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Compressor Basics

Compressor Basics

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Published by: Bathini Venkateshwarlu on May 19, 2011
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Sections

  • Chapter 1
  • Chapter 2
  • Chapter 3
  • Chapter 4
  • Chapter 5
  • Chapter 6
  • Chapter 7

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

1

COMPRESSOR
BASICS -
ELECTRIC

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

2

Compressor

Compressor

Basic

Basic

Electrics

Electrics

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

3

Content :

Some definitions and basic laws
- DC, AC Single phase, AC Three phase
Three phase systems - Star and Delta connections
Motor Data
Motor Insulation Class and service factor
Motor protections - Electrical protections
- Overload protections

How to read a service diagram
Device connections and measurements

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

4

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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5

ELECTRICITY - What ?
Something - INVISIBLE
- POWERFULL
- DANGEROUS !!

Something

- SIMPLE for

QUALIFIED PEOPLE

TAKE CARE !!!

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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6

Power sources Direct Current (DC)

Voltage
Udc

Time

Voltage is polarised with + and -
• Examples : Batteries
Rectified power supplies ; 12….24 V
• Applications : Electronic instrument supplies
Control equipment
Supply for pressure transmitter, etc...
• Safety : Voltages up to 24 VDC are safe, higher voltages can be
dangerous for people.

Ex: 12 Volt

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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7

Alternating Current (AC) - Single Phase
Characteristic : Voltage and current regularly changes
strength and direction in a sinusoidal variation
Application : General use

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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8

Alternating Current (AC) - Single Phase
Characteristic parameters :

Period T = Time for 1 cycle
Frequency (Hz) = 1/T

50 HZ = 50 periods per second
60 Hz = 60 periods per second
RMS value : = max amplitude divided by sqrt 2 (For sinus)
Safety : - A.C. Voltage <= 24 V is Safe for personnel
> 24 V is dangerous
Terminology :< 50 V : extra low voltage
< 1000 V : Low voltage
1000 V < U < 10000 V : Medium voltage
> 10000 V : High voltage

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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9

Alternating Current (AC) - Three Phase
Characteristics :

• Three phase alternating current is produced in a generator with three
separate windings.
• All values on the sinusoidal voltage are displaced 120° in relation to each
other

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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10

Alternating current system

Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3

Neutral
Grounding

1-Phase

3-Phase Y

3-Phase Delta

L1
L2
L3

N

UL=Line voltage = UL1-UL2

Uf =Phase voltage = UL

3

UL

UL

UL

Uf

In a net 3 x 400 V UL = 400 V and Uf = 230 V

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

IL

21st MAY , 2003

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11

Relation between Reactance (X) - Resistance (R) -
Impedance (Z) - Phase displacement (
ϕ)

Z

X

ϕ

R

Power factor - cos ϕ

Uac

X

R

Reactance

Resistance

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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12

Basic laws
Direct Current
Law of Ohm

I = U / R with I = Current in Ampere
U = Voltage in Volt
R = Resistance in Ohm

Absorbed power

P = U x I with U = Voltage in Volt
I = Current in Ampere
P = Power in Watt

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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13

Alternating Current
Law of Ohm

I = U / Z with

I = Current in Ampere
U = Voltage in Volt
Z = Impedance in Ohm
= Sqrt (R² + X²) where X is the reactance

Power in a single phase system
P = U x I x cos
ϕ
Power in a three phase system
P = UL x IL x cos
ϕ x Sqrt (3) with

P = Power in Watt ( other units as stated above)

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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14

Units and measurements
Tension :
Difference in potential between two
points

Unit = VOLT

Example :

L1

L2220 V

Measurement in V ac Between V and Com

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

Current : Measures current flow in a circuit Unit = Ampere

L1

L2

PS

Measurement in A (of mA) between A and Com

21st MAY , 2003

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Motor connection in Star

Terminal box

U1

U2

V1

V2

W2

W1

400 V

400 V

400 V

230 V

Power = Pn
3

W2 U2 V2

U1 V1 W1

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

Un

U v1-v2
= Un/root 3

21st MAY , 2003

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16

Motor connection in Delta

W2 U2 V2

U1 V1 W1

Terminal box

U1

U2

W2

W1

V1

V2

400 V

400 V

400 V

400 V

Uw1-w2 = Un

Power = Pn

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

Un

21st MAY , 2003

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17

TORQUE
A turning force applied to a shaft , tending to cause
rotation . Torque is equal to the force applied , times the
radius through which it acts.
Continuous [rated]torque
The maximum torque a motor can deliver continuously
Starting [breakaway] torque
The torque required to start a machine /
compressor from stand-still. It is always greater
than the torque required to maintain motion.

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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18

Full load torque
The torque necessary to produce the rated HP
at full load speed
Locked rotor torque
The minimum torque that a motor will develop
at rest for all angular positions of the rotor
[with rated voltage applied at rated frequency]
Pull-out torque
The maximum running torque of a
synchronous motor .

