AC mode. Originally built with vacuum brakes only, although a few (Nos. 21805, 21807, 21812, 21828, 21838, 21844, 21845, and 21850) have both vacuum and air brakes. Update [1/05] The locos are now restricted to hauling vacuum-braked trains. Loco brakes are air brakes. They also lack dynamic brakes. The WCAM-1 does not use a variable ratio auto-transformer in AC mode like the others; it uses a fixed-ratio transformer and rectifier bank to convert the OHE supply to 1500VDC. The design of the transformers and notches makes this a hard machine to operate, with the fusible links tending to blow often. Of the 28 notches, notches 4, 14, 21, and 28 can be used for continuous operation, although notch 4 was intended for low-speed shunting and is very ineffective. Notches 14, 21, 188

and 28 are the terminal notches of the series, series-parallel, and parallel circuit notch sequences. In DC mode, the WCAM-1 uses resistor banks for speed control. However they were very robust machines and relatively easy in the handling characteristics. WCAM-1's have three traction modes (series, series-parallel, parallel) in both DC and AC mode, but using the parallel mode in DC was discouraged because of power problems. In practice this was not restrictive since series-parallel notches allowed reaching 75km/h or so. In AC mode, the locos are almost always used with the motors in all-parallel mode. Unlike the WCAM-2 and WCAM-3 locos, no reconfiguration has been carried out to force the use of all-parallel mode with AC. Weak field operation is available. 53 of these locos were produced. They were briefly tried out for freight use by CR, but all finally ended up with WR. They are used for WR's second-tier trains, the top ones getting the WCAM-2P (see below). [5/02] However, recently CR's Indore-Pune weekly train has been hauled by a WR WCAM-1. Recently [2004] it's been seen that some (3-4) WCAM-1 locos have been modified to run only in AC mode; in many cases these locos have even had their DC equipment removed. Such modifications occurred after WR's Virar - Vasai freight lines were converted to AC. The modifications were carried out by the Valsad shed. It is not proposed that the locos will be reclassified; one, #21808, simply bears an annotation saying 'Only AC Working'. Update on status: [1/05] WR has decided to condemn five WCAM-1 locos: 21801, 21802, 21803, 21804, and 21806. Max. speed 100km/h, 110km/h after regearing. MU operation not possible. Motor-alternator from Kirloskar (AEI UK motor), Gresham & Craven exhauster, Kirloskar compressor; other auxiliaries from S F India.
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Manufacturers: CLW Traction Motors: Alstom/CLW TAO 659 A1 (575kW, 750V). Axle-hung, nosesuspended. Wheelsets: Alco asymmetric Co-Co trimount cast bogies. Transformer: BHEL BOT 34600. 3460kVA. Rectifiers: Silicon rectifiers, 48 cells (321 UFR200) per bridge, 1000A/1270V. Gear Ratio: 61:16, 58:21 Pantographs: Faiveley AM-12 (AC) and Faiveley AM-18B (DC) Length: 20950mm Total wheelbase: 15698mm Weight: 113t

Comparative Specifications

189

WCAM–2 WCAM-2 locos have the same traction motors, as the WCAM-1 locos, but different circuitry and gearing. The bogies are somewhat different from those of the WCAM-1 being fabricated trimount Co-Co bogies with secondary suspension. Rated speed 105km/h in both AC and DC modes. (In trials by RDSO this loco is said to have been run at speeds up to 135km/h in AC mode.) Almost all of these are dual-braked, but a few are equipped with air brakes only. Double-header frieghts with these locos are a common sight on the Wadala road-Kings Circle-Mahim-Bandra run. They can also be seen on the Vasai-Diva-Kalyan section which is the furthest point they operate out of WR. All the WCAM-1's and -2's are homed at Valsad shed in Gujarat. CR's WCAM locos rarely worked in DC zones (exceptions were the CR / Bombay Port Trust's Wadala marshalling yard a portion of which has DC traction, and for hauling the Punjab Mail in the late 1970's) as they delivered very poor performance in DC mode and on CR's heavy grades. Although these locos have the same traction motors as the WAM-4 and WCAM-1, the power output from the WCAM-2 locos is higher than for the WAM-4 and WCAM-1 because in those models the traction motors are underfed (3460kVA transformer in contrast to the 5400kVA transformer for WCAM-2) and do not yield their potential maximum power. Under AC traction, the WCAM-2 locos operate with all six motors in parallel (this has been enforced by modifications to these locos), while in DC mode they also operate in the all-series and seriesparallel (2S 3P, i.e., three series-pairs of motors in parallel) configurations. Recent WCAM-2's from BHEL, including the passenger-specific version WCAM-2P, are rated 2900hp in DC mode and 4700hp in AC mode (max. speed 120km/h in AC mode). These are used by WR for fast trains, running at up to 120km/h on the Virar-Godhra AC section (Mumbai-Virar is DC but has reduced speeds because of the suburban traffic). CR has tried the WCAM-2 and WCAM-2P units but found them usable only with speed restrictions. Some WCAM-2P units have only air brakes. With the WCAM-2 locos, MU operation is possible with up to 3 (4?) units. Some (all?) of the WCAM-2 locos were originally leased to IR, ownership remaining with BHEL, the manufacturers.
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Manufacturers: BHEL Traction Motors: TAO 659 (575kW, 750V). Axle-hung, nose-suspended, forceventilated. Wheelsets: Trimount fabricated bogies. Transformer: BHEL 5400 kVA. Rectifiers: Two silicon rectifier units D1800N44 (Siemens), 16 cells per bridge. 1000V / 3600A. Gear Ratio: 62:15, 58:21 Pantographs: ?? Length: 20950mm Total wheelbase: 15698mm Weight: 113t

Comparative Specifications

190

WCAM–3 These upgraded dual-traction models deliver 4600hp in DC mode and 5000hp in AC mode, and were jointly developed by RDSO and BHEL in 1997. Components are shared with the WCAG-1 locos (see below). Co-Co fabricated bogies (High-Adhesion -- shared with WCAG-1, WAG-7, WDG-2, etc.) with secondary suspension. Monocoque underframe. Air brakes are original equipment. They were originally manufactured under a BOLT (build-own-lease-transfer) contract with BHEL, and are probably still owned by BHEL rather than by IR. Monocoque underframe. Axle-hung, nose-suspended, force ventilated, taper roller bearings Speed control by tap changers in AC mode and resistance notching in DC mode. Motors can be placed in different series-parallel combinations. Auxiliaries from Elgi, S F India, Best, Gresham & Craven, etc. Static converter from ACEC for auxiliary supply. In DC mode, rheostatic braking by self-excitation of traction motors available until 17km/h. Elgi compressor, other auxiliaries from S F India. Rated for 105km/h in both DC and AC mode (sometimes AC mode rated speed is quoted at 110km/h). In practice, WCAM-3 locos have been known to be run at speeds up to 118km/h in regular service (e.g., hauling the Deccan Queen in DC mode). Traction motor configurations as in the WCAM-1/2 and WAM-4 (all 6 in series, 2S 3P, or all parallel -- the latter is the only one used under AC traction, enforced now by modifications to the locos). CR uses WCAM-3 locos on Mumbai-Pune and Mumbai-Igatpuri sections which have ghat portions as well as speed restrictions of about 100km/h. Freight rakes double-headed by WCAM3 (upgraded models) have been sighted on the ghat sections. For excellent WCAM-3 sightings and regular double-header WDM-2 tanker trains, the Kurla-Vidyavihar section is ideal. MU operation possible with 3 (4?) units. Some WCAM-3 locos now [2004] are certified only for DC operation for various reasons, although it is possible they will be fixed and returned to full dual-traction service after repairs. As of [12/05], all WCAM-3 locos had been retrofitted with roof-mounted rheostatic braking grids.
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Manufacturers: BHEL Weight: 121t Traction Motors: Hitachi HS15250A. Axle-hung, nose-suspended, force-ventilated. Transformer:BHEL 5400 kVA. 32 taps. Rectifiers: Two silicon rectifier units D1800N44 (Siemens), 16 cells per bridge. 1000V / 3600A. Gear Ratio: 64:18 Pantographs:Stone India, AM-12 (AC), AM-18 B2 (DC) Length: 20950mm Total wheelbase: 15698mm Weight: 113t

191

Comparative Specifications

WCAG–1 New AC-DC locos for dedicated freight operation; as of early 1999, 10 were on order, to be homed at Kurla. More are being produced now. These are similar to the WCAM-3, with slightly different gearing, etc. Power 5000hp in AC mode and 4600hp in DC mode. Traction motors and circuitry are essentially identical to those of the WCAM-2. Motors can be placed in various series-parallel combinations; speed control by tap changer in AC mode and resistance notching in DC mode. Air brakes for loco, dual train brakes, rheostatic brakes as on WCAM-3 (only up to 17km/h) High-adhesion bogies (same as WCAM-3, WAG-7, WDG-2/WDG-3A). Max. speed 100km/h (the bogies are the primary limiters of the speed). Auxiliaries from Elgi (compressor) and S F India, etc. Static converter from ACEC for auxiliary supply. Can be MU'd up to 3 (4?) units. Twin-coupled sets of these are replacing the WDG-2 pairs and WDM-2 pairs that have long been the staple for freight operations around Mumbai. As of [12/05] all WCAG-1's had been retrofitted with roof-mounted rheostatic braking grids.
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Manufacturers: BHEL Weight: 128t Traction Motors: Hitachi HS15250A. Axle-hung, nose-suspended, force-ventilated. Wheelsets: High-Adhesion Co-Co fabricated bogies. Transformer:BHEL 5400 k. 32 taps. VA Rectifiers: Two silicon rectifier units D1800N44 (Siemens), 16 cells per bridge. 1000V / 3600A. Gear Ratio: 65:16 Pantographs:Stone India AM-12 (AC), AM-18 B2 (DC)

