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Copyright © 2007, 1999, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers All rights reserved. No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to rights@newagepublishers.com

ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2558-1

PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD

NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002 Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com

**Preface to the Second Edition
**

This book Basic Fluid Mechanics is revised and enlarged by the addition of four chapters on Hydraulic Machinery and is now titled as Fluid Mechanics and Machinery. The authors hope this book will have a wider scope. This book will be suitable for the courses on Fluid Mechanics and Machinery of the various branches of study of Anna University and also other Indian universities and the Institution of Engineers (India). Professor Obert has observed in his famous treatise on Thermodynamics that concepts are better understood by their repeated applications to real life situations. A firm conviction of this principle has prompted the author to arrange the text material in each chapter in the following order. In the first section after enunciating the basic concepts and laws, physical and mathematical models are developed leading to the formulation of relevant equations for the determination of outputs. Simple and direct numerical examples are included to illustrate the basic laws. More stress is on the model development as compared to numerical problems. A section titled “SOLVED PROBLEMS” comes next. In this section more involved derivations and numerical problems of practical interest are solved. The investigation of the effect of influencing parameters for the complete spectrum of values is attempted here. Problems involving complex situations are shown solved in this section. It will also illustrate the range of values that may be expected under different situations. Two important ideas are stressed in this section. These are (1) checking for dimensional homogeneity in the case of all equations derived before these equations can be used and (2) The validation of numerical answers by cross checking. This concept of validation in professional practice is a must in all design situations. In the next section a large number of objective type questions with answers are given. These are very useful for understanding the basics and resolving misunderstandings. In the final section a large number of graded exercise problems involving simple to complex situations, most of them with answers, are included. The material is divided into sixteen chapters. The first chapter deals in great detail with properties of fluids and their influence on the operation of various equipments. The next chapter discusses the determination of variation of pressure with depth in stationary and moving fluids. The third chapter deals with determination of forces on surfaces in contact with stationary fluids. Chapter four deals with buoyant forces on immersed or floating bodies and the importance of metacentric height on stability. In chapter five basic fluid flow concepts and hydrodynamics are discussed. Energy equations and the variation of flow parameters along flow as well as pressure loss due to friction are dealt with in chapter six. (v)

(vi) In chapter seven flow in closed conduits including flow in pipe net work are discussed. Dimensional analysis and model testing and discussed in a detailed manner in chapters eight and nine. Boundary layer theory and determination of forces due to fluid flow on bodies are dealt with in chapter ten. In chapter eleven various flow measuring methods and instruments are described. Flow in open channels is dealt with in detail in chapter twelve. Chapter thirteen deals with dynamics of fluid flow in terms force exerted on surface due to change of momentum along the flow on the surface. Chapter fourteen deals with the theory of turbo machines as applied to the different type of hydraulic turbines. The working of centrifugal and axial flow pumps is detailed in chapter fifteen. The last chapter sixteen discusses the working of reciprocating and other positive displacement pumps. The total number of illustrative worked examples is around five hundred. The objective questions number around seven hundred. More than 450 exercise problems with answers are also included. The authors thank all the professors who have given very useful suggestions for the improvement of the book. Authors

**Preface to the First Edition
**

This book is intended for use in B.E./B.Tech. courses of various branches of specialisation like Civil, Mechanical and Chemical Engineering. The material is adequate for the prescribed syllabi of various Universities in India and the Institution of Engineers. SI system of units is adopted throughout as this is the official system of units in India. In order to give extensive practice in the application of various concepts, the following format is used in all the chapters. • Enunciation of Basic concepts • Development of physical and mathematical models with interspersed numerical examples • Illustrative examples involving the application and extension of the models developed • Objective questions and exercise problems The material is divided into 12 chapters. The first chapter deals in great detail with properties of fluids and their influence on the operation of various equipments. The next two chapters discuss the variation of pressure with depth in liquid columns, at stationary and at accelerating conditions and the forces on surfaces exerted by fluids. The fourth chapter deals with buoyant forces and their effect on floating and immersed bodies. The kinetics of fluid flow is discussed in chapter five. Energy equations and the determination of pressure variation in flowing fluids and loss of pressure due to friction are discussed in chapters six and seven. Dimensional analysis and model testing are discussed in a detailed manner in chapters eight and nine. Boundary layer theory and forces due to flow of fluids over bodies are discussed in chapter ten. Chapter eleven details the methods of measurement of flow rates and of pressure in fluid systems. Open channel flow is analyzed in chapter twelve. The total number of illustrative numerical examples is 426. The objective questions included number 669. A total number of 352 exercise problems, mostly with answers are available. We wish to express our sincere thanks to the authorities of the PSG College of Technology for the generous permission extended to us to use the facilities of the college. Our thanks are due to Mr. R. Palaniappan and Mr. C. Kuttumani for their help in the preparation of the manuscript. C.P. Kothandaraman R. Rudramoorthy (vii)

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Contents

Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition (v) (vii)

1

**Physical Properties of Fluids .................................................................... 1
**

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1 Three Phases of Matter............................................................................................ 2 Compressible and Incompressible Fluids ............................................................... 2 Dimensions and Units .............................................................................................. 3 Continuum ................................................................................................................ 4 Definition of Some Common Terminology ............................................................. 4 Vapour and Gas ........................................................................................................ 5 Characteristic Equation for Gases .......................................................................... 6 Viscosity .................................................................................................................... 7 1.8.1 Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids................................................ 10 1.8.2 Viscosity and Momentum Transfer ...................................................... 11 1.8.3 Effect of Temperature on Viscosity ...................................................... 11 1.8.4 Significance of Kinematic Viscosity...................................................... 11 1.8.5 Measurement of Viscosity of Fluids ..................................................... 12 Application of Viscosity Concept .......................................................................... 13 1.9.1 Viscous Torque and Power—Rotating Shafts ...................................... 13 1.9.2 Viscous Torque—Disk Rotating Over a Parallel Plate ....................... 14 1.9.3 Viscous Torque—Cone in a Conical Support ....................................... 16 Surface Tension ...................................................................................................... 17 1.10.1 Surface Tension Effect on Solid-Liquid Interface ............................... 17 1.10.2 Capillary Rise or Depression ................................................................ 18 1.10.3 Pressure Difference Caused by Surface Tension on a Doubly Curved Surface ....................................................................................... 19 1.10.4 Pressure Inside a Droplet and a Free Jet ............................................ 20 Compressibility and Bulk Modulus ...................................................................... 21 1.11.1 Expressions for the Compressibility of Gases ..................................... 22 Vapour Pressure ..................................................................................................... 23 1.12.1 Partial Pressure ..................................................................................... 23 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 24 Objective Questions ................................................................................................ 33 Review Questions .................................................................................................... 38 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................... 39 (ix)

1.9

1.10

1.11 1.12

(x)

2

**Pressure Distribution in Fluids ............................................................... 42
**

2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 42 Pressure .................................................................................................................. 42 Pressure Measurement .......................................................................................... 43 Pascal’s Law ........................................................................................................... 45 Pressure Variation in Static Fluid (Hydrostatic Law) ........................................ 46 2.4.1 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Constant Density ........................... 47 2.4.2 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Varying Density ............................. 48 Manometers ............................................................................................................ 49 2.5.1 Micromanometer .................................................................................... 51 Distribution of Pressure in Static Fluids Subjected to Acceleration, as .......... 53 2.6.1 Free Surface of Accelerating Fluid ....................................................... 54 2.6.2 Pressure Distribution in Accelerating Fluids along Horizontal Direction ................................................................................................. 55 Forced Vortex ......................................................................................................... 58 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 60 Review Questions .................................................................................................... 71 Objective Questions ................................................................................................ 71 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................... 74

2.5 2.6

2.7

3

**Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids ................................................ 80
**

3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 80 Centroid and Moment of Inertia of Areas ............................................................ 81 Force on an Arbitrarily Shaped Plate Immersed in a Liquid ............................. 83 Centre of Pressure for an Immersed Inclined Plane ........................................... 84 3.3.1 Centre of Pressure for Immersed Vertical Planes .............................. 86 Component of Forces on Immersed Inclined Rectangles .................................... 87 Forces on Curved Surfaces .................................................................................... 89 Hydrostatic Forces in Layered Fluids .................................................................. 92 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 93 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 111 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 112 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 115

4

**Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies ............................. 119
**

4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Archimedes Principle ........................................................................................... 119 Buoyancy Force .................................................................................................... 119 Stability of Submerged and Floating Bodies ..................................................... 121 Conditions for the Stability of Floating Bodies .................................................. 123

(xi) 4.4 Metacentric Height .............................................................................................. 124 4.4.1 Experimental Method for the Determination of Metacentric Height ................................................................................................... 125 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 125 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 136 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 137 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 139

5

**Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics .................................. 142
**

5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 142 Lagrangian and Eularian Methods of Study of Fluid Flow .............................. 143 Basic Scientific Laws Used in the Analysis of Fluid Flow ................................ 143 Flow of Ideal / Inviscid and Real Fluids ............................................................. 143 Steady and Unsteady Flow .................................................................................. 144 Compressible and Incompressible Flow ............................................................. 144 Laminar and Turbulent Flow .............................................................................. 144 Concepts of Uniform Flow, Reversible Flow and Three Dimensional Flow ................................................................................................. 145 Velocity and Acceleration Components .............................................................. 145 Continuity Equation for Flow—Cartesian Co-ordinates .................................. 146 Irrotational Flow and Condition for Such Flows ............................................... 148 Concepts of Circulation and Vorticity ................................................................ 148 Stream Lines, Stream Tube, Path Lines, Streak Lines and Time Lines ........ 149 Concept of Stream Line ....................................................................................... 150 Concept of Stream Function ................................................................................ 151 Potential Function ................................................................................................ 153 Stream Function for Rectilinear Flow Field (Positive X Direction) ................. 154 Two Dimensional Flows—Types of Flow ............................................................ 154 5.17.1 Source Flow .......................................................................................... 155 5.17.2 Sink Flow .............................................................................................. 155 5.17.3 Irrotational Vortex of Strength K ....................................................... 155 5.17.4 Doublet of Strength Λ .......................................................................... 156 Principle of Superposing of Flows (or Combining of Flows) ............................. 157 5.18.1 Source and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Half Body) .......................... 157 5.18.2 Source and Sink of Equal Strength with Separation of 2a Along x-Axis .......................................................................................... 157 5.18.3 Source and Sink Displaced at 2a and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Rankine Body) ................................................................ 158 5.18.4 Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow ............................................... 158 5.18.5 Doublet and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Cylinder) .......................... 158 5.18.6 Doublet, Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow ................................ 158

5.18

..4 Internal Energy............................................ 183 Bernoulli Equation for Fluid Flow ....3 6...................1 Kinetic Energy ......................................................... 159 Concept of Flow Net ......................... 226 ........................ Static and Total Head .................5 6....................................... 215 6.......................5 7...................................... 222 Hydraulically “Rough” and “Smooth” Pipes ......................................................................5 Electrical and Magnetic Energy .......... 221 Features of Laminar and Turbulent Flows .....................0 6................................................1 Pitot Tube .. 180 6.................................1........................ 213 Exercise Problems .................... 224 Darcy–Weisbach Equation for Calculating Pressure Drop ............... Separation by 2a) ............................................1................... 159 Vortex Pair (Equal Strength.................................................................................6 7................ 182 6........................... 159 Solved Problems ......8 Parameters Involved in the Study of Flow Through Closed Conduits ........................................ 181 6........ 219 Boundary Layer Concept in the Study of Fluid Flow ......................1............. 223 Velocity Variation with Radius for Fully Developed Laminar Flow in Pipes ..................................7 6...................7 7..................... 184 Energy Line and Hydraulic Gradient Line . 180 6... 188 Euler and Bernoulli Equation for Flow with Friction ............................................. 192 6........................................7 5................... 160 Objective Questions ...................................................................................................................................1.......................4 7........... 178 5............................. 181 6..................8 7 Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)....... 183 Euler’s Equation of Motion for Flow Along a Stream Line ..........................3 Pressure Energy (Also Equals Flow Energy) .....18..........9 5......................1 Introduction . Opposite Rotation...........2 Potential Energy .......................1 7............................................................................................................. 220 Boundary Layer Development Over A Flat Plate ....................................0 7......................................................................................................(xii) Source and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) .......................... 219 7...................6 6...................................................................... 187 Volume Flow Through a Venturimeter .... 183 Variation in the Relative Values of Various Forms of Energy During Flow ...................................................... 191 Concept and Measurement of Dynamic........... 223 Concept of “Hydraulic Diameter”: (Dh) .........2 7........................3 7.................................................................................................................8........ 180 Forms of Energy Encountered in Fluid Flow....... 220 Development of Boundary Layer in Closed Conduits (Pipes) ..................8 5.2 6................................................ 174 Exercise Problems ..................................................................................................................1................. 194 Objective Questions .................... 182 6.......18............................. 159 Sink and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) .................18.............................4 6................... 193 Solved Problems ...................................................................................................................19 6 Bernoulli Equation and Applications ............................

..................5................................... 270 Correlation of Experimental Data .................................................. 265 Important Dimensionless Parameters ....................................................................................2 Dynamic Similarity ................ 228 Significance of Reynolds Number in Pipe Flow ..................................................................0 8.......16 7....................................2.............................................................. 265 8.............................................................................. 298 .............................1 Problems with One Pi Term ....... 296 Model and Prototype ........1 Condition for Maximum Power Transmission ..................19........ 231 Expression for the Loss of Head at Sudden Expansion in Pipe Flow . 263 Methods of Determination of Dimensionless Groups ..........................1 Pipes in Series—Electrical Analogy ........................................ 230 Minor Losses in Pipe Flow .............................................................. 296 9.........19 Hagen–Poiseuille Equation for Friction Drop .. 238 7........17 7.......................(xiii) 7....2....... 256 Exercise Problems ...................................................................................................10 7..3 8.....................................................................0 9..................................19...................................... 270 8........................................................................5....................... 259 8 Dimensional Analysis .......................2.............................. 273 Objective Questions ............................3 Kinematic Similarity ........... 235 Fluid Power Transmission Through Pipes ...............1 8........................................................9 7............ 296 Conditions for Similarity Between Models and Prototype ....... Bends and Other Pipe Fittings ................... 273 Solved Problems .................................................................................................................................................................................. 297 9..........................................................................................................................1 Geometric Similarity ..................... 232 Losses in Elbows..................................4 Pipe Network .............................................................2 8................................ 297 9....................... 241 7.................................3 Branching Pipes ................ 265 Buckingham Pi Theorem .......................................................................5 Introduction .18 7.......... 239 7............................................................................. 243 7.............................................5..................................................... 264 The Principle of Dimensional Homogeneity ............ 245 Solved Problems .... 271 8............................................................................13 7......................3 Problems with Three Dimensionless Parameters ......................................2 Pipes in Parallel .... 234 Concept of Equivalent Length ............... 238 Network of Pipes ...........................................2 Introduction .......12 7.....19........2 Problems with Two Pi Terms .......................11 7......................................................................................3........................................19....... 234 Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line in Conduit Flow .................................. 297 9........................... 291 Exercise Problems ...................1 9............. 240 7........................................................1 Determination of π Groups. 263 8..................................... 235 Concept of Equivalent Pipe or Equivalent Length .............. 271 8..........14 7..........................................................18................... 245 Objective Questions ..4 8..... 229 Velocity Distribution and Friction Factor for Turbulent Flow in Pipes .....................................15 7..... 293 9 Similitude and Model Testing ...............

....... 339 Solved Problems ....................................... 303 Solved Problems .............................................3 11 Flow Measurements ..........1......................... 334 10..... 303 Objective Questions .........3.................... 327 10.......... 325 10......4 Laser Doppler Anemometer ............. 331 Turbulent Flow ....................1 11... 300 9.(xiv) 9.................5 10 Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces ........2 Vane Anemometer and Currentmeter ................................................. 298 9...........................................................3.................1.......................1 Flow Around Immersed Bodies – Drag and Lift ....................................................................................................................... 338 10.2 Continuity Equation ..............................................................................................6 Displacement Thickness ................. 317 9.........1 Pitot Tube ..................................................................1...3......................................................3................................................................ 359 11..........3.........3 Pressure Drag .....................................................................1...................................... 298 9...............................................................................2 10......................................................................2.....1.....7 Momentum Thickness .......................3............................ 321 Boundary Layer Thickness ...............................................................................3.......... 341 Objective Questions .....................4 9....................................4 Solution for Velocity Profile .. 322 10...................................... 362 11.............................................................................3 Momentum Equation .....3..............5 Lift and Coefficient of Lift .........................................................................................4 Flow Over Spheres and Cylinders ......................... 302 Conclusion ....................1 Introduction ................................ 335 10.. 360 11................................ 321 10............ 336 10..........................................................................3 Types of Model Studies ...................................... 337 10................................................................3..................................4 Models for Turbomachinery ...............................................3 Hot Wire Anemometer................................. 332 Flow Separation in Boundary Layers ....... 359 Velocity Measurements........3 Flow with Free Surface ...........................................2 Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag ....................3.......1..................................5 Integral Method ................2.............2.... 322 10... 315 Exercise Problems ..........1 Flow Through Closed Conduits ..........1............................................................................2 Flow Around Immersed Bodies........................................................ 301 Nondimensionalising Governing Differential Equations .................................... 324 10..........................................1 Flow Over Flat Plate .......... 334 10................................. 362 11..........2 Introduction .... 321 10............................................ 359 11......................................................................................... 353 Exercise Problems .....................................................................................................6 Rotating Sphere and Cylinder .... 299 9.......2..............................................0 10................................................ 363 .................................................... 356 10.................................................................................................................. 330 10....................................

(xv) 11.3 Volume Flow Rate Measurement ........................................................................ 364 11.3.1 Rotameter (Float Meter) ..................................................................... 364 11.3.2 Turbine Type Flowmeter ..................................................................... 364 11.3.3 Venturi, Nozzle and Orifice Meters .................................................... 365 11.3.4 Elbow Meter ......................................................................................... 367 Flow Measurement Using Orifices, Notches and Weirs ................................... 367 11.4.1 Discharge Measurement Using Orifices ............................................ 367 11.4.2 Flow Measurements in Open Channels ............................................. 368 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 371 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 379 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 380 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 381

11.4

12

**Flow in Open Channels .......................................................................... 383
**

12.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 383 12.1.1 Characteristics of Open Channels ...................................................... 383 12.1.2 Classification of Open Channel Flow ................................................. 384 12.2 Uniform Flow: (Also Called Flow at Normal Depth) ......................................... 384 12.3 Chezy’s Equation for Discharge .......................................................................... 385 12.4 Determination of Chezy’s Constant .................................................................... 386 12.4.1 Bazin’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant .............................................. 386 12.4.2 Kutter’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant C ......................................... 387 12.4.3 Manning’s Equation for C ................................................................... 388 12.5 Economical Cross-Section for Open Channels ................................................... 390 12.6 Flow with Varying Slopes and Areas .................................................................. 395 12.6.1 Velocity of Wave Propagation in Open Surface Flow ....................... 395 12.6.2 Froude Number .................................................................................... 397 12.6.3 Energy Equation for Steady Flow and Specific Energy .................... 397 12.6.4 Non Dimensional Representation of Specific Energy Curve ............ 400 12.7 Effect of Area Change .......................................................................................... 404 12.7.1 Flow Over a Bump ............................................................................... 404 12.7.2 Flow Through Sluice Gate, from Stagnant Condition ...................... 406 12.7.3 Flow Under a Sluice Gate in a Channel............................................. 407 12.8 Flow with Gradually Varying Depth .................................................................. 409 12.8.1 Classification of Surface Variations ................................................... 410 12.9 The Hydraulic Jump (Rapidly Varied Flow) ...................................................... 411 12.10 Flow Over Broad Crested Weir ........................................................................... 414 12.11 Effect of Lateral Contraction ............................................................................... 415 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 416 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 430 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 430 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 432

(xvi)

13

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow.......................................................................... 435
**

13.0 13.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 435 Impulse Momentum Principle ............................................................................. 435 13.1.1 Forces Exerted on Pressure Conduits ................................................ 436 13.1.2 Force Exerted on a Stationary Vane or Blade ................................... 438 Absolute and Relative Velocity Relations .......................................................... 439 Force on a Moving Vane or Blade ....................................................................... 439 Torque on Rotating Wheel ................................................................................... 443 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 445 Exercise Questions ................................................................................................ 450

13.2 13.3 13.4

14

**Hydraulic Turbines.................................................................................. 452
**

14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 452 Hydraulic Power Plant......................................................................................... 452 Classification of Turbines .................................................................................... 453 Similitude and Model Testing ............................................................................. 453 14.3.1 Model and Prototype ............................................................................ 457 14.3.2 Unit Quantities .................................................................................... 459 Turbine Efficiencies ............................................................................................. 460 Euler Turbine Equation ....................................................................................... 461 14.5.1 Components of Power Produced ......................................................... 462 Pelton Turbine ...................................................................................................... 464 14.6.1 Power Development ............................................................................. 466 14.6.2 Torque and Power and Efficiency Variation with Speed Ratio ........ 470 Reaction Turbines ................................................................................................ 472 14.7.1 Francis Turbines .................................................................................. 473 Axial Flow Turbines ............................................................................................. 480 Cavitation in Hydraulic Machines ...................................................................... 482 Governing of Hydraulic Turbines ....................................................................... 484 Worked Examples ................................................................................................. 486 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 513 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 514 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 515

14.4 14.5 14.6

14.7 14.8 14.9 14.9

15

**Rotodynamic Pumps .............................................................................. 519
**

15.0 15.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 519 Centrifugal Pumps ............................................................................................... 519 15.1.1 Impeller ................................................................................................ 521 15.1.2 Classification ........................................................................................ 521 Pressure Developed by the Impeller ................................................................... 522 15.2.1 Manometric Head ................................................................................ 523

15.2

(xvii) 15.3 Energy Transfer by Impeller ............................................................................... 523 15.3.1 Slip and Slip Factor ............................................................................. 525 15.3.3 Losses in Centrifugal Pumps .............................................................. 525 15.3.4 Effect of Outlet Blade Angle ............................................................... 526 Pump Characteristics........................................................................................... 527 Operation of Pumps in Series and Parallel ........................................................ 529 Specific Speed and Significance .......................................................................... 531 Cavitation ............................................................................................................. 532 Axial Flow Pump .................................................................................................. 533 Power Transmitting Systems .............................................................................. 535 15.9.1 Fluid Coupling...................................................................................... 535 15.9.2 Torque Converter ................................................................................. 536 Solved Examples ................................................................................................... 538 Revierw Questions ................................................................................................ 556 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 556 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 557

15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9

16

**Reciprocating Pumps ............................................................................. 560
**

16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 560 Comparison ........................................................................................................... 560 Description and Working ..................................................................................... 560 Flow Rate and Power .......................................................................................... 562 16.3.1 Slip ........................................................................................................ 563 Indicator Diagram ................................................................................................ 564 16.4.1 Acceleration Head ................................................................................ 565 16.4.2 Minimum Speed of Rotation of Crank................................................ 569 16.4.3 Friction Head ....................................................................................... 570 Air Vessels ............................................................................................................ 572 16.5.1 Flow into and out of Air Vessel ........................................................... 575 Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps ................................................................ 576 16.6.1 Gear Pump ............................................................................................ 577 16.6.2 Lobe Pump ............................................................................................ 577 16.6.3 Vane Pump ........................................................................................... 577 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 578 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 587 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 587 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 587 Appendix ............................................................................................................. 590 Index .................................................................................................................... 595

16.5 16.6

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1.0

Physical Properties of Fluids

INTRODUCTION

The flow of ideal non-viscous fluids was extensively studied and mathematical theories were developed during the last century. The field of study was called as ‘Hydrodynamics’. However the results of mathematical analysis could not be applied directly to the flow of real fluids. Experiments with water flow resulted in the formulation of empirical equations applicable to engineering designs. The field was called Hydraulics. Due to the development of industries there arose a need for the study of fluids other than water. Theories like boundary layer theory were developed which could be applied to all types of real fluids, under various conditions of flow. The combination of experiments, the mathematical analysis of hydrodynamics and the new theories is known as ‘Fluid Mechanics’. Fluid Mechanics encompasses the study of all types of fluids under static, kinematic and dynamic conditions. The study of properties of fluids is basic for the understanding of flow or static condition of fluids. The important properties are density, viscosity, surface tension, bulk modulus and vapour pressure. Viscosity causes resistance to flow. Surface tension leads to capillary effects. Bulk modulus is involved in the propagation of disturbances like sound waves in fluids. Vapour pressure can cause flow disturbances due to evaporation at locations of low pressure. It plays an important role in cavitation studies in fluid machinery. In this chapter various properties of fluids are discussed in detail, with stress on their effect on flow. Fairly elaborate treatment is attempted due to their importance in engineering applications. The basic laws used in the discussions are : (i) Newton’s laws of motion, (ii) Laws of conservation of mass and energy, (iii) Laws of Thermodynamics, and (iv) Newton’s law of viscosity. A fluid is defined as a material which will continue to deform with the application of shear force however small the force may be.

1

2 1.1 THREE PHASES OF MATTER

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Generally matter exists in three phases namely (i) Solid (ii) Liquid and (iii) Gas (includes vapour). The last two together are also called by the common term fluids. In solids atoms/molecules are closely spaced and the attractive (cohesive) forces between atoms/molecules is high. The shape is maintained by the cohesive forces binding the atoms. When an external force is applied on a solid component, slight rearrangement in atomic positions balances the force. Depending upon the nature of force the solid may elongate or shorten or bend. When the applied force is removed the atoms move back to the original position and the former shape is regained. Only when the forces exceed a certain value (yield), a small deformation called plastic deformation will be retained as the atoms are unable to move to their original positions. When the force exceeds a still higher value (ultimate), the cohesive forces are not adequate to resist the applied force and the component will break. In liquids the inter molecular distances are longer and the cohesive forces are of smaller in magnitude. The molecules are not bound rigidly as in solids and can move randomly. However, the cohesive forces are large enough to hold the molecules together below a free surface that forms in the container. Liquids will continue to deform when a shear or tangential force is applied. The deformation continues as long as the force exists. In fluids the rate of deformation controls the force (not deformation as in solids). More popularly it is stated that a fluid (liquid) cannot withstand applied shear force and will continue to deform. When at rest liquids will assume the shape of the container forming a free surface at the top. In gases the distance between molecules is much larger compared to atomic dimensions and the cohesive force between atoms/molecules is low. So gas molecules move freely and fill the full volume of the container. If the container is open the molecules will diffuse to the outside. Gases also cannot withstand shear. The rate of deformation is proportional to the applied force as in the case of liquids. Liquids and gases together are classified as fluids. Vapour is gaseous state near the evaporation temperature. The state in which a material exists depends on the pressure and temperature. For example, steel at atmospheric temperature exists in the solid state. At higher temperatures it can be liquefied. At still higher temperatures it will exist as a vapour. A fourth state of matter is its existence as charged particles or ions known as plasma. This is encountered in MHD power generation. This phase is not considered in the text.

1.2

COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS

If the density of a fluid varies significantly due to moderate changes in pressure or temperature, then the fluid is called compressible fluid. Generally gases and vapours under normal conditions can be classified as compressible fluids. In these phases the distance between atoms or molecules is large and cohesive forces are small. So increase in pressure or temperature will change the density by a significant value. If the change in density of a fluid is small due to changes in temperature and or pressure, then the fluid is called incompressible fluid. All liquids are classified under this category.

Physical Properties of Fluids

3

Chapter 1

When the change in pressure and temperature is small, gases and vapours are treated as incompressible fluids. For certain applications like propagation of pressure disturbances, liquids should be considered as compressible. In this chapter some of the properties relevant to fluid mechanics are discussed with a view to bring out their influence on the design and operation of fluid machinery and equipments.

1.3

DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

It is necessary to distinguish clearly between the terms “Units” and “Dimensions”. The word “dimension” is used to describe basic concepts like mass, length, time, temperature and force. “Large mass, long distance, high temperature” does not mean much in terms of visualising the quantity. Dimension merely describes the concept and does not provide any method for the quantitative expression of the same. Units are the means of expressing the value of the dimension quantitatively or numerically The term “second” for example is used to quantify time. “Ten seconds elapsed between starting and ending of an act” is the way of expressing the elapsed time in numerical form. The value of dimension should be expressed in terms of units before any quantitative assessment can be made. There are three widely used systems of units in the world. These are (1) British or English system (it is not in official use now in Briton) (2) Metric system and (3) SI system (System International d’Unites or International System of Units). India has passed through the first two systems in that order and has now adopted the SI system of units. The basic units required in Fluid Mechanics are for mass, length, time and temperature. These are kilogram (kg), metre (m), second (s) and kelvin (K). The unit of force is defined using Newton’s second law of motion which states that applied force is proportional to the time rate of change of momentum of the body on which the force acts. For a given mass m, subjected to the action of a force F, resulting in an acceleration a, Newton’s law can be written in the form F = (1/go) m a (1.3.1) where go is a dimensional constant whose numerical value and units depend on those selected for force, F, mass, m, and acceleration, a. The unit of force is newton (N) in the SI system. One newton is defined as the force which acting on a mass of one kilogram will produce an acceleration of 1 m/s2. This leads to the relation 1 N = (1/go) × 1 kg × 1 m/s2 Hence go = 1 kg m/N s2 (1.3.2) (1.3.3)

The numerical value of go is unity (1) in the SI system and this is found advantageous in numerical calculations. However this constant should necessarily be used to obtain dimensional homogeneity in equations. In metric system the unit of force is kgf defined as the force acted on one kg mass by standard gravitational acceleration taken as 9.81 m/s2. The value of go is 9.81 kg m/kgf s2. In the English system the unit of force is lbf defined as the force on one lb mass due to standard gravitational acceleration of 32.2 ft/s2. The value of go is 32.2 ft lb/lbf s2.

4

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Some of the units used in this text are listed in the table below:

Quantity mass time length temperature force energy, work, heat power pressure Unit symbol kg s m K, (273 + °C) N (newton) Nm, J W = (Nm/s, J/s) N/m2, (pascal, pa) Derived units ton (tonne) = 1000 kg min (60s), hr (3600s) mm, cm, km °C kN, MN (106 N) kJ, MJ, kNm kW, MW kPa, MPa, bar (105Pa)

Conversion constants between the metric and SI system of units are tabulated elsewhere in the text.

1.4

CONTINUUM

As gas molecules are far apart from each other and as there is empty space between molecules doubt arises as to whether a gas volume can be considered as a continuous matter like a solid for situations similar to application of forces. Under normal pressure and temperature levels, gases are considered as a continuum (i.e., as if no empty spaces exist between atoms). The test for continuum is to measure properties like density by sampling at different locations and also reducing the sampling volume to low levels. If the property is constant irrespective of the location and size of sample volume, then the gas body can be considered as a continuum for purposes of mechanics (application of force, consideration of acceleration, velocity etc.) and for the gas volume to be considered as a single body or entity. This is a very important test for the application of all laws of mechanics to a gas volume as a whole. When the pressure is extremely low, and when there are only few molecules in a cubic metre of volume, then the laws of mechanics should be applied to the molecules as entities and not to the gas body as a whole. In this text, only systems satisfying continuum requirements are discussed.

1.5

DEFINITION OF SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY

Density (mass density): The mass per unit volume is defined as density. The unit used is kg/m3. The measurement is simple in the case of solids and liquids. In the case of gases and vapours it is rather involved. The symbol used is ρ. The characteristic equation for gases provides a means to estimate the density from the measurement of pressure, temperature and volume. Specific Volume: The volume occupied by unit mass is called the specific volume of the material. The symbol used is v, the unit being m3/kg. Specific volume is the reciprocal of density.

Physical Properties of Fluids

5

Chapter 1

In the case of solids and liquids, the change in density or specific volume with changes in pressure and temperature is rather small, whereas in the case of gases and vapours, density will change significantly due to changes in pressure and/or temperature. Weight Density or Specific Weight: The force due to gravity on the mass in unit volume is defined as Weight Density or Specific Weight. The unit used is N/m3. The symbol used is γ. At a location where g is the local acceleration due to gravity, Specific weight, γ = g ρ (1.5.1) In the above equation direct substitution of dimensions will show apparent nonhomogeneity as the dimensions on the LHS and RHS will not be the same. On the LHS the dimension will be N/m3 but on the RHS it is kg/m2 s2. The use of go will clear this anomaly. As seen in section 1.1, go = 1 kg m/N s2. The RHS of the equation 1.3.1 when divided by go will lead to perfect dimensional homogeneity. The equation should preferably be written as, Specific weight, γ = (g/go) ρ (1.5.2)

Since newton (N) is defined as the force required to accelerate 1 kg of mass by 1/s2, it can also be expressed as kg.m/s2. Density can also be expressed as Ns2/m4 (as kg = Ns2/m). Beam balances compare the mass while spring balances compare the weights. The mass is the same (invariant) irrespective of location but the weight will vary according to the local gravitational constant. Density will be invariant while specific weight will vary with variations in gravitational acceleration. Specific Gravity or Relative Density: The ratio of the density of the fluid to the density of water—usually 1000 kg/m3 at a standard condition—is defined as Specific Gravity or Relative Density δ of fluids. This is a ratio and hence no dimension or unit is involved.

Example 1.1. The weight of an object measured on ground level where ge = 9.81 m/s2 is 35,000 N. Calculate its weight at the following locations (i) Moon, gm = 1.62 m/s2 (ii) Sun, gs = 274.68 m/s2 (iii) Mercury, gme = 3.53 m/s2 (iv) Jupiter, gj = 26.0 m/s2 (v) Saturn, gsa = 11.2 m/s2 and (vi) Venus, gv = 8.54 m/s2. Mass of the object, me = weight × (go/g) = 35,000 × (1/9.81) = 3567.8 kg Weight of the object on a planet, p = me × (gp/go) where me is the mass on earth, gp is gravity on the planet and go has the usual meaning, force conversion constant. Hence the weight of the given object on, (i) Moon (ii) Sun (iii) Mercury (iv) Jupiter (v) Saturn (vi) Venus = = = = = = 3567.8 × 1.62 3567.8 × 274.68 3567.8 × 3.53 3567.8 × 26.0 3567.8 × 11.2 3567.8 × 8.54 = 5,780 N = 9,80,000 N = 12,594 N = 92,762 N = 39,959 N = 30,469 N

Note that the mass is constant whereas the weight varies directly with the gravitational constant. Also note that the ratio of weights will be the same as the ratio of gravity values.

1.6

VAPOUR AND GAS

When a liquid is heated under a constant pressure, first its temperature rises to the boiling point (defined as saturation temperature). Then the liquid begins to change its phase to the

6

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

gaseous condition, with molecules escaping from the surface due to higher thermal energy level. When the gas phase is in contact with the liquid or its temperature is near the saturation condition it is termed as vapour. Vapour is in gaseous condition but it does not follow the gas laws. Its specific heats will vary significantly. Moderate changes in temperature may change its phase to the liquid state. When the temperature is well above the saturation temperature, vapour begins to behave as a gas. It will also obey the characteristic equation for gases. Then the specific heat will be nearly constant.

1.7

CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION FOR GASES

The characteristic equation for gases can be derived from Boyle’s law and Charles’ law. Boyle’s law states that at constant temperature the volume of a gas body will vary inversely with pressure. Charles’ law states that at constant pressure, the temperature will vary inversely with volume. Combining these two, the characteristic equation for a system containing m kg of a gas can be obtained as PV = mRT (1.7.1) This equation when applied to a given system leads to the relation 1.7.2 applicable for all equilibrium conditions irrespective of the process between the states. (P1V1/T1) = (P2V2/T2) = (P3 V3/T3) = (PV/T) = Constant N/m2, (1.7.2) In the SI system, the units to be used in the equation are Pressure, P → volume, V → m3, mass, m → kg, temperature, T → K and gas constant, R → Nm/kgK or J/kgK (Note: K = (273 + °C), J = Nm). This equation defines the equilibrium state for any gas body. For a specified gas body with mass m, if two properties like P, V are specified then the third property T is automatically specified by this equation. The equation can also be written as, Pv = RT where v = V/m or specific volume. The value for R for air is 287 J/kgK. Application of Avagadro’s hypothesis leads to the definition of a new volume measure called molal volume. This is the volume occupied by the molecular mass of any gas at standard temperature and pressure. This volume as per the above hypothesis will be the same for all gases at any given temperature and pressure. Denoting this volume as Vm and the pressure as P and the temperature as T, For a gas a, For a gas b, PVm = Ma Ra T PVm = Mb Rb T MaRa = MbRb = M × R = Constant (1.7.4) (1.7.5) (1.7.6) (1.7.3)

As P, T and Vm are the same in both cases. The product M × R is called Universal gas constant and is denoted by the symbol R. Its numerical value in SI system is 8314 J/kg mole K. For any gas the value of gas constant R is obtained by dividing universal gas constant by the molecular mass in kg of that gas. The gas constant R for any gas (in the SI system, J/kg K) can be calculated using, R = 8314/M (1.7.7)

Physical Properties of Fluids

7

Chapter 1

The characteristic equation for gases can be applied for all gases with slight approximations, and for practical calculations this equation is used in all cases.

Example 1.2. A balloon is filled with 6 kg of hydrogen at 2 bar and 20°C. What will be the diameter of the balloon when it reaches an altitude where the pressure and temperature are 0.2 bar and –60° C. Assume that the pressure and temperature inside are the same as that at the outside at this altitude. The characteristic equation for gases PV = mRT is used to calculate the initial volume, V1 = [(m RT1)/P1], For hydrogen, molecular mass = 2, and so RH = 8314/2 = 4157 J/kgK, ∴ V1 = 6 × 4157 × (273 + 20)/2 × 105 = 36.54 m3 Using the general gas equation the volume after the balloon has reached the altitude, V2 is calculated. [(P1V1)/T1] = [(P2V2)/T2] [(2 × 105 × 36.54)/(273+20)] = [(0.2) × 105 × V2)/(273 – 60)] solving, V2 = 265.63 m3, Considering the shape of the balloon as a sphere of radius r, Volume = (4/3) π r3 = 265.63 m3, solving Radius, r = 3.99 m and diameter of the balloon = 7.98 m (The pressure inside the balloon should be slightly higher to overcome the stress in the wall material)

1.8

VISCOSITY

A fluid is defined as a material which will continue to deform with the application of a shear force. However, different fluids deform at different rates when the same shear stress (force/ area) is applied. Viscosity is that property of a real fluid by virtue of which it offers resistance to shear force. Referring to Fig. 1.8.1, it may be noted that a force is required to move one layer of fluid over another. For a given fluid the force required varies directly as the rate of deformation. As the rate of deformation increases the force required also increases. This is shown in Fig. 1.8.1 (i). The force required to cause the same rate of movement depends on the nature of the fluid. The resistance offered for the same rate of deformation varies directly as the viscosity of the fluid. As viscosity increases the force required to cause the same rate of deformation increases. This is shown in Fig. 1.8.1 (ii). Newton’s law of viscosity states that the shear force to be applied for a deformation rate of (du/dy) over an area A is given by, F = µ A (du/dy) or (F/A) = τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y) m2, (1.8.1) (1.8.2)

where F is the applied force in N, A is area in du/dy is the velocity gradient (or rate of deformation), 1/s, perpendicular to flow direction, here assumed linear, and µ is the proportionality constant defined as the dynamic or absolute viscosity of the fluid.

8

uA FA ub FB ua

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
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ub FA FB

tA

tB

tA

tB

ub > ua , Fb > Fa µa = µb (i) same fluid

**ua = ub , µa < µb , Fb > Fa (ii) same velocity
**

Figure 1.8.1 Concept of viscosity

The dimensions for dynamic viscosity µ can be obtained from the definition as Ns/m2 or kg/ms. The first dimension set is more advantageously used in engineering problems. However, if the dimension of N is substituted, then the second dimension set, more popularly used by scientists can be obtained. The numerical value in both cases will be the same. N = kg m/s2 ; µ = (kg m/s2) (s/m2) = kg/ms The popular unit for viscosity is Poise named in honour of Poiseuille. Poise = 0.1 Ns/m2 Centipoise (cP) is also used more frequently as, cP = 0.001 Ns/m2 (1.8.3a) For water the viscosity at 20°C is nearly 1 cP. The ratio of dynamic viscosity to the density is defined as kinematic viscosity, ν, having a dimension of m2/s. Later it will be seen to relate to momentum transfer. Because of this kinematic viscosity is also called momentum diffusivity. The popular unit used is stokes (in honour of the scientist Stokes). Centistoke is also often used. 1 stoke = 1 cm2/s = 10–4 m2/s (1.8.3b) Of all the fluid properties, viscosity plays a very important role in fluid flow problems. The velocity distribution in flow, the flow resistance etc. are directly controlled by viscosity. In the study of fluid statics (i.e., when fluid is at rest), viscosity and shear force are not generally involved. In this chapter problems are worked assuming linear variation of velocity in the fluid filling the clearance space between surfaces with relative movement.

Example 1.3. The space between two large inclined parallel planes is 6mm and is filled with a fluid. The planes are inclined at 30° to the horizontal. A small thin square plate of 100 mm side slides freely down parallel and midway between the inclined planes with a constant velocity of 3 m/ s due to its weight of 2N. Determine the viscosity of the fluid. The vertical force of 2 N due to the weight of the plate can be resolved along and perpendicular to the inclined plane. The force along the inclined plane is equal to the drag force on both sides of the plane due to the viscosity of the oil. Force due to the weight of the sliding plane along the direction of motion = 2 sin 30 = 1N

(1.8.3)

For 2 m length of the cylinder. The velocity of the fluid filling a hollow cylinder of radius 0.16 2.10 Shear stress. m 0.) Shear stress = µ (du/dy) or µ (du/dr).60 8. Substituting the values. 6 mm gap 9 Chapter 1 2 sin 30 N 30° 2N 2N 30° 30° Figure Ex.1 × 0.00 0.72 1. dy = [(8 – 1)/(2 × 1000)] m and du = 4 m/s F = 2 × 10–2 [4/{(8 – 1)/(2 × 1000)}] [0.05 Ns/m2 or 0.08 and 0. The 8 mm gap between two large vertical parallel plane surfaces is filled with a liquid of dynamic viscosity 2 × 10–2 Ns/m2. µ = 0.88 3.1 m varies as u = 10 [1 – (r/0.04 0.00 0. N/m2 0.02. A thin sheet of 1 mm thickness and 150 mm × 150 mm size.72 1.63 2.Physical Properties of Fluids Viscous force. Assume that the plate moves centrally.60 Shear force. 0.1)2] m/s along the radius r.00 9. m/s 0.12 ) = – 2000 r The – ve sign indicates that the force acts in a direction opposite to the direction of velocity.40 3. u = 10 [1 – (r/0.44 2.40 6. 0.04.00 Example 1.15 × 0.5.1)2] m/s ∴ du/dr = 10 (– 2r/0. N 0.018 Ns/m2. determine the shear stress and shear force over cylindrical layers of fluid at r = 0 (centre line).00 0. u.15 × 2] = 1. F = (A × 2) × µ × (du/dy) (both sides of plate).90 4.3 Example 1.02 N (weight of the plate) .06 0. 1.06 0.1 m (wall surface. 0. 1 = µ × [(0. when dropped vertically between the two plates attains a steady velocity of 4 m/s. Substituting the values.18 0.5 Poise Oil Sliding plate 100 mm sq.1 × 2)] × [(3 – 0)/6/(2 × 1000)}] Solving for viscosity.08 0. Determine weight of the plate.4.52 Velocity.018 × 2000 r = 36 rN/m2 Shear force over 2 m length = shear stress × area over 2m = 36r × 2πrL = 72 πr2 × 2 = 144 πr2 The calculated values are tabulated below: Radius.02 0. Shear stress = 0. F = τ (A × 2) = µ × (du/dy) (A × 2) = weight of the plate.60 0. The viscosity of the fluid is 0.

1) = 2714 N 1. Determine the resistance offered to the downward sliding of a shaft of 400 mm dia and 0. F opposing the movement of the shaft = shear stress × area F = µ (du/dy) ( π × D × L ) µ = 2.4 m dy = (402 – 400)/(2 × 1000)m. In plastics.1 Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids An ideal fluid has zero viscosity.1 m. Bernoulli equation can be used to analyse the flow. In shear thinning materials viscosity will decrease with du/dy. It means that the proportionality parameter (in equation 1.10 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 1. L = 0. An ideal fluid has to be also incompressible.8. F = 2.4 × 0. D= 0.4 × 10–4 × 900 Ns/m2.1 m length by the oil film between the shaft and a bearing of ID 402 mm. After this limit it has a constant viscosity at any given temperature. In non Newtonian fluids the viscosity will vary with variation in the rate of deformation.2.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density is 900 kg/m3. Two different plots are shown as different authors use different representations. shear thickening and real plastic fluids. µ is constant in the case of Newtonian fluids (other conditions and parameters remaining the same). up to a certain value of applied shear stress there is no flow.1 – 0)/[(402 – 400)/ (2 × 1000)]} ( π × 0. the viscosity will increase with (du/dy) deformation rate. tooth paste. 1. Force.4 × 10–4 × 900 × {(0. In Newtonian fluids a linear relationship exists between the magnitude of the applied shear stress and the resulting rate of deformation. The characteristics is shown plotted in Fig.2. Shear stress is zero irrespective of the value of du/dy. τ = µ (du/dy)).1 m/s. Shear force is not involved in its deformation. du = 0.2 Rheological behaviour of fluids Non Newtonian fluids can be further classified as simple non Newtonian. Ideal plastic t 4 5 Real plastic Shear thinning 3 2 1 3 2 du/dy Newtonian 1 5 4 Shear thickening du/dy t Figure 1.8. Paint. The shaft is to move centrally and axially at a constant velocity of 0. printers ink .8. Real fluids having viscosity are divided into two groups namely Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids.1 m/s. Linear relationship between shear stress and rate of deformation (du/dy) does not exist.8. In shear thickening materials. Substituting. The kinematic viscosity is 2. ideal plastic and shear thinning. viscosity. The viscosity at any given temperature and pressure is constant for a Newtonian fluid and is independent of the rate of deformation.6.

These are also shown in Fig. As temperature increases. In the case of liquids. Hence. rather than tabulated values of kinematic viscosity. So. 1. Thus the molecules diffusing across layers transport a net momentum introducing a shear stress between the layers. In gas flow it is better to use absolute viscosity and density. the molecules moving from the layer at lower speed to the layer at higher speed have to be accelerated. (µ/ρ) = ν kinematic viscosity gives the rate of momentum flux or momentum diffusivity.4 Significance of Kinematic Viscosity Kinematic viscosity. viscosity increases with temperature. the force due to momentum transfer and the force for overcoming cohesion. 1. in the case of gases. The force will be zero if both layers move at the same speed or if the fluid is at rest.m/s2) (s/m2)] [m3/kg] = m2/s Popularly used unit is stoke (cm2/s) = 10–4 m2/s named in honour of Stokes. Kinematic viscosity represents momentum diffusivity. When the velocity in the layers are different as in viscous flow. Similarly the molecules moving from the layer at higher velocity to a layer at a lower velocity carry with them a higher value of momentum and these are to be slowed down. In the case of gases viscous forces are more due to momentum transfer as distance between molecules is larger and velocities are higher.2 τ = µ (du/dy) = (µ/ρ) × {d (ρu/dy)} = ν × {d (ρu/dy)} µρ ρ ρ d (ρu/dy) represents momentum flux in the y direction. which is usually for 1 atm. With increase in temperature kinematic viscosity decreases in the case of liquids and increases in the case of gases. (1. (Ns/m2) (m3/ kg) = [(kg. A shear force is to be exerted to cause fluids to flow. Viscous forces can be considered as the sum of these two. 1. It may be explained by modifying equation 1. 1. The main topic of study in this text will involve only Newtonian fluids. the contribution to viscosity is more due to momentum transfer. Centi stoke is also popular = 10–6 m2/s.8. viscosity of liquids decrease when temperature increases. for relative motion between layers.8. Many other behaviours have been observed which are more specialised in nature.2 Viscosity and Momentum Transfer In the flow of liquids and gases molecules are free to move from one layer to another. ν = µ/ρ .Physical Properties of Fluids 11 Chapter 1 are some examples for different behaviours.2. In the case of gases.8. the viscous forces are due more to the breaking of cohesive forces than due to momentum transfer (as molecular velocities are low). more molecules cross over with higher momentum differences. The unit in SI system is m2/s. For liquids and gases absolute (dynamic) viscosity is not influenced significantly by pressure.8. But kinematic viscosity of gases is influenced by pressure due to change in density. When cohesive forces exist between atoms or molecules these forces have to be overcome. namely. So.8.3 Effect of Temperature on Viscosity When temperature increases the distance between molecules increases and the cohesive force decreases.8.4) .

The time is converted to poise by empirical equations. 1.8.5.8.h) {L + (R/4)}. In this case both are assumed to be equal. 1. If the film thickness between the cylinder and sleeve is 0.7.9. diameter. In case the clearances are different then h1 and h2 should be used.1 Using Flow Through Orifices Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In viscosity determination using Saybolt or Redwood viscometers.5 Measurement of Viscosity of Fluids 1. 0. Tb = µπ2 NR4/60 h 900 rpm Figure Ex. Refer Example 1.15 200 The total torque is given by the sum of the torque due to the shear forces on the cylindrical surface and that on the bottom surface. Knowing the length. the cylinder supported by a torsion spring is 20 cm in dia and 20 cm long. the value of viscosity can be calculated.0015)] × [0.13)/(15 × 0.2 Nm.2 + (0.7 Viscosity test setup Where h is the clearance between the sleeve and cylinder and also base and bottom.12 1.3). The procedure is simple and a quick assessment is possible.1/4)] Solving for viscosity.5. Total torque = (µ π2NR3/ 15. determine the viscosity of the oil. This situation is similar to that in a Foot Step bearing.8.8. The outer cylinder is rotated keeping the inner cylinder stationary and the reaction torque on the inner cylinder is measured using a torsion spring.2 Rotating Cylinder Method The fluid is filled in the interspace between two cylinders. 200 . the time for the flow through a standard orifice. substituting. A sleeve surrounding the cylinder rotates at 900 rpm and the torque measured is 0. µ = 0. In a test set up as in figure to measure viscosity.15 mm.00225 Ns/m2 or 2. Example 1. 1. However for design purposes viscosity should be expressed in the standard units of Ns/m2. film thickness. Ts = µπ2 NLR3/15 h. Total torque is the sum of values given by the above equations. 0.7. of a fixed quantity of the liquid kept in a cup of specified dimensions is measured in seconds and the viscosity is expressed as Saybolt seconds or Redwood seconds.9.25 cP. Torque due to shear on the cylindrical surface (eqn 1. These are the popular instruments for industrial use. and length L is measured or the pressure causing flow is maintained constant and the flow rate is measured.2 = [(µ × π2 900 × 0.3 Capillary Tube Method The time for the flow of a given quantity under a constant head (pressure) through a tube of known diameter d.5. Torque on bottom surface (eqn 1.1a). rpm and the torque.

Example 1.5 .9. substituting If radius is used.1) (1.9. This equation is known as Stokes equation.85 Ns/m2.0204 Ns m2 Example 1. Hence µ can be calculated.5) Chapter 1 This equation is known as Hagen-Poiseuille equation.1a) .80 attains a terminal velocity of 2mm/s. As power.9.9. D. The pressure difference across a length of 15 m of the pipe is 6 kPa. τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y).8. (1. gravity force will equal the viscous drag. Using Stokes equation.9.2) (1. 1 poise = 0. V is the terminal velocity (constant velocity).8. Tangential force = τ × A. Using Hagen-Poiesuille equation-1. proper units are listed below: L.2. T = tangential force × D/2 =µ (πDN/60h) (πDL) (D/2) T = µ π2NLD3/ 120 h T= µπ2NLR3/15 h P = 2πNT/60. A = πDL Torque. The torque will be obtained in Nm and the power calculated will be in W.002/2)2 × 9. y = h.052/4) = 1.8. R. Oil flows at the rate of 3 l/s through a pipe of 50 mm diameter.9. At this condition. The velocity is measured by timing a constant distance of fall.8. Q = ( π d2/4) V.1 and 1. Determine the viscosity of the oil. P = µπ3N2LR3/450 h For equations 1. Determine the viscosity of oil flowing through the pipe. ρ1 and ρ2 are the densities of the ball and the liquid. Q is experimentally measured using the apparatus.1 Shear stress. 1. h should be in meter and N in rpm.6 µ = 2r2g (ρ1 – ρ2)/9u = 2 × (0. Viscosity µ should be in Ns/m2 (or Pas).1 Viscous Torque and Power—Rotating Shafts Refer Figure 1.002) = 7. 1.5. The viscosity can be calculated using the flow rate and the diameter. The ball will reach a uniform velocity after some distance.Physical Properties of Fluids ∆P = (32 µ VL)/d2 13 (1.6) where r is the radius of the ball.81 × (8000 – 800)/(9 × 0. Volume flow per second.1 Ns/m2) (1.53 m/s µ = ∆ P × d2/32uL = (6000 × 0. as linearity is assumed u = π DN/60. ∆P = (32 µuL)/d2 u = Q/(πd2/4) = 3 × 10–3/(π × 0. A steel ball of 2 mm dia and density 8000 kg/m3 dropped into a column of oil of specific gravity 0.052)/(32 × 1.9. The head causing flow is known.8.53 × 15) = 0. 1. µ = 2r2g (ρ1 – ρ2)/9V ρ (µ will be in poise.8.4 Falling Sphere Method A small polished steel ball is allowed to fall freely through the liquid column.9 APPLICATION OF VISCOSITY CONCEPT 1.9. clearance in m τ = µ (πDN/60h).

Determine the power required to run a 300 mm dia shaft at 400 rpm in journals with uniform oil thickness of 1 mm. (check using eqn.74 W) 1.28 m/s τ = 0.4 × (2 × π × 0.28 – 0)/ 0.995 Nm = 2 π NT/60 = 2 × π × 400 × 15. F = Aµ (du/dy) = A µ (u/y) (as y is small linear velocity variation can be assumed) u = 2 πrN/60. Example 1.2 Viscous Torque—Disk Rotating Over a Parallel Plate Refer Figure 1.dr.6 × 0. Shear stress on the shaft surface = τ = µ (du/dy) = µ(u/y) u = π DN/60 = π × 0. The force on the strip is given by. P = µ π3 N2LR3/450 h = 669. Linear velocity variation is assumed. (Pas = (N/m2) × s).3 × 0. substituting the above values torque dT on the strip is.9.h = [µπ2N/15. Two bearings of 300 mm width are used to support the shaft.9.1 Rotating Shaft in Bearing Note: Clearance h is also the oil film thickness in bearings.15 = 15. dT = 2πr dr µ(2πrN/60h)r dT = 2πr.03 Pas.6 N Torque Power required = 106.µ. Axial location is assumed.001} = 188.10.2.h]r3dr .3 × 400/60 = 6.3) = 106.2. Consider an annular strip of radius r and width dr shown in Figure 1.r/60.9.4 N/m2 Surface area of the two bearings. A = 2 π DL Force on shaft surface = τ × A = 188.14 Bearing sleeve h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Oil of viscosity m N rpm D h L Figure 1. A = 2πr dr Torque = Force × radius. End effects are neglected.995/60 = 670 W. 1.9. y = h. The dynamic viscosity of oil is 0.9. 2πrN.03 {(6.2.

5) (1.9. 1.11..14)/60 × h ∴ h = 0. Solving torque.2 m ID and 0.206 mm .5.h µ = 30 cP = 30 × . Power = 2πNT/60 W.0001) × π2 × 700 × (0.9.9.9.9. Determine the oil film thickness between the plates of a collar bearing of 0.Physical Properties of Fluids N rpm Oil.e. T = µπ2N (RO4 – Ri4)/60.0001 Ns/m2. substituting the values. 0 to R. Oil film Collar T = 0.154 – 0. R4 = (1/16)D4 (1. T = µπ2NR4/60 h If diameter is used. using equation 1.6) Example 1. Viscosity m Plate 15 Chapter 1 h r Q dr Figure 1. P = 2πNT/60 P = µπ3N2R4/1800 h use R in metre. if 50 W was required to overcome viscous friction while running at 700 rpm. 0. Hence. N in rpm and µ in Ns/m2 or Pa s.9.000206m = 0.682 = (30 × 0.11 This is a situation where an annular surface rotates over a flat surface.682 Nm Figure Ex.2 Rotating disk Integrating the expression from centre to edge i.4) T = µπ2ND4/960 h The power required. 50 = 2π × 700 × T/60.3) For an annular area like a collar the integration limits are Ro and Ri and the torque is given by T = µπ 2N(Ro4 – Ri4)/60 h Power. The oil used has a viscosity of 30 cP. P= µπ3N2(Ro4 – Ri4)/1800 h (1. substituting the given values.3 m OD transmitting power. Torque.9.3a) (1. (1.

9.667.h. The inner and outer radius of the conical bearing are 0. The surface width of the element in contact with oil is dx = dr/sin θ The surface area should be calculated with respect to centre O as shown in figure—the point where the normal to the surface meets the axis—or the centre of rotation. 1.cos θ.9.dr/sin θ.sin θ = (πµN/15 h sin θ)r3 dr Integrating between r = 0 and r = R T = π2 µNR4/60. sin θ (1. dT = π2µNr2dr.h.5 mm uniform clearance between the bearing and support is filled with oil of viscosity 0. Hence contact surface area = 2πr.cos θ)} µ(2πrN.3.5 m. the length OA being r/cos θ. The 1.3 Viscous Torque—Cone in a Conical Support Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Considering a small element between radius r and r + dr.8 is applicable in this case. R2 O dr A h r q r/cos q dx dr q A Figure 1.12 Ri4)/ 60.3 m 0.3 = 0. The height of the cone is 0.3 m.5 – 0.cos θ/60) (1/h) F = (π2µNr2dr)/(15.9.m.8) Power required.9) π Exmaple 1. When semicone angle Using µ in Ns/m θ = 90°. h.9.3)/0.3 m 34° ∴ θ = 34° Figure Ex.9.r Torque on element. T= π2µ N (Ro – 4 dx q R1 0.02 Ns/m2. as shown in figure 1./sin θ. P = 2πNT/60 = µ3N2[R24 – R14]/1800 h sin θ (1.5 m 0.9. tan θ = (0. h and R in metre the torque will be in N.cos θ and the film thickness is h. Determine the power required to overcome viscous friction for a shaft running at 700 rpm fitted with a conical bearing.h sin θ (1.9.h.9.3.r/15. substituting the values .16 1. F = Aµ (du/dy) = {(2πr.sin θ.7) 2. N rpm R.12.3 m and 0.3 Rotating cone or conical bearing The velocity along the surface is (2πrN/60). Torque = F. Equation 1. this reduces to the expression for the disk—equation 1. For contact only between R1 and R2.sin θ). T = µπ2 N(R24 – R14)/60.

So also the formation of a free jet. Force is found necessary to stretch the surface.36 Nm Power required = 2πNT/60 = 2π × 700 × 149.9.10. A thin layer of few atomic thickness at the surface formed by the cohesive bond between atoms slows down and sends back the molecules reaching the surface.Physical Properties of Fluids T = π2 × 0.34]/ [1800 × 0.03 × 700 × (0.0015 × sin 34 = 149. droplets and free jets are due to the surface tension of the liquid.10 SURFACE TENSION Many of us would have seen the demonstration of a needle being supported on water surface without it being wetted. When they reach the surface they reach a dead end in the sense that no molecules are present in great numbers above the surface to attract or pull them out of the surface.36/60 = 10948 W Check using equation 1. Another definition for surface tension is the force required to keep unit length of the surface film in equilibrium (N/m).1 Surface Tension Effect on Solid-Liquid Interface In liquids cohesive forces between molecules lead to surface tension. Liquid molecules exhibit cohesive forces binding them with each other. This is due to the surface tension of water.1 Surface tension effect at solid-liquid interface .54 – 0.10. The work is actually required for pulling up the molecules with lower energy from below. 17 Chapter 1 P = µ × π3 × 7002 × [0. The formation of bubbles. 1.34)/60 × 0. Note the high value of viscosity 1. So they stop and return back into the liquid. Surface tension may also be defined as the work in Nm/m2 or N/m required to create unit surface of the liquid. The molecules below the surface are generally free to move within the liquid and they move at random.0015 × sin 34] = 10948 W. All liquids exhibit a free surface known as meniscus when in contact with vapour or gas.9 also.54 – 0. The pressure inside the droplets or jet is higher due to the surface tension. to form the surface. This cohesive bond exhibits a tensile strength for the surface layer and this is known as surface tension. when liquid flows out of an orifice or opening like a tap. Wall Liquid surface Liquid surface Wall Adhesive forces lower b b Adhesive forces higher Liquid droplet Spreads Point contact Real fluids Wetting Non wetting Figure 1. The formation of droplets is a direct effect of this phenomenon.

The curved surface creates a pressure differential across the free surface and causes the liquid level to be raised or lowered until static equilibrium is reached. Let D be the diameter of the tube and β is the contact angle. h. It can be shown that if the surface tension at the solid liquid interface (due to adhesive forces) is σs1 and if the surface tension in the liquid (due to cohesive forces) is σ11 then cos β = [(2σs1/σ11) – 1] σ σ (1.3N. Two contact lines form at the surface and hence.13.10.10.2.2) s b s b h b < 90° Liquid level h D s D s b > 90° (i) (ii) Figure 1. When the adhesive forces are lower. the contact surface is lowered at the interface and a convex surface results as in the case of mercury.10.10. the specific weight of liquid being γ.1. At the interface this leads to the liquid surface being moved up or down forming a curved surface.18 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Liquids also exhibit adhesive forces when they come in contact with other solid or liquid surfaces.2 Capillary Rise or Depression Refer Figure 1. The vertical component of this force = π × D × σ × cos β This is balanced by the fluid column of height. σ = 0. The angle of contact “β” defines the concavity or convexity of the liquid surface. The surface tension forces acting around the circumference of the tube = π × D × σ. (i) capillary rise (ii) depression . Oils.3 = 2 × 1 × Surface tension. When the adhesive forces are higher the contact surface is lifted up forming a concave surface. Such liquids are called nonwetting.1) At the surface this contact angle will be maintained due to molecular equilibrium. Solving. Force = 2 × 1 × Surface tension 0. Example 1.15 N/m. These are shown in Fig. 1.10. Equating. The result of this phenomenon is capillary action at the solid liquid interface. water etc. A = πD2/4 and so h = (4π × D × σ × cos β)/(γπ 2) = (4σ × cos β)/ρgD γπD γπ σ ρ (1. These are said to be surface wetting. Determine the surface tension acting on the surface of a vertical thin plate of 1m length when it is lifted vertically from a liquid using a force of 0.2 Surface tension. h × γ × A = π × D × σ cos β. 1.10. exhibit such behaviour. Surface tension.

09 mm (depression) Corrected height of mercury column = 757 + 5. doubly curved surface . Using eqn. Assume σ = 0.82 mm Example1. Determine the capillary depression of mercury in a 2 mm ID glass tube.09 mm 1.14.2.3 Pressure difference. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum.3 Pressure Difference Caused by Surface Tension on a Doubly Curved Surface Consider the small doubly curved element with radius r1 and included angle dφ in one direction and radius r2 and dθ in the perpendicular direction referred to the normal at its center. = ρg = 13600 × 9.10.09 = 762.81 × 0. Specific weight of mercury. The contact angle is 135°. In a closed end single tube manometer. The ID of the tube is 2 mm. the height of mercury column above the mercury well shows 757 mm against the atmospheric pressure.81) = – 5.10.81 N/m3 h = (4 σ × cosβ)/ρg/D = (4 × 0.5 × cos130)/(13600 × 9. 1. 2σr1dφ sin(dθ/2) + 2σr2 dθ sin (dφ/2) = (pi – po)r1r2 dθdφ df r1 dfs dq r1 df r2 dqs r2 d q R1 r2 dqs r1 dfs R2 PodA = Por1 df r2 dq Saddle surface Figure 1.10. Determine the actual height representing the atmospheric pressure if surface tension is 0.002) = – 4. The sides are r1 dφ and r2 dθ long.5 N/m and β = 130°. The sign of cos β depending on β > 90 or otherwise determines the capillary rise or depression.82 × 10–3 m = – 4. Actual height of mercury column = Mercury column height + Capillary depression Specific weight of mercury Capillary depression.002 × 13600 × 9.09 × 10–3m = – 5.48 × cos135)/(0.81 N/m3 h = (4 σ × cosβ)/γD = (4 × 0.48 N/m. γ = 13600 × 9. For equilibrium the components of the surface tension forces along the normal should be equal to the pressure difference.Physical Properties of Fluids 19 Chapter 1 This equation provides the means for calculating the capillary rise or depression. Example 1. Components are σr1 sin (dθ/2) from θ direction sides and σr2 sin (dφ/2) from the φ direction sides.15.

10. This situation can be seen in the jet formed in tap flow where internal pressure cannot be maintained. Cancelling the common terms (1. taking two halves of the cylinder.10.4 Surface tension effects on bubbles and free jets Considering the sphere as two halves or hemispheres of diameter D and considering the equilibrium of these halves.20 σ [r1 + r2] = (pi – po) × r1r2.5) Considering a cylinder of length L and diameter D and considering its equilibrium.10. (pi – po)(πD2/4) = σ × π × D σ σ (pi – po) = 4(σ/D) = 2(σ/R) (1. The pressure inside a free jet will be higher compared to the outside.10.10. (pi – po) = [(1/r1) + (1/r2)] × σ For a spherical surface.4. 1.10.10.6) . sin θ = θ. in radians. and so (pi – po) = σ/R (1.4) where R is the radius of the sphere.10. For cylindrical shapes one radius is infinite. Rearranging. r1 = r2 = R So.4a) These equations give the pressure difference between inside and outside of droplets and free jets of liquids due to surface tension. Pressure forces = Surface tension forces. (pi – po) = 2σ/R Fluid Mechanics and Machinery For small values of angles. The pressure difference can be made zero for a doubly curved surface if the curvature is like that of a saddle (one positive and the other negative). pressure force = DL(pi – po). s 2 RLD P = s 2 Ls s D PÕ R = 2 Õ Rs 2 s R s s L R Figure 1. surface tension force = 2σL (pi – po) = 2 (σ/D) = (σ/R) (1.4 Pressure Inside a Droplet and a Free Jet Refer Figure 1. The pressure inside air bubbles will be higher compared to the outside pressure.3) (1.

25 × 109/100]0.5. Rearranging.04/(0.11 COMPRESSIBILITY AND BULK MODULUS Bulk modulus.04N/m.05 = 1118 m/s. The pressure of water in a power press cylinder is released from 990 bar to 1 bar isothermally.18. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) is used to obtain the solution. reaches a maximum and then decreases. The unit is the same as that of pressure. without any modifications.Physical Properties of Fluids 21 Chapter 1 Example 1. It can also be expressed in terms of change of density. Bulk modulus is defined as Ev = – dp/(dv/v). The value is in the range of 2000 MN/m2 or 2000 × 106 N/m2 or about 20. The value increases with pressure as dv will be lower at higher pressures for the same value of dp. Determine the bulk modulus of a liquid whose volume decreases by 4% for an increase in pressure of 500 × 105 pa.10. If the average value of bulk modulus for water in this range is 2430 × 106 N/m2. Calculate the surface tension if the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 3mm dia is 18 N/m2. which equals (go × Ev/ρ)0.25 × 109 N/m2 Velocity of sound c is defined as = (go × Ev /ρ)0. so that the bulk modulus is always positive (N/m2).11. Ev is defined as the ratio of the change in pressure to the rate of change of volume due to the change in pressure.67 kpa Example 1.17. σ = ∆P × D/4 = 18 × (0. substituting the values.0135 N/m 1. With temperature the bulk modulus of liquids generally increases. obviously.003/4) = 0. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = dp/(dρ/ρ) ρρ (1. This definition can be applied to liquids as such.5 ∴ c = [1 × 1. The negative sign indicates that if dp is positive then dv is negative and vice versa. The bulk modulus for liquids depends on both pressure and temperature. Macroscopically the above equation can be modified as Ev = – {P1 – P2}{(v2 – v1)/v1}. For water the maximum is at about 50°C.000 atm.03mm.1) where dp is the change in pressure causing a change in volume dv when the original volume was v. Determine the pressure difference across a nozzle if diesel is sprayed through it with an average diameter of 0. . The spray is of cylindrical shape P = σ/R = 0.5. What will be the percentage increase in specific volume? The definition of bulk modulus.19.67 N/m2 = 2. Note that dv/v = – dρ/ρ. Example 1. Also determine the velocity of sound in the medium if the density is 1000 kg/m3.03 × 10–3/2) = 2666. Ev = (– 500 × 105)/(–4/100) = 1. The symbol used in this text for bulk modulus is Ev (K is more popularly used). the value of compressibility will depend on the process law for the change of volume and will be different for different processes. Example 1. In the case of gases. Referring equation 1. ∆ P = 4σ/D Surface tension.16. Bulk modulus influences the velocity of sound in the medium. The surface tension is 0.

6 m/s. nPv(n–1)dv + vndp = 0 (1. namely. 1. – (P2 – P1) = Ev × [{1/ρ2) – (1/ρ1)}/(1/ρ1)] = Ev × [(ρ1– ρ2)/ρ2] P2 = P1 – Ev × [(ρ1– ρ2)/ρ2] = 1 ×105 – 2290 × 106 {(1040 – 1055)/1055} = 32. Bulk modulus. then v = constant and the process is constant volume process. compressibility = – dp/(dv/v).11. In the case of gases the variation of volume.1 m/s and 1321. Density of sea water at the surface was measured as 1040 kg/m3 at an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar. Using the equation Pvn = constant and differentiating the same.3 m/s.5 = [go × k × R × T]0.3) rearranging and using the definition of Ev. If dp = 0. At certain depth in water. For isentropic process.11. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = n × P (1. From the definition of velocity of sound as [go × Ev/ρ]0. Process equation for gases can be written in the following general form (1. The relationship between these can be obtained using the characteristic gas equation and the equation describing the process.0407 % change in specific volume = 4. the density was found to be 1055 kg/m3. n = 1. nitrogen and hydrogen may be calculated as 347. compressibility = P. For isothermal process. . with variation in pressure. As Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1 )/ [(v2 – v1)v1] v = 1/ρ. dv. then P = constant or the process is a constant pressure process.5 it can be shown that (1. compressibility = k × P.11. 353.11.659 × 106 N/m2 or about 326.5) c = [go × k P/ρ]0. compressibility is zero and if dv = 0. The bulk modulus is 2290 × 106 N/m2. The processes of practical interest are for values of n = 1 to n = cp/cv (the ratio of specific heats. compressibility is infinite.5 It may be noted that for a given gas the velocity of sound depends only on the temperature.3 m/s.20.2) Pvn = constant where n can take values from 0 to ∞. will depend on the process used.59 bar. dp. oxygen. In the case of gases the velocity of propagation of sound is assumed to be isentropic. As an exercise the velocity of sound at 27°C for air. If n = ∞.07% Example 1. The value n = 1 means Pv = constant or isothermal process and n = cp/cv = k means isentropic process.22 Change in specific volume = (v2 – v1)/v1 = – (P2 – P1)/Ev Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = (990 × 105 – 1 × 105)/2430 × 106 = 0. For constant pressure and constant volume processes compressibility values are zero and ∞ respectively. 330.1 Expressions for the Compressibility of Gases The expression for compressibility of gases for different processes can be obtained using the definition.11. Determine the pressure at that point. These are not of immediate interest in calculating compressibility. denoted as k). If n = 0.4) Hence compressibility of gas varies as the product n × P.

of the mixture can be determined from the composition. The vapour pressure is also known as saturation pressure corresponding to the temperature. The atmospheric pressure is nothing but the sum of the pressures exerted by each of these components. (1. As the temperature increases.12.. Molecules constantly escape out of a liquid surface and an equal number constantly enter the surface when there is no energy addition. If liquid is in contact with vapour both will be at the same temperature and under this condition these phases will be in equilibrium unless energy transaction takes place. more molecules will leave and re-enter the surface and so the vapour pressure increases with temperature.1 Partial Pressure In a mixture of gases the total pressure P will equal the sum of pressures exerted by each of the components if that component alone occupies the full volume at that temperature.12.. 1. For all liquids there exists a pressure above which there is no observable difference between the two phases. In the gaseous state the binding forces are minimal. .12 VAPOUR PRESSURE 23 Chapter 1 Liquids exhibit a free surface in the container whereas vapours and gases fill the full volume.2) where cm is the specific heat of the mixture and ci and mi are the specific heat and the mass of component i in the mixture..Physical Properties of Fluids 1. The temperature corresponding to the pressure is known as saturation temperature.12. This pressure is known as critical pressure. P = p1 +p2 + p3 + . The various properties like specific heat. For example air is a mixture of various gases as well as some water vapour. All liquids exhibit this phenomenon. Sublimating solids also exhibit this phenomenon. cm = Σ (ci × mi)/ Σ mi (1. p2 = (m2R2T)/V in which T and V are the common temperature and volume. Under equilibrium conditions these molecules above the free surface exert a certain pressure. In pumps it is usually at the suction side and in turbines it is usually at the exit end. The pressure exerted by each component is known as its partial pressure.1) where p1 = (m1R1T)/V . This topic is studied under Psychrometry. Liquid molecules have higher cohesive forces and are bound to each other. Liquid will begin to boil if the pressure falls to the level of vapour pressure corresponding to that temperature. Such boiling leads to the phenomenon known as cavitation in pumps and turbines. The number of molecules escaping from the surface or re-entering will depend upon the temperature. This pressure is known as vapour pressure corresponding to the temperature. The vapour pressure increases with the temperature. The vapour pressure data for water and refrigerants are available in tabular form. Of special interest in this case is the partial pressure of water vapour. gas constant etc.

0/0.014 Ns/m2 .2). determine the force required if the liquid film is maintained all through. and µ is dynamic viscosity. Density = specific weight/g. µ = 0. F = 0.33 4 29. Problem 1.24 SOLVED PROBLEMS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1. and the distance between the large planes be h.1 m. So.2. In this problem kinematic viscosity and specific weight are given. Equating to zero y2 = (h – y)2 or y = h/2 or the plane should be located at the mid gap position for the force to be minimum.2 Problem model . N/m2 2 43. µ = 0. The force required (eqn 1.002 m.17 h–y y h Figure P. Differentiating the expression A. h = 0.. Equation A is used in the calculation. Velocity gradient on the bottom surface = u/y Velocity gradient on the top surface = u/(h – y). A liquid with kinematic viscosity of 3 centi stokes and specific weight 9 kN/m3 fills the space between a large stationary plate and a parallel plate of 475 mm square.01 – 0. the film thickness being 1 mm.81] × (4.00 6 29.2. Stoke = 10–4 m2/s.1. Force on the top surface = µ × u/(h – y) Total force to pull the plane = µ × u × {(1/y) + [1/(h – y)]} . u = 5 m/s. The force required for different location of the plate is calculated using the following data and tabulated below. Let the velocity of the small plane be u.002)]} = 43.75 3 33.002) + [1/0. Assume linear variation of velocity and unit area. or dF/dy = 0. Considering unit area.8..17 5 28.475 × 0.001) × 0. Refer Fig. Let the small plane be located at a distance of y from the bottom plane.475 = 2. If the smaller plate is to be pulled with uniform velocity of 4 m/s. dF/dy = µ × u {(–1/y2) + [1/(h – y)2]}. where τ is shear stress.81 Ns/m2 Force = [0.1.014 × 5 × {(1/0. Show that the force required will be minimum if the plate is located midway between the planes. y mm Force. τ × A = A × µ × (du/dy).03 × 10–4 × 9000/9. Model calculation is given for y = 0.484 N. A small thin plane surface is pulled through the liquid filled space between two large horizontal planes in the parallel direction. Force on the bottom surface = µ × (u/y).03 × 10–4 × 9000/9.(A) To obtain the condition for minimisation of the force the variation of force with respect to y should be zero. P 1.75 N/m2 Note that the minimum occurs at mid position Distance.

49/y) + [1/(0. The viscosity of the oil was µ1.004 × 0.5 50.014 N/m2 .2 : Case 1: The velocity gradient is equal on both sides = u/(h/2) = 2 × u/h Total force = µ1 × {(2u/h) + (2u/h)} = 4 × µ1 × u/h Case 2: Velocity gradient on the top surface = u/(h–y) Velocity gradient on the bottom surface = u/y Total force = µ2 × u × {(1/y) + [1/(h – y)]} = µ2 × u × {h/[y × (h – y)]} Equating and solving. A quadratic equation. Derive an expression for the location of the plate in the gap for the total force to be minimum. h = 4 mm and For optimum conditions y = (0.0 57. the total force for unit area will be F = cµ × (u/y) + µ × u/(h – y) = µ × u {(c/y) + [1/(h – y)]} At the minimum conditions the slope i.004 – y)]}.49 or c = 0. Let the gap size be h. If a lighter oil of viscosity µ2 fills the gap what should be the location of the plate for the force to be the same when pulled with the same velocity u.5 60.014 × {(0.58 2.Physical Properties of Fluids 25 Chapter 1 Problem 1. y2 = c × (h – y)2 Taking the root. A small plane is pulled along the centre plane of the oil filled space between two large horizontal planes with a velocity u and the force was measured as F. Problem 1. mm Force.7)/(1 + 0.87 1. the derivative dF/dy should be zero.4. Let the plate be located at a distance of y from the lower surface on the side where the viscosity is cµ. (µ2/µ1) = 4 × y × (h – y)/h2 = 4[y/h] × [1 – (y/h)] Solve for (y/h). dF/dy = µ × u {[1/(h – y)2] – [c/y2]}. So the plane should now be located away from the central plane.15 2. µ = 0.e. N/m2 1. If the plane is located centrally in the case where the oil is lighter the force will be smaller. u = 5 m/s.0 52.65 50. P1. y from the lower plane as shown in Fig. Let it be located at a distance.001647 m Using F = 5 × 0. A large thin plate is pulled through a narrow gap filled with a fluid of viscosity µ on the upper side and a fluid of viscosity cµ on the lower side.63 1.3.7) = 0.7 .. The force will not be minimum if the plate is centrally located as the viscosity are not equal.39 c = 0. c × (h – y) = y or y = (h × c )/(1 + c ) = h/[1 + (1/ c )] Consider the following values for the variables and calculate the force for different locations of the plate. the force for various locations is calculated and tabulated below: y. Equating to zero yields.

Torque = force × radius. The equation that can be used is.5 mm.5 mm. A shaft of 145 mm dia runs in journals with a uniform oil film thickness of 0. Force F = A × τ = 0. (n denoting rpm) Torque T = (µ × π2 × n × R4)/(60 × h).26 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1. T = 0.15 m.019 × π3 × n2 (2 × 0.5 mm = 0. the area being π × D × L.216 × (u/0. n = 300 rpm.019 (7. .20) × 0. Solving for µ Viscosity µ = 4 × 10–3 Ns/m2 or 4 cP. 15 = [0. Adopting the second method. The interface is filled with oil of kinematic viscosity of 2.e. (h – clearance).8.806 × 10–3 × n Nm Power. Substituting the values.2885 × n N/m2. Solving speed.1 and 1.8.592 × 10–3 × n τ = 0. τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y).3 m OD with an oil film thickness of 1 mm and a viscosity of 30 cP if it rotates at 500 rpm.2 i.1 Nm.0005) = 0.07253/ (450 × 0.8.) Problem 1.0005 m. (n is used to denote rpm) P = [µπ3n2LR3/450 h] The solution can be obtained from basics also.16374 m/s.3 m dia rotates over a large stationary plate with 1 mm thick fluid film between them.592 × 10–3 × n/0.0005) Solving for u. Determine the speed if the power absorbed is 15 W.0005)] Problem 1. A circular disc of 0. h = 0. check from basics.145/2 = 3. R = 0. velocity = 0.9.6. Determine the viscosity of the fluid if the torque required to rotate the disc at 300 rpm was 0. y = 0. Two bearings of 20 cm width are used. Using equations 1.1 = µ × π2 × 300 × 0. 1. Determine the uniform velocity of movement of the shaft if the drag resistance was 300 N.2 m ID and 0. P = 2πnT/60 = 15 = 2 × π × n 3.7. Clearance = (Do – Di)/2 = 0.182 m2. The force can be determined assuming that the sliding is between the developed surfaces. µ = 19 cP = 0.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density of 900 kg/m3.5.145 × n/60 = 7.001 m.2885 × n × 0. A hydraulic lift shaft of 450 mm dia moves in a cylinder of 451 mm dia with the length of engagement of 3 m.154/ (60 × 0. (Check using the equation 1. A = 2 × π DL = 0. The viscosity of the oil is 19 cP.9..9. speed. Problem 1.182 = 0.806 × 10–3 × n/60 n = 194 rpm.001). (care should be taken to use radius value.4 × 10–4 × 900 = 0.3.0525 × n × 0. let the rpm be n u = π Dn/60 = π × 0.2) n = 194 rpm. The equation to be used is 1. Determine the viscous drag torque and power absorbed on one surface of a collar bearing of 0. µ = ρv = 2.216 Ns/m2. 0. Solving.45 × 3 × 0.2 Drag resistance = 300 = µ × 0.019 Ns/m2.0525 × n.

(du/dy) = 5/0.243 W.0.154 – 0. τ = 17. (du/dy) = 5/0. (du/dy) = 5/y0. The angle θ is determined using the difference in radius and the length.34)/1800 × h × sin 45° Solving for clearance.002)} = 0.08 m from the surface. n = 500 rpm.5 = 25. tan θ = (0. Problem 1.3 m) 0. T = µ × π2 × n × (Ro4 – Ri4)/60 × h substituting the values 27 Chapter 1 µ = 30 × 0.01 m/s So At At (u2 – u1)/(y2 – y1) = 0. So θ = 45°.5.68 × µ (using u = 10 y0.03 Ns/m2. Determine the clearance if the power required was 1500 W.2 = 1. Determine the shear stress on the shaft wall.5 whre u is in m/s and y is in m in a flow field up to y = 0. A conical bearing of outer radius 0. R2 = 0. Ro = 0.002 m T = 30 × 0.5 = 17. The support is rotated at 500 rpm. the velocities are 0. µ = 14 × 0.040.5 m 0.1 m.9. h = 0.626 × 10–3 m or 6.001 Ns/m2. Problem 1.Physical Properties of Fluids The equation applicable is 1. A hollow cylinder of 12 cm ID filled with fluid of viscosity 14 cP rotates at 600 rpm. Clearance.15 m.08. If the variation of velocity with distance from the surface.10.080.001= 0.03 × 5002 × (0. The hollow cylinder rotates while the shaft is stationary.001 × π2 × 500 × {0.2 m 0.11. the difference in y value is 10–6.14}/{(60 × 0.e. P = π3 × µ × n2 × (R24 – R14)/1800 × h × sin θ (µ = 30 cP = 0.3 m 45° 1500 = π3 × 0. Ri = 0.5. Solution is obtained from basics.9.63 mm Problem 1.5. Considering layers y = 0 and y =10–6. R1 = 0.04 and 0. Oil with viscosity of 30 cP is used.. h = 0. (du/dy) = 10000.5012 Nm P = 2πnT/60 = 2 × π × 500 × 0. τ = µ (du/dy) = 10000 × µ y = 0. Using equation 1.5 m.54 – 0. determine the wall shear stress and the shear stress at y = 0.5). The concept that the torque along the radius should be constant can be used to determine the torque more accurately. A shaft of diameter 4 cm is placed centrally inside. n = 500 rpm. It has to be approximated as (u2 – u1)/(y2 – y1) for near zero values of y. Shear stress is first calculated at the hollow cylinder wall (Assume 1 m length).5 – 0. h = 6.5012/60 = 26. τ = 25 × µ y = 0. In this case the clearance considered is large and so the assumption of linear velocity variation may lead to larger error.2 m runs on a conical support with a uniform clearance between surfaces.04 m.68.0 and 0. Linear velocity variation is assumed.3)/0.04. u = 10y0.9.01/10–6 = 10000.9 i. The substitution y = 0 in the above will give division by zero error.5 m and inner radius 0.014 N/m2 . At the wall. y is given by u = 10 y0.3 m and height 0.08 m.

τi [2π ri × L] × ri = τo [2π ro × L] × ro τi = µ (du/dr)ri. Determine the shear stress and the shear force over the surface at r = 0. τ = µ (du/dr)ro Substituting in the previous expression and solving (du/dr)i = (du/dr)o × [ro2/ri2] o . Shear force F = 2πrLτ.628 N τ = – 4 N/m2.06/s. = 212. Considering L = 1 At At r = 0. Problem 1.06/s 0.02 × (– 2000) × r = – 40 r.31 = 0.1 m.05.86 10–3 = du dr du dr 0.25/s. τ = – 2 N/m2.05 and r = 0. 29. Problem 1.77/0.513 N.13) du dr R1 = du dr R2 × (R22/R12) at 0.86 × 10–3 Nm Torque at all radii should be the same. A sleeve surrounds a shaft with the space between them filled with a fluid. Assuming that when the sleeve rotates velocity gradient exists only at the sleeve surface and when the shaft rotates velocity gradient exists only at the shaft surface.014 = 11. Solving.042 = 212. τ = µ (du/dr) = 0.062/0.04.06 = 29.1)2].02 Ns/m2 . u = 2 πRn/60 = 3.04 × 0.08 × 1 × 0.12) = – 2000 r (the –ve sign indicates that the force acts opposite to the flow direction.498 N torque = F × R = 0. r = 0.498 × 0. At mid radius R = 0.1 m radius varies as u = 10 × [1 – (r/0.25/s Shear stress at the shaft wall = 848.25 × 0.014 × 94.1. F = 2. The viscosity of the fluid is 0.04 = 94.77 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (du/dr) = u/h = 3.04 The velocity gradient at the shaft surface = 94.1)2] m/s.062/0.32 N/m2 F = π × D × L × τ = π × 0. Using general notations.) τ = 0. The velocity along the radius of a pipe of 0. the velocity gradient is obtained by using this concept.25 × 0.12 × 1 × 1. (see problem 1. 0. The torque required for the rotation will be the same in both cases. du dr × 25 × 0. u = 10 × [1 – (r/0.88 N/m2. determine the ratio of these velocity gradients.022 = 848.014 × π × 0.04.04 This can be checked using equation. du/dr = – 10 × (2 × r/0.13.25 = 1. τ = µ (du/dr).28 At the inside wall of the hollow cylinder.04 m.12. F = 0.

15. Using the equation derived in the previous problem as given below and substituting the values F = [{π × D × u × L × µ}/{t1– t2}] [ln(t1/t2)] F = [{π × 0.2 = 13.6 m/s. assuming t1 > t2.Physical Properties of Fluids 29 Chapter 1 This will plot as a second degree curve. assumed linear. When the gap is large % error will be high if linear variation is assumed. substituting dF = [{L × µ × u × π × D}] × [dX/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}] Integrating between the limits X = 0 to X = L F = [{π × D × u × L × µ 1 – t2}] × [ln(t1/t2)] µ}/{t π t1 t2 X L dX Figure P. t at location X is obtained. For t = 0.14.36 N. τ = µ (du/dy). F0.1 × 0. Determine the force required.0002/0.572 N. Derive an expression for the force required for axial movement of a shaft through a taper bearing as shown in figure. The viscosity of the oil filling the clearance is 4. The total force required can be determined by integrating the elemental force over a differential length dX. . The oil has a viscosity of µ and the shaft moves axially at a velocity u. In this case the clearance varies along the length and so the velocity gradient will vary along the length.0001)] = 18.6 × 0. The clearance.814 N If the clearance was uniform. F0. 18.0002 – 0.8 × 10–2 Ns/m2. F = π × D × L × u × µ/t For t = 0.1 mm over a length of 0. t = t1 – (t1 – t2) × (X/L) = {(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) X}/L du/dy = u/t = u × L/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X} The velocity gradient at this location is u/t.3 × 4.2 mm.0001}] × [ln(0. The axial velocity of the shaft is 0. The diameter of the shaft is D m and the length is L m.1. Hence the shear stress also will vary along the length.1 mm.3 m.814 N. Problem 1.143 N The arithmetic average is 20. dF = τ dA = τ × π × D × dX.8 × 10–2}/{0. The clearance between the shaft of 100 mm dia and the bearing varies from 0.2 mm to 0.1 = 27.14 Problem 1. The clearance at the ends are t1m and t2m. while the logarithmic average is what is determined in this problem.

h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} = [4 × 0.1 × 10–2 Pa.004] = – 1. Equating the surface force and the pressure force. Solving for h. In this case the clearance varies along the length and so the velocity gradient (du/dr) will vary along the length.3 × 6002 × 7.3 × 600 × 7. P = [{π3 × 0.0002/0.3 m.45 × cos 115]/[13550 × 9.0001)] = 7. Check: P = 2π × 600 × 7. ∴ du/dy = u/t = u × L/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X} τ = µ (du/dy).8 W. substituting dF = [{L × µ × u × π × D}] × [dX/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}] Torque = dF × (d/2) and u = (π DN)/60.16.13 × 0. (depression) P = [{π3 × D3 × L × N2 × µ}/{3600(t1 – t2)}] × [ln(t1/t2)] .s (Ns/m2). t = t1 – (t1 – t2) × (X/L) = {(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}/L The velocity gradient at this location X is u/t. The shaft runs at 600 rpm.2 mm to 0.17 The clearance between the shaft of 100 mm dia and the bearing varies from 0. The distance between the ends is L m. Torque = [{π2 × D3 × L × N × µ {120(t1 – t2)}] × [ln (t1/t2)] π Power = 2πNT/60. Determine the torque and power required. Derive an expression for the torque required to overcome the viscous resistance when a circular shaft of diameter D rotating at N rpm in a bearing with the clearance t varying uniformly from t1 m at one end to t2m at the other end. Assume surface tension as 0. assuming t1 > t2 .0002/0.0002 – 0. The total torque required can be determined by integrating the elemental torque over a differential length dX. Substituting and Integrating between the limits µ}/ X = 0 to X = L. Problem 1. The specific weight of mercury = 13550 × 9.0002 – 0.431 × 10–3 m or – 1. Hence the shear stress and the torque also will vary along the length. hence P = [{π3 × D3 × L × N2 × µ µ}/{3600(t1 –t2)}] × [ln (t1/t2)]. t at location X is obtained.1 × 10–2}/{3600(0.45 N/m and β =115°.18.1 × 10–2}/{120(0.13 × 0.0001)] = 457. The oil has a viscosity of µ. The viscosity of the oil filling the clearance is 7.81 N/m3.431 mm.0001)}] × [ln (0. [h × γ × πD2/4] = [π × D × σ × cos β]. Determine the capillary depression of mercury in a 4 mm ID glass tube.0001)}] × [ln (0. Using the equations derived in the previous problem as given below and substituting the values T = [{π2 × D3 × L × N × µ}/{120(t1 – t2)}] × [ln(t1/t2)] T = [{π2 × 0. π Problem 1.81 × 0. The clearance.29/60 = 458W. dF = τ dA = τ × π × D × dX.1 mm over a length of 0.30 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1.29 Nm. as linear profile is assumed.

Physical Properties of Fluids 31 Chapter 1 Problem 1. The surface tension is 0. Determine the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the nozzle.2 = 0. A ring 200 mm mean dia is to be separated from water surface as shown in figure.0254 mm.0365 × 2}/{0.19.1 = 0.20. Surface tension is 0. The equation applicable is (Pi – Po) = 2σ/R.6 kN/m2. So (Pi – Po) = {2 × 0. Problem 1.1005 N A A 200 mm Figure P. The total length of contact just before separation from the surface will be twice the width of the plate or 2L. The force will equal the product of surface tension and the length of contact. Solving σ = 0. A glass tube of 8 mm ID is immersed in a liquid at 20°C.02 N. Determine what force will be required to overcome the surface tension. Assume β = 0. The force required at the time of separation was 0. The contact angle is 60°. Calculate the capillary rise and also the radius of curvature of the meniscus.1 N/m. The pressure inside the droplet will be higher compared to that at outside.1. A droplet forms at the mouth of the nozzle. A thin plate 1 m wide is slowly lifted vertically from a liquid with a surface tension of 0. F = 2 × 1 × 0. The specific weight of the liquid is 20601 N/m3.19 The total length of contact just before lifting from the surface will be twice the circumference or 2πD.0365 × 2}/{10 × 10–6} = 14600 N/m2 = 14.21. The force will equal the product of surface tension and the length of contact.0254 × 10–3} = 5748 N/m2 = 5.1005 N.1005 N.15 N/m.22. Also determine the pressure difference if the droplet size is reduced to 10 µm. . σ × 2 × π × 0.748 kN/m2 When the droplet size is reduced to 10 µm the pressure difference is (Pi – Po) = {2 × 0. Diesel injection nozzle sprays fuel with an average diameter of 0. 0.0365 N/m. Problem 1. Determine the surface tension of water. Problem 1.08 N/m The surface tension of a liquid can be measured using this principle provided the fluid wets the surface.

92 × 10–3 m or – 3.15 × cos 60}/{20601 × 0. A hollow cylinder of 150 mm OD with its weight equal to the buoyant forces is to be kept floating vertically in a liquid with a surface tension of 0. The temperature remains constant. The pressure difference in the case of a sphere is given by.92 mm.0 N/m2 Force = Area × (Pi – Po) = {π × 0. In this case capillary depression is involved and so the true pressure = mercury column + capillary depression.26.022}/{0.45 × cos 60}/{0. Initially the pressure is 10 bar. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum.25.81 × 0. The volume of liquid in a rigid piston—cylinder arrangement is 2000 cc. Capillary rise.92 mm of mercury.82 mm.23.82 × 10–3 × 2060] = 8 × 10–3 m or R = 2σ/(Pi – Po).45 N/m2.5 N/m2.82 × 10–3 m or 1.51 N/m.008} The meniscus is a doubly curved surface with equal radius as the section is circular. .15]/ [1.81 N/m3.32 = 1.5 mm dia if the surface tension is 0.022 N/m. R = [2 × 0.106 = 0.106 N As the immersion leads to additional buoyant force the force required to kept the cylinder floating will be double this value. (using equation 1. Determine the distance through which the piston has to move so that the pressure will increase to 200 bar. The average value of bulk modulus for the liquid is 2430 × 10–6 N/m2.24. As (Pi – Po) = h × specific weight.003] = – 3.3) (Pi – Po) = σ × {(1/R1) + (1/R2)} = 2 σ/R So. Problem 1. (depression) Hence actual pressure indicated = 762 + 3. So h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} h = (4 × 0. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Capillary rise. The height of column above the mercury well surface is 762 mm. The tube is 3 mm in dia.10. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} = {4 × 0. The piston diameter is 100 mm. Problem 1. Problem 1. So the additional force = 2 × 0. Calculate the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 2. Determine the true pressure in mm of mercury if surface tension is 0. equation 1. [h × γ × π D2/4] = [π × D × σ × cos β].92 = 765. The contact angle is 140°. The contact angle is 60°. equating forces. (Pi – Po) = {4 × σ × cos β}/D (Pi – Po) = {4 × 0. A mercury column is used to measure the atmospheric pressure. Problem 1.212 N.10. In this case a capillary rise will occur and this requires an additional force to keep the cylinder floating. The specific weight of mercury = 13550 × 9.15} = 6.5 (Pi – Po) = 2σ/R = {2 × 0. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D}.0152/4} × 6 = 0.51) × cos 140]/[13550 × 9.0025} = 17. Determine the additional force required due to surface tension. (Pi – Po) = specific weight × h 8 mm.

Determine the density of sea water at the depth.002 × 190 × 105/2430 × 106 = 15.Physical Properties of Fluids By definition—refer eqn 1.347 mm (the pressure rise will also be affected by the expansion of the pipe line). The bulk modulus of the fuel is 1100 × 106 N/m2. v2 = [– 0.27.48059 × 10–4 m3/kg Density = 1/(9. 2.77 × 10–8 m3 Plunger movement = dv/area = – 2.1 as Ev = – dP/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1)/[v2 – v1)/v1].01 bar.79 kg/m3 an increase of 4%.01 × 105]/2330 × 106 = –0. the density was measured as 1015 kg/m3.1—the bulk modulus is Ev = – dP/(dv/v). When the applied load is released solids _________. [(v2 – v1)/v1] = – (P2 – P1)/Ev = – [880 × 105 – 1. L = dv/area 33 Chapter 1 L = dv × 4/πD2 = 15. Assuming rigid barrel determine the plunger movement before delivery begins. A diesel fuel pump of 10 mm ID is to deliver against a pressure of 200 bar.47 × 10–4 m = 0.991 × 10–3 m = 1.991 mm (the piston-cylinder arrangement is assumed to be rigid so that there is no expansion of the container) Problem 1. By definition—eqn 1.5 cc.00152) = 3.11. the pressure is 880 bar. The atmospheric pressure is 1. At a certain depth. [(v2 – v1)/v1] also equals [(ρ1 – ρ2)/ρ2] = [(P2 – P1)/Ev] Use of this equation should also give the same answer. Solving.0% due to the increase in pressure. 3. The fuel volume in the barrel at the time of closure is 1. Bulk modulus is defined in eqn 1. Cohesive forces between molecules/atoms are highest in the _________ phase.28. substituting the values in v2 = [v1 × {– (P2 – P1)/Ev}] + v1.11. At the surface. . Solids _________ applied shear while liquids _________. Problem 1. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q 1. Solving dv = – 2.5 × 10–6).12 = 1. The average value of bulk modulus is 2330 × 106 N/m2.03772 v1 = 1/1015 m3/kg.1 Ev = – dP/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1)/[(v2 – v1)/v1] So 2430 × 106 = –190 × 105/(dv/0. dv = – 0. The density increases by 4. 1100 × 106 = – 200 × 105/(dv/1.1 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1.77 × 10–8 × 4/( π × 0. The pressure of water increases with depth in the ocean.11.002).03772 × (1/1015)] + (1/1015) = 9.48059 × 10–4 m3/kg) = 1054. The density will increase due to the pressure increase.64 × 10–6 × 4/π × 0.64 × 10–6 m3 Piston movement.

6. 3. 7. A gas is defined as _________. 9. The mobility of atoms is least in _________. The atoms/molecules are _________ to move in fluids. Fluids cannot withstand _________. Gases _________ the container. . 10. A vapour is defined as _________. In some solids molecules come out when heated.2 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. Answers (1) Solid. Answers (1) shear force (2) continue (3) free (4) rate of deformation (5) that the atomic molecular spacing is much larger in gas and atoms move all over the container filling it (6) free surface (7) completely fill (8) gases (9) gases (10) saturation conditions (Boiling conditions) O Q 1. A mole is defined as _________. Answers (1) Solid (2) regain their original shape (3) resist. The distance between molecules is highest in _________. liquid & gas (2) plasma (3) mass per unit volume (4) force due to gravity on mass in unit volume (5) ratio of mass of substance/mass of water at 10°C per unit volume (6) Material which cannot resist shear stress or material which will continuously deform under applied shear stress (7) A material which will exhibit a free surface in a container (8) gaseous state .34 4. continue to deform (4) deformation (5) Solids (6) Solids (7) Solids (8) vibrate more (9) Sublimation (10) Elastic limit. In liquids _________ is proportional to shear stress. 5. 10. 10. A liquid is defined as _________. 8. 2. When heated the atoms in solids _________. Fluids _________ to deform when a shear force is applied. Vapour is the gaseous state of matter when the temperature is near the _________. Liquids form a _________ when in a container. 5. Specific gravity is defined as _________. 4. Specific weight is defined as _________. 2. The three phases of matter are _________ . Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 9. 6. _________ have specific shape that does not change by itself. O Q 1. 4. The difference between liquids and gases is _________. 7. 6.5. For solids the proportionality limit between deformation and stress is called _________. A special state of matter at very high temperatures is _________.3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. The phenomenon is called _________. Density is defined as _________. A fluid is defined as _________. 9. In solids _________ is proportional to the applied stress. 8. The distance between atoms is least in _________. 7. 8. 3. Cohesive faces between atoms is least in _________.

Bulk modulus is defined as _________. Unit of bulk modulus is the same as that of _________. Bulk modulus of liquid will _________ with pressure. 6. 3. Surface tension is due to _________ forces. Viscosity is defined as _________. A Newtonian fluid is defined as one having _________. 4. 3. 5. 8. Vapour pressure is defined as _________. Surface tension is defined as _________. Answers (1) a fluid whose viscosity varies with the velocity gradient (2) a material which requires a definite shear to cause the first deformation but then the stress is proportional to the velocity gradient (3) A substance whose viscosity increases with increase in velocity gradient (4) Work required to create a unit area of free surface in a liquid/force required to keep unit length of free surface in equilibrium (5) The pressure over the fluid due to the vapour over a liquid under equilibrium conditions of temperature (6) Cohesive (7) Adhesive forces (8) Adhesive (9) Cohesive (10) Surface tension O Q 1. Liquids have _________bulk modulus. 2. A thixotropic fluid is defined as _________. The concept of bulk modulus is used in the analysis of _________ propagation in the medium. 10. 4. Capillary rise is caused by _________ forces. When gravitational force decreases specific weight _________. 4. When gravitational force increases specific weight _________. 10. 2. 5. 2. 9. 9. 7.Physical Properties of Fluids 35 Chapter 1 very near the formation temperature at that pressure (9) material with low cohesive force with large distance between molecules which will occupy the full volume of the container (10) Molecular mass of a substance. Capillary rise is when _________ forces predominate.6 Fill in the blanks with “increasing ” or “decreasing” or “remains constant”: 1. 6. 7. O Q 1. . Droplet formation and free circular jet formation is due to _________. Bulk modulus of gases depend on _________. When gravitational force increases density _________. An ideal plastic is defined as _________. 3.5 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. An ideal fluid is defined as _________.4 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. Capillary depression is when _________ forces predominate. A non Newtonian fluid is defined as _________. 8. O Q 1. When gravitational force decreases density _________. Answers (1) –dp/(dv/v) (2) the process of change (3) increase (4) high (5) pressure (6) sound (7) µ = τ/(du/dy) the proportionality constant between shear stress and velocity gradient (8) µ/ρ (9) one with no viscosity or compressibility (10) A constant viscosity irrespective of the velocity gradient. Kinematic viscosity is defined as _________.

the vapour pressure _________.8 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. 7. 4. The specific gravity _________ when density increases. 6. 1. In the gas equation temperature should be used in Kelvin scale. “decreases” or “remains constant” 1. the capillary will rise. 7. 5. As tube diameter increases the capillary rise _________. 7 O Q 1. 5. 9. At constant pressure the bulk modulus of liquids (a) _________ and then (b) _________ with increase in temperature. As molecular weight of a gas increases its gas constant _________. 3. As the diameter of a bubble increases the pressure difference between inside and outside _________. The shear force in solid is proportional to the deformation. 7. 5. 6. Answers Increases 2. 9. 2. 9. At constant temperature. The product of gas constant and molecular weight _________. The vapour pressure will vary with temperature. As tube diameter decreases the capillary rise _________. 6. Bulk modulus of liquids _________ with increase in pressure at constant temperature. 8. Answers Increases 1. Gases can be treated as incompressible when small changes in pressure and temperature are involved. 3. Ideal fluid has zero viscosity and is incompressible. the pressure exerted by a gas in a container _________ when the volume increases. As temperature increases. 8. Viscosity of gases _________ with increase of temperature.7 Fill in the blanks with “increases”. The cohesive forces are highest in gases. 4. 10. 10. 6. Newtonian fluid is one whose viscosity will increase directly with rate of deformation. 3. 4. Specific weight is the mass of unit volume. 10b Remains constant 3. 9 O Q 1. As the diameter decreases the pressure difference between inside and outside of a free jet _________. 10. The vapour pressure over a liquid _________ when other gases are present in addition to the vapour. 2. Density is the ratio of mass of unit volume of liquid to the mass of unit volume of water. 9. In fluids the shear force is proportional to the rate of deformation. Viscosity of liquids _________ with increase of temperature. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 6. 10a Decrease 2.36 5. 5. As cohesive force _________ compared to adhesive forces. 4. 8. 8. 10 Remains constant 7. . 8 Decreases 1. At a given temperature the vapour pressure for a liquid _________.