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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19

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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MOMENT OF INERTIA…!!!
Definition…???
A measure of a body’s resistance to changes in velocity , whether the body is at rest or moving at a constant velocity.The velocity can be linear or rotational. The moment of inertia [ WK square] is the product of weight [W] of an object
and the square of the radius of gyration [ K Square ].

The radius of gyration is a measure of how the mass of the object is distributed about the axis of rotation. WK square is expressed in units like lb-ft square , kg-met square etc.

Total Moment of Inertia = motor +coupling +compressor
GD square = 4 X WK square

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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21

Torque curve for a short circuited, induction motor

Tstart

Tmin

Tmax

Tnom

RPM

Torque

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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22

Torque curve of a screw compressor - started in Star/Delta

Torque curve (∆)

Loaded compressor

Unloaded compressor
Speed

Torque curve (Y)

Speed : +/- 90-95 %

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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24

V

Hz

A

KW

cosϕ

t/m

IA / In

IP 55

400

50

430

250

0,87

1488

+/- 10 %
460

60

430

285

0,87

1784

KL 13 EN 60034IEC 34-1
SF : 1,1
SF : 1,0

Weight : 1,3 t
SFA : 470 A

Temp rise : 105 K

S I E M E N S

1080 2846 42

Nmax : 3000 RPM

3 f Mot 1LA8 315 4AB91 - Z

ROTOR SQU. CAGE

Temp rise : 80 K

Ambient temp : 40°C
Ambient temp : 55°C

MOTOR DATA PLATE

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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25

PROTECTION CLASS (According IEC 34-5)

• States how an electrical device is protected
• against contact and
• against water
Code : I P X Y

Protection against water
Protection against human contact
and penetration by a solid object

• Example : IP 55

Protected against water jet
Protection against dust

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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26

Values for x

0 Open motors
PROTECTED AGAINST
1 Bodies with a diameter > 50 mm
2 Bodies with a diameter > 12 mm
3 Bodies with a diameter > 2.5 mm
4 Bodies with a diameter > 1 mm
5 Dust can still penetrate, but not
in such a quantity that it
disturbs
6 Full dust protection

Values for y

0 No protection
PROTECTED AGAINST
1 Vertical dripping
2 Water falling as a spray at an
angle equal to or smaller than
15° with respect to vertical
3 Iden. as 2 but angle of 60°
4 Water splashed against the
motor from any direction
5 Against water jet
6 Against condition on ship’s
decks
7 Against the effect of immersion

Most frequently used are IP23, 44 and 54

Protection degree of electrical equipment : IP xy

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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27

V

Hz

A

KW

cosϕ

t/m

IA / In

IP 55

400

50

430

250

0,87

1488

+/- 10 %
460

60

430

285

0,87

1784

KL 13 EN 60034IEC 34-1
SF : 1,1
SF : 1,0

Temp rise : 105 K

S I E M E N S

1080 2846 42

Nmax : 3000 RPM

3 f Mot 1LA8 315 4AB91 - Z

ROTOR SQU. CAGE

Temp rise : 80 K

Ambient temp : 40°C
Ambient temp : 55°C

Weight : 1,3 t
SFA : 470 A

MOTOR DATA PLATE

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

28

Insulation class

Scope

The toughness of winding insulation is influenced by
The temperature of the winding
The insulation class
The maximum allowable temperature rise of the
windings is defined by the insulation class
The power delivered by a motor is limited by the
temperature rise of the winding
!!
IMPORTANT REMARK :

If the upper limit winding temperature is exceeded
by 10 °C, the service life of the insulation is shortened
by about half

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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29

MOTOR TEMPERATURE RISE

MOTOR TEMPERATURE RISE

Insulation class

A

E

B

F

H

Ambient temp °C

40

40

40

40

40

Temp increase °C

60

75

80

105

125

Thermal margin °C

5

5

10

10

15

Max. final temp °C

105

120

130

155

180

INSULATION CLASSES

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

A

E

B

F

H

Temp (°C)

Ambient temp °C

Temp increase °C

Thermal margin °C

21st MAY , 2003

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30

V

Hz

A

KW

cosϕ

t/m

IA / In

IP 55

400

50

430

250

0,87

1488

+/- 10 %
460

60

430

285

0,87

1784

KL 13 EN 60034IEC 34-1
SF : 1,1
SF : 1,0

Temp rise : 105 K

S I E M E N S

1080 2846 42

Nmax : 3000 RPM

3 f Mot 1LA8 315 4AB91 - Z

ROTOR SQU. CAGE

Temp rise : 80 K

Ambient temp : 40°C
Ambient temp : 55°C

Weight : 1,3 t
SFA : 470 A

MOTOR DATA PLATE

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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31

Service factor …!!!

Definition …???

When used on a motor name plate , a number that
indicates how much above the name plate rating a motor
can be loaded without causing serious de-gradation .

That is a motor with 1.15 S.F. can produce 15% more
torque than one with 1.0 S.F.

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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32

Service factor ?

What ??

