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Heat Transfer Lecture 03|Views: 24|Likes: 1

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/55786351/Heat-Transfer-Lecture-03

02/05/2012

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**ACRi ² PMD Certified Course in Computational Fluid Dynamics
**

© ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd, 2011

**Convection Boundary Condition
**

The heat transfer from the surface of a body due to convection is q´ = hA(T - T)

A is the area of the surface from which convection takes place

© ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd, 2011

Convection Boundary Condition h is the heat transfer coefficient Depends on the fluid properties Depends on the nature of the flow ² Reynolds number etc © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd. 2011 .

Ltd.Convection Boundary Condition One side with convective heat transfer © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. 2011 .

Ltd. 2011 .Convection Boundary Condition Convective heat transfer from both sides © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.

k. What is T(x)? © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. T. 2011 . what is the temperature distribution in the body? Given: L. h.Convection Boundary Condition Homework problem: Given a specified heat flux on one side and convective heat transfer coefficient on the other side. Ltd. q.

It is most efficient in vaccuum It is proportional to 4th power of temperature Stefan-Boltzmann·s Law Stefan-Boltmann constant = 5. 2011 . Ltd.67*10-8w/m2k4 © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.Radiation Boundary Condition Radiation is emitted from all matter at a nonzero temperature Energy of radiation is carried by electromagnetic waves / photons It does not require a medium for heat transfer.

2011 .67*10-8 w/m2k4 © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. =5.Radiation Boundary Condition The heat transfer from the surface of a body due to radiation is Emax = Ts4. Ltd.

Ltd. 2011 .Summary Dirichlet ² specified temperature Neumann ² specified heat flux Includes zero flux case ² perfectly insulated Convection Surface ² specified heat transfer coefficient and medium temperature Radiation bundary condition Interface boundary condition Continuity of temperature Continuity of heat fux © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.Types of Boundary Conditions .

The StefanBoltzmann law is for the perfect blackbody In reality. most bodies are gray ² they only emit radiation at some frequencies © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. 2011 . Ltd.Black and Grey body A black body is an idealised surface that emits radiation at all frequencies.

most bodies are gray ² they only emit radiation at some frequencies So the amount of radiation emitted is less than that of a blackbody at the same temperature Egrey = I Ts4. Ltd. 2011 .Grey body In reality. =5.67*10-8 w/m2k4 The fraction I is called emissivity of the surface It is a measure of how efficiently a body emits radiation compared to a perfect blackbody © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.

Absorbtion. 2011 . transmittance Surfaces generally absorb some incident radiation. reflect back some radiation and allow some fraction of the radiation to pass through them completely Absorbtion ² characterised by the absorbtivity E Reflectance ² characterised by the reflectivity Transmittance ² characterised by the transmittivity E+ + =1 © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd.

Ltd.Radiation inside a room Consider a grey body at temperature T and emissivity I in a room with wall temperature Twall © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. 2011 .

Ltd. 2011 .T) What are the assumptions made in this case? © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.Radiation inside a room Radiation heat energy emitted by body is Ebody = AI T4 Radiation heat incident on body from wall is G = AI Tw4 The energy balance equation for the body can be written as Qnet = -AI T4 + AI Tw4 = hA(T .

2011 .Heat Diffusion ² Cylindrical Coordinates Consider the conduction of heat through a long cylinder Change in the axial direction is considered to be negligible Symmetry in the direction © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd.

2011 .Heat Diffusion ² Cylindrical Coordinates Consider a section along the axis Q(r) ² Q(r+ (r) + Qg = (E/(t © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd.

2011 .Heat Diffusion ² Cylindrical Coordinates So the 1st law for the annular element can ve written as Q(r) ² Q(r+ (r) + qq(V = ( (V)C (T/(t (V = A* (r = 2 rL* (r After simplification and taking limit as (r We get 0. 1 x ¨ xT ¸ xT © kA ¹ q g ! VC A xr ª xr º xt © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd.

Heat Diffusion ² Cylindrical Coordinates So for a material with variable conductivity 1 x ¨ x ¸ © kr ¹ qg r xr ª xr º For constant conductivity x xt 1 x ¨ xT ¸ q g 1 xT ! ©r ¹ r xr ª xr º k E xt © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. 2011 . Ltd.

we have 1 x ¨ 2 xT ¸ xT © kr ¹ q g ! VC 2 xr º r xr ª xt © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.Heat Diffusion ² Cylindrical Coordinates Steady State without heat generation Steady State with heat generation Transient conduction Similarly for a sphere. 2011 . Ltd.

Ltd.3D Heat Diffusion ² Cylindrical Coordinates In 3D. we have full heat diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates as 1 x ¨ xT ¸ 1 x ¨ xT ¸ x ¨ xT ¸ xT © kr ¹ 2 ©k © xJ ¹ xz © k xz ¹ q g ! VC xt ¹ r xr ª xr º r xM ª ª º º © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. 2011 .

Ex. 2011 .thermal conductivity k. 1 . Ltd. What is T(r)? © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.Heat Diffusion in Annular Cylinder ² Dirichlet BC Consider an annular cylinder .

2011 . 1 . area of c/s was constant So heat flux through each section constant So temperature gradient between sections was same For cylinder ² area of heat transfer increases with increasing radius Hence heat flux through section of greater radius less than section of smaller radius Hence temperature gradient is not a constant © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.Ex. Ltd.Heat Diffusion in Annular Cylinder ² Dirichlet BC For planar wall.

Heat generation / unit volume of qq Temperature at outer surface = T1 What is T(r) © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.Ex. 2 .Heat Diffusion in Solid Cylinder ² Dirichlet BC Consider a solid cylinder of radius r1 . Ltd. 2011 .thermal conductivity k.

dT/dr = 0 © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. T = T1 Need one more B.Ex. 2011 .Heat Diffusion in Solid Cylinder ² Dirichlet BC What are the boundary conditions? At r = r1. Ltd. 2 .C Temperature has to be maximum at center of cylinder? Why? So at r = 0.

Wire + insulation Consider a wire of radius r1 and an insulation material with outer radius r2. Heat generation / unit volume of qq .electrical Temperature at outer surface = T2 What is T(r) © ACRi Infotech India Pvt.Ex. 3 . conductivity k1. 2011 . k2. Ltd.

3 .Ex.Wire + insulation Solve in two parts For the solid wire For the annular insulation material Use interface boundary condition © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd. 2011 .

Summary What is heat transfer coefficient? What are its units? What does convective heat transfer coefficient depend on? © ACRi Infotech India Pvt. Ltd. 2011 .

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