Comparative Specifications

Signalling systems
192

Q. Why are multiple aspect signalling systems used? What was wrong with the older systems which had two aspects? Multiple aspect signals, by providing several intermediate speed stages between 'clear' and 'on', allow high-speed trains sufficient time to brake safely if required. This becomes very important as train speeds rise. Without multiple-aspect signals, the stop signals have to be placed very far apart to allow sufficient braking distance, and this reduces track utilization. At the same time, slower trains can also be run closer together on track with multiple aspect signals. Q. What kinds of signals (semaphores, lamps, etc.) does IR use? IR uses several kinds of signals. Semaphore signals have generally given way to colour-light signals although there are still many places with semaphore signalling in use. [1/02] Semaphore signals are the older style signals seen widely throughout the country, where each signal has an assembly with an arm mounted on a mast, where the arm can move through two or three different positions at different angles, each position providing a distinct signalling aspect. Very early in India's railway history, two-position lower-quadrant semaphore signals were the most prevalent. Around the 1930s, however, the introduction of American style power signalling equipment in some areas resulted in three-position upper-quadrant signalling being introduced as well, although both systems continued in use for many decades afterwards. It is not clear when distant signals were introduced. Colour-light signals are assemblies of lamps that indicate different aspects by means of different colours of lamps that are lit. Colour-light signals were introduced in 1928 but were slow to take off. In recent years many older semaphore signals have been replaced by colour-light signals. Position-lightsignals are assemblies of lamps where the signal aspect is indicated not by colour but rather by the combination of the lamps that are lit. Disc signals are in the form of a vertical disc with a pattern such as a bar painted on it, which rotates about its centre to different positions to indicate different signal aspects. These are usually mounted on poles but may be close to ground level. Target signals have a vertical disc (or two parallel vertical discs) which can rotate about a vertical axis so as to present the disc either face-on or edge-on to an observer along the track. Usually a lamp is provided behind the disc (or between the parallel discs) which is visible only when the discs are oriented edge-on. The centres of the discs usually also have lamps. The two aspects of this type of signal are indicated by the two orientations of the discs. This type of signal is almost always at ground level. In the following, 'on' refers to that position of a signal which shows its most restrictive indication (in accordance with IR's terminology). However, we use 'clear' for the position that shows the least restrictive indication instead of the word 'off' because the latter is used by IR to refer to any signal position other than the on position. Q. What types of signalling systems are used on IR? R uses several forms of signalling. In IR manuals reference is made usually only to 4 main types of systems, Lower Quadrant semaphore, Modified Lower Quadrant semaphore, Multiple Aspect Upper Quadrant semaphore, and multiple-aspect colour-light signalling. But in practice there are some variations in the kinds of colour-light signalling seen, so for ease of analysis, the following 193

classification is used here. (Abbreviations in parentheses given for ease of reference in the text that follows.)
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Two-aspect Lower Quadrant semaphore signalling (2LQ) Modified Lower Quadrant semaphore signalling (MLQ) Multiple Aspect Upper Quadrant semaphore signalling (MAUQ) Two-aspect Colour-Light signalling (2CL) Three-aspect Colour-Light signalling (3CL) Four-aspect Colour-Light signalling, normally known just as Multiple Aspect ColourLight signalling (MACL)

These are explained in detail in the section on aspects and indications of signals. In addition to these, there are some in-cab warning systems (AWS), and of course flag/lamp/hand signals for emergency use.

Semaphore Signals
Q. What are the systems of semaphore signalling used by IR? Lower Quadrant: In IR's lower quadrant system (Two-aspect Lower Quadrant) the semaphore arm can only be in two positions. The horizontal on position shows the most restrictive indication (requiring the train to stop or slow down or proceed with caution depending on the kind of signal), and a lowered position where the semaphore arm is at about 60 degrees or more from the horizontal shows the clear or proceed indication allowing a train to go past the signal. The 2-aspect Lower Quadrant system suffers from a couple of disadvantages. The principal disadvantage is that the driver of a train must be prepared to bring the train to a full stop when the warner is at caution and the home signal is at danger. To address this, often warner signals are moved further back to provide sufficient distance from the home signal for braking the train to a full stop. The second disadvantage with the 2LQ system is that the indication of the warner signal is not explicit. When the warner is at caution, it may indicate that the home signal is at danger, or that the train will be received on a loop line, or that there is a speed restriction of some sort ahead. These disadvantages are addressed with the Modified Lower Quadrant system. In this, warners and distant signals (as in MAUQ, see below) are both used. The distant signals have only two aspects, Proceed and Caution. The distant signal is provided at an adequate distance to the rear of the Home signal, and a combination Home and Warner signal is provided 180m from where the block section ends. There is no difference in the placement or nature of the last stop signal. MLQ is found in the Kharagpur-Vishakhapatnam and a few other sections. It was not widely adopted as it is complex in working and provides no advantages over the competing multiple-aspect upper quadrant signalling system (see below) which also came into use and became far more commonly used on all important sections of IR. Early versions of semaphores used in the lower quadrant system suffered from a potentially dangerous flaw, which is that in case of a mechanical failure, the semaphore arm was likely to drop by gravity into the clear position. This was guarded against in later versions by having the spectacle end of the semaphore be coniderably heavier to provide a counterweight to the arm. Generally speaking, fail-safe operation to ensure the signal shows its most restrictive aspect when the signal wire is broken is ensured by arranging counter-weights or adjusting the balance of weights between the semaphore arm and the spectacle appropriately, in both lower-quadrant and upper-quadrant signalling. 194

Upper Quadrant: Properly, Multiple Aspect Upper Quadrant, in this system there are three signal positions. The 12 o'clock position is clear or proceed, which gives a train permission to go past the signal without stopping. An intermediate position (at 45 degrees to the vertical) is the attention or caution indication; the meaning depends on the kind of signal. The horizontal position, where the semaphore arm is horizontal, the on position, is the most restrictive indication of the signal; it may require the train to stop, or to proceed with caution, etc., depending on the kind of signal. More notes: In all semaphore systems, as the semaphore arm moves from one aspect to another, the end that is close to the signal mast and which has coloured glass disks ('spectacles') fixed to it moves in front of a lamp, changing the colour of the lamp seen at night. Today most of these lamps are electric lamps, but oil lamps were common earlier. Semaphore signals are set up so that when viewed from the part of the track for which the signal is intended, the semaphore arm extends to the left of the mast on which it mounted. This, in addition to the colours of the semaphore arm (which are different on the front and back), provides a visual cue to distinguish between the signals meant for different directions of the track. Assemblies of 2 or 3 or more semaphore signals on the same mast structure occur to indicate divergent routes. Usually, one of the signals is placed higher than the others, to indicate the 'main' line; the signals to its left or right are somewhat lower, and apply to signals to branches diverging to the left and right. Signals may be at the same height if the divergent routes are all of the same importance. Such multiple signal assemblies are seen for stop signals (home, starter, etc.) and also for distant signals (pre-warners). What are 'single-wire' and 'double-wire' signalling? 'Single-wire' apparatus, as the name implies, utilizes a single wire or cable connecting the signal lever at the cabin or elsewhere where the signal frame is located, to the actual semaphore mechanism on the signal post. Operating the signal lever to take the signal off causes the transmission wire to be pulled, moving the semaphore arm to the required aspect. To reverse this and change the signal aspect to a more restrictive one the signal lever is moved back, and the semaphore arm moves back because of gravity acting on the semaphore mechanism (in some cases there may be appropriate counter-weights for this). In single-wire transmission, a signal can be pulled for up to 900m. A gain stroke wheel may be inserted at the foot of the signal lever to increase the lever stroke, or a so-called 'facile stroke lever' may be provided. In these cases the distance over which the signal can be pulled may be as high as 1080m. In 'double-wire' transmission, the wire that operates the semaphore loops around a drum or pulley at either end. Therefore, when the signal lever is moved in either direction, it exerts a positive pulling force to move the semaphore arm. Counter-weights are not necessary in this case. Signals can be pulled over a distance of 1600m in this case. What are drooping signals? In single-wire transmission, heat causes the transmission wire to stretch or shrink, and this can result in an incorrect indication of the signal aspect. For instance, the most restrictive aspect may end up being below the horizontal in upper-quadrant signalling on a hot day - this is termed a drooping signal when the angle is more than 5 degrees. Wire adjusters are provided to compensate for temperature variations. The problem is minimized in double-wire transmission as there is positive movement of the wire in each direction and the wire remains in tension at all times. 195

Colour-light Signals
Q. What are the systems of colour-light signalling used by IR? There are three systems of colour-light signalling in use. (In IR terminology, the term MultipleAspect Colour-Light signalling includes both 3- and 4-aspect signalling, and 2-aspect signalling is usually treated as a variant of 2-aspect semaphore signalling. Hence the classification below is not the same as IR's.)