The service factor of an electric motor is :
•A multiplier which, when applied to the related power,

indicates a permissible higher loading

which may be carried out,
on condition that the maximum ambient temperature
limit of 40 °C is not exceeded

Example : - Motor rated power : 100 KW
- Service factor : 1,2
- Motor may be loaded to : 120 KW
- If Ambient temp <= 40 °C

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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33

Service factor ?

Used why ??

MARKET DRIVEN

• Competitors even use higher service factors

ATLAS COPCO POLICY

Only use service factor within the safe limits
of the insulation class

the thermal margin ( see table of insulation class)
is never used.

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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34

1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

500
Kg

1000
Kg

1500
Kg

Development of the motor-weight (4-pole TOFC-motor 30 kW) from 1900 until today

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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35

Service factor

Criteria for Atlas Copco motor selection :

High efficiency
No oversizing for efficiency and starting torque
Class F winding
High protection degree (IP55)
Long life time for bearings and windings
Minimum 40 000 hours
Service factor

Motors are selected to work in the worst
conditions within the SAFE AREA of the
insulation class !!!

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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36

Service factor

Motor power is influenced by :

Spreading of the compressor element performance
Fouling of the coolers
Tolerances on the nominal voltage

Atlas Copco is testing very thoroughly by :

Measurement of the electrical parameters on
different voltages and power output
Measurement of temperatures around the motor
Measurement of DT winding temperatures on
various voltages

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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40

Motor protection

Possible protection based on the line current :

• FUSE : - Prevent sustained overcurrent while avoiding
blow out on starting
- For larger motors, mainly used as short circuit
protection

• THERMAL RELAY

- A bimetallic element is heated by the line
current, to actuate the protection mechanism

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

41

Motor protection

• MAGNETIC RELAY

- Respond to magnetic field set up by the line
current
- Almost no time function

Above mentioned protections do not respond to :

•Over temperature caused by hot ambient conditions
• Blocked ventilation or cooling

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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42

Motor protection

OPTIONAL
TEMPERATURE RESPONSIVE PROTECTORS :

THERMISTORS and RTD’s

• Integrated (embedded) in the motor windings to
protect against dangerous overheating

• Closely thermally coupled to the motor windings

• Need additional conditioning equipment to
interrupt the contactor

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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43

Termistor protector

Conditioning relay

PTC

Power supply

Outputs for control

Alarm

Trip

Remarks :
Thermistors can not be used for measuring
Thermistors can be connected in series
(R total cold < 1500 ohm)
Same sensor can be used for protections
Alarm and Trip

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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44

Motor protection

RTD’s =

Resistance Temperature Detector

RTD’s used in Atlas Copco :
• Pt 1000 : used in almost all compressors
• Pt 100 : Sometimes used to measure motor winding
temperatures

Pt 1000

Resistance value - 1000 Ohm - at 0 °C
Platin based resistor
• Pt 100 : Resistance value of Pt 1000 divided
by 10 for the same temperature
Values : See table and chart

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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45

TEMP

(°C)

