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rather Lhan using a convent:i"on- al camber schedule.gits inAnca.2843 xl -. as j-n al-l of the 4 and 5 digit airfoils ( turbulent ) i is at 30? of chord.nber in lenalls of the chord length. For the canber schedu]-e. d. For less camb:r. 30.ing edge. without critically evaluati-ng the need for t-t. N. such as Cessna (241-2). 2 .d tutca.|ls. zero p-itching nsnents on ca. such as the Gernran Go ttingen *398 and tie l.351 x2 + . r*ere wide- ( ly used on popular airplanes of the day.: llAq{ resea:r:chers. si:nulaled split flaps deflected 60 degrees. the basic 5t mean lines are si-rply scal-ed do{dn dj-recl- ly t'o the new va1ue.l_5C to the trail.igit indicates the locaiion of naxj:nmr ca. }.liACA.tote thal the naxj:nun tirickness of this airfoj-l. l. This gave a selection of forward l0aded (52-64).ng the airfoil trailing edge. shcn^. 6.'S-digit" ser. The only airfoils of any conseguence i-n th-is series are th€ 230)c{ airfoils. indicating that the maximun canber of 6t of chord was localed at the 20. "Understind. becalre knourr as the . r"tri-ch turts out lo be a faulty rnetirod. mid-1oaded (55).T in figure 111-l belcrvr. t'he second d. lhe ordinate schedule for the 20t thi. the 4 digit "arrfoil-s. and Reynolds nurbers of 3. These airfoils.s. A des.'. Accordrngly. a family of paraboric curves mean l-ines) was develop€d.ons of "stardard roughness'. included conditj. test airfoils.{AsA conducted a test program i. an orderly fanily of airfoils was ccnstructec alrd tested. The saqe faulty LIACA nethcd of ccrnbining tlr-i-ck* .BtC leadirg edge droop forward of the 15t chord posiiion.2s69 x\ -. using leading edge droop al.ies.. In doing these tests. NACA 241-2 indj-- cates a 12? thlck airfoil with 2? rnaximur camber l0cated at 40t of chorc. clark y. ktlerein the first digit inaicates the rax- inum canber j.:ois x1 ) where t is tire rnaxjrnmr urickness expressed as a fraction of the chcrd. }4ore on lhat later ' ]n a:]y event. not incl-uded in t"!re designation systqn.:r the early 1930's to see j-f zero pitching rTn:rents coul. The |':AcA researchers noaed frcm earlier tests that ihe best airfoil-s.126 x -. lvhi-ch ptaiea ure *u*:-. and t}le last two dj. the thickness distributlon for the 4 digit serj.:r t of chorC.l1c'\ring equatj"on: t t =* (. represented by the ubiquitous 230f2 airfoil. and is given by the fo. and alt toaced (66&57) nean Lj-nes. The tii-ckness d:rst-ributi-on for ai-l of the 5digit airfoi-ls ( 0012 etc ) is the sane as for all" of lhe 4digit airfo. Fo]-lc'\ring the 4-di9i! airfoil r. had the cnximum tbj-ckness at 30g of chord. and 9 nrillion.one.:irg ei-rfoils.nbered airfoils had been achieved earJier by refleci.h-is was o'jle of the rajor .* canber at {09 af chord NACA x4xr). and 70 per cenl chord position.. etc. T'ire ns.is- cussion of the relationshi"p betueen C1.esired thickness. and t.- wlse position of raxjmr"nn canrber.l thick- ness of the airfoil as a tr=rcentage cf tlre chord length.usccnrie and Aeronca (4412).nbered air- foils).nr tie ba:.i-gnaaaon systen was then devised.d be acbj-eved on canbered ar:foils by using lead:-ng edge droop al-one. and chord. bui this r€thod has :he d-isadvantage of reducing the na:<irnLrn rift toefficient. and seabee (4415).. a-nd then the ordinate schedule for the other t^hicknesses is deterrdned by scal- ing tie 0020 ordinates d:j-rectly up or do\. ( Read Addendum *1 below.rristakes af th. with this systsn in place. The ai-rfoil. for a d. 40.ie the maximur.rantifying the effssts of dj-fferences in airfoil cln on ajrcraft per- fonnance. B.?-dicir Airfoils.ic tllickress forms and the carnber schedules were cqnbined according to the "I'IACA" method.2 ai:foi1s.j. canber levers. For exanrple. { designated as mean Lines 62 *]rough 67. the most prac- tical of lirese airfoils used the 64 mean llne. r. as deterndned by the gerieral t_hickness distrib-_ ution formula givea belcnn:.s feature. and since the advantages cf forr"erd loading had been demonstrated previously. f. NACA shared the general fascinatj"cn of t!:at era for zero pitching nsnent arrfoils. 60.' so obtained 1"€re tesred. as on the M-6 and 2R11.ck section (0020) is detennined frcrn this fonn- ula. and without q. in spite of tileir shortccrrlings. rn practice.irrch is 12* t-!dck.rork.'tr !o the d.es was sefected to cores- pond closely lo that for those wing sections. and tire rean line is perfeeCly straight frcxn .50. and en in canbered a. and has l. with various thicknesses.] . other va:iables that eiere tested.has no other cam- ber. The first step was to desigp a ca-reful-ly spcified rhickness distribution.

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top and bottcm. use tl.. CA AIRFOIL DE1/EI. this has the bad effect of super-erevating the leading edge above the originar chord rine.s fascination with thinner airfoirs. The first (correctJ metrod is sinpry to add the ordinates together at each wing station. the incorrect rnetir"a ccnbining ordinates frattens the initial slope of the rnean line. see Mdendum Nurnber 2 belo^.tethod. Accordingly. especially for wing tips. There are trno wiys to do this. sunnrarized on figure 1. h. the right way and the wrong way.line. since they have gained a reputation of being "kilrer airfoils.with ttre NACA .oPMNIT A. Cessna did just that. when tbe correct method is used to form the airfoil. Ttris mean line is designed to hold constant pressure ( therefore constant verocity) back to only 50t of chord. a well-proven technique that was used in the prior (turbuleni) airfoils.Lanes are in a Reynokls nunr- ber range that is especial. uut unf6rtunalely he does not indicate a clear preference for one or the other.hich is tben $rcthed by the so-carled "srope and radius" method for for- nting tbe reading edge . IiACA sinply scre$ed up. and thus m3re lift.'l-rich have relatively high On due to nid-loading. redesignated 64-zrzc I the stall is softened appreciabry and the naxirnr. which is the practical lilrlt for larninar flo. than the thicker ones.rl see that this unfortunate situation has nothing at alr to do with the fact that these airfoirs are lanrinar flovrtype airfoils. For anyone acquainted with the t{AcA airfoil design methods. l^lorse yet..anittrer nlistake. sho/rn on figr:re rrr-r belovr. This method.eII as re]atively high pitching nErnent co€fficients. it leads to a distortion at the read- ing edge.e obsotete and dangerous 5-digit airfoils. 4 industry. But NACA never investigated this effect. especially considering the fact that these aj-rp.5) for the tip. of the Model 2L0 . and then the area swept by the rorling circle beccnres the airfoil shape.l-s. is quite curplicated mathernaticarly.5) for the root. The I. Read on. is akin to rolling a. As a result.lAcA 6-ieries airfoils are often avoided.nprk was the method used for ccxnbining the thickness distribution ord- inates with the camber ordj-nates. a horrible mis-nntch considering the consequences of sharp-stall airfoils in an engine-out situation.4ls-airfoir the leading edge is lifted . circle of ever-changing radius aLong a curved nrean. ttris seerns to offer the "best of both r"orlds".lACA ail:foil-s have rDre camber. . and even ccrmuter transports. and wirring to derive their onrn airfoirs.ly favorable for lanrinar flow aj-rfoirs. and this detracts "r frun ine row-speed perfornance of the airfoil. and you wi. Furthernpre. von l'lises discusses both methcds in reference z. they have never gained wide acceptance in the cA fierd. An obvious rnistake in t}Ie |IACA airfoil develogrent . . AlL of the NACA airfoirs.rhis taulty prccess is used on all l|AcA airfoils. the constant velocity rnean lines devetoped by I'lAcA for these airfoil-s includes one (a=0. spite of the potentiat l:erforrnance jmprovernent that could be nade by using lanirnr flo* wings. The second ( incorrect ) nEthod. I'rost snarl light planes continue to use the 4-digit and s-digit turbutent airfoils. this nlay explain McA. the "dirdt addirion" rnethod of ordinate ccnrbinaLion is used airfoils. Figure rrr-r sho^'s an exanpre. by deriving and using the unpublished I'lAcA 64Mr5(a=0.486c above the original chord line. creating a new rnean line aborre the originar rean line.Centurion'.nd the . v. hthich for scnre unknorr'n reason appealed to NACA. with sharP stall characteristics and 1ow naximum lift coefficients. wing... the ubiquitous }. un- fortunaLely.a naca 64A412(a=0. In fact.r as ro^r drag corpared to the publisbed "base line" 6-series airfoi. ordinate ccrnltrination t'. rrtlich ironi-calry nny be the reason that |lAcA picked it. with no drag penalty. and the great nrajority of light twins.IACA 64-212. as shovrn by figure 5. as r. Figure 2 shcnrs the beneficiar effect of using the correct rnethod of ordinate ccrnbination on a typicar }{AcA airfoir. and then it tapers the J-oading linearly to zero at the trailing edge. the thinner t. Tbis de-carnbers the airfoir. 3. unfortunatety. that is. rierE-GEFgnd-5lEe-EIisEIE-EEtroa of ccrnbining a thickness distribution with a camber schedule to form a cambered airfoil. low Gn as wel.rn lift coeffi-cient with and without flaps is raised ' srightl-yf ccnpared to the originar airfoil.r anyway. as a funition of the air- foil thickness.5 nean lj-ne) that produces lc'qler pitching ntrrrents tlrough forward loading.rnputri=n.

not designed for actua-l. or just a nicetyz Do he need zelo qn? ans\"€r these guestions.id ( sharp stau) is unacceptabl-e. relative to @? rs it al-1-irportant.onfigured light p1ane. l'lost of the popular llAcA 4-digit airfoils use npderatery forward-Load- ed nean ]ines (x4xx-see figure 1) with naximum carnber at 40t of cho.2.iction? Srnply because these aj-rfoils are n'erely test air- foi-rs.y higher naximum lift clefficient with flaps. l"'lean Lines. only 5 of t}le 52 6-series airfoil-s listed on figure I have forward loaded nEan lines (a=0. nor is it necessary to reduce on to the point !^'l)ere other vital perfonrnnce characteristics of the airfoil.Horv can one intelligentty desigrn airfo.1 airfoiLs unsatis- factory. arrivl at a icorrected.3* drop.calty . or at least verlr disappointj-ng. drag cefficient.5 nean line.ess of the drmp . Figure 2 shorr"s that this results in a wider larLilar bu!\9t srightr. I{e have found t}rat the initial slope should ne a nLin:mum of 12 degrees for any airfoil. or drag associated with trirniring out the airfoi] pitching nErEnt. F\. The a=. !'lhy the contrad. while a1r the rest have tl:e exaccly rr_id_loaded (a=I) nean }ine.E investigated the drag that is caused by airfoil On. .0. tne wing must nole gener_ ate an add-rtionaf incrsrent of lj-ft equal to the taii doern-Ioad... re obtain a correct- ed drag coefficient of 73 drag counts.. l. turb_ urent as 'nell as laminar frovr type.. onry enough fon. e-lso. airfoil-s npves aft frcrn the c/4 position as the angle of attaci decreases..Lous extrenE of the ill-advised 5-digit airfoil test progran {. with no oiher penalty. and this had been established in general telms as a deiirable airfoiL charasteristic. an irportant parirEter for good slorspeed perfornEnce. This renders the t.totlce frcrn figure g tlat the trim drag coefficient for the very high-on }{AsA GAw iirtoil= is approiirnateJ. Remqnber that Lhe aj-rcraft cG rnust stay at or near the c.6).derived -Tb. and r. The next step is to contror the i-nitiar slope of the r'l3an line. sin6e the sunrnatj. Cd'. Hoirever.ai-rplane use. Add these tr.v. aircraft nosedown pitching nc. and nnst impor- ' tantry' a 20t reducLion of pitcNng nrnent coefficient.ft in the taiL causes induced drag. ne effeceiv.D additional drag incie- rnents (wing and tail) togetber. a formula ( figure 8) for calcuLating this '. But the negatj-ve li.oaded ones (230pr) to aft-loaded ones (cAw-r'-2). Holi inportant is it to have lorr on.aLthough scne later IIASA airfoils have lead"ing edge droop.j-ls wj-thout knc. ccnparing candidate airfoils for a given application. from extre{nsLy forvrard-l.on of vertical forces on the airplane must be zero.airt6its f.Tard-]oaded airfoils (five) rrrere incl-uded in ttre test program to confirm the effeses of that variable. ior a typi. therefore. when this is added to the section &ag coefficient of 53 drag c€unts. In short.noi necessary to have zelo qlt.{AsA GA!. for this type of application.2t leading edge droop.:rther.5.rrri.rint at higher speeds that must be rea*ed b1r negative Iift in tie horizontal tail.eof only four canrber profiles for alI of the "GA. are curprcndsed.tr:m arag.g the nExrmum camber unusuaIy far for^rard" ).5)C. by! the price pa. it is. Ttris was ccrpl. since it was kaown prior to 1930 that ion{ard loading produces lcw pitching nsrent coefficients.ring this relationshipu For exanple figure 6 shorrs tiree airfoils with various crrnbinations of drag co"ific- ' ient and rnrrent coefficient. h'hich corrects ttlis oversi-ght. airfoils.y 20 drag c€unts at cruise for an application having a design rift coefficient of 0. the reLative inForbanc€ of the alrfoil pitchi. 5 B. h'hen substituted ln the NACA 64-2I2C airfoil. hltren tri:n drag is added to the airfoj-l seqEj-on drag. have selectd the IiACA (a=0. th&efore the S-digit air- foiLs should not be used.5) nean line to be the basis for the universal family_ '. rde have concluded tfrat forward loading is necessity for general aviation airfoi-ls. and. In splte of this.s' achj-eved 1"t9 Gn.. the problen arises due to the fact that the center of pressure of cam- bered-eriefly.etely nr-issed in the ltAcA work. and the GA_3 rnean line has . As a result of analyses Like this.d.This causes an./4 position for satisfacLory r-or-speed pitch stai:irity.. which can nc'$r be used directl-y for 'nle.cient (cd) has never been studied nor guantified by NACA or NASA. rhe IrAcA S-digj-t airfoil..see Appendix ir. produces 64-212(a=.see figure 7. it is not necessary to go to the a ridicu.. Ttlis additional increnrent of wing l-ift also creates an incre{rent of induced drag... Eigure 3 sha^is the wide variety of rnean rines that have been used in llAcA'/MsA airfoils.e have trim drag.ng nE rent coefficient (en) co(rF ryred to the drag coeffj. thus our GA-2 nean line inccrlnrates .

ent less than .rding lift to . Since forHard loadj.ro dfag counts carpared to sqne other so-calJ-ed "superior.Iess than 2 drag counts. the GA 30A015 shape is ident- icaf to NACA 0015.for their landnar thj-ckness distributions.nar sections. For this reason. we have generated an alternate tu-rbulent shape. therefore ue have ignored it to si. For the GA 35 and GA 37 larninar shapes.r. and does not affect a-irfoil perforTnance. all cA airfoi. descrj-bed on figure 10. The difference is very srnal.. even for racing airplanes. for $e do not reconrend the use of wing sections thinner than this for any application.ling edge angle.res of airfoils. having wide lamrnar buckets.price to pay for the wider bucket on the c"l-assic t'lACA shapes . short of degrading other perforrnance features of the airfoil. the critical Mach nunber fo! these airfoi-l-s is degraded slightly. only ninor changes have been made to ffibutions. which has a poorl-y designed. while still renaini-ng "in the bucket". which are conservatj.I. W1th the point of nraxirm:m thickness ncved aft to the 403 chord position. distributions are listed in Appendix I belcr. utilita. Thickness Distributions. that reduces the prof. and yet higher Clmax with flaps.J-.rEs critical.sable. For our ce arrfoils. One concern here. and a straight afterbody is no longer suitabLe. far above our needs. which can then be used with the cA 30-)oor airfoils. this is a departure frcrn the NACA schen-. ttotice that the basic thickness distribution for the c"1 thi-ckness distributions j-s I5S thick.Eve. an aircraft designer can be assu-red tlEt the pitching nsnent coefficient has been held as lc". Io/r On. This feature results in a profile drag penalty of perhaps on]. ard the drag penalty is a snrall. Hot^rever. there are better '. Hs. we have carefully avoided the }IACA 65A015 shape. Hor- ever. Ho\^rever. such as a very high perfornance application with the design l-ift coefficj.e drag coefficient of this shape is also slightly higher than recent NASA . The cA thicknes. ard loading has one possible disadvantage. Therefore. rTt3re]-y by selecting a GA air- lc'e/ foi. the trailing edge angLe rsrlains generous. GA 30-01. 6 can be seen in the perfornance of airfoiL C.l- ever' is the change in the tlaj.r as practical.rj. with no drag penalty. Since the trailing edge angl-e is reduced in cA 30-015. r.airfoils". and these shapes are not guj-te exact nruJ-tiples of each other. as shcl'Ir on figure 2. Accordingly. This gives the deslred strucEural and control effectiveness advantages of a true no- cusp shape.:rslE cases. this occurs in the 580 MPH range. For the cA 40A015 shap€. due to the unaccaptable drag penalty. rrtrich is rather unusual. hence this is of no concern to us. h'hich affects aiLeron effecti-veness- see figure 9.ng increases the velocity ratio slightly in the forward half of the air- foil canpared to nrid-foading.E use the NACA 65-015 tiickness distribution as is. Tae profil. this strape has a slightLy convex.ve settl-ed on a reduced cusp shape by ncdifying the I'IACA 65-015 to fj-]] in approxlnately one-half of the cusp. for olErational flexibj_llty. in ext. such as naking "fat" or even "crowned" ailerons.ons that have been develo@ since. with a strai. ho^'ever.ile drag frcrn 75 drag counts Lo 72 drag counts. wherein unique syrnretrical shapes have been calculat- ed and published for eacb thickness. with a drag penalty of .15. Thj-s alloers airplanes with these thickness distrlbutions to op- erate over a wj-de range of flight conditaons./. llotice tiat the ninjmun sestj-on thickness offered j-n "cA Airfoils" is 12?. In fact. lore-drag " lam:-nar thickness distrib- utj. soft-stal-l. but tbe drag bucket is crrrrespondingly wider. the control- effectiveness nny be slightl-y }ess tlnn wj-th GA 30A015.l-s can be described as " pitching nsnent.Eys to get effecLive ai-J-erons.ve. C. For the turbul-ent airfoils (cA 30).2. and then the 12t and 18* thicknesses a-re scaled proportionately up or dorn frorn the 15t thick shape. which has a much softer stall-.an l-arni. straight afterbody (high drag ) and should not be used. no changes were nEde to the }IACA 63 alld 64 series shapes.y one or tr. with no structural disadvantage.ght afterbcdy.lrr drag anatysrs may be advj. hov. For the GA 40-015 shape.5. the design of the pressure recovery section krc.nplify the process of generating fan- il. Fort. the optjmrn airfoiL thickness rega. a fornal ':ri. In fact. l.'slar3" shapes.A j7. ar even wider laminar bucket. thus for the rna jority of cases a trim drag analysis is not required. Further. or "boat-tailed" after- bcdy.

in four series. unique solution to a particular airfoi-] design problern. four camber LeveLs.s airfoils for the lbdel 210. hov. Further r due to the nfstakes and onissions in the NACA work.r "soft" is "soft". In other hDrds. warts ard al}. liorse yet. corunm #2 and +3 are listed for reference only. r. Notice frcrn figure I tlEt the NACA "ordinate tables" are rnerely a-fGrino of-test sanples tJ:lat r.stribution. ajld the corresFonding "no cusp" airfoi]-s at the bottcn of the page. and the readj-ng edge is j-nstead a curve defined by a series of discrete points. you lose nr3re than you gaj-n by using wing sections t-hinner than l2t thick. since there are so rlany value judgenents. and ia^culd rather select frcrn a good catalog of standardized designs rather th. E.ck "no cusp" type cA wing section. of ccurse I nonsense. they are aLso usable for forrn-ing airfoils with th. GA airfoil. respectivery. In contrast. offering the designer a ccmplete "cook book" of airfoils fron \.e col-umn *2 frcrn I5t to the desired thickness.ls.IACA airfoils.rere used directly.s do not have a tlrue reading edge radius.s no single. rather tllan to publish actual. airplane designers are by-and-J.trile a step in the rj-ght direction.shapes such as NACA 0009 or I. 7 drag ratio is probably closer to 13? or l4B thick.IACA was content to publish test data a1one. to herp define the leading edge.n the desired custcrn airfoil. corresponding approx-i:rateJ-y to stal1 conditions and cruise conditions re- spectively for tlpical light airplanes.cusp'. horever: they are approxirnately the sare as the "no-cusp" shapes.uru''s #2 and Jl3 of the ordinate tables are the thickness distribution (sym- nEtrical shape ) and tbe nean rine. frcrn which the tirree airfoj. and tlree thicknesses. and are o-ng thus incfipl"ete.A thickness dj.should be custorn-designed for each and every nan airplane. This is probabry t-trc reason that I. just ' as cessna did for the !'todeL 210 wing desigm. are given in Appendr-x rV. the charac- teristics of the "cusp" t)pe sesLions are not sho^rn. and the ordinates are ccrnbined incorrectly. .an take a chance on a custcm airfoil. which is both rronic and unfortunate. sjnr-ilar]y. The aerodynaninc characterj-stics of each l-2t thick arld L5t thi. See fign:re 15. Hot. to thus s)mthesize custam NACA airfoi-1s is a dauntj-ng task. Lhe test airfoils r. the GA airfoil ordinate tables.25tc. Sree figure 14. The ordj-nate schedules generally follora the NACA forrnat. For tail sections. evident frcrn reading reference L.l. to obtaj.ever an additionai statj-on llas been added at . witn 2lr drag counts addltiona] profile drag. NACATS thj-nking. there will always be a need for a good catalog of airfoils.ted in ttre table. For exanPLe. and perfonn- ance tlade-offs invofved.rs 1n each table are fornred.st other airplanes. intangibles. synnEtri-ca. co]. tlpe airfoil-s at the top of each page.r airplane". ordinate Tables. FlrCher. Ordinates for these shapes are l-isted in standard I.rever.l-s. there j. Appendix III| are a ccnplete matnx of 96 airfoj..tience ) of the average designer'. IIACA assund tlnt a designer coul-d select a particular thickness distribution and a camber profile frcrn tlle text and then ccrnbine thern by the I'IACA rethod. For example. was that "custcrn" I{ACA air- foj-ls could be s)mthesized using l{ACA's data and nethods. hc.IACA 63A009 are ccrm- only used. Sirply put. This is. as detern[ned by the "EPpler" prcgran.arge not airfoil designers. D.. wi. for any airfoil systern. if for no other reason than to serve as a standard to ccrnpare custcnFdesigned airfoils against. otherwise ttle lErforlnance of the nevr airplane will be ccnprqltised. Aerodvnandc Characteristics of winq Sections. then add col-unn *3 to obtain the desired aj-rfoil. one that "exacely fits the specificati-on for the ne\.icknesses other than the three li.prt included in IIACA' s wind tunnel tests . The Procedure for this is to scal. on rrlf.cata- logs of airplane arrfoi. do not contain leading edge droop.IACA tabLes ( refer- ence I)' or they may be scaled dcrrn frcrn the corresponding C.th 2 drag counts less drag. because of t{ACA's nrista.tdch to choose. The characteristics of the 188 thick wing sections are not shcrrn. but they are approxjrately the sarne as the 15t thick segtions. MSA's official position i-s that a ccnprehensive catalog or " cookbook" of air- foil-s is not necessary. for Relmolds nunbers of 2 Irtillion and 6 ndLlion.}<en assum- tion that designers r^rould slmthesize "good" airfoil-s frcm the test data. tiro styles (with and without cusps). the airfoils vDuld still be less than ideal. for a soft-stall airfoil? Therefore. and suggests that a unigue airfoil. The GA ordinate tables are arranged with the . Cessna. unlike the !. beyond the capabiJ-ity (or pa.

37A31-5. as liel-I as to si:rplify fa. for tbe great majority of applications tlle "no-cusp" airfoils are preferred. and Fo/rler fl.ld patterns in the flap systsn. cA 40 airfoils are for onl"y ttle nDst soplListicated.5.A series. GA 37 airfoils are general. the t)p- ical drag i-ncrease (. slotted flaps as high as 3. The data in Appendix IV j-s for the snDoth condition onJ. Figrr:re 14 sho{rg the effest. causing a substantial in- crease in profile drag. and appropriate reduction must be made for ttrree-dinensional effests. and is not likely to be encounlered in actual alrcraft service.Loss of nraxirm:rn 1j-ft coefficient as wel-l-.4. specj. the perfonnance degradation of GA airfoils due to surface rouglness is proba-b1y not as severe as with llACA airfoLls.brication. very littl-e data is presented herein for GA wings with flaps. and especially with thick- er airfoils. b'trich is approxirnately equj-valent to the NACA " stEndald rouglmess" condition used in their tests.e11 contanrinated with bugs". thus. B. the concensus is that the ''standard rouglmess" lrrposed in the I{ACA tests is unusually severe. GA 35 ai-rfoil-s are I'entry level" Larmnar flor airfoils. AIso.0. arri offers scflE guidelines for selection of [Erticular airfoils for given applications. to obtain acceptable aileron effectiveness.2.ift coefficient achievabl. The GA 30 airfoils are tie rrc)st @nservative. increase of nraximum lift co- efficient with a given flap system.al "fat" aileron designs ttBt trave increased trailing edge angfes should be used. Effect of Cusps. with the "cusp" t)?e airfoils. F\rrther. such as the Glassair or White Lightning. which illustrates the principLe that cA a. A.Like the thorp T-18. the Clrex with sirrple flaps coul-d be as higb as 2. A]though rnuch experinentat raork has been done in wind tunnels with high-lift devices (see reference If chapter 8). due to the cumulative effect of the cA jjrprove- rpnts. and are suitable for airplanes . that j-s.re the estirnated nnxirnum values for the best fl. than thei! IIACA counterpart.y. Effect of Series. airfoils. According to reference I' this is eguivalent to a wing ".0. the "cusp" type a:-rfoils can be used. and are atrPropriate for l-or-po\^rered. for slotted flaps 2. due to the ccrnplicated flc. raE offer the folloering as a "ruLe of thunb" for estiratj-ng the naxj:num sestion l.. .0002) is usually insignificant. . TLre perforrnance data in .6. Figure 13 shc'vts the general performance differences betrr€en the tulbulent GA 30 series and the laninar cA 35.grn.y. and for Fc&vler flaps is 2. Pigure 18 shovrs the effect of surface roughness on the perforrnance of a tlpical GA airfoil.. Ttre main reason is to irrprove aileron effectiveness.section perfornence with flaps. For appU.e11 desi-gned f1aps. and by reference to figu-re 17.1ers.here nLinirm-un drag is ijrportant. 8 Tbe characteristics at Reynolds nurnbers other than 2 miU-ion and 6 rRil-Ii-on rIEy be estuated by interpolation and extrapolation. high perfoFMnce designs. so the wing mrst be designed care- fu11y to insure tlEt tie airplane is olnrating witlr-in the laninar bucket Lrnder alf flight cuditions.e with flaps. cub type airplanes.r'. The prjjnary perf orrnance degradation is ]-oss of lajrlnar f J-o. the greatest expectable fac- tor of jrprovenEnt in section Clnax for sinple flaps is 1. and there is also scan-.rp systens.un drag at high speed is a strong reguirenent. for cA airfoj-ls. 37. Ho+rever. whereas existing production flap systers probably fal1 seII shorL of these nunbers. However:. For large. and 40 series. to be used on a wide lange of ajrplanes. ALso. they a. the lanr-inar buckets on the cA 40 airfoils are the narroa€st of a-11 the C. of afterbcdy susps ofl airfoil per- fornance. AccordingJ. GA AIRFDIL SE ECTICbI AlqD AppLICATTONS. Although both "cusp" ard "no-cusp" airfoiLs are presented herein. Ho\aever. 4.cations such as sail- pl-anes and mtor-saj. Figure lI presents the matrix of the GA airfoils in this book. there is no readj-l-y available ccmputer program ttlat can accuratel"y predict airfoii.5. Ttre data r-s for roughness conditj-on !=4.irfoi]-s have significantLy better fl-ap effectiveness. due to the super- j-or leading edge shape of the cA airfoils.\ppendix IV is for wings without f1aps. they reguire the rcst accuracy in nEnufac- ture to reafize their lc^d drag potential. r. where rninjmr. at least when nndestly Fc ^rered as in the orig- inal desi. purtrDse lanLinar florr' airfoils. ltese are section (2 dilrensional ) coefficients. for a cA airfoil with a no-fIap C]JrEx of 1.aps as high as 4. except for figure 2.

for tdgher Reynolds nr.Er cambered sections and re- duced wing alea r ard tlds results in higher top speed. the BD-5 has a stal1 Rey- nolds nunber of Less than 1 miuion. for they Fernlit the use of 1c{. ltle ajJfoil should have been thj-cker. the tiinner ai-rfoils have narrc. since l-arninar flol is tErder to ach-ieve as Re)nolds nunber increases. frcrn figure 17 notice t-Llat the lam-nar bucket narrc'vrs considerably at fligher Reynolds nunbers. tlre laninar separation bubbl-e probl€m is nagrnified as the point of rna:cirm-rn airfoil thickness is noved farther aft. lifferences due to thickness . resultj-ng il nany need- l-ess fataL accidents. hcr^reve! the usual fji j-s to use " turbulator talEs " span-wise slightly foruard of the separation point to "trip" the flo* to normal attached turbul-ent flov'r. thick- er airfoils and/or lover canbered airfoils nay be nec. it is a trade-off. "no-cusp" shaFes are better than "cusp" tlpe shapes regarding laninar separation bubbles. effestive flaps are the key to hi-gh aircraft lElforrnance. For very Lc'u/ Reynolds nr. D. Effect of Canber.As stated above. See Mdendwn #4 beL*r for a re-profiling schenE for BD-S wings. E. at 1*/ Rqmolds ntmr bers. especially the no-cusP shapes. See Addendun #l for a discussion of the effects of increased On due to camber. the design Relmolds nunber can affest the choice of airfoil-. in r^hich case radical cusps are regui:ed for satisfactory pressure recovery.40C. avoidr.ckl the Cldesign. beyond . this results j.y at tie wing tips. Effect of Reynolds Nunber. wing B thickness is prinrarily a structural consj-deration. Fiqure . I C.40c. such as in sailplanes. and this leads to separatj. especial]. the tcffer camber levels are used with high- er powered airplanes ard/or with large. the starl tends t be ress soft with the thinner airfoils. while the higher carnber IeveLs are used with rrcdestly pcrwered alrpLanes. andlor addi tj-onal thick- ness. l-arge. "@" airfoils. Consideration nulst also be given to the design (cruise) Iift coefficient of the air- plane to make sure tftirt the bottcm edge of the lami. effective flaps. cljnax drops off considerably. o! witi snaller or no f. @nversely. Accordingly I a good air- plane design shouLd star! with the fl-aps./or nore wing area ftry be ne€ded ccfipared to a tligher Re)mol-ds nunber apP- lication. for there a-re no GA airfoil-s with linax beyond .Of c-ourse. and.I5 shoe/s the effect of different camber levels on GA airfoiL perforlnance . for the safiE take-off/Iandi-ng sIE€d. For this reason. and tiis reduces the curv- ature on the a-irfoil surfaces in the afterbody ccnpared to other sailplane aj-rfoils. this concern is especially irrPortant with thinner ( lztthick) ai-rfoiJ-s. lf the design l_ift cEefficient is . Effect of Ttrickness. . the cA 37A415 coufd be used. ard is nornally not a problern for @ airfoils. tn general. do not have this problem. or ftcre llighly cambered. Iherefore. For exarpl-e. thus shou. Ttris subject is beyond the scope of this book. and only as nuch carnber should be used as necessary to nEet the design reguire(ents.hEr laniinar buckets.a terribLe choice for such a lor Relmol-ds nwnber.Ld be used caut- iously' nrreherncre. In any event. For exars)le.mber applications. may occur. referring to figure 15. ' For exanple.rnlcer applications. in spite of thickness is so srall. or better yet.essary to insure that tie air- plane is operating within the bucket at top sFed.on. and uses a DJACA 64-212 airfoil for the r@t sestion. Any nEthod to reduce the curvatule of the wing sur- face at that point will help. but the resulting increase in On reduces top speed.ng the separation. the nrin n-rn arrfoil ttrickness to be used for npst laflLinar flcrvr apprications is l5t. Afso. on the top anVor the bottdn surface. but not the 37A61-5. the main reason for using camber in the first pl-ace is to increase Clnax. thus. a phencnenon kncnn as " larrinar separation br:bbles " follcrqEd by turbuLent re-attachfiEnt near the erxi of the laminar run. and then tJIe rest of the airplane shoutd be designed around the flaps. @ sare perforrnanc.n increased drag. thus additional camber. j-f the curvature of the wing surface is too great at that Foint. see Adderdun *2 for a discussion of the effects 6f using airfoiLs that are too thin. ltdch are forrerard Ioaded and thus iEve littfe camber in the afterbody. less than I/2 tnillion. that is.nar bucket is bel.25.Laps.both.

ise occur frcm the laminar separation bubbles ' so everl. add I degree for three- dinensj-onal effects. published in Fortran in reference 5' and adapted tor perional 6c.25. For exanple. to obtain this lift coeffi-cient as zero de- grees. tllat is.25. See fi$Ees 19 and 20 for tlpical appJ-ications..1ite Lightning" ( bot.the desigrn lift cceffici-ent needed for tjtat pa-rticul-ar airplane. roi porly desigrned ai-rfoiLs witi discontinuj. .IANCE PREDIqIION Figures 2I afi. As a double-check. deteqrline the angle of attack necessarl. and tben force the transition to turbufent flctut witi tur- bulator tapes located top and bottcrn near the end of the Lanrinar nrn. indoor. GA airfoils are currently being used on a wide range of applications Fron-a%I6Fl-rrestar" ultralite to a high-perf orrnance Nick Jones "Vl.3. or the estlnated cruising speed of the airplane rnay be opt]Jru. a trip wire is often placed spanwise in fron! of the leading edge. Tl're first }]ay is to try to prevent t}Ie separation frqn occur- ing in ttre first place.n figure 22 deter- nine the thrcdiJrensional design lift coefficient as Cldes= . Frc. This requ.Nov/.ane. and a cruising speed of I50 MPH. a:-rfoi]-s. the canber selection is probably not suitEble for tJ.6. 0. such as with very slow.nuous nean U5es. Producuion kitplanes using GA airfoils incl-ude the Skystar "K.J Relmolds numbels. 5. Relmolds nunbers. that is. the approxirrnte design lift c-oefficient of this airfoil is . in tentis. wlthout o(ception.e application. rt is idealized data for a wing of infillite aspest ratio. cc. Ttris is a sfuple program' and does not iterate on itre tunOary tayer.stj-c. For exarple. effests. utith no cusps.vner rrDdifj-ed). one-off. with the basic airfoil shape. Hoi". so this apl=ars to fi.Iike wind tunnel data.ires thin.nar separation bubble problant at lor^. fte data rnay be clrrected for three-dlrensional. this is not Prac- tical for sailplanes. that have slrpoth. note that the fourch digit in the "GA" airfoi. dependj-ng on the aspest ratio. AIRCRAFT PERFORI. thus it gives accu. c'\.t \del1 enough wit.teut. that is.io-dfiEnsional data. correstd for wing aspect ratio. use (itS-DOS ) by referenc€ 6.rfoif .itfox" and the Ultravia "Pelican". Ttris nethcd should be accurate enough for rost ca5e5. tJ.. 10 1n sunna.l designation (as in the NACA designation systsn for the 5-series airfoils) indicates ttle approx- jrnate design lift coefficient of the airfoiL section. it gives inaccurate results.ties in the n6an line. small rubber bancl po"ered nndel-s . either . for a wing with an aspest ratio of 5 on an airplane with a wing loading of 15 fb/ft-.rate results for only rrclldesigned airfoiLs such as . CEMPT'TER PROGFAM ACCURACY. the ccnputer program used to generate the Predj-cted performance data of APpen- d1x 1y is tni: eppfer program "profil". especially for Clrlax ' because . 6. that is. 22 can be used in predicting aircraft perfornunce. to make sure that the flctor over the enti-re rring is turbulent.l.IACA Z3-OIZ aj. or ..2.ever.GA" ai-rfoils. wr-th ltnax forward of -40c. to keep the flc'vi attached. since an aspecE ratio of 5 is a fairly Lorr nwrber. All experi:renters who have substituted cA ailfoils for the original aj-rfoils on their hq€builts have reported performance jrprovernents.is usually neans adding approxi:nately I to I degree angle of attack to obtain the design lj-ft coeffic- ient ( average ) over the entire wing.detenrLine a suitable angle of incidence.4. contj.nputer pre- dicted perfonnance data is tr. If these numbers do not have an approxjrate rnatch. A higher astEcts ratio ne€ds Iess correcLion. Ttrus. Frcrn figure Iv-13. F. -3. Applications.-y. such as t]le !. using nethods descrlbed in standard aeronautj-cal teJrts. lctw cam- bered.I. the f lc'vr is I00t l-anr-inar. usj-ng the cA GA 37A315 ai-rfoil. i-n our exanple v/ith tie cA 37A315 airfoi]. so the alternate solution is to 90 ahead and use the needed thiak. high-canberd shapes with long laln-inar mns and shorts (cusp t)pe ) pressure rec-overy secLions. and set the wing on the fuselage at ar algle of incidence of +L degree to the fuselage reference U-ne. Ib irprove l=rforflEnce.ven airpJ. in detenn-ining a suitabl-e angle of incidence for a particular alrfoil on a gj.one is happy - ror exceedingly Io. for exanple. there ajre tvJo ways to address the lamj. Ttre drag of tJIe turbufator tapes is less than the drag that vnuld otherw.

because the program of necessi-ty.rfoil at each algle of attack. top and bottqr surfaces.s shcr. The Eppler program al-so does not incl. separ- ation bubbles. then the repDntd On will be reasonably acsurate for a flap systern with tbat CLlnax. In other rnords. treaLing the airflorr as bei-ng inccnpressible.fi on figure 2j. Ferhaps his qxrputer dat! is fipre accurate than wird tr. one shoul-d use the sanE airfoil.s a ccnpletely new. such as a Bonanza with a wing loading of 20 */ft'.ude any correction for ctfi[)ressibility effects.l-e loss of Cljnax for thinner (12t tnick ) airfoifs. ltre Eppler program for perfornance a''alysis calcufates ve. t}le ccnputer re- sults shouLd be used cautiousLy. But htro wants to use poorly-designed airfoils any/€y? A cqrParison of cdrputer resu]ts and wind tunnel data for a t!?ical airfoi]-. tlle program caffiot begix to sjmulate the cffplicated flo\^' patterns of npre elaborate flap systens such as sl-otted and F* er flaps. such as shqn'n on figure 2. The program appea-rs to be especiarl-y accurate i-n predicting laninar/turbulent phencmena. arld in a "boundary rayer swnary ptot". Another use for the flap routine is to predist On vs clnax for a given flap systern.7 psia.. if a sirple flap systen yields a Clnax of 3. the assrnption tbat the flovi is ilccnrSrressi-b1e is not bad.tldckness for both airfoils being c. idealized airfoil tlrat is unreal- istically snEothed so that the nenesis of the prcglan ( prenature flc'gr separation ) will not occur. ho$€ver. Ho^rever. Ttrus. the Eppler prcgram has a routine for sirurlating the !=rforrnance of an aj-rfoi1 witi sjrpl-e flaps. thus.$ever. ttre difference is sLill Iess than 1?. even though it nay take a clonsiderably nDre elaborate flap confi.light general aviation air planes. wfien the flap chord and de- fl. the tdlng ]oading of a Piper cub.0 b}/ the prograrn.hich tlpically shows negU.guration to achieve thatclnax in prachice. 1*/ft'. 11 it cannot fol. lift by about 53. AJ-ternativery. Ho.fference of only 7 */ft-/L44 = . Ttris does not agree with wind tunnel data.l-ocity ratios across the aj. then arints these ve1- ocity ratios (Foint velocity divided by free stream verocity ) in tairurar and graphic form.c pressure of 14.3t. as shc.res of typical-. In any event.gi-ble differenc€s of cl. j. lrE suggest that \r. ard to overstate. all tfrings considered. ard a gain of cJ.lrEx for tldcker (18t thick ) airfoils.then. as absolute data. Ilo€ver. btrich tbe program overstates by at least 30t.05 psi betr"Een the top and bottcrn surf- aces. etc. the flap routine is valuable for predicting relative differences of flap trerfornunce betrcen sj:nilar airfoils. the program catculates boundary layer data for each angle of attack at specified Reynolds numbers. drag. In spite of this shortcurfng. For thi-s reason. the program is exc€. the program aplEars to overstate drag by at ]east 109. as shGln on figure Z.s. Eppler cffrents on this iI his book. ltre program shqrs a considerab. and pitching nrcnr ent' the turburent area. and is a credit to Dr. For higher perfonrEnce airplanes. drav.]Ient.mnel data. including coefficienls of 1ift. ani the separated a-rea. . this effect is so nlinor as to be insignificant. this arEunts to a pressure difference of only 0. The program appears to be cal"ibrated for best accuracy for airfoil thi-cknesses of about L5t. Furtherlrl3re.hen ccf{Ering the perfornence of different airfoils with the cc(puter prcgram. Ccc$Ered to the atjrDspherj. Ttrese values are also printed out in tabul-ar form. for ccnparative purposes.re 16. Note Chat the accurasy of the cdrputer data is guite good.eqtion are inputted. A salrple analysis print-out is shorr'n on figures 24-I thru 24-4. yields an aEerage pressure dj. v. due to the lijn-itaLions of wind tunnel testing. it will calcurate and print out pressure ratios across the air- foir. tlre predicbed performanc€ is wildly opti-rdstic crcnpared to wind tunnel data. Ho\rEver. rile did not spend nu:ch tirrE with the flap routine in this prcgram. and suggests that. reference (9).vrn by figu. especr-a]-l-y the change in the ratio of aijfoif cross-section area to the tunnel tlEoat size witi different ailfoil thicknesses. Eppler. The r€rst disagreenrent appears to be in ttle pitching nrnent coefficient.rnax as a function of airfoil thickness. NACA 64-215. For exanple. for the flight regi. Dr.crpared.Lod the ccnplicated effests of premature setE-ration bubbles at higher angles of attick ccrnrpn in those aj-rfoiJ.

