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Heat Transfer Lecture 03

# Heat Transfer Lecture 03

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02/05/2012

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# Lecture Notes for Heat Transfer - 2

ACRi ² PMD Certified Course in Computational Fluid Dynamics
© ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd, 2011

Convection Boundary Condition 
The heat transfer from the surface of a body due to convection is q´ = hA(T - T) 
A is the area of the surface from which convection takes place

© ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd, 2011

Convection Boundary Condition  h is the heat transfer coefficient  Depends on the fluid properties  Depends on the nature of the flow ² Reynolds number etc © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd. 2011 .

Ltd.Convection Boundary Condition  One side with convective heat transfer © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. 2011 .

Ltd. 2011 .Convection Boundary Condition  Convective heat transfer from both sides © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.

k. What is T(x)? © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. T. 2011 . what is the temperature distribution in the body?  Given: L. h.Convection Boundary Condition  Homework problem: Given a specified heat flux on one side and convective heat transfer coefficient on the other side. Ltd. q.

 It is most efficient in vaccuum  It is proportional to 4th power of temperature  Stefan-Boltzmann·s Law  Stefan-Boltmann constant = 5. 2011 . Ltd.67*10-8w/m2k4 © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.Radiation Boundary Condition  Radiation is emitted from all matter at a nonzero temperature  Energy of radiation is carried by electromagnetic waves / photons  It does not require a medium for heat transfer.

2011 .67*10-8 w/m2k4 © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. =5.Radiation Boundary Condition  The heat transfer from the surface of a body due to radiation is  Emax = Ts4. Ltd.

Ltd. 2011 .Summary  Dirichlet ² specified temperature  Neumann ² specified heat flux  Includes zero flux case ² perfectly insulated  Convection Surface ² specified heat transfer coefficient and medium temperature  Radiation bundary condition  Interface boundary condition  Continuity of temperature  Continuity of heat fux © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.Types of Boundary Conditions .

The StefanBoltzmann law is for the perfect blackbody  In reality. most bodies are gray ² they only emit radiation at some frequencies © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. 2011 . Ltd.Black and Grey body  A black body is an idealised surface that emits radiation at all frequencies.

most bodies are gray ² they only emit radiation at some frequencies  So the amount of radiation emitted is less than that of a blackbody at the same temperature  Egrey = I Ts4. Ltd. 2011 .Grey body  In reality. =5.67*10-8 w/m2k4  The fraction I is called emissivity of the surface  It is a measure of how efficiently a body emits radiation compared to a perfect blackbody © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.

Absorbtion. 2011 . transmittance  Surfaces generally absorb some incident radiation. reflect back some radiation and allow some fraction of the radiation to pass through them completely  Absorbtion ² characterised by the absorbtivity E  Reflectance ² characterised by the reflectivity  Transmittance ² characterised by the transmittivity E+ + =1 © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd.

Ltd.Radiation inside a room  Consider a grey body at temperature T and emissivity I in a room with wall temperature Twall © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. 2011 .

Ltd. 2011 .T)  What are the assumptions made in this case? © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.Radiation inside a room  Radiation heat energy emitted by body is Ebody = AI T4  Radiation heat incident on body from wall is G = AI Tw4  The energy balance equation for the body can be written as  Qnet = -AI T4 + AI Tw4 = hA(T .

2011 .Heat Diffusion ² Cylindrical Coordinates  Consider the conduction of heat through a long cylinder  Change in the axial direction is considered to be negligible  Symmetry in the direction © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd.

2011 .Heat Diffusion ² Cylindrical Coordinates  Consider a section along the axis Q(r) ² Q(r+ (r) + Qg = (E/(t © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd.

2011 .Heat Diffusion ² Cylindrical Coordinates  So the 1st law for the annular element can ve written as Q(r) ² Q(r+ (r) + qq(V = ( (V)C (T/(t (V = A* (r = 2 rL* (r After simplification and taking limit as (r We get 0. 1 x ¨ xT ¸ xT © kA ¹  q g ! VC A xr ª xr º xt © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd.

Heat Diffusion ² Cylindrical Coordinates  So for a material with variable conductivity 1 x ¨ x ¸ © kr ¹ qg r xr ª xr º  For constant conductivity x xt 1 x ¨ xT ¸ q g 1 xT ! ©r ¹ r xr ª xr º k E xt © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. 2011 . Ltd.

we have 1 x ¨ 2 xT ¸ xT © kr ¹  q g ! VC 2 xr º r xr ª xt © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.Heat Diffusion ² Cylindrical Coordinates     Steady State without heat generation Steady State with heat generation Transient conduction Similarly for a sphere. 2011 . Ltd.

Ltd.3D Heat Diffusion ² Cylindrical Coordinates  In 3D. we have full heat diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates as 1 x ¨ xT ¸ 1 x ¨ xT ¸ x ¨ xT ¸ xT © kr ¹  2 ©k © xJ ¹  xz © k xz ¹  q g ! VC xt ¹ r xr ª xr º r xM ª ª º º © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. 2011 .

Ex. 2011 .thermal conductivity k. 1 . Ltd. What is T(r)? © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.Heat Diffusion in Annular Cylinder ² Dirichlet BC  Consider an annular cylinder .

2011 . 1 . area of c/s was constant  So heat flux through each section constant  So temperature gradient between sections was same  For cylinder ² area of heat transfer increases with increasing radius  Hence heat flux through section of greater radius less than section of smaller radius  Hence temperature gradient is not a constant © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.Ex. Ltd.Heat Diffusion in Annular Cylinder ² Dirichlet BC  For planar wall.

 Heat generation / unit volume of qq  Temperature at outer surface = T1  What is T(r) © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.Ex. 2 .Heat Diffusion in Solid Cylinder ² Dirichlet BC  Consider a solid cylinder of radius r1 . Ltd. 2011 .thermal conductivity k.

dT/dr = 0 © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. T = T1  Need one more B.Ex. 2011 .Heat Diffusion in Solid Cylinder ² Dirichlet BC  What are the boundary conditions?  At r = r1. Ltd. 2 .C  Temperature has to be maximum at center of cylinder? Why?  So at r = 0.

Wire + insulation  Consider a wire of radius r1 and an insulation material with outer radius r2.  Heat generation / unit volume of qq .electrical  Temperature at outer surface = T2  What is T(r) © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.Ex. 3 . conductivity k1. 2011 . k2. Ltd.

3 .Ex.Wire + insulation  Solve in two parts  For the solid wire  For the annular insulation material  Use interface boundary condition © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd. 2011 .

Summary  What is heat transfer coefficient? What are its units?  What does convective heat transfer coefficient depend on? © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd. 2011 .

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