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

-10

960,9

964,81

968,72

972,63

976,54

980,45

984,36

988,27

992,18

996,09

0

1000

1003,9

1007,8

1011,7

1015,6

1019,5

1023,4

1027,3

1031,2

1035,1

10

1039

1042,89

1046,78

1050,67

1054,56

1058,45

1062,34

1066,23

1070,12

1074,01

20

1077,9

1081,78

1085,66

1089,54

1093,42

1097,3

1101,18

1105,06

1108,94

1112,82

30

1116,7

1120,57

1124,44

1128,31

1132,18

1136,05

1139,92

1143,79

1147,66

1151,53

40

1155,4

1159,26

1163,12

1166,98

1170,84

1174,7

1178,56

1182,42

1186,28

1190,14

50

1194

1197,84

1201,68

1205,52

1209,36

1213,2

1217,04

1220,88

1224,72

1228,56

60

1232,4

1236,23

1240,06

1243,89

1247,72

1251,55

1255,38

1259,21

1263,04

1266,87

70

1270,7

1274,52

1278,34

1282,16

1285,98

1289,8

1293,62

1297,44

1301,26

1305,08

80

1308,9

1312,71

1316,52

1320,33

1324,14

1327,95

1331,76

1335,57

1339,38

1343,19

90

1347

1350,8

1354,6

1358,4

1362,2

1366

1369,8

1373,6

1377,4

1381,2

100

1385

1388,79

1392,58

1396,37

1400,16

1403,95

1407,74

1411,53

1415,32

1419,11

110

1422,9

1426,67

1430,44

1434,21

1437,98

1441,75

1445,52

1449,29

1453,06

1456,83

120

1460,6

1464,36

1468,12

1471,88

1475,64

1479,4

1483,16

1486,92

1490,68

1494,44

130

1498,2

1501,96

1505,72

1509,48

1513,24

1517

1520,76

1524,52

1528,28

1532,04

140

1535,8

1539,53

1543,26

1546,99

1550,72

1554,45

1558,18

1561,91

1565,64

1569,37

150

1573,1

1576,83

1580,56

1584,29

1588,02

1591,75

1595,48

1599,21

1602,94

1606,67

160

1610,4

1614,12

1617,84

1621,56

1625,28

1629

1632,72

1636,44

1640,16

1643,88

170

1647,6

1651,3

1655

1658,7

1662,4

1666,1

1669,8

1673,5

1677,2

1680,9

180

1684,6

1688,3

1692

1695,7

1699,4

1703,1

1706,8

1710,5

1714,2

1717,9

190

1721,6

1725,28

1728,96

1732,64

1736,32

1740

1743,68

1747,36

1751,04

1754,72

200

1758,4

1762,07

1765,74

1769,41

1773,08

1776,75

1780,42

1784,09

1787,76

1791,43

210

1795,1

1798,76

1802,42

1806,08

1809,74

1813,4

1817,06

1820,72

1824,38

1828,04

220

1831,7

1835,35

1839

1842,65

1846,3

1849,95

1853,6

1857,25

1860,9

1864,55

230

1868,2

1871,83

1875,46

1879,09

1882,72

1886,35

1889,98

1893,61

1897,24

1900,87

240

1904,5

1908,12

1911,74

1915,36

1918,98

1922,6

1926,22

1929,84

1933,46

1937,08

250

1940,7

1944,32

1947,94

1951,56

1955,18

1958,8

1962,42

1966,04

1969,66

1973,28

260

1976,9

1980,5

1984,1

1987,7

1991,3

1994,9

1998,5

2002,1

2005,7

2009,3

270

2012,9

2016,49

2020,08

2023,67

2027,26

2030,85

2034,44

2038,03

2041,62

2045,21

280

2048,8

2052,37

2055,94

2059,51

2063,08

2066,65

2070,22

2073,79

2077,36

2080,93

290

2084,5

2088,07

2091,64

2095,21

2098,78

2102,35

2105,92

2109,49

2113,06

2116,63

300

2120,2

Resistance(in Ohm) of PT 1000 element as a function of the temperature

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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Sensor PT 1000

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

1900

2000

2100

2200

-1

0

1

0

3

0

5

0

7

0

9

0

1

1

0

1

3

0

1

5

0

1

7

0

1

9

0

2

1

0

2

3

0

2

5

0

2

7

0

2

9

0

°C

Ohm

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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RTD’s Pt 100 and Pt 1000

RTD’s Can be connected to Elektronikon extension
module without other conditioning amplifiers

Remark for trouble shooting :

Always disconnect both wires of a RTD for checking
its value in case of troubles.

RTD

Elektronikon

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

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RTD’s Pt 100 and Pt 1000

RTD’s Can be connected to Elektronikon extension
module without other conditioning amplifiers
Remark for trouble shooting :
Always disconnect both wires of a RTD for checking
its value in case of troubles.

RTD

Elektronikon

Readings in Ohm

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

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49

Cables and dimensions
• Low Voltage power cables and connections

• The cable connection points have to be connected in the
correct way
• Loose connection points can be the source of
mechanical damage to the compressor and will damage
the cables
• Use cables with dimensions as specified in the A.C.
instruction manual of each compressor. Cables with too
small dimensions cause excessive voltage drop.

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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50

Cables and dimensions

• Medium Voltage cables

• Selection of M.V. cables is the work for electrically
qualified people.
• Cable connections and insulation at both ends have to
be done extremely careful

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

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How to read a service diagram ?
Symbols : ref condensed symbol list (details ref A.C. Standard
E1282 K)
Numbering of components
Numbering of aux. Contacts
circuit numbers on diagram
Cross reference
Terminal rows Ex: 1 X1- 74

Terminal number
Terminal row
1 = Cubicle
2 = Elektronikon Master module
3 = Consecutive module or component
numbers Cables and wires

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

52

Basic symbols

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

53

Basic symbols

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

54

Part of wiring diagram

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

55

Transformer for auxiliary power

Important

Always take out fuses F1,F2,F3 before commissioning
• Measure Uin and make primary connections acc table
• Put F1,F2 in place and measure Uout
• If Uout is correct, close F3; otherwise adjust connections

F1

F2

F3

Uin

Uout

Table as example only !

VOLT

208
220
230
380
440
460
575
110
220

TRANSFORMER
CONNECTIONS

32-38
31-35

1-37 & 31-2
1-36 & 32-2
1-35 & 33-2

3-4 & 5-6
4-5

PRIMARY

SEC

33-35
34-35

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

56

Part of wiring diagram

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

57

Part of wiring diagram

Attention :

Remark about the 24 Vac
secondary :

• Secondary 24 V ac may
never be grounded
• secondary is protected by
two circuit breakers

• NEVER change this !!!