12
Several- yea.rs ago Dr. Eppler brought out an "ifiproved" version of hj,s program.
Ho\^/ever, the ner^, program seems to understate section drag, and also reports lalninar
bucket width as j-ncreasing with an increase in Reynolds number, htrich is not the case.
F\.Ether, the resuLts appear to be overly sensitive to data point (ordinate) accuracy,
thus I still favor the old program.
Eoth prcgrarns include routines for desigrn of airfoils by the nrcdern, one-step
" inverse" rethod, whereby idealized velocity dj-agrams are first calculated, and then
airfoil top and bottcm surface ordinates are ca.l-sul,ated frcm the velocity data. That
is OK, but the Fossibil-ity exists of "creating a nonster", such as the very recent
NASA NLF(I)-OII5F alrfoi], discussed in Addendun No. 5 bel-or^r. lbis is less likely
to lEppen witb the "classic" nEthod used by },lAcA and "cA Airfoils". In any event,
neither the airplane, the wind tunnel, nor the ccrnputer kncrds or cares htlich n€tiod
was used to design the airfoil, and the final perfonrEnce figures a-re the only thing
that caunts. Thus both nEthods are valid. Any airfoil, even if hand-sketched, can be
broken dov'rn into a symrEtrical thickness distribution and a camber profile (nean
Iine). and much can be learned about the airfoil- by inspeccing and analizj-ng these
tllo ccmponents sepajately.
7 . GA CIJFFS FAR WING RE\.{CRK

As noted earj,ier , all of the NACA airfoils have Iffr nose prof i1es. due to the
faulty NACA design nethods -The result j"s poor slcvr-speed Perfonnance, i-n rEny cases.
me niCe 4-digit ( turbufent ) and NA6A 6-series ( laminar) airfoils can be irproved by
adding a leading edge cuff to the airfoil, which drops the center of the leading
edge ipproxirmtaly tt to 1? of chord length. The rpthod for designing these "drooped
leiOing- eages,,, shq,n-r on figwe 25 for the !{ACA 64-212 airfoil, is to design a neur
nean line iorward of 10SC to obtain at feast 12 degrees of initial nrean line slope,
necessary for a soft stalI. Then, usj.ng the existing toP surface and the revised nean
Iine, r,,e calculate the ordinates for the bottcm surface.
Ttre perfornrance analysis for this cuffed alrfoil shclts a draratic jnprovenpnt
in ttre stall ccrnpared tso the original 64-212, as r.vell- as a slightly wider lan.inar
bucket- see figure 26. A-Iso shorvn is the perforrnance of an uPIEr sulface nbdification
proFosed by Hicks et aL at NASA An€s. Ttlis cutes the sharp staff ' but it also reverts
the airfoil to a turbuLent sectsion, causing hj-gh drag ' The perfornunce of the GA
37-212 is also sholvn, for ccnpari son.
This cuff nndification should be used only as a "guick fix" on existing wings,
not for ne$, constructsion- use a GA airfoil instead. A.Iso ' it does not \'tork on the
NACA s-digit airfoils, like the ?3012' which already llave too much leadj-ng edge
droop, and a different stall nrechanism, than the 4-digi-t and 6-series airfoils. See
Addendum #3 belov;.
8. }4ISEIJANMUS AIASC AIRFOIIS
!,iitb the cun-ing of the slEce age, NACA'S naflE was changed to NASA, and the agen-
cy's responsibiiities were e4xnded !o include national space Projects as r"eII as
the old-line aeronautj.ca.l, Prolests. Ttre total budget is currently about 14 bi]lion
do.llars yearly, of whi-ch about 1.2 billion is refated tg "aeronautics" projects, a
fairly cpnstant arpunt yearLy. Ho$Ever, over the past Several decades, '.Jork related
to @nera1 Avj,ation projects has dwindled to nearly zero, due to "budget restlaints",
in NASA,S hDrds. Ttre only general aviation airfo.il r.ork, for exanple, has been the
sporadic release of several randcrn airfoils. These have usual-ly been the brain-child-
ren of particul-ar NASA individuals, rather than any c,oncerted effort, and have been
disappointmmts.
A. N;\SA GAI,t-j- . In l-974, the NASA GA!.J-I and GAVFz "Whitc6nb" airfoils ( later designated
EtlFb'qffi 15(I)-041-3) vere released. Ttrese airfoil-s are characterized by a large
Ieadrng edge radius. and a slab-shaped profite having the maximum thickness at .40c.
this pioduies a long Iaminar run, at the expense of lanr.inar bucket width. The leadrng
edge has a droop -
of about .75tC, npre than it ne€ds to give the airfoil its soft stalf
chiracceristic. Ttre 1c'vr profile drag i-s enhanced by the pronounced cusp in the afier-

13
body, and the blunt trailing edge, The brorst feature by far, hcturever, is the aft-
loaded camber profj-Ie- an outrageous nListake for an airfoil that was touted to be
a general avj-ation panacea. This gives the airfoil a pitching rTDrnent coeffic.rent
three tijnes as high as it ne€ds !o be for the alrpunt of canber in the airfoil-, and
this produces very high Lrjr drag, rendering the airfoil unsuitabLe for genera.l av-
iation use, In effect, the airfoil has t'nlo notches of flap perrnanently buil-t into rt.
Unbelievably, NASA chose this airfoj-l for their "ATLIT" project, described belo'v.
Figure 27 sholas the bizarre press release concerning the NASA "ATLIT" (Mvanced
TechnoLogy Light 1\,rin ) project in 1974, r"trlch turned out to be a disaster, perfor-
nance-wise. The project was dccrned to failure frcrn the beginningdue to the seLection
of the hj,gh-Gn NASA GAvl-I airfoil for the wing. the predicted perfornEnce figures
\^rere no doubt calculated without regard to the high On of the airfoil. a rna jor blun-
der. The spoj.lers for rol.l- controL \rere also unsatisfactory, experiencing control
reversal at ]ow and mediurn deflections. Nothing new was Learned by using a Longer
sPan. tapered wing- these effects had been kno\^'n for decades. This merely contam-
inated the data, making it impossible to ccnpare to the base-l-ine ( factory ) airplane.
I'IASA \das so ernbarrassed by the poor perfornnnce of this airplane that the pro]ect
engineer never even bothered to hrite a final report on the projecc, but he got pro-
ncted any,ray. He no, has a top position at NASA Langley. In retrospect, I.iA.sA forgot
that their function is to c.onduct basic aeronautical R&D, not to "shcwr the industry
that they are \,rrong, and this is the proper way to build a GA 1i9ht twin". Ttris is
an example of hhat can happen if R&D is not rnarket driven, bub is directed by irre-
sponsible bureaucrats. Ttre airplane was bougbt back by piper for salvage of engines.
instrulTEnts, etc, and \aras then sold to a technicar school for students to drill- hores
in it. with the proviso t-tlat it never fly again.
Figure 28 shc'v/s the lA\Si\ !'A'ILIT' airplane during wind tunnel tests at NASA l-ang-
J-ey. this j.s g! npney.
The cAli.l airfoil was also used on the Beech Skipper and the Piper Tcmahawk,
wj,th dj,sappointing resul,ts on both airplanes, parcicularly at high speed.
A ccnnnn revrork for this airfoil is to fill in the bottcrn side cusp, as shcun
on figure 6. This reduces the aft loading scmewhat. reducing Gn and trim drag, but
the airfoil refiEins a rrr-ish-nash.
B. MSA NLF(1)-02I5F Airfoil. This airfoil, due to Scnrers, and descriH in Reference
T was a$n- oilg'inaTlt as a sailplane airfoil. thus it has too much carnber in it
for typical porrered airplane applications. Accordingly, the trailing edge must. be
reflexed approxjrraCely l0 degrees as shc'vn on figure 29, for powered airplanes, Even
with the reflex, high aileron hinge rrnents (stiff ailerons ) renEin, so a ccnrncn re-
r^prk is to make the ailerons and f laps f lat-bottqned, as shc^,,'n on f i.gure 29 , to
salvage Che airfoil. Of course, the better solution to the problen j.s sjrply to de-
sign an airfoil witl- less camber in it in the first place.
Anothe! strange feature of this airfoil is the canber "diP' .60C, as shc'vzn
on fj-gure 3. This is an attefipt to move the trans.itj-on point aft, "a extendj-ng the larn-
inar run to reduce profi.Ie drag, which it does. Hcrvrever, the fallacy here is that the
negative carnber at .60C causes negative lift, and this causes nore ( induced ) drag
than is saved by the extended larninar run, reducing overall- airfoil efficiency.
Al-1 in all, MCA,/NA9C has never reached a concensus as to the best shape for carnber
profiles for general avj,ation airfoils, See the "GA" camber profiles in A5pendix II
for a conparison,
C. I{ASA NLF(1)-04I4F Airfoil. this airfoil, figure 30, due to viken, was envisioned
as a very lo* drag lamjnar flovr airfoil for high-pornrered, high perforrEnce general
aviation airplanes. the Foint of rnaxinum thickness on the airfoj-l is at .45C, and the
nraximum camber, c.entrally loaded, is approxirnately 2.53c. This makes the airfoil
ccnpa.rable to the }IACA 65-414 airfoil , Unlike the }IACA airfoil, hodever, the t\T,F air-
foil has enough J.eading edge droop, approxjrrately .353C, to give the airfoil decent
slc'vr speed perforfiEnce.
Realizing that the price pa..id for locating the nraxi:rn:m thickness so far aft is
a very nafrc'e, l-arninar b:cket, NASA fliSht tested the airfoil on a Cessna 2I0 with

14
narro^' chord (I2tC) "cruise fl,aps", reflexed upr,rards approxunately 7 degrees at cruise,
and adjustable. Thj-s was an effort to shift the faminar bucket verEically as needed,
to keep tbe airplane "in the bucket" under varj,ous flight conditlons, tirat is' at
valious typical v€ights and speeds encounterd in aircraft service. lttis Proved to be
difficult and jrpractical. and the net wlng drag turned out to be nlf,re than antic-
ipated. The scheme was t]"ug considered to be unsatisfactory for the intended appli-
cation. This is an example of a "single design point" airfoil.
ltotice frdn figure 30 that the -7 degree cruise flap setting, necessary to reduce
the rnaximum carnber frcnr 2\\C to IEC for Cruise. cleates a region of negative carnber
at .85C. This causes a dlag penalty, simil-ar to what hE have seen prevj'ously fron
ref)-exrng the tlailing edge of the NLF(1)-02L5 airfoil ( ccrnblned with the canber dj-P
at .60C). reducing the efficiency of the airfoil. As before, the better choice would
be to desj,gn the airfoil witlr less canrber (NLF(1)-02I4), to keep tJ-e airfoil clean at
cruise- in short, a conventioal design approach. Ho^Iever, the airfoil ltoufd still be
a single point design. Accordj.ngfy, our concLusion is tllat the point of maximum air-
foiL thickness should be no further aft chan .40ct for typical general aviation app-
Iications .
This airfoil has been nEdified. however, by Team Nsrxesis ' and j,s being used suc-
cessfully on the Nernesis Formula I racer. this is a very special application' a
"single point" airplane, and thj-s suPporEs our concLusion that the airfoil is un-
satisfactory for mcst general, aviat.ion aPplications.
It is interesting to note that I'JASA's Cessna 210 flight test progran for this
airfoil, repofted in liAsA Tl,1 85788, was simi.Iar to the Poorly designed "ATLIT" flight
test progran descrj-bed above. On the Cessna 2I0, the span Iras increased frdn 39 ft-
to 42ft, nraking it :mpossible to ccnpare the perfonnance of the nelJ airfoil to tire
"base line" airfoil. ltre inescapable conclusion is that NASA was here again trying to
shov,/ that they can design airplanes better than the priroe rnanufaceurer, ratber than
bej-ng satrsfied with doing Iegitirnate research r\,ork. At }east, in both cases, llAsA
proved hc)\d not to build a general avj-atiun airplane, and this j.s lvorth sonething-
I guess.
9. REIATED SIjBJECTS
A. Blunt Ttailing Edqes. Al-I GA airfoils r,ave LEen desigmed with sharp traibng
edges, for uniformrty. Hor,rever, sharp-edged airfoils, on wings and control surfaces,
'.Drk bet'te! if they are cut off as sguare as possible at approx1rnately 998 of chord.
Ttre reason for this is that the trailing edges have finite trailing edge angles,
and this causes the flow to selErate before reaching the t.raiJ-ing edge anyway. So
you might as weLl cut it off. Ttre airfoil will stilL acts as if it ',ere I00t 1ong,
B. Flyinc Winq Airplanes. Due to the lack of a tail, flying wj-ng airplanes must use
zero-o'o airfoils, thus GA airfoils are not suitabl-e. nlrttrer, due to pitch stability
concerns. flaps cannot be used on flying wings. Ttrus, due to these tr.rc design con-
straints, the perforrr€nce of any flying wing airplane wiU be nrediocre ccmpared to
an egually sophrsticated canventional airplane.
C. Canard Airplanes. This configuration has sinilar design constraints. Fl,aps cannot
be used on the nEin wing. llrther, the forward surface rl[l.rst al\.Jays be rll3re heavi].y
loaded than the main wing, so tlEt the carlard wilL alvays stall first. Since the
rnain wing can never be allo*ed to stall. it never reaches its nexjmum lift coeffic-
ient, and j-s thus relatively inefficient. Ttrerefore, due to these tlro design con-
straints (no flaps. no-sta1l nrain wing), t}Ie canard configuration can never be as
efficient as an equally sophisticated conventionaL ccnfiguration. Flrther, since
full--stall landings are not possible, landing sPeeds are relatively higher than for
canrlxrable conventional airplanes.
D, Three-surface lirplanes. control surfaces placed in the taiL have longer rsrent
arrns than those p)-aced in t]"e nose, tius .re npre effective. 5o htly bother with con-
t.ro] surfaces in the nose?
E. leadinq Edqe Devices, such as slots and slats. th1n airfoils, and other airfoj-ls

er to t].e airioils. the natural choice Seenls tso be a fs"r Gn. GA aj-r- foils. leading edge sl-ats contribute a positive (nose up) "r. however. is not a problern. can benefit frsn these devices. Case Study. 15 that are subject to leadlng edge separation. honEver. the prir.airfo1ls.u.wevlr. edge flaps. F.o exceplions. vrby? with such a 1ar9e..nry effort at lift aug[rEntation should be \. Rutan Canards. . Ttre cAw-l airfoil. In spite tDtential advantages edge with C.rith effective trailing edge f1aps. lightly loaded nain wing. has a considerable center of pressule travel. Rutan chose a forward Ioaded ( 1q"er Gn. Io.is puzzle. I donrt have an ans!'. for the successor l-ong-Eze. contributing to Pitch stabi-lity Prob- terns.rrea I rrDre lift wil-l result srmply frcm the in- crease of iing Secondly.P. Ho^'ever ' The Long-Eze airfoil is a turbufent airfoif. in the case of novable slats that nDVe out fldn t]1e leading edge and increase the wing . hc. ajre soft-stall.rer c.-6-ari-Eze. htlich n*ans that lead-ing edge separation jfiprovement. Accord. \^rith its high Gn.ingly. tjcavel ) airfoil to j:nprove pitch stabil-ity. First. Figure 3I sho\ns that Rutan used fhe GAwt-l airfoil scaled E 6TA{-rhick"==-?6. hence slots and slatsS cannot offer much Ttlere are tv. soft stall laminar flonr wing. offset the negative pitchj"ng nEnent due to large -traiung nterrent that can help of tiese pitching l-arge of leading devices.

"GA Airfoils" has been eritten to address this need.ontinue to subsidize this industry with federal funds. zurthenrcre. in the norrnal course of their business. And let's not be rlLisl-ead b.{ere never in- tended for astual airplane use. to politics and bureaucratic r^trjms. aviation industry rnaintains its position of leadership. TtEt is hard to believe. . they are unguestionably able to do their ovm R&D 'aork. the currently bocning air transport i-ndustry can easily absorb the "out-placed" 1=rsonnel resul-ting fron "dosm-sizing" f. Another possible er<planation is that.Ly. Let's not confuse the i-ssue by clairning that tIASA's rdork is vital for nati.SA failed to address this problernz They certain- ly must have recognized the need.S. Now is the tjjle to act. and we enjoy this nLmber one position to this day. So then the question arises. Accordrngly. llreher.S. and ignores the reatities of li:rdted federal funds. by the innEdlate Fost-I4MI era.re industqr.lASA. in spite of the "good advice" frcrn NACA. and the U. one must ask why NASA. in vielr of the astroncndcal budget tllat l. avi- ation is no\^r not only a matu. ltard choices have to be made j-n washington. But U. and falls in this sarE category. Tax- pa. and.IAsA is bl-essed wi-th each year to pay for talent and facilities. at the expense of starving deserving infant industries of the I990's. not subject. Ttre rnilitary can cronduct thei-r crvn R&D. nor is a good tijrE to terninate this Fed- eral jobs prcgram. and hc. has rnade no effort sJmilar to "cA Aarfoifs"? Hovr fiuch valuable tjne and effort. the aviation R&D budget of NASA should be terninated ifinediately. nor to reviev the old lrork.vr nnny precious lives have been needlessly wasted. and why didn't they admit that l.ties of rnarket econcrnics - For this reason. and rnrst be hel-d in check by the realj. has been lost. according. which aeronautics r.Duld argue that it is necessar!. tJre original NACA airfoils \. R&D !$crk is a legitinate production expense.ras in the 1920's. tn retrospect.I defense.lASA's furding cut off at that point? And why has their funding continued yearl-y to ttris day? After al-I. NASA could have felt that there was little ne€d to do additional aviation R&D hDrk. to continue NASA's aviation R&D to insure tllat ttle U.y those vrho !. l.ize an infant industry. For this reason. the agency was set up origj-nalJ-y to subsid. ho.S. rnakes no sense h'hatever. In a free society.orld suprsrEcy ! To c. philosophical concern exists.yer wi-l1 be eteFraLly grateful. a nore basi-c. so they "lested on their oars". Aviation R&D should be rnarket-driven bry Adam $nith's "invisible hand" of free enter- prise. rather ttran econcrn-ic realities. lrhy wasn't f. under their q'm budget. because llA. In fact.S. so why dj-dn't they acc? vitry did they fail to put an end to the lrlaLh that the I. but fortunately this is an easy one. one must al\. That is a specious argrLrrEnt. in the forty-odd years since the NACA airfoil uork was done./ays be on guard against excessive centraL planning. Since the U.IACA airfoifs were astual airplane airfoils. r{re must always be suspicious of gove!:rurEnt R&D as opposd to prj-vate seccor R&D. Accountability for governrEnt spending insists on th-is. but it enjoys a runarrday position of $. in rhich decisions re- gardj-ng all-ocation of productj-on resources are nade by bureauclatic guesstinEtes.ona.i/ever. 16 Postscript As stated in the Introductsion above.IAcA's mistakes and crnissions needed correctlon? It is trard to think of arr ans$er to these questions without beccnring cynical ' one possible explanation is ttlat NASA doesn't knctu hc'v/ !o do the job.lo one will be hurt j-f the NAS|C aviation R&D shop is closed. the United states had achieved undisputed rrcrld-wide suprsnacy in aviation affairs. aviation industry is ncrvr undoubrtedly nlatu-re.

NASA Iangley R.. l. !&qsA N80-29254. and Von Doenhoff. 8. "t'latllral Lann-inar Flold ExperjjrEnts on i'4odern AirPlane Surf - aces".ow speed Airfoil-s". Dover Publications. NA. 17 LIST OF REFERE}JCES l. June 1981.r Airfoil for General Aviation Applications. 1985. 2..C. . June 1984. "Alrfoi] Design and Data'. ... 7. R. R. Epp1er. A. Oshkosh WI 54903-3086.ovJ Speed and l4otorless Fli..ght" ' NASA conference hrbLication +2085. R. ''A ccrnputer Program for the Design and Analysis of l. R. "Helicopter Aerodynamics"..A Langley R. NYc. Publication +2I-37f77. "science and Technology of l. "Design arld ExperijTEntal Results for a Flapped Natural Lanrinar Flo.SA Iingfey R.C.C. 1979. P. Saners. 6.. 5. |{YC.H.. Prouty. Airfoil II". 4. "Theory of wing sections.o. Eppler. u. Box 295. et al. R. I. 9. Eppler. springer-verlag NYC. of stuttgart. Available fron the EAA b@kstore.. 1980. Canton Cf 06019.. |IASA 1P #1865.. NASA lang- ley R.. 'A Program for Designing and Analyzing Airfoils. 1959. Abbott. . D. "Theory of F1ight'J Dover Publications. Ms.w.c.lASA 'IP #2256. 1990. D.E. Holmes. and Scnprs. von I'lises. Sawyer.D. 3. Airware. 1959.

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This shors that the a.'rount of canber in IiACA airfoils
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crlljng il".r prirc r'rrr r. i corne up wlth o 15% ihicker oirioil lrom lcnd! muclr softer now.rcing fil:ine\ oftlre. Quebcc. Marcouche. it lol perfunnance. The Specdstcr refre\cnls aarl spo pe bnnrncc .dster xl O\hKosh 9l ard srve ll rale reriews.r' a7 uAci (l -ztz) 1 The wings ore thjcker thon normai ofter o beni stolic wiihoul a wrinkle. KII'FOX SPEEDSTER Wirh a look relrriniscenl ofrhe.tz- eiljcjcncy and sllcl-\'.oil on lhe Peliean < ll" > and wo arc vcry happy l:ith ir- Jcan-Iicnf Lepage. Worid renown lerobaljc pilorJinr F. the Killbx Spcedslers{ruls itstlrff. Chssic looks ud leadin! edge. hh 31 fr3t5 JAt/ tqss' € A n Technicot counselor News 7 f t&uR€ l1 . P. C'anada.ling^ Presidont soN€{\Rl FLETCHER BURNS REPORTS ON HIS SONERAI II WITH RIBLETT AIRFOIT From lhe Soneror Newslefer ( '\e /.!7K 3C1 Dear Mr.i didn'i need ta).l(l s. Thick€r ls strongerl This is o \ring on my woy lo Oshkosh (which ls onother generol oviotion oirfoll not o pylon roce oirfoll.acen] 300-D Airport Rd. ii story). Ribicq I arn intleed using thc GA 30ll-315 airf.! klin dcnto rtralcd thc Spe.rnd lnluL :r.ngrreeing xllo*\ il top sleed oi 5lintes ir\ rornxl rtlll \peed.nlc churacleri\ficr ard an fi{l hf Rot!t c) l: rigin3 l:j\. l've sondboQced them down to I G's i..rrr lflorrl. Fl\'orah[: itA acrodynl]. don't ihink it slowed me I cbocrd cnd lhe roll rcle reolly improved (oihough down ol qll. 33 .'\ lrcrl jiltjr llj$hne. . oilerinf ntarimunr 3OJ-i. I $dnl onel ' ?e. climbs belter wlih lwo Horry Riblett ond I love ll.

and I made a perlormance slabilizer.ould be. Ken flew the airplane in August 1994 and reported these results: Sefore After Cruise speed 85MPH 100MPH Top speed 90 11o Stall speed-no flaps 6tr65 45 St3ll speed-w/rlaps and power 50'55 35 Rat€ ol climb(FPM) 5m "betterl" In addition. and also the existing horizontal details bf the old wing io me. An unexpected benelil is that the engine oil temperalure now run 15 degrees cooler. Ken reports that the siall is vary genlle and predictable. you can simply reler to Contact! issue #'1 1. This agreed with Ken s flight lest experience with the airplane. GA 30U-613. Since the new airloil has a di{'lerent lift curve comDlere and {lying. T//////{//////////"/. due no doubt to the reduced drag of the new wing! Ken is alrue experimenter and is lo be congratuiated lor his Comparison ot the original PT-2 and new 6A 3oU-613.ine rnstallalion oetails) ln thrs same issue of Contacll began bujlding a new set oi wings using the GA 30U-613.trcle lhal I had written describing on of my airtorls airfoil. t would be glad to furnish details oi the new airloil or io ths original wing to promote lurbulenl llow. wing lips that I miqhinot be a good choice for the PT-2.777717121711V. tldoils. high landing speed' and poor rale of climb.. and better handling at cruise speed.{f{{/. and that the handling characterislics are bettet at all spesds. salvaged whai he colld and en. ''lt it ain't-righl. there may be something that we could that of the old wing it was necessary to decrease lhe angle do to "patch . especially in 1450 Konnowac Pass Road. lsuggested we attack the top surface problem first by installing an array oi vorlex generators (VT) along lhe entire span al . ltLlu(x LU . ir a simolecode. elc. {t1 flAs. glued to the wing Ken Rogers' n€w rring undel ggnstruction in January ot 1994. by 4 degrees- analvsis usino the NASA "Eppler' code (pR6f trt. sur{ace at a slight angle to the slipstream. or call him prodr. howeve.(A' A p{{t tqq.5 wa"s an a.5 perseverance and "can do" atlitude.70 C. He says. Note lhe localion of the vortex generalo. I assured him that sketched for Ken. com-nercialized for PC use as'Aidoil it" Tni. but suggested that since his arrplane was by 16 inches. This airfoil is designed io be a replacement lor hio'r-li+t 'Cub" type applications and Ken wondered if it The new \ryings include a set of Hoerne.:p" the oid wtag Acco'dingly Ken sent the of incidence ot the new wing. especialiy concerning laminar. These VGs are simple. For details of the Evidently the problem was quite severe. a slight imorovement at {3€A 248-1a13. lhey result in the wingspan being reduced it . Ken iell ihat in lhe long run it would be betler for he was disaopo nted with the perlo'mance ol his Subaru him lo invest his etions in a new wing so in October oi 1993 Leoacv oowered Protech PT'2 (see Conlacll isslre t11 ior he tore the old wings apart. ?1 t !t {+ A New Wing for the l'!5rlf Sibaetf 415 Ribtett Lane t€ Protech PT-z AirPlane W. which he did. Accordingly. and can oflen cure separation probiems. Overall.turbuleni transition. but il qives e\cel'e4t resulls./722727t121T2fl.s apptied ix it".'.-lrninglon 198t8 paz) 994 0479 ln Januarv oi 1993 Ken Fogers called me and iold me that however. HB in rate rn cl mb./zl%7774&7277721Vk CONTACT! lssue 2s pase 17 r'. which showed a low cruise speed. The analvsis showed that the existrng airfoil has a separition problem on the botlom suriace near the nose at high speed and also a similar problem on the top sudace at 70 percent o{ the chord at allspeeds.i/.. llow separation. small pieces 01 bent sheei metal.5. in an atiempi to'Yill in" the separation problem in the "low spot' there. Moxee WA 98936.rcrng sl ghtly bener aileron control. since Ken new wing consiruction I suggest you contact Ken Rogers at reponed that the vGs helped only a little bit.

but for conveniencc and standardization the quaner-chord point (C/4) is used.m1756 @ 10000 ft. pounds/ft2. . Although Rn can bc dctermincd cxactly. FrcuRe L l . Sw = wing arca. and pitching momcnt can bc calculated as follows: L = lifr = Clal Sw V2. drag. quantitative valucs of lifi.m1928 @ 7000 fr. an airplanc with a 4 ft. fcer Thc tcrm p n Vz appears in all thrcc basic formulas. Ccnter of Prcssurc = CI. Thc flow coDdition (Rcynolds number = Rn) for cach wind tunncl tcst is mcasured and cootrollcd. As wing chord and spccd decrcase. Incrcasing dcgrccs of surface roughness degrade the pcrformancc significantly.6E6.f 2 S* V2 C. fectlsccond C = wing MAC (avcragc chord). so does Rn.=Cl4-[Csr/Cr(C)]. ft) Thus. and is somctimcs known as "dyaamic pressurc". which wc will summarizc below. pounds D = drag = ta* Sw v2. square fcEt V = airspeed. q. pounds M = pirching iooment = C.6 x 106 (3. Most data is takcn rrith a pcrfectly smoorh surface (r=0). A ncgativc pitching moment is nosc dowl. 35 Aircrrft Performance Prediction (see a_tso figure 2l) Aircraft pcrformancc can bc cstimated from wind tunncl (compurer) data using formulas from standard tcxlbooks. Thcrs arc thrce dimensionlcss cocfficicnls of pcrformancc dctcrmincd for cach anglc of sltack as follows: Ct = wing lift coefficient Ca = winS drag cocfficicnt C6 = wing momenl cocflicient From thcse. Laminar flow wings suffer nost. wing chord flying at 100 MPH has a Rcynolds number of approrimately 3. A surfacc faclor of r=4 approximalcs a wing surface wcll contaminaled with bugs. bclow which thc data should bc adjustcd in accordance with proccdurcs found in standard lcxt books. for practical purposcs it can be approximated as follows: Rn = 90ffi (MPH) (wing chord. foot pounds wberc: p= mass dcnsity of standard air = -002378 @ sca lcvel . Usc a "wing cfficiency" factor =. Pcrformancc drops rapidly bclow R-n=5E5. Notc that thc pitching momcnt (in wind tunncl tcsts) could be mcasurcd about any refcrencc point.6 million).85 for non-uniform span loading. Test rcsults are usually givcn for wings with iDfiDitc aspect ratios. somctimcs writtcn as 3. and performance drops slightly. No significalt crror is introduccd down to an aspect ratio of abour 7.

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ij(:i 7. ??951 1 -.IT I NN]S FOR THE AET}VE ANGLFS OF ATTACI. O(:) DEGREES 1 '. tJ77-=S 1. i)(:) . i ji. 1. (j: 1 1 . 46{184 7 *.189 1.t7ii 1-(:)B(i 1.i:)r:) l. 1B-1 I lr'ri 1 al? I :--' 7 . S5B . 1.i-ii1 1. 154 1.tt7-j l. 19Bb by A ] RWARE A1 I r-r ghf-s re=erved Ser I al l-rc-r . 1gB 1.\7 -.94? L a{){:rl:)if .J/ I -. ?5{)( . (:i6? t.i5 :l .{:11:= Hi t RE Il-lRN to c.14b 1.15? 1.L.l1 l: .IY36r .ETT nl.998 1 .64j-. .3(. aii.c7?r .:1:)1 1. 176 1.+ 1.?9 4 -. 989 . :ia4E|: I(:) -.1(:r(:r 1.:li .8f.196 b .-r FtauRt 4 L. | )1--ir' 1._'-r . r:)':.::. l{t .. . .IE (l 1.r. .r) . E5A .457 .lETHBD RFOILnaSl5 CA = ?4499./414..)5:51 1.r.849 . ' ::4 .(:. '55\.-111..874 .s94 .t)21 :i .1: l. B.. 'j(:' 1 4 .JE TD THE CI'IORD I.. 16f. ERSIDnI 1. B{_){:r1ti:) .__JJ t-i ..851:irli:) -irtrl64 1 " r-i(:.]f. (:lI8 1. 1. 1{:r7 1.?6rr: 1 -. 36f.i)i-... AEc) .':r6:BF 1.gtrr .::a f .{-)i. il99 1.:-r+ .lL-t 1 6.845 . r_'trE 1..(:.t1:ii:r . TH I CF::NESS i:)(lil FLAF .r-.:. r'l.t7 t} . 165 1.:11 l.i1trf. 6.. 985 .ar 7E 1. L). 14q 1..2 1. 7 l?7=6 ALF'HAr:) = 2.l'r 4 . tr'Ii:).-rnt i nr-re 1'l 1F'ANEL I. {:i8$ 1. i-. OO DEGREES DEFL.ila. :9 DEGREES . lt'.-t76 L.':)i:' 1':'.: . 9{'1O .g 1 .: 1. (:r?: 1.2 .i:r19 f .(-r15 f . B6{:)(-. {:)f 1:O .1f.r:'81 1.?(l proqram for design and analysis o+ air+oi1s Fortions o+ this program are COFYFIGHT 1985..1:: 1. i:r(l NIXY VELOC I'T'Y D I STF:I TJI.1li-r t.i i.1978 ?1 A I F:FO 1LA a.1itA 1.atr)al . (:x:rl:)Q CH DEL-|A = .71:)(:)i:)i-r . (:r48 l.lg(. {:r(:} 1. COilPUTER A ^JALYSIS ( Eppler program) A I RFIII L. 1.116 1.114 5 .C = . ELAT I I. HlN6E FOINT AT lr.5..I I.i:i 6.-.:.815 . 1..jc] 7 f. -T 38 YP tcnr.t . t:)89 f . 1:. LLl..17i:' 1.14o L {:t54 t.\) iija 1 .)(:r(:ro Y/C = ._ _ 1.r -1.11q 1. ii 4.15161 Y 1:) --. t-rfr I 1.75i:rr-)r-r .. 1.?il r.jil 1{3.'!.(_)11 1.