4. 1. 10. The weight of man will be lower on the moon.2 × 10–4 Ns/m2. 5. The mass of an object is 10 kg. 5. 11. 10 Incorrect 2.00004 π Viscosity 2. Drag 4. Free surface of liquids 8. The specific weight is (a) 2 N (b) 15 N (c) 5 N (d) 50 N 2.2 × 10–1 N/m 4. 4. 37 Chapter 1 (d) 2/µ (4) d (5) b Answers Correct 1.1 m. 3. 6.2 × 103 (d) 70 × 106 –4 Ns/m2. 8. The shear stress is 3.2 × 102 N/m2 (d) 1. 7 O Q 1. 1.002 m dia a fluid with surface tension of 0.10 The following refer either to viscosity effects or surface tension effects.11 Choose the correct answer. 9. 9. The excess pressure in a droplet of 0. The velocity distribution in a flow through a tube is given by u = (– 10/µ) (0. Heating of lubricating oil in bearings 7. Gas flow Answers Surface tension 1. 3.2 × 10 (b) 1. The weight of a man will be higher in Jupiter. 8. 8. Momentum transfer 2. 11 O Q 1. 3.9 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. 4. 6. The kinematic viscosity in m2/s is (a) 72 × 10–3 (b) 20 × 10–8 (c) 7. The shear stress at the wall in N/m2 is (a) 10/µ (b) 0 (c) 2µ 5. Viscosity of gases increases with temperature. The gravitational acceleration at a location is 5 m/s2. Specific weight of a body will vary from place to place.01 N/m is (a) 10 (b) 20 (c) 4π (d) 0. Specific weight is measured by a spring balance. 4. 3. 6 O Q 1. Classify them accordingly. 8 Answers (1) d (2) b (3) a . Capillary rise 3.2 × 10–10 N/m2 (a) 1. 5. The viscosity is 1. 7. Higher the surface tension higher will be the pressure inside a bubble. The head indicated by a water manometer is lower than the actual value. Free jet 6. The density is 600 kg/m3. 5. 2. 7. 10 Incorrect 1.2 × 10–7 N/m2 (c) 1. 7. 6.Physical Properties of Fluids Answers Correct 2. The head indicated by a mercury manometer is lower than the actual value. Liquid bubble 5. The dynamic viscosity is 1. 1. Viscosity of liquids increases with temperature. Dynamic viscosity is a measure of momentum diffusivity. 9. The velocity gradient is 1000/s. Mass is measured by a spring balance. The pipe radius R = 0.01 – r2).

kinematic viscosity 4. Define density. Explain the concepts of (i) vapour pressure (ii) partial pressure and (iii) surface tension. Derive an expression for the torque required to rotate a conical bearing. Define “Compressibility” and “Bulk Modulus”. . Explain from microscopic point of view the concept of viscosity and momentum transfer.12 Match the pairs. 2-A. capillary rise 3. weight density and specific gravity.38 O Q 1. 2. surface tension B. 2-A. 15. 20. 4. momentum transfer C. 8. given the value of the contact angle β and the density and surface tension of the liquid. Derive an expression for the capillary rise or depression. 3-A. Derive an expression for the torque and power required to overcome the viscous drag for a shaft running at a particular rpm. State the characteristic equation for gases and explain its significance. constant viscosity Fluid Mechanics and Machinery C. surface tension Answers (i) 1-C. 13. specific weight (ii) 1. Explain how viscosity of liquids and gases behave with temperature. 14. free surface (iii) 1. 17. weight 3. Derive the general expression for compressibility of gases. surface tension 3. Distinguish between compressible and incompressible fluids. Differentiate between the three states of matter. Define the term viscosity and explain the significance of the same. 3. 18. 9. zero viscosity B. ideal fluid 4. Set A (i) 1. Explain how liquid surface behaves by itself and when it is in contact with other surfaces. 10. density 2. kg/m3 D. 3-D. 11. Derive expressions from basics for the pressure inside a droplet and a free jet. kinematic viscosity 4. droplet formation 2. liquid D. Derive an expression for the pressure difference caused by surface tension on a doubly curved surface. Derive an expression for the torque required to rotate a collar bearing (disc over a parallel plate). 5. 4-B (ii) 1-D. m2 /s A. N/m B. Explain the concept of “Continuum”. 4-B REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 21. 19. 12. gravitational acceleration D. 2-C. Define kinematic viscosity and explain the significance of the same. 7. 4-C (iii) 1-D. specific volume. 16. Describe some methods to determine the viscosity of a fluid. 3-B. N/m3 C. shear stress A. Distinguish between vapour and gas. Distinguish between Newtonian and non Newtonian Fluids. Newtonian fluid Set B A. dynamic viscosity 2. 6.

069 Nm. The interface is filled with oil of kinematic viscosity of 2.326 Nm.9. 1340 W) E1. (200 mm) E1.10 A conical bearing of outer radius 0. If the force required to pull the smaller plate with a uniform velocity of 3 m/s was 1.28 m OD running at 600 rpm was 0.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density of 888 kg/m3 .4.7 poise.08 m.11 If u = 10 y1. (8. Determine the distance between the plates. Assume linear velocity profile on either side. Two large planes are parallel to each other and are inclined at 30° to the horizontal with the space between them filled with a fluid of viscosity 20 cp.08. Determine the film thickness.3).9 The torque to overcome viscous drag of the oil film of viscosity of 28 cp in collar bearing of 0. A hydraulic lift shaft of 500 mm dia moves in a cylindrical sleeve the length of engagement being 2 m.011614. (5 kN/m2) E1.125 m square slides parallel and midway between the planes and reaches a constant velocity of 2 m/s. Two large plates are 6 mm apart and the space in-between in filled with a fluid. The drag resistance when the shaft moves at 0.8 mm.2 m and height 0. (2 × 10–2 Ns/m2) E1. Also determine the power dissipated (Fig.81 N.94 N/m3. (10.58 Nm) E1. E1. A small thin plate of 0. the viscosity of the fluid being 40 cp.04 and 0. What will be the terminal velocity of a steel ball of density 7800 kg/m3 and dia 1. The torque required to rotate the disc at 200 rpm was 0.6.3. E1. Determine the viscosity of the oil used if the torque required was 21. 113. Determine the viscosity of the fluid. A liquid with kinematic viscosity of 2.13 The viscosity of an oil of density 820 kg/m3 is 30.4 m and inner radius 0. E1.5 where u is in m/s and y is in m in a flow field up to y = 0.614 kg/m3. 1.8 A circular disc rotates over a large stationary plate with a 2 mm thick fluid film between them.2 mm) E1. the flow velocity being 1. Determine the density.0861 m3/kg) E1. The weight of the plate is 1 N.02 Ns/m2.5 cm square falls freely between the planes along the central plane and reaches a steady velocity of 2 m/s.2. The viscosity of the oil is 22 cP.4 kN/m3) E1. 0. Two bearings of 15 cm width are used.8 m/s. the film thickness being 1 mm.2 m/s is 267. Determine the torque if the speed is 210 rpm.5. Determine the weight of the plate if the (0.16 m ID and 0.7 centistokes fills the space between a large stationary plate and a parallel plate of 500 mm square. (1. (5 mm) E1.32 N. Determine the ID of the cylinder.7 A shaft of 150 mm dia rotates in bearings with a uniform oil film of thickness 0. Assume that the liquid film is maintained all over. specific weight and specific volume of air if the specific gravity (with water as reference fluid) is 0. determine specific weight of the liquid. Determine the diameter of the disc.5 N) viscosity of the fluid filling the space is 0. (20. Two large vertical plane parallel surfaces are 5 mm apart and the space between them is filled with a fluid. The support is rotated at 600 rpm. pipe of 40 mm diameter. A plate of 1 mm thickness and 10 cm square is pulled parallel to the planes and midway between them with a velocity of 2 m/s.0 cP. A thin plate of 12.12 Determine the pressure difference between two points 10 m apart in flow of oil of viscosity 13.2 m runs on a conical support with a clearance of 1 mm all around. determine the wall shear stress and the shear stress at y = 0.1 mm when dropped in the oil? (90 mm/min) .Physical Properties of Fluids EXERCISE PROBLEMS 39 Chapter 1 E1.98 cp in a pipe. The force required was 0.734 N.79 Nm. (11.1.

0732 N.511 N/m) E1.1. (0. a block of mass M slides on a horizontal table on oil film of thickness h and viscosity µ. in terms of h. T= 2πµωR4 cos2 α 2 − cos α + 3 3 h LM MN OP PQ w R h q R wi wo µ a Oil film (velocity. The height of water column (at 20°C) in a tube of 8 mm ID is 12 mm.19 In order to separate a ring of 160 mm mean dia from water surface the force required just at the point of separation was 0.17 Calculate the shear stress due to fluid flow at the plate and at 10 mm above it if the velocity distribution along y direction is u = 2y – 2y3 + y4 .15 A viscous clutch as shown in figure transmits torque.1 N/m) E1. P= πµω 2 (ω1 – ω2) R4/2a) ω ω E1. Capillary rise adds to the column height and capillary depression reduces the column height.874 kN/m2. The mass m causes the movement.0728 N/m) E1.0254 mm) . β = 0. out of this 3. µ = 0. α and µ.40 E1. (0.17 mm is due to capillary action. Assume β = 0.0728 N/m) E1.16 Derive an expression for the torque in the case of a spherical bearing as shown in figure.21 In order to lift a thin plate 1 m width slowly and vertically from a liquid. Derive an expression for the torque and power transmitted. (0.16 E1. a force of 0. Determine the droplet size.15 Figure E. ω. umax = mgh/µA) µ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery M h Oil. Determine the value of surface tension. Also obtain an expression for the maximum speed of the block. (2 × 10–3 N/m2.25 mm ID glass tube was found as 2.18 The capillary depression of mercury in a 3.1. β = 129°. r. (0.0365 N/m. Derive an expression for the viscous force on the block when it moves at a velocity u. Determine the value of surface tension.14 As shown in figure. Determine the value of surface tension.001 Ns/m2.94 N/m2) E1. Determine the surface tension of water at that temperature.2 N was required at the instant of separation to overcome surface tension forces. (F = µu A/ h. The pressure difference between the inside and outside of the nozzle was 2.99 mm.13 E1. 1. (T = πµ (ω1 – ω2) R4/2a. m m u Figure E.1. (0. m) Figure E.22 Diesel injection nozzle sprays fuel of surface tension 0.20 In manometers an error in measurement will occur when a small bore tube is used.

floating in a liquid with contact angle β = 60° due to surface tension effects. The specific weight of the liquid is 20601 N/m3.212 N was required to keep a cylinder of 150 mm OD with weight equal to the buoyant forces.63%) E1.6 × 10–6 m/m per °C) E1. (3. The bulk modulus of the liquid is 37.0735 N/m. Determine the coefficient of linear expansion for the vessel material. determine the capillary rise in water. Determine the pressure inside the bubble at formation. The capillary rise was 1.29 In case a capillary of diameter 3 × 10–6 m is used.5 kg/m3.35 Due to an increase in pressure the volume of a liquid increases by 2.15 N/m. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum. Assume Ev = 2300 × 106 N/m2.Physical Properties of Fluids 41 Chapter 1 E1. Assume the value of surface tension as 0.27 An additional force of 0.31 When 1000 cc of water is heated in a cylindrical vessel of 100 mm diameter from 20°C to 50°C the increase in the water level was 0. Determine the average value of bulk modulus. (0. (0.45 N/m) E1. The surface tension is 0.24 A glass tube of 8 mm ID is immersed in a liquid at 20°C. if 5. The atmospheric pressure is 1.1 × 10–4 m3/m3 per °C.5 mm dia is (0. (10 m) . E1. Determine the average value of bulk modulus for water in this range.51 N/m.26 If the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 2. γ is the specific weight and β is the contact angle. (172 N/m2) E1. (10 m) E1.76 mm.34 When water was heated in a rigid vessel the pressure rise was 14.0365 N/m.28 Show that the capillary rise in an annulus is given by 2σ cos β/γ (ro – ri).022 N/m) 17. (2340 × 106 N/m2) E1. E1.11 percentage increase in specific volume while the temperature remained constant. The specific gravity of oil is 0. Determine the pres(1000 bar) sure increase. (762 mm) E1.49 × 106 N/m2. (0.92 mm of mercury column. σ = 0.01 bar.0389 N/m. the density was measured as 1024. Determine the height of column above the mercury well in a Fortins barometer using a tube of 3 mm dia.32 When the pressure of water in a press cylinder is released from 1000 × 105 N/m2 to 1 bar. (10 µm) E1.04 × 109 N/m2. For water the coefficient of cubical expansion is 2. The contact angle is 60°.96.23 Determine the droplet size if the pressure difference is increased to 7300 N/m3 in the nozzle of a diesel engine. 8 mm) E1. determine the percentage change in density. At the surface.43 kg/m3. there was a 4.82 mm. E1.7%.36 Determine the diameter of a spherical balloon at an altitude where pressure and temperature are 0. determine the value of surface tension of the soap solution. The contact angle is 140°.25 The actual atmospheric pressure was 765.30 Bubbles are to be blown using a glass tube of 2 mm diameter immersed in oil to a depth of 10 mm. If the surface tension of the oil is 0. (2430 × 106 N/m2) E133 The pressure of water increases with depth in the ocean. where ro and ri are the radii and σ is the surface tension. Determine the value of surface tension.6 N/m2. Determine the value of surface tension and also the radius of curvature of the meniscus. Assuming that the vessel volume did not increase due to the increase in temperature or due to the stress induced.65 kg of hydrogen was charged into the balloon at ground level where the pressure and temperature were 1 bar and 30°C.1 bar and –50°C. At a certain depth where the pressure was 900 bar the density was measured as 1065.

Water in the sea and in reservoirs are in contact with the ground and supporting walls. 2. Fluids filling vessels are in contact with the walls of the vessels. A ship floating in sea is an example. Atmospheric air is in contact with the ground. P is as below: 42 . When liquids partially fill a container a free surface will be formed. This alters the force distribution at stationary or atatic conditions. Gas column will also exert a force on the base. Fluids in contact with surfaces exert a force on the surfaces. Pressure may be defined as the force acting along the normal direction on unit area of the surface. This is dealt with in a subsequent chapter. In the case of gases molecular activity is the main cause of force exerted on the surfaces of the containers. However a more precise definition of pressure. but this is usually small in magnitude. The force exerted by fluids vary with location.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 2. Gases and vapours always expand and fill the container completely. The force is mainly due to the specific weight of the fluid in the case of liquids. When the whole mass of a fluid held in a container is accelerated or decelerated without relative motion between layers inertia forces also exert a force on the container walls. Surfaces may also be immersed in fluids.1 PRESSURE Pressure is a measure of force distribution over any surface associated with the force. Liquids held in containers may or may not fill the container completely. This chapter also deals with pressure exerted by fluids due to the weight and due to the acceleration/deceleration of the whole mass of the fluid without relative motion within the fluid. In this case the force exerted by the fluid is called buoyant force.0 INTRODUCTION Fluids are generally found in contact with surfaces. Pressure is a surface phenomenon and it can be physically visualised or calculated only if the surface over which it acts is specified. The variation of force under static or dynamic condition is discussed in this chapter.

will actuate the pointer to indicate the vacuum pressure. 2.1.1. This explicitly means that pressure is the ratio of the elemental force to the elemental area normal to it. . This is also a popular unit of pressure. X Section X X X Flattened phosphere bronze tube P atm Pointer Sensor P Figure 2. This is approximately equal to the atmospheric pressure or 1 bar. The end of the tube will move due to this action and will actuate through linkages the indicating pointer in proportion to the pressure.Pressure Distribution in Fluids P = lim (∆F/∆A) = dF/dA ∆ ∆ A→a → 43 (2. As the magnitude is small kN/m2 (kPa) and MN/m2 (Mpa) are more popularly used. In the metric system the popular unit of pressure is kgf/cm2.2. 2.2.1) F is the resultant force acting normal to the surface area A. dF = P dA (2. The scale is obtained by calibration with known pressure source.1.2) Chapter 2 The force dF in the normal direction on the elemental area dA due to the pressure P is The unit of pressure in the SI system is N/m2 also called Pascal (Pa). ‘a’ is the limiting area which will give results independent of the area.2 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT Pressure is generally measured using a sensing element which is exposed on one side to the pressure to be measured and on the other side to the surrounding atmospheric pressure or other reference pressure. The atmospheric pressure is approximately 105 N/m2 and is designated as ‘‘bar’’. Vacuum also can be measured by such a gauge.1 Pressure gauges In the Borden gauge a tube of elliptical section bent into circular shape is exposed on the inside to the pressure to be measured and on the outside to atmospheric pressure. The details of some of the pressure measuring instruments are as shown in Fig. Under vacuum the tube will tend to bend further inwards and as in the case of pressure. The tube will tend to straighten under pressure.

The mercury barometer and bellow type meter have zero as the reference pressure. In this text the mension pressure means absolute pressure. Electrical pressure transducers use the deformation of a flexible diaphragm exposed on one side to the pressure to be measured and to the surrounding pressure or reference pressure on the other side.44 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The pressure measured by the gauge is called gauge pressure. A gauge indicates 12 kPa as the fluid pressure while. Example 2. The deformation provides a signal either as a change in electrical resistance or by a change in the capacitance value. Convert this pressure into kgf/cm2 Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure + Outside pressure = 150 + 12 = 162 kPa or 1.62 bar. Vacuum (Zero pressure) Mercury H Pointer Bearing for pointer pivot spring box P atm P atm Thread Partially evacuated Figure 2.2.2. The outside pressure is measured using a mercury barometer (Fortins) or a bellows type meter called Aneroid barometer shown in Fig. 1. then Absolute pressure = gauge pressure + surrounding pressure The surrounding pressure is usually the atmospheric pressure.2 Barometer When the pressure measured is above surroundings. The amplified signal is generally calibrated to indicate the pressure to be measured. Hence these meters provide the absolute pressure value.2. Determine the absolute pressure of the fluid. An amplifier is used to amplify the value of the signal. the outside pressure is 150 kPa.1. The other side of the measuring surface in these cases is exposed to vacuum.62 bar = 1. The sum of the gauge pressure and the outside pressure gives the absolute pressure which actually is the pressure measured. This is called Vacuum.62 × 105 N/m2 . If the pressure measured is lower than that of surrounding pressure then Absolute pressure = surrounding pressure – gauge reading This will be less than the surrounding pressure. Gauge pressure will be specifically indicated. 2.

3/101. The proof for the statement is given below.81 N/cm2 = 9.3 PASCAL’S LAW In fluids under static conditions pressure is found to be independent of the orientation of the area. Pz. Pz × dx × dy = Pθ × dl × dy × sin θ + 0. The barometer indicates 1.2.81 × 104 N/m2 = 98100 N/m2 1. Let the pressure on the surface inclined at an angle θ to vertical be Pθ and its length be dl. Pθ × dl × dy × cos θ = Px × dy × dz But. dl × cos θ = dz So. Pθ = Px When considering the vertical components. 2.013 bar. Let the thickness perpendicular to the paper be dy. y and z directions be Px. Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure – vacuum gauge reading Absolute pressure in the condenser = 101.Pressure Distribution in Fluids As 1 kgf/cm2 = 9. z y q q Pq dl dy dl Px dy dz x dz dx g dx dy dz/2 Pz dx dy Figure 2. First considering the x direction.3 kPa.3 – 80 = 21.1.3 kPa = (21.013 bar = 101.651 kgf/cm2 45 Example 2.1 Pascals law demonstration Consider a wedge shaped element in a volume of fluid as shown in Fig. This is possible only if the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions so that the resultant force at that point will be zero. the force due to specific weight should be considered.3 kPa = 760 mm of Hg. A vacuum gauge fixed on a steam condenser indicates 80 kPa vacuum. Let the pressure in the x.3 kPa 101. Tangential stress cannot exist if a fluid is to be at rest.3) × 760 = 159. For the element to be in equilibrium. Barometer reading = 1. (standard atmosphere) ∴ 21. This concept is explained by Pascal’s law which states that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is equal in magnitude in all directions. Determine the absolute pressure inside the condenser.3. Convert this pressure into head of mercury.8 mm of Hg 2.5 × γ × dx × dy × dz Chapter 2 .62 × 105 N/m2 = 1. Py.3.62 × 105/98100 = 1.

The surface forces on the curved area are balanced. the pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions. . dl × sin θ = dx. 2.4. its magnitude is one order less compared to the other terms. dp = – γ × ds × sin θ (2.4. dS P+ dP dAS P Y S q X rg dAS ds Figure 2.46 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The second term on RHS of the above equation is negligible.1 Free body diagram to obtain hydrostatic law Consider an element in the shape of a small cylinder of constant area dAs along the s direction inclined at angle θ to the horizontal. Gravitational force is called body force as it acts on the whole body of the fluid. By using an element in the other direction. So.4. as shown in Fig. if these relations are specified as (see also section 2. 2. Surfaces generally experience compressive forces due to the action of fluid pressure. Pressure forces are called surface forces. The variation of specific weight γ with location or pressure can also be taken into account.4. The pressure at a point has only one value regardless of the orientation of the area on which it is measured. Pz = Pθ Px = Pz = Pθ Note that the angle has been chosen arbitrarily and so this relationship should hold for all angles. Also. Hence. dp/ds = – γ × sin θ or. A force balance in the s direction (for the element to be in equilibrium) gives P × dAs – (P + dp) × dAs – γ × dAs × ds × sin θ = 0 Simplifying.1. This can be extended to conditions where fluid as a whole (like a rotating container) is accelerated like in forced vortex or a tank of water getting accelerated without relative motion between layers of fluid. it can be shown that Py = Pθ and so Px = Py = Pz Hence.4 PRESSURE VARIATION IN STATIC FLUID (HYDROSTATIC LAW) It is necessary to determine the pressure at various locations in a stationary fluid to solve engineering problems involving these situations. The body force due to gravity acts vertically and its value is γ × ds × dAs. The surface forces are P at section s and P + dp at section s + ds.2).1) This is the fundamental equation in fluid statics.

This result is used very extensively in solving problems on manometers. In a static fluid. then the pressure at any y location is the product of head and specific weight. if y = y1 then P = P1 and dp = 0. The pressure will be the same at the same level in any connected static fluid whose density is constant or a function of pressure only.82 for another 40 cm. Example 2. y1 and γ are specified for any given situation.4. If the atmospheric pressure at that location is 1 bar. P – P1 = – γ × (y – y1) = – ρ g (y – y1)/go As P1.0322 bar = ρ × g × h = 1000 × 9. the pressure increases along the depth. The oil does not mix with water.4.4. where head is the y distance of the point from the reference location.81 × 0.68 N/m2 = 3217.4.68 + 1 × 105 N/m2 = 103217.82 = 820 kg/m3 = (ρ × g × h)*oil = 820 × 9.68 N/m2 = 1. P will be constant if y is constant. This has to be calculated in two steps.3 = 2943 N/m2 . An open cylindrical vertical container is filled with water to a height of 30 cm above the bottom and over that an oil of specific gravity 0.81 × 0. determine the absolute and gauge pressures at the oil water interface and at the bottom of the cylinder.4 = 3217.7) As y increases. If the fluid is incompressible.4.4.Pressure Distribution in Fluids γ = γ (P. A consequence is that the free surface of a liquid will seek a common level in any container. P – P1 = – γ × (y – y1) = γ × (y1 – y) = ρ g (y1 – y)/go (2. θ = 90 and sin θ = 1.4. Density of the oil Gauge pressure at interface Absolute pressure at interface Pressure due to water column = 1000 × 0. dP/dx = 0 47 (2. planes normal to the gravity direction.. first for oil and then for water.4) Chapter 2 In y direction. where the free surface is everywhere exposed to the same pressure.e. In equation 2. these being incompressible. ∴ θ = 0 and sin θ = 0.3.1 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Constant Density Consider the equation 2.5) (2. the pressure gradient is zero along any horizontal line i.6. This leads to the statement.6) If γ is constant as in the case of liquids. z p p1 dp = − γ z y y1 dy (2. the pressure decreases and vice versa (y is generally measured in the upward direction).4. 2.2) In a static fluid with no acceleration. dP/dy = – γ = – ρg/go Rearranging and integrating between limits y1 and y (2. s) For x axis.6.

4.3 = 6160. at any location i.2 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Varying Density Consider equation 2..0616 bar This value also equals the sum of absolute pressure at interface and the pressure due to water column.e.005°C per metre.436 bar (ii) isothermal P × v = constant or (P/ρ) = constant or (P/ρ g) = constant or (P/γ) = constant. The local atmospheric pressure at a place at 30° C is 1 bar.4 × 105 + 900 × 9. If γ = γ (P.3 and 2.4. The gauge pressure at the surface of a liquid of density 900 kg/m3 is 0. If the atmospheric pressure is 1 × 105 Pa. dP/dy = – γ Gamma can be a function of either P or y or both.4.5.4. *Note: go is left out as go = 1 in SI units Example 2.7) .4.600 N/m2 = 0.4.68 N/m2 or 1. y) then the variables should be separated and integrated.5 z z p1 p dp = − y y1 γdy γ = (P/RT) × g = {1 × 105/[287 × (273 + 30)]} × 9.81 × 50 N/m2 = 5.28 N/m3 Integrating between 0 and 5000 m P – 1 × 105 = – 11. (P/γ) = (Po/γo). P = 43.68 N/m2 = 6160.28 × (5000 – 0).48 Gauge pressure at the bottom Absolute pressure at bottom Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = gauge pressure at the interface + (ρ × g × h)water = 3217.4. If γ = γ(y) then ∫ dP = – γ (y) dy. 2. If γ = γ (P) then ∫ γ (P) dP = ∫ dy. Example 2. separating variables z In p1 ( dp/ p) = − (γ o / po ) dy 0 p z y (P/Po) = – (γo/Po) × y (2. using equation 2.4.8145 × 105 Pa = 5. Determine the pressure at an altitude of 5 km if (i) the air density is assumed to be constant (ii) if the temperature is assumed to be constant and (iii) if with altitude the temperature decreases linearly at a rate of 0. P50 = atmospheric pressure + pressure at top surface + ρgh = 1 × 105 + 0.68 + 1 × 105 = 106160.8145 bar (absolute) 2.68 + 1000 × 9.4 bar.81 = 11. Gas constant R = 287 J/kg K (i) constant air density. Solving. γ = (P × γo)/Po (dP/P) = – (γo/Po) dy Integrating from zero altitude to y m As (dP/dy) = – γ = – (P × γo)/Po.81 × 0.2. calulate the absolute pressure at a depth of 50 m.

893 N/m2 = 0. For dimensional homogenity go should be used. Now y = 5000. ρ × g = (P × g/RT).5.1 (a).4.5.1 (b).4.10) Substituting for To = 303 and c = 0. Hence it is often left out in the equations. P=1× 105 exp [– (11. 2. y = 5000 m and solving. and h is the height of the column of liquid (AB).5 MANOMETERS Manometer is a device to measure pressure or mostly difference in pressure using a column of liquid to balance the pressure. the pressure inside the conduit is higher than atmospheric pressure. Very low pressures can be measured using micromanometers.Pressure Distribution in Fluids P = Po exp [– (γo × y/Po )]. Chapter 2 . the pressure is the same.5. The principle of operation is shown in Fig.55506 bar (2.56893 bar (iii) The condition reduces to the form. Integrating. T = To – cy Pv = RT.005.9) (2. The basic principle of operation of manometers is that at the same level in contigues fluid at rest. (dP/dy) = – γ = – (g/R) × [P/(To – c × y)] or. 2. In Fig. γ = Pg/RT = (g/R) × [P/(To – c × y)] 49 (2.4. where the pressure is to be determined. It needs no calibration. ρ = (P/RT). The pressure at point C above the atmospheric pressure (acting on the open limb) is given by h × (γ1– γ2) where γ1 and γ2 are the specific weights of fluids 1 and 2. The column of liquid marked AB balances the pressure existing inside the conduit. 2. go in SI system of units has a numerical value of unity.28 × 5000)/(1 × 105)] = 56.506 N/m2 = 0. (dP/P) = – (g/R) × [dy/(To – c × y)]. (P/ρ) = RT.1 (a) and some types of manometers are shown in Fig. The pressure at the centre point D can be calculated as Pd = Pc – γ2 × h′ Generally the pressure at various points can be calculated using the basic hydrostatic equation dP/dy = – γ and continuing the summation from the starting point at which pressure is known.8) z In or p1 ( dp/ p) = − ( g/ R) dy/(T1 − cy) 0 p z y (P/Po) = – (g/R) {1/(– c)} In {(To – cy)/(To – c × 0) = (g/Rc) ln {(To – cy)/To} P/Po = [(To – cy)/To]–g/RC P = 55. It is a basic instrument and is used extensively in flow measurement. The pressure at the end point will be the result of this series of operations. The pressure due to a constant density liquid (ρ) column if height h is equal to ρ gh/go. to the end point. Another method of solving is to start from a point of known pressure as datum and adding γ × ∆y when going downwards and subtracting of γ × ∆y while going upwards. 2.

125 m A 0. horizontal distances need not be considered in the calculation. With respect to datum at B.1 Types of manometers ∆P1–5 = γ1 ∆y1 + γ2 ∆y2 + γ3 ∆y3 + γ4 ∆y4 with proper sign for ∆y values.9 0.9 × 1000 × 9. The sensitivity of simple manometers can be improved by using inclined tubes (at known angle) where the length of the column will be increased by (1/sin θ) where θ is the angle of inclination with the horizontal (Fig. 2. A manometer is fitted as shown in Fig. S = 0.81 + 0.6 .35 kPa gauge Pa Oil.50 P atm D + g2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h¢ 1 C B h A 2 g1 g2 3 g1 g1 g1 1 g1 (a) B h A 2 (b) A q g2 B h Figure 2.81 = Pa + 121178 N/m2 Consider the right limb PA = PB – 0. As only gravity is involved.9 m Water C B Hg (13. Determine the pressure at point A. pressure at left hand side = pressure at right hand side PC = PB Consider the left limb PC = Pa + 0.6. 2.600 kg/m ) 3 Figure Ex.81 = Pa + 121178 – 0.9 × 1000 × 9. 2.125 × 900 × 9.5. Example 2.5. Ex.9 × 13600 × 9.6.81 = Pa + 112349 N/m2 Expressed as gauge pressure PA = 112349 N/m2 = 112. The advantages of using manometers are (i) their simplicity (ii) reliability and (iii) ease of operation and maintenance and freedom from frequent calibration needed with other types of gauges.1 (b)).

4] = Patm + 7161.405.3 = Patm + 7161.7 Figure Ex.7 = Patm + 3237.2] = 29. The area ratio is the significant parameter.81 × 0.9 C D B B Water 1.7. Chambers A and B are exposed to the fluid pressures to be measured. Ex.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 51 Example 2.6 m D Water Oil.Ex.2 m 0. 2. Using an arrangement as shown in Fig.1 Micromanometer Small differences in liquid levels are difficult to measure and may lead to significant errors in reading. S = 0.8. Determine the pressure at E if PA = 0. PA – PB is the required value.3 Pa PA = PB + [1000 × 9. S = 0. An inverted U-tube manometer is fitted between two pipes as shown in Fig.7. Pressure at E = atmospheric pressure.9 × 1000) × 9.5.1. Determine the pressure at A. These chambers are connected by a U tube having a much smaller area compared to the chambers A and B.6) = Patm + 5886 Pa As PC = PD PB = PC – [0.2] = 40000 – [(0.9 × 1000 × 9.8.8] = 30190 N/m2 = 30.81 × 0.19 kPa (gauge) P atm Oil. the reading may be amplified.8] = 22342 N/m2 PE = PD + [1000 × 9. A multiple U-tube manometer is fitted to a pipe with centre at A as shown in Fig.3 N/m2 or 7161. 2.2.81 × 1.2 N/m2 PC = PB – [(0.2.81 × 0.81 × 1. 2.8 Example 2.9 × 1000) × 9.4 bar (gauge) PB = PA – [(0.3] = Patm + 5886 – 2648.9 × 1000) × 9. The volumes above this manometric fluid is filled with a fluid of slightly lower density.3 kPa (gauge) 2.9 + A Water Figure Ex. Patm PD = Patm + (1000 × 9.3 C + A E 0.5.81 × 0. For improved accuracy the manometer fluid density should be close to that of the fluid used for measurement.4 m E + 0.81 × 0.8 m B 0. Chapter 2 PC = PD = 22342 N/m2 .

The fall in level of the manometric fluid from 2–3 on the left limb will equal the rise of the level from 3 to 4 in the right limb.52 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Let pressure PA > PB and let it cause a depression of ∆y in chamber A. Under measuring conditions.5. A micromanometer is to be used to find the pressure difference of air flowing in a pipeline between two points A and B. if the area of the well chamber is 10 times that of the tube. To facilitate improved reading accuracy or increased value of y3. the manometric fluid movement on the pressure side is 5 cm. γ Example 2.2 kg/m3. Determine the pressure difference between the two points A and B.5.1) Very often γ1 is small (because gas is generally the medium) and the last term is negligible.9. PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] (2.5.2) For a given instrument y3 is a direct measure of ∆P → (PA – PB). After connecting to the pressure sides let the level of manometric fluid be 3-3 on the high pressure side. Let the specific weight of the pressure side fluid be γ1 and that of the other fluid be γ2 and that of the manometric fluid be γ3.2 Micromanometer So Starting from level in chamber A and level 3 as datum PB = PA + {(y1 + ∆y) × γ1} + {(y2 + y3 – ∆y) × γ2} – {2y3 × γ3} – {(y2 – y3 + ∆y) × γ2} – {(y1 – ∆y) × γ1} = PA – [2 × y3 × (γ3 – γ2) + 2 × ∆y × (γ2 – γ1)] As ∆y = (a/A) × y3 PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] – [2 × y3 × (a/A) × γ1] (2. Y1 g1 A Dy g2 Filler fluid 2 g3 3 PA 1 1 PB g1 B DY g2 4 y3 2 y3 3 y2 Manometric fluid Figure 2. The air density is 1. Let the original level of manometric fluid in the U tube be at 2-2 and let the fluid levels originally in the chambers be 1-1. Let the displacement in the chamber A be ∆y.1 and the filler fluid is water. . The micromanometer fluid is having a specific gravity of 1. The displacement in the limb will therefore by (y × A/a) which becomes better readable. it is necessary that (γ3 – γ2) is small. The fluid displaced goes into the U tube limb of area a.

81 N/m3.6 DISTRIBUTION OF PRESSURE IN STATIC FLUIDS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION.10.1 × 1000 × 9. Surface forces + Body forces = Inertia forces The net force in the s direction = rate of change of momentum is s direction. P m 10 c Pressure at the tapping point = γ × y = 800 × 9. The density of manometric fluid is 800 kg/m3.42 N/m2 (gauge) Reading accuracy is improved as 3. 2. y = 0.1 y3 = 5 cm = 0.11772 = 196.10 2.81} = 196.81 N/m3. Example 2.2 × 9. aS Consider the small cylindrical element of sectional area dAs and length s inside the fluid. This helps to measure very low pressure differences with sufficient accuracy. and (a/A) = 1/10. Pressure force + Body force along s direction = {P × dAs – (P + dP) × dAs} – γ × dAs × ds × sin θ Chapter 2 .2 × 9.81 N/m3.1 × sin 20 = 0.1 × 1000 × 9. γ3 = 1. which is accelerated at as along the s direction. γ1 = 1.0342 m = 268.0342 20° Figure Ex. Using equation 2. γ2 = 1000 × 9.05 × (1/10) × 1.1%.2 – 0. In case ordinary manometer is used the deflection will be 5 mm only.08 Pa.42 cm is amplified to 10 cm.05 m. The tube is inclined at 20° to horizontal as shown in figure.5. Determine the fluid pressure at a tapping connected with an inclined manometer if the rise in fluid level is 10 cm along the inclined tube above the reservoir level.5.1 = 2 × 0.81) – 1000 × 9.08 N/m2 The second term due to air is negligible as it does not contribute even 0.05 × [1.81) PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] – {2 × y3 × (a/A) × γ1} 53 × (1 – 1/10)] – {2 × 0.81 × 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Refer Fig. The advantage of this micromanometer is that the deflection is as high as 5 cm even for a pressure difference of 196. 2. The actual head. For equilibrium along s direction.

6) In general. 2. in direction s inclined at θ to x direction. γ = – ρ × ay For the x direction. The above three equations are to be used to determine the pressure distribution in cases where the fluid as a whole is accelerated without flow or relative motion in the fluid.1 ay Free surface ax q Container Figure 2. (two dimensional) as = ay × sin θ + ax × cos θ . dP/ds = – (γ × sin θ + ρ × as) For the y direction.1 Free body diagram for accelerating fluid element Inertial force = The rate of change of momentum = ρ × dAs × ds × as Equating and simplifying.6. for acceleration. However. These equations can be integrated if as.5) (2. variable density problems are more involved in this situation and solutions become more complex. θ = 0° (2.54 dS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P+ dP dAs P Y S q X rg dAs ds aS Figure 2. a pressure gradient in x direction (horizontal direction) is also possible.2 Free surface of accelerating fluid γ × sin θ = – ρ × as or θ= sin–1 (– ρ × as/γ) = sin–1 (–as/g) (2. ρ are specified as functions of P or s.1) This shows that when there is acceleration. Using equation 2. θ = 90° (2.6.6. γ.6.3) dP/dx = – ρ × ax (2. If the direction of free surface is s then dP/ds = 0.6. as this surface is exposed to the same pressure all over.1 Free Surface of Accelerating Fluid The pressure gradient along any free surface is zero.6.2) dP/dy = – (γ + ρ × ay) dP/dy will be zero when.6.6.6.

But the pressure at the various locations will be governed by these equations.5 and rearranging tan θ = – [ax/(g + ay)] The consequence of these equations are (i) If ax = 0. B are constants): Using equation 2.6.5–2. ρ = AP + B (A.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Substituting in equation 2. . When an open container filled with liquid accelerates.7.9) Chapter 2 The constant pressure surface (free surface) will be normal to the resultant acceleration. a free surface will be formed as specified by the above equations. 55 (2.6. as = ax (x directional acceleration) (dP/dx) = – (ρ × ax) (i) For constant density conditions: p2 x2 (2. tan θ = – ax/ay (iii) In general.6. 2.6. (2. (ii) If density varies with pressure as.6. ds = dx.1 (dP/ds) = – (γ × sin θ + ρ × as) θ = 0 for x direction. the free surface angle will depend on ax. When a closed container completely filled with liquid is accelerated a free surface cannot form.6.6. between the locations x1 and x2 (1/A) × [ln( AP + B)] p2 = – ax(x2 – x1) or p1 ln [(AP2 + B)/(AP1 + B) = – A × ax × (x2 – x1) (AP2 + B) = (AP1 + B) exp [– A × ax × (x2 – x1)] or P2 = (1/A) [(AP1 + B) exp {– A × ax × (x2 – x1)} – B] (2. ay and g.8.8) p1 z dp = − (ρ as ) x1 z dx (P2 – P1) = – (ρ × ax) (x2 – x1) P2 = P1 – (ρ × ax) (x2 – x1) ax is positive in x direction (towards right) and negative in the – x direction (left). [dP/(AP + B)] = – ax × dx Integrating.2 Pressure Distribution in Accelerating Fluids along Horizontal Direction Using the general expression for the model (fluid under acceleration) and the equation 2. In space liquid spilling poses problems because of this condition.7) (iv) The free surfaces of liquids are constant pressure surfaces and hence follow equations 2. liquids may not assume a free surface but will be influenced only by surface tension. the free surface will be horizontal (ii) If g = 0.6. When gravity is not present.6.6.10) This equation provides solution for pressure variation in the x direction when density varies linearly with pressure.

x2 – x1 = 5 m 2.12 Equation 2.11 Case (ii) ax is towards left and so –ve.000 = {1/1.8 P1 = 1.225 kPa. .58. Under this condition the pressure gauge fitted at the right end shows a reading of 150 kPa.50.000 N/m2 = 158 kPa. A horizontal long cylinder containing fluid whose density varies as = 1. ax = 15 m/s2.8 is accelerated at 5 m/s2 towards (i) right and (ii) left.50.000 = P1 + 800 × 5 × 2 P1 = 1.6. 2.000 = P1 – 800 × 5 × 2.50. B = 0.000 Pa = 142 kPa. ∴ 1 S = 0. Since the specific gravity of the oil is constant. 2.6. 15 m/s 2 250 kPa 5m P P Figure Ex. ±5 m/s 2 2 150 kPa 2m 158 a + 150 _ a 142 Figure Ex. 1.56 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 2. A cylinder (Figure Ex.2 × 10–5 × P is accelerated towards right at 15 m/s2. A = 1.42.2 × 10–5} × {(1/1.12.11) containing oil of specific gravity 0.11. P2 = P1 – ρ × ax × (x2 – x1) Case (i) ax is towards right and so +ve and (x2 – x1) = 2 m 1. Determine the pressure at the left end if the tube is 2 m long.9 can be used to solve this problem. equation 2. Determine the pressure at a point which is 5 m to the left of a point where the pressure gauge shows a reading of 250 kPa.10 has to be used as density varies with pressure P2 = {1/A} {AP1 + B) × exp [– A × ax(x2 – x1)] – B} Here. 2.2 × 10–5 × 15 × 5)]} P1 = 250225 Pa = 250.2 × 10–5 × P1) × exp [(–1.2 × 10–5. (note the unit of pressure used is N/m2) Example 2.

As tan θ = 2h/A. θ = tan–1 (ax/g) ax = g × tan θ.8 m long to a depth of 0. A fluid of specific gravity 0.6.81. 2. Determine the acceleration ax as a function of the angle θ and the distance A between legs. 0. So x = 0. The tank is uniformly accelerated to the right at 10 m/s2.15.5 m wide and 0.8 m long.25 m. 0.14. using eqn.13 tan θ = – 0. Determine the acceleration which will cause water to just start to spill and also when half the water has spilled.5 m high. Water is filled in a rectangular tank of 0.6.8 0.2 m3 Fluid spilled = 0.14 This is similar to the formation of free surface with angle θ.7 tan θ = – ax/(g + ay). Determine the volume of fluid spilled from the tank.0613125 m3 = 0. 2. tan θ = – ax/(g + ay) = – 10/(9.5/x = – 10/9. Since the fluid tank is accelerated in the horizontal direction ay = 0.1386875 m3 Example 2.5 × 0. 2.81 + 0) With reference to the figure. Using equation 2.5 q X Figure Ex.5 × 0. tan θ = – ax/g The acute angle θ will be given by.4905 m Remaining volume of fluid = (1/2) × 0.13.5 0.8 is filled fully in a rectangular open tank of size 0. A ax A Fluid tank volume or initial volume of fluid h q Figure Ex.4905 × 0.7.5 m high. Free surface 0.5 = 0.5 × 0. Chapter 2 .5 m wide and 0.2 – 0. As ay = 0.0613125 = 0.8 = 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 57 Example 2. h = A ax/2g Example 2. A U-tube as shown in figure filled with water to mid level is used to measure the acceleration when fixed on moving equipment.

715 kN/m2 (above atmospheric) for the pressure at base to be atmospheric.81 = 12. with fluid moving away from the centre.1 gives dP/dr = – ρ × as = ρ × r × ω2 as θ = 0.5 (9810 – 1000 × 3. Determine the pressure at the base of the tank above the atmospheric pressure. (dP/dy) = – (γ + ρ × ay).5 m height of water in it is accelerating downwards at 3.8 = 0. A tank containing 1. the water will be at 0. The variation of the linear speed with radius causes a concave free surface to form.4 m at bottom (P2 – P1) = 1..6. the weight of water is zero 2. P2 – P1 = 0 = 1. as ay is downwards and hence negative (P2 – P1) = 1. Fluid particles rotating in concentric circle with velocities of r × ω along the tangent to the circles form a forced vortex. but the linear velocity varies along the radius. dP = – (γ + ρ × ay) dy (P2 – P1) = (y1 – y2) (γ + ρ ×ay) (y1 – y2) = 1.58 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Since the tank is half full.2.5 m/s2.25 ∴ ax = 1. It is assumed that there is no relative sliding between layers.5/0.5 × 1000 × 9.1 – 2. The angular velocity is the same at all points.465 kN/m2 (above atmospheric) At static conditions.5/0.16.6. The pressure variations and gradients caused by the rotation can be determined using equations 2.1 is considered. An element of fluid as shown in Fig. ay = 9. at the time of spill the free surface will be along the left top and right bottom.5 (γ – ρ × ay) When half the water has spilled.e.81 m/s2 This is the situation of weightlessness.6.1) .3.7. The radius r is taken as positive along the outward direction.7 FORCED VORTEX When a cylindrical container filled with a liquid is rotated about its axis.5 [9810 – 1000 ay].25 × 9. the pressure would have been 1. The angle of the free surface with horizontal at the time of starting of spill is ax/g = tan θ = 0.26 m/s2 Example 2. Equation 2. and ar = – r × ω2 dP/dy = – γ as ay = 0 Using the first equation.81 = 6. where ay = – g.4 = 1.625 ∴ ax = 0. i.13 m/s2 tan θ = 0. the liquid as a whole rotates.5 m. the pressure change along r1 and r2 is obtained as ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ × (ω2/2) × (r22 – r12) (2.625 × 9.7. What should be the acceleration if the pressure on the base to be atmospheric? Using equation 2.5)/1000 = 9. 2.81/1000 = 14.6. The fluid rotates as a rigid body with velocity of ω × r at a radius r (ω being the angular velocity).

radius and g. A free vortex forms when the container is stationary and the fluid drains at the centre as in the case of draining a filled sink.2. Chapter 2 s dr .7.7.2) If the pressure at the centre of the base or any radius is known. dy/dr = r × ω2/g ∴ dy = r dr × ω2/g Integrating from centre to radius r and rearranging. The height y at any radius depends on the angular velocity. Here the fluid velocity is inversely proportional to the radius (volume flow depends on area). (P – Pb) = – γ × (y – yo) = – γ × y.7. 2. taking yo as the datum Here P is the pressure at the surface at any radius and Pb is the pressure at the base at the same radius and y is the height of liquid at that location. the velocity near the centre being the highest (v × r = constant).6. (space application) then y → ∞ and the free surface becomes cylindrical or the liquid adheres to the surface in a layer.r and ω is constant If g = 0. This gives Pb = P + γ × y (2.7. In forced vortex. (Pr – Po) = ρ × (ω2/2) × r2 = ρ × (ωr2)/2 (2. This shows that the free surface is a paraboloid. the pressure at all other points on the base can be calculated.7 is used.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Free surface A r PdA PdA + d (PdA) dF1 dq/2 dr 59 dF1 w dq 2 Figure 2.4 (a)) y = yo + [(ω × r)2/(2 × g)] where yo is the height of liquid at the centre. tan θ = – ax / (g + ay) For a rotating cylinder. v/r = constant as v = ω.1 Free body diagram of rotating fluid element From centre to any radius r. y2 – y1 = ω2 [r 2 – r12] 2g 2 (2. The surface profile is shown in Fig.7. ay = 0.7. ax = – r × ω2 and tan θ = dy/dr = rω2/g Hence.4) (2.3) In order to determine the value of slope at any radius equation 2.

Water is filled partially in a cylinder of 1 m dia and rotated at 150 rpm. The outside pressure is 1.4.712 (0.17. Also calculate the height of liquid at the edge.7.52 – 0. 1 = 0 + (ω2 × 0. Four pressure gauges A.52)/(2 × 9.4 Using equation 2.60 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A Free surface q dr A dy w Figure 2.1. A tall cylinder of 1 m dia is filled with a fluid to a depth of 0. ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ × (ω2/2) × (r22 – r12) Pr1 = 0 (gauge) at r1 = 0.2 bar.86 rad/s ω = 2π N/60. 0. substituting the values.4 y = yo + [(ω2 × r2)/(2 × g)].132 m SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 2. Determine the pressure at the extreme bottom edge. C and D are installed as shown in figure in chambers 1 and 2.5 m ω = 2 π N/60 = 2 × π × 150/60 = 15.18. B.86 × 60)/(2 × π) = 84.4.7. Hence the height at the outer radius is 1 m.2 Forced Vortex—Free surface Example 2. Equation 2. y2 – y 1 = ω2 [r22 – r12] 2g = 15. N = (8. The cylinder is empty at the bottom surface up to a radius of 0. Determine the speed of rotation. It is to be noted here that the volume of a paraboloid of height h is equal to the volume of cylinder of half its height and the same radius.5 m and rotated at a speed such that the height at the centre is zero.7.184 N/m2 (gauge). Using equation 2.4 m. The gauge A reads 0. ∴ ω = 8.52 – 0. while the gauge .42) N/m2 Pr2 = 11106.01 bar.6 rpm Example 2.7.81 = 1.712/2) × (0.1 is applicable. r2 = 0.42)/2 × 9.81). Pr2 – 0 = 1000 × (15.71 rad/s.

2 = 1.1 ∴ P2 = 1.8 bar Chapter 2 1 –0. 2.4 + P6 ∴ P3 = 0.1 bar (opposite of gauge B) Problem 2.5 bar 2 2.1 bar respectively. Figure P.3 bar. 3. 2. denoting the gauge reading by the corresponding suffix.8 and 2.4. P. 6 are obtained as below: P3: P4: P5: P6: PD = P3 + PC. 1. PB = P6 + PA. ∴ P4 = – 0. 2. This gauge measures the pressure in Pressure in bar chamber A.8 + P3 1.4 5 1.8 = 2. This gauge measures the pressure in chamber B and the gauge is situated in chamber D. The pressures in chambers A.11 bar atmospheric pressure reading of gauge = pressure in chamber 2 + reading of gauge C C = 1. Determine the pressures in chamber 1 and chamber 2 and the reading of gauge C and D. 2. 5.6 = 3.5 bar gauge 1 should show 0. Gauge 1. PC = P5 + PA.2 2 B D Pressure in bar Figure P.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 61 B reads – 0.4 = P2 + 2.2 are 3.8 = 3.6 6 1 3.1 bar Gauge D reads the pressure in chamber 1 as compared to chamber 2 gauge reading D = pressure in chamber 1 – pressure in chamber 2 = 1.1 bar.11 = 0.01 + 0.4 + P5 2. ∴ P5 = – 1.6 + P4 1.01 – 1. The gauge is in chamber D.1 = 1.11 = – 0. PC = P4 + PB.8 4 C Gauge 2.2. PB = P1 + PD.6 = P1 + 2.1 pressure in chamber 1 = atmospheric pr + reading of gauge A = 1.3 bar.6 bar. A. Determine the readings of gauges 1 to 6. 0.21 – 1.1 D 3 A B 2.2. ∴ P6 = – 0. By similar procedure the reading of gaug 3.1 C . B.21 – 0.1 = 1.6.8 bar. 2.21 bar pressure in chamber 2 = pressure in chamber 1 + reading of gauge B = 1.1 ∴ P1 = 0.2 PA = P2 + PD . 4. C and D as shown in Fig.

3 kPa. dP/P1/k = – Po–1/k γο dy. (As hk = hw/1. Then h × 13600 × 9. integrating between limits yo and y = – Po–1/k (gPo / RTo) y P(k–1) / k = {Po(k–1)/k – [((k – 1)/k)] Po(k–1)/k (g/RTo) y} P = Po {1 – [(k – 1)/k] (g/RTo) y} (P.81] = 4000 ∴ ∴ hw = 0. Temperature at ground level is 27°C.6 bar.2371 m.5.3.62 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The gauge readings show the pressure difference between the chambers connected and not absolute pressures. 2. (A) substituting in A and separating variables [k/(k – 1)] [P(k–1)/k – Po(k–1)/k] = Po–1/k (gPo / RTo) (y – yo) .1) The values at various altitudes are calculated using the equation and compared with air table values. The gauge pressure at the base was 4 kN/m2.4 = constant. Summing the pressures due to the two columns.81 × 1000) + (0. Such a vacuum is not possible. A container has hw cm of water over which hk cm of kerosene of specific gravity 0. Determine the rise in the mercury column in the other limb. Then γ = (p/p1)1/kγ1 The hydrostatic equation is dP/dy = – γ or dP = – γ dy The equation ∴ or ∴ Pvk = constant can be rewritten as.000 m altitude.25) × 900 × 9.1896 m..4] = const. The law can be written as [P/(ρg)1.02996 m or about 3 cm.2 × 9.81 + [(hw/1.9 floats. P1 γ1–k = P2γ2–k = P γ –k Let the specific weight at altitude y be γ. The pressure due to the atmosphere at the earths surface is 101. assuming that the condition of air can be represented by the law Pv1.25 × 9.. or P/γ1.81 × 830) Solving.25) hw × 1000 × 9.4 = const. or 18.25.81 = (0. A U-tube open to atmosphere is first filled to a sufficient height with mercury. Determine pressure at 10.96 cm Problem 2. If the ratio of hw/hk = 1. Problem 2.4. P/γk = Po /γok γk = (P/Po)γok γ = P1/k Po–1/k γο = γο Po–1/k P1/k. Let the rise in mercury column be h. h = 0. On one side water of volume equal to 200 mm column over which kerosene of density 830 m3/kg of volume equal to 250 mm column are added. or 23. To = 300 K . Problem 2. determine the heights of the columns. For example reading of P5 = – 1.5. Denoting the index as k.71 cm hk = 0.

8874 2000 0.7 Chapter 2 Problem 2.6) 2.5 × 103 = – K ln [K – (14. In a fresh water lake the specific weight of water γ is found to vary with depth y as γ = K γo/(K + γo y) where K is the bulk modulus.715 × 106)/K] Solving by trial (generally K is of the order of 109) Assumed value of K RHS 2 × 109 14769 × 103 2.7848 4000 0.7 A chemical reaction vessel of the shape given in figure is full of water with the top of the longer limb sealed and the top of the smaller limb open to atmosphere. determine the value of K.03 0. PA = 1.5 × 103 3 × 109 14751 × 103 Note : y is –ve as measured downwards.25 0.2622 63 20000 0.4657 8000 0.5 × 109 × 9810)/{2.γo/γo) ln [(K +γo y)/(K + γo × 0)] = – K ln [(K +γo y)/K] ∴ P = Po – K ln[(K +γo y)/K] 14860 × 103 = 101.(P . kPa 1000 9930 2000 19798 4000 39652 6000 59665 Sealed B The specific weight at this location is Problem 2. Using steam table indicate whether water will boil at this point if temperature is 30° C.3524 10000 0. . substituting the given values Integrating between the surface and the depth .0561 dP/dy = – γ = – K γo /(K + γo y) ∴ dP = {– K γo /(K + γo y)} dy = – K γody/(K +γo y) P – Po = – (K. Determine the pressure at B.013 bar 8m Figure P.61 0. the top of the longer limb. 2.6. If the pressure measured at 1500 m was 14860 kPa. Depth.47 0. At the surface γo = 9810 N/m3 and Po = 101.3 × 103 – K ln {[K – (9810 × 1500)]/K} 14758.3 kPa.6086 6000 0.5 × 109 gives the value nearest to LHS ∴ K = 2.08 N/m2 The pressure at various depths are tabulated.2.5 × 109 N/m2 γ = (2. The density of water is 992 kg/m3 at this condition.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Altitude.79 0.89 0. m Calculated P/Po From air tables 1000 0.5 × 109 14758. m P.5 × 109 + [9810 × ( – 1500)]} = 9868.35 0.

Let the water level when P1 = P2 be at x-x. when both pressures are equal. Consider stationary condition. Let the fluid with specific weight γs be having a height H.64 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery PB = 101.81 × 950[H + h – h(a/A)].95 x x h y y gm Water . The rise of level in the water side will be (a/ A).h Py is now calculated.81) = 23447.0252 m or 25. In both cases assume that the liquid level remains in the enlarged section. the saturation pressure as read from steam table is 4.81 [50h + 19h + 20h] = 9. S = 0. both limbs being exposed to the same pressure. The fall of oil level in the other limit will be also (a/A). Initially the tube is filled to some level with oil of specific weight γm.81 × 89h. ∴ h = 0. Solving.973 m Problem 2. When a pressure is applied to one of the limbs the manometric fluid rises by h m.3 × 103 – (8 × 992 × 9.24 kPa. Now the liquid heights in each limb can be calculated.3 × 105 – h × 992 × 9.95H + h + h(a/A)] On the oil side. Py = P2 + 9. Derive an expression for the pressure difference in the limbs. Problem 2.2 mm A manometer with constant limb area will give a reading of only 2. A U-tube manometer has both its limbs enlarged to 25 times the tube area. 2. what should be the length of the limb? 4.9. calculate the height h.95.8. Consider water side Py = P1 + 9. The area of the enlarged mouth portion is 50 times the area of the tube portion. h = 9. Thus the sensitivity is improved appreciably by this arrangement.81 × 89h ∴ 22 = 9. Now let pressure P2 act on the oil side limb and let the level of water below move down by distance h to the level yy. A manometer of the shape shown in figure has limb A filled with water of specific gravity 1 and the other limb with oil of specific gravity 0. If the pressure difference is 22 N/m2.45 kPa At 30°C.246 × 103 = 101. Then both limbs are filled with fluid of specific weight γs to the same level.h (As the filled volumes remain the same). Then the pressures at these points are equal as the same liquid fills the volumes below x-x.8 P2 P1 h(a/A) h(a/A) H Oil.81 × 1000[0.81. The pressure on both limbs at the level yy are equal. As P2 – P1 = 22 22 = 9. hence there will be no boiling at B.81 [– 950H – 950h + (950 × h/50) + 950H + 1000h + (1000 × h/50)] = 9. If the water just begins to boil. Let the height of oil on the left limb above x-x be H.95 H (in this case). The height of water in the other side will be (γo /γw) H or 0.24 mm of water. Figure P.8 N/m2 or 23.

consider pressures at y as the reference. 2. If a U-tube with water was used the deflection will be of the order of 4 mm.02998 m or 30 mm. 2. Over this water is filled to depths as in figure.9 × 1000 × 9. Air Oil 100 90 Water D Oil. S = 0.81 ∴ ∴ 40 = h h − h = 1334. γm = 1000 × 9. γs = 0.2 h.891 is filled over the water column on both limbs. Lubricating oil of specific gravity 0.81.10 Figure P. Determine the density of the unknown fluid (dimensions in mm). The top of both limbs are open to atmosphere. Consider the left limb: P y = P2 + H + 65 FG H h h a − γs 2 2 A IJ K (h)a 2 A P2 P1 (h ) a 2 A Chapter 2 Consider the right limb: P y = P1 + h h a h γs γ + H− + 2 2 A 2 m FG H IJ K gS gS H Equating and solving ∴ P2 – P1 = h h h a γm + H − + γs 2 2 2 A FG H IJ K h/2 y h/2 y gm h = γ + γs 2 m FG H FG h a − hIJ H A K – H+ h h a γs − 2 2 A Figure P. × 9810 + 0. A U-tube is filled first with a fluid of unknown density. 2.9 IJ K Let P2 – P1 = 40 N/m2. Problem 2.11 150 Hg C 400 .Pressure Distribution in Fluids After pressures are applied.85 A 400 300 70 x 40 S 20 50 +E 60 Water B Figure P.10.9 × 9810 25 2 FG H IJ K h = 0.

11.81 × 1000/1000) + (100 × 9.81 × 1000] + [(90/1000) × 9. When the vehicle is accelerated the difference in level between the limbs was measured as 32 mm. What will be the angle of the free surface if the container is hauled up with an acceleration of 3 m/s2 along the plane.81 × 0.97 kg.616 m/s2 Problem 2.81 × 891/1000) On the right limb at this level.4 Pa PC = PB – ρHg g hHg = 104635. 2.81 × ρ] + [(50/1000) × 9. The coefficient of friction between the container and the plane is 0. Determine the pressure in the pipe.13. PXR = [(20/1000) × 9.3° 13° FP x 30° Y Case (ii) FN Weight aS 30° ax Case (i) ay 2 Figure P.13 . as tan θ = (h/2)/(L/2) = h/L tan θ = ax/(g + ay) ay = 0.15) = 84623 Pa PD = PC = 84623 Pa (300 mm air column does not contribute much) PE = PD + ρw ghw = 84623 + (1000 × 9.4) = 88547 Pa or 88547 kPa Problem 2.2. Let the angle connecting the liquid surfaces in the limbs be θ.7.81 × (0.81 × 0. on the left limb the pressure at this level is PXL = (70 × 9. Determine the angle made by the free surface with the horizontal when the container slides down.032/0.30.4 – (13600 × 9. Problem 2.5 kg/m3 Note: Division by 1000 is to obtain specific gravity. Determine the acceleration.12 A U-tube with a distance of 120 mm between the limbs is filled with a liquid to mid level for use as a crude accelerometer fixed on a moving vehicle.013 bar = 101300 Pa PB = PA + ρogho = 1.6. Then using equation 2. A compound manometer is used to measure the pressure in a pipe E carrying water.4) = 104635. A container in the shape of a cube of 1 m side is filled to half its depth with water and placed on a plane inclined at 30° to the horizontal.81 × 891] equating and solving. The mass of the container is 50.013 × 105 + (850 × 9. The dimensions are shown in Figure P. Calculations can be started from the open limb where the pressure is known PA = Patm = 1.66 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Consider level x-x in figure.12) = 2.81 × 0.11. Free surface aS = 3 m/s 13. ρ = 1445. tan θ = ax/g or ax = g(h/L) = 9.

5 m/s2 tan θ = – [2.9.5/26 = 4.2 m.905 × sin 30 = – 2.3° ax = 3 cos 30 = 2.97 × 9.1°.97 = 550.81 – 1.2) + 10 = 26 kg Force along the surface = 26 × 9. P. Determine the angle the free surface makes with the horizontal. Try to generalise assuming other angles of inclination.905 × cos 30 = – 4.356 m/s2 The component along horizontal.2478/(9.14. with the same acceleration. A tank 0.4 × 0. ax = 2.5 N Force normal to plane Fy = 550.4 m × 0. This is an interesting result. P2 = P1 – (ρ.905 m/s2 Acceleration along x direction = 4.598/(9.24/550.2478/(9. ay = 3 sin 30 = 1.2478 m/s2 Acceleration along y direction = 4. An aircraft hydraulic line pressure is indicated by a gauge in the cockpit which is 3 m from the line. ax = 4.53 N Acceleration as = 127.4525.81 + 2.µ = (2701. as = F/m = 1298.3 = 1404.178) = + 0. then the angle made by the free surface can be obtained using equation 2.4525)] ∴ θ = 30°. The container slides without friction downwards on a surface making 30° with the horizontal.9.5)] θ = – 12. ∴ tan θ = – [4.94° with horizontal Case (i) Force along the plane Chapter 2 Problem 2. The mass of the container is 10 kg.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 67 Irrespective of the inclination if the acceleration along and perpendicular to the horizontal are calculated.15.5 – 1404. ay = 2.24 N Acceleration along the plane. When moving up. ay = – 1.81 × sin 60 = 4680.9 N The friction force acting against Fx is Fy µ = 4680.178 m/s2 (downwards) tan θ = (– 2.2478. When the aircraft was accelerating at 10 m/s2 at level flight.6. Determine the pressure at the oil line using equation 2.4525)] θ = –19.81 + 1. Specific gravity of oil is 0. Refer Fig.26 N Net downward force along the plane = Fx – Fy.356 × cos 30 = – 2.13 Total mass = 1000 (0. slope = 0.2.97 = 2.81 × cos 60 = 2702. If the tank is moved up with the same acceleration determine the slope of the free surface.3464 Problem 2.598 m/s2.6.4 m is filled with water upto a depth of 0.81 × cos 60 = 127.97 × 9.7 tan θ = – [ax /(g + ay)] The total mass = (1 × 1 × 0. the gauge indicated 980 kPa.2364 ∴ Case (ii) ∴ θ = + 13.9 × 0. same as the slope of the plane.81 – 2.26) = 1298.041)/(9.ax) (x2 – x1) P2 = 980 ×103 – [(900 × 10) × (– 3)] = 1007 × 103 Pa or 1007 kPa .4525 m/s2 tan θ = – [– 4.2 m size and of height 0.2 × 0.041 m/s2 The component along vertical.97 kg Fx = 550.5 × 1000) + 50.

r2 = 0.04241 bar.2.2π = (25 × 2π)/(π/500) = 1/10 rad/s tan θ = 250 × (1/102) × (1/9. saturation pressure is read as 0.255. Pr2 = 1. ∴ θ = 14.81 m/s2 Figure P.1 m w Figure P. x = 4. choosing B as origin. there should be a reduction of 4 m of water column due to the acceleration. The left side is vented to atmosphere.ax (x2 – x1) For the pressure at A to be atmospheric.18.04241 bar using equation 2.17.3° As pressure increases outwards. tan θ = ax / (g + ay).81) = 0.16. Determine the direction of the string measured from the vertical during the turn.P. ∴ P = 0. A child holds a balloon with a string and it is vertical along straight road.013 bar.7. 2. ∴ ax = 9. 2. the balloon will turn inwards by 14. Problem 2. A fully air conditioned car takes a curve of radius 250 m at 90 kmph.ω2. ∴ v = 90 × 1000/3600 = 25 m/s ω = (v/πD).30 to the vertical.1 as the situation is similar to forced vortex ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ(ω2/2) (r22 – r12) r1 = 0. Vent P2 = P1 – ρ. The balloon will move opposite to the pressure gradient at the location.18 . A tank as in Fig. Initial pressure all over the surface = Patm + 4 m of water head tan θ = 4/4 = ax /g ∴ ax = 9. y = – 4 0 = – 4000ax + 4 × 9810. The air within the car can be taken to move as a solid. the general equation can be used.16 Problem 2. ρ = 1000 kg/m3.81 m/s2 4m 2m B 2m A alternately.16 is filled with water.68 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 2. During the travel along the curve. ax = r. ay = 0 speed. A D 400 mm 100 mm B Pr1 = 0. Determine the rotational speed along AB in rad/s is the pressure at the closed end A should not fall below the saturation pressure of water at this temperature. From steam tables at 30°C. Determine the acceleration along the right which will cause the pressure at A to be atmospheric. A U-tube shown in figure is filled with water at 30°C and is sealed at A and is open to atmosphere at D. P = – [γ (ax /g)x] – γ y = – 9810 (ax /g) x – 9810y P = – 1000 axx – 9810 y In this case.

3 m 1m Oil.902) = 0.16653 At B.39755 – 0. Gas centrifuges are used to produce enriched uranium.1 namely dP/ds = – r sin θ + ρ as reduces when s is horizontal and in the case of rotation to dp/dr = ρ as = ρrω2. Determine the gauge pressures at B.902 m/s2.45 m/s2.9/9.Pressure Distribution in Fluids substituting.4 Pa PC = PC ′ – PC = 9. For a gas ρ = P/RT. As compared to A.9/9. A container filled with oil of density 800 kg/m3 is shown in figure. C.19 Patm · (P.3] = 765 Pa PD = PC + (1 × 9.81 = 0. substituting dP/P = (ω2/RT) dr.3 liquid head above i.3 × 800(9. ax = 2. the pressure is less than at A by a column of 0. D and E when (i) ax = 3. determine the ratio of pressures at the outer radius to the centre.8 × 9.81 × 800 [0. Equation 2. integrating between limits ln ln ∴ (P2/P1) = (ω2/2RT)r2 = V2/2RT V = 300 m/s.19. PB is lower ∴ PB = – 0. 2. 2. C′ will be above C by 0. B is at 0.3 m of liquid.. but the weight is increased by the upward acceleration.ω2 × 0. Universal gas constant = 8314 J/kgK.9 m/s2 and ay = 0 (ii) ax = 2.902) = 3531 Pa Chapter 2 . R = 8314/352.3 × 9. Assuming gaseous uranium hexafluride at 325°C is used. Determine also the values of ax and ay if PA = PB = PC Case (i).81 × 800 = – 2354.042421) × 105 = (1000/2). The maximum peripheral speed is limited to 300 m/s.81 = 5493 Pa All the pressures are gauge pressures with atmospheric pressure as reference pressure Case (ii).39755 as the length is 1 m.20.45/(9. Pressure at A is atmospheric in all cases.33 rad/s 69 Problem 2. The molecular mass of the gas is 352.6.81 C B A · 0.19) Problem 2.81 + 4.9 m/s2.e.12 ∴ ω = 139.186 P2/Po = 24.8 · D 1m E· Figure P.902 m/s2 In this case tan θ = ax/(ay + g) or the slope is 2.7 × 0. S = 0.0976 m head of fluid. ay = 4. when accelerated along the x direction. The small opening at A is exposed to atmosphere.45 m/s2 and ay = 4.013 – 0. ∴ PB = 0. (1.81 + 4. the imaginary free surface angle θ is given by (as ay = 0) tan θ = – ax/g = 3. T = 325 + 273 substituting (P2/Po) = 3002 × 352/[2 × 8314 × (325 + 273)] = 3. ay = 0.20 ∴ The slope is 3.81 × 800) = 8613 Pa PE = 0. ax = 3.

The path of the aircraft is shown in figure. Its path is along a concave upward circular curve of radius 2600 m. 40000 = 830 × ax × 6 ∴ ax = 8.16653) = – 1570 Pa PD = PC – [1 × 0. If the radius is 60 mm and if the speed is 60 rpm.902)] = 10200 Pa PE = 0.659.3 × 800(9.2)/1000 = 8. automatically B C should be constant pressure surface.81 + 4.16653 m above A.1665) m PC = – 0.6.21. If PA = PB then the weight of the liquid column should be zero due to the acceleration ay.24 × 10–3 m of air Considering density of air to be about 1. C is above C′ by (0.3 × 800(9.09/(7. A tanker lorry of cylindrical shape 6 m in length is filled completely with oil of density 830 kg/m3.7 × 800(9. head of water = (7.22. towards centre The acceleration along the tangent at = – 4 m/s2 The components along x and y directions are ax = – 4 cos 40 – 12. At an instant an aircraft travelling along 40° to the horizontal at 180 m/s.69 × 10–6 m y ab R = 2600 m an 180 m/s 40° x Figure P. ∴ ay = – g or 9.01 m/s2 tan θ = ax / (ay + g) = 11. decelerates at 4 m/s2.5 m/s2.902) × (0.06]2/(2 × 9.3 – 0. The air in the gap can be considered to rotate as a single body. The lorry accelerates towards the right. Determine the position of the free surface of the fuel in the tank. determine the pressure difference between the centre and the circumference. The accelerations are indicated.3 – 0.09 m/s2 ay = – 4 sin 40 + 12.21 .5 sin 40 = – 11. As the level is the same the head difference between the centre and the outer radius is given by h = (ωr)2/2go = [(2π60/60) × 0.81 + 4. If the pressure difference between the front and back at the centre line should not exceed 40 kPa.23.2.9.81) = 0.70 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Now C′ is at 0.4°.03 m/s2 Problem 2. ∴ θ = 33.24 × 10–3 × 1. The plates rotate without any air flowing out.81) = 7.902) = 8239 Pa Case (iii). ∆p = ρax(x2 – x1). (gauge) what should be the maximum acceleration. Slope of the free surface of fuel = 0.5 cos 40 = 7.81 m/s2 upwards. Neglect the weight component.659 Problem 2. So ax = 0 Problem 2. Air fills the gap between two circular plates held horizontal. 2.81 + 4. If PC = PB. using equation 2. The acceleration towards the centre of the curve is given by ax = V2/R = 1802/2600 = 12.01 + 9.

Paraboloidal. Pressure is defined as ________ 2. (R2 ω2/2 go) 10. Distinguish between gauge pressure. that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is equal in magnitude in all directions 3. When gravitational forces are zero. At zero horizontal accelerating conditions on earths surface. As a measure of force distribution over any surface associated with a fluid (dF/dA) 2. absolute pressure and vacuum pressure. 9. is zero 5. is the same at all points 4. 10. basic hydrostatic equation. 2. Chapter 2 4. 6. Derive the expression for the pressure variation in a static fluid under gravitational forces. 8. 9. . 6. Define and explain the concept ‘‘pressure”. low 9.1 Fill in the blanks: 1. the pressure exterted by a column of fluid is ________ 5. Manometers use the principle of ________ 8. In a forced vortex the height of liquid at the periphery of a cylinder of Radius R above that at the centre will be ________ 10. Explain how small pressure difference reading can be amplified by using a micro manometer or inclined tube manometer. Explain what is meant by forced vortex and derive the expression for the radial pressure distribution in forced vortex. Manometers are suitable for ________ pressure measurement. (∆P = ∆ yγ) 8. Derive an expression for the distribution of force in static fluid subjected to whole body acceleration in a general direction – s. The pressure exerted by a column of fluid of height y m and specific weight γ is ________ 6.Pressure Distribution in Fluids REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Derive the expression for the angle made by the free surface in a liquid that is subjected to both acceleration and gravitation. y γ. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. Indicate the modifications where pressure varies along vertical and horizontal directions. Derive an expression for the pressure distribution in an incompressible fluid accelerated horizontally. Explain the consequences of the law. State and prove Pascal’s law. 3. On a free surface of a liquid the pressure is ________ 4. Indicate when the use of manometers is advantageous. 7. 71 5.2. horizontal 7. Pascals law states ________ 3. The shape of free surface in a forced vortex is ________ Answers 1. Explain the basic principle involved in measuring pressure and pressure difference using manometers. the free surface will be ________ 7.

Along the free surface in a liquid. 3. 8. exponentially 2. neglected/equal on both sides 6.3 Fill in the blanks with increases.2. the head of liquid for a given pressure ________ 5. 8. Answers Increases : 1. 5.2. 9. independent 10. The level rise in the forced vortex is ________ of the fluid. If the density varies linearly with height the pressure will vary ________ with height. 10. The pressure in a fluid at rest ________ with depth. the gauge deflection will increase if the area ratio _______ 10. the gauge reading ________ when the angle is reduced.2. 6. 3. As a container with liquid is accelerated the pressure on the base along the direction of acceleration ________ 7. zero 3. When a fluid is decelerated at a rate equal to g in the vertical direction the pressure on the base will be ________ 3. decreases. ax = g O Q. 5. 4. 7 O Q. In a fluid at rest the pressure at a constant level will be equal at all locations. or remains constant. 8. 1. the density difference between the filler fluid and the manometer fluid should be ________ 5. 8. 9. Due to horizontal acceleration. specific weight 9. In inclined tube manometer. The shape of a forced vortex in the absence of gravity will be ________ 7. The pressure over a free surface of a fluid at rest will vary with location.72 O Q. the fluid column will fall if the pressure inside is less than atmospheric. In a manometer. the fluid column will rise if the pressure measured is above the atmosphere. The forced vortex rise ________ as density of the liquid increases. 2. The pressure at a point in fluid at rest is ________ of direction.2 Fill in the blanks: Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. When a fluid in a container is accelerated along the x direction at a m/s2. In a micromanometer. 9. The forced vortex rise ________ with rotational speed. The vacuum gauge reading will increase as the absolute pressure decreases. In micromanometer. 2. As specific weight increases. The pressure on the base of a liquid column will depend upon the shape of the column. 10 Decreases : 4. 7. In a manometer. 2. . The pressure exerted by a liquid column on the base depends on the ________ of the liquid. cylindrical 7. 6. the manometric deflection for the same pressure difference ________ 6. the pressure ________ 3. As the density of manometric fluid decreases. The capillary effect can be ________ when both limbs of a manometer have equal areas. tan θ = – a/g 4. 6 Remains constant : 2. 1. In a fluid at rest the pressure at a point ________ 4. For low pressure measurement a manometric fluid with low density will be better. small 5. In a fluid at rest.4 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. the angle the free surface will occupy is given by ________ 4. the pressure at a point varies with direction. the free surface of the fluid will be 45° when the acceleration equals ________ Answers 1. independent 8.

2. The pressure at the centre is (a) 0. 4. 5. The water pressure in m of water is (a) 14.55 × 0. Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure – vacuum gauge reading. with y as the vertical direction. 3. The pressure exerted by a column of 1 m of the fluid will be . The free surface of the liquid will be (a) horizontal (c) vertical (b) slopes in the direction of acceleration (d) slopes in the direction opposite of acceleration 8. The gravitational forces are negligible.6 m is 0.55 × 0. 6. The angular velocity in radians is (a) 11.7 (a) hyperboloid (c) paraboloid (b) 5. A horizontal cylinder half filled with fuel is having an acceleration of 10 m/s2.4 × 1200 × 9. the manometric rise is 0.000 N/m2 (d) 5 N/m2 2. 73 Answers Correct : 2. In a forced vortex. 10 Incorrect : 1.55 × 0. The density of fluid was 2000 kg/m3.5 Choose the correct answer: (a) 400 N/m2 (c) 2000 N/m2 (b) 10.6 m above the centre. The shape of forced vortex under gravitational conditions is 6.2 m dia and 0. 8. 7.2 (b) 13. 9 O Q.44 (c) 32. The absolute pressure is equal to the vacuum gauge reading. the pressure variation is given by (a) (c) dp =ρ dy dp =γ dy (b) (d) dp =–ρ dy dp =–γ dy Chapter 2 1.2 (c) 12. The gravity at a location is 5 m/s2. In a forced vortex (a) the fluid velocity is inversely proportional to the radius (b) the fluid rotates without any relative velocity (c) the rise depends on the specific weight (d) the rise is proportional to the cube of angular velocity 4.81 3.2 (d) none of the above 7.4 m height a fluid of specific weight 1200 × 9.2 × 1200 × 9. In a manometer using mercury as manometric fluid and measuring the pressure of water in a conduit.81 N/m2 5.81 N/m3 is filled to the brim and rotated about its axis at a speed when half the liquid spills out.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 9.1 × 1200 × 9. In a static fluid. The specific gravity of mercury is 13. In a circular cylinder of 0. 10.72 (d) 130.81 N/m2 (c) 0.8 (b) spherical (d) cylindrical N/m2 (b) Zero (d) 0.55. the level at a radius of 0.2 m.

1 Figure E.2.2. In an artificial atmosphere. γ1/(K + γ1. The ratio of specific gravities of A to B is (a) 2 (c) cannot be determined (b) 0.3 kN/m2 and γ1 = 9810 N/m3.2 kN/m2 absolute] P atm = 100.1.2 kN/m2. The surface pressure is 101. The pressure at y = 0 is 5000 N/m2. c is a dimensional constant having a unit of N/m4.4. In a differential manometer a head of 0. Determine the expression for pressure variation with altitude.000 N/m2 (c) 4000 N/m2 (b) 2000 N/m2 (d) 20. d . Determine the pressure below 1000 m in the sea if the specific weight changes as γ = K. [101. In this case c has a value of 1.y.1 to read the outside pressure shows 1.2.6 Match the pairs: (a) Free surface in forced vortex (1) Vertical (2) Paraboloid (3) Negative slope (4) Horizontal (b) Free surface in static fluid (c) Free surface in forced vortex without gravity (d) Free surface in a horizontally accelerating fluid Answers a . [P = 5000 – (y2/2)] E. b . Determine the absolute and gauge pressures in chamber A as shown in Fig.3 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E. [390. The pressure (above atmosphere) in a tank bottom containing the fluid to a height of 0.5 (d) 0.2.6 m of fluid A in limb 1 is found to balance a head of 0. Determine the outside pressure. 290 kN/m2] E.2. A chamber is at a pressure of 100 kN/m2.3.2 E.y) where K is the bulk modulus having a value of 2 × 109 N/m2 and y is the depth in m. [9935 kN/m2] .02 × 105 N/m2.18 Answers (1) b (2) b (3) b (4) b (5) c (6) c (7) c (8) d (9) c (10) b O Q. the specific weight of air varies with the altitude y as γ = c. the gauge pressure being referred to atmospheric pressure of 1.2 m is (a) 40.2. 2.3 m of fluid B in limb 2.2.4.000 N/m3.000 N/m2 10.2 kPa 1. c . A gauge fixed into this chamber Fig.2.2.2 kPa – 60 kPa A 350 kPa 100 kPa Figure E.1.2. The specific weight of a fluid is 20. E. E.2. 2. where γ is in N/m3 and y is in m.74 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 9.

Determine the pressure at point X for the situation shown in Fig.2.2.5 is filled with a liquid of specific gravity 0. E.9 m of water balances a column of 1.6.Pressure Distribution in Fluids E. S = 0.5 E.04 kPa] Chemical S = 1. [454. [65 kN/m2] Water + 3 Water Pa 1.7.75] E.2. 92 6m B Figure E.5 m 0. Determine the pressure read by a gauge (Bourdon type) fixed at B. [0.2.15 kN/m2] A 75 400 kPa Oil. E.8 0.7 E. E. A vessel of the shape shown in Fig. 2. S = 0. a column of 0. Determine the pressure above the atmosphere at point 3 for the manometer and dimensions shown in Fig.6. 2.6 Figure E.2 m of an unknown liquid.2 + X Datum Figure E.7.2. In a U-tube shown in Fig.8. Determine the specific gravity of the unknown liquid.2.92.9 Chapter 2 .2 m 0.4 0.8 [8.5.6 0.8 Water Oil. Neglect gauge height.6 m 1.2.2. 2. The pressure gauge at A reads 400 kN/m2.9 m S=2 Hg Hg Figure E. open to atmosphere at both ends. 2. E.

2.2.9.03 and the filler fluid is water. the level from the top to the filler fluid is . S = 0. determine the pressure at point D. determine the length AB.2 m Figure E. [94. Determine the pressure at A above the atmosphere for the manometer set up shown in Fig. The specific gravity of the oil is 0.76 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E.7 m D C Mercury C B D + P atm 0.11.6 m A 1m 0. For the situation shown in Fig.9 B Hg Figure E.9 and that of the manometer fluid is 0.2. E.11.9 E.2.9.91 kPa] P atm Oil S = 0. E.10 Figure E.7. 2.2.04 kN/m2] E.12.2. The pressure at point 1 and point 4 are 30 kPa and 120 kPa. The manometric fluid is having a specific gravity of 1. For the manometer shown in Figure E. [68.6 Oil.3 cm] 1 + L A + 4 0. [111.2 kg/m3 at the measuring condition. In a micromanometer the area of the well chamber is 12 times the area of the U tube section. 2.2.2. The flowing fluid in which the pressure is to be determined is air with a density of 1.10.11 E. When pressures are equal.10.8 Water B A 1.

[122.15. 2.15 E.14.04 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 77 8 cm. Water Water S = 0. The atmospheric pressure at an elevation of 300 m was 100 kPa.15. determine the pressure at height of 1500 m.2 2 Chapter 2 . when the temperature was 20°C. [88.2. Determine the pressure difference between A and B shown in Fig.04 S = 1. S = 0.18 Water 0.2.08 P1 P2 0.2. 2. The specific weight of the fluid is 900 × 9.16.95 Figure E.81 N/m3.65 N/m2] E. Determine the pressure at 3000 m. An inclined tube manometer with limb at 10° to horizontal shows a column length of 8 cm above the reservoir level.9 0.12 E.03 Figure E.2.2.14 Figure E.17.4 Hg 0. If the temperature varies at the rate of – 0. E. Determine pressure above atmospheric level. E. The pressure at sea level was 102 kPa and the temperature is constant with height at 5°C. 2. Determine the pressure difference indicated.866 N/m2] 0.4 + A + B 1 + + Oil. The manometric fluid is 18 cm from top at filling.2. Under measuring condition the manometric fluid movement in one limb is 4 cm.6 Water 0. 0. E. Determine the pressures at location 1 and 2 in Fig.2.13.006° C/m.14. E.

6 m filled partially with a fluid and axially rotated at 15 rad/s is empty upto 0. [227. Determine the density of the fluid. assumes a free surface making 25° with the horizontal. if the acceleration is to the right at 10 m/s2. The pressure at the extreme edge at the bottom was 0.3 bar gauge.15 m. [987.2. Determine the pressure of oxygen above atmospheric pressure. [0] E.2.28. Determine the pressures at the top and bottom corners. Determine the hydrostatic pressure at depth of 100 m. 172.20.2. Using figure in Example 2. If the acceleration in the horizontal (along the right) and vertical directions are 5 m/s2 and 7 m/s2. E.8. A rocket is accelerating horizontally to the right at 10 g. The liquid in a tank when accelerated in the horizontal direction.2. E.6.25.24. Determine the pressure distribution on the base. 0.905 m/s2] E. . and if fuel specific gravity is 0. E.2. A tank containing liquid of specific gravity of 0. if the fluid density varies as ρ = 0. The reading under accelerating conditions at the right end was 200 kN/m2. The bourden type pressure gauge in the oxygen cylinder of a deep sea diver when he is at a depth of 50 m reads 500 kPa. Determine the liquid level at the centre when a tall cylinder of 1. A closed tank of cubical shape of 1 m side is accelerated at 3 m/s2 along the horizontal direction and 6 m/s2 in the vertical direction. A closed cubical tank of 1. 2. Determine the pressure at the left end.78 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E. E.2. The tube is 3 m long.20 is accelerated at 10 m/s2 towards (i) right and (ii) left.26. E.19. The pressure gauge is connected by a 0. determine the pressure at the left end.6 m long and 0. where density is in kg/m3 and P is in N/m2 and if the pressure gauge at the right end reads 120 kN/m2.3 m high.2 m dia filled upto a depth of 0.2.22.3 m radius.2.5 m side is filled to 2/3 of its height with water.2.3 m wide contains water to a depth of 0.4 kN/m2] 3m 200 kPa as = ± 10 m/s 2 Figure E. [35. A cylinder containing oil of specific gravity 0. Determine the acceleration which will cause water to spill. A cylinder of radius 0. Determine the decrease in pressure within the liquid per metre distance along the direction of motion.3 + 8 × 10–6 P.20.8 is accelerated uniformly along the horizontal direction at 20 m/s2.23.2.6 m is rotated at 77 rpm.18.92 as shown in Fig. [4.2.6 m length tube to the left end of the fuel tank.21. If the pressure in the tank is 35 bar. Assume sea water density is constant and is 1006 kg/m3.27.65 kg/m3] E.2. The density of a fluid at rest increases with depth as 1000 + 0.20 E.2. determine the pressure gauge reading. [120. Assume the base to be horizontal.05h kg/m3 where h is the depth in m from the surface. E. A rectangular pan 0. the bottom face being horizontal. Determine the acceleration.29.038 kN/m2] E.471 × 105 N/m2] E.

The pressure difference between radii 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 79 E. E. the container is accelerated downwards with a value of v m/s2.2. The U-tube shown in Fig. 2.5 m 2 A Figure E. Determine the force on one of the faces.34 is rotated at 120 rpm about the vertical axis along A-A. E.2.2.34 E.3 m and 0.30 E. 1 1m 2 Water 1m 3 1m 4 ax = 5 m/s 2 4m Figure E.2.2. A cylindrical vessel containing water is rotated as a whole.2. A box of cubical shape of 1. If it is accelerated along the plane at 2 m/s2 (i) upwards. Determine the circular line of maximum pressure. Determine the pressure at the closed end. A tube with closed ends filled with water is accelerated towards the right at 5 m/s2. A small bore pipe 3 m long and one end closed is filled with water is inclined at 20° with the vertical and is rotated at 20 rpm with respect to a vertical axis passing through its mid point.2. Determine the pressure at points 1. 2.32.34. Determine the pressure at 1 and 2.31. A 120 rpm 1 0.37. A hollow sphere of inside radius r is filled with water and is rotated about a vertical axis passing through the centre. The free surface is at the top of the pipe. Calculate the rotational speed. 3 and 4. determine the angle attained by the free surface. A cylindrical vessel containing water is rotated about its axis at an angular speed ω (vertical). Derive an expression for the surface of constant pressure. 2. E.6 m is 0.36.6 m 0. E. (ii) downwards. E.3 m of water.33. A cubical box of 1 m side is half filled with water and is placed in an inclined plane making 30° with the horizontal. At the same time.30. Chapter 2 . E.2. Calculate the acceleration that water will boil at point 4 at 40°C.35.5 m side with base horizontal filled with water is accelerated upwards at 3 m/s2.2.

oil and water tanks and the hulls of ships are exposed to the forces exerted by fluids in contact with them.2) A From the definition of centre of gravity or centroid z hdA = h A (3.0. will be dF = γhdA The total force is obtained by integrating the basic equation over the area F= γ (3.0 INTRODUCTION Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids In the previous chapter the pressure distribution in fluids in static and dynamic condition was discussed.0. P = γh.! 3. moment is taken of the elemental forces with reference to an axis and equated to the product of the total force and the distance of the centre of pressure from the axis namely hcp F. To determine the point of action of the total force. From the basic hydrodynamic equation it is known that the force depends on the pressure at the depth considered.e. When a fluid is in contact with a surface is exerts a normal force on the surface. The fluids are generally under static condition. Force on an elemental area dA as a depth. For the design of such structures it is necessary to determine the total force on them. flood gates. The point of action of the total force is known as centre of pressure or pressure centre. i. It is also necessary to determine the point of action of this force.3) A where h is the depth of the centre of gravity of the area. sluice gates.0.1) z hdA (3. h.4) A A 80 . The walls of reservoirs. hcp = z hdF = γ z h 2 dA (3.0..

Iy is defined as Iy = z z A x dA (3.6) Considering an axis parallel to y axis through the centroid and taking the second moment of the area about the axis and calling it as IG.1. With reference to the Fig.1.1.1. such that the moment about the axis is zero. the determination of first and second moment of areas is found necessary and hence this discussion. The moment of the area with respect to the y axis can be obtained by summing up the moments of elementary areas all over the surface with respect to this axis as shown in Fig. where x is the distance from the axis and the centroid.1.5) z A x 2 dA (3.1. 3. 3. .4) A y dA (3.1.1 First moment and second moment of an area dA = A x dA − k A (3. If moments are taken with respect to a parallel axis at a distance of k from the y axis equation 3. The value of x can be determined using x = (1/A) Similarly the centroidal x axis passing at y can be located using y = (1/A) The point of intersection of these centroidal axes is known as the centroid of the area.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 81 The integral over the area is nothing but the second moment or the moment of inertia of the area about the axis considered. it is possible to choose a value of x = k.1 CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA OF AREAS New axis y k 1 (x – k) dA Area A Moment about y axis = Moment about x axis = z z G A x dA y dA (3.1 x A The integral has to be taken over the area.1. 3.1. z A x dA − x A = 0 Such an axis is called centroidal y axis.1. Chapter 3 In the process of obtaining the resultant force and centre of pressure.1) (3. the second moment of an area about the y axis. It can be shown that the moment of the area about any line passing through the centroid to be zero. Thus there is a need to know the centre of gravity and the moment of inertia of areas. The moment about the axis through the centre of gravity is always zero.3) As k is a constant.1.2) 0 y y x x 2.1. 3. can be written as z A ( x − k) dA = z A x dA − k z z A Figure.1.

The second moment is used in the determination of the centre of pressure for plane areas immersed in fluids. The location of the centre of gravity. 4. Triangle.7) A z A x dA + z A x 2 dA z A x 2 dA = I . moment of inertia through the centroid IG and moment of inertia about edge Iedge (specified) for some basic shapes are given in Table 3.82 IG = IG = By definition Fluid Mechanics and Machinery z z A ( x − x) 2 dA x 2 dA − 2 x (3.1. side b height h and base zero of x axis Triangle.9) (3. one radius horizontal Ellipse : area πbh/4 Major axis is b. horizontal and minor axis is h CG h/3 2h/3 D/2 D/2 2D/3 π 4 R/3 π h/2 IG bh3/36 bh3/36 bD3/12 π D4/64 – – π bh3/64 π Ibase bh3/12 bh3/12 bD3/3 – D4/128 π R4/16 – .10) The moment of inertia of an area about any axis is equal to the sum of the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the centroid and the product of the area and the square of the distance between this axis and centroidal axis. 5.1. Table 3. y z A x 2 dA = x A As x 2 is constant.1. 7. Therefore 2 IG = Iy – 2 x 2 A + x 2 A = Iy – x 2 A or Similarly Iy = IG + x 2 A Iy = I G + y 2 A (3. 2.1.11) It can be shown that whenever any one of the axes is an axis of symmetry for the area.1. 3. side b height h and vertex zero of x axis Rectangle of width b and depth D Circle Semicircle with diameter horizontal and zero of x axis Quadrant of a circle.1. z A x dA = x 2 A. These two equations are used in all the subsequent problems. The product of inertia is defined as Ixy = z A xy dA = IGxy + x y A (3. 6. Ixy = 0.1 Centre of Gravity and Moment of Inertia for some typical shapes Shape 1.8) (3.

Consider the elemental area dA. Refer Fig. Let the trace of the plane (the end view of the line where it meets the horizontal plane) be ‘‘O’’. So Chapter 3 . 3.1 O q Y A P h h hcp WL Y X dy B Ycp CG X XC CP Y P Figure. The resultant force acts vertically through the centroid of the area. The force dF on the elemental area is given by dF = P dA = γhdA = γ y sin θ dA The total force over the whole area is obtained by integration of this expression over the whole area. Here also the pressure at all locations are the same. Semi ellipse with major axis as horizontal and x = 0 Parabola (half) area 2bh/3 (from vertex as zero) 2h/3 π yg = 3h/5 xg= 3b/8 – – π bh3/128 2bh3/7 83 3. force = Ayγ in which y may also be expressed as head of the fluid. F= z A γ y sin θ dA = γ sin θ z A y dA From the definition of centroidal axis at y = z A y dA = y A.2. 9.1 Plane surface immersed in liquid at an angle Consider the plane AB of the given shape immersed in the liquid at an angle θ to the horizontal (free surface). Case : Plane inclined at angle θ with horizontal. Case 2 : Horizontal surface at a depth y. force = area × pressure The contribution due to the weight of the gas column is negligible.2 FORCE ON AN ARBITRARILY SHAPED PLATE IMMERSED IN A LIQUID Case 1 : Surface exposed to gas pressure : For plane surface. 3. Consider this line as reference and set up the axes as shown in figure.2.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 8. P = – y × γ and as y is – ve. The resultant acts at the centroid of the area as the pressure at all depths are the same.

1. The total force thus equals the product of area and the pressure at the centroid.1) Calling the depth at y (distance of centroid from the surface) as h .10 z A x y dA.1.2. IGxy = 0 and the centre of pressure will lie on the axis of symmetry. (3. 2. the centre of pressure will lie on that axis. z A x y dA = Ixy xcp = Ixy / y A = (IGxy + x A y ) = (IGxy / A y ) + x (3.2).2) This equation is extensively used in the calculation of total force on a surface. F = γ y A sin θ) As xcp = (1/ y A) From equations 3.1) In case x = x or y = y is an axis of symmetry for the area. Referring to the Fig.3.3 CENTRE OF PRESSURE FOR AN IMMERSED INCLINED PLANE The centre of pressure is determined by taking moments of the force on elementary areas with respect to an axis (say O in Fig. ycp) be the centre of pressure. 3. F = γ A h (3.84 F = γ A y sin θ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (3.2.1.1. γ h equals the pressure at the centroid.2. and so h = y in this case. As IX = IG + y 2 A ycp = (IG / y A) + y (3.9 and 3. The following important conclusions can be drawn from this equation.1.4).5) and those given in Table 3. 3.1 xcp γ y A sin θ = A z z A x P dA and ycp F = z A y P dA γ x y sin θ dA (P = γ y sin θ. let CP (xcp. Along the y direction (more often the depth of centre of pressure is required) ycp = Ix / y A. Equations (3.1 are used to obtain the location of the centroid. 1.3. xcp F = The area element considered here being dxdy. As h = y sin θ. In other cases xcp and ycp are calculated by the use of moments. 3.1) and equating it to the product of the distance of the centre of pressure from this axis and the total force on the area (as calculated in section 3.2) .2. A special case of the situation is a vertical surface where θ = 90° and sin θ = 1.1. For surfaces with an axis of symmetry. 3. With reference to the Fig.

(along the plane) then substituting ycp = hcp/sin θ and Substituting in equation (3. If θ = 90° (vertical surface). The depth of centre of lamina from water surface is 8 m.8 = 66182 N hcp = (IG sin2 θ / h A) + h .746 m Water level 4m 8m 30 = 9. The angle with the horizontal is 60°. A sluice 1m long along the slope and 0.5 0.1 Problem model Example 3.433 = 8.1.5 × sin 60) / 2 = 8.3) Chapter 3 y = h / sin θ (3. y = h the depth to the centroid. The top of the opening is 8 m below the water level. h = 8 + (0. then sin2 θ = 1. 8. The wall of a reservoir is inclined at 30° to the vertical. Determine the total force and its point of action on an annular lamina of 1m ID and 3 m OD placed at an inclination of 30 degrees to the horizontal under water.3.8 m wide is closed by a plate.2.3.81 × 8.44/ cos 30 = 9. IG = (1/12) bd3 [(1/12) 0.8] + 8. The depth of centre of gravity.44 m 0.2) hcp / sin θ = [IG /{( h / sin θ) × A}] + h /sin θ ∴ hcp = [(IG sin2 θ)/ h A)] + h (3.8 m 1m Sluice Figure Ex.3.433 m Total force = γ h A = 1000 × 9. Determine the location of the centre of pressure and the total force on the plate.2 1m 8/c os h 30° y = 9.2a) This is the general equation when the depth of the centre of pressure is required in the case of inclined planes.433 × 1 × 0. In case the height hcp is required instead of ycp. If the plane is vertical. . These equations are fairly simple. 3.74 m h = 9. the main problem being the calculation of the moment of inertia for odd shapes. then.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 85 IG is the moment of inertia along the centroidal axis and y is the location of centroid along the y direction.74 cos 30 = 8. Example 3.433 × 0.44 m Distance along the wall surface.8 × 13 × sin2 60/8.

75) = 89394 N 1. Determine the resultant force on the gate and also its point of action. It has a rectangular gate 1m wide and 1.3.3 .81 × π (32 – 11) × 8/4 = 493104.38 N (depth is directly specified) Depth of centre of pressure = (IG sin2 θ / h A) + h.3. Force on the gate from oil side = γ A h = (0.0195 m IG = (π / 64) (D4 – d4) 30 – {8 × ((32 – 12) π/4)}] + 8 3.1 Centre of Pressure for Immersed Vertical Planes Case 1: A rectangle of width b and depth d.9. horizontal and nearer the free surface. Case 3: A triangle of height h with base b. An oil tank is filled to a height of 7.81) (1 × 1. h = y in the case hcp = (IG/A y ) + y Case 1: IG = bd2/12.3.3.5 m with an oil of specific gravity 0.5 m Figure Ex. Case 2: A circle of diameter d. (3.86 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9.3.5) (6 + 0.3.4) b P P d d P h/3 h b (i) (ii) (iii) Figure 3. y = P.1 Vertical Surfaces Example 3. y = P.6) (3. the side of length b being horizontal. A = bd hcp = (bd3/12 bd P) + P = (d2 /12 P) + P Case 2: IG = π d4/64. 3. A = π d2/4 hcp = (π d4 × 4/64 πd2 P) + P = (d2 /16 P) + P Case 3: IG = bh3/36. = [(π/64) (34 – 14) sin2 = 8.5 m high provided at the bottom of a side face.5 m Gate 7.9 × 1000 × 9.5) (3. Assuming the depth of CG to be P m in all the cases. y = P. A = bh/2 hcp = (2 b h3/ 36 b h P) + P = (h2 /18 P) + P These equations can be used as a short cut under suitable situations.

5 m D E G WL 1.75) + 6.5 m wide and 1 m deep.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids hcp = (IG / y A) + y .021 m 1m 2m C F 2. 3.75 × 1 × 1.5. Fi = γ hi Ai = (1000 × 9.0/2) (1 × 2) = 49050 N Fii = γ hii Aii = (1000 × 9.021 m In order to locate the point of action of the resultant force.5 m 1m A B Figure Ex. moment is taken with reference to the surface to determine the depth. 3.4.5 m below water surface.3.021)/(49050 + 98100) = 3. which is simpler.633 m hcpi = (d2/12P) + P = (22/12 × 2.78 m 87 The resultant force will act at a distance of 6.78 m Check using eqn.5 + 2 + 1/2) (1 × 2.3. Ex.75 = 6. Determine the net force and its point of action over an L shaped plate submerged vertically under water as shown in Fig. Example 3.25)]/(49050 + 98100) = 1.633 m hcpii = (Igii/hii Aii) + hii = ((2.5) = 2.5583 m Moment is taken about AF to determine the lateral location hcpx = [(49050 × 0.5)) + 4 = 4.5 × 2)] + 2.5) + 6.4. 3. The plate can be considered as two rectangles (i) ABCD 1m wide and 2 m deep and (ii) CEFG 2.53/12)/6.75 m = ((1 × 1.5 × 13/12) (1/4 × 2.5) + (98100 × 1. immersed in a fluid with its centroid at a depth of h m. IG = bd3/12.81) (1. = 147150 N hcpi = (Igi / hi Ai) + hi = [(1 × 23/12)/(1 × 2.4.78 m from the surface of oil at the centre line of the gate.4 Also by equation 3.5) = 98100 N Total force on the plate Considering ABCD Also by equation (3.4 COMPONENT OF FORCES ON IMMERSED INCLINED RECTANGLES Consider a case of a rectangle of a × d. hcpy = (Fi hcpi + Fii hcpii)/(Fi + Fii) = (49050 × 2. with side d inclined at θ to the horizontal.5583 m and at a distance of 1. The net force acting perpendicular to the area is given by = γ A h The horizontal component equals = γ A h sin θ Chapter 3 .75 = 6.5 + 2. hcpii = (12/12 × 4) + 4 = 4.52 /12 × 6.4. hcp = (d2/12P) + P = (1. y = 6. The top surface of the plate is 1.81) (1.0 m The resultant force acts at a depth of 3. 3.1). For this case it can be shown that (i) The horizontal component of the resultant force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area and (ii) The vertical component equals the weight of the fluid column above this area.5 = 2.633 + 98100 × 4.0 m from the edge AF.

5 .1 The vertical projection of the area = A sin θ The centroid of this area will also be at h The force on the projected area = γ A h sin θ. The horizontal force on the gate = γ h h/2 and acts at h/3 distance from O. 3. The vertical component = γ A h cos θ The horizontal projection of the area = A cos θ The volume of the fluid column above this surface = A cos θ h The weight of the fluid column = γ A h cos θ Hence the vertical component of the force equals the weight of the fluid column above the area. Consider 1 m width of the gate The vertical force = L γ h and acts at a distance L/2 from O. 3. denoting the distance along the plane as y. Neglect the weight of gate.5. Using equation (3.88 0 q WL h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery hcp a G Y Yc CP d p Figure 3. Ex. and in case the edge is at the free surface.2). A) + y . An automatic gate which will open beyond a certain head h is shown in Fig.4. Hence the horizontal component of the force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area. Determine the ratio of h/L. Water WL (3.5. ycp = (IG / y .4. y = d/2 The equation reduces to ycp = (2/3) d or (2/3) y sin θ from free surface Example 3.3.1) h h/3 L/2 0 L Figure Ex. It can also be shown that the location of the action of the horizontal component will be at the centre of pressure of the projected area and the line of action of the vertical component will be along the centroid of the column of the liquid above the plane. friction etc.