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

58

Part of wiring diagram( for compressor supplied without starter)

K02 and K03

can be used for

control of

Y - D starter

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

59

Part of wiring diagram

(for compressor supplied without starter)

Important

Take care of

interfacing
connections

to be in phase with

ECB AIF 1133

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

60

Interfacing connections with Elektronikon

Auxiliary inputs

Relay contact
outputs

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

61

Interfacing connections with Elektronikon

Relay outputs

Temp inputs
Pt 1000

Pressure sensor
inputs

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

62

Interfacing connections

Device connections

Pressure transducers
3 - wire connection

Temp sensors Pt1000
2 - wire connection

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

63

PRESSURE SENSORS

B

C

A

A = Ground (-)
B = Supply voltage(+5 V)
C = Signal (+)

Measurement in Volts DC

Range :
Zero = 0.5 Volt DC
Full scale = 4.5 Volt DC

Sensor must remain connected to Elektronikon

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

64

SERVICE DIAGRAM

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

65

[l]

21

22

1
3
5

642

13

14

Q
28

Fanm

otor circuit

only for units

without com

pr. m

otor

M
28

PE

W
1
V1

U1

M

3

(T1)(T3)(T2)

[l]

Rem

ote/local press. sensing

S3'

Rem

ote setpoint change

S5'

Rem

ote start button

Rem

ote em

ergency stop button

S1'

S2'

Com

pressor m

otor starter

K21

Undervoltage relay

CUSTOMER'S INSTALLATION

Overload relay com

pressor m

otor

F6

F21

3

To be installed by costum

er [n]

03/02

2

02/01

3

[b]

Custom

er's installation

53

I>
F21

95

96

24

2

A2

A1

K21

M
1

Com

pressor m

otor

M

3

U
<

F6

62

PE

[f]

02/2

02/1

[f]

F3

2

1

1X4

X

X

X

X

1X4

X

X

X

X

1

2

1

33

2

1X4

X

X

X

X

230V 50Hz

[e]

T1

30

F2

F1

F0

L1

3231

L2

L3

FANMOTOR CANOPY

DRIVE MOTOR

1X3

[b]

1X3

[m
]

LEGEND

CUBICLE

Start button

Program
m
ed Stop button

Elektronikon Regulator

COMPRESSOR CONTROL MODULE

Blocking relay

Aux. relay Y-contactor
Aux. relay D-contactor

Aux. relay load/unload

Air Press.High/Air Press.Low relay
Dryer + fan start

Autom

atic operation relay

General alarm

relay

General shut-down relay

Printed circuitboard connectors

E1

K01

K02

K03

K04

K05

K06

K07

K08

K09

2X1/12

MOTOR HEATER

[l]

In case of High Voltage supply

for the drive m

otor, use a

separate 3-phase supply for

the fan m

otor and single-phase

supply for the regulator.

Power supply to be connected for

counterclockwise rotation of

com

pressor m

otor and

- clockwise rotation fanm

otor for ZR 300-750

Rotation to be observed while

facing the end shaft of

the m

otor.

[b]

NOTES

W
hen rem

ote stop button is

term

inals of 1X4 and 1X6.

be rem

oved on the corresponding

installed, the bridges should

[g]

4 : sealed with dumm
y

1 : supply voltage

2 : ground

3 : output

4

2

3

1

[i]

Pressure transducer
pin configuration

m
etric thread size M10: 40Nm

(29 lbft)

C.P.E. = Custom

er Provided Equipm

ent

For field wiring : USE COPPER W

IRE ONLY

m
etric thread size M5 : 5Nm

( 4 lbft)

m
etric thread size M8 : 20Nm

(15 lbft)

m
etric thread size M6 : 8Nm

( 6 lbft)

tightening torque for bolts :

[o]

To avoid Electro Magnetic

be used and earthed.

Interference : screened cable shall

[n]

X
XX
X

X
XX
X

T

N

R96

CT.03.1118.00

A000000

M/s. ATLAS COPCO INDIA LTD.
Not to be used without the permission of

Confidential Property of ATLAS COPCO INDIA LTD.

Appurtenantdrawingsanddocuments.

R

Q

P

O

N

M

L

K

J

I

H

G

F

E

D

C

B

A

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Note:

Position:

Modifiedfrom:

Date:

Intr/Appd:

FINISH:

00

9095 ---- 00

DD/MM/YY

(1/1)

-
-

1:1

XA125

Seedrg.area

PARTNAME

4

3

2

REVISION

AC1356K

AC1356K

AC1350K

Transferredto

ATLASCOPCO(I)LTD

Kg.

Kg.

Sheet

Designation

Replaces

Compare

Ref.no.

finishedwt.
Date

Appd.

Prod.chd.

Blankwt.

Blankno.

Designchd.

Std.chd.

DrawnScale

3

2Name

Class

Class

Class

flamecutting

Welding

flamecuttedholes

Sheetmetal

punchedholes

Mach.surf./drilled

accordingto

Toleranceifnotindicated

A1

DN:PNA90000000

15119 00 005.

SGK.

07/02/03

(1/2)

9096382300
9823189732

1:1

(FORZR355AIRCOMPRESSOR.)