Two-aspect colour-light signalling – In this, each signal has two lamps (one above the other). The higher of the two is a green lamp, and the lower one is a red lamp. The green lamp when lit indicates clear (the proceed indication), and when the red lamp is lit, the signal is said to be in the on position, displaying its most restrictive indication. Three-aspect colour-light signalling – In this, each signal has three lamps arranged vertically. The top one is green, the middle one yellow, and the bottom one is red. The red and green lamps indicate indications as in the 2-aspect system, and the yellow lamp shows the caution indication. Four-aspect colour-light signalling – This is also known just as Multiple-aspect colourlight signalling (MACL or MACLS) and adds another yellow lamp to the 3-aspect system. The additional yellow lamp can be placed above the green lamp in a 4-lamp signal. In this case, the lower yellow lamp alone is lit to show the caution indication, and both yellow lamps are lit to show the attention indication. Alternatively, a different kind of 3-lamp signal may be used (e.g., for distant signals), where the top and bottom lamps are yellow and the middle one is green. Again, both yellow lamps light up to indicate the attention indication.

Special signals such as repeaters may have other combinations, e.g., two lamps, green above yellow. The obvious advantage of colour-light signalling over semaphore signalling is the higher reliability of electrical control over the signals compared to the mechanical means for operating semaphore signals. Colour-light signals do not suffer from distance limitations as semaphore signalling does (exception: powered semaphore signalling), allowing signal controls to be placed conveniently together even if the signals themselves are far away. In addition, the electrical circuitry naturally allows for monitoring, interlocking, and detection of failure conditions, all of which are achievable but far less reliably with mechanical means in semaphore signalling.

Signal Indications
Q. What indications do signals show and what do they mean? The most common indications shown by various signals are the following:

Stop This requires a train to stop dead and not pass the signal except under special instructions or emergency procedures. (Stop signals may be passed after halting and waiting in automatic block territory – usually 1 min. during the day & 2 min. during the night.) This indication is also known as Danger. Caution This allows a train to proceed past the signal with caution (at reduced speed), being prepared to stop at the next signal. It can mean that the next signal is at Danger, or that the track ahead has speed restrictions. Attention This allows a train to proceed past the signal, being prepared to slow down to an appropriate speed for the next signal. It means that the next signal may be at Caution, 196

 

or may guard a divergence which requires reduced speed (in which case a stop signal at the divergence will indicate the route for which points are set). Proceed This allows the train to proceed past the signal without slowing down or stopping. Proceed Slow This indication, shown only by calling-on signals, allows a train to pass the signal at slow speed after stopping, being prepared to stop short of another train or an obstruction on the same track. Proceed Slow for Shunting This indication, shown by shunting signals, allows movement past past the signal with caution for the purposes of shunting. This is the most common indication used when a shunt signal is pulled off, and in fact most shunt signals can only show this indication (other than Stop). Proceed for Shunting This indication, shown by shunting signals, allows movement past past the signal for the purposes of shunting, at speeds higher than allowed with the indication Proceed slow for shunting. This indication is not widely used, and appears in 3-aspect position light shunt signals.

Miscellaneous
Q. What are running signals and subsidiary signals? Running signals are the normal signals that control the movement of regular trains. Subsidiary signals are those that control other movements such as shunting, or which provide additional information (repeater signals, points indicators, etc.). Q. How do signals refer to specific lines in the case of diverging and converging routes? Multiple signals may be mounted on a signal assembly (bracket post, signal gantry, etc.) to provide signal indications for diverging routes. The signals from left to right correspond to the diverging routes from left to right. If one of the routes is the main line, the signal for it is usually placed higher than the others (the maximum permissible speed applies for running through on it; speeds must be lowered for the divergences). For instance, a very common combination is for three stop signals to be mounted together, with the middle one being placed higher and providing the indication for the main route, whereas the signals on the left and right of it provide indications for the branches on either side. If all routes are of equal importance, all signals are at the same height. ('Equal importance' in practice means all the routes allow the maximum permissible speed for the section.) In rare circumstances, one can find multiple signals placed on the same mast one above the other; in such a case, the convention is that the highest one refers to the leftmost divergence, and successive signals below it refer to successive routes to the right. The same convention applies for converging routes (top-to-bottom is left-to-right). Although diverging routes can share a single signal (with a route indicator in colour-light signalling), converging routes never share signals; a separate signal is provided for each line.

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For colour-light signals, a junction route indicator or directional type route indicator is commonly used to indicate diverging routes. This consists of an additional set of 5 lunar white lamps in a row at an angle, attached to the main signal. The angle of the junction route indicator corresponds in a rough manner to the angle made by the diverging route. When these additional lamps are lit, they indicate that the signal applies to a diverging route. Otherwise, the signal is taken to apply to the main route. More than one junction route indicator may be attached to a signal, in the case of facing points where more than two routes diverge, although it is rare to see more than 3 or 4 such indicators (6 is the maximum). The junction route indicator corresponds to a 'feather' in UK railway terminology. Junction route indicators are used where the number of diverging routes is smaller and where high visibility is a requirement.

In some cases, especially for home signals at stations that have many platforms, or at routing signals guarding approach to a lot of diverging routes, a theatre route indicator may be provided. This usually indicates the route (or road as it is sometimes termed) with a numeric display. The numerals may be formed using a 7x5 dot-matrix lamp assembly (the multi-lamp route indicator, MLRI), or with lamps lit behind stencils indicating route numbers (the stencil type route indicator, STRI).

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There are also projector type route indicators which project the numeral on to an illuminated screen or plate. For all of these, a route indication is always provided, even for the main line, in contrast to the directional route indicators which remain unlit for the main line. For a signal guarding departure from a station, a theatre route indicator may rarely have 'M' or 'ML' to indicate 'main line', and 'B' or 'BL' to indicate a 'branch line'; similarly 'L' or 'LL' for 'loop line'. The visibility of these is not as good as that of junction route indicators, hence they are used mainly near or within station limits where speeds are not high, but where the number of diverging routes may be large. Normally, signals for multiple converging routes are placed on separate posts, and in some cases on a bracket post or signal gantry or bridge. In rare cases more than one signal may be placed on the same post, in which case the topmost refers to the leftmost route, and successive signals below it refer to successive routes to the right. Q. What do the rings, bars, etc. found on some signals mean? Stop signals controlling the approach to goods yards or goods-only lines have a black ring fixed to the end of the semaphore arm. No corresponding indication is provided in colour-light territory. Similarly, semaphore signals controlling lines for dock platforms have a black semicircle (in the shape of a 'D') fixed to the end of the semaphore arm. Again, no corresponding indication is provided for a colour-light signal. Two crossed bars in the form of a large 'X' attached to a signal of any kind (stop signals, shunt signals, etc.) indicate that the signal is not in use. The cross is often white for signals that have not yet been commissioned.

Q. What does it mean when a colour-light signal does not face along the tracks but points away? Colour-light signals that are not in use (just set up but not yet commissioned, or in the process of being decommissioned) are often turned to point away from the tracks, so that it is clear to all locomotive drivers that the signal is not in service. Otherwise, it would be treated as an active signal that is malfunctioning (lamps burnt out), which would require trains to follow special procedures for passing malfunctioning signals. Q. What is the purpose of the white lamps fitted to the rear of signals? Signals that face away from the signal cabin are provided with back lights to enable the signal operator to see the aspect of the signal. Normally a single white lamp is lit when the signal is on, and no lamp is lit otherwise. For stop signals that can show the Attention indication, two white lamps are visible in the on aspect and no lamps otherwise (distant signals that can show Attention have only a single back light). 199

Q. Sometimes a signal pole is observed to carry one signal at normal height and another much higher up; what are those? Or, what are Co-acting Signals? A co-acting signal is a duplicate signal provided on the same mast as a stop signal, which always shows the same indication as that stop signal. The purpose of such a co-acting signal is to allow a continuous unobstructed view of the signal indication from all positions where a driver might need to observe it, in cases where an overbridge or other obstruction might block the view of a signal from some locations if there were only one instance of the signal provided on the mast. Typically, one of the signals is fixed very high up on a mast and the other one much lower down, so that one or the other is always in view from all positions along the tracks as it is approached. Although theoretically more than two such co-acting signals could be provided on a single pole, this is never seen in practice. Q. What does 'ahead' or 'behind', 'advanced' or 'retarded', or 'front' or 'rear' mean when referring to a track or signals? All orientation terms used when talking about track, points, signals, stations, etc. are given from the point of view of the driver of a train looking in the direction that the train is moving. Thus, a signal may be ahead of him or behind him. A signal or station that he is approaching is referred to as being in front, and one that he has passed is said to be in the rear. An 'advanced' starter signal is one that is further ahead than the starter signal, and so on. Q. What is a 'fixed signal'? A fixed signal is any signal that is permanently erected at a location. The term is used to distinguish normal signals and indicators from hand or lamp and flag signals, detonators, flares, bells, and other special-purpose methods of signalling. Q. How is failure of signals guarded against? Signal installations are designed as far as possible for fail-safe operation, which means that any failure should leave the system in a state where dangerous train movements are not allowed. For instance, in case of a failure detected at a panel interlocking installation, all signals controlled by it are designed to revert to On. Similarly, a failure detected in the block control circuit at the Starter signal causes all signals to the rear guarding the approach to the block section switch to On, and notification is sent automatically to the control centre or signal cabin. The signals themselves have two-filament bulbs, or two-bulb assemblies for each lamp, to provide redundancy in case of a filament burning out. Where incandescent bulbs are used, the filaments are kept warm even when the lamp is off, through the passage of a small current which prevents thermal shocks on switching on the lamp and thereby reduces the chances of failure. The signals are also frequently examined and bulbs replaced in a pre-emptive manner. There is also a trend towards using LED panels instead of incandescent bulbs for the greater safety they afford (since several LEDs on a panel can fail without compromising the safety of the signal) as well as for the power savings involved. Normally, a current relay also detects the current flowing in the signal lamp in its different states, and this allows detection of a failed lamp. (Even in the days of kerosene lamps for signals, a bimetallic thermal contact strip was used to detect the heat of the lamp and notify the signalman if the lamp was extinguished.) Back lights for electric signals today (and small slits in the rear of kerosene-lamp signals in days gone by) allow the signalman or stationmaster to see the states of the signals at a station. Where 200