265 = 0 or 2786 h3 – 4905 h + 2120 = 0 Solving by trial.6. W.5 FORCES ON CURVED SURFACES (i) Vertical forces : The vertical force on a curved surface is given by the weight of the liquid enclosed by the surface and the horizontal free surface of the liquid. 3.6. h For unit width.506 m). and Lw where W is the weight for unit width of gate and Lw is the distance from O to the line of action of W. (γ / 6 sin2 θ) h3 – γ (L2/2) h + W Lw = 0 (9810/ 6 sin2 50) h3 – 9810(12 / 2) h + 8000 × 0. Determine the value of h in terms of L. Lw = 0. Using the equation derived in example 3. W = 8000 N. Total force normal to the plate F = γ . See 3. θ = 50°. Taking moments about O. determine the value of water head h to open the gate.Lw + γ (h/2) (h/sin θ) (h/ 3 sin θ) = γ h L L/2 γ (γ / 6 sin2 θ) h3 – (γ L2 / 2) h + W Lw = 0 γ Pressure force normal to plate = γ (h/2) (h/sin θ) and acts at (h/3 sin θ) from O. (The other solution is 0. A. L γ h (L/2) = γ h (h/2) (h/3) L2 = h2/3 (or) L = h/(3)0. This is a cubic equation in h and can be solved by trial.).6. Considering unit width. h = 1 m. Example 3. the centre of pressure will be at (2/3)h from top. L = 1m. then h = 3.265 m.6 FG 2 h from topIJ H 3 sin θ K W. 3.6.4. 3.7. the line of action along the inclined side can be obtained as h/3 sin θ from bottom edge.5 = 0. Ex. A = h/ sin θ and h = h/2 Using equation (3..5774 h For example if L = 2 m.4. With the calculators available presently cubic equations can be solved directly. Weight of the gate = W and acts downwards at Lw from O. An automatic gate which opens beyond a particular head is as shown in Fig. Example 3. Taking moments about O. For the following data. The Chapter 3 .Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 89 Note : When the water level is at the top of vertical plate. The vertical force on the horizontal side = γ h L and acts upwards at L/2 from O. Ex. or LW Hinge L WL P1 h W 3 sin q q Figure Ex. 3.4641 m. Hence the gate will open when water rises to 1m above O.1.1. A modified form of automatic gate is shown in Fig.

gravity = 1. Also determine the direction of action of the force. Determine the force exerted by sea water (sp. In case there is gas pressure above the surface.5. Ex. 3. Example 3. A D Oil tanker C WL 15 m B E 4m 4m Figure Ex.1 be in equilibrium. 3. At the base of each element. The value can be calculated using the general equation. Hence the horizontal force equals the force on the projected area due to liquid pressure.0784 m from top and towards left The vertical force is due to the volume of sea water displaced.8 .1. 3. The element between A′B′ and the surface Projected AB is in equilibrium. F = γ A h. Refer to Fig. the vertical force equals the weight of the small element.90 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery force acts along the centre of gravity of the volume. The volume above the surface can be divided into smaller elements. These two statements can be proved as indicated below. where A is the projected area and h is the depth of the centroid of the area.025) on the curved portion AB of an oil tanker as shown in Fig. force due to the gas pressure cancels out.8. A′B′ gives the projected area vertical area. If the other side of the surface is exposed to the same gas pressure. Thus WL the total vertical force equals the sum of the weights of all the elements or the weight of the Sample liquid enclosed between the area and the horizontal element A A¢ surface.5.81) (4 × 1)(15 + 4/2) = 683757 N Line of action of this horizontal force = h + (IG / h A) = 17 + [1 × 43/12] [1/(17 × 4 × 1)] = 17.8. The horizontal component of the force acting on the curved portion AB = γ A h = (1025 × 9. This applies to doubly curved surfaces and inclined plane surfaces. the force due to gas pressure equals the product of horizontal projected area and the gas pressure and acts at the centroid of the projected area. (ii) Horizontal forces: The horizontal force equals the force on the projected area of the curved surface and acts at the centre of pressure of the projected area. The horizontal force on this area due B B¢ to liquid pressure should equal the horizontal force on the curved surface for the volume A′B′ AB to Figure 3. Consider an imaginary vertical surface A′B′. Consider 1m width perpendicular to paper.

The direction of action to the vertical is.. Check whether the resultant passes through the centre.16 N . tan q = 683757 / 729673 = 0.078 = 337 Compared to the large values. 4m WL Gate CG 4r 3p 4m Hinge 4m 123276 q 78480 Figure Ex.0523 m from the edge.5 = 999973. Considering unit width.e. Centre of gravity of the area ABE = (4 – 4R/3p) from the edge = (4 – 4 × 4/3p) = 2. the difference is small and so the moments are equal and the resultant can be taken as zero.333 m from the bottom (i.9.81] = 729673 N (acts upwards). to the right It acts at the centre of pressure of the projected area i.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force = [volume BCDE + volume ABE] g = [(15 × 4 × 1) + (42 × p × 1/4)] [1025 × 9.9. Ex. upwards. Example 3.14° The answer can be checked by checking whether the resultant passes through the centre of the circle (as it should) by taking moments about the centre and equating them. Hence the resultant can be taken to pass through the centre of the cricle. Taking moments of the area about the edge. Chapter 3 The resultant force = (6837572 + 7296732)0.302 × 42 p/4) + 2 × (15 × 4)] / [(42 π/4) + (15 × 4)] = 2. the line of action of vertical force is = [(2.0523 ) – 683757 × 2. (1/3) × 4) Vertical force = the weight to the liquid displaced = π × 42 × 1 × 9810/4 = 123276 N. 91 To find the location of this force : Centre of gravity of the column BCDE is in the vertical plane 2 m from the edge. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force due to water on a quadrant shaped cylindrical gate as shown in Fig.937 \ q = 43. 3. at = 1.9 The horizontal force = γ A h where A is the projected area. 3.. Horizontal force = 9810 × 2 × 4 × 1 = 78480 N. 729673(4 – 2.302 m from the edge.e.

.81) = 64000 N/m2 Pcg3 = (881 × 4 × 9. 78480 × (4 – 1.3333) – 123276 × 1. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To check for the resultant to pass through the centre the sum of moment about O should be zero.3.1 Total force.6.81) = 330832 N/m2 .8. Determine the total hydrostatic force and resultant centre of pressure on the side. A tank 20 m deep and 7 m wide is layered with 8 m of oil.698 = 42.44 N/m2 Pcg2 = (881 × 4 × 9.698 m. 6 m of water and 4 m of mercury.81) + (13600 × 2 × 9. 3. Specific gravity of oil is 0.92 It acts at 4r/3π = 1.. Hence the resultant passes through the centre of the cricle. F1 h1 ycp 1 Y2 Fluid 2 F2 h2 q ycp 2 Y1 Fluid 1 Figure 3. from the hinge.48° where θ is the angle with vertical. Compared to the values the difference is small and these can be assumed to the equal.. ycp1 = − (3.81) + (1000 × 3 × 9.6 HYDROSTATIC FORCES IN LAYERED FLUIDS Two fluids may sometimes be held in a container one layer over the other.. Example 3..2) ρ 1 g sin θ I xx + y1 P1 A1 This distance is with respect to the centroid of the area.10. Pressures at the centroid of each layer is Pcg1 = 881 × 4 × 9. The location of the point of action of the total force can be determined taking moments about some convenient references. The depth of centre of pressure of fluid 1 is determined using the eqn.81) + (1000 × 3 × 9.5 = 146137 N Angle is determined by tan θ = 78480/123276 = 0.. (4. = P1 A1 + P2 A2 + .6366. ∴ θ = 32. this form is prferable. In such cases the total force will equal the some of the forces due to each fluid.1) Note : (P1 / ρ1) gives the head of the fluid as ρ is different for different fluids.81 = 34570.881 and that of mercury is 13.. Resultant force = (1232762 + 784802)0. F = F1 + F2 + . The centre of pressure has to determined for each layer separately with reference to the centroid of each area.6.

Total force on the gate = γ A h = (1000 × 9.5 m depth. So the depth of water above the centre = 4 m Centre of action of this force = (IG / h A) + h = (π × 24/64)/(4 × π × 22/4) + 4 = 4.8 × 1000) × 9. y × 13. Determine the level of water above the gate. hcp = (D2/16 h ) + h = (22/(16 × 4) + 4 = 4. A tank contains water upto 3 m height over which oil of specific gravity 0.46 m.887 × 106 N/m2 ycp1 = − ycp2 = 93 881 × 9.81 × 0. 12 × 2688018 13600 × 9.5 m. P = 15700 + (1000 × 3 × 9.0625 m.81 × 63 × 7 = 0. Calculate the pressure at 1.0625 m from the centre of the gate Check using eqn. (i) At 1.2).8 is filled to 2 m depth. Also calculate the total force on a 6 m wide wall.5 = 15700 + (1000 × 9.333 m as θ = 90° 12 × 34570 P1 A1 1000 × 9. 2 m and 2.81) (π × 22/4) × h = 123276.944 m.81 × 43 × 7 = 0. from the water level or 0.887 × 106 = (5. Also determine the depth of the centre of pressure from the centre of the gate.5 = (0.5 m. P1.11. (3.8 × 1000) × 9.54 × 9263308) Solving y = 13.0 = (0.5 = 11770 N/m2 P2.333 × 1935944) + (11.4.5) = 20600 N/m2 At the base.81) = 45130 N/m2 F = (15700 × 2 × 6/2) + {(45130 + 15700) × 3 × 6/2} = 641670 N SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 3.0625 m Chapter 3 ycp3 = .Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids F1 = Pcg1 × A1 = 34570 × 8 × 7 = 1935944 N F2 = Pcg2 × A2 = 64000 × 6 × 7 = 2688018 N F3 = Pcg3 × A3 = 330832 × 4 × 7 = 9263308 N Total force = 13.09 N Solving h = 4 m.1.81 × 1. The force due to water on a circular gate of 2m dia provided on the vertical surface of a water tank is 12376 N. Example 3.54 m 12 × 9263308 The line of action of the total force is determined by taking moment about the surface.81 × 83 × 7 ρ1 g sin θ I xx = = 1.81 × 2 = 15700 N/m2 P2.46 × 268808) + (16. Total force.

121324)/64}/{5 × π (32 – 2. force on the circular area = force on annular area. 3.121322 × 5] = 5. (ii) Also find the diameter of a concentric circle dividing this area into two so that force on the inner circular area will equal the force on the annular area. (i) The total force on the circular plate γ A h = 9810 × (π × 32/4) × 5 = 346714 N Centre of pressure Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Water level d.05625)/2 = 5.94 Problem 3. (i) Determine the force due to the fluid pressure on one side of the plate and also its point of application.2 = h + (IG/ h A) = 5 + (π × 34 × 4/64 × 5 × π × 32) = 5.3. (ii) The given condition is. (iii) Determine the centre of pressures for these areas and compare the moments of these forces about a horizontal axis passing through the centre of pressure for the whole area.16875 + 5. the total force on which will equal the force on the remaining area. A1 = π (32 – d2)/4.05625 m Centre of pressure for the annulus = 5 + [{π (34 – 2. γ A1 h = γ A2 h assuming that the diameter of the smaller circle to be d. 3.121322)/4}] = 5.3 . For the areas the centroid depth h is the same.2. (iv) Show that the centres of pressure of the full area lies midway between these two centres of pressure. (iii) Determine also the centre of pressures for these two areas separately. Water level C 5m 4m 3m Figure P.12132 m.121324 × 4/64 × π × 2.1125 m (same as the centre of pressure of full area) Problem 3.16875 m The mid point of these two is = (5. (i) Determine the total force on one side and the point of action of the force.1125 m. The force on the inner circular area = 9810 (π × 32/2 × 4) × 5 = 173357 N (Checks as it is half of 346714 N) Centre of pressure for the circle = 5 + [π × 2. (ii) Also determine the size of an inner rectangle with equal spacing on all sides. A2 = π d2/4 equating ∴ 32 – d2 = d2 or 2d2 = 32 or d = 2. A circular plate of 3 m dia is vertically placed in water with its centre 5 m from the free surface. with outside diameter being 3 m. A plane 3 × 4 m is vertically placed in water with the shorter side horizontal with the centroid at a depth of 5m. m 5m 3m Figure P.

A water tank has an opening gate in one of its vertical side of 10 m × 5m size with 5m side in the horizontal direction.2667 m 95 (ii) Assume a spacing of C m on all sides to form the inner rectangle. Water level 0 0 h1 h2 10 m A A h3 Solving C = 0.3833 – 5. As C = 3 is not possible.81 × 5 × 4 × 3 = 588600 N Centre of pressure = 5 + (1/2) (3 × 43/5 × 12) = 5.4 Chapter 3 .4.3833 m (iv) Moment of the force on the inner area about the CP of the whole area = 294300 (5. The smaller rectangle is of 2 m × 3 m size.0. A1 = A2.26667) = 34335 Nm (anti clockwise.5 = 0.5 or 3. half the area) B B C 5m C Figure P. (Check : 2 × 3 = 6. Pressure on the smaller rectangle = 1000 × 9. 3. 4 × 3 = 12. (4 × 3) = 2(4 – 2C) (3 – 2C) C2 – 3.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids (i) The total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9.81 × 5 × 3 × 2 = 294300 N (iii) Centre of pressure for the inner area = 5 + (1/2) (2 × 33/2 × 3 × 5) = 5. Problem 3.5 C + 1. acts below) The moments are equal but are opposite in sign and the total is zero. The depth CG is the same for both areas As This reduces to γ A1 h = γ A2 h . C = 0. If the water level is upto the top edge of the gate.15 m Centre of pressure for the outer area = 5 + (1/2) (3 × 43 – 2 × 33) / [5 × (4 × 3 – 3 × 2)] = 5. locate three horizontal positions so that equal forces will act at these locations due to the water pressure.26667 – 5.15) = 34335 Nm (clockwise. acts above) Moment of the force on the outer area = 294300 (5.5.

774 m Centre of pressure for first strip = [IG1/ h 1 A1] + h 1 = [5 × 5.887) = 2. . 7.083 m Centre of pressure for third strip is = [IG3/ h 3 A3] + h 3 = 5 × 1.887 m. 6.667 m (check).834 m h 3 = 10 – (1.887 (5 × 5. Let h 1 be the centroid of the top portion of the surface on which the force acting is equal to 1/3 of the total.8343/(12 × 9. Then the centre of pressure for each of the areas should be located to obtain the points of application of the forces.038 and 9.887 h 2 – (25/3) = 0 h 2 2 – 5.97 × (5 × 2.114 m To keep the gate closed supports at these locations will be optimum i.083 = 9.834/2) = 9.5.33 = 0.97 – 2 × 2.8493 m (ii) For the second strip.7743/12 × 2.3923/12 × 6.392 = 1.774 h 2 – 8.392)] + 6.887 = 3.834) + 9. γ h 2 A2 = (1/3) γ A h γ h 2 × 5 × 2 ( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) = (1/3) × γ × 5 × 10 × 5 h 2 2 – 2 h 1 h 2 – (25/3) = 0 or h 2 2 – 2 × 2. Problem 3.887 = 5. Therefore the depth of the top strip is 2 × 2.. The average of these values will equal the depth of centre of pressure for the whole gate i. A triangular surface is kept vertical in water with one of its edges horizontal and at the free surface.038 m (iii) The depth of the third and bottom strip is = 10 – 5.774)] + 2. Then (i) γ h 1 A1 = (1/3) γ A h γ h 1 (2 h 1 × 5) = (1/3) × γ × (10 × 5) × 5 ∴ ∴ h 12 = 25/3 h 1 = 2..114 m.e. The depth of this second strip = 2( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) Force on the second strip.083 × 5 × 1. solving h 2 = 6.392 m Centre of pressure for this second strip = [IG2/ h 2 A2] + h 2 = [5 × 2.849. let the centroid be h 2 . If the triangle is divided by a line drawn from one of the vertices at the free surface such that the total force is equally divided between the parts.96 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To solve this problem the area should be divided into three parts in each of which the force will be equal to 1/3 of the total force on the surface.774 – 2.e. at depths of 3.97 m The depth for second strip is = 2( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) = 2 (6. determine the ratio by which the opposite side is divided.97 = 7.

6. Total force on the gate = γ A h h = centre of gravity of the semicircular surface 2D/ 3π = 2 × 3/3 × π = 0. Let the AD divided the triangle such that the total force on ABD equals the force on ACD. depth.. BC/BD = 1.81 × (π × 32/4 × 2) × 0.6366 = 22072 N = 22. Determine the force acting on the gate due to water and its point of action if the tank is filled with water upto 2 m above the edge.5 i.5 Consider the triangle ABC. The gate is positioned in such a way that one straight edge of it is horizontal.4142 Problem 3.6366 m Total force = 1000 × 9. Determine the total pressure and its point of action if water level is up to the top edge of the gate.072 kN Ibase = π D4/ 128 (about the diameter) Depth centre of pressure = Ibase/A h = (π × 34/128)(2 × 4/π × 32) (1/0.e.6366) = 0.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids b A h1 h2 D C B Water surface 97 Figure P.5 But ∴ BC/BD = (h2/h1) = (2)0.7. the vertical gate provided for opening is a semicircular plate of dia 3 m with diameter horizontal and at the water level. 3.81 [2 + 4 × 3/3 π] [π × 32/4] = 226976 N Chapter 3 . rearranging h22 = 2 h12 or (h2/h1) = (2)0. Let h1 be the height of triangle ABD and let h2 be the height of triangle ABC along the The force on ABC = 2 × the force on ABD The centroids will be at h1/3 and h2/3 for these triangles. Distance of centre of gravity of the gate from the top edge = 2D/3 π = 4r/3 π Total pressure on the gate = γ h A = 1000 × 9. In a water reservoir.8836 m Problem 3.5 CD/BD = 0. γ (bh2/2)(h2/3) = 2 (γ bh1/2)(h1/3).4142 The opposite side is divided the ratio of (2)0. A water tank is provided with a gate which has a shape of a quadrant of a circle of 3 m radius.

A right angle triangle of 2m × 2m sides lies vertically in oil of specific gravity 0. Simplyfying IG = π D4/ 916 Depth of centre of pressure = [IG/ h A] + h h = 2 + 4r/3π = 2 + 4/π = 3.2732 = 3. x2 + y2 = 9 (taking centre as 0.1921 + 3. dM = (γ/2) (y + 2) (9 – y2) dy Integrating the above expression from y = 0 to y = 3 M = (γ/2) z 0 [– y3 – 2y2 + 9y + 18] dy y4 2 3 9 2 γ − − y + y + 18 y = 2 4 3 2 Equating the moment for the total force LM N OP Q 3 0 = (γ/2) [56.2732 m as r = 3. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery WL Xcp hcp h 2m y 3m dy CG x dy CP Figure P.h.2732 = 0.2156 m from the vertical edge.dy Moment of force with respect to y axis dM = γ h x dy x/2 = [force acts at a distance of x/2 from y axis] As h = y + 2 and 3 γ hx2 dy. 0) Area of strip = x.98 Moment of inertia for the gate with reference to the diameter = π D4/ 2 × 128 IG = I – y 2 A Moment of inertia with reference to the centroid = [(1/2) × π D4/128] – (π D2/4 × 4) (2D / 3 π)2 = [(1/2) × π D4/128] – π D4/36 π2 = π D4 [(1/256) – (1/36 π2)].25 = 275.976 × xp = 275.dy. Circle equation is. Force on the strip = γ.4653 m To determine the location of centre of pressure (as there is no line of symmetry with reference to the axes).7 Depth of centre of pressure = [(π × 64/916)/(3. moment of elementary forces of the elementary strips is taken with reference to the y axis and equated to the product of total force and the distance to the centre of pressure from x axis. 2 x2 = (9 – y2).2732 × π 32/4)] + 3. 3.x.4655 m below the free surface and 1. Problem 3.25] = (9810/2) × 56.2156 m from the left edge The centre of pressure is located at 3.9 with one edge horizontal and at a depth of 2m. Determine the net force on one side and its point of action.906 ∴ xp = 1.8.906 Nm 226. .

9 N) Oil level 2m 2 m 3 2. M = (γ/2) z 2 0 (y3 – 2y2 – 4y + 8) dy 4 Ly = (9810 × 0.9 / 2) M N4 Taking moments of the total force.625 m (checks) Whenever there is a line of symmetry for the axis.75 m In the x direction.25 E D y 0.81 × 0. by similar triangle (AF = FG = 2 – y) ∴ x = (2 – y) Force dF = γ (y + 2) (2 – y) dy and Moment about the vertical edge = dF (x/2) dM = γ ((2 – y)/ 2) (y + 2) (2 – y) dy.75 B 1.75 m from top and 0. 3. Referring to the figure.8 The depth of the centre of pressure = hcp = h + (IG/ h A) = (2 + 2/3) + [(2 × 33/36)/(2 + 2/3) (2 × 2/2)] = 2. (BE/CD) = (AB/AC) = (1. The moment of inertia about the CG is bh3/36 where b is the base and h is the height. Total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9. 2 4 − y3 − y 2 + 8 y 3 2 OP Q 2 = 29430 Nm 0 xcp = 29430/47088 = 0. which is the line of symmetry. the centre or pressure will be on it.9 × (2 × 2/2)(2 + 2/3) = 47088 N (if water F = 47088/0.625 m from the vertical side.75 m 2m 2m C 0. BE = 0. Force on the strip = γ h A = γ (y + 2) (x dy) In this case. the centre of pressure will be on the median line.625 2 CG 2m (i) A x (ii) Figure P.625 m The centre of pressure is 2.25/2). Chapter 3 2m CP dy . Check: A strip of width dy is considered. CD = 1 so. Integrating from 0 to 2 for value of y.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 99 The centre of gravity lies at 1/3 height from base.

x = [(1. Assume water is the liquid.9)]/(226976 + 52320) = 3.75/0. 3. Problem 3.3.3313 m and 0.10. Determine the centre of pressure and the total force for the combined area as shown in Fig.7 and P.7 and P.8708 m to the left from the vertical common edge.2156 × 226976) – (0. Taking moments about AB.4655 B Figure P.3313 m Taking moments about the common edge horizontal location is.2156 m (ii) For the triangle. P.75 3. gravity 0. depth y = [(226976 × 3.10.3.8.4655) + (47088 × 2.9. Determine the total force and torque required to close the opening by a hinged gate exactly if the oil (sp.3.8) For triangle = 47088 × (1/0. An oil tank has an opening of 2 m square with diagonal horizontal in one of its vertical wall as shown in Fig.4655 m and distance from side = 1. the centre of pressure is at depth = 2. The available values from these problems are (i) For the Quadrant of circle the centre of pressure is at depth = 3.90) level is 5m above the centreline of the gate. 3.625 × 52320)]/(226976 + 52320) = 0.9. P.9) = 52320 N For quadrant = 226976 N To locate the depth moment is taken about the surface.625 2.3.3.75 m and distance from the side = 0.9 The shape is a combination of the shapes of problems P.8708 m to the left of the common edge The combined centre of pressure lies at a depth of 3. The centre of gravity for the plate is on its diagonal. WL 1. Moment of inertia = Moment of inertia of the top triangle + Moment of inertia of bottom triangle = bh3/12 + bh3/12 = 2 bh3/12 .625 m (note CP is independent of density as long as density is constant) The forces are : C from the problems P.2156 A CP CP 0.100 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 3.

Neglect the weight of the gate.9) × 4 × 5 = 176.11.0667 – 5) 176580 = 11. Show that the torque required remains constant irrespective of the height of the fluid above the opening as long as it submerges the opening completely. A square shaped vertical closing for an opening in a water tank is pivotted along the middle. 3.11. W acts perpendicular to the gate which is inclined at angle θ .Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids WL 101 2 m 5m Figure P. Taking moments about the hinge.sin θ) from the hinge (position of centre of pressure). Determine the height of water for the movement of the gate outwards. P. Let h m of water cause the gate to just start to move out.580 kN Torque required to close the gate = (5. The tension of the rope will equal W.0667 m The centre of pressure lies on the vertical diagonal at a depth of 5.3333/5 × 4) + 5 = 5. 3. The counter weight.10 h= Moment of Inertia 22 + 22 / 2 = 8 /2.12.81 × 0. W.778 Nm Problem 3. The torque required = Net force × distance from centroid to centre of pressure = γ A h (hcp – h ) = γ A h (IG / A h ) = γ IG W WL F h Hinge q L Chapter 3 . The force Figure P. Force on the gate = γ A h = γ (hb/sin θ) h/ 2.11 acts at (h/3. The gate is L m long along the slope and b m wide. A = 4 Depth of centre of pressure = (1. A hinged gate is held in position by a counter weight W as shown in Fig.3333 m4. h = 5.0667 m Total force on the gate = γ A h = (1000 × 9.L = γ (hb/sin θ) (h/2) (h/3 sin θ) ∴ h3 = 6 W L sin2 θγ θγb Problem 3. 3. and held in place by a torque. b = 8 = 2( 8 ) ( 8 /2)3/12 = 1.

θ = 45° as tan2 θ = 1 tan θ = 1 (2/3)3 = tan2 θ.54 m Total force = γ h A = 9810 × 9. Determine the distance of this axis from the centroid if the height h is specified. Problem 3. If h1 = 2 m and h2 = 3 m. The angle between the plates is 90°. then (hcp – h ) = 4/(6 × 6) = 1/9m. in which case the centre of pressure will move upwards causing the opening. 3.77 kN . Figure P.13. As force increases the distance of centre of pressure from CG decreases and hence this result. If h1 = h2.56° or the gate is tilted towards left. the force is given by (per unit width) Hinge γ (h1/2) (h1/ sin θ) and it acts at (1/3) (h1/ sin θ).15. A gate of rectangular shape hinged at A divides the upstream and downstream sides of a canal 5 m wide as shown in figure. Taking moments about the hinge. IG = a4/12 (square plate of side a) ∴ (hcp – h ) = (a4 2/12 a2 h) = a2/6h The location of the hinge should be at (a2/6h) below the centroid. Gate WL WL h1 q A 96 – q h2 On the left side. Determine the total force and location of the centre of pressure on a rectangular plate 11 m long and 6 m wide with a triangular opening immersed in water at an angle of 40° to the horizontal as shown in figure. below the centroidal axis.102 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As IG depends only on the plate dimension. Determine the angle θ in terms of the head h1 and h2 for equilibrium. θ = 28. from hinge. (i) Considering the whole plate without the opening This checks the expression. Neglect the weight of the gate. If for example h = 6 m and a = 2 m. h = h/2. (hcp – h ) gives the distance of the hinge from the centroid (hcp – h ) = (IG /A h ). The top edge of the inclined plate is 6 m from the free surface. The gate will begin to open if the hinge is at the level of the centre of pressure and the water level just begins to rises. the torque is independent of the height of fluid subject to the condition that it submerges the plate fully.14. a closing an opening is to be hinged along a horizontal axis so that the gate will open automatically when the water level reaches a certain height above the centroid of the gate.14 On the right side (as sin (90° – θ) = cos θ) the force is γ(h2/2) (h2/cos θ) and acts at (1/3) (h2/cos θ).54 × 11 × 6/1000 = 6176. from hinge in both cases perpendicular to the plate. then h = 6 + (11/2) sin 40 = 9. Problem 3. Problem 3. γ (h1/2) (h1/ sin θ) (h1/2) (h1/ 3 sin θ) = γ (h2/2) (h2/ cos θ) (h2/ 3 cos θ) ∴ (h1/ h2)3 = tan2 θ. A square gate of side.

h = 4 × 2 sin 30 = 4 m. Net force on the composite area of the gate = (6176.33) = 5231. 3.6425 + [4 × 53/36] [sin2 40/9.44 kN Problem 3. at the surface [9.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Depth of centre of pressure = h + (IG sin2 θ/A h ) = 9.77 – 945.54 + [6 × 113/12] [sin2 40/(11 × 6) 9. Determine the resultant force and the direction of its action on the segmental gate shown in Fig. Solving. P.52 m depth.977 m (ii) Considering the triangular hole portion only h = 6 + (4 + 5/3) sin 40 = 9.15 m Figure P.977 × 6176770/sin 40] – [9. Height. 3.702 × 945330/sin 40] = [h/sin 40] [6176770 – 945330] where h is the centre of pressure of the composite area.6425 m 103 Total force = γ h A = 9810 × 9.33 kN Depth of centre of pressure = 9.6425 × (4 × 5/2)/1000 = 945. CG is at 9. Considering 1 m width. depth of centre of pressure of the composite area of the gate = 10.702 m WL 0 40° 6m 6m 4 m 5 m 11 m To determine the line of action of the resultant. 3.333 m from the bottom.027 m Calculate the depth of the CG of the area and check whether it is lower than 10. the horizontal force = 9810 × 2 × 4 = 78480 N.6425 (4 × 5/2)] = 9.54] = 9.16 Chapter 3 . moment is taken about O.16. The line of action (centre of pressure) is 1.027 m. WL 4m h 60° 4m Hinge 4 Figure P.16.

tan θ = 78480/14218. So the resultant passes through the centre and as the resulting moment about the centre is zero.73° from vertical The net force is (784802 + 142182)0. 3.17 WL 4r 3p 2m G 37. as shown in figure. Problem 3.4494 m3 Weight = 1.333 m from bottom Figure P.17 has a span of 5 m.73)° with horizontal.5 = 79757. The horizontal force on the elliptical portion equals the force on the projected area.104 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vertical force (upwards) equals the weight of displaced.58° Gate . A roller gate as shown in Fig. Problem 3. 392400 × (2 – 1. The direction with horizontal is given by tan θ = 308190 / 392400.17. h = 5m.449 × 9810 = 14218 N upwards direction. The line of action will pass through O and its direction will be (90 – 79.5 = 498958 N Taking moments about the centre. θ = 79.3333 m from bottom twoards the right. The vertical upward force is equal to the weight of the water displaced = 5 × 9810 × π × 22/2 = 308190 N It acts at a distance of (4r/3π) = 0. (14218 × 3.67974 m taking moments about the centre.67974) – (2 – 1. γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 5 × 2 = 392400 N This acts at a distance of 1.18.18.58°. A = 4 × 1 γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 5 = 196200 N acts at 1.5 N The centre of gravity of a segment of a circle from centre is given by (2/3) R sin3 θ/(Rad θ – sin θ cos θ) where θ is half of the segment angle. 3. Volume of segment of circle = [(π R2 × 60/360) – (2 R sin 30 × R cos 30/2)] × 1 = 1. 3.33) × 78477 = 0.3333) – 0. As the net moment about the centre is zero the resultant passes through the centre.84883 m left of centre and upwards Resultant = (3924002 + 3081902)0. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the cylinder when water just begins to overflow. Neglect weight of the gate. The horizontal force equals the force on the projected area. P. The quantities are equal. θ = 37.84883 × 308189 = 0. considering 1 m width. Determine the magnitude and direction of the force on the elliptical tank portion AB as shown in Fig P. Substituting the values hCG = (2/3) × 4 × sin3 30/[(π / 6) – sin 30 cos 30] = 3.

616 m from wall Resultant force = (1962002 + 1807472)0.18 To determine the line of action. 1. b = 6.392 m. Problem 3.19.2y 2 forms the wall of a gate.19 = 9810 × (4 × 2 – π 22/4) × 1 = 47661 N (downward) Angle with vertical θ : tan– 1 (78480/47661) = 58.616) 180747 ∴ h = 1. Consider unit width.392 O P 47. vertical force and the moment on the gate with respect to O. Hence. A = 12π.20.392 m below O at an angle of 47. Derive expressions for the horizontal force.19.666 – h) 192600 = (3 – 1. Problem 3. (2.20. the line of action of the vertical force should be determined. Determine the resultant force on the wall of a tank ABC as shown in Fig. the location x of vertical force = [9 × 1. Then. Area of ellipse = π bh/4 where b and h are minor and major axis. The area here is 1/4 th of the ellipse. 3.5 + 3 π (3 – 4/π)] / [9 + 3 π] = 1. Calculate the values for y = 3m. P. 3.5 m from the wall Taking moments and solving. = 4 × 3/3 π = 4/π m from the major axis (as b = 3 m) Centre of gravity of the rectangle = 1. as shown in Fig. let this line cut OA at a distance of h below O at P.5 = 91818 N A B 2m 2m WL C 2m Figure P. A = 3 π m2 (ellipse portion) Rectangular portion above = 3 × 3 = 9 m2. h = 8. Considering unit width.73° To fix the line of action. The shape described as x = 0. Volume = 1 × (3 π + 9) m3 Weight = 9810 (3 π + 9) = 180747 N = Total vertical force The centre of gravity of the quarter of elliptical portion = (4b/3π). P 3.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force on the elliptical portion equals the weight of water above this area.35° A G B 3m 4m Figure P. taking moments about P. 3. the line of action passes through a point P.5 = 266766 N 3m 105 1. Horizontal force equals the force on the projected area = γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 2 = 78480 N This force acts at 2.6667 m from the top The vertical force equals the weight of the volume above the surface (unit width) Vertical force Resultant = (784802 + 476612)0. Horizontal force = γ A h = γ × y × (y/2) = γ y2/2 Chapter 3 .35° from vertical.

x/2 = 0. 10 10 ∴ x = (3x/10) = 0.5 × π × 32/4 = 242700 N Depth of centre of pressure Figure P. 3. 3.06 y2 Clockwise moment about O = (γ y2/2) × (y/3) + (0. the volume = area × width A= WL Fluid Mechanics and Machinery X = 0. Vertical force: weight of volume above the surface. Force on the surface ABC is required.04 2 z y 0 y 4 dy = x2 y 0.21.21 = 3. A hemispherical bulge of 3m diameter inwards is as shown in Fig.5 = 47546 N To locate the actual line of action of the force.2 y 2 Gate 3m z y 0 x.2 y3/3) × γ × width The position of line of action can be determined taking moment about the y axis.21.2 y3 γ/3 = 0. dy .2 = xy/3 Vertical force = (xy/3) × γ × width = (0.dy = 0.2° Resultant = (441452 + 176582)0.2 = 1.5 + (π/64) (34 × 4/3.2 × 27 × 9810/3 = 17658 N = (γ × 27/6) (1 + 0. Let it be x from y axis.66071 m . 3. P.129 m i) WL 2m ii) iii) Bulge A C B 3m It cuts the vertical from O at 1. the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the wall of the bulge (i) when water is full (ii) water level comes to the top of the bulge and (iii) water level upto the centre of the bulge. xy/3 = Figure P. x .024 × 9) = 53680 N m The direction of the force with the vertical can be found using tan– 1 (44145/17658) = 68. perpendicular distance from O × force = moment ∴ Distance = 53680/47456 = 1.106 This force acts at y/3 from the bottom. Determine for the given dimensions.20 z y 0 x .129/sin 68.04 y5 = .216 m Problem 3.5 × π × 32) = 3. The projected area = π D2/4 (i) Horizontal force = 9810 × 3.2 y3/3) γ × 0. Assuming unit width.06 y2 For y = 3 m and unit width Horizontal force Vertical force Clockwise moment = 9810 (3 × 3/2) = 44145 N = 0.2 y3/3 z y 0 y2 dy Y X O = 0.

875 m The vertical force remains the same.52/2)] = 0.75 × (π × 32/8) = 26004 N IG = Ib – A ( h ). 3. The resultant is given by [2427002 + 693432]0.75 + [0.5 × (π × 32/4) = 104014 N Horizontal force acts at 1. The tank is 6 m 3m long and has flat vertical ends. Ib = π D4/128 IG = 0. Similar force acts on the right half of the tank to the right.31° (iii) When water comes to the centre. θ = 36. Vertical force = γ (1/4) (4 π R3/3) = 34672 N (upwards) Resultant = 43340N. horizontal force = γ h A = 9810 × 0.5625 m from wall. So the net force is due to the weight of the volume of liquid displaced and acts upwards. Determine the forces and their direction of action on the two sides and the ends. horizontal force = 9810 × 0.9 × 1 × 2 × 6 = 105948 N to the left Line of action = 1 + (6 × (1/1) (1/6 × 2) = 1. 23/12) 6 m long 2m 2 ∴ Figure P. Line of action. h = 2D/3 π. Problem 3.5) (4/π × 32) = 1.9.5625 × 69343 – (0.6366 × π × 1.9973 m. It does.5 = 252412 N The direction is given by (angle with vertical) θ.55565/(0.55565 Centre of pressure = 0. horizontal force = γ h A = 9810 × 1. Considering the surface of the left half of the tank.22.95° {0. θ = tan– 1 (24700/69343) = 74.5 = 125009 N Does the resultant pass through the centre? Check.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force = weight of the liquid displaced γ (1/2) ( 4 π R3/3) = 69343 N and acts upwards For the hemisphere. angle with vertical = tan– 1 (104014/69343) = 56. 107 Note : The vertical force on the surface AB is due to the liquid column above it and acts upwards.5 + (π 34/64) (1/1. .05°. Resultant = [1040142 + 693432]0.333 m from top. An oil tank of elliptical section of major axis 3 m and minor axis 2 m is completely filled with oil of specific gravity 0. at the same level.16071 × 242700)} ≅ 0 (ii) When water level comes up to the edge. The vertical force on the surface BC is due to the liquid column above it and acts downwards. down from B. The angle with the horizontal will be 15.22 Chapter 3 Check whether the resultant passes through the centre by taking moment.87° with vertical. centre of action from surface = 3 R/8 = 0.

000 N/m2.5 × 1) + (60000 × 0.000 = 82072.25 m from top. 3. It can be split up into two components (i) due to the water column and (ii) due to the pressure on the fluid The horizontal force =γ h A+PA = 9810 × 0.53/ 0.5 m 2 m Figure P. Ends: Elliptical surfaces : Line of action F = γ h A = 9810 × 0.9 × (π × 3 × 2/4 × 2) = 20803 N downward and the location is 4h/3π = 4 × 1.75)} / (22072. 20 kN/m 2 60° 1m 1.75 × 2 × 1.5 + 60. The horizontal force is the force due to water pressure on the projected area.5 × 2) + 20. Similar force acts on the other half. Determine the horizontal and vertical forces on the curved surface. tan– 1 (82072.108 Vertical force on the left half = Weight of displaced liquid Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 9810 × 0.09° Note : The problem can also be solved by considering an additional head of fluid equal to the gauge pressure.5 = 107971 N Direction (with vertical) = tan– 1 (105948/20803) = 78. = 9810 [(120 × π × 12 × 2/360) + (cos 60 × sin 60 × 2/2)] + sin 60 × 2 × 20000 = 24794 + 34641 = 59435 N (upwards) The resultant = (82072. Also locate the line of action of the resultant force.5 / 59434.5) = 1.75 × (1.000 × (1. Centre of pressure due to fluid pressure = 0.8172 m from top.0 m (from top). The tank is filled with water as indicated. A square section tank of 3 m side and 2 m length as shown in Fig.63662 m.75 + (1/12) (2 × 1. P.23 has the top of one side wall in the shape of a cylinder as indicated. Location of the net force is determined by taking moments about the top. from centre line Resultant = (1059482 + 208032)0. The vertical force can also be considered as the result of two action (i) the weight of displaced volume and (ii) the pressure on the projected area.5 × 2) = 22072. 3.9) = 54.52 + 594352)0.5 N (to the right) The first component acts at the centre of pressure and the second at the centre of gravity.9 × 1 × π × 3 × 2/4 = 41606 N = 1 + (π × 3 × 23/64) (1/1) (4/π × 3 × 2) = 1. = {(22072.5/3π = 0.000) = 0.23 .89°. Problem 3.5 + 60.23.5 = 101333 N The resultant acts at an angle (with vertical). The water is under a gauge pressure of 20.

24. Determine (i) normal force on each gate and (ii) the reaction between the gates.25 The upward force is due to the weight of water displaced as shown in figure.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Problem 3. If the gates are hinged at 0.833 m from the top surface The vertical upward force equals the weight of water displaced + weight of oil displaced (AEDG + CDG) = [9810 × (π × 1. A channel is closed by two swinging lock gates each of 4 m wide and 6 m height and when closed the angle between them is 120°. Determine the upward force due to water pressure. 3.252/4) × 0.25/ 2) × 1. P.5 m Figure P.3 N and this force acts at . Problem 3. The other horizontal force due to oil on CD is F Oil 1.25 × 1 = 6974.5 m and in the downstream it is 2m.252/2)] + [(1. A bridge is in the form of an elliptical arch and wter flows just touching the bottom. 3.25 × 1) = 0. Determine the vertical and horizontal forces on the cylinder shown in Fig.25 m S = 0. Area of half ellipse = πbh/8 = π × 8 × 3/8 = 3πm2 Area of rectangle = 8 × 1.91 × (1. Water displaced Water level A D 8m E B C 1.5 /2) × 5. The horizontal force on AB and BC are equal and opposite.25.24 [(1.5 m and 5. The normal force on each gate on the upstream side = 9810 × (5. 3. The major axis is 8 m and the minor axis is 3 m.5 m from the base. Consider 1 m length.24.25) + π × 1.5 × 4 = 593505 N Chapter 3 = 9810 × 0.25/2) + 1 × 1 × 1.91 C 1. The cylinder is in equilibrium.253 × 2/12 × 1. The bridge is 4m wide.91 × 9810] = (24077 + 24904) N Total upward force = 48981 N Workout the resultant as an exercise.25 × 1.5 = 12 m2 Weight of water displaced = (12 – 3π) × 4 × 9810 = 101052 N Problem 3. determine the reaction at each hinge.25 m Water B A D E 109 Figure P. The horizontal force can be calculated as the sum of forces due to the oil and due to the water on projected area.26.25 × 1. On the upstream side the water level is 5.

5 / 3 = 1.27. The normal force on the downstream side on each gate = 9810 × (2/2) × 2 × 4 = 78480 N.5 . The area and centre of gravity are to be determined by integration.5 should be dimensional. Taking moments from the top hinge at 5.5 – 0.28.5 Z2 where z is the width. A dam section is 6 m wide and 20 m high. moments can be taken with reference to the other hinge. (note the constant 0. Considering a strip at x and width dx. (check total as 515025) Problem 3.e.5 – 1.5) sin 30 R1 = 359373 N and by similar calculation R2 = 155652 N. Water stands upto x = 2m. This acts perpendicular to the contact as shown. To determine the reaction at each hinge.5 A = 0. taking moments 20 × 6 × 2. h = 18. Determine the height of water which may just cause overturning of the dam wall. 3. and as the reaction is at 30° to the plane of gate) (593505/2) (5. Problem 3. Determine the resultant vertical force on the curved structure AB and also the line of action.26 R = 515025 N. (CP is h/3 from bottom). 3.22 m.667 m from bottom.8333 m from the bottom. the structure will tilt. At any section the height. Net normal force = 593505 – 78480 = 515025 N To determine the reaction R considering the equilibrium and taking moments about the point A. A= ∴ 6 20 C Pressure force h h/3 A B Weight of structure Water level Figure P. x = 0. The total reaction at the hinges should also equal this value. i. When the moment with downstream corner A of the structures weight equals the moment of the pressure force on the structure. 1/m). Consider a width of 1m.6667) = R1 (5.5 m from base.8 × 9810 × 3 = 9810 × (h/2) × h × (h/3) Solving.5 m R 120° R A Gates 4m×6m Hinge H=2m Figure P. Weight × AB = Pressure force × AC Considering 1m length.5)0.8. This force acts at 2/3 = 0.27 z x 0 Z dx where Z = (x/0. The average specific gravity of the material is 2.110 This force acts at 5.83333) – (78480/2) (5. (as half the force only is causing the reaction at the hinge.9428 x1.5 – 0. 515025 × 2 = R × 4 sin 30 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Hinge H = 5.

h (i) the horizontal component of the resultant force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area and (ii) the vertical component equals the weight of the fluid column above this area. weight = area × depth × sp. The vertical force due to the weight of water which stands upto x = 2 m over the surface. Show that in the case of a rectangle inclined to the horizontal.45 × 1 × 0.225 m from Z = 0 position. Chapter 3 . This force acts at Z = x0. Explain the concept of centroid of an area or centre of gravity. Considering 1 m width.8856 = 0.8856 3m X A Air 0. 3. Weight = volume × sp. Explain the concept of Moment of Inertia of a surface and the application of the same in the study of forces due to fluid pressure on surfaces.5 / 1. 7.9428 x1. A = 2. 0 Figure P. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 4. weight A = 0. This acts along 1. Derive an expression for the force on a thin plate of given arbitrary shape immersed in a liquid at an angle θ to the free surface.9428 x1.8 bar = 0.6666 × 9810 = 26160 N.8 × 105 N/m2 2m 0.8 bar gauge z B Water level dx x Z The vertical force due to gas pressure = vertical projected area × pressure Top width. 5.5)0. Explain the importance of the study of fluid forces on surfaces and submerged bodies.225 + 26160 × 0.169 m. immersed in a fluid with its centroid at a depth. z = 1.6666 m2 Force due to water = 2. Obtain simplified expressions for the centre of pressure of vertical planes. Z = (3/0. 2.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids To obtain the line of centre of gravity from z = 0 line A Z = ∴ x x 111 1m z 0 Z dx Z/2 = z 0 x dx = x2/2 Z = (x2 / 2) (1/0. (i) plate (ii) circle (iii) triangle. P = 0.75 m from the vertical at Z = 0 Total force = 195959 + 26160 = 222119 N. What will be the value of first moment of area about the centroid.5 ) = x0.5.5 = 2. To determine the line of action: 195959 × 1. 3. Explain how force on curved surfaces due to fluid pressure is determined.45 m.5 / 1. 6.8 × 105 N = 195959 N. x = 2.75 = Z (222119).28 Pressure force = 2.

O Q. The horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is equal to the force on _________. decreases or remains constant : 1. IG sin2 θ/ A h 11. The centre of pressure will generally be _________ the centroid. The hydrostatic force on a submerged plane surface depends on the _________ of the centroid. 6. The force due to gas pressure on curved surface in any direction _________. When a plane is tilted with respect to any centriodal axis the normal force on the plane due to liquid pressure _________. 2. 10. (7) (dp/dy) = – γ. 9. The second moment of area about an axis through the centre of gravity will _________ compared to any other axis.1. O Q.112 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. (6) normal.2 Fill in the blanks: 1. (4) below. The distance between the centriod and the center of pressure _________ with depth of immersion. 4. (8) A x2. the centre. The force due to liquid pressure acts _________ to the surface. 10. . x-distance between the axes. 8. The vertical distance between the centriod and centre of pressure over a plane area immersed at an angle θ to the free surface is given by _________. The moment of area about any axis through the centre of gravity will be _________. 9. (6) the centre. (3) the centre of pressure of the vertical projected area. Fill in the blanks 1. 6. The law for calculating hydrostatic pressure is _________. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2.3. 4. The resultant force on cylindrical or spherical surfaces immersed in a fluid passes through _______. (5) equals the product of gas pressure and projected area in that direction. The point of action of resultant fluid forces is called _________. The force due to liquid pressure _________ with depth of immersion. 4. Answers (1) Centre of pressure. 7.3. Answers (1) the vertical projected area. 11. The location of centre of pressure of a plane immersed in a liquid _________ with change in density of the liquid. 3. 5. 2. The distance of centre of pressure from its centroid for a vertical area immersed in liquid is given by _________.3. (4) the centriod of the liquid column above the surface. (2) zero. IG / A h . The line of action of horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is_________. 5. The line of action of vertical force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is _________. The second moment about any axis differs from the second moment through a parallel axis through the centroid by _________. (3) lower. (5) depth. 3. 3. The pressure at the same horizontal level in a static liquid is _________. The vertical force on a curved surface equals the _________. (2) the weight of column of liquid above the surface.3 Fill in the blanks using increases.

The resultant force due to gas pressure will act at the centroid.5 Choose the correct answer : 1. Decreases : 2. (b) 5000 N/m3 (d) 5000 × 5 / 9. 6. At location where g = 5 m/s2. 6. (above the surface pressure) is given by (a) ρ g (c) – γ d (b) γ d (d) (ρ/g)d (usual notations) 2. The location of the centre of pressure over a surface immersed in a liquid is (a) always above the centroid (b) will be at the centroid (c) will be below the centroid (d) for higher densities it will be above the centroid and for lower densities it will be below the centroid. Remains Constant : 3. The centre of pressure on a plane will be at a lower level with respect to the centroid. O Q.3. 3.81 N/m3 (b) h/3 m from top 3. The pressure at a point y m below a surface in a liquid of specific weight γ as compared to the surface pressure. 113 4. In a plane immersed in a liquid the centre of perssure will be above the centroid. The horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid equals (a) the weight of the column of liquid above the surface (b) the pressure at the centroid multiplied by the area (c) the force on the vertical projection of the surface (d) the pressure multiplied by the average height of the area. 5. When a plane is tilted along its centroidal axis so that its angle with horizontal increases. The density of a liquid is 1000 kg/m3. the normal force on the plane will increase. The vertical force on an immersed curved surface will be equal to the column of liquid above the surface. 3. 4. 4. The centre of pressure of a rectangular plane with height of liquid h m from base Chapter 3 . 5.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Answers Increases : 1. 6.3. P will be equal to (a) P + (y/γ) (c) P – (y g/γ) (b) P + yγ (d) P + (y . g/γ). 2. 4. The normal force on an immersed plane will not change as long as the depth of the centroid is not altered. the specific weight of the liquid will be (a) 200 N/m3 (c) 5000 × 9. 5 (2) Incorrect : 2.4 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect : 1. Answers (1) Correct : 1. O Q. The pressure at a depth ‘d’ in a liquid.81 / 5 N/m3 (a) h/2 m from bottom (c) h/3 m from bottom (d) can be determined only if liquid specific weight is known.

Second moment of area B (a) always positive (b) area moment zero (c) resultant force (d) constant pressure Answers 1 – b. O Q.6 Match the sets A and B : A (I) 1. Triangle about centroidal axis 4. Specific weight 2. 3 – a. Density 3. When the depth of immersion of a plane surface is increased. 4 – a. Pressure (a) m3 (b) m4 (c) N/m2 (d) kg/m3 (e) N/m3 B Answers 1 – e. Answers (1) b (2) b (3) c (4) c (5) c (6) b (7) a (8) a. Free surface 4. 2 – c. . 4 – a. 4 – c. the centre of pressure will 8. Rectangle about centroidal axis 3. 3 – d. Semicircle about base (a) B h3 / 36 (b) D4 / 64 (c) D4 / 128 (d) B h3 / 12 Answers 1 – b. (II) A 1. A sphere of R m radius is immersed in a fluid with its centre at a depth h m The vertical force on the sphere will be (a) γ (4/3)π R3 (c) γ (π R2 h + 8 π R2/3) (b) γπ R2 h (d) γ (π R2 h – 8 π R2/3). 2 – d. (III) Moment of inertia of various shapes : 1. 5 – c. Centroid 2. Second moment of area 4.3. 3 – b. 2 – d.114 (a) come closer to the centroid (b) move farther away from centroid (c) will be at the same distance from centroid (d) depend on the specific weight of the liquid. Centre of pressure 3. Circle about centroidal axis 2. First moment of area 5. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7.

WL h 5m 30° y=2 2 y = X /6 a 5m b Figure E. determine the moment of inertia of the surfaces about the axis xx and also about the centroid. E. 3.1 from the given reference lines. For the shapes in Fig E. Determine the magnitude and location of the hydrostatic force on one side of annular surface of 2 m ID and 4 m OD kept vertical in water. 3.3.3.3.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids EXERCISE PROBLEMS 115 E.3 E.3. 3. From basics (by integration) determine the forces acting on one side of a surface kept vertical in water as shown in Fig. X 3m X X 2m X 0.414 m X X . Determine the centroid of the following shapes shown in Fig E. E.4.3.3.2. Chapter 3 2m 1.1.1. 3.5 0.1 E. 3.5 2m 1m 5m 3m X X X X 1m 60° 1m 2m 1m 1m X 1m 1m 1m 1m X X 1.5 m 3m X Ellipse 1m Figure E.

3. Also find the height above the base at which the resultant force acts. E. E.9 E.8 stands to a depth of 0.5 Figure E. What should be the value of counter weight W to hold the gate in the position shown. WL WL 1m 8m Hinge i) Strut 3m 60° Gate 30° 4m Figure E.3 m over which water stands to a depth of 1 m and oil of specific gravity 0.11.6. Determine the hydrostatic force on one side of the plane. The top of the gate is 8 m from the water surface.116 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E.3.6 E. 3. WL 4m 3m Gate 8m 60° 4m Figure E. E. Determine the net force on the gate due to the water. 3. 3.10.9 with 8 m length on the base level.5.3. if the gate is hinged at (i) the mid diameter (ii) at the top. E.6. A gate as shown in Fig.5 m over water. in the vertical wall of a reservoir. E. An annular plate of 4 m OD and 2 m ID is kept in water at an angle of 30° with the horizontal. Determine the moment required to hold a circular gate of 4 m dia. . shown in Fig. 3.7.3. Determine the compressive force on each of the two struts supporting the gate. Also locate the centre of pressure. 3.3. A trapezoidal gate of parallel sides 8 m and 4 m with a width of 3 m is at an angle of 60° to the horizontal as shown in Fig. 3.11 weighing 9000 N with the centre of gravity 0. E.3. Show that the resultant force on a submerged plane remains unchanged if the area is rotated about an axis through the centroid. A tank contains mercury upto a height of 0.9.3.5 m to the right of the vertical face holds 3 m of water.8. E. For a width of 1 m determine the total pressure and also the point of action of the same. the centre being at 4 m depth. 4 m wide.

11 Figure E. WL WL 8m 4m 3 2m WL 2500 kg/m 20 m 11 2.17.15 E. An automatic flood gate 1. Also determine the force at the edge required to lift the gate. 3. Determine the location of hinge from the base.3. Also calculate the maximum and minimum compressive stress on the base. Compressed air is used to keep the gate shown in Fig.13. 3. Show that as the depth of immersion increases. Determine the magnitude and line of action of the hydrostatic force on the gate shown in Fig.16. 3. The gate weighs 6 kN. 1m W WL 5m 3m 9 kN 0. 3. E. A rectangular gate of 2 m height and 1 m width is to be supported on hinges such that it will tilt open when the water level is 5 m above the top.4 m 2m F 60° 3.15. E.12 E.3.16. 3.14.17 closed.5 2m Hinge level 1. The mass of the gate is 2500 kg and its section is uniform.3.5 m y Figure E.5 m high and 1 m wide is installed in a drainage channel as shown in Fig. 3.14 Figure E.14. E. E.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 117 E. Determine the air pressure required. The gate is 1 m wide. Determine height of water backing up which can lift the gate.3.3. 3. Determine the location where the resultant hydrostatic force crosses the base. E.5 Figure E.3. A dam section is shown in figure. Chapter 3 . E.12. the centre of pressure approaches the centroid.

9362 m] .3.3.17 E. E.20.2 m Figure E. A conical stopper is used in a tank as shown in Fig. Determine the total weight/m length of a gate made of a cylindrical drum and a plate as shown in Fig.118 WL Fluid Mechanics and Machinery WL Compressed air Hinge W 2m 6m 0. An inverted frustum of a cone of base dia 1 m and top dia 6 m and height 5 m is filled with water. 3. Determine the force on one half of the wall.4641 m.8 m Plate 0. Also determine the line of action. Locate three horizontal positions so that equal forces acting at these locations will balance the water pressure.4 m 1m 1m W 60° 60° 0. A spherical container of 6 m diameter is filled with oil of specific gravity 0.20 Figure E. 3.3.21.73.16 Figure E. Figure E.19.21. 3. [3. The 3 m side is along horizontal. 3. A gate 12 m long by 3 m wide is vertical and closes an opening in a water tank. Also determine the direction of action of the force. E.21 E. Determine the resultant force on one half of the sphere divided along the vertical plane. F WL 0. The water level is up to the top of the gate. E. if it is in equilibrium when water level is at the top of the cylinder.18. 3. E.8 msq. 3.20.8 m 0.3. Determine the force required to open the stopper.22.4452 m 10.3. E. 8.

This principle directly follows from the general hydrostatic equation. F = γ Ah and is applied in the design of ships.1. boats. Archimedes principle can be stated as (i) a body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced and (ii) a floating body displaces its own weight of the liquid in which it floats. The stability of such bodies against tilting over due to small disturbance can be also checked using this principle. balloons and other such similar systems. ships. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid and acts upwards through the centre of gravity of the displaced fluid.1 BUOYANCY FORCE Consider the immersed or floating body shown in Fig. Other possible statements are: The resultant pressure force acting on the surface of a volume partially or completely surrounded by one or more fluids under non flow conditions is defined as buoyant force and acts vertically on the volume. 4. (i) Immersed body. If an object is immersed in or floated on the surface of fluid under static conditions a force acts on it due to the fluid pressure. balloons and submersibles and also hydrometers. In addition to the discussion of forces the stability of floating bodies due to small disturbances is also discussed.1. This point is called the centre of buoyancy for the body." 4. Force on the top dF1 = dA γ h1 and Force on the base dF2 = dA γ h2 (cancelling Patm. Consider a prismatic element : Let the sectional area be dA. It is applicable in the design of boats. The total force on the body can be calculated by considering the body to consist of a large number of cylindrical or prismatic elements and calculating the sum of forces on the top and bottom area of each element. The calculation of this force is based on Archimedes principle. In this chapter the forces due to fluid on floating and submerged bodies is discussed. common for both terms) 119 . 4.0 Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE In the previous chapter the forces due to fluid on surfaces was discussed. This force is called buoyant force.

F = γ V (or) the weight of the volume of liquid displaced. It is seen that the equation holds good in both cases – immersed or floating. 4.81 = 416. Force on the top of the element dF1 = dA. K.120 dF1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h1 = 0 WL dF1 h1 h2 h2 dA dF2 (ii) Floating body dF2 (i) Immersed body WL dA Figure 4.1.1 Proof for Archimedes principle Net force on the element (dF2 – dF1) = γ dA (h2 – h1) = γ dV. This force acts upwards. The forces that act on the balloon are its weight downward and the buoyant force upwards.6 – 1000 × 9.81 × 1. The buoyant force equals the weight of the cold surrounding air displaced. Considering an element of volume dV.2 Determine the maximum weight that may be supported by a hot air balloon of 10 m diameter at a location where the air temperature is 20° C while the hot air temperature is 80° C. Example. The difference between these two gives the maximum weight that may be carried by the balloon. The pressure at the location is 0. R = 287 J/kg.1 A cylinder of diameter 0. where dV is the volume of the element. the weight of volume displaced. The volume of cold air displaced equals the volume of the balloon. Top is at 0.16 N Example.6 m depth. as h2 > h1 Summing up over the volume. The pressure is assumed to be the same both inside and outside of the balloon.6 × 1000 × 9.6 m depth Buoyant force = Force on the bottom face – Force on top face = (π × 0.0) = 416. . F = γ V.8 bar.81 × 1.32/4) 0.6 m stays afloat vertically in water at a depth of 1 m from the free surface to the top surface of the cylinder. (ii) Floating body.32/4) (1000 × 9. 4. Pa and Force on the base of the element dF2 = dA (γ h2 + Pa) dF2 – dF1 = γ dA h2 = γ dV where dV is the volume of the fluid element displaced. Check the value from basics Buoyant force = Weight of water displaced = (π × 0. Summing up over the area.3 m and height 0. Determine the buoyant force on the cylinder.06 N This acts upward at the centre of gravity G Check: Bottom is at 1.

under equilibrium conditions these two forces are equal and opposite and act along the same line. Under equilibrium conditions. (iii) If the weight of the body is less than the weight of equal volume of liquid. the body will sink. Comparison of densities cannot be used directly to determine whether the body will float or sink unless the body is solid over the full volume like a lump of iron. These are the gravitational force on the body (weight) acting downward along the centroid of the body and buoyant force acting upward along the centroid of the displaced liquid. If these are equal. If apparent density is higher than that of the liquid. (ii) Neutral equilibrium Small disturbances do not create any additional force and so the body remains in the disturbed position.2 STABILITY OF SUBMERGED AND FLOATING BODIES There are three possible situations for a body when immersed in a fluid. Whether floating or submerged.46 kg. (iii) Unstable equilibrium: A small disturbance creates a couple which acts to increase the disturbance and the body may tilt over completely.6/287 × (273 + 80) = 413. the weight/volume of the ship will be less than the density of water. two forces of equal magnitude acting along the same line of action.8 × 105 × 523. then the body will be partly submerged and will float in the liquid.81] /[287 × (273 + 20)] = 4886.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies Volume of balloon = (4 × π × 53/3) = 523.e. However the apparent density calculated by the ratio of weight to total volume can be used to check whether a body will float or sink. (ii) If the weight of the body equals the weight of equal volume of liquid. Equilibrium of a body exists when there is no resultant force or moment on the body.6 N (i. (i) Stable equilibrium: Small disturbances will create a correcting couple and the body will go back to its original position prior to the disturbance. Weight of hot air = m. the body will stay afloat at any location.6 – 4056 = 830. 121 4.g = 413.8 × 105 × 523. A body can stay in three states of equilibrium.6 × 9. (i) If the weight of the body is greater than the weight of the liquid of equal volume then the body will sink into the liquid (To keep it floating additional upward force is required).81 = 4056 N Weight of cold air = [0. but in the opposite directions exist on a floating/submerged body. In the case of submarine its weight should equal the weight of water displaced for it to lay submerged. then the body will submerge and may stay at any location below the surface. Chapter 4 .6 N Weight that can be carried by the balloon = 4886. No further change in position occurs in this case.46 × 9. A submarine or ship though made of denser material floats because.. Stability of a body: A ship or a boat should not overturn due to small disturbances but should be stable and return. to its original position. about 84. the body will float with part above the surface.6 m3 Mass of hot air = (PV/RT) = 0. If it is less.67 kg mass under earths gravity) This should include the weight of the balloon material and fittings.

If the couple acts to increase the tilt then the body becomes unstable. Equilibrium (i) WL Couple C B Neutral W B C (iii) W (iv) B Equilibrium (ii) B Tilted WL Couple disturbing C C Unstable Figure 4. If the couple opposes the movement. then the body will regain or go back to the original position. the calculations will be elaborate and cannot be attempted at this level. This body is in unstable equilibrium. Equations will be derived for simple shapes and for small disturbances. because the point of application of these forces are moved to new positions. Hence the body will remain in the disturbed position.1 (iv) and 4.1 (ii) in a slightly disturbed condition. Figures 4. Point C is the centre of gravity. The centre of gravity and the centre of buoyancy conicide. In the case of Figure 4.122 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery When the position of the body is disturbed or rocked by external forces (like wind on a ship). the position of the centre of gravity of the body (with respect to the body) remains at the same position. In the case of figure 4. This body is in a state of stable equilibrium. The couple is called righting couple.2. Under such a condition a couple is found to form by the two forces.1 Stability of floating and submerged bodies Figure 4.2.2.1 (i) and 4. WL W B C W Submerged.2. These conditions are illustrated in Fig 4.2.2.2 (ii)) the couple created by a small disturbance tends to further increase the tilt and so the body is unstable. It is essential that the stability of ships and boats are well established. It can be seen that the gravity and buoyant forces are equal and act along the same line but in the opposite directions.2. Point B is the centre of buoyancy.2 (iii) shows the body under neutral equilibrium. In the case of top heavy body (Figure 4. But the shape of the displaced volume of liquid changes and so its centre of gravity shifts to a new location.1 (iv) the couple formed is opposed to the direction of disturbance and tends to return the body to the original position.2. The equations and calculations are more involved for the actual shapes.1 (ii) shows bodies under equilibrium condition.1 (iii) no couple is formed due to disturbance as both forces act at the same point. Figure 4.2.1 (v) shows the objects in Figures 4.) .1 (i) and 4. In the case of Figure 4.2. Now these two forces constitute a couple which may correct the original tilt or add to the original tilt. (Note: For practical cases.2.1 (ii) the couple formed is in the same direction as the disturbance and hence tends to increase the disturbance.

then the couple will be clockwise and the body will be unstable. the centre of gravity G is above the centre of buoyancy B. This involves the concept of metacentre and metacentric height. The distance of this point from the centroid of the body is called metacentric height. say clockwise. then the centre of gravity moves to the right of the original centre line.4. It may also be noted that the couple is anticlockwise. If it is at the centroid. When the body is disturbed the centre of gravity still remains on the centroidal line of the body. If M falls below G. the floating body will be stable. is defined as metacentre. The line of action of this force is upward and it meets the body centre line at the metacentre M which is above G. Referring to Fig 4.1. the couple will be clockwise and it will tend to increase the disturbance or tilting. If it is below the centroid.1. the floating body will be unstable. when disturbed. Larger the metacentric height. Metacentric height Couple opposing WL C C M WL B B Equilibrium condition After small tilt Figure 4. . correcting the disturbance. (iii) When the centre of buoyancy is below the centre of gravity as in the case of ships. This is illustrated in Figure 4. additional analysis is required to establish stable conditions of floating. the two forces act at the same point.3. The distance between the metacentre and the centre of gravity is known is metacentric height. In this case metacentric height is positive and the body is stable. The magnitude of the righting couple is directly proportional to the metacentric height. the resulting couple will act anticlockwise. better will be the stability. If the distance moved by the centre of buoyancy is larger than the distance moved by the centre of gravity. There is no tendency to tilt further or to correct the tilt. the body is always stable under all conditions of disturbance. If the distance moved by the centre of gravity is larger. A disturbance does not create any couple and so the body just remains in the disturbed position.3 CONDITIONS FOR THE STABILITY OF FLOATING BODIES 123 (i) When the centre of buoyancy is above the centre of gravity of the floating body.1 Metacentric height. stable condition When a small disturbance occurs.3. The location M at which the line of action of buoyant force meets the centroidal axis of the body.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 4. The shape of the displaced volume changes and the centre of buoyancy moves from its previous position. After a small clockwise tilt. (ii) When the centre of buoyancy coincides with the centre of gravity. the floating body will be in neutral equilibrium. the centre of buoyancy has moved to B′. The shape of the liquid displaced also changes and the centre of buoyancy also generally moves to the right. A righting couple is always created to bring the body back to the stable condition. Chapter 4 If the metacentre is above the centroid of the body.

2 . Uniform section is assumed at the water line.3) Both I and V are known. R = MB sin θ or R = MB θ ∴ MB =R/θ = I/V (4. Let the weight of the wedge portion be P.4.4. ∴ P × S = γ θ ∫A x2 dA = γ I θ (4.1 Metacentric height – derivation The force system consists of the original buoyant force acting at B and the forces due to the wedges and the resultant is at B′ due to the new location of the buoyant force.4) GB is originally specified. but W = Vγ where V is the displaced volume (4. MG = MB ± GB (4. As V = W/γ. moment of inertia about the axis y – y W × R = γ θ I.4.4. The moment distance is x.1 in section and plan view (part). P × S = W × R The moment P × S can be determined by taking moments of elements displaced about O. expressed in radians) The mass of the element γ × θ dA (γ – specific weight).4 METACENTRIC HEIGHT Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A floating object is shown in Figure 4.4.1) where I = ∫A x2 dA. If G is above B –ve sign is used.2) From the triangle MBB′.124 4. ∴ γ θ I = Vγ R (W = P) Centre line of the body M (Metacentre) q MG sin q W centroid G Original centre of buoyance B B¢ Centre of buoyancy after tilting Figure 4. as the angle of tilt is small. Let it move through a distance R. Taking moments about B.4. The new location B′ can be determined by a moment balance.4. Consider a small element at x with area dA The height of the element = θ × x (as θ is small. So the metacentric height can be determined. the metacentric height is given by. the intersection of water surface and centre line. In the tilted position. S F A WL F q M O G B G R C H q B¢ GM metacentric height y x dx E F D Plan Xd q I WL x dA y Figure 4. the submerged section is FGHE. Originally the submerged portion is AFGHD. The original centre of buoyancy B was along the centre line. If G is below B +ve sign is to be used.

Example.87 MG = MB – GB = (3053.5 = 1.81 (. Hence the righting couple = γ V MG θ = W MG sin θ.63 m4 . MB = I/V = 3053. MG = (I/V) ± GB. V = 1000.87 m3 . For small angles sin θ θ W1 2X = W MG sin θ = W MG θ (θ in radians) Metacentric height MG = 2 W1 X/W θ (X is half the distance or distance of weight from centre and θ is the angle in radians). say W.1 Experimental Method for the Determination of Metacentric Height The weight of the ship should be specified. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 4. This situation is for small angles and uniform section at the water line.81 × 1/4000 × 1000 × 9. The distance between the couple formed is MG sin θ.65 m (–ve) sign as B is below G).8 – 0.5 × π/180) = 1.3 m below the water level.63/970.4 A ship displacing 4000 tons has an angle of tilt of 5. Example. This is positive and so the ship is stable about rolling by small angles. The angle can be measured by noting the length of the pendulum and the distance moved by the plumb bob weight. GB = 1. Then the disturbing moment is W1 2X.5 = 3. V = W/γ = m/ρ Considering sea water of density 1030 kg/m3 and V as the liquid volume displaced.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 125 B = W acts vertically along B′ M.8 kg/m3 and that of the hydrogen in the balloon is 0.8 m below the water level and the centre of gravity is 0. The centre of buoyancy is 1.87) – 1.5 = 28.15 – 1.5.87) – 1. Chapter 4 . 4. 4. A known weight W1 is located at a distance of X from the centre line. For pitching MG = (π × 12 × 363/64 × 970.000/1030 = 970. This equals the restoring couple W MG sin θ.5° caused by the movement of a weight of 200 tons through 2m from one side of centre line to the other. Determine the metacentric height for rolling (y – y axis) and pitching (x – x axis). Determine the value of metacentric height. The weight is now moved by 2X m so that it is at a distance of X m on the otherside of the centre line. in the upward direction W acts vertically downwards at G. 4.4.3 A ship’s plan view is in the form of an ellipse with a major axis of 36 m and minor axis of 12 m.3 m Highly stable in this direction. MG = (2W1 X/W θ) = 2 × 200 × 1000 × 9.62/970.5 m For rolling: I = x (bh3/64) = π × 36 × 123/64 = 3053.3 = 1.1 Determine the diameter of a hydrogen filled balloon to support a total of 1 kg at a location where the density of air is 0.042 m (here X is half the distance moved) check using the degree of tilt and MG = 2MX/W sin θ.08 kg/m3. The mass of the ship is 1000 tons. A plumb bob or pendulum is used to mark the vartical. The angle of tilt of the pendulum or plumb bob is measured.

9 m size just submerged in water.2 Ship weighing 4000 tons and having an area of 465 m2 at water line submerging to depth of 4. Neglect metal thickness.81 = 66708 N Total weight = 335384. (omitting 9. 9.8 + 66708 = 402092. Assume that sides are vertical at the water line. the volume of fresh water displaced = 4000 × 1000/1000 = 4000 m3 Extra volume = 4000 – 3906.8 N The weight of empty sphere = 6800 × 9.75 m3 Area at this level = 465 m2.81 [4500 + (π × 32 × 6 × 700/4)] = 335384.4 A cubical block with a density of 2500 kg/m3 fully submerged in water is used to hold down a box 0.5 N (about 5568 kg of mass) Problem 4.465 m3 Weight of water displaced = 45. Equivalent Depth = 93.75/465 = 0.8 m is to be used in an ocean exploration.7.2 = 4. .93/3) = 45. 4. The important thing to note is that the limiting condition is when the supporting cylinder just submerges.3 × 0. WL 3 m f.25 m3 To support the same weight. 6 m long Bathy sphere Figure P.81. Determine the maximum mass of equipment that can be supported in the bathy sphere.8 – 0.7 m Problem 4.6 × 0. Determine the weight of the block.692 m D = 2r = 1.3 A bathy sphere of mass 6800 kg (empty) and having a diameter of 1. Determine the depth of submergence in fresh water.5 m in sea water with a density of 1024 kg/m3 moves to fresh water.5 + 0. It is supported by a cylindrical tank of 3 m dia and 6 m lenght of mass 4500 kg when empty and filled with oil of specific gravity 0.81 in both numerator and denominator) Volume of sea water displaced = 4000 × 1000/1024 = 3906.8 N The additional weight that can be supported = 456717 – 402092.08) × 9.81 = 456717 N The weight of cylinder and oil = 9. The box has a mass of 110 kg.2 m ∴ The depth of submergence in fresh water = 4. Assume density of sea water as 1024 kg/m3.465 × 1024 × 9.8 = 54624. Solving r = 0.384 m Problem 4.3 ∴ The total volume displaced = volume of cylinder + volume of sphere = (π × 33 × 6/4) + (4 × π × 0.126 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The weight that can be supported equals the difference in weights of air and hydrogen.25 = 93. Originally the weight of the ship equals the weight of sea water displaced.81 × 1 = (4/3) × π × r3 × (0.

27.81 × 0.1 and hence not uniform.025/2)3 + π (0. downward from the surface. Chapter 4 Subtracting Ww – WO = 8 N . W – WO = 30 N V(9810 – 0. gravity of liquid equals 1. gravity × 9810 = 14 × 9.9 × 9810) + (h3 × 9810) Downward force Equating.75. its weight is balanced by the buoyant force and so the apparent weight will be zero.00 115.0775 litre ∴ Ww = 4. Obviously this object is immersed in the fluid completely during weighment.2786/sp.7 The specific weight of a liquid varies as γ = 9810 (1 + y) where y is measured in m. it displaces V m3 and so also when in oil. Problem 4.80. specific weight = W/V = 15205.5 Determine the volume and specific weight of an object which weighs 22 N in water and 30 N in oil of specific gravity 0.85 164.9 1.7 kg) Problem 4.6 0. When in water. mm 0. gravity h.81 = 40 N Substituting for Ww in equaion 1 W = 22 + Ww = 62 N .81 [110 + h3 × 2500] 1589.3 × 0.5. 1.4 The intervals in mm are : 43.1 + 24525 h3 h = 0.326065 m = 2500 × 9. Solving Weight of the block = 9.15.22 + 9810 h3 = 1079. The downward forces are due to the weight of the box and the block. Only the sphere will be immersed when the sp. If it is just floating. Determine the depth of immersion. So the buoyant force creates a righting couple and the instrument is stable till the spherical portion alone is immersed.004)2 h] × sp. 0. Determine the depth of immersion of the stem in liquids of specific gravity of 0.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 127 The upward forces are due to buoyancy on the block and buoyancy on the box.7. gravity = 1.3260653 = 850.4 × 10–5 This reduces to h = (0. gravity) – 0. This is due to the combined spherical and cylindrical shape.0775 × 10– 3 m3 or 4.1628 The only unknown is h and is tabulated below Sp. The total mass of the unit is 14 grams. 23. Usually the major portion of the weight is placed in the spherical portion.5 N/m3 Problem 4.15 79. A block 1 m × 2 m area and 2 m deep weighing 19620 N floats in the liquid with the 2 m side vertical.026 × 10–5 h] × sp.2 N (86. 34.0775 × 9. ∴ V = 4.85. The volume of liquid displaced × sepecific weight = Weight of the hydrometer The volume is made up of the sphere and the cylindrical of length h.8181 × 10–6 + 5.8 1.5 1.81 × 1/1000 [0. Let its volume be V m3.9.95.75 208.711.6 A hydrometer (to measure specific gravity of a liquid) is in the form of a sphere of 25 mm dia attached to a cylindrical stem of 8 mm dia and 250 mm length. 0. Let the side of the block be h m.05 and 1. Cheak whether the intervals are uniform.80 × 9810) = 8 . Total upward force = (0. [(4/3) π (0.6 × 0.05 102. Let buoyant force when in water be Ww and when in oil Wo Let the real weight of the object be W kg W – Ww = 22 N .

∴ γ = 8618. Determine the level to which the unit will sink.63 × 9810 = 8875.1152 m Problem 4. Let the volume of the balloon at this level be V m3. Check whether it will be stable.2 m and the other lighter and weighing 4000 N. Then integrating the expression and equating it to the weight of the solid. The weight of any floating body equals the weight of liquid displaced by it. Problem 4. ∴ y + y2 / 2 D 0 =1 or D2 + 2D – 2 = 0.3 m3. Determine the density of ice. are tied with a rope and placed in water.81. The difference between these two is the tension in the The tenstion in the rope = 12000 – 8875. it will stop sinking further. Determine the diameter of the lighter sphere and the tension in the rope.1 + V) 10000 = 2000.9 = 3124.79 N/m3 ∴ density of ice = γ /g = 878. The density of sea water is 1025 kg/m3.9 WL WL D=? 4000 N Rope 12000 N 1.1 m3. The unit is released in the sea. one heavier and weighing 12000 N and of diameter 1.1 N The weight of the lighter sphere and the rope tension together should balance the buoyant force on the smaller sphere of diameter D.9 Two spheres. The buoyant force equals the weight of water displaced. (0.9 N The weight of the sphere = 12000 N. ∴ V = 0.3 m3 at a pressure of 1. Let the vulume of iceberg be V m3.2 m f . So the assumption that the body floats is valid. Assume the specific weight of sea water as 10000 N/m3 and the air temperature in the balloon remains constant. ∴ D = 1. 2 × 9810 z 0 D (1 + y) dy = 19620 . Then 1 × γ × V = (6/7)V × 1025 × 9. (4/3) × π × R3 × 9810 = 4000 + 3124. The buoyant force on the heavier sphere equals the weight of water displaced. Figure P. When the unit sinks to a level such that the weight equals the buoyant force. 4.10 A mass of volume 0. rope. Solving D = 0.57 kg/m3 Problem 4. (as γ = 9810 (1 + y)) The weight of the element dW = 1 × 2dy × γ = 2 (1 + y) 9810 dy Let the depth of immersion be D. This is less than the depth of the body.8 An iceberg floats in sea water with 1/7 of the volume outside water.732 m (the other root is negative).128 The weight of liquid displaced = weight of the body Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To determine the weight of the liquid displaced.1 m3 attached to a balloon of 0. consider a small thickness by at distance y. The iceberg displaces 6/7 of its volume of sea water.1 . The original volume was 0.4 bar (abs) weigh totally 2000 N. As it goes down in the water the volume of the balloon shrinks due to the increase in surrounding pressure. It was found that the spheres floated vertically with the lighter sphere just submerging. Buoyant force on the heavier sphere = (4/3) × π × 0.

acts upwards). ∴ V = 463.6 m Problem 4.4. as h = 6 m. (4πR3/3) = 463. Vertical force = Weight of gate + Pressure force (Pressure force equals the weight of the volume displaced.12 Determine the diameter of the sphere to open a cylindrical gate hinged at the top and connected to the sphere as shown in Fig. The buoyant force on the balloon = Rope tension + weight of balloon Volume × (sq weight of surrounding fluid air – sp. 129 Hence the unit will sink to a depth of 31. WL D 6m Hinge 2m Gate 4500 N Figure P.3/0. Vertical upward force = – 4500 + π (R2/2) L × 1000 × 9. R = 1. Solving y = 31. (ii) horizontal force due to pressure and (iii) vertical force due to pressure and weight.013) × 105. The sphere weighs 1500 N/m3. The width of the gate is 1.2 N/m3 and that of helium is 1.11 A helium balloon is floating (tied to a rope) at a location where the specific weight of air is 11.5) = 3500 + 1000.5 m.5) = 6. Determine the diameter of the balloon if the tension in the rope was 3500 N.87 m Problem 4. ∴ D = 9. Chapter 4 .2 – 1.4 × (0. L = 1.5 m.92 m3.12 when the water level reaches 6 m above the centre of the gate.5 N = 176580 N Centre of pressure = 6 + (1/12) (1.2 – 1.1) = 4. The gate weighs 4500 N and its centroid coincides with the centroid of the semicircle.0556 m.5 × 23/6 × 2 × 1. 4. weight of helium) = Rope tension + weight of balloon V × (11.87 m.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies As (P2/P1) = (V1/V2).81 = 18614 N.92 m3. P2 = 1. P. Buoyant force = (4/3) πR3 [9810 – 1500] N acts at 2 m from hinge.0556 m. acts from the hinge at: 1.5 N/m3.2 bar (abs) The depth at which this pressure reached is given by 10000 × y = (4. horizontal force due to water = 9810 × 6 × 2 × 1. The empty balloon weighs 1000 N.12 The forces on the gate are (i) tension in the rope equal to the buoyant force on the sphere minus the weight of the sphere.

Weight of the displaced water or buoyancy force = (45/104) × 9810 [3 – (1.22/cos2 45)] = 135. Hinge 3m q 1.2/cos θ) +(1/2) [3 – (1. then (2250 + 6 × 6 × 1 × 480) 9.15 A wooden pole of 0. P. If h is the height upto which the water rises. .4488 m Problem 4. Problem 4.81 = 9. 4.4244 + (4/3) πR3 (9810 – 1500) Solving.130 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery It acts at the centroid of the semicircle. At the point when the tank begins to break free due to water seeping all around.2/cos θ)] Moment of buoyant force = (45/104) (9810/2) [32 – (1.08 Nm.81 × 1000 × 6× 6 × h ∴ h = 0.7244 m or D = 3. The depth of oil above the hinge (friction negligible) is 2 m. Taking moment along the pole.815. The total weight should equal the weight of water displaced.0555 = 18614 × 0. Length of the submerged portion = 3 – (1. Determine the height of water that may cause the tank to break free and start to rise.2/cos θ). 176580 × 1. Moment of the weight = (3/2) 90 = 135 Nm. Problem 4. Also determine the oil level for the pole to float vertically. (4R/3π) = 0.5425 m When water rises to about 0. Determine the angle of inclination of the pole with horizontal. R = 1.22/cos2 θ)] Equating to 135 Nm and solving. checks This can be extended to analyse the water level control valve in tanks. The pole weighs 90 N.2/cos θ)] = (1/2) [3 + (1.2 m high of mass 2250 kg is buried under loose soil at a depth of 1 m.2 m WL 40 cm 2 Figure P. The density of the soil is 480 kg/m3. 4.2/cos θ)].15 floats in oil of specific gravity 0. A spring causes water to seep below the tank.13 An empty storage tank of square section 6 m side and 1. Taking moments about the hinge.14 A wooden pole of 45 cm2 section and 3 m length is hinged at 1.5425 m from battom the tank will begin to break free. Check = (45/104) (9810/2) [32 – (1. it can be considered that the tank floats with a weight equal to its own and the weight of soil above it.2 m above the water surface and floats in water at an angle of θ with vertical Determine the value of the angle.14 The problem is solved by taking moment of the weight at the hinge and equating it to the moment of the buoyancy force at the hinge.4244 m from hinge.16 m square section of length 3m and weighing 425 N and of dimensions as shown in Fig. θ = 45°. The distance along the pole it acts = (1.

Let the angle of inclination be θ with horizontal. θ = 53. Determine the specific weight of the second liquid. h × 0. The depth of oil will also be h.162 × 9810 × 0. Case (i) The buoyant force in this case = (160 – 100) N = 60 N The volume of the fluid displaced = 60/(0.17 A cylindrical container of 0.21 N Volume of water displaced = 384. The volume of fluid displaced in both cases are equal as the weight is submerged.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 3m 0.8 × 1000 × 9.16 m sq Oil lever 2m q Hinge 131 Figure P.3 m.65 × 10–3 = 34008 N/m3 (Note : Buoyant force = volume displaced × sp.815 = 425. Chapter 4 425 (3/2) cos θ = (2/sin θ) × 0.7 kg/m3c Problem 4. h = 2.0392 m3 ∴ Depth of immersion = 0.0765 m.26°. If the level rises above this value.21/(1000 × 9. Problem 4. 60 + (π × 0.81) m3 = 0. the weight equals the buoyant force.65 × 10–3 m3 Case (ii) The buoyant force = 160 + 100 = 260 N Specific weight of the other liquid = 260/7. Solving h = 0. weight of liquid) density will be = (34008/9. Determine the depth upto which it will float in water.22) = 0.162 × 9810 × 0. a vertical force will act on the hinge. a force of 100 N acting upward is required. Equating the moments.81) = 3466.9 m height weighing 60 N contains oil of specific weight 8600 N/m3 to a depth of 0.815 N Moment arm = (2/sin θ) (1/2) (cos θ). The same mass requires a downward force of 100 N to keep it submerged in another liquid.22 × 0.815 (2/sin θ)(1/2) cos θ Solving.15 The problem is solved by taking moment about the hinge for the weight and the buoyant force and equating them.3946 m .3117 m Case (ii) Let h be the depth of immersion.81) m3 = 7.22 × h × 8600) = π × 0.0392/(π × 0.022 × h × 9810. Also calculate the depth oil in the container so that the depth of oil and depth of immersion are equal. and 0. The weight of oil displaced (buoyant force) = (2/sin θ ) × 0. When the pole begins to float vertically.162 × 9810 × 0.16 In order to keep a weight of 160 N just submerged in a liquid of specific gravity of 0. Case (i) Total weight of the container = 60 + π × 0.4 m dia.3 × 8600 N = 384. 4.8. The moment for the weight about the hinge (along × direction) = 425 × (3/2) cos θ.

As density increases.31 cm This is also downwards as V3 is less than V2. The weight of water displaced = π × R2 × 9810 (0. (D2/16hs) = [h (1 – S)]/2 ∴ (D/h) = 2 [2 S (1 – S)]0.8. ∴ (I/V) = D2//16hS Also from basics GB = (h/2) – (h S/2) = h (1 – S)/2.4).8.6) This equals the weight of water displaced when the block just floats. For stability.3) and (4.20 A right circular cylinder of diameter D m and height h m with a relative density of (S < 1) is to float in water in a stable vertical condition. l2 = 0. D = 1. The limiting condition is for the composite block to float with top surface at water level. Problem 4.6 cm. The specific gravity of the concrete is 2. Determine the distance between the markings for 0. (i) Relative density = 0. Indicate the direction of the markings as up or down also.0775 × 10–6 m3.04/(9810 × 1. Using equation (4.2 × 9810 × 2. The volume displaced in each case equals the weight of the hydrometer.4. (iii) Relative density = 1.75 m long for the composite cylinder to float vertically. Equating and solving.2 + h ∴ h = 0. Let the volume displaced be V1 V1 × 9810 × 0. V3 = 0.01311 m or 1.6 has a concrete cylinder of the same diameter and 0.5 + 0. Determine the length of the wooden cylinder for the composite block to float vertically.5) + (π × R2 × h × 9810 × 0.1314 h .6 h = 0.1 specific gravity values. Work the problem for 1 m long cylinder and find the length above the water line.2 + h).0 and 1.1. the limiting condition is that the metacentre approach the centre of gravity. ∴ V2 = 4. MB = I/V MG = (I/V) ± GB. D > h. Here MG = 0 for the limiting condition.. Let ‘‘h’’ be the length of the wooden cylinder. Let the volume displaced be V3.097 × 10–6 m3 (ii) Relative density = 1.036052 m or 3.5 .5.04 . (V – volume displaced).75 m The wooden cylinder should be atleast 0. (I/V) = GB I = π D4/64. equating. The weight of the composite block = (π × R2 × 0. V = π D2 h S/4. 0.18 A cylindrical hydrometer weighing 0. Let the volume displaced be V2 V2 × 9810 = 0.8 = 0.1) = 3.04. Problem 4.. 1. (V1 – V2) = π (D2/4) l1. (1) For example if ∴ S = 0.04 N has a stem diameter of 6 mm.707 × 10–6 m3 (V3 – V3) π (D2/4) × l1. Determine the limit of the ratio D/h for the required situation.8.4.2 m length attached to it at one end. Solving l1 = 0.132 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 4. This is downwards as V2 is less than V1.19 A wooden cylinder having a specific gravity of 0. the depth of immersion decreases and is non linear. ∴ V1 = 5.

Using equation 1 (D/h)2 = 8 S (1 – S) or 8 S2 – 8 S + (D/h)2 = 0 S = {1 ± [1 – (4/8) (D/h)2]0.6 × 7500)/(4 × 8900) Location of G = 0. Equating. Problem 4.32 × 0. MG = (I/V) – GB.20) D = 2h [2S (1 – S)]0.5 }/2. G is located at h/2 from base and B is located at h S/2 from base.23 Check the stability of a hollow cylinder with D = 1.5. Refer Problem 4.3 – (0.5 .33333 to float in water.34 × 4 × 8900)/ 64 × π × 0. Check : (use the eqn. 1 in problem 4.3 × (7500/8900) m from the bottom. the minimum Value of D is given by D = 2h [2S (1 – S)/(1 + k2)]0. here S = 7500/8900 Substituting. This is the reason why long rods float with length along horizontal. The ID is 0.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 133 The diameter should be larger than the length. Chapter 4 Hence.5 . GB = h (1 – S)/2 . then S = 0.. D = 2 × 0.3 m dia and 0.5 as in problem Problem 4.8 then. Determine the stability of the cylinder.036 m. h = 1. Problem 4. [D4 (1 – k4)/64] [4/(D2 (1 – k2) hS] = h (1 – S)/2.5D.6 × 7500)] – [0. equation 1.7646 or 0.2354 Problem 4. Solving (D/h) = 2[2S (1 – S)/(1 + k2)]0.32 × 0.22 Derive the expression for (D/h) for a hollow right circular cylinder of outer diameter D and inner diameter kD and height h. V = (π × 0.20.9 and S = 0. the cylinder is unstable. say if (D/h) = 1.3 – 0 – 3 × (7500/8900) MG = [(π × 0.6 m length with a specific weight of 7500 N/m3 is to float vertically in kerosene of specific weight of 8900 N/m3.6 [2 × (7500/8900) × (1 – 7500/8900)]0.21 A right circular cylinder of 0. ∴ GB = 0.2 m and h = 1.20) I = D4 (1 – k4)/64.34/64 Volume displaced. Consider a thin cylinder.61788 m.20.3 × 7500/8900)] = – 0. The same expression can be solved for limiting density for a given D/h ratio.3 m from bottom Location of B = 0. (D/h) = 0.(1) For example if k = 0 this becomes a solid cylinder and the expression reduces to (D/h) = 2 [2S ( 1 – S)]0.. This is the value of D which is required for stability. V = π D2 (1 – k3) h S/4 where V is the volume of the liquid displaced.5. to float vertically in a liquid with relative density S. k = 0.5 = 0. For stability.20). where k = 0.8 m. D > h.8 m with a specific gravity 0f 0. The given cylinder is of lower diameter and hence unstable. I = π × 0.2.841 (compare with Problem 4. The limiting condition for stability is MG = 0 or (I/V) = GB With usual notations (refer P 4. Here.

Problem 4.33333 (1 – 0.5 when it floats in water with its axis vertical.24 Determine the metacentric height of a torus of mean diameter D with a section diameter d and specific gravity 0.8 [2 × 0.5. I = π × 2.8 value. then... I = (a4/12) where a is the side of square.60002 and GB = 1.33333)/2 = 0.26 Derive on expression for the ratio of length. The relative density of the log is S.98. Considering the calculated D = 2. The sides should be longer than the height.33333)/(1 + 0.5. GB = h(1 – S)/2 (k3a4/12) (1/a2khS) = h(1 – S)/2.54)/64. Hence. MG = (I/V) – GB .6/3π} = 1. Refer Problem 4. The specified diameter is only 1. GB = h (1 – S)]/2 ∴ I/V = [(a4/12)(1/a2hS)] = [h (1 – S)/2]. a of a square log to float stably in a vertical direction.333333/4. (a/h) = [65 (1 – S)] 0.24]/[8 × π × 1. So.5/k .52)]0. I = π [(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/64 as the section along the free surface is annular with OD = D + d and ID = D – d. The specific gravity is 0.1472 (1 – 0. The is the reason why long logs float with length along horizontal. So it is not stable.2 m. Centre of buoyancy will be at the CG of displaced volume equals 2d/3π.6. checks.A . V = π × 2.6 m with specific gravity 0. h to side.147 m.134 Substituting the values. I = ak3 a3/12.25 Determine the metacentric height of a torus of D = 1.1474 (1 – 0.147 m > 1.52) 1. Position of G = h/2 and position of B = h S/2. Centre of gravity is on the water surface. (a/h) = [6S (1 – S)]0. (I/V) = 0. for stability Fluid Mechanics and Machinery D = 2 × 1.8.8 (1 – 0.7826 m [Note : If the relative density is different from 0. then (a/h) = 0. Then the stability is poorer along the shorter length ka. MG = 0. V = (1/2) (πd2/4)πD. The volume displaced V = a2hS where h is the immersion height.23 Consider S = 0. the determination of the value of GB is more involved as the determination of the position of CG is difficult] Problem 4.5. ∴ GB = (2d/3π) MG = {π [(D + d)4 – (D – d)4] × 8/[64 × π2 × D × d2] } – (2d/3π) Simplifying MG = {[(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/[8 × π × d × d2]} – (2d/3π) Problem 4. The limiting condition for floating in a stable position is that metacentre and centre of gravity coincide.44 – 1.8 × 0.5 when floating in water with axis vertical. So it floats such that half its volume will be displaced.62]} – {2 × 0. (a/h) = 1. as S decreases (a/h) increases.24 MG = {[(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/[8 × π × D × d2]} – {2d/3π} = ([2.5 S = 0. or (I/V) = GB. V = h Sa2 k .8 × 0.8 m and d = 0. The expression can be generalised for a rectangular section with sides a and k.5 = 2.a (where k is a fraction).

27 Derive the expression for the ratio of base diameter to the height of a cone to float in a fluid in a stable condition given the relative density between the solid and the fluid as S..27 Volume displaced ∴ ∴ Equating A and B (3D2S1/3/16H) = (3/4) H (1 – S1/3) (D2/H2) = 4 (1 – S1/3)/S1/3 or H2 = D2S1/3/4 (1 – S1/3) In actual case H2 should be less than this value for stability.4 m dia and 0. h H H Figure P. In this case the volume displaced and the relationship between D and d and H and h are to be established.28 A conical wooden block of 0. the limiting value of H is given by = h = (1/3) (πD2/4) HS I = πd4/64 = πD4 S4/3/64 (d4 =D4 .A G = 3H/4 (from vertex) and B = (3h/4) = (3/4) HS1/3 (from vertex) GB = (3/4) H (1 – S1/3) . This case is different from the cylinder due to variation of area along the height (Refer Problem 4.. 4. The situation is shown in the Fig. (1/3)(D2/4) HS = (1/3) (d2/4) h . P. (k2 × a2/h2) = 6S – 6S2 or S2 – S + (k2a2/6h2) = 0 ∴ S = { 1 ± [1 – (4k2a2)/(6h2)]0. A. For stability. This expression can be used also to determine the limiting density for a given (side/height) ratio to float stably in a vertical position.B (1/3)(πd2/4) Chapter 4 . 4.5]/2 Problem 4.20). The limiting conditions is that MG = 0 or (I/V) = GB.8 for a fluid in which it floats.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 135 Here the side has to be still larger or the height shorter. The cone displaces liquid upto a depth h where the diameter is d.5 }/2 if k = 1. Consider the general eqn. D2 HS = d2h.27. Problem 4. then S = [1 ± {1 – (4a2/6h2)}0..6 m high has a relative density of 0. reordering. S4/3) I/V = (D4 S(4/3)/64)/(D2 HS/12) = (3/16) (D3/H) S1/3 . S = Also as (h/H) = (d/D) h/H = (d/D) = S1/3 D d WL G b 3 H 4 3 h 4 h WL d2 D 2 . Determine whether it can float in a stable condition..

The centre of gravity of each may be taken to be at the geometric centre. Define centre of buoyancy.6371 m.7197 and so the cone will float in a stable position.2742] – 2. 6. d = DS1/3 = 0. OG = 2.6 < 0. This is positive and hence stable.03226 m.2629 = 1.9227 m This is positive and hence the unit is stable. MG = (I/V) – GB = 0.7197 m. Describe an experimental method to determine the metacentric height of a boat. Derive an expression for the height to diameter ratio of a cylinder of specific gravity S to float with its axis vertical in a stable condition.04642 – 0. D = 0. .03226 = 0.371 m I = πd4 /64 = 9. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Total weight = 106 N Depth of immersion: 106 = 10 × 8 × h × 9810.81/3) = 0. 7. 2. 5. Restoring torque = W MG θ (θ in radian) = 106 × 1. 8m Solving.6 × 0.6 – 0. Assuming the centres to be on the vertical line G (Common) WL WL for the combined unit.136 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery H2 = D2 S1/3/4 (1 – S1/3) = 0.8 = 0.29 OB = 1.2742/2 = 0. Determine the value of 5m A the meta centric height of the combined unit.9227 × (π × 5/180) = 1. ∴ h = 1.5 m.4 m.01416 m. The actual value of is 0. 8m wide and 3m deep weighs 6 × 105 N and carries a boiler of 4 m dia on its deck which weighs 2m 4 × 105 N.2742 m Figure P. Check: H = 0.6 m. Problem 4. GB = OG – OB = 2.81/3/4 (1 – 0. OP = 1. OA = 5 m.557 m. Define metacentre and metacentric height. ∴ I/V = 0.557) = 0.0201 m3 . Describe how the density of liquid can be estimated using a cylindrical hydrometer.42 × 0.332 × 10–4 m4.9 m. State the conditions for the stability of floating bodies.29 A rectangular pontoon 10 m long.68 × 105 Nm.518 m2 ∴ H = 0.5 m P gravity from base can be determined by taking 3m B moments about O.42/4) 0.2629 MG = (I/V) – GB = [(1/12) × 10 × 83]/[10 × 8 × 1. h = H S1/3 = 0. V = (1/3) (πD2/4) HS V = (1/3) (π × 0. the position of the centre of 1. Prove Archimedes principle from basics. 3. when it floats in river water. 4. Calculate also the restoring torque for a tilt of 5° from vertical. 4. 0 OP × 6 × 105 + OA × 4 × 105 = OG × 106.04642 m GB = (3/4) (0.

8. Metacentric height is equal to _____. W MG sin θ. 11. The weight of volume of liquid displaced by a floating body equals _____. The centre of buoyancy is defined as ______. The stability of a floating body deteriotes as the metacentric height ________. the buoyant force on a floating body equals the weight of the displaced volume and a floating body displaces it’s own weight of liquid in which it floats 5. The condition for a square prism of given side to length ratio to float vertically in stable equilibrium is _____. Answers 1. 16. The position of a floating body will ______ when a small tilt is given if the metacentric height is positive.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 137 O Q. stable 11. 2. The body displaces 1m3 of water when it floats. The volume of liquid displaced by a floating body of wieght W will _______ irrespective of the shape of the body. 12. 7. 17. the weight of the body 3. The weight of volume of water displaced 2. the floating body will be in _______ equilibrium. W MG θ 14. decreases or remains constant 1. As fluid density increases the hydrometer will sink by a ______ distance.5 16. The condition for a cylinder of given diameter to length ratio to float vertically in stable equilibrium is _____. As the density of the floating body increases the distance between the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy _______ 4. overturn 9.2 Fill in the blanks with increases. (H/D)2 = s1/3/[4(1 – s1/3)] 17. Metacenter is the point at which ________ cuts the body centre line. 4. 4. The statement of Archimedes Principle is ______. 10. The line of action of the buoyant force in the displaced position 18. positive 12. When a body floats in water the buoyancy force equals _____. 3. neutral 10. 18. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in stable equilibrium it will ____. 9810 N 19. It’s weight is ______. return to the original position 7. Chapter 4 . shorter O Q. 5. remain in the new position 8.1 Fill in the blanks 1. The height to diameter ratio for stable floating condition of a cone is ______. 9. satble. If the centre of gravity is below the centre of buoyancy the body will always be in _____ equilibrium. If the centre of gravity is above the centre of buoyancy the metacentric height should be ______ stable equilibrium. distance between the metacentre and centre of gravity 13. 6. 6. The three states of equilibrium of a floating body are______. When a given body floats in different liquids the volume displaced will ________ with increase in the specific gravity of the fluid. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in neutral equilibrium it will ____. 19. 3. the centre of gravity of the displaced volume 4. 4. The righting moment due to a tilt of a floating body equals_____. 15. 14. 5. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in unstable equilibrium it will ___. (d/h) = 2[2s(1 – s)]0. If the centre of gravity coincides with the centre of buoyancy. neutral and unstable 6.5 15. 13. Stability of a floating body improves as the metacentric height ____ 2. (a/h) = [6s(1 – s)] –0.

When the metacentric height is zero the floating body will be in stable equilibrium. 7. 6. When it is fully immersed in water its weight will be (a) 25 N (b) 75 N (c) 50 N (d) None of the above. A given cubic piece will float more stably in mercury than in water. Answers Correct : 3. Answers Increases 1. 10. 2. 4. A floating body will displace a volume of liquid whose weight will equal the weight of the body. 4. 4. The metacentric height of a given floating body will ________ if the density of the liquid decreases. As the metacentric height increases the stability of a floating body will improve. 3. When the centre of buyoancy is below the metacenter the floating body will be in stable equilibrium. 8 Decreases 3. 5. 5 O Q.138 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7. 3. 2. If a body is in stable equilibrium the metacentric height should be (a) zero (b) positive (c) negative (d) depends on the fluid. A solid with a specific weight 9020 N/m3 floats in a fluid with a specific weight 10250 N/m3. 4. The buoyant force on a given body immersed in a liquid will be the same irrespective of the liquid. When a heavy object is immersed in a liquid completely the centre of byoyancy will be at (a) The centre of gravity of the object. 6. 10 Incorrect 1. 5. For a given floating body in stable equilibrium the righting couple will ______ with increasing metacentric height. When the metacentre is between the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy the body will be unstable. A floating body will displace the same volume of liquid irrespective of the liquid in which it floats. (b) The centre of gravity of the volume of the liquid displaced. An object with specific gravity 4 weighs 100N in air. 10 Remains constant 2. 5. When the length of a square log is larger than the side of section the log will float horizontally. 4. (c) Above the centre of gravity of the object. 8.3 l. Its volume is 15. For a body immersed in a fluid the buoyant force _______ with increase in density of the body. 7. Its weight when fully immersed in oil of specific gravity 0. When the centre of gravity is below the centre of buoyancy the floating body will be unstable.8 will be . An object weighs 50 N in water. (d) Below the centre of gravity of the displaced volume.4 Choose the correct answer 1. 10. 4. 9. For a given shape of a floating body the stability will improve when the density of the body_____ 9. 2. The percentage of volume submerged will be (a) 90% (b) 92% (c) 88% (d) 78%. 7 O Q. 9.3 Indicate whether the following statements are correct or incorrect 1. 8. 8. 9. 6.

1 Determine the buoyant force on a cube of 2 m side which stays afloat in water with its top face horizontal and 0. 2.80 m from bottom] Chapter 4 10. [3074. (7) b. [70632 N] E 4. the relative density of the cube will be (a) 6. (4) c.8 (d) a × 13. When a ship leaves a river and enters the sea (a) It will rise a little (b) It will sink a little (c) There will be no change in the draft. (8) c. 9.2 are connected by a weightless string and placed in water.6/2 . (3) b. (a) one cube will completely submerged and the other will be completely outside the surface.2 m above the free surface. A cube of side. (4) a EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 4. 7. 3.3 (b) 7. (10) b B (a) (b) (c) (d) weight of displaced volume CG of displaced volume Stability Always stabe. If water is filled in the tank.5 Match the sets A and B A 1. Metacentric height G below B Centre of buoyancy Buoyant force (6) a.8 and 1. Considering the relative density of mercury as 13. a floats in a mercury/water layers with half its height in mercury. Determine the buoyant force and the weight that may be supported by the balloon.6. (3) b. 4. (c) will float in neutral equilibrium. O Q.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 139 6. (d) It will depend on the type of the ship. (2) d. The surrounding air is at 20° C and 1 bar while the hot air inside the balloon is at a temperature of 70° C. (a) 40 N (b) 62. (2) b.93 N. Answers (1) c. Neglect the self weight of the drum. When a block of ice floating in water in a container begins to melt the water level in the container (a) will rise (b) will fall (c) will remains constant (d) will depend on the shape of the ice block. Answers (1) b. [1.2 A hot air filled balloon of 8m diameter is used to support a platform.5 N (c) 80 N (d) 65 N. (d) heavier cube will submerge completely and the lighter one will submerge to 0.3 A closed cylindrical drum of 3 m dia and 2 m height is filled fully with oil of specific gravity 0. Two cubes of equal volume but of specific weights of 0. 8. at what height of water level. (b) heavier cube will go down completely and the lighter one to 0.9 is placed inside an empty tank vertically.25 times its volume. the drum will start floating. 403. (9) c. (5) c.3 (c) 6. 4.8 times its volume. For a floating body to be in stable equilibrium (with usual notations) (a) I/V = GB (b) I/V < GB (c) I/V > GB (d) I/V = MG.37 N] E 4.

11 A cylinder with diameter 0.6 m and height 2 m floats in water.21 A long log of 2. If the specific gravity of the wood was 0. Determine its stability if its specific weight is 8000 N/m3. Calculate the depth of floatation. find the dimension of the cubic block.25 m and length 0.9 kg/m3. 2. [1.5 floats in water.9 m.4 A balloon is filled with hydrogen of density 0.8 Determine the specific gravity of a liquid when a hydrometer which is in the form of a sphere of 20 mm dia attached with a cylindrical stem of 5 mm dia and 200 mm length showed a depth of immersion of the stem of 100 mm.8] E 4. Calculate the volume and specific gravity of the material.12 A hollow cylinder with ID 0. 1.5 m below the water level. [7.72 m] E 4. The same object weighs 35 N when fully submerged in an oil of specific gravity 0.81 m] E 4.20 A wooden block when floating in glycerin projects 76 mm above the surface of the liquid. determine the specific gravity of the metal.17 The stem of a hydrometer is of cylindrical shape of 2.6 m] E 4. Determine its metacentric height. To support 50 N of weight in an atmospheric condition where the sir/density is 0.8.140 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 4.5 m floats in water.14 Determine the D/h ratio for a stable floating log of circular cross section with density 800 kg/ m 3. Assume the centre to be on the vertical line. OD 1.5 m dia and 0.8 mm dia and it weighs 0. The centre of gravity of each unit may be taken to be at the geometric centre and along the same line. what is the required outer diameter? [unstable.7 An object weighs 20 N when fully submerged in water.667. [0.13] E 4.56. If the fraction of volume above the surface was 0.0416 × 105 Nm] E 4.6.88 kg/m3] E 4. 7 wide and 2 m deep weighing 500 kN carrying on its deck a boiler of 3 m dia weighing 300 kN.6 Determine the depth of immersion of a cubic block of 2 m side weighing 20 kN which floats in a liquid whose specific weight varies as 9810 (1 + depth in m).15 Determine the maximum density of a conical wooden block of 0.821.865 m. [5.67] E 4. The total mass of hydrometer is 15 grams.13 A torus of D = 2 m and d = 0. Determine the specific gravity of the oil.28 m] E 4. [0. If the density of the cubic block material is 2000 kg/m3.4. Check the stability of the cylinder if its specific gravity is 0. [1. It floats 22. how much of the block wil project above the surface in water.45.78] E 4. [unstable] E 4.0216 N.5 mm deeper in an oil than in alcohol of specific gravity 0. [756 kg/m3] E 4.00408 m3. [1.9 Determine the metacentric height of a ship for rolling (Y – Y aixs) and pitching (X – X axis) whose plan view is in the form of an ellipse with major axis of 40 m and minor axis of 15 m. [2. Assume density of sea water as 1025 kg/ m 3. 9 m long.08 kg/m3. For stability of the cylinder. 1265.8 m.8 m height to float stably in water.45 floats in water.5 A box of size 1m × 2m × 3m and weight 1000 N to lie just submerged in water is held down with a cubic block placed on it.65 × 10–3 m–3.10 Determine the metacentric height of a ship which displaces 5000 kN of water when it tilts by 6° due to the movement of 300 kN weight through 3 m from one side of center line to the other. Calculate the diameter of the balloon? [2. Determine its volume and density.16 Determine the metacentric height of the combined unit of a rectangular pontoon. 51. [7. Specific gravity of glycerin is 1.18 A metal piece floats in mercury of specific gravity 13. [1 m] E 4. [1. The weight of the ship is 9000 kN and the centre of buoyancy is 2 m below the water level and the centre of gravity is 0.15 m] E 4.5 with specific gravity 0.5 m dia and 4.458] E 4.5 m length and of specific gravity of 0. The cubic block is also submerged in water. [50 mm] E 4.19 A piece of material weighs 100 N in air and when immersed in water completely it weighs 60 N. 1.479 m] E 4. Also calculate the restoring torque for a tilt of 4° from vertical. . [0.