WIRINGDIAGRAMFORCONTROLPANEL

PT100

R11

R13
R12

R14

R16
R15

R17

R19
R18

R20

R22
R21

R23

R25
R24

R26

R28
R27

R29

R31
R30

R32

R34
R33

tem
p. sensor

Bearing N-end

tem
p. sensor

tem

p. sensor

Motor winding 1U1

Bearing D-end

Motor winding 2W
2

tem

p. sensor

tem

p. sensor

Motor winding 1V1

Motor winding 1W
1

tem
p. sensor

Motor winding 2V2

tem

p. sensor

Motor winding 2U2

tem

p. sensor

Space
Heater

CT

A

415VAC,3PH,50HZ,BHEL
LTLINEFROMTHE
SAMEFEEDEROF
HTLINE

GEARWITHNECESSARYINTERLOCKS.

POWEREDDIRECTLYFROMCUSTOMER'SHTSWITCH

[t]MAINELECTRICMOTORSPACEHEATERSTOBE

(THISISNOTINACILSCOPE.)

(PAC)FROM

LAPTOP.

230VAG3PIN
SOCKETFOR

S6

109M

1~

AIRDRYER

K11

F21B

(IAC)

(IAC)

108

(DRYER)

1x1

110 VAC

T1

32

(F)

2

F2

1

415 v31

(F)

1

F1

2

L2L1

1X1

1X1

2

1X1
1

230VACPOWERSUPPLY
FROMHTSWITCHGEAR

PANEL
TUBELIGHT

VAA21
K14,15VAA11-(2NO,2NC)

Q28MINIATURECIRCUITBREAKERFORFANMOTORS

F21AOVERLOADRELAY-FANMOTOR-M28.

K21POWERCONTACTORFORFANMOTORM28

EMERGENCYSTOP

1X3EARTHBOLT

1X1TERMINALSTRIP

T2TRANSFORMER110VAC/24VAC

T1MAINTRANSFARMER

S6SELECTORSWITCH

S2MUSHROOM-SHAPEDPUSHBUTTON

F21OVERLOADRELAY-MAINMOTOR.

K13AUX.RELAYFORSTARTERCONTROL(4NO+4NC)

K11AUXILIARYRELAYLOADING

F1/5FUSELINKS,CONTROLCIRCUIT

AAMMETER

CONTROL CIRCUIT.
CUSTOMER H.T. PANEL

HT SW.GEAR

K14

K15

(+)

START/STOP/TRIPSCHEME.

65

STOP/TRIP

1x1

1x1
63

START

COIL.

CLOSING

(-)

DOLHTSTARTERWITHALLMOTOR

NTPC`SINSTALLATION

661x1

K13

641x1

SHUNT
COIL.

/TRIP

PROTECTIONS.

K31

Tim

e relay water shut-off valve

...

PT100

.
..

PT100

..
.

.
..

..
.

.
..
...
..
.......

PT100

PT100

PT100

PT100

PT100

.....
..

..
....

...

.

..

( NTPC-RIHAND 3.3 KV )

BYCUSTOMER

:PE-VO-200-555-.

NATIONALTHERMALPOWERCORPORATIONLTD.

PROJECT ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT,

:1230-001-10PE-PVM-B-.

NEW DELHI, INDIA.

BHEL
JOBNO.

NTPCDRG.NO.

:200

BHEL
DRG.NO.

BHARATHEAVYELECTRICALSLTD.

RIHAND SUPER THERMAL POWER PROJECT.

NTPC

2 x 500 M.W.

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

66

F1
(F)

F2
(F)

(F)

1X1
2

1X1

T3

T1

8

81X1

1X1

1x1
9

24 VAC

(E) 110 VAC

1X1
6

1X1
6

1X1
6

39

6

6

1X1

1X1

1X1

7

7

7

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

3031

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

31

32

L1

L2

2

33

1

1X1

110 VAC

1

7

40

Y1

K11A1

A2

8

9

2X7

2X7

K04

17

18

2

1

2

1

1

F3

1

2

1

(F)

F4

2

2

(F)

F5

1

415 v

K2

H

K1

K2

K1

1K

K2

S3

S10

YS1

16

15

T31

1X1
99

1001x1

13
14

21
22

1X1
3

1X1
3

13

14

GREEN

OFFM1

M1

A1

A2

K13

RED

ON

3

A2

K21A1

M1

YELLOW

TRIP

K31A1
A2

K15

A2

A1

T2

A2

T1A1

K14

A2

A1

A2

A1

(G)

K21

K13

45
2X8

1X1

5

K13

K13

K13

K13

11

1X1
44

S2

12

K13

K01

1X1
3

2X8

1X1
3

6

A1

F21AB1

K21

F21A
A1

C1

T2

T1

42

41

43

44

12
3

NO
NC

NC
NO

-

NC
NO

-

4
13

CUS. HT PANEL

15
1411

CUST'S
HT PANEL

CUST'S
HT PANEL

Gnd

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

B
02/22

1B2B
4B3B
5B

02/29C

9B
6B7B8B

10B

1C

2X6

Sign T01
Gnd

Sign T02
Gnd

Gnd
Sign T03

Sign T04
Gnd

Sign T05
Gnd

1
2
3
4
5
6

1
2
3
4

02/35D

3C2C
4C
6C5C

1D
3D2D
4D

Gnd

2X7

Sign T07

Sign T06
Gnd

Sign T08
Gnd

2X8

Sign T10

Sign T09
Gnd

...
1

9

Sign P04

12A

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1011

1A2A
4A3A
5A

9A

7A6A
8A

10A11A

V+

V+Gnd
Sign P01

Gnd

Sign P02

Gnd
V+Sign P03
Gnd
V+

12

D

9

1

02/12

20A

LAN

...