. olf.9C)7 743 . 1.f.:. t.. cr. l. (:)(:r9 . 1 1 .462 . 1. . .344 1 c)il C)f.899 19 Cr 7= . r7B (:)5 (:l l.7 Bt:l a7 1. 1. 1. (:r?2 l. 11{) 1 . 1. l.998 .:i 1 1. . (:)Cr:) . . 1.9C)5 . I :r .939 . c'95 1 () 1. si:)a .4=A 1. I 1. 84f. l. :5rl I . .914 .l|/ u :.trB? \-4r/ 7 . .79€l 1. i7 1. i:)46 1.14tr i t- 1. 1. I .47A r. f. 18 1 i)i:r . f. t. ?47 .7 . ict c| I. 1.:?4 1.(r . J-t 1. SCIO 1. (-)f. I 45C)C)0 109 f .4. 1. 162 1 . (:r4f.l t.7 19 f. 44 1 . 1. 5€4 () 1. 1.5 1Sir t74 l. 4 ) .4?t --l ? {t73 () J.679 1.81 1 1.49{l .1'{ )( I c)4465 1. (J95 1-4t4 ?. 5?5 1. .O24 L (r{)? .978. 59(:) 1. I 1. 4 I.54r 1. {}61f.9:? . f.11 r.7 64 .1. ?.Jc' .61 1.f. t . {i66 . -<) 1 1. B I .489 1 1 .9Q9 . f. sB5 . 1. 4 (:xl .c)5f..91(:| . 1.379 . r:l 1. :7:l 1.El64 (-l(:)1 4f. i 1. I 1-O19 .r:)g 1 t. 6 4 1.846 FthuRe t+'L . . 91 5 . 9Bi . 47|-t 1 . -971 .747 .4f.4o r . .97t.9Ct7 -B'92 5(r 9 C)(:xlC) c)tl -976 .9C)7 . {:}8f. .91{r . 866 .411.6+- 806 .460 .84 1. 1. 7 1 .489 1.97? .877 .Jo f. . g 1.923 . O2B 1 . ?48 4: 5(:r{j(:r(l f-)85 773 1. 684 1. 894 c)49f. 984 .964 . 4 1 I 55r_)(:ri-' .O 1.:Etr 1C) 5(:)il(){:) . BEl4 95()O{ ()C) .44f. 998 -9A4 .9t)1 . :16 ."i6/.9c. t. 1. t)74l= 1. r .674 .946 . 956 . 1. {:)BEB5 1.9f9 . 469 1-6S7 1 . 678 -'. 1 1.4 t BA . 4?rJ 1. ()59 I .= 1.7:.44 1.3 . 1 4:1 . 1. 9 I 1.4? 1. r:r9(:r99 l. .C) 1. {14 (:} 1. (-)f_rg - .1-)6? B 1.. 499 . 9()f. 94c) . 1. f.61 1. 56tl 1. :iib 7. . ?4 1 1.94t-t . 6 .f. 1l 45(:)(:)(:r 1. 1.b .l .f. 932 46 70cr()o Crl . :49 -L .478 4 1. 943 ..74C1 f.467 1.-tg 47 7 1. .994 . 8C)4 4.64 1 A'1'7 r. eo B 6a) . 1. a_){:r9 .9EB .(16 . 1 .87 6 .-.969 . 04=6{) I 1. 98Cl .619 1. 893 . B?Cr .98(J .9 r:r5{rC}6 1.9(:) 1.i:)99:C) 1.4 1 .814 . (:. 1. .1?4 1 . t-t47 .7?C.999 . f. 427 I . al l . 1- . 6:{:) 1. 1 . g{:)g l.F 1. rl19 1. 1.418 7. 1 .936 4B 8C)()cl0 c)l -915 . 1.f. {-11: .45 1.98f.El62 764 989 .f.947 OTA 47 7gc)c)o o? .lJ.. 1. E7S .f. I1 1{:)tl 1.69 1 .767 4C) 4 {)(:} C)(r 13C) 1.9E}5 ?f. i. 7 I 1.94= .9(r5 . 7 1 5{) .649 1. l.9=9 . 896 1 . . 1 6(:r l1 (j r:r 1 _t. 1.4 L. ?: t.944 .€}59 . A7 Cr 49 B5oc|o o1 . rt47 4 l. 1.f. 1.424 1 . .458 1i .

CD = . {)f. C)CtlS TOTAL CL = .4-)O 1{:r.B LOU]ER . 14 .all5 1 5.r\ Vo. (:)f_125 TOTAL CL = . SASS .HA = . Q(r56 cM = -. r_)(:){)a_){:} 5E -. C)681 ALFHA = 6. C)C)64 Cl4 = --(t681 Cl4 = -.. E49t .. OO(IO .=794 .559 ALPHA = 1. OOC)tt .-)O 196 . . (tct?7 . il(:.=97t .-166 CL = .{] R = ?OCICIC)OO HU =: R = 6l:)O(l{)C){:} MU =. {II1 DEGREES l STURB UF'PER .o SUT4HARY AIRFOIL1 af./. Ar5 858 .(r[r . (:'(:) DEGREES DEFLEI UNA (:r{:r -1.79 DEGREES ANGLE OF ATTACIT1 FELATM T0 THE trHORD LINE * ALFHAO INDICATES BLIBELE ANALOG LONGER THAN . ()(:] 1.5AA_. TH I CI. {)O{iO . O(r DEGREES l STURE S SEP CD 2 S TURF S.24:E .89? CD = . c.HA = ?.{tc).(:}(l 6. TURB 557f. C)Cr DEGREES 1S TURB S SEP rJa_r46 CD ? 5 TURB 5 sEP CD UF'PER .-){r .\ y'eLa.9476 . c\:t37 CH = -. C)(r57 . 0. ctct17 Ctl = -.692 CD = .1 ALF. NX Y VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR THE AEOVE ANGLES OF ATTACF ELATIVE TO THE CHORD LINE 52 1 . (:rcr4 (:) . ()(l :i. ('529 cH = -.INESS .6Ct7t .477 CD = . Bi9 ?4 I nurler I Drta .{l=B? cM = ALF. O696 Ftduae a4'3 .l5 : 2.6?_. OCIC)O .(:){r !. (1559 cN = _. OC)OO .3Ct77 . C){)25 .(iC 8. C)C)(-r(r .49 . CrOC)tr .3734 . ol:t64 CL = . OOC){} . oQ40 LOWEF . (J{:r 18. 11 40 4IRFtrIL. OOOC) .C)O{:| C){rr_x_r LEIIER .5865 .5f. o55O ALFHA = 4.() -. Qtr!4 TOTAL cL = . c)c)s8 CM = -.CIOC)() . r li:). of-r49 .f. C)1:r 1? . OOC.362 CD = . Fgg1 StftEA.6t.912 CD = cL = . {:x_} 4. OCI{-)C) . (i064 . oa-t64 CL=4?A . (rO.FER .3777 .25? CD = . (r(r16 .f. Cr()OC) . CD .tfu V o.5El2 CD = .t .3772 . (){:)(l{:l . c)o63 CL = .()C) . {:)(:r{)()O . cxlB4 LOhIEF .8r-)g A57 .Cr{' DEGREES r STURE S sEP CD 2 S TURE 5r-lOOCr SEP CD UF.472_..2-?6-19!A hA t1 43tS y': Loca" \'/e uac-.5845 .c) 1g .142 CD = . (-){rf.c)o12 _3756 .t67 .r sEP CD UFFER . 557r-) . . . C){rCrO .C. (ittf. . oc)59 = CM CH = {:)69() = -.HA =1S_1_Cro DEGREES UF PEF TURET S SEP .7 .565C' . QC) l9 TOTAL CL = .549f. C){:r51 . LOWER .. oo2f. c)o22 TOTAL CL = .692 CD = . 5{j45 CD .445 . (rr_r DEGREES l STURE 5 SEF CD 2 S TURB S SEP CD UF'PER . O(r DEGREES l STURE S SEP CD ? S TURE S(J{rctr-) sEF CD UFFER .424(. ()a-t65 CL = .(:. . Cr(.142 CD .541C) ._)r)OC' . S SEP .517E1 S SEP CD 2 S TUREI S(jtlaj(-) SEF CD -O{)(){r . FLAF' . (:)tl7. oo 1B ToTAL CL = .573f. . . crr]34 ? 5. .oof. .856 . (:lcx:r{:} .3723 .s x/c l. o(r4= . ()ClC)Cr . r-)Ol1 TOTAL CL = . ()il 1o . .1:)619 CD = .('619 CM = ALF'HA = f._1589 CD = . CrO?g . 5944 .t)529 ALF. oo45 LOWER . C)4r=5 t-OltEF . t (t97 Cl4 = --8t744 CM = -.

Of.os f LD *lc = o .619 CD = . LOUIEF . .=Z-?s-lr9{' -.f. (rcr)(r .@< .1gB(r . I ? 5 TURE S SEF CD UF. C)5Of.ER 9812 .(]{:.(t299 .296L .o9 O .(:r115 .o cL Ct'tr -a. 41 SUMI. a-) 1 LONEF . otlll? TtrTAL trL cL = 1. I c S TURE S(:)822 SEF CD UPPER 1. OEB6 ALFHA = 14.F'ER 1. {)Orjrl .1196 .i -----._)86 CD = CM = -. C)241 CM = -.1E}6 . :9 DEGREES INDICATES BUEELE ANALOG LONGE R THAN .O R = 2(r{:)O(:. Qcr 10 TOTAL CL cL = 1.2545 .lo .. 1.l5 ANGLE OF ATTACIi: RELATIVE TO THE CHORD LINE * ALFHA{I = ?. C)?10 .t:r!97 LOUJEF . {Xr{:}S TOTAL CL CL = 1. (:r(rC)C) 1294 .77 Run tirne was f taueez4-+ .Q?(:rl CM = -.6z0 . (. Cr23{r 1.f.-1169 CM = -.t)797 . o3o .. (11 f. R: 6x roe - l. C){] DE G 1 s TUFB ? 5 TURE S SEF CD UPFER 1. (:)4?6 ALFHA = 18.?52 CD = . o. ALFHA = 16.6 LOTJEF .s .IARY AIRFOIL af.PER 1.9 LONER . C)16f.Cr631 ALPHA = I 2 S TIJRB S SEF CD UF.4(lO CD = .C):S5 ()o(:)f-) . 1 2 S TUREI S SEF CD UF.l2 . (Ja-)oa-) . 2081 . I. Cr4L9 . c) 14f. (rE . CM = -. C)699 ALFHA = 1(J.rf(j HU R = 6l:)(:)(:)0(-r( ) MU=3 ALPHA = 1 S TURE S SEF CD UPF.52? CD = . (lcr{]? DH 0 DetrCH. Ct297 LOWER TOTAL (lalt)o CL _ o{x)o CL = 1. (:.7(l 6A 3-i A3t{ ^L Atlo KG !. . ()()r-'a-) .6€l? trD = . (r69C) .PER 1. f. O2f. C)CrC)7 TOTAL CL cL = 1. O167 .ol.3E: 48.s to 6--9 to zo This rLrn made on At "-26-1994 1.{_x:r ..tro ..at{ . O()(-)4 TOTAL CL cL = 1.

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ts F " ri o :l t: ! !< El: I TJ C'l il :l 'i ia N ! .l ' ?r i .{ {.{!O t' . . {J-+J lro : o.J -id 5-.]J +J 8 9 r. o it I r+ l.-l 2 I !t *.lc IE 3l i j t .-' ^r' !t lr( . J-l t -|-3- . 43 '1 <J3 t! E o t\ r.rJ t. 16 3\ () a '{i \i . I tF UFr T a J I z '* { .l{5 ii I 6 li ro tl sl l-c i .:i .l ti: r€ . O'E a.l ilil .J 0) lo rJ l.l " il 3l :. J.':. ..'Jl! I cOiEO u q-.r d\ '. LH !r0 rd C) 9l il:t !l .1 {.s..'t I o 5t .tJ .l Ia o o o 6 ) !F 0.r.

.?. 30 oer-ce?t in maximum lift.tl0ll Page 44 IRST FLIGHT OF SENECA WITH MODIFIED WING SCHEDULED . research facility after initial flights are completed in Florida.t I I -. c_elt-tgup and jgpzullt in cruise speed.7 .. r' fAcLtec- rruftG Ln . Section shape for NASA GA(w)-1 airfoil. facility.80 ocr-. not iust the Seneca.t : I -/- U ><-- -.5.l . A full flight resr program will be conducted at NASA's Langley.- .o r/c lq'r4 Figr.6. HHilH$ flUlf.5 __=i I j I . fus (').2 . Fla. NASA spokesmen emphasired that the program is designed to provide a more efficient wing for a wide range of generil aviation aircralt. Although the rving is being built by Piper a.3 A.9 t.8 . . Va..{$ !.. Wind tunnel tests with models have indicated that the netv airfoil will provide inqqelq! of 90 oer cgnt in range..is being built and installed on the aircraft 8t Piper's Lakeland. g9_gg. The wing assembly for the air- craft . The low-speed airfoil features full-gan power flaps and spoilen for lateral control. (r1% rr'rrc<J . " AT u.National Aeronaulic: and l$ad-EAtnin-istrarion will supervis€ the {irst flight ol a Piper Seneca next month modified with a -Snew wing design that promises major performance improvemeflt3.E install€d on a Seneca..designated as the NASA GAW-!.cent in the single+ngine-rate+f+limb.rre l. 44 NASn an (w)-l ArAtrarr. o+rrl t_ 2 CAr4B€A-'/. !q!.

j I Ic -.) o : t- J P !s! -- l' ILt L6 . rJ tu .-.1 a "!O -u I U io J.. c /} -!) :l1 .

9 r0 u-.-3 o \3 UO a.' J x \h lr.-- va +._:il uJ i'*q .".? 4 .11.. J s 1 tt *)o '' {1 € . OX \r tc CJ Cr* * o. d^ !!r u --- . t- .r ']Jo . 16 1]U 6C o l'n! c.l '.t rd6 q" \ 5.". k-1 at a0 !) tl + .t J ort r0) I 7 )L .ltt '2 Ctr. .1 () ? CJ tb !! CJ J 00 or . t. x tJ -.. .

.{ '-{ ! O.'..-l lr .. 4C 'ocrr qc ll d- od)0)o rt > 0l rd cE ..t lr o. .1 \T lr J E ti q'l.cr'd o!6 JIC Erd lO.J lz() e o $E U q{ otr J € !c =. 47 o c N d tlo t\ - o o.6CO L qr t a'c+l 0. \9 .i'4C c o.. u|r .1 ! r-l _c rlJ o'sFr w o0J. !oo .o otrk t rd .dE f.lJ _-l t{ : . \-....{ id O E'A {d >.i @' dFr jrc 3 . t&uE€._..o-. . o .l . :t. l.d o.1 or lr l] OOJId !>> { l. n J .e& o F lt .1o tr lrO .- l'. 30 .. t-- |-\ I' ---' I 4 .a 5 u) q) I F tlt J) EOd .-rl{o "l It (u-. lJ 16 o 6-o-q u.!tt . / L a ]4 G OF+ !|.1_E t.-i l! rito o-c o{Jo ..r '{-r O "Ef rd! _t. OO cd .t- .

rr.d?r5 F l Lo!6_E+€ fie (r/6 ^J 4. 6?5 ( 'l'L ge-\ I L( I'o NASA L!(t)-6+18 VARr E+F ( crau-r .( iJA cA 4 D'611.ANp t g|Air ArrFcret oLD-E_L_AgEqlr : JE of6 t ao&> NLF(') .o'r'el) .O I s I I Lor':cr .. EtA . 48 t'l-'1o T*.-o I /C_ .o t.

shapes ( . f I6LJAE -L-I .vncn 6+ -arr) GA 4o-ots . these sba[Es nEy be sca]ed d-irectly up or dcnnr to the desired thickness.84stL a*rc<lveSS Foems synretrical. Bas.APPnDIX I .ro go qo nc llote.For thicknesses other tllan l5t.rc Thickness Forms. {lncn al-ors) - o lo ?. l5t thick) A ' "cusp' TrPe 7 Atc<+v€ss D tsrRrgurrorts GA 30 Aotl (nrRca oors)' GA 3s-Ots INACA Ll-ot5) .o go ao ta Lo . 49 T . QA 31.615 (.

rn to the desired thickness ' Frh T'L . 50 a . otsTRtgullarJs Y = TRANsttT ror').For thicknesses otier tjlan l'5t' these shapes up or do. 158 thick ) B.7 'fuo Cus P TF tc <ru Es s.BAsrc THrcKt.]gsl FoRmS ( symrEtrical shapes. PREFe-RR 1-. R =6xtoL 6A 30-o rs GA 35AOl5 (ueca ut aors) 6A 37nots (NAcn 61 Ao rs) CrA 4oAots may be scaled directfy ttote.

427 50.926 6.L73 5.208 L .648 3.00 3.264 2.655 6.442 15.855 0.311 5.456 1.00 7 .895 5.000 0.600 n .942 5.065 90.25 2 .527 L .830 0.487 7.356 L .L55 6 .856 1.166 4 .00 5.090 o.00 L .00 3.693 6.18 65.OO 7.619 6 .518 6.00 4 .252 2 .OO 7.764 30.472 2.764 30.844 r.440 7 .600 75.172 6 .853 4.367 1.245 7 . s04 20.755 5.677 L .279 2.250 4 .50 r .950 3.555 L5.540 4.42I 7 .310 2.00 5.885 85.00 6.945 6.oo 6.l-93 I.000 7 .Io Cuspltlickness Distributions (GA 30-. 600 4 . o00 0.240 6 .396 40.580 3. ooo 0.000 APPENDTX rB .732 5.72I 4. 35-' 37-' 40-) Feb 94 0 015 63-015 54-01-5 65-015 sta Ord ord ord ord 0.190 5.50 3 .00 6.518 J.387 5 .704 5.000 0.610 2 .119 3 -296 3.847 3.496 7 .084 2.858 85.203 1.oo 6.566 1.25 2-367 I . ctrso Tv.1.956 6.436 7.468 4.00 1.724 o.00 0.00 4.934 4.858 6.00 2.264 2 .265 7.443 3. 40A) Feb 94 30-o15 63AO15 644015 4 04015 sta ord ord ord ord 0.959 10.702 2 .290 95.090 0.344 7 -270 7.463 7 .L24 u. 1.44S 1. o0 7 . 51 APPNDIX rA .13 4.744 80.600 75.346 7.427 7.558 1.427 4 .379 35.O99 7 . 35A.502 7.480 6 .527 I .3A2 4 .00 5.442 7 -396 40.00 6.427 7.321 2.504 20.500 7.00 3.620 6 .00 7.579 2.266 6. o00 0.a75 0. 6.744 80.442 r.50 5.423 6 -223 25.2L5 7.168 55.OO 5.000 o. o00 0.49A 45.00 6 .313 7 .504 3.753 o -772 o.541 L.795 0.856 L452 1.443 3.300 0.118 65.50 5.000 0.00 1. o0 4.853 5.473 7.250 4 .158 o.00 7.5L7 6 -720 60.508 2 -324 5.00 o.720 60.852 0.817 3.502 7 .00 7. nnn Ft6 T-3 .172 5.427 50.00 7.99L 3. ta 1.865 o.240 3. 494 45.974 7 .681 6 .75 1.o?? n.820 5.785 5.008 o.874 r.950 1. o0 6.L52 35.403 70.528 2.000 0.356 1 . 37A.665 6.290 2.O91.053 2 .144 95.50 I .00 7 .73I 3 .815 I -702 2.223 25.976 7.453 5.204 1.pe Thickness Distributions (GA 30A. 25 1.000 o -25 1.00 5.997 4 -799 4 .168 55.977 90. OO 3. 00 7.O0 2 .00 o.436 t_.477 3 -245 7.581 5.810 0.50 3 .00 7 .324 5.959 10. ie1 6.00 5.a75 0. I.055 4 .00 0.435 7 .011 5. oo 4.810 7 .5L2 1.403 70.830 0.346 o-42A 100.202 3.108 6 .224 7 .

00 o.00 r.1 52 o . o00 o.852 o.r4 t"E D16' t .843 1.372 25.es c L .562 o-727 0.\r65 arvD TJACA t^€A^f Lt'|/et .7A2 L0.843 65..792 2.'. L23 1.374 I -947 2 .to :1.323 7.169 o.000 o.063 0.04 35.780 2 .(tc- .672 2. A.'5' -" As:*A \\r Fta x/L ro .c ?. ooo o. o0 L .991 t .234 4.335 L.000 0.Q46 2.2L3 o .189 1.7 fyk bA . 3 GA-4 GA-6 0.ao oh e.396 o.435 70.50 0.a1.363 0.00 I .450 0.410 55. I .00 1. 404 L .75 0.000 0. UE^tt r-J trocr-@ '2t*L r.557 2-r73 2.764 2.023 1.00 1..Zb9 4.APPENDIX II .00 0.496 lo0. t.Le t /ec.25 0.597 2-17A 15. o82 0.524 J.982 85.00 1.970 r . o0 t-.25 o -263 o.487 90.499 3.1.457 3.458 45.441 2-50 0.00 o.444 20..010 4.329 40.715 0. e .50 o .L12 0.000 o.494 50.770 o.|at!.892 1. t-20 0.00 0.776 3 -7A6 30.683 2.00 r .L?9 50.090 L .244 1. Co'Jaa'1ttt1- .207 o.L 2.00 L.663 2 .537 2-L7a 2.973 75.595 0.281 o.116 o.323 0.|CA.!75 4 .00 0. oo 0.340 3.296 4.J L. ooo 9.737 2.29L r.00 o.060 0.420 1.991 95.793 1. o00 o .1 :L C .00 1. tL8 1.500 o.c.958 ?.cAt oEA ?2.00 r.570 o.368 3.198 0..180 2.818 3.00 I .(lc 7-S't'q.8L7 2-474 80.543 3 .tah.00 0.454 1.777 5.00 L . e.__.nla*.473 3.5t9 3.e-z tlliA (^.065 4. F.1.685 2.307 L. l4ean Lines ( camber profiles) 52 Feb 94 canber Camber Camber camber sta GA-2 GA.1.275 0.

ot rl l3$ a StEEB nlo r.ii .g jlel #u ln s Ec oi !h at I ..r !+ 4 r.1 a lE II oo .E= i fc 1) 9 = so a a l -Elr F .. E !o zl l c) d. 5S5t8 ]J |! 2 zii- !llo o 3^ tlrrl .. a._a \ E iE +J .9 E d c:4 !Jtr _o . d OF E lr I rt88 i I= E Er ol..lJ o I .) s8. c iz 2 2 I +) .ordinates. Ia. eta fr-I .1 6* 6 f L) ! J 6J I ?g : !. t! | aZE' A Idjtc tJIO U c) ii I l! !.9o -u: -.iFtReda -. . E[e 3 glt tFSFB EI F{'5'o!Il.Airfoil. El p t'> + \ I PilFE !J l.E. EE€ E: I F a$ E:r r 8gle E EI E \' I a!t t 4cl'n !!t i i s:.-l llct o .I irrd +J .li' rfd U z sEe g 5i 9 o< E .i tlJl o p zz \o e !-! s >r <'a s'.3t t i:I E Eii:€ n lo c Irl-c .i I .-t Fl ?...€Es.. . o I i 0) .r I rJ c .r o ulc c fl'.f o c< lu (.i )Ll cl dl 6 Oo t e333: .l h \l +l t o OJ \!. '.. g ! .c. t*[He EI -. EEEE. :' f t- t cl r 8.t lg o8 8..l .. E 2 sl' a[c /1.-l .l !. 53 APPmDIX rII .i a !t . .P rJl !' 1 3 I ql 11 Hl s t ele E 4 iE Ili dsl.€ T .r B tli . :6 ai f. x 5.ri k t J- I +l ]Jlr .ll'' . F=rq3x g!! !r-O of. i g dHiS: !U)-t o Bl ol ^Fit) tu ri \' OG 'z gigi II If f I E F o> . o . :: 5 c€.r o :t I ) ^'HY' . EI .-i tr I L.l 9t{ -9 CO 1*u I I II I I a 5ig=i gifrE= 0. 5 6 0-. Cl-r.-r (to lJ o ' dd . \ _-.o.

) c a a rd 0) ! 0) ol 16 o 1 o a o rd u.-7 ..u OJ r-.1 6 o -c o . E E -c U U) t) * -c +.lJ 2 \i\ r\ Fnf.t) 1 o o ) tl o 6 $ ( I o 0) _c .1 3 a \t ]J t1 v o v I a !n c F 0.t oI u') o . E 4 -. l{t ! +J o o OJ c u' rtt lr) a6 ct a. q .l q IJ Itr U o .l-.lJ |! o o LN ! -1 ro o l..-l .t l[ U ( o ]J ll I t 8 I I 0) .

L69 4.1o4 3.854 65.77i 20 .443 5.856 0.685 -4 .150 -L.681 L -244 6.00 0.235 -1 .81-7 0.00 7 .672 6.97L 3.L92 -5.320 7.659 6.060 o -9J2 -0.764 7.715 4.1.2r5 9.72a -3.026 -7 .57 9 50.r9L 40.925 -5.792 7.643 -1.L42 -4.160 -5.618 -O.82L -2. O01 L5.57r -3.00 s.991 4.458 3.564 9.000 0.O0 6.000 o.420 ?.485 -6.367 0. so7 -2.687 2.392 -3.830 LO47 -6.00 3.446 4.114 -0.308 65.631 2.LA6 40.]-73 -5.498 -6.?92 ?.808 -2.396 1.411 1.r42 85.064 -2.351 6.oo 5.892 5.169 1.703 10.665 -7.206 -0.557 7. O0 2-566 0.rsa -4 .984 -5.178 55.81-2 1 . 355 30.150 -1.589 -4.000 0.372 -3.592 -5.163 -6 .00 o.000 0.617 7.16L -L.004 -o .706 -6.891 9.367 0.854 9.339 9.750 -6 .412 o.00 6 .892 5.00 7 .338 -1.89 4.190 -0.853 1.053 o.427 1 .577 2.000 0.000 0.00 6.198 1. o00 o .24r -4.268 0.00 6. o90 0.846 -2.959 5.00 5.r92 -5. 2.316 2.208 10.654 -1.0s8 L .560 8.153 90.870 10 .729 -3.316 2. o0 4.16? 8.190 Fta f.839 10.126 -0.681 L-244 6.369 5.O47 .00 2 .780 7.419 -4. 158 -3.665 -7 . 318 8.OO 3.000 0.169 r-.6A6 -4 -2r2 9.263 2-L57 -l-.269 -2.26L -6.00 o.450 3 .008 0.090 0.206 -1 .26L -6.530 8.687 2.769 -3.408 10.436 r -737 7.2 upper lower upper lower upper lower 0. 184 10. o00 0.793 3.502 1.260 4 -457 -2.411 1.00 7.268 0.00 R ?na ! .450 3. L58 o.759 6. 55 Feb 94 30-015 Camber 30-2L2 30-215 30-21-8 sta ord GA.749 80. O0 70.000 Feb 94 0 015 camber 3042r2 3 0A2 t-5 3 0A218 sta Ord GA.O32 9.088 -3.752 10.808 -O . r98 0.932 -0.00 7.373 -3.189 4.961 -0. 064 -2.00 3.254 1.308 6 -t42 -4.396 -2.00 1.991 4.7A9 I .158 -1 -7 2a 6.000 0.50 5.502 1.2 upper lower upper lower upper lower 0. OO 4.o47 -6.950 0.923 -1.469 -7.499 -4.00 4 .165 -5. 870 t 0.396 1. O00 L.9L2 -4.77 6 95.1.126 o.808 a.166 L.000 0. 026 7 .250 o.308 6.437 9.485 10.192 -6.792 -5.885 -1 695.244 o-50 0.583 -4 -O23 9. s89 -4.343 -2.50 0.724 6. 540 -3.844 -L.427 -l -237 2.00 7 .?2e -1.000 t-.718 -2.00 6.443 o.116 1. 3.830 a.755 1. o00 0.368 -L.853 -2-475 5.191 L.339 9.O47 -4 .030 1.00 L -527 0.060 0. 608 1.426 5.426 1.543 -1.158 0.00 4.705 -3.00 7.665 -7.564 -3.659 6.436 95.O25 -1.101 -5.16 1. o0 6.?63 0.689 -4.715 4. 427 1. A25 70. ?44 0.00 7. L86 25.568 -I .580 1.705 -3.222 55. o0 1.617 7 -50 5 .810 0.408 10.04 3.368 -r .000 0.499 -4.50 3 .106 1.948 -L.830 4.948 -!.792 7.L57 -1.663 7.595 2.718 100.925 45.737 7.000 0.625 -3..259 75.437 9.?80 7.1.-3 .382 -4.660 -7 .4 .853 1.240 L.592 -4.595 2.472 5.793 3.976 1.25 2 .573 -4 .526 -2.47 4 10.812 1.000 0.000 0.469 -7 .856 0.665 -4.752 10.374 5.269 -2 .172 1.8 4.A39 5.339 35. OL2 100.764 7 .106 1.672 6.374 5. o0 0.a76 -4.630 -2. 100 -3 .000 0.La6 25.81.440 r.592 -5.279 o.0 1.391 6.045 -5.355 30.000 0.307 75.75 r.164 3 .472 5.649 3.A7r 85.414 2.L64 3.537 6.250 0.664 -3.045 -2. 151 -2.65 -5.618 I.385 8.608 50.984 -5 .2I4 8.876 -4.537 6.101 7.64A -1.443 0.443 -5.101 7.71S -2.026 -7.318 8.773 20.565 1.631.925 -5.000 o.25 1.00 7.699 10.396 -2.O92 -3.339 35.818 4.839 5.630 -2.816 60.674 -2.938 45.637 -4.557 7 .o0 5.50 3.103 -2 .338 -1.589 80.190 L.654 -1.292 -4.158 -O.7L6 o -75 L.577 2 .408 -1. Sl.L77 -5.O25 -1.281 7.O52 2.540 1.000 0.358 7. oo 7 . o0 7 .816 7 .023 5.O92 -3.000 0.O5A -3.565 -4.023 5.I72 L .030 1.072 -2.372 -3. 358 7.000 0.263 ?.663 7. o0 6.058 2 .839 10.00 o.067 7.444 90.290 0.415 -1.655 L.265 1. 768 -5 .94r -2.420 7.757 60.o00 0.131 2.103 -2.7L6 o.L47 -3.00 3.A63 -4.382 -5.oo 7.602 -4.774 6.158 -4. O34 -5.063 4.385 8.1.731 -3. 001 15.519 9.

364 -4.229 -6.565 -1.250 1.00 4. 06 t- 50.565 2.087 -O.555 2 .610 95.347 7.50 3 -26a 0.500 4 .809 1.689 15.329 t.935 -0.443 0.935 -0.930 4.270 95.O0 ?.422 -3.492 9.591 6.L23 3.000 0.958 7 .580 t-.191 2.290 0.r97 -0. oo0 0.500 3.7AO 9.407 r. .4L3 5.51-8 8.499 7.144 -4.683 7 .]-8I -3.618 2.318 -3.843 2. 371 -L .090 0.499 7. OO 3.527 0.402 -2.00 4.42? 2.1.335 6. 182 10 .685 5.591 6.000 0.3r7 -r .608 -3.275 2 -169 -1.905 90.00 7 -502 2. Oa2 6.689 15.334 20.O92 3. o0 5.32:I -2.000 0. OO 4.Or7 -3.397 -2.336 -3.000 0.564 -6 .242 -6.165 L .583 7.855 7 . OO 2 .811 75.364 -4.480 7.600 -5.4]-4 -5.AA2 -3.360 -2.662 35.562 2.965 2.9'79 6.947 6.L31 -3.L73 8. O0 6.422 -3.789 -4.279 9.000 2-543 8.372 -I .734 -1 .254 2 .00 1.50 3.406 -2.843 2.662 8.667 65.635 loo .J42 -3.143 -3.491 -O. O27 L.120 I.120 r.279 1.581 1.565 2.340 a.r32 7 .LL7 -4.487 55.115 -2.00 o.O27 1.525 L.L24 -3.367 o. 648 25.000 0. o00 0.566 0.25 1.000 o .000 0.A96 -1.914 -5. O57 L .2 30A315 3 0A318 Sta ord GA-3 upper lor.75 1.010 -o.154 -4.114 -2. O99 -2.809 1.00 6 .r74 6 .795 9.288 9.810 0.175 -4 .340 4.335 6.662 9.441 -5 -443 55.852 4.142 -3 .886 2.619 2.662 35.686 2-397 -2 .406 -3 .342 -6 .4I8 -5.00 r-527 0. O57 2 .675 -0.853 1.739 30.364 7.t69 -1. o0 7 . 063 0.L32 7 .409 -L.976 2-543 a.113 -3. O0 7.r73 8.3l-5 2.000 o.119 10.54I 85.L37 -3.026 -1.817 1.038 9.L74 6 .422 5.153 -L.084 -4 -7 28 65. 190 -0.L72 1.891 -O. s18 8.25 2 .482 L.00 7.026 -1.085 -6.O0 6. o0 5. o0 o.085 -5.828 50.25 1.347 7.225 -2.546 6 -L44 -3.115 -2 .480 7 .00 0.210 3.425 9.380 -6.642 -2 -O92 3.394 -1.409 -3.681 1.!L4 3.158 0.700 -6.872 9.00 3. t l-8 5.600 -5.466 40 .853 1.662 9.O2A -3 .00 6. 540 1.485 -5 .929 100. 857 50.118 5. 18 2 10.780 9.685 5.349 -L.457 8.130 -5 .989 3.619 2.994 9.?54 11.527 0.368 7.00 3.7 27 1.502 ?.577 9.000 0 .275 2.933 -3.585 8. 156 s.75 1.00 5.130 -5 -2L4 10.495 9 . 56 Feb 96 30-015 Camber 30-312 30-315 30-318 sta Ord GA-3 upper lower upper lotrer upper Iower 0.7 23 3.315 2.650 5.l-88 -4.115 -3.739 30.190 L .?63 75.245 0.162 LL.426 7 .564 -L.000 0. oo 6.852 4 .342 -1.769 9.647 -I. O0 o.248 2.295 -3.153 -L .747 -2.647 -r .893 -4.00 6.624 8.74L rr.406 -2.7a4 -0.952 -L -712 0.O23 -4.00 7 .126 -0.l-20 60.367 o.897 -4.058 -2.842 -5.000 Feb 96 0 015 canber 3 0A31.756 5.190 FrE trr -4 .730 IL.172 1.102 r.47L 40. OO 6.979 11.524 8.427 2. ooo 0.404 4.359 -5.895 7 .O28 -3.017 -3.856 0.812 85.176 80.000 0.O57 9 .265 -2.407 1.000 0. OO 4 . t 58 o. 385 -6.249 -O .947 6 .123 3 .336 80.856 -5.364 -4.564 -6.000 0. 354 -2.082 6.696 -3.768 -2 -7 6e 4. o0 7.823 9 -797 -5. O90 0.660 2.158 -O.281 0.rL4 3.00 2.268 0.436 2.778 -4. O0 2 .170 1.334 20.519 -4.704 2.50 | .443 o.7 46 -1.00 7.265 2 .922 -2.359 -5.00 7 .089 -O.319 4. O0 3.543 -4 .318 -3.368 -4.525 9.342 -6 .146 -4 -252 70.457 10.L76 -1.247 70.782 -2.22r -2.950 1.126 0.133 -r-447 3.769 9.245 0.958 7.342 -1.205 7.170 1.793 -2.240 2.700 -6.764 -? -768 4.591 -1.702 5.00 1.763 0.655 -1.984 -3.440 2-457 8. oo0 0.281 1.952 -L.295 -3.o0 7 .702 5.00 0. 385 7 .983 11.000 o. o00 0.102 L.842 -5.7L2 o.194 45.J27 -3.156 10.00 5.250 1.662 8.648 25.254 11.433 10.053 L. 186 7.184 -4.115 -3.2t9 8.655 -1 .50 5.823 -2 .88 -4.998 9.524 8.686 2.181 45.404 4. O80 -2 .50 L . oo0 0.!62 11 .00 5.696 -3.243 8.ver upper lower upper lower 0.943 -5 .37L -L.008 o.458 -1.236 90.000 0.50 s. o00 0.947 6.000 0.422 5.7 4r -2.063 0.000 o.2L4 L0.642 -2.559 -3.500 3.856 0.562 r.044 -0.00 7.114 -2.