visibility limits the use of back lights, the signal aspect is repeated in the signal cabin or (at small stations) in the station master's office. In the latest instances of signalling control by means of interlinked stations (e.g., Chennai Washermanpet), failure-detection circuits are provided for each track circuit and signal circuit with notification to the signal control centres in case of problems. Signal installations are usually powered by independent power supplies (DC) that are driven by battery installations that are charged from the regional grid (state electricity board's supply). All the failsafe equpment and the signals themselves also have emergency fail-over to backup battery sets that keep the signals and points working in case of power failure. Most stations also have diesel generator sets to continue charging the batteries in case of power failure.

For details of the meanings of various signals, continue to section on signal aspects and indications. Or continue to the section on train working, block system, etc.

Stop signals
A stop signal governs access to a block section and ordinarily may not be passed when it is at its most restrictive indication (the on position, which shows the stop or danger indication for these signals). That is to say, when on, its interpretation is 'stop dead'. Under some special circumstances, a stop signal may be passed at slow speed after the train has been brought to a standstill at the rear of the signal. This is commonly allowed in automatic block territory where the driver can proceed after waiting for a minute or two. In most other cases, the driver must obtain permission to proceed over a telephone callbox at the signal, or must have written authorization to ignore or pass the signal. Automatic stop signals and delayed stop signals (see the section on block working) are provided with a circular plate marked 'A' (black on white) Semaphore: The semaphore arm of a stop signal is red in front with a white stripe near the end, and white in the back with a black stripe near the end. The arm is square-ended. Signal aspects are as shown below.

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Colour-light: The stop signal may have two (green above red), three (green-yellow-red), or four lamps (yellow-green-yellow-red) as described above. Aspects are as shown below.

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Stop signal indication summary:
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2LQ, MLQ, 2CL: Stop, Proceed MAUQ, 3CL: Stop, Caution, Proceed MACL: Stop, Caution, Attention, Proceed

Usually the signals are set up at sufficient distances so that, for instance, a train arriving at a Caution signal at the maximum speed for the section can safely brake to a halt before the next signal which is at Stop. Older locos especially hauling vacuum-braked rakes or long freight rakes should be able to slow down sufficiently when they reach a signal at Attention so as to be able to halt after reaching the next signal at Caution; but the newer locos hauling air-braked rakes can reach a signal at Attention at the maximum speed for the section and proceed through it without slowing down and still brake safely if the next signal is at Caution. If the distance between the signal at Caution and the signal at danger is less than the safe braking distance, the signal to the rear displaying Attention also serves to alert the driver that the train may have to be slowed to restricted speed when it reaches the next signal. A signal that is to the rear of a signal protecting a divergence cannot show an indication less restrictive than Caution or Attention when the points are set at the divergence for any line other than the main line. (The divergence should normally also be indicated by the use of a route 203

indicator.) This Caution or Attention indication may be repeated further in the rear if the distance to the divergence is insufficient to permit a train to slow down to the appropriate speed for the divergence. The Caution indication is also used to indicate track sections with speed restrictions. The Attention indication may correspondingly be displayed by the signal to the rear of the signal guarding the approach to a curve or a divergence or section with speed restrictions. The starter signal (see below) may show Attention or Caution to provide permission for a train to leave a station, instead of the Proceed indication. Stop signals are of the following types: Home This is the first stop signal on approach to a station without an outer home signal. It is not optional. The signal guards entry to the station limits ahead from the block section in the rear and appears before all connections to the line (branches, loops, etc.) at the station. A home signal at Caution indicates that the train may have to stop on the line before leaving the block, or that the train has to slow down to a particular speed in order for the starter signal at the entrance to the next block to shift to Proceed. A home signal is also set at Caution for temporary or permanent speed restrictions within station limits. An optional (electric) numeric display on the post of this signal is usually an indication of the platform to which the train will be routed. For stations with multiple lines where a train may be received (i.e., main running line and loop lines), normally home signals are provided either in sets in semaphore signalling (as many as the number of receiving lines), or with route indicators ('feathers') in colour-light signalling, just before the diverging points to the various lines, to indicate for which line the points have been set for the train to be received. In semaphore signalling, the main line home signal is placed above any others; the lower signals refer to lines diverging to the left or right of the main line according to their position with respect to the main signal. Such signal arrangements are also referred to as bracketed home signals. Bracketed homes require interlocking between points and signals. Outer (Outer Home) To increase track utilization, or to provide better control over approach to station limits, additional signals may be provided to the rear of the Home signal. An Outer Home signal (also known simply as an Outer), to the rear of the home signal, is very common. The outer may be at Caution to indicate speed restrictions further ahead, or if the home signal is at Stop. Intermediate home Intermediate home signals may be provided between the outer and home in some cases to provide finer control over train movements on approach to station limits. Intermediate block his stop signal is provided on intermediate block sections which are block sections created by subdividing a long block section between stations; there isn't necessarily a separate station or route junction at the point. (If there is a station, it is an intermediate block post or halt station.) An intermediate block signal simply protects the block section ahead of it in a manner similar to a starter signal. A circular marker with 'IB' (black on white) is fixed to the post below the signal. The signal is controlled by the cabin of the station to the rear if the intermediate block post is not manned. 204

Routing This indicates which of two or more diverging routes have been set, especially in cases where the corresponding Home or Outer or other stop signals before the facing points do not provide such indication. Starter This governs exit from the most advanced section within station limits, and entrance to the block section ahead. It marks the limit up to which a normal train can stand at a station. (Shunting movements can go beyond the starter when intermediate or advanced starters are provided.) Normally it is the last stop signal on departing from a station unless an advanced starter is present. If an advanced starter is provided, the starter may protect facing points to another running line at the same station. Starter signals are provided at most stations, but there are some without them. If the starter is not provided station working rules prescribe when trains may proceed to the next block section; usually tangible authority to proceed such as a Neale's ball token or paper line clear ticket are needed. If there are several converging lines exiting a station, each is usually provided with a starter so as to protect each line from fouling the adjacent lines. If a single starter is provided for several converging lines exiting a station (this is rare), it is placed beyond the trailing points of the convergences. In some areas, a starter signal may be set up so that it does not shift to the Proceed indication unless the train slows down to a particular speed (or stops) before reaching it (in such cases the home signal at the entrance to the block is usually at Caution). Shunting cannot take place without special instructions beyond the starter if it is the last stop signal at the station. Normally the starter signal shows a 'Proceed' indication (green signal) to indicate that a train may leave the station, but in some cases an 'Attention' or 'Caution' indication (double yellow / yellow) may be used to allow the train to leave the station (and make the platform available for another train) but at a reduced speed. On Konkan Railway lines it has been observed [4/01] that the 'Attention' indication (double yellow) is routinely used for the starter signal. A starter signal may have additional lamps or signs such as 'M', 'B', etc. to indicate which tracks the train will depart on (mainline, branch line, etc.), in the case of diverging lines beyond the starter. Multiple semaphores or colour-light signals may also be used (bracketed starters), or route indicators. Advanced Starter This is an optional signal. It is a stop signal provided ahead of the starter signal, and therefore if present it is the last stop signal on departing station limits. The advanced starter allows shunting operations beyond the starter. Normally shunting may not take place beyond the advanced starter. Otherwise the advanced starter, if present, functions just like the starter signal to control exit from station limits and entrance to the block section ahead. It is placed ahead of all trailing points for converging lines exiting the station, and therefore, there is usually just one advanced starter for all the lines at the station. Intermediate starter Intermediate starters may be provided between the starter and advanced starter to split up the section into smaller sub-sections and provide finer control over train movements and shunting operations. Intermediate starters are placed to the rear of the fouling points of the points they protect. 205

Gate A gate stop signal guards interlocked (or sometimes non-interlocked) gates at level crossings. A circular plate marked 'G' (black on yellow) is fixed on the post below the signal. A gate signal may be passed after the train comes to a standstill to the rear of the signal and after waiting for a minute or two. The train may then proceed slowly up to the level crossing, and must then wait for the gateman to direct the train across the level crossing with hand signals. A gate signal may be placed on the same post as an outer signal, or the two may be combined. If an outer signal is ahead of the gate signal and there is insufficient visibility of the outer signal, the gate signal and the outer signal can be slotted to work together so that the gate signal is never pulled off when the outer is on. In such situations, the distant signal pertaining to the outer home acts as the gate distant. Note: In very rare instances, if the distance between stations is really short, and the station to the rear needs an advanced starter which would appear in about the same place that the outer home for the station ahead, the two may be combined into one stop signal controlled from both stations. Thus the train effectively moves directly from the station limits of one station into the station limits of the next. Note: For class 'C' stations, the Home signal is both the first stop signal and the last stop signal, as starter signals are usually not provided.