2X1

NC1

2X5

20A

02/17

1X4

3

3

5

4

3

45

6

NO

K02

K03

NC

NO3
2

C

5
4C

Y

K01
BLOCKING

NC

8
7C

NO9

RS 485

2X2

/START

G. SHUTDOWN

E1

G. WARNING

K09

DRYER (+FAN)

AUT.OPERATION

K08

M
KIV D

K07

APL/APH

1X5

02/20

9

2X10

NC

K06

NC9

NO7
8

C

K04

K05

L/UL

4

NO

5
6C

NC

2
3C

2X11

02/51

63

X

6

24 Vac

NO1

2X9

1

2

DI01

3

DI02

4

03/08

...
1

I/O

9

2X3

02/32

8

C

NC

9
10

NO

7

16

1X7

15

NC

NC

6

NO

C

4
5

NO

C

2
3

12X12

13
14

11
12

DI07

9

DI08

10

DI09

11

62

X

X

X

X

63

X

X

DI10

12

Supply

13

X

X

64

X

1X5
02/22

[g]

55

1X6

7

6

X

X

X

56

X

1X6

X

X

X

57

X

1X6

7

DI05

DI04

DI03

5

6

X

X

X

58

X

X

1X6

X

X

59

X

X

1X6

X

X

DI06

8

60

X

X

X

X

1X6
X

60

1X6
X

1X6
X

X

1X6

64

[r]

54

1X6

X

X

X

X

02/39

53

Remote load/unload

02/3

02/3

S1'

13

14

p

Remote start/stop

Emergency stop

1X6

1X6

53

53

X

X

X

X

53

13

S3'

14

13

U<

14

F6

14

S5'

13

14

02/39

[r]

Q41
13

14

( closed = load )

( link = remote )
Remote/local press.sensing

Starter feedback

Fan motor overload ZT110-275

Overload drive motor

1X6

1X6

X

X

X

X

53

X

I>

F21

X

X

X

53

X

X

X

1X6

Q25
13

53

X

X

X

X

X

53

Dryer (+fan) overload

Remote setpoint change

EC drain (warning)+

[r]

1X6

1X6

53

X

X

X

X

X

53

X

X

X

EC dryer

1X6

53

X

X

X

53

X

AUXILIARY INPUTS

press. transducer

DP air filter

press. transducer

2A3A

Com

pressor out

PT 29

P

1A

A
B
C

20A

20A

press. transducer

press. transducer

PT 18

Intercooler

5A6A
4A

8A9A
7A

10A

PDT 02

Oil

P

A
CB

PT 49

P

2
1
3

P

20A

20A

11A
12A

A
B
C

A

4C

3C

2C

6C

5C

TT 58

PT1000

out tem

p. sensor

Cooling water IC

u

1C

1

tem

p. sensor

out tem

p. sensor

2

Cooling water AC

TT 59

PT1000

2

u

1

Oil

TT 44

PT1000

u

1

2

20A

20A

02/49C

20A

TT 21

PT1000

tem

p. sensor

Elem

ent 2 out

6B

5B

2B

7B

4B

3B

TT 11

tem

p. sensor

Elem

ent 1 out

tem

p. sensor

1B

Com

pressor out

TT 29

PT1000

u

1

2

tem

p. sensor

TT 18

PT1000

Elem

ent 2 in

PT1000

u

1

2

1

u

2

u

1

20A

20A

20A

20A

02/46B

8B

10B

9B

inlet

cooling water

TT 51

PT1000

2

u

1

2

20A

12

14

12

1X7

14

X

X

X

X

X

1X7

2X12

K07

2

2X12

K08

16

18

X

16

1X7

X

X

X

X

X

X

18

1X7

X

X

X

X

5

2X12
8

K09

14

K11

13

20

20

1X7

X

X

X

X

54

K13

53

230VAC 3A AC15

General shut down

Load-Unload

Automatic operation

General warning

11

2X12

11

1X7

1

2X12

13

X

X

X

X

13

X

1X7

230VAC 10A

X

4

2X127

15

1X7

X

X

X

15

X

X

X

17

17

1X7

X

X

X

X

230VAC 10A

230VAC 10A

230VAC 6A AC15
Motor running

19

19

1X7

X

X

X

X

VOLTAGE FREE CONTACTS

REFER FROM

SHEET 1/2

03/02

L2

L1
1X0

L1L2

L3L33132

1X3

0
1X4

1
11

222

5

5

22
3334

334

45

[g]

2444

7371

2X10
02/38

45

77

6

6
1X5

6

77

6
66

77

9

53
1X6

53

02/41

9

2X9

55

[g]