37I.104 50.970 4.492 L2 -OL? -5 .527 o.763 0.495 2.656 -I.279 -3.352 s.698 -r .643 2.988 4.L7? -1.50 3. O0 6 -976 3 .507 -2 .079 -6. 621 -5.559 -1.50 r .00 3.070 1.279 1. 044 3 .00 7.709 70.065 8.528 -2 .082 o. oo0 0.374 -1.081 -2 -543 10.o0 7 .L27 -2.633 7-709 -2.413 -3.A93 6.360 7 .126 10.534 -2.172 2-473 8.970 4.450 -4.4J6 3 -r75 9 .680 70.974 -5.27 2 -3.247 ).307 5.090 0.443 1.279 -0.492 12. 000 0.5?7 o.676 -3_316 75.427 15.166 2 . O70 1.776 8.133 6.158 -0.-L26 -0.696 -5. o0 5.00 6.645 -2.733 -1.302 -4.817 4 -A7 L -L .690 -2.698 4.390 -I.658 90.065 8.133 25.922 -O.00 o.699 r.o0 7 .484 6.00 7.400 7.190 Fl41 [l.473 6.343 5.891 6.62a -3.000 0.534 -3.302 -4.767 -2. 07s 50.663 -4.180 5.595 10.856 o.234 I .611 -4.254 -0.767 -4.64 3 2.507 -L.523 -3. o0 6.481 85. o0 5.571 2.25 1.296 -3.99 2 35.825 5.943 7 .211 -3 .Or2 -2 -992 l-o..454 3.367 0.985 IL.557 -3.844 -1.268 0.950 1.203 -4.681 2.00 2.O90 3.136 30.103 -5.000 0.494 -4.817 1.3AL -L .211 -3 .245 LO .502 3.103 -5 -753 40.671 B-747 -3.645 1.580 2.226 0.853 L . 265 9.000 0.534 l0.269 9.688 -6.o00 0.085 7 . 126 -O.698 4 -492 -3. r.237 5.o0 4.84 -2.718 -3.553 l-o0.362 7. oo o.254 3 . 8t. -O.175 10.OO 7.323 2.220 -4 .647 8.0t 2 -2 .786 s.645 -4.172 2.2l-3 1.390 -t.25 1.818 7 .963 3 .777 10.5I7 2.8 3B -2 .01-0 9.755 2.748 40.126 0.595 10.166 10.522 -2 .727 1.81-7 4.190 -o.67L -1.607 -4.704 2.090 9.305 -3.704 11.473 6.O44 3 .540 2.557 -3. o00 0.018 -1.268 75.098 -5.? 52 55.O44 3 .?5 1.645 -4.363 o .00 2 .996 LL. o0 o.250 I .O27 65. OO 6.597 6.375 1.440 -2 .7 42 3.720 -2.413 -3.440 -2.9A7 -5.896 -0.1.389 -2.259 4.573 -0.492 -3 .O69 -l-.000 Feb 94 0 015 canber 30A412 3 044 15 30A418 sta ord GA-4 upper lower upper Lower upper Iower o.72! 2.000 0. oo L.265 3 -269 9.25 2.000 0. o0 1.046 7 .296 a -477 -2.265 12.5L9 6.088 65.667 -5.886 9.105 95.949 -O.000 0.265 9.443 o.454 4.l_65 10.176 -4 .790 r.00 5.993 10.053 1. o00 o .607 -4. 512 -4 . 163 -2.367 0. OO 6 -240 3.090 2.570 3 .423 60.524 -2 .210 85.57r 2.679 -L .000 0. t 69 -1.445 95. O0 5.852 -3. L69 -0.597 6 -279 -3 .989 90.044 3.43L -3 .954 -0.1.984 -1.2L3 1.118 -2.899 -1.718 -3.651 11.853 L.544 5.698 -r.169 4.502 3 .810 o.090 o.008 1.776 8.993 10.259 8.200 3. O83 2.191 3.992 35.553 -4 .514 7. 060 9.352 5.Ot2 -5. S .50 5.767 -4.226 0.304 10.68O o.00 7 .r52 L. BB9 -3 .931 20.680 Lr.954 -O .363 1.931 20.152 L-374 -1.256 8.00 o.7 45 8.77 4 10.888 9.008 0. O08 1.42t rL.473 8.4 upper lower upper lower upper lower 0. O0 o.143 -0.570 3.158 0.256 8.527 0.234 8.800 2.927 9.069 -1.079 -6.5L9 6.679 -1.086 7 .1-33 25.3S4 11.00 3.077 -1.427 2.163 -2.172 -1. 651 11.790 L.103 -5. O57 -L.62r -5. O0 4-44J 0. 599 5. 615 -4 . OO 2 .856 o.000 o.896 -2.256 -3 .000 0.364 60.681 2.512 -4 .00 4.524 -2.LZ4 -2 .400 t.557 -2.436 45.43L -3.2I7 -1 .307 5-507 -2.323 2.75 1. OO 3.450 -4.977 -1.427 15.573 -2.422 -I. o00 0.000 0.655 3.838 -2.556 1.175 9 .000 o. 0I4 L .190 2 .943 7 .688 -6. o00 0.708 55.618 3.00 4.724 -4. 00 7 .O72 -2.4? 6 4 .652 -1.272 2.440 3. O0 3.000 3.203 -4 . 57 Feb 94 30-o15 carnber 30-412 30-415 3 0-418 Sta ord GA.261 12.50 3. oo 5. 268 0. o00 0.84 -2.397 -2 -7 63 80.000 0.B38 -1.452 6.O0 7.00 7.992 10.923 80.984 -1.537 -t.2 -L.5L7 2 .718 -3.082 o.847 100.014 2.000 0.937 9.000 6.380 -1.010 9.158 o.250 1.690 -2. o00 o.2t7 -1.727 2-I75 -O.00 6.50 L .449 45. O85 7 .180 5.971 -O .136 30.544 5.27 2 2.362 7 -50 5.O0 1.699 1I.680 o.8r-8 7.760 -2.000 0.296 8. o0 7. o0 5.000 0 .00 6.290 r.375 1. 558 -2.

49I 4 -699 -3.104 10.808 -L.50 |-527 o .173 20. 114 1.265 4.496 1.926 3.766 -3 . s99 40.978 1.163 -4.191 4.262 80.566 4.366 10.525 -3. oo o.281 -L -623 LL.410 9 .494 -2.00 7 .861 10.860 -2.638 -O-682 6.460 5.853 2.57 6 55.837 4.518 -0.254 4.606 -3.7az 5.7L4 100 .A37 4.031 -3.00 7 -L72 3 -372 9.00 5.440 4 .793 70. 803 4-235 -1.655 -4 .982 -2 .424 -!.120 6.984 -O.260 45.458 to.OO 3.00 5.345 rI.202 -4.898 11.00 o.973 6.A46 15.742 5.281 -2 -399 2 .734 -1. 406 -O -720 9.1 .110 -2 -366 10.000 4.035 -1.189 -2.749 -3.494 10.746 9-72A -2.536 2.106 -0 .399 2 .469 -2 . s40 -0.24'l 45.000 1. 082 -4 .936 2 .518 -1. oo0 0.t26 30.655 4.4!8 7 .370 -2. L.984 -O.190 Ftq fft -{.540 2.625 -L755 9.000 0.000 0.00 1.00 6.257 -4 .76r 9.608 -3.205 1't 'lq1 -1 R11 55.075 -1.410 9 -7 34 -O.75 l-.694 -5.884 11.145 5.837 10.163 -1 .O0 7.L47 -1.396 -3 .496 1.240 4.398 13.444 8.706 -O.800 11.00 7 .527 0.9A2 -2 -4L8 7 -O32 -3.158 -O.861 -5.L73 20.777 -0 .2 31 2.181 95.000 0.808 -L .800 11.502 4.015 1_.712 -2.991. O0 6.532 -O -576 6.323 4.641 12 .458 10.L79 9-L7L -O.419 -2.776 -1.2r3 -0.053 r.698 -5.691 7.853 ?.447 3.73L 9.776 -1.309 60.245 12.L74 6.443 1.00 3.494 10.605 -0.231 5.015 ). 765 -3 . 291.766 -3.145 5.000 o.447 -O.421 -2.470 -2.00 2 .860 -2 .110 -2.279 1.O32 -3 . LO7 L3. 2.441 2.580 2.1-89 -2. O0 7.594 40. ?50 60 .L56 LI.568 -0.682 85.190 -0. 158 o.906 50.472 7 -2tA -2.000 0.000 0.090 0.045 -2.000 0.259 -O .000 0.553 -!.698 8. O0 6 .166 7.877 -2.843 8.978 -5.323 4.a77 -2.447 3.26 -0.071 5.796 13.4'75 75.00 2.O39 -L.420 -1 .978 -5 -234 25.354 tr-72f -2 -ao7 13.111 13 .468 8.436 4 .106 -1.504 -0.339 7.953 85.819 3.667 -3.126 30.250 r.675 9 -202 -4. 00 4.-261 90.973 6.000 0.065 -2.655 -4 .982 4. O82 -4.565 2.000 Feb 94 0 015 camber 3 0A612 30A515 3 04618 sta ord GA-6 upper lower upper loerer upper lower o.087 11.991 2.000 0.202 -O.158 o.112 o .75 1.00 3.028 -2.501 9.L79 9.606 -3.00 0.894 -3 .194 2.O0 7.607 8.00 6.000 0.194 2.106 -4.898 35. ooo 0.704 3.207 L.637 -O.625 0 .898 35.566 L .00 1.207 r.518 10.512 1. 310 1.482 12 .000 0.00 7.760 I. 9.898 11.9L7 -1.525 -3. o0 3 .675 9.].453 2.053 -1.688 -3 .50 3.329 10.641 L2.00 6.420 -1.699 -3 .039 -t -625 o.50 3.474 5.566 -r-. oo0 0.914 11.504 8.270 -1.398 13.423 -0.435 7 -587 -O . 009 5.31-9 -O.O90 0.o00 o .769 -3.000 0.105 -1.925 3 .L47 -1.268 o.429 -1 . 841 95.190 3.? 34 -1.760 L.O6L lL.!72 3 -372 9.261 -1. 58 Feb 94 30-0ls camber 30-6r2 30-61s 30-518 sta Ord GA-6 upper fow€r upper lower upper lower o.659 7.106 -4.468 8.L78 6.541 5.845 15.976 4.634 -2 -764 70.000 o.936 2 .132 -O-774 1"o.329 1o.978 L. 598 -I -9I2 IO.oL2 11.297 5.00 r .000 0.567 8..25 1. O58 -2 -LO2 80. 605 -O.663 -2.234 25.00 6.391 -I.618 4. OO 5.646 -1.544 -3.196 0.777 3. 196 0.o0 4.00 5.982 4 .267 r -4L2 -O.518 -1. 281 -2 .031 -3 .8L0 0.000 0.079 4.601 -\.213 -3. 345 3.843 8.367 0.544 -3 .264 o.2L3 -3.320 2.202 -O.335 -1.755 3.763 0. .527 o.00 5.777 3. 504 8.502 4.844 8.045 -2. o0 5.457 2.176 -4.437 10.000 0.49L 4.474 5.681 2.00 o. r20 6.50 7 .427 3.856 o -29L r.592 90.008 o.704 -O. O0 4..565 2.367 0.801 -0. 009 7 . 12 6 0.813 10 .681 2.252 -4.261 -]-.000 0.23t 5.250 L.439 -O .104 10.320 2.335 -1.156 11.441 2.7 t7 8.00 7 .547 -1.420 100.302 -0 .424 -O.000 0.094 -1.620 1.523 75.00 2.453 2.00 4.290 L.50].112 o. 856 o .002 65.00 6. o0 7.50 5. o0 o.786 9 -724 -2.443 1.86L -5.278 -r.518 10. 391 -L.o0 7 .106 1 1.865 -J -a77 50.063 65.950 2 .295 -l-.513 -r.429 -1.506 L2.

512 -2.447 1.561 -t.875 0.774 -3.585 1.997 1.083 45.50 1.438 8.293 l_.00 0.581 2 .453 r-537 5. OO ) )qa o-595 2-397 -r.534 70.374 5.50 2.zAL -4.626 95.t24 4.00 3.189 4.O21 6.l-os 1_.532 75.456 1.814 1.53s 6.199 9.007 55.50 4.L29 9 .207 2. o00 0.558 -0.?O3 4.320 -1.486 -1.21 5 L -792 7.672 6.71_5 -3.143 -7 -O29 30.663 7 . o0 5.504 4.991 3 .600 3.72A -4.907 -1.O0 3.466 55.396 1.263 9 -237 -5 .923 -1.6 8. 558 60.496 t.7L5 3.969 20.396 1.420 6.665 1.29r 70.095 -3 -347 7.023 5.542 -2.363 -2.793 2.450 -6.oo0 o. 427 o.123 -2 -7 45 5.000 0.246 L.173 75.946 2.263 r.021 -2. 486 80.110 -2.657 3.574 I.90L 9 -762 -6. 066 -6 .279 1.038 -0 .933 5.609 -2.060 o.000 0.663 7 .204 0.75 1.72I r.067 -3.O32 7.1_86 -4 .087 1.o0 7.193 -3.6A2 5.538 -1.053 -3.198 4.875 8.524 -7. 1l.47L -3 -887 8.311 -6 -7 27 50 .764 7 .242 35.844 o -263 1. 151 -2.283 8.640 o.610 0.517 3 .760 -0.420 6.081 -5.640 0.00 o.5L3 -1.203 0.991.976 -1.75 I-462 0.663 7 .00 4 .248 -0.260 9.25A 40.25 1.606 -O.000 0.7 67 8 .648 o.119 0.435 1.11-5 r. 04 2 o.168 9. 3.150 -4 -366 10.398 -2.5I7 -1.958 5.619 L. t-o2 0.64r -1.799 7.060 0.2r2 2 -to7 -1.990 0.847 -L.00 o-300 0.973 15.000 0.273 9. r79 4.50 2.2 3542r5 3 542L8 sta ord GA-2 upper lower upper lower upper lower 0.6t4 5-274 -3.942 r . .319 -3.916 8.336 -5. oo0 o.892 4.558 -3 . oo o.0 -0.o38 trt6 IIf --7 .001 1.357 -4.447 65.991 2.339 -1.000 o.537 6.975 6.510 7 .244 9.772 o.000 0.000 0.565 -r.765 -1.448 0.039 -5.00 3.737 -4.468 1.541 0.00 4.000 0.IO7 90.204 -4.815 1 .0S6 -3.113 -5.866 50.560 -1.000 0.545 -2 -645 5.374 -5.387 L . O0 5.o0 7. O88 l-.935 -0.Otg -4.L29 3 .627 7 .250 -3.319 -1.7 52 80.162 100.307 10.00 7.702 -7 .672 6.023 5.886 20.025 o.989 I.189 4.852 0.000 Feb 94 63A015 caltrber 3 5A21.429 -4.060 -2 .450 2.732 -7 .000 0.OO7 -5.078 -4. 899 -2.7!5 9. OO2 -5.244 5.084 -5 -754 10.598 10.o79 -O.342 0. o0 ? -3A6 1.00 6.O47 -5. 026 -0. oo 5.00 1.1r.648 -5 .169 1.61-8 o -7L5 3.436 9.029 -2.103 -1. 534 10 . 698 4.032 0.498 -0. 59 Feb 94 63-015 Camber 35-212 35-215 35-218 Sta ord GA-2 upper l-ower upper .994 4.796 85. 000 0.00 7 -O9L 7 .760 -o.116 2.638 2 -t36 -O..734 -2 . O59 -4 .570 -4.780 7 .815 t-.737 7.722 a -622 -5.418 95.418 -O .606 10.230 -4 .000 0.979 85.032 -0.564 -3.72L 10.50 1.50 4.547 -3.950 2.198 o.198 35.828 -0.764 ? .974 7 .878 o .00 7 .7 63 LO -737 -7 -263 40.892 4.000 0.I71 r-374 5.00 5.820 r .055 3.935 -0.569 1.116 1.Iower upper lower 0.00 4.568 I . OO 6.731 0.000 0.450 2.994 -6.27 4 9.000 o.I42 4s. 990 0. 166 -5.078 -o. O43 15.631 -7 .764 6.110 -o.816 -O.991 o -793 3.000 o . oo 7.239 2 .000 0.OO 3. 657 -3 -279 6-551 -4.565 7.I4).600 -4 .00 2.403 6.475 0.363 -6 -523 25.6A9 -4.728 100.613 3.234 55.119 7 .OJg -4.094 9.763 -2.093 -3.I50 3.000 0.759 LO.693 1.2L4 7 -7AO -4.910 -3 .934 8.521 -5.3A5 5. -1.00 7.020 -3.6L7 -t.25 o.169 L -327 -0.254 90..25 o.579 0.00 7 -O99 t -?92 7. o0 0.31-0 o.244 6.633 -2.582 -4.568 -7.980 9.I24 -O.992 60. oo 6.846 1.420 o-970 -o.444 -t.421 1.903 5 -O57 -3.255 -4 .423 10 . o0 0.780 7.233 -5.891 -5.638 3 .655 10.078 -0.934 1.333 -2.734 -4.055 1.615 2.595 1.500 r-737 ? . o32 o .438 -0.998 -3.7 40 5-468 -3 .089 -5.00 6 .990 -3.00 0.000 0. O0 5.?84 -2.215 -5.000 0.297 -2.643 -7.434 -2.L6? a -7L2 -5.742 -3.738 -L.329 o.000 0. o0 6. O0 5 .425 6.490 6.011 r .384 1.457 -5.420 10.00 7.650 5.186 -1 .00 3.722 -2 .908 -1.328 o.952 30. 336 -1.382 -2.00 6.2IO -1.00 2.00 I -5!2 o.452 -6 -6t2 25.858 r.198 0.476 -1.

834 -2 .032 -0. t 53 -2 -743 7 .947 5.424 5.668 -2 .519 -2.842 L.709 6.f64 7.875 o.63L -3.?54 -4.344 2.491 L.000 Feb 96 63A015 camber 3 5A312 3 5A315 35A318 sta ord GA.682 -6.324 -1.7L2 -2.153 -1.720 7 .404 4.895 -1..722 -4.645 100.00 5.376 -4.000 0.226 8.082 -O .595 5.000 o.00 2 .00 6. OO 6 ..724 -!.852 0.565 35.026 -0.00 4 -997 1.333 -2. 038 Fta fr.820 2-17A 6.00 5.041 0.296 60.499 55.588 3.729 -5.852 3.692 -1.324 -4.806 65.548 2.1"64 -4. O06 90.000 1.759 -6 .619 1..25 l-.275 L.500 -3.496 2 .985 25. O11 1. 543 9 .00 7.543 8 . 118 4.526 7 .896 -5.844 4.462 5.000 0.725 3.881 -3.683 6.985 -2. 290 1 . O85 -2.448 -1.938 2 .?45 -6.924 -1.346 2 .478 -2 .579 0.901 -5.00 3.958 7 .203 0. 911 11.41. 000 0.J23 -1.452 -6.466 85.7 42 8.398 45.437 -3.698 2.00 5.038 -0 .918 10.499 7. o0 5.478 7.. s4t 0.076 -0.649 85.424 9.858 4.277 -3 .942 1-.155 -4.173 t.545 -1.00 1. o00 0.648 0.947 9.618 -r.584 -0.000 0.427 l.3A4 -O.475 o.252 95.194 -3.a3L -2.300 0.340 a -247 -3.337 4.390 2.813 -5.O42 4.00 6.091 4. 3 upper lower upper lower upper lower o.053 -0 .000 o. o0 o.683 6.000 o.433 -3.497 -5. 348 5.3LO r-r23 ?.00 3.115 50.685 5.281 0.545 -0. 413 30.938 -O.396 8. o32 o.500 -2.074 25.430 -4.637 0.249 5.026 0.r73 7.25 1.083 -0.O0 7.515 -L -270 4.953 -5.584 1.42r 2. o00 o.521 0.637 0.140 10.L55 2-L73 7 .O74 -0.OO 7 .275 4.610 0.390 -3.538 40. O0 5.476 -3 -7 40 9.843 L.642 9 -L62 -4.766 5.25 0.562 L.O99 2 .332 -3 .976 50.662 7 .000 0.40r -4.588 -1.00 L.448 o.763 -O .032 0.r9r 7 .50 4.567 9.500 2. oo 7 .556 11.597 9.264 -4.457 -6.347 2.230 -3.910 -4.000 0. 201 -6.259 8.660 -2.) 1 C 35-318 Sta ord GA-3 upper logrer upper lower upper lower 0.843 2. 368 7 .843 2.569 2.4 -0.693 1.253 -3.990 -6.565 -1.462 0.LL9 -1. g .446 -6.324 o -75 1.409 3.950 2.625 -4.50 L .33r -4.959 3.136 9.433 -t.7 5.677 75. o00 0.073 80.642 -4.200 2. o0 0.119 1.694 -4 -328 8.99A -3 .000 0.120 1.457 8.366 65.2L5 2 .472 -3 .490 7 .081 Lr.325 o.632 5.108 2.00 7.043 rL.72I L.76r -5.73L 1.641 -0. 315 -3 .000 o.468 1. 000 0.340 -1.292 r.987 o.563 -l-.492 -3.O9r 2.275 I.036 75.00 0.457 8.000 0.079 3.00 6. oo 0.204 o.698 -4.987 o.339 80.281 0.201. 113 -O.00 7 .435 2 .120 1.500 2.595 -2.454 -3 .00 6.563 3 .359 IO.97L -O.404 3.991 1.25 o.l-13 -0. -6-52I 35.878 o .518 a.545 -3.000 o. O0 4.947 6.715 5.772 0.957 -5.568 1.618 o .685 4.50 2.777 -r.044 t-1.661 9 .452 f -746 -2.170 L-328 -0.934 1. 00 0.812 1 .000 0.551 9. o0 7 .071 7 .859 90.663 6.229 9.530 20.500 9.889 6.126 7.858 2 .26I 70.L66 .524 8.750 -1.055 1.651 -4.?5 L.846 -3.066 4. O0 3.460 95.123 3 .170 1.335 5-379 -2.110 3.120 1.7I4 70.r47 -2. OO 0.457 -3 .524 8.382 1. 581 E 1 'r A -1 1.770 -2.A97 -3.543 a.77 4 7 .958 7 . 60 Feb 96 63-01-5 camber 35.9A2 10.796 5.252 0.357 -4..000 o.00 o.50 4 .207 -o. o32 -5.084 1.000 0.t.632 -2.264 6.O47 -3 .812 r.830 6. o00 0. oo 2.988 1. o0 5.73L 55.063 o.470 -2.254 -2.00 7 .938 -O.523 -1 .447 20.540 -2. O62 -5. o0 6.665 t aao ?.50 2.079 -2. 540 9.603 2-529 -L.336 30.959 -4 .385 9.227 2.376 -I .039 11.632 -r .259 -1.114 -r.222 -3.187 3 .000 0.019 l-0.672 11. 019 0.27a 1.340 a.50 r .I20 -3.500 2.581 -O . 3 t2 16_.406 -3.562 )-.339 45.462 11 .772 -0.962 60.612 -3.735 9. o0 7 . 000 0.L94 l-0.908 -1.755 -4.624 -2.00 7.3L2 -3.000 0. 079 100 .899 -O -337 1.66L 15.083 1.309 6.A33 9.063 o -763 -O .095 -1 .512 o .453 2-r78 6.335 5.543 40.554 -r.00 3. 110 -2.724 -5. 387 -6.979 ? .118 4.o0 4.73r 15.832 -L.899 -1 .577 -4.244 -0.389 -1 . lo .r44 7 . o0 3. O0 2 .

856 4.00 5.269 9.400 7 .372 -0.00 7 .997 I-597 5.754 6.000 0.108 3 .702 -2 .500 -?.785 2 -54r -L . .065 8.453 2.090 2.956 1.968 -1.394 -4.467 -4.152 r.323 r.32L L2. 968 0.344 3. o0 5.408 0.2L7 .996 55.098 9.296 9.299 -5.44? 6. 395 -3.930 2 .448 0.0.91 5 -5 .00 0.00 0.322 LO -729 -4.560 -r.383 -0.822 9 -O92 -4.032 o.925 9.000 u-z> 0.051 1. o0 6.293 o.00 7 .394 6. 896 35.661 -r -235 1. OO 7.r23 0.362 -5.556 -2.793 L -I32 -0.818 7.000 Feb 94 6 3A015 camber 35A412 35A4L5 3 5A418 Sta ord GA-4 upper lower upper lower upper loster 0. 814 -5 .679 10.213 1.476 10.068 -2.641 -2.600 60.914 6.563 100.802 -4.00 7.870 -5.166 -4.449 -2.191 -5.689 -3 .25 1.409 1.675 -4.504 -5.L32 -5.000 o.422 10. 61 Peb 94 63-015 Canber 35.431 tr.544 a.951 -L.50 r .948 9.00 3.562 5.577 -1.640 10.O43 10.894 L0.363 o.00 2.555 2.711 3 -342 -I -L62 3.000 o-oo0 0.323 ).416 -5.469 15.519 6.003 1 00.512 o. ooo 0. L99 5.474 -1.511 -3.3A7 3.L73 2.174 -2.166 65.468 2.7 49 -O. oo 6.055 r .764 55.00 0.000 o.o0 r .307 4.524 L .889 -1.120 6.20L -1.052 t.226 -1 .323 -O .085 6.61S 0.180 5.968 0.-2 .355 -1.?93 -1 .525 5.858 3 .603 0.2L6 -5.579 -0.3r2 -0.8L2 -2 .865 -r.000 0.rer 0.181 75-00 L . o0 4.1 0.t-55 2.427 1.000 0.258 7.00 5.254 1.924 4 .518 3 .50 1.290 -0.458 7 -663 -4.588 -2 -644 --r 1_rl 7 .00 1. O45 t.597 5.693 2-473 7.146 10.827 -2.894 -2.991 I.451 2.847 -0.000 0.957 -O.878 o .. oo 0.379 L1.42r 3.010 8.00 o -772 0.269 9.597 -L .445 -r -537 5.727 1.619 2.25 0.006 10.936 -1.394 3 -764 -0.l-15 -0. 348 -3 .135 85.803 l.a26 -L -I?9 2.296 95.000 0.624 rL.092 -3 .00 7 -2L5 3 .307 4.548 -1.594 -4.939 4.302 -0.759 90.3 94 -4 .000 0.399 15.t.734 -3.L7L -2.346 3 .725 65.50 2.61"9 -4.931 -4.654 8.519 6. L42 2 -63r -0 . 6L0 o.948 4.595 -L.981 -O . 362 50.470 25. ooo 0. ooo 0. o00 0.9L7 -2 .431 -4.755 -1 .946 -2.496 3.L66 12.936 -0.L19 7 .618 0.235 5.727 -3.723 a. oo0 0.OO 5.776 8.27L -2.o97 -3.844 0.000 0.167 -L.220 10.L73 -3 .294 -2 .565 -3 -952 10.00 6.811 1.175 9.644 0.00 7.000 o .435 3 .723 0.852 o.318 85.296 a.00 6.00 0.146 70.901 -2.082 o.21-3 .689 70.678 4.00 7 .202 8.412 35-415 35-418 sta Ord GA-4 upper lower upper lower upper ]ov.O40 3. O10 8.875 0.76A -2.848 -2.926 80.570 2.363 0.665 -2.733 30.665 3 -234 8.204 o -152 l-.t70 -5.114 -L.72r 2.493 3.075 6.799 -r -I52 2.7a2 -0.657 -1.25 1.362 -3.720 -2.839 -2.957 -O.644 -2 -248 7 .810 30.727 1.454 3.542 -3.00 3 .O0 1.942 2.934 2-180 5.500 3-1-75 9.875 0.032 -0.820 2. 595 -2.473 7.00 0.300 0.223 50.000 0.664 8.203 0.026 -0.002 9.249 1. O65 7.00 2 .011 2.618 o.652 -3 .954 -5.619 7 -692 -2.128 20.825 r.892 -0.8a9 2.660 80.782 -0.8L8 7.411 11. O0 6.618 -2.344 .00 4 .945 1.286 -5.496 9.O9'1.452 -3.038 -0.594 -3 . 168 5.579 0.612 90.1 .090 2.II7 L2.638 -3.65s -4.296 -L.851 35.265 60.232 -4.678 5.00 6 .000 0. 086 6.000 0.95L -r -8?2 9.374 11.658 -1. O45 20. 1.975 -2.O99 J .082 o.184 -3.2.464 -4.315 11. oo0 0.00 3.310 l--454 3.541 L .663 0..L75 -2.r7a -2 .oo0 0.407 7 .4t7 4.856 9 .838 8.063 o. oo 7.00 3.302 5.038 Fh ltr-c .043 -2.970 3.653 45.541.000 0.sZL 2-536 -1.559 25. 181 -L.028 -3.54L 75.811 l-.927 10.8I7 4.00 7 .234 8.802 -1 .045 9.940 -O.325 12-1_75 -5.r32 -0.575 -r.00 5.149 -2 -OO9 3 . 825 40.635 9.50 4.240 -2.919 11.594 45.180 -2.75 L -462 0.00 6.400 6.842 9. 970 3 .899 -3.292 o-75 L.032 o.088 95.252 10.327 -o.704 -4.793 ].776 8.633 -1.50 1.570 2. 356 -l-.483 2-239 -0.00 7.00 4.135 -0.114 -O.026 0.967 6.42L 40.125 r.671 -4.

329 -4. o0 o.2A6 20.942 2 .176 -1.496 o -736 0.855 -3.000 0.57t 4.94L -2 .411 -O -997 r.380 -4.499 -0.991 -3.20r -0.608 -1.742 -o.11-4 -O.7 2L L3.829 -3.458 10 .375 -0.209 -2.509 -3.372 8.410 9 .00 2 .803 11.573 -0. 065 -O.44r -1.653 -1.I52 -4.411 4 -973 -1.219 2.858 4.666 40.878 0.329 -L-67L 11.435 7.203 o .246 3.061 2.607 85.141 65.99L 1.265 80.112 0.73L 2.000 0.7a6 -3.00 6.329 10.52L 2.000 0.867 r.724 6.00 5.813 2.311 3.000 o.50 8.382 t -742 5.619 8.174 -3.701 -3 .738 9.135 100.973 6.500 4.404 -4 . S20 7 -r75 -2.134 4.996 1.00 7.000 0.000 0.593 -2.929 11.665 -3.843 -3. 326 -1 .2L7 -L.756 1. oo0 0.256 o-796 0.ber 35-6t2 35 -615 35-618 Sta ord GA-6 upper Iower upper lower upper Iower 0.997 2.50 o.651 -L.104 10.342 8.410 9.923 9 .247 1t-.305 12.O1-3 -4-O25 50.463 -0.00 2 .59A -1.909 -2.000 o.50 2.355 2. 00 6. oo 5 .O0 7.00 7 . o0 o.865 -1.496 1.739 -O -765 4 .00 7.943 -1.000 o.843 8.435 7.844 o.268 -2 .r20 -0.oo0 0 .4LO -O.720 A -254 3 .104 10.A40 -L .026 -0.389 75.162 -0.233 -2.494 10. O0 1.00 6.726 -L.244 -3.057 -4.965 -4.507 6.268 -O .169 -O -755 1 .108 4.50 1. oo 5.315 3.to .877 15.252 L .618 1.485 60.571_ 25.00 7 .335 -2.695 -1.790 85.887 LO. O09 5. 328 4.000 o.601 7.369 L2.295 5.64 -2.875 0.171 13.22L -r .600 ? .321 11 .O9r 3.054 3.955 -1.519 9. 196 o.448 o. o00 0.L67 10.965 8.075 -2.961 7 .973 -O.495 8.896 -r -076 LL.000 0.347 4.2s3 6.362 90.987 -O.000 0.757 35.29I I.237 o -75 1.034 2.3L7 13.1.3rA r-942 3.J.300 0.643 -2.709 -2 .00 4 .640 -3. OO 7 -O99 4 .875 0.00 2 .588 0.931 10-566 -2 -204 11.449 -O.288 -r.o0 7.447 2.00 4.488 -3 .403 2.O45 -1.763 1.468 2.?r2 -O .938 o.017 5.427 t.255 12.588 o.286 9.571 -I .27 6 t.928 13..00 6. 588 55.215 90.00 o.372 -4.746 9.459 -1.879 1.820 3.844 -2.667 -L.833 3 .547 -0.323 4 -24L -1 .812 -0.319 -1 .00 4.139 2.777 2.00 75.292 -0.830 0.673 0.315 -4.746 9.999 80.7 53 -1.A27 -3 . 280 t2.503 -O.346 4.801 35.938 10. o00 0.938 I -204 o .098 9.843 0.461 -0.119 2-478 4.610 o -777 5.663 -L.367 -1.L79 9.991 2.75 r-462 I-.00 o.866 7.000 o.o0 5.031 95.51O -1.055 4.982 4.289 -0.916 -L.209 -1.356 -1 .648 L.7 48 70.O29 -r.856 0.032 -0.772 2 .852 0.934 2.812 -O.164 50.266 -L.028 -0.r79 9.641 6.041 -1.458 10.453 3.723 30.694 -l . O0 o.530 7.97? LO.610 10.278 L1.000 0.4 .441 t-. 802 3 -A72 -2 .597 -0.652 -1.00 7 .844 7.038 Frt:l GL.032 0. 026 0.81.447 1..825 -3.422 -0.000 0.r22 1. o0 4 .437 2.435 4.112 0.494 LO. o00 o .739 -r.336 -0.843 L205 -0.00 0.162 -O. O0 6 .329 10. 170 -o. O0 3.772 0.15L 60.773 70.3A7 -1.464 45.011 2.525 -3.888 10. 055 -1.323 4.344 4.B77 -3.285 -1. 668 11.00 5.833 r.321 -4.70? to.171 2.189 -1.7a2 5 -324 -L.009 -4.L55 3.942 10 .185 11.754 -0.496 4 .907 -O.o40 -3 -476 10.238 o. 038 -o.447 3 -289 -0.207 t-.174 6. OO 3.000 0.00 4.818 l-5 . 000 0.605 13.922 11.309 1.00 6.296 -1.00 3.167 13 -324 -4.055 2.207 1 .805 -O-823 95.987 -O -763 L.9 a.67r 40.595 4.L74 6. 318 5.295 -4.9?4 .408 -3 .44r 1.2a7 -\.25 1.000 JUI 94 63A015 camber 3 5461 2 354615 35A618 Sta ord GA-6 upper lower upper l-oeter upper lower 0.405 45.844 7 . 660 25. 62 JUI 94 63-015 cam.430 100 .222 -1.97L -2.325 5.00 6.665 4.813 9.72L 3. O0 3.L57 2.178 6.703 8.r73 -1.760 6.011 -1.032 o.941 -3.910 a.693 3.973 6.541 I . o0 0.019 7 .490 11 001 -1 01t 13.L73 3.448 12.100 -2 .387 -2 -707 65.800 30.451 11.50 4.230 3.654 -I .156 -1.369 20. o0 0.000 0.463 L.OL3 -0.000 0.478 5.820 55.645 7 -O94 -3. 406 -1.991 L. 000 0.

196 -6 .446 -7 .764 7 .193 0.756 100.348 5.000 0.597 r.81-9 6.29I 4.685 -3.2 upper Iorter upper lower upper lower 0.331 75.070 -0.480 1 .77 6 6.793 2.723 -4.838 -2.00 5.859 -2.408 55.219 -5.316 o-75 1.380 -2-190 90..67 9 3.830 -3.000 0.244 5.996 L. o0 6.764 7 .263 1.450 2.488 4.868 -6.780 7 .281 -5 .542 6.436 0.50 1.937 7. 984 8.1-88 45.456 0.925 -0.2r7 100.793 3.L32 -3.886 -3. o0 7.101 5.473 -l .613 -O.461.270 1.265 -L . 5.O23 4.475 -O.579 2.475 6.116 1.032 0.148 0.915 2.574 -5.00 7 -224 r.r22 -5.915 -0.950 o.982 -s.189 2-O78 -1 .202 o .595 2.341.oo 4 .o0 6.185 3.742 -5 .19r -5 .759 -2.452 -r.483 -5 .t 62 2.528 0.033 -2.324 -L .334 o.O79 o.169 1.7 44 95. O0 3 .9L6 -r.. r92 8.411 6.067 4-r92 -2 -762 4.2r9 -2.138 -6.455 -1. 038 -o.267 r -492 -r.263 1 .196 l"0.877 -2.634 20.799 1.536 -O.542 -5.492 4-254 -2.49L 5-7a9 -3. o00 0. 71.980 t.752 -O.000 0.00 4 .605 -L.726 10.247 -2.980 -4.81.847 0.718 7 -443 -5.642 -4.632 o. o0 1.000 0. o00 0.189 -4.999 70.865 0.805 1.544 -0.749 4.A97 -2.770 -4.113 1.000 o .249 9.186 -5.572 2.834 -0.000 0.00 6 .672 6.707 10.764 7 .556 2-958 -2.754 30.810 r.584 5.046 9.266 -L.058 9.604 -3.032 o.00 7.610 55.842 t-.558 -3.?a4 -2. 016 -5.105 -L.663 7.O47 4.000 0.946 -2.116 1. 63 Feb 94 64-01-5 camber 37 -2I2 37 -215 Jt-zL6 sta ord cA.000 0.150 10.620 ! . O92 1.61. O94 -3 .396 I.554 1.521 10 .023 4.O29 -4.50 2.991 4.747 -4.318 -0 .00 4.038 Ftq ][-rr .8 a. 518 -2.9a7 9 .000 0.47 4 95.00 0.542 8.492 4. 7 .000 Feb 94 644015 carnber 37 A2L2 37 A2J.031 8.933 -5.936 -6.153 8.862 -2 -8L6 5. q08 85. .554 1.75 1.000 0.833 -4.736 15.956 r.198 9 -253 -5.r73 85-00 I .313 L.745 L -244 5.342 6.500 70. f56 25.81s 0.7 47 75 -OO 3 .926 L .00 6.267 -5.646 4.21_O 9.707 -4.000 0.000 0.780 7 .518 -4 .477 0.625 80.974 0.77L -1 .764 -7 . O0 6 .5 37 A2rA sta Ord GA-2 upper lower upper lower upper lower o. O0 5.00 5 .082 2. o0 0.o0 6.693 -7 .523 -2.685 -3.000 0 .497 -2.432 10.787 15.557 7 -r45 -4.272 -1.00 0.607 -r.00 0.50 4 .2L4 r0.302 -2.795 0.233 9.0 65.189 4.698 20.026 0.693 LO.67 4 3.156 -0. o00 0.447 1.5r7 r.744 -O -624 0. .50 4.L?A -6.557 7.000 0.7 47 2. 346 o.2lL 2. -6.198 0.976 -4.472 -I.47 9 -4.290 -2.550 5.984 50.384 7 .25 0.00 6 .717 7 .594 9.865 -3.45].745 10.887 -3 .470 5.672 6.198 o.228 7.248 -4.6?7 0.098 -O.548 -1 . O0 7.098 -3 .302 -3.422 -3 .058 3.25 L.7 37 7 .62A -1.795 1.742 -4.607 t 0.311 !.715 -7 -241 40.684 -5.477 50.374 5.00 4.450 2.00 1.6s6 10.792 7 .000 0.000 0.825 30.032 -o.086 -0.504 0 .208 0.607 -3 .346 -3.262 2.428 9 -939 -6.305 4.920 -3.069 -2.625 -l .169 1. o26 -o.537 6.420 6.838 1.334 -0.916 -L.558 o.I20 35.845 9.364 1. o0 0. s0 2 . 71s -1 .52I 7 .082 -0.737 -L.00 I .895 L-3?4 5.296 0. o0 4.204 45.438 0.850 t -954 -1.842 o .600 1.31-O 5.463 L .OO 3 .00 o.000 0.4A4 -2. 369 9.492 -6.346 -0.856 5.900 -5.083 8.44r -1. oo0 o.4L7 90.000 0.288 25.266 L.105 -5.792 7.396 1.O74 3 .2L2 -3.482 1.934 -4.508 0.00 o.148 60.965 0. o0 3.684 8.985 r . 189 4-479 -2.L57 -4.500 5.000 0.387 -7 -O6L 35.000 o.934 -4 .457 7.420 6.00 0.991 3. 552 2. o0 5.924 6.974 t.060 o.578 r .5 3 .57L -3.959 7 .060 o.490 7.00 7.r25 -3 .715 3. 568 -6.758 -4.00 7.50 1.287 1.726 3.54L 8.207 65.060 9.74A -7.855 0.993 -O.8s0 L.709 -4.97A -2.494 -2.937 -O .2r9 40.L52 -O.566 -1.A72 -3.25 0.00 7 .493 -4.240 o .4L9 8.595 r.642 -0.00 2 -32r 0.269 -3..42J L .3t9 l.964 80.00 2-472 o. 200 -5.947 2.537 6.847 60.309 -L -O77 1.460 -2. O03 9. O88 4.00 6.663 7 .260 -r .