[1.026. The mass is 453.34 Show that in the case of cylindrical hydrometer. E 4.4 is to be shown by 40 mm by a hyrometer of mass 25 gram.753 m.29 A cube side 60 cm is made of two equal horizontal layers of specific gravity 1. and A is the sectional area of the stem.27 The difference in specific gravities of 1.08475 N] E 4. Determine the weight of the tank.22 A tank of 1. the depth of immersion is 6.02. Water rises by 0.6 and floats in a bath made of two layers of sepecific gravity 1.6 m inside. What should be the diameter of the stem.2 and 0. [0.7 m × 10 m and is 3 m in height. determine the depth of immersion. The water level is 1 m from the top. If the wedge is 50 cm wide.31 A wedge of wood of specific gravity 0.5 m is forced into water by 666 N.1 and 1.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 141 E 4. for a hydrometer of 10 mm dia.25 A sphere of 1.4 m. the top layer being 60 cm thick. (y in mm). The centre of gravity is at 4 m from bottom. the difference in the height of immersion in liquid of specific gravity S.2 is immersed in a fluid whose sepcific gravity increases with depth y as 1 + 20 × 10–6 y. Calculate the depth of immersion in fresh water.25 m dia floats half submerged in water. E 4.26 The distance between the markings of specific gravity of 1 and 1. E 4. over the height h of immersion in water is given by h = V (S – 1) × A × S where V is the submerged volume in water.1 is 10 mm. Determine the weight of the unit. E 4. [4. If 3000 m3 protrudes above the water level calculate the total volume of the iceberg. If a chain is used to tie it at the bottom so that it is submerged completely.24 Determine whether a cylinder of 0.32 A cube of side 40 cm weighing 1050 N is lowered into a tank containing water over a layer of mercury. E 4.23 A ship with vertical sides near the water line weighs 4000 tons and the depth of immersion is 6. [0.2 m] E 4. Also determine the restoring torque if it is rotated by 5° about the axis. Investigate the stability. E 4.67 m dia and 1. Chapter 4 . E 4. Determine the location of the centre of the sphere when it will float in nuteral equilibrium.4 and 0. When 200 tons or water ballast is discharged.28 A sphere of specific gravity 1. Determine the location of the base from the liquid surface.83.65 and base width 0.3 m length will float vertically in stable condition in oil of specific gravity 0.9.7056 m in sea water of specific gravity 1. Determine the position of the block under equilibrium.95 mm] E 4.92 floats in ocean water of specific gravity 1.5 m dia and 2 m length open at one end is immersed in water with the open end in water.7 m centreline.30 A barge is of rectangular section of 26. stable. Determine the metacentric height for rotation along the 26.33 An iceberg of specific gravity 0. 1904 kN/m] E 4.5 m and height 0.62 tons with load. E 4. determine the tension in the chain.

Just like the topography of a region is visualised using the contour map. the flow behaves very much like ideal fluid. The fluid element acted on by the force may move along a steady regular path or randomly changing path depending on the factors controlling the flow. The main attempt in this chapter is to visualise flow fields. Such a study is generally limited to ideal fluids. In real fluid shows. In order to obtain a complete picture of the flow the fluid motion should be described mathematically. In some cases the velocity may vary randomly with time but the variation will be about a mean value . Hence these studies are applicable in real fluid flow also with some limitations. The study of the velocity of various particles in the flow and the instantaneous flow pattern of the flow field is called flow kinematics or hydrodynamics. 142 .0 Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts— Hydrodynamics INTRODUCTION In the previous three chapters the pressure distribution in static fluids and its effect on surfaces exposed to the fluid was discussed. fluids which are incompressible and inviscid.# 5. the flow can be visualised using the velocity at all points at a given time or the velocity of a given particle at different times. It should be noted that the velocity at a point is the velocity of the fluid particle that occupies that point. Such continuing deformation will lead to the displacement of the fluid element from its location and this results in fluid flow. A flow field is a region in which the flow is defined at all points at any instant of time. It may also vary completely randomly as in the atmosphere. In this chapter the flow of ideal fluids will be discussed. It is then possible to also define the potential causing the flow. Application of a shear force on an element or particle of a fluid will cause continuous deformation of the element. beyond a certain distance from the surfaces. The means to that is to define the velocities at all the points at different times. The velocity may also remain constant with time or may vary randomly.

The reaction on surfaces are calculated on the basis of these laws. A moving coordinate system has to be used.. y. z. This is equivalent to the observer moving with the particle to study the flow of the particle. However the final description of a given flow will be the same by both the methods.e. The determination of flow velocity for a specified mass flow rate and flow area is based on the continuity equation derived on the basis of this law. the description of flow is on fixed coordinate system based and the description of the velocity etc. 5.1 LAGRANGIAN AND EULARIAN METHODS OF STUDY OF FLUID FLOW 143 In the Lagrangian method a single particle is followed over the flow field. This is the basis for the derivation of Euler and Bernoulli equations for fluid flow. 5. Such an analysis provides a picture of various parameters at all locations in the flow field at different instants of time. This also leads to the situation that the total energy of a fluid element in a steady flow field is conserved. the co-ordinate system following the particle. This method is more involved mathematically and is used mainly in special cases. The flow description is particle based and not space based.3 FLOW OF IDEAL / INVISCID AND REAL FLUIDS Ideal fluid is nonviscous and incompressible.2 BASIC SCIENTIFIC LAWS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW (ii) Newton’s laws of motion: These are basic to any force analysis under various conditions of flow. (iii) Law of conservation of energy: Considering a control volume the law can be stated as “the energy flow into the volume will equal the energy flow out of the volume under steady conditions”. Under conditions of steady flow this will mean that the mass leaving the control volume should be equal to the mass entering the volume. . t) and not with reference to a particular particle. V = V (x. Shear force between the boundary surface and fluid or between the fluid layers is absent and only pressure forces and body forces are controlling. The resultant force is calculated using the condition that it equals the rate of change of momentum. Chapter 5 (i) Law of conservation of mass: This law when applied to a control volume states that the net mass flow through the volume will equal the mass stored or removed from the volume. In the Eularian method. Momentum equation for flow is derived based on these laws. This method provides an easier visualisation of the flow field and is popularly used in fluid flow studies. are with reference to location and time i. (iv) Thermodynamic laws: are applied in the study of flow of compressible fluids.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5.

However the flow after a short distance from the surface is not affected by the viscous effects and approximates to ideal fluid flow. The results of ideal fluid flow analysis are found applicable in the study of flow of real fluids when viscosity values are small. Flow of liquids can be considered as incompressible even if the density varies a little due to temperature difference between locations.6 LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW If the flow is smooth and if the layers in the flow do not mix macroscopically then the flow is called laminar flow. t) where t is time. The classification will depend upon the constancy or variability of the velocity with time. In the next three sections. y. In steady flow the property values at a location in the flow are constant and the values do not vary with time. If the density varies with location. z) etc. The velocity or pressure at a point remains constant with time. Low velocity flow of gases with small changes in pressure and temperature can also be considered as incompressible flow. y. In unsteady flow the appearance of the flow field will vary with time and will be constantly changing. the properties vary with time or V = V(x.4 STEADY AND UNSTEADY FLOW In order to study the flow pattern it is necessary to classify the various types of flow. Momentum.5 COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW If the density of the flowing fluid is the same all over the flow field at all times. then such flow is called incompressible flow. P = P(x. z. the flow is called compressible flow. In the case of unsteady flow. heat and mass transfer between layers will be at molecular level of pure diffusion. these are described. In steady flow a picture of the flow field recorded at different times will be identical. P = P(x. but the mean value at a point over a period of time is constant. For example a dye injected at a point in laminar flow will travel along a continuous smooth line without generally mixing with the main body of the fluid. y. t). For practical purposes turbulent flow is considered as steady flow as long as the mean value of properties do not vary with time. 5. 5. 5. z). This causes .144 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Real fluids have viscosity and surface shear forces are involved during flow. For example u = u + u′ where u is the velocity at an instant at a location and u is the average velocity over a period of time at that location and u′ is the fluctuating component. In laminar flow layers will glide over each other without mixing. y. These can be expressed as V = V(x. In this chapter the study is mainly on incompressible flow. z. In turbulent flow the velocity at any point fluctuates around a mean value. In turbulent flow fluid layers mix macroscopically and the velocity/temperature/mass concentration at any point is found to vary with reference to a mean value over a time period. Flow through fans and blowers is considered incompressible as long as the density variation is below 5%.

In three dimensional flow all the three components will exist and V = V(x. The smoke in still air will be found to rise along a vertical line without mixing. y. t) . dz are the displacements in the directions x. y. z.8 VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION COMPONENTS The components of velocity can be designated as u= dx dy .Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 145 higher rate of momentum/heat/mass transfer. Depending on the relative values of u. y. This describes the general steady flow situation. If the components of the velocity in a flow field exist only in one direction it is called one dimensional flow and V = V (x). 5. v and w approximations can be made in the analysis. In general as u = u(x.7 CONCEPTS OF UNIFORM FLOW. For a flow to be reversible. z). REVERSIBLE FLOW AND THREE DIMENSIONAL FLOW If the velocity value at all points in a flow field is the same. then the flow is defined as uniform flow. Laminar flow will prevail when viscous forces are larger than inertia forces. dy. v = v(x. The fluid can be restored to its original condition without additional work input. z.v= dt dt and w = dz dt where t is the time and dx. The difference between the flows can be distinguished by observing the smoke coming out of an incense stick. Turbulence will begin where inertia forces begin to increase and become higher than viscous forces. If there are no pressure or head losses in the fluid due to frictional forces to be overcome by loss of kinetic energy (being converted to heat). z. This is the laminar region. y. At a distance which will depend on flow conditions the smoke will be found to mix with the air as the flow becomes turbulent. ay = dt dt dt as u = u (x. In two dimensional flow one of the components will be zero or V = V(x. t). z. y. t) and w = w(x. Denoting the velocity components in x. z. t). v and w. z. in one dimensional flow two of the components of velocity will be zero. The velocity in the flow is independent of location. The flow in a venturi (at low velocities) can be considered as reversible and the pressures upstream and downstream of the venturi will be the same in such a case. In unsteady flow V = V(x. y. . y). Certain flows may be approximated as uniform flow for the purpose of analysis. t) Defining acceleration components as ax = dw du dv and az = . y and z directions as u. Chapter 5 5. y. The flow becomes irreversible if there are pressure or head losses. though ideally the flow may not be uniform. no surface or fluid friction should exist. the flow becomes reversible. A dye injected into such a flow will not flow along a smooth line but will mix with the main stream within a short distance.

perpendicular to the x direction and located at x.146 ax = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂z ∂u + + + ∂x ∂t ∂y ∂t ∂z ∂t ∂t ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t =u Similarly. the flow through face during time dt is given by ρu dy dz dt The flow through the y – z face at x + dx is given by ρu dy dz dt + ∂ (ρ u dy dz dt) dx ∂x (5. dz in the flow as shown in Fig 5. Applying the law of conservation of mass.9.9 CONTINUITY EQUATION FOR FLOW—CARTESIAN CO-ORDINATES rvdx + ¶ (rvdx) dy ¶y B r u dy r v dx A C rudy + ¶ (rudy) dx ¶x D Figure. 5. The last term is known as local accleration term. because these represent the convective act of moving from one position to another.2) .9. for a given time interval.1. First considering the y – z face. 5.1) (5.9. because the flow at a point is changing with time.1 Derivation of continuity equation Consider an element of size dx. dy.9. only the convective acceleration terms will exist. and ay = u az = u The first three terms in each case is known as convective acceleration terms. The net mass flow into the element through all the surfaces = The change in mass in the element. Under steady flow conditions.

9) Whether a flow is steady can be checked using this equation when the velocity components are specified. For two dimensional steady incompressible flow.9.11) ρ1u1A1 = ρ2 u2 A2 This equation is used to calculate the area.2) and is equal to ∂ (ρu) dx dy dz dt ∂x (5. cancelling common terms dx dy dz dt b g + ∂bρvg + ∂bρwg = ∂ρ ∂y ∂z ∂t (5. Chapter 5 ∂ ρu b g + ∂bρvg + ∂bρwg = 0 .9.8) For incompressible flow this becomes ∂u ∂v ∂w + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z ( 5.7) This is the general equation.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 147 The net mass flow in the x direction is the difference between the quantities given by (5.9.9. or velocity in one dimensional varying area flow. Integrating ρuA = constant. the first term of the general equation alone need be considered. or (5.9.9. the equation reduces to ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (5.5 ) The change in the mass in the control volume equals the rate of change of density × volume × time or ∂ρ dx dy dz dt ∂t ∂ ρu ∂x (5.4) (5.9. like flow in a nozzle or venturi.6) The sum of these quantities should equal zero.9.9. For steady flow this reduces to ∂x ∂y ∂z (5.3) Similarly the net mass through the faces z – x and x – y in y and z directions respectively are given by ∂ (ρv) dx dy dz dt ∂x ∂ (ρw) dx dy dz dt ∂x (5.1) and (5.9.10) For one dimensional flow with varying area.9. For steady flow ∂ ρu dy dz ∂x b g = 0 as dy dz = dA.

5.10.10 IRROTATIONAL FLOW AND CONDITION FOR SUCH FLOWS Irrotational flow may be described as flow in which each element of the moving fluid suffers no net rotation from one instant to the next with respect to a given frame of reference.∆t.2) 5.10.1.11. The symbol used is Γ. At 1 the undeformed element is shown. y) B Da ¶v Dx. ∆y.1 Rotation in Flow An element is shown moving from point 1 to point 2 along a curved path in the flow field. 5. For irrotational flow. The angle of rotation of y axis is given by (∂u/∂y). In case there is rotation. then the flow will be irrotational.148 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5.e.Dt ¶x ¶u Dy. If the axes of the element rotate equally towards or away from each other. circulation is defined as the line integral of velocity about this closed path. The angle of rotation of x axis is given by (∂v/∂y).1 Irrotational flow : Da = Db y D Dy A 1 O Dx x 2A B u = u (x. the condition to be satisfied for irrotational flow is. This means that as long as the algebraic average rotation is zero.15. the angle of rotation of the axes towards each other or away from each other should be equal i. (It is assumed that ∆x = ∆y. (5.10.. ∆y. As it moves to location 2 the element is deformed. .Dt ¶y Db D C C Deformed element Figure 5.11 CONCEPTS OF CIRCULATION AND VORTICITY Considering a closed path in a flow field as shown in Fig. The idea is illustrated in Fig. then the rotation is given by (with respect to the Z axis in the case of two dimensional flow along x and y) ωz = (1/2) (∂v/∂x – ∂u/∂y) and ωz = 0 for irrotational flow.1) Another significance of irrotational flow is that it is defined by a potential function φ for the flow described in para 5.10. y) v = v (x.∆t. ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y or ∂u ∂v – =0 ∂y ∂x (5. the flow is irrotational. In flow along a curved path fluid elements will deform.

dy is considered.1) Chapter 5 Consider the element 1234 in Fig. Stream lines b L V CO b b dL (a) (b) V y 4 v 1 u x 2 u+ ¶u .dy] dx – vdy = [∂v/∂x – ∂u/∂y]dxdy Vorticity is defined as circulation per unit area. 5.11. STREAM TUBE. ¶x ¶x Figure.3b. vorticity and circulation are both zero.11. so Vorticity = (5. Starting at 1 and proceeding counter clockwise. ∂v dΓ ∂u = – ∂x ∂y dxdy (5. In the cartesian co-ordinate if an element dx. The closed path may cut across several stream lines and at each point the direction of the velocity is obtained from the stream line. In polar coordinates Vorticity = ∂vθ 1 ∂vr vθ − + ∂r r ∂θ r 5. Vorticity = circulation per unit area. then the circulation can be calculated as detailed below: dΓ = u dx + [v+(∂v/∂x)dx]dy – [u+(∂u/∂y).e..Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Γ= 149 u cos β dL z z u ds = L L where dL is the length on the closed curve.11.12 STREAM LINES. If at a fixed instant of time a curve is drawn so that it is tangent everywhere to the velocity vectors at these locations . 5. 5. The velocity vector is a function of both position and time.2) For irrotational flow.1 (b). PATH LINES. as its tangent at that point. i. here area is dx dy. STREAK LINES AND TIME LINES The analytical description of flow velocity is geometrically depicted through the concept of stream lines. ¶y ¶y 3 v+ ¶v .1 Circulation in flow The integration can be performed over an element as shown in Fig. u is the velocity at the location and β is the angle between the velocity vector and the length dL.11.

5. they form a line at that instant.12. Since the stream tube is bounded on all sides by stream lines. Path line shows the direction of the velocity of a particle at successive instants of time. Thus stream line shows the mean direction of a number of particles in the flow at the same instant of time.12.1 Stream tube. 3 and 4. Path lines and Streak lines Particles P1. A stream tube is shown diagrammatically in Figure 5. In steady flow these lines will also coincide with stream lines. For example the deformation of a fluid under shear force can be studied using time lines. Under steady flow condition. Path line is the trace of the path of a single particle over a period of time. Since stream lines are tangent to the velocity vector at every point in the flow field. Subsequent observations of the line may provide information about the flow field. Flow can be only through the ends. 2. Stream lines are a series of curves drawn tangent to the mean velocity vectors of a number of particles in the flow. which have passed through a given point like the injection point of a dye in a flow. This leads to visualisation of a stream line in laminar flow as the path of a dye injected into the flow. In steady flow path lines and stream lines will be identical. Streak line Stream tube Stream lines End End (a) P (b) 1 P1 P3 P2 P4 Path lines 3 2 4 Figure 5.1. Path lines and streak lines are shown in Figure 5. P2.12. the flow through a stream tube will be constant along the length. there can be no flow across a stream line. A bundle of neighbouring stream lines may be imagined to form a passage through which the fluid flows.1. At the instant of time considered the positions of the particles are at 1. A line joining these points is the streak line. starting from point P at successive times pass along path lines shown. there can be no flow across the surface. This line is called time line. Such a passage is called a stream tube.13 CONCEPT OF STREAM LINE In a flow field if a continuous line can be drawn such that the tangent at every point on the line gives the direction of the velocity of flow at that point. P3. such a line is defined as a stream line.150 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery then the curve is called a stream line. Streak lines provide an instantaneous picture of the particles. If a number of adjacent fluid particles in a flow field are marked at a given instant. In steady flow any particle entering the flow on the line will travel only along this line. . P4.

B y y + dy dy dy y + dy y y dy dx A y u dy – v dx B A O x Figure. Stream lines define the flow paths of streams in the flow.1 Velocity components along a stream line Referring to Fig. it is shown that stream lines in a flow can be described by a stream function having distinct values along each stream line. along the stream line in two dimensional flow it can be shown that dx dy = u v v y u or v dx – u dy = 0 (5. and noting that the net flow across ds is zero.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 151 There can be no flow across the stream line.13. though the stream line may be curved as there is no component of velocity in the other directions.14. 5. 5.1) Stream line (s) ds ds x dx dy dx v dx u dy dy Figure 5.14.5 considering the velocity at a point and taking the distance ds and considering its x and y components as dx and dy. as the velocity perpendicular to the stream line is zero at all points.14 CONCEPT OF STREAM FUNCTION Refer to Fig. 5.1). The lines serve as boundaries for the stream. 5. The flow along the stream line can be considered as one dimensional flow.1 Stream function—Definition Chapter 5 .13.1 showing the flow field. thus proving the equation (5. The flow entering between two stream lines will always flow between the lines. the flow along y direction = dx v the flow along x direction = dy u These two quantities should be equal for the condition that the flow across ds is zero. co-ordinate system and two stream lines. In the next para.13. In the cartesian co-ordinate system.

if the stream function for a stream line is known.5) As the value of the derivative is the same irrespective of the order in which it is taken the continuity equation is automatically satisfied by the stream function. This technique of superposition is found very useful in the analysis of more complex flows. By substituting for the values of u and v in the continuity equation 5. with complex boundary conditions. . If the velocity is expressed for a flow field in terms of x and y then the stream function value can be obtained by integrating equation 5. It is also possible to combine two flows and then obtain the stream lines for the combined flow.14.3 can be considered as the definition of stream function. ∂2ψ ∂2ψ − =0 ∂x∂y ∂y∂x (5. There are only a limited number of flows which are simple enough that stream function can be easily obtained. It provides a means of plotting and interpreting flow fields. then the velocity at each point can be determined and vice versa. dψ = u dy – v dx then (5. The flow across any line between A and B will be dψ. Consider another stream line B close to A.14. Then ψ is a constant of the streamline A. Let the slow rate be denoted as ψ. Now taking components in the x and y directions.2) and comparing the above two equations.9. ψ= z ∂ψ dx + ∂x z ∂ψ dy + c ∂y (5. As a result of the definition.3) In the practical point of view equation 5. y) (as it has a value at every point) dψ = ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂y (5. stream lines can be plotted and the flow values can also be obtained between the stream lines. If ψ can be described by an equation in x and y then stream line A can be plotted on the flow field. If the value of stream function is expressed in terms of x and y.14.14. Let the flow between stream lines A and B be dψ.1.14. the flow rate across any line joining 0 and any point on A should be the same as no flow can cross the stream line A.14.14. it is seen that u= and v = – ∂ψ ∂x (5.1) If the stream function ψ can be expressed as ψ = ψ (x. Many real flows can be obtained by the combination of the simple flows. Considering the stream line A in figure.10 in terms of ψ. The definition is based on the continuity principle.152 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Stream function is a mathematical expression that describes a flow field.4) The constant provides the difference in flow between various stream lines.

(5.15. it is mathematically possible to define a velocity potential function φ as u= − ∂φ ∂φ . Potential functions exist only in irrotational flow whereas stream functions can be written for all flows.13. These partial derivatives are known as potential gradients and give the flow velocity in the direction of the gradient.15.10.15 POTENTIAL FUNCTION 153 Flow is caused by a driving potential.10.1) The negative sign indicates that φ decreases in the direction of velocity increase.3) Chapter 5 ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y . and flows outside the boundary layer are essentially irrotational. ∂2φ ∂2φ + ∂x 2 ∂y 2 =0 (5. =− 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x Substituting. v=− ∂y ∂x (5. ∂u ∂v = ∂y ∂x Fluid flows which approximate to this condition are found to be large in number. If a fluid flow is irrotational.11. The proof is given in solved problem 5.15.12 and 5. Considering the continuity equation ∂2 φ ∂u ∂ 2 φ ∂v =− 2 .2) This is similar to heat conduction equation with temperature T replacing φ as potential. an equation known as Laplace’s equation results.e.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. Substituting these in the continuity equation. It will be useful to have an idea of the potential at various locations. then equation 5. 5.. If this condition is satisfied everywhere in a flow except at a few singular points. Converging flows. The method of determination of potential function given the velocities or the stream function is described under solved problems 5.1 is satisfied i. Substituting this in equation 5.1 (irrotational flow) ∂v ∂u − =0 ∂x ∂y ∂ 2 φ ∂u ∂2 φ ∂v . Potential function and stream functions are orthogonal to each other.1. =− =− ∂x∂y ∂y ∂y∂x ∂x as these two quantities are equal the irrotationality condition is satisfied.

16.154 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. So and φ = cx = ux In polar coordinates ψ = ur sin θ.16.16 STREAM FUNCTION FOR RECTILINEAR FLOW FIELD (POSITIVE X DIRECTION) It is often found necessary to analyse flow fields around immersed bodies. For other flows can be generally approximated as combinations of these flows. with distance ‘a’ then C0 = 0. the simple flows are described. 5. c) (5.16. u = constant and v = 0. The extent of the approaching flow is often large and possesses straight and parallel stream lines. φ = u(x cos α + y sin α) The stream lines are shown in Fig.1. The flow can be described by the condition. . 5. and the velocity distribution is uniform at a distance from the object. C3 = 2ua etc. dy + z (0) dx = c1 y + c2 where c1 and c2 are constants. 5. Such a flow is termed as rectilinear flow and is of practical importance.16. c2 = 0.1 Rectilinear flow stream and potential lines It y distances are equally spaced.1. f=0 f = – k1 f = – k2 f = k2 f = k1 y = Cy = uy (5.16. a) (5. φ = ur cos θ Considering uniform flow at an angle α with x-axis ψ = u(y cos α – x sin α). The circulation Γ around any closed curve will be zero in this flow (check) Potential function is orthogonal to stream function. i.1. d) y = C3 y = C2 y x y = C1 y=0 y = – C1 y = – C2 y = – C3 Figure. In this section.16. coincident with x axis.1.. b) (5. C1 = ua.1.e. ∴ ψ= z const.17 TWO DIMENSIONAL FLOWS—TYPES OF FLOW There are only a few types of flow for which stream and potential functions can be determined directly. By applying the boundary at y = 0.

17.2.17.17.1.17. The equations describing the flow are ur = 0.17.8) Chapter 5 . The origin is a singular point. The circulation Γ around any closed curve is zero. The velocity at all points at a given radial distance will be the same.17. The circulation around any closed curve is zero.2 Sink Flow Sink is the opposite of source and the radial streamlines are directed inwards to a common point.17. where θ is the angle of the stream line.17. where the fluid is absorbed at a constant rate. uθ = (K/2πr) ψ = – (K/2π) ln r. C2 etc are simply Figure 5. The velocity increases as the fluid moves inwards or as the radius decreases. (5.17.17. φ = (q/2π) ln r The stream lines are shown in Fig.2) (5.17.6) y=0 y = – C5 y = – C6 y = – C7 Figure 5. As the area increases along the outward direction. ψ = – (q/2π)θ . FG q IJ θ .17.1 Source Flow 155 A source flow consists of a symmetrical flow field with radial stream lines directed outwards from a common point. The equations describing the flow are: by Velocity at radius r for flow rate of strength q is given ur = q/2πr (5.5) (5.1 Potential and stream lines for source flow The origin is a singular point. φ = – (K/2π)θ (5.1) y = C3 y y = C4 y = C2 y = C1 f = – k2 f = – k1 y=0 z Stream function is represented by ψ = (q/2π)θ The velocity in the tangential direction is zero uθ = 0 (5. counter clockwise is taken as +ve.4) y = C5 y = C6 y = C7 The potential function is represented by φ = – (q/2π) ln r The stream lines are shown in Fig. the origin from where fluid is supplied at a constant rate q.7) (5.17. In this case also the velocity at all points at a given radial distance from the origin will be the same.17. H 2π K y = – C2 y = – C3 y y = – C4 y = – C1 f = k2 f = k1 z 5.2 Stream and potential lines for sink flow 5. uθ = 0. The origin is at the centre and is a singular point). the velocity will decrease and the stream lines will spread out as the fluid moves outwards. origin.17. Here C1.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. the velocity will increase. 5. 5.3) (5. The equations describing the flow are ur = – (q/2πr) .3 Irrotational Vortex of Strength K (Free vortex.

The equations describing the flow are ur = – (Λ/r2) cos θ . where ds is the distance between them. φ = – (Λ cos θ/r) (5. At r = o.9) (5. Such a flow is obtained by allowing a source and sink of equal strengths merge and Λ = q ds/2π . In this case the velocity varies inversely with radius. f = k1 y = – C2 y = – C3 y f = k2 z f = – k2 y=0 f = – k1 y = – C1 y = C3 y = C2 y = C1 Figure 5. uθ = – (Λ/r2) sin θ ψ = – ( Λ sin θ/r). 5.156 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Circulation Γ = K for closed curve enclosing origin and Γ = 0 for any other closed curves.17. velocity will tend to be ∞ and that is why the centre is a singular point.17. In this case Λ takes a definite value. ds→0.10) The equation and the plot are for the limiting condition.17.17. f = – k2 f = – k3 f = – k1 y = – C4 y = – C3 y = – C2 y = – C1 f=0 z y f = – k4 f = – k5 f = – k6 f = – k1 Figure 5.4 Doublet of Strength Λ The centre is at the origin and is a singular point.4 Potential and stream line for doublet .3.3 Irrotational vortex Forced vortex is discussed in solved problem 5.17.

18. The wake flow (behind the body) can be visualised by means of a sink and uniform flow. φ = – (q/2π) ln r – ur cos θ Figure 5.1. 5. Combining ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = (q/2π)θ1 – (q/2π)θ2 = (q/2π) (θ1 – θ2) Similarly using φ1 = – (q/2π) ln r1 and φ2 = (q/2π) ln r2 φ = φ1 + φ2 = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) Figure 5. In polar coordinates ψ = (q/2π)θ + ur sin θ For uniform flow φ2 = – ux.18. 5. if in uniform flow a cylinder like body is interposed. source. it is found useful to study such combination of flows. This flow can be visualised by the combination of uniform flow and a source. sink etc.1 Source and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Half Body) The combined stream lines are shown in Fig.1 Source and uniform flow P 5.18 PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSING OF FLOWS (OR COMBINING OF FLOWS) 157 Some of the practical flow problems can be more easily described by combination of the simple flows discussed in previous article. the flow area reduces.2 Source and Sink of Equal Strength with Separation of 2a Along x-axis For source flow ψ 1 = (q/2π) θ 1 .Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5.2 Source and sink of equal strength 2 a P Chapter 5 .18. For uniform flow ψ2 = cy = uy ∴ ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = (q/2π) θ + uy. For source flow φ1 = – (q/2π) ln r. for sink flow ψ2 = – (q/2π) θ2.18. The equations describing the flows are.18. The stream lines nearer the body move closer to each other and the flow far removed from the body is still uniform. The velocity in uniform flow along the x direction is u and along y direction is zero. For example. As equations for stream lines are available for flows like uniform flow. Similarly φ = φA + φB Some of the examples follow. Combining φ = φ1 + φ2 = – (q/ 2π) ln r – ux. The simple rule for such a combination of two flows A and B is ψ = ψA + ψB where ψ describes the combined flow and ψA and ψB describe the component flows. in polar coordinates. The flow rate of the source is q. For source flow ψ1 = (q/2π) θ .

For uniform flow φ2 = – ux ∴ φ = (K/2π)θ – ux In polar coordinates.3 ψ = ur [1 – (a2/r2)] sin θ + (K/2π) ln r φ = – ur [1 + (a2/r2)] cos θ + (K/2π)θ where a2 = Λ/u. sink and uniform flow Figure 5.3 for the vortex ψ = (K/ 2π) ln r (clockwise) For uniform flow ψ = uy ∴ ψ = (K/2π) ln r + uy.6 Doublet. and for K<4πau Figure 5. φ = (K/2π)θ – ur cos θ Figure 5.17. For uniform flow ψ2 = uy = ur sin θ ∴ ψ = (Λ sin θ/r) + ur sin θ defining a2 = Λ/u. ψ = (K/2π) ln r + ur sin θ For vortex φ1 = (K/2π)θ.18.18.18.18. ψ2 =uy ∴ ψ = (q/2π)(θ1 – θ2) + uy = (q/2π)(θ1 – θ2) + ur sin θ φ1 = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) and φ2 = – ux ∴ φ = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) – ur cos θ here r is the distance from the origin to the point and θ is the angle made by this line with x axis.4.18. Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow Refer results of para 15.5 Doublet and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Cylinder) Refer results of para 5.3 Source. vortex and uniform flow .1 and 2.17.18. ψ = ur [1 – (a2/r2)] sin θ φ1 = – (Λ cos θ/r). φ2 = – ux = – ur cos θ ∴ φ = – ur [1 + (a2/r2)] cos θ P 5.5 Flow past a cylinder P Figure 5.18.3 Source and Sink Displaced at 2a and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Rankine Body) In this case refer para 5.4 Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow Refer results of section 5.18.158 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. P 5. For doublet ψ1 = Λ sin θ/r. In polar coordinates.18.4 Vortex and uniform flow 5.5 and 15.6 Doublet.17.18. ψ1 = (q/2π) (θ1 – θ2).

9 Sink and vortex . Such a plot is useful for flow visualisation as well as calculation of flow rates at various locations and the pressure along the flow.8 Vortex pair 5.3 ψ = (K/2π) ln (r2/r1).18.9 Vortex Pair (Equal Strength. Chapter 5 Figure 5.7 Source and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) Refer results of para 5. 2a P Figure 5.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5.18.18. Separation by 2a) Refer results of para 15.2 and 3 ψ = – (q/2π)θ – (K/2π) ln r φ = (q/2π) ln r – (K/2π)θ 5.8 Sink and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) Refer results of para 15. φ = (K/2π) (θ2 – θ1) Many more actual problems can be modelled by the use of this basic principle.18.1 and 3 ψ = (q/2π) θ – (K/2π) ln r φ = – (q/2π) ln r – (K/2π) θ P 159 Figure 5. Opposite Rotation.7 Source and vortex 5.19 CONCEPT OF FLOW NET The plot of stream lines and potential flow lines for a flow in such a way that these form curvilinear squares is known as flow net.17. The idea that stream lines and potential lines are orthogonal is used in arriving at the plot.18.18. The lines can be drawn by trial or electrical or magnetic analogue can also be used.17.17.

1 Flow Net SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 5. However the basic idea of flow net is useful. y) ∴ dψ = ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂ψ and as – v and u ∂y ∂x Substituting from definition of ∴ ∴ ∂ψ = – vdx + udy vdx = udy as ψ is constant along a stream line dψ = 0.19.1 for flow through a well rounded orifice in a large tank. . The flow rate along each channel formed by the stream lines will be equal. udx = – vdy ∴ ∂y = – u/v ∂x (2) These values of slopes show that the two sets of lines are perpendicular to each other. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery y f Tank Stream lines Equipotential lines Figure 5. ∴ Substituting for φ = φ (x.19.1. y) dφ = (1) ∂φ ∂φ dx + dy ∂x ∂y ∂φ ∂φ and as – u and – v ∂x ∂y dφ = – udx – vdy as dφ = 0 along an equipotential line. ψ = ψ (x. The pressure drop between adjacent potential lines will also be equal. Prove that the stream function and potential function lead to orthogonality of stream lines and equipotential flow lines. With the advent of computer softwares for flow analysis. The slope of the stream line at this point is thus given by dy v = dx u Similarly. the mechanical labour in the plotting of such flow net has been removed.160 An example is shown in Fig. 5. Hence stream lines and equipotential lines are orthogonal.

dr + r dvt = d (rvt) = 0 or vt r = constant for the flow This relationship holds at all locations except the centre (singular point) The circulation along any streamline can be calculated by the usual procedure of v dL and Γ = 2πrvt Chapter 5 z L As vt r = constant for the flow.2 dΓ = (vt + dvt) (r + dr) d θ + 0 – vt rd θ + 0 = 0 neglecting second order terms and simplifying v t. ψ= A forced vortex is obtained by rotating the fluid as a whole. y2 y1 vt dr r 0=1 y=0 3 2 vt + dvt.3. Determine the stream function for a forced vortex. vr = 0 = 2πr ∂r (radial velocity) Γ dr + (0) rdθ + C 2πr taking that ψ = 0 for the stream line at r =1 z − z ψ= For a clockwise vortex Γ ln r 2π (1) Γ ln r 2π Problem 5. Determine the stream function in the case of free vortex. 161 In free vortex flow the stream lines are concentric circles around the singular point. The stream function can be determined by integration vt = ∴ ψ= Γ − ∂ψ . (r + dr) dq rdq 1 Vt dr dq 4 r Figure P. 5. The flow is irrotational except at the singularity. This condition can be used to show that vt r = constant where vt is the tangential velocity.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Problem 5. The flow is characterised by the equation vt = – ωr and vr = 0 (– sign for clockwise vortex) .2. This is done by considering the circulation around the element going along 1234. circulation is constant for the vortex and Γ is known as vortex strength.

5.3 ∴ ψ= z (ωr) dr + z (0) rd ϕ + C = ωr2/2 + C taking ψ = 0 for the stream line at r = 0. ∂y x + y2 )2 ∂x ∂y ( ∂x ( x + y ) The difference is zero and hence the flow is irrotational.3 and calculating the circulation and then vorticity d Γ = – ω (r + dr) (r + dr) d θ + 0 + ω r rd θ + 0 = – 2 ω rd rd θ as vorticity = d Γ/area and as area = r dθ dr Vorticity = – 2 ω . To check for irrotationality. The vorticity is directly related to the angular velocity of the mass. v= − y x + y2 2 1. Problem 5. = 2 − = 2 =0 2 2 .4. Hence flow is rotational. Show that the flow is steady and 2. ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y LM N L (x + y ) − 2 y ∂v = −M ∂y N (x + y ) 2 2 2 2 2 ( x2 + y2 ) − 2 x2 x2 − y2 ∂u = 2 =– (x 2 + y2 ) 2 (x + y2 )2 ∂x 2 2 2 OP Q OP = y − x Q (x + y ) 2 2 2 The sum is zero and this satisfies the continuity equation and so the flow is steady. . P. Check whether the flow is irrotational To check for steady flow.162 2 vt y 3 dq r wr r dq 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery w (r + dr) (r + dr) dq 1 dr Figure P. ∂u 2 xy ∂v ∂u ∂v 2 xy . 5. In a two dimensional flow the x and y directional velocities u and v are given by u= − x x +y 2 2 . the continuity equation should be used. the condition to be satisfied is. C will vanish and so ψ = ωr2/2 An important aspect of the flow is that the flow is rotational This can be shown by considering an element in the flow as shown in Fig.

= – t2 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = t2. =2 ∂y ∂x So steady flow prevails (ii) This is not a steady flow (iii) So steady flow prevails (b) Check for irrotational flow: ∂u ∂v – =0 ∂y ∂x (i) ∂u ∂v = 2. =–3 ∂y ∂x Hence not irrotational .5. v = – 3x. v = 2y ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (i) ∂v ∂u = 0.6. Check whether the following velocity relations satisfy the requirements for steady irrotational flow.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 163 Problem 5. =1 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 2. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = – 2. (a) Check for steady flow: (ii) u = 3xy. = xt + 2y ∂y ∂x ∴ ∂u ∂v + = 0 So the flow is steady ∂x ∂y (ii) ∴ satisfies the continuity equation and flow is steady (iii) This does not satisfy the requirements for steady flow To Check for irrotational flow: ∂u ∂v − =0 ∂y ∂x ∴ flow is irrotational ∴ flow is not irrotational ∴ flow is not irrotational Chapter 5 (i) ∂u ∂v = 1. v = 0. Check whether the following flows are (i) steady and (ii) irrotational (i) u = 2y. = yt ∂y ∂x (ii) (iii) Problem 5. (i) u = x + y. v = xyt + y2 To check for steady flow use continuity equation: (i) ∂u ∂v = 1. v = x – y (ii) u = xt2 + 2y . =–1 ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u = t2. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = 3y. v = x2 – y t2 (iii) u = xt2. (iii) u = –2x. = 2x ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 0.

The stream function for a flow is given by ψ = xy. ∴Flow is irrotational ∂y ∂x (ii) vorticity and (iii) circulation will be zero for irrotational flow.164 (ii) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∂u ∂v = 3x. y) u= ψ= ∂ψ = ƒ1 (x. Problem 5. u = =x ∂y ∂x u = x.7.8. ∂x ∂y (2) Let ∴ ∴ u = f1 (x. ∂x ∂ψ ∂ = [ ∂x ∂x z f1 (x. ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂v = 0. y) ∂y z f1 (x. u = ∂ψ and ∂y v=– ∂ψ . Is the flow irrotational? Determine (i) u. y). = 0. as ψ = xy. v = – y ∂v ∂u = . y) = – v comparing the terms with f2 (x. f ′ (x) can be obtained . y). (i) From the definition stream function. y) dy ] + f ′ (x) = f2 (x. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 0. using equation 1 determine the derivative. v (ii) the vorticity and (iii) circulation. Describe the method of determination of the stream function given the velocity relationship and also determine the stream function given u = 4xy and (1) First check for continuity v = c – 2y2 The method used for the determination of stream function is described below ∂v ∂u + = 0. =0 ∂y ∂x Hence not irrotational (iii) Hence irrotational Problem 5. y) dy + f (x) where the second terms is a function of x only (3) Let –v= ∂ψ = ƒ2 (x. ∂x v=– ∴ For irrotational flow ∂ψ ∂ψ = – y.

v = x – 2y (1) Check for continuity ∂v ∂u = 2. v = – = – 2y2 + c ∂y ∂x . = – 2 ∴ Satisfies continuity ∂y ∂x (2) ∂ψ = u = 2x + y ∂y ψ= z (2x + y) dy + f(x) (A) = 2xy+ (y2/2) + f(x) (3) Using A. v = – = – 2y + x ∂y ∂x Chapter 5 ∂ψ ∂ψ = 4xy. ∴ continuity is satisfied ∂y ∂x (2) ∴ u= ψ= ∂ψ = 4xy ∂y z 4xy dy = 2xy2 + f(x) (A) where f(x) is a function of x only (3) ∂ψ = – v = 2y2 – c ∂x = 2y2 + f ′ (x) (Using equation A) Differentiating equation (A) w.9. = – 4y. Determine the stream function given. x and comparing f ′(x) = – c. ψ= 165 z f(x)dx + z f1 (x. y)dy + constant v = c – 2y2 ∂v ∂u = 4y. ∂ψ = 2y + f ′ (x) = – v = 2y – x ∂x f ′ (x) = – x. f(x) = – cx (4) Now substitute for f(x) in A ψ = 2xy2 – cx + constant Check (use equation B) u= (B) Problem 5.t. f(x) = – x2/2 ψ = 2xy + (y2/2) – (x2/ 2) + Constant u= ∴ Check ∂ψ ∂ψ = 2x + y. u = 2x + y .r.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics (4) (1) u = 4xy.

∂y ∂y ∴ v=– ∴ So the flow is irrotational and hence the function is valid. Validate the potential function given as (i) φ = y2 – x2 (ii) φ = xy A potential function should satisfy the laplace equation ∂2φ ∂2φ + =0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 It should also satisfy the condition for irrotational flow ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y Case (i) ∂φ ∂φ ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ = – 2x. Problem 5. 2 = 2 ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂u =0 ∂y ∂v =0 ∂x Hence Laplace equation is satisfied. ∂x ∂x ∂φ ∂( y 2 + x 2 ) =– = –2y. Case (ii) φ = xy. Explain how the validity of a given potential function φ is established. Stream function may exist. but if the flow is rotational potential function will not be valid. Explain how the potential function can be obtained if the stream function for the flow is specified. φ can be determined using the same procedure as per the determination of stream function u=– ∴ φ=– ∂φ ∂x z udx – f(y) (A) where f(y) is a function of y only . ∂y ∂x 2 ∴ ∂2φ =0 ∂y 2 ∂v =–1 ∂x Hence valid. To check for irrotational flow u=– ∂φ ∂( y 2 − x 2 ) =− = 2x. (2) The values of u and v are obtained from the stream function as ∂ψ ∂ψ = u and =–v ∂y ∂x (3) From the knowledge of u and v.v=– =–x ∴ ∂y ∂y Hence irrotationality is satisfied. = 2y. 2 = – 2. = x.11. ∂φ =y ∂x ∴ ∂2φ ∂φ = 0. The function is a valid potential function. u=– ∂φ =–y ∴ ∂x ∂u ∂ψ =–1.10. (1) Irrotational nature of the flow should be checked first.166 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 5.

Hence flow is irrotational.12. ∂y ∂x ψ = – 8xy u= ∂ψ = – 8x ∴ u = – 8x. – v = = 3x. determine the potential function (ii) ψ = – 8xy (iii) ψ = x – y ∂ψ ∂ψ = – 3y . φ = 3xy + constant check Chapter 5 ∴ f ′(y) = 0 and so f(y) = constant ∂φ ∂2φ ∂2 φ ∂2 φ ∂ 2φ + 2 = 0. in this case both are zero. = 3y. ∴ f(y) = – 4y2 ∂φ = f ′(y) = – v = – 8y ∂y ∴ φ = 4x2 – 4y2 . u = – 3y. also u = – φ = 3xy +f(y) z 3ydx + f(y) (A) Differentiating equation A with respect to y and equating to v. so checks ∂x ∂y ∂φ ∂x ∴ φ= To check for irrotationality (2) u = – 3y. ∂y –v= ∂ψ = – 8y ∂x ∴ v = 8y Check for irrotationality : ∂u ∂v . ∂φ = 3x + f ′y = – v = 3x ∂y Substituting in A. So also 2 = 0 ∂y ∂x 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x 2 u=– So checks. v = – = – 3x also checks.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics ∂φ is determined and equated to – v ∂y 167 Comparing f ′(y) is found and then f(y) is determined and substituted in equation A φ=– (i) ψ = (3/2) (x2 – y2) (i) u= z udx – f(y) + C Problem 5. = ∂y ∂x ∂φ = – u = 8x φ = ∂x z 8xdx + f(y) = 4x2 + f (y) differentiating this expression with respect to y. For the following stream functions. (ii) ∂φ ∂φ = – 3y. = 0 . here both are – 3. v = – 3x ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = .

a constant can be added to the function ψ as well as φ. the condition for irrotationality is to be checked.t. ∂y ∂ψ = 2xy = – v . y. ∂y ∂x Hence satisfies the condition Check for rotation: ∂v ∂u + =0 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = – 2y. Laplace equation etc. ∂ψ ∂ψ = – 1. ∂ψ = 2xy + f ′ (x) = – v = 2xy ∂x ∴ ∴ Check: f ′ (x) = 0 and f (x) = constant. Given that u = x2 – y2 and v = – 2xy. A similar procedure is to be adopted to obtain stream function when potential function is specified. x. v = – =–1 ∂y ∂x ∴ ∂u ∂v = = 0. Check for continuity. ψ = x2y – y3/3 + constant ∂ψ = x2 – y2 = u. as an exercise. ∂y ∂x ∂φ = – u = 1. ∂v ∂u = 2x. checks.r. Also calculate u and v from this expression and check (iii) ψ = x – y. = – 2y ∂y ∂x (i) To determine the stream function u= ∴ flow is irrotational ∂ψ = x2 – y2 ψ = x2 y – (y3/3) + f(x) ∂y Differentiating this expression w. Only in the case of potential function.168 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Check for countinuity. ∂x Differentiating w.r. = – 2x. determine the stream function and potential function for the flow. φ= z 1 dx + f(y) = x + f (y) ∂φ = f ′(y) = – v = 1 ∂y ∴ φ=x+y ∴ f(y) = y (Check for other conditions) Note: In all cases.t. In this case stream function will always exist. checks ∂x .13. u= Hence flow is irrotational. Problem 5.

Hence checks. ∂x 2 ∂y 2 (also check calculating u. ψ = 10y + 5x The combined streamlines are shown in Fig. Problem 5. 2y – 2y = 0 ∂x 2 ∂y (ii) To determine the potential function ∂φ = – u = – x2 + y2 .14.14 Chapter 5 ψ1 = uy and in polar coordinates ψ1 = ur cos θ ∴ ψ1 = 10y .t.r. φ = – x3/3 + y2x + f(y) ∂x Differentiating w.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Also 169 ∂2ψ ∂2ψ + 2 = 0 i. 5. ∂ψ = 2xy + f ′(y) = – v = 2xy ∂y ∴ ∴ f ′(y) = 0 and f(y) = constant φ = – x3/3 + y2x + c ∂2φ ∂2φ + = – 2x + 2x = 0. P.8 Figure P. 5.6 26. Derive an expression for the stream function for (i) uniform flow of 10 m/s along the x direction (ii) uniform flow of 5 m/s parallel to the negative y direction (iii) the combination of the two.4 0. v) and for orthogonality.56° 7 9 8 0.2 0.4 6 3 5 0.e. y y2 1 2 3 y= 4 y1 7 6 5 4 10 0.2 3 2 4 2 1 x 0 0.6 0. (i) When the flow is uniform along the x direction with velocity u (ii) For uniform flow along negative y direction with velocity v ψ2 = – (– vx) = vx = 5x (iii) Combining ψ1 and ψ2..14. y.

5 4 3 –5 2 0.15 Problem 5.15 y2 – 1 y1 – 5 –4 –3 –2 –1 y 1 2 1.5 –2 –3 –4 – 4.5 y2 5 For the combined stream lines Figure P.170 At any point the resultant velocity is (u2 + v2)0.5 1 –4 y –3 –2 5. For uniform flow For the sink ψ1 = – uy = – 5y. ψ2 = – 12 θ/2π ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = – 5y – (12θ/2π) The combined flow is shown in Fig.5 3 4 y1 5 –1 – 1.16 For the combined stream lines . Determine the stream function for a uniform x directional flow towards the origin from the positive x direction at 5m/s and a source of strength 12 m For uniform flow For the sink ψ1 = – uy = – 5y. P.60 to the x axis Poblem 5. 5.5 = 11. ψ2 = 12 θ/2π ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = – 5y + (12θ/2π) The combined flow is shown in Fig.5 1 – 5.16. 5.18 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The direction is given by θ = tan–1 (5/10) = 26.15. Show the resulting stream lines.5 = (102 + 52)0.5 –1 2 3 4 4. 5. P. Determine the stream function for a uniform flow in the negative x direction towards the origin at 5m/s combined with a sink flow of strength 12.

The velocity components at point (2. Assume steady incompressible flow. ∂x ∂y u= z (2 – 4y) dx = 2x – 4xy + f(y) .Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics y1 – 10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –0 2 4 6 8 10 y2 5 4 3 2 1 8 10 –2 0 2 4 6 y2 – 5 –4 –3 –2 y = 10 –8 –6 –4 –1 171 Figure P.5) − 2 2 ∂x ∂y FG H IJ K = – 3. 2) is specified by the equation + 3y and v = – 2xy.5 units v= 2y2 Problem 5. ax = u ∂u ∂u ∂u +v + = (x2+ 3y) (2x) + (–2xy) 3 + 0 ∂x ∂y ∂t = 2x3 + 6xy – 6xy = 2x3 = 16 units ay = u Chapter 5 ∂v ∂v ∂v +v + = (x2+3y) (–2y) + (–2xy) (–2x) + 0 ∂x ∂y ∂t = – 2x2y – 6y2 + 4x2y = 2x2y – 6y2 = 2 × 8 – 6 × 4 = – 8 units wz = 1 1 ∂v ∂u = (– 2y – 3) = – (y + 1. determine a possible x component given + 2x – 2y. In a two dimensional flow. Determine the accelerations and vorticity at this point. 5. The continuity equation is ∂u ∂v =0 + ∂x ∂y ∴ ∴ ∂u ∂v =− = – [4y – 2] = 2 – 4y.18.17.16 u= x2 Problem 5.

172

There are numerous possibilities for f(y). One possibility is ∴ f(y) = 0. u = 2x – 4xy.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 5.19. The velocity components in a flow are given by u = 4x, v = – 4y. Determine the stream and potential functions. Plot these functions for ψ = 60, 120, 180, and 240 and φ = 0, – 60, – 120, – 180, + 60, + 120, + 180. Check for continuity

∂u ∂v + = 4 – 4 = 0 checks ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u − =0 ∂x ∂y

flow is irrotational and so φ exists ψ=

z z

4x dy + f(x) = 4xy + f(x) , differentiating w.r.t. y

∂ψ = – v = – (– 4y) = 4y + f ′(x) ∴ f ′ (x) = constant ∂y

ψ = 4xy + constant or ψ = 4xy φ= – 4x dx + f(y) = – 2y2 + f(y),

∂ψ = – v = 4y = f ′(y) ∴ f(y) = 2y2 ∂y

φ = 2y2 – 2x2 + c or φ = 2y2 – 2x2 To plot the stream function, the values of y are calculated for various values of x, using ψ = 4xy or y = ψ/4x. The calculated values of y for x = 1 to 15 and ψ = 60 to 240 are tabulated below.

x ψ 60.000 120.00 180.00 240.00 15.00 30.00 45.00 60.00 7.50 15.00 22.50 30.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 3.75 7.50 11.25 15.00 3.00 6.00 9.00 12.00 1.50 3.00 4.50 6.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 1 2 3 4 5 10 15

These values are shown plotted in Fig P. 5.19 To plot the potential function the values of x or y are calculated for given values y or x using x=±

y 2 − (φ/2)

or y = ±

x 2 + (φ/2)

**Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics
**

The values of y so calculated are tabulated below. The range used is x → 1 to 15, φ → 0, – 60, – 120, –180.

x φ – 60.0 – 120.0 – 180.0 y φ 60.00 120.00 180.00 5.48 7.75 9.49 5.57 7.81 9.54 5.83 8.00 9.70 6.25 8.31 9.95 6.75 8.72 10.30 7.42 9.22 10.72 11.4 12.65 13.78 0 5.57 7.81 9.54 1 5.83 8.00 9.70 2 6.25 8.31 9.95 3 6.75 8.72 10.30 4 7.42 9.22 10.72 5 11.4 12.65 13.78 10 1 2 3 4 5 10 15

173

15.97 16.88 17.75 15

15.97 16.88 17.75

**(when values of x or y exceeded 15, then the corresponding values of y or x for exact values of 15 is calculated and used)
**

y = 60, 120, 180, 240 15 Y f=

0 0 18 12 60 – 0 – 60 0 12 0 18

10

5

0

0

5

X

10

15

Figure P. 5.19 Flux plot for plot of potential and stream lines

Chapter 5

–

**174 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
**

O Q. 5.1. Fill in the blanks: 1. Ideal fluid is defined as 2. Real fluids exhibit . .

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

3. Steady flow is defined as flow where the flow parameters 4. Incompressible flow is defined as flow when 6. Hydrodynamics deals with 7. Irreversibility in flow is due to 8. The laws of thermodynamics apply to 10. 11. In turbulent flow the velocity at a point In laminar flow momentum transfer takes place at . . flow. 5. Under unsteady flow conditions the flow parameters vary with

. does not vary . .

9. The various laws applicable for steady incompressible flow are . level.

.

Answers

1. fluid with zero viscosity 2. viscosity 3. does not vary with time 4. density, with location 5. time 6. ideal fluid flow providing mathematical model for such flow 7. Frictional effects 8. compressible 9. Law of conservation of mass, Newtons laws of motion, Law of conservation of energy 10. varies with time about a mean velocity 11. molecular/microscopic level. O Q. 5.2. Fill in the blanks: 1. Stream line is defined as the line along which to the line. 2. Path line is defined as 3. Streak line is defined as 4. Irrotational flow is defined as 5. Circulation is defined as 6. Vorticity is defined as 7. Stream function is defined by 8. Potential flow function is defined by 9. Potential flow function exists only if the flow is 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Continuity equation is derived using the law of A doublet is defined as a combination of The equation for a free vortex is The slope for stream line is The slope for velocity potential line is . . . . . . . . . . . . at any point is

Answers

1. the velocity vector is, tangent. 2. line described over time by a particle which has passed through a given point. 3. the line showing the location of various particles that passed through a specified point. 4. there is no net rotation of the fluid particles along the flow – equal deformation along the axes as the flow proceeds. 5. the line integral over a closed path, the product of differential length on the path and the velocity component along the length. 6. circulation per unit area. 7. a function describing the flow field in terms of velocities at various locations – a

Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics

175

function describing the stream lines for the flow field (∂ψ/dy = u, ∂ψ/∂x = – v) 8. a function which describes the flow field potential – a function describing the equipotential lines (∂φ/∂x = – u, ∂φ/ ∂y = – v). 9. irrotational. 10. law of conservation of mass. 11. a combination of a source and sink of equal strength. 12. uθr = constant 13. v/u 14. – (u/v) O Q. 5.3. Fill in the blanks 1. Rectilinear flow is defined as . . 2. A source is defined as . 3. A sink is defined as 4. The stream function for rectilinear flow is . . 5. The stream function for source/sink is 6. The stream lines and equipotential lines for a flow field are . . 7. The x and y directional velocities in a flow is specified by the stream function by 8. The x and y directional velocities in a flow field is given by the potential function as . . 9. The condition to satisfied by irrotational flow is . 10. The stream function for a combination of flows with ψA and ψB is

Answers

1. a flow having stream lines parallel to one of the axes axis 2. flow with radial stream lines, directed outwards 3. flow with radial stream lines directed towards the centre 4. ψ = cy where c is a constant equal to the velocity 5. ψ = q θ/2π, q = total flow, θ = angle (in polar co-ordinate), ψ = – q θ/2π 6. perpendicular to each other. 7. u = ∂ψ/∂y v = – ∂ψ/∂y (8) u = – ∂φ/∂x, = – ∂φ/∂y 9. ∂v/∂x = ∂u/∂y 10. ψ = ψA + ψB. O Q. 5.4. Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. 1. An ideal fluid flow is a good approximation for real fluid flow if viscosity is small. 2. Compressible flow is flow of gases. 3. Turbulent flow is unsteady flow. 4. A stream line shows the path of a particle in any flow. 5. For every stream function a potential function should exist. 6. For every potential function a stream function should exist. 7. Stream function can exist only for irrotational flow. 8. Potential function can exist only for irrotational flow. 9. Circulation will be zero for irrotational flow. 10. Free vertex flow is irrotational. 11. Forced vertex flow is irrotational.

Answers

Correct: 1, 2, 6, 8, 9, 10 Incorrect : 3, 4, 5, 7, 11 O Q. 5.5. Choose the correct answer: 1. A flow is defined by u = 2 (1 + t), v = 3(1 + t) where t is the time. The velocyity at t = 2 is (a) 6 (b) 9 (c) 10.82 (d) 6.7. 2. The value of local acceleration in the x direction for flow with u = 2(1 + t) is given by (a) 0 (b) 2t (c) 2 (d) t. 3. The value of x directional convective acceleration in the case of flow with u = 2 (1 + t) and v = 3 (1 + t) equals (a) 0 (b) 5 (c) 1 (d) 5t.

Chapter 5

176

(a) 2x2y2 + 4xy2 + 6y + 8t2y + 6tx (c) x/y 5. The continuity equation is satisfied by (a) u = A sin xy, v = – A sin xy (c) u = 2x2 + cy, v = 3y2 (b) 4xy (d) 2x2y2 + 6tx.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

4. When u = 3 + 2xy + 4t2, v = xy2 + 3t. The x directional acceleration is given by

(b) u = x + y. v = x – y (d) u = x + 2y, v = 2x + y. (b) u = x2 + y2, v = – 2xy + 7 (d) u = 2x + y, v = 4y + x. (b) 3x2 – 3y2, 6xy (d) 3y2 – 3x2, 6xy. (b) φ = c cos x (d) φ = c (x2 + y2).

6. The following represent steady incompressible flow. (a) u = 4xy + 2y2, v = 6xy + 3x2 (c) u = x/y, v = y/x 7. If ψ = 3x2y – y3. The values u and v are (a) 6xy, 3x2 – 3y2 (c) (3x2 – 3y2), – 6xy 8. This is a valid potential function (a) φ = c ln x (c) φ = 3xy

9. The continuity equation for incompressible two dimensional steady flow is (a)

∂u ∂v + = 0, ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v + = 0, ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(b)

∂u ∂v = 0, + ∂y ∂t ∂u ∂v = 0. + ∂y ∂t ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v=– ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= . ∂y ∂x

(c) 10.

(d)

The velocity components in the x and y directions in terms of stream function ψ is given by (a) u = (b) u =

(c) u = –

(d) u = –

Answers

1. c, 2. c, 3. a, 4. a, 5. b, 6. b, 7. c, 8. c, 9. c, 10. b. O Q. 5.6. Choose the correct answer 1. The velocity components in the x and y directions in terms of potential function φ is given by (a) u = –

∂φ ∂φ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(b) u =

∂φ ∂φ ,v=– ∂y ∂x ∂φ ∂φ ,v=– . ∂y ∂x

(c) u =

∂φ ∂φ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(d) u = –

2. The condition for irrotational flow is (a)

∂u ∂v = ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y

(b)

∂u ∂v =− ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u =− . ∂x ∂y

(c)

(d)

**Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics
**

3. The equation of a stream line in two dimensional steady flow can be expressed as (a)

177

dy dx = u v dx dy = . u v

u dy = dx v dy dx = u v

(b)

(c) −

(d) −

4. The flow rate between stream lines with values ψ1 and ψ2 is given by (a) ψ1 + ψ2 (c) ψ2 – ψ1 (a) First law of thermodynamics (c) Newtons second law of motion 6. A path line describes (a) The velocity direction at all points on the line (b) The path followed by particles in a flow (c) The path over a period of times of a single particle that has passed out at a point (d) The instantaneous position of all particles that have passed a point. 7. The relationship between stream and potential functions ψ and φ is (a) (b) ψ1 + Cψ2 (d) C ψ1 + ψ2. (b) Conservation of energy (d) Conservation of mass.

5. The continuity equation is the result of application of the following law to the flow field

∂ψ ∂φ = ∂y ∂x ∂φ ∂ψ = ∂y ∂x

(b)

∂φ ∂ψ =− ∂x ∂y ∂2φ ∂2 ψ . = ∂x 2 ∂y 2

8. The value that will satisfy potential function φ is (a) φ = x2 + y2 (c) φ = x + y 9. The stream function is (a) constant along an equipotential line (c) defined only in irrotational flow 10. A potential function (a) is constant along a stream line (b) is definable if a stream function is available for the flow (c) describes the flow if it is rotational (d) describes the flow if it is irrotational. (b) along a stream line (d) defined only for incompressible flow. (b) φ = sin x (d) φ = ln (x + y).

Answers

1. d, 2. c, 3. d, 4. c, 5. d, 6. c, 7. c, 8. c, 9. b, 10. d. O Q. 5.7. Match the pairs 1. Set A A. Ideal fluid B. Steady flow C. Low velocity gas flow D. Friction Set B 1. Irreversible flow 2. Incompresible flow 3. Zero viscosity 4. Velocity at a point is constant.

Chapter 5

(c)

(d)

178

Answers

A – 3, B – 4, C – 2, D – 1. 2. Set A A. Stream line B. Streak line C. Equipotential line D. Path line Set B

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

1. Path of particles that passed a point 2. The path of a single particle that passed a point 3. Shows velocity 4. Described by potential function.

Answers

A – 3, B – 1, C – 4, D – 2.

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

E 1. Given u = kx in a two dimensional flow determine v. E 2. Given velocity potential, determine the velocity components u and v. (a) φ = ln xy (b) φ = 3 (x2 + y2) (c) φ = a cos xy [– (1/x), (1/y)] [– 6x , – 6y)] [aysinxy, axsinxy] [– ky + f(x)]

E 3. Given stream function ψ = 3x – 4y, calculate the slope of the line and also the value of resultant velocity. Does it satisfy continuity equation? Is the flow irrotational? [θ = 37°, v = 5 units] θ E 4. Given φ = x(2y – 1), determine ψ. E 5. Given ψ = 4x2 – 4y2, find φ. E 6. Find the relationship between a and b if in steady flow u = bx and v = ay, E 7. Show that for two dimensional steady flows with velocity components u and v, ax = u [– y2 + y + f(y)] [φ = 8xy + c] [b = – a ]

∂u ∂u +v ∂x ∂y

and ay = u

∂v ∂v +v . ∂x ∂y

E 8. Given u = 2y, v = x, sketch the flow. Also find ax, ay and a. E 9. If u = 3 + 2xy and v = xy2 determine ax, ay and a. E 10. If u = 3y and v = 2, determine ax and ay. E 11. If u = 0, v = 3xy, determine ax and ay. E 12. If u = – 2y, v = 3xy, determine ax and ay. E 13. Determine the normal and tangential components of acceleration for a circular stream line. E 14. Find φ and ψ given u = 2x and v = – 2y. E 15. If u = 2, v = 8x determine ψ. E 16. Tabulate the values of x and y for ψ = 0, 1, 2, 3 given (i) ψ = 10y. (ii) ψ = – 20x, (i) u = 5, v = 6 (iii) u = 3xy, v = 1.5x2 (v) u = 4 + 2x, v = – y. (iii) ψ = 10y – 20x. (ii) u = 3 + x, v =4 (iv) u = 3x, v = 3y E 17. Determine the stream function if it exists. Also check for irrotationality. [ψ = 2xy + c1, φ = – (x2 – y2) + c2]

Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics

179

E 18. Calculate the values of x and y for stream lines. ψ = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, given ψ = 1.2xy (for one quadrant). E 19. Tabulate and plot ψ = 1.5x2 + y2 for positive values of x, y. E 20. If ψ = x2 – y, find u and v and also the vorticity. E 21. A source discharging 1 m3/sm is at (– 1, 0) and a sink taking in 1m3/sm is at (+1, 0). If this is combined with uniform flow of u = 1.5 m/s, left to right, calculate the length of the resolution of closed body contour. E 22. Two sources one of strength 8π and the other of 16π are located at (2, 0) and (– 3, 0) respectively. For the combined flow field, calculate the location of the stagnation point. Also plot ψ = 4π, ψ = 8π and ψ = 0. E 23. A source of 20m3/sm at (0, 0) is combined with a uniform flow with u = 3m/s from left to right. Determine ψ for the flow. E 24. Given u = x2 + 2x – y and v = – 2xy – 2y, determine ψ. Also compute vorticity.

Chapter 5

$

6.0 INTRODUCTION

Bernoulli Equation and Applications

In chapter five flow of ideal fluids was discussed. The main idea was the study of flow pattern. The determination of equal flow paths and equal potential lines was discussed. No attempt was made to determine the numerical value of these quantities. In this chapter the method of determination of the various energy levels at different locations in the flow is discussed. In this process first the various forms of energy in the fluid are identified. Applying the law of conservation of energy the velocity, pressure and potential at various locations in the flow are calculated. Initially the study is limited to ideal flow. However the modifications required to apply the analysis to real fluid flows are identified. The material discussed in this chapter are applicable to many real life fluid flow problems. The laws presented are the basis for the design of fluid flow systems. Energy consideration in fluid flow: Consider a small element of fluid in flow field. The energy in the element as it moves in the flow field is conserved. This principle of conservation of energy is used in the determination of flow parameters like pressure, velocity and potential energy at various locations in a flow. The concept is used in the analysis of flow of ideal as well as real fluids. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It is possible that one form of energy is converted to another form. The total energy of a fluid element is thus conserved under usual flow conditions. If a stream line is considered, it can be stated that the total energy of a fluid element at any location on the stream line has the same magnitude.

6.1

FORMS OF ENERGY ENCOUNTERED IN FLUID FLOW

Energy associated with a fluid element may exist in several forms. These are listed here and the method of calculation of their numerical values is also indicated.

180

Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6.1.1 Kinetic Energy

181

This is the energy due to the motion of the element as a whole. If the velocity is V, then the kinetic energy for m kg is given by

mV 2 KE = Nm 2 go

The unit in the SI system will be Nm also called Joule (J) {(kg m2/s2)/(kg m/N s2)}

(6.1.1)

The same referred to one kg (specific kinetic energy) can be obtained by dividing 6.1.1 by the mass m and then the unit will be Nm/kg. KE =

V2 , Nm/kg 2 go

(6.1.1b)

In fluid flow studies, it is found desirable to express the energy as the head of fluid in m. This unit can be obtained by multiplying equation (6.1.1) by go/g.

o = Kinetic head = 2 2g go g

V2 g

V2

(6.1.2) =m

The unit for this expression will be

m2 s2 s2 m

Apparantly the unit appears as metre, but in reality it is Nm/N, where the denominator is weight of the fluid in N. The equation in this form is used at several places particularly in flow of liquids. But the energy associated physically is given directly only be equation 6.1.1. The learner should be familiar with both forms of the equation and should be able to choose and use the proper equation as the situation demands. When different forms of the energy of a fluid element is summed up to obtain the total energy, all forms should be in the same unit.

6.1.2 Potential Energy

This energy is due to the position of the element in the gravitational field. While a zero value for KE is possible, the value of potential energy is relative to a chosen datum. The value of potential energy is given by PE = mZ g/go Nm (6.1.3) Where m is the mass of the element in kg, Z is the distance from the datum along the gravitational direction, in m. The unit will be (kg m m/s2) × (Ns2/kgm) i.e., Nm. The specific potential energy (per kg) is obtained by dividing equation 6.1.3 by the mass of the element. PE = Z g/g0 Nm/kg (6.1.3. b) This gives the physical quantity of energy associated with 1 kg due to the position of the fluid element in the gravitational field above the datum. As in the case of the kinetic energy, the value of PE also is expressed as head of fluid, Z. PE = Z (g/go) (go/g) = Z m. (6.1.4)

Chapter 6

182

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

This form will be used in equations, but as in the case of KE, one should be familiar with both the forms and choose the suitable form as the situation demands.

**6.1.3 Pressure Energy (Also Equals Flow Energy)
**

The element when entering the control volume has to flow against the pressure at that location. The work done can be calculated referring Fig. 6.1.1.

Area – A Fluid element 1 P1 L 1 2 Control volume

2

Figure 6.1.1 Flow work calculation

The boundary of the element of fluid considered is shown by the dotted line, Force = P1 A, distance to be moved = L, work done = P1AL = P1 mv as AL = volume = mass × specific volume, v. ∴ flow work = P mv. The pressure energy per kg can be calculated using m = 1. The flow energy is given by FE = P.v = P/ρ, Nm/kg Note:

N m3 Nm → kg m2 kg

(6.1.5)

**As in the other cases, the flow energy can also expressed as head of fluid. FE =
**

P go ,m ρ g

(6.1.5a)

As specific weight γ = ρ g/go, the equation is written as, FE = P/γ, m (6.1.5b) It is important that in any equation, when energy quantities are summed up consistent forms of these set of equations should be used, that is, all the terms should be expressed either as head of fluid or as energy (J) per kg. These are the three forms of energy encountered more often in flow of incompressible fluids.

6.1.4 Internal Energy

This is due to the thermal condition of the fluid. This form is encountered in compressible fluid flow. For gases (above a datum temperature) IE = cv T where T is the temperature above the datum temperature and cv is the specific heat of the gas at constant volume. The unit for internal energy is J/kg (Nm/kg). When friction is significant other forms of energy is converted to internal energy both in the case of compressible and incompressible flow.

Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6.1.5 Electrical and Magnetic Energy

183

These are not generally met with in the study of flow of fluids. However in magnetic pumps and in magneto hydrodynamic generators where plasma flow in encountered, electrical and magnetic energy should also be taken into account.

6.2

VARIATION IN THE RELATIVE VALUES OF VARIOUS FORMS OF ENERGY DURING FLOW

Under ideal conditions of flow, if one observes the movement of a fluid element along a stream line, the sum of these forms of energy will be found to remain constant. However, there may be an increase or decrease of one form of energy while the energy in the other forms will decrease or increase by the same amount. For example when the level of the fluid decreases, it is possible that the kinetic energy increases. When a liquid from a tank flows through a tap this is what happens. In a diffuser, the velocity of fluid will decrease but the pressure will increase. In a venturimeter, the pressure at the minimum area of cross section (throat) will be the lowest while the velocity at this section will be the highest. The total energy of the element will however remain constant. In case friction is present, a part of the energy will be converted to internal energy which should cause an increase in temperature. But the fraction is usually small and the resulting temperature change will be so small that it will be difficult for measurement. From the measurement of the other forms, it will be possible to estimate the frictional loss by difference.

6.3

EULER’S EQUATION OF MOTION FOR FLOW ALONG A STREAM LINE

**Consider a small element along the stream line, the direction being designated as s.
**

s dA P+ ds r dz q P V r g d s dA ¶V ¶P . ds, V + . ds ¶s ¶s

Stream line Element considered

Figure 6.3.1 Euler’s equation of Motion – Derivation

The net force on the element are the body forces and surface forces (pressure). These are indicated in the figure. Summing this up, and equating to the change in momentum. PdA – {P + (∂P/∂s} dA – ρg dA ds cos θ = ρ dA ds as (6.3.1) where as is the acceleration along the s direction. This reduces to,

1 ∂P ρ ∂s + g cos θ + as = 0

(6.3.2)

Chapter 6

as velocity. t).3.3. As it is. or = Constant 2 ρ 2 g0 ρ g0 FG IJ H K (6.3. V = f(s. the first term will have a unit of N/kg while the other two terms will have a unit of m/s2. The assumptions involved are: 1. as = dV/dt. dV = ∂V ∂V ds + dt ∂s ∂t dividing by dt.3.3 can be integrated directly if the flow is assumed to be incompressible.1) The constant is to be evaluated by using specified boundary conditions.3. Motion along a stream line and 3. this equation can be integrated to obtain Bernoulli equation. . Steady flow 2. 1 ∂P ∂z ∂V ∂V + =0 ρ ∂s + g ∂s +V ∂s ∂t ds = V. As dV ∂V ds ∂V = + dt ∂s dt ∂t and as cos θ = dz/ds. it will also have a unit of m/s2).184 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Note: It will be desirable to add go to the first term for dimensional homogeneity. This equation after dividing by g. dp ρ + gdz + VdV = 0 (6. This equation is known as Euler’s equation of motion. dp V2 +d γ 2g F I GH JK + dz = 0 or d LM P + V + zOP N γ 2g Q = 0 2 (6. 6. ρ as ρ = constant P V2 P g V2 + gz + +z + = const. Ideal fluid (frictionless) In the case on incompressible flow.4. The unit of the terms will be energy unit (Nm/kg). Multiplying by go.3 also it is better to write the first term as go. a) For steady flow ∂V/∂t = 0. dt (6. Cancelling ∂s and using total derivatives in place of partials as these are independent quantities. equation 6.4 BERNOULLI EQUATION FOR FLUID FLOW Euler’s equation as given in 6.2. is also written as.2 reduces to. dP + gdz + VdV = 0.4) which means that the quantity within the bracket remains constant along the flow. (t = time).3.dp/ρ for dimensional homogeneity).3) (Note: in equation 6.

32 m/s 10 × 105 2. from point 1 to point 2 which is 1 m above point 1. nozzle meter.6 m and 0.2 Water flows through a horizontal venturimeter with diameters of 0. 2 2 P1 P2 V1 V2 + Z1 + = γ + Z2 + γ 2g 2g Chapter 6 .832 P2 11.4. kg m/N s2 . gravity × 9810. As P/γ is involved directly on both sides.092 bar (9. If the pressure at section 1 is 10 bar. However.3 2 × 9. gauge pressure or absolute pressure can be used without error.81 Solving.3) Example 6. venturimeter.5 bar (vacuum). V1 = 0. Equation 6. Using Bernoulli’s equation in the form. the second term the potential energy and the third term the kinetic energy. it is desirable to use absolute pressure to avoid negative pressure values (or use of the term vacuum pressure).8 × 4/π × 0. or loss of head due to friction occurs.3 m respectively.2) (γ is the specific weight N/m3). In this equation all the terms are in the unit of head of the fluid. Substituting. Using Bernoulli equation in the following form (6.2 m.6 m and 0.092 × 105 N/m2).4.2) P V2 +z+ = constant. orifice meter etc. Barometric pressure is 1 bar. P2 = 9. The first term represents (flow work) pressure energy.33 = 11.3 2 × 9. the equations will read as. P V2 + z+ = constant 2g γ (6.322 +0+ = + 1+ 9810 × 1.83 m/s. Determine the flow rate when the throat pressure is 0. determine the pressure at section 2. Example 6. V2 = 0.8 × 4/π × 0.62 = 2. γ = sp. In case energy is added or taken out at any point in the flow. γ 2g Taking the datum as section 1.1 can also be written as to express energy as head of fluid column.4. The diameters at section 1 and 2 are 0. The guage pressure at the entry is 1 bar. hf g P2 V2 2 z2 g P1 V12 z1 g + + +W − = + + ρ 2 go ρ 2 go go go go where W is the energy added and hf is the loss of head due to friction. This equation is extensively used in practical design to estimate pressure/velocity in flow through ducts. the pressure P2 can be calculated.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 185 In SI units the numerical value of go = 1.4. (6.1 A liquid of specific gravity 1.3 flows in a pipe at a rate of 800 l/s. In calculations using SI system of units go may be omitting as its value is unity. P1 = 10 × 105 N/m2.81 9810 × 1. The constant has the same value along a stream line or a stream tube.

6 m.1 m f 2 0. Z2 = – 0. Example 6. A1V1 = A2V2 Figure Ex.6 + 2 × 9. The jet flows down vertically in a smooth stream. As the velocity is higher the flow area is smaller.54 Q. 2 × 105 0.3 m/s. ∴ D = 0.94 m/s.1 m /s Water A 0.548 m3/s.83Q 3. V2 = 17. V1 = 2.6 m Q = 0.602) = 3. γ γ 2g 2g P1 = P2.66 mm 4 4 As the potential energy decreases. γ = 9810 N/m3 V1 = Q × 4/(π × 0. Ex.81 2 × 9.2 m f B 3 1 xm h Mercury Figure Ex.5 ×105 N/m2 (absolute).6 = × 4. Z2 = 0.6 m below the tap outlet.81 2 × 9.6 m/s at the tap outlet.4. The manometer fluid has a specific gravity of 13.3 A tap discharges water evenly in a jet at a velocity of 2.62 = − 0.6. the diameter of the jet at this point being 15 mm.3 Problem model using continuity equation (one dimensional flow) and noting that density is constant. P1 = 2 × 105 N/m2 (absolute) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P2 = 0.81 V2 = 4. V2 = Q × 4/(π × 0. 6. Determine the velocity and the diameter of the jet at 0.4 Water flows in a tapering pipe vertically as shown in Fig.6.43 m/s. V1 = 1. Determine the manometer reading ‘‘h’’. The flow rate is 100 l/s 0.3.6 m Jet V22 2.6 m/s ∴ ∴ 0.81 9810 9810 Solving. P1 V2 P V2 + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 . The pressure around the jet is atmospheric throughout. kinetic energy increases.5 × 10 5 +0+ Q2 = +0+ 2 × 9. π × 0152 π × D2 × 2.4 Problem model .202) = 31.542 31832 Q2 .186 and noting Z1 = Z2. Taking the tap outlet as point 1 and also taking it as the datum using Bernoulli equation. Example 6. Entrainment of air may increase the diameter somewhat. Q = 0. 6.01166 m or 11.

6148 m or 61. Figure 6. line hydraulic gradient line. substituting the values. considering the level AB and equating the pressures at A and B P1 P + x + h = 2 + 0.Bernoulli Equation and Applications The velocities at sections 1 and 2 are first calculated.5. P1 − P2 = 0. h are shown on the diagram and s is specific gravity) ∴ P1 − P2 = 0.6 + (12.732 m/s It is desired to determine P1 – P2.22) = 3.6 – 1) ∴ h = 0. It is constant along the flow when losses γ 2g H.1832)/(2 × 9. When losses (frictional) are negligible.12) = 12. V1 = 4 × 0.183 m/s.346 m of water γ 187 For water γ = 9810 N/m3.346 = 0. the energy line will be horizontal or parallel to the flow direction.7322 – 3.1/ (π × 0.5 ENERGY LINE AND HYDRAULIC GRADIENT LINE The total energy plotted along the flow to some specified scale gives the energy line. When velocity increases this will dip and when velocity decreases this will rise.1.81) = 8. Energy line is the plot of are negligible.5.1/ (π × 0. Rearranging Bernoulli equation for this flow. An example of plot of these lines for flow from a tank through a venturimeter is shown in Fig.6 + h(s – 1).G. The hydraulic gradient line provides useful information about pressure variations (static head) in a flow. γ 8. For calculating the total energy kinetic.1 Energy and hydraulic gradient lines Chapter 6 Tank Energy line .6 + x + sh γ γ (where x.6 + h(13. 6. The plot of P + Z along the flow is called the γ P V2 +Z+ along the flow. potential and flow (pressure) energy are considered. V2 = 4 × 0.48 cm 6. The difference between the energy line and hydraulic gradient line gives the value of dynamic head (velocity head). For the manometer configuration.

Refer to Fig.5 A2 LM2 gR P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 − Z2 ) UOP VQP W 0. Figure Ex.5 OP PQ V2 = ∴ Volume flow is A2V2 = 1 [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0.1) This is a general expression and can be used irrespective of the flow direction.5 LM2 gR P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 − Z2 ) UOP VQP W 0.5 Venturimeter-flow .5 Volume flow = A1 V1 = A2 V2 A2 V1 = V . Z in m. This equation is applicable for orifice meters and nozzle flow meters also. inclination from horizontal or vertical position.5 where suffix 1 and 2 refer to the inlet and the throat. LM2 g R P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 UO − Z ) VP WQP 2 0. In numerical work consistent units should be used. P1 V2 P V2 + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 γ γ 2g 2g Rearranging.5 (6.188 6. N/m2.6.5 1 2 1 − Z2 gIJK OPP Q 0. 6.5 = V2 LM F A I MN1 − GH A JK 2 1 2 0.5 Under ideal conditions show that the volume flow through a venturimeter is given by LM2 gF P − P + b Z Q= G {1 − b A / A g } MN H γ A2 2 1 2 0. 6. A in m2 and then volume A1 P1 1 Z1 A2 P2 Z Z2 Datum h A B A coeficient is involved in actual meters due to friction. ∴ (V22 – V12) = V22 LM F A I MN1 − GH A JK 2 1 OP PQ Applying Bernoulli equation to the flow and considering section 1 and 2. V22.6 VOLUME FLOW THROUGH A VENTURIMETER Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 6. Pressure should be in flow will be m3/s.V 2= A1 2 1 ∴ FG A IJ HA K 2 1 2 2 .5 [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0. Ex.

h FG S HS 2 1 −1 = IJ K P1 − P2 + (Z2 – Z1) γ1 Considering the plane A–B in the manometer and equating the pressures at A and B Fig.6. The fluid head.5 : The manometer connection at the wall measures the static pressure only) P1 + Z1 γ1 + hγ1 = P2 + Z2γ1 + hγ2 (P1 – P2) + (Z1 – Z1) γ1 = h(γ2 – γ1).Bernoulli Equation and Applications 189 Example 6. 6. if the manometer shows a reading of hm. γ P1 − P2 S + (Z1 – Z2) = h 2 − 1 = h 2 − 1 γ1 γ1 S1 F GH I JK F GH I JK 2 1 Hence volume flow. Flow rate = (π D2/4) × V = (π × 0.5 (6.672 m/s. Considering locations C and B and taking the datum at B.2) This equation leads to another conclusion.5 Comparing the equation (6.7 when flow is established.1) with the problem at hand.5 A2 LM2 ghF S NM GH S IO − 1J P K QP 0.0 m Tank Pipe.7 Problem model Chapter 6 [1 − ( A2 / A1) ] 2 0. 6. dividing by γ1. Example. applying Bernoulli equation. it is seen that it is sufficient to prove. Q= [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0.. 6.e. Ex. As the manometer reading converted to head of flowing fluid. noting that the velocity at water surface at C = 0.7 Determine the flow rate through the siphon Fig. these equations are applicable for orifice and nozzle meters also.12/4) × 7. H = h[(S2/S1) – 1] Q= A2 If the pressure at various locations are specified.06 m3/s A Water level C 1. 0 + 0 + VB2/2g = 3 + 0 + 0 ∴ ∴ VB = 7. Also determine the pressure at A.3) . H.6.5 [2 gH ]0. the volume flow is given by Q= A2 1 − ( A2 / A1)2 0. The pressure at C and B are atmospheric.6. Ex. 6.5 (6.5 LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K QP 0.6 Show that when a manometric fluid of specific gravity S2 is used to measure the head in a venturimeter with flow of fluid of specific gravity S1.672 = 0. 100 mm f 3m B Figure Ex. causing the flow is equal to the manometer reading h[(S2/S1) – 1] and flow is independent of the inclination if the reading of the manometer and the fluids are specified. i.

2g 2g γ PA = – 4 m checks.052 ) / 2) − 0.05 m is atmospheric.05 to 0. The force on the element area of the bottom plate = 2πrdr (P2 – P1) Substituting and nothing γ = ρg/g0. 0. The pressure at this location as compared to point 1 can be determined using Bernoulli equation.7 m 25 mm dr r Top plate (fixed) 1 2 Bottom plate 0. 6.6722/ (2 × 9. 6.08/2π × 0. P1 is atmospheric γ 2g γ 2g As Z1 = Z2.025)2 = 103.025 × r)2 = 0. Check: Consider points A and B 4+ PA VA 2 VB 2 + = + 0 + 0 as VA = VB. Now considering locations C and A. r2 Integrating between the limits r = 0. Ex.8 Problem model Consider an element area of width dr (annular) in the flow region at a distance r as shown in figure.2594/r2 (P2 – P1) is the pressure difference which causes a force at the area 2πrdr at r.8 and flows outwards through the space between the top and bottom plates.2594 ln LM N OP Q LM N 2 FG H 0.8 Water flows in at a rate of 80 l/s from the pipe as shown in Fig.190 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The velocity at A is the same as velocity at B.35 − 0.75 V22 = (0. P1 V2 V2 P + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 . Determine the net force acting on the bottom plate.81) ∴ PA/γ = – 4m or – 4m of water head or 4m water-head below atmospheric pressure.75 (0. dF = ρ πrdr 103. γ Example.05 × 0. Net force = 1000 × π (103.2594 .1 m r dr Bearing Element considered Figure Ex.75 − 0. 6.35 0. 3 + 0 + 0 = 4 + (PA/γ) + 7. Assume the pressure at radius r = 0. The top plate is fixed.35. P2 – P1 = γ (V 2 – V22) 2g 1 V12 = (0. the elemental force dF is given by.08/2π × 0.05 IJ OP = 17970 KQ N .

9 The delivery line of a pump is 100 mm ID and it delivers water at a height of 12 m above entry.3.777 = 0.3. There is no loss in the nozzle. The losses due to friction in the pipe length is accounted for by 4.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6.10 A tank with water level of 12 m has a pipe of 200 mm dia connected from its bottom which extends over a length to a level of 2 m below the tank bottom. Example 6. V2 = 3. Calculate the pressure at this point if the flow rate is 0.7 EULER AND BERNOULLI EQUATION FOR FLOW WITH FRICTION 191 Compared to ideal flow the additional force that will be involved will be the shear force acting on the surface of the element. 4 Flow = A2 V2 = (If losses do not occur then. ∴ V 22 = 8 × 2 × 9. Let the shear stress be τ. the force will equal τ 2πr ds (where r is the radius of the element.3 will now read as dP 2τds + VdV + gdZ – =0 ρ ρr V2 dP +d 2g γ F I + dZ – 2τds = 0 GH JK γr ds can also be substituted in terms of Z and θ Bernoulli equation will now read as (taking s as the length) 2τs P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 + γr 2g 2g γ γ The last term is the loss of head due to friction and is denoted often as hL. Determine the flow rate if losses in the pipe is given by 10 V22/2g. and A = π r2) Refer Para 6.81 .178 m3/s. + 10 2g 2g . Equating the total energy at inlet and outlet.5 V22/2g.hf in head of fluid in metre height (check for the unit of the last term).53 m/s and flow will be 2.1. Chapter 6 20 = 12 + 2 2 V2 V2 . V2 = 12.062 × 3. The Euler equation 6. 6.13 m3/min) Example 6.3 and Fig.01068 m3/s = 0.64 m3/min.777 m/s 11 π × 0. where V2 is the velocity at nozzle outlet. The pipe ends in a nozzle of diameter 60 mm. The total head at the entry to the pipe is 20 m.

γ 2 × 9.49 bar (above atmospheric pressure) Example 6. It is measured by a probe. . using Bernoulli equation and accounting for frictional drop in head (leaving out the atmospheric pressure which is the same at the water level and at outlet). STATIC AND TOTAL HEAD In the Bernoulli equation.8. The head measured is also called Piezometric head.3/0.1 (a)) The velocity term in the Bernoulli equation is known as dynamic head. If frictional drop is 2 m of water head. (Figure 6. 6. (Figure 6.672 = = 5 m of water head.1 = 5. Considering the bottom as the datum.192 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Taking location of the outlet of the pipe as the datum. one end of which should face the velocity direction and connected to one limb of a manometer with other end perpendicular to the velocity and connected to the other limb of the manometer.166 m3/s 6.178/π × 0. The transition piece length is 6 m.8 CONCEPT AND MEASUREMENT OF DYNAMIC.8. Solving. the pressure term is known as static head. V1 = 2. (Figure 6.1. Such a probe is called static probe.1 × 0.1 (b)) The total head is the sum of the static and dynamic head and is measured by a single probe facing the flow direction.5 γ 2g 2g V2 = 0.8.15)4 = 16V12 ∴ ∴ 2 V1 120 × 103 – 8 = 15 .5 × ∴ 2 2 V2 V2 P2 + + 4.411 m/s 9810 2g Flow rate = A1 V1 = A2V2 = 0.11 A vertical pipe of diameter of 30 cm carrying water is reduced to a diameter of 15 cm. 14 = ∴ 14 – 5.81 P2 = 9810 × 5 N/m2 = 0. V2 V2 200 × 103 80 × 10 3 +0+ 1 = + 6 + 2 +2 9810 9810 2g 2g V22 = V12 (0. determine the rate of flow. The pressure at the bottom is 200 kPa and at the top it is 80 kPa.67 m/s P2 5.353 and V2 = 9.1 (c)) The location of probes and values of pressures for the above measurements are shown in Fig.8. It is to be measured by a probe which will be perpendicular to the velocity direction.

8. If the head measured is given as the reading of a differential manometer.1 Pressure measurement 6.9 m of mercury column. 0. then the head should be calculated as 0. Pitot tube Dynamic head Manometer Static probe openings (^ r to flow) Total pressure probe (Facing flow) Figure 6.2 Pitot-Static tube Example 6.8. The velocity variation along the radius in a duct can be conveniently measured by this arrangement by traversing the probe across the section.8.9 (13.1 Pitot Tube The flow velocity can be determined by measuring the dynamic head using a device known as pitot static tube as shown in Fig.9 × 13.2. and noting that at the maximum point the velocity is zero. The head will be h (s – 1) of water when a differential manometer is used (s > 1). This instrument is also called pitot–static tube.12 The dynamic head of a water jet stream is measured as 0.24 m Note. The holes on the outer wall of the probe provides the static pressure (perpendicular to flow) and hole in the tube tip facing the stream direction of flow measures the total pressure.6 + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + Z ∴ Z = 12.6 – 1) m. Considering the location at which the dynamic head is measured as the datum and converting the column of mercury into head of water. Determine the height to which the jet will rise when it is directed vertically upwards.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 193 h h V V Static head Dynamic head Total head (a) (b) (c) Figure 6. Chapter 6 . 6.8. The difference gives the dynamic pressure as indicated by the manometer.

16 m of water.5 . The outlet diameter is 1. V2 = 8 × 0.39 m/s.2 m.1 A venturimeter is used to measure the volume flow. calculate the additional head provided by the draft tube. The inlet diameter is 0. Z1 = 3 82 1. Though theoretically the pressure at turbine exit can be reduced to a low level.13. The pressure head is recorded by a manometer. Consider equation 6. 2 as the datum. In a draft tube as shown in Fig. and calulating the velocities V1 = 8 m/s. The diverging section is immersed in the tail race water and this provides additional head for the turbine by providing a pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure at the turbine exit. Considering sections 1 and 2 2 2 P1 V1 V1 P + Z1 = 1 + + Z2 γ 2g 2g γ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.52 = 1. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 6. discuss in which case the flow is highest. When connected to a horizontal pipe the manometer reading was h cm.13 A diverging tube connected to the outlet of a reaction turbine (fully flowing) is called ‘‘Draft tube’’. 1.5 b g LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K QP 0.5 m 1 3m Tail race 2 1. Also calculate the pressure at the inlet section.194 Example 6.5 m and the flow velocity is 8 m/s.22 P2 = atmospheric pressure.392 P1 + +3= 2 × 9.13 Draft tube Considering tail race level.81 2 × 9. (Below atmospheric pressure) γ Additional head provided due to the use of draft tube will equal 6.2 Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 2 0. The height of the inlet above the water level is 3 m. 6. 6. cavitation problem limits the design pressure.2 Figure Ex. Ex. If the reading of the manometer is the same when it is connected to a vertical pipe with flow upwards and (ii) vertical pipe with flow downwards. Z2 = 0.81 γ ∴ P1 = – 6. If the turbine outlet is open the exit pressure will be atmospheric as in Pelton wheel.16 m of water Note: This may cause cavitation if the pressure is below the vapour pressure at the temperature condition.6.

6.05g 4 0. P1 = 2 bar (gauge) = 3 bar (absolute) 3 × 105 N/m2 γ 2g 2g V1 = Q 0.032 ∴ as D2 = 3 cm Figure P. Substituting (π × 0.03 / 4j L2 × 9. the volume flow is the same for a given venturimeter as this expression is a general one derived without taking any particular inclination.8. This is because of the fact that the manometer automatically takes the inclination into account in indicating the value of (Z1 – Z2).6 − 1IJ O MN H 0.245 m. Q= eπ × 0.3 A venturimeter as shown in Fig P.6.03/0. Determine the flow rate. S1 = 0.056 m/s can also use 2 (π × d /4) (π × 0.056 2 12.396 kg/s Chapter 6 Problem 6. Problem 6.136 bar (gauge) 3 cm f 5 cm f Using equation 6.8. The pressure gauge fitted at the entry to the venturi reads 2 bar.5 2 0.6. Barometric pressure is 1 bar. . 6.6 = 12.732 m/s. Determine the throat pressure.245 l/s or 15282 l/hr or 3.03 / 0.2 Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 2 0.05)4.1FG 13.8 K PQ 1 − b0.282 m3/hr or 4.2 Water flows at the rate of 600 l/s through a horizontal venturi with diameter 0.5 2 /4) V2 = V1 FG D IJ HD K 2 1 2 V2 = 0. Substituting.5 = 4.5 10 m A2 = (π/4) 0.236 bar (absolute) = 1. h = 0.81 2 × 9.2452 /4) 3.732 2 P2 3 × 105 + +0= + +0 2 × 9.6 = = 3.3 Problem model (A2/A1)2 = (D2/D1)4 = (0.81 × 0.3 is used measure flow of petrol with a specific gravity of 0.81 9810 9810 ∴ P2 = 223617 N/m2 = 2. Using Bernoulli equation and neglecting losses P1 V12 P2 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2.6.10 m S2 = 13.5 m and 0.5 30° b g LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 −1 IJ OP K QP 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 195 As long as ‘h’ remains the same.245 × 10–3 m3/s or 15. The manometer reads 10 cm of mercury of specific gravity 13.

9m3/s.81 2 × 9.2) Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 b g 2 0. gr = 13.06 2 = 2. Neglect losses. gauge pressure or absolute pressure can be used without error.5 Water flows upwards in a vertical pipe line of gradually varying section from point 1 to point 2. P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g 0. of mercury column.26 × 10–3 m2 4 3 ×10–3 = 1. 4 π × 0.83 × 10–3 m2 .6 Calculate the exit diameter.37 m/s.6.8 flows at the rate of 3 l/s through a venturimeter of diameters 6 cm and 4 cm. At section 1 the pipe dia is 0.405 bar absolute.81 × hFG 13. Problem 6. However it is desirable to use absolute pressure to aviod nagative pressure values.52 V22 800 × 10 3 600 × 10 3 + +0= + +1. . V2 = 19. The vertical distance between inlet and outlet is 6 m.5m above point 1.9 m3/s 4 Solving for d2. If the manometer fluid is mercury (sp.5 2 × 9. The flow rate of water is 1600 l/s.243 m As (p/γ) is involved directly on both sides. h. at the rate of 0.6 − 1IJ OP H 0.6 mm. which is 1.b) determine the value of manometer reading.26 × 10 MN1 − GH 2. Diameter of pipe at section 2 = 0.5 A1 = A2 = π × 0.04 2 = 1.5 LM2 ghF S MN GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K PQ 0.26 × 10 −3 LM F 1. Problem 6.37 = 0. Using equation (6. if at the inlet section of the draft tube the diameter is 1 m and the pressure is 0. 2 π × d2 ×19. If pressure at section 2 is 600 kPa.81 9810 9810 e j Solving.4 A liquid with specific gravity 0.0146 m = 14. Flow = area × velocity. determine the pipe diameter at that location.5 Solving. h = 0.9 × 4 / π × 0.8 K Q I OP N JK P Q 2 0.196 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6.5 0.83 × 10 −3 −3 LM2 × 9. Using Bernoulli equation.5m and pressure is 800 kPa.

516 2 V2 2g Chapter 6 . This may cause ‘‘cavitation’’ if this pressure is below the vapour pressure at that temperature. Loss of head = 0. Though theoretically the pressure at turbine exit.04 m/s π × 12 P2 = atmospheric pressure. neglecting losses 197 P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g V1 = Q×4 π × D12 = 1600 × 10 −3 × 4 = 2.405 × 10 5 1. Z2 = 0 (datum). Determine the head loss through the pipe.22 LM N OP /2 × 9. Problem 6. where the draft tube is attached.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2. The diameter at the bottom is 240 mm and at the top 200 mm and the length is 5m.531 m/s 2 × 9.516. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 (bottom) and 2 (top) and considering the bottom level as datum.013 × 10 5 + +6= + + 0 ∴ V2 = 0.531 2 1 ∴ D2 = 1.7 Water flows at the rate of 200 l/s upwards through a tapered vertical pipe.07 m 1.3 × 10 5 (200 × 10 × 4)/(π × 0. Express it as a function of exit velocity head.24 2 ) 2 8 × 10 2 + +0 2 × 9.81 9810 9810 2 A2 V1 2.04 2 0.81 9810 Losses = 1. The pressure at the bottom is 8 bar.3 bar.81 Q 2 ∴ X = 0.04 D2 = V = 2 = A1 0.81 9810 = ∴ −3 2 2 7.405 bar absolute means vacuum at the inlet section of the draft tube.81 2 × 9. V12 P1 P2 V2 + + Z1 = + 2 + Z2 + losses 2g γ γ 2g (200 × 10 −3 × 4) / π × 0.07 = X V22 200 × 10 −3 × 4 = X 2g π × 0. cavitation problem limits the pressure level.96 m 0. Z1 = 6 m V22 2. and the pressure at the topside is 7.2 ) + + 5 + losses 2 × 9. can be reduced to a vary low level.

5 0. Also calculate the reading ‘‘h’’ shown by the differential manometer fitted to the pipe line which is filled with mercury of specific gravity 13.81 × hFG 13.8 2 × 9.514 = H 0. P.196 m2) Flow rate.5 Solving.8 bar 0.2 /4 JK = 6. 6.196 K QP 0.5 2 bar Figure P.8 ×105 N/m2 .62 = 0. 6. gravity. P2 = 0. Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 b g 2 0.6.8) in the pipe line shown in Fig.8 2 × 9.031IJ OP N NM H 0. A1 = 0.5 LM2 ghF S MN GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K PQ 0. Z1 = 0.62 m/s 9810 × 0.6 − 1IJ OP 0. Z2 = 2 m 2 0.031 2 0.8.5 LM2 × 9.8 Calculate the flow rate of oil (sp. Applying Bernoulli equation (neglecting losses) between points 1 and 2 P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g P1 = 2 × 105 N/m2.854 m .25 V 2 2 2 1 6.5 2 × 2.25V1 V12 2 × 105 0.2) (with A2 = 0.2 2m 1 h 0.8 Applying continuity equation between points 1 and 2 A1V1 = A2V2.6. Q = A1 V1 = Flow rate.8 K Q LM1 − FG 0. h = 0.81 b g π × 0. 0.514 m3/s = 514 l/s 4 Using equation (6.8 × 10 5 + +0= + + 2 ∴V1 = 2. V2 = V1 A = V1 2 A1 F π × 0.5 /4 I GH π × 0.81 9810 × 0.198 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6.031 m2.

Mercury with S = 13. Z2 = 1. 6.82 flows in a pipe shown Fig.38 bar Figure P.15 m 0.10 Problem Model Considering point 1 as a datum and using Bernoulli equation.4 × 4/π × 0. Problem 6. V2 = V1 1 = V1 2 2g A2 γ γ 2g D2 F I GH JK ∴ V22 = V12 F D I = 16 V GH D JK 4 1 4 2 2 1 as D1/D2 = 2 Chapter 6 . This result shows that there are losses between 1 and 2 as the total energy at 2 is lower.352 2 × 10 5 + 9810 2 × 9. Determine the flow rate.81 e j 2 + 4 = 25.2 m. Also calculate the reading of the differential manometer connected as shown. If P1 = P2 = 2 bar absolute.6.2 m 1 h 0. P.69 bar 1.02 m of water column The total energy at all points should be equal if there are no losses.10 Petrol of relative density 0. + 9810 e0. Hence the flow will take place from points 1 to 2. Z1 = 0.27 m water column 2 × 10 5 Total head at 2. The pressure value at locations 1 and 2 are given as 138 kPa and 69 kPa respectively and point 2 is 1. 0.9 Water flows at the rate of 400 l/s through the pipe with inlet (1) diameter of 35 cm and (2) outlet diameter of 30 cm with 4m level difference with point 1 above point 2. Consider datum as plane 2 Total head 1.10.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 199 Problem 6.4 × 4/π × 0. determine the direction of flow.3 j 2 × 9. 2 0.3 m B A 1. 2 V12 P1 P2 D1 V2 A + + Z1 = + 2 + Z2.2m vertically above point 1.81 2 2 + 0 = 22.6 is used as the manometer fluid.

15 IJ OP N NM H 0. h = 0.74 = 4 4 2 3m Figure P.2355 m. Problem 6.82 1 LM2 × 9.82 × 9810 ∴ 3 – 1.81 + 3 = γ + 2 g + 0 as P1 = P2. Assuming friction to be negligible.5 Solving.82 × 9810 0.82 × 9810 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery F I GH JK + 1.15 2 /4 4 0. The bottom of the siphon is 8m below level A. Point A is 1m above the water level.2 = 15 V12 .74 m/s Using the relation A1 V1 = A2V2.6 − 1IJ OP 0.5 1 2 1 −1 IJ OP K QP 0.6.106 m/s 2g Volume flow = π × 0.22 m3/s or 180 kg/s 4 The flow rate is given by equation 6. P.2 b138 − 69g10 0. S = 0.6 . V2 = 9. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 (taking level 2 as datum) P1 P2 V22 62 γ + 2 × 9.475 m of mercury column v1 = 6 m/s 1 0.11 Water flows downwards in a pipe as shown in Fig.11 Problem model ∴ d = 0.3 m Problem 6. The velocity at point 1 is 6 m/s.82 K Q LM1 − FG 0.2 LM2 ghF S Q= LM F A I OP NM GH S MN1 − GH A JK PQ A2 2 2 0.11. 6. If pressures at points 1 and 2 are to be equal. 6.12 A siphon is shown in Fig P.5 0. determine the speed of the jet at outlet and also the pressure at A.3 2 × 6 π × d 2 × 9. Solving.3 2 × 3.12. determine the diameter of the pipe at point 2. indicated by point 1. π × 0.3 K QP π × 0.22 = H 0. V1 = 3.106 = 0.5 S2 13. .200 V12 V12 138 × 10 3 69 × 103 + +0= + 16 2 g 2g 0.81 × hFG 13.6.