Warner Signals
A warner signal is used only in two-aspect signalling (2LQ, MLQ, 2CL). Its purpose is to warn of an approach to a stop signal further ahead, or to advise a driver of the condition of the block section being entered. As such, it is a permissive signal and may be passed when it is in its most restrictive (on) indication, although when it is on the train must reduce speed. A warner is always set to the on position for a train which is scheduled to stop ahead at the station. A warner may also be provided in 2-aspect territory on the approach to a gate stop signal. Normally warners are pulled off only when the stop signal they refer to is pulled for the main line (highest permissible speed), and not if a stop signal for a divergence is pulled off. There are some other considerations, see below. Combination Warner The warner is often paired with a stop signal (for example, an outer-warner combination is very common), in which case the warner's indication is never less restrictive than that of the stop signal, and if the stop signal is on, the combination cannot be passed. When the stop signal and the warner are both clear (in the case of outer home signals this is known as 'home double' or 'double home'), the signal may be passed at the maximum speed for that section. In a combination warner, the stop signal may show Proceed and the warner may be on, to indicate that the next stop signal ahead (usually the home signal, in the case of an outer+warner combination) is on (at Stop). In some cases, the warner may not be pulled off (see distance considerations below) at all. Allowed combinations are outer+warner, starter+warner (if no advanced starter), or last stop signal + warner (i.e., advanced starter + warner). The mechanical interconnection between the stop signal and the warner in semaphore signalling, which prevents the warner from being less restrictive than the stop signal is known as slotting. 206

Lone Warner If the warner is by itself, a fixed green lamp is usually placed above it on the same mast (so that technically it is equivalent to a warner below a stop signal which is always clear). Unworked warners A warner signal may be set up to be permanently in the on position (caution indication). In this case the warner merely advises the driver of a train of the approach to a stop signal ahead or possibly a permanent restriction or problem with the track ahead. Illustrations covering aspects in both semaphore and color-light systems are shown below. Semaphore: The semaphore arm of a warner signal has a vee-notch at the end; it is red in front with a white stripe (V-shaped) at the end, and white at the back with a black stripe (V-shaped) at the end. Aspects are as shown below.

Colour-light: The warner consists of a two-lamp signal (green above red) fixed below the (2aspect) stop signal on the same post. A warner without a stop signal has a single green lamp (always lit) above it on the same post, and a small circular plate marked 'P' (black on white) below it.

Warner signal indication summary:
  

2LQ, MLQ, 2CL (Lone Warner): Caution, Proceed 2LQ, MLQ, 2CL (Warner in combination with stop signal): Stop, Caution, Proceed MAUQ, 3CL, MACL: Warners not used. 207

Distant Signals
A distant signal (also known as a pre-warner) indicates approach to a more restrictive signal further ahead. In IR terminology, the distant is said to 'pre-warn' the driver of the indication of the next signal ahead. Examples: The distant signal shows Caution, and the next stop signal ahead is at Stop. Or, the distant signal shows Attention, and the next stop signal is at Caution. A distant signal may be at Attention if the following signals guard a divergence and the points there are set for a route other than the main line. A distant signal to the rear of signals at a divergence will be at Proceed if the points are set for the main line at the divergence. In that case, the stop signal for the main line may be at Caution. Of course, both the distant and the next stop signal may be at Proceed. A distant signal is a permissive signal and may always be passed even in its most restrictive indication. A distant signal is analogous to a distant signal that occurs by itself in UK practice. A distant signal is typically at a distance of 1km or so from the stop signal it protects, but this may vary depending on the particular track requirements. Outer and Inner distants In some sections two distant signals may be provided to the rear of a stop signal. In that case, the one further to the rear of the stop signal is known as the outer distant or the second distant, or simply as just the distant signal and the one just before the stop signal is known as the inner distant signal. In such a case, the outer distant can only show two indications, Attention and Proceed, while the inner distant can show Caution as well. Two distants are standard on routes with speeds above 100km/h and where goods trains run which require braking distances over 1km. A distant signal is usually placed far enough (2km or so) to the rear of the stop signal it protects that when it is at Caution a train at the maximum speed for the section can brake safely to a halt before the stop signal. Otherwise, the Caution indication may be replicated further back by using more than one distant until the rearmost distant at Caution is at sufficient distance from the stop signal. Gate distant Distant signals may also be provided to the rear of gate signals, in which case they are known as gate distant signals and have the 'G' marker just like gate stop signals. However, a distant signal may act as a distant signal for both a normal stop signal as well as a gate signal. n rare cases distant signals may be mounted on the same mast as the last stop signal of a station or a gate stop signal. In such cases the distant signal operates with the additional restriction that its indication can never be less restrictive than that of the stop signal. A distant signal showing the Proceed indication (clear) is also known as a 'distant green' from its colour-light indication. Illustrations covering aspects in both semaphore and color-light systems are shown below. Semaphore: A distant signal has a vee-notch at the end; it is yellow in front with a black stripe (V-shaped) at the end, and white at the back with a black stripe (V-shaped) at the end. At Caution and Attention the semaphore spectacle displays a yellow lamp at night; for the Proceed indication a green lamp is displayed. In upper quadrant territory, an additional yellow light is placed below 208

the signal, on the same post, and is lit when the distant is in the Attention indication, so that at night two yellow lamps are seen.

Colour-light: Distant signals have a small circular plate marked 'P' (black on white) mounted on the same post, below the signal (this marker is omitted if the distant signal is mounted on the same post as the last stop signal for a station). The signal itself has 3 lamps, of which the top and bottom are yellow. Aspects: For Caution only the bottom lamp is lit; for Attention both yellow lamps are lit, and for Proceed just the green lamp is lit. The aspects are shown below.

Distant signal indication summary:
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2LQ, 2CL, 3CL: Distants not used. MLQ: Caution, Proceed 209

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MAUQ, MACL (sole distant or inner distant): Caution, Attention, Proceed MAUQ, MACL (outer distant): Attention, Proceed

Difference between Warner signals and Distant signals Although distant signals and warner signals appear to serve similar purposes, there are some important differences between them. Distant signals are generally placed the full braking distance before the first stop signal of a station, whereas a warner can be placed on the stop signal itself (as at a 'B' class station). The distant signal indicates the aspect of the stop signal ahead. With a warner, however, the indication is definite only when it is off ('proceed'); when it is indicating the caution aspect, it could mean that the home signal is at danger, or that the train may be received on a loop line, or that there is a speed restriction ahead, etc. This means that the driver of the train cannot control the speed of the train as carefully as he can with multiple-aspect signals.

Provision and Placement of Signals
Distance requirements Adequate Distance is a term that is used in the context of placement of signals. It generally refers to the safe distance to allow in the placement of a signal to allow for errors and overshooting signals or mechanical failures. For some signals, the adequate distance is the braking distance, also known as the warning distance - the distance a train running at the maximum permissible speed would need to be able to brake to a complete stop. For other signal contexts, the adequate distance is the distance required for the driver to safely brake to the lower speed required ahead. Overlap is a term used for the adequate distance beyond a stop signal, which is required to be clear of obstructions, before a train can be received at that signal when it is at danger. The provision of overlap reduces the likelihood of collisions if a train overshoots the signal at danger. Block overlap is the overlap associated with a reception stop signal of a station (home or outer), and is the distance to be provided from that signal to the first facing points of the station (for a home signal without an outer signal), or from the outer signal to the shunting limits of the station or to the advanced starter in the opposite direction. It is usually also the distance to be provided between the home signal and the starter signal, regardless of whether an outer signal is present. If an interlocked level-crossing gate is present, then the outer signal is usually placed at least this distance to the rear of the gate; if separate gate signals are provided, they must be at least the block overlap distance from the gate. Block overlap is usually prescribed to be 400m for lower quadrant or 2-aspect colour-light signalling (originally 1/4 mile in British operation), and 180m for MAUQ and MACL signalling. This can in some instances be lower by special permission from the CRS. Note that in the case of outer and home signals, the distance between them is often higher than the standard block overlap, by 180m - this allows additional shunting activities to happen up to 180m to the rear of the home signal. Signal overlap refers to the overlap to be provided beyond any other stop signal other than the outermost stop signal for the station; the term is especially used for the overlap provided in advance of the starter signal. The signal overlap is normally 180m for lower quadrant or 2-color colour-light signalling, and 120m for MAUQ or MACL signalling. The signal overlap is smaller than the block overlap as it is presumed that a train is generally better under control within the station territory - and there is also a lower likelihood of errors because both signals that the train is moving under (the signal that it just passed that allowed it to proceed, and the signal it is 210