53

5353
53

5354

5756
58
6059
62

[r]

[r]

02/38

K

16

16

66

6463
65

67

[r]

11
1X7

12
1413
15

13
1112

1415

19
1718

20

1X9

2X12
02/53

9796
9899

02/38

2X11

To be installed by custom

er [n]

90

90

1X17

53242
62

1X18

2
1

E7

23

76

E7

1X11

E

1

79

23
1

E79

01/10

E
79

907
E

Y 1

1
2

Y 51

1
2

solenoid valve

Cooling water

solenoid valve

Loading

71

73

E

M 40

1

M

dryer

Gearm

otor

02/43

32

54

31

02/43

53

1

CT.03.1118.00

A000000

M/s. ATLAS COPCO INDIA LTD.
Not to be used without the permission of

Confidential Property of ATLAS COPCO INDIA LTD.

Appurtenantdrawingsanddocuments.

R

Q

P

O

N

M

L

K

J

I

H

G

F

E

D

C

B

A

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Note:

Position:

Modifiedfrom:

Date:

Intr/Appd:

FINISH:

00

9095 ---- 00

DD/MM/YY

(1/1)

-
-

1:1

XA125

Seedrg.area

PARTNAME

4

3

2

REVISION

AC1356K

AC1356K

AC1350K

Transferredto

ATLASCOPCO(I)LTD

Kg.

Kg.

Sheet

Designation

Replaces

Compare

Ref.no.

finishedwt.
Date

Appd.

Prod.chd.

Blankwt.

Blankno.

Designchd.

Std.chd.

DrawnScale

3

2Name

Class

Class

Class

flamecutting

Welding

flamecuttedholes

Sheetmetal

punchedholes

Mach.surf./drilled

accordingto

Toleranceifnotindicated

A1

DN:PNA90000000

15119 00 005.

SGK.

07/02/03

(2/2)

9096382300.
9823189732

1:1

(FORZR355AIRCOMPRESSOR.)

WIRINGDIAGRAMFORCONTROLPANEL

rem

ote em

ergency stop

[g]

45

X

1X4
X

X

X

55

X

1X6
X

X

X

S2'

44

1X4

X

X

X

X

54

1X6

X

X

X

X

S

1X11

108

110
109

111

1X10

TO SCANNER

1X4

3

X

X

X

X

3

[s]

2

X

1X4

PE

X

X

X

M
5

FAN

2 x 500 M.W.

RIHAND SUPER THERMAL POWER PROJECT.

BHARATHEAVYELECTRICALSLTD.

NEW DELHI, INDIA.

PROJECT ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT,

NATIONALTHERMALPOWERCORPORATIONLTD.

JOBNO.

NTPCDRG.NO.
BHEL

NTPC

DRG.NO.

BHEL

:PE-VO-200-555-.

:1230-001-10PE-PVM-B-.

:200

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

67

ELECTRICITY
ATTENTION !!!

Something - INVISIBLE
- POWERFULL
- DANGEROUS !!

Something - SIMPLE for
QUALIFIED PEOPLE

Compressor Basics - Electric

Compressor Basics - Electric

TAKE CARE !!!

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

68

Elektronikon MkIV

State-of-the-art
compressor control

INSTRUMENTATION & ELECTRONICS

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

69

What is the Elektronikon?

What is the Elektronikon?

State of the art electronic controller that optimizes all aspects of
compressor maintenance and operation

INSTRUMENTATION & ELECTRONICS

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

70

The Elektronikon monitors

The Elektronikon monitors

The Elektronikon system continuously and accurately monitors
all defined critical functions of the compressor package

The Elektronikon display is
clear and easy to read

INSTRUMENTATION & ELECTRONICS

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

71

Elektronikon elegant simplicity

Elektronikon elegant simplicity

Older electro-pneumatic control

Many more components required than
with Elektronikon regulation

More opportunity for failure due to
complexity than with Elektronikon regulation

More involved trouble shooting than with
Elektronikon regulation

More simplified due to reduction of components

Advanced electronic control

More reliable and easier to troubleshoot
than electro-pneumatic regulation

INSTRUMENTATION & ELECTRONICS

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

72

Elektronikon

Elektronikon electronic precision
electronic precision

Older
electropneumatic
control

Advanced electronic control

Elektronikon advanced electronic
advantage in accuracy...

Electronic sensors maintain setpoint with same
accuracy throughout lifetime

A mechanical switch's setpoint can drift over
its lifetime

Electronic sensors’ setpoint is easily adjusted through
the Elektronikon faceplate

A mechanical switch requires inaccurate
manual adjustment

Reaction of the Elektronikon system is very fast
insuring tight system pressure band and assured
compressor protection [ better response time ]

The reaction of the control system to a process
deviation is slow with electropneumatic control

Display versus switch readout of parameter
has deviation

The process value readout is a function of the sensor’s
electrical signal

INSTRUMENTATION & ELECTRONICS

21st MAY , 2003

AIF-TRAINING

73

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