13 A pipe line is set up to draw water from a reservoir.3 m.81 × 2 = 12.81 = 11.3 – 1 – 7 γ γ 2g = 2. Z1 = 8. A 1m 201 1 8m 2 Figure P.12 Problem model P1 P2 V2 V2 + 1 + Z1 = + 2 + Z2 . The velocity of water at the surface is zero. The pipe line has to go over a barrier which is above the water level.53 m/s Chapter 6 . 6.3 m of water column (absolute) Problem 6. γ γ 2g 2g P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure. between 1 and 2. The outlet is 8 m below water level.72 m/s = VA Considering surface 1 and level A. Determine the maximum height of the barrier if the pressure at this point should not fall below 1. Atmospheric pressure is 10. ∴ ∴ 0+0= V2 = V22 –7 2g 7 × 2 × 9. As flow is the same. Consider level 1 as datum.0 m of water to avoid cavitation. P1 = P3 ∴ 8= V32 2g ∴ V3 = 8 × 9.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Using Bernoulli equation. 2 P1 PA VA +0+0= γ +1+ γ 2g Considering P1/γ = 10. V1 = 0. Considering outlet level 3 as datum and water level as 1 and appyling Bernoulli equation. PA P V2 = 1 – 1 – 2 = 10.3 m of water. Z3 = 0.

Assuming uniform velocity at any section if the flow rate per m length is 3m3/s/m. As V2 = V3.5 m/s ∴ V2 = h 2 .37 m/s.81 2 × 9.3 m above water level. The water level in the channel upstream of shutter is 2m. Assume velocities V1 and V2 upstream and downstream of shutter and the datum as the bed level. V12 V22 +5= +2 2g 2g Applying continuity equation. V2 = 8. Z3 = 0.14 Determine the flow rate of water across the shutter in an open canal if the water level upstream of shutter is 5m and downstream is 2m. flow rate. from flow rate V1 = 3/2 = 1.35 m/s. 2 × 9. 6. The width of the canal is 1m and flow is steady. Q = 16.5V1 V12 + 5= + 2. Using Bernoulli equation 2+ V12 V22 = h2 + 2g 2g (A) (B) Considering unit width from continuity 1 × 2 × V1 = 1 × h2 × V2 ∴ 3 V2 = (2/h2) V1.5 V1. 2.81 2 (1) b g ∴ V1 = 3. 3 V2 = 2. Q = A1V1 = A2V2 (1 × 5) V1 = (1 × 2) V2. determine the level downstream.15 Uniform flow rate is maintained at a shutter in a wide channel. P2/γ = 1 1 + Z2 = 10. both surface pressures being atmospheric. Problem 6.202 2 WL 1 h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 8m 3 Figure P. Therefore the barrier can be 1. Substituting in equation (1).3 ∴ Z2 = 9.3 m. Applying Bernoulli equation between point 1 in the upstream and point 2 in the downstream on both sides of the shutter.742 m3/s.13 Problem model Considering the barrier top as level 2 P2 P3 V22 V32 γ + 2 g + Z2 = γ + 2 g + Z3. Problem 6.

1147 h22 + 0. The suction pipe is of 150 mm ID.81 h × 2 × 9. 2 + 0.5 = 3. The delivery is at 30m above the pump centre line.1147 = 0. 0.54 m h2 = 0. 0.109] ∴ Velocity at the nozzle Vn = 8.54 m is the acceptable answer.425 m. – 0.314 m/s Pressure at suction : Taking datum as the water surface and also the velocity of the water to be zero at the surface. Problem 6.81 = Vn2 [5.3125] 2g 18 × 2 × 9. check using A. 2m being trivial.3125 2g 2g 16 2 g Equating the head developed to the static head.57 checks. Let the velocity at the nozzle be Vn Velocity in the delivery pipe = Vd = Vn × 75 2 100 2 2 = Vn 4 9 V 16 n Velocity in suction pipe Vs= Vn 2 Vn 2g FG 75 IJ H 150 K = Kinetic head at outlet = Loss in delivery pipe = 2 Vd 9 = 12 × 2g 16 FG IJ H K 2 2 2 Vn Vn = 3.797 2g 2g Loss in suction pipe = 2 2 Vs2 Vn 5 Vn = = 0. this reduces to Solving. Determine the velocity at the nozzle outlet and the pressure at the pump inlet.797 + 0. The difference between the dynamic head values will equal the difference between the datum heads. The delivery line is of 100 mm dia and the loss in the line is 12 Vd2/2g.52 32 = h2 + 2 2 × 9. losses and kinetic head.4587 = 0 Simplifying.54 + 1. ∴ V2 = 5. This may be checked using the calculated velocity values. Using B. h2 can be 2 m.16 A pump with centre line 2m above the sump water level develops 50m head of water.54 × V2 × 1 = 2 ×1. 50 = 30 + 2 + 2 Vn [1 + 3.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Substituting 2+ 203 1. Chapter 6 .56 m/s. The loss of head in the suction line is given by 5 Vs2/2g.81 h23 – 2. The water is delivered through a nozzle of 75 mm dia.

Pressure is assumed to be uniform all over the trejectory as it is exposed to atmosphere all along its travel. Describe the path of the free jet. This describes an inverted parabola as shown in Fig.314/4g I GH 2 × 9. The vertical component Vzo = Vo sin θ. during time t. distance travelled. 10.6. ∴ Xmas = 2 times x as Zmax. Z= Vzo 1 g X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo gX Vzo = 2 Vxo Vxo (A) (B) (C) Z value can be maximised by taking dz/dx and equating to zero dz 1 g V = zo – 2X. P. The horizontal component of the velocity of jet is Vxo = V o cos θ. Zmax = Vo2 sin2 θ/2g 2 g 2g = (D) The maximum height is achieved when θ = 90°. Vt is the velocity at that location when air drag is neglected. Xmax = 2Vo2 sin θ cos θ /g = Vo2 sin 2θ/g (E) Maximum horizontal reach is at θ = 45° or 2θ = 90° and for this angle it will reach half the vertical height. 2 dx 2 Vxo Vxo Substituting in C.17 Bernoulli equation shows that Zt + Vt2/2g = constant along the rejectory.979 m absolute 3.3 – 3. Zmax = ∴ X = VzoVxo/g 2 2 Vzo VzoVxo 1 g VzoVxo . Kinetic head V2/2g. Problem 6. 2 Vxo 2 Vxo g g2 2 1 Vzo V 2 sin 2 θ = 0 . Z.3 m of water column.3 = P2 +2+ γ F b8.321 m = 6.81 JK × (5 + 1) 2 (as Vs = Vn/4) ∴ or P2 γ = 10.321 m below atmospheric pressure. (using the second law of Newton) Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 The distance travelled along x direction X = Vxo t or t = X/Vxo Solving for t from B and substituting in A. Hence .17 A liquid jet at a velocity V0 is projected at angle θ. In the vertical direction. – . Also calculate the maximum height and the horizontal distance travelled. loss 5V2/2g 10.204 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P1 as atmospheric.

Vzo = Vo sin 30 = 20 sin 30 = 10 m/s. 6.66 m 9.32 2 2 Vzo 10 2 = = 5.81 g Total horizontal distance is twice the distance travelled in reaching Zmax = 35.81 × 25 – × 252 = 4.17 Vxo = Vo cos 30 = 20 cos 30 = 17. 205 (Note: Velocity at time t = Vzo t = V0 sin θ + a × t.32 m/s.17).Bernoulli Equations and Applications Zt + Vt2 /2g = constant for the jet.215 m 17. Substituting for t as X/Vxo with X = 25 m Chapter 6 Vzo 1 g X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo Z= Height cleared.097 m 2g 2 × 9. 6. X = Vxot. Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2. where a = – g.18 A jet issuing at a velocity of 20 m/s is directed at 30° to the horizontal.32 2 17.32 m It would have crossed this height also at 10.17 Jet trejectory Problem 6. P. at time t. Z25 = (A) 10 1 9. Ref Fig.43 m from the starting point (check using equations derived in Problem 6. becomes zero and then turns – ve) Total head = Energy grade line Vx0 2g 2 2 Jet path V0 2g 2 Vx0 V 2g Vx = Vx0 = constant Vz = Vz0 – gt Vz0 V0 sin q 0 q V0 Zmax = Vx0 = V0 cos q Vx0 Vz0 g X 2 Vz 0 2g P Z Figure P. Calculate the height cleared by the jet at 25m from the discharge location? Also determine the maximum height the jet will clear and the corresponding horizontal location. so the velocity decreases.32 × 10 Vxo Vzo = = 17. .81 Maximum height of the jet trajectory = Corresponding horizontal distance = 17.

t = Substituting for t as X/Vxo Z= Substituting the values.61 × sin 40)2 /2 × 9.81 = 15. this can be calculated as – (20 – 15.206 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6. Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 The vertical velocity at any location/time is given by. Maximum height reached = Vzo2/2g = (Vo sin 40)2/2g = (17. X = Vxo t.12 1 × =6 2 17. 11.56 m.17. Refer Problem 6. P. referring to Fig. 6. Vxo = Vo cos 40. Problem 6. two values of X is obtained from equation A.61 m/s.19 Determine the velocity of a jet directed at 40° to the horizontal to clear 6 m height at a distance of 20m. What will be the horizontal distance at which the jet will be again at 6m height.81 × 20 2 × 20 − × 2 Vo cos 40 2 Vo cos 2 40 1 9.81 × 20 2 = 310 ∴ Vo = 17. Also determine the maximum height this jet will clear and the total horizontal travel. X = Vxo t.56 m also.56 = 11. The jet would have cleared this height at a distance less than 15.12 tan 40 – 9.56) + 15.81 = 6. Vzt = dz = Vzo – gt dt .53 m The X value corresponding to this is. (half total horizontal travel) X = VxoVzo/g = 17. Vzo = Vo sin 40.612 cos 2 40 2 When both Z and X are specified unique solution is obtained. By symmetry.17.612 sin 40 cos 40/9.81 × 20 2 2 Vo 2 cos 2 40 6 = 20 tan 40 – ∴ Vo2 = (B) 2 cos 2 40(20 tan 40 − 6) 9. This shows that the jet clears 6m height at a distance of 20 m as it comes down. From basics.12 m check by substituting in equation B. Given Vo and Z.81 × 11.20 Determine the angle at which a jet with a given velocity is to be projected for obtaining maximum horizontal reach. Vxo Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 (A) Vo sin 40 1 9. 6= 1 g Vzo X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo X .

solving tan θ = 7.5° 29. 6.81 × 10 2 (1 + tan2 θ) 2 20 2 Z= Vzo 1 gx 2 x– 2 2 Vxo Vxo Substituting in terms of Vo and θ. In the second case it clears the height during the rise. tan2 θ – 8.21 Determined the angle at which a jet with an initial velocity of 20 m/s is to be projected to clear 4m height at a distance of 10 m. In the first case it clears the height during the fall. X = 2 Vxo Vzo/g = 2 Vo2 cos θ sin θ/g = Vo2 sin 2θ/g For X to be maximum sin 2θ should be maximum or 2θ = 90° or θ = 45°. X = Vo2/g as sin 2θ = 1. P.155 tan θ + 4. 207 Problem 6.21. Fall Rise 82. For maximum horizontal reach.3° 4m 10 m Figure P.3°. The maximum reach.21 Jet trejectory Refer Problem 6.5° or 29.5613 This corresponds to θ = 82. See Fig. .594 or 0.6.Bernoulli Equations and Applications The horizontal distance travelled will be half the total distance travelled when Vzt = 0 or t = Vzo/g Total X distance travelled during time 2t. C Chapter 6 1 9. the projected angle should be 45°.17.262 = 0. 4 = 10 tan θ – Hence. eqn. Z= 2 1 gx 2 Vo sin θ 1 gx 2 x– = x tan θ – 2 (sec θ) 2 Vo 2 cos 2 θ Vo cos θ 2 Vo Z = x tan θ – 1 gx 2 (1 + tan2 θ) 2 Vo 2 Substituting the given values.

22 Problem model In this case the jets issue out at A and B horizontally and so the position can be taken as the Zmax position. As V = 0 at a height of 20 m.23 A jet of water initially 12 cm dia when directed vertically upwards. 2 gH1 g 2 gy1 = 2 gH2 g 2 gy2 ∴ H1 y1 = H2 y2 Problem 6. Both reach the same point at the ground level of the tank. reaches a maximum height of 20 m. y1 = 2g 2g V 2 zo2 2g or Vzo2 = or Vzo1 = 2 gy1 Similarly. and simplifying. Show that H1y1 = H2y2. Assuming the jet remains circular determine the flow rate and area of jet at 10 m height. Referring to Problem 6. y2 = 2 gy2 (A) (Vzo1 and Vzo2 are the Z components at point where the jet touches the ground) Xmax = Vxo1 = VzoVxo Vzo 1Vxo 1 Vzo2 Vxo2 and so = g g g 2 gH 1 . 2g . Bernoulli equation reduces to V2 = 20. WL H1 H2 B A y1 y2 X GL Figure P.208 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6.17. 6.22 From a water tank two identical jets issue at distances H1 and H2 from the water level at the top. (D) Zmax = Vzo12 Vzo 2 . If the distance from the ground level to the jet levels are y1 and y2. eqn. Vxo2 = 2 gH 2 (B) (C) Substituting results (A) and (C) in equation (B).

5 2 × 9.224 m3/s 4 209 When the jet reaches 10 m height. 4 Problem 6.25 An open tank of diameter D containing water to depth ho is emptied by a smooth orifice at the bottom.5 = 19.18 = 0.81 9810 2 × 9.25 Problem model . Determine the flow rate. 2g V2 = (10 × 2 × 9.809 = 0. the loss in kinetic energy is equal to the increase in potential energy. P1 = P2. Applying Bernoulli equation between the water level. 1 and the bottom of the pipe.24 Water is discharged through a 150 mm dia pipe fitted to the bottom of a tank.809 m/s Flow rate = area × velocity = π × 0. V2 2 0. Assume the frictional loss as 4. 2 and this level as datum P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 + losses 2g 2g γ γ 0 + 0 + 10 = Solving. and point 2 as datum D V12 V2 Patm + + h = 2 + patm 2g 2g ∴ Also V2 V12 +h= 2g g 2 V12 = V22 2 LM d OP N DQ 4 Figure P.1427 m 4 Problem 6.18 m/s Chapter 6 h0 h d π × 0.15 2 × 4.5V22/2g. Also find the time tmax for emptying – dh the tank. Flow rate = Considering point 1 at the top of the tank and point 2 at the orifice entrance. V1 = 0.81)0. Consider this as level 2 and the maximum height as level 1 and ground as datum. Derive an expression for the time taken to reduce the height to h.81 V2 = 4.5 bar. Z2 = Z1 – 10 = (20 – 10) = 10 20 = 10 + ∴ V 2 20 2g ∴ V2 2 = 10.81 × 2)0.12 2 × 19. A pressure gauge fitted at the bottom of the pipe which is 10 m below the water level shows 0.5 = 14 m/s Flow rate = area × velocity. 0.5 × 10 5 V2 2 + + 0 + 4.0739 m3/s = 73.224 = π × D2 × 14 ∴ D = 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications ∴ V = (20 × 9. 6.9 l/s.

d = 0.210 ∴ V2 = 2 gh 1 − ( d/ D) 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Let the level at the time considered be h.5 m. Let D = 0. Consider a numerical problem. −1 .5 m.t z t 0 dt ho − h = 2g −1 (A) t = 2 ( ho − h ) / Equation (A) can be rearranged to give 2g g/2 = ho − h / FG D IJ H dK 2 o 4 −1 FG DIJ H dK 4 −1 (B) LM OP t g/2 h P h M = M1 − h MM FG DIJ − 1 PPP N H dK Q 0 4 (C) Equation (B) will be useful to find the drop in head during a given time interval. Time for emptying is calculated as h = 0. ho = 0.025 m. The drop in level dh during time dt is given by (as dh is negative with reference to datum) V A dh d =− 2 2 =− dt A1 D 2 FG IJ H K 2 2 gh 1− FG d IJ H DK 4 Taking FG d IJ H DK inside and rearranging dh =− dt 2 gh FG D IJ H dK FG D IJ H dK FG D IJ H dK 4 4 −1 Separating variables and integrating z 2 h ho dh =− h 2g 4 . g/2 t= ho / FG DIJ H dK 4 −1 .

4764 m In case d << D.26 Two identical jets issuing from a touch as shown in figure reach the ground at a distance of 10 m. t z dt 2 In this case to empty the tank.5 = G H 0. 2 × 9.5 K 2 . Problem 6. ∴ Vzo1t = H = (A) 1 2 gt 2 (B) . then time for employing is 1130 sec. then V2 = 2 gh when head is h m dh AV =− 2 2 =–V d 2 dt A1 D FG IJ H K t 0 2 =− FG d IJ H DK 2 .81/ 2 × 0.5 IJ − 1 PP H 0.025 K 4 − 1 = 127. t.0471) = 0.81 .5 IJ H 0.5 (1 – 0. Determine the distances indicated as h and H.0471 ∴ Drop in head = 0. 2 Solving F 0. To find the drop in level in say 100 seconds. Consider top jet: x distance travelled in time t is 10 m.5 / FG 0.5 P h M = M1 − P h MM FG 0. 2 gh Separating variables and integrating z h dh ho 2 [ ho – FG d IJ H DK h F dI h] = G J H DK =– 2 2g . ∴ Vxo1t = 10 t = 10/Vxo1 The height drop is as Vzo as start is zero. Chapter 6 t = 127.81 / 2 211 = 0.7 seconds.71 s. Say d = 0.025 IJ 0.25K N Q o 4 2 = 0. The same answer because the same diameter of the orifice is used. 2g .01 m. LM OP 100 9.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 9.

6. .25 m.25 m.25 × 4 = 4 × 6. (4 + h) g × 2 4+h 25 . 8g = Vxo2 t = 10.25 – h = 50 g 25 = . 10 . H × 4 = (H – h) (4 + h). It may be also noted from problem 6. 6. t = or H = 6. as H = 6.26 Problem model Substituting for t H= 1 100 g 2 Vxo2 ∴ V2xo = 50 g H (C) (as head available in 4 m) As jet issues from the nozzle it has any x directional velocity Vxo1. Substituting 2 50 g 1 1Vo g = 2 2 Vxo2 Vxo2 2 (D) As at start only Vxo2 is present. This leads to 4+h h2 – 2.25 Hence this condition is also satisfied. As in the previous case Vzoc = 0 at start H–h= H–h= 1 2 gt .25h = 0. or h = 2. Substituting.22.212 Z Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 4m 1 h H 2 3 10 m x Figure P. Vxo2 The head drop in (H – h) m. V2xo1 = 2 g4 = 8g 50 g H Considering the second jet.25 m. Vxo22 = (4 + h) g × 2 Substituting in (D) H–h= 6. is present.

3. Eulers equation is applicable for flow along a –––––––––––––––––. (5) Z. 11. 9. Electrical and magnetic energy become important in the flow of –––––––––––––––––. Cavitation will occur when the pressure at a point –––––––––––––––––. (8) increases (9) will be horizontal parallel to the flow (10) pressure and potential head (11) will increase by a step (12) dip. pressure head and potential head (5) decreases (6) increases (7) goes below the vapour pressure of the fluid at that temperature. 9. Total head in a steady incompressible irrotational flow is the sum of –––––––––––––––––. O Q. 8. Answers (1) motion (2) where V is the velocity (3) V2/2go where go is the force conversion constant having a unit of m kg/Ns2 (4) location in the gravitational field. Fill in the blanks: 1. Hydraulic grade line represents the sum of ––––––––––––––––– along the flow. 6.1. Potential energy of a fluid element in Nm/kg is given by –––––––––––––––––. 5. 11. 12. 8. Potential energy of a fluid element in head of fluid is given by –––––––––––––––––. Chapter 6 3. If there are frictional losses the energy grade line will ––––––––––––––––– . Bernoulli equation states that the total head –––––––––––––––––.go where γ is specific weight. Pressure energy or flow energy of a fluid element is given in head of fluid by the expression ––– ––––––––––––––. Fill in the blanks: 1. exhibited by the temperature (10) temperature change is generally negligible (11) plasma.Bernoulli Equations and Applications OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. Answers (1) stream line (2) incompressible. 5. 10. Pressure energy or flow energy of a fluid element in the unit Nm/kg is given by the expression – ––––––––––––––––. 2. If a pump supplies energy to the flow the energy line ––––––––––––––––– . 7. . the elevation from datum (6) Zg/go. internal energy is rarely considered because ––––– ––––––––––––. 6. In the analysis of incompressible fluid flow. 4. 4. Energy line along the flow ––––––––––––––––– if there are no losses. 7. Draft tube ––––––––––––––––– the available head in the case of reaction turbines. 10. The kinetic energy in the unit Nm/kg is given by the expression –––––––––––––––––. 6. 213 2. Bernoulli equation is applicable for flows which are –––––––––––––––––. V2/2g. (8) P/ρ (9) the microscopic activity of atoms/molecules of the matter. The pressure along the diverging section of a venturi –––––––––––––––––. Kinetic energy of fluid element is due to its –––––––––––––––––.2. Potential energy of a fluid element is due to its –––––––––––––––––. Z being elevation (7) (P/ρ) (go/g) = p/γ. steady and irrotational (3) remains constant if there are no irreversibilities (4) dynamic head. 6. Internal energy is due to ––––––––––––––––. In steady flow along a horizontal level as the velocity increases the pressure ––––––––––––––. The amount of kinetic energy per kg is given by the expression ––––––––––––––––– the unit used being head of fluid.

When a pump supplies energy to a flow stream. A pitot probe connected perpendicular to flow will indicate the total head. (b) increase 4 times (d) decrease to one sixteenth. 8. 7. 12. A pitot probe facing the flow will indicate the dynamic head. 11. as the diameter is doubled.4. 6. 5. If velocity increases. For the same reading of the differential manometer connected to a vertical venturimeter. In steady flow in a varying section pipe if the diameter is doubled the kinetic energy will . 7. 9. 10.214 O Q. 4. The height of hydraulic gradient line at this location will be (a) 13 m (b) 9 m (c) 10 m (d) 7 m 4. For a free jet the maximum horizontal reach will depend on (a) the angle of projection only (c) the fluid flowing in the jet 2. the velocity will (a) be halved (c) increase four fold (a) be doubled (c) increase 8 times (b) be doubled (d) decrease four fold. the flow will be independent of the position or flow direction. For ideal flows the energy line will slope upward along the flow. Flow will take place along energy gradient. 3. If the differential manometer reading connected to a venturimeter is the same. 5. 9. 8. 11 Incorrect – 2. Answers Correct – 1. Indicate whether the statement is correct or incorrect. as the area decreases (a) the energy line will slope up (b) the hydraulic gradient line will slope up (c) the hydraulic gradient line will slope down (d) the energy line will slope down. 3. Energy line along the direction of flow will dip if there are losses. A pitot probe facing the flow will indicate the total head. In a flow along a varying flow cross section. 12 O Q. Flow will take place along hydraulic gradient. In a steady flow of incompressible fluid. Choose the correct answer: 1. In a steady flow along a stream line at a location in the flow. (e) all flows. 6. 5. 3. Bernoulli equation is applicable for (a) steady rotational flow (b) steady rotational compressible flow (c) steady irrotational incompressible flow (d) unsteady irrotational incompressible flow (b) the initial velocity only (d) the angle of projection and initial velocity. the velocity head is 6 m. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. the flow rate will be larger if flow is downwards. 6. A pitot-static tube has probes both facing the flow and perpendicular to flow. 6.3. 10. the potential head is 4 m. the hydraulic grade line will dip along the flow direction. 2. the energy line will decreases by a step. the pressure head is 3 m. 4. 6.

Set A 1. Oil of specific gravity 0. 6.201m) Chapter 6 . Set B (a) plasma flow (b) temperature (c) position (d) velocity.1. At the lower end the average velocity is 2m/s. Answers (1) d (2) c (3) d (4) c (5) d (6) d (7) c (8) b (9) b. Eulers equation 4.5. 3b. 4a (2) 1c. Set A 1. the pressure along flow direction will (a) remain constant (c) increase (b) decrease (d) increase or decrease depending on the fluid. determine the reading of the manometer difference in m of mercury. Determine the pressure difference between the ends. In a source type of flow. Oil fills the limbs over mercury in the manometer.1 m at the top over a length of 2 m. 2d. The flow will be (a) highest if the pipe is horizontal (b) independent of the slope of pipe and direction of flow (c) highest if flow is downwards (d) will depend on the fluid. Bernoulli equation 2. 9. Continuity equation 3. 4a EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 6. the kinetic energy along the radius will vary (constant thickness of fluid along radius) (a) proportional to radius (b) directly proportional to the square root of radius (c) inversely proportional to the square of radius (d) proportional to the fourth power of radius 8.84 flows through the pipe.6) is used to measure the pressure. Answers (1) 1c. The differential manometer connected to two points along a pipe line gives a reading of h m. kinetic energy 3. internal energy 4. In a vertical flow of incompressible fluid along a constant pipe section under steady conditions.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 215 7. 3b. 2d. O Q. neglecting losses. Match the sets 1. Laplace equation 2. If a mercury manometer (specific gravity 13. (36. 0. A pipe inclined at 45° to the horizontal converges from 0. potential energy 2.2 m dia to 0. electrical energy Set B (a) potential function (b) stream line (c) total head (d) conservation of mass.854 N/m2.

73 bar) E 6.2 m. Neglect losses.15 = 16. directs a water jet vertically with a velocity of 12 m/s. Water flows in the middle floor tap at 3 m/s. A horizontal pipe carrying water is gradually tapering.15 = 8.225 m diameter.kg) E 6. The pressure at the entry to the pipe line of 0. 25. The supply head to a water nozzle is 30 m gauge.4. P0.13 m3/s.5 m/s.8 m) E 6.216 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 6. The pipe diameter gradually increases to 0. 5. Water flows from a reservoir 240 m above the tip of a nozzle.5. P0.63 m.13 m/s) E 6. (47.2 kW) E 6.05 m/s.8 m V=? Figure E. is 8.4 and 0. If the pressure at the start is 20 m head of oil and the specific gravity of the oil is 0. The pressure at the upper location is 0.5 m) E.10.5 m/s. determine the maximum length. A Utube mercury manometer shows a head 0.6 mm.2 m to 0.15 m and 0. Determine the efficiency and power that can be developed if the nozzle diameter is 75mm.15 m dia.25 mm. Pfork = 13.14 bar) E 6. Determine the pressure at the location. (0.3%. The flow rate of water is 5500 l/min. V=? 3m 3 m/s 2. A tapering pipe is laid at a gradient of 1 in 100 downwards.4. The suction pipe of a pump slopes at 1 m vertical for 5 m length. (8.225 m dia is 3.5 m3/min. Oil of specific gravity of 0.8. The velocity at the nozzle outlet is 66 m/s.4 E 6. A pipe line is 36 m above datum.91 determine the pressure at the fork and also at the end of the two branch pipes.821 m.6 m/s. Oil flows through a horizontal pipe will line which has a diameter of 0. (0.8 m/s and if the pressure in the pipe should not fall by more than 7 m of water. V0.11. 6. (V at fork = 4.9 flows through a venturimeter of diameters 0. (84. A nozzle of 25 mm dia. At one section the diameter is 150 mm and flow velocity is 1. Determine the pressure at the lower location.8 bar. The velocity at the beginning is 1.33 m. The diameter reduces from 1.9. (35.2.3 m and the levels rises by 3 m above the entrance.3. The velocity in the pipe line of 0.6 m.98 m) E 6.105 m3/s) E 6. 17. what will be the diameter? Neglect losses. (774.7 Nm. (2) the loss in head due to friction. (38. The length is 300 m. If the flow velocity in the pipe is 1. E.1 m/s.2 bar and the flow rate at this section is 7.104 bar at a reduced section determine the diameter at the section.6.12.3 m at which point the flow divides into pipes of 0.45 m at the start. (i) If the drop in pressure is 1. After some distance the diameter of reduces to 0. The velocity of water leaving the nozzle is 22. (283. Calculate (1) the power of the jet.8 m/s. (ii) If the drop in pressure is 5 kN/m2. 6. Neglect losses.2 m Supply 1.8 m/s. The pressure and velocity at a section are 410 kN/m2 and 4. Calculate the flow rate. The flow rate is 0.14 kW.225 = 19. Determine the total energy per kg with reference to the datum. Determine the diameter of the jet and the velocity at a height of 6 m. 100 mm) . 6.7. Determine the velocities at the taps in the other two floors shown in Fig.

Determine the flow rate of a fluid of specific gravity 0.9 m/s) E 6.6 m 2 3 3 Figure E.7mm. 9 m) E 6.17. 6.1 kPa ab) 2 1.18 E 6. 6.13. A jet directed at 30° reaches a maximum height of 3 m at a horizontal distance of 18 m.16. (8 m. 45. 6. 35 mm 450 mm 600 mm 105 mm S = 0. 1.7 m/s. 22.13 m of water) Chapter 6 . If the diameter at a height of 12 m is 98. 6.8 m 1 1m 1 hm 3.18.16.17 Figure E. Calculate the height to which the jet. E. 6. (16. (4.19. (18 m) E 6.14.2 m of water.8 kPa ab) E 6. E.16 E 6. shown in Fig. In the setup of siphon for water flow. Calculate the flow rate and pressure at point 2. 9 m.2 l/s. when the jet is directed vertically.0 430 mm Figure E.83 S = 1. E. issuing at 18. if velocity at 3 was 11. (43 l/min.15. Also find the horizontal distance travelled in this case. 6. The diameter of a water jet at nozzle exist is 75 mm.8 m/s will rise when (i) The jet is directed vertically (ii) when it is directed at 45°. The frictional loss equals 40 V2/2g. determine the value of ‘h’ and also the pressure at point 2. E.19.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 217 E 6. 6.17. Determine the issuing velocity of the jet.83 upward in the set up as shown in Fig. A siphon is used to draw water from a tank.5 cm. (18 m. Determine the flow rate and also the pressure at point 2 in the siphon shown in Fig. Diameter of the pipe is 2.18. Atmospheric pressure is 10. The arrangement is shown in Fig. determine the height to which the jet will rise.

25. determine the flow rate of water. E. Determine the possible values of depth of water down stream.23. 6. determine the flow rate in the setup shown in Fig. E 6. 6.21.24.22. y 0.24.218 2 7. 6. E.24 m /s 3 150 540 mm mm 150 mm 300 mm 300 mm 45° 0.3 m f 10 mm Figure E.36 m /s 3 Figure E. 6.22 E 6.5 m y1 y 3m 3 Figure E. E.21 Determine the possible depth of water upstream.5 m 2. For the venturimeter shown in Fig. 6. Water flows through a channel as shown in Fig.25 .5 m 9.20 E 6.24 Figure E.22. 6. 6.20. The initial radius is R and the head of fluid is H. Derive an expression for the variation of jet radius r with distance y downwards for a jet directed downwards.86 m/s 1m Oil S = 0.3 m 5 m/s 1.75 Water 1. A horizontal pipe divides into two pipes at angles as shown in Fig. 6.21 Figure E. Determine the necessary forces along and perpendicular to the pipe to hold it in place. Neglect losses. E 6. 6. 6. E. 70 k Pa Air 200 mm 60° 0.5 m WL 1.20. Neglecting losses. E 6. E 6. Assume that these are no losses.25.19 Figure E. Assume uniform velocity of 5 m/s upstream. Water flows up an inclined duct as shown in Fig. E. 6.5 m 1 f 25 mm Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1.

The basic laws involved in the study of incompressible flow are (i) Law of conservation of mass and (ii) Newton’s laws of motion. modified Bernoulli equation is applicable in these flows. 219 . The flow turns turbulent under certain conditions with macroscopic mixing of fluid layers in the flow. Air flow and water flow in pipes are generally turbulent. It is found necessary to design the pipe system to carry a specified quantity of fluid between specified locations with minimum pressure loss. the energy level changes along the flow was discussed. It is also necessary to consider the initial cost of the piping system. Such flow is encountered with very viscous fluids. The inverse-namely the quantity flow for a specified pressure drop is to be also worked out on occasions. Blood flow through the arteries and veins is generally laminar. Fluids are conveyed (transported) through closed conduits in numerous industrial processes. The momentum transfer and consequent shear induced is at the molecular level by pure diffusion.0 Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) PARAMETERS INVOLVED IN THE STUDY OF FLOW THROUGH CLOSED CONDUITS In the previous chapter. Laminar condition prevails upto a certain velocity in fluids flowing in pipes. The flow may be laminar with fluid flowing in an orderly way. Besides these laws. Pressure drop for a given flow rate through a duct for a specified fluid is the main quantity to be calculated.% 7. with layers not mixing macroscopically. The flow is controlled by (i) pressure gradient (ii) the pipe diameter or hydraulic mean diameter (iii) the fluid properties like viscosity and density and (iv) the pipe roughness. The losses due to wall friction in flows was not discussed. At any location the velocity varies about a mean value. The velocity distribution in the flow and the state of the flow namely laminar or turbulent also influence the design. In this chapter the determination of drop in pressure in pipe flow systems due to friction is attempted.

1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery BOUNDARY LAYER CONCEPT IN THE STUDY OF FLUID FLOW When fluids flow over surfaces.1.220 7. The thickness of the boundary layer increases due to the continuous retardation of flow. 7. The flow initially is laminar. This slowing down is found limited to a thin layer near the surface. Use of the concept is that the main analysis can be limited to this layer. but to a lower and lower extent. There is no intermingling of layers.1. The development of the boundary layer in flow over a flat plate and the velocity distribution in the layer are shown in Fig.2 BOUNDARY LAYER DEVELOPMENT OVER A FLAT PLATE The situation when a uniform flow meets with a plane surface parallel to the flow is shown in Fig. The adjacent layers also slow down.1. the flow in the boundary layer becomes . The viscous forces predominate over inertia forces.1 Boundary Layer Development (flat-plate) 7. The fluid beyond this layer is not affected by the presence of the surface. the fluid near the surface comes to rest and adjacent layers are retarded to a larger and larger depth as the flow proceeds. 7. Beyond this point. the molecules near the surface are brought to rest due to the viscosity of the fluid. (zero thickness) the velocity is zero. The boundary conditions are (i) at the wall surface. Momentum transfer is at the molecular level. Pressure drop in fluid flow is to overcome the viscous shear force which depends on the velocity gradient at the surface. Velocity gradient exists only in the boundary layer. Small disturbances are damped out. (ii) at full thickness the velocity equals the free stream velocity (iii) The velocity gradient is zero at the full thickness.1. The fluid layer near the surface in which there is a general slowing down is defined as boundary layer. Beyond a certain distance.1. mainly by diffusion. At the plane of entry (leading edge) the velocity is uniform and equals free stream velocity. The velocity of flow in this layer increases from zero at the surface to free stream velocity at the edge of the boundary layer. The study thus involves mainly the study of the boundary layer. y Uµ uµ Leading edge dt uµ u dL u Laminar X Transition Turbulent Figure 7.

04 Re × D. The velocity profile beyond this point remains unchanged. The initial development of the boundary layer is similar to that over the flat plate. 7.1a. In the turbulent region momentum transfer and consequently the shear forces increase at a more rapid rate.3. The distance upto this point is known as entry length. The Reynolds number is calculated on the basis of diameter (ud/v). Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia and viscous forces.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 221 turbulent with macroscopic mixing of layers. The flow was observed to be laminar till a Reynolds number value of about 2300.3. In pipe flow it is not a function of length. This change occurs at a value of Reynolds number (given Re = ux/v. The laminar or turbulent nature of the flow was first investigated by Osborn Reynolds in honour of Turbulent flow um u 2 um u u Laminar flow Entry region (a) Laminar flow um Fully developed flow Laminar sublayer Entrance region (b) Turbulent flow Fully developed Figure 7. where v is the kinematic viscosity) of about 5 × 105 in the case of flow over flat plates.3 DEVELOPMENT OF BOUNDARY LAYER IN CLOSED CONDUITS (PIPES) In this case the boundary layer develops all over the circumference. It is about 0.1 Boundary layer development (pipe flow) whom the dimensionless ratio of inertia to viscous forces is named. 7. Inertia forces become predominant. The velocity profiles in the entry region and fully developed region are shown in Fig. At some distance from the entrance. As long as the diameter Chapter 7 u . the boundary layers merge and further changes in velocity distribution becomes impossible. The flow beyond is said to be fully developed.

1b.25 f= 0. This length. The value of the flow Reynolds number is decided by the diameter and the velocity and hence it is decided at the entry itself. there is a very short length in which the flow is laminar.1 Reynolds Experiment In turbulent flow there is considerable mixing between layers. The development of boundary layer in the turbulent range is shown in Fig. the Reynolds number depends on the velocity for a given flow.2 for Re < 2 × 104 for Re > 2 × 104 (7. After this length the flow in the boundary layer turns turbulent. u is the average velocity and Re is the Reynolds number.1) (7. If a dye is injected into the flow. In this case.1. The dye path is shown in Fig.4. The friction factor.3. Turbulence leads to higher frictional losses leading to higher pressure drop.186/Re0. The entry length in turbulent flow is about 10 to 60 times the diameter. the dye will travel along a straight line. the average velocity is used to calculate Reynolds number. In the case of flow through pipes. Most of the air and water flow in conduits will be turbulent. A very thin laminar sublayer near the wall in which the velocity gradient is linear is present all through. After some length the boundary layers merge and the flow becomes fully developed. Pipe Dye path Dye Figure 7.316/Re0.2) . can be calculated using the relation ux/v = 2000. The velocity profile in the fully developed flow remains constant and is generally more flat compared to laminar flow in which it is parabolic.4.222 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery is constant.4 FEATURES OF LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOWS In laminar region the flow is smooth and regular. 7.4. The friction factor is given by the following empirical relations. x. f = 0.4. 7. 7. In this region the viscous forces are able to damp out any disturbance. A dye injected into the flow will quickly mix with the fluid. f for pipe flow defined as 4τs/(ρu2/2go) is obtainable as f = 64/Re where τs is the wall shear stress. Laminar flow will be maintained till the value of Reynolds number is less than of the critical value (2300 in conduits and 5 × 105 in flow over plates). Hence the value of velocity determines the nature of flow in pipes for a given fluid. The fluid layers do not mix macroscopically (more than a molecule at a time).

6.5 HYDRAULICALLY “ROUGH” AND “SMOOTH” PIPES In turbulent flow.1 and is used in the calculation of Reynolds number.7D) + 5.2) Example 7.e. the hydraulic diameter which determines the flow characteristics is defined by equation 7. The disturbance now extends beyond the laminar layer.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 223 These expressions apply for smooth pipes. The surface area is proportional to the perimeter.3) 7. So the pipe is hydraulically smooth. with a roughness height of ε. In rough pipes.6. Hence the pipe is hydraulically rough.9}]2 (7. Any disturbance caused by the roughness is within the laminar layer and is smoothed out by the viscous forces. Dh = 4A/P (7.4. then the pipe is said to be hydraulically rough.1) If the roughness height is ε and if δ1 > 6ε. So for a given section. If δl < 6ε. similarity in flow through pipes will exist if Reynolds numbers are equal.6 CONCEPT OF “HYDRAULIC DIAMETER”: (Dh) The frictional force is observed to depend on the area of contact between the fluid and the surface. The friction factor in rough pipe of diameter D. then the pipe is considered as hydraulically smooth. Here the inertial forces are predominant.74/Re0. Reynolds number is defined as Re = uDρ/µ. A is the area of flow and P is the perimeter of the section. Discuss how the factors can be adjusted to obtain equal Reynolds numbers. It may be noted that the relative value of the roughness determines whether the surface is hydraulically rough or smooth. The thickness of the layer δl is estimated as δl = 32. the flow may turn turbulent below the critical Reynolds number itself. This definition is applicable for any cross section. the laminar nature of flow near the surface is an acceptable assumption.6. Re = Dh × u/v (7. As no fluid can flow up from the surface causing mixing. is given by f = 1. 7.1 In model testing. For flow in pipes the surface area is not a direct function of the flow.8v/u f (7. So the disturbance due to the roughness cannot be damped out.5. a thin layer near the surface is found to be laminar.325/[ln {(ε/3. i.. For circular section Dh = D.1) Chapter 7 where Dh is the hydraulic diameter. The flow is a direct function of the sectional area which is proportional to the square of a length parameter. For flow through ducts the length parameter in Reynolds number is the hydraulic diameter. as the equals (4πD2/4πD). For two different flows u1 D1 ρ1 u D ρ u D u D = 2 2 2 or 1 1 = 2 2 µ1 µ2 v1 v2 .

the velocity at the wall is zero due to viscosity and the value increases as the centre is approached. Reynolds number will increase directly as the velocity. So Reynolds number in a given pipe and fluid can be increased by increasing mass velocity.1 . the velocity being a function of radius only. 7. length = dx.7 VELOCITY VARIATION WITH RADIUS FOR FULLY DEVELOPED LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES In pipe flow. The variation if established will provide the flow rate as well as an average velocity. For example if flow similarity between water and air is to be achieved at 20 °C then (using v values in eqn. the air velocity should be about 15 times the velocity of water for flow similarity. Surface area = 2πrdx Assuming steady fully developed flow. dr P P + dp r tr tr + dr dx umax = 2 um P + dp R Laminar dr r P R (a) (b) Turbulent Figure 7. The dimensions are: inside radius = r.D/µ where G is the mass velocity in kg /m2s. 7.7. If velocities should be the same.7.1a. Reynolds number can be expressed also by Re = G. the diameter should be 15 times that for water. and using the relationship for force balance. For experiments generally both are altered by smaller ratios to keep u × D constant. outside radius = r + dr.06 × 10− 6 If diameters are the same. It will vary inversely with the dynamic viscosity of the fluid.006 × 10 − 6 Velocity of water × diameter in water flow = Velocity of air × diameter of air flow 15. Consider an annular element of fluid in the flow as shown in Fig. diameter and density.224 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As the kinematic viscosities v1 and v2 are fluid properties and cannot be changed easily (except by changing the temperature) the situation is achieved by manipulating u2 D2 and u1 D1 v2 u D = 2 2 v1 u1 D1 (A) this condition should be satisfied for flow similarity in ducts. A) 1.

7. dividing 7.7.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Net pressure force = dp 2π rdr 225 d du µ 2πrdx dr .3.7.72) At a given radius.7. Equating the forces and reordering dr dr Net shear force = FG H IJ K 1 dp d du r r = µ dx dr dr FG H IJ K Integrating r du 1 dp r 2 + C . and using equation A πR 2 umax = πR2umean ∴ 2 umean = umax u The average velocity is half of the maximum velocity Q= ∴ u umean = 2 1− LM FG r IJ OP MN H R K PQ 2 (7.2). ∴ u umax =1– FG r IJ H RK 2 (7.7. we get 7. ∴ umax = – 1 dp R 2 µ dx 4 (7.4) Chapter 7 LM FG r IJ OP MN H R K PQ 2 . u= at r = R.7.1) The velocity is maximum at r = 0.3) (A) If the average velocity is umean then the flow is given by Q = π R2 umean The flow Q is also given by the integration of small annular flow streams as in the element considered Q= z R 0 2πurdr but u = umax 1 − Substituting and integrating between the limits 0 to R. which represents parabolic distribution. u = 0 (at the wall) ∴ B=– ∴ u= – LM FG IJ OP MN H K PQ 2 (7. at r = 0 ∴ C = 0 = dr µ dx 2 1 dp r 2 +B µ dx 4 1 dp R2 µ dx 4 r 1 dp R 2 1− µ dx 4 R Integrating again and after simplification.1 by (7.

The pressures at sections 1 and 2 are P1 and P2.3) Re In the turbulent region the friction factor is found to depend on Reynolds number for smooth pipes and both on Reynolds number and L roughness for rough pipes. Hence we can say that LV 2 (7.8. (7. Another factor which affects the pressure drop is the pipe roughness. The velocity will also be a factor and in this case the pressure drop will depend in the square of the velocity (refer Bernoulli equation).2) Extensive investigations have been made to determine the factors influencing the friction factor. where n varies with Reynolds number. But the pressure drop is lower in such a case which leads to lower operating cost.226 ( 1/ n ) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In turbulent flow the velocity profile is generally represented by the equation u umax = 1− FG H r R IJ K . Some empirical equations are given in section 7. f= . The average velocity is 0.8 DARCY–WEISBACH EQUATION FOR CALCULATING PRESSURE DROP In the design of piping systems the choice falls between the selection of diameter and the pressure drop. It is easily seen that the pressure drop will depend directly upon the length and inversely upon the diameter. Consider an Figure 7. The selection of a larger diameter leads to higher initial cost.8. The value of friction factor with Reynolds number with roughness as parameter is um P1 P2 um available in Moody diagram.1 elemental length L in the pipe.79 umax for n = 6 and 0. In the process of such determination Darcy defined or friction factor f as ∆p∝ f = 4 τ0/(ρum2/2g0) This quantity is dimensionless which may be checked.8. So in the process of design of piping systems it becomes necessary to investigate the pressure drop for various diameters of pipe for a given flow rate.87 umax for n = 10. It is established that in laminar flow f depends only on the Reynolds number and it is given by 64 (7. t0 Using the definition of Darcy friction factor and conditions of equilibrium.4 and also under discussions t0 on turbulent flow.8. expression for pressure 1 2 drop in pipes is derived in this section.1) 2D The proportionality constant is found to depend on other factors. given in the appendix. 7.

π DL 8 g0 4 ∆P= This reduces to f L um 2 ρ 2 g0 D (7. f ρ um 2 π D2 = . we get hf = It is found that hf ∝ Q2 8 f L Q2 π 2 g D5 (7.7) D5 Another coefficient of friction Cf is defined as Cf = f /4 .4) f ρ um 2 8 g0 Substituting and letting (P1 –P2) to be ∆P. In this case as h= P P g0 = γ ρg ∆ h = hf = f L um 2 2gD (7. the value of f is to be obtained either from equations or from Moody diagram.6).5) This equation known as Darcy-Weisbach equation and is generally applicable in most of the pipe flow problems. ∆P.8. Chapter 7 um = 4Q πD 2 . Net pressure force in the element is (P1 –P2) Net shear force in the element is τ0 π DL Force balance for equilibrium yields 227 π D2 = τ0 π DL 4 From the definition friction factor (P1 – P2) f = 4 τ0 / (ρ um2/ 2 g0) τ0 = (7.8.8.8. The diameter for circular tubes will be the hydraulic diameter Dh defined earlier in the text.8. um2 = 16 Q 2 π2 D4 Substituting in (7.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) The other force involved on the element is the wall shear τ0. It is found desirable to express the pressure drop as head of the flowing fluid. As mentioned earlier.6) The velocity term can be replaced in terms of volume flow and the equation obtained is found useful in designs as Q is generally specified in designs.

8.9. Also (µ / ρ) = ν. Substituting for − as 2 L dL dL R D2 ∆P = 32 µ um L D2 This can also be expressed in terms of volume flow rate Q as π D2 .9.3) This equation is known as Hagen-Poiseuille equation g0 is the force conversion factor having a value of unity in the SI system of unit. substituting ∆P = 128 µ L Q/π D4 Converting ∆P as head of fluid Q= hf = 32 vum Lg0 gD 2 (7. The equation is derived in this section.228 In this case hf = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 4C f L um 2 2gD (7.2).9.7) equation (7.9. Refer to section (7. Equations 7.1) u= − 1 dp R 2 r 1− µ dL 4 R LM FG IJ OP MN H K PQ 2 dP can be approximated to ∆ P/L as the pressure drop is uniform along the length L under dL steady laminar flow Using eqn (7.2 and 7.7.7.8.9. = 2um dL µ 4 − − 8 um µ dP = dL R2 8umµ 32um µ ∆P dP dP = = . umax = − ∴ ∴ dP 1 R2 .8) Now a days equation 7.6) is applicable for all flows .5 are more popularly used as value of f is easily available.1) (7. 7.3 are applicable for laminar flow only whereas DarcyWeisbach equation (7. um 4 ∴ um = 4Q/πD2.2) (7.1. 7.9.8.9 HAGEN–POISEUILLE EQUATION FOR FRICTION DROP In the case of laminar flow in pipes another equation is available for the calculation of pressure drop.

inertia forces increase and particles are pushed upwards out of the smoother path. or ∆P = 0.351 m head of oil.1 µ . laminar flow prevails in pipes. Example 7.1 × 930 uD ρ = = 930.351 × 0. f = 64/930 = 0. in terms of Reynolds number in laminar region.10 SIGNIFICANCE OF REYNOLDS NUMBER IN PIPE FLOW Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. dividing ρuuD ρuD uD inertia force = = = µu µ v viscous force Viscous force tends to keep the layers moving smoothly one over the other. The equation are hf = 32 um vL fLum 2 and hf = 2 gD gD 2 equating and simplifying a very useful relationship is obtained.e. (same as by the other equation) Chapter 7 1 × 0. The friction factor in flow is also found to be a function of Reynolds number (in laminar flow. Also determine the friction factor and the pressure drop over 10 m length. laminar flow prevails in pipes. 7..1) (Hagen-Poiseuille eqn.u). When velocity increases. The inertia force is proportional to the mass flow and velocity i. Dynamic viscosity µ = 0. as Re um D FG u D IJ = Re H v K m In the laminar flow region the friction factor can be determined directly in terms of Reynolds number. Re = Friction factor. What should be the velocity for the flow to turn turbulent? Density = 930 kg/m3 .1) = 0.1 Ns/m2 (as N/m2 is call Pascal.12 = 3200 N/m2. namely f= 64 2 × 32 ν = . (ρu.) ∆P ∆ = 32 × µ × um × L D2 = 32 × 0. The viscous force is proportional to µ(du/dy) or µ u/D. Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent.3.300.81 × 0. µ can be also expressed as Pa. f = 64/Re).06882 hf = f L um2/2gD = (64/930) × 10 × 12/(2 × 9. Inertia forces tend to move the particles away from the layer. When viscous force are sufficiently high so that any disturbance is smoothed down. Lubricating Oil at a velocity of 1 m/s (average) flows through a pipe of 100 mm ID.s). so the flow is laminar 1 × 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 229 Example 7. As long as Reynolds number is below 2.2 Using the Darcy-Weisbach equation and the Hagen Poiseuille equation obtain an expression for friction factor f.93 × 9810 = 3200 N/m2 At transition Re = 2000 (can be taken as 2300 also) Using (7.9.1 × 1 × 10 0.

6 ν/u* (7. The thickness of this layer is given by * um δt = 11.11.2).75 log = 5.1) The friction factor f is a complex function of Reynolds number.7) ε u The laminar sublayer thickness is used for defining smooth pipe. A new reference velocity called shear velocity is defined as below.11.12. u u* = 5. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7.75 log ( R − r ) u* + 7.230 To determine velocity on critical condition 2300 = 4 m × 0.11.47 m/s. = 5. In laminar flow the velocity profile is parabolic and the mean velocity is half of the maximum velocity.5 ν (7.11.2). u * u where ε is the roughness dimension.11 VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION AND FRICTION FACTOR FOR TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES The velocity profile and relation between the mean and maximum velocity are different in the two types of flow.75 ln ( R − r) + 8.04 f um log (R/(R – 1)) (7.4) For rough pipes. For higher values of f the velocity variation will be well rounded at the centre compared to low values of f.11.11.75 log (7.1 × 930/0.8) .5) The mean velocity um is obtained for smooth and rough pipes as um u and * = 5. A sample velocity variation is given in equation (7.11.75 (7. u* = τ 0 g0 ρ Ru * + 5.33 f ) um – 2.5 ε (7. u = (1 + 1.33 f (7.11. Such a relation is more complex in turbulent flow.1 ∴ um = 2.6) R + 4.3) Several other correlation using the reference velocity are listed below.5 ν (7. For example one such available relation is given by um 1 = umax 1 + 1.

316/Re0.25 for Re < 2 × 104 For all ranges either of the following relations can be used f = 0. 7. losses take place due to the turbulence created downstream of the entrance. As in laminar flow the frictional loss of head is given by hf = f L um2/2 gDh Also (7. τ0 = The friction factor for very smooth pipes can be calculated by assuming one seventh power law leading to.11) (7. f ρ um 2 . These losses are generally expressed as hf = C um2/2g where C is constant. In a pipe system design. several correlations are available for friction factor. The frictional losses other than pipe friction are called minor losses. Chapter 7 .Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 231 In the case of turbulent show the wall shear force is given by the following equation.10) (7.9) 4 2 Similar to velocity profile. it is necessary to take into account all such losses. the value of which will depend on the situation and is called the loss coefficient.237) 1/ f = 1. f = 0. (a) Bell mouthed: This is a smooth entrance and turbulence is suppressed to a great extent and C = 0. These correlations together with correlations for velocity profile are useful in numerical methods of solution.8 log Re – 1.11.5186 For rough pipes of radius R 1 f (7.11.11. (7.04 for this situation.221/Re0. The expression is applicable both for laminar and turbulent flows. Three types of entrances are known.12 MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE FLOW Additional frictional losses occur at pipe entry.13) Charts connecting f.11. valves and fittings. sudden decrease or increase in flow area or where direction of flow changes.12) = 2 log R + 1.11. Re and ε/D are also available and can be used without appreciable error.15) 8 fL Q 2 hf = gπ 2 D 5 The value of f is to be determined using the approximate relations or the chart.74 ε (7.11.11. (i) Loss of head at entrance: At the entrance from the reservoir into the pipe.14) (7.0032 + (0.

8. 7.1 Types of entrance (ii) Loss of head at submerged discharge: When a pipe with submerged outlet discharges into a liquid which is still (not moving) whole of the dynamic head u2/2g will be lost. (7. C = 0.05 to 0. (c) Reentrant inlet: The pipe may sometimes protrude from the wall into the liquid. The loss is reduced by providing a diverging pipe to reduce the exit velocity. The value is 0. For gate valves L = 8D. Gradual expansion will reduce the losses. Such an arrangement is called reentrant inlet.33 for D2/D1 = 0. P1 u12 u2 2 P2 – + = ρg 2g 2g ρg or P1 u12 u2 2 P2 – + = 2 2 ρ ρ (1) . Square edged entrance is used more popularly. The discharge from reaction turbines into the tail race water is an example.12. Using Bernoulli equation and denoting the ideal pressure at section 2 as P2 (without losses).1. The loss coefficient in this case is about 0. (iii) Sudden contraction: When the pipe section is suddenly reduced. and for globe valves it is 340 D.232 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (b) Square edged entrance: Though it is desirable to provide a bell mouthed entrance it will not be always practicable. The values are generally available in a tabular statement connecting D2/D1 and loss coefficient.13. The loss coefficient. The loss of head hf is given by Loss of head = (u1 – u2)2 / 2g.13 EXPRESSION FOR THE LOSS OF HEAD AT SUDDEN EXPANSION IN PIPE FLOW The situation is shown in Fig 7. The loss coefficient is 1. (v) Valves and fittings : Losses in flow through valves and fittings is expressed in terms of an equivalent length of straight pipe. Bell mouthed Square edge Reentrant Figure 7. (iv) Sudden expansion: Here the sudden expansion creates pockets of eddying turbulence leading to losses. Gradual contraction will reduce the loss.12.0.5 in this case. loss coefficient depends on the diameter ratio.5.1) where u1 and u2 are the velocities in the smaller and larger sections. datum remaining unaltered.08 for angles of 10° to 60°. For 90° bends it is about 30 D. For gradual contraction it varies with the angle of the transition section from 0.

P1 A1 – P2′ A2 = ρ A2 u22 – ρ A2 u2 u1 Dividing by ρ and A2 allthrough P1 P2 ′ – = u22 – u1u2 ρ ρ or P2 ′ P1 = – (u22 – u1u2) ρ ρ Subtracting on either side of equations 1 and 2 (ideal and real) (2) P1 u12 u2 2 P1 P2 – P2 ′ – – – (u2 2 – u1u2 ) + = 2 2 ρ ρ ρ P2 – P2 ′ u12 u2 2 + (u2 2 – u1u2 ) – = ρ 2 2 Multiplying both sides by 2 ∴ 2 ( P2 – P2 ′ ) = u12 – u22 + 2u22 – 2u1 u2 = (u1 – u2)2 ρ Dividing the both sides by g and simplifying P2 – P2 ′ (u – u2 ) 2 = 2 2g ρg But ∴ P2 – P2 ′ = hf (head loss) ρg hf = (u1 – u2 ) 2 . The pressure forces are (here the pressure on the annular section of fluid at 1 is assumed as P1) (P1 A1 – P2′ A2). replacing A1 u1 by A2 u2 and equating the net forces on the element to the momentum change.1 Sudden Expansion Applying conservation of momentum principle to the fluid between section 1 and 2.13. 2g Chapter 7 . The change in momentum is given by (ρ A2 u2 u2 – ρ A1 u1 u1) noting A1 u1 = A2 u2.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) P1¢ = P1 1 2 A2 A1 P1 P2¢ 233 P1 ¢ = P 1 2 Figure 7. and denoting the actual pressure at section 2 as P2.

Introduction of a pump in the line will push up both the lines. Determine the head to be developed by the pump. fittings etc. This line will also dip due to frictional losses. The head to be developed will equal the static head. u2/2g.14 LOSSES IN ELBOWS. Flow will be governed by hydraulic grade line. This line will dip sharply if velocity increases and will slope upwards if velocity decreases. For example in straight constant area pipe the line will slope proportional to the head drop per m length. The loss will vary with radius of the bend. the rate of flow being 3 m3/hr. 7. 7. friction head and the dynamic head. BENDS AND OTHER PIPE FITTINGS Fittings like valves. WL Entry loss Reservoir HGL Expansion EL V2 /2g 2 Figure 7. .15.234 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7.1 Energy and Hydraulic grade lines Example 7. A pump takes in water from a level 5 m below its centre line and delivers it at a height of 30 m above the centre line. Hydraulic grade line will be at a lower level and the difference between the ordinates will equal the dynamic head i. The line will dip due to losses. introduce frictional losses either by obstruction or due to secondary flows. the loss is due to the variation of centrifugal force along different stream lines which causes secondary flows.4. Hydraulic grade line is the plot of pressure head along the flow path. In large bends fitting curved vanes will reduce the loss. The losses may be accounted for by a term equivalent length which will depend on the type of fitting or in terms of (u2/2g) or dynamic head.e. Globe valves are poorer compared to gate valves with regard to pressure drop.. In the case of bends.15 ENERGY LINE AND HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE IN CONDUIT FLOW The plot of the sum of pressure head and dynamic head along the flow path is known as energy line. There will be sudden dips if there are minor losses due to expansions. Specimen plot is given in Fig.1 (pump is not indicated in figure). elbows etc.15. This refers to the total available energy of the system at the location. The diameter of the pipe line allthrough is 50 mm (ID). The fittings introduce losses equal to 10 m length of pipe in addition to the actual length of 45 m of pipe used.

05 m.81 × 0.55 = 0.11. Frictional Head = f L um2/2g D.25 = 0.25 = 0.16 CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT LENGTH For calculation of minor losses it is more convenient to express the pressure drop in fittings.25)] + [um2 / (2 × 9.05 × 0. f and D.265 + 0. Friction head = f L um2/2g D.23 m3/hr. Le um2/2g D = C um2/2g ∴ Le can be calculated As a number of fittings at various positions may be involved causing minor losses in a pipe system. ∴ ∴ The flow is turbulent Assuming smooth pipe.02622 × 55 × 0.316/Re0.81)] = 17.237 = 0. expansion–contraction and at entry in terms of a length of pipe which will at that discharge rate lead to the same pressure drop.02622. Re = um D/v = 0.052 = 0. Le.05 = 0.027 m3/s. Head to be developed by the pump = 35.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Static head = 30 + 5 = 35 m. 7. D = 0.221/Re0. The head available should equal the sum of frictional loss and the dynamic head.2562 m head of water. minor losses may often be neglected. This length is known as equivalent length.15).81 × 0.0092 = 35. Flow rate = (π × 0.2562 m.006 × 10– 6 = 21093 235 0.42442/2 × 9. Assuming the temperature as 20 °C.252/4) × 0.2 = [(0.55 m/s.0032 + 0.006 × 10– 6 m2 / s. Example 7.02622 = 0. 4000 m long with f = 0. Frictional loss of head Dynamic head ∴ Total head f = 0.17 CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT PIPE OR EQUIVALENT LENGTH When pipes of different friction factors are connected in series (or in parallel) it is convenient to express the losses in terms of one of the pipes (Refer to 7.021 × 4000 × um2)/(2 × 9. or 97. The friction loss hf for pipe 1 with L1 and f1 is given by Chapter 7 . 5.176 um2 ∴ ∴ um = 0.021 discharges water from a reservoir at a level 5. Dynamic Head = um2/2g When long pipes are involved.4244/1. From the relation knowing C.81 = 35 + 0. 7. v = 1.0092 m 2 × 9.0241).2 m below the water reservoir level.42442 = 0. this is a convienent way to estimate minor losses.5 A pipe 250 mm dia. Determine the rate of discharge. using the value 0.4244 m/s.316/210930.265 m = um2/2g = (check f = 0. L = 45 + 10 = 55 m. um = (3/3600) 4/π × 0.

The friction factors are 0.17. 1 2 3 Length.45) Q2 = 0.6. Determine the flow rate neglecting minor losses.17.79 m L3e = 250(0.81 × π2 × 0.024) × (0.021 0.81 m 12 = (8 × 0. Example 7. L2e = 300 (0. then 8 f1 L1 Q12 g π 2 D15 8 f2 L2 Q2 2 g π 2 D2 5 5 0.02 m = 200 + 511.024.4/0. Three pipes of 400 mm.25 0.35 Friction factor 0.79 + 834.4 m pipe as the base.04 ∴ Q = 0.019 0.81 × Q2)/(9.30 0. Hence hf2 = 8 f2L2 Q2/g π2 D25 Cancelling common terms f1 L1 D15 f2 L2 D2 5 f1 D2 5 f2 D15 = or L2 = L1 (7.024) × (0. the equivalent pipe will have a length L2.5 = ∴ Q2 f1 L1 Q1 = f2 L2 LM MN FG D IJ HD K 2 1 OP PQ (7.021 and 0.4/0. 0.1 Total length 8 f1 L1 Q 2 π g 2 D15 + 8 f2 L2 Q2 π g D2 2 5 + 8 f3 L3 Q2 π 2 g D35 Q2 = 0.019/0. Q = 0.1) If pipes are in series a common diameter can be chosen and the equivalent length concept can be used conveniently to obtain the solution.021/0.04.2 m2/s.024 . The lengths are 200 m. m 0. Example 7.7. 350 mm and 300 mm diameter are connected in series between two reservoirs with a difference in level of 12 m.35)5 = 511.024 × 1545.236 hf1 = 8 f1L1 Q2/g π2 D15 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery For the same pressure loss and flow rate Q and discharge through another pipe of diameter D2 with f2. Two reservoirs are connected by three pipes in parallel with the following details of pipes: Pipe No. as the pressure loss is the same. This problem can be solved using 12 = Solving Refer 7.2 m3/s Using equivalent length concept and choosing 0. m 600 800 400 Diameter.2) The idea of using equivalent length thus helps to reduce tediusness in calculations. 300 m and 250 m respectively.02 = 1545.17.3)5 = 834.019 respectively. In parallel arrangement.

4362 ∴ Q2 = 1.81 × 0. Considering pipe 1 as base Q2 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 2 L1 L2 FD I GH D JK 2 1 5 0.2).35 m.019 × 800 × 0. Q2.5 .5 OP PQ 5 0.43 m.078542/ π2 × 9.024.4362 Q1 Q3 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 3 L1 L3 FD I GH D JK 3 1 5 0.3 I = M MN 0.4362 Q1 + 2.0931 Q1 Q1 = 0.4 m.55 m dia over a length of 1600 m to the supply location. The total head drop equals the sum of the drops in pipe 1 and in pipe 3.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 237 The total flow is 24. D1 = 0.4 m.5 = 2.5 = 0.5 Using equation (7. hf = 8 × 0.35 = 6. So.4001 m3/s Head loss or level difference (Ref para 7.6569 Q1 Total flow = 0. The total head available is 25. the head drops are equal (refer para 7.024 400 GH 0.6569 Q1 = 0.17.019. The value of f3 = 0.2. eqn.11282/π2 × 9.576 m Check with other pipes Pipe 2.11280 m3/s Q3 = 2.8.021 × 600 × F 0. Chapter 7 5 0.11.81 × 0. The two reservoir levels are equal. f1 = 0. Pipes 1 and 2 meet at a common location. The water from the common point is drawn through pipe 3 of 0.021 × 600 × 0. Let the flow in pipe 1 be Q1 and that in pipe 2 be Q2.25JK 5 OP PQ OP PQ = 1. f2 = 0.8841 Q1 Q1 + Q2 = 1. L2 = 1500 m.6569 ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ Q3 = 2.024. Q3 Then Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 24000/(60 × 1000) = 0. Water is drawn from two reservoirs at the same water level through pipe 1 and 2 which join at a common point. Let the flows be designated as Q1. eqn 7.255 = 6. 7.17.021 × 600 × F 0.000 l/min. D2 = 0.5 OP PQ L 0.024 × 2000 × F 0.11.021. L2 = 1500 m. Determine the flow in each pipe and also the level difference between the reservoirs.576 m Example 7.20867 m3/s Total = 0. D2 = 0.021 1500 GH 0.35 I MN 0.17. L1 = 2000 m.4362 Q1 = 0. Determine the flow rate through the system.35 m Q2 = Q1 ∴ ∴ LM 0.8841 Q1 This flow goes through pipe 3.25JK L 0. L1 = 2000 m. D1 = 0.4 m3/s 0.15 Pipe 1 hf = 8 f L Q2/π2 g D5 8 × 0.019 800 GH 0.35I = M MN 0.07854 m3/s Q2 = 1. f2 = 0.021.6569 Q1 = 5. Then Q2 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 2 L1 L2 FD I GH D JK 2 1 OP PQ Here f1 = 0.4 JK 5 OP PQ 0.4 = Q1 + 1.

18.021 × 1500 × 0. Net head available = h – hf. The choices of the pipe diameter depends on the expected efficiency of transmission and also on the economical aspect of the cost of pipe.81 × 0. for maximum power.2123 m3/s.81 × 0.67%.355 = 17. Higher efficiencies can be obtained by the use of larger diameter pipes.46 m both are equal as required.45 π 2 × 9.99 m π2 × 9.18. Q2 = 0. If the available rate of flow is known the velocity and then the diameter can be determined or if the diameter is fixed the flow rate can be obtained. checks.45 m .21232 π 2 × 9.1 Condition for Maximum Power Transmission Consider that the head available is h and the frictional loss is hf (neglecting minor losses) left the pipe diameter be D and the flow velocity be u. Quantity flow = π D2 u/4 hf = f L u2/2gD.88412 Q12 + π 2 × 9.48 Q12 ∴ Q1 = 0.17 Q12 = 564.1877 m3/s Q3 = Q1 + Q2 = 0.4 m3/s.555 Total head = 7. 7.31 Q12 + 177.43 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 8 × 0. check for pressure at common point hf1 = 8 × 0. 7. Applications are also there in hydraulic drives and control equipments.238 25.46 m hf2 = 8 × 0.46 = 25. Check for drop in the third pipe hf3 = 8 × 0. The friction factor for the pipe can be fixed as this is nearly constant above a . It is desirable to maximise the power transmitted as compared to an attempt to increase efficiency.019 × 1600 × 1. dP π D2 ρ π D2 ρ = [h – 3(fLu2/2gD)] = [h – 3hf ] du 4 4 Equating to zero hf = h/3 (7.18 FLUID POWER TRANSMISSION THROUGH PIPES High head and medium head hydal plants convey water from a high level to the power house through pressure pipe called penstock pipes. but this will prove to be costly.81 × 0.81 × 0.019 × 1600 × 0.4 5 = 17.555 = 387.81 × 0.024 × 2000 × 0. Power = mass flow × net head Power.99 + 17.024 × 2000 Q12 8 × 0.1) For maximum power generation frictional loss will equal one third of available head and the corresponding transmission efficiency is 66.42 = 7. P= π D2 f L u3 π D2 ρ uh – uρ [h – (fLu2/2gD)] = 4 2g D 4 LM N OP Q Differetiating P with respect to u.1877 2 π 2 × 9.

81 (450 – 150) = 551963 W = 551.48) = 516493 W = 516. hf = (0. The distance from the dam to the power house considering the topography was estimated as 3000 m. Example 7.25) solving. Determine the pipe diameter for transmitting maximum power.07 m Power = (π × 0. ∴ But ∴ ∴ hf = 600/3 = 200 m hf = fLu2/2g D.81 × 0. Example 7. and also calculate the velocity and power transmitted.924 × 106 W or 3.9 the power transmitted for u = 4. Using equation 7. u = 3.82 m/s.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 239 certain value of Reynolds number.1.014 × 3600 × 4. hf = h/3 = 450/3 = 150 m 150 = (0.18. Determine for the data in example 7.252/4) × 4.81) D5.18.444 m/s Power = 1000 × 9. pipe diameter is fixed and when diameter is specified the flow rate will be fixed.1.49 kW This brings out clearly that the maximum power for a given diameter and head is when the frictional drop equals one third of available head.01735.9 In a hydroelectric plant the head available is 450 m of water.014 × 3600 × u2)/(2 × 9.81 (450 – 208. The length of the pipe line is 3600 m.11 In a hydrosystem the flow availability was estimated as 86.014 is used.81 × 400 = 3.48 m Power = (π × 0.4 × 103 m3/day.014 × 3000 × 16 × 12)/(2π2 × 9. The available pipes have friction factor 0. Q = 86.25) = 92.4445) = 200 m (checks) 7. D = 0.5 m/s and u = 3 m/s. Refer Eqn 7.18755 × 1000 × 9.014 × 3600 × 32)/(2 × 9. hf = (0.924 MW Check for frictional loss hf = (0.18755 m3 /s Power developed = Qρg × (h – hf ) = 0. (i) u = 4.4445 m . Velocity = 4 × 1/(π × 0.52)/(2 × 9. Some of these are discussed in the para.81 × 0.81 × 0.5 m/s. Chapter 7 D5 = 0. Determine the maximum power that can be developed.19 NETWORK OF PIPES Complex connections of pipes are used in city water supply as well as in industrial systems.014.44452) = 6. 25 cm penstock pipe with friction factor of 0. For maximum power when flow rate is specified. The frictional drop is equal to one third of available head.963 kW Example 7.014 × 3000 × 6.4 × 103/(24 × 3600) = 1 m3/s 2π2 gD5 200 = (0.25) = 208.81 (450 – 92.81 × 0. Here both u and D are not specified. The head of fall was estimated as 600 m.07) = 524246 W = 524. flow rate = (π D2/4) × u = 0.4442)/(2 × 9.10.252/4) × 3 × 1000 × 9.5 × 1000 × 9. Q = area × velocity u = 4Q/π D2 ∴ u2 = 16 Q2 /π2 D4 hf = fL 16 Q2 = 200.25 kW (ii) u = 3 m/s.

62) Q2 = 355. D2. D1.1 Pipes in Series—Electrical Analogy Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Series flow problem can also be solved by use of resistance network..463 + 72. Due to constraints pipes of different diameters were to be used.81 × 0.40 Length including minor losses. = 17.61 + 17.81 × 0.02 × 220 = 149.12.35 π 2 × 9.15.463.015 The resistance values are calculated using Eqn.61.62 h = [R1 + R2 + R3 + R4] Q2 (16 – 4) = (149. R4 = = 72. 1 2 3 4 Diameter.19.02 0.45 8 × 0.013 0. f3 Figure 7.1 Equivalent circuit for series flow Example 7.. R1 = R3 = π 2 × 9.81 × 0. For flow in series Q is the same through all pipes.45 0. hfn = hf = (R1 + R2 + R3 + .018 × 410 = 116. This leads to the relation hf1 + hf2 + hf3 + . Pipe 2. + Rn) Q2 The R values for the pipe can be calculated. For given pipe specification the equation can be simplified as hf = 8 f L Q2/π2g D5 = R Q2 Note: The dimension for R is s2/m5...1 Pipe 3. The circuit is shown in Fig.355 π 2 × 9.013 × 300 8 × 0. Consider equation 7.19. Pipe 4. f1 L2.1.015 × 600 8 × 0. No.11.455 8 × 0.018 0.30 0.35 0..19.240 7. R2 = π 2 × 9.. 7. WL L1. The length L should include minor losses in terms of equivalent lengths. D3. f2 Q R1 h1 R2 R3 h2 R = 8fL/p gD 2 5 L3... Determine the flow rate. m 0. As the total head is also known Q can be evaluated.81 × 0.. 7.15 Pipe 1.11.. m 220 410 300 600 f 0. A reservoir at a level with respect to datum of 16 m supplies water to a ground level reservoir at a level of 4 m.793 Q2 ..

Determine the frictional loss.02 0.19.046 + 3. No.019 Chapter 7 4. D1. 2. 7. 3. Case (iii) Electrical analogy is illustrated or in problem Ex. D2. f1 P2 L2.2 Pipes in Parallel Such a system is shown in Fig.19. D3. . f3 Q1 Q2 Q3 h2 R1 h1 R2 R3 Q1 Q2 Q3 h2 Figure 7. m 800 1200 900 Diameter. One of the methods uses the following steps: 1. Q2 and Q3 are specified.3 0. these flow rates can be determined.2 WL h1 P1 L1. Total flow Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 The process can be extended to any number of connections. Assume by proper judgement the flow rate in pipe 1 as Q1.916 + 0.589 + 2.18365 m3/s Check Σ h = Σ (R1 Q12) = 5. Case (ii) Total flow and pipe details specified. f2 P3 L3.2 Case (i) The head drop between locations 1 and 2 are specified: The total flow can be determined using hf = 8 f1 L1Q12 π 2 g D15 = 8 f2 L2 Q2 2 π 2 g D2 5 = 8 f3 L3 Q3 2 π 2 g D3 5 As hf and all other details except flow rates Q1. Example 7.13 The details of a parallel pipe system for water flow are given below. Using the value find Q2 and Q3.022 0. 1 2 3 length. 7. Divide the total Q in the proportion Q1 : Q2 : Q3 to obtain the actual flow rates.14. m 0.4 Friction factor 0.19.449 = 12 m 241 7.13 and Ex. 7.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) ∴ Q = 0.2 0.

019 Case 1. 0. Q1 = Q2 = Q3 = Calculation for frictional loss.45 15 = 8 f2 L2Q22 π 2 g D25 = 15 = 8 f3 L3Q32 π g 2 D35 = solving Q3 = 0. The system is shown in Fig. 0.81 × 0.81 × 0.66 × 0. Pipe 1 hf = 0.52274 8 × 0.15 800 m. f = 0.522 m3/s Case (ii) Total flow is 0.022 WL 1 1200 m. 7.1355 m3/s π2 × 9. Q = 0. Case (i) Let the flows be Q1.11. f = 0.05745 = 0.81 × 0. Adopting method 2 the total flow is divided in the ratio of Q1 : Q2 : Q3 as calculated above.52274 0. Q2 and Q3.32971 m3/s Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0.32971 = 0.13. 0.242 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. f = 0.022 × 800 × Q12 solving Q1 = 0.02 900 m.019 × 900 × Q32 π 2 × 9.66 × 0.35 Pipe 2 hf = = 23.81 × 0.66 m /s.66 m3/s . 0. Already for 15 m head individual flows are available. determine the individual flow and the friction drop. h = ? 2 WL 2 Figure Ex. Total flow Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3.52274 0. If the total flow rate is 0.02 × 1200 × 0. Ex. determine the total flow rate 2. 15 = 8 f1L1Q12 π 2 g D15 = 8 × 0.07254 m3/s.91 m π 2 × 9.3 m f.66 m3/s.17117 m3/s 0.91 m .022 × 800 × 0. Q = ? Case 2.07254 2 = 23. If the frictional drop between the junctions is 15 m of water.66 × 0.02 × 1200 × Q22 solving Q2 = 0.171172 π 2 × 9.13558 = 0.13 The flow rates are calculated individually with hf = 15 m and totalled.35 8 × 0.81 × 0.41629 m3/s 0.4 m f.2 m f.25 8 × 0.05745 m3/s π2 × 9. h1 – h2 = 15 m. using equation 7. 7.2 5 8 × 0.

.91/816...13 by analogy method. hf LM MN + 1 R1 + 1 R2 + . trial solution becomes necessary.81 × 0.07... Q2 = 0..35 π × 9.19.. 8 × 0. Total flow equals Q1 + Q2 + Q3 .17117 m3/s Q32 = hf /R3 = 23. The flow may be from the higher reservoir to the others or it may be from both high level reservoirs to the low level one.41629 m3/s Note: Checks in all cases..019 × 900 × 0. ∴ R= FG 1 IJ H 0.02 × 1200 R1 = 8 × 0...52274 (checks with the previous case) Q = 0.. If one of the flow rate is specified the solution is direct.....2733 Q = 0.07 + 1 137.66.893 × 0.19..91/137.. Q3 = 0..98 ∴ ∴ Case 2..893 hf = R Q2 = 54..48. In the case of parallel flow as the pressure drop is the same hf = R1 Q12 = R2 Q22 = R3 Q32 . The simplest case is a three reservoir system interconnected by three pipes (Ref.81 × 0.. Q3 .. OP PQ An equivalent resistance R can be obtained by 1 R = 1 R1 1 R2 + . If flows are Q1. Q2.2 R3 = 8 × 0.893 = 0...91/4544.91 m Q12 = hf /R1 = 23....45 Electrical analogy : For parallel pipe network also electrical analogy can be used.. then the algebraic sum of Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0.98. (ii) The Darcy-Weisbach equation should be satisfied for each pipe. If the head at the junction is above both the lower reservoirs..3).. If the head Chapter 7 7.48..Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Pipe 3 hf = 243 8 × 0.91 m π2 × 9..019 × 900 π × 9.98.... Q1 = 0.14. If none are specified. Case 1.48 + 1 816.4 2 5 = 137.. and Q2 = hf /R Example 7. both of these will receive the flow. R = 54. R2 = 2 = 816....3 Branching Pipes ..13497 K 2 = 54. Fig.07 2 5 π × 9. Work out problem 7. 1 R = 1 4544. 7.81 × 0.416292 = 23. The hydraulic grade line controls the situation. or Q1 = Q= hf / R1 ..893 ∴ Q2 = 15/54.81 × 0..522742 = 23.022 × 800 = 4544.07254 m3/s Q22 = hf /R2 = 23... The conditions to be satisfied are (i) The net flow at any junction should be zero due to continuity principle...

C. Similarly for flow from B and C.3.81 × 0.2473.0354 = QB2.5196 Considering flow from A.011 × 900 = 10. 12 m and 8 m are connected by a pipe network. (8 – ZJ)/10.0354 π 2 × 9.5 m and f = 0. (iii) If it is positive. 1000 m length pipe of diameter 0. where ZJ level at junction J.45 = 121.015 × 1000 π 2 × 9.19.19. Such iteration can be also programmed for P.65 8 × 0. Determine the flow from/to each reservoir. 8 × 0.4 m and f = 0. (iv) If it is negative. the sum may have a positive value or negative value. inflow to the junction is more.81 × 0.11.013 draws water from A.15 Three reservoirs A. 1 2 Q1 Q3 Q2 t 3 Figure 7. (25 – ZJ)/41.81 × 0.011. Example 7. 1200 m length pipe of diameter 0. (ii) The sum of these (algebraic) should be zero.244 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery at the junction is below the middle one.015 draws water from B and joins the pipe end from A.2473 = QA2.3 The method of solution requires iteration. (i) A value for the head at the junction is assumed and the flow rates are calculated from pipe details. This is shown in Fig 7. the outflow is more. (12 – ZJ)/121. So reduce the value of head assumed. But at the first attempt.55 = 41. The reservoir C is connected to this junction by 900 m length of pipe 0.6 m diameter with f = 0.5196 = QC2 . So increase the value of head assumed at the junction.15 hf = 8 fLQ 2 π 2 g D5 . and writing this hf = R Q2 RA = RB = RC = 8 × 0. Using the equation 7. the total flow will be received by the lowest level reservoir. B and C at water levels of 25 m.013 × 1200 π 2 × 9.

82 and kinematic viscosity 16 × 10–6 m2/s flows in a smooth pipe of 8 cm diameter at a rate of 2l/s.0406 QC – 0.1.19.5657 QB 0.0 11.4360 – 0. The algebraic sum of the pressure drop around each circuit must be zero. An oil of specific gravity 0.06423 0. The flow into the junction should equal the flow out of the junction.6010 QA + QB + QC 0. This set can be solved using computers. 7.1286 – 0.002/π × 0. Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. A sample is shown in Fig.0053 245 This is sufficient for the trial.0909 0.56517 m3/s.12 For analysis of the system the following conditions are used.4 Pipe network SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem.00019.6894 – 0. QB = 0.5 11.082 = 0.4 × 0. Methods of successive approximation are used.2556 – 0. Also calculate the velocity at the centre line and the velocity at a radius of 2.4 m/s Re = uD 0. Analytical solution to such a problem is more involved.0596 0.6030 0.19. 3. What will be the entry length? Also determine the wall shear.5 cm. Q1 Q3 Q2 Q4 Figure 7. 7. What is head loss for a length of 10 m. 1.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Assumed value of ZJ 10 13. Use of the above conditions leads to a set of simultaneous equations. Considering the value.5768 – 0. Average flow velocity = volume flow/area = 4 × 0.8 QA 0. it is now possible to solve any number of simultaneous equations rather easily. For each pipe the proper relation between head loss and discharge should be maintained.5394 0.03802 m3/s and QC = – 0.08 = = 2000 v 16 × 10 −6 Chapter 7 .603 m3/s 7. 2. ZJ = 11.4 Pipe Network More complex network of pipes exist in practice. The flow rates in the last column can be used.825 m gives a residue of 0. the flows are QA = 0.5721 0.2409 0. With the use of computers.

246

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

This value is very close to transition value. However for smooth pipes the flow may be taken as laminar. Centre line velocity = 2 × average velocity = 0.8 m/s For velocity at 2.5 cm radius

2

u umax

=1–

FG r IJ H RK

∴ u = 0.8 1 −

LM F 2.5 I OP = 0.4875 m/s MN GH 4 JK PQ

2

f = 64/Re = 64/2000 = 0.032 hf = fLu2/2gd = (0.032 × 10 × 0.44)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.08) = 0.03262 m of oil as ∆p = hfγ = 0.03262 × 9810 × 0.82 = 262.4 N/m2 Entry length = 0.058 Re.D. = 0.058 × 2000 × 0.08 = 9.28 m For highly viscous fluid entry length will be long. Wall shear is found from the definition of f. τo =

f ρ um 2 0.032 820 0.4 2 = × × = 0.5248 N/m2 4 go 2 4 1 2 du dr

Wall shear can also be found using, τo = – ρ v u = umax 1 − Substituting,

LM N

r 2 du U max 2r du 2 , =− , at r = R, = – umax 2 R2 dr dr R R

OP Q

τo = 820 × 16 × 10–6 × 0.8 × 2/0.04 = 0.5248 N/m2.

Problem 7.2. A circular and a square pipe are of equal sectional area. For the same flow rate, determine which section will lead to a higher value of Reynolds number. Re = uDh/v, For the same section and same flow rate of a specified fluid, Re ∝ Dh hydraulic Diameter. Circular Pipe : as areas are equal, Dh = D a2 = πD2/4, ∴ a = 0.886 D Square Pipe of side a : Dh = 4a2/4a = a The hydraulic diameter of a square section of the same area is lower by about 11.4%. So the Reynolds number in this case will be lower by about 11.4% and hence for the same flow rate f will be higher for the square section. Problem 7.3. The kinematic viscosity of water at 30°C is 0.832 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the maximum flow rate through a 10 cm dia pipe for the flow to be laminar. Assume smooth pipe. Also determine the head loss/m at this flow condition. The condition is that Reynolds number should be about 2000. 2000 = (0.1 × u)/(0.832 × 10–6) ∴ u = 0.01664 m/s.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

The flow rate will be Head of water, = (π × 0.12/4) × 0.01664 = 1.307 × 10–4 m3/s = 0.1307 l/s. f = 64/2000 = 0.032

247

hf = 0.032 × 1 × 0.016642/(2 × 9.81 × 0.1) = 4.516 × 10–6 m/m.

Note: The flow turns turbulent even at a low flow velocity as the kinematic viscosity is low.

Problem 7.4. Air at 1 atm and 30 °C flows through a pipe of 30 cm dia. The kinematic viscosity at this condition is 16 × 10–6 m2/s. The density is 1.165 kg/m3. Determine the maximum average velocity for the flow to remain laminar. What will be the volume and mass flow rates at this condition? Also determine the head loss/m due to friction. The condition is that Reynolds number should equal 2000. ∴ 2000 = (um × 0.3)/16 × 10–6 ∴ um = 0.107 m/s = u A = 0.107 × π × 0.32/4 = 7.54 × 10–3 m3/s or 7.54 l/s = 8.784 × 10–3 kg/s f = 64/Re = 64/2000 = 0.032 hf = (0.032 × 0.1072 × 1)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.3) = 62.2 × 10–6 m/m (head of air) Problem 7.5. Oil with a kinematic viscosity of 241 × 10–6 m2/s and density of 945 kg/m3 flows through a pipe of 5 cm dia. and 300 m length with a velocity of 2 m/s. Determine the pump power, assuming an overall pump efficiency of 45%, to overcome friction. Re = uD/v = 2 × 0.05/241 × 10–6 = 415. So the flow is laminar. hf = (64/415) × [(22 × 300)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.05)] = 188.67 m head of oil Mass flow = (π × 0.052/4) 2 × 945 kg/s = 3.711 kg/s Power required = mg H/η = 3.711 × 9.81 × 188.67/0.45 W = 15,263 W or 15.263 kW. Problem 7.6. If, in problem P.7.5. the power available was 10 kW, what will be the pumping rate? Power available to overcome friction P = power × pump efficiency = 10 × 0.45 = 4.5 kW or 4500 W Mass flow = (πD2/4) uρ = (64v/uD) × (u2L/2gD) ∴ Power = mass flow × g × frictional head = (πD2/4) u ρ g (64vu2 L/u D 2g D) = 8 π ρ v Lu2 4500 = 8 × π × 945 × 241 × 10–6 × 300 u2 ∴ Flow rate u = 1.619 m/s = (π × 0.052/4) × 1.619 × 945 = 3kg/s

Chapter 7

Volume flow rate

Mass flow = volume flow × density = 7.54 × 10–3 × 1.165

Frictional loss in head of fluid= (64/Re) × (u2L/2gD)

Note: Check for the flow to be laminar. Re = 1.619 × 0.05/241 × 10–6 = 336

248

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 7.7. Oil of specific gravity 0.92 flows at a rate of 4.5 litres/s through a pipe of 5 cm dia, the pressure drop over 100 m horizontal length being 15 N/cm2. Determine the dynamic viscosity of the oil. Using the equation 7.9.2 – Hagen-Poiseuille eqn. ∆p = 128 µLQ/πD4 µ = ∆p . π.D4/128LQ = 15 × 104 × π × 0.054/128 × 100 × 0.0045 = 0.05113 Ns/m2 (Pa.s)

(Note: N/cm2 → 104 N/m2, litre = 0.001 m3)

Reynolds number ∴

= uD ρ/µ, u = Q × 4/πD2 Re = (4Q/π D2) × (D ρ/µ) = (0.0045 × 920 × 4)/(π × 0.05 × 0.05113) = 2061.6

**∴ Flow is laminar but just on the verge of turning turbulent
**

(Note: Re = 4Q/π Dv) π

Problem 7.8. In a capillary viscometer the tube is of 2 mm dia and 0.5 m length. If 60 of liquid is collected during 10 min with a constant pressure difference of 5000 N/m2, determine the viscosity of the oil. cm3 Using ∆p = 128 µL Q/πD4 (Hagen Poiseuille equation 7.9.2) µ = ∆p.πD4/128 L Q where Q is the discharge in m3 per second. Discharge = 60 × 10–6 m3/600 sec = 10–7 m3/s ∴ µ = 5000 × π × 0.0024/128 × 0.5 × 10–7 = 0.0393 Ns/m2 (or Pa.s) Problem 7.9. If an oil of viscosity of 0.05 Ns/m2 is used in the experiment of problem P.7.8 calculate how long it will take to collect 60 cc. Assume that the other conditions remain unaltered. ∆p = 128 µL Q/πD4 ∴ or 7.854 × 10–2 cc/s ∴ Time for 60 cc = 60/7.854 × 10–2 s = 763.94 s or 12.73 min Q = ∆p × πD4/128 µL where Q is in m3/s Q = 5000 × π × 0.0024/128 × 0.05 × 0.5 = 7.854 × 10–8 m3/s

Problem 7.10. Oil of viscosity 0.1 Ns/m2 is to flow through an inclined pipe by gravity. The pipe diameter is 25 mm and the density of the oil is 930 kg/m3. If the flow rate is to be 0.25 l/s determine the pipe inclination with horizontal. The inclination of the pipe should be such that the drop in head should equal the friction drop along the length or hf = L sin θ, ∆h = fLu2/2gD, f = 64/Re, h = ∆p/γ Using Darcy–Weisbach equation and substituting for f in terms of Re hf =

64 u2 L 64u2 = L sin θ or sin θ = Re 2 gD 2 Re gD uDρ = 0.5093 × 0.025 × 930/0.1 = 118.41 µ

u = 4Q/πD2 = 4 × 0.25/(π × 0.0252) 1000 = 0.5093 m/s ∴ Re =

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

∴ Flow is laminar sin θ = (64 × 0.50932)/(2 × 118.41 × 9.81 × 0.025) = 0.28582 ∴ θ = 16.6° with horizontal

249

Problem 7.11. In a double pipe heat exchanger (to obtain chilled water) water at 10° C flows in the annular area between 30 mm OD inside pipe and the 50 mm ID outer pipe. The kinematic viscosity at this temperature is 1.4 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the maximum flow rate if the flow should be laminar. The sectional area for flow = (π/4) (D2 – d2) where D = out side dia, d = inside dia. of the annular area. Wetted perimeter = π (D + d) ∴ Dh = 4 × (π/4) (D2 – d2)/π(D + d) = D – d = 0.05 – 0.03 = 0.02 m Re = 2000 = (0.02 × u)/(1.4 × 10–6) ∴ u = 0.14 m/s ∴ flow rate = (π/4) (0.052 – 0.032) 0.14 = 1.76 × 10–4 m3/s or 0.176 l/s or 633.3 l/hr. The friction factor and friction drop in head and power required for a flow rate etc can be determined as in problem P. 7.5. taking care to use Dh in place of D. Problem 7.12. Water flows in an experimental 50 mm square pipe at a temperature of 10°C. The flow velocity is 0.012 m/s. Determine the head drop over a length of 10 m. Compare the same with circular section of the same area, v = 1.4 × 10–6 m2/s. As the section is square, the hydraulic diameter is to be used. Dh = 4 area/perimeter = 4a2/4a = a = 0.05 m Re = Dh u/v = 0.05 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 428.6 ∴ The flow is laminar. f = 64/Re = 64/428.6 hf = fLu2/2g Dh = (64/428.6) × 10 × 0.0122/(2 × 9.81 × 0.05) = 2.19 × 10–4 m head of water. Circular section: πD2/4 = 0.052 ∴ D = 0.05642 m Re = 0.05642 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 483.6, laminar, f = 64/483.6 = 0.1323 = 1.722 × 10–4 m ∴ Lower by: 21.4% Problem 7.13. If in the place of square a rectangular section of 100 mm × 25 mm is used for the data of P. 7.12 determine the head drop over a length of 10 m. Hydraulic diameter = 4A/P = 4 × 0.025 × 0.1/2(0.1 + 0.025) = 0.04 m Re = Dh u/v = 0.4 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 342.86 Frictional drop in head = f.L.u2/2g Dh = (64/342.86) × 10 × 0.0122/2 × 9.81 × 0.04 = 3.425 × 10–4 m head of water For the same flow area as compared to 1.722 × 10–4 m head of water for the circular section there is an increase of 100% in friction drop for the rectangular section.

Chapter 7

For laminar conditions Re should be less than 2000.

hf = 0.1323 × 10 × 0.0122/2 × 9.81 × 0.05642

250

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 7.14. Water flows out from a storage tank through a pipe of 50 mm dia. at a rate of 9.82 l/s. Determine the loss of head at entrance if it is (i) bell mounted (ii) square edged and (iii) reentrant. Refer section 7.12 (i) In this case the loss coefficient is 0.04 u = 4Q/πD2 = 4 × 9.82/(1000 × π × 0.052) = 5 m/s ∴ hf = 0.04 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 0.051 m. ∴ hf = 0.5 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 0.637 m ∴ hf = 0.8 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 1.019 m (ii) In this case loss coeffcient is 0.5. (iii) The loss coefficient in this case = 0.8

Problem 7.15. Water flowing in a pipe of 500 mm dia suddenly passes into a pipe of 750 mm dia. Determine the loss of head if the initial velocity was 2 m/s. Ref. eqn 7.12.1. In this case, hf = (u2 – u1)2/2g, u1 = 2 m/s, u2 = 2 × (0.5/0.75)2 = 0.889 m/s. ∴ hf = (2 – 0.889)2/2 × 9.81 = 0.0629 m. Problem 7.16. A 30 cm pipe with friction factor f = 0.024 carries water to a turbine at the rate of 0.25 m3/s over a distance of 160 m. The difference in levels between the water inlet and turbine inlet is 36 m. Determine the efficiency of transmission. The turbine outlet delivery is submerged into the tailrace and the velocity at the exit is 0.4 times the velocity in the pipe. The efficiency of transmission =

Available head for conversion to work Difference in datum

The losses in this case are the friction head and the dynamic head at exit. Flow rate = 0.25 m3/s, ∴ Friction head ∴ Dynamic head Total losses um = 0.25 × 4/π × 0.32 = 3.54 m/s. = fLu2/2gD = [0.024 × 160 × 3.542/(2 × 9.81 × 0.3)] = 8.176 m = (0.4 × 3.54)2/2 × 9.81 = 0.102 m = 8.176 + 0.102 = 8.28 m

Dynamic head: Exit velocity = 0.4 × 3.54 m/s.

Efficiency is high but the power delivered is not maximum. ∴ Efficiency of transmission = (36 – 8.28)/36 = 0.77 or 77% Problem 7.17. The flow in a pipe of 100 mm dia with Reynolds number value of 105 is found to have a friction factor f = 0.032. Determine the thickness of laminar sublayer. Also indicate whether the pipe is hyraulicaly smooth or not if the roughness height is 0.4 mm. Ref. section 7.5. δl = 32.8 v/um ∴ ∴

f , Re = um D/v = 105 f ) = 32.8 × 0.1/105

v/um = D/105, substituting for v/um δl = (32.8 × D)/(105 ×

0.032

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

= 1.83 × 10–4 m = 0.183 mm ε = 0.4 mm 0.3 ε = 0.12 mm, 6ε = 1.098 mm The sublayer thickness is larger than 0.3ε but less than 6ε. The pipe cannot be classified definitely as smooth or rough.

251

Problem 7.18. Petrol of sp. gravity 0.7 and kinematic viscosity of 0.417 × 10–6 m2/s flows through a smooth pipe of 250 mm ID. The pipe is 800 m long. The pressure difference between the ends is 0.95 bar. Determine the flow rate. In this case the determination off involves the velocity as the Reynolds number depends on velocity. The flow rate depends on velocity. A trial solution is necessary. So a value of f = 0.02 is first assumed. Pressure difference = 0.95 bar or 0.95 × 105 N/m2. Converting the same to head of fluid, 0.95 × 105/700 × 9.81 = 13.834 m of petrol column. 13.834 = (fLu2/2gD) + (u2/2g) = [(0.02 × 800 × u2)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] + u2/2 × 9.81 = (3.26 + 0.051)u2 ∴ Now or u = 2.045 m/s. Re = uD/v = 2.045 × 0.25/0.417 × 10–6 = 1.226 × 106 1/ f = 1.8. log Re – 1.5186 ∴ f = 0.01122

Ref. section 7.11, eqn 7.11.12, f = 0.0032 + (0.221/Re0.237) = 0.01117

so the value 0.02 is on the higher side. Now using the value 0.01117, 13.834 = [0.01117 × 800 × u2)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] + [u2/(2 × 9.81)] = 1.8727 u2 ∴ u = 2.7185 m/s, f = 0.1065. This is nearer the assumed value and further refinements can be made by repeating the procedure. Flow rate = 2.7185 × π × 0.252/4 = 0.1334 m3/s = 93.4 kg/s Problem 7.19. Determine the diameter of the pipe (smooth) required to convey 150 l of kerosene over a length 1000 m with the loss of head by friction limited to 10 m of kerosene. Density = 810 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity = 2.37 × 10–6 m2/s In this problem also as in P. 7.18, trial is necessary. Assume f = 0.012 Neglecting dynamic head, As u = Q/A, 10 = [(0.012 × 1000)/(2 × 9.81 × D)] × [(0.15 × 4)/(πD2)]2 ∴ u = (4 × 0.15)/πD2, Simplifying D5 = [(0.012 × 1000)/(2 × 9.81 × 10)] × [(0.152 × 42)/π2] = 2.231 × 10–3 ∴ D = 0.295 m and u = 2.195 m/s Re = 2.7185 × 0.25/0.417 × 10–6 = 1.63 × 106

Chapter 7

252

Refer eqn. 7.11.11,

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Re = 0.295 × 2.195/2.37 × 10–6 = 0.273 × 106 f = 0.0032 + (0.221/Re0.0237) = 0.0146 10 = [(0.014 × 10000)/(2 × 9.81 × D)] × [(0.15 × 4)/πD2]2 ∴ D5 = [(0.014 × 1000)/(2 × 9.82 × 10)] [(0.152 × 42)/π2] = 2.6 × 10–3 D = 0.304 m, u = 0.15 × 4/π × 0.3042 = 2.065 m/s Re = 2.065 × 0.304/2.37 × 10–6 = 0.265 × 106 f = 0.0032 + 0.221/(0.265 × 106)0.237 = 0.01466 The answer can be refined further using this value of f and reworking on the same lines. Assuming f = 0.014, to repeat the procedure

Problem 7.20. Two pipes of 0.35 m and 0.25 m dia and length 2000 m and 1500 m with f values 0.021 and 0.018 connected is series carry water from a reservoir to a supply system, the head available being 8 m. Determine the flow quantity neglecting minor losses. The head available should be equal to the sum of the frictional losses in the two pipes. Neglecting loss at sudden contraction δ = [(0.021 × 2000 × u12)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.35)] + [(0.018 × 1500 × u22)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] From continuity equation, we get [(π × 0.352)/4] × u1 = [(π × 0.252)/4]u2 ∴ u2 = (0.35/0.25)2 u1 or u22 = (0.35/0.25)4 u12 Substituting, and simplifying and solving, u1 = 0.542 m/s, u2 = 1.062 m/s flow rate check the frictional drop: hf = [(0.021 × 2000 × 0.5422)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.35)] + [(0.018 × 1500 × 1.0622)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] hf = 1.8 + 6.2 = 8 m. Problem 7.21. A 300 mm dia pipe carries kerosene at a rate of 200 l/s. The roughness is 0.2 mm. Determine the frictional drop over 100 m length of pipe. using equation (7.11.13). ∴

1 f

= (0.542 × π × 0.352)/4 = 0.0521 m3/s or 187.7 m3/hr

= 2 log

0.15 R + 1.74 = 2 log + 1.74 = 7.49 0.2 × 10 −3 ε

u = 4 × 0.2/π × 0.32 = 2.829 m/s

f = 0.01782 m hf =

u2 0.01782 × 1000 × u 2 + = 3.0785u2 2 × 9.81 2 × 9.81 × 0.3

substituting the value of u, hf = 24.65 m (head of kerosene) Problem 7.22. Water is drawn from a reservoir through a pipe of diameter D and a constant friction factor f. Along the length water is drawn off at the rate of Km3/s per unit length and the length is L. There is no flow at the end. Derive an expression for the loss of head.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

Pipe K (L – X) X dx K (L – X) – Kdx

253

Figure P. 7.22

Consider a length dx at location x, using the equation, the drop dh over length dx is hf =

fLu 2 2 gD

∴ dh =

fdx u2 D 2g

(1)

At this location, the flow rate Q can be obtained as Q = K(L – x), as total flow is KL and draw off upto x is Kx. u= Substituting in eqn. (1) dh =

4Q πD

2

, u2 =

16Q 2 π 2 D4

=

16 K 2 ( L − x) 2 π2 D4

8 fK 2 fdx 16 K 2 ( L − x) 2 = (L – x)2 dx 2 5 2g gπ 2 D 5 π D

L

Integrating from x = 0 to L

8 fK 2 h2 – h1 = hf = gπ 2 D 5

∴ for the following data, hf =

z

fK 2 L3 [ L2 − 2 Lx + x 2 ]dx = 8 L3 − L3 + 2 5 3 gπ D 0

LM N

OP Q

8 fL3 K 2 ( Note: K has a unit m3/sm) 3 gπ 2 D 5

f = 0.024, K = 7.5 l/hr/m = 2.085 × 10–6 m3/s/m, D = 0.1 m, L = 4.8 × 103 m, hf =

8 × 0.024 × (4.8 × 10 3 ) 3 (2.085 × 10 −6 ) 2 = 31.73 m 3 × 9.81 × π 2 × 0.15

Chapter 7

The head drop between lengths L1 and L2 can be determined by difference i.e., (hf2 – hf1) Problem 7.23. A pipe line 200 mm dia. and 4000 m long connects two reservoirs with a difference in level of 60 m. Water is drawn at 1500 m point at a rate of 50 l/s. Friction coefficient f = 0.024. Determine the flow rates in the two sections. Neglect minor losses

4Q fLu 2 8 fLQ 2 16Q 2 2 hf = ,u= 2 ,u = 2 2 , hf = 2 gD πD π 2 gD 5 π D

Considering the two sections, (total drop) 60 =

8 × 0.024 × 1500 × Q12 8 × 0.024 × 2500 × Q2 2 + π 2 g × 0.25 π 2 g × 0.25

= 9295.5 Q12 + 15492.54 Q22

254

but or

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Q22 = (Q1 – 0.05)2, Substituting and simplifying 60 = 9295.52 Q12 + 1549.25(Q12 + 0.052 – 2Q1 × 0.05) 24788.05 Q12 – 1549 .25 Q1 – 21.268 = 0 Q1 = =

1549.25 ± [( − 1549.25) 2 + 4 × 21.268 × 24788.05]0.5 2 × 24788.05

**1549.25 ± 2123.45 = 0.074082 m3/s, 2 × 24788.05 ∴ Q2 = 0.024082 m3/s The other solution is negative.
**

Check: For the first section hf = For the second section

8 × 0.024 × 1500 × 0.074082 2 = 51.015 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.2 5

8 × 0.024 × 2500 × 0.024082 2 hf = = 8.985 m, π 2 × 9.81 × 0.2 5

Total head = 60 m

Problem 7.24. Two adjacent city centres B and D receive water from separate sources A and C. The water level in A is 4 m above that in C. Reservoir A supplies city centre B by 0.4 m diameter pipe of 3000 m length with a level difference of 10 m. City centre D’s is supplied by reservoir C through a 4000 m long pipe of 0.45 m diameter, with a level difference of 15 m. After sometime it is found that centre B has excess water while centre D is staraved. So it is proposed to interconnect these lines and draw 100 l/s from the line A to B. The junction on AB is at a distance of 2000 m from A. The junction CD is at 3000 m from C. Determine the original supply rates and supply rates with interconnection to centres B and D. Also determine the diameter of the interconnecting pipe, if the length is 1500 m Friction factor, f = 0.01 in all cases. The arrangement is shown in Fig. P. 7.24

A 4m 2000 m 0.4 m f R 1000 m 1500 m S C

10 m

3000 m 0.45 m f

15 m

1000 m B E D

Figure P. 7.24

(i) Without interconnection : using equation 7.11.15 hf =

8 fLQ 2 π 2 gD 5

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

Drop in Line AB is 10 m 10 = ∴

255

8 × 0.01 × 3000 × Q 2 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5

QAB = 0.20325 m3/s or 203.25 l/s

Drop in line CD is 15 m

8 × 0.01 × 4000 × Q 2 15 = π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455

∴ QCD = 0.2894 m3/s or 289.4 l/s After interconnection: line AB: Let the flow up to R be Q and then in RB (Q – 0.1) Total frictional loss = 10 =

8 × 0.01 × 2000 × Q 2 8 × 0.01 × 1000(Q − 0.1) 2 + π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 0.5 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5

231 l/s

This reduces to 3Q2 – 0.2Q – 0.11393 = 0. Solving Q = 0.231 m3/s or Now the centre B will receive 131 l/s (previous 203 l/s) Line CD: Let the flow upto S be Q and then (Q + 0.1) upto D Total head loss = 15 =

**8 × 0.01 × 3000 × Q 2 8 × 0.01 × 1000(Q + 0.1) 2 + π 2 × 9.81 × 0.45 0.5 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455
**

261 l/s

This reduces to 4Q2 + 0.2Q – 0.32499 = 0 Solving Q = 0.261 m3/s or Now the city center C will receive 361 l/s (previous 289.4 l/s) To determine the diameter of the connecting pipe RS: Head drop from A to R hf1 = Head drop from S to E hf2 =

8 × 0.01 × 2000 × 0.2312 = 8.61 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5 8 × 0.01 × 1000 × 0.3612 = 5.84 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455

Head drop from A to E = 4 + 15 = 19 m ∴ Head available between RS = 19 – 8.61 – 5.84 = 4.55 m Considering Pipe RS 4.55 =

8 × 0.01 × 1500 × 0.12 Solving D = 0.307 m. π 2 × 9.81 × D 5

Chapter 7

**256 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
**

O Q. 7.1. Fill in the blanks:

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

1. In fully developed laminar flow in pipes the velocity distribution with radius is –––––––––––. 2. In fully developed laminar flow in pipes the shear stress variation with radius is –––––––––––. 3. A dye injected into laminar stream will travel –––––––––––. 4. Momentum transfer in laminar flow is at ––––––––––– level. 5. For laminar flow to prevail in a duct the value of Reynolds number should be –––––––––––. 6. The friction factor is defined as –––––––––––. 7. The friction factor in laminar flow is pipes in given by –––––––––––. 8. In laminar flow in a pipe the shear stress is maximum at –––––––––––. 9. Reynolds number is the ratio between ––––––––––– and ––––––––––– forces. 10. 11. The energy line represents –––––––––––. The hydraulic line represents –––––––––––.