000 0.513 9.o0 0.558 o -562 1.922 -4..939 -5.195 -3. O2a 3.00 6.086 -o.534 5.524 8. L60 -3 .578 95-O0 0.25 0.251 -2.75 1.00 6.456 0.134 100.963 0. O0 6 .732 1.551- 80.975 0.887 -5.846 8.330 o.25 0. O84 1.949 9.997 -4.818 25.464 7 .500 2.452 50.011 -4.423 1.875 55. t.463 2-457 a -427 -3. o32 0.873 -5.180 8.502 -3.123 -6.542 -2.5 .269 -2 . o0 5.206 -3.62L -3. 506 3.335 5. O0 3.028 -2 .504 0.510 5.747 -0. o00 0.309 -4.322 -3.930 l-1. o0 1.515 9.1 70 1.118 4.311 -2.041 -L.O83 9.158 -4.?75 r.444 45-00 7 .834 1.674 -2. o0 0.096 -3.123 3.235 -O -673 100 .645 8.454 9.07 4 -0.319 -6 .170 1.442 o.975 -1.000 0.34 -3. o00 0.024 -3 .915 7 .320 -3. 384 35.25 t .677 0.979 11.605 5 -79A -2.442 t-.368 7. 996 2.570 -1.1.00 6.600 1.683 6.198 1. 365 -1 .063 o.606 -r.930 4.510 -2.566 65.508 0.O0 7.312 0.00 o.885 -4. o0 2.442 a.552 -1.212 80.522 9.207 -1.666 -5.00 7.208 0.935 2.00 I . 03I Fta fl.57A 85.499 2.795 0.479 10.151 60.164 -!.00 7 .956 2-778 6.000 0.625 -l-.000 0.9 47 -2.684 2 .233 4. 50? 7 .79A -3 .055 0.671 -5 .835 75 -OO 3.209 30.3 upper lower upper Iower upper lower o.244 5.514 r.499 7 .3 upper lower upper lower upper I o$ter 0.320 7 .9r7 -0.415 9.958 7 .00 tr.240 1. 558 0.].50 2.032 -0.199 2.846 L. 540 2. L26 50.205 -3.945 7 .949 II .20 -0 .443 35.266 1.942 90.38L -2 .113 1.000 0.01 -o. oo0 0.057 -3.138 30.212 -6 .364 8. o0 6.L73 7 . O88 1.134 -3.026 -0.000 0.524 8.L73 7 -7 6L -3.555 -6.281 0 .50 2 .00 5. o0 0. 355 1.4A2 2.281 o.329 -2.000 0.r17 -L567 2.447 2 .562 I.460 45-O0 7 .00 5.196 -2.620 2.296 r-404 4 . 81.285 -2.32L o.089 -O.t? . o0 5.432 -1 .233 50.508 -6.322 -0.810 2.799 r. o00 o.926 2.961 4.778 9.436 0.453 -1.000 0. O89 -1.928 -0.313 -1-073 1.621 o.202 1.120 l-.50 4 .381 -4.659 -4.843 2-700 -1 .474 3.359 -2.426 70.865 0.393 -3. OO 7 . 64 Feb 96 64-015 camber 37 -3L2 37-315 37-318 Sta ord GA.985 2.ras -0.727 -r.000 0 .274 5. 308 95.785 1.995 6.5 o.683 6.193 o.00 4 .749 -1.00 3 .75 1.484 -6.000 o .634 -3.118 4 . OO 3 .032 o.51-0 -2.004 o.438 -4.94? 5.099 -4.049 8.335 5.AL2 10.318 7 .477 o.251 75.1.000 0.577 1.101 -A.625 s.120 L.L78 6. 504 6.000 o.895 r .852 3 .943 -2.834 2.918 -o.978 2-499 8.368 9.903 2. O0 4.311 10.958 7.465 9.824 -2.856 -4. O84 6.25 1 .855 -1.O94 -4. O0 5.652 5.702 -O.286 L9L7 -L . o26 0.4A5 -l-. 156 -3 .1.480 -2 .476 9.539 6.499 40.368 7.358 -3 .944 7 .995 1.081 -3.596 -0.500 2.767 -4 .356 -2.480 1.753 10.903 7 -4L5 -4.534 -2 .714 -3.863 -1.655 -1.45? 8.L77 2.543 a.00 4.88 -5..969 65.477 -4.587 8.750 25.472 1.629 0.404 4 -442 -L .770 11.209 -2.00 2.802 1.A2L -3.892 5.353 7.920 -5.r45 -4.561 -5.924 10. ooo o.50 4 . O08 3.843 85. 492 -6 .50 1.063 o.349 4.o0 4 .3L3 2 .521 40. o0 3.335 -0.000 0.855 3. ltrt) 2.275 L.808 -0.L42 -3 -226 8.000 0. o0 4.855 o.634 -1.00 o.514 -3.792 1.625 -5 -259 20.628 -I .524 o.950 o.319 -O -979 1.270 2 -340 8.506 -1 . 529 9.388 L.31-1 L -947 6.893 -1.465 10. O08 -2.435 -6.46A -4.L49 10. o00 0.076 -0.67 4 5.42A 6.014 3.lO2 8.l-74 -2 . 681 r1_.443 -3 .413 -6. o0 0.oo 2 .L77 -3 .543 8.000 0.443 6.685 4. 038 -o.959 6 -442 -2. 346 0.344 4.700 -1.424 r. O0 6 .020 -3.590 -1. o0 6.090 -1 .927 70.553 L .000 0 . o00 0.025 1l-.I22 6.852 3.5L7 2.169 90.970 10.595 -1.755 -O.67 3 55.522 -r -522 3.3L9 2.685 5. o00 feb 96 644015 Carnber 37 A3L2 37A315 3 7A3 18 sta ord GA.963 1.054 -6. 195 20.520 -O.898 9.224 2 .734 -5.475 15.o0 7 .A47 1".325 -4.843 2.324 -1.123 3.006 11.50 1.307 9.512 -0.302 7 -25a -3.6?7 -O.951 4.236 9.320 -4 .510 -4.340 8.000 0.

A47 1. O0 7 .937 -1.854 70.75 1.816 -2 .773 35-OO 7 .826 -2.237 -5.00 6.356 -4.818 7.25 1 . 309 LI .3r3 3 .677 1.055 5. o0 o.065 a.013 4.817 4.201 10.143 95.240 L.792 -5.473 7.000 o .842 t.951.970 3 .603 -2 .885 -4 .37 3 50.354 -2.947 -0.793 20.773 1.103 -O -922 90.562 -3.270 3. 811 4. o0 0. 000 0.699 -2.76r -4.L53 -5.249 -5 .501 -1.000 0.775 -1.106 -0.000 Feb 94 6 4A015 Camber 37 A4L2 3 74415 37A418 sta ord GA-4 upper lower upper Iower upper lower 0.397 7.OO 7 .130 -5. 026 -o.000 0.504 0.646 8.065 a.695 90.587 3.950 o -727 L.570 2 .165 -1. 435 -L.231 3.815 L.43'7 3 .4r5 37 .O0 7.311 2 .766 -O.810 3 .926 65.965 -4 -329 65.303 25.248 -2.078 -t-.842 o.000 0.269 9.000 0.138 9.o0 4.767 -0.314 -L674 8.000 0.47r -1.52e 0.000 0.766 3.393 -3.780 -2. 1.4A7 -0.242 5.473 -7 .895 6.224 3. o0 4.?96 9.O75 -2.432 1.000 0.855 0.010 s.251.610 o .000 o.000 o.5L9 6.202 7 .082 o.8 7.4!4 -2 .264 5.752 .583 -t-.00 5.2r4 10.999 -O .01-8 4.152 1.454 3 .088 *s. 2.158 -O .926 -1.212 -3 .456 1.00 o.67r -2 .583 -!.27 3 1.953 -4.294 o.oo 7 .25 1.896 -3.098 -1.l.00 6.A46 10.235 7 -50 4 .4O2 9.234 8.00 6 -926 2.038 -o. 81.811 10.2IA L?.601 -r .025 0.630 5.223 1.677 -O .856 20.447 -2.s35 30.090 2.254 -5.00 6. O0 6 .317 -2 -7 64 9.000 0.000 0. 395 -3 .887 2.118 -0.795 0.699 9.519 5.202 1.180 5.608 -5.756 .92L -1.432 -O.7 5 9. o38 Flq -S-r3 .2J4 8.833 4.017 L2.00 I .734 -5.323 !.00 0.709 to.175 9.084 I .50 2.558 o.010 8.1L3 -L. OO 5 -732 2.3r9 3.820 5.180 5.259 -2 .57 6 -r .436 -2.213 !.138 -L .799 80.974 3. 000 0. o0 5.1 80 -5.860 -1 .120 -0.280 -4 .727 1.534 -1.243 1.948 9.938 3 .00 2-32r 1.76A -1.950 10. o0 3 . 1s8 -5.o77 -l-. O0 5.090 2 -947 -A.260 rI.4 .363 o. oo 7. o0 6-423 2.00 4.453 J .110 6.500 6.087 o.155 -2 -24'l 85.00 4.831 2.7 44 11.797 -1.00 o.895 2.480 50.160 -2. 938 55.492 2.452 10.344 10.245 7 .591 100.815 t.476 -1 .944 0.730 7 . 513 85.]-62 15.772 -2.?74 -O.796 1o.609 -4 .742 -4.855 2 .702 -4.582 -3 .223 L.799 1 .487 3 .349 -3.27a -2 .555 10.00 7 -473 3 .7 20 10.606 30.032 0. 360 -1.000 0.7L4 -2.00 3-477 o.464 5.086 6.781 10.082 o. 584 -4 . 1.420 7 -700 -3.961 -1".592 -1.570 2.413 95. L49 9.669 -L . 500 7.113 2.032 -0.933 7.085 6.293 -1.867 -O.865 -?. 895 -L.956 0.434 -?.307 4.817 4 .235 25.937 -O.947 8.150 11.40A -4 .396 -3.00 1.597 s.204 12.000 o .455 60.280 o.454 3.865 0.4L8 sta ord GA-4 upper lower upper Iower upper lower 0.507 5.355 70.620 2 . L93 0.736 10.00 3.00 5.085 5.479 5. o0 5.209 11 .317 -0.649 -L.517 3.520 -3 -924 11.00 7 . 509 -2.534 5 -175 -3.000 0 .363 0. o44 -3 .50 4 .000 0. O52 100.346 0.6Lr -2 -666 8.412 3? .152 1.00 0.792 8.985 2.420 -1 .534 1.709 0.000 o.783 l-.597 5.956 2.208 0.596 -1.50 1.25 o.970 3.57 6 11.804 40.47 4 -2 .774 -3 .140 55.6A2 -2 . o17 o -779 -O.935 r.266 3.o00 0. 438 -2.519 2.00 3.129 2.444 10.602 o. L50 2.028 -4.803 1.00 o.406 -4 .296 1.007 10.50 2 .138 80.440 5.453 3.933 6 .964 -4.362 -0.00 6.500 2.307 L2.000 0.538 -1.030 6.041 1.8r2 9.033 L.698 45.715 45. 65 Feb 94 64-01-5 canber 37 .108 -0.143 -3 .557 -4.657 -2 .482 3.668 -2.50 1.032 0.773 -1.776 8.785 2.638 -4. oo0 0.O7L -5. O56 1.27 6 6.973 -O -520 2.964 -5 .00 3 .146 -2 .508 0.436 0.806 10.7 rr 8.307 4.25 0. 145 -2 .755 75.411 -1.480 2.439 -3.640 0.345 -1.000 0.781 40.00 4.431 -O -524 3.00 r.542 ? -a?1 -3 .202 7 .340 75.547 -2 .664 -2.269 9.296 9.579 -2.75 L.830 -2.IL6 -2.331 -3.958 3.245 -0.471 -2 .000 0..329 -4 .7 56 60.7!4 35.510 I .892 -3.213 r5.454 -0.288 12.818 -3.378 -0.776 8.3? 6 8.

525 30.026 o.843 8.888 9.657 -L. 298 90.2A3 -1. 1.309 -2 . 66 Feb 94 64-O15 c arnbe r 31-612 37-6L5 37-618 sta ord GA.499 -0.620 3.00 7.727 -1.O0 3 .131 -0.330 -1 .814 4.449 -0.86L -0.311 3.442 0.992 -l -17 2 11 .876 9.568 L2.7L2 -3.632 15.O20 -2.000 0.00 7 .149 95.270 4.526 45.245 3.000 0.o0 6.344 -0.572 o.91 4 0.202 L.8t 0 4.696 -2.108 11.lll- .547 75-00 3.31-7 7.941 0.272 -1 .243 o-75 r.920 -r.90r 65.00 5.299 -1.641 rr.915 -1.L75 50.528 o.487 4. o32 0.938 70.430 -! .224 4.150 -0.494 LO.799 2-17A 6.285 -4.944 -0.950 0.664 7. O'1. 495 -2 -849 7 .50 2.50 4 .802 LO.683 -L.37 4 -1.00 o.132 -0 .a42 0.653 9 -463 -L.153 13.285 -L.746 -r.066 -1 .525 90.260 10.098 20.327 -r.811 -2-257 5.937 -3.168 -4 .956 3.808 -O.242 50.799 -2.000 Feb 94 64AO15 Canber 37 A6t2 37A615 3 7A6l-8 Sta ord GA-6 upper lower upper lower upper lower 0.00 6.32r r .7l_8 -2.207 1.00 7.75 L..558 0.00 4.7A4 -3.963 75.777 2.199 12.439 70.336 25.000 0.165 2.145 2 . o25 -O . 181 5.369 7.852 -3.370 3.00 6 . o0 7.159 5.977 -0.115 -0.00 6. Lo4 9.576 -2.000 0.to 3.450 -O.164 -O.796 -O.400 -0.O3s 10.834 4.374 -3.986 1.911 0.834 10.2L5 t2.173 -O.990 -3 .00 2 .75I O.5L7 4 -r79 9-393 -1.463 4 .25 I .65L -I .747 -2.477 80.080 -4.811 -3.L26 -1.00 7.220 -2 .7A6 -4.482 7.299 1.432 1.984 85.442 6.401 2.639 -L -225 o. 460 9.964 55.145 3 .441 1.084 t -942 4.755 LO.144 -1.487 3.567 2. 608 -O -922 9.433 -L.696 7.339 -0.033 2.641 60.00 5.444 7.104 9.A29 0.619 -L -? 37 2 .051 11.372 8.481 8.999 -3. 000 0.424 -3 .4 -t .163 -4.777 10.62L 7.37 4 2.485 5.. L40 12. 032 -o.759 1.769 2 .161 -O.496 o.291 -O.2L9 o.O94 -2.73r 3. O0 6 -266 4.865 0.344 -1 .00 4.233 5.313 4. OO 4.305 -L-75r 3.017 -1.O29 13.580 o.795 -3.44r.150 0.730 13.00 4 .508 o.291 1.O04 4.445 -2 .785 2.000 0. oo 0.323 4 .319 4.473 4.00 2 .L92 -0.807 -2.435 7.4a7 2.038 LL.323 4.032 o.827 -2 .7 4? 1.L79 9.50 1.493 -2.255 2.456 L .510 45.00 3.774 -O.784 a.o00 o.7L2 rL.50 1.7 47 -1 .148 -4.931 -3.480 3. 00 0.038 FtLl f:f.494 10.415 -1.967 -O.959 -r -75r 1_L .893 -1. r40 1.454 -O.26f -o.00 0.000 0.273 -1.454 6.777 -1 1'.799 -r .627 40. O38 -1.870 -3.6s3 -O -7 07 7 .285 t-1.081 l-00.67 9 35.207 1.L54 5.843 8.800 -2.296 2.75J 1.815 0.166 L2.474 5.O34 20.001 r.496 1.35! -0. O0 5.000 o .556 -0.742 5.00 7.960 0 .480 4.909 -1.038 -0.105 -r.000 0.528 -2.00 l-.472 -L.7 43 1. 596 30.879 95.aa? -4 .520 t-1.113 2.985 3.000 0.722 -4.000 0.977 -2 .627 8.00 5.000 0.325 -1.315 -r -657 l"i-.L74 -1.792 -3.00 6 -974 4.340 60.338 11. O0 0.600 2. oo0 0.991 2.000 0.824 -4 .982 3.404 25.193 o .138 -0.7L9 85.610 6 -O22 -2 .677 r.000 0.51_0 -L .112 0.773 0.94L 9 . 482 4 .477 1.580 5 .587 -2. O0 3.00 7 .307 -4 -649 40.858 L.444 7.436 0.000 0.661 6.400 12-542 -3.504 t .O52 -1.346 o .00 0.420 6. oo0 0.447 5. 140 7.973 6.00 6.3?9 10. 086 -1 .6A4 -0. o00 0. O87 1l-.456 -O . oo 2.190 3.77l -3.23L 1 .762 55.47 4 I .532 11.895 3.00 o.000 0.472 1.818 6.423 8.858 -1. o0 4.000 0.973 6. 102 5.240 r.25 0.549 -O.629 -2.50 4 .795 o.556 -1.7 66 9. O0 3.7 42 a.458 100. 388 -2.456 0.000 0.6 upper lower upper lolter upper lower 0.448 -1. OO L .o97 -4.742 5. 291 1-440 -0.926 3.011 2-256 -r .81"2 9 .855 0.41-0 9.208 o .138 80.000 0.113 10.581 15. 304 55.620 35.306 l-0.600 6.458 10.435 7 .329 10.436 -1.808 -2 .804 -0.698 -3.490 4.458 10.134 13.041 2.000 0.786 9 .988 -3.410 9.991 r.573 -L.237 -O .4L9 11 -270 -4.442 -4. 984 -2 .945 -1 .786 9 .112 o.00 6.459 4.00 7..50 2 .356 11.015 L3 -426 -4. 423 -3 .926 0.

493 3.50 3.2L9 -5.555 1.067 5.959 0.612 -7.724 -0. o0 0.396 1.859 -5. 859 10.150 9 .643 -4.655 -4. 409 2 .500 o.099 r.255 -2 -669 85.704 -7.502 80.240 -1.50 1.960 -2.000 0.16A r.625 -1.392 -5.110 70.737 7.859 10.048 9.674 -6.059 -2.420 6.000 0.581 8.991 3.000 0.783 L.00 7 .00 7 .431 -3.233 o-75 1.881 3 . 960 -Z.169 t.L79 7.789 -3.696 -2.4s8 T.764 7 . 048 25. .769 -O .530 4.000 0.00 6.27a -5.637 85.4 Sta Ord GA-2 upper lower upper Iower upper lower 0-00 0 .O29 7.r52 1. 366 -6.734 -4.7L2 -0.504 r .00 1.000 0.356 o. o0 4.l-l-8 L .439 2.311 -0.339 5.650 -t .919 35.275 4.144 0.L20 50.000 o.635 10.A79 -5.796 -1.977 95.450 2.07X -1.443 15.517 6..00 7.830 0.4 45.967 -L. O59 -2.715 3.558 7 .489 -4 .803 8.883 90.240 -1.428 0.356 0.254 -0.77A -7 -2LB 45.244 5.427 L.443 15.?44 -4.000 o.9r9 35.321 -5.525 -T.890 -o .342 2.558 7. 152 95.600 1.744 0.000 0.704 -7 .50 I .023 4.A49 -5.00 6 -223 L-420 6.27 5 4.667 -2.374 5.000 0 .47 4 3 -219 -2.685 -0 .735 -2.815 -5.715 1. 458 !. O0 2 -065 0. O59 8. 056 -0.702 o.626 -0.965 -1 .428 -O.770 1 .396 r.110 70. O0 5.404 l-0.654 -4.000 0.244 5.805 65.099 1.056 -0.247 -1 .O92 4.519 l.263 L .62).779 2 .667 -2.245 -6.O0 3 .169 I.595 2.411 6.663 7 .AA5 o. OO I .00 0.189 4 .560 30.81s -5.636 1.968 -3.7 53 5.736 -6 .000 o.00 7.431 -3.50 9.000 0.470 3.L?O 50.o00 0.198 0 .450 2.366 -6.392 -5.609 -3 .737 7 .000 0.525 -1 .985 -2.888 -6.522 100 .881 3.230 o.00 1.057 2 .49L 5.305 -!. 502 80.254 -0.970 8 -932 -5.118 1.892 4.159 6.3e5 -4.780 7 .504 L.484 -3 .783 r.O0 3.133 -5.398 -3.67 4 -6.854 8. 5 -57a -3. )-24 o.159 6.008 1.991 3.643 -3 .830 0.530 4. 854 a .339 5.936 0 .409 2.207 9 .777 -4.192 60.116 1.000 0.720 L.O4A -3.357 7 .000 0.986 -2. 659 10.643 -4.595 2.489 -4 .596 -2.398 -3.7I8 to.932 -5.560 30.144 o.O29 7.77A -4.2 -7.324 0.2f9 -2.7 4A L.718 LO.004 4. 198 0 .578 -3.427 L.00 7 .663 7 .331 75 -OO 3 .059 I .?48 -4 -260 ? .351 20.894 r.489 10.793 3.207 9. 23 3 o.651 -2.532 6.888 -6.189 4.2r9 -5.944 6.796 -l-.49L 5. O23 4. O0 6.25 0.OO4 4.361 20.764 7 .968 -3 .494 1. 67 Feb 94 65-O15 camber 40-2I2 40-2L5 40-2).1S0 9.015 -0.702 o .869 -2. o60 o.403 L.27A -5.609 -3.515 3.936 0.2r2 4042l-5 4 0A218 Sta ord GA-2 upper lower upper lower upper lower o.49A -3. oo 4.838 55.101 -1.858 0. 540 -0.l-38 40.000 Feb 94 4 04015 canber 40}.00 3. O0 7.00 5.678 -2.000 0.77a -7 .803 8.357 7.987 2.00 5.000 0.720 I-672 7 -O48 -3.00 6.404 10.892 4.774 -L.62L 5.133 -5 .838 55.959 o .643 -3.50 3.00 7 .647 -3.J74 5.403 L.000 Frcr 5x-tr .048 25.305 -L.87 4 3 .309 -1. 604 0.048 9 .L?7 -O. o0 6.849 -5. o00 0.655 -4.00 7 .858 -5.439 2. 3 31 75. O0 7 . O0 5.263 L.678 -O.00 0.O79 -1.396 I.572 -L.965 -1.000 0.00 4.736 -6 -392 60.116 l-.704 a.245 0.223 -2 .600 1.9'77 0.2r4 9. o0 2. 6l.537 6.944 -1 .]-79 7 .00 6 -764 1.06s 4.067 5.000 0.L68 I.218 9.050 o.00 0.180 9.402 0.25 0.793 3.557 6.869 -2.77 4 -t..918 -O . 385 -4.444 -3 .777 90.000 0. 6.724 -0.'7 44 0.709 -4.000 0.916 1.321 -5.654 -4.970 8.242 o.494 L. s81 LA79 -5.604 0 .805 65.777 -4.647 -3.916 1.789 -3. 540 -o.498 -3.260 7 .792 7.489 ro.00 t .7AO 7.311 -1..851 -3. 000 0.50 2 .798 -0.316 100.000 0.465 -1.309 -1 .000 0.245 -6.735 -2. o00 0.770 1.635 10.890 -o.704 8.851 -3. o0 6-223 L. oo 2 .00 6-764 L .124 0.000 0 .75 1.411.138 40.LA7 L.008 1.672 7.779 2.50 0.245 0.1.948 6.465 -1.396 I .753 5.015 -0.709 -4.625 -r.187 L.000 0.31L -1-.659 10.2).555 1.532 6.557 6. O0 0.000 0.77A -4.792 7 -734 -4. o0 4.290 0.

935 -0.000 0 .000 0.374 -3.600 1. 995 6.086 -2 .000 0.937 -4.637 -1. O0 7.131 15.120 1.399 9.118 4.456 8.939 11.922 20. o00 0.801 -4.309 5.072 -2 -7 L6 4.185 4.000 0.lb .431 -4.275 L.324 o.123 3.959 1.884 1L.118 ?-17A 7.947 6.O42 7 .426 -5.526 -1.824 3.O77 -2 . 020 8. 021 -o .940 9.000 0.396 ? . O0 6 -764 2.50 3.767 2.7 20 7. 148 -2 -340 5.285 -2.359 2.233 -3 ..553 -2 .00 3 . 359 2-424 -L.00 6.004 1.290 o . o0 4.494 2 . O87 L.669 11.L52 2 . o0 7.591.970 -4.535 90.181 -4. 812 ro.000 0.32L -t-.562 1.000 o.042 7 .123 3.368 7 .922 -6.601 0.424 0.744 -3.148 -2.457 I .1.520 -5.893 -O. 000 0.000 n ?q 0.457 8.396 2 .L73 7 .2A9 5.L68 ? -rL OO 8.485 -3.000 0.50 2.065 0.242 35.t81.637 -1.457 a.00 o. 986 95.296 -3.235 9 -667 -4.008 9.520 -5.O97 -2.7 67 2. 890 -3 .591 t 0.403 L .584 -3.979 -2 .455 -6 . O08 9.103 55.00 2.555 1. A4L 5.495 -0.350 -3.340 5-897 -3 . 089 80.164 65.?23 1.944 30.977 -t. ooo 0.830 o.685 5.246 -1.5A4 -3.086 -2.25 J.404 4.591 5.1L0 -0 .242 35.777 L.418 40.063 o.457 r .524 a. o00 0.720 7 -LA7 -3. 369 50. 019 -O.522 -6 .393 4-746 -3.76L -0.00 7.00 7. ooo o . O0 3.134 3.288 -4 -922 20.500 0.7J9 2. O0 5.469 -1.227 o.940 9.7I 7.265 9.062 -3.00 5.533 10. 801 -4.492 -4. oo0 0.492 .238 a.884 11.455 -6.835 75.J59 -1.852 3 .o0 6.233 -3.249 -2.289 5.869 -3.404 4.47I -r . oo0 0.399 -1.000 o.500 2.o0 7.936 -3 .696 60 .427 2 .524 a.r24 0.369 50.448 -t.O22 -4.427 2.824 -r.220 6.724 2.356 0.30? 85. oo o.332 -6.75 1.000 0. o0 o.393 4.000 0. O0 7 .504 1.594 -0. O49 5.504 1. 3 upper Lower upper lower upper lower 0.000 0.00 7 . O0 7.425 -O. 4 31 -4 .897 -3.915 7 .977 0.001.835 75.215 -L .431 -1.821 8.335 4.OO 3.164 65.296 -3.223 1.720 2 .324 0.974 LL. O0 o.118 4-285 -2 -O49 5. oo0 0.669 11.485 -3.47 4 45.088 -4 -352 10.399 9.767 t-.995 6.426 -5.?35 4.1.81t 95.00 1.222 3.275 L. 4 .290 -s.382 9.797 -r.00 3 .00 6-720 2 .97 4 rr.265 9 . .432 -5.059 -0.47 4 45.062 -3 .981 -L.382 9 .332 -6.702 o.00 5.269 -2 . oo0 0.168 7.199 0.290 -5.498 2 .5L0 25.245 0.00 .933 0.365 -1.881 -0.890 -3 .087 L.543 8.3 r2 40-315 40-318 ord GA. A4L 5.008 -r.633 10.915 L-526 -1. 68 Feb 95 65-Or5 camber 40.746 -3.727 -0.50 7.374 -3.7 44 1.585 -2 -139 85.591 10.020 8.562 I -477 -0.L73 7 .8I2 LO.460 9.000 o.958 6.359 -1.959 1.I52 ?-340 8.727 -O.979 -2 -309 5 .893 -O.922 -6 .460 9. o0 0.000 0.685 5.399 -1.50 2 .797 -L .061 o.821 8.?45 o.000 0. 500 2.00 2 .285 -2.529 90.744 1.448 -L.427 8.186 L.IA7 -3. -4. o0 0.O72 -2.843 2.353 L.00 4.499 a.958 6.269 -2-375 7 .600 1.000 0.853 -4.25 o.00 6.340 8.757 1.696 60.059 -0.-0 .356 0.255 -0.50 3.830 0.432 -5.00 6.537 70.456 8 .915 7.000 0.335 4.522 -3.o63 o.144 o .00 L.683 6.667 -4.933 0.288 -4.229 o. 439 1.255 -0.000 FlCr E.281 o.7 44 4.53'l 70.281 0.00 5.50 |.319 1.939 LL.403 L .706 -O.O22 -4.75 1.365 -1 .947 6.424 1.977 -I .r22 t.r24 o.427 2 -3L7 -L.25 t.852 -O.205 -3.937 -4 .000 0.474 LO.409 -1.103 55.101 -6.088 -4 . oo 4.244 -1.869 -3.853 -4.908 -L.352 l-0. o0 1.709 -o -L47 o -?95 -0.3L7 -L .944 30.522 -6.00 6.70 L.522 -3-474 LO. L63 3.970 -4.00 2.000 Feb 96 404015 canber 4 0A312 4 04315 4 0A318 sta ord GA-3 upper lower upper lorrer upper 1o$rer 0.00 7.885 1.000 0.470 1.186 I.238 4.683 6. O89 80.582 1.779 r.2A9 -2 .420 -1.623 -0.764 2.915 7 -205 -3.131 15.118 2 .744 -3.716 4. 5.762 4.002 L.7 44 4 -O97 -2.601 0. 000 0.235 9.2A5 -2 .936 -3.852 3 .170 L.418 40.L68 2. 101 -6.O77 -2.00 1.7 02 o.17 5 7 -350 -3.233 100. 510 25.843 2.809 2.458 r-. o0 6 .220 6.00 7.

914 0.010 8 .2L9 5.420 7.340 30.570 2.940 -4.762 -0.1.597 5.776 8.501 -L .977 1.45).50 3.414 )-.626 4 -2L5 -2.25 o.590 -3. O51 -O .965 70.922 -2. s82 o.162 -4.000 0.234 8.494 -L.152 -2. o0 6.379 2 -366 -r.090 2.635 9.00 0.7?8 45.489 -2.000 Fth E-rl .441 -2.958 7 .276 -O.747 7. .817 4.290 o.540 -3 .590 -3.9?0 3 . O0 7.723 -4.245 o.000 0.00 5.871 -O.197 o.51 9 20.143 1.49r 3 .082 o. O5a -3 .00 7 . oo0 0.237 -2.7 48 1.00 0.672 -0.7 42 10.67 6 s0.310 -2 .296 9 -2J7 -2 .340 75.00 2.429 -L.803 7 .021 o.058 -3 . 188 -2.00 3.160 -4 .836 -5.000 0.50 3.570 2.7r9 0.00 1.275 4 .402 -3.000 0.427 3.23 1.45r -2.00 6.063 -3.000 0 .690 -4.4]-2 40-415 40-418 ord GA-4 upper lower upper lower upper lower 0.864 -2.559 -1.L6A 3 .428 0.47 4 -1.652 6.454 3.573 35.00 L.I42 11.276 -O .555 L.L52 1 .7 42 10.249 2 -894 -t.571 -4.T24 0.922 -2.I42 11.082 o.000 0.833 4.175 9. 500 6.7L9 2.720 3.750 9.162 -4.463 -]-.368 55.759 -O.118 2.129 -4..562 3 .3L8 ?.266 -2.178 5.22L 12.237 1.7]-2 10.300 10.000 o.357 100.592 -5.429 -1 .L52 3.307 4 .282 90.065 8.310 -2 .995 25.4I7 2.642 -0.764 2.00 L.818 7 .418 8.817 4.311 9.626 4.940 -4 .893 -5.24L -2.403 2-5r9 6.289 2.00 2. Ol-0 8.830 0.000 0.690 -4.388 90.82L 95.O76 8.858 r.r52 3.600 2.927 6.720 3.363 o.A12 -1 .403 2 .887 3.o00 o. 69 Feb 94 65-01s canber 40.065 1.776 8. OO 3.568 -1.49A 3-269 9-268 -2.871 1.000 0 .323 1.AA4 9.000 0.706 0.178 5 .73t -2.500 10.339 -1.600 o.754 3.2I5 -2 -275 4 -864 -2 .l-52 1.204 -5.ooo 0.000 o .504 2.67 6 80.318 7.883 -t .7L2 10.050 -5.655 11. -2.402 -3.566 -L.O25 -1. 078 -0.916 -2.740 -O.298 -O.7L3 -2 .000 0.934 11.368 55.68 8.764 2.727 r.5L9 6.00 7.506 8.038 2-O25 -L .841 -1. ooo Feb 94 4 04015 camber 4 0A4 12 40A415 404418 Sta ord GA-4 upper lower upper lower upper losrer 0.000 0-ooo o.569 -1 .924 7.7 02 0.267 -5.086 6.s23 65.912 -O .000 0.00 3 .924 7.100 -0.160 -4 .078 -0.57t -4.597 5.700 -3.00 5. oo 4. o0 6 .934 11.414 L .959 1.00 1.25 L.843 -0.655 11.131 t2.968 -2.396 3.427 3.118 2.00 6.959 1.818 7.Or7 -0.7 47 L.268 -? -729 to -767 -4 -229 L2.000 o.79L -0. L24 o.999 60. o00 0.431 4.723 -4.860 5.7 48 1.O0 7 . OO 2.063 -3.50 2.701 40.379 2-366 -L.498 3 .731 -2.25 0.884 9.87t 1.00 o.r52 -2.729 IO.444 L0.090 2.7AO -2.742 -O .501 -1.008 85..744 1.420 7.727 L. o0 t oaR 3.474 -L.065 o.696 -3. r97 o-75 1.083 -0.617 50.00 4.. oo0 0.208 -5.00 7.877 -0.404 4. o00 0.150 100.3LL 9.00 4.O0 5.9a8 10.646 LO.646 95.091 -2.97 6 85. s0 L.860 5.489 -2. 065 8.936 -3.2r9 5.180 5.582 o-9I2 -O.744 1.000 0.223 7.4L2 -L.359 -2.229 12.936 -3.180 5.566 -L.07 6 8.418 8.275 -0. O0 6.050 -5 .117 0. l-55 -O .995 25. 563 2.340 30.713 -2.860 -1 . O0 0.968 -2.323 1.701- 40.266 -2 .592 -5.841 -1.144 o.00 6. o00 0.00 0.307 4.9 20. o0 0.523 65.000 0.780 -2.652 6.00 6. 988 r0.75 1.000 0. OO3 -3 .003 -3. o0 7 .067 -0.444 10.836 -5.131 12.97 5 3 .5J.356 o.298 -0.00 7 .785 -3.746 -0.359 -2 .500 10.213 L.893 -5.50 L.561 -L .441 -2.745 -3.473 7 . 000 0.841 -r.24L -2.965 70.396 3.860 -1 .188 -2 .00 0.340 75.702 0.363 0.963 -O.869 15.213 1. 500 6.970 3.573 35.927 6.506 8.746 -0.767 -4.696 -3.841 -1.356 o.300 10.267 -5 -7 2A 45.635 9.O47 6 .038 2.600 2. 000 0.30s 2.22r 12.803 7.685 -1.685 -1.00 7 .3L2 -1.269 9.O47 6.OO 7. 296 9.646 LO.750 9.t-29 -4 -999 60.830 0. O0 7.000 0.97 2 1.091 -2.143 1. 051 -o.086 6.6L7 50 .854 4.914 0.972 1.r75 9.540 -3 .561 -I.869 15.000 0.754 3.958 7 .324 0.O0 2.700 -3.188 1 .