approaching) are controlled by the same authority. (As opposed to the block overlap where the train enters the block section and approaches the outermost stop signal of the station, having received a proceed signal from the previous station.) For the same reason, the requirement that the signal overlap distance be clear of obstructions is relaxed when the train has first come to a dead stop at the signal to the rear. Thus, the home signal can be taken off only if the signal overlap distance beyond the starter signal is free of obstructions. On a single line, the distance is actually measured from the trailing points, whereas it is measured from the starter signal in the case of double lines. Note that this applies only to trains in motion that are approaching the home signal; for trains at a stand-still at the home signal, the home may be taken off if the line is clear to the starter (double line) or to the trailing points (single line). Advanced Starters are usually placed 180m beyond trailing points. Warner Signals The Warning Distance is the distance required to brake a train to a complete stop and is usually the distance provided between a warner signal and the stop signal ahead that it is associated with; this is important in LQ signalling because the driver has to be prepared to bring the train to a halt after seeing the warner at caution. If a warner is to the rear of a gate stop signal, it is usually never pulled off unless the first stop signal of the next station is at least 1200m ahead of the gate stop signal, regardless of the indication of the gate stop signal. If a warner is provided in a station whose last stop signal is less than 1200m to the rear of the first stop signal of the next station, the warner is pulled off only when the first stop signal of the next station is pulled off. Distant signals As above for warners, but the distance in question is 1km instead of 1200m. Visibility requirements Two-aspect signalling: Outer signals have to be visible for 1200m if train speeds exceed 100km/h; 800m otherwise. If a warner signal is provided to the rear of the outer signal, the visibility can be 400m. Lone warners, home signals, and main starter signals must have a visibility of 400m. All other running signals have to be visible for at least 200m. When this cannot be complied with, repeating signals are provided. 3- or 4-aspect signalling: All running signals must be visible for at least 200m. If this is not possible speed restrictions are imposed to the rear of the signal for which visibility is impaired, and repeating signals may also be provided. Q. What signals are provided at different kinds of stations? Generally, fixed signals have to be provided at all block stations (i.e., classes A, B, and C), except those operating trains under the One Train Only system. The minimal signal provisions for block stations with manual absolute block working are described here. Additional signals may be always be provided based on local requirements. Note that the requirements below are for each direction of approach to the station.

Class 'A': In 2-aspect territory, a Warner, a Home, and a Starter signal are provided. In other systems a Distant, a Home, and a Starter are provided. On double-line sections an Advanced Starter is also provided. As the Home signal is the outermost stop signal, the line has to be clear for the appropriate adequate distance (block overlap - 400m for LQ, 180m for MAUQ/MACL/MLQ) beyond the home signal before a train is given 211

permission to approach (i.e., before Line Clear can be granted). The Starter is at an adequate distance beyond the Home. The Warner or Distant follow standard placement guidelines (see below). The Home signal may be bracketed. This arrangement is suitable in cases where traffic passes through rapidly, and advance knowledge of the condition of the block section is required for the driver. With higher running speeds, it is important that the line be clear for a larger distance (including the section of the line within station limits) before Line Clear is given. The first stop signal is necessarily closer to the station (no Outer signal) and this can create constraints - e.g., if there is an approach gradient near the station, making it inconvenient or unsafe for trains to stop at the Home signal. The disadvantage of the arrangement stems principally from the fact that the line within the station between the home and the starter has to be cleared before Line Clear can be given, which limits working flexibility, shunting, and overall traffic flow. Class 'B': In 2-aspect territory, an Outer and a Home signal for single-line sections, and an Outer, a Home, and a Starter for double-line sections. Warners are provided if train speeds exceed 50km/h. In other systems, a Distant, a Home, and a Starter signal are provided. The main line Home signal usually has a Warner on the same post in modified lower-quadrant working. A shunting limit board is provided in some cases, or an Advanced Starter instead of it. As the Outer signal is the outermost stop signal, the line has to be clear for an adequate distance beyond it (400m for 2LQ, 180m for MLQ, MACL, MAUQ) for Line Clear to be given. A warner is provided in case the run-through speed for the station is over 50km/h. At single line stations, this arrangement does not provide flexibility for shunting compared to an 'A' station, primarily because the shunting activities are still restricted to the portion of the line in advance of the home signal if Line Clear has been given. Therefore, to allow flexibility in shunting activities, the Outer signal is usually placed an additional 180m (beyond the block overlap distance) to the rear of the Home signal, and a Shunting Limit Board appears at the adequate distance in advance of the Outer signal (unless the advanced starter for the other direction appears there, which can be used as the shunting limit marker). The arrangement of a 'B' class station allows two trains to be received simultaneously from either direction without block overlap or signal overlap infringement by either. The two trains must be received on the two loop lines. If one train must be received on the main line, then it is accepted directly and the other train is held at the outer signal by keeping it at danger. 'B' stations therefore have higher capacity than 'A' stations, as trains can be on on the main and loop lines simultaneously, while other trains can be waiting at either end on the block sections. 'B' stations are generally used for most single lines, and also for some double lines (except for suburban stations which for the most part use other arrangements with automatic signalling to increase capacity). In MLQ signalling, a Distant signal is provided at an adequate distance from the Home signal; the Home is actualy a combination Home and Warner signal or a bracketed home signal with a combination Home and Warner signal for the main line and additional home signals for the loop line(s). When all signals on the bracketed home are on, then the train must come to a halt and not proceed. For loop reception, the main home signal and warner are both on, and the loop home is taken off; the train is expected to proceed at 15km/h on to the loop and stop on the loop. If the main home signal is taken off while the warner is on (with the loop home being on, obviously), the train is expected to proceed at 15km/h on to the main line and stop there. If both the main home signal and its warner are taken off, the train is to run through on the main line. Under the MAUQ / MACL systems, trains are received as follows on double lines. For reception on the loop line: Distant at attention, Home at Caution for the loop. For reception on the main line, Distant is taken off, Home is at Caution for the main line. For run-through, the Distant and Home for the main line are both taken off. 212

 

Class 'C': In 2-aspect territory, a Warner and a Home signal are provided. In other systems, a Distant and a Home are provided. The Warner or Distant must be at the braking distance from the Home signal, and should be controlled through block instruments. There is no starter signal, so a train can be received only after the previous train has passed an adequate distance measured from the home signal. 'C' stations usually exist only on double lines, as they provide no crossing facilities. Class 'D': No fixed signals need be provided, and the train is stopped for discharging or picking up passengers under any ad hoc arrangement that is suitable. Unmanned Intermediate Block Posts: The signals for an unmanned intermediate block post are controlled by the station to its rear. Track circuiting is used to ensure that the last train has passed an adequate distance beyond the Home signal of the unmanned IBP before the next train is received.

In automatic block working, manually operated Home and Starter signals are provided at a block station. Minimally, an automatic stop signal is also provided to the rear of the Home signal. Additional automatic stop signals may be provided between any two block stations.

Continue to the section on aspects and indications of subsidiary signals. Or see more on interlocking and block system working.

Calling-on signals
A calling-on signal is used to allow a loco or train to move into a block section or a track within station limits, which is or may be already be occupied by another train or loco. This is done for the purposes of coupling trains, for a train to enter a track for a long platform which already has another train stopped at it, for a train to enter station limits and wait behind another train on the section (thereby clearing the block section to the rear for another train to be received from the station in the rear), etc. It always occurs in combination with a stop signal. It has only two positions, on and off. When on, the indication of the stop signal applies. The calling-on signal can be off when the stop signal is at Stop; this shows the indication of Proceed Slow, which allows the train to pass the signal at low speed, after stopping, being prepared to stop for any vehicle or obstruction ahead of it on the same track. In suburban sections a calling-on signal is sometimes used to allow EMU trains to proceed with caution on to a section of track occupied by another train. Often, there is electrical circuitry in the tracks to ensure that the calling-on signal does not change to off unless the train has come to a complete halt first. A calling-on signal may in some circumstances also be used to allow a train to pass a defective stop signal. The calling-on signal is not pulled off when the stop signal is not on; and if a shunt signal is on the same pole below it, the shunt signal and calling-on signal cannot be pulled off at the same time. Semaphore: A calling-on signal uses a miniature semaphore arm which is square-ended, and which is white in front with a red stripe near the end, and white in the back with a black stripe near the end. In 2LQ and MLQ territory, the calling-on signal also works in the lower quadrant: on is horizontal, off is dropped by 60 degrees or so. 213

At night there is no lamp shown for the on position, and a miniature yellow lamp is shown for the off position. In MAUQ territory the calling-on signal works in two positions in the upper quadrant: (on is horizontal as usual (no lamp at night), off is at about 45 degrees above the horizontal (yellow lamp at night). The calling-on signal is always placed below the stop signal on the same pole. Semaphore calling-on aspects are shown below.

Colour-light: The calling-on signal consists of a single yellow lamp placed below the stop signal (2-, 3-, or 4-aspect) on the same post. It is lit only for the off position. A small circular plate marked "C" (black on white) is fixed to the post below the signal. Colour-light calling-on aspects are shown below.