Answers

(1) Parabolic (2) Linear (3) along a line without mixing (4) Microscopic, molecular (5) less than 2000. (6) 4 τ0 g0/(ρum2/2), (7) 64/Re (8) The wall (9) inertia, viscous (10) Total energy at each location (11) The pressure energy at the location. O Q. 7.2. Fill in the blanks 1. In laminar flow is through a pipe the average velocity is ––––––––––– of the maximum velocity. 2. In flow through pipes, the flow ––––––––––– change from laminar to turbulent condition. 3. Hydraulic diameter is defined as ––––––––––– 4. Hydraulic radius is defined as ––––––––––– 5. Entrance length is defined as ––––––––––– 6. In laminar flow the entrance length is approximately ––––––––––– 7. A pipe is hydraulically smooth when 6 ε is ––––––––––– 8. A pipe is hydraulically rough when ––––––––––– 9. Chart relating friction factor, Reynolds number and pipe roughness is known as ––––––––––– 10. 11. 12. For flow in non circular pipes, the length parameter used in Reynolds number calculation is –– ––––––––– In a network of pipes the algebraic sum of the frictional losses around any circuit will be ––––– –––––– In a network of pipes at any node the algebraic sum of flows will be –––––––––––

Answers

(1) One half of (2) does not (3) 4A/P, A-Area P-Perimeter (4) A/P (5) the length above which the velocity profile becomes constant (6) 0.58 Re D (7) less than δi (8) δ1 < 6 ε, (9) Moody diagram (10) Hydraulic diameter (11) zero (12) zero O. Q. 7.3. Fill in the blanks 1. The entrance head loss for square edged entrance is –––––––––––. 2. The head loss due to sudden expansion is –––––––––––. 3. The frictional loss in globe valve is ––––––––––– compared to that in gate valve. 4. To reduce losses in large bends ––––––––––– can be used.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

5. Minor losses are losses due to –––––––––––. 6. The very thin layer adjacent to the wall in turbulent flow is callecl –––––––––––. 7. The velocity variation is ––––––––––– in laminar sublayer. 8. Equivalent length of pipe fitting is –––––––––––. 9. Equivalent length of a pipe as referred to another pipe is –––––––––––. 10. 11.

257

For the same flow area and flow rate, a square section will give a ––––––––––– pressure drop. For a given available head, maximum power will be transmitted when the frictional loss of head equals ––––––––––– of the total head.

Answers

(1) (2) (u1 – u2 (3) larger (4) vanes (5) changes in section and fittings (6) laminar sublayer (7) linear (8) pipe length with the same frictional drop (9) the length to produce the same frictional drop for the same flow (10) higher (11) 1/3 O Q. 7.4. Choose the correct answer 1. Reynolds number is given by (a) ρuµ/D, (b) µDρ/u, (c) ρu/µD (d) ρuD/µ. 2. Reynolds number signifies the ratio of (a) gravity forces top viscous forces (c) inertia forces to gravity forces (a) 640 (a) highly viscous fluids (c) high velocity of flow (b) 5 × 105 (b) inertial forces to viscous forces (d) buoyant forces to inertia forces. (c) 2000 (b) low viscosity fluid (d) small diameters (d) 64000 0.5u2/2g )2/2g

3. In pipe flow the critical Reynolds number is about 4. The entry length in pipe flow will be higher for

5. A pipe is said to be hydraulically rough if the laminar sublayer thickness δL as compared to physical roughness ε is (a) δL > ε (b) δL < ε (c) δL > 6ε (d) δL < 6ε. 6. With constant flow rate if the diameter is doubled in laminar flow in pipes, the frictional drop will change by a factor of (a) 2 (a) 2 (b) 0.5 (b) 0.5 (c) 1/32 (c) (d) 1/16. (d) 1/ 2 . 7. In laminar fully developed flow in a pipe the ratio, average velocity/maximum velocity is

2

(a) 32 times

(b) 16 times

(c) 8 times

(d) 4 times.

9. In laminar pipe flow for a given flow rate Q, the power required to overcome friction will be proportional to (a) Q 10. (b) Q2 (c)

Q

(d) Q3/2.

In turbulent flow in a pipe with flow rate Q the power required to overcome frictional losses is proportional to (a) Q (b) Q2 (c) Q3 (d) Q4 The shear stress at the wall of a 16 cm dia pipe in laminar flow is 36 N/m2. The shear stress at a radius of 4 cm in N/m2 is (a) 9 (b) 18 (c) 6 (d) 72

11.

Chapter 7

8. In fully developed turbulent flow, if the diameter is halved without changing the flow rate, the frictional drop will change by the factor

Blood flow in blood vessels is turbulent.025 (c) 1. 10.2 (c) 1. Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect 1. (b) O Q. 14. 4. The velocity at a radius of 2 cm in m/s is (a) 1 (b) 1. If velocity is doubled the pressure drop will reduce to half the value. 9.) (a) 0.0 (b) logarithmic (d) 4th degree polynomial. 4. For the same total sectional area two equal diameter pipes will deliver more than a single pipe for the same pressure drop. The friction factor in pipe flow at near critical conditions is around (a) 0. 7. For the same flow rate and friction factor. (c) 11. .7. In flow over a flat plate. 11. (b) 3.5 (b) 0. For a specified flow of fluid in a pipe.6. 1. As Reynolds number decreases in laminar flow in pipes. For the same sectional area and flow rate. the boundary layer thickness –––––––––– with distance. The velocity profile in turbulent flow is (a) parabolic (c) 2nd degree polynomial 13. (d) 14. For the same sectional area and flow rate square section will lead to lower frictional drop.032. An oil with a density of 800 kg/m3 and dynamic viscosity of 8 × 10–3 Ns/m2 flows through a smooth pipe of 100 mm dia.414 (c) 0.4 (b) 0. 7. 10. (b) 16. 5. In flow through pipes. Answers 1. 8. 8.05.5. the friction factor ––––––––––. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The velocity along the centre line in laminar flow through a pipe of 8 cm dia is 2 m/s. 16. with fixed mass velocity) the Reynolds number will – ––––––––– as the dynamic viscosity of the fluid increases. after the entry length the velocity profile ––––––––––. (b). The maximum velocity for laminar flow to prevail will be (in m/s. Answers Correct 1. 12 O Q. 6. 3. (d) 7. the pressure drop in turbulent flow will –––––––––– as the diameter increases. Pipes of equal diameter and equal roughness will have the same friction factor. The development of flow over a flat plate and entry section of a pipe will be similar. 5.0.258 12. (d) 0.e. 15. In turbulent flow for the same diameter and friction factor the pressure drop for a given length will vary as the square of flow rate. The Reynolds number should be around (a) 1280 (b) 1000 (c) 640 (d) 2000. square section will have a lower Reynolds Number. Friction factor will be higher in laminar flow. (c) 4. (b) 12. 9. ‘‘decreases’’ for ‘‘remains constant’’. In the household pipe system the flow of water is laminar. 3. 12. 6. A bell mouthed inlet is desirable. Fill in the blanks with ‘‘increases’’. (b) 10.064 The friction factor in laminar flow in a pipe was measured as 0.414. (d) 13. Incorrect: 2. (a) (15). (d) 2. (i. 3. 2. (a) 9. 11.. 6. 5. 4. 7. 2. (b) 8.64 (d) 1/1. The velocity profile after the entry section in a pipe will remain the same. (a) 5. (d) 4.

3. For the data in problem E 7. Show that in laminar flow through a pipe f = 64/Re. C – 2. 0. When a pipe with a lower friction factor is converted to an equivalent pipe with higher friction factor.127 m/s.077 N/m2. f ρu2 . Find the average velocity in terms of maximum velocity.37 × 10–3 m/m) Chapter 7 E 7. C – 2. 4 2g (b) velocity at r = 2 cm. the length –––––––––– 10. beyond a certain Reynolds number the friction factor –––––––––– 8. (A) Sudden expansion (B) u/umax (C) Square entrance (D) Globe valve (1) 10u2/2g (2) 0. the length –––––––––– 9. When two pipes in parallel flow are replaced by a single pipe with its area equal to the sum of the areas of the two pipes. D – 1 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 7. 0. 0. D – 1 (2) A – 4.5 l/s. 7.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 7. 5. Laminar) E 7. The kinematic viscosity at this condition is 1. E 7. Determine whether flow is laminar or turbulent. 0. (d) wall shear and (0. 6 O Q. B – 4.8 × 10–5 m2/s. When a pipe of smaller diameter is converted to an equivalent pipe of larger diameter. An oil with specific gravity of 0.5u2/2g (3) 1 – (r/R)2 (4) ∆u2/2g (1) Logarithmic velocity profile (2) Parabolic velocity profile (3) Molecular level mixing (4) Macroscopic mixing Answers (1) A – 3. 10 Decreases : 4. Show that the wall shear in laminar flow through a pipe τ0 = E 7. For a specified roughness.5. 9 Remains constant: 2.1. B – 3. 7. Show that the velocity profile in laminar flow through a circular pipe is parabolic.18.107 m/s. 259 6.2.4. Match the pairs: (1) (A) Laminar flow (B) Turbulent flow (C) Laminar pipe flow (D) Turbulent pipe flow (2) In pipe flow.85 flows in a pipe of 100 mm dia.3.7. determine (a) centre line velocity.1. . Minor losses will –––––––––– as velocity increases. (e) head loss/m. the flow rate being 0. the flow rate will –––––––––– Answers Increases: 1. (Re = 54. (c) friction factor. 8..

(2. Water at 20 °C flows through a 50 cm dia.1 m f f = 0.021 and 0. determine the flow rate.54 m. In the case of formation of vena contracta show that the loss equals [(1/Cc) – 1]2/2g. 7.42 m3/s) gradient (hf/L) is 0. The pipe line rises to a level of 3 m above the level of the upper reservoir at a distance of 240 m.2 m f.034.7. Re = 11475. 0. Show from basics that in sudden contraction. at a rate of 0. (0.055 m3/s.62. turbulent) E 7. (0.699 m) . v = 1 × 10–5 m2/s. 0. E 7.00018. A riveted steel pipe of 300 mm dia. A and B. Pipe lines as shown in Fig. Determine in the following cases the loss of head (Hint. (0.032 1200 m.2 m dia. 0.9 and dynamic viscosity 5.9. The pipe diameters are 30 cm. carries water over a length of 300 m. Determine the value of friction factor. f = 0.15 m. (iii) Contraction from 0.04 connects two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m.260 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 7.15. Is the flow laminar or turbulent? (0.15 m. 0. see problem E 9.9 E 7. (i) Contraction from 0. The head loss over a length of 120 m was found to be 16 m. E. Neglecting minor losses. the head available being 6 m. E 7. and 720 m length having a friction factor of 0.06 m3/s. (ii) Contraction from 0. Oil of specific gravity 0. where Cc = Ac/A2. Show using the expression in E 7.13.006. If the energy (0.013 m3/s) A 600 m. 20 cm and 25 cm. the lengths being 300 m.6 cm of water) E 7. Determine the flow rates in lines C. 0. determine the flow rate v = 1 × 10–6 m2/s. 7.673 m.15 m f. Determine the flow rate and the pressure at the highest point.13.45 m to 0. 7.9 provide water supply from a reservoir. 150 m and 250 m respectively.019. | |Q T W 2 2 2 c E 7.12.02 respectively.13 and 14).02 60 m B 480 m 0. The friction factors are 0.124 m3/s) E 7.992 × 10–3 Ns/m2 flows in a pipe of 15 cm dia. f = 0.11. the coefficient of contraction has a value of 0. Three pipes in series connect two water reservoirs with a level difference of 10 m.10.192 m in all cases. 0.51 m3/s. A pipeline 1.5 m. E. Determine the diameter of the pipe to convey 250 l/s of oil over 3000 m length with a loss of 25 (413 mm) m.6. 0.3 m to 0.042. – 5.024 C 36 m 15 m Datum Figure E. the loss of head equals (V2 – V1)2/2g. Calculate the pressure difference between sections. pipe with roughness ε/R = 0.083 m3/s) E 7. (0.2 m to 0. A pipe carries 56 l/s of water and there is a sudden change in diameter. Determine the flow rate if the roughness height is 3 mm. 0. the pressure difference across a sudden contraction is V22 (P1 – P2)/γ = 2 g 1 + given by LM MN RF 1 I − 1U OP − V |G J | SH C K V P 2 g .14.8.

two pipes of 0. Determine the discharge through a pipe system described below connecting two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m.02.0232 for the pipes.02 and the other pipe is 4000 m long and its diameter is 120 mm. determine the flow rate.04.22. (0.24.3 m dia.04 (2. Determine the difference in height between the reservoir level and the discharge point. (72. Also calculate the flow rate. The pipe line due to the terrain has to be laid such that its level is 3 m above that of the first reservoir level at a distance of 240 m from the entry.6 m of water) E 7. determine the flow rate. The friction factor is 0. f = 0. 0. the first of 50 mm dia.51 m3/s. f1 = 0. f = 0.17. and 3000 m length each feed the water in parallel to the lower reservoir.0192 and 0.5 l/hr per m length along the length of 4800 m pipe. One pipe is 5000 m long and the diameter is 100 mm. Determine the pressure at this point and also the flow rate. Supply is drawn uniformly at the rate of 7. 7.2 m dia.3 m f 15 m 30 m 1500 m 0. If the flow rate through the first pipe is 60 l/s.19.65 l/s) E 7.02 m. neglect other losses.23. Qc = 90. hf = (V1 – V22)/2g. A pipe line of total length 3000 m is made up of two diameters.18.024. The first run ends at a level 1. If the difference in water levels is 10 m. Show that it can be reduced to the form k V12/2g where k = [1 – (A1/A2)]2. Discharge is to atmosphere. determine the flow rate through the second pipe.7 l/s) A 1500 m 0.24 E 7. The enlargement is sudden. Assuming f = 0. 200 mm for the first run and 150 mm for the second run. Neglect minor losses. Determine the flow to reservoirs B and C. Water is transported from reservoir A to reservoirs B and C by pipe line system shown in Fig. E. of 3000 m length takes off from the higher reservoir and feeds to a junction from which. The values of friction factor are 0.22. (2034 m.5 m below the level of the higher reservoir and the total difference in levels is 13. A single pipe of 0. A pipe line of two sections.973 m3/s) Chapter 7 . f = 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 261 E 7. E 7. 7. If in the problem E 7.24. Water is drawn from a reservoir through two pipes of 900 mm dia. For a head loss of m 31 m determine the diameter of the pipe to provide the flow. The entry is sharp edged.04.6 m dia.16. (37. The friction coefficient for both sections is 0.0207 m3/s) E 7. and 1500 m length to a common junction from where a pipe of 1200 mm diameter and 2400 m length carries it to the lower reservoir. and 15 m length and the second of 75 mm dia and 24 m length connected in series empties a reservoir at the rate of 168 l/min. Two reservoirs are connected in parallel by two pipes. (QB = 28. Derive the following expression the loss of head due to sudden expansion.5 m.025.20.21.1 m) E 7.76 l/s) E 7.852 m) E 7. 5. Water is conveyed by a pipe line of 1.3 m f 1500 m 0. f = 0.3 l/s.3 m f B C Figure E. (0. (0. and 720 m length from a reservoir whose level is 6 m above the level of down stream reservoir.3 l/s) E 7. Determine the maximum length of the run so that the pressure at this point does not go more than 3 m below atmosphere. one of the pipes downstream is closed for maintenance. (94.25. connects two reservoirs.

1/100) E 7. (0. The tip of the nozzle is 9 m above pump outlet.9 m dia.048.28. If one of the pipes in the middle section is blocked. If the middle 1 km pipe is replaced by two pipes of 0.30.425 m) E 7. one inlet branch is shut off for maintenance. (2.02. 1. pipe takes off from the reservoir. f = 0.347 m3/s) .3 m for the next 3000 m.04. 2.262 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (1.44 m.021. (5 m.6 m dia. pipe with friction factor f = 0. Two reservoirs with a level difference of 40 m are connected by a 3 km long. Calculate the head to be developed by the pump for a flow rate of 480 l/min. The distance upto the ridge is 300 m.27.307 m3/s) E 7. 1.31. determine the flow rate.16 l/s) E 7. A fire hose of 75 mm dia. The pipe diameter is 600 mm.26.5 m is 40 m long. A ridge interposes between two reservoirs whose level difference is 30 m.94. calculate the flow rate. Also determine the flow rate. If in the problem E 7.008 m3/s.64 m dia. The total length of the pipe is 3000 m.25. Express the head loss as slope. A smooth concrete duct of square section of side 1.56 m3/s) E 7. At this point 36 l/s water is drawn off and the diameter is reduced to 0. 0.03. and 180 m length ends in a nozzle of 25 mm dia. Determine the head loss required for a flow rate of 9 m3/s. Two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m are connected by a pipe system. (72. 0. E 7.13m3/s. Determine the flow rate in the first branch. The discharge coefficient of the nozzle is 0. 3000 m length of 0.29. (43. f = 0. calculate the flow rate. f= 0. Determine the flow rate. f = 0. Determine the maximum height of the ridge that the line can cross if the pressure at this point should not go below 3 m of water (absolute).

flow velocity and diameter are found to influence the flow. the geometry. Dimensional analysis is found to be a very useful tool in achieving this objective. Example 8. If the effect of each of these parameters on flow is separately studied the number of experiments will be large. In addition these groups facilitate the presentation of the results of the experiments effectively and also to generalize the results so that these can be applied to similar situations. In the previous chapters analytical methods used in fluid flow studies were discussed. In the study of flow of real fluids analytical methods alone are found insufficient. Experimental work is rather costly and time consuming.0 INTRODUCTION Dimensional Analysis Fluid flow is influenced by several parameters like. The use of the results of dimensional analysis is the basis for similitude and modal studies. density. fluid properties and fluid velocity. The topic is discussed in the next chapter. Depending either solely on analytical methods or experiments for the design of systems is found to lead to inadequate performance and high cost. This parameter can be varied by varying one of the variables which will be the easier one to vary. The number of parameters can be reduced generally to three by grouping relevant variables to form dimensionless parameters. The mathematical method of dimensional analysis comes to our help in this situation.& 8. The results will be applicable also for different fluids and different diameters provided the value of the group remains the same. particularly when more than three parameters are involved. for example velocity u. Hence it is necessary to plan the experiments so that most information is obtained from fewest experiments. Experiments are used to validate analytical results as well as generalize and extend their applications. The solution of realistic problems usually involves both anlytical and experimental studies. When the number of these variables are combined to form a dimensionless group like (u D ρ/µ) few experiments will be sufficient to obtain useful information. The results will be applicable for various combinations of these parameters and so the results can be generalized and extended to new situations.1 illustrates the advantage dimensional analysis in experiment planning. Also these results cannot be generalized and its usefulness will be limited. 263 . Experimental methods and results have contributed heavily for the development of fluid mechanics. Viscosity. Flow through pipes can be considered as an example.

264 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 8. 3. Indicate how the number of experiments can be reduced. for fixed values of ρ. and e are obtained by comparing the dimensions on both sides the dimensions on the L. F ρu D 2 2 =f FG ρ uD IJ H µ K (The method to obtain such grouping is the main aim of this chapter) Now only 10 experiments are needed to obtain a comprehensive information about the effect of these five parameters. . experiments needed = 10. This is also tedious and considerable expertise is needed to form these groups as the number of unknowns will be more than the number of available equations. viscous force vs gravity force or roughness dimension vs diameter. Experiments can be conducted for obtaining this information by varying the parameter (uDρ/µ) and determining the values for F/ρu2D2. and obtaining ratios of similar quantities. d.H. To obtain a curve F vs u. Note : It will be almost impossible to find fluids with 10 different densities and 10 different viscosities. 2. These parameters can be combined to obtain two dimensionless parameters. To study the effect of variation of diameter all the experiments have to be repeated 10 times each. Assuming that to study the influence of a parameter 10 experimental points are necessary. This method is illustrated extensively throughout this chapter.1 METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF DIMENSIONLESS GROUPS 1. π2) = F a ρbDcµdUe The values of a. being zero as π terms are dimensionless. This is a difficult exercise and considerable experience is required in this case. The drag force F on a stationary sphere in flow is found to depend on diameter D. c. estimate the total experimental points needed to obtain complete information. µ and D. 8. velocity u. Buckingham Pi theorem method: The application of this theorem provides a fairly easy method to identify dimensionless parameters (numbers). Total experiments for u. b. Some examples are: Viscous force vs inertia force. For example in the problem in example 1 one can write (π1. To study the effect of ρ these 10 experiments should be repeated 10 times with 10 values of ρ the total now being 102. Rayleigh method: A functional power relation is assumed between the parameters and then the values of indices are solved for to obtain the grouping. Intuitive method: This method relies on basic understanding of the phenomenon and then identifying competing quantities like types of forces or lengths etc. This method is also called ‘‘indicial” method. However identification of the influencing parameters is the job of an expert rather than that of a novice. The 102 experiments have to repeated 10 times each for different values of µ. ρ and µ = 103.1. Hence total experiments required = 104.S. fluid density ρ and viscosity µ.

expressed in the form g(π1. It is also possible to form new dimensionless π parameters as a discrete function of the (n – m) parameters. . List all the parameters that influence the phenomenon concerned. πn–m) = 0 or π1 = g1 (π2.. If some parameters are left out.. Another application of this principle is the checking of the equations derived. 8. Later experiments will show that the π term with the doubtful Chapter 8 Irrespective of the method used the following steps will systematise the procedure. The functional relationship is generally arrived at through the use of experimental results.3.1 Determination of π Groups Step 1. 8. then each of the additive terms will have the same dimensions or these should be dimensionally homogeneous. If unsure the parameter can be added. as π5 = π1 π3π4 or π6 = π 22/ 3 π 10...Dimensional Analysis 8. πn–m) (8.. It states ‘‘If an equation truly expresses a proper relationship between variables in a physical phenomenon.3. Equations which are dimensionally homogeneous can be used without restrictions about the units adopted. π3 and π4 it is possible to obtain π5..... For example if there are four dimensionless parameters π1. π2. if an equation of the following form expresses a relationship between variables in a process. This principle is used in dimensional analysis to form dimensionless groups. the numeric constants are dimensional. B and (C/D) each should have the same dimension. A. π3 .2 THE PRINCIPLE OF DIMENSIONAL HOMOGENEITY 265 The principle is basic for the correctness of any equation. . q2.1) where m is the number of dimensions required to specify the dimensions of all the parameters. Note : Some empirical equations used in fluid mechanics may appear to be non homogeneous.1 cannot be obtained from the analysis. π2 . This has to be very carefully done..3 BUCKINGHAM PI THEOREM The statement of the theorem is as follows : If a relation among n parameters exists in the form f(q1. In the expression.. In such cases... then each of the additive term should have the same dimensions... q2. π6 etc.’’ For example... qn. The value of the constants in such equations will vary with the system of units used. q1...... A + B = C/D.5 The limitation of this exercise is that the exact functional relationship in equation 8.3. π terms may be formed but experiments then will indicate these as inadequate to describe the phenomenon. . qn) = 0 then the n parameters can be grouped into n – m independent dimensionless ratios or π parameters.

3. Units and Dimensions of Variables Variable Mass Length Time Force Temperature Area Volume Volume flow rate Mass flow rate Velocity Angular velocity Force Pressure.1. Ns/m2 m2/s N/m J/kg K W/mK ML2/T2 ML2/T2 ML2/T3 M/L3 M/LT L2/T M/T2 L2/T2 θ ML/T3 θ FL FL FL/T FT2/L4 FT/L2 L2/T F/L L2/T 2θ F/Tθ Unit (SI) kg m s N deg C or K m2 m3 m3/s kg/s m/s Rad/s N N/m2 Dimension MLT θ system M L T ML/T2 θ L2 L3 L3/T M/T L/T 1/T ML/T2 M/LT2 FLT θ system FT2/L L T F θ L2 L3 L3/T FT/L L/T 1/T F F/L2 . stress.266 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery parameters as useful or otherwise. (mass. Step 3. Table 8. Hence a careful choice of the parameters will help in solving the problem with least effort. Table 8. time and temperature) are some of the sets used popularly. J/s kg/m3 kg/ms. List the dimensions of all parameters in terms of the chosen set of primary dimensions. (mass. Energy Power Density Dynamic viscosity Kinematic viscosity Surface tension Specific heat Thermal conductivity Convective heat transfer coefficient Expansion coefficient W/m2 K (m/m)/K M/T3 θ 1/T F/LTθ 1/T Nm J. (force.3. geometry and flow parameters like velocity and pressure. length and time). Usually three type of parameters may be identified in fluid flow namely fluid properties. Select a set of primary dimensions. length and time). Lists the dimensions of various parameters involved.1. Nm W. Bulk modulus Moment Work. Step 2. length.

q2b . Thus the π term will be defined. to determine π terms numbering n – m. Step 6. c and d. Hence a = 1. ρ and µ are chosen as repeating variables. length and time. (i) the chosen set should contain all the dimensions (ii) two parameters with same dimensions should not be chosen. ∆P Diameter. evaluate the dimensionless parameters for the flow. say L. This step is essential before proceeding with experiments to determine the functional relationship between the π terms. u (ii) diameter of the pipe.Dimensional Analysis 267 Step 4. D (iii) density of the fluid ρ. Substituting the value of indices we obtain Chapter 8 Using the principle of dimensional homogeneity. – 2 + a – 3b + c = 0 ∴ a + c = – 1 ∴ c = – 2.. M0L0T0 = M L2 T 2 La M b Lc L3b T c 1+b=0 –2–c=0 ∴ b = – 1. an equation for each dimension in terms of a.. Hence two π terms can be obtained. Set up a dimensional equation with the repeating set and one of the remaining parameters. D Velocity. q3c . The solution of these set of equations will give the values of a. S. and (iv) the dynamic viscosity µ. c. (a) Using π theorem method.. The pressure drop ∆P per unit length in flow through a smooth circular pipe is found to depend on (i) the flow velocity. (b) Using Rayleigh method (power index) evaluate the dimensionless parameters. u Density.. . Let π1 = ∆P Daρbuc. Choosing the set mass. As ∆P is the dependent variable D. and in turn comparing indices of mass. (iii) the dependent parameter to be determined should not be chosen. q1a . in turn to obtain n – m such equations. Check whether π terms obtained are dimensionless. µ Unit used (N/m2/m (N = kgm/s2) m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimension M/L2T 2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are five parameters and three dimensions. qmd As the LHS term is dimensionless. The form of the equation is. Some guidelines are necessary for the choice. Example 8. Select from the list of parameters a set of repeating parameters equal to the number of primary dimensions. time and length as primary dimensions. L3. 1 2 3 4 5 Parameter Pressure drop/m.No.2. π1 = qm+1 . Step 5. the dimensions of the parameters are tabulated. b. d can be obtained. Substituting dimensions. L2. ρ Dynamic viscosity. b.

This method requires more expertise and understanding of the basics of the phenomenon.268 ∴ Check the dimension : π1 = ∆PD/ρu2. We can assume a = 1. dynamic viscosity µ. three equations are obtained as below a + c + d = 0. u and µ had been choosen as the repeating. This flow phenomenon is influenced by the three forces namely pressure force. e = – 3. The significance of this π term is that it is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. DPaDbrcmdue = (p1 p2). – 1 – c = 0. There can be two p terms as there are five variables and three dimensions. m appears only in the viscous force. So π2 can be modified as π2 = ρuD/µ also π2 = (uD/v). π1 = ∆PD2/u µ and π2 = ρDu/µ. substituting dimensions and considering the indices of M. viscous force and inertia force. studying the forces. Substituting dimensions. In case D. c = – 2. a + c = – 2. ∆P D/ρu2. In this case π1 represents the ratio pressure force/viscous force. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery This represents the ratio of pressure force and inertia force. The following functional relationship is formed first. Example 8. – 2a + d – e = 0 There are five unknowns and three equations. then p1 = DPD/ru2 and p2 = m/ruD. As DP. b = 0. L and T. Multiply and divide by D. diameter D and average roughness height e. So we can assume d = 1. b = – 1. Similarly. Ma L2 a T 2 a Lb Mc Md Le L3 c Ld T d T e = L0 M0 T0 Considering indices of M. c=–1 a=–1 Substituting the value of indices. variables. The pressure drop ∆P in flow of incompressible fluid through rough pipes is found to depend on the length l. M a M b Lc L LT L3b T c – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0.3. M L2 T 2 L L3 T 2 = M0L0T 0 M L2 Let π2 = µ Da ρbuc. average velocity u. the dependent variable can be considered to appear only once. Same as was obtained by p theorem method. L and T. The parameter π1/π2 will give the dimensionless term. Determine the dimensionless groups to correlate the flow parameters. – 2a + b – 3c – d + e = 0. M0L0T0 = 1 + b = 0 or ∴ check. Hence some assumptions are necessary based on the nature of the phenomenon. Rayleigh method: (Also called method of Indices). . ρ. π2 = µ/uρD M T L3 1 = M0L0T 0 LT L M L This term may be recognised as inverse of Reynolds number. d = 1. (p1 p2) = DPm/r2 u3. fluid density. Solving a = 1.

no problem will arise in using indices a. – 1 – a = 0 or a = – 1. c = 0. ρ π3 = µ/ρDu M0L0T0 = L La Ta Lb ∴ b=–1 or ρuD/µ µ Mc L3c This gives. Consider π3 M0L0T0 = M La b M c L 3c LT T a L ∴ π2 = L/D Comparing the indices of µm. Let Consider π1.No.Dimensional Analysis The variables with units and dimensions are listed below. S. – a = 0. b and c in all cases). 1 + c = 0. b = 0. a = 0. c = – 1. π1 = ∆P uaDbρc. π2 = L uaDb ρc. c = 0. D and ρ as repeating variables. ∴ b = – 1. b = – 1 These π terms may be checked for dimensionless nature. (as these sets are separate equations. π4 = e uaDbρc M0L0T0 = M LT 2 La T a Lb Mc L3c Equating the indices of M. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. c = – 1. e . Substituting the value of indices we get ∴ Consider π2. π3 = µ ua Db ρc. Selecting u. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable ∆P l u ρ µ D e Unit N/m2 L m/s kg/m3 kg/ms L L Dimension M/LT2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT L L 269 There are seven parameters and three dimensions. L and T. ρ π1 = ∆P/ρu2 M0L0T0 = L La T a Lb Mc L3c Equating indices of M. ρuD OP ND D µ Q Chapter 8 ∴ π4 = e/D . 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. So four π terms can be identified. L and T. a = – 2. The relationship can be expressed as ∆P ρu 2 =f LM L . L and T. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. gives 1 + c = 0 or ∴ Consider π4. – 2 – a = 0.

5 CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA Dimensional analysis can only lead to the identification of relevant dimensionless groups. c–Velocity of sound ωl/u. ω–Frequency of oscillation P/ρu2 u/(gl)0.1 Important Dimensionless Parameters Name Reynolds Number.270 8. Table 8. The degree of difficulty involved in experimentation will depend on the number of π terms.4.4.1.5 or u2/gl Pressure force/ Inertia force Inertia force/ Compressibility force Inertia force/ Compressibility force Local inertia Force/ Convective inertia force Inertia force/ Surface tension force Lift force/ Dynamic force Problems influenced by surface tension free surface flow Aerodynamics Unsteady flow with frequency of oscillation Compressible flow Description ρuD/µ or uD/v Significance Inertia force/ Viscous force Inertia force/ Gravity force Applications All types of fluid dynamics problems Flow with free surface (open channel and ships) Flow driven by pressure compressible flow 8.4 IMPORTANT DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Some of the important dimensionless groups used in fluid mechanics are listed in Table 8. σ = Surface tension L/(1/2 ρAu2) L = lift force ρu2/Ev (Ev– bulk modulous) u/c. Re Froude Number Fr Euler Number Eu Cauchy Number Ca Mach Number M Strouhal Number St Weber Number We Lift coefficient CL ρu2l/σ. . indicating significance and area of application of each. The exact functional relations between them can be established only by experiments.

2 + b + c = 0.4. diameter and viscosity. This is illustrated in example 8.4. The valid range should be between the two extreme values used in the experiment. S.2 two π terms were identified. Substituting dimensions. c = – 1. Linear semilog or log/log plots may have to be used to obtain such a relationship. Hence only one π term will result. In this case an approximate solution was obtained theoretically for c as 3π. Example 8.5. This is illusration by example 8. The drag force acting on a spherical particle of diameter D falling slowly through a viscous fluid at velocity u is found to be influenced by the diameter D. L and T 0 = 1 + c. Hence drag force F in free fall is given by F = 3πµuD. Experiments should be conducted by varying one of the group say π1 and from the measurement the values of the other group π2 is calculated. namely density will lead to another π term. the experiments may have to be repeated changing the values of the parameters. This can be established by experiments.No. b = – 1. This relation is known as Stokes law valid for small values of Reynolds Number (Re << 1).5. 8. T dimension set. and the viscosity µ. The parameters are listed below using M. π1 = F Da ub µc. The relationship will be of the form π1 = c. Equating indices of M.Dimensional Analysis 8. 1 2 3 4 Parameter Drag Force Diameter Velocity Viscosity Symbol F D u µ Unit N or kgm/s2 m m/s kg/ms Dimension ML/T2 L L/T M/LT There are four parameters and three dimensions. Chapter 8 . velocity of fall u.5.1 Problems with One Pi Term 271 In this case a direct functional relationship will be obtained but a constant c has to be determined by experiments. L. However. 1 + a + b – c = 0. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain a relationship between the variables. If the dimensional analysis is valid then a single universal relationship can be obtained. to obtain a reliable value for c. This can be used to study the settling of dust in still air. c = – 1 µ π1 = F/uDµ ∴ F/uDµ = constant = c µ or F = cuDµ or drag force varies directly with velocity. A suitable graph (or a computer program) can lead to the functional relationship between the π terms.2 Problems with Two Pi Terms In example 8. M0L0T0 = ML T 2 La Lb T b Mc Lc T c . A single test will provide the value of the constant. Extrapolation may lead to erroneous conclusions. Inclusion of additional variable.

78 – 1. 8.25 – 1. The variation of pressure drop observed with variation of velocity is tabulated below.997 – 3.865 1.01202 29821 4.6 1361 0. Velocity.2508 0.9 2766 1.16.797.022 0.16 × Re–0.01512 11928 4. Hence we can write.78 – 1. To fit an equation the following procedure is used. As the direct plot is a curve.018 D DP ru 4 2 D DP ru 2 0.051 – (– 1. The slope is obtained by taking the last values: = {– 2.6 0.000 40.01011 59642 4.272 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 8.020 0.997 – 2. as shown in the Fig.0000 4 × 10 2 10 –2 8 6 –3 10 3 2 4 ruD m (a) 6 8 10 ruD m (b) 4 2 4 6 8 10 5 Figure Ex. Viscosity = 1.5 .01119 39761 4.745 0. Using the data the two π parameters together with log values are calculated and tabulated below.0 11189 3 22748 5 55614 Determine the functional relationship between the dimensionless parameters (D ∆P/ρu2) and (ρuD/ µ). Scatter may indicate either experimental error or omission of an influencing parameter.3 0.012 0. 8.051 – (x)/(5 – 0) = – 0.08 – 1. m/s Pressure drop. N 0.78) = – 0.0 0.995 5 0. the slope using the same – 2.9 0.008 0 20.051 A plot of the data is shown in Fig.745)}/(4.2508 When extrapolating we can write.000 10.5 (a). A log log plot results in a straight line.92 2.5 0.821 0.The density of water = 1000 kg/ m3.5.6 – 1.01366 17894 4.16 FG PuD IJ H µ K −0.5 (b). In order to determine the pressure drop in pipe flow per m length an experiment was conducted using flow of water at 20°C through a 20 mm smooth pipe of length 5 m. D∆P ρu2 = 0.951 3 0.014 0.010 0.01798 5964 3.3 404 0. 8. fitting an equation can not be done from the graph.2508 = 0.00890 99400 4.016 0.5 6763 2.006 × 10–3 kg/ms. Ex.48 – 1. This corresponds to the value of 0.000 60.000 80.2508 This gives x = – 0. The correlation appears to be good.. u D∆P/ρu 2 ρuD/µ logRe log(D∆P/ρu) 0.

The pressure drop ∆P in flow through pipes per unit length is found to depend on the average velocity µ. two of these should be combined and the numbers reduced to three. These curves can also be converted to show the variation of π1 with π3 at constant values of π2 by taking sections at various values of π2. The dimensions of the influencing parameters are tabulated below choosing FLT set.3 Problems with Three Dimensionless Parameters 273 In this case experiments should be conducted for different constant values of π3. and viscosity µ. ∆P/l Diameter.5. S. The procedure as described above can then be used to obtain the functional relationship. p2 p3 = C1 (Constant) p3 = C2 p3 = C3 p3 = C4 p1 Figure 8.1 SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 8.Dimensional Analysis 8. diameter D.5. u Density. density of the fluid ρ.3.No. Such a set of experiments will result in curves of the form shown in Fig. 1 2 3 4 5 Variables Pressure drop per unit length. By suitable mathematical techniques correlation of the form below can be obtained.1. D Velocity. 8. n n π2 = cπ 1 1 π 2 2 When there are more than three π terms. varying π1 and calculating the corresponding values of π2.5. Using FLT set of dimensions evaluate the dimensionless parameters correlating this phenomenon. ρ Viscosity. µ Unit (N/m2)/m m m/s kg/m3 Ns/m2 Dimensions F/L3 L L/T FT/L2 Chapter 8 FT2/L4 .

D Velocity. L and T solving for a. using M. F Lb F c T 2 c L4 c L3 Tb Comparing the indices of M. u. (kgm/s2) m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML/T2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are five variables and three dimensions. a = – 1. b. c. µ Unit N. b = – 1. So two π terms can be obtained. – 3 + a + b – 4c = 0.274 Using D. – b + 2c = 0 ∴ ∴ Let. – 2 + a + b – 4c = 0. T set. u and ρ as repeating parameters. Choosing D. ρ Viscosity. 1 – b + 2c = 0 π2 = µ/ρuD ρ or ρuD/µ µ Solving. b and c. u Density. Let π1 = F Da ub ρc. a = 1 ∆ ρ π1 = D∆P/ρu2 π2 = µDa ub ρc. π1 = ∆Pdaubρc or F0L0T0 = La 1 + c = 0. c = – 1. d ρuD D∆P =f 2 µ ρu LM N OP Q The result is the same as in example 8. two π terms can be obtained. the dimaeter D of the sphere and the fluid properties density ρ and viscosity µ.2.No. Using dimensional analysis obtain the dimensionless groups to correlate the parameters. u and ρ as repeating variables. The dimension set choosen should not affect the final correlation. Problem 8. c = – 1 substituting the values of a. The drag force on a smooth sphere is found to be affected by the velocity of flow. The dimensions of the influencing variables are listed below. 1 2 3 4 5 Variables Drag force. Let Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As there are five variables and three dimensions. S. L. F Diameter. or F0 L0 T0 = F L2 La Lb F c T 2c Tb L4 c Substituting the value of indices Comparing the value of indices for M. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ 1 + c = 0.2. b = – 2. or M0L0T0 = ML T2 La Lb M c T b L3c .

F Diameter. µ ρu D 2 π1 = ML L3 T 2 1 = M0L0T0 T 2 M L2 L2 LM N OP Q or π2 = M L LT L = M0L0T0 M L3 T force. µ Rotational speed. b. F ρ uD =f .No. ρ Viscosity. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters Thrust force. Note: the significance of the π term. b = – 1. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. . Determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate the phenomenon.Dimensional Analysis Comparing the values of indices for M.3. or M0L0T0 = ML La T 2 T a Lb Mc L3c Chapter 8 There are 6 variables and three dimensions. ∴ c = – 1. density ρ. c. viscosity µ and rotational speed N. a = – 2 ρ π1 = F/ρu2 D2 π2 = µDaub ρc or M0L0T0 = M a Lb M c L LT T b L3c 275 Substituting the values of a. a = – 1 Susbtituting the values of a. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. F/ρu2D2 → F/ρu Du → F/mu → Drag force/inertia Problem 8. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ 2 1 + c = 0. The thrust force. D Forward velocity. u and ρ as repeating variables. u Density. – 2 – b = 0 ∴ ∴ Let b = – 2. L and T 1 + c = 1. Check for dimensions of π1 and π2. F generated by a propeller is found to depend on the folllowing parameters: diameter D. S. b. The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below using MLT set. Choosing D. N Unit N m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms 1/s Dimensions ML/T2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT 1/T Let π1 = F uaDbρc. c Comparing the values of indices of M. – 1 – b = 0 π2 = µ/ρuD ρ or ρuD/µ µ ∴ c = – 1. So three π terms can be obtained. forward velocity u.

b and c π3 = N ua Db ρc. ∴ a = – 1. b = 1 Susbtituting the values of a. c = – 1 ρ π2 = µ/ρuD or ρuD/µ (Inertia force/Viscous force) µ 1 La b M c L 3c T Ta L Substituting the values of a.276 Comparing indices of M. density. c = – 1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Substituting the values of a.No. (Thrust force/Inertia force) π2 = µ uaDbρc or M0L0T0 = M La b M c L 3c LT T a L Comparing the indices M. rotational speed. or M0L0T0 = Comparing the indices of M. using M. b and c ∴ ∴ π3 = ND/u (Rotational speed/Forward speed) F/u2D2 ρ = f LM uDρ . – 1 – a = 0. At higher speeds where compressibility effects are to be taken into account the performance of a propeller in terms of force exerted is influenced by the diameter. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Force. L and T c = 0. forward speed. u Rotational speed. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. viscosity and bulk modulus of the fluid. N Density. F Diameter. a + b – 3c = 0. L. b. and c π1 = F/u2D2 ρ. The influencing parameters and dimensions are tabulated below. D Forward velocity. Evaluate the dimensionless parameters for the system. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ Let 1 + c = 0. ND OP Nµ uQ Problem 8. µ Bulk Modulus. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ Let 1 + c = 0. ρ Viscosity. E Unit N/m2 m m/s l/s kg/m3 kg/ms (m3/m3)N/m 2 Dimensions M/LT2 L L/T 1/T M/L3 M/LT M/LT2 . b = – 1. – 2 – a = 0 a = – 2. S. – 1 – a = 0 a = – 1. b = – 2. T set.4. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0.

or M0L0T0 = a = – 1.Dimensional Analysis 277 There are seven variables and three dimensions. b = – 2. N Density. µ Unit Nm m l/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML2/T2 1/T M/L3 M/LT Chapter 8 L . π2 = ND/u (or rotational speed/forward speed) M M a Lb c L LT L3 a T b 1 + a = 0. The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below. So four π terms are possible. c = – 1. ρ uD . D Rotational speed. or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ c = 0. rotational speed. T set. a = – 1 ρ π1 = F/ρu2 → (force exerted/inertia force)/m2 π2 = NρaubDc. 1 2 3 4 5 Parameters Torque. c = 1. L. – 2 – b = 0 Let 2 π1 = F ρaubdc. using M. – 1 – b = 0 1 M a Lb c L T L3 a T b a = 0. – 2 – b = 0 π4 = EρaubDc. – 1 – b = 0 Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π3 = µρa ubDc. Using dimensional analysis. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. obtain a correlation for the frictional torque due to rotation of a disc in a viscous fluid. or M0L0T0 = a = 0. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. Selecting D. b = – 2. viscosity and density of the fluid. L and T on both sides and from equations. u and ρ as repeating parameters. c = 0 Lc π4 = E/ρu2 ρ ∴ F ρu 2 (Compressibility force/inertia force) 2 =f LM ND . – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. ρ Viscosity.5. S. E OP N u µ ρu Q Problem 8. or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. µ/ρuD π3 = µ/ρ or ρuD/µ (Reynolds number) µ M M a Lb LT 2 L3 a T b 1 + a = 0. τ Diameter. Lc LT L3 a T b The general procedure is to compare the indices of M. 1 + a = 0. b = – 1.No. – 3a + b + c = 0. The parameters influencing the torque can be identified as the diameter. b = – 2.

a and width. b = – 2. S. the velocity u. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ τ ρN D 2 π1 = τ DaNbρc or M0L0T0 = 1 + c = 0. π1 = τ/ρN2D5 ρ 1 Mc T2 T b L3 c – 2 – b = 0 ∴ c = – 1. b = – 1. u density. µ Unit N m m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML/T2 L L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are 6 parameters and three dimensions. A rectangular plate of height.278 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery There are five variables and three dimensions. a = – 5.6. L. So two π parameters can be identified. Considering D. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters Drag force. a Velocity. a = – 2 π1 = F/ρu2b2 ρ . (Another form of Reynolds number. The parameters with dimensions are listed adopting M. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ T2 1 + c = 0. b is held perpendicular to the flow of a fluid. b = – 2. Obtain a correlation for the drag force in terms of dimensionless parameters. The drag force on the plate is influenced by the dimensions a and b. and the fluid properties. Selecting b. b Height. N and ρ as repeating variables. T set of dimensions. as DN → u) ρ 5 =f LM µ OP N ρD N Q Check for the dimensions of π 2 1 and π2 Note: Rotational speed can also be expressed as angular velocity. Hence three π terms can be obtained. u and ρ as repeating variables. Problem 8. 2 + a – 3c = 0. ω. La ML2 M a 1 Mc L LT T b L3c 1 + c = 0. a = – 2 π2 = µ DaNbρc or M0L0T0 = π2 = µ/ρD2 N. density ρ and viscosity µ. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. – 2 – b = 0 π1 = F baubρc or M0L0T0 = ML La Lb M c T b L3c c = – 1. F Width. – 1 – b = 0 ∴ c = – 1. ρ Viscosity.No. In that case N will be replaced by ω as the dimension of both these variables is 1/T. – 1 + a – 3c = 0.

1 2 3 4 5 Variable Frictional Torque. c = – 1. – a – c = 0 π2 = PNaDbµc or M0L0T0 = c = – 1. Let ∴ ∴ π1 = τ NaDbµc or M0L0T0 = π 1 = τ /NµD3 Also π = τ/µuD ML2 T 2 1 b Mc L c c Ta LT 1 + c = 0. – 1 – b = 0. D Viscosity. D and µ as repeating variables. P Diameter. ∴ µ τ P =f Nµ NµD 3 LM OP N Q Note : P/Nµ is also Reynolds number. viscosity of the oil. adopting MLT set. Evaluate dimensionless parameters for application to such bearings in general. 2 + b – c = 0. – 2. Problem 8.7.Dimensional Analysis Let π2 = a baubρc or a=–1 M0L0T0 = LLa Lb M c T b L3c 279 c = 0. b = – 3 (τ–Torque) M Let ∴ ∴ ∴ 1 b Mc L c c LT 2 T a LT 1 + c = 0. – b = 0. Chapter 8 . π1 is (drag force/unit area)/inertia force. τ Speed. – 1 + b – c = 0. Hence two π parameters can be found. the load on the projected area and the diameter.No. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. Considering N. ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ π2 = a/b M0L0T0 = M a Lb M c L LT T b L3c 1 + c = 0. b = 0 π2 = P/Nµ. In film lubricated journal bearings. π3 = µbaubρc or b = – 1. The variables with dimensions are listed below. µ Unit Nm 1/s N/m2 m kg/ms Dimensions ML2/T2 1/L M/LT 2 L M/LT There are five parameters and three dimensions. – 2 – a – c = 0 ∴ c = – 1. b = – 1 π3 = µ/ρub or π3 = ρub/µ ρ µ F a ρ ub . =f 2 2 b µ ρu b LM N OP Q π3 is Reynolds number based on length b. a = – 1. try to verify. the frictional torque is found to depend on the speed of rotation. a = – 1. S. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. N Load per unit area.

density and length as repeating variables.5 (Froude number. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. – 2 – a = 0 π4 = Evuaρblc or M0L0T0 = a = – 2. Euler number. b = 0 π3 = gl/u2 T 2 T a L3b b = 0. u Length of the body.8. The variables identified as affecting the situation are listed below using MLT set. ρ Viscosity.No. b = – 1 and c = 0 π4 = Ev/ρu2 ρ . R Forward velocity. l Density of the fluid. So four π.) Lc LT 2 T a L3b 1 + b = 0. Considering velocity. µ Gravity. The resistance can be considered to be influenced by skin friction forces. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Resistance to motion. terms are possible. for the resistance to uniform motion of a partially submerged body (like a ship) in a viscous compressible fluid.280 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 8. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π1 = Ruaρblc or M0L0T0 = a = – 2. π3 = guaρblc or a = – 2. ρ M La M b c L LT T a L3b 1 + b = 0. – 2 – a = 0 Lc LT T a L3b 1 + b = 0. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. g Bulk modulus. b = – 1 and c = 0 π1 = R/ρu2. b = – 1 and c = – 1 ρ π2 = µ/uρl. of the fluid. – 2 – a = 0 L La M b M0L0T0 = Lc and c = 1 M La M b → can also be expressed as u/(gL)0. – 2 – a = 0 2 M La M b π2 = µ ua ρb lc or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. Ev Unit N/m2 m/s m kg/ms kg/ms m/s2 N/m2 Dimensions M/LT2 L/T L M/L3 M/LT L/T2 M/LT2 There are seven parameters and three dimensions. buoyant forces and compressibility of the fluid. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. Obtain a relation using dimensional analysis. S.

H Gravity. Using dimensional analysis obtain an expression for c in terms of ρ and Ev. gl . The velocity of propagation of pressure wave. k Surface tension. Froude number and Mach number) In the case of incompressible flow.5. M/LT2. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. – 2b = 0. Considering ρ. Ev) Let.No. D Head. this will reduce to R ρu 2 =f LM ulρ . µ Unit m m m/s2 kg/m3 m N/m kg/ms2 Dimensions L L L/T2 M/L3 L M/T2 M/LT Let ∴ ∴ π1 = D ρagbHc or M0L0T0 = L c = – 1 ∴ π1 = D/H or M a Lb L3a T 2b a = 0. g and H as repeating variables .10. Note: The definition of the bulk modulus is dp/(dv/v). the dimension being that of pressure. 1 – 3a – b = 0. Obtain a correlation for the coefficient of discharge through a small orifice.5. using the method of dimensional analysis. or c = const × (Ev/ρ)0. ∴ ∴ π1 = c ρaEvb or M0L0T0 L Ma Mb = T La Lb T 2b a + b = 0. ∴ b = – 0. So four π terms can be identified. – 1 – 2b = 0. c through a fluid is assumed to depend on the fluid density ρ and bulk modulus of the fluid Ev. ρ Roughness height.9. Fr) 0. The following list of parameters can be identified as affecting the coefficient of discharge S. Writing c = f(ρ. σ Viscosity. g Density of the fluid.5 Problem 8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Diameter.5 π1 = c(ρ/Ev)0.5 ρ Problem 8. This is a case were there will be a direct relationship between the variables or one π term. a = 0. u OP N µ ( gl) Q = f(Re. E OP N ulρ u ρu Q 2 v 2 or Euler number = f (Reynolds number. Lc H/D Chapter 8 There are seven variables and three dimensions.Dimensional Analysis R ρu 2 281 =f LM µ .

– 3a + b + c = 0. – 2b = 0. (σ/ρ gH MN H H 2 ).282 Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π2 = kρagbHc or M0L0T0 = L Fluid Mechanics and Machinery M a Lb L3a T 2b a = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Volume flow rate. π4 = µ/(ρH gH ). D and ρ as repeating variables. Choosing ∆P. orifice diameter and density and kinematic viscosity of the gas. Lc a = 0. b = 0. b = – 2 π1 = Q ∆PaDbρc or M0L0T0 = π1 = (Q/D2) (ρ/∆P)1/2 ρ∆ . a = – 1. v Unit m3/s N/m2 m kg/m3 m2/s Dimensions L3/T M/LT2 L M/L3 L2/T There are five parameters and three dimensions. Let ∴ ∴ L3 M a Mc Lb 3c T La T 2 a L a + c = 0. c = – 2 σ/ρgH2 π3 = σ/ρ π4 = µρagbHc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb L LT L3 a T 2b c a + 1 = 0. µ (ρH OP gH ) P Q Check the dimensions of these π terms. ∆P Diameter. D Density. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. a = – 1. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain an expression for the flow rate.5. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. k . c = – 1 ∴ π2 = k/H π3 = σρagbHc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb T 2 L3 a T 2b Lc a + 1 = 0. The volume flow rate of a gas through a sharp edged orifice is found to be influenced by the pressure drop. c = – 1. b = – 1. The variables and dimensions are listed below. ∴ a = – (1/2). As Cd is dimensionless ρ Cd = f LM D . ρ Kinematic viscosity. – 2 – 2b = 0.11. b = – 1/2. Q Pressure drop. Problem 8. 3 – a + b – 3c = 0. So two π terms can be obtained. c = 1/2. – 1 – 2a = 0. adopting MLT system S.No. – 1 – 2b = 0.

No. µ Gravitational acceleration. c = 0. S. Considering D. In flow through a sudden contraction in a circular duct the head loss h is found to depend on the inlet velocity u. c = 0 ∴ π2 = d Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = LLa M b Lc L3b T c a = – 1 ∴ π1 = h/D M b Lc L3b T c b = 0. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. c = – 1. Problem 8. diameters D and d and the fluid properties density ρ and viscosity µ and gravitational acceleration. g. a = – 1 π3 = µ/Dρu or ρDu/µ ρ µ π4 = g Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = L T2 La M b Lc L3b T c Chapter 8 M a M b Lc L LT L3b T c b + 1 = 0. The influencing variables with dimensions are tabulated below with MLT set. – 1 – 2a = 0. 283 π2 = v∆PaDbρc or M0L0T0 = a = – (1/2). h Inlet diameter. D Outlet diameter. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. ρ and u as repeating variables. u Density. a = – 1 ∴ π2 = d/D b = – 1. ρ Viscosity. Try to verify. Hence four π parameters can be found. π3 = µ Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = . 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. – 1 – c = 0. Let ∴ Let ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let π1 = h Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = LLa b = 0.Dimensional Analysis Let ∴ ∴ ∴ L2 M a Mc Lb 3 c T La T 2 a L a + c = 0. 2 – a + b – 3c = 0. d Velocity.12. c = (1/2). Determine dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. g Unit m m m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms m/s2 Dimensions L L L L/T M/L3 M/LT L/T2 There are seven variables and three dimensions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Loss of head. b = – 1 π2 = (v/D) (ρ/∆P)1/2 or ρ∆ Q D2 FG ρ IJ H ∆P K 1/ 2 =f LM v F ρ I MN D GH ∆P JK 1/ 2 OP PQ Note : π2 can be also identified as Reynolds number.

1 + a – 3b + c = 0. . h Gravitational acceleration. – 2 – c = 0 c = – 2. The volume flow rate. . the notch angle is a dimensionless parameter. c = 2. So three π terms can be identified. – 1 – 2b = 0 b = – 0. g and h as repeating variables. 2 – 3a + b + c = 0.5. σ Head of fluid.5. g Flow rate. – 3a + b + c = 0. It is also influenced by the angle of the notch. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π1 = Q ρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = L3 M a Lb Lc T L3 a T 2b a = 0. v Surface tension. and surface tension σ. c = – 2 π3 = σ/ρ 2 ∴ Q = g1/2 h5/2 f σ/ρgh π3 = σ ρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb LM Ng 1/ 2 v σ . head of fluid over the vertex. – 2 – 2b = 0 ∴ a = – 1.θ 3/2 h ρ gh 2 OP Q Note : In case surface tension is not considered. As θ. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Density. 2 D D µ u LM N OP Q Note : gD/u2 is the ratio of Potential energy to Kinetic energy. b = – 1. the other parameters are listed below with dimensions. c = (– 1. .5) ∴ π2 = v/g1/2 h3/2 Lc T 2 L3 a T 2b 1 + a = 0. adopting MLT set. π3 will not exist. and acceleration due to gravity.13. S.No. 3 – 3a + b + c = 0. ρ kinematic vicosity. – 1 – 2b = 0 b = – 0.5 ∴ π1 = Q/g1/2 h5/2 π2 = vρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = L2 M a Lb Lc T L3 a T 2b a = 0. π2 can be identified as Reynolds number.284 ∴ ∴ ∴ b = 0. Problem 8. Q over a V-notch depends on fluid properties namely density ρ. kinematic viscosity v. a = 1 ∴ π4 = gD/u2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h d ρDu gD =f . Determine the dimensionless parameters which can correlate the variables. Q Unit kg/m3 m2/s N/m m m/s2 m3/s Dimension M/L3 L2/T M/T2 L L/T2 L3/T There are six parameters and three dimensions. Considering ρ.

h Unit m kg/m3 m/s2 N/m m Dimension L M/L3 L/T2 M/T2 L There are five parameters and three dimensions and so two π parameters can be identified. Show that the power P. b = 0. gρ can also be considered as specific weight γ ρ h =f D LM σ OP ND γ Q . σ Capillary rise. Considering D. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π1 = h Da ρb gc or M0L0T0 = LLa b = 0. The variables are listed below adopting MLT set of dimensions. c = 0 ∴ π1 = h/D π2 = σ Daρb gc or M0L0T0 = M T2 La M b Lc L3b T 2 c M b Lc L3b T 2 c 1 + b = 0. S. g Unit W kg/m3 1/s m m m/s2 Dimension ML2/T 3 1/T L L L/T2 Chapter 8 M/L3 . gravitational acceleration g and surface tension σ. D is the runner diameter. – 2c = 0 a = – 1.15. The capillary rise h is found to be influenced by the tube diameter D. where ρ is the density of water and N is the rotational speed. – 2 – 2c = 0 ∴ b = – 1.No. S. 2 Note : π2 can be identified as 1/Weber number. N Diameter. c = – 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Power.14.Dimensional Analysis 285 Problem 8. The parameters with dimensions are tabulated below using MLT set. P Density. ρ and g as repeating variables. g Surface tension. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Diameter. ρ Speed. developed by a hydraulic turbine can be correlated by the dimensionless parameters P/ρ N3D5 and N2D2/gh. a – 3b + c = 0. h Gravitational acceleration.No. and a = – 2 π2 = σ/D2 gρ. h is the head and g is acceleration due to gravity. Determine the dimensionless parameters for the correlation of experimental results. density ρ. Problems 8. D Head. D Density. ρ Gravitational acceleration. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0.

So three π terms can be found. D and g as repeating variables. N Diameter. Taking ρ. – 3 – c = 0 ∴ a = – 1. D Acceleration due to gravity. Problem 8. b = – 5 M0L0T0 = ML2 M a 3 3a Lb π1 = P/ρN3 D5 (Power coefficient) ρ π2 = h ρa Db Nc or M0L0T0 = L a = 0.286 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery There are six parameters and three dimensions. g Unit W m m3/s kg/m3 1/s m m/s2 Dimension ML2/T 3 L L3/T M/L3 1/T L L/T2 There are seven variables and three dimensions and hence four π terms can be formed. The parameters with dimensions are listed below.No. D and N as repeating variables. 2 – 3a + b = 0. density ρ. These are used in model testing of turbo machines. flow rate Q. g. Obtain suitable dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. adopting MLT set of dimensions. runner diameter D. Let π1 = P ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = ML2 M a T3 L3 a Lb Lc T 2c . c = 0. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ Let ∴ ∴ P ρN D 3 5 π1 = P ρa Db Nc or 1 T L Tc 1 + a = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Power. 1 – 3a + b = 0. Q Density. b = – 1 ∴ π3 = g/DN2 π2 × π3 = gh/D2N2 (Head coefficient) ∴ =f LM gh OP ND N Q 2 2 In this expression the first term is called power coefficient and the second one is called head coefficient. L Ma 2 Ma π3 = g ρa Db Nc or M0L0T0 = T a = 0. speed N. 1 Lb c L3a T ∴ b = – 1 ∴ π2 = h/D. The power developed by hydraulic machines is found to depend on the head h. ρ Speed. S. Choosing ρ. h Flow rate. – 2 – c = 0 L 3a Lb 1 Tc c = – 2. P Head. c = – 3. 1 – 3a + b = 0. and acceleration due to gravity.16.

– 1 – 2c = 0 ∴ a = 0.Dimensional Analysis ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ 1 + a = 0. for Turbines Chapter 8 Nst = N P (power coefficient) 1/ 2 P 1/ 2 ( ND) 5 / 2 N P = 1/ 2 3 / 2 5 / 2 = 5/ 4 5 / 4 = 1/ 2 1/ 2 5/4 ρ ( gh)5 / 4 (head coefficient) D ( gh) ρ N ρ ( gh) P 5/4 F Dimensional Specific speed N GH h is commonly used as water is used in most cases I JK These are the popularly used dimensionally numbers in hydraulic turbo machinery. Specific speed based on Q. . b = – 5/2 π3 = Q/g1/2 D5/2 π4 = N ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = π4 = ND1/2/g1/2 1 M a b Lc L T L3a T 2c a = 0. 2 – 3a + b + c = 0. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. c = – 3/2 π1 = ρ P/ρD7/2 ρ g3/2 Ma L3 a Lb Lc T 2c 287 ∴ b = – 7/2 π2 = h ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = L a = 0. 3 – 3a + b + c = 0. c = – 1/2. Specific speed based on power. c = – 1/2. Power coefficient P ρN 3 D 5 = ρD 7 / 2 Pg 3 / 2 P = 3/ 2 3 3/ 2 ρ N 3 D5 g N D N 3 / 2 D3 / 2 ( gh)3 / 4 N Q ( gh)3 / 4 4. b = – 1. Head coefficient 2. – 3a + b + c = 0. – 2c = 0 a = 0. c = 0 ∴ π2 = h/D π3 = Q ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = a = 0. Nsp N Q ( gh) used) 3/4 = (flow coeff )1/ 2 (head coeff ) 3/ 4 = Q 1/ 2 N 1/ 2 D 3/ 2 = (dimensional specific speed N Q /h3/4 is commonly used as mostly water is the fluid 5. for pumps. Flow coefficient gh N 2 D2 Q ND 3 = π42 π2 = hg DN 2 D = gh N 2 D2 = π3 Qg 1/ 2 Q = 1/ 2 5 / 2 = 1/ 2 π4 g D ND N D3 = π1 π4 3 3. – 3 – 2c = 0 a = – 1. b = 1/2 L3 M a b Lc L T L3 a T 2c a = 0. 1. These can be obtained from the above four π terms. – 1 – 2c = 0 The coefficients popularly used in model testing are given below.

Problem 8. d = 1 π1 = hD/k (Nusselt number) π2 = u ka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0 = L M a La M b M c d L T T 3a θ a LbT b L3c a + b + c = 0. c Flow velocity. Obtain dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. . Choosing k. =f k k µ LM N OP Q These are popular dimensionless numbers in convective heat transfer. viscosity. a – b – 3c + d = 0. thermal conductivity k and convection coefficient h. d = 0 µ π3 = cµ/k (Prandtl number). In forced convection in pipes heat transfer coefficient h is found to depend on thermal conductivity. b = 0. ρ and D as repeating variables. – 1 – 3a – b = 0. – 1 – a = 0 a = – 1. b = 1.17. Using dimensional analysis determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate the situation. 2 + a – b – 3c + d = 0. specific heat. – a = 0. h Diameter D Thermal conductivity. c = 0.288 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 8. flow velocity and the diameter. density. k Density. L2 M a La Mb Mc Ld hD uDρ cµ . d = 1 π2 = uρD/µ (Reynolds number) ρ µ T 2 θ T 3 a θ a LbT b L3 c a + b + c = 0. b = – 1. S. c = 0. u Unit W/m2K m W/mK kg/m3 kg/ms Nm/kgK m/s Dimension M/T3 θ L ML/T3 θ M/L3 M/LT L2/T2 θ L/T Three π terms are possible as there are seven variables and four dimensions. a = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Convection coefficient. – 3 – 3a – b = 0. ρ Viscosity. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π1 = h ka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0= M M a La Mb Mc T 3θ T 3 a θ a Lb T b L3c Ld 1 + a + b + c = 0. where θ is temperature. The variables with dimensions are listed below using MLT θ set of dimensions.No. c = 1.18. The temperature difference θ at a location x at time τ in a slab of thickness L originally at a temperature difference θ0 with outside is found to depend on the thermal diffusivity α. µ Specific heat. – 2 – 3a – b = 0. µ. π3 = cka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0 = a = – 1. 1 + a – b – 3c + d = 0. – 1 – a = 0.

– 1 + a – d = 0. ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ a = 0. b = 0.No. x Initial temperature difference. d = – 1 π3 = hL/k (Biot number) π4 = τ θ0 a d = 0. a = – 1 π1 = θ/θ0 θ π2 = x θ0a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 = LθaLb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d a – d = 0. c = 1. Hence four π terms can be identified. α Thermal conductivity. τ Thermal diffusivity. a = 0. d = 0 π2 = x/L π3 = h θ0 a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 M a b L2 c M d Ld = 3 θ L T θ T c T 3d θ d ∴ 1 + d = 0. h Unit m m deg K deg K s m2/s W/mK W/m2 K Dimension L L θ0 θ T L2/T ML/T 3θ M/T3θ There are eight variables and four dimensions. θ Time. d = 0. c = 0. b + 2c + d = 0. 1 + a – d = 0. d = 0. 1 – c – 3d = 0. b + 2c + d = 0. choosing MLT θ set. S. – c – 3d = 0. a = 0. α and k as repeating variables. L Location distance.Dimensional Analysis 289 The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below. 1 + b + 2c + d = 0. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let π1 = θ θ0a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 = θ θa Lb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d d = 0. b = – 1. – c – 3d = 0. k Convection coefficient. θ0 Temperature difference at time τ. d = 0 π4 = α τ 2 τ/L (Fourier number) Chapter 8 Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 =T θa Lb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d . a – d = 0. b = – 2. c = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Parameter Slab thickness. b + 2c + d = 0. b = 1. L. c = 0. – 3 – c – 3d = 0. Choosing θ0.

S. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let L3a LbT b T 3dθ d a + b + d = 0. gravitational acceleration. specific heat. viscosity. thermal conductivity. determine the dimensionless parameters that will correlate the phenomenon. ∆T Coefficient of cubical expansion.19. – 1 – d = 0. x and k are chosen as repeating variables. c = – 2. c = 2. π1 = ∆T ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = θ a = 2. π2 = β ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = – 2.290 ∴ θ =f θ0 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM x .No. ρ. g Density. c Thermal conductivity. hL . coefficient of cubical expansion. µ Specific heat. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Variable Height. This problem shows that the method is not limited to fluid flow or convection Problem 8. temperature difference. The variables with dimensions in the MLT θ set is tabulated below. the height of surface and the flow velocity. ρ Viscosity. b = – 3. β Acceleration due to gravity. – 3a – b + c + d = 0. k Convective heat transfer coefficient. There are the popular dimensionless numbers is conduction heat transfer. Convective heat transfer coefficient in free convection over a surface is found to be influenced by the density. µ. d = – 1 ρ π2 = β µ3/ρ2x2k π3 = g ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = L Ma Mb T 2 L3 a LbT b Lc M d Ld T 3d θ d . b – 3d = 0. – b – 3d = 0. – 3a – b + c + d = 0. ατ OP NL k L Q 2 only. b = 3. Hence five π terms can be identified. Using dimensional analysis. h Unit m deg K (m3/m3)/deg K m/s2 kg/m3 kg/ms J/kgK W/mK W/m2K Dimension L θ 1/θ L/T2 M/L3 M/LT L2/T2θ ML/T3θ M/T3θ There are nine variables and four dimensions. x Temperature difference. d = 1 Ma Mb Lc M d Ld π1 = ∆Tρ2 x2 k/µ3 ρ µ 1 Ma Mb M d Ld Lc 3 d d 3a b b θ L LT T θ a + b + d = 0. 1 – d = 0.

The dimension for thermal conductivity in the MLT θ system is system is . π-theorem states that parameters can be obtained. 2 – 3a – b + c + d = 0.1. d = – 1 π5 = hx/k (Nusselt number) 1 + a + b + d = 0. for . a = 2. – 1 – d = 0. – 1 – d = 0. L2 M a Mb M d Ld 291 π4 = c ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = 0. c = 0. One of the methods to check the correctness of an equation is to check for each of the additive terms. have 7. has to be determined by 8. Chapter 8 6. – 2 – b – 3d = 0. The approximate number of experiments to evaluate the influence of 5 parameters separately is assuming that 10 experiments are needed for each variable. d = 0 µ π3 = g ρ2 x3/µ2 T 2 θ L3 a LbT b T 3dθ d a + b + d = 0. If there are n variables and m dimensions. π6 = ∴ ∆Tρ2 x 2 k βµ 3 gρ2 x 3 ∆Tβgx 3ρ2 ∆Tgβx 3 × 2 2 × = = µ3 ρ x k µ2 µ2 v2 hx cµ ∆Tgβρ2 x 3 =f . – 3a – b + c + d = 0.Dimensional Analysis ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ a + b + d = 0. dimensionless and in FLT θ 3. c = 1. b = 0. The dimension for mass in the FLT set is . – 3 – b – 3d = 0. 4. Fill in the blanks: 1. d = 0. c = 3. – 2 – b – 3d = 0. The limitation of dimensional analysis is that the experiments. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. π2 and π3 are combined as π1 × π2 × π3 to form the group known as Grashof number. b = 1. 5. k k µ2 LM N OP Q Note : When there are more than three π parameters the set should be reduced to three by judicial combination. The dimension for force in the MLT set is 2. each additive term in the equations should . d = – 1 Lc π4 = c µ/k (Prandtl number) M Ma Mb T 3θ L3 a LbT b Lc M d Ld T 3dθd π5 = h ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = 0. . 8. For an expression to be dimensionally homogeneous. As the π terms are too many π1. b = – 2. 1 – 3a – b + c + d = 0.

Dimensional analysis by clubbing variables into groups facilitates presentation of results of experiments in a compact form. Surface tension effects (5) Compressibility (6) Strouhal number (7) dynamic force (8) dynamic force (9) Reynolds numbers (10) Euler number. Answers (1) Correct : 1. Reynolds number is the ratio between gravitational force and the viscous force. It is easier to investigate a problem varying the value of a group as a whole rather than individual variables. 5. Grouping of variables into dimensionless parameters reduces number of experiments. flow. Weber number is used to study oscillating flow. O Q. flow. Dimensional analysis can be used to reduce the number of variables for investigation of a phenomenon. 8 Incorrect : 2. O Q. 8. Fluid dynamics problems can be completely solved by dimensional analysis. . Froude number is the ratio between inertia force and gravitational force. 10. The number used in the study of oscillating flows is . 9. 8. Lift coefficient is the ratio of lift force to 8. ML/T2 FT2/L Answers (1) All types of flow (2) Free surface flow (3) Pressure driven flow (4) Free surface flow. 7. 3. 2. Dimensional analysis can provide an exact functional relationship between variables affecting a phenomenon. flow. Froude number is used in the study of 3. Fill in the blanks: 1.292 9.3. 10. 10 . flow. . Cauchy number is used when 7. The choice of dimension set has mined for a phenomenon. 6. 5. 6. for experimentation the . Drag coefficient is the ratio of drag force to 9. State correct or incorrect: 1.2. 4. 8. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery on the final dimensionless numbers deter- When there are more than 3 Pi terms determined for a phenomenon. The ratio of pressure force to inertia force is called 6. Reynolds number is used in the study of 2. 3. is important. set must be reduced to 3 by Answers (1) (2) (3) n – m (4) ML/T3 θ. number. Euler number is the ratio between Inertia force and viscous force. Euler number is used in the study of 4. 9. F/Tθ (5) the same dimensions (6) the sameness of dimensions (homogeneous) (7) the exact functional relation (8) 105 (9) no effect (10) Combining terms in excess of two into a single π term. Weber number is used in the study of 5. The ratio of inertia to viscous force is called 10. 4. 7. number.

wave length λ.8. (τw/ρu2) = f(µ/ρux) µρ τ ρ E 8. Find using dimensional analysis a functional relation. density and viscosity of the fluid and the distance from the leading edge. the wall shear τw in the boundary layer depends on the free stream velocity.11. Check whether the equation is dimensionally homogeneous. depends on the speed u of the rope.3. (Qρ/d µ) = f ρ F D . u gI GH rud d JK 2 E 8. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain a correlation in terms of dimensionless numbers. Determine the dimensionless parameters to express the relation between the variables. using dimensional analysis. and the speed N.6. Find the unit conversion factor to make it dimensionally homogeneous.Dimensional Analysis EXERCISE PROBLEMS 293 E 8. P = P0 – (1/2) ρu2 – ρgz (P-pressure. (τ/D3 µω = f(h/D) E 8. Determine. The volume flow Q over a weir depends on the upstream height h. The centripetal acceleration of a particle in circular motion is dependent on velocity u and ω radius r. Using dimensional analysis determine the functional relation.9. The speed u of free surface gravity wave in deep water depends on the depth D. u-velocity. gh r I GH d d m JK 3 2 2 Chapter 8 .4. the layer thickness δ. (u/(gD)1/2 = f(λ/D) E 8. gh r I GH h h m JK 3 2 2 E 8. z-height above datum) (g0 = kgm/Ns2) E 8. (δ/x) = f(ux ρ/µ δ E 8. density ρ and acceleration due to gravity.12. the density and viscosity of the oil and acceleration due to gravity. fluid density and viscosity and the distance x from the leading edge. (c P / ρ = constant) E 8.10. when the head is h depends on the density and viscosity of the fluid and acceleration due to gravity. density of the gas ρ. Determine dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. [ar = f(rω2)] E 8. the width of the weir b. volume flow rate Q. Oil is moved up in a lubricating system by a rope dipping in the sump containing oil and moving up. (Q/h2 (gh)1/2) = f(b/h) E 8. with clearance h. and acceleration due to gravity. The quantity of oil pumped Q. ρ-density. d . the boundary layer thickness δ is found to depend on the free stream velocity u. c in a gaseous medium. h . In flow over a smooth flat plate.1. (P/(ρ D5N3)) = f(Q/D3 N) ρ E 8. Exρ/µ) press the correlation in the form of dimensionless groups. The time τ to drain a circular tank of diameter D by an orifice of diameter d is found to depend on the initial head h. The power P to drive a fan is found to depend on the diameter D. Obtain a relationship between the variables in terms of dimensionless parameters. The instantaneous volume Q drained by an orifice of diameter d from a circular tank of diameter D. (Note : Used in the determination of viscosity) (τµ 2 ρ) = f τµ/h τµ F D . the density and viscosity of the liquid and gravitational acceleration. depends on the pressure P and density ρ of the gas. Obtain the dimensionless parameters to correlate the flow. Obtain a relationship for the torque τ to rotate a disk of diameter D in a fluid of viscosity µ at τ µω) an angular speed ω over a plate. In flow over a smooth flat plate.2. The velocity of sound.7. Determine the π terms to correlate the flow. (Q/uδ2) = f δ F m . a functional relationship between the varaibles.5.

the rotational speed N. Players use spin in ball plays like tennis. temperature difference ∆θ (between gas and heated body) a length parameter L. D . In the atomization of a fluid by passing it through an orifice under pressure.294 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 8. . . LM t NM ru D 2 3 . The deflection δ at the center due to fluid flow at velocity u.20. m . jet velocity u. Determine the functional relationship among the variables in terms of dimensionless parameters. LM P NM ru 2 = f(E v /ru 2 ) OP QP E 8. Determine dimensionless parameters for the phenomenon. over a thin wire held between rigid supports is found to depend on length of the wire L.16. the droplet size d is believed to depend on the jet diameter D.17. determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate situation. m wD e . Obtain dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. and the density.15. If the other parameters are the liquid density and viscos- LM h . diameter of the wire. The power required to drive a propeller in a gas medium depends upon the forward speed u. Determine the dimensionless parameters to organize experimental results. the volume flow Q and the density and viscosity of the fluid. LM Q MN ud ity. density and viscosity of air. (d/D) = f F ruD . m ruL OP QP E 8. diffuser diameter D. the density of fluid and the bulk modulous Ev. E and fluid properties density and viscosity and the velocity u. LM Q NM ru L 3 2 . c∆q u2 . diameter D. c OP N u ruD u Q E 8.14. The high pressure generated due to sudden closing of a valve in a pipeline (known as water hammer) is found to depend on the velocity of flow. . In an oven where materials are heated by convection. find the π terms that can be used to characterize the phenomenon. m d P . P rD u 2 2 =f LM ND . A spherical ball of diameter D and weight w is balanced at the tip of a jet of diameter d at a height h. ruD D ru 2 OP PQ E 8. ruD OP Nd d m Q E 8. ruD u D OP QP E 8. developed in a jet pump is found to depend on the jet diameter d.13. density and viscosity of the gas and the speed of sound c in the medium.18. ω and the roughness height e on the ball surface. angular velocity of spin. s I GH m rDu JK 2 E 8. density. the velocity u of the jet. d elastic modulus of the wire. If the aerodynamic torque τ on the ball in flight depends on the forward speed u. viscosity and surface tension of the lqiuid. the ball diameter D.19. viscosity and flow velocity u of the fluid. As the ball moves the spin rate will decrease. The velocity of the jet is u. Determine the π parameters for the situation. 2 . the heat transfer rate Q (W) is believed to depend on the specific heat of air. The pressure P. golf etc.

Dimensional Analysis Determine the π terms for the problem. the density of air outside ρa and acceleration due to gravity. Erd OP Also E/ρu ρ NM d d m m QP 2 2 E 8. LM MN d Q 2 gD . d and µ as repeating variables) 2 295 LM d . h rg . Determine π terms to correlate the variables.21. rud . (use ρ. d ra OP PQ Chapter 8 . L . The volume of flue gas Q flowing through a chimney of height h and diameter d is influenced by the density of the gas inside ρg.

Because of this it is not possible to rely solely on design calculations and performance predictions. Fluid flow is influenced by several factors and because of this the analysis is more complex. ships. 296 . Experimental validation of the design is thus found necessary. The discussion in this chapter is about physical models that resemble the prototype but are generally smaller in size. turbines. These may also operate with different fluids. harbours and tall buildings and structures. Consider the case of a hydraulic turbine of 50 MW size.0 INTRODUCTION Similitude and Model Testing Fluid flow analysis is involved in the design of aircrafts. these are cheaper to build and test. As models are generally smaller than the prototype. Similarity of features enable the prediction of the performance of the full size unit from the test results of the smaller unit. The application of dimensional analysis is helpful in planning of the experiments as well as prediction of the performance of the larger unit from the test results of the model. The estimates may vary by as much as ± 20%. For many practical situations exact soluations are not available. Models should be carefully designed for reliable prediction of the prototype performance. Model testing is also used for evaluating proposed modifications to existing systems. submarines. at different pressures. velocities etc. It will be a very costly failure if the design performance and the actual performance differ. If we can predict its performance before manufacturing the unit it will be very useful. 9. Model testing comes to our aid in this situation. The system whose behavior is to be predicted by the model is called the prototype. pumps.' 9.1 MODEL AND PROTOTYPE In the engineering point of view model can be defined as the representation of physical system that may be used to predict the behavior of the system in the desired aspect. The effect of the changes on the performance of the system can be predicted by model testing before attempting the modifications. Constructing and testing small versions of the unit is called model testing.

Froude number.(9. It is also called similarity requirements or modelling laws. For example the choice of the scale when applied to the Reynolds number may dictate a very high velocity which may be difficult to achieve at a reasonable cost..πnm) . If a model is to be similar to the prototype and also function similarly as the prototype.2) For such a condition to be satisfied. 9..1 Geometric Similarity Some of the PI terms involve the ratio of length parameters. This is called geometric similarity.3) Equation 9..2. be equal for the model and prototype. (eqn. then the PI terms for the model should also have the same value as that of the prototype or the same functional relationship as the prototype...3 provides the model design conditions.. For complete similarity all the linear dimensions of the model should bear the same ratio to those of the prototype.. One tenth scale model means that the similar linear dimensions of the model is 1/10 th of that of the prototype...1) The PI terms include all the parameters influencing the system and are generally ratios of forces.1) πlm = f (π2m. 9.. In such situations. π3m. The ratio is generally denoted by the scale or scale factor. This is a basic requirement in model design. energy etc. Chapter 9 9. the parameter having a larger influence on the performance may have to be chosen.. lengths.2. π1p = f (π2p .2. If model and prototype are dynamically similar then the performance of the prototype can be predicted from the measurements on the model..(9. There are some situations where it is difficult to obtain such similarity. Geometric scale cannot be chosen without reference to other parameters. π2m = π2p.2. Interpretation of the results of the tests on distorted models should be very carefully done.2... This condition implies that the ratio of forces on fluid elements at corresponding points (homologous) in the model and prototype should be the same. In some cases it may be difficult to hold simultaneously equality of two dimensionless numbers.πnm = πnp .2. the model should be constructed and operated such that simultaneously πlm = πlp.1....Similitude and Model Testing 9. This happens for example in the case of model tasting of ships.2 Dynamic Similarity Similitude requires that π terms like Reynolds number. π3p.. This requirement is called dynamic similarity.... Roughness is one such case. viscous gravity and surface tension forces.. In cases like ship. All the similar linear dimension of the model and prototype should have the same ratio..πnp) . In these cases the depth scale is different from length scale..2.. These numbers are ratios of inertia. Weber number etc. harbour or dams distorted models only are possible.. Both Reynolds number and Froude number should be simultaneously .2 CONDITIONS FOR SIMILARITY BETWEEN MODELS AND PROTOTYPE 297 Dimensional analysis provides a good basis for laying down the conditions for similarity... The PI theorem shows that the performance of any system (prototype) can be described by a functional relationship of the form given in equation 9.(9.2..

.3 Kinematic Similarity When both geometric and dynamic similarities exist.3. scale = Lm/Lp.3). dynamic and kinematic should be maintained. Reynolds number is the most important parameter. To achieve complete similarity between model and prototype all the three similarities . This is not possible as this would require either fluids with a very large difference in their viscosities or the use of very large velocities with the model.(9. Lm up As λ is less than one.3 TYPES OF MODEL STUDIES Model testing can be broadly classified on the basis of the general nature of flow into four types. then velocity ratios and acceleration ratios will be the same throughout the flow field. the velocity to be used with the model has to be higher compared to the . but there may be changes along the flow direction.geometric. This is called kinematic similarly.298 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery held equal between the model and prototype.3. As the wall shear is an important force. The conduits are generally circular. 9.2. D IJ H µ L LK . Compressibility effect is negligible at low mach numbers.14. This requires Lm εm Dm = = = λ...1 Flow through Closed Conduits Flow through pipes.2) If the fluid used for the model and prototype are the same. ε . This will mean that the streamline patterns will be the same in both cases of model and prototype. This is illustrated in problem 9. fittings and measuring devices are dealt under this category. valves. (M<0. then Lp um = or um = up / λ. 9.3.(9.1) The geometric scale is given by the ratio. From dimensional analysis the pressure drop can be established as ∆P/ ρu2 = f FG ρuL . The pressure drop along the flow is more often the required parameter to be evaluated.. Lp εp Dp u pρ p L p umρ m Lm = µp µm um µ m ρ p Lp = up µ p ρ m Lm Reynolds number similarity leads to the condition for velocity ratio as ∴ . These are (1) Flow through closed conduits (2) Flow around immersed bodies (3) Flow with free surface and (4) Flow through turbomachinery 9.

the pressure drop in the prototype can be predicted. defined by [Drag force /(1/2) ρu2 l2)] is the desired quantity to be predicted. The pressure drop in the prototype is calculated as in equation (9. . ∆P / ρu2. Where pr is the reference pressure and pv is the vapour pressure at that temperature. using the model.3.e. Generally the following relationship holds in this case. Unless cavitation effects are the aim of the study.Similitude and Model Testing 299 prototype.3. the Reynolds number similarity becomes unimportant. then similarity of cavitation number should be established. CD = D l ε ρul = f 1.2 Flow Around Immersed Bodies Aircraft. 2 2 l l µ (1 / 2)ρu l LM N OP Q (9. Another condition is the onset of cavitation at some locations in the flow. Dp = Dm ρp ρm FG u Hu p m × lp lm IJ K 2 (9. In such cases. However. Submarine. When Reynolds numbers are large the inertia forces are predominant and viscous forces will be small in comparison. In the sports area golf and tennis balls are examples for this type of study. particularly in testing components where at some points the local velocity may become high and pressure may drop to a level where cavitation may set in. such condition should be avoided. Models are usually tested in wind tunnels. ∆PP = ρp ρm Fu I GH u JK p m 2 ∆Pm (9. i. Gravity and surface tension forces are not involved in this case and hence Froude and Weber numbers need not be considered. cars and trucks and recently buildings are examples for this type of study.3.5) From Reynolds number similitude um = µ m ρ p lp v lp up = m up µ p ρm lm vp lm (9.3) As ∆Pm is measured. Chapter 9 When the flow speed increases beyond Mach number 0. In case cavitation effects are to be studied. Reynolds number of the model and prototype should be equal.3 compressibility effect on similarity should be considered. After this is established the model test results can be applied without regard to Reynolds number similarity. Drag coefficient.3.4) where l is a characteristic length of the system and l1 represents the other length parameter affecting the flow and ε is the roughness of the surface. Otherwise a different fluid with higher viscosity should be chosen to satisfy the requirements.6) . in this range. Using the similitude.3. the model should be tested at various Reynolds numbers to determine the range at which its effect on pressure drop becomes negligible.3) From equality of. 9. (pr – pv)/(ρu2/2). measured values of drag on model is used to estimate the drag on the prototype. As viscous forces over the surface and inertia forces on fluid elements are involved in this case also.3.

In these cases gravity and inertia forces are found to be governing the situation and hence Froude number becomes the main similarity parameter.0 CD 1 0. The model will be influenced by compressibility effect due to the operation at high Mach numbers. In some cases at higher ranges...3.6.3. the Reynolds number is found to have little influence on drag. This may be overcome by using different fluids say water in place of air. which will mean a high Mach number.3. The prototype however will be operating at low Mach numbers where compressibility effect is negligible.7) The model velocity should be higher by the geometric scale.1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 9.(9. If the prototype is to operate at 100 kmph and if the scale is 1:10. Where expense is of no consideration due to the requirement of utmost reliability as in space applications and development of new aircraft.3 Flow with Free Surface Flow in canals. In this case the use of Mach number similitude requires equal velocities while the Reynolds number similarity requires increased velocity for the model as per geometric scale. Using equation 9.300 When same fluid is used for both prototype and model um = (lp/lm) up Fluid Mechanics and Machinery . 10 1.3. rivers as well as flow around ships come under this category. It may be seen that above Re = 104 the curve is flat. Another method is to pressurise the air in the wind tunnel. 9. as kinematic viscosity of air is about 10 times that of water. Hence the performance prediction will be in error. Strict Reynolds similarity need not be used in such situations. . then the model should operate at 1000 kmph. the velocity will now be at a reasonable level. 9. and reducing the required velocity of the model. thus increasing the density. full scale models are also used. In such cases distorted model is used to predict prototype performance. If the operation of the prototype will be at such a range.1 Variation of drag with Reynolds number for flow over cylinder Another situation arises in testing of models of high speed aircraft. The variation of drag due to variation in Reynolds number for cylinder and sphere is shown as plotted in Fig.3.1. then Reynolds number equality will not be insisted for model testing.

Power. the ratio of kinematic viscosities is given as vm 3/2 vp = (scale) (9. The operating variables of the machines are the flow rate Q. Hence generally models are designed on the basis of Froude number similarity.9) In case Reynolds number similarity has to be also considered.8) um = up (9. the depth will be low for the model and surface tension effects should be considered. The shear drag is analytically determined and the pressure drag on the model is calculated by subtracting this value. substituting this value of velocity ratio. Turbines are power generating machines which reduce the head of the fluid passing through them.10 simultaneously. The total drag on the model is first measured by experiment. the velocity of the model is calculated as below. In case of design of river model. Considering Froude number.3.Similitude and Model Testing 301 In some cases Weber number as well as Reynolds number may also influence the design of the model.3. A special situation arises in the case of ships.3. Chapter 9 . the power P and the speed N.3. (2) Pressure induced drag due to wave motion and influenced by the shape of the hull. In many practical applications in this type of situation the influence of Weber and Reynolds number is rather small.3.4 Models for Turbomachinery Pumps as well as turbines are included in the general term turbomachines. If surface tension also influences the flow.3. The calculated value of viscous drag is then added to obtain the total drag.11 (refer problem 9. In such a case distorted model may have to be selected. The machine parameters are the diameter and a characteristic length and the roughness of the flow surface.9 and 9. it is still more difficult to choose a fully similar model.3.21). But the use of distorted model. head and efficiency can be expressed as functions of π terms as in equation 9. if the same vertical and horizontal scales are used. The drag on the prototype is determined using Froude number similarity. um glm ∴ = up gl p lm = up lp scale (9. (vertical scaling smaller than horizontal scaling) overcomes this problem.10) As these situations involve use of water in both model and prototype. As it is not possible to build and operate a model satisfying simultaneously the Reynolds number similarity and Froude number similarity ingenious methods have to be adopted to calculate the total drag. 9. The total drag on the ship as it moves is made up of two components: (1) The viscous shearing stress along the hull. The fluid properties are the density and viscosity. Pumps are power absorbing machines which increase the head of the fluid passing though them. it is impossible to satisfy the condition of equations 9.

302 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fl ε Q Power = f G . The head coefficient is defined as Ch = gh/N2 D2 . the power and flow rate can be measured.. The dimensionless term involving power is defined as power coefficient.3. the method of dimensional analysis is used to obtain similarity conditions.13a) h5 / 4 In model testing at a particular speed. .. The model can be run at a constant speed when the head is varied.11) The term ε / D is not important due to the various sharp corners in the machine. the specific speed is obtained as N P ρ1/ 2 ( gh)5 / 4 Popularly used dimensional speed for turbines is Nst = Nst = N P (9.3. Consider the continuity and x directional momentum equations for two dimensional flow. the power and head coefficients will also be equal for the machines.(9. The performance of the prototype can be predicted from the results of the tests on the geometrically similar model. ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y .3. Combining flow and head coefficients in the case of pumps will give the dimensionless specific speed of the pump.3.12) Popularly used dimensional specific speed for pumps is defined as Nsp = N Q (9. HD D N D 1 . 3 ρND 2 µ I JK (9.13) . defined as Cp = P/ρ N3 D3. The term Q/N D3 is called flow coefficient. This can be used to predict the performance of the pump at other speeds using the various coefficients defined.4 NONDIMENSIONALISING GOVERNING DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS When differential equations describing the phenomenon is not available. 9.12a) h3 / 4 In the case of turbines.3. similarity parameters can be deduced by non dimensionalising the equations. When differential equations describing the system are available. If two similar machines are operated with the same flow coefficient. combining power and flow coefficients. the flow rate at various delivery heads can be measured. Nsp = N Q ( gh) 3 / 4 (9. The procedure for turbines will also be similar. This will then lead to the same efficiency.

µ L P . as given below u* = Then p u * v x y t . the momentum equation reduces to the form LM L OP ∂u N τ U Q ∂t * * + u* ∂u * ∂t * + v* ∂u * ∂t * =− LM P OP ∂P + LM µ OP FG ∂ u N ρU Q ∂x N ρUL Q H ∂x 0 * 2 2 * * * 2 + ∂ 2 u* ∂y* 2 I JK It may be noted that the non dimensionalised equation is similar to the general equation except for the terms in square brackets. Mach number can be obtained by a similar method. Reference may be made to the problems in chapter 8. If other forms of forces like surface tension is added.5 CONCLUSION SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 9. = 2 ∂x 2 L2 ∂x* ∂x L ∂x * Similar method is used in the case of other terms. Reynolds and Froude numbers.v = . As the equation describes the general unsteady flow all the numbers are involved. Euler. In case air is used determine the ratio of pressure drops. In actual model making and testing as well as interpretation of results many other finer details have to be considered for obtaining accurate predictions about the performance of the prototype. x* = . Substituting. These are the similarity parameters thus identified. Reynolds number similarity is to be maintained. gL/U2 will be identified. Chapter 9 In all the problems in this chapter on model testing the π terms identified in chapter 8 are used. 9. Weber number can be identified. The discussions in this chapter is limited to basics. a model of scale 1/10 is used. These are forms of Strouhal. .1 To study the pressure drop in flow of water through a pipe. y* = . t* = P0 U V L L τ ∂ 2 u U ∂ 2 u* ∂u U ∂u * = . Case (i) Water flow in both model and prototype. Determine the ratio of pressure drops between model and prototype if water is used in the model. . If equations for compressible flow is used.Similitude and Model Testing ρ 303 2 2 FG ∂u + u ∂u + v ∂uIJ = − ∂P + µ FG ∂ u + ∂ u IJ H ∂t ∂x ∂y K ∂x H ∂ x ∂ y K 2 2 The various quantities can be made dimensionless by dividing by reference quantities. P* = . τU ρU 2 ρUL In case gravity force is added.

As ρm = ρp and um/up = 10.14 × 10–6 kg/ms. Determine the corresponding flow velocity of air in the larger duct and also the pressure drop over 90 m length.18 × 10–6 m2/s For pipe flow.58 × 10–6 m2/s. Reynolds number analogy should be used. ∆p p ρp u p2 Case (ii) If air is used in the model. a square pipe of 50 mm side was used with water flowing at 3.224 m/s Drag coefficient F/ρu2 should be the same for both pipes.14 × 10 −6 = 100 × × ∆Pp 1. then um µ m d p ρ p ∆pm ρ m = × × .205 kg/m3.205 1.304 um dmρ m u p d p ρ p µm µp ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery um µ m d p ρ p = × × up µ p dm ρ m As viscosity and density values are the same.18 × 10–6 = 152542 For air 152542 = 14.6 m/s. For square section hydraulic mean diameter = 4 A/P = 4a2/4a = a (side itself) Re = uD/v = 3. Kinematic viscosity of air = 14. Density = 1. µair = 18. dp um = = 10. The pressure drop over a length of 3 m was measured as 940 mm water column. dm up The pressure drop is obtained using pressure coefficient [∆P/(1/2) ρu2]m = [∆P/(1/2) ρu2]p ∴ ∆p m ρ m u m 2 = . µw = 1. Kinematic viscosity of water = 1.58 × 10 −6 1× u ∴ u = 2. ρw = 1000 kg/m3. Also the drag coefficients will be equal.98 This illustrates that it may be necessary to use a different fluid in the model as compared to the prototype.05/1.006 × 10–3 kg/ms ∴ ∆Pm 1000 18. = u p µ p dm ρm ∆p p ρ p ρp ρm Fµ GH µ m p × dp dm × ρp ρm I JK 2 = 100 Fµ I GH µ JK m p 2 From data tables at 200 C. ∆Pm/∆PP = 102 = 100.23 kg/m3. Problem 9.2 To determine the pressure drop in a square pipe of 1 m side for air flow.6 × 0.006 × 10 −3 F GH I JK 2 = 26. Fair ρ air uair 2 Fw ρ wuw 2 . ρair = 1.

12 × 10–3 kg/ms.1085 m/s 4 um = 3. which is rather high. 24. Dynamic viscosity of water = 1.0149 m3/s 4 4 If the valve is to be used with water. then the model velocity has to be 8 × 3. ∆Pair = .64/8 = 0.956 × 10–6 = 2.7 × 10–6 kg/ms.521 × 10–5 = 0.732 m/s Problem 9.23kg/m3.521 × 10–5 ∆Pair = 940 × 3.87 m/s.02 × 1000 112 × 10 −3 = uair × 0. For model testing water at 300C is used. u p dm v p Qp = πD p 2 4 up dm = dp/8 = 0.05 2 × 1.1085 × 8 × 0.e.Similitude and Model Testing 305 The pressure drop equals the shear force over the area.9726 = 0.8315 × 10–6/6. The diameter of the prototype is 64 cm and it should control flow rates upto 1m3/s.23 127 × 10 −6 .08 m πdm 2 π um = × 0. Determine the flow required for model testing. Kinematic viscosity is 0.082 × 2.04 × 1. area = a2.23 2.6 FG H IJ K 2 = 3.4 A model of 1/8 geometric scale of a valve is to be designed. The valve is to be used with brine in a cooling system at –100C. um dm u p d p = .033 mm of water column Problem 9. ∴ uair = 0.3 Water at 15°C flowing in a 20 mm pipe becomes turbulent at a velocity of 0. ∆Pw = aw aair a Dividing and substituting for Fair/Fw ∆Pair Lair a F L a ρ × w × air = air × w × air = ∆Pw Lw aair Fw Lw aair ρw Fu I GH u JK air w 2 90 × 0. As roughness etc are similar.224 = 1 × 3 × 1000 3.9726 m/s. For square section. 114 × 0. i. reynolds number similarity is to be used. Reynolds number similarity is required.1085 m/s.114 m/s.64 2 up ∴ up = 3. Qm = The pressure drop can also be predicted from the model measurements using F ∆p I = F ∆p I GH ρu JK GH ρu JK 2 2 p m Chapter 9 ∴ 0. perimeter = 4a ∴ ∆P = 4 Fw Lw 4 Fair Lair 4FL . .956 × 10–6 m2/s. The kinematic viscosity of brine at the saturated condition is 6. vm vp 1=π× ∴ um d p vm = × . Density of water = 1000 kg/m3. for pipe flow.8315 × 10–6 m2/s This is a situation of flow through closed conduits. What will be the critical velocity of air at 100C in a similar pipe of 40 mm diameter. Density of air = 1. Dynamic viscosity of air = 17.

viscosity and local sonic velocity at tunnel condition are 7. Lm ρm = Lp ρp ∴ ρm/ρm = Lp/Lm = 10 At constant temperature. a pressurised low temperature tunnel is used.8 × 10–5 Ns/m2.32 m/s For Reynolds number similarity umρ m Lm u p ρ p L p = µm µp up ρ p µ m Lm 150 1.8 × 10 −5 × × = = = 0. In order to reduce the effect of compressibility. Assume full dynamic similarity should be maintained. Mp = Mm.252)2 = 0. ∴ Pm = Lp Lm Pp = 10 × Pp or 10 times the operating pressure of the aircraft.32 7. For Mach number similarity.22 × 10 −5 or about 1/4th scale. When both Match number similarity and Reynolds number similarity should be maintained.2 1. generally the size of the model has to be on the higher side Drag force similarity is given by (F/ρu2L2)m = (F/ρu2L2)p Fm ρ mum 2 Lm 2 7.5 kg/m3.306 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 9.5 140. Estimate the pressure required. the model is proposed to be tested at the same speed in a pressurized tunnel.6 An aircraft fuselage has been designed for speeds of 380 kmph. This is fully immersed flow.22 × 10–5 Ns/m2 and 290 m/s. pressure ratio will be the same as density ratio. u p L pρ p um Lmρ m = µm µp A viscosity is not affected by pressure and as velocities are equal. If the drag on the model was measured as 100 N.2 kg/m3 and 1. Hence Reynolds number similarity is required. Problem 9.5 1. Determine the flow velocity and the scale of the model. predict the drag on the prototype. 1.322 = × (0.252 × × Lp um ρ m µ p 140.5 To predict the drag on an aircraft at a flight speed of 150 m/s. In addition to Reynolds number similarity compressibility effect should be considered. .347 × 2 2 = Fp ρ pu p L p 1. A model of 1/10 size is decided on. the force ratio is high. up cp = um cm ∴ um = 150 × 290/310 = 140. To estimate power requirements the drag is to be determined.2 150 2 As the model size is larger. Density. Density and viscosity at the operating conditions are 1. where the condition of air is such that the local speed of sound is 310 m/s.

assuming length L.4 × 287 × 272 = 330 m/s = 1190 kmph = 290/1190 = 0.5 × 105. estimate the aerodynamic drag force on the bus at 100 kmph. ∴ Drag on prototype = 8.7 The performance of an aeroplane to fly at 2400 m height at a speed of 290 kmph is to be evaluated by a 1/8 scale model tested in a pressurised wind tunnel maintaining similarity.961 kg/m3 = 290000/3600 = 80. 26. At the given flight conditions. The conditions at the flight altitude are temperature = – 10C.Similitude and Model Testing The π parameter for drag force.06 × 10 −6 0.3 = 2150 × 103/(287 × 288) = 26.1 × 10 This is also low subsonic.78 × 24. Equating Reynolds numbers. The drag resistance on the model measured at 18 m/s and 27 m/s. Chapter 9 .165 By interpolation using equality of F/u2.56 × 0.56 × L × 0.01 kg/m3 = 75 × 103/(287 × 272) = 0. pressure = 75 kN/m2. The width of the model = 2. drag at 25.1525 m. v = 1.6N. This condition is above 105. If the width and frontal area of the prototype was 2.006 ×10–6 m2/s.8 m2. Velocity of sound is C= Mach number Density at test conditions Density at flight conditions Velocity at flight condition 80. Re = 15.195 m/s model speed is obtained as 8.195 m/s × 8 18. gives Dp Dm as um = up 2 2 = (1 / 2)ρ p u p 2 L p 2 (1 / 2)ρ mum Lm 307 ∴ Dp = Dm (ρpLp2/ρmLm2) = 100 × (1/10) 102 = 1000 or 1 kN Problem 9. Conditions of air in the wind tunnel are the same as at the operating conditions of the bus.1525 × 35 = 3. µ = 18.961 25. The test conditions are 2150 kN/m2. at an air speed of 35m/s.44 m and 7.7N and 9.165 = 212 N Problem 9. Assume that coefficient of drag remains constant above Reynolds number 105. the drag on the model was measured as 10.8 In a test in a wind tunnel on 1:16 scale model of a bus.1 × 10–6 kg/ms.78 N.56 m/s =u× Hence Reynolds number similarity only need be considered.44/16 = 0.01 L ∴ u = 25.195 FG H IJ K 2 × 82 = 24. Also determine the power required.7N.1 × 10 −6 17. µ = 17. and 150C.01 80. Drag can be obtained using drag coefficient F/ρ Au2 ρ m Amum 2 Fm = Fp ρ p A pu p 2 ∴ Fp Fm = ρp ρm F u IJ ×G Hu K p m 2 × Ap Am = 26. are 4. Determine the drag on the prototype.1 × 10–6 kg/ms.24 < 0. D.961 −6 g0 kRT = 1 × 1.