472 -1.991 1. s1g -1 . 403 3.153 2.961 -2 .449 -3.47A 35.245 1.323 3 .I24 o.539 -0.903 -4.9 -L .049 70.976 0.000 0.919 -3.568 -L.108 -0.744 2.436 -1.99L 2.490 3.830 0.304 4.041 2.840 -4.955 -3.00 1.918 -1.299 2.288 15.25 1.00 7 -396 4.601 2.247 -1.556 -1.376 -O.448 85.843 B -73? -1.859 -0.546 40. 91.606 9.568 -I .082 3.454 -0.9?r 2.840 -O.065 1.135 -0.012 -4.000 0.L24 o.606 9.223 1.456 -t .480 85.106 -O.00 2.076 2.00 4.377 7 .917 1.oo0 0.595 -2.919 -1-.547 3.104 9.00 3. 921 -2.6 upper lower upper lo(rer upper lower 0.396 4 .456 -1.474 35.372 8.144 o.185 -3.786 9 .76I 20.246 -1.906 0.435 7.10t -I. O82 3.50 T .533 -2.933 t3.733 -2.t.533 -2 .557 95.106 -O. -0.540 11.5 4 0A61S Sta Ord cA-6 upper lower upper lower upper Iovrer 0.71.744 2.00.435 7. o00 0.922 7.27 5 11.26a -0.924 0.406 -4.556 -I.406 -4.385 5.550 -2.377 7 -644 -3.015 canber 40-6L2 4 0.588 II .222 -L .455 -4 .9a2 4.555 -L.887 8.207 1.00 2.499 65.949 -1. -2.t6A 4.24r -0.040 13.o00 0.903 -4.942 -0.474 5 -473 -0.ooo o. o00 0.473 -0.8 1.00 5.000 JUI 94 40AOl-5 Carnber 40A612 4 0A51.? I .97I -2. 968 9.00 7.7 4I -2.552 -O.555 2. 618 11 . o0 0. o0 7.000 0 .015 80.919 -3.324 11.o0 1.290 -O.4LO 10. 000 0.L97 -L.168 4.725 -3.00 6.095 3.921 2.838 -1 .466 6. 068 1.636 -1. ooo 0.256 -3.991 90.0.142 o.443 -1. .625 10. o00 Ftq ff-t9 .I78 5.969 10.403 3.331.41"8 50.830 0.00 6 .794 7.686 -4. O0 3.444 -1.000 0.00 3.75 J-.049 70.851 1. O0 6.427 4.00 7 .000 o.222 -L.410 10.933 13.00 6.456 -4.350 -1 . o00 0.494 10.57 r 7 .733 -2.oo0 0.356 o .547 75.540 45.851 10. 096 -0.331 30.104 9.876 5.000 0.74L -2.647 -1.441 1. OO 5.A44 ?.977 L-487 3.207 1.720 4.00 6.336 1.826 -1 .A22 -1.885 60.348 -2 .97A 11. oo0 0.288 15.97I -2.578 -2 -75A 13-O12 -4.959 I.s55 -L -L97 10. 015 80.00 6.764 3.458 10.108 -0.144 -L.899 -2.777 2.50 3.702 0.067 13.L79 9 .273 4. 348 -2 -660 9.76\ 20.204 -4.00 o.600 2.O23 -0.566 -2. r77 6.858 1.838 0.840 -4.275 11.441 l-.573 -r -627 8.965 -0.L43 -t .216 -O .104 1.627 8.00 3.887 8.27 3 4. 70 Jul 94 6 5.144 -L.504 2.224 100.968 9.499 65.?45 1.764 3.418 50.101 -L .324 11 .06s 1. ).884 0.00 4.885 90.385 5.0l-8 1.653 -O -707 7 -573 -t.069 -0.336 r . 956 -3.75 1.291 t.496 0 .843 8.I42 o.600 2 -973 6.493 -2 -547 75.757 -0.653 -O.r7a 5.29L 7.185 -3.540 45.00 7 .OI2 5.493 -2.118 3.550 -2.112 o.350 -1.326 4. 256 -3.L43 -1.048 12. o00 o -25 0.546 40.112 0 -776 -0.615 40-618 Sta ord GA.588 tL.I92 55.261 2.707 7.449 -3.000 0.000 0.356 0 .00 4.97 -L .376 -O.969 10.7A2 4.A22 -1.899 -2.00 7.458 10.54L L2 -243 -3 .625 10.547 3.000 0.737 -1.247 -1.00 2.00 3.290 0.436 -1.559 8.777 2 .1L8 3.600 0.00 1.00 7 -]-52 4. oo0 o-ooo 0. 065 L-4A7 3-139 -O.7a6 9.00 0.803 -O.154 o.324 o .204 -4.165 3.096 25.718 1.331 30.466 6.60L 2.644 -3.578 3.000 0.54r 12.692 1 .496 0.051.885 60.040 13 .r77 6.00 4.973 6.921 -2.720 4 .424 0.448 11.949 -1.498 4.010 -0. 9.O]-2 5.329 IO.566 -2.692 1.00 4 -494 10.243 -3.443 -1.50 3.9?2 5.016 1.o00 0.552 o.L79 9.517 6.757 -0.00 5.559 8.884 0.885 r.618 l.47A 5.364 -0.L92 55.096 25.903 5.7 02 0.266 6.725 -3 -067 13.448 11.000 0. O0 0.329 rO.794 7.578 -2.776 -0.838 -1.636 -1.000 0.000 0.552 o.26r 2.323 3.9). o0 7.L97 10.00 2.647 -1.803 -O.246 -1. 3 31 -O .000 o.844 7.00 0.A26 -1. o0 o.961.00 6.382 95.372 8. O0 2..517 5. 650 9.50 o.266 6 .051 9.7A2 4. O48 12-646 -4 .2r7 -? .000 0.982 4 .50 L.595 -2.50 2.494 4.540 11 .000 0.758 t 3.867 -0.959 L.942 -0.978 11.

245 lL. 190 3-435 8.00 4.on=25 degrees FIAUR€ fi.080 Lt-723 -2.450 -3 . t-2.00 5.7 2L 80.104 l-o.73! -2.LI2 1.67L -0.494 -2 .853 2.606 -3.00 6 . ooo Table l . r05 r tao 3.'707 3.808 -t.6 upper lower upper lower upper Iower o. o0 5.913 -O.337 9 .25 2.400 -1.598 -).458 10.505 20.329 11.763 0.533 45.006 -1. HIGH LIFT AIRFOII.125 .O2r 75.090 8.290 I .440 4.62 cA30 -613.625 -r.295 -1. ooo 0. 443 r .311 -1.681.367 0. 11r. 14 NACA 4412 ( 1931) .000 o .540 2.00 7.00 0.l-91 r.000 4. 148 35.398 12.L94 -3.183 -O.323 5.645 60.061 11.978 l-. 427 3.41-0 10.322 -2 .L72 3 -372 9 -A27 -3 .090 O.507 -2.50 1 .856 -2 -644 11.478 5.t* 1'ra r.5 Sta Ord GA.777 3 .00 7. L63 2 .O32 -3.384 30. 320 1. 167 L.240 4 -r79 9.00 7 -502 4.365 -0. 506 12.367 L1 -7 69 -3 .00 7 .00 3.856 0.000 0.255 4.857 -3.564 7.093 -0 .956 -4.57 4 3.02 usA 35B (1923 ) .0071 --114 -. OO 7.7L8 -2.689 95.50 1-264 o.49L 4.L74 7.383 2.675 a.536 2. O0 o.045 -2 .967 -2.339 6.911 55. 581 -'t .335 -0.L47 ?(1 0.207 1 . lll 1A)) 3.496 1.580 11.50 5. OO 6.786 LO .000 0.494 ao -794 -1.00 4.202 -O.615 -4 .259 -O -267 1.043 -2 .213 -3 .1 13 7 .236 8. 20 .795 -L .755 9.356 -4.473 2.565 -1 r .250 I -742 6.5 30-515 30-616.730 -O -766 5.000 0.973 7 -O59 -1.957 6.5L7 25.25 1.031 -1 . 855 40.000 0.07 clark Y (1924 ) .926 3.000 0. O25 -2.677 -r .261 -4.898 l-r.08? 0.I44 -2 .0058 -.807 12.6? 6 5-766 -3 -120 5.655 4.997 -2.00 6.755 3.O23 -L.193 -4.437 10.982 4.343 100. o00 o.00 7.677 3. 340 -t.000 0.000 0.56? 7 .015 canber 30-61-3.27 4 70.0072 *Flap condition: Cflag.-9r2 IO.544 -3. for curparison only ) Cd rnin On c/4 CI max-no flaPs Cl max-Vf laPs* R=2H lirfoil R=61'{ R=6M .000 0.000 0.641 11.527 0.169 9.260 15.291 1.469 L.106 -r.L64 4.446 -3.818 5.00 o.844 8.0073 -.518 -0.57L -1.0s3 L. 2.470 -2 .|1 .071 5.488 65.458 7 -557 -3.0070 - r .991 2.837 10.419 -2.00 2 .75 1".803 4. deflecci.S ( see also fi-gure III-6) 71 Feb 94 3 0.800 11.961 -L.L74 -2.734 -1 .843 9.887 -L.376 85.O45 -2.777 -O.441 2. o00 o.000 o.032 90. OO 3 -AL7 2.035 -1.689 2.3?9 -1.00 5.206 50.943 7 .573 -I .210 -3.513 -3 .00 r . 065 -2.993 10.527 o . Predicted Performance Sumarv ( ccfiputer anafysis. ooo o.525 -3.083 10.372 -2.447 3.806 11.5 NACA 4415 ( I93I ) .548 -O .

(o ^^?ARtso N a^iry) NA CA 4 4I' FlQvP.--zo .€ fl. LrFr A rRFatLS 72 C ( F oa. LA55r( * rCrF{.

Aerodynanric Characteristics of wing Sections ' 73 A FPelv olx U' a 8.il t{ 0. i.sl I 'l E .9t 0rl !l di 'dr Ft(19-l .t) & 6 o U IJ q..-l c oc fd --lr c{ L -t o q ltt (! C a6 !{ qJ .t t o q) (J : ":l 3rl Yl o g 4 :.r*! .r 9!ltJ < :l N.t (l I 5! i! "ol 6 I !. rd -c U) O q !\i . APPENDIX IV .lJ st O . iltt o q-] _ .

JJTS Yc(:-: !J* r..J"..19-? .t "l rl sl il 11 *l !l . .l l 5l t 'g ="t "{/ t -. II El :.

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81 :l -j ".I \n ! v{b : -a s ! Y a \5 tl rl J^ NJ J t .

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ro. (! ul \ cl .lal \t'. 8s {=.l :J cl // JI ? ht I\ ) -l .5 .yS tj- i 'J i 1 q r d v<f 5 -{ tt ':'l i5 '+ ir .

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.ir -'l ! I 6...:r.!l * il .S _:t_9 j. 87 { !L t) dl tJ al tl ol jl :r"l .cl : Ft -t $t r-e u: -Jl . cr(u< -tr \t-tb .l .

l S : :l .+J i rl 5l ol E { Io o .l I :l.l -ql ol t :l tsl "" { u9 F1 i: i i .tJ 5 H ! . fj -l tl { .! .l -" r^l -t I :.

Yt **. : ath tv' l a .-r <i ---- h q a 1': ! ! tll .l ) ! d 4_ a {'l i. 89 .

5 + 9 t .". J 5 v..t I aJ r.51 .1n-ta . . o 5 .u '{l !6 \' JI a at : il ql s f ''-l o <l -l-.: l :3i f )-o- .

9 tf -ldl ! 1 a :1 o :tl .i : r< ! . t c_< ! {l cl -?i o a. i q(s!E r!g .-9 .'a i . .!: .+ \' :l ro'9s. c€ U6 . a .cl "..Js -! o \3 .i5w.' '.

"92 : \.j\ t 'i. i? i? tl li \: 1 rl ?/ -. -. --... dJ.tji "rc('!{ Frt's'-10 .--.? {. t ! ho JI d !l :l i i-..." F -l {l Jo <l ol +l <l ..: (g s l\. a d t \: I oo a o \. -../- I 9. :. ) \: \D { l r- lf H \' d.i3 -s :=:-.r: r{!8 .Dl 99. ..

l point. causing further loss of lift. we see tiat ttre On is zei6'for any angle of attack up to the sta].there are scme confusing aspecLs about airfoil perfonrErce. ttris area of separated flonr progresses forward frcn ttle trailing edge as the angle of attack increases. Ttre reguirerent for .. Ianiner F1crd.ie ' 1l start r. and tlre airfoil terds to rotate about the pivot point.e plot the p.tlEt is. I5s thj-ck.rLinar flor. by convention. t}lat is./.ly in fron\ of you. the lift begins to decrease as f 1ov. Lift is neasured perp€ndicular to the air strean. and also chord lengrttr. rneas- ured in pounds. convert the pitching roxrEnt sprillg scale reading tj:res . A nosedorrrn pitching tendency is. ho^Jever. air density.l a hole in each of these at the guarter-chord Foint to receive an axle. !. without disturbing the layers. which is anotler my of saying tbat I don ' t kncr^.ace. and ai-r speed. As tie angle of attack increases bq/orld about 15 degrees.rrve is sFnr€trical about alfa = 0. CJ. developed later. while the second.= 0. in one degree j-ncrenents. separation occurs on ttle top surface. due to "induced" drag.r". regardless of tie angle of attack. and drag is nEasured parallel to the air stream. that is. ra. sho.. since the airfoil itself is s1'nnetrical. rf you ncve your hand slor. NACA 0015. is always at the quarL- er-chord point.ie are not finished with or:r !.rn on figure 1. this point has special sig- nificance. or drag due to lift. a negative pitchj-ng firctrent.Larnj-nar flo\^' is that the flcrvr over the surface should not be accelerated beyond cerbain lirn-its in any d. vihen r. '' nverythj-ng you always wanted to knolr about airfoils but \.rEnon is beyond the scolE of this article.ri'r LrUi'rEER l 93 Underst€.rnd us in FnaturiFinraisturbed staie is laninar.irestion. air density.hy it j-s . The airfoil is then tested at various angl-es of attack (C ) frcrn zero to about 18 or 20 degrees. the explarEtion for this phenc. ADDE 'Jl-. the center of Iift for anv s}'nretrical airfoil.l-or.rind turnel fieasurenEnts. The ai-r alf aror. lie nexts plot cl versus Cd to obtain tne "Iift curves " sho. the center of l-ift center of pressure ) passes directly through the guarter-chord ( point.s landnar f. we need c\onstant velocj-ty . The }ift and drag values at each angle of attack are nohr converted to dirrensionLess perfomance coefficients. ttEt is. holizontally. r*rich is the reason tbat we picked it for the ncunting point for wind tunnel tests in the first p]. The first of these "basic thick" ness foms". and then nDunt then (one at a tinE ) in a wind turlnel such that tbey are free to pivot on this ax1e. Lift and drag are easy to visualize. plus and minus.itching mcflEnt coefficient curve. in layers. and large increases of drag. by considering the wing area. aqtsj-ng at the pivot point. If you rrpve your hand rapidly enough. the Cl vs Cd cr.so nrcunt a sprjng scale at the trailing edge of the airfoil (see figr:re 1) to neasure the pitclling nrnent in foot-pounds about the quareer-chord point.75c) at each angle of attack to a ( di:rensionless croefficient.ie nc'v. or verticalLy./ith a sinpl-e case of b^'o syllnEtrical ( uncambered ) airfoi. tire flow over your hand wil-L "trip" to turbulent flor*.and cd.in on figure 3. and lift and drag are recErded at each angle of attack. consi-dering t}Ie wing area. l. and your hand passes ttrrough snrcQy with mimmun drag. qn^ /d vs alfa (figure 3) for these tvro syrrr€trical airfoils. On. we dril. sideways. the "center of pressure" may be sdrF distanc€ forward or aft of the guarter-chord point. Donrt feel bad. rrE [ust al. the next thing to look at j.fore and aft. ai-r velocity. lrAcA 5rtA0I5. and the total drag increases as angle of attack increases. SwrrEtrical Airf oil Perfornance. rrrhich has rpre than twice as m uch drag as lanjrnr flow. r*rhere Cl. 9're will point out a ferr of these. is a "la$inar flovi" type shape. Inde€d. is considered a "turbulent flor^r" shape. @inrling at tie trailing edge. and then bLcn on thern. perhaps. tie air renains in layers.rere afraid to ask'r. ltrus.Is. the zero-lift drag is called "profile" cf " form" drag. until- the airfoil evenlual-Iy "stalls". but the prirnary purtrEse of this artsicle is to "get back to basics" so that you can better understand the nain causes and effests of subsonic airfoiL trErfol:IrEnce. For this reason. i. sirnilar to Cl and Cd. or if your hald is rough enough. the pitch-ing ncnent cefficient about the guarter-chord Foint for any synrnstrical airfoil is always zero.ndinq lirf oils Or. Tlr-is is knorn as " la. and a surprising nw cer of stupid airfoil design mistakes have been rnade in the past by people who should have knoarr better. Regaldless. for fear of feeling stupid. on scarE arrforls the lift and drag are not exasll-y centered on the guarter-chold point.

that is. thus the top edge of the larnina-r bucket is raised to nearly C1=. or wing curvature. The net resuLt is that the laninar section has approxirnately 20t less drag at cnise tllan the ccnparable turbulent sestion.runar" shapes have been desigrned for constant velocity flov.'n as the lanr-inar bucket. having a ccmfortable bucket width and depth.irplanes olErate above this point: for exajrPle.r over the wing at cruise. withouC running out of the bucket. so ttle bucket becqres even narrcr. are nohr centered vertlcally on ttre desigrn lift coefficient (C1=. tfie stafl becc. They camot tolerate nuch change in angle of attack without tripping to turbul-ent flc'r.40C.bout .iscussed in the nr-idd. and lift continues to be developed at higher angles of attack than with the uncanbered airfoils.r. and especial"Iy the lan-inar bucket. turbulent ard lan$-rtar. the bottcrn edge of the bucket is at Cl-=0 .cients betrreen c1=. both result in an increase in cln.e ftor over the entire wing beocrrEs turbulent. and it requires us to invesligate tie effects of On on airpJ-ane perforrnanc. both ajrfoils are forwarded loaded. ltrere is one big disadvantage caused by the camber. a pitchijlg nsrEnt is ttre prj.4.eight ratj. but tleir larlinar buckets are carrespondingly narroi. So nuJch for synrretrical shapes.25tC).r-drag region is knov. If rre take t-ire tr€ synrEtrical shapes d. Also. Accordingly. this inj-tial nrgan line slope has been optirlized at about 15 degrees . ""E. cl"jjnb at relatively slo. perndtti-ng wing twist if desrred. correcting an unfortun- ate crnission in the NACA r€rk. ScnE recent ients than the I{ACA 6-series shaFes. with no change in crui-se drag. \. If the flov/ has tripped to turbulent. t]. tbe NrcA 6-series tllickness distrj-butions are not bad. The camber schedule is carefully designed. etc. rr)St of the laninar flow is lost. but is Or=-. !€ se€ that the 64A015 shape has a region of lovr drag betvJeen -4 and +4 de- grees angle of attack. that is. Beyond I 4 deqrees. A1l in all.ard of the airfoiJ. The maxjjrrlrn canlcer in each ai-rfoil i-s about tl:le saIIE. this lo. Airfoil perfornance is neaningless belo* C1=.os. and is especially designed for lanr-inar flctor.I5. except for a few ve-ry high performance airplanes with extrenely high pcner to v. Cc.€f I into the cljjlib range.leratj-on lirlits are not exceeded. Irpst Iight GA airplanes operate at cruise lift coeffj.perforrnance curves. A11 good stuff.\Er with these airfoils.2 and . The perfonnance curves for these tlrtc airfoils is shornn on figure 4. the top of t}le lift curve is flatter.3) instead of being centered on Cf=0. 94 fl-op over the surface. at a.vre need only to slct/ doh/n to the point h'here the acce."est operating CI nrini:rn:rn of C1=. |lexb ccrrEs canrber. and the fLc'vr will once agaj-n revert jrnrEdiately to tanr-inar. and tl. Ttlus. with no increase irt drag. '] . The canber schedule for GA37A3I5 is a nr:dification of another nean l-ine frcrn reference (A).e " Ia. Second.ls. renainhg ccnfortably belov. r.fficult to maintain an!4Jay.rn a1l "GA' airfoiLs. the first thing we notice is that canber produces a sigmficant in- crease of naximum 1ift.er. the maximrm camber is located forh. At higher Reynolds nunbers (higher speeds. and is hardest to maintain beyond the thj-ckest part of the wing.Tparing with fi$Ee 3. Iaminar flovr is easiest to maintain near the front of the air- foil vtrrere tie pressure gradient is highest ( "ncst favorable" ) . a sigrmficant FerforlrEnce advantage.ce lie pay for carbering tie airfoi].rEs softer..05 for both airfoj. Ttre third thing that we notice is ttrat canrbering Iifts the vrhole performance curve (Cl vs cd) vertically upmrds into a nrre usable range of CI. tie lo. This is prirnarily a function of the inj-tial slope of the rEan line ( slope at .ffi'EA-ij@ shonn in figure 2. larger airplanes ) larninar florr is npre dj. or rpving the loading aft.15.8. ho\rever.rnid-point. i. AII other a.r speed.rc obtain the tvp canrnerea airfoils "!o"e. wtrich rnakes ti€fn jjrpractical for nrany applications. to maxjrize the ]-arn- inar run. I€ see tiat our cambered aj-rfoil. and the thick- est part of the wing llas been IIEved as far aft as prasticable. an irn- portant paraleter for good sloH-speed performance. tlctice that the pitch-ing nsrcnt coefficient is no longer zero. Increasing the camber.e so that ue c€n design our airfoils intelligentl-y. cambered Airfoil Performance. and is called the reference (A).Ie.

or t}le drag associated r. but onl. shift to the rear.n. . Anot-Ller effestive technigue is to have a r.A airfo.E canbered airfoils. it is not necessary tiat the taiL lift coefficient be negaLive. nelely ttlat it be l"ess than the wing l-ift cefficient. The fix? I. Cd.rjm drag. But since ne must always locate tie aircraft C. at least three wj. the center of lift (center of pressure ) for carnbered airfoils does not alr^rays remain at the nragic guarter-chord point..onclusions presented herein regarding "trjm drag" or drag associated with trinning out t]. ltrere are thre€ crefficients of airfoil lErfolnEnce.I5) is outrageous. But as tle l-eamed earlier.equaUy jnportant. such as using a long tail length. above hhat rapuld be required for our sl4flretrical airfoil.e airfoil On cc(pletely to zero. It is not necessarl' to reduce t]. so that tie nose of the airp.lAcA sdigit (230rc<) airfoils. OrF-. Don't use thern. ratio horizontal tail. to keep the On as lcnr as possi-ble. holding the tail dcr.lity.Ieast lot i. conclusion? Unless e€ can shctur at . This is a rrErjor critj-cism of the l|A6A 6-series air- foils. so t}te bigger lesson j-s that r*e should always consider the effect of oj fferences in on on airpJ-ane perfornance when ccrnparing airfoils. and using only as rnuch camber as necessary. orrly forr.ijnate1y 5-8 drag counts. other things being equal.ncrease in rnaximum lift frdll cambering the airfoil. an additional pound of li-ft must be generatd by the wing so tllat the swnnation of vertical. the effect of airfoil.On on airplane performance mtst be quantified and not neglected in desigrning airfoils. It does so at the stal]". Ifappi]-y. at slo\^' ftight. Sunnarv. at or near the stall c. which is about I0S of the sectsion drag coeffici-ent. which are aft loaded I an j-nexcusable mistake. wilrLington DE 19808 302/994-0479 3 . and tie infanpus N&sA GAIAI (I^5-1) airfoils. Retrernber also that for every pound of negative lift in the tail. and the Gn of the f.fe put a horizontal taj.s done with the }. the center of lift IIEves reandard.ireigls 1000# and the tail do^.10 is h-igh. and tie c. which are nid-loaded. Ttrere are other th-ings that can be done to ninirtrize trim drag.Is is af t of the r. the wing must generate 1040* total lift. 416 Rilelett Iane. and addl-tive to it. are not invalid.n-load is 40*. CrF-. does ttris.rith trjJrrLing out the pitchlng nEnent of a canbered airfoil. and the additional drag of the wing in producing an increnent of lift egual to tie tail doum-load. Using srmth. the center of pressure of any airfoil approaches tne C/4 point.G.P. but as the angle of attack decreases.ever. As shovrn on fj-gure 5. when designing subsonic (1ight cA) airfoi-ls. For exafiple.at tlle unfortunate cost of degrad"ing safety. negative l-ift in ttre tail surface produces induced drag' *hich adds to the wing d!ag. For ccnparison. But thr-s is not always tj€ case. and Cm.ASA GAI. other things belng egual. the wing lift vector at cruise f or carnbered airf oi.€rd-loaded nean lines.forces rernains zero. forward-loaded nean lines.ng chord lengths long.y to keep the On as lcnr as praclicable.05 is lovr.. follcwirg the C. should be used for csrnon subsonic C. Revised 5/I7 /95 Ha. as on tie Iancair rV and the Cessna 210. especially with aft-loaded 3irfoils. provided that the nuny olher factors affecting horizont-al stability contribute in a favorable (stabilizing) direst:-on. Disclaj-ner. vse also see that it behooves us. fi-gure 5 shcr*s that the trim drag at cruise is appro). Retracting the landing gear to the rear does this. to rnillinrize Gr. so kle have a balgain.l surface on the airplane to react the pitching nE(IEnt. Hou.Eight vesEor. so vte see that t. wind tunnel force neasursnents are now ccnnrcnly taken with pressure rakes rather than old-fashioned spring scales...il de- signs. A high aspeqt.P. and the airplane has a nose-dc'rrn pitching tendency. the increase in Clnax for our airfoils is about 30t. for satisfactory horizontal aircraft stability. also creates induced drag. considelably greater thEn the drag increase of 10t. surface also helps. which is norrnally the lrrcst crit- ical conditron for longitudinal stabj.CI.. For our tr.Jorth it. airfoils (npre than -.eight shift to the rear at cruise.the induced drag of the tail.. it isn't r. if the airplane r. For exarple. has trrc cc([Dnents. 95 Ttjfi Draq.5) nean line of reference (A). Ttris paper is adnittedly a sfuplified explanation of airfoil lnrformance and design.Iane will drop at the stall. rrrhich r.Al-so.a. such as the NACA (0. Ttris additional 40+ of fift.rry Riblett.e wing Qn.

16Ed (nre". 5Y--c'.L rtrr.r ae *.oe {/ t- LA'NI'\../ r-t.\L s.o'. r'5 NA1A (..te'b Retca* v. BuL E*r ' -9r'€ 4u.. D ilr.JG o{.'41 .r-vt 6!'!€Ji iy€ .r.4 Aott il\.LS.16r (. A.r.'trL Fl(t C rr.tt* 96 -".h. R.vr) Y Y<_ )1 ." ?th1- .o< Ru.^ Laa. tt..EF fl< _ LrnrN^q Tvti Lrlsjg6__&:af ) 5 f. cid! to.< -y_' ranrn4fl' Ruv e Crurrr.L5 .". 481.'1. -lL = 10.rri(. ...AA 'YP' € jr..O A rr.. o.Rio. q sa4rE ( I L.Fa.

l 3la l <U x il il ! s.. !l >ll- .r! r E :tol F 9 rq :l ilEI {l . F ol r! .. .1 3l rl :il .l .rl rl rt it r43 *l .: br . 97 :a € q '.t i r..

t1' r/..5PA^r c( l_r -\o' ..t-r .il I rA'. r'f-c.. cf.-FrCreUi = C F[q 5 '-- i Il-..il\ I -tA''- € [\\"' f NA.\c-r.D P't^!T L0 . t.oo | .F.4'-i)l- = ___..o t.r ) ..i 7.. x I '+( = "-(+) Acq 2-{rl I Sro N I 8< '{ Jt o 3o rt l- r?5 r! Qu a ereA.. .------l- -l no r..rl-'r\ '..' i:-..:f{.:+.' rlt_l 1- t! .?.^l{.= cF'i-.. air.\:rl\.Sa ( .o.+ l..6 ).4 .:.A z4tt I Il. P..z 't-.'. i l..q ..}\^riIrl"lq'- t.062D ll. Lerare' Jq .f. V.+ I.Lo c.o-o'--- "n / i-.* .60 tO ( \\ '.'l *Dr + 'r ltt.o .t z.'l A'R' = 6 ---i | searv = NtNl.fl {s c- 4.oQ.-c.'.- .. 98 .'''rN. oool I i-_.-.ti-^l II. .j v L D .rr..o L)tT CO€.'j* I |t.c -'[".b t.A l..-{ 1. | ll .

Figure I sho\ds a tabulat.ere t@ thin.l-so that the Pi. of tie nore sucessful air- planes (P-38. The nexc to last specimen uses a 23013/43010 ccnbination. tapered. a r. is a partial listing of representative planes frcn the I930's. Dc-3. and NACA'S design of the tapered sestions was a rnf. including: 1. and the tabulated test results . and is not due to the planform taper.nunEntal mistake. and unfortunately the test results are contarninated by the effest of these tr.ion of the strEcurEns used during these tests. and to preserve ail-eron c. ADDSNDUM NLD4BER 2- 99 Deslgn ltotes for Tapered wings !.ustrates the NACA con- cl-usion that "rectangular wings stall first at the wing roots and tapered !. l.. rather drastic llEilsures are needed. but it uses an odd (eUiptical) planform. root ard tip. This sketch is especially botherscme. 18t. IZt. Fign:re 4. UnforEunately. if they had tested a 2415/2415 sampLe for exanple.manche. for both the 24>o< and the 23olo( sections. Eonanza ) did not fall for the trap of using 9t thict( tj-p sec- tions.all t}. onl-y ( the l-ast specirren has the sanE per cent thickness at the root and tip.ckness of l5t. Evidently.lhen designing a taperd wing airplane. there is absolutely no reason ever to use a tip thickness Iess than 12*. Prmf of thrs is shor*n on figures 2 and 3.l-y. of t]. and 1950's. to ccrnbat these "bad tip sta1l characteristics" of tapered wings. as shom by figure 7. follcrvring NACA'S psr exarple.Iote the sketch of the initiat stalf dlstributions predicted by l. and then even nrcre uashout.n 1954. designers have teen guided (at least partj-ally ) by a series of taP- ered wing tests conductsed on turbulent secti-ons at NACA I-angley in the rn-id-1930's.l-d be used? Hj-storically.IACATS reccnnendation. and to desigin accordingly. Note tJee ill-advised use of 9t thick tip sections on nany of tlrese ccnrrDn airplanes. !et's look a Iittle cJ. Incredulous. but used 12t tip sestions.ficant airpfane. P-5I.rings stall ' first at tl-e wing tips".ontrary to NACA'S conclusj-on. rrras a historically si-gnj. with 2/I planform _taper ratio. Therefore. such as use of considerabl-e rrrashout. generations of aeronaut- ical.hoLe generation of tapered wing airplanes was built with wing tips that r^. The bothe. OK.e rest have the same canlDer.lote a. Neverthel-ess. Itote that the thj-n (9t) tip sestions stall about 3 degrees ear.Lso sholnm on figr:re I. a1I but tLlc tEve a t thickness taper frsn a r@t thj.students have been conditioned to accept these resuLts as gospel. distribution is the sane]for a straight rectangular Hing.per PA-2+ cc. supposedly. desigrned i. benign.l. the mlst efficient 'secLion thickness in tenns of naximum L/D is LzZ.d test the tHo variables separately. they rrculd have seen the locaLion of the illilral stalf shrft to the wj-ng tips. c. or use of sections with rore camber at the tips. c€urtesy of I'lr.nscrre aspect is that the planform differences betrnteen the straight and tapered wilgs are not so great as to account logically for the n'Erked differences in the location of initial stall reported by I{ACA. except for sarple #22. or 20t to a tip tiickness of only 91.ra variables ccrnlcined. Hctur much t\.hence. Further. It is also interesting to note that a fe!e.lhat taper ratio and what aspest ratio sbou.lACA ( erroneously ) assurEd that the preferred way to build a tapered wing is to taper both the pladorm and the per cent thickness. l. It is curj-ous (and unexplained' tllat NACA never dj. D/pj-cal performance curves are a. since it il.ontrol tlEoughout the stall? 3. In fact. hodever. the spanwise location of the rnitial stal1 j-s pri:narily a function ot the per cent thickness change frcrn root to tip. casting considerabfe doubt on the conclusions. especial-Iy concernj-ng [Er cent thickness? 2. contrar)' to I. ltre ccnnonly acceptd washout recqrrrEndation is about 3 degrees.€pt- back wings". in addition to the planform taper.d have found tllat the initial. !. l. that twist reduces t}le overalL efficiency of ttle wing. 1940's. that il nrrre canrber at the thinner ) tip. the designer is faced with certain choiees. f68.statl.lhat airfoil secbions should be used for the root and tip sections. with . that is.rist (washout ) should be put in the wing to protect the wingtips frcrn prenEture stall.l-ier than the thicker /raot) sections. Flrther. if they had tested a straj-ght pLanform wing with a per cent thick- ness change frcm root to tip.lACA for "restangular. ceorge Copland of Duncan.e 22 specj:rens tested. thus. they reoul. htrich has an odd planform that further contaninates the data. for it "broke the ncld" by using only planform taFer with no [E! cent thickness taper. and sr. in spite of the fact. !.oser at the test s1=cimens used in the IiACA tests.

and high-perfornEnce E€ech ncdels (see frgure 6) continue to be buj-lt with thln wing tips. As the angl-e of attack increases further.r solution. unnecessarily causing control prob. the optimun thi-ckness in terms of best L/D. ho^rever.file around. resulling in a separation bubbl-e on the top sLrrface. rn sunnary I for turbul-ent wings. I{ote. if the speed drops tcrl lorr- (King Air crash € l... uproving safety. vortex gen. as r.I the separation bubbl-e suddenly expands to cover the entire top surface.rorlds".. For many years thj-s airfoj. and the section leverts to its lop--drag profile. Ijnlited only by structural.consid_ eraLions .Le frcrn formrng.l-etns and ccrnprcrnising safety. For Laminar wings. ttarry Riblett . due to the additional problsn of sha-rp statl cha-racterj-stics of the 230)0( airfoil-s. use of additional canber at the tips is not needed. l-2s.gher the better. the vc's are instaued at l-0t of chord just before the discontinuity at 158 of chord. The 230xx carnber profil-e has a discontinuity (ki-nk) in at at 158 chord.e have seen.lift c-onditions are unlikely to develop. At lc.thout tlrc disadvantage of the bubbl.rators have been used to rmprove this situation. at higher angles of attack. A flapped section starls at a loler angle of attack than the sanE sesti-on unflapped.' other things being equa1. Ttrj-s forces the flo. In vierrr of this. but also lq.nbination is especially j-11-advised. Snal-Ier tip chords rEan $naller tip losses. Regarding aspect ratio. dangerous sLalJ-. ratios betr.s is done. They function by creati-ng a thi-ck ' turbulent ( energj-zed ) boundary layer i-nrnediately aft of ttre VG's.l-s are used that have forward road-ing and lead:-ng edge dr@p. The resul-t was a very docile ai4ll-ane. particularly with regard to the use of soft staLl airfoils. Of course a higher taper ratio (2/l) alsi tras a structural advantage since it pernLits a greater spar depttr at the root for a given per cent root thickness. 100 no washout in the wi-ngs.. the cips should not be Less than lzt thick. is greatly reduced. that this specijnen enjoyi tro distj-nct advan- tages over the other specjrEns. Also rerernber that the vc's are not a parurcea for aI} air- foils' but rather a sg=cific crutch for the poor features of the 230>o< airfoiLs. foU-c'\^Ed by reattach(Ent before the no. as stated above.f provides pro- tegtion against tip stall-s. a higher taper iatio may permit use of a lo"rer per cent root thi. cccntcn taper ratios go frcm about 3/2 to 2/I. For twin engine airplanes. one finaL ccflnrent is needed regarding l{AcA sarple *22.nnal trailing edge separation.nereO=epar- snape (nore lift) than with the bubble. so tllat assynretrical. to selErate at that point. nor is vring twist. we vDnder if the legenda-qr rnystique of the ellipti. the Pattached sec- tion gets shorter and shorter unti.zD beer*een ]2t and l5t thick sections. to herp the engine-5ut situafion. 'Itle 23015/23009 cc.anrcunt of drag frcrn the vc's' but overal'L this is a very good guick fix. the hj.€r ttn.8I) of any tested. and ai-rfoil section performanci drops ofi at J.filmington 5/2/93. and if nrcdern sections such as GA airfoi. rf thj. i-n spite of the re. This slrcirnen has the Lrighest CLmax (I. angles of attack. Fig 5 del) Recent1y. The added thickness of this separation bubbfe on the top of the wing causes the wing to act as if it were thicker and nrere ir-ighly canbered (high li-ft) at high angles of attack. the bubble disappears.reen 6 and l0 . Unfortunately. it is r+et1 to renrenrber tllat a ve4/ short tip chord reans a 1on' Reynords nlrnber at tlre tip. and is aclordingiy often cited as proof of tlle " inherentLy superiority" of the Lltiptical planform over t-l-re uni- forrnly tapered planforms. ana tfris in itsel.aiforan". the above recqlnEndations are especially applicable. Alternativery.r was touted as "lnving the best of both r. Regarding planform taper ratio. preventing ttie ation bubb. This is bad enough on singre engine airplanes. the tip sta11 probrsn is eurrlinated. as shc. Ttre Price is a slightly ]-orarer cruj. notice that uEre is litt1e difference in L. or at least. wi. htlich is.Tl-ris causes the airfLsd. hor"ever.c&r Re)mords nurnbers. such as the Venture.Llably into the dead engine.l-atively lovr gecnEtIic camber of the section. ( sharp stalfi. Malibl. too rnany nndern airpJ-anes. of course the bette.ckness (15t vs lgt) for letter i/n**.wn on fign:re 6. is to use nDdern soft-sta}l airfoils not subiecL to the separation bubbl-e probl€rn.cal planform is justified.r into an even rpre frl-gUy ca.4/I8/I994 .it has a unique high-fift secLion (4412). Figure 3 sholrs the mechanisn of this sharp.v. AsIEct. thus r5t thick tip sections are preferred.rre ccnnErn for porered. but ttre disadvantage is a dangerously sharp stall. next ti. ltlus it i-s best not to taper the wings tcro much. with the erliptical plan- form. and in addition it has the same per cent ttrickness root and tip. resufting in a sudden toss of lift.se speed due to the srnall. but on twin engine airplanes with one engine out the airprane miy slap-ro1l suddenly and unc€ntro.

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0005 bottcrn classair C.A!{-.2 64A210 wittrrEn Tailwind 4309 top.ane Root IiP l4ilitarv Lockhe€d P-38 Lightninq 230J5 44L2 BeIl P-39 Aircobra 00I5 23009 Cureis P-40 l.sna 210 64A215(a=0.yi-ng ForEress 00L8 0010 Consol idated B-24 Liberator Davis Davis ctlrtis-Vgright c-46 23017 4410.5 23AL2 B€€ch Skipper GAlr-l Ces. wheeler D(press.!) Cessna 310 23018 23009 Cessna 337 Skymaster 24L2 2409 Cessna 402 23018 2300 9 Cessna 500 Citati-on I 23014 23012 Piper PA-2$ ccnrmnche 54A215 SanE. 23015 23009 Hcnpbuil-ts Fal-cp F-8 64-272 54-210 Questair Venture frcrn t4alibu ( ) 23017 23010 I-ake Buccaneer 4415 4409 Bushby I{idget Mustang 64}'.Appl-ications Airpl. Prescott Pusher NLF( I ) -0215F l.' l.5 Douglas c-47. DC-3 2?L5 44L2 Ccrrnerci-a1 culver Cadet 34L4 3408 plus sJ-ots Ryan Navion 4415 6410 Beech tdel 35 Bonarza 23016. no twist Piper fA -?t ch€rokee 65-415 Piper /d -rg runairar"t GAI^I-I l4ilsubishi MU-2 6/lA4t5 63A2L2 Gnnnan Goose . 103 Airfoil.4odif ied Pul-sar lrs ( 1)-0313 Jones lihite Lightning 66-21s 66-215 lhorp T-I8 53-412 lbdified trtGUAe 4- .l.lcdif ied Lancair.lalrhavrk 2209 l{orth Arnerican P-51 Mustang 63-215 plus strake 66-2r2 Chance Vought F4U Corsair 23018 23009 Boeing B-17 FJ.5 ) 64A412(3=a.

and whefl the air. For more information regarding these tendency for the controls to become mushy is eiiminared. 310A. vodex generaton afford.2tool YtP Boundary l-ayer Research and The Twin Cessna Flyers have fact.ol sur. Handling characreristics are dramaticaiiy Kits are available for rhe Cassna: 310. "a perfect rnarch" in that it allows BLR ro concentrale on the faces at low speeds aod high angles ofattack. and there are two srrakes which are atlached Cessna Flyers the €xclusiye marketing rights for the kits. iiii?sby inodel. efforts witi a.n organization thar has dirccr conuct with over 7000 This "re-energizing" causes the airflow to remain attacbed thus twin Cessna opemtors. while it pisces the marketing cnft yaws. In kjls conract: Th6 Twin Cessna Ryen ar (800) 825-5310. 310C. Amazingly. improved.r. A)ecry. 104 clssNA3l0voRIEXGENrRAToRs tJAcA tsatg R'k. this is all done with a kit thar mpft adds less than one pound !o the weight of the aircraft. oo the outtroard side ofthe ergine raceiles. . ArR &oaR€st AUGUST 1SS4 27 . VC equipped aircralt rnaintain full aileron control teamed up tro bftig e3rly model Cessns 310 ownels the advaltages response all the way *uough a stall. the saall is deiayed alld actually becomes much more dociie Inslallation of the kit can reduce Vmc bv as much as 20 when it does occur. the According to Bob Desroche. and 310F. BLR aad are attached to the lpper lading edge of &e wings.3i08./ ts TAUKC (a {. PrcSidenr of BLR. !p bo& sides The Twb Cessna Flyers came to an a€reement granring The Twin of the venical fin. development of new products. $'hich increases the angle of attack of the vefiical fia. Afier Boundary Layer Research @LR) The kits consist of a series of small aluminum exrusioos rhat developed the kits for the Cessna 3 1 0 &rough the 3 i 0F. Over simpiified. the rclationship is vonex generators "re-energize" &e airflow over the con0. rhe 310D. 3108. Low speeds conrol response remains positi\'c.