Shunting signals and indicators
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Shunt signals control shunting movements. A shunt signal may be placed on its own post or on the same post as a stop signal. If a calling-on signal is also placed on the same post, the shunt signal appears below the calling-on signal. A shunt signal has two indications; when on the indication of the stop signal applies, and when off, the indication is Proceed Slow for Shunting, which allows a loco to proceed past the signal with caution for shunting purposes. A shunt signal mounted below a stop signal cannot be pulled off when the stop signal is not on. If a calling-on signal is also on the same post, the shunt signal cannot be pulled off at the same time as the calling-on signal. Even when a stop signal or shunt signal is pulled off, shunting operations are normally done only at a speed of at most 15km/h, and much lower depending on the composition of the shunted rake (some BOX / BOB wagons cannot be shunted at more than 5km/h singly or in small groups, and with transition couplers the limit is just 2km/h). Multiple shunt signals may be mounted on the same post. In that case, the highest of them applies to the leftmost of the diverging routes, and the ones below it apply to successive routes moving to the right. However, just one shunt signal, with or without a route indicator, may be provided for diverging routes. Disc: Disc signals used for shunting show a red stripe on a white background. (Black stripe on white background from the rear.) Aspects: The red stripe is horizontal for the on position and inclined at an angle for the off position. The inclination is upwards to the left in upper-quadrant or MACL territory, and downwards to the left for lower-quadrant or 2CL territory. Generally disc signals are used in semaphore territory. The aspects are as shown below.

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Position-light: The most common position-light signals used for shunting show two white or yellow lights arranged horizontally for the on position, and two lights at an angle (the one to the left being higher) for the off position. These aspects are shown below.

3-aspect position-light signals: Some position-light signals used for shunting show three white (or yellow) lights arranged horizontally for the on position, three lights at an angle (sloping down to the right) for the proceed slow for shunting indication, and three lights in a vertical line for the proceed for shunting indication. These aspects are shown below.

Semaphore: These are miniature semaphores, square-ended and coloured red with a white stripe at the end in the front (and white with a black stripe on the reverse side). They work in the lower quadrant in lower quadrant territory and in the upper quadrant in upper quadrant or MACL territory. In all, the horizontal position is on and the inclined position is off. Except for the position-light signals, the others show their indications at night as follows: For the on position, the shunt signal shows no light if it is mounted on a post with a stop signal above it, and a red light if it is on its own post. For the off position, a green lamp is lit in 2-aspect territory, and a yellow lamp is lit in multiple-aspect territory. A double-red colour-light signal, permanently lit, is sometimes used to indicate the shunting limit on a particular line. (It is more common to have a shunting limit board; see the section on signs). The double-red signal is used when it is especially important that no trains accidentally pass it -e.g., at busy suburban stations with many automatic and semi-automatic signals which can normally be passed after halting for a specified time, hence a single red signal cannot be used. Normally the double-red signal also carries a board that says 'STOP'. Shunt permission indicators A Shunt permission indicator is used to indicate uninterrupted shunting movements past the indicator, in one or both directions. 216

Target signal: When shunting is permitted, a black disc with a yellow cross on it is visible from the direction(s) from which shunting is permitted; if shunting is not permitted, the discs of the signal are edge-on. At night, when shunting is permitted a yellow cross-shaped light is visible, and no light is visible otherwise. Lamp: A lamp close to ground level may also be used. It displays a yellow cross-shaped light when lit to indicate shunting permitted, and no light if shunting is not permitted.

Points indicators
Where points are not interlocked with signals, and there are no other indications to a driver of the position of facing points, a point indicator signal is used. This is always of the target type, placed close to ground level, which shows a white disc (white lamp at night) when the points are set for the main or straight-ahead line. When the points are set for a divergence, the disc is edge-on (and a green lamp is lit at night). In some cases where a green lamp might be confusing, a red lamp may (rarely) be used.

Trap indicators
Where points are not interlocked with signals, and there are no other indications to a driver of the position of facing points, a point indicator signal is used. This is always of the target type, placed close to ground level, which shows a white disc (white lamp at night) when the points are set for the main or straight-ahead line. When the points are set for a divergence, the disc is edge-on (and a green lamp is lit at night). In some cases where a green lamp might be confusing, a red lamp may (rarely) be used.

Repeaters
A repeating signal or repeater is one placed to the rear of a signal in order to provide early indication of the indication of the signal. It is an advisory signal and therefore permissive and may always be passed. A repeater has only two positions, on and off. In the on position it indicates that the signal ahead which it repeats is in the on position or most restrictive indication. In the off position it indicates that the signal ahead which it repeats is off, i.e., not on (but not necessarily clear). Banner or Disc: A disc type repeater consists of a white disc with a band across it that consists of three parallel stripes: black, yellow, and black. (This is also known as a banner signal in IR terminology.) The band is horizontal for on and inclined (upwards to the left) for off. A circular plate with "R" on it (black on white) is fixed below it to the post. Banner signals usually don't have lamps for indication at night, but where provided the on indication is given by a yellow lamp and the off indication by a green lamp.

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Semaphore: This has a square-ended arm which is yellow with a black stripe at the end in front (and white with a black stripe near the end in the rear). This is used in 2-aspect territory, and works in the lower quadrant; horizontal for on and inclined downward for off. A circular plate marked "R" (black on white) is fixed to the post below it. At night, a yellow lamp is shown for on and a green lamp for off.

Colour-light: This has two lamps, green above yellow. The yellow lamp is lit for on and the green one for off. A circular plate marked "R" (white on black) is fixed to the post below the signal.

Konkan Railway uses repeater signals that are different from those on the rest of IR. These are 2lamp assemblies, with lenses about the size of a shunt signal, placed close to the ground. There is a red lamp below a green lamp. The red lamp is is lit for on and the green one for off. A starter indicator is a special type of repeater provided to show the indication of a starter signal to the guard of a train who, being at the rear of a train, may not be in a position to see the starter signal directly. It consists of a single miniature yellow lamp which is lit when the starter is off and unlit when the starter is on. It may have additional lamps showing signs such as "M" (mainline) "B" (branch) to indicate the particular track for which the points have been set.

Unusual signalling situations
Signals that control access to some bridges or other structures sometimes have additional interlocking with devices that ensure safety. For instance, the Pamban sea bridge (Manmadurai Rameshwaram section) has a lower quadrant semaphore signal that controls access to the bridge. This signal is coupled with a wind speed measuring device that tracks the wind over the bridge, 218

and does not allow the signal to be pulled off even if the station clears the signal, if the wind speed is too high. In case the device is suspected to have failed, the station master is supposed to ensure that wind speeds are not abnormal, and then issue written authority to trains to pass the signal at danger. There is (was?) another similar signal just before Kudalasangama Road Station (?) on the Bagalkot-Bijapur MG section between Gadag and Solapur set up to be dependent on the wind speed across the Krishna river (Upper Krishna project). Home signals without loop line indication Some stations on the Maliladuthurai-Tiruvarur-Karikudi (MG) section in lower quadrant semaphore territory have outer and home signals that control access to the station limits, but do not provide any indication of which line (main line or loop line) the train will be received on. A single home signal is provided, not the usual combination of a main line signal placed at an elevation with respect to the loop line signal. The driver of the train with a clear signal is expected to slow down to about 15km/h or less near the diverging points and examine the points indicator at ground level. A green display (edge-on) indicates the points have been set for the loop line and a white display (face-on) indicates the points have been set for the main line. Depending on this the driver adjusts his speed to proceed (at normal speed if on the main line, reduced speed for the loop line). As there is no interlocking, pointsmen usually wait near the points to ensure the points are set correctly, and sometimes provide additional hand signals to the driver. The same stations as mentioned above also are notable for not having starter or advanced starter signals. Tangible authority to proceed in the form of a Neale's ball token or paper line clear certificate is sufficient for the train to proceed to the next block section, except if stopping at the station in which case the guard's signal is required. Starter signals shared by lines: Thiruturipondi station has two lines (for two platforms) and is also a junction with lines diverging to Karikudi and Agaisthianpalli. The platform lines share a common starter signal; nor does the signal indicate which route the points are set for. Hence, drivers of trains awaiting departure at the platforms are expected to first obtain tangible authority to proceed (Neale's ball token or paper line clear ticket), and additionally, specific written authority to proceed which mentions that the starter signal that is pulled off is intended for that particular train on that line and headed on one route or another.

Return to the section the principal running signal aspects and indications.

Calling-on signals
A calling-on signal is used to allow a loco or train to move into a block section or a track within station limits, which is or may be already be occupied by another train or loco. This is done for the purposes of coupling trains, for a train to enter a track for a long platform which already has another train stopped at it, for a train to enter station limits and wait behind another train on the section (thereby clearing the block section to the rear for another train to be received from the station in the rear), etc. It always occurs in combination with a stop signal. It has only two positions, on and off. When on, the indication of the stop signal applies. The calling-on signal can be off when the stop signal is at Stop; this shows the indication of Proceed Slow, which allows the train to pass the signal at low speed, after stopping, being prepared to stop for any vehicle or obstruction ahead of it on the same track. 219

In suburban sections a calling-on signal is sometimes used to allow EMU trains to proceed with caution on to a section of track occupied by another train. Often, there is electrical circuitry in the tracks to ensure that the calling-on signal does not change to off unless the train has come to a complete halt first. A calling-on signal may in some circumstances also be used to allow a train to pass a defective stop signal. The calling-on signal is not pulled off when the stop signal is not on; and if a shunt signal is on the same pole below it, the shunt signal and calling-on signal cannot be pulled off at the same time. Semaphore: A calling-on signal uses a miniature semaphore arm which is square-ended, and which is white in front with a red stripe near the end, and white in the back with a black stripe near the end. In 2LQ and MLQ territory, the calling-on signal also works in the lower quadrant: on is horizontal, off is dropped by 60 degrees or so. At night there is no lamp shown for the on position, and a miniature yellow lamp is shown for the off position. In MAUQ territory the calling-on signal works in two positions in the upper quadrant: (on is horizontal as usual (no lamp at night), off is at about 45 degrees above the horizontal (yellow lamp at night). The calling-on signal is always placed below the stop signal on the same pole. Semaphore calling-on aspects are shown below.