8 × 10 −6 ∴ Velocity of air.725 kN = 1725 × 27.02/1. If a scale model of 1/25 size is used to predict the performance using a water tunnel. 1.4758 (1 / 2)ρu 2 A 1. determine for similitude the flow velocity and the power required.9 A water tunnel operates with a velocity of 3m/s at the test section and power required was 3. The ratio of density between sea water and fresh water is 1. Pair = Pw 38.14 × 10–6 m2/s In this case Reynolds number similarity is to be maintained. va = 14.78 W = 47927 W Problem 9. Re = Dm um ρm/µm = . i.10 The performance of a torpedo.927 kW.832 × 10–6 m2/s. = . Hence Reynolds number similarity should be maintained D p u p ρ p Dmumρ m in the test.05.95 m/s vw a 1. If the tunnel is to operate with air.67 × 106 × 25 1000 × 0.308 Area of the model = 7.5 kW Problem 9.8 × 10–6 m2/s. 1 m diameter and 4 m long is to be predicted for speeds of 10 m/s.4758 = Power required F (1 / 2)1.205 × 7. if the density of water was 1000 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity was 0. ρa = 1.8 × (27. ( 27. This is a fully submerged flow.02 and the viscosity ratio is 1. by multiplying and dividing by u as F × u power F ×u ρAu u 2 = P ρAu 3 As A is the same. ua uw = va vw uw 3 × 14.78 m/s) 0.75 × × 3 ρ w uw 1000 3 FG H IJ K 3 = 10.7 × 2 × 16 2 = = 0.85 × 1000 = 11.e.28 ρ air uair 3 = 3.78) 2 ∴ F = 1725 N or or 47. Also determine the value of Reynolds number. µp µm um = up × Dp Dm × ρp ρm × µm = 10 × 25 × 1.05 = 242.85 m/s µp This is a very high speed generally not achievable in water tunnel.832 × 10 −6 For values of Re > 105 the coefficient of drag remains constant. The length dimension is the same.25 kg/m3.8/162 CD = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery F 10. 1 242. determine the flow velocity required. vw = 1.95 1.8 Drag force on the prototype at 100 kmph.75 kW. Hence strict Reynolds number similarity need not be insisted on beyond such value. ua = v = = 38.205 × 35 2 × 7.14 × 10 −6 Power can be determined from drag coefficient.

To determine the drag on the transducer a model of 100 mm diameter is tested in a wind tunnel.13 In order to predict the flow conditions after the turbine outlet (tail race) of a hydroelectric plant delivering 2400 m3/s. Hence compressibility effect will be negligible. Let L be the length of the prototype.54 N Problem 9.006 × 10–6 m2/s um Dm u p D p = vm vp um = up D p vm 200 15. vw = 1.12 A sonar transducer in the shape of a sphere of 200 mm diameter is used in a boat to be towed at 2.6 × L × 28.39 × 10 –6 kg/ms at a speed of 36.5 36. Reynolds number similarity should be maintained. The drag force is measured as 15 N.637 × 10–3 kg/ms if the model resistance was 67 N.2 28. Estimate the drag on the prototype. .6 × = 77.6 m/s.85 m/s 100 1. Calculate the corresponding speed and drag of the prototype when submerged in sea water with density 1025 kg/m3 and viscosity 1.6 × 200 × 1. As A ∝ D2 ρ mum Dm 2 2 = ρ pu p2 D p 2 ∴ Fp = 15 × 1000 2. This is a free surface flow. a model of 1/75 scale is proposed. As it is fully immersed type of flow. u p × L × 1025 36.637 × 10 −3 Using drag coefficient Fm ρ mum Lm 2 2 ∴ up = 15.85 × 100 LM N OP Q 2 = 55.11 A 1/6 scale model of a submarine is tested in a wind tunnel using air of density 28.2 m/s = Fp ρ pu p2 L p2 2 2 ∴ Fp = Fm × ρp ρm FG u IJ FG L IJ Hu K H L K p p m m = 67 × 1025 15. vair = 15. Hence Froude number similarity is to be maintained. Frm = Frp or um lm = up lp or um = up lm lp Chapter 9 Fm Fp .5 m/s may be used for the test which corresponds to Re = 1. velocity around 2.5 = −6 6 × 18. Determine the flow rate required.2 × 105. Reynolds number similarity should be considered in this case. The coefficient of drag should be same for this condition. the air being at 20o C.205 77.205 kg/m3.Similitude and Model Testing 309 In this case for example.006 × 10 −6 Dm vp Mach number will be about 0.6 m/s in water at 20oC.06 × 10–6 m2/s ρw = 1000 kg/m3.39 × 10 1. The density and kinematic viscosity values are : ρair = 1.6 FG H IJ K 2 (6)2 = 14961 N Problem 9. Determine the speed of air for the test.06 × 10 −6 × = 2. Problem 9.25.5 kg/m3 and viscosity 18.

897 FG H IJ K 2 = 774.13 × 103 N ∴ Total resistance = 1.41 MN FG L IJ FG u IJ H L K Hu K p p 2 2 = 11. For wave resistance study Froude number similarity should be maintained.7 × 1.16 N Wave drag on the model = 32 – 20. For similarity determine the speed with which the model should be towed.95 × 2500/402 = 20. The ship is to travel at 30 kmph. But it is not possible to maintain these similarities simultaneously. Fsm = 3.9 up1.52 m/s Lp 3600 30 .14 The total drag on a ship having a wetted hull area of 2500 m2 is to be estimated.9 × 121. From other tests the frictional resistance to the model was found to follow the law Fsm = 3.5 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Qm Amum Lm 2 = = Qp A pu p Lp 2 Qm = 2400 Lm = Lp FL I GH L JK m p ∴ FG 1 IJ H 75 K 2.15 A scale model of a ship of 1/30 size is to be towed through water.9 u1. Hence Froude number similarity is used to estimate wave resistance.8971.84 × 1025 12 (40) 2 1000 1. Frictional drag is estimated by separate tests. The total resistance to ships movement is made up of (i) wave resistance and (ii) frictional drag.41 × 106 N or 1. The ship is 135 m long. um gLm = up gL p ∴ um = up Lm 30 × 1000 1 = × = 1.04927 m3/s Problem 9. In the case of ships the wave resistance is more difficult to predict.5 = 0. For frictional resistance Reynolds number similarity should be maintained.310 As flow (Q = Au) depends on area which varies as L2 ∴ 2.897 m/s lp The skin friction drag for the model is calculated using this velocity.8 N/m2 of wetted area Determine the expected total resistance. For the prototype the law is estimated to follow Fsp = 2.7 × 1.7 u1.8 × 2500 = 635.84 N The wave drag is calculated using (F/ρ u2L2)m = (F/ρ u2L2)p Noting that sea water is denser with ρ = 1025 kg/m3 Fwp = Fwm ρp ρm m m Skin friction drag for the prototype Fsp = 2. A model 1/40 scale when tested at corresponding speed gave a total resistance of 32 N.95 × Am as Am = 2500/402 = 3.16 = 11. The ship is to travel at a speed of 12 m/s.95 N/m2 of wetted area.38 × 103 N Problem 9.8971. From the Froude number similarity. um = up lm = 12/400.8 × Ap = 2.5 = 1. Froude number similarity is to be maintained.

006 × 10–6 kg/ms up = 65 × 1000/3600 = 18. The resistance measured in fresh water was 16 N.6 = 0.36 m. The dimension of the structure are diameter = 0.128 kg/m3 . µp = 1.6 = 0.12 m.16 The wave resistance of a ship when travelling at 12. To predict the shedding frequency.12 × 10–6 kg/ms ρm = 1000 kg/m3. ∴ um = up Lm L p = 12.06 3 ρ mum Dm ρ pu p D p = µm µp Reynolds similarity requires ∴ um = up ρ p µ m Dp ρ m µ p Dm The property values of air and water at the given temperatures are.36/0. µ) Dimensional analysis leads to the π terms relation. Froude number similarity is to be maintained.056 × 1. = H 0. If the geometric scale is 1:6 and if the water temperature is 20o C determine the speed to be used in the tunnel.02 1 = . a smaller model is to be tested in a water tunnel.976 FG H IJ K 2 (40)2 = 1049.17 Vortex shedding at the rear of a structure of a given section can create harmful periodic vibration.6 × 103 N or 1050 kN Problem 9.006 × 10 −3 6 × = 6. The air speed is expected to be about 65 kmph.Similitude and Model Testing 311 Problem 9. u.976 m/s 40 The wave resistance is found to vary as given below. ρ. height = 0. Hm = 1/6 Hp = 0.43 m/s 1000 19. (refer Chapter 8) ωD =f u FG D .02 m.5 1000 1. µp = 19. Fm ρ mum Lm 2 2 = ρ pu p2 L p2 ∴ Fp = Fm × ρp ρm FG u IJ FG L IJ Hu K H L K p p m m 2 2 = 16 × 1025 12.06 m Chapter 9 The model dimension can be determined as Dm = 1/6 Dp ∴ D 0.5 Fp 1 = 1. The frequency of vortex shedding can be related by the equation ω = F (d. ρp = 1. If the shedding frequency of the model was 60 Hz determine the shedding frequency of the prototype. ρuD IJ HH µ K = 0.5 m/s is estimated by test on 1/40 scale model.128 1. Consider air temperature as 40o C. h.12 × 10 −6 1 . The density of sea water = 1025 kg/m3.12/0. Determine the speed of the model and the wave resistance of the prototype in sea water.056 m/s ∴ um = 18.

Froude number similarity is required. vair = 1. up2 Problem 9.23 0.5 u Lm or ∴ m = up Lp F I GH JK As 2 2 Q = uA = uL2. here A = 1 × D ∴ The parameter in this case for force is F Fw Fa = ρDu2 ρw Dwuw 2 ρ a Da ua 2 or 2 Fw F ρ I F D IJ FG u IJ =F G JG Hρ K H D K Hu K a w a w a w a 1000 0.31 × 10 1.028 × × = 227 × 1.25 54. Qm um L2 m = Qp u p L2 p . dp dm ρm um 2 .3 = a −6 1.61 FG H IJ K 2 = 1205 N Problem 9. 1/20 geometric scale model is to be used. due to water flowing at a speed of 14. The resistance was measured as 227 N/m.3 4. u p Dp um Dm ωm = 18. um = up ( gL p ) 0.028 m/s u × 0. Using the third π parameter. vw = 1. ρp . Determine the force on the bridge column per m length. The drag for unit length can be expressed in the dimensionless from as D/dρu2 where D is the drag and d is the diameter.5 × 1000/3600 = 4.312 ω m Dm ω p D p = um up ∴ ωp = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vortex shedding frequency is determined. Also determine the time scale for the model.5 ( gLm ) 0.43 6 The drag also can be predicted from the model.25 4. ua = 54. 6.3 m diameter. under similar conditions of flow. a column of 0.25 m diameter was tested with air flow. Viscous and surface tension effects may be neglected.48 × 10–5 m2/s. Qm = um Lm.23 kg/m3 Similarity requires equal Reynolds numbers Velocity of flow of water = 14. This situation is open surface flow. Thus Dp d pρ p u p 2 = Dm dmρ m um 2 ∴ Dp = Dm.61 m/s The force can be obtained by the dimensional parameter (drag coefficient) F/ρAu2 .5 km/hr.31 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the flow rate required to test the model. The spillway is 40 m long and carries 300 m3/s at flood condition.48 × 10 −5 ∴ Velocity of air. Qp = upLp .18 In order to determine the drag on supporting columns (of a bridge) of 0.06 1 × × 60 = 28.19 To ascertain the flow characteristics of the spillway of a dam.ρa= 1.028 × 0.08 Hz.5 0.

41 m3/s at a pressure of 141 N/m2.Similitude and Model Testing ∴ 313 u L 2 Qm = Qp m m2 = Qp u p Lp = 300 FL I FL I GH L JK GH L JK m p m p 0. Chapter 9 FG 1750 IJ = 104.5 FL I =G H L JK m p 0.21 A centrifugal pump with dimensional specific speed (SI) of 2300 running at 1170 rpm delivers 70 m3/hr. Also calculate the specific speed at this condition. Determine the volume delivered and the pressure rise. For similarity condition the flow coefficient Q/ND3 should be equal. This is to work at a place where the air density is 0.168 m3/s Time scale can be determined from velocities.9 × (1750/1170)2 = 15.5 = 0. um Lm t p = up L p tm ∴ t m Lm u p Lm = = L p um Lp tp FL I GH L JK p m 0.92 kg/m3.44 m Using power coefficient : P/rN3D5. As D is the same.5 2 = Qp FL I GH L JK m p 2.5 = 0. the speed being 1400 rpm. ∆P2 = ∆P1 ρ2 N22 ρ1 N 1 2 = 141 × 0. running at 990 rpm was found to deliver 1. Q1 Q = 2 N1 N2 or Q2 = Q1 N2 1400 = 1.55 N/m2 Problem 9.2236 Problem 9. The head developed and the power at test conditions are determined first.5 = FG 1 IJ H 20 K 0.5 FG 1 IJ H 20 K 2. P2 L N OP =P × M NN Q 2 3 1 1 = 1316 × LM 1750 OP N 1170 Q 3 = 4404 W Specific speed for the model Ns = N Q /H3/4 = 1750 104.81 × 70000 × 6.7 m /hr H 1170 K .2 m. as D is the same Q2 = 70 3 Using head coefficient. as velocity = length/time.3 990 FG H IJ K 2 = 199.7 /(15. H2 = H1 (N1/N2)2 = 6.9 m Power = mg H = 9. head and power if the pump runs at 1750 rpm . Ns = N Q /H3/4 = 1170 70 /H3/4 = 2300 ∴ H = 6.44)3/4 = 2300 Note: Specfic speeds are the same.92 1400 × 1.20 A fan when tested at ground level with air density of 1. using flow coefficient Q/ND3.41 × = 2 m3/s 990 N1 The head coefficient H/ρN2D2 is used to determine the pressure rise.9/3600 = 1316 W When operating at 1750 rpm.3 kg/m3. The impeller diameter is 0. (At 1170 rpm). H/N2D2. Determine the flow.

200 × 25 = 0. checks. Q being volume flow rate that for similarity the following parameters should be equal. with ρ1 = ρ2 0.16). 3 Consider power coefficient ρ 1ω 13 D15 2 = ρ 1ω 13 D15 5 P1 as ρ1 = ρ2 . (suffix c refers to the solution properties) (Refer chapter 8. Also determine the ratio of power required. ve = 2.θ v OP Q hw 3 / 2 hc 3 / 2 = vw vc . The PI terms of interest are the head coefficient. Q/ωD3 Considering flow coefficient.267 × 10–6 m2/s.22 A pump running at 1450 rpm with impeller diameter of 20 cm is geometrically similar to a pump with 30 cm impeller diameter running at 950 rpm. The discharge of the larger pump at the maximum efficiency was 200 litres/s at a total head of 25m. (g being common) gh1 = gh2 ω 12 D12 ω 2 2 D2 2 ∴ h2 = h1 2 FG ω IJ FG D IJ Hω K H D K 2 1 1 2 ∴ h2 = 25 × LM 1450 OP FG 20 IJ N 950 Q H 30 K P1 3 2 = 25.2 /253/4 = 38.314 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 9. Problem 8.23 A V notch is to be used with utectic calcium chloride solution at 30oC. Dimensional analysis shows (Neglecting surface tension effects). Neglecting the effect of surface tension. Water was used for the test at 20oC.09045 / 25.00 (checks) Specific speed =N Q /H3/4 = 1450 0. Problem 8.468. Q g ∴ 1/ 2 h 5/ 2 =f LM g N 1/ 2 h3 / 2 . 5.09045 × 25. Problem 9.006 × 10–6 m2/s. Density = 1000 kg/m3. denoting the larger machines as 1 and the smaller as 2. 5 P2 ω2 P1 = ω 1 FG IJ FG D IJ = FG 1450 IJ FG 20 IJ H K H D K H 950 K H 30 K 1 = 0.885 m . Density = 1282 kg/m3.45 l/s Considering head coefficient. The flow rate has to be found for various heads.885/0. specific speed = 950 0. Q1 ρ1 h1 = Q2 ρ2 h2 . Determine the discharge and head of the smaller pump at the maximum efficiency conditions.00 = 5.13).8853/4 = 38 (dimensional) For larger pump.468 As efficiencies should be the same. determine the ratio of corresponding heads and mass flow rates of water and the solution at the corresponding heads. ω 1 D13 Q1 = Q2 ω 2 D2 3 ∴ Q2 = Q1 ω 2 D2 3 1450 20 = 200 × 3 950 30 ω 1 D1 2 FG IJ H K 2 3 = 90. vw = 1. power coefficient scale and called flow coefficient (ω ∝ N) (Refer chapter 8.

Qw ∝ ρw D gH /µw and QR ∝ ρR D gH /µr.873 Ratio of mass flow rates = 3.Similitude and Model Testing ∴ 315 v hc = c vw hw FG IJ H K hw 5 / 2 Qw 2/ 3 = LM 2.267 × 10 OP N 1.006 × 10 K GH 2.006 × 10 Q −6 −6 2 / 3 = 1.7 × 10–4 kg/ms.006 × 10 −3 = R × R = = 3. Dimensionless parameters provide 7. should be equal.873 × (1282/1000) = 4. conditions for model testing.24 The discharge Q through an orifice is found to depend on the parameter ρD gH /µ. 2.. The representation of a physical system used to predict the behaviour of the system is called . 5. If stream lines are similar between model and prototype it is called When geometric and dynamic similarities exist then automatically Chapter 9 . µR = 2. Models are generally 4. What should be the ratio of heads for the same flow rate.44 × Qw ρw µ w 1000 2.827 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. µw = 1.006 × 10–3 kg/ms. should be equal. . Models may also be used to predict the effect of 9. 9. Dividing ρ µ QR 923 1. For dynamic similarity ratio of 10. model is used.97 Problem 9. When the prototype is very small 6.71884)5/2 = 3. will exist. Density of refrigerent = 923 kg/m3. in size compared to prototype. to an existing system. For geometric similarity ratio of 8.7 × 10 −4 For the same flow rate ρ w D gH w µw = ρ R D gH R µR ∴ Hw µw ρR × = HR µ R ρw FG H IJ = F 1.1 Fill in the blanks. The system whose behaviour is predicted by the model is called 3.7 × 10 2 −3 −4 × 923 1000 I JK 2 = 11. 1. when surface tension effect is neglected. Determine the ratio of flow rates of water and refrigerant 12 at 20oC under the same head.71884 hc 5 / 2 ∴ Qc = h Qc = c hw Qw F I GH JK 5/ 2 = (1. similarity.

Model 2. To consider compressible flow effects When periodic motion is to be considered similarity is used. Weber 8.4 State correct or incorrect. cannot O Q. 9. In flow with free surface 8. When gravity and inertia forces are important models are used. Very small flow height for model 3. Under kinematic similarity conditions dynamic similarity will result automatically. Forces at corresponding locations of model and prototype 9. Weber. Similarity 7. to have Reynolds and Mach analogy simultane- Wind tunnels are used to have simultaneously Reynlods and Mach analogy. 7. Modifications 6. Strouhal O Q. Prototype 3. Reynolds 4. Geometric similarity will lead to dynamic similarity. Froude 9. number for the model and prototype should number similarity should be used. similarities are used in the case similarity is used in case of incompressible flow. kinematic 10. Froude and Reynolds similarities and similarity is used. Froude 10. Smaller 4. and similarity are used. 9. Froude 6. 2. 2. 4. similarity is used. 6. Webr number similarity is used to study wave drag. number similarity is used. For flow with free surface 10. number similarity is used. 4. When gravity and surface tension are important. In case of same fluid properties it is ously. 1. 1. Impossible 6. When wave resistance is important 9. be maintained simultaneously. 3. Reynolds 5. Reynolds. For incompressible flow through closed ducts 2. similarity is used. For flow around immersed bodies 4. 3. Reynolds and Mach 3. Reynolds. number similarity is used. 11. When viscous and inertia forces are important 5. When the ratio of velocities and accelerations are equal at corresponding locations in the model similarity.2 Fill in the blanks. Dynamic 7. . is because of 6. For flow around immersed bodies of compressible flow. number similarity is used. 9. Mach 4. Reynolds 2. 5. O Q. then 8. For compressible flow through closed ducts 3.3 Fill in the blanks. At high Reynolds numbers the coefficient of drag does not significantly Answers 1. Pressurised 7. For rivers. Geometric similarity will automatically lead to kinematic similarity. vary 10. Linear dimensions of model and prototype 8. number similarity is used. Distorted 2. Froude. Mach 5. Froude 9. For complete similarity in general the be the same. 9.316 Answers Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. Answers 1. Reason for distorted models for rivers etc. harbours etc. For studying wave drag 10. . Mach 11. 1. Froude 8. kinematic similarity. Enlarged/larger 5. . and prototype it is called 7.

( (um/up) = 0. Under dynamically similar conditions the drag on the model was measured as 3. (1. An airship is to operate in air at 20oC and 1 bar at 20 m/s speed. (6. 7 kN) E 9. The temperature and pressure in the wind tunnel are 15oC and 10 atm absolute. Determine the drag on the prototype (539 kPa. Air speed in the tunnel should not exceed 110 m/s to avoid compressibility effect.93 Mpa.2. 219 N) E 9. 317 7.2 m/s) E 9. 5. A model of an automobile of scale 1/5 is tested in water tunnel for obtaining the performance of the prototype. 6.4. 10. Chapter 9 . If at a point the pressure coefficient was –1. To determine the drag a model of dia 50 mm is to be tested in a water tunnel. Determine the drag on the prototype. 3. 12. When surface tension forces prevail Froude number similarity should be used. If the drag force at this condition on the model was 618N. determine the static pressure at the point.21 m/s. If air can be pressurised with temperature remaining at 20oC determine the minimum pressure required.5. Mach number similarity need not be considered for low velocities. Calculate the test speed and estimate the drag on the balloon.78 N. One fifth scale model of an automobile is tested in a towing water tank. Distorted models are used to study river flow. At high Reynolds numbers viscous drag coefficient remains constant.978 N) E 9. For obtaining simultaneously Reynolds number and Mach number similarity pressurised tunnels are used.6. The air temperatures are equal. The prototype has a chord length of 2 m and it is to fly at 15oC and 1 atm. It is found that the coefficient of drag remains constant for the model after speeds of 4 m/s and the drag at this speed was 182 N. If the drag force on the model was 250 N. A model of scale 1/20 is used for tests in a wind tunnel. A 3 m dia weather balloon of spherical shape is to travel at 1. determine the speed in the tunnel. If the prototype is to travel at 27. 43. 0. 6. 8.78 m/s in air at 15oC. Dynamic viscosity is not affected by pressure. Froude number similarity is used to study wave drag.1. the test speed being 75 m/s. Estimate the drag on the prototype when operating at 90 kmph. A torpedo 533 mm dia and 6700 mm long is to travel in water at 28 m/s. A model of 1/5 scale is to be tested in a wind tunnel. Determine the pressure of the tunnel for dynamic similarity. Determine the speed in the wind tunnel and the prototype speed. Assume 20oC in both cases. Answers Correct : 2. 7.4.5 × 106 (based on chord length).Similitude and Model Testing 5. 8 EXERCISE PROBLEMS Note: Property values are not specified. 11. For fluctuating flow Strouhal number similarity should be used. 11. 4. Determine the ratio of speeds of the model and prototype. These should be obtained from tables of properties.345. E 9. Also determine the ratio of drag forces. 9. A dynamically similar model of an airfoil of 1/10 scale was tested in a wind tunnel at zero angle of attack at a Reynoles number of 5. 9. 10. When gravity forces prevail Froude number similarity should be used. 1340 N) E 9. 12 Incorrect : 1.5 m/s. (both 39.3.

Determine the depth of flow in the model. The pressure drop through an elbow of 150 mm diameter is to be determined by test on a model. (2. surface tension and viscous effects are important determine the viscosity and surface tension scales. 0. 1. When tested at 1 atm and 15oC at a speed of 89.10. E 9.6 m/s. A model to have Froude number similarity is to be designed. Determine the velocity of operation of the boat for similarity.1 m/s. E 9. (i) In case a water tunnel is used determine the velocity. The diameter of the impeller is to be 1 m.1 m3/s of water at 200 m head when running at 1200 rpm. A model 1/50 scale of a boat when tested at 1 m/s in water gave a wave resistance of 0. Determine the operating head and discharge of the model.16. A laboratory model of 1/5 th scale is proposed for testing. 2500 N. The power requirement of a tractor tailor with a frontal area of 0. The ship is to designed to cruise at 18 knots (knot = 1852 m).318 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 9. The discharge scale is 1/1000.75 kW) . In this case the model size is to be 0.062 m/s. If the pressure drop in the model was measured as 15 kpa.4 m/s is to be estimated by a model to be tested in a wind tunnel. It is proposed to design a centrifugal pump to deliver 4. determine the velocity required.5 mm. Assume same temperature in all cases. Water flows at the rate of 40 m3/s through a spillway of a dam. the drag on the model was measured as 2.5 N.15. The drag on a solid body having a characteristic length of 2. Determine the pressure drop in the prototype.02 N. Oil flows over a submerged body horizontally at a velocity 15 m/s. An enlarged model is used with 8:1 scale in a water towing tank. predict the drag force on the prototype. Determine the dimeter of the model. F = 2666 N) ematic viscosity of water = 1. The scale for the model is 1/4. E 9.46 kN.2 m is to be used in an atmospheric pressure wind tunnel. If a model of 1. E 9. A 1/50 scale model of a ship is tested in a towing tank to determine the wave drag on the ships hull. Assume a temperature 20oC in all cases. Kin(0. (1.14 × 10–6 m2/s.0328 m3/s) E 9. Determine the flow rate of the model. Assume both model and prototype operate at the same efficiency. 17. The property values for oil are: kinematic viscosity = 3. Also determine the ratio between model and prototype drag. density = 833 kg/m3. The width of the spillway is 65 m.14. Determine the drag on the prototype and the power required. E 9. The model is to be tested with water at 20oC and the velocity is limited to 10 m/s. The model is to run at the same speed. E 9. Determine the velocity of the model to achieve dynamic similarity. In case a pressurised tunnel with a pressure of 8 atm is used. 55.45 × 10–5 m2/s. If inertial gravitational. (8 m.24 × 10–3 m3/s) E 9. (3.1 kW) E 9. In a flow the geometric scale is 1/4.9. Also determine the drag force and the power required for cruising the boat. The flow through the elbow is water at 20oC.5 m width is proposed for laboratory test.31m/s. If drag force on the model is 3.25 × 105) E 9. An open channel of rectangular section of width 7 m carries water to a depth of 1 m and a flow rate of 2 m3/s. determine the air velocity required. The characteristic length of the unit is 7 m.13.12.6 m.8.11. The drag characteristics of a new design of an automobile at 32 kmph and 144 kmph. Determine the velocity with which the model is to be towed.46 kN.625 m2 when travelling at 22.7. Neglect viscous drag.17. moving with a velocity of 15 m/s through water is to be estimated by a study on a model having 50 times this characteristic length. Also determine the ratio of drag values on model and prototype. (ii) Repeat the above in case a wind tunnel is used. The flow velocity is 5 m/s. A model of 1. The density scale is 1. (7. speeds are to be estimated.

Non dimensioalise the equation and obtain the diminsionless groups that characterise the flow.96 m3/s) Chapter 9 .24 kg/m3.35 m3/s. Non dimensionlise the equation and obtain dimensionless groups to characetrise the flow.27. Determine the velocity for dynamic similarity.001 kg/ms. tested in glycerin at a velocity of 30 cm/s measured a drag of 1. If the flow rate over the model was 1. 0.006 × 10–6 m2/s.22. Non dimensionless the equation and obtain dimensionless groups to characterise the flow.19. E 9. ρw = 998 kg/m3. µw = 1. Kinematic viscosity of water = 0.1 × 10–6 kg/ms. determine the pressure in the wind tunnel in atm. E 9. Viscosity of air = 18. u +v =– +v 2 . Density of air = 17.5 kg/ms. Density = 4. If a model 3 m length is to satisfy both Reynolds number and Froude number similarity calculate the kinematic viscosity of the fluid to be used with the model.28. Calculate the model discharges. when moved at 1.478 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the ratio of velocities and discharges.26. A ship 180 m long is to cruise at a speed of 40 kmph in sea water whose viscosity is 1. A large veturimeter is calibrated using 1/10 scale model.31 × 10–7 N) E 9. The flow rate over a spillway of a dam was 150 m3/s. 7. E 9. E 9. If the prototype discharges 3000 m3/s. Determine the flow rate of air at 80oC in a 50 mm diameter pipe that will give dynamic similarity for flow of 50 l/s of water at 60oC in a 400 mm diameter pipe if the pressure of air is 4 bar.5 MN/m2 and temperature of 20oC. If the temperatures are the same. The slope of the free surface of a steady wave in one dimensional flow in a shallow liquid layer is described by the equation below. Determine the linear scale. ∂h u ∂u .Similitude and Model Testing 319 E 9. ρg =1263 kg/m3 (2. A model of an aeroplane of 1/20 size is to be tested in a pressurised wind tunnel at the same speed as that of the prototype to get over compressibility effects.14 × 10–6 kg/ms.18. One dimensional unsteady flow in a thin liquid layer is described by the equation below.21. An enlarged model of 3:1 scale was tested in a pressurised wind tunnel at a pressure of 1. The drag force on a sphere submerged in water at 20oC.23.53 cm/s.5 m/s was measured as 10 N. 1 ∂P ∂ 2u ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u = 0. Steady incompressible two dimensional flow. Dynamic viscosity of air = 20. determine the force at the corresponding point on the prototype.25. Assume dynamic similarity conditions. A small insect of about 1 mm dia moves slowly in sea water. The aeroplane is to be operated at 0. (1/5. If the force at a certain point on the model was measured as 5 N.20. E 9.8 atm. Determine the speed of travel of the insect and also the drag force on it. g ∂x ∂x E 9. + ρ ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x E 9. neglecting gravity is described by the equations below.2 cp and specfic weight is 10 kN/m3. ∂u ∂u ∂h +u =– g . Also determine the drag force on the model. 1/3125. ∂τ ∂x ∂x E 9. If the same fluid conditions are used for the model and prototype determine the discharge ratio.24. =– . (1/10) E 9. µw = 0. Kinematic viscosity of water = 1. To determine the drag an enlarged model of 100:1 scale. Comment on the results.3 N. The scale ratio between model and prototype of a spillway is 1/25.83 kg/m3. Determine the condition for dimensional similarity.

2 N) E 9. E 9.320 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 9. Determine the speed ratio and power ratio. Total pressure 63. Determine the ratio of drag coefficients of prototype to model when tested at 1/3 rd density of air. m2 . determine the ratio of kinematic viscosity of fluids to be used with the model and prototype. For the prototype the skin resistance is given by 4. Determine the total resistance of the ship in sea water at speeds corresponding to that of the model. The diameter of the model is 1 m and when dragged at 1. Determine the heads necessary and the corresponding discharge of the prototype weir.2 kW) wetted area is to be estimated. 1. measured a total resistance of 46.5 mm of wate column. Determine the expected drag on the prototype if the water temperature was 15oC.36.22 um1.2 m/s.85 and has a value of 43 N/m2. Determine the prototype wave resistance. (25:1) E 9. but at the same Mach number.5 l/s.2015 × 10–6 m2/s (42.95 up1. A ship model of scale 1/50 showed a wave resistance of 30 N at its design speed.3 N. Assuming same conditions for the air determine the volume delivered. In model testing if both Reynolds number similarity and Froude number similarity should be simultaneously maintained.48) flow rate of 15 m3/s. Power absorbed : 1.12 m. The skin resistance of a ship model is given by 5. Density of the sea water is 1025 kg/m3 E 9. The drag on a ship 122 m long and with 2135 towed at 1. [vm/vp = (geometric scale)1. the geometric scale being 1/5. A turbine model of 1/5 scale uses 2 m3/s of water.32. 13.205 kg/m3vw = 1.34. The skin resistance was separately analyzed and found to follow the law F = c um1.67.c.06 × 10–6 m2/s. A centrifugal fan in operation when tested gave the following data. 3. Volume delivered : 2. When tested at 3 m/s.75 kW.8 mm w.9 N/m2.29.37.31.2 m/s measured a drag of 200 N. A model E 9.51 m/s. The prototype turbine has to work with a (16.2 m. (0. 142. The prototype weir is to discharge under a head of 1. E 9.2 N. ρa= 1.32 m3/s.30. A scale model of 1/10 size is proposed and the available flow is 42. Determine the corresponding speed of the ship and the (7. A geometrically similar fan of 1/4 size is to be used running at twice the speed of the operating fan.75 m3/s. The performance of a spherical balloon to be used in air at 20oC is to be obtained by a test in a water tank using 1/3 scale model.5 ] E 9.33. 6530 kW) power needed to propel it. the skin resistance was 14.9.44 m3/s) E 9.95 N/m2.3 m/s through fresh water had a total drag resistance at 15.35. Density of sea water = 1025 kg/m3. va = 15. (2.33 Nm2 and the ships skin resistance is estimated to follow the law F = c us1. total pressure and power absorbed. The model of 1/20 scale with wetted area of 4 m2 when towed in fresh water at 1.

The development of boundary layer theory enabled the analysis of such flows to be fairly easy. The adjacent layer is retarded to a lesser extent and this proceeds to layers more removed from the surface at rest. The velocity gradient is steepest at the interface and the shear is also highest at the interface. This was supported by measurement of velocity. Beyond this layer the effect of viscosity was found negligible. then this layer comes to rest. The theory was proposed by Ludwig Prandtl in 1904. The determination of the velocity variation along the layer enables the determination 321 . When these fluids flow over surfaces. “no slip condition” prevails. one boundary is provided by the solid surface. 10. This region can be dealt with as flow of inviscid fluid or ideal fluid. The equations for the analysis of the complete flow field has been formulated by Navier and Stokes. Work is to be done to overcome the force. But solutions for these equations for practical boundary conditions were not available. For a long time empirical equations based on experimental results were used in designs. He observed that in the case of real fluids velocity gradient existed only in a thin layer near the surface. Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 10. A velocity gradient forms leading to shear force being exerted over the layers. The need for the other boundary is met by edge of the boundary layer determined by the thickness. The flow field now can be divided into two regions. one in which velocity gradient and shear existed and another where viscous effects are negligible. The layer near the surface has to have the same velocity as the surface. instead of the field extending to long distances for the determination of forces exerted on the surface by the fluid flowing over it.0 INTRODUCTION Ideal inviscid fluids do not exert any force on the surfaces over which they flow. In the study of flow over immersed bodies like aircraft wings the analysis can be limited to the boundary layer. Real fluids have viscosity. If the surface is at rest. This layer was named as boundary layer.1 BOUNDARY LAYER THICKNESS In the solution of the basic equations describing the flow namely continuity and momentum equations of the boundary layer.

As the distance for this condition is difficult to determine.1. 10.1. This proceeds farther till the velocity equals the free stream velocity. The next layer is retarded to a lower extent. 10.1 Formation of boundary layer over flat plate The velocity is uniform in the flow field having a value of u∞. Momentum transfer resulting in the retarding force is by molecular diffusion .1.2 Continuity Equation The flow of fluid over a flat plate in a large flow field is shown in Fig. This method is more versatile and results in easier solution of problems. and the learner should become familiar with such softwares if he is to be current. Approximate method : Formulation of integral equations describing the flow and solving them using an assumed velocity variation satisfying the boundary conditions. This is made possible by these two boundary conditions. 1.99 times the free stream velocity. Once the velocity gradient at the surface is determined.1.1) This leads to the determination of resistance due to the flow.322 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery of velocity gradient. The difference between the results obtained by the exact method and by the integral method is found to be within acceptable limits. 10.1. Exact method : Solution of the differential equations describing the flow using the boundary conditions. This is because the viscosity effect is felt at layers more and more removed from the surface. The layer near the surface is retarded to rest or zero. uµ uµ uµ Laminar Transition Turbulent Figure 10.1. At the earlier stages the flow is regular and layers keep their position and there is no macroscopic mixing between layers. There are two approaches for the analysis of the problem. the boundary layer thickness is arbitrarily defined as the distance from the surface where the velocity is 0. It is found that this method can be easily applied only to simple geometries. velocity. At present several computer softwares are available to solve almost any type of boundary. the shear stress can be determined using the equation τ=µ du dy (10.1 Flow Over Flat Plate The simplest situation that can be analyzed is the flow over a flat plate placed parallel to uniform flow velocity in a large flow field. 2. Boundary layer begins to form from the leading edge and increases in thickness as the flow proceeds. The flow over the top surface alone is shown in the figure.

is – ve and so ∂v should be positive. If u decreases. The algebraic sum of x and y directional flows is zero. An enlarged sectional view of the element is shown in Fig. Also for incompressible flow density is constant.1. Unit time and unit Z distance are assumed. Under steady flow conditions the net mass flow across the element should be zero. rvdx + ¶ (rvdx) dy ¶y A r u dy r v dx A dx B rudy + dy ¶ (rudy) dx ¶x B Figure 10. 10.2) This is known as continuity equation for steady incompressible flow. As flow proceeds farther. For the formulation of the differential equations an element of size dx × dy × 1 is considered. Time is not indicated in the equations. ρudy × 1 = ρudy Flow out across face BB. Viscous effects prevail over inertial effects in such a layer. The density of the fluid is ρ.1. Viscous forces maintain orderly flow.1. inertial effects begin to prevail over viscous forces resulting in macroscopic mixing between layers. the net mass flow should equal the change of mass in the elemental volume considered. ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y b g dxdy (10. Continuity equation is obtained using the principle of conservation of mass. (ii) flow is steady. The values of velocities are indicated in the figure. Flow in across face AA.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 323 between layers.2 Enlarged view of element in the boundary layer The assumptions are (i) flow is incompressible or density remains constant. ρudy + Net flow in the x direction = ∂ (ρudy) dx ∂x ∂ ρu ∂x b g dxdy ∂ ρv Similarly the net flow in the y direction is given by Hence ∂x Under steady conditions the sum is zero. Under unsteady conditions. ∂y ∂u ∂x Chapter 10 . This type of flow is called laminar flow and analysis of such flow is somewhat simpler. (iii) there is no pressure gradient in the boundary layer.2. Higher rates of momentum transfer takes place in such a flow. This type of flow is called turbulent flow.

3. the net x directional momentum flow is ∂ ∂u ∂u [u(ρv)dy]dx = ρ dxdy u +v ∂y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q LM N OP Q Summing up.3 Momentum Equation Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The equation is based on Newton’s second law of motion. The flows are indicated on the figure unit time and unit Z distance are assumed. the net momentum flow is ρ dxdy u LM MN ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v +v + u + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y R L S MN T OPUOP QVPQ W From continuity equation.324 10.1. the net flow is (as ρ is constant) (u2 is written as u × u) ∂u ∂u ∂ +u [u(ρu)dy]dx = ρ dxdy u ∂x ∂x ∂x Considering the flow in the y direction. the second set in the above equation is zero. 10. Here x directional forces are considered with reference to the element shown in Fig.1. Hence net x directional momentum flow is LMu ∂u + v ∂u OP ρ dxdy N ∂x ∂y Q .1.3 Momentum analysis Consider the momentum flow in the x direction : Across AA momentum flow = u (ρu) dy Across BB momentum flow = u (ρu) dy + ∂ {u(ρu) dy} dx ∂x Taking the difference. The density of the fluid is ρ ¶u ¶ ¶u dx + m dydx ¶y ¶y ¶x A r dx ¶u dy ¶y ¶v dy ¶y m u+ v+ B r dy u+ ¶u dx ¶x u+ ¶u dx ¶x u (ru) dy dy A u (rv) dx dx m ¶u dx ¶x B Figure 10. The net force on the surface of the element should equal the rate of change of momentum of the fluid flowing through the element.

4 Solution for Velocity Profile The continuity and momentum equations should be simultaneously solved to obtain the velocity profile. The boundary conditions are (i) at y = 0. (ii) at y = δ. Only surface forces due to viscosity is considered. and simplifying.6) the boundary conditions with the new variables are at y = 0.5) d3 f d2 f +f =0 dη3 dη2 ∂f = 0. u∞ and f (η) = ψ/ vxu∞ xv η=y (10. η = 0 and Chapter 10 The two new vaiables introduced were . at y = ∞.1. 1 ∂P has to added on the ρ ∂x 10. ∂u =0 ∂y The solution for these equations was obtained by Blasius in 1908 first by converting the partial differential equation into a third order ordinary differential equation and then using numerical method.1. noting v = µ/ρ ∂y 2 (10. At the bottom surface shear At the top surface shear = dx µ = dx µ ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂ µ dx dy + ∂y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q The net shear on the element is µ Εquating. v is also called as momentum diffusivity.3) ∂2u ∂u ∂u +v = v 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x This is known as momentum equation for the boundary layer. η = ∞ and ∂η ∂f =1 ∂η (10. u = u∞. u = 0.1.1. u ∂2u dxdy .4) where ψ is the stream function giving ∂ψ ∂x The resulting ordinary differential equation is u= and v = – 2 ∂ψ ∂y (10.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 325 It was assumed that no body forces or pressure forces are present.1. In case of pressure gradient along the flow – RHS.

10.4.0 3.326 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The results where plotted with u/u∞ as the dependent vairable and y u∞ or (η) as the vx independent variable resulting in a plot as shown in Fig. is obtained as 0.10) Not that these results are obtained for laminar flow over flat plate for Re < 5 × 105.5 (10.e.1.4 Velocity distribution in boundary layer u∞ where u/u∞ = 0.9) Defining skin friction coefficient.1.0 2. The value of y i. Velocity gradient at the surface is of greater importance because it decides the shear on the surface at y = 0 ∂u τw = µ equals the value of µu∞ ∂y d2 f .332 ρu∞ 2 Cfx = 0.5 L z 0 (10.0 Slope 0.99 is found to be 5. .5 4.0 0. the value of . as τw/(1/2)ρu∞2.1. at η = 0 u∞ / vx dη 2 d2 f From the solution.332 u/uµ 1.1.8) (10.0 5.328 ReL–0.664 Rex–0. or δ = 5 u∞ / vx = 5x u∞ x / v 5x = 5x Rex–0.99 1. This y value is taken as the vx boundary layer thickness δ as per the definition of thickness of boundary layer.1. The significance of Reynolds number has already been explained under dimensional analysis as the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. at η = 0.1.7) Rex This equation was more precisely solved in 1983 by Howarth.332 dη2 Substituting this value and replacing v by µ/ρ and simplifying τw = 0. Cfx. u/uµ = 0. δ u∞ / vx = 5.0 (y/x) Rx Figure 10. we obtain The average value over length L can be obtained by using 1 Cf = C fx dx = 1.5 L Rex (10.

v = 16 × 10–6 m2/s.2 m. (consider unit plate width) H Flow through face ab = z 0 ρudy Chapter 10 . Cfx = 1. 10. Also determine the skin friction coefficients. 0. CfL = 1. mm 4.5.5 m and 0.36 × 10–3 The values for other distances are tabulated below. ρ = 1. 10.006 × 10–3 kg/ms.325 mm. Example 10.2 0. Also note that because of higher viscosity the friction values are higher.93 10. Water at 20° C flows over a flat plate at a free stream velocity of 0. at these locations.67 × 10–3 CfL 6.59 × 105 δ.8 m from leading edge.000 6.5625 × 105 < 5 × 105 ∴ Laminar v 16 × 10−6 δ = 6. m 0. The property values for air at 30 °C are obtained from tables.56 × 105 2.1.8 m. The values calculated using equation 10.63 × 105 1. δ = 5x Rex–0. There is no flow through the face ad.03 Cfx 3.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 327 Example 10.5 ux = = 1.006 × 10–6 m2/s.1. ∴ Rex = 5 × 0.32 × 10–3 3.63 × 10–6 kg/ms.165 kg/m3.5 m.40 × 105 0. CfL = 3. 9 and 10 are tabulated below: Length.2 0. momentum etc.5 × 105 δ.000 Cfx 2.5 Consider 0.5 Integral Method In this case flow rate.33 × 10–3 CfL 5. µ = 18.5 and 0.1.2.8 Re 0. both local and average. Determine the boundary layer thickness and friction factors at lengths 0.5 0.325 8.2 m/s. The control volume chosen is shown in Fig. Air at 30° C flows over a flat plate at a free stream velocity of 5m/s.33 × 10–3 Note the same trends as in Example 1.664 Rex–0. The value of kinematic viscosity = 1.21 × 10–3 3.66 × 10–3 1.5.02 7.7.36 × 10–3 2.99 × 105 1.66 × 10–3 Note that as distance increases the local skin friction factor decreases and the average value is higher than the local value.5.328 ReL–0.5 0. in the boundary layer are determined using integration over the thickness of the boundary layer. µ = 1.11× 10–3 1.66 × 10–3 4. Distance. m 0.1.2.33 × 10–3 2.8 Re 0. mm 5. Cfx = 0.68 × 10–3 1.68 × 10–3. Determine the boundary layer thickness at distances 0. 0. Also note that the boundary layer thickness increases along the flow direction.

Equating dy (10. the integration limit can be taken as δ instead of H. the net momentum flow through the control volume = d dx LM MN H z 0 (u − u∞ ) ρ udy dx OP PQ . (1) As (u – u∞) is zero beyond δ. Considering x directional momentum.. The velocity gradient at face bc is zero. Momentum flow through ab = d Momentum flow through cd = uρ udy + dx 0 H z z 0 H uρ udy LM MN H z 0 uρ udy dx OP PQ The mass crossing the boundary bc has a velocity of u∞ d Momentum flow through bc = – dx LM MN H z 0 u∞ ρ udy dx OP PQ Summing up.1.328 H Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Flow through face cd = z 0 d ρudy + dx b H LM MN H z 0 ρudy dx OP PQ c dy d y a dx d Figure 10. It is assumed that there is no pressure gradient in the boundary layer.5 Boundary layer element for integral analysis The difference should flow through bc as no flow is possible across ad.11) y=0 d dx LM MN z 0 δ (u∞ − u) ρ udy = µ OP PQ du dy . d ∴ Flow through face bc = – dx LM MN H z 0 ρudy dx OP PQ This is the result of continuity principle. So the only force on the control volume surface is – τw dx = – µ du dx..1.

1.12 d u∞ 2 dx R | S | T z 0 δ LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ OP × LM1 − 3 NM 2 δ 2 H δ K QP NM 2 3 y 1 y + δ 2 δ FG H | IJ OP dyU = v du K QP V dy y = 0 | W 3 Carrying out the integration.1.5 x 2 2 × 4. 3 y 1 y u = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ LM OP .1.1. The boundary conditions are at y = 0.5 (10.1. δ = 0.64. gives d 39 2 3 u u∞ δ = v ∞ dx 280 2 δ LM N OP Q (10.5 = 0. u = u∞ and Also d 2u = 0 at y = 0 (constant pressure gradient) dy2 Equation 10.12 can be solved if a velocity profile satisfying the boundary conditions is assumed.64x/Re 3µu∞ 2 Re 0.1. Out of the popularly used profiles the results obtained from a cubic profile given below is in closer agreement with the exact solution.12) y=0 This is called momentum integral equation.646/Re 1/2 x x 4.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces or 329 d u2 dx ∞ LM MN z 0 δ du u u dy = v 1− dy u∞ u∞ du =0 dy FG H IJ K OP PQ (10. at y = δ.15) This solution is closer to the exact solution where the constant is 5 instead of 4.13) Substituting in equation 10.64x/Rex0. The value of Cfx can be determined using the assumed velocity profile. Separating variables and integrating dx 2 δ 280 0 0 δ = 4. u = 0. This leads to .1.64 ρu∞ x (10. N Q 3 ∴ du dy y=0 = u∞ LM 3 OP N 2δ Q ∴ τw = µu∞ LM 3 OP N 2δ Q Cf = τw /{(1/2) ρ u∞2} = ∴ Cfx = Cfx = 3µu∞ 2 1/2 2 2δ ρu∞ As δ = 4.16) Chapter 10 z z δ dδ = x x 140 v dx 13 u∞ at x = 0. 3 y 1 y u = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ LM OP N Q 3 (10.14) or 39 2 dδ 3 u∞ = v u∞ .64 x v u∞ x = 4.64 × x ρu∞ µ 3 Re 0.

6. 10. The displacement thickness will equal δ/3. Displacement thickness δd is the distance by which the solid boundary would have to be displaced in a frictionless flow to give the same mass flow rate as with the boundary layer. 10.1. with boundary conditions. Analysis using linear and sine function profiles illustrated under solved problems. the flow in the boundary layer is reduced due to the reduction in velocity which is the result of viscous forces.1.664/Rex1/2 by exact solution.330 Compared to 0.1. A thickness δd can be defined by equating the reduction in flow to a uniform flow with velocity u∞ or ρu∞δd δd = z 0 δ (u∞ − u) dy = u∞ z FGH 0 δ 1− u dy u∞ I JK (10. The can be shown by assuming polynomial variation for velocity u in the boundary layer. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Due to flexibility this method becomes more versatile as compared to the exact method. u = a + by + cy2.6 Displacement Thickness Compared to the thickness δ in free stream.1. (ii) u = u∞ at y = δ and (du/dy) = 0 at y = δ The first condition gives a = 0 and from the other two conditions c = – u∞ /δ2 and b = 2u∞ /δ .6 Displacement thickness The reduction in volume flow is given by (for unit width) = z 0 δ ρ (u∞ − u) dy If viscous forces were absent the velocity all through the thickness δ will be equal to u∞.17) Displacing the boundary by a distance δd would pass the flow in the boundary layer at free stream velocity. Boundary layer u¥ u¥ d u dd Figure 10. Assuming (as there are three boundary conditions) the distribution. In the absence of the boundary layer the flow rate that would pass through the thickness δ will be higher. The idea is illustrated in Fig. (i) u = 0 at y = 0.

03 δd. In the case of example 10. ∴ V = 1. m/s 1.2.1 air flow at 30 °C with free stream velocity 5 m/s. Also determine the flow out of the boundary layer in the y direction and the average values of velocity v in these sections. mm 1.673 2. mm 5.2 = 0.333 × 5 × 10–3 m3/s.67 × 10–3 1.0333 0. (unit width is assumed) Distance 0.1.35 × 10–4 5.84 × 10–3 10.1.108 × 5 × 10–3 2. For other lengths values are tabulated above.2 flow is 1. Using data of problems Examples 10. Substituting in (10.02 7.343 flow rate. The deficit flow should go out of the top of the boundary layer.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces Hence the profile is u y y =2 − δ δ u∞ 331 (10. m3/s 1. Distance.8 δ. δd = z 0 δ F 1 − u I dy = R1 − 2 y + FG y IJ U dy = LM y − y S δ H δKV N δ GH u JK T W ∞ z 0 δ 2 1 y3 − 3 δ2 OP Q δ = (1/3)δ 0 i. water flow the values are given below.69 × 10–4 V(0–x). mm 4.29 × 10–4 6. The deficit flow at any thin layer at y of thickness dy is (for unit width) ρ (u∞ – u) dy Chapter 10 .2 0. m3/s 3. m 0.e.93 10.333 2.0 6.18) LM OP N Q 2 Note that this is different from the profile previously assumed for the solution of momentum integral equation. assuming 1 m width ∴ between x = 0 and x = 0. this constant will be different.0167 The volume flow out (deficit flow) equals δd u∞ × width. V = volume/area.325 8. Area = 1 × 0. there is a reduction in momentum flow through the boundary layer as compared to the momentum flow in a thickness δ at free stream velocity.06 × 10–3 0. mm 1.7 Momentum Thickness Similar to the conditions discussed in section (10.5 0. But this is the value nearer the Blasius solution. Example 10.00 δd.3. The thickness which at free stream velocity will have the same momentum flow as the dificit flow is called momentum thickness. δd = δ/3 or displacement thickness equals one third of hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness.0333 m/s.643 3.333 × 5 × 10–3 2.5 0..333 × 5 × 10–3/0.108 2.17) and integrating.0211 0.1. From example 10. In case other profiles are adopted.6) for displacement thickness.1 and 10.666 Volume flow.2 m2. The average velocity.2 determine the displacement thickness at the various locations.1.666 × 5 × 10–3 V(0–x). m/s 0.8 δ.2 0.

1.19 and simplyifying 2 3 4 δm = LM y OP − LM y OP OP dy N δ Q N δ Q QP 5 1 2 F 1 IJ δ δ=G = δ− δ+δ− δ= H 7.1.7 Momentum thickness The value of momentum thickness is generally taken as 1/7th of boundary layer thickness in laminar flow.5 K 3 5 15 z 0 δ LM2 y − 5 L y O NM δ MN δ PQ +4 10. then u y y =2 − δ δ u∞ LM OP N Q 2 substituting in 10.2 TURBULENT FLOW As flow preceeds farther along the flat plate. inertia forces begin to prevail and viscous forces are unable to keep the flow in an orderly way. As inertia force increases Reynolds number increases and the flow becomes turbulent.19) The concept of reduction in momentum is shown in Fig.1. . Generally the limiting Reynolds number for laminar flow over flat plate is taken as 5 × 105 (for internal flow the critical Reynolds number is 2000). Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. 10.7.1. For example if the velocity profiles as in the previous article is used. δm ρu∞ u∞ = δm = z LM z MN 0 δ 0 δ ρu (u∞ − u) dy u u − u∞ u∞ FG IJ OP dy = H K PQ 2 z 0 δ u u dy 1− u∞ u∞ LM N OP Q (10. Boundary layer u0 u Deficit momentum A dm Figure 10. The value will vary with the assumption about velocity distribution.332 Momentum for this flow is ρu (u∞ – u) dy Hence the deficit momentum = δ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery z 0 ρu (u∞ − u) dy Considering δm as momentum thickness.

22 = 0.2 a) (10.3) (10.2.381x/ReL0.2) – (10256/ReL) The friction coefficient is obtianed as Cfx = 0.0594/Re0.0 mm (about 1/5th) δd = δ/7 = 0.0269 m or 26.2.37 mm. Assume 1/7th power law and determine the boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness.664/Re0.2 m long. . However it is too cmplex for use with integral method at our level of discussion.9 mm δd = z δ 0 FG 1 − u IJ dy = H uK ∞ 2 z δ 0 F 1 − F y I I dy = LM y − 7 y GH GH δ JK JK MM 8 δ NM 1/7 1+ 1 ∂ 7 1/ 7 OP PP QP = 1 δ 8 0 δdL = 26. The velocity at any location at any time.2 × 1.2 for combined laminar turbulent flow CfL = 0. having different distributions at different heights is available.1. δL = (0.72 mm.5 = 0.9/8 = 3.2. Cf = In case laminar flow correlations were used: δ = 5x/Re0. u is the average over time and u′ is the fluctuating component.1) Substituting in the integral momentum equation 10.4) Re = δL = 0.2 = = 1.2 = 0. Cf = 0.4. The flow is steady as u′ is constant at any location.40 N/m2 The boundary layer is thicker and shear stress is higher in turbulent flow. An accurate velocity profile known as universal velocity profile. u y = δ u∞ FG IJ H K 1/7 (10.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 333 Turbulent flow is characterized by the variation of velocity with time at any location.55 × 10–4 τ = 5. Water flows at a velocity of 1. Chapter 10 v = 1.2.5 × 1000 × 1.382x/ReL0.006 × 10–6 m2/s.005 m or 0.2. boundary layer thickness is obtained as δ = 0.5 = 5.22 = 2. Compare the values with values calculated using laminar flow correlations.2.55 × 10–4 × 0.003488/2) × 1000 × 1.2 – 1742ReL–1 Displacement thickness is obtained as δd = δ/8 Example 10.2) (10.382 x/Rex0. can be represented by u = u + u′ where u is the instantaneous velocity. ux 1. (10.2 m/s over a flat plate 1. One seventh power law has been adopted as a suitable velocity distribution for turbulent flow.0594/Rex0.074Re–0.2 = 0.43 × 106 > 5 × 105 So the flow is turbulent v 1006 × 10−6 .51 N/m2 5.2 For combined laminar and turbulent flow.003488 τw = Cf (1/2) ρ u∞ = (0.

1. The body will experience a force in such a situation.3. The wall shear cannot be zero.3. the force is parallel to the surface. Simple analytical solutions are not available to determine exactly at what conditions separation will occur. This is shown in Fig. there is a change in flow area due to the obstruction and hence an adverse pressure gradient may be produced. then separation will occur. Viscous forces exist in such flows. Experimental results are used to predict such conditions.334 10. In the case of incompressible flow in a nozzle a favorable pressure gradient exists.3.. the momentum near the surface is high compared to laminar flow. du dy y=0 cannot be zero. Hence at y = 0. The increase in area along the flow causes a pressure rise.3 FLOW SEPARATION IN BOUNDARY LAYERS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Boundary layer is formed in the case of flow of real fluids. airfoils etc. Hence turbulent layer is able to resist separation better than laminar layer. This means that the velocity gradient at the wall cannot be zero. . An example is subsonic diffuser. Such a pressure gradient is called adverse pressure gradient.. Stage I ¶P <0 ¶x II ¶P =0 ¶x ¶P >0 ¶x Diverging section III d Separation point Figure 10. separation can occur if the rate of area increase is large. 10. cylinders. Separation of flow is said to occur when the direction of the flow velocity near the surface is opposed to the direction of the free stream velocity.1 Flow Around Immersed Bodies – Drag and Lift When fluid flows around a body or the body moves in a fluid there is a relative motion between the fluid and the body. blunt bodies. which means (du/dy) ≤ 0. The shear stress at the wall is given by τw = µ du dy . In turbulent flow.1 Flow separation If (dp/dx) increases to the extent that it can overcome the shear near the surface. In the case of flow over spheres. In the direction of flow the pressure increases. In the case of diverging section of a diffuser. the pressure downstream of flow is higher compared to the pressure upstream. Separation will not occur in such flows. 10. ie. In the case of a flat plate positioned parallel to the direction of the flow. Such a situation does not arise when there is no pressure gradient opposed to the flow direction.

004.5) (10. then CD = f (Re. Determination of these forces is very important in many applications. .2 Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag Drag is the component of force acting parallel to the direction of motion.3. The component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag force FD and the component perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift force.3.2 For ReL up to 109.002 to 0.3.8) For the range 5 × 105 > Re < 109 CD = 0.664/Rex0. Fr) If compressibility effect is to be considered CD = f (Re. the pressure force.3.3. in laminar flow CD = 1.328/ReL0.3. an obvious example being aircraft wings.2) This applies to viscous drag only.5 In turbulent flow in the range 5 × 105 > Re < 107 CD = 0. the force will neither be paraller nor perpendicular to the surface.074/ ReL0.58 − (10.3.3) Friction coefficient over flat plate in laminar flow. In case wave drag is encountered. The former may be called shear force and the other. 10. at a location was defined by Cfx = τw /(1/2) ρ A V2 = 0.5.9) The values of CD for laminar flow is in the range 0. it is seen that CD = f (Re). M) (10. For a flat plate of length L.074 Re 0.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 335 But generally in the case of blunt bodies. So experimentally measured coefficients are used to compute drag and lift.4) Chapter 10 (10. Using the method of dimensional analysis the drage force can be related to flow Reynolds number by FD = f (Re) ρ AV 2 For generality velocity is indicated as V (10. FL. Simple analytical methods are found to be insufficient for the determination of such forces.1) Defining coefficient of drag as the ratio of drag to dynamic pressure. The force can be resolved into two components one parallel to the flow and the other perpendicular to the flow. CD = (1 / 2) ρ AV 2 FD (10.6) (10.3. an empirical correlation due to Schlichting is CD = 0.58 For combined laminar and turbulent flow in the range 5 × 105 > Re < 107 CD = 0.3.3.455 (log Re L ) 2. Over a given length the average value is obtained as twice this value.2 L − 1740 Re L 1610 Re L (10.7) (10.455/(log ReL)2.

2 . A drag chute is used to slowdown a car with a mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 m/s.3.154 × 106 N ∴ Power = FD u = 0.1 m2.8 m diameter and drag coefficient is 1. The drag is then mainly due to pressure difference between the faces.5.2 Density of air = 1. The value of coefficient of drag for the car is 0. Determine the power required to overcome the skin friction.05 1.3. Density 1025 kg/m3 Re = 5 × 140/1.719 × 10–3 FD = CD A(1/2) ρu2 = (1. A ship having a wetted perimeter of 50 m and length of 140 m is to travel at 5 m/s.20 0.3.154 × 106 × 5 = 0. So it is called pressure drag.77 × 106 W = 0. The total drag force at any instant for the car and the chute is given by (subscript C refers to car and P refers to parachute) FD = 1 ρu2 [CDC AC + CDP AP] and this force acts to decelerate the car. Example 10. Assume kinematic viscosity v = 1. So the equation applicable is 10.77 MW 10. In the case of airfoils the plan area is the basis for drag coefficient.2 kg/m3.42 1. like a plate or a disk. Also determine the time for the speed to reach 20 m/s.58 − 1610 0.5 × 109.18 1.336 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 10.1 below. The drag coefficient is based on the frontal area (or projected area) of the object.32 and frontal area is 1.38 It may be seen that the coefficient of pressure drag is independent of Reynolds number.20 1.6. These are applicable for Re > 103.7179 × 10–3) (1/2) × 140 × 50 × 1025 × 52 N = 0.17 1.3 Pressure Drag When flow is perpendicular to blunt objects.4 × 10–6 = 0.4 × 10–6 m2/s. Table 10.3. The drag coefficient for same geometries are shown in Table 10.455 (log 0. The chute is of 1.9 CD = 0. Determine the speed after 50 secs. shear does not contribute to drag force.1 Drag coefficients for various shapes Shape Square plate Rectangle 1:5 Cube Disk Hemisphere facing flow Parachute Hemisphere facing downstream CD 1.5 × 109 = 1.5 × 109 ) 2.

20 = 60/(1 + 0. It may be noted that the coefficient of drag is nearly constant from Re = 103 to 5 × 105. The flow pattern and the variation of drag coefficient is shown in Fig.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces Force = mass × Acceleration = m(du/dt) ∴ (du/dt) = force/mass ∴ 337 du FD k 2 ρ = =− u where k = [CDC AC + CDP AP] dt m m 2 Separating variables and integrating.2 ×π × 1. Separation is found to occur at about mid section and a wide wake is found to exist with pressure in the wake below that at the front.4 Flow Over Spheres and Cylinders In these cases both pressure and friction drag contribute to the total drag.06811 u = 60/(1 + 0. Chapter 10 1800 ln (1 + 0.0433 × 60)/1800 = 0. z ∴ ∴ u du u2 u0 =− k m z t 0 dt 1 1 k − =− t u0 u m u= F kI 1+ G J u t H mK 0 u0 .06811 × t) ∴ t = 29.0433 10.3. The flow separation at the rear and formation of wake contributes to the pressure drag.0433 .1) + (1. From experiments the boundary layer in the forward portion is found to be laminar in this range.62 m/s u = 20.32 × 1..06811 × 50) = 1306 m 2.. 10.0433 2 (k/m)u0 = (2.2 [( 0. (A) k= ∴ 1. (ii) For The distance travelled can be obtained by integrating u dt. ∴ s= z z 0 t udt = t 0 u0 u0 dt ln [1 + (k/m)u0t] = (m/k) ln [1 + (k/m)u0t] = ( k / m)u0 1 + ( k / m)u0t At t = 50 sec s = At t = 29.06811 ×29.06811 × 50) = 13.2.36) = 968 m 2.36 sec s = 1800 In (1 + 0.3.82/4)] = 2.36 seconds ∴ (i) After 50 seconds.

006 × 10–6 = 4. reducing the pressure drag. The lift on airfoil is an example. An optimum streamlined shape is the one which gives minimum total drag. Kinematic viscosity = 1.45 N 2 4 10.338 Laminar boundary layer Fluid Mechanics and Machinery S S Wake 10 Cylinder 10 £ Re £ 2 × 10 Turbulent boundary layer S S 3 5 1 CD Sphere –1 10 Effect of roughness –2 10 Re > 2 × 10 5 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 10.2) CD is read as 0.45 ∴ FD = CD (1/2) ρ Au2 = 0. Separation can be reduced by streamlining the body shape. 10.05/1. The coefficient of lift is defined by CL = (1 / 2) ρ Au 2 FL (10.97 × 104 From graph (Fig. Turbulent layer has a higher momentum near the surface resisting separation.3. reducing the net pressure drag leading to the abrupt decrease in the drag coefficient. This generally increases the area thus increasing friction drag.2 Flow separation in flow over cylinder/sphere There is a sharp drop in the value of CD after the critical Reynolds number. The component along the flow direction is called drag.052 × 1020 × × 12 = 0.7. Determine the tension in the towline.3.006 × 10–6 m2/s Re = uD/v = 1 × 0.45 π × 0. The component perpendicular to the flow direction is called lift. The flow in the forward side is found to turn turbulent and separation moves downstream and wake is now narrow. Density of water = 1020 kg/m3. Example 10.5 Lift and Coefficient of Lift The force on an immersed body moving in a fluid can be resolved into two components. Stream lining is now adopted not only for aircrafts but almost for all transport vehicles.3.3. A model of a bathysphere 50 mm diameter is towed under water at a speed of 1 m/s.10) .

separation is delayed on the upper surface and it occurs earlier in the lower surface. Airfoil blade shapes are also used in turbomachines.3.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 1. A typical plot of the variation of lift and drag coefficients with angle of attack for a specified Reynolds number is shown in Fig. 10.3. Spin can also be used to obtain a curved path of travel for the ball. Chapter 10 10.0 0.02 CL CL 0.5 0. Presently computer softwares are available for the design of airfoil sections with a very high ratio of lift to drag. The planform area (the maximum projected area) is used in the definition of lift and drag coefficients. These data are for long spans and corrections should be made as per the aspect ratio defined by b2/Ap.6 Rotating Sphere and Cylinder In order to reduce skin friction in flow over surfaces. particularly curved surfaces boundary layer control is used.01 CD CD 339 0 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 Incident angle 6 8 0 10 Figure 10. This will equal the ratio (span/chord) as. known as stall. The coefficients of lift and drag are found to be a function of ω D/2u called spin . The angle between the airfoil chord and the flow direction is called angle of attack. The lift and drag coefficients depend on the Reynolds number and angle of attack. This is difficult to apply due to mechanical restrictions. Flow separation will result in sudden drop in the lift. For spin along the flow direction. Pressure is reduced on the upper surface and is increased on the lower surface and the wake is deflected downwards.3.3 Variation of Lift and Drag on an airfoil Lift is of interest mainly in the design of airfoil sections. Spin also provides significant aerodynamic lift to increase the distance travelled by the ball. Ap = bc. where b is the span length and Ap is the planform area. One method of boundary layer control is by the use of moving surfaces at locations where separation may start. The lift to drag ratio varies from 20 to 40 with the lower value applicable for small planes. cricket and tennis where spin is applied to control the trajectory of the ball. However this principle is used in sports like baseball. Spin alters the pressure distribution and also the location of boundary layer separation. ratio.3. golf. For each airfoil section such plots are available. The chord of an airfoil is the line joining the leading edge and the trailing edge.

This is known as MAGNUS effect. u Radius.8. 10. Ex.340 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 10. Let π2 = vuaRb or L0T0 = ∴ Hence a = – 1 b = –1 π2 = CL = f v uR D or uD . In the case of cylinders the area for definition of CL and CD is L×D CD 0.2 V w Wake 1 2 3 4 Spin ratio w D/2 u 5 Figure Ex. Show using dimensional analysis that the lift and drag coefficients are functions of spin ratio and Reynolds number. uD OP and C N 2u v Q =f LM w D . –1 – a = 0 T Ta π1 = ω R/u = ω R/2u. v LM w D .6 Lift force. . R Angular velocity. This can cause drift in the flight path. ω Kinematic viscosity. No 1 2 3 4 Variable Linear Velocity. The trend is shown in Fig.4 CL 0. these are not listed. As CL and CD are dimensionless. namely L and T. uD OP N 2u v Q The variation of CL and CD are found to be influenced more by spin ratio than Reynolds number. Choosing linear velocity and radius as repeating variables Let ∴ π1 = ω uaRb or L0T 0 = a + b = 0.8. FL CL and CD 0. The variables affecting the phenomenon are listed below.8 Variation of Lift and Drag with spin ratio A force perpendicular to both direction of motion and the spin axis is created during the flight. 10. called spin ratio. ∴ 2 + a + b = 0. – 1 – a = 0 1 La b L T Ta ∴ a=–1 ∴ b=1 L2 La b L . Reynolds number. Hence two π terms can be identified. v Unit m/s m Radians/s m2/s Dimension L/T L 1/T L2/T There are four variables and two dimensions.

τ δ2 = (12vx)/u∞ = 12x2/(v/u∞x) = 12x2/Rex The constant is 3. At y = δ.464 x y dy = (1/2)δ or δ/2. the thickness of boundary layer friction coefficient. As y =0 u y = u∞ δ ∴ u= u∞ y . This gives dy δ δ u∞ FG IJ H K 2 (Refer 10. du u y y =2 − = 0. and u = u∞.18) Substituting in the integral momentum equation.1. δ ∴τ= µu∞ . Considering the integral part δ z ∴ δ 0 LM u MN δ 2 ∞ 2 2 2 u∞ δ u∞ δ 1 2 u∞ 2 − u δ y − 2 y dy = 2 3 = 6 ∞ δ OP PQ LM NM OP QP ∴ 2 u u∞ d u∞ u 2 dδ δ = v ∞ or ∞ =v dx 6 δ δ 6 dx LM NM OP QP Separating variables and integrating. Let u = a + by + cy2.5 u∞ 3. determine the thickness of the boundary layer. As against δ/3 δ The displacement thickness δd = Chapter 10 z LMN δ 0 1− u dy = u∞ OP Q z LMN δ 0 1− OP Q Momentum thickness is given by δm = z δ 0 u u dy = 1− u∞ u∞ LM N OP Q z δ 0 LM y − y OP dy = 1 δ − 1 δ = 1 δ Nδ δ Q 2 3 6 2 2 By the exact solution.464 instead of 5 in the exact solution Cfx = 2 (1 / 2) ρu∞ = 2µu∞ 2 ρu∞ δ = 2v Re 0. δm = (1/7)δ Problem 10. Momentum integral equation is d dx LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v du u∞ = δ dy OP Q du dy .464x/Rex0.5. The boundary conditions are u = 0 at y = 0.1 Assuming linear velocity variation in the boundary layer and using linear momentum integral equation.577/Rex0.5 x = 0.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces SOLVED PROBLEMS 341 Problem 10. δ dδ = (6v/u∞) dx δ = 3. . Also determine the friction coefficient and the displacement and momentum thicknesses.2 Assuming second degree velocity distribution in the boundary layer determine using the integral momentum equation. displacement and momentum thicknesses.

12).477 xu∞ δm = z z 0 δ 0 δ LM1 − u OP dy = LM1 − 2 FG y IJ + FG y IJ OP dy = δ MN H δ K H δ K PQ 3 N uQ LM u F u I OP 2 MN u − GH u JK PQ dy = 15 δ (see equation A) ∞ z δ 2 0 2 ∞ ∞ Problem 10.342 d dx Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v OP Q du dy . τ = 2µu∞/δ z δ 0 LMF u I F u I MNGH u JK − GH u JK ∞ ∞ 2 OP u PQ dy = OP Q 2 ∞ 2 = u∞ z z δ 0 δ 0 LM2 F y I − F y I − 4 F y I + 4 F y I MN GH δ JK GH δ JK GH δ JK GH δ JK LM2 FG y IJ − 5 FG y IJ + 4 FG y IJ − FG y IJ MN H δ K H δ K H δ K H δ K 2 2 3 3 − 4 FG y IJ H δK 4 OP dy PQ OP dy PQ . δ = 5.5 2 2 (1 / 2) ρu∞ ρu∞ δ u∞ δ 5.73/Rex0. 30 u x x = 30x2/Rex.477x/Rex0. 2 u∞ LM MN y y − δ δ FG H IJ K 2 OP du PQ . and u/u∞ = 1 beyond δ ) determine the thickness of the boundary layer.477 as against 5 by exact solution.. dy 2 y=0 = 2u∞/δ. y= 0 u = u∞ 2 Considering the integral part. = cos dy u∞ 2δ dy 2δ 2δ FG IJ H K .5 δd = 4v Re 0.477 x/Rex0. As τ = 2µu∞/δ and δ = 5. du u π y du π πy = u∞ (π/2δ) at y = 0.3 Assuming the velocity distribution in the boundary layer as πy u = sin u∞ 2δ FG IJ H K (in the range 0 ≤ y ≤ δ.644/Rex0. (A) 2 = u∞ δ − LM N 5 1 2 2 δ+δ− δ = u∞ δ 3 5 15 Substituting d 2 2 u∞ δ = 2vu /δ or ∞ dx 15 ∴ LM N OP Q 2 2 dδ = 2 vu∞ / δ u∞ = dx 15 δdδ = 15(v/u∞)dx Integrating v 2 δ2 = 30vx/u∞.5 ∞ FG IJ H K Note that the constant is 5.1. using integral momentum method (Refer equation 10..5 Cfx = instead of 0. = sin .5 τ 4µ u∞ 4v x = = = = 0.

τw = µ (du/dy).1366 δ] = = u v.655/Rex0. 2 uδ z δ 0 LMF u I F u I MNGH u JK − GH u JK ∞ ∞ 2 OP LMsin π y − sin dy = u PQ N 2δ 2 δ z δ 2 0 πy dy 2δ OP Q Noting z sin 2 ax = x sin 2 ax − 2 4a 2 = u∞ − 2 = u∞ LM 2δ cos π y − y + δ sin π y OP N π 2δ 2 2π 2π Q LM0 − δ + 0OP − LM− 2δ − 0 + 0OP = 0.1366 δ.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces d dx 343 du dy y =0 LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v OP Q Considering the integral part and substituting the velocity distribution. τw = µ u∞ π/2δ 2µ u∞ π 2 2δ ρu∞ ∴ Cfx = δd = = π v π v Re 0.4 Using the cubic velocity profile determine upto a length L the flow out of the boundary layer in terms of the boundary layer thicknes.3625 δ = δ/2. at y = 0. u = u∞ Mass flow through the boundary layer = LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ MN 2 δ 2 H δ K 3 OP PQ 3 z δ 0 ρ udy = z δ 0 ρ u∞ LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ MN 2 δ 2 H δ K OP dy = ρ u LM 3 y PQ N2 δ ∞ 2 − 1 y4 8 δ3 OP Q δ = 0 5 ρ u∞ δ 8 . or δ/7.8 u∞ x Chapter 10 z δ 0 LM1 − u OP dy = L1 − sin FG π y IJ O dy = Lδ + 2δ cos π y O MN H 2δ K PQ MN π δ PQ N uQ ∞ z δ δ 0 0 = [δ + 0] – [0 + (2δ/π)] = 0..76.1366 u∞ vx δ2 π or δ = 4. Assuming cubic velocity profile.1366] u v dx 2δ ∞ dx 2δ ∞ ∴ Integrating δ dδ = v π dx 2 × 0.5 = 0.5 = x δ u∞ 4.. The free stream flow for thickness of δ is ρ u∞ δ. instead of δ/3 δm = 0.32 (refer result A) Problem 10. [u∞ × 0. (A) π π d dδ 2 2 [u∞ × 0.5 = 2 2 × 0.8x/Rex0.1366 × u N 2 Q N π Q 0 δ ∞ 2× δ .1366 u∞ Cfx = τw/(1/2)ρ u∞2.

5 L L This will be low as Reynolds number will be high. Differentiating with ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂2 u ∂v ∂u ∂2 u ∂3 u +u + + v 2 = v 3 . Hence profile assume is approximate. Re = 1.74u∞ = u∞ 8 Re 0. Hence the second and third terms are also zero. u resect to y. velocity = 3 4. Integrating the same between 0 and δ the same result will be obtained. u = 0 and v = 0. Consider the x directional momentum equation. ∂ y ∂x ∂ x∂ y ∂ y ∂ y ∂y ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂3 u + +u +v 2 =v 3 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x∂ y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q The first term is zero due to continuity equation. [Refer Problem 10. The value of can be obtained from the assumed profile and then equated to ∂x ∂x ∂y − ∂v .64 x 1 1.5 m.56 × 105 ∴ v = (1.56 × 105)0.. Volume flow out of the boundary v = (3/8) u∞ δ.e. ∂ y3 ∂u ∂u ∂2 u +v = v 2 .022 m/s This can also be calculated in a round about way using the continuity equation ∂u ∂u ∂v + = 0 .5 x Re 0.6]. So Consider the cubic profile: ∂3 u should be zero. ∂ y3 3 u 3 y 1 y = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ ∴ FG IJ H K 3 1 3 y2 ∂u − = u∞ 2 δ 2 δ3 ∂y LM N OP Q and ∂2 u 6 y = u∞ − ∂ y2 2 δ3 LM N OP ∂ u = – 3u /δ Q ∂y 2 3 ∞ 3 This is not zero. ∂3 u = 0. Simplifying. ∂y Problem 10. − Deduce from the above that the cubic profile is approximate. At y = 0. .74 × 5)/(1. 1 × x for unit width.5 Using the continuity and momentum equations show that at y = 0.1) Air flow. at a distance 0. Consider the data from example (10.5 = 0.344 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∴ Mass flow out of the boundary layer = (1–(5/8)) ρ u∞ δ = 3/8 ρ u∞ δ or displacement thickness times the free stream flow. (Nota : δd = (3/8) δ for cubic profile) The average velocity in the y direction can be obtained by dividing the volume flow by area i. u∞ = 5 m/s.

Assume cubic velocity variation. δ = 5x/Re 3 x 1/2 = 5 xv1/ 2 1/ u∞ 2 x 1/ 2 = cx1/2 where c = [5v1/2/u∞1/2] substituting and putting c1 = 3u∞/2 δ and c2 = u∞/2 δ3.205 kg/m3.0594/Rex0. y. ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u + =0 =− ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x u = u∞ LM 3 y − 1 F y I OP G J NM 2 δ 2 H δ K PQ . and substituting for c1 and c2 v= v= Substituting 5 xv1/ 2 1/ u∞ 2 x 1/ 2 3 u∞ 2 3u∞ y 4 y – . Consider continuity equation.06 × 10–6 m2/s Using equation (10.4).1 N/m2. τw = Cfx (1/2) ρ u2. .87 Re 0. Problem 10. = – [c1 × (–1/2) × y x–3/2 + (3/2) c2 y3 x–5/2] ∂y ∂x Integrating w. Equating to zero and solving y = δ ∂y 2δ 2δ This is physically explainable as the total flow in y direction should occur at y = δ. ∂y 1 ∂ 1 y 2 − 2 y 4 = 2 y − 2 4 y 3 .r.3) Cfx = 0.t. Velocity at y = δ is vδx = u∞ 3 u∞ δ = 0. Substituting for c 8c x 3 / 2 16 c 3 x 5 / 2 3 u∞ y 4 3 × u∞/ 2 3 u∞ u∞ 1/ 2 y 2 – 16 × 125v3 / 2 x 5 / 2 8 5v1/ 2 x 3 / 2 =δ 3 u∞ 2 1 y 4 y2 y4 3 3 y − u∞ 3 = − v = u∞ 8 δx 2 δ2 8 δ x 16 δ x LM N OP Q Chapter 10 (Check for dimensional consistency : dimensions of y2/δ x and y4/δ3 x cancel and v has the same unit as u∞) Maximum value occurs when ∂v = 0. velocity expression ∂v ∂u =− reduces to u = c1 y x–1/2 – c2 y3 x–3/2.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 345 Problem 10.7 The shear at a location 2 m from the leading edge of a flat plate was measured as 2. v = 15.2.6 Derive a general expression for the y directional velocity at a location x in the boundary layer in flow over a flat plate. Assuming the flow to be turbulent from the start determine if air at 20°C was flowing over the plate (i) the velocity of air (ii) the boundary layer thickness and (iii) the velocity at 15 mm above the plate.2. Indicate at what y location this will be maximum. ρ = 1.5 16 x x LM N OP Q Total mass flow when integrated over the length will equal (3/8) ρ u∞ δL (Refer Problem 10.

The force on the area = ∆P × 2π rdr FD = z 0 ∆P × 2π rdr = 1 ρV 2 2 z R 0 C p 2π rdr = 1 ρV 2 2 z R 0 LM1 − F r IJ OP 2π rdr G NM H R K PQ 6 . No Air Water Engine oil Density.623 × 2/15.17 m = 5 × 2. Using equation (10.623 m/s Re = 35. m 2.5 = 0. water and engine oil if the flow velocity is 3 m/s.2 = 0.2 0. CP = ∆P/(1/2) ρ AV2 ∴ R r ∆P = CP(1/2) ρ AV2 = CP 2π rdr (ρ V2/2) Consider a small strip of width dr at a radius r.808 × 106.2)1/7 = 32.1).0352 m or δ = 35. R oriented perpendicular to a fluid stream was measured and the pressure coefficient has been correlated as below.06 × 10 −6 ) 0.06 × 10–6 = 4. Rear surface : CP = – 0.2 1061 1.382x/Rex0. δ = 0.17 150 δ.1 = 1.9 The pressure distribution on the front and back surfaces of a thin disk of radius.5 ∴ La = 2.382 × 2/(4. Front side : CP = 1 – (r/R)6.2.06 × 10–6 δ = 5x/Rex δ = 5x/Rex δ = 5x/Rex 0.205 1000 888 Kinematic viscosity 15.0012 m = 5 × 150. kg/m3 1.623 (15/35.51 m ∴ Lw = 0.04 or u∞ = 35.5 Problem 10.8 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0. Turbulent hence the use of equation (10.006 × 10–6 901 × 10–6 The flow turns turbulent at Re = 5 × 105 (1) Air : (2) Water : (3) Engine oil : 5 × 105 = 3 × La/15. The kinematic viscosity and density of the fluids are : S.3) is justified.8 Determine the length at which the flow over a flat plate will turn turbulent for air.5 = 0.2 mm If the velocity profile is assumed as u y = δ u∞ FG IJ H K 1/7 ∴ u = 35.2.006 × 10–6 0.1677 m ∴ Lo = 150.5 = 1.808 × 106)0.5 5 × 105 = 3 × Lo/901 × 10–6 0. Temperature of the fluid = 20°C.05 m/s Problem 10. Solving.061 m dr 5 × 105 = 3 × Lw/1. mm 17.1677/(5 ×105)0.2 = 0.2 × 1 × 1.06 × 10–6 Lcv.0594 × (15.17/(5 ×105)0.51 0.346 Equating 2.2 u∞ 2 0.0177 m = 5 × 0. Also determine the boundary layer thickness at the location.7 1.51/(5 ×105)0. 2 u∞ = 621.205 u∞2.42 Determine the drag coefficient for the disk.

5 3 10–3 .10. as 20°C.332 ρ u2/Re0. and assuming the length of base as 2L.5 m τx = 0.97 × 10–3 × 2(L – x)x–1/2dx Integrating between x = 0 to x = L F = 9.10 Air flows along a triagular plate as shown in Fig.75 + 0.205 × 21.5 OP Q L = 9. Determine the shear force on both sides of the plate.5 m. kinematic viscosity is 15.5v1/2x–1/2 = 0.10 Problem model Considering the maximum length of 0.66 × 105 ∴ flow is laminar L−x × 2L × dx = 2(L – x)dx. P.5 N 1/ 2 x 1.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 2 r8 1 2 r − = 2π × ρV 2 2 8 R6 347 LM N OP Q R = 0 R2 R 2 1 2π × ρV 2 − 2 2 8 LM N OP Q 1 ρV 2 π R 2 3 / 4 = (1/8) ρ AV2 2 CD = FD/(1/2) ρ AV2 ∴CD = 3/4 = 0. 10. Plate Flow 2m/s X dx 1m 45° x L Figure P. height will be L.332 ρ u2v1/2/u1/2x1/2 = 0.75 = On the otherside. ρ = 1.06 × 10–6 = 0. dA = Chapter 10 Re = 2 × 0. Assume air temperature.42 = 1. the pressure is independent of radius opposite direction ∴ Cp = 0.94 × 10–3 × 0 4 × L1.06 × 10–6)0.5/15.94 × 10–3 Here L = 0.10.205 kg/m3.17 ∴ CD = Cp and it is in the Problem 10. Force on the strip L dF = τx dA = 4.97 × 10–3x1/2 Considering a strip of width dx at a distance x from base.5x–1/2 = 4.5 − 1. ∴ F = 4.332 ρ u1.06 × 10–6 m2/s.332 × 1.5 = 0.68 × LM Lx N 0.5 × (15.

6 W Problem 10.5. v = 1. M = FD × distance. the water temperature is 20°C. Problem 10.205 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity as 15. Determine the moment at the base caused by the aerodynamic force due to cyclonic wind of speed 100 kmph. For the spherical portion : Re = 12 × 100 × 1000 1 × = 2.5 = kgm/s2 = N.88 × 10 = 717. v = 17.5 N Moment = 5022.14 × 106 From graph for circular cylinder CD is read as 0. For the spherical portion M = (30 + 6) × 0.5 m m 3 s 1.893 kNm.19 from graph by extrapolation.2 × 16.93 × 106 ∴ The flow is turbulent considering combined laminar and turbulent flows.99 × 10–3 = 35.99 × 10–3.2 m long and 0.11 A water ski is 1.67 × 1. Determine the viscous drag approximating it as a flat plate.205 × (π ×122/4) × 27. FD = CD (1/2) ρ AV2. u = 600000/3600 = 16.13 A overhead water tank is in the shape of a sphere of 12 m diameter and is supported by a 30 m tall tower of circular section of diameter 2 m. Assume density of air as 1.074ReL–0. For the cylindrical portion : Re = 2 × 100 × 1000 1 × = 3.19 × (1/2) × 1.40 from graph by extrapolation. ρ = 1.2/17. CfL = 0.2 × 10/1.5 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery m1.006 × 10–6 m2/s.5 s 0.12 In a power plant located near the sea a chimney of 1.23 × 35 × 1.2 m wide and moves in water at 10 m/s. Problem 10. kg m 1.6 × 10–6 = 1.782 = 359. As this is a uniform force. F = const ρ u1.689 × 106 3600 1506 × 10 −6 The value of CD is read as 0. N = const Hence checks.2 × 2.2 × 0.5 × 35/2 = 87893 Nm or 87.67 m/s Re = 16.35 × 1.006 × 10–6 = 11. During a cyclone the wind reaches velocity in the range of 60 kmph.35 ∴ ∴ FD = CD ρ Au2/2 = 0.6 × 10–6 m2/s. V = 100 × 1000/3600 = 27.662/2 = 5022.88 N Power required considering 2 skis. P = 2 × 35.06 × 10–6 m2/s.21 × 107 3600 1506 × 10 −6 The value of CD is read as 0. it can be taken to act at the mid point. Determine the moment at the base of the chimney.5v1/2L1. ρ = 1000 kg/m3.6 × 103 Nm . Re = 1. Drag = CfL (1/2)ρ u2∆ Drag = (1/2) 1000 × 102 × 1.2 – 1742ReL–1 = 2.78 m/s.2 kg/m3.2 m diameter and 35 m height has been installed.348 Check for dimensional homogeneity.

14 A parachute moves down at a speed of 6 m/s.15 Hail stones that are formed in thunder clouds are sopported by the drag due to the air draft upwards and will begin to fall when the size reaches a critical value. Problem 10.04/1. Density of the fluid is 1025 kg/m3.7 kmph. Determine the torque on the shaft and also the power required.6 + 167. the value is about 0.52 × 0. Gravity force = ρ Vg. V being the volume. 10. The drag force should be just less than the gravity force when the hailstone begins to fall. Substituting this value.7364 kg/m3 and 1.23 × (π D2/4) × 62 Solving D = 7.2 × (1/2) × 1. Assume the vessel is large.52 m/s or 138. Hence the assumed value of CD is acceptable.4) × 103 = 527. Other body forces like buoyancy forces are negligible. Neglect the drag on the rod and the shaft. The density and dynamic viscosity of air at the altitude of 5000 m where the stones are formed are 0.782 = 167. CD = (1/2) × 0.628 ×10–5 = 0. u = 38.628 × 10–5 kg/ms.022 u2 = (4/3) × π × 0. Determine the minimum diameter of the chute.45 for Re = 103 to 5 × 105.3.0 × 103 Nm Problem 10. P. Density of air = 1.2.85 CD depends on Reynolds number which cannot be calculated without the value of velocity.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces For the cylindrical portion 349 M = 15 × 0.5 m Figure P. 90 rpm 0.81 × 940 ∴ CD u2 = 667.51 m Problem 10.81 = 1. Equating and substituting the values.94 ×105. At the limiting condition thses can be taken as equal.4 × 103 Nm Total moment = (359.7364 × π × 0. The mass of the chute and the jumper is 120 kg.15 m 0. Looking at the graph for CD for spheres.205 × 2 × 30 × 27. . Drag force = CD (1/2) ρ Au2. The stirrer speed is 90 rpm.16.4 × (1/2) × 1. 10. Estimate the velocity upwards so that hailstones begin to fall when the diameter reaches a value of 40 mm.81 N 120 × 9.16 A stirrer is constructed as shown in Fig. For parachute CD = 1. (Refer table 10. Hailstone is assumed to be in the shape of a sphere with a density of 940 kg/m3.023 × 9.1) Net force = 120 × 9. The dimensions are indicated in the figure.16 Stirrer details Chapter 10 Re = 38.23 kg/m3.

06 × 10–6 = 7. 10.17 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π DN π × 0.30 × 0. 10.71242 = 235.152/4) × 4.4 × 1.5 × 0. If due ot fiction.31 N Torque = Force × torque arm = 235.17 An anemometer has hemispherical cups of 80 mm dia with an arm distance from the post to center of 130 mm.23 kg/m3.38 × 104 for 40 mm rod and 1. At this value CD is about 1.42.17 × (1/2) × 1025 × (π × 0. Substituting = 1. 0.01)] 2 = 175. Consider density of air as 1.08 2 1.5 = 117. A = π × 0.782 [(5 × 0.38 = 1. ∴ ∴ Starting torque Net coefficient = 1.350 For circular plate CD = 1.152/4 ∴ FD = 1.04 Force = CDAρ V2/2.7124 m/s 60 60 Linear speed of the disk = CD = FD/(1/2) ρ AV2.65 Nm. kinematic viscosity is 15.205 kg/m3.02 m f × 1.04 m f ×5m Figure P. The coefficient of drag on the back = 0. Torque = Force × torque arm.205 × 27.02) + (4 × 0.18.5 × 90 = = 4. the cups starts rotating at a wind speed of 3 m/s.04/15.84 × 104 for 10 mm rod.06 × 10–6 m2/s.18 Determine the wind force on the antenna shown in Figure P.5 m 4 × 0.13 = 3.7 N .42 – 0.78 m/s The value of Reynolds number is given by Re = 27.78 × 0. FD = 1.18 Antenna details Velocity of wind = 100000/3600 = 27. Determine the starting torque. All the components face the wind blowing at 100 kmph.65)/60 = 1109 W Problem 10.04) + (1.04 × π × 0.38. The coefficient of drag when the cup faces the wind is 1.23 × 32 × 0. ρ = 1.4 for both cases.01 m f ×1m 0.76 × 10–3 Nm × 4 2 Problem 10. Power = 2π NT/60 = (2π × 90 × 117.

064/2 × 30) = 0.165 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity is 16 × 10–6 m2/s. then R = 0.038 2 × 9. The lift force depends on the spin ratio and Reynolds number. mg = CL(1/2) ρ u2A Chapter 10 In case only gravity force acts.21 A table tennis ball of mass 2.85 × 166.3.057 × 302/0.4216 N.. 2 4 This force acts downwards due to top spin. gravity force = 0.165 kg/m3 and 16 × 10–6 m2/s.19 The total mass of an aircraft is 70000 kg.4) the value of spin ratio is read as 0.5 grams and a diameter of 38 mm is hit with a velocity of 12 m/s.064/16 × 10–6 = 1.e. u = 108000/3600 = 30 m/s. the force due to gravity should equal the lift force. Calculate the aerodynamic lift on ball and radius of curvature of path in the vertical plane. For this situation.057 kg.81 = CL × 160 × (1/2) × 0.4.91 ωD = 0.064 m and mass is 0. balls are hit at speeds exceeding 100 kmph and good amount of spin.20 In championship tennis.91. Determine the value of back spin for the ball to travel in a horizontal path. i. The lift force should be equal the weight at steady flight. R = 0.3635.7 m/s 70000 × 9.9808 = 52.165 × 302 = 0.81 = 0.25 ∴ Lift force = 0. (Fig. when the ball is hit at a speed of 108 kmph and a top spin of 8000 rpm. Problem 10. flight speed. page 341 CL is read as 0. Problem 10.5 1 0.76 × 0.8936 Re = 30 × 0.7 m 2.3. For air density = 1.2578 From the graph for CL vs spin ratio.165 × 122 × π × 1000 2 4 ∴CL = 0.76 radians/s ∴ Spin ratio = (837. The ball diameter is 0.2 × 105 By interpolation in Fig. If the craft travels at 600 kmph. 10. ω = 8000 × 2π/60 = 837. determine the lift coefficient. V = 600000/3600 = 166. Air density at the flight conditions is 0.81 = CL × × 1. with a back spin ω.3 m The ball comes down sharply due to the top spin. Neglect the compressibility effect.72 ∴ CL = 0. ∴ ω = 574. Density and kinematic viscosity of air are 1.7 rad/s or 5488 rpm 2u .057 × 302/0.5592 N ∴ Total force = 0. Spin ratio = ω D/2u. not dropping due to gravity.5592 = 91.25 × π × 1 0.057 × 9. Lift force FL is given by FL = CL A(1/2) ρ V2. Top spin causes downward force.9808 N Equating it to the z directional acceleration F = mu2/R where R is the radius of the path in the vertical plane. The wing area is 160 m2. 10.85 kg/m3.064 2 × × 1.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 351 Problem 10.

10.3 2 2 × 1000 × π × V .02136 m .2 kg/m3. Problem 10. The components perpendicular to this line should balance.88/cos 60 = 189.66 = 0.0039 x0.81 N = 109.45 for sphere 189. The flow with boundary layer can be taken as flow at the free stream velocity with the boundary moved by a distance equal to the displacement thickness. Buoyant force FD V Drag force 30° Figure P. At 30 m. for this spin the ball will rise. Determine the velocity outside the boundary layer at a distance of 30 m.23 Air flows in a square duct of side 0.21 is tied on the bed of a river. ∴ FD cos 60 = Fb cos 30 Fb = Buoyant force = difference in density × volume × g = 790 × ∴ 4 π × 0. P.35.6 m with a velocity of 3 m/s.45 × 0.0039 × 300. displacement thickness is δd = 0.06 × 10 −6 Reynolds number = For this value CD = 0.88 N. The displacement thickness in meter is given by δd = 0.5 = 0. The forces on the cork ball are shown in Fig.352 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery If the velocity is more.153 × 9. CD = 0.5 where x is the distance along the flow.45 m/s 2 4 3. ∴ FD = 94.3 m diameter with specific gravity 0.2 Corresponding V = 5.45 0. Solving V = 3.56 N 3 Fb cos 30 = 94.22 A cork ball 0. Determine the velocity of flow. 10. At a certain time it rests at 30° to the horizontal due to the flow. Density of air = 1.66 N FD = CD (1/2) ρ AV2.18 m/s Further iteration is necessary as the new value of Re = 1.47 × 106 and CD = 0. If the velocity is less then the ball will travel in an arc.98 × 106 1.22 Force diagram At equilibrium the components along the rope (at 30° to the horizontal) is taken up by the rope.3 = 0.22. Problem 10.

7. In ideal flwo the forces that are important are _______________. 8. 2.55732 × V2 ∴ V2 = 3. 2.87 N/m2 The pressure drop can be calculated for the flow outside the boundary layer as 353 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q.2 [3.2 Fill in the blanks: 1. In laminar flow viscous forces are _______________ compared to inertia forces.6 × 3 = 0. Answers Chapter 10 (1) no slip (2) Theoretical hydrodynamics. 10. Equations describing the complete flow field are know as _______________ equations. Turbulent flow over a flat plate is generally taken to start at a Reynolds number of ______________. 8. The effect of viscosity is important only in a thin layer adjacant to the surface called _______________. 4. 9. The two methods of analysis of boundary layer flow are _______________. Lift is the component of the total force on a body immersed in a flow in the _______________ direction. (3) Navier-Stokes (4) boundary layer (5) Ideal fluid (6) boundary layer (7) Inertia and viscous forces (8) pressure and inertia (9) shear stress (10) Laminar O Q. 6. 10. In flow over surfaces. 10. 7. ∴ Length of side considering displacement thickness is Ld = (0.6 × 0. fluid at the surface takes on the velocity of the body as a result of _______________ condition. 5.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces The side of the square is reduced by twice this thickness. Drag is the component of the total force on a body immersed in a flow in the _______________ direction. 3.1 Fill in the blanks: 1. The pressure gradient at the surface causes _______________ on the surface. 4. 9.48 m/s ∆P = (1/2) ρ (V22 – V12) = (1/2) × 1. The flow outside the boundary layer can be treated as _______________ flow.482 – 32] = 1. 5. In turbulent flow viscous forces are _______________ compared to inertia force. Boundary layer separation occurs when there is an _______________ pressure gradient.02136) = 0. 10. . 3. Velocity gradient exists only in the _______________. The forces which are important in the boundary layer are _______________. The study of non viscous fluid flow is called _______________.5573 m Equating the volume flow rate 0. Macroscopic mixing between layers occurs in _______________. 6.6 – 2 × 0. The ratio of inertia force to viscous force is called _______________ number. Mass and momentum flow in laminar boundary layer is only at the_______________ level. Initially _______________ flow prevails in the boundary layer.

microscopic 2. Flow O Q. Increases. 5 × 105 6. The layer thickness which will have the same flow momentum as the boundary layer with free stream velocity is called _______________. 9. Adverse 6. The pressure gradient which will delay boundary layer seperation is called _______________ gradient. 3 Magnus effect 4.4 Fill in the blanks: 1. Spin ratio 8. 3. One seventh O Q. 2. The lift and drag coefficient on a spinning sphere is dependent on _______________ defined as ωD/2V. Separation 8.0. The distance from the wall where the velocity is 99% of its asymptotic limit is known as _______________ of a boundary layer. Coefficient of drag has values in the range _______________. 10. Answers 1. The velocity profile in turbulent flow can be represented by _______________ power law. Perpendicular 10. The angle between the flow direction and the chord of an airfoil is called _______________. The drag due to boundary layer sparation is called _______________ drag. Angle of incidence 7. 4. The coefficient of lift has values about _______________. The force perpendicular to both the flow direction and the axis of rotation of an object in flow is known as _______________ effect. Lift force. . 6. dynamic force 5. The velocity profile in laminar flow follows nearly a _______________ polynomial. The coefficcient of drag is the ratio between _______________ and _______________. 10. 3. Cubic 10. Larger 7. Displacement thickness 2. 2. 5.3 Fill in the blanks: 1. The layer thickness which will have the same flow rate as the boundary layer with free stream velocity is called _______________. 8. Coefficient of lift on an airfoil decreases when _______________ occurs. Adverse 9. 10. 1. Shortens O Q. 4. 2. Nearly constant 9.1 10. Turbulent flow. 9.5 Fill in the blanks: 1. 3. Favourable 5. 8. 9. Answers 1. dynamic force 6. 7. 0. approximate integral. the drag coefficient on a cylinder or sphere is _______________. Reynolds 5. 5. The drift of a shell fired is due to _______________. 10. Top spin _______________ the length of travel of a ball. In the range of Reynolds numbers 103 to 105.354 Answers Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. The coefficient of lift on an airfoil _______________ with angle of incidence upto a limit and then _______________. 6. V being the forward velocity. decreases 7. 4. Drag force. 10. The pressure gradient which will induce boundary layer seperation is called _______________ gradient. Smaller 8. Pressure 4. exact differential. The coefficient of lift is the ratio between _______________ and _______________. Rotating cylinders were proposed to propel ships by the use of _______________. 7. Momentum thickness 3.

10. 7. 10. Thickness 2. the velocity gradient will be _______________. 9. 5. Drag force _______________ with increase in free stream velocity. Zero O Q. 5 × 105 6. 10. 6. 6. Drag coefficient on a plate _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. 8. Turbulent boundary layer 4. Rate of momentum transfers will be higher in turbulent flow. In a turbulent boundary layer over a smooth plate. 7. 10. Momentum thickness is given by z FGH δ 0 u dy .7 State True to False: 1. 6. Reynolds number _______________ with increase in kinematic viscosity of a fluid. 8.6 Fill in the blanks with increases or decreases: 1. At the separation point of boundary layer. Boundary layer 5. 5. Displacement thickness is the thickness by which the plane is to be moved up. 3. 2. 8. greater 7. 7. Local velocity within a boundary layer _______________ towards the boundary surface. 8. 3. 6. 2. 4. The flow above the boundary layer can be treated as invicid flow. The velocity gradient in the boundary layer is maximum at the top edge of the layer. Local shear stress coefficient _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. 10 O Q. Molecular diffusion 3. 7.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 2. Boundary layer thickness _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. 9. Displacement thickness is defined by 1 2 u∞ 1− z δ 0 (uu∞ − u 2 )dy . Boundary layer thickness _______________ along the flow direction. the momentum transfer is by _______________. The velocity gradient will be zero at the top plane of the boundary layer. Reynolds number _______________ in the direction of flow over flat plate. u∞ IJ K Chapter 10 Answers . 355 4. 5. In flow over a flat plate the boundary layer undergoes transition when the value of Reynolds number is about _______________. Shear stress within the boundary layer _______________ towards the boundary surface. 4. Wake 10. 3. 9 Decreases : 2. 9. In flow of real fluids the viscous effects can be considered to be confined to the _______________. The phenomenon of boundary layer separation takes place at adverse _______________ gradient. Laminar sub layer 8. Turbulence _______________ in the direction of flow. Boundary layer thickness will be smaller compared to displacement thickness. there exits a thin layer in which velocity variation is linear is called as _______________. In laminar boundary layer. 3. Momentum thickness will be larger compared to displacement thickness. Pressure 9. 4. 5. so that the flow equals the flow at free stream velocity. A boundary layer in which there is macroscopic mixing is called_______________. The velocity gradient in turbulent boundary layer will be _______________ than in the laminar boundary layer. The disturbed region downstream of boundary layer separation is known as _______________. Increases : 1. Answers 1.

9.8 m at a distance of 6 mm from plate surface (i) Assuming cubic profile and (ii) linear profile. 4. 11. If the velocity profile is given as u y y =2 − u∞ δ δ FG IJ H K 2 + C.356 10.6 In a flow of air over a flat plate at a distance 20 cm from leading edge.8. 13.205 kg/m3. 3. δm = 0.2 Derive an expression for the displacement thickness and Momentum thickness in flow over a flat plate assuming u u∞ = sin FG π y IJ . 5. E 10.3 Compare the velocities for flow over a flat plate to turn turbulent at a distance of 0. Displacement thickness 4. EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 10. (δt/δL = 144/105) δ δ E 10. Momentum thickness 3. Drag coefficient 8. 14. assuming 1/7th δ δ power law. Angle of incidence 14. Boundary layer thickness 2. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In turbulent flow boundary layer thickness is proportional to x0.10. calculate the value of C. Spin ratio 15. Chord. 14 O Q. 12. 11.6 m for (i) air (ii) water and (iii) engine oil. 8. Boundary layer thickness in laminar flow is proportional to x. . Assume parabolic profile for laminar correlation u y y =2 − u∞ δ δ FG IJ H K 2 and 1/7th power law variation for turbulent correlation. In turbulent flow Cf ∝ Re–0. 10. 12. all at 20 °C.5. wing span of an airfoil. 15.8 Define 1. Laminar flow 6. Pressure drag 9.0972) E 10. In turbulent flow Cf ∝ Re0.5 Determine the ratio of δm/δd in the turbulent region of flow over a flat plate.7 mm the free stream velocity being 25 m/s. H 2 δK E 10. Also determine the displaceδ (δd = 1. Coefficient of friction 5. In case flow is turbulent use 1/7th power law. Answers True : 2. In laminar flow Cf ∝ Re–0. E 10. the boundary layer thickness was measured as 5.76 mm) ment and momentum thicknesses at this section. find the ratio of laminar boundary layer thickness to turbulent boundary layer thickness. 15. Flow separation 10. (δm/δd = 0. v = 15. 6. 13. Turbulent flow 7.06 × 10–6 m2/s ρ = 1.9 mm.4 Assuming momentum thickness to be constant at the transition point whether laminar or turbulent flow correlation is used. 16 False : 1. 16. Drag coefficient 13. 11. Friction coefficient Cf = τw/ρ u∞2.1 Assuming that air at 20 °C flows over a flat with a free stream velocity of 6 m/s. Boundary layer thickness in laminar flow is proportional to x1/2.2.5 m and 0. Magnus effect. determine the velocity at 0. 7.2. Lift coefficient 12.