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etc-).I5c is a straight 1ine.r) methods tllat carl be used to soften the notoriousl-y l-narpstaff of the neCA 23012 airfoil. the carnber profile of the !F6 in the first 60tC is conventional ' ho\^r- ever. and the nrcst widely used of these 5digit airfoils is the ubiqui- tous and infanrcus I'IACA 23012 airfoiL. and they can usually G-i-pt"""O by adding a sITEIl anpun! of leading edge d"rmP ' Arrf oils of the second . There are t\^D tl/pes of airfoils that have sharp statlsr tllose with too u.8tc Iocated at the l-5tc position. with no conventional camber.le will not achieve true twin-engine reliability in prop-dri-ven twins untit h. Knq.irfoil Wilmington. ard chose to ignore it. the result of tJris is an airfoil. as long as the GIl is kept reasonably lcrhr by nEderately fo4rard loading. causing accidents such as described in figure 2.. hokever increases total induc€d drag. sirtce there is no negative canber jn the air- foil.ever the fact renains that the camber profi. thus the only camber in tl:-is airfoil is in the first 15t of the chord length. the nean line aft of . 1935 (see figure I). It is l2t thick. or alter- nativeJ-y an upper surface build-up (reprofiling).l-e camber in t-ire Ieading edge.ls are bad enough on single engine airplanes. [. sudden unccnmanded and uncontrollabl-e upsets occur at relatively high vlo'lc. Exarp. IIO.l-es of tJre fj-rst group incluae nDSt synrnetrical sections.'cefficient Eemains high and the induced drag is loi^r. wtlich MCA TR#537 failed to d. soft stall- wind tunnel. 3 nar"v niurett 1 07 ADDn{DUI'1 /il6 Rib'en Lane (Irl/JtlI995)Tandnq trre sharp stal] of Lhe NACA 23012 A.vely kj.l's . but on prop driven twini with one engine out these aj-rfoils are especially letha1.test results of the "ns^.tt. vtlc is much ]o$.er. separation frcm the very leading edge at the stall-. Based on the faets ttlat 2301-2 shc. with soft-stal.4t due to the faulty "slope and radius" nrethod of leadil]g edge design used on all of tjte I'IACA airfoi. that is. with Peak camber of 1.. DE 19808 30?934-0479 Srnnnarv.'/ing wllat r.th the first 15t bent do. airplares any'\r'Jay. effectj. rrie can describe the airfoil as bejlg the DiACA 0012 sYrlretrical secaion wj. and l-olv-carnbered air- ioi:"! such as ttre.lling the nosedcnn pitching nE(Ient by applying a dcarnload on the trail- ing edge of the airfoil ( figure 9). l€ also discuss the nechani-sm of the stail on ttris airfoil. 23012' are sr. and in addition the roll tendency is control. and Cd no greater than the 0012 syrnetrical section. Fr:rther. thrs was noted briefly in Table II Airfoil Data of IR #537. follorn'ing tie r. 44L2. HouJever.l-ater 11gcA 64-212.rere designed ana esiea.nrnarized in t{AcA IR *537 of l{Ey 7 . but with the rnaxjmum camber placed unusually far forward. the airfoil has a terrible sh..prk on the 4digit airfoif series . SlErp sta11 airfoj. Iartdch is not a necessity for conventional. These airfoils experience ccnPlete and suoa* rlo'.issuss.rol authority near vtIE due to the effect of a "blovtn surface" aft of the operating engine .4415. NACA pronounced this airfoil to be "markedly superior to l€ll-knovm and cc6rpnLy uSed sectj-ons'.lable.rFstall characEeristic.driven twins are ljjrlited by Iateral cont. and reduces Clnax. Discussion. NACA aducted a series of tests on airfoils related to the 4-di-git airfoils ( salre thickness distribution).ras to see if the aj-rfoil Gn cDuld be reduced to zero. The [&-6 achieved zero cln by reflexing ( negative carrber ) the nean line frcrn . This paper discusses t'. the nEximun lift c. ho/. ProP. Anyhc'vr. rather ttEn tl]e usual 40tC Fosieion us€d on nDst of the pozufax 4-digit airfoi-ls Q4I2. as soon as they learned of the bad stalL characteristic of the sdlgit airfoils.mward5 (lc:ding edge droop ) approxirrrately 1-8t.. Actually.e knod today ' 'e realize tlEt NACA. the effective drmp is only about l. and that i-s its domfall. and explain wlly additional leading edge droop is ineffect- tive for i:rproving the stall on this airfoi-I." zero-on ai-rfoit. these " zero on" airfoils !.with shatp-stal-l airfoils. this.le of this airfoiL consists of leading edge drmp only. Accepting the sharp stall rnerely to achieve zero Gn was a Poor trade-off. cdrpared to the best knorvn previous zermn airfoil-. So IIACA knevr of the existence of the sha-rp staU. Accordingly. use of vortex generators.60c to the trailing edge. and those with too much cafiber in the leading edge. In fasE. l'4ax ltur)l('s 1924 |+6. so the M-6 des have a nice.with near-zero Pitch- ing nErrcnt coefficient (Gn). shoul-d have terafnated the project.e get rid of these sharp-sta1I airfoils. and reccnnended its wide usage in glorn'ing telrn5. very lol Gn.LEd a nEderately high Clmdx. The ob ject of the tests r.I airfoils. In the mid-I930 ' s. sharp stall airfoils are the rnaior reason that cA light twin fatality rates ironically exceed the fatality rates of GA ]ight singles.

or tanrse thar.a shaq) loss of 1ift. Anotier airplane that uses the 4301X airfoiLs is the Ftench ATR-72 twin turbo"- prop c:cnmuter. one exception is Fred l^Jeike's " Etcoupe" ( NACA 43013). holrever on this arrplane the elevator travel. 4301X Airfoil-s. and tlEt story does not tEve such a happy ending. reducing the discontinuity in the nean line at tbat point. is ljrnited so that the stall angle of attack can never be reached. for the basic probJ-ern rguins. experj-ence ccnpl-ete flo* sepa. Ttre ice ridge forms at the very spot on the airfoil. the resul-t is the sane. the 43013 was a strange choice for this airplane. Furttrer.nt near the end of the leading edge droop. As stated above.l2C in the case of the 23012. which is the nrajority of the fle€t. and should be reguired on all twin-engine prop cqnnuters using 5-digit airfoil-s. vffren ccrnbined with the already terrible stall charactseristic of the airfoil. such as a "cA" airfoj-l. The "fi. Another possi-ble way of acccrplishing ttrc sane fix is to reprofile the wings. Ttrese interirn fixes should be used until the t'IAcA 5-diqit ai-rfoil-s cbn . l. tius the tlc State/l{AsA fj:< on the "Venture" airplane (figure 8) is a poor solution lo the prob. usually acccnpanj-ed by loss of lateral control. nor the problan.09c. frcm a poj. The ice ridge is aggravated by tlre strange ptacglrent of the vortsex generators on the ATR 72 wing. Ivlodern c-onstant- velocity airfoils do not have this suction peak.10c. the 230IX airfoils. 3. and aLso raises the ]anding speed of the airplane.ration on t}re toP su-rface at the stall.<". since here the tsrperature depression frcm adr-abatic expansion and cooling is the greatest. the zero-lift Gn renains about the saITE.Ling on production airplanes.characteristics as bad as or vrorse t-lnn the 23012. but with twice as rm:ch leading edge droop ( figure 9).al such as foam and glass. in spite of ttre increased sestj-on thickness. the I{ACA s-digit sestions cannot be inproved by adding leading edge droop. so top speed is unaffected.Is. 5. and a hysteresis loop reguiring a substantial decrease of angle of attack ( wrth considerable altitude Ioss ) before attached flc'vr can be re-established. Arrfoils of tfre second group cannot be irnproved by adai ng leading edge drrcp. For exanple ' adding npre droop to the 230]2 airfoil results in t}Ie 33012 or 43012 ai.Len.on drag astuafly decreases. Ttris fix is cheap and effective. ircluding ?3OI2. at about . filling rn tie lor. is nrerely a bandage. don't forget that that single enging airplanes with 5-digit airfoils can benefit frcrn tj:-is as rrell. The stall is as bad as. so it is not a good solution to the problsn.one effecLive and proven rrEthod is to install a cqnplete span-wise array of vortex generators on the top surface at alout . Still. t}le better soluti"on aerodlmarnically is to discard the ?3012 airfoil crcrTplete. wi-th both nptal and ccrPosite wj-ngs. soft-stall airfoil. Horever. Fortunately. In october 1994 a crash occurred at Roselar. a direct result of the NACA 4301X airfoj. forfidng a very effective' spoiler. due to the prcnption of Iaminar flovr.F-gn.\rtrere a pronouncd suction peak exists ( figure 7). The NACA 4301X airfoils are the sarrE as the 2301x airfoi.rfoils./4 inch high j-ce ridge forms on the top surface at . and use a rndern lol. Indiana kitling a1I 68 people on board.l-y. longer de-icer bcots.r sFot aft of the leading edge droop on the top surface with soli-d materj.e dive. uncontrollable roll-over and irrec'cverabl.en. since they al-ready have too much droop. Of c-ourse. tll]is causes a considerable loss of efficiency at high spce d. frcm wird tunnel data ( check it out). discouraging flol separation. Ttlese function by fi11in9 in the "low sFot" on the wing dch/nstrean of the vcrs with a thickened boundary layer of energized turbulent ai-r. This is quite cqrrrDn on experinental (hcnebuilt ) aj. and 6 describe this nethod. Fign:res 4. horever. (Fiq. that is. and these have stall.rplanes. I suspect that any jjrprovenent of the stall in this case is nereJ-y the result of the consj-derable aerodlmaruc twist that was introdticed into the wing by this fix. Ttris nerr profi-le could also be used to nlcdj-fy existing t@.Is used on that airplane ( figure I0). 108 group. Conculsions. AIso. the 4301x airfoils are rarely used. delered).I'itut is re- quired is to ease the cransition frcrn the leading edge droop to the rest of the rlean Iine. As confirned by sub- sequent in-flight spray tests a 3. delaying the tip stal-l. this caused an unccnnanded.lotice that the secej.

416. !. 1932. or r!. f. A. T. y. : a ..dt !9 O .o"r1il" need. 109 ITRTOILS ILII'L\G ?EX I.Irted -Urfoii ScctioD! froE T€srs i-b rbc !'t!iEble". as fnror. LstEaD li.A.Y FI. ""-tJ.:rotr-e.. c.C.).r.d i! r r. Jrcobs.. th.rr'!bn d-I!..i$f.J.-'-_j_ \-A. -rrEi! * . \o.Furrbermore.n.irfoils o.A-. -{. C.!a d.... : --:.@iJ 3r .rlro! ". A. J..{.unoraurrcs.itb otber ref ered airfoiis. c. J^cob6.r" ! =. 2.1 6.'l AERoliAvrrcal. lDd _{bbott.ristics ot ?g R.R FORW.--.\.: Tbr Cbr.:' ..g .q) .Especio.t .I(BEA ST-OSI]ALI.'.oa 16 rol. Tb. gste erceptioDolly lor+.co.@i5 r0 ir ro _-. lo"r"""r."q"fiog a "figl.A l2 2i itif . . 0012. rDd pi. . '-* ---- .ltD.b.lt. sji. ? g .ri.!r lula n.J3"f.s los as thst of tbe correspondiag simple mean-line air{oi.-{..b ]"El 15 _1.rcba. C.t9 6. ''. 460. li..''"t{r .. TABIJ II. rr d. I Clrg-6at:nn r De r---r tl irr lbdrE a!.H :Sl j.r./ / .u.: Ch. . rrccr o l-afi. lou pitchiDg EoDeDt- -{ con:parison of tbe N.er firr.n.rbl-r s. pitching moment thllc tbe g30l?.r. the r*.rict. .. other secrions of tbis gtoup.i'ilt"i 'iu I Tubul. a.cn loou. -\-.6 . TO.rr !!.I.cno dl|tllr&BE I "* -o. t t-or ot i-r.li-ue foras possess aooroxi- N.0 . 1933.llv notevrortby is AEFENENCES the ven r0uch loEer pitchiag moment produced b-. The angle of zero lift and the pitchirg moment.XITU){ C.Deasit-" Wiaa tumd.o8 !!.. C. f $i. E. the N. Lesonaron):.6i --. _- TJre anolysis of ihese chorts o'Dd the" dstr of toble I!gre.ss.9e^neraU5. C. i.< . -{. N. R._AIRFOII. A.'1..t t. -{.. the niainum drng is BotI the rueasured aod theorelicsj curves for tle procticrll_v o.1311.uring"a ot Dormal positions possess improved characreristics. : _ ! i ' t j < < dl*r: i i c' . Iult- *dl I'erirble-Dcasitr Tuoaele.!. rsr N loJ-3 ro r..H ill ift ii ii. I $ 1 .rFtcl. 2lOt2 aad 29012 baringL e.rpDu.af. i: i 4 f f tS :H it$ lI il l" . ETlDel li.t r._l :iB :.. soElesb!. 3.l|t ..Etrenon. Ir hos a hish ma_rimum hft and a lor l9*". ( }IACA TR 537 ) r.. qrblilh. -- -. A.Ir. C.Ccc! EtAt)Qc I .ND <.. Vtiable'Deo:ity lfild Truael. C.ApvtsorI Conyrrrrr ron _A.ffijgr6 t!'r Ert !' I _ p. Tbe simple meenJi_oc rirloils terlstics over well-knorrn and commonl. A. ol!d.i$*-. ifr . of 'nan5 foils corerirg r range of carn ber locations lorro. altbouqh co[rDlr. :'.t. R.' Ler.rr wur *r..!ts i.1 ?r\ . attributed to tb€ dif€r€nce betweeD th€ forms.* ii i * i l* . liae.i..D tb. ro. pitcbiag DoDeDts.I iii \ :ii #. \fillirm C. 1-e. Itard.er_.. ig jlfi .eooerb E.iJ-"'cam_ bered section of modernte thicl:ness f.No. Robert trt. E-!riD.: Tbe .u. . Easroao \. ntrtel_v tbe same lift and drag characteristics.^:tnri ^ ^-. uJ. to! E!'.latioos. trlay 7.26 12 z.D.. tbe airfoils 1. rod Cl. -{.1''2.risticr of tbe N.sucb IJ shor that tbe reflesed !-irfoils.irs .r!.5o.wiFii $pir itrii +i :lg:x :miit i: *a*il imllr tl fij i-lStSli::: :l St/i t$ til i.-_tio" LexcLsr ME}ronl. SJO. A. Ira.m.'-c. T./ /u/. are quite di{fereut. 24 012 .ittr the \.r: _..ir..25 Il u 23 ao i:i:s:itlli:: . lhrs clo. -(') i . sbo'uld supply thc the simple meaali-oc uitt"ils_ f*tf. tt."usi@ b. reported herein.il :lj iil iil ii . despo calcu. -applicarions .a. l.Dord 1.230f2 Airfoil from T..r used s.the theorelical vaiues bss€d on the mear 1". C. JTobs. C...!! arr. ilg.. DAT-A. ''i . moheDt. These airlofu harbg rhe same -.- Betrjcal oirJoil.!rir. t3cror a 2 6t .-rrP6 "gP.r. . R. 2912 i-Ddicates the differea""s'tba.d &5 r i.cr./r jtrj:ff"crr'srdcadod 4-n'e h. cr.2 a5 0.m ! I rrb or hlr{urr.a.rd ^r'.1'..ls are given in fgrLre t6. r-o. tloD but difl'erent Des'!.A. t935.. rrlb rb.l D€r! ior ljr.lc..t0 .

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i:rl) f.91f.195 6.e< vo s ---=- o. t. 5.477 7 -7rtj B.wa [2to'z. c.181 I (:).oprd!.i 51:).911 8.tA)it4'4 B"'.. + - . 4Lt7 a 11. (_i r:) 6 . 668 I i:) _ 55(_r 1(. i.. B.J .l .C . I h'/ 6.) i..1tZ ( faP SezeAce. 9l(:) /.9u{} 5 .r.1- z.44 9. O' t. 4.ao.{l1 :-uF if.5 _ i:. {:r ij trl 1aa ( 1{1. 954 9..ar) . (-)59 !I.668 11. ?4{ ) 8.-3hal9t ^JAcA llar 95 NACA Reprof i I e ?f.li. 15. 111 UPPFR SURFACE REPRO TIUFl ?'3oxK Ar(F-orLs A3. (-) (:J 5. 5(:){) a.: .:. g9(:l 6. 949 . {_lr:) 4. 2?.I91 1(1. . + ttpqEk 3oaFA. 4?1.(:) 1 O-UF if. 99 I 55.11{.841 ll.) 6i:1.. .lL At. 6A: L97t-) s.to.e^ A L.-J-:'/ ?5. i)i:t I ..-. 581 :. 94? . i_)(:.5 75-t)ti ..D-u/ = t. 45i:r a. ijTi 1r:r. 69r:) Fth. (:) r:) 3.i .de 4 qte I 2a*.t. 1 .: L.(J 1 5-UP ?:(i l7-LtF :f.()q' 2..^.. {-r r-.r V G.../E Xd. O(:r l : over (-lr:) 1? tap ord l: LrF €rd lop ord lop ord top ord 4 . 564 1 . I E(.9?5 7 . ?? I f.1 4. 628 7.). 4?{:r 8.91.O54 4.. {.rfC v N€ u.518 ?{-i.LE 'llcA zto.?9f. qgr i 4.i](l 5.658 trr_). rl?f.767 1rl. (1(:) 3. 4:r{:) 7. /tt A.47i 6.9BO 1 {:) . l cri:) {-r.(118-LJF:.c..) 1 .'t Ra._. boE 1 I .c R€t. -i41 c.6i. 644 11-611 45. ?60 7.421 _:Cff) 1r:) .814 9. P. {19{:) 7(l) .r{)i-r 6.478 4(:). f. 8.6 I t.46t s.4?1 9.

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p.17 Dr ec.OOZ FLAF' . DEGREES DEFLET $.: z3ot1- i -.e *lc . NAcn LSorL Ar&Fott y'e.4._. y(t6 . OO E.lg.. or r 36 . L.? :i ''o-t l"te'-"iilrz-rs94 _r Ar.r yJo RrE) V -7" t.6J '.^ 113 . ?Ol ABOVE ANGLES OF ATTACF: 7.a4rrc cea.i-ol: iiu*l.er ?.hil.. . .ff FRS"I4ce) l/€uc rrz.o o //c LSo tz. oo oO 3..^a B!. oo s.--.__.-|rF tr j :: .n.a1' {5:'..NE9atttE ?rE rsure cA/s€s r<t^'6 OEAI< @ .3o... :ai* . oC.O.o. !.u P A tR rorc (Repaae.ceo .n. oe C ous io Aqr.937.u p tl 4 Vo l.' ..t .* t. 'EHI'uF.Fr_ t.i- . t fi. AIRFOIL lzl-rp hnaRati 13.#+---iffi (43o.THrct{NESs .:._r.

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and predictable pitch break . Th6 ffi Basic Wi. Stall Pattem w h hboaftf Sla[ Strips .ASPECT RANO WIiIG While prcviding significant bsn€fits in cruis€ and climb.'tt. roll damping . siil . t'. Droop net result ii increased stall Leadlrp Rtge Orcop Aorodynamics departur€ rssistanc€ due to the improv€d._:r -: STATE UNIVERSITY @. the r€sutting aircraft pitch_do*n firiis th€ useable litt ot the wing. This is achieved by th€ introduction ot increas€d leading edge camb€r and augmentation ol the energy within the boundary layer crealed by a vortex which torms at the discontinuous the wing/droop intsrs€ctiori.. the higfi aspect ratio wing .j" to rt J inconsistencies in rhs grow{h ot irs muttipL ti' r+' cells..r:a : ENHANCED WING DESIGN FOR STALL DEPARTURE RESISTANCE I THE HIGH . 115 Ttris is qarbage NORTH CAROLINA . STALL STFIPS Stall strips ar€ widsly us€d to force inboard separation b€tors the stall celts fully develop.E - LE. THE LEADING EOGE OBOOP The design philosophy behind rh€ NaSh teading edge droop is to provid€ a 'passive" davice which Vonex delays th€ outboad separation well beycnd the point at which it would Separated Flor normally occur. - ."qrir"i *i" design considaralion at stali ol.tlo= (t-- .' ta' tfri' However.

0 1.5 05 0. The slots gonerate additional vortices which act to provent the progr€ssion of the primary sta cell.5 oloops E Slotr -+ -1.0 0.o d.d math.0 -t-0 . the combination of stots and droops allow more ol the wing to attain anached flow to high€r angtes of anack Ouestair Venlura Droop/Slol D€siEn . Thus. Fla9s . A conservative droop is coupled with a pair of chordwise leading edge slots.ps . Olaop oesbn O.Ct ALPHA .gr. O THE VENTURE DROOP/SLOT DESIGN Designed at North Carolina State University ancl wind tunn€l tested at NASA Langtey.5 t. Minimizing the cruisedrag Pcrcenl rxienrion penalty whil€ increasing tho stall anglo ot lorer anach point attack ar€ the primary design Liadirg Edg. A Cut}r til d. 15 d. Wnd Tunnd Rquhr Ct Ltto=4 .{1.fndi:d cquarbn comput€r codg was developed to Porc.1. the Ouestair Venture modifications reprssent a uniqu€ blending ot a€rodynarnic concepts. 116 O THE LEADING EDGE DROOP DESIGN PFOCESS Sinca l€ading edge droops are rctrcFtitted.5 1.0 -0.5 * 8:sclinr .tt. TEST FESULTS Wind tunnel data indicat€s that the adclition ot lh€se wing enhancements provides more useable litt lhan the industry-standard stall strips while draslically softening tho slall break Subsequent flight tosts Modiflad V€nturo Stall Pattem have further demonstrated th€ departure r€sistanco ol ths conti 't. and optimize a leading' edge €xtension ot lhe ctrnent airloil s€ction.0 0to2030ao Fl.0 0. '. iterat€.scriprbn considerations. th€ design process musl accout tor th€ aerodynamics of the €xisling wing.nt dtoop e[ach tloinl mathemalically defina. .tennh.

A Y II 7 / l.tr --l .i f a | / / :i It / $ 2 "l . + av AJ I :l (f-lt^ ql / t- Hl * / t / \ .9 J -' U t{ 6ar llJ 0e Y o_ Frq -+- q utt ru u v U ef tJ'J tl -S-/o .c1i r't.*' v \I i / II I. . t..>l . Gl -' ? 0 / 'l : / / 6 r& : . --.9 r\ + r .t'. 5l xl : n / s (l ol^.1l i . ?l l/ I\ :j . '.rt- \it /-A 1---\J--.l\'s t ..l -s I .1 s I lt F.^.- Hl ..-.. 117 -. / 4 Cl rr ..l € '' -t ! (l<l r! ---+---* \0 t r ---- " / J .

lhese include: -. He expecls the di" iJ6&. in 5c.-^.n {reoz.othe. retofitted by June l.5% of lhe wing's meon oerodynomic chord- oeorly twice the oreo lornerly protocled ogoinsl ic6 occumulotion. FAA of.se eF lng seosoa. lnd. At $ot 5eting.".-ee) is preporiog o. r. a AVIAi]ON WIEK & SPACE T€CllNOtOCY. Solvono soid. The enlorged deicer cove.wq <to 1. With the new doicer. oi. Flight t6sts co+ ducted or Edwords AFB.oft Dir€crorots hove coused o loss of loteroi conrrol thor ond SmollAirplone Directorsts will be .hey ore ex- teoded .b.n w. eorl.esnoinis uplon y' c At en e1€N€t<A|te' t. J5e 'n/oo^o.dgc ol rce is su.'. :one tests con b€ done in wind During the testr ot Edwords AFB in De. Thot oircroft wos llying o holding ATRZ2s byJune l ---.ghl r€siing s. Despiie tho . rhe Djreclor Genemie de l'Avio- lion Civile. A similor r. spociolorsis- icat or FAA's Aircroft C6dificotion S€rvico.e led to tho crosh of on Americoo Eogle ATR officiols expect io cornpleto ret. 118 U. PiloB musr continee b observe .Pa'.rgh n-fl.tk . I proh. soid.{s ?64< rective to be irsued this rnon$. rhis mon$ indicob ihe deicer preventr formo- oo olon ice ridge forword of the cilerons.l1t dce.a ' t.e. lo thot or Edworos AFB wjli be p6r- cident occurred. with lhe ffop5 ot l5 deg. regionol oircroh. The chiel gool will bo to cluded wotar dropleb vp io 200 microns ice wos qble lc occrete oft of tho originol determine their susceptibiliry ond reoction in diomet€r. Aiiho.--o setiing normolly chonging oileron hing6 moment dromdti. H6 expeds fh€ t 5r rended ro l5 deg. APPROVES (A1R72 uses NACA 430fX airfoils ) Lorgcr deicer prevcnts fiorrnotion ol icc NEW ATR DEICER forwond of the oilerons. oirflow obove the wing wqr disruptcd. Toilplone icing olso will csmber ond ogotn this month.ing pilob b moniitr cackpit 5ido windows for o r.Ti- pore.e qtrcroh. Ths deicers funcioned proF doicar. A U.----r.o. Doniol Solvono.. fhe FAA t . fitting new wing deicers on ATR42s ond prepr:ring progroms to conduct the ex" rober. PI"I'LTIPSAVASHINGTON uled to b.ing conditions. llose doit iicluded flight tssts in nq$ urol ond orrificiol j. o[ ourop.^r^ Atv\^ A t(ta)v the limitotions o$er $e deicers ore fited N rFF .s up to i 2.c. ond foreign oir. roin. Solvono soid.o deodline esbblirhed penm€nrs. Alt aORCE KC-135 tqnksr equipped wifi wobr sproy equipmenl del otlention wss poid lo ice occuhulotion this yeo'lo iest oiher turboproppoworod uged th6 ATRZ2 ir q series ol rosrs rhor in.hod- EDWARD I-I. ing roio.rpected to fects occurred becouse rhe ice ridga foiled IHE FAA'S IR NSpOIT Airc. colly. porticulor lrome monu{octurers t"qr Ae ogenc/ pions ba explorod os porl of o seporoie but key progroo.zzle o. f he FAA hos oooroved o new deic6r for I ATR honspods ond plqns ro begin irF vasligoting icing chorocteristics of other turboprop reglonol oircroit lqter tilis year.lortfi Arnericqn seryice crl c./March 27. I Requi.qC tight operc ons wj'h'ne reoesigned do- CaSR€'ttt's 7o icers.rh flops or l5 deg.t .S. When *e flcps wore rekocted.rnique ice occr€rion thot irr 74oue t dicdres Feezing roin hos been encounJered. o t Leoving flops oep oyed lf .ew deicer ond pleos from AIR officiols. lho FAA losl week refvsed lo removo reshjclions trnposed in Jonuof/ of{eciing fligtrt operotions of the ATR42 ond Alt72. ing to be compleied before the stqrt of ic" {rsod in holding pott6hs. no odve. Colif.ols ho'e norilied U. 1995 35 . rn rctng condttrons ond rBquirirg inm€_ 3eP aa ar r oil diore disengogonen.4 to tl.. tunoels.worthinss5 dir€c- \ live iniended rc) inpose rew .S. As o resvh ol $e ATR occident. Neorly 20O oir crafi in l. lo.A. by tho FAA in Jonuory.'.lot in ffe€z- rno dflzzla 0r rdrn '10c ... In oddition to $ese reshicfions.€ R'oa€ g. g(4s5. forned.t--f I q of floos when holoing 6 u ec 5€paa' "t.ng dr.rg. the to tho effects of freezing drizzle ond freez- erly with ffops retrocted ond with flops ex. he soid. :ponsible for solecting test poro. ihen the oc.. Cedifjcotion of 6e deicer lqst week oc- curred bllowing four montirs of FAA 9ud/ ond evoluotion of "oll ovoiloble lechnicol doto" by tho ogoncy ond it: French coun- terpod. occording to Solvono.neiors and ATR72-21A naor Roselown.

NACA 64-218. For ( ccnpleted airplanes. wtrich largeJ-y accounts for its lcrw naximr. Unfortunately. is I inch additiona-l ttrickness. resulting in a wild delErture . and. a re-profi. usually with a cqsiderabfe loss of altitude. Short. hordever.ADDM{DUM NLIMBER 4 119 An Upper Surface winq Re-profile for the BD-5 the BtF5 airplanes as originally designed have a. extsending back to approxirrately 40t of chord on the top surface. CG l-ijltits for the ai. the new profi-le has been designed to nailltain c-onstant velocity flcw to approxlrately nid-chord. Seti Arderson has nodified hrs rel-l--knom BD-5 with an ulper forl ard surface re-profile of his crldn desigrn. A typical exanple is the attached report frcrn Bobble Parcr of Odessa. I'4a)dnu. 'Ihis npdrfication is mini-rral and relatively s jrrpfe. tie airfoal selection was especially pcor for thj.bleft.lts. BD l"Licro Technologies offer dr@ped leading edge nose ribs and ot-|rer cqQonents ) for wings tbat are still under cronstruction. and then re-profile the top surface befor€ ffigbt- In the interest of rrProving flight safety.in all-. preserving larn-irnr flqr ( ard lcrvr drag). arld at the }eading edge ard at the flaplaileron r+e1l lip.mm lif t cef f icient with ajld h'j-thout f laps .tion. The "GA" re-profile irproves tne alJ--i-nportant leading edge prof iJ-e. dalLed II/20/92.. higher nraxi. undesirable sharp stall characLeristic that has caused nlrnerous accidents. 1trus.tever. less then Il mil]ion.years with excellent results.Lrli. the rEin cause of the problem is the use of the infanous IIACA 64-212 airfoil section at the wing root. EAA *29576 4I5 RibLett Iane wi. this is only a nr-inor orsadvantage. and mcves the loading fonsard slightly so that tl€ pitching nEnEnt coefficien! is not affecced. folloled by a hysteresis loop during stall recover.e tenplate j-s furnished for tJre wing root only.v/ re-attach'1ent after stall. this partial re-profiling essential-Iy reverts tt. such as the extrenely lc'v/ Relnolds nunber of this ajrplane at the stal-l.rFanied by loss 6f lateral c.cation I and this is inexcusable.elL docunented. of a ccnplete tring re-design.y. In addj.l./ai.r schene for utr4=r surface re-profiJ-ing is shown on the attached sketch. ho. many of thern fatal. has acceptable stal} perforrnance due to its I88 thickness.s appU. A-lso. at the root. stiffens the upper skin to prevent wrink-Iing. Other f actois cutri-bute to the probletn.le of attack mlst be decreased considerably in order to obtaln fl-c.l. and is of lj-tlle conceln.rn lj-ft ccefficient and aLso the the sharp loss of l-ift at the stall. and the re-profil-e br:ild-up feathers out to nothing at the wing Lip. Iike otfler upper surface build-up schenes. or for any airplane using the IrAcA 64-212 airfoil. Texas.s. and a wider larninar bucket. 8/16/1995 Harry Rr. various nEtnods are availa-ble to irqxove the BD-5 staLL lErfornence.ontrof. I offer a ful-l-size tsrplate drawing tori lq1o to crf. aJld ti-is h3s been fl-yjjlg for several. the stalf is often acsc.ver the cost of printing and naiting. the ang. I .ngton DE 19808 302/994-O479 Note. The flaps and ail. the exrsting tip sest- ion.separation has occured.j-on j-s sirnply to assernble the wings as designed. Flight experienc-e with this nrcdification has been excelLent. at approxjratefy 80t of chord. Anothe. seve-ral. Al-so. hrldle inprovable. AII.In this schenE the cqpl"ete up[Er surface is built up frcrn the lead- ing edge to the flap. nEticds of re'profiling the wing shatrE have been used witn good resu. ltre result is a softer stall.[n hrild-up. The attached standard table of ordinates can be used to generate the profile for-Tle BD-5 root terq)late ( 31 inch chord) .eron yELI lip. Another option for BD-5 projects under eonstrucb. adds a Slnall amcunt of thrckness and camber.erons regui-re no nadrfication and are re-used as j. That is.e wing pro- file to a turbulent seceion. For eJ{anE)l-e. considering the nnrked inprove<rent in flight safety tllat results. resufting in a slight drag increase.rpl-ane are not affected. Ttlis ai-rfoil is l-ow-cambered and onty 12t thick.

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kind of "mushing" like. I/2 in thrck. sc(ethj-ng . the s'aflE. The stal-I . and cleaaed the top surface of the wing of aII paint. Etlb FarnEr P.n is 2L\ ft.D coats of polyester. It has Matco wheels and disc brakes. and finished off with tr.rork. to the bare ah:nr-inun.r about 1600 ft. ard is ncr^' 471 lbs. t"ly ship is a BD-SBDH.€rk n€rJsletter. Itle tota. density altitude 6200 ft.ASL.L together.]-s t|as $105. probably because the wing is no$/ generating nrcre lift on tlle take-off ro11 than before. thus the take--off ro11 is shoruer. B.reight. '.L cost of all Irlateria. I put on the first layer lengthwise. For the rer. The airplane enpty Height was 467 lbs. and the seoond layer 90 degrees to the first. dersi-ty fcElrjl.ro layels of glass cloth.no loss there. ard then lift off. It has the standald ( non-stretched ) body fength. and scrubbed this with APX. . I \"pu. It has a non-turbo Honda engine wi-t]. Thanks again. I left t}le wings on the ship.rfo and pish. so the rebork added only 4 lbs to the enpty . with OAT € 86 degrees. I used 2 l-b. TjnE to rotatj-on is nour only 16 seconds e 1600 ft.S.rcX LZLtb ( Ret!"ped ) Odessa Texas 79768 915/563-2732 8/LL/s{ Harry Riblett 416 Rr-blett I-ane wikilington DE 19808 Dear }tarry: Like I told you. (Eobby ) Farner P -lJ.l-d let you kno\^' ho^'the (top surface ) scahr-on wing air- foil re{iork calrE out (on my BD-58). Our airport is at 3000 ft.00 frdn wicks Aircraft.rtrich I built myself. wtdch extended back about 2 inches frcrn the leading edge on the loler surface.l-ike an ErcoulE. a 46x66 H€y prop. the wing spa.ever. and it t@k re 44 hours to put it al. and is no. I then reinforced the leading edge with t\nlc layers of fine hre-ave 3-inch glass tape. HcrA. ltarry. The warm day take-off d"istance was 2500 ft. staggered.is nq^. I novJ notice that the acceleration is guicker frcrn 60 to 85 MPH tban it used to be. lbp end. 122 R. I stiU hold it dcldn until I get about 85 MPH. It lceEred nv stall sFed f rcm 80 MpH to 67MPH. s/N 19. cqvered with tr. N-6782F.ures for ttle ED-5 neb. I also riirote to Rich Perki-ns and gave him aU the i.

was designed by Herr Doktor Richard Eppler.5 on figure 1.rn:m thickness is at . The pro- file drag as expested. Pronounced aft camber appears in the airfoil fran .August 1995 issue of the "Journa. Dr.r. I{aughfiEr.F(I)-0115 eirfoi] The Ju.40C. a "Natural l-a. that presents a unew NASA" arrfoil. and I suspected a rel"atively high pltching lrraftEnt coefficient (Gn) as a resu]. Figure 3 shcrys that the perfornunce of GA 42E-2I5 is indeed superior to che IErforrEnce of NASA Nf. scnewhat l-ike the NACA 230L5 airfoil.IASA NL!'( 1) -0]. a. As hE have seen previously. and a 30-401 reduction of pitching nr:nr=nt coefficient. a wider laminar bucket.I1. 3.onsidered. Ttris new airfoil looks like cA 40A21. c. fj-g- ure 3.60C. and I have corres- ponded with hjil about it. Ttre airfoil and its nrean l-ine ( canber profile) are shotnn on figure 1. I suspected that NLF(1)-0115 nEy have a siJrdlar sharp sta1I. I saw notiing frightening about the thickness dis- tribution.65C rearward. al. ADDE{DI}I II\J}.A 42E-215.42C rather th. Therefore.w ). since both airfoils use tie sanre thj. Harry Riblett 416 Riblett Iane wilnlington DE 19808 2/L4/r996 . and cqnbines it with the proven GA-2 rean l-ine frcrn "GA Airfoils". in an attenpt to track dob/n the cause of the por performance. but the tlade-off is a slightly higher profile drag coefficient. NLF(f)- 0II5. In spite of the ind-icated superiority of GA 42E-2I5. including a soft stall rather than a sharp sta. vrhich has a sharp stal] due to excessive J-eading edge droop. This should give us a direct cdnparison of the efficacy of the Eppler mean line versus the GA-2 nean 1ine.for ccnpar:ison.l-y.F(1)-0115. A canputer perforrnance analysis confirned ny fea.Ithough thj-s rould probably be hard to prove without flight tests.L of Aircraft" (AIAA) contains an article by SeJ-ig. Eppler does not tike 1t.IBER 5 123 A critique of the I\ASA N'I. accordingly.ckness dis- tribution. ltle nose of the airfoil contains excessive leading edge droop. but I was concerned about ttrree things in the nean li-ne: . sinr-ilar to the NLF(I)-0215F air- forl.F(I)-01f5. Eppl"er has not c. except the point of naxj.t. See. espec- j"ally the sharp staU at 13 degrees ang]-e of attack. 2. You be the judge. is the sane. airfoil.rs about this airfoil. If an even wj-der laminar bucket is desired for oFerational flexibility. A dj-p appears in the canrber profile at . a point that I suspect Dr. I designed a ner.so due to Eppler. ' Ttre obvj-ous concLusion is thac the rean Iine of D.rr-inar Flovr AirfoiL for General Aviation Applications".an . figure 2. the airfoil. although the point of rnaximun utickness I-s relatively far aft at '42C. and Sc(rers.Duld prob- abfy cause high aileron hinge lrErents (stiff ailerons). this area of negative lift ex- tends the lan:inar n:n slightly hence the npniker "natural " Iaminar flc. After plotting these. because it was not designed by the rEdern "inverse" rnethod for designing air- foifs.1. GA 4OA2I5 rnay be used. As it turns out. Ttris also'.15 is poorly designed. hoerever ( the negative lift produced by the camber dip resufts in a loss of efficiency. the new airfoil uses the un- offensive Eppler thickness distribution frcrn M.