Colour-light: The calling-on signal consists of a single yellow lamp placed below the stop signal (2-, 3-, or 4-aspect) on the same post. It is lit only for the off position. A small circular plate marked "C" (black on white) is fixed to the post below the signal. Colour-light calling-on aspects are shown below.

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Shunting signals and indicators
Shunt signals control shunting movements. A shunt signal may be placed on its own post or on the same post as a stop signal. If a calling-on signal is also placed on the same post, the shunt signal appears below the calling-on signal. A shunt signal has two indications; when on the indication of the stop signal applies, and when off, the indication is Proceed Slow for Shunting, which allows a loco to proceed past the signal with caution for shunting purposes. A shunt signal mounted below a stop signal cannot be pulled off when the stop signal is not on. If a calling-on signal is also on the same post, the shunt signal cannot be pulled off at the same time as the calling-on signal. Even when a stop signal or shunt signal is pulled off, shunting operations are normally done only at a speed of at most 15km/h, and much lower depending on the composition of the shunted rake (some BOX / BOB wagons cannot be shunted at more than 5km/h singly or in small groups, and with transition couplers the limit is just 2km/h). Multiple shunt signals may be mounted on the same post. In that case, the highest of them applies to the leftmost of the diverging routes, and the ones below it apply to successive routes moving to the right. However, just one shunt signal, with or without a route indicator, may be provided for diverging routes. Disc: Disc signals used for shunting show a red stripe on a white background. (Black stripe on white background from the rear.) Aspects: The red stripe is horizontal for the on position and inclined at an angle for the off position. The inclination is upwards to the left in upper-quadrant or MACL territory, and downwards to the left for lower-quadrant or 2CL territory. Generally disc signals are used in semaphore territory. The aspects are as shown below.

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Position-light: The most common position-light signals used for shunting show two white or yellow lights arranged horizontally for the on position, and two lights at an angle (the one to the left being higher) for the off position. These aspects are shown below.

3-aspect position-light signals: Some position-light signals used for shunting show three white (or yellow) lights arranged horizontally for the on position, three lights at an angle (sloping down to the right) for the proceed slow for shunting indication, and three lights in a vertical line for the proceed for shunting indication. These aspects are shown below.

Semaphore: These are miniature semaphores, square-ended and coloured red with a white stripe at the end in the front (and white with a black stripe on the reverse side). They work in the lower quadrant in lower quadrant territory and in the upper quadrant in upper quadrant or MACL territory. In all, the horizontal position is on and the inclined position is off. Except for the position-light signals, the others show their indications at night as follows: For the on position, the shunt signal shows no light if it is mounted on a post with a stop signal above it, 222

and a red light if it is on its own post. For the off position, a green lamp is lit in 2-aspect territory, and a yellow lamp is lit in multiple-aspect territory. A double-red colour-light signal, permanently lit, is sometimes used to indicate the shunting limit on a particular line. (It is more common to have a shunting limit board; see the section on signs). The double-red signal is used when it is especially important that no trains accidentally pass it -e.g., at busy suburban stations with many automatic and semi-automatic signals which can normally be passed after halting for a specified time, hence a single red signal cannot be used. Normally the double-red signal also carries a board that says 'STOP'. Shunt permission indicators A Shunt permission indicator is used to indicate uninterrupted shunting movements past the indicator, in one or both directions. Target signal: When shunting is permitted, a black disc with a yellow cross on it is visible from the direction(s) from which shunting is permitted; if shunting is not permitted, the discs of the signal are edge-on. At night, when shunting is permitted a yellow cross-shaped light is visible, and no light is visible otherwise. Lamp: A lamp close to ground level may also be used. It displays a yellow cross-shaped light when lit to indicate shunting permitted, and no light if shunting is not permitted.

Points indicators
Where points are not interlocked with signals, and there are no other indications to a driver of the position of facing points, a point indicator signal is used. This is always of the target type, placed close to ground level, which shows a white disc (white lamp at night) when the points are set for the main or straight-ahead line. When the points are set for a divergence, the disc is edge-on (and a green lamp is lit at night). In some cases where a green lamp might be confusing, a red lamp may (rarely) be used.

Trap indicators
Where points are not interlocked with signals, and there are no other indications to a driver of the position of facing points, a point indicator signal is used. This is always of the target type, placed close to ground level, which shows a white disc (white lamp at night) when the points are set for the main or straight-ahead line. When the points are set for a divergence, the disc is edge-on (and a green lamp is lit at night). In some cases where a green lamp might be confusing, a red lamp may (rarely) be used.

Repeaters
A repeating signal or repeater is one placed to the rear of a signal in order to provide early indication of the indication of the signal. It is an advisory signal and therefore permissive and may always be passed. A repeater has only two positions, on and off. In the on position it indicates that the signal ahead which it repeats is in the on position or most restrictive indication. In the off position it indicates that the signal ahead which it repeats is off, i.e., not on (but not necessarily clear). Banner or Disc: A disc type repeater consists of a white disc with a band across it that consists of three parallel stripes: black, yellow, and black. (This is also known as a banner signal in IR 223

terminology.) The band is horizontal for on and inclined (upwards to the left) for off. A circular plate with "R" on it (black on white) is fixed below it to the post. Banner signals usually don't have lamps for indication at night, but where provided the on indication is given by a yellow lamp and the off indication by a green lamp.

Semaphore: This has a square-ended arm which is yellow with a black stripe at the end in front (and white with a black stripe near the end in the rear). This is used in 2-aspect territory, and works in the lower quadrant; horizontal for on and inclined downward for off. A circular plate marked "R" (black on white) is fixed to the post below it. At night, a yellow lamp is shown for on and a green lamp for off.

Colour-light: This has two lamps, green above yellow. The yellow lamp is lit for on and the green one for off. A circular plate marked "R" (white on black) is fixed to the post below the signal.

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Konkan Railway uses repeater signals that are different from those on the rest of IR. These are 2lamp assemblies, with lenses about the size of a shunt signal, placed close to the ground. There is a red lamp below a green lamp. The red lamp is is lit for on and the green one for off. A starter indicator is a special type of repeater provided to show the indication of a starter signal to the guard of a train who, being at the rear of a train, may not be in a position to see the starter signal directly. It consists of a single miniature yellow lamp which is lit when the starter is off and unlit when the starter is on. It may have additional lamps showing signs such as "M" (mainline) "B" (branch) to indicate the particular track for which the points have been set.

Unusual signalling situations
Signals that control access to some bridges or other structures sometimes have additional interlocking with devices that ensure safety. For instance, the Pamban sea bridge (Manmadurai Rameshwaram section) has a lower quadrant semaphore signal that controls access to the bridge. This signal is coupled with a wind speed measuring device that tracks the wind over the bridge, and does not allow the signal to be pulled off even if the station clears the signal, if the wind speed is too high. In case the device is suspected to have failed, the station master is supposed to ensure that wind speeds are not abnormal, and then issue written authority to trains to pass the signal at danger. There is (was?) another similar signal just before Kudalasangama Road Station (?) on the Bagalkot-Bijapur MG section between Gadag and Solapur set up to be dependent on the wind speed across the Krishna river (Upper Krishna project). Home signals without loop line indication Some stations on the Maliladuthurai-Tiruvarur-Karikudi (MG) section in lower quadrant semaphore territory have outer and home signals that control access to the station limits, but do not provide any indication of which line (main line or loop line) the train will be received on. A single home signal is provided, not the usual combination of a main line signal placed at an elevation with respect to the loop line signal. The driver of the train with a clear signal is expected to slow down to about 15km/h or less near the diverging points and examine the points indicator at ground level. A green display (edge-on) indicates the points have been set for the loop line and a white display (face-on) indicates the points have been set for the main line. Depending on this the driver adjusts his speed to proceed (at normal speed if on the main line, reduced speed for the loop line). As there is no interlocking, pointsmen usually wait near the points to ensure the points are set correctly, and sometimes provide additional hand signals to the driver. The same stations as mentioned above also are notable for not having starter or advanced starter signals. Tangible authority to proceed in the form of a Neale's ball token or paper line clear certificate is sufficient for the train to proceed to the next block section, except if stopping at the station in which case the guard's signal is required. Starter signals shared by lines: Thiruturipondi station has two lines (for two platforms) and is also a junction with lines diverging to Karikudi and Agaisthianpalli. The platform lines share a common starter signal; nor does the signal indicate which route the points are set for. Hence, drivers of trains awaiting departure at the platforms are expected to first obtain tangible authority to proceed (Neale's ball token or paper line clear ticket), and additionally, specific written authority to proceed which mentions that the starter signal that is pulled off is intended for that particular train on that line and headed on one route or another. 225

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