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450 -2.169 L. o0 7.951 -3 .00 1. 705 10.602 20.847 6.241 2.525 -2.040 -4.539 -2.818 9.110 o. " /c- hA +zE -z-re ^L t' v r0 i<: ------4=q<ro" I' t&f .088 -5.584 o .25 0. o00 o.808 -3 .L59 90.770 1.A21 L5.00 2-295 0.00 4.420 6.935 1.604 -4.73'7 80.398 6."t t' trth 7 .000 0.461 8.940 0.( PLoc.?73 -0.' 6A 4?-E -'Ll5 EFct--r2- t.21.815 4.690 0. 398 95.557 6.268 10.996 6 -940 r.211 L.099 2.o0 0.00 5.672 -3.367 -4. 800 o .996 -O.198 0.524 55.891 -1 .656 60.579 30.436 -1.530 o.143 -2.loo 0.764 7 .893 35.130 L .026 -Q .180 9. OO 6.67 3 10.265 -5.00 0.oto A .163 -6.919 -2 .256 10.595 I. 000 -6 .793 3.320 6.380 0.705 l.906 0.224 -6.89? 2 .374 s.793 -5.102 6.91-3 -4.981 -3.115 o.00 3 .) .4A5 1.633 10. 2.500 0.764 L . 865 -O .LO7 40.245 -2.730 -4.166 50.62A 7 . oo 5.041 8. O5O 3.630 100.6L2 -5.257 -5 .959 -3.189 5.800 1.792 7.182 -3.4A7 | .627 5.850 -3.991 4.663 7.521 7.873 5.00 3.A92 -4. oo0 o.805 0.349 -2.000 0.750 -0.762 -7 .o00 0.A70 L.50 4 ...903 -2 ./o /D .46? 10.340 70. 633 -4. 888 -O .090 -5.290 o.6 -O .000 0.536 10.208 9 .949 -4. 550 5.423 -r .704 -o. 6.'7 45 L.750 -7.939 85.161 4.00 4.005 -2.537 2.I9O -1 .890 -1. EPPLER 125 oct 95 4 2E-015 calber 428-2I2 428-?L5 42E-218 sta ord GA-2 upp€r lower upper Lorter upper lower 0.695 3.000 0. OO 3.693 -6.?44 s.867 -4 . fI7 4.o00 0.62r -3.202 45.281 -1 .300 I.000 o .00 0.3t 0 L.549 -1.\'. o00 0. 109 4.064 -5.437 -1 .o00 0. s81 -7.00 7.076 9 .892 4.450 -1 550 .931 -2.867 a-337 -5 -22f 9.00 7 -370 L .nn*..263 1.355 6.737 7. 19-?6-1995 I\.060 o .969 -4.L77 2. ' :.468 -7.825 -r.949 5. o0 6.465 L.595 2.450 2. 354 0.780 7 -768 -4.75 1.026 -O.540 5.22L 8.IO7 -5.324 -2.764 -4.063 -L. O89 65.000 0.592 -0.9 -5..700 3.984 1.547 7.00 7.880 8.780 L .7L5 3. 50 1. 21. s35 75.890 a.50 2. ooo o.7L9 -3. L52 25.581. 492 I. oo 7 .396 1.oo 6.atf LD .25 1.159 9.000 o.992 -6 .000 Airfoi I nurbe! 0 Drtr .000 o.495 0. oo 7.oL.O23 4.95O -2.893 -3.204 o.703 -).

1\'rlqr -.t).-.1 _. _.. Sec1'ttt) c4aa4tte|tsrtcT Nh<A 23ori.AARP 5TI? --t u-o--j/ Z tru.F r o::L- '. At'to Q4 j!j4 Lsoer s ra. 126 t. -": I __ 6A to*t-r( \i c( . ?--64 l-:::r::::_..L ..={r}-o.* . II Er ).... a [i.4oe "ll:'-A\f -( r "--*-dacn "!: 11 7-y"* 4eoeo Fe| .rl< /"'.t<^rFl o.: ^r€ J 0 \L I -.u .. I . { !-A ut'l i)et-o'or I R''lrS t I . NAsA NLtr ul -orrf .rr.-..( (onQi.\ 4zL:-Lfr I 1.t- *+Eb ) *.I9 / tl -' ------ ll !' o .r\ J. L.) et Tqt<RN€ra rr. srA'-!.o7o ^ ot { ^ .: i| P iu (5o-.so/ otr'rA€oa-€ rrc-Ac.tofusllt +*-u{ U tlA.t... ()osr Stn'. *rtrt---- --.'l -a .. _.

ever tested by NACA.ahy the ice ridge on the ATR-72 wing. exactfy where tJ. a pronounced negative pressule peak at the 9t chord position. is unaccepta-ble.rfoj-ls.e 1935 NACA wind tunnel tests. In fact. aileron hinge nErnents. r*rich caused the accident. shoh/ that the arrfoiL ncnent coeffici.lACA 430xx airfoil. espe. formed at exact. }IACA 430)0( airfoils used on this airpLane. l4ore conventional.ho is responsible for the idiotic 430:o< airfoil. figure 5. arxi ignores the fasts in the case. Chief. lovt pitching nrnent coefficients.09C for the 430xx airfoil.Ly the 9t chord position. Thls is analagous to ice formation in the tbloat of a carburetor. Ttre results of t. VehicLe perfonnance Divi-sion Subject: tuneri. f arn enclosing additional data showing that the cause of the ice rj-dge.09c caused the ice ridge to form at that point.lACA 430:o< all turboProp regional airliners should be so banned. Etcrn that point onrrrar:ds.dent ) is indeed loev. shol't€ a pronounced Feak at . confj. the NACA 54-415.rms the predicted profiJ-es. Ilere]. forvard loading would have on airfoil perforrnance.e ice ridge forms. etc. check lrrith scrrEone other than: -[{ASA. Ttterefore. Ttrerefore. In you response Ietter I/25/1996 you ignored this point ccnp-letely. h.ls at .t. the sharp and dangerous starl on these aj. the IIACA 430)0( airfoil is at fault. unifoqnJ-y loaded ai-rfoil. figure 4. as anticipated. Harry Riblett 127 ADDSIDUM MJMBER 6 416 Ribtett Lane Wilmington DE j9€09 3o'r-lat1$ -D +71 2/8/L996 National Ttans portation Safety Board 490 f'Enfant Plaza East washington DC 20 594 Attn: Mr.rEly of the l. t}re accident r. hrho made the nistake of certifying the ATR airplane with this airfoil on it. is due to an anc.l . wlro made t}re trListake of ch@sing this airfoil for their airplanes. ard no peak whatever for the 64*41-5 aj-rfoil.09C) because that is hrhere the adiabatic cooling is the greatest.ent ( unrelated to the Roseladn acci. and that dovrned the airplane. .Jas caused by the p@rl-y designed. wtrich was t-lle jfiediate cause of loss of contro. figure G. The point is. UnforEunately.can Eagle ATR-72 crash at Roselawn Indiana LO/31/1994 Dear Mr. However. John Clark. The ice ridge forms at the negative pressure peak (.ned by ccnputer performance analysrs. This il. The actual pressure distributions (velocity ratj-o curves ) for these trno airfoils obtaj. ihese test airfoils canE to be used on actual" aj-lpl.riti gener- ally disappointj-ng resutts. unusual. further conjecture as to the exact effect the ice ridge had on wing performance. Accordingly. Clark: Ity letier xo you 9/7/95 explaj. as bad as any airfoil. Figure 2 shov/s the forward loading scheduJ-e. tie top surface of an airplane wing is sirply a one-sided venturi. used on the Fokker F-27 'Friendship". For confirriEtion of this airfoil data. but not l. the unusual pressure peak on the 430xx airfoi. To issue a blanket prohibition is heavy-handed. -ATR (AIR).y to see \{hat effects the exErso-.l-conceived airfoil design was part of a test prograrn conducted by I'IACA Langley on "airfoils having the camber unusuaLly far: forw-ard". r. a-re rrDot. therefo. there nuy be scnre nerit for the FAA to ban airplanes usi-ng the airfoils frcrn flying jrr freezing rain and &izzle ( figr:re I).anes. Ttlerefore.hopefully. -FAA. for that is the key to the puzzle. and fortunately rarely used. airfoils do not have this problern.nd . the theorcical pressure profiles predicced by I{ACA for these airfoils.cially on propdrlven twins.c the tests must be considered a failure. which is unfor- tunate. and ccm- pares it to a rbre conventionaL. irperialistic. that is.

.^f€ [(r..)) .4 . Edwa.anPae'tcJ .^" [hAW-- CC: Venc]-.ra.-. L.-Lr) 1 F€n^. v. ato a.NA. Dan Salvano.^o.-4 t. !"tashington DC 20005 A I ltr:.ieST.-.fasfLj. Gov't &rndustry Affairs. FAA. '1.) c tl!!4-gl:1:-J(F-r. walt colernan. I..on Assn.. Harry Rib. Tbny Broderick. l!.ted for May 6-8 at Springfield. 128 . Washington DC 2059I !4r. F t. . ta 11.4-) .e. VA.( (efe-ff) * oc 4N Lta€ (<.e* .. . +'t (r.nterest of rmproving flight safety. and also to include at in the FAA'S tcing symposium schedu.-lt" nt"'. president. Regional Airline Assn./A cA 1.r. salvano to incrude this letter as a public ccmEnt in the docket rega_rding this accident.r ! . Andtehr CebuJ.l11".... 1"1r. . Mr.A rto.p. Al. National Ai! Ttansportati. lR .rd Phifl-ips.a.. In the j. FAA.By copy of this letter' r request FAA'S Mr. Mr. n !:!_t '-.ngton DC Zg59l l4r.r -trs- NA(A +ro r< r.

Dornisr 228/328. tnd Iawd.? e..Le lhot lhe oircroh l.d use of tne Lr by curranl certificotron rules. 6r rsgionsl oircroft thot hos flown b+ ccod. I994.1. ciorarrons obour teez. Jehtraom ond h./DHC-8. bur hos fo.E prio. Foictlild 5A226/227 o'rd Eeechcrofi Model 99 senes. Proyid. p.fing flight in fteozinq roin ond dr. Brodin soid.l.O0g ro chqaer $c operote iolery in *oter droplers hoving prohib.zle should be definad.Ma.dtionol.6sp5.s Indrcotes Solvsno soid. Embroer EM& I 20. from op erot.0OO ro $5OO.ol problemg Under severe icirg de. p.ount6rod by k6ting for Aoro lnr6rnotionol R6gionql broer EMBI20 Brosilio ir the onfy otb lhe Amerrcon Eogte ATR72 probobiy ex- {AlR) Morkotrng lnc.Af ACCIOENT hos not only rejnlo. servrce.ve IN FREEZING RAIN.pg "\ /e ore 1or expeoing ro moke ony oe.nin€ couse ol rhe occidenr.esrdent o[ mor.n ond orrzzle q. "but we hove no yond . ord o-:2. occording ro Sorvono.ojn condi- The direclve wil' orohibit dl l€osr l8 dii- lererl. l lese o rcroti neel rc nq cer. ll cosh monufocturors qbcu{ turafs to domonsi. he soid. oy Moy lo. He expe<fs ese.eluctont" to exiind the com- rrenrperiod beyond.mme rng rn heezinq roin ond drizzle.ronspo s ore su5ceprible . Solvono. Ft.ng ro. 1c95. been litttd with lorgol wing deicers o: wall v{lno so. Worth. cro. de Hovillond DHC.7. 199A. ground6ored rests desiqned io oere. I AVIATION WEE( & SPACE lEcHNotocy/fcbrvory S.ho'on ce r dge fo.ng oll turboproo re- glonol konspods rn U S. (ey os .ons.renr loss of control by the tlignt c'ew condit. OPERATION Of Th! TANKtt ir funded side'exponding furprendix C of Porr 25 bo bnt doto on Feez:ng prec p ohon becou!6 through Fiscol I996. honker for .b.ot.i. Ai.cers. 7.ied rhe FAA ri cot the Russion deleqar. zle.os encounrered ic- or Roseldwn.oslr o[ on Americon Eogle AIR72. Foice NKt-t3SA lAw&sT )o^ 2.ly modihed U S. I P. In. The FAA s drrectrve esrentiolly will mole Soi"ono soid. bul the FAA ir.ro.d 200 hicro4s.n.ce evidence probes mounted ouiside inodvenently flyrng rnlb such reqions topics lo be discussed rncir. Scl" lionol icing !ympor.ng eoch oircroh's opprov€d A.izzle or.llighf.ouA ot.equol. gvorontees beyond thi: yeor" thot the cenif rcohon ol -ronspon Coiegory. ln oddition ro rh€ ATR72-20O. which regionol .ohibit u5e of the oirtopiiot when ice diolely exit freezrnq i." ou'Florrici.dding vrrtuol.ofi chiefly offeded bv fie directive :nclude ti€ Jehheom 31/4i ArRA2/lZ.o1ot T'onsporrorion Soie-v rng on eorly worning ro p'lots The . qn Erh- The diomoler of dropreh .nd rh. I Require rhot ol' ice hghts be ope.otc thol on qircrofi con oll rurbop'op regronol oircroh .mum Equ p rnenl Lirt. fi.um currendy scheci. P 28). vsr€ weother cgnditoru. Z os lhe deodline For rece ving commenls. or wlrcn on unusuol joterol 'rim conoilon exisls.361.ng on rnrsmo lion 158 AlX4? ood ATRZ2 oircrslr how derived ftom groundbored rcs*ng. DRIZZI. 28. A. I -'mil use oi flops ond forb. Port 25 qowm: of their extensrve llyrng experienco in s+. lo lhe Airplone Flighr Monuol thor wouid: pilols use opgroved orocedures to.cing tosts. uniquo orrcroh will romoin op€. Exrstrng'69J'otions requirc monufoc.as copoble of prov. ol exceptionr contoined in o IDWARD H.. not mondo no its conce. AIR is o sol€s con.cing conditions oi nigltl.n.2OO oroblems ogsocrored wrrh forecosrrng jrs cr.t! cunent b'eodr$.de how teez.rt ocnon stem-s hom ihe ol'he copro.ans.on ro p.ns w.Sf Nov I4. Ahhough .rs€ ol The FAA rs sr'rl corducring speciol Eoord hos not determin€d rhe probobl! orrsrde vrsuol cues olso w ll be discussed. lurers. onolys. lhe wrng jg. PHIIIIPS/WASHINGTON 'rrespectjve Frodrculo' orrcrolt'! Mosler Min. flcd of no{s !.croh.n's *.mpor. fi6 di!6clive mondoies rhot powered regionol oirline oircroh hom fly. fhe FM hos set Mor..bop'op The di. Tre c.by $250. Nov.d.e5.rng \.ometer ol 2O5O l"nic. ond ":s very. lo conl.oprd rol onC suose. coted. f iting on unsofe condition rot covered r vUU serier. Aooendix C of Pon ouroprlor it ice is ooserved forming oft of plon3 lo issue qn oirworlhir€ss directive 25 o{ tire Federol Avrolion Regulolions. Th6 in-flighr tosr! NTSE To iaorn more obout fraezing driz:le Avro cornponie:. 820O ond tions ond tho.srro o spe oher rhe neetrrg concjuoes. inctud. presence ond deveioprrent ol oclvonced ing conditions lor which it is not cerrifi" p. 1996 37 Frqeee I .o'rde. b flighl into .- plone Fl:gh.ot.luoi. q 'criticol doto point' lor morr Brodin roid the snlirs U-S. Soob 340/20O0 series.med oh of .[octur6r5 ond rhc FAA ihqr connot ba ond ro. coL:srng o.l"or dote. lonker oircrah is ovoiloble lor monr.y oll tu.ng in freezing roin ond drizzle 6y omend.oircroh.ce de'ecl'on sysle. Solvono soid. lh6 FAA is plonn. rcid Alorn Brodin.c. NKC-135A'.hey moke evey eftn o orcd ured for Moy 68 rn Soringfield. occordinq to tha 3orlium o[ $6 lormer ATR. soid Don p. on overogo d.ced cLsg lh€ isrue Fom o" operarronol rio. Vo.rfqc. the FAA lilicolion cnterio unde. .r obou he donqer o[ lreezino roin po'qt. signed b occrete ice ord serve os o vjsuoj c. ponrs wjll be encoJroged ro openly d s.ndow Tne probe is de- ing roin ond driz. rhe U S N. 129 FAA TO BAN TURBOPROPS hes lormed oh of the wing deicers.c. monoger of the FAA's Rotorcroh Dires" lorote.ective would require chonges ln qdditron.

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and the others give flmoral supportrr. Harry and his wj.1trj. He has buj. He is an ex- president of }illmington Chapter #?4Q ana is cuEently a chapter Technical Advlsor.active "Stardustertr pilot.1t two homebuilt airplanes. j-s a llechanical Engineer EM#2957 recently retired froo Hercules Inc. wlth fold- ing wings.s of typical ICubI construction. 6. Harry served as a Reservist Radar Officer/ Air ControLler on a USN cruiser during the Korean War. flies both regularly. and is working on a (nearly finished) single seat original design. developed his own GAtr series of airfoils.ngton airport iBmediat- ly following WV-II. he returned horoe. and published his book. Delaware. pusher. Delaware 19808 n2/994-s479 . Harry got his early interest in aviation from his father. The new project is a high-winC . rrGA Airfoils- a Catalog of Airfoils for GeneraL Aviation Use't. as yet unnamed. He sub- sequently worked a dozen or so years uith civilian coEpanies manufacturing. Allen is an. nisappointed pith NASATS near total lack of enthusiasB for such a project. Gail and Mark). who operated a G. and sjx grand-children. and installing aircraft runway arrest- ing gears. and has been active ln sport avi-ation and EAA activities for many years. His interest in airfoil design prompted him to visit NASA langley j. and j. He holds a Commercial ASEL pilotrs license.50Lb. have three chj-ldren (Allen. June 1994 Harry Riblett 415 Riblett Lane Wilmington. in Wilnington. 132 About the Author Harry Riblett.L flight school at l{j. tricycle gear. 64 .fe Jo-Ana never Diss going to the annual Oshkosh Convention. testing. bought a computer.n 1985 to encourage them to develop a EoderD aerles of airfoils specifically d€signed for General Avlation alrcraft. a Star- duster II and a CUBy.

-wirl pricated_possLbility is to use elestronic sensors to detece the drresti-on and nrag- nitude of the disturban:e. Since rer cannot shift q.e rlrltron is a "zero cq" aiJfoir which neans that tre airfoil rust be eitherdef_ fiEtrical' (uncanbered).the cc. involves tl* rate of chanqe of the ns.itq.pit"Lg n'-r=. an airfoir cp does nor itt""g" p"sid"" $"-llt*n ot attack changes.hose . and rhe surn of the positive and negatJ.. second.ce" of the cG noving forwardup terd to bring the nose back d"'.id for this suFposed advantage is tco high. trai]jng onLy veqr srnalJ. and T::. l^ie descrih:e this .ls littr-e fiechanism to develop thii restoring rnxrEnt. but it isn't. onefiying possibirity is to Locate the cG beneath the rrring as shou'. reguires that the cG be located it arso must be dvnarnicaLlv stabt. for exatrq>l-e r.bout tfle CG. l.. Frcm ti:-is \. itri.et.*' to ttrl trre origi'ar Fositi..Duld be nice ]l ]! yer" rtlat sinpJ-e.of the fona.utili-ty tn" .tt.€np_Ie. It r. rn a carrrd configr:rarion.plified is surprising hor9 lIEry builders ask this question . First.changes can tre ha'dled. ccrnpleting tlre anarysis.i ah.. tt"p".ca[y stable the disturbed airplane must scrrEhoe.. the totar :::"_I_:t. o. that for {e elevons. it b.-th.r. a llyrng wrng. Thus ttre resultant rift vecto! passes through the CG.r-ich iJ a li. tt]al is. . to produce the needii ?Fpropriate accuation signals can be generated rLtoring rurlent a.. trr" t syn- edge rm:st be ref]exed sufficiently to achieve zero On.Ld I use for ttre itt CG lirrlit? " It \.. arrplane.Lhe cg cointer so tilat the airplane will tend t-o return to its trirrrEd attitude and speed. In prastice.Another nDle cqft.ti-on' but by saying tl)at the srrn of the nrnents arFut the cG must be zero.s bregin by looking at the npst sj:rrcle case. As Ln any airpLane.E load the airplane per the ar.iff tfy leveL. but. the ":. at theh.ft increase of onl-y Z5t.t" cG fore and aft in f1ight.plane is veqr ri... the ci.'balanceO. th"-r.'. for. 7 133 Aircraft Srabili-tv .". that is. restricting the. ccreratvely -ti. hhat shou.'I am using arrfoil (XyZ) on my airplane..r.o=*-up gust load.ritrr tne ritt vecbo!.t the fT th.trc stalirity IrErely in rine r.ting edge reflex can be changed slightry to trim out sfilali chairges in cc location.5. at the center of pressure of the.tached sketch.E can see." range of tne ai.. Aircraft longitudinal stability. "i-fj. ADDENDUM t'lo. . t. posiri-re nE''Ent of 80Q fr-1b5 about tie cc.urcstEbility. the rift of the for$ra.L of the rear wi-ng will increase frcrn c1=.3. ents about on the o-ther han:.2 to cf=.tent airfoils nust be used..ve fiEflEnts about tle cG is zero. sirnilfuiy. the srope of the li-ft curve for any airfoil is'approxirrutery o. th.ese airplane. a li-ft inqrease of 50t. so. zero pit-ning -nr.. a nei stabilizing ncrent. to reast the cqsiderabl" noi"Ic.'and are gcnparatively inefficient in terrns of vD.rd wing .. for ( ving airplane... for any steady st-ate fight clcndition. If re novr apply a I degree nose-up distuibance to the ajrplane. accordilgJ.. *iog'"iir increase frcrn CI=.: i.sturb& . flaps are deployed. hr. no=e d'isturbance ocflrrs.at flying wing arrpranes invorve scne fai-rry serious desigrn restristions.ica]]r stabre.4 to CI=. Ttris is the key to achievrng dynamic stabirity."rd a negarive nErent of 80Q ft-Ibs about. T*9". if canber ' is used in the alrfoil sestion. cG.' c€rdi.l.on .lri. so tlrat the airplane unai. A fl-ying wilg airplane doesnrt have to drag around a fuselage an& "i a tail. rtrerer6rl. and the airplane is statically stable. Notice that the wins. and the aJt CG liJrdt. curpared t! a simirar oonventiorni airprani with flaps.^. thD conditions mlst be satisfied. the "pendurlm 6rr.^. and the parUicul-ar airfoil belng used is only one factor affecting the ploblern. wtdle the -C.Sj-nce each one-degree change of angre of attack. w^.isbry ttre angr.iir. price pa. $E have rl^lc !. .ql!Iq*$$]angs.rrd a..i need. -.. depend on many factors.315glang has precior. ttnt is._ramins. no flaps can be used on tl. so that .y.il" La. or L-ith i . the'picture changes.{] ]r)s. prcduces J"6Q +5-"1_rll!. sta!. rre see that the forr{drd wing produces the AO lb.istulbance. develop a net nirent about to the' direcLion of the d. follorr'ing a disturbance frfir trifined ffgrrEl G-oe aynan...nugic' quarce!-chord p"l"t. for there is no tair.. . landj.hen .Flvrnq Winq Airplanes.. F.ng and take-off high.rings operating in Earrd€m..vith a sudden stick noveneni. 9i:g !." -ot cr ro. equalrng thg h919lt of the airplane. with the CC Sit f6nrara of =: aft wrng c/4 pint.

negr-esting -resurt the iesser factors rentroned above.aaitio.. In Lr1e case. ure pitching nsrEnt coefftcrent of .convent+onal Ailprare. lt.6 ft)=20. ni-tti-ng considerabre flocibiJ. r. aj}i the lifi coerfi-cient arso a aynarnicaiif condi-tion.asc. E\rthe!. as qEII p. q€ see L\at the resultant e is no longe! aligned with the cG.cient ".i. f Z. since there is no wastefur." -rt wit-t:-i' the range of our IEC-A 63A012 tail section.ci-free ( destabiirrinoJ.ane wj-th a main wing area of g0 sqit. the first thing we notice is tlEt ure aiiplane 90es up' lto\. is rs=./ suppose orlr airplane section with a pitching nErrent of OrF-0.e CG 'r.en wrng regarding dlnaruc 3rrplane i."p. be n. No.i-poi. rather che reverse.z.rf oir . and a c-onsiderable ( be and rEsteful ) tail dcr"n-load muld L requjred to trjrn Lhe airptane.y loaded than the rear wjng. hE can achieve a wi-de cc range.ctlon in the conrroi.n tsnard th" .rays siau.4a ft-lbs.u net stabirizing rEcEnt will after a disturbance. and use a syrnEtrical sect-ion for the tail'surfaces."ere greater .does not starl before the main wing. wirr be staLic.e s& tUt t]le maj-n coefficient wing @ is at ... load t-rre airplane with the cc at tt'is sa. Fram the above r."i" i. ..{.iing. nrce o:ao:-2.f"i-J1j'ar*."f"tiu"fy farge.n """.:.s itnr ti'r" r". rn our" anarysis. for a totaL resulranL lift of 34e lbs. For exarpr-e .s. e" yldgh has a good VD ralio and decent ttlickness.r-orane (taif in the rear ) is arso : -1"* arrplane.ly of the tair' wir.l dcnn-road.s.. sta]-l.. the neutra] point is the CG I. tfre tor.rr" .*g . . By using a=u!n -" tn. and re are satisfied that tail wirl not starl before t}Ie nraj. with ttre cc it .d on to produce a l-ift in either direction. rf r"e .s srigntry n. "*t -. ar'd the li-ft of the rear wing increases frcnr I6Q Eo to 24e. and anEunts to (34e tbs)(0. + +If wlng . :: cne or i:B wrng area. 134 i-ncreases frqn 8e to l.rLher.dr-p at ttre "Lr.-Jiir'rr ti. the airprane . lJe a-l. used on srnalle:: airplanes.45c (aft cc lir{dt)." ul *1rr"n the Ci of both r. atl-tude - Ttrere a-re othe! lesser factors that af fest dynamc stal iiv.d. since the Lift coefficient of the rear wing (tail) i. of.A further resEErcrion is trrat a car:.These a-re not incruded in tne adve sinple anarysi.rt . dc'ern. taking rEflents dbout the cc.8. Trr-is i. . The horizontaL tail surface.ng than -nose can never reach its nra:<irun lif c coef fj-cient."rpr"= JTtarl F.r*ra wing nust.h" !iir. unlike a canard.rt .45c at cnris€.ard airprane shour-d not be flared on randing.le . A convenrionat aj.' used the r."a fusel-aEe area ard stick-fjled (stabilj. L1e gllard aLrplane. so that the of the arlplane wilJ.5r for t.. airplane.bove. is c^rl. ro'"rer iian=a"ri" coefficient of thefonrnrd r. with do-O . since a starr of ttre forvard wing approaching touchdo^'n is rikery to cause a sudden nose drop.e . btrich spells inefficienry and relatively tt-igh ianding sFeds. alext vre check to rnake sure the tair.eynolds nunber and lcwJ aspect rario cc(Ifrlf..iud-. ttrii is a desi-rab. nhich first of all neans tlrat the a-irDlane is in a transitioial conditj-on. But since the *eight of the ai-lprane is stiu onry 24e lbs. Lir-is neans that the nrain wi.r negative ( nose d.ay of irlu-stration.n for tail surfaces.r..rAsA GAIFI ai. enrrinci. even at the "t relatively ity. u" fonard fuselage area. usual practice is to cunpro- mj.n wing.so nolice tlar trris is a parLrcul-arlv the trft effj. it neans titat f]aps'cannoc be useci on the main wingl of a canard arrpJ'ane . our wing airfoil has a C]rrEx of I.E poi. Referring to the attached @ chart. is consj.. or both. that the prumry reguir€(ent for arly tal:Id.04.derablv the .. -n . be see that this i-sstable. r. ". and suppose the desj-gn li-ftuses a wing at cruise is Cldes=0.ity ir't roaoittg. aid a horizontal tail a-rea in" of of rhe rnaln '"ring area."""n -b"l "ta effects . hcrdsver.e. the c' of ttre nain wing r_oufa Its off the chare. ard sti. be zero.J.rraia wing musi st ii before the rea:: wing. as a1l ai-rfoils do. .Iity as stated a. gYtr€geous pitcLinE ntrEnt -if the of coeffj.^Eff for instance in a c'h-in-class. By r. and the G> of the main At the wi-ng nov6s fonrard at or very close to tlE c/4 positron.oe {you're welccne). This is ttre stabiiizing nE(IEnt that re a-re looki-ng f or .e of thunb of r5-2og z0 sqft..cient ai4>rar./ings is tne salrE.nt. -or if.= "t"l icnr p.zing). to bring the nose back dor.rgi:.r.Li= *r-by per- an arrpJ.\. that the required Eil lift coefficient will be +0.ng the utirity ot tire airprane a"'=ign 6oi""eiu". up or.. As tong as the cG is f orvrard of ' tire aj-rilan" .tai. Accordi-nsly.ere placed farther forr"and.nfiguration. so:-r obeys the san= rul-es for stab.J. vJe also note that the taiL cJ. Ttle net *t=l!_"l the airplane alout the cc is nor.i.re tt'n the rur. l61l+avIn .nn ) . f!:.. designed tail.r: sane..

at least in c€nventional.e)'l. lte proF ably '.ett 4/17/1996 . provided the tarl does noE stall before the nE-in wing.re can be satisfied tt)at this is a safe aft CG limit.nes larger than they need to be. " I{o\a€ver.'i:tg A. and provided the spin recov- er!. at a[proxijrately 25-30i of chord.ieving a wider CG range. rrl'rich have gfl values 3 ti. It is interesting to note. tllat is. Thus the zer*r airfoi. At the other extrenE. the later I. 135 less tfnr the wing cl. therefore a c€nservative pracLice with sj-rple airi planes is to ignore tie infLuence of t-he tail on the position of the airplane's neutral Foint. at least unLil flight tests can be done to Fossilcly extend the CG range. ltris involves a lthole nevJ set of paranEters. Before r. 23-25tC is often used as the aft CE ljmit prior !o f1ight tests. studies serve no useful. t-tlat the CG peniulun effect rrrks for us on high wj. as shoiml b'y lhe exafipIe above. beyond the scope of tlai. This seerns to be a safe practice.. 9ie are not finished yet.re satisfaqeory. riarrlt nibJ.{e mlst also investigate the spin recoverff properties of the airpLane at th-is CG location.C. characteri-stics of gre a:irplane a.ouldn't have been able to prove out this aft CC liJrrit with a gnalLer. Holv shall rrE ans\re! tfle question posed in the first Paragraph above? The corleqE ansrrer is "ltle aft CG lijrdt shDuLd be slightly forviard of the aircraft neutral poijlt.Ls tlEt NACA developed in the s-digit. are equalfy ill-advised.pu4)ose. for Io^..airplanes. hodever. but r^orks against us on low wing airplanes.s tEper.IASA GAvFt ard -2 aq16i1s . wing airplanes. this is difficult to calsulate pEior to flight tests. thus. horever. that a srnal] anEunt of pitcllixg trErEnt c€€fficient in an airfoil can actually tre helpful in ach. PoorLy designed tail. r. arld sirply put the aft CG lirnit at or near the i. RenEnber. so this condj-tj-on is dynamically sta-ble as r". such as the flat tails of tubular construccion ccflncn to l"ight aj"r- planes.ng aj-rplanes.

: lo It t !._-lIrq. Jl ir -r Ir^ er ci t. {lr ra ?"* a! ti j-.J !: 1 I .. f { I J t .l t .8 o g lr I f E .1 J -l rl ?g I .l .<t.r {q ol 's t nt 3 E.t ! ila - '.r-_...? fl It:tl !.tr E5t fl {a o . ti d €d i .*+l h o I . a i .'a'P : I tr' {.t .. 136 {. t. -t lo f : r:..'1 q a.rrPtJtlot ? > ' _1.

an increase of wing carnber. and we strongly reccnrrend that anyone interested in the subject should read that exceLlent article. this causes an uF. This el-minates the fl-c'vi separation that occurs at that point at high angles of attack. Three things are required. and I5t thick for lani. for the 2301x airfoiLs.least soften the needless and troublesare discontinuity in the rnean li-ne tlrat these airfoil-s have at the . the prinary effect is sinply an increase in clnax. just as if "gon6. the si:rp1e hinged rudders used on nlfst of today. and this is the key to good aileron i"=ponse.IACA 2301x airfoils that are used on npst GA liaht twins. at1 withi-n current tectnorogy: (l) soft stalr airioil-s.'pe cerLificate systern. these vc's. Ttrus. effective rudder designs. Both the increased thickness and the increased carnber result in a higher rnaximurn lift coefficient for the wing' l"bre urportantry.ing the Sharp Statl of t]e NACA 2301-2 Airfoil". that is. wj. tl.on. And since the added thrckness is al-. better? It. one set j-s install- ed on the top surface of the ping.cle concerning lAcro-Dynandcs Inc VG kits printed in the January 1996 issue of "Arr Progress'. Hhy does Vlichi-ta continue to build this trash. whrch we do not have with today's obsolete. without vc's.s light twi'ns llave terribl-e flovr separati. selErati. the stalr be- cdr'es soft and gentre.thout the prohibitiveLy expensj-ve "normFl-" c"itificallon procedure. the vc's give rnproved controJ-J-abirity ( eh-mination of \nrc ) as \nelf as a higher C]nax.trc" nrcdel shoul-d be issued follo.Ji-thout the frorr. the rudder beccnes a large.ring a sinpie fl-j-ght denpnstration. The rudder VG's reduce fls^. at the fOg chord pos- ition.€ver.ncrease the trrickness of the bounciary rayer doenstream of the vc. just what ire don't need.vel-y freezes t]. The vG kj-ts basically contain tr4o sets of vorEex generators. such as "GA" airfoi-rs (2) t'ting tips ar least l2t thick ior turbulent airfoirs. Harry Riblert .l pressure side of the defl-ect- ed rudder. the second array is instarled as crose as possj-b]e to the l-eading edge of the rudder. Imported airplanes t"ouJ-d have to me€t the sanE perfornEnce reguirenents. ihen one engine quits ard hard rudder opposite the dead engine is applied to iold headrng. such as the articulated rudder used on the USAF C-I7.rOc position on the I.e design. VJj-th that. garbage airplanes. Ttris must be changed. when placed at the .^ould at last tEve true twin-engine reliability. l.rer thEn the normal stal1 speed of tl'e a-irplane. this second set is instaued near th6 triiung edge of Lhe fin. In ssrE cases. the better approach is to design and build the planes properly in tbe first p1ace. of the vc's is to i. !'Je also elaborate on an artj. 5/Li /1996 . The prirE y effect. across the entire wlngspan.us high drag. \.!trj. Ttren the arended type certificate for the rnproved "no \. thus. hcr. they increase the effective thick- ness of the wing.s.direreas on the Cube and Charnps.rard shj-ft of the airfoil mean line.on at the hinge rine. magazine. In this condj-tion. htlen \i€ knov.s the fauLt of the FAA t1. Ttre first thing that FAA shoul-d do is to rescind ( after a suitable grace period of perhaps trno years ) the tl. Of course. to the detrirent of aafety. effective drag bra-te. r'-nus the vc's a.re very effective band-ards that address the poor wing and tail designs that ' are used on today's Iight tvrins (and ccnrnuter twlns ai well). and "Tanr. especialLy on prop-driven twins with one engine out. el-iminate or at . both sides. for the re-cerEification costs associated vrith najor design changes effectj. and (3) Low drag. Thus rne are forever v€dded to 40 and 50 year-ord technology.15C Position.nar flol airfoils. even with one engine out.' r*ere appl_ied to the top surface.ch a]ready have soft-stalr airfoils.enerator Kits This paper discusses the highly effective vortex generator kits that are avaj-l- able to lolver stall speeds and inprove lcrvr-speed controllability. 'ne'. separation on the 1o.?e certificates of at1 prop--driven twins that cannot show a unc lo. ADDNiDUM NTI4BER 8 137 Vortex C.l on the top surface oi the wing. the subject was discussed at scrne length in my papers "Design Notes for Tapered [iings". .

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