19 A high speed car with a frontal area of 1 m2 and drag coefficient CD = 0.3 m long and 1 m wide is placed parallel to the flow. the value of CD being 1.9 In a water tunnel the freestream velocity is 1.29 m/s) E 10.14 A large truck weighing 45000 N is be air dropped using a large parachute.12 Asuming (u/u∞) = FG y IJ H δK 1/ 9 .5 mm to 12. E 10. Derive an expression for the drag assuming the flow to be similar to that on a flat plate. The condition of air is 25 °C and 0. For u∞ = 2 m/s. Determine the angle of slant between 2 m and 4 m distances from entry. Determine the speed 10 (45 m/s) seconds after the chute is deployed.3 m/s. (8370 N) E 10. drag force upto a length L on one side is given by FD = ρ u∞2 δmL b.3 m from inlet the displacement thickness is 1 mm. derive an expression for boundary layer thickness at a distance x (δ = 0. and L = 0.15 Describe the types of drag when a disc is held parallel to flow direction and perpendicular to flow direction. determine the diameter of the chute.3 m along flow). Air at 20 °C flows at 30 m/s. The static pressure is – 22. (0.10 Show that for flow over a flat plate. E 10.287 x/R1/6) δ from leading edge.2 kg/m3.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 357 E 10.81 N) E 10. The pressures and temperatures on the inside and outside are 1 bar and 20 °C.8 In a wind tunnel square section of side 0. The water is at 10 °C. (0.9 bar. (2. determine the velocity at the second section. the walls are to be slightly slanted outward.17 A spherical balloon of helium of diameter 3 m is held tied to a rope.9 mm of water column (gauge).4 m/s. Determine the change in pressure between the sections. If the terminal speed is 10 m/s in air at 1 bar and 20 °C. (i) Assume linear velocity profile. (3. the boundary layer thickness increases from 9. (V = 1.20 A wind tunnel of 1 m square section is 6 m long. At 0. E 10. The wind flows at 20 kmph.18 An advertisement board 3 m dia is exposed to a 100 kmph normal wind. . Determine the total viscous force on the plate.7 mm.13 Determine the friction drag on an airship 100 m long and 20 m diameter when it travels at 130 kmph.76 kN) E 10. Also determine the change in static pressure.3 m. Use the results of cubic velocity profile assumption.22 A flat plate of lenght L and width equal to the boundary layer thickness is held parallel to the flow direction.6 kN) E 10. In order to maintain the velocity constant. Determine the angle of inclination of the cable. E 10.11 Determine the velocity of water if the drag on a sphere of 12 cm dia is 5 N.7 In a wind tunnel of square section of side 80 mm. Determine the total force on the board. Derive an expression for the drag on the plate.2. At the first location. the velocity of air is 18. E 10.21 A thin circular plate is held parallel to a flow with velocity u∞. determine the total drag. (30 m) E 10.6 m/s. the inlet velocity is 30 m/s. (59 N/m2) E 10.305 m. (ii) Assume cubic profile and (iii) Assume 1/7th power law.2. Assuming turbulent flow conditions and 1/7th power law velocity profile. Determine the drag on the section. where b is the width.16 An open C section of 30 cm dia and 8 m length is held with concave side facing the flow at 1 m/s of water. Density of air = 1. This is to compensate for the growth of the displacement thickness. ∆P = 2. b = 1 m. u∞ free stream velocity and δmL momentum thickness.19 N/m2) E 10. Chapter 10 E 10. (18.3 travelling at 100 m/s is to be decelerated using a drag chute of 2 m dia with CD = 1. A plate 0. (1.62 N) E 10.

2 kg/m3 and µ = 18 × 10–6 kg/ms.2 and rate of descent is 6 m/s determine (7 m) the diameter of chute.22 kg/m3 E 10.149 mm) viscosity = 1.28 Determine the terminal velocity and the maximum diameter of a spherical particle with a relative density of 1. and weights 5 N.2 kHz) The density of air 1.µ = 0. The wind speed is 4 kmph. d = 0.29 Derive the expression for terminal velocity of a particle V = D2(fg– f)/18µ. The kite is a square of side 6 m .25 The tension of the rope holding a kite is 20 N.8 falls in oil of relative density 0. (8.5 m dia filled with helium when let go ascended at 6.2 × 10–3 Ns/m2. E 10.2 kg/m3) of air = 1.63 × 10–2m/s) . Estimate the terminal velocity.30 A small stone of dia 5 mm and relative density 2. To overcome friction the power required was 5152 kW at a speed of 15 kmph. Dynamic (V = 8.27 m/s in air.72.8 that will settle in water with a density of 1000 kg/m3. Density of air = 1.9. The weight of the empty ballon was 50 N. Calculate the lift and drag coeficients. CD = 0. Air density is 1.26 A spherical ballon of 1. Take properties of water at 20 °C. E 10. The angle made by the kite is 10° with horizontal. Density (0. when fg = gravity force and f is bouyant force N/m3. Use stokes law. (CL = 0. E 10.24 Determine the frequency of vortex shedding by a wire 5 mm dia. E 10.3 Pas. E 10. When the rope is at 45° to the horizontal.2 kg/m3.2 kg/m3.53) E 10.27 A chute carrying a bomb totally weighs 1 kN.358 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 10. Determine the density of helium in the balloon. (1. at a wind speed of 30 m/s. Determine the reduction in power required if the surface was smooth.1 × 10–3 m/s. If CD = 1.23 A ship 150 m long has a rough wetted area of 5000 m2.

Velocity is also measured directly. fans and blowers are typical cases. flow velocity and flow rate are involved in almost all cases. since any sensing device has a finite dimension. teurbines. Measurement of velocity at a point is almost impossible. Velocity is usually measured indirectly by measuring the difference between the stagnation and static pressures (pitot tube) or by the rotational speed of wheels (vane anemometer) or by the temperature drop on a thin cylindrical wire in cross flow (hot wire anemometer) and also by optical systems. In this chapter the methods and instruments for the measurement of flow velocity and flow rate are described.1 INTRODUCTION Flow Measurements The performance of engineering equipments and systems should be validated by tests and experiments before these could be commissioned. 11. chemical process control and research work in fluid mechanics. It is essential that the presence of the sensing device in the flow stream does not afffect the flow being measured.2 VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS The measurement of velocity at a point or a number of points throughout a section in a flow stream is often needed to establish the velocity profile. However. Out of the many parameters to be measured. by determining the distance travelled by a group of fluid particles during a measured time interval. Other areas requiring measurement of flow parameters are irrigation systems. 359 . Tests and experiments involve various measuring instruments. Performance tsting of pumps. 11. Measurement of pressure and pressure difference between locations are discussed in chapter 2. if the area of flow occupied by the sensing device is relatively small compared to the total area of flow stream. then it may be considered that the velocity measured is the velocity at a point. in some instances.

h h y1 V1 1 0 (a) (b) A y1 V1 1 0 y1 B V1 1 A 0 rf B hm rm (c) Figure 11. The tube connection at this point is called static tube/probe. For velocity measurement in ducts a different arrangement of pick ups is necessary.2.1 (a). ρg ρg 2g (11.2.1) ∴ V1 = 2 gh (11. A tapping perpendicular to the flow gives the static pressure. The static tube A and pitot tube B are connected to a U tube manometer as shown in Fig.1. P1 + ρgy1 + ρmg hm = P0 + ρgy1 hmg(ρm – ρ) = P0 – P1 (11.1 Pitot tube arrangements If Bernoulli equation is applied between a point.1) ( P0 − P1 ) ρg[( y1 + h) − y1 ] V12 = = =h.2) Note that h is the head expressed as the column of flowing fluid.1 Pitot Tube Fluid Mechanics and Machinery If a small bore hollow tube bent at 90° is placed in a flow stream with its end facing upstream. 0 at the other end of the tube.1 (c) for measurement of velocity in a pipe. 11. A typical method is illustrated in Fig. Substituting for (P0 – P1) from equation 11.2. then leaving out Patm on both sides P1 V12 P0 + = ρg 2 g ρg Since stagnation condition exists within the tube P0 = ρg(y + h).3) where ρ and ρm are the densities of flowing and manometric fluids. Equating the pressure at the left and right side limbs of the manometer.2. 1 upstream at the submerged end of the tube and a point.360 11.2. at point 1. The pitot probe held facing upstream measures the total pressure.2. This method is used as pick-up in velocity measurment.1 (b). 11.2.2. . the static pressure is P1 = ρgy1 Substituting and rearranging equation (11.2. fluid will rise in the vertical side of the tube as shown in Fig 11.

the equation for the velocity should be modified. The accuracy of the measurement is found to depend on the shape of the tip of the pitot tube. Chapter 11 .2.4 is modified as V1 = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m /ρ) − 1 b g (11.2 Prandtl and Brabbee pitot tubes In both these cases. 11.4) ρm/ρ is to be replaced by sm/s in terms of specific gravities. In the case of subsonic gas flow. indicating the details of construction. considering compressibility as V1 = Cv 2 kRT1 k−1 LMF P I − 1OP NMGH P JK QP 0 1 (11.2.2.2. 11. 11. Static pressure holes Flow direction (a) Static pressure holes Flow direction (b) Figure 11.Flow Measurements ρV12 2 The velocity of fluid near the tip of the pitot at section 1 is 361 hmg (ρm – ρ) = ∴ V1 = 2 ghm (ρ m − ρ)/ρ = 2 ghm (ρ m /ρ) − 1 b g (11. In practice the two tubes are combined together to be used as a single instrument called pitot static tube as shown in Fig.2. the inner tube measures the stagnation pessure and the tube with opening on the surface measures the static pressure.2 (a) and (b).5) where Cv is a coefficient and its value has to be determined by calibrating the device.2(a)) is due to Prandtl and it is more accurate over the design of Brabbee as shown in Fig.6) where k = CP/Cv the ratio of specific heats. This instrument is extensively used for velocity measurements in gas flow.2.2. it is not a practical arrangement. Standards are available for these instruments.2. Turbulent flows with more fluctuations at the tip may show a higher reading compared to the time averaged velocity at that location. This set up (Fig. Though the set up illustrates the basic principle involved in the measurement. Hence equation 11.2 (b).

The current flow though the wire is kept constant and the change in wire resistance from convection cooling is measured in terms of the voltage drop across it. radiation and conduction being negligible. Atmospheric wind speed measurement is generally done using such devices. Fluctuations in velocity may be detected and recorded by suitable circuitry.2. Constant current method.3 (b) and cones are fitted on the current meter as shown in the Fig 11. The pick ups are shown in Fig. 2.2. Calibration is done by towing the meters through stagnant water or air at known speeds. Drag force on the vanes and cones when fluid moves over them causes the rotary movement of the rotor.3(a). R is the resistance of wire per unit length. Constant resistance method.362 11. 11. Hemispherical vanes are fitted on the radial arms of vane anemometer as shown in Fig. heat will be transferred from the wire mainly by convection. V is the free stream velocity and ρ is the density of the fluid with constants A and B to be determined by calibration.2. Impeller type wheels are also used for the measurement of gas flow velocity. Two methods of measuring flow rate are: 1.3 Hot Wire Anemometer In hot-wire anemometers.2. Power/unit length I2R = = A + B ρV Tw − Ta Temperature difference where I is the instantaneous current. The wire resistance is kept constant by adjusting the current flow through it and the velocity is determined by measuring the current and calibrating the instrument accordingly. The heat transfer depends on the flow velocity.2 Vane Anemometer and Currentmeter Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vane anemometers and current meters are used to measure the velocity of air and water in larger flow fields. 11.3 Vane anemometer 11. The following relationship is used to determine the velocity. When the hot wire is placed in a flowing stream.4.2.2. B B US US A (a) (b) A Figure 11. Ta is the ambient temperature. Tw is the temperature of the wire. . The speed of rotation is generally indicated by means of electrical contacts made once in each revolution and the number of contacts made per unit time interval is a direct measure of the average speed of the fluid in the region traversed by the meters. an electrically heated thin wire is placed across a flowing stream.

Flow Measurements Inconel wire Ceramic cement Ceramic tubing Ceramic Inconel cement tubing Ceramic tubing 363 Position of fine wire Position of fine wire (a) Ceramic cement Ceramic tubing Ceramic cement Inconel tubing Ceramic tubing Inconel wire (b) Figure 11.5 Laser Doppler anemometer . Chapter 11 Beam splitter Laser Photodetector Lens Frequency tracker Reference beam Fluid flow Measurement volume Figure 11. A laser of fixed wavelength serves as a source of light and optical components split the laser beam into a reference beam and a secondary beam which are made to intersect at the measurement volume in the flow field. 11.4 Laser Doppler Anemometer Laser Doppler anemometer is used to measure the velocity of a flow without disturbing the flow. This size of particle can generally follow all motions in the fluid in which it is carried. It is often used to measure turbulent velocity and also low volume flow rates. A continuous velocity signal is possible with this type of measurement system from which turbulence characteristics can be analysed.2. A frequency tracking filter locks onto the modulation frequency in the photodetector output to obtain the Doppler frequency which is linearly related to the velocity component through the optical system geometry. It measures the velocity of small particles that are either naturally present in most liquid flows or are seeded with 1 µm size particles in gas flows.2.2. Frequency shifted light that is scattered off particles passing through the measurement volume and the unshifted beam is collected at a photodetector. The light scattered off a moving particle has its frequency shifted by an amount that is proportional to the particle speed. There is an amplitude variation due to the frequency modification between the two beams.5 is one of the technique used for velocity measurement. The reference beam mode with frequency tracking shown in Fig.4 Hot wire anemometer 11. The doppler frequency will vary with time in unsteady laminar or turbulent flow.2.

The advantage is that its capacity to measure the flow rate can be easily changed by changing the float or the tube.3. A major limitation in using rotameters is that these have to be installed in vertical position only. The major disadvantage of this system is its high cost and the requirement of optical access to the flow field. the float assumes a position inside the tube where the forces acting on it are in equilibrium.1 Rotameter 11. The same fluid and same range of flows as in the actual installation should be used for the calibration. Hence the position of the float indicates the flow rate.364 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Multicomponent measuring systems can be developed by using laser with different wave lengths or other frequency shifting techniques.3. Also it cannot be used with liquids containing large number of solid particles and at high pressure conditions. the effects of changes in viscosity or density may be minimized. leaving only the pressure forces as the main variable. A Flow area A Glass Float Flow Pipe AA Flow Figure 11.1 Rotameter (Float Meter) The rotameter is a device whose indication is essentially linear with flow rate. 11. It is also expensive. Through careful design. For a given flow rate. Pressure force depends on flow rate and area available for flow. Propeller rotors are used in this meter.3. 11.1 The flow takes place upward through the tube. In the case of constriction meters Bernoulli equation and continuity equation are applied between the upstream and downstream sections of the constriction to obtain an expression for the flow rate. In this device a flot moves freely inside a tapered tube as shown in Fig.3.2 Turbine Type Flowmeter Turbine type flow meter is used to measure flow in closed conduits. This device is also called as variable area meter or float meter.3 VOLUME FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT Volume flow rate in pipes can be measured either using direct measuring devices such as watermeter or rotameters (float meters) or using a constriction or elbow meters which produce a measurable pressure difference that can be used to determine the flow rate. Flow meters (watermeter or rotameter) may be calibrated either by the manufacturer or by the user before installation. The following forces act on the float (i) downward gravity force (ii) upward buoyant force (iii) pressure and (iv) viscous drag force. 11. The number of turns of the rotor per unit time is counted and used as a .

1 and 11.3. ∆h.2.2. A permanent magnet in the rotor body produces a voltage pulse everytime the rotor blade passes the pole of the coil.Flow Measurements 365 measure of the flow rate.3 Venturi.2.3 and 11.2.1 and 11.3. Nozzle and Orifice meters are the three obstruction type meters commonly used for the measurement of flow through pipes. . C A – Turbine rotor B – Bearing support and straightening vanes C – Variable reluctance pickup B B A Figure 11.2 Turbine flowmeter 11. The pulse rate may be indicated by a frequency meter or displayed on a CRO screen or counted by some type of meter which converts the pulses to a proportional DC output. 2 g∆h 2 g∆h V2 = Q= 1 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 A2 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 Refer equations 11.3. V2 = 1 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 2 g[( p1 /ρg + Z1 ) − ( P2 /ρg + Z2 )] By connecting a manometer to the tappings at sections 11. The major problem inherent in this type of meter is the reduced accuracy at low flow rates.3.2 the difference in pressure levels ∴ ∴ Flow rate LMF P + Z I − F P + Z I OP MNGH ρg JK GH ρg JK PQ 1 1 2 2 can be measured by the manometer reading. As there is no intrusion in to the flow this type can be used to measure flow of chemicals also. 11. The arrangement is shown in Fig. The rotor movement is sensed by a reluctance pickup coil. Nozzle and Orifice Meters Chapter 11 Venturi.3.2 P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 and V1A1 = V2A2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g Solving these equations. 11. In each case the meter acts as an obstacle placed in the path of the flowing fluid causing local changes in pressure and velocity as shown in Fig. Applying Bernoulli and continuity equations between sections 11.

The coefficient is defined by. Cd for venturi meters is in the range 0. Orificemeter is the simple and cheap device compared to the other two. In both the above cases for Re > 105 the effect of Re on Cd is marginal. Venturimeter is a highly accurate device with discharge coefficient falling within a narrow range depending on the finish of the entrance cone. A parallel section is used to ensure that flow fills the throat.7 to 0. The range for coefficient of discharge is 0. . ∴ Qactual = Qtheoretical × Cd where Cd is the coefficient of discharge.98.3.9 depending on diameter ratio and Reynolds number to some extent. Higher the value D2/D1 lower the value of the coefficient.3 Pressure variation in obstruction type meters This equation needs a modifying coefficient as viscous effects and boundary roughness as well as the velocity of approach factor that depend on the diameter ratio have been neglected. The approach curve in the nozzle flow meter must be proportioned to prevent separation between the flow and the well. The value depends on the diameter ratio.6 to 0.65.95 to 0. But sudden area of contraction in this device leads to higher pressure loss.366 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Dp 1 2 (a) Venturi meter Dp 1 2 (b) Nozzle meter Dp 2 1 (c) Orifice meter Figure 11. Cd for flow nozzle is in the range 0.

3.4 Elbow Meter 367 Elbow meter is used to measure the flow through a pipe.1 Orifice meter Chapter 11 . The elbow meter is inexpensive and accurate if it is calibrated carefully. Pipe bend Q U Pi Po Flexible tubing Manometer yi h yo Datum Figure 11. 11. 11.4. Flow out of open channels is measured using weirs.3. ∴ Z1 – Z2 = V22/2g V2 = 2 g ( Z1 − Z2 ) = 2 gh 2.4.1 shows an orifice in an open tank through which the flow takes place. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 1 P2 V2 2 P1 V12 + + + Z1 = + Z2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g The velocity a point 1 is zero and the pressures at 1 and 2 are both atmospheric. When the fluid flows through the elbow fitted in a pipe line.4. Venacontracta h 2 Figure 11. The pressure difference is measured using a manometer as shown in Fig. The difference in pressure at the outer and inner wall is a function of the flow rate.4 Elbow meter 11.3.1 Discharge Measurement Using Orifices Fig. Flow from open channels and tanks is due to gravity and the change in velocity produced is due to the change in head. NOTCHES AND WEIRS Flow out of open tanks are measured using orifices. higher pressure results at the outer wall surface than at the innerwall surface.4 FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ORIFICES.Flow Measurements 11. 11.4.

This section is called as vena contracta.4. Coefficient of discharge (Cd) Coefficient of discharge is defined as Cd = Actual area Actual velocity Actual discharge × = = Cc × Cv Theoretical area Theoretical velocity Theoretical discharge Average value of Cd for orifices is 0. Cd = Qactual/Qtheoretical The values of Cd depends upon the contraction of the jet fromt the orifice to section 2 and on nonideal flow effects such as head losses which depend upon the roughness of the inside surface of the tank near the orifice and the flow rate.95 to 0.62. the stream lines converge and the area just outside the orifice is lower compared to the area of the orifice. Area of jet at the vena contracta is less than the area of the orifice itself due to convergence of stream lines. . Cv = Actual velocity of jet at venacontracta = Theoritical velocity V 2 gh The value of Cv varies from 0. A weir extends to the full width of the channel while a notch occupies a smaller width. Typical value for Cd is 0.69 depending on the shape and size of the orifice.62.61 to 0. 11. Cofficient of velocity (Cv). The coefficient of contraction Cc is defined as follows Cc = Area of the jet at vena contracta ac = Area of orifice a The value of coefficient of contraction varies from 0. Due to these effects.4.2 Flow Measurements in Open Channels Rectangular and triangular weirs are used to measure the flow in an open channel.99 for different orifices depending on their shape and size.2. Coefficient of contraction Cc. The velocity coefficients Cv is defined as follows. 11. the actual flow velocity through the orifice will always be less than the theoretical possible velocity. The actual flow rate is given by Qactual = Cd A0 2 gh where A0 is the area of orifice and Cd is the coefficient of discharge.2. As water leaves an open tank through an orifice. There is alsways some loss of energy due to viscous effects in real fluid flows. A rectangular notch is shown in Fig.368 The theoretical flow rate is given by Qt = A2 2 gh Fluid Mechanics and Machinery where A2 is the area of cross-section at section 11.

4. The value of Cd will however be different. Flow rate through the elemental strip = dq = Cd (B dh) Integrating between the weir tip and the water level Total discharge Q= 2 gh z H 0 Cd Bdh 3/ 2 2 gh = Cd B H 2g z H 0 h1/2 dh 0 The value of Cd depends the approach velocity which in turn depends on the ratio of head H and crest height z. It is called Cipolletti weir.075 H z (11. 11.611 + 0. Bernoulli equation is applied between upstream and drown stream of the weir.4. with height dh and width B at a height h above the strip.Flow Measurements 2 ha = va /2g 2 ha = va /2g 369 h dh Crest b Z H Figure 11. Consider a rectangular strip as shown in figure.4.3. Discharge over a triangular notch.2 Rectangular weir Rectangular weir.1) .2) A trapezoidal weir with side slope of 1 horizontal to 4 vertical is used to compensate for flow reduction due to end contraction at the corners.4. the discharge through the elemental strip dh is dq = Cd 2 H − h tan Total discharge Q= z H 0 FG b g θ dhIJ 2 gh H 2 K θ I F C G 2b H − hg tan dhJ 2 gh H 2 K d = 2 Cd 2 g tan θ 2 z H 0 ( H − h) h1/ 2 dh Chapter 11 Q = CdB 2 g LM h OP N3 / 2Q Q= 2 C B 2 g H 3/ 2 3 d (11. Consider an elemental strip dh. The value of Cd is given by Cd = 0. A triangular notch is called V notch as shown in Fig. The flow equation is the same with B as bottom width.

25% of flow rate ± 5% of meter range ± 2 to 5% of meter range Medium Very low Very low Medium Low Low Turbine meter Laser Doppler High Nil High High Rectangle and V notch Very low Medium . dirty liquids and some slurry Clean. dirty and viscous liquids and some slurries Clean and dirty liquids Clean liquids Clean and dirty liquids and some slurries Clean and viscous liquids Dirty.4.4. viscous liquids and slurries Clean and dirty liquids Accuracy ± 2 to 4% of the meter range ± 1% of meter range Pressure loss Medium Relative cost Low Venturi meter Low Medium Flow nozzle Pitot tube Elbow meter ± 1 to 2% of meter range ± 3 to 5% of meter range ± 5 to 10% of meter range ± 0.3) Table 11.3 Triangular notch Q = 2Cd 2 g tan θ Hh 3 / 2 h5 / 2 θ 5/2 8 − = Cd 2 g tan H 2 3/2 5/2 15 2 LM N OP Q (11.4.1 A comparison of various flow measuring devices Flow meter Orifice Application Clean.370 b Fluid Mechanics and Machinery U h q q dh h H Stream tube Crest Weir Crest Figure 11.

98 Speed of the submarine.4 The flow velocity of water in a pipe is measured by a pitot static tube. The difference between the stagnation and static pressures measured as head of mercury and converted to head of water is 10 cm.81 × FG 1000 − 1IJ 5 = 28. Aircraft velocity Wind velocity = = 300 × 1000 = 83.33 m/s. Assume Cv = 0. If the coefficient of velocity Cv = 0. V = Cv 2 gh 88.32 m.56 m/s 3600 Relative velocity of plane V = 83. The head causing the flow is given as head of the flowing fluid.32 × 12 = 5032 N/m2. Problem 11. Solving for.98. hair = 419. The tube is placed at the centre of a 30 cm diameter pipe. V = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m / ρ) − 1 = 0.98 2 × 9.7 times the centre line velocity.56 = 88.98 2 × 9. The manometer shows a difference in head of 5 cm of water. Hence the equation used is . V = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m / ρ) − 1 = 0.13 K 100 Problem 11.81 × b g FG 13600 − 1IJ 20 = 6.33 + 5.86 m/s H 1.98 2 × 9. H 1019 K 100 Chapter 11 Problem 11. determine the velocity of water in the pipe.13 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3 determine the velocity of air.6 kmph.2 The difference in mercury level of a pitot static tube connected to a submarine is 20 cm. If the mean velocity is 0. Assume the coefficient of the pitot tube as 0.81 × h . If the specific weight of air is 12 N/m3 determine the pressure difference the instrument will register.89 m/s Velocity recorded by pitot tube.89 = 0. h which is head of air.98. ∆P = 419. The density of sea water is 1019 kg/m3.Flow Measurements SOLVED PROBLEMS 371 Problem 11. Flow velocity. Determine the speed of the submarine.821 m/s or 25.1 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of air flowing through a duct. compute the discharge of water through the pipe.3 A pitot static tube is mounted on an aircraft travelling at a speed 300 kmph against a wind velocity of 20 kmph. 3600 20 × 1000 = 5. If the density of air and water are 1.

373 m/s Mean velocity in pipe = 0.152 = 0.98 2 × 9.73 kN/m H 1000 K 2 ∴ Static pressure in the duct = 98.373 = 0. Calculate the air velocity if Cv = 0.2) Velocity V2 = Cd A1 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ and Q = V × A Hρ K m 2 2 Flow rate Q= Cd A1 A2 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m Inlet area Throat area Flow rate A1 = π × 0.85 m/s Problem 11. (Note : The size of venturimeter generally specified in terms of inlet and throat diameters) Refer equation (6.81) FG 740 IJ = 98.98 2 × 9.961 = 0. ρ= P 107.6 A venturimeter of 150 mm × 75 mm size is used to measure the flow rate of oil having specific gravity of 0.73 × 10 3 = = 1.73 kN/m2 (absolute pressure) Density of air inside the duct.2 = 35. The static pressure in the duct is 9 kN/m2 and the air temperature is 320 K.81 × 68. Q = Area of cross section × Mean velocity Q= π × 0.372 Centre line velocity Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = Cv 2 gh = 0.32 × 0.7/60) = 0.068 m3/s or 68 l/s 4 Problem 11.7 m3/min. Calculate the coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter if the flow rate is 1.00442 m2 4 = (1.9.0283 m3/s.73 + 9 = 107.961 m/s Discharge through the pipe.2 m of air 100 1.5 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of air in a duct. Substituting . The reading shown by the U tube manometer connected to the venturimeter is 150 mm of mercury column. The water manometer shows a reading of 8 cm.173 Differential pressure head = 8 cm of water = Air velocity V = Cv 2 ghair = 0. Assume the gas constant for air as 287 J/kg K.7 × 1.98. Atmospheric pressure = ρgh = (13.6 × 103) (9.81 × (10 / 100) = 1. 4 A2 = π × 0.173 kg/m3 RT 287 × 320 8 1000 × = 68.0752 = 0.0177 m2.6. The local barometer reads 740 mm of mercury.

8 A venturimeter is fitted in a pipe of 30 cm diameter inclined at 40° to the horizontal to measure the flow rate of petrol having a specific gravity of 0.15 FG 13.9 K Cd = 0.Flow Measurements 0. Calculate the discharge through the venturimeter and the pressure difference between the throat and the entry point of the venturimeter.0098 m2 7500 × 10 −3 0.8. Assuming the coefficient of discharge as 0.0177 2 − 0.96 × 0. The ratio of areas of main pipe and throat is 5 and the throat is at 1 m from the inlet along its length. 1 m X 40° B Hg Y A 40 mm Figure P.6 − 1IJ H 0.00442 2 2 × 9. Calculate the throat diameter of the venturimeter.96.81 × 0.7 A venturimeter is used to measure liquid flow rate of 7500 litres per minute. π × 0.192 = 0.8 .0284 m2 4 2 × 9.96.0098 4 Chapter 11 d= 4 × 0. Assume the coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter as 0.9 cm π Problem 11. The difference in pressure across the venturimeter is equivalent to 8 m of the flowing liquid. ∴ π × d2 = 0. Solving A2 = 0.0098 = 9.00442 0. The pipe diameter is 19 cm.0284 2 − A2 Let the diameter be d.81 × 8 .963 Problem 11.0284 A2 = 2 60 0. 11.0283 = ∴ 373 Cd × 0.0177 × 0. Q = Cd A1 = A1 A2 2 gh 2 2 A1 – A2 . The difference in manometer head is 40 mm of mercury.

0141 2 2 2 × 9.6 − 1IJ H 0.1875/2 = 0. When a steady head of 0.81 × 0.0785 m2. determine the discharge coefficient of venturimeter.6.22 = 0.0314 / 0.0707/5 = 0. A Hρ K m 1 = π × 0.0314 (0.96 × 0.6 × 15 2 × 9.0141 m2.0486 m3/s Considering points A and B and level at A as datum PA + ρgy + ρg(0.04 × FG 13.0707 − 0.32 = 0. the difference of head between he entrance and throat section of the Venturimeter is found to be 39 cm head of the fluid measured using notch as actual flow.2 applicable for all orientations Q = Cd A1/A2 = 5 ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A1 A2 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ .0141 × 0.04) = PB + ρgx + ρgy + ρmg (0.0214 = Cd Cd = 0.04) PA – PB = ρgx + 0.81 (1 × sin 40) + 0.8 K = 0.96 2 × 9.81 × 0.12 = 0.374 Refer equation 6.9 A venturimeter of 20 cm × 10 cm size is calibrated in a laboratory using a right angled V notch. Substituting. Discharge over a triangular notch Q = θ 8 CD 2 g tan h5/2 2 15 For right angled triangular notch.00785 2 ) − 1 2 0.32 N/m2 or 10. A = 1 π × 0.04 × g × (ρm – ρ) = ρg (1 × sin 40) + 0. 4 0.04 × 9.07 kN/m2 Problem 11.04 × 9.0707 m2 4 A2 = 0.187 m is maintained over the notch with a coefficient of discharge 0. tan (θ/2) = tan 45° = 1 ∴ For the venturimeter Q = Cd A2 = A1 2 ( A1 Q= 8 × 0.81 × (13600 – 800) = 800 × 9.81 × (13600 – 800) = 10067.39 .0707 0.6.0314 m2 4 π × 0.02143 m3/s / 2 A2 ) −1 2 gh . Q= 0.81 × 0.

13 kg/m3 and that of water as 1000 kg/m3. The pitot static tube is placed downstream of the venturimeter and the water manometer attached to the pitot static tube shows a reading of 7 mm.81 × 0.0095 (0.Flow Measurements 375 Problem 11.81K Chapter 11 .95 × 0.0095 m2. determine the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter.81 × FG 12 IJ H 1000 × 9. Flow rate in venturimeter Qv = Cd A1 2 ( A1 2 / A2 ) − 1 2 gh P 12 h = ρg = 1000 × 9.112 = 0.0992 m3/s ∴ Mean velocity down stream. Q = 0.81 .05 FG 1000 − 1IJ H 1.065 m and coefficient of discharge 0. Flow rate through the venturimeter Q = Cd A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A2 ) −1 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m A1 = π π × 0. A2 = × 0.95 is used to calibrate a pitot static tube.95 Problem 11.0095 / 0.00332 ) − 1 2 2 Q = Cd 2 × 9.007 ∴ Cv = 0.112 = 10.81 × 0.0992/π × 0.96 is fitted in a pipeline which carries water in it. The difference in water level in the manometer attached to the venturimeter is 50 mm. The pressure difference across the venturimeter is 12 N/m2. Air flows through a 110 mm diameter horizontal pipe in which the venturimeter is fitted.13 K 10. Calculate the flow rate through the pipe and the coefficient of velocity of the pitot static tube.10 A venturimeter with throat diameter 0. if the pressure difference across it is 28 N/m2. V = 4 × 0.44 = Cv 2 × 9. Assume the density of air as 1.00332 m2 4 4 0.0652 = 0.96 A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A2 ) −1 2 × 9.44 m/s Mean velocity measured by pitot static tube V = Cv 2 ghm FG ρ Hρ m −1 IJ K FG 1000 − 1IJ H 1. If an orifice meter with 5 cm diameter is futted in the same pipe line.11 A venturimeter with throat diameter 5 cm and coefficient of discharge 0.13 K = 0.

The elbowmeter is fitted in a vertical pipe of 15 cm diameter.63 0. The pressure loss in elbowmeter is (suffices i and o indicate inside and outside) P0 Pi ∆P = ρg + y0 − ρg + yi FG H IJ FG K H IJ K Flow 150 Also pressure loss can be expressed in terms of the flow velocity in the bend as ∆P = k 50 V2 2g 10 kN/m2 ∴ P0 P V2 + y0 − i + yi k 2 = g ρg ρg 2g k 0 FG H IJ FG K H IJ K i i Figure P.81 × 28 1000 × 9.05OP N 1000 × 9.237 Simplifying 0. Calculate the flow rate through the elbowmeter.149 = 0.81 LM 10 × 10 + 0.81 0. If the tapping point at the outer wall of the elbowmeter is 5 cm higher than the tapping point at the innerwall.237 ∴ Cd = Problem 11. 11.152 4 2 × 9.0486 m /s 3 .12 Water flows in an elbowmeter creating a pressure difference of 10 kN/m2 between its outer and inner wall.6 × π 0.81 Q = 0.149 = Cd × 0.96 2× 12 = Cd 1000 2 × 9.376 Flow rate through the orifice Q0 = Cd A1 2 ( A1 2 / A2 ) − 1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2 gh Since the throat diameter of venturi and orifice are the same cancelling common terms 0.12 V= LMF P + y I − F P + y I OP MNGH ρg JK GH ρg JK PQ 0 ∴ Discharge through the elbowmeter Q=A×V=A Assuming k = 1 Q = CdA 2g k LMF P + y I − F P + y I OP NMGH ρg JK GH ρg JK QP 0 0 i i i 0 2g LMF P − P + b y MNGH ρg 0 − yi gIJK OPP Q 3 = 0.

7424 Cv 0. 4 yh X Jet y Here x = 5 m. If the discharge measured in a collecting tank is 0.6774 = = 0.9124 ∴ Actual discharge Q = Cd 0. Water stands 15 m above the centerline of the orifice.81 × 3 Coefficient of velocity Cv = 0.5 m ∴ Cv = 52 = 0.5 m vertical.9124 2 gh π 7 × 4 100 FG IJ H K 2 × 2 × 9. Cd = 0. Flow velocity in orifice = V = Cv 2 gh .627 Let the jet travel during time t horizontally through a distance x and the jet fall by distance x = V × t = Cv 2 gh t or x2 = Cv2 2ght2 y = (1/2)gt2 ∴ x2 = 4Cv2h y Cv = Orifice ∴ x2 . 11. Cc and Cd of the orifice.81 × 3 Problem 11. calculate the coefficient of velocity. Find the hydraulic coefficients Cv.Flow Measurements 377 Problem 11. A point on the jet measured from the vena contracta has co-ordinates 5 m horizontal and 0. coefficient of contraction and the theoretical discharge through the orifice. 6 = Cv 2 × 9. Chapter 11 Actual discharge Q = Cd A 2gh 190 × 10–3 = Cd × y during this time. and y = 0.14 Water is discharged through a 15 cm diameter orifice in the vertical side of an open tank at the rate of 190 litres per second.13 The actual velocity of a liquid issuing through a 7 cm diameter orifice fitted in an open tank is 6 m/s under a head of 3 m.5 × 15 Figure P.14 .020 = Cd Coefficient of discharge Cd = 0.913 4 × 0.152 × 4 2 × 9.6774 Coefficient of contraction = Cc = Cd 0.020 m3/s. ∴ π × 0.81 × 15 .

0314 / 0. Discharge (Refer eqn 11.75 FG 13600 − 1IJ H 800 K = 0.913 Cv Problem 11. The head causing the flow should not exceed half the notch width.799. Assume the coefficient of discharge of the rectangular notch as 0. Assuming the coefficient of discharge of the notch as 0.0314 m2.22 = 0. the flow equation 11.65 × 15 .81 × 0.81 × 0.5 = × 0.6.687 0.5 = 0. Assume coefficient of discharge for orifice as 0.4. and tan (θ/2) = 1. Calculate the oil flow rate throught the pipe.6 × 3 2 × 9. A2 = × 0.00503 ) − 1 2 2 2 × 9.155/2 = 0. B = 0.047 m3/s = 47 l/s Problem 11.1) Q= = 2 C B 2 g H3/2 3 d 2 × 0.15 An orifice of 8 cm diameter is fitted in a 20 cm diameter pipe that carries oil of specific gravity 0. Flow rate Q = Cd A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A1 ) −1 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m A1 = Q= π π × 0.18 Water flow rate in an open channel is measured using a right angled V notch.75 m.082 = 0.15 m. The mercury manometer attached to the orifice shows a reading of 0.65.00503 m2 4 4 0.81 3 3 2 FG IJ H K 3/ 2 0.0134 m3/s 8 × 0.3 reduces to Discharge. As θ/2 = 45°.88 m3/s 3 Problem 11. calculate the discharge in the channel. Cc = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.626 Problem 11.16 A rectangular notch is used to measure the flow rate of water in an open channel. Calculate the discharge assuming the coefficient of discharge of the notch as 0.6 × B 2 × 9.53/2 = 1.6 × 0.81 tan 45 × 0.914 m 0.6.6. The head of water over V notch is 0.4.8.5 m.0314 (0.5 m3/s in an open channel. The width of the rectangular notch is 3 m and the head of water causing the flow is 0. Discharge Q= B5/2 = B 2 2 Cd B 2 g H3/2 or 0.627 Cd = = 0.378 Coefficient of contraction. Q= = 8 C 15 d 2 g H5/2 2 × 9.17 What should be the width of a rectangular notch that should be used to measure the water flow rate of 0.

Solving Cd = 0.6 and 0. Discuss the method of velocity measurement using (i) Vane anemometer and (ii) Turbine meter.045 8 = C 60 15 d Problem 11.19 Water flows over a right angled V notch at the rate of 0. Q= 0. find the position of the apex of the notch from the bed of the channel.81 (0.6 × 0. Determine the head of water over the V notch. Explain the principle involved in measuring velocity of flow using a pitot static tube.1 m.6.59 m Problem 11.028 m3/s Discharge through the V notch. 2. Discharge through the rectangular notch. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the notch.202 m REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.028 = θ 8 Cd 2 g tan H5/2 2 15 8 × 0.65 respectively.0485/2. If the maximum depth of water is not to exceed 1 m. 3.Flow Measurements 379 Problem 11.65 15 2 × 9.59 Notch 8 × 0.81 tan 45 × H5/2 Figure P.15 m3/s.21 An open channel is fitted with a rectangular and right angled V notch with coefficient of discharge 0.15 = 0. Sketch and describe the construction details of a hot wire anemometer. Chapter 11 . Describe the methods of velocity measurement using it.20 A right angled V notch is used to measure the flow rate in an open channel which carries water at the rate of 0. Discharge Q= θ 8 Cd 2 g tan H5/2 2 15 2 × 9.045 m3/min maintaining a head of 0. Explain the method of velocity measurement using Laser Doppler anemometers.20 ∴ H = 0. The width of rectangular notch is 0. Q= 2 C B 3 d 2 g H3/2 = 2 × 0.6 15 2 × 9.81 tan 45 × 0. 4.5 m and the head causing the flow over it is 0. 11.048 m.63 0.41 m The distance of apex of V notch from the bed of channel = Maximum depth of water – H = 1 – 0. 1m Discharge θ 8 Q= C tan H5/2 2 15 d 2 g 0.1)3/2 = 0.5 3 2 × 9.81 tan 45 × H5/2 ∴ H = 0.41 = 0. Assume the coefficient of discharge as 0.

Stagnation pressure 4. Area of the jet at venacontracta to the area of orifice 6. The rotary movement in vane anemometer and current meter is created by the ________________ 9. A V notch is used to measure (a) Velocity in a pipe (b) Wind velocity (c) Discharge of liquid in an open channel (d) Viscosity. In pitot static tube the opening perpendicular to the flow direction measures ________________ 3.85 (c) 0. Derive the expression for flow measurement through an orifice in an open tank. 6. 5.7 to 0. When a fluid flows though an elbow.2 Select the correct answer 1.11. 6. Static pressure 3. Coefficient of discharge is the ratio of ________________ 7.92 (d) 0. Answers 1. Coefficient of contraction is the ratio of ________________ 6. 3. Compare the merits and demerits of flow measurement using Venturimeter. The range of coefficient of discharge for orifice meter is (a) 0. Reluctance pickup coil 10. In pitot static tube the opening facing the flow direction measures ________________ 4. Anemometer is used to measure (a) Velocity (b) Pressure (c) Viscosity (d) Density.92 to 0. Actual velocity of jet at venacontracta to theoretical velocity 5. Compare the flow measuring devices with respect to their accuracy. 7. Pitot static tube is used to measure ________________ 2. 8. Derive the expression for computing discharge through a Venturimeter. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. Rotameter is used to measure (a) Viscosity (b) Flow (c) Density (d) Pressure.85 to 0. Derive an expression for the flow measurement using a triangular notch in an open channel. Actual flow/theoretical flow 7.11. higher pressure results at the ________________ 8. In turbine meter the rotor movement is sensed by a ________________ 10. an ________________ is placed in a flowing stream. The more accurate flow measuring instrument is (a) Orificemeter (b) Venturimeter (c) Flowmeter (d) Elbow meter. Orificemeter and nozzlemeter. Coefficient of velocity of orifice is the ratio of ________________ 5. 9. . Outerwall 8. Velocity of flow 2. 4. 2.7 (b) 0. A pitot static tube is used to measure (a) Stagnation pressure (b) Static pressure (c) Dynamic pressure (d) Difference between the static pressure and dynamic pressure.98.380 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. Electrically heated wire. O Q. Define venacontracta.1 Fill in the blanks 1. Drag force on vanes and cones 9. 10.6 to 0. Derive an expression for the flow measurement in an open channel using rectangular notch. In a hot-wire anemometer.

A mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 200 mm. (0. c 7.2 m3/s.1 m of water.7 A venturimeter with 0.3 m/s) . is equivalent to 6 m of water.4 Air velocity in a duct is measured as 38.0064 m3/s) E 11.8 A pipe of 0. (0.25 m diameter carries water at the rate of 7. calculate the flow rate in the pipe. Assuming the ecoefficient of velocity as 0. A venturimeter with 0. Assume coefficient of velocity as 0. c 2.3 m/s) E 11. calculate the throat diameter of the venturi. If the mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 0.99) E 11. a 4.98.98 and the density of air as 1.Flow Measurements 7. b 5.085 m of water.17 m.98) E 11. Answers 1. If the pressure head at the throat is zero. Assume the velocity coefficient as unity.2 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of water in a pipeline. a 10.05 m3/s) E 11. 381 8.16 m diameter.3 kg/m3.12 m) Chapter 11 E 11. (0. calculate the air velocity. Current meter is used to measure (a) Pressure (b) Velocity (b) Triangular notch (d) Orifice. Fluid velocity can be measured without disturbing the flow using (c) Density (d) Viscosity. calculate the water velocity in the pipe line.2 m/s by a pitot tube. used to measure the flow rate in the pipe. calculate the coefficient of discharge of the Venturimeter. (0.6 Oil of density 900 kg/m3 flows through a pipe of 150 mm diameter. (b) Theoretical flow/Actual flow (d) Theoretical velocity/Actual velocity. Assuming coefficient of discharge as 1.The pressure head at the entry of the venturimeter.98. b 3.1 A water manometer attached to a pitot static tube used to measure air velocity shows a reading of 0. calculate the coefficient of velocity of the pitot static tube.06 m3/s.29 m.18 m.5 Oil of density 800 kg/m3 flows in a pipe of 0.2 m diameter at the rate of 0. d 9.25 m diameter records the difference in stagnation and static pressure as 0. calculate the water velocity in the pipe. (b) Hot wire anemometer (d) Laser Doppler anemometer. Flow rate in an open channel is more accurately measured using (a) Rectangular notch (c) Venturi (a) Pitot tube (c) Turbine meter 9. a 6. determine the oil flow rate. (1. If the pressure difference recorded by the pitot static tube is 0. Density of flowing air 1. If the mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 0. b 8.3 A pitot static tube fitted in a pipe of 0. (6.1 m.08 m throat diameter is used to measure the flow in a pipe line of 0. Assuming the coefficient of discharge for Venturimeter as 0. b EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 11.3 m/s) E 11. A venturimeter having throat of 100 mm diameter is fitted to the pipe line for measuring the flow rate of oil.2 kg/m3. A mercury manometer attached to it shows deflection of 0. (39.1 m throat diameter is used to measure the flow rate of oil in the pipe. Coefficient of discharge is the ratio of (a) Actual flow/Theoretical flow (c) Actual velocity/Theoretical velocity 10. (0.

An orifice of 0.10 Oil of density 800 kg/m3 flows in a pipe of 0. If the actual discharge through the pipe is 8 l/s. The width of the rectangular notch is 100 cm and the head of water over it is 0. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the notch if the actual flow rate measured is 26.3 m diameter pipe to measure the flow rate of water through it.1 m is fitted in the pipe line.85.17 Water flows at the rate of 106 l/ sec in a open channel in which rectangular and V notches are fitted. (0. under a head of 0.4 m of water.25 m diameter. The head causing flow is 0.13 Oil of specific gravity 0.54) E 11.16 m3/s. If the V notches is right angled calculate the coefficients of discharge of both rectangular and V notches. (0.46. Under a head of 4 m.59) .9 Water flows in a pipe of 0.358 m3/s) E 11. the velocity of liquid at vena contracta is 7.15 m diameter is fitted in a 0.15 m3/s) E 11. If the coefficient of discharge is 0.6.8 m.62) E 11.15 Determine the coefficient of discharge of a rectangular notch of 0. If the actual flow rate is 1. If the pressure difference recorded is 19. (0.15 m.8 m. Calculate the discharge through the pipe. 0. A venturimeter with throat diameter 0. (0. A mercury manometer fitted across the orifice records a reading of 0.8 flows through a pipe of 0.14 A rectangular notch of 250 cm width is used to measure the flow rate of water in an open channel. calculate the discharge in the pipe.65.2 m. calculate the coefficients of velocity.65) rate measured by it is 0. determine the flow rate. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter if the flow (0.082 m3/s.4 m.16 Water flows over a right angled V notch to a height of 0.382 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 11. If the pressure difference across the orifice is 10 m of water head.8 m width used to measure the flow rate in an open channel. (0.25 m diameter. 0. Assume the coefficient of discharge of orifice as 0.11 An orifice meter of 0.2 l/s.1 m diameter is fitted to the pipe to measure the flow rate. (0. discharge and contraction.62. An orifice meter of 0. 0.59.15 m3/s) E 11.082 m3/s) E 11. calculate the discharge assuming the coefficient of the discharge as unity.12 An orificemeter with 5 cm diameter is used to measure the flow rate of liquid.3 m diameter. (0. A mercury manometer fitted across the orifice shows a reading of 0. Assume the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter as 0. E 11.62) E 11.253 m determine the coefficient of discharge of the notch.1 m diameter fitted in the pipe to measure the flow rate.5 m/s. (0.

While in closed conduits the flow is sustained by pressure difference.1. 12.5 1.0 0. The balance of gravity forces and surface friction forces controls the flow.5 1. Changes in channel cross-section and changes in the slope cause changes and readjustments in the flow depth which may or not propagate upstream. irrigation canals. The surface actually represents the hydraulic grade line.5 1.5 2. Hence the flow is generally turbulent.1 Characteristics of Open Channels 2.5 2.5 0.5 1.5 Trapezoidal channel Triangular channel 0. Froude number is the improtant parameter in the general study of open channel flow which is free surface flow.0 0.5 2.0 1. As seen in chapter 8 and 9. Reynolds number are high.0 INTRODUCTION Flow in Open Channels Flow in rivers.0 2.0 1.1 Velocity distribution in open channel sections 383 . As most of the flow are large in scale and as viscosity of water is lower. drainage ditches and aqueducts are some examples for open channel flow.0 1. the driving force in open channel flow is due to gravity. and is proportional to the bed slope.1.0 Circular channel Shallow ditch Figure 12. The depth of flow is not restrained and this makes the analysis more complex. These flows occur with a free surface and the pressure over the surface is atmospheric.0 1. In most cases water is the fluid encountered in open channel flow. 12.

The maximum velocity occurs below the free surface. This is different from hydraulic mean diameter used in the analysis of flow through conduits which is four times this value.2 Classification of Open Channel Flow The common classification is based on the rate of change of free surface depth. it is defined as gradually varying flow. When the depth and velocity remain constant along the length of flow it is called uniform flow. then such flow is called rapidly varying flow.2 times the depth from top.4 and 0. Natural channels have very irregular sections and suitable approximations should be used for analysis. 12. For such flow the slope and area should be uniform. Rh (alternately m) and is used in all analysis to take care of all types of sections. the average velocity is used. Hydraulic depth is another term defined as the ratio of flow area to top width. The ratio of flow area to the perimeter is defined as hydraulic radius.1 Flow at normal depth . A and the wetted perimeter P. With this definition laminar flow is limited to Reynolds number up to 500. For analysis. For steady uniform incompressible flow the height of the water level and area are constant.2 UNIFORM FLOW: (ALSO CALLED FLOW AT NORMAL DEPTH) This is the simplest and common type of flow and occurs when conditions are steady and slope is not steep. When the depth changes gradually. When the width is large.2. The two main physical dimensions used in the analysis are the flow area. If the slope change rapidly or suddenly. Some of the simpler ones are Trapezoidal. However the velocity is not maximum at the surface. it is considered as wide flat. For analysis purposes the average velocity of flow is used and this equals. The average velocity occurs between 0. 12.1. This represents the average depth of the section. 12. as mentioned earlier. This is also non accelerating flow.2.1. Consider the control volume between sections 1 and 2 shown in Fig. But actually the flow velocity varies with the depth almost logarithmically. volume flow rate/area.1. L 1 y x Y1 mg 1 Z1 2 q Z2 mg sin q Y2 q d sin q 2 Figure 12. Triangular. the hence velocity is constant. 12. The value of Froude number characterises the nature of the flow in such situations. due to area or slope changes.384 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Open channels may have different cross-sections. Some examples of velocity distribution is shown in Fig.1 by the dotted line. The maximum velocity occurs at about 0. Rectangular and Circular sections. The slope of the free surface is governed by the way in which the slope and the area change.8 times the depth from top. low near the wetted surface and increasing towards the free surface.

Ff. V1 = V2 or the velocity remains constant along the flow (ii) Momentum equation.Flow in Open Channels 385 (i) Continuity equation. Hence τw = K ρ V2/2 go where K is a constant of proportionality. E.2. Assuming a loss of head of hL. The energy grade line. Substituting in equation 12. As there is no change in the depth of flow or velocity (no acceleration).2) This is the reason for defining hydraulic radius as A/P.1) ∴ Ff = mg sin θ = mg Sb mg sin θ is the component of gravity force parallel to the flow and Ff is the friction force on the wetted surface. (iii) Energy equation. For large values of Reynolds number the friction factor is independent of Reynolds number and wall shear stress is proportional to the dynamic pressure ρ V2/2g and is independent of viscosity. the momentum flux through the control surface is zero. For the steady flow ∴ V1 = V2. act on the control volume.2. Gravity force component = mg A L sin θ Frictional force = τw PL (tan θ = sin θ = θ in radians for small angles) Equating the forces τw PL = ρg AL sin θ or (12. As the pressure distribution is hydrostatic the net pressure force on the control volume is zero. – Ff + mg sin θ = 0 (12. ρ1 A1V1 = ρ2 A2V2 as ρ1 = ρ2 and A1 = A2. K ρV2 = ρ g Rh Sb 2 go Chapter 12 V12 V22 + y1 + z1 = + y2 + z2 + hL 2g 2g .3. The bed slope Sb( = sin θ) is small and pressure distribution is hydrostatic. the force balance yields frictional resistance over the wetted surface equals the component of the gravity forces along the surface. The sum of potential and kinetic heads between sections 1 and 2 should be the same if there are no losses. Bed slope is defined as the ratio of change in elevation over a length with the length. the specific energy is constant along this type of flow. 12. on the volume. hL = z1 – z2 = L Sb (12. Defining specific energy. at a section by the sum (V2/2g) + y.3.2.2) The head loss due to friction in steady flow between two sections equals the change in elevation of the bed.2.3 CHEZY’S EQUATION FOR DISCHARGE Considering the control volume shown in Fig.3. y1 = y2 and for a length L. 12. Only body force due to gravity and friction forces/ on the wetted surfaces.1) τw = ρg (A/P) sin θ = ρ g Rh Sb (12. hydraulic grade line and the channel bed are all parallel.

5 = FG 8 × 9. As in the case of closed duct flow.455 V = 45.5) (12.1) where k is known as Bazins constant.1 Bazin’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant The equation suggested by Bazin is given below. Substituting D = 4Rh.038. It has a dimension of (length1/2/ time) and hence will have different numerical values in different systems of units.5.17 for earthen channel in rough condition.3) This equation published in 1775 is known as Chezy’s equation and the constant C is known as Chezy’s constant.4) It may be noted that Chezy coefficient C is not dimensionless.445 (0.5 (12. (for Rh and Sb other symbols like m. The bed slope is 1 in 2500. C = FG 8 g IJ HfK 0. Kutters and Mannings.5 (12.3.6 × 1/2500)0.5 = 0.704 = 2.6 m. Sb = 1/2500. For Brick lined channel the value is about 0.4 DETERMINATION OF CHEZY’S CONSTANT The Chezy’s equation is simple but the determination of the constant C is rather involved. Out of these. C = 86. Several correlations have been suggested from experimental measurements for obtaining the value of Chezy’s constant C.5 (RhSb)0. ∴ ∴ ∴ Flow rate P = 3 + (2 × 1) = 5 m.4. i etc are also used).704 m/s. Mannings correlation is generally used in designs.4. 0. three are more popular namely Bazins.112 m3/s 12.386 Denoting 2ggo/K by constant C. This correlation is independent of bed slope. Another method of deriving the equation is as below. and hL = L Sb.3. .3.81IJ H 0. The value varies from 0. V = C Rh Sb Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (12. wetted perimeter.5 F 8gI V=G J HfK Denoting constant V=C (RhSb)0. the friction head loss is given by hL = f L V2/ 2 gD. Flow rate Q = ρ A V = C ρ A (Rh Sb)0.11 for smooth cement surfaces to 3.9/(1 + k/ Rh ) (12.038 K 0.5 Example 12.5 = 45.6) C = (8g/f)0. 12. As the first two correlations are more complex. f = 0.3. = 3 × 1 × 0.1 Determine the flow rate of water through a rectangular channel 3 m wide with a flow depth of 1 m. Area = 3 × 1 = 3 m2 Rh = 3/5 = 0.

m3/s 3.011 for smooth cement surface to 0.75 3.750 Chezy’s Constant 80.46 1.5 ) 23 + (0.847 0.2 Calculate the value of the Chezy’s constants using Bazins equation in the case of a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep for the following conditions.51 1.460 1.66 V.4.00155 / Sb )( N + Rh 0.3.06 m.6 ). For a bed slope of 1/2500 find the flow rate.4. (i) Smooth cement lining (ii) Smooth brick (iii) Rubble masonry (iv) Earthen channel is ordinary condition (v) Earthen channel in rough condition Rh = 3/5 = 0.75 12.40 26.160 0.6) is used to calculate V .2) is used for the determination of C.116 0.2 Kutter’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant C C= 1 + (23 + 0.9/(1 + k/ 0. the constant C is calculated by the equations below: C = 86.4. are given below.24 : : : : : 0.35 2.6. Example 12. 1 2 3 4 5 Nature of Surface Smooth cement lining Smooth brick Rubble masonry Earthen channel in ordinary condition Earthen channel in rough condition Bazins Constant 0. The value of Bazins constant.303 1.303 1.Flow in Open Channels 387 Example 12. Equation (12. No. A = 3 m2.65 72.502 0.16 0.02 54.52 32. Sb = 1/2500 Chapter 12 .08 for poorly maintained earthen channels.060 0.06 0.00155 / Sb ) + (1 / N ) (12. Rh = 0.6 / 2500 These values of Bazins constant k can be taken as typical values S. Equation (12. Using the values of Kutters constant and conditions of surface given in the tabulation.3 Determine the flow rate for a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep with a slope of 1/2500. V = C 0. k. The results are also tabulated.53 1. Using the above values. the value of which varies from 0.413 Q. m/s 1.250 1.2) Where N is Kutter’s constant.

23 54.96 3.015 0.02 1714 V.4.95 0. The results are obtained using equation (12. Rh = 0. When combined with Chezy’s equation (12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Surface type Smooth cement lined surface Smooth concrete Rough Brick Rubble masonary/Rough concrete Clean earthen channel Earthen channel after weathering Rough earthen channel with weeds N 0.3) and (12.017 0.29 1.2 and 2. 12.011 0.48 70.88 3.013 0.74 41.64 0. particularly for earthen channels and natural streams.86 2. Sometimes the reciprocal of N is also referred to as Mannings constant.388 S.02 41.90 50. A = 3 m2.6 m. Sb = 1/2500 S.011 to 0.79 0.3) where N is Mannings constant established by experiments for various types of surfaces.85 . No.018 0.022 0.06.022 0.85 2. m3/s 3.017 0. m/s 1.4.4) The values of N is generally a small fraction varying from 0.4) and are presented in the tabulation.050 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Chezy’s Constant 85.51 2. The types of surface with Mannings constant are tabulated.013 0.95 0.02 51.94 0.32 1. Due to simplicity and availability of extensive experimental support Mannings correlation is more popularly used.015 0.050 C 83. Example 12.4 For a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep with a slope of 1 to 2500 determine the values of Chezy’s constant and also the flow rate.32 2.84 0. C = (8g/f)1/2 that C = (1/N) Rh1/6 (12.3 there is good agreement between the results. No.4.3.110 0.4.74 18. Note that in examples 2.11 0.52 53.36 1.28 2. N 0.53 61. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type of surface Smooth cement lining Smooth concrete Rough brick Rubble masonry/Rough concrete Clean earthen channel Earthen channel after weathering Earthen channel rough with bush Kutters const.37 V (m/s) 1.4.84 0.29 Q (m3/s) 3.09 0.65 0.79 0.37 1.3.51 2. this leads to V = (1/N) Rh2/3 Sb1/2 (12.27 Q.64 61.018 0.91 0.5).80 It can be seen that as N increases the flow decreases for the same slope.6). The values of N are available for a few more conditions.25 71.3 Manning’s Equation for C In 1890 Robert Manning proposed in place of the relation given in equation (12. In this case the value will be in the range 16 to 90.

005 0.002 0.050 0.002 0. N S.002 0.002 0.012 ± 0.010 ± 0. Rough Planed wood Clay tile Asphalt Corrugated metal Rubble masonry Brick work 0.030 ± 0.2 and 12.015 ± 0.040 ± 0. Values for some more types of surfaces are given in table 12.002 0. painted Steel.002 0. Perimeter = π D/2.025 ± 0.016 ± 0. finished Concrete.003 0.010 0.015 for the rough concrete lining used. No.035 ± 0.025 ± 0.150 ± 0.5 m Chapter 12 .020 0. Use Mannings equation. ∴ Rh = D/4 = 2/4 = 0.075 ± 0.014 ± 0.022 ± 0.011 ± 0.010 N Example 12.Flow in Open Channels 389 Comparing with the result of example 12. 1 Surface Type Natural channels Clean and straight Sluggish with deep pools Major rivers 2 Flood plains Pasture. cobbles 4 Lined channels Glass Brass Steel.005 0.003 0.005 0.002 0.025 0.010 0. Area = π D2/(4 × 2).015 ± 0.005 0.004 0.035 ± 0.3 it may be noted that there is close agreement between the results except in the case of earthen channels.014 ± 0.005 0.1.012 ± 0. Table 12.5 Determine the slope required for a flow of 1500 litre of water per second for a pipe of 2 m diameter flowing half full.1 Values of Manning’s coefficient.003 0.022 ± 0.002 0.012 ± 0.030 ± 0.014 ± 0. farm land Light brush Heavy brush Trees 3 Excavated eathen channels Clean Gravelly Weedy Stoney. smooth Steel. riveted Cast iron Concrete.050 ± 0. The value of Mannings constant is 0.035 ± 0.013 ± 0.010 0.003 0.

Velocity = Volume flow/area V = 1.9 and solved problem Problem 12.25 1 : 2.5 1 : 1.011.42 × 0. After a particular type of section. say rectangular.2728 Rh2/3 The results using equations (A) and (B) are tabulated below.7331 5.4431 1. assuming depth and width.75 1:2 1 : 2. width b. hydraulic radius Rh. Hence there can exist a section which will involve minimum section in terms of cost of excavation.011 2500 Rh2/3 FG H IJ K 0.5 ECONOMICAL CROSS-SECTION FOR OPEN CHANNELS For a given flow rate and slope (determined by the ground slope) any one of several types of sections can be chosen.5 or b = 2d for rectangular channel.4409 1. circular etc.0015) × 0. .4371 Q. Derivations are given in example 12. (1500l = 1.7155 5.9552/(59.2649 b.8 and 12. lining etc.5 d.8284 3.3333 1.4142 1. various alternatives are possible.6999 0.4333 1.8182 = 7. d:b 1 : 1.8782 Rh2/3 Q = A × V = 4 × 1.4. A wider shallow section or a narrower deeper section may carry the same flow under the same slope.6569 5.7071 0. m 2.6695 5.7.6667 5. Rh2/3 (A) (B) = 1.6920 Rh.5 × (4 × 2/π × 2 × 2) = 0.7055 0.1622 P. . Sb1/2 Rh2/3 = N 0.4495 2.5119 1.51/6 = 59. V= 1 1 1 . m 0. Sb = 1/1934 12. by a trial process.0000 3. For a total area of 4 m2.7027 V.7658 5. m 1.6 A smooth cement lined rectangular channel is proposed with a slope of 1/2500.5 m3) V2 = C2 Rh Sb ∴ or Sb = V2/C2 Rh = 0.7484 It is seen that the flow rate is maximum at d/b = 0. assuming different ratios of depth to width determine the flow rates.6330 1. This is illustrated in the problem Example 12.6.6458 2.7059 0. is chosen.7723 5.955 m/s. Mannings coefficient for the surface is 0. velocity V.7. 12.5 . m3/s 5. and flow rates are tabulated below. m/s 1.5) = 517 × 10–6 1 : 1934.7636 5. Example 12. The assumed depth to width ratios and corresponding values of depth d. For the square section the perimeter is maximum at bm when the flow rate is minimum at 5. perimeter P.55 m3/s. m 5.4414 1.390 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery C = (1/N)Rh1/6 = (1/0. It is to be noted that perimeter is minimum at this value.

12.8 and as A.8 for variable names.C and Sb are specified. C and Sb are constants and as Rh = A/P. Q will be maximum when P is minimum and depth d is the independent variable. it appears that the economical section for a given area is the 1 : 2 section. only variable is P in this case and so Q ∝ P–0.6 also) Using Mannings equation the flow rate for the economical rectangular section is given in terms of the depth d as Q= 21/ 3 8/3 1/2 1. Ex. Also determine the optimum side slope.5) Example 12. Refer Fig.(A) A Sb P As A.Flow in Open Channels 391 Thus in the case of rectangular channels. y being the independent variables. This is achieved when the flow is maximum for a given area or the perimeter is minimum. 12.8 Derive an expression for the hydraulic radius for a trapezoidal channel section for maximum flow conditions. Or dP should be zero for such a condition.5 Figure Ex. Chapter 12 A = 2d2 = d × b ∴ b = 2d .7 Derive an expression for the ratio of depth to width for open channel flow in the case of a rectangular section of a given area for economical conditions. Area A = by + ay2 = y(b + ay) P = b + 2w = b + 2y(1 + Eliminating b using equation 1 a2)1/2 ay (1) (2) A b= – ay y ∴ As P= y q b A – ay + 2y(1 + a2)1/2 y (3) Q = C Rh Sb = C Sb0.5 i.. Also for a given channel θ is fixed and hence a is fixed. and P is to be minimized. Example 12.. From equation (3).5/P0. Let a = cot θ. Assume uniform flow conditions. Using equation (3) and equating (dp/dy) to zero.e. In this case Rh = d/2 (see example 12. Consider a width b and depth d perimeter P = 2d + b = 2d + (A/d) Q = AC .4.5 A0. using equation A dd A dP = – 2 + 2 = 0 (also d dd ∴ d2 P dd2 is – ve) The depth should be one half of the width for economical rectangular section. Q is maximum when P is minimum.26 d Sb = (depth)8/3 (slope)1/2 N N (12. dp A = – 2 – a + 2(1 + a2)1/2 = 0 Solving for A dy y A = y2 [2 (1 + a2)1/2 – a].

and from equation 1. Ex. as a = cot 60 = 0.5 0. ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A A – ay + 2y(1 + a2)1/2 = + y [2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] y y P = y[2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] + y[2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] = 2y[2 (1 + a2)1/2 – a] Rh = A y = P 2 ∴ A = 2y2. P should be minimized.9 F A sec θ I = 2G H tan θ JK =2 F A(1 + tan θ) I GH tan θ JK 2 0.9 Derive an expression for the optimum angle for a triangular channel section of given d tan q area.5 = 2{A(tan θ + cot θ)}0. 12. as it can be shown that base b = side length W W2 = y2 + a2y2 = y2(1 + a2). Refer Fig.9 Area.5774 W2 = 1.5 Figure Ex. P = 2d sec θ. and solving a= 1 3 = cot θ ∴ θ = 60° Hence the optimum condition for economical section for a given area and depth is θ = 60° This shows that the section is half of a regular hexagon. b = 2y.5 As Q = AV = AC ∴ For maximum of Q. using equation (3) 1 dP =–y+ × 2a × 2y(1 + a2)–1/2 Rearranging 2a/(1 + a2)1/2 = 1 2 da Squaring both sides. In the case of a rectangle a = 0 In order to determine the optimum value of a (cot θ) for a given section of area A and depth y. ∴ b = y ∴ b=W Example 12.5 d sec q q d Perimeter. P = 4y.392 P= Substituting for A. A = d2 tan θ ∴ d = FG A IJ H tan θ K 0.333 y2 = (4/3) y2 ∴ W = (2/ 3 )y b= A – ay. 12. Substituting for d P = 2 sec θ FG A IJ H tan θ K 2 0. A Sb P . A = y2 [2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] y 2 3 ∴ b = 2y[(1 + a2)1/2 – a].

d Wide flat.353 d 12. depth d q.968 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1. and minimizing P2.00 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1. d Circular.682 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 4 Trapezoidal width. diameter. width.5 or ∴ ∴ P = 2d sec 45 = 2 2 d = 2.2. Table 12. b depth. normal depth and area when flow rate and bed slope are fixed.Flow in Open Channels Considering θ as independent variable.828 d Rh = A/P = d/23/2 = 0.917 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1. D depth. Mannings coefficient and bed slope.583 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 4 b>>d L qN OP 1. and Rh = A/P.00 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 --- Chapter 12 Table 12. (Q/A) = Rh2/3 Sb1/2/N.9 provide the optimum geometry for some sections. b depth. flow/m θ = 60° L QN OP 0. ∴ A = LM QN OP MN S PQ 1/ 2 b 3/5 P2/5 Section Optimum Geometry Normal depth Cross sectional area Rectangular.6 to 12. 393 dP d = [tan θ + cot θ] = sec2 θ – cosec2 θ = 0 dθ dθ ∴ cos2 θ = sin2 θ ∴ θ = 45°. The optimum half angle is 45° A = d2 d = (A/tan 45)0.2 gives the conditions for optimum geometry for various sections together with normal depth d and cross sectional area in terms of flow rate.622 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 4 b = 2d/ 3 D = 2d L QN OP 1.1 Examples 12. d b = 2d L QN OP 0.5 = A0. Optimum geometry.5. width b. .

41 Velocity using Manning’s m/s 1.04 m2.2 from previous calculation is used in the following calculations) d = 0.75 = 3.38 0.968 (2.10 For a given slope of 1/2500 and flow rate of 4m3/s. Using equations in table 12. check: 1.3168 1. Diameter D = 2 × 1.2)0.04 m2 d = 1.0(2.2)3/8 = 1.8182 × Rh2/3 The result are tabulated below: Flow rate = 4 m3/s Section Rh Area m2 Velocity using Area m/s 1. The velocity will be maximum in the circular section.2)3/4 = 2.45 0. determine the flow velocity in each case and check the same using Mannings equation.682(2.2347/2 (d/2) = 1. Mannings coefficient.344 = 2.2)0.917 (2.301 m.10.3166 1.297 (2.2)3/8 = 1.44 .344/2) 3.011 OP NM (1 / 2500) QP 1/ 2 3/ 8 = 0.3650 1.2.917 G H S JK 1/ 2 b 3/ 8 = 0.84 m2. Next comes trapezoidal one.04 m2 (ii) Trapezoidal (Note: QN/Sb1/2 = 2.301 cot 60) 1.93 3.344 m.32 1.468 m A = 3.301 = 2.917 LM 4 × 0.688 m A = π 2. the values are calculated as below. Example 12.2347 m.32 1.93 m2 1 1 1 × R 2/3Sb1/2 = N h 0.04 2.301/ 3 = 1.86 m2 Note that the minimum area is in the case of the circular section.2)0.5 Rh2/3 = 1. check: 1. (i) Rectangular: Normal depth F QN I d = 0.682 (2.75 = 3.743 m.4649 m A = d × b = 3.04 2.37 1. V= check (1.84 0.11 Using the results of Example 12.93 m2 d = 1.75 = 2. top width = 2 × 1.2)3/8 = 1. determine the depth of flow and area of cross-section at optimum conditions for (i) Rectangular. b = 2 × 1.583 (2.622(2. but the depth is more for the triangular section.502 m ∴ (iii) Triangular: (iv) Circular: A = 1. N = 0. (iii) Triangular and (iv) Circular sections.011. (ii) Trapezoidal.6882/(2 × 4) = 2.394 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 12. Also A = 1.743 = 3.011 2500 FG H IJ K 0.3950 Fr Rectangular Tapezoidal Triangular Circular (d/2) = 1.301/2 (d/2 2 ) = (1. The triangular and rectangular sections need the same areas.743/2 2 ) (d/2) = (1.2)3/8 = 1.502 + 1.42 0.039 m2. ∴ b = 2.

the disturbance will travel upstream at a Chapter 12 .021)/(3 + (2 × 1.9991 Topwidth b + 2d sin 30 1. Q = AV = V × 3d. circular y = = 1.84 3.011)] × (1/2500) 0.Flow in Open Channels Froude number is calculated on the basis of hydraulic depth = Area/top width Fr = V/ yg where y is the average depth given by. N h 1 1 4= × 0. Assume that the depth is d as p = 3 m ∴ A = b × d = 3d. 12.2093.6033 m Q = [(3 × 1.6033)2/3 = 3.6 FLOW WITH VARYING SLOPES AND AREAS It is found almost impossible to have open channels of uniform slope and or uniform area all over the length of the channel.743 Triangular y= Note : Velocity is maximum in the case of circular section.4545 × d × G H 3 + 2d K 2/ 3 Fd I GH 3 + 2d JK = 0.057 m 2.12 Determine the height of flow in the case of a rectangular channel of 3 m width and slope of 1/2500 for a flow rate of 4 m3/s. Certain situations like in spillways the energy in the flow has to be dissipated without damage to the surfaces.5 2/3 F 3d IJ × 3d = 5. P = b + 2d = 3 + 2d.021)) = 0. Hence iterative working is necessary. Substituting the values.872 m. In such conditions the flow depth readjusts in some cases gradually and in some cases.021)/(0. When the terrain changes the slope has to change.65) = = = 0. Area/top width. sometimes gradually and sometimes steeply.1 Velocity of Wave Propagation in Open Surface Flow The nature of readjustment of flow level due to slope change or sudden drop in bed level is found to depend on the velocity of propagation of any disturbance or wave velocity in the flow.502 + 0. In case water is flowing with a velocity V and if the wave velocity is c then if V < c.011.301(1. and hence the flow area also should change. Consider well finished concrete surface The value of Mannings coefficient for well finished concrete surface is 0.6.301 2.688 2 × 1. The study of such flows is an important and practical aspect of open channel flow. involves polynomials of more than degree 2.04 = 0. suddenly.011 2500 5/ 2 FG H IJ FG 3d IJ K H 3 + 2d K 0. In stagnant surface any disturbance will spread uniformly around the point of disturbance.502 + 1. Example 12. An example is dropping of a small stone in a stagnant pool.976 m3/s Note: Determination of depth or width for specified values of flow rate. 12.021 m Check: Rh = (3 × 1. Solving by trial d = 1.5 × (0. Trapezoidal y= 395 A d(b + d sin 30) 1. Rh = 3d/(3 + 2d) V= 1 R 2/3Sb1/2. slope etc.

396 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery lower speed. This will cause a small ripple or wave and let its velocity or propagation be c.1 Wave celerity The flow is assumed steady. Considering sections 1 and 2 and applying continuity conditions i.1) . flow is equal at sections 1 and 2 ρ b(y + ∆y) (c – ∆V) – ρ byc = 0 Solving ∆V = c ∆y .6. Referring to Fig. as the pressure is hydrostatic at any section. y + ∆y ∆y y (A) as ∆y is small this can be approximately as ∆V = c Applying momentum equation to the sections. In case V ≥ c then disturbance cannot travel upstream and only the down steam flow will change. In order to facilitate analysis. ρgy ∆y + g ∆y 2 2 Neglecting the second order term. Plate dv C Dy y y C – DV x C y 1 2 Dy x Wave moving Dx x Wave at rest Figure 12.6.e. incompressible and the section is constant across the x direction with a width b. net force equals ρg y ∆y The rate of change of momentum is dV × flow rate ∴ dV ρcy Subsituting for dV from equation (A) and equating the force and change of momentum. the pressure force is given by (for unit width) ρ g y2/2 At section 1. Force = ρg y2/2 Net pressure force between the sections equals the difference between these two.1.6. Force = ρ g (y + ∆y)2/2 At section 2. The change is mainly in the form of change in height of flow. ρ gy ∆y = c2 ρ ∆y c2 = gy or c = gy (12. the wave can be brought to rest by imposing a velocity c in the opposite direction to the wave movement. 12. let a disturbance be created by moving the vertical plate slightly along the x direction.

m/s 0. which is seen near beaches.Flow in Open Channels The wave velocity c is also called wave celerity. Case (ii) Fr = 1. 1000 and 4000 m. 0.09 The depth of deep ocean is about 4 km. Flow velocity/wave velocity.5. Only gradual changes occur in such a situation. Downstream conditions cannot be felt upstream. the characteristic length.1 0. Changes occur only in the downstream flow. is the depth y and V is the flow velocity.13 Compare the celerity of waves for depths of 0.2 Froude Number . This causes accumulation of water in the crest and as the wave travels further the height increases. Froude number in connection with open surface flow is defined as V/ gl .2 Chapter 12 12. Disturbances cannot travel upstream. (V/c) = 1 and (V/c) > 1 or the Froude number for the flow is less than or equal to or greater than 1. Disturbances cannot travel upstream. As already indicated. 397 The main assumption is that ∆y << y i. where c is the sonic speed or velocity of propagation of small disturbance in the fluid.99 gy .32 1000 99.91 100 31.e. then V < c and any disturbance can travel upstream. Case (iii) Fr > 1.05 4000 198.6. finally leading to the breaking of the waves. Such a disturbance can be produced by earthquake or volcanic activity. Example 12. sonic and supersonic flows in the case of flow of compressible fluids where Match number is the governing factor also defined as V/c. 12. Case (i) If Fr < 1.1).6. 100. the wave height is small compared to the depth. c = depth. Note that the velocity calculated is that of surface wave and not that of propagation at depths. the results obtained are tabulated below : 0. z1 z2 y1 V1 y2 V2 1 2 Figure 12. These are similar to subsonic. l.13 10 9.6. Such a flow is called subcritical or tranquil flow. there are three possible flow situations namely (V/c) < 1.6. The downstream conditions can change the flow conditions upstream. Using equation (12.21 1 3. such flows are called supercritical or rapid or shooting flows. A standing wave may generally result. m velocity. Hence Froude number can be represented by the ratio. The flow is called critical flow. The local depth at the crest of the wave is more compared to the trailing edge. For this depth the disturbance will travel at 198 m/s which is about 713 km/hr. (sin θ ≈ tan θ ≈ θ) (iv) Shear work term negligible. The resulting tidal waves may travel at this speed and cause heavy damage.1.5 2.3 Energy Equation for Steady Flow and Specific Energy Assumptions in the case are (i) steady incompressible and uniform flow (ii) pressure distribution is hydrostatic (iii) small bed slope. In the case of open channel flow.

The term V2 + y is found 2g to be an important parameter is open channel flow.3) It will be useful to investigate the variation of depth and velocity for a given flow rate.3) and equating the result to zero.398 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Considering sections 1 and 2 in the flow as shown in Figure 12. The variation of depth and velocity for a given specific energy provides an idea about the type of flow. The head due to change in level namely ( z1 – z2) equals the friction head hL.4) The value of y for the minimum every for a given flow rate is formed as critical depty yc. V2 Q2 = . V12 V2 2 + y1 + z1 = + y2 + z2 + hL 2g 2g (12.6.1) As in pipe flow the pressure loss in due to friction in the open channel flow.6.4(a)) . This quantity is defined as specific energy or specific head.6. For a flow rate Q and sectional area A.2) q2 2 gy 2 (12.2.6. dy gy ∴ y3 = Fq I GH g JK 2 2 1/ 3 or y= Fq I GH g JK 2 1/ 3 (12.6. The symbol used is E. Bernoulli equation is written including head loss due friction hL. To illustrate the idea the case of a rectangular section is analysed in the following sections.6.6. we get dE q2 = − 3 + 1 = 0. In this process the value of minimum energy for a given flow is found as follows. Differentiating the equation (12. ∴ q = Q/b E=y+ Q2 2 g b2 y2 (12. V= ∴ Q A and A = b × y where b is the width and y is the depth. 2 g 2 g b2 y2 The specific energy can now be expressed as below E=y+ For unit width. ∴ yc Fq I =G J H gK (12.

and gy = c Vc V = c = 1 or Froude number is unity.6.8) This equation leads to two positive values of y for a given E and q.6) From the expression of wave velocity. Vc = gyc .6. Ec = 3 y.6. Vc2 = g .6. One plot is for a constant energy and the head variation with flow rate. 12.6. yc 3 q2 = = gy yc 2 yc 2 or Vc = gy (12. The third solution is negative and has no significance.7) At this critical depth condition the following relations hold.q = 2 c c gyc 3 and 2 Ac = byc = b q g F I GH JK 1/ 3 These relations specify only a single condition in the flow.3 The other is for constant flow rate and head variation with energy. This is shown in Figure 12. and eqn. To investigate the complete variation the general equation (12. As two quantities are involved with depth of flow two separate plots are used to illustrate the flow variation. ∴ Vc = c. This is shown in Figure 12. Fq I y =G J H gK 2 1/ 3 c .Flow in Open Channels Substituting the value in the general equation (12.3) is modified and written as y3 – Ey2 + q2 = 0.6. . c gy Chapter 12 The flow rate at this condition is given by (for unit width) qmax = Vcyc = gyc 3 (12. Emin = yc + or yc= 2 yc 2 yc 3 399 = 3/2 yc. 2g (12.6.5a) From the definition of velocity.6. These are called alternate depths and velocities. 3 min (12.5) 2 E . (12.6.4a for unit width at the critical condition.3).6.4. This means that For a given value of E and q two combinations of depth and velocity exist.

the Froude number is greater than one and down stream disturbances like changed slope will not be felt upstream. 12. this reduces to . The specific energy curve can be presented in a non dimensional form by dividing the terms of equation (12.4 is a plot of depth against specific energy for a given flow rate. one greater than yc and the other smaller than yc. At the critical condition a standing wave will be generated.6. the kinetic energy is CD.6. the depth is AC and the dynamic head is CD. The resulting curve shows that at any flow less than qmax. E qmax 2 = y qmax 2 1 + 2 gy 2 FG q IJ Hq K max 2 As qmax = (g yc3)1/2. The condition yc divides the flow into two regions namely tranuil and rapid flows.4 Non Dimensional Representation of Specific Energy Curve By one dimensional representation a single curve will result for all values of specific energy.3) by qmax. At q = 0. Figure 12. For different values of flow rate different curves will result. In the tranquil flow region. In the rapid flow the depth is smaller and the velocity is more. Similar curves will result for other value of specific energy E. When the depth is equal to yR = AB. In the rapid flow region. In the tranquil flow the depth is larger and the velocity is smaller. For example for the tranquil flow of the given q at A. there are two possible depths of flow. This is shown by the line ABCD.3 Variation of depth with specific energy for a given flow rate Figure 12.5 Emin H B yR A Rapid E Figure 12.3 the variation of depth with flow rate is shown plotted for a constant value of E.6.6. At qmax or the critical condition there is only one solution for the depth. the Froude number is less than 1 and any disturbance downstream will be felt upstream and the flow upstream will be readjusted by the disturbing wave. and V > Vc. the depth is AB and the dynamic head is BD.4 Variation of discharge with depth for a given specific energy In figure 12. The flow velocity V will be less than Vc. For a given flow rate at any energy greater than E min. the flow can exist at two different combinations of depth and velocity. In the rapid flow region. the kinetic energy is given by BD. This is represented by the line at 45°. This is in the rapid flow region.6. A curve for a given flow rate is shown ploted.400 y D E = constant C Tranquil H yT yCr B r A uR q Qmax O y Fluid Mechanics and Machinery q = constant D C Tranquil Rapid yT yCr 4. y = E. Here also very similar conditions are seen.6. When the depth is yT (AC).

5 = 0.5 m.81 × 0.81 Chapter 12 E y 1 yc = + yc yc 2 y FG IJ H K 2 (12. Fr = Critical height is given by check: V gy = 2 9.7961.9717 m q = Vc × yc = 3.0874 m/s 3.516 m/s 4. Considering 1 m width Velocity = 3/(1. The flow is subcritical yc = (q2/g)1/3 = 0.14 Water flows in a rectangular channel at the rate of 3 m3/s per m width. solving by trial.3). Determine whether the flow is subcritical or supercritical.Flow in Open Channels 1 E y = + 3 3 2 gy 2 gyc gyc 401 FG q IJ Hq K max 2 or FG q IJ Hq K max 2 = 2E yc FG y IJ Hy K c 3 2 −2 FG y IJ Hy K c 3 3 For a rectangular channel Emin = (3/2) yc ∴ FG q IJ Hq K max 2 =3 FG y IJ Hy K c −2 FG y IJ Hy K c (12. Example 12. y3 – Ey2 + q2/2g = 0 As q and E are known. yal = 0. Vc = (g × yc)1/2 = 3.4575 m.81 × 1. This is obtained by dividing the general eqaution by yc and then simplifying This will result in a single curve for all values of q when E is plotted against y. Specific energy = (V2/2g) + y = 1.9717 = 3 m3/s/m Fr = Emin = (3/2) × yc = 1.0874 × 0.5214.5162 +y= + 0.7038 m.81 × 0.0 The alternate depth is obtained using equation (12.5 × 1) = 2 m/s.9717 = 1.6643 = 1.6643 m. Fr = ∴ V = 4. Similarly for given values of q.516 9.7) . 2g 2 × 9.7039 m. the equation below will result in a single curve.6643 = 1. The flow is supercritical check V2 4.6.6.6.6) This will result in a single curve for all values of E when q is plotted against y. Also determine the alternate depth and Froude numbers in both cases.0874 9. the depth being 1.

b = 0 and yc = (4/5) E (D) From equation (B) for a rectangular section as n = 0. In this case for critical flow.. Ac = Fb GH 2 1/ 3 topQ g I JK . yc = (2/3) E. and the side slope is 45° In the case of sections other than rectangles. The base width is 0. A/top width From section 12. also Ac = yc (b +2yc) = yc (0.. Substituting . as was established earlier. 1 dQ 1 n 1 = + − . the hydraulic depth is given by Area/top width. Chart solutions are available for various values of b and n.402 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 12. 5nyc2 + (3b – 4nE) yc – 2bE = 0 Solving for yc yc = − (3b − 4 nE) ± 9b2 − 24bnE + 16 n2 E 2 + 40bnE 10 n (B) = (4nE − 3b) ± 16n 2 E 2 + 16 nEb + 9b2 10n (C) This is a general solution. specific energy is given by E= A = (b + ny) y. Q = A V = y(b + ny) 2 g ( E − y) For constant value of E. ln Q = ln y + ln (b + ny) + (1/2) ln (2g) + (1/2) ln (E – y) differentiating with respect to y. ny V2 +y ∴ V= 2g 2 g( E − y) . Q is maximum when (dQ/dy) = 0 Taking natural log on both sides of equation (A).15 Derive an expression for critical depth and critical velocity of a trapezoidal channel in terms of specific energy E.16 Determine the critical depth of a channel with trapezoidal cross-section with a flow of (1/3) m3/s. Assume a bottom width b and side slope 1 : n.e. Hydraulic depth = yc .3 when Q dy y b + ny 2( E − y) ∴ 1 n 1 =0 + − yc b + nyc 2( E − yc ) dQ = 0. btop = 2yc + b.3.6 + 2yc) Q = (1/3) m3/s.6.6. In the case of triangle. i. from section 12.6 m. y = yc dy Rearranging after summing up and considering the numerator to be zero. Area of section.5 Example 12. Critical velocity is obtained by substituting yc in the equation Vc = {2g[E – yc]}0.(A) y b Volume flow.

6 + 2yc)2 = Q2 1 = g 9 × 9.5 × 6 × 0.5 m 22.5)2/3 Sb1/2.1 Specific energy calculated using this velocity is 3.81 = 3.012) (0.5 Fr = 22. the equation used is (12.6 + 0.8) y3 – Ey2 + (q2/2g) = 0 Substituting values for E = 3.5/(6 × 0.5 m To determine the slope. the flow is subcritical. Q = A × Rh2/3 Sb1/2/N.6 m depth.81 × 6 JK 2 2 1/3 = 1.6 + 2yc )2/3 F 1 IJ = G H 9 × 9.52 / 3 S 1/2.6 = 2. Solving y = 0. Let it be equal to y check flow rate: 1. Case (1) depth = 3 m. Chapter 12 .5 = (9.6. solving Sb = 1/70.81)} + 3 = 3.6) × (1/0.075/ 0.5 = (6 × 3) × 1.07 m/s.012 b Sb = 1/7631 Velocity = 22.1275 m Hence for a depth of 3 m.5 I = G H 9.2246 m Solving by trial yc = 0. Rh = 6 × 0.6 1 9.2244)0.81 FG H IJ K ∴ yc (0.081 m (check) Case (2) 0.4867 m/s The actual depth is different from hydraulic depth.53 × 9.Flow in Open Channels 403 F (b + 2 y ) × Q I y (b + 2y ) = G JK g H c 2 c c 1/ 3 ∴ yc3 (0.5 = 1.17 A rectangular channel 6 m wide is to carry a flow of 22.6.6 m determine the slope required.0796 m Froude number: 1. Critical depth is given by the equation (12. Fr = 7.265 (0. solving by trial the alternate value of y = 0.81K 1/ 3 = 0. solving 0.25 m/s ∴ E = (V2/2g) + y = {1. the flow is supercritical.6) = 0.53) = 7. the Manning flow equation is used.265) = 0.58. For depth of 3 m and 0.7167 = 0.012. 22.81 × 0.53 m V = 22. Rh = 6 × 3/(6 + 2 × 3) = 1.6/(6 + 2 × 0.5 = (6 × 0. Calculate the critical depth also. Also determine the Froude number and alternate depth for the specific energy conditions. For a depth of 0.252/(2 × 9.4a) (for rectangular section) FQ I y =G H gb JK 2 c 1/ 3 2 F 22.81 × 0.25/ 3 × 9.5/6) m3/s/m y3 = 3.2304 To determine alternate depth.265 m Vc = (gyc)0.4837 × 0.2244 m Area = (y + b) y = (b + 2yc) yc. q = (22. Substituting the values.34 m3/s Example 12.6 m.81 = 0.0796 y2 + 0. Take Mannings coefficient as 0.5/6 × 3 = 1.5 m3/s.0796.

1 Flow over a bump Q2 2 gb2 y12 + y1 = Q2 + y + h = constant 2 gb2 y 2 (12. As the pressure on the free surface is the same at all locations.6 K 2 × 1 = 1. which is 1. and the water depth is y measured from the bed level at the location 2. b Water surface 2 V1 Y1 y V y x h Figure 12. 12. Substituting for V1 and V2. Assuming channel bed to be horizontal.7.1 Flow Over a Bump The flow along a horizontal rectangular channel of constant width. There is a bump in the channel bed as shown in Fig.5 IJ H 6 × 0. Fr = 0. Bernoulli equation reduces to (taking bed level as datum) V2 2 V12 + y1 = + y2 + h = constant over the bump.1) .691 m.1275 K 2 × 1 = 1. these cases can be analysed. checks. E = 0. as calculated yc = 1.1275 + G H 6 × 1. As friction is neglected Bernoulli equation applies for steady flow conditions. is considered. 12.7595 m. V = 2.5 IJ E = 1.404 Alternate depth is obtained using y3 – Ey2 + q2/2g = 0. alternate depth is 1.513 At the critical flow condition.5 × yc.7 EFFECT OF AREA CHANGE When changes in flow area occurs over short distances like over a short bump or flow under a sluice gate.7.1275 m F 22. The flow is assumed to be uniform at each section. b.7. the effect of area change is more compared to frictional effects.991 m 2 × 9.81 Substituting and solving by trial. 2g 2g Q = V1y1 = V2y2.81 12.1. 2 × 9. The height of the bump at location x is h.7.6 + Fluid Mechanics and Machinery FG 22.137 m/s.

Example 12. (2) There are two possible regimes of flow namely subcritical and supercritical. For subcritical flow + ve bump decreases the flow height. 2 3 2 gb y dx dx dx ( dh / dx) ( dh / dx) dy (dh / dx) = = dx [(Q 2 / gb2 y 3 ) − 1] = [(V 2 / gy) − 1) Fr 2 − 1 (12. A smooth bump with a peak height of 0. the expression on the R. (similar to subsonic nozzle M < 1) 2. Solving for (dy/dx).06 m exists on the bed surface. is differentiated with respect to x. (1) There are two possible variations in the bed level. namely a positive bump and a negative bump or depression. (similar to subsonic diffuser M < 1) 3. For subcritical flow – ve bump increases the flow height.6 m and the flow velocity is 0. dy/dx can be determined. The type of surface variations are listed below: 1.18.06 m Figure Ex.6 m 6 m/s y2 h = 0.2) As dh/dx is specified. V2 = (V1y1/ y2) 2g 2g Chapter 12 .S. Ex. (similar to supersonic diffuser M > 1) The case of Fr = 1 is more complex and other factors have to considered to determine the flow downstream. For supercritical flow + ve bump increases the flow height. Refer Fig.18 In a rectangular channel. the flow height is 0. Determine the flow velocity and depth over the peak of the bump. 12.7.Flow in Open Channels 405 In order to determine the variation of y along the flow. − Q2 dy dy dh + + = 0. Consider sections 1 and 2 1 2 0.H.6 m/s.18 Under steady flow conditions. Supercritical flow – ve bump decreases the flow height. Bernoulli equation reduces to Continuity equation is ∴ V1y1 = V2y2 V2 V12 + y1 = 2 + y2 + h. It is seen that the variation depends on the flow Froude number. 12. (similar to supersonic nozzle M > 1) 4.

E2 = V22 + y2 = E1 – h 2g = 0.06 = – 0.7.61835 m 2 × 9.3) Y0 Y1 V1 0 1 Figure 12. 2g y2 y2 = 0. . decrease in level. V12 + y1. The size of the bump corresponding to this can be worked out by the above procedure.2473 In case Fr = 1 to occur at the bump.6 = 0. y0 = + y1 (12. The flow depth at section 2 should be 0. One will be in the subcritical flow and the other in supercritical flow region.5353 m.5583 m.406 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0. there can be two solutions. E1 = specific energy at section 2. substituting for V2 .5583 m. 2g Q2 2 gb2 y12 Since V = Q/A and A = by.7. 12.5353 – 0.0047 m 0.6 V12 + y1 = + 0.7.3 Flow through sluice gate Rearranging y12 (y0 – y1) = Q2/2gb2 (12.06 = 0. Fr = = (V1 y1)2 1 × 2 + y2 = 0. from Stagnant Condition The reservoir is assumed to be large or y0 = constant. solving by trial. then yc = (q2/g)1/3 = 0. change in surface level or 4.4) The flow rate Q fixes the value of y1 and as the equation is a quadratic.81 × 0. ∴ V2 = 0.61835 – 0.7.3323 m.3323 m. V0 Applying Bernoulli equation between section 0 and 1 y0 = 0.6 9.6 = 0.7 mm.2 Flow Through Sluice Gate.81 2g specific energy at section (1).6 + 0.6725 m/s = 0.

2y1y0 – 3y12 = 0 (12.4.7. 2g E1 = q2 + y2 2 gy2 2 Chapter 12 Taking the derivative of equation (12.4 d Q2 dy1 2 gb2 ∴ LM N OP Q =0 i.7.0 Q /2g b y0 2 2 3 0.2 Figure 12.6) OP Q Also Q/b = q.7.666 Fr = 1 407 Fr > 1 1.7.. 12. 1.7.3 Flow Under a Sluice Gate in a Channel In this case water flows with velocity V1 at section 1 and the level before the gate is y1.4) with respect to y1 . Steady. then qmax2/g = (8/27) y03 Vmax 2 2 qmax q 3 = max .5) y1 = (2/3) y0 Substituting this value in flow rate term. At maximum flow rate there is a single value for y1. Fr2 = Vmax = qmax = 8 y 3 = 0 8 3 A 1 × y1 2 y0 27 gy1 gy1 FG IJ H K 3 =1 Maximum flow corresponds to Fr = 1 There is no correlation available relating y1 and the gate opening. 12.e. Also specific energy at section 1 equals specific energy at section 2. V12 E1 = + y1 Replacing V by q. Qmax 2 gb 2 =2 LM 2 y OP LM y N3 Q N 0 2 0 − 8 2 y0 = y3 27 0 3 (12.Flow in Open Channels The same is shown plotted in non dimensional form in Fig. The velocity at section 2 is V2 and depth is y2.0 Fr < 1 Y1 Y0 0.7. (flow/unit width). incompressible uniform flow is assumed.

Also determine the maximum flow rate conditions i.7.4 ∴ y1 = 6 × 0.404 m/s Fr = 8.3.81 × 2.8 × 6 = 4. y0 = 2. and 12.732. From equation 12.4 = 1.2039 m 2g 2g 9. Specific energy upstream = V12 22 + y1 = + 2 = 2. incompressible uniform flow is assumed to prevail.2039 y22 + 42 = 0. Case (i) ∴ ∴ y1 = 0. (supercritical) Maximum flow occurs at y1 = (2/3) y0 = 4 m ∴ q2 = 42(6 – 4) × 2 × 9.4 (y1 is the flow depth downstream). this will be the value of y0 i. Calculate the flow rate for values of y1/y0 = 0.408 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The depth y2 should be the alternative depth. Fr = 6.20 Water flows at the upstream of a channel at 2m/s and the depth is 2 m.82 (6 – 4.81 = 627.8 and 0. Solving by trial y2 = 0.852 m/s Fr = V/ gy = 4.264.6.42 (6 – 2. Considering unit width.e.06/4 = 6.19 Water is let off from a large reservoir through a sluice gate. V2 = V1y1/y2 and so V2 can be determined. m/s. The water level in the dam above the level of the sluice is 6 m. When the sluice is opened to obtain this maximum flow.4 = 8.264/ 9.852/ 9.29/4.17 m3/s/m. In case velocity V1 = 0. But y0 will remain the same. y23 – 2.81 = 542 . depth velocity and flow rate downstream. V1 = 23.81 = 406. q2 = 2.8 = 0. Maximum flow rate can be obtained by the condition that y2 = (2/3) y0.06 m3/s/m V = 25. y2 is determined by trial using specific energy value. y0 = q2 2 gy12 + y1 q2 = 2g y12 (y0 – y1) = 4.3.2039 q = 2 × 2 = 4 m3/s/m This depth will be the alternate depth for the flow. Example 12.7485 m 2 × 9. specific energy remains constant. Determine the depth at the downstream side.7071. (subcritical) Case (ii) y1/y0 = 0.8) × 2 × 9.45 q = 23. Steady.81 .81 × 4. y0 = 6 m. the condition at section 1 will change.452 (subcritical) Fr = 2/ In case the velocity upstream is negligible.e.81 × 4 = 1 Example 12.4) × 2 × 9. q = 25. As y1 and V1 are specified. Also determine the maximum flow rate and the minimum depth of flow down stream.81 × 2 = 0. when the sluice is opened and flow is steady. V = 20.84. Expressing it in terms of q q2/(2gy22) + y2 = 2.8 m.4 m.17/2.2039 m As the downstream flow is the same.8 = 4.29 m3/s/m.4 = 2.404/ 9. then the condition will give y0.84 q = 20.

1) Chapter 12 .2039 × (2/3) = 1.4692 × 9.dhL= Sdx where S is the slope of the energy grade line.8. In this case the energy grade line and free surface are not parallel.344 m/s (supercritical) Maximum flow will occur when y2 = (2/3) y0 ∴ ymax = 2.8.469 = 5. The slope of the energy grade line is S.58 m3/s/m When the sluice position corresponds to this flow rate.Flow in Open Channels V2 = 4/0. Taking the net flow and equating to the gravity drap.81 = 3. 12. 2g V2 V2 +d 2g 2g LM OP N Q + y + dy + z + dz + dh L where dhL is the head loss.1. Slope S dx y y + dy Slope Sb Z q z + dz Figure 12. the analysis should take into consideration a differential control volume instead of sections upstream and downstream.7485 = 5. The slope of the bed is Sb. Water depth and channel bed height are assumed to change slowly. the upstream condition at section 1 will change. The change in bed elevation can be expressed in terms of bed slope as – Sb dx.796 m/s 409 qmax = 7.796 × 1. As the change is continuous.4692 As Fr = 1 Vmax = gymax = 1. d LM V OP N 2 g Q + dy = ( S 2 b – S) dx (12. 12.8 FLOW WITH GRADUALLY VARYING DEPTH When open channel flow encounters a change in bed slope or is approaching normal depth. The velocity at any section is assumed to be uniform. flow depth changes gradually. Refer Fig.1 Flow with gradually varying depth The specific energy flowing in at location x is The energy flow out at location x + dx is V2 + y + z.8.

8. [ 1 − ( yn / y) 10 / 3 ] dy = Sb dx [1 − ( yc / y) 3 ] (12. S −S dy = b dx 1 − Fr 2 (12.410 d V2 dy + = Sb − S dx 2 g dx expressing V in terms of flow q Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM OP N Q (12.8.5). where yn is the depth for normal flow Also FG IJ H K Fy I Fr = G J H yK y S = n Sb y c 10 / 3 (12.5) Using equation (12.8.8.8.3) can be applied to this situation. Sb [1 − ( S / Sb ] S −S dy = b 2 = dx 1 − Fr 1 − Fr 2 (12. yc and yn for these types there can be three types of profiles.2.8. critical slope and steep slope types.6) 3/ 2 Substituting in (12.8.8.8. .3) The change in bed level dy along the flow direction for length dx is given by this equation.4) Substituting for S in equation (12. The gradient of the energy grade line can be obtained by assuming that loss is equal to the loss in steady uniform flow at normal depth. Then on the basis relative values of y.2) d V2 dx 2 g LM OP = d L q O = – 2 q 2 gy N Q dx MN 2 gy PQ 2 2 2 3 dy V 2 dy dy =− = − Fr 2 dx gy dx dx Substituting in 12.8. The sign of dy depends on the value of Froude number and the relative magnitudes of S and Sb 12. This is obtained from Manning’s equation S= N2V 2 R h 4/3 (12.4) we can show that. results in a first order nonlinear ordinary differential equation that describes the variation of water surface profile.1 Classification of Surface Variations The study is somewhat simplified when applied to a wide rectangular channel of depth y.8.8.7) Also On the basis of relative values of yn and yc the flow can be classified as mild slope. The equation (12. when Rh = y.3).

Considering the control volume.9. Such a change occurs by increase of flow depth downstream. the disturbance produced will move upstream and downstream resulting in smooth adjustment of the flow depth.1) (12. The heat produced does not significantly affect the temperature of the stream.9. the net momentum flow is equal to the net force (b = width). Horizontal bed condition is assumed. Now computer software’s are also available to show the profiles graphically. Net momentum flow = ρ Q (V2 – V1) = ρ V1y1b(V2 – V1) F1 = ρ gb y12/2.9 THE HYDRAULIC JUMP (RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW) In subcritical flow due to any change in bed slope or cross-section. 12. Change from supercritical to subcritical conditions thus cannot be smooth. More often. The adjustment is sudden and can be only in the downstream side. This is called Hydraulic jump.Flow in Open Channels 411 In addition. 12.9. Chapter 12 Hydraulic jump is used to dissipate mechanical energy into heat in various hydraulic structures.2) The pressure distribution in the flow depth is hydrostatic and acts at the centroids Control volume F2 Y1 Q V1 F1 V2 Y2 Y Jump Loss E Figure 12. Fig. horizontal bed slope and adverse bed slope type of flows will also lead to different shapes.1 Hydraulic jump . The flow upstream will remain unchanged.1 shows a typical hydraulic jump. In supercritical or shooting flow such a disturbance cannot move upstream.9. F2 = ρ gb y22/2 (12. the surface profiles are to be calculated by numerical methods. The abrupt change involves loss of mechanical energy due to turbulent mixing.

59 10 13.7 The depth downstream is always higher than that at the upstream.5 1.18 4. Depth down stream will be higher than critical depth.37 2.412 ∴ F1 – F2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fy = ρ gb G 2 H 1 1 2 1 − y2 2 2 I JK Equating ρ gb Fy GH 2 2 1 − y2 2 2 I JK = ρ bV y (V2 – V1) Rearranging (12. Note that if Fr1 < 1 then y2 < y1.48 4 5.5 3. to eliminate V2 (y12 – y22)/2 = or (1/2) (y1 + y2) (y1 – y2) = V12 y1 (y1 – y2) gy2 V12 y1 (y1 – y2) gy2 (12.9. The loss is due of violent mixing.1.77 3.5) Cancelling (y1 – y2) and multiplying by (y2/y12) and nothing Fr1 = V1 gy1 FG y IJ + FG y IJ – 2Fr Hy K Hy K 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 =0 (12.7) The depth ratio is tabulated below for various values of upstream Froude number.07 3 3.9.6) Solving for (y2/y1).9.67 2 2. loss of head can be directly determined as hL = (y1 – y2) + (V12 – V22)/2g .5 4. Fr y2/y1 1 1.4) Wall shear is neglected. Depth upstream should be smaller than critical depth. As hydraulic jump is possible only in supercritical flow conditions. Fr > 1 alone is considered.5). From Equation (12.0 1. from the quadratic equation above and nothing that – ve sign for the root is not possible y2 y 1 = (1/2) LM N 1 + 8Fr12 − 1 OP Q (12. 12.9.88 5 6.5 5. y Vs E diagram.3) V1 y1 (V2 – V1) g Continiuity equation is y1 b V1 = y2bV2 = Q Energy equation is (y12 – y22)/2 = y1 + V12 V2 2 = y2 + + hL 2g 2g (12.9.9. This leads to increase in specific energy which is not possible see Fig. Bed is assumed to be horizontal. Using momentum and continuity equations.9.

10) The ratio hL/E1 is shown tabulated below as a percentage for various values of Froude number.33 = 0.0563 = 0.0563 × 5. This equation can be also simplified (using a rather long algebraic work) as hL y1 y 1 = 4y 2 LM y Ny 2 1 O − 1P Q 3 (12.4 10 72.9. In hydraulic jump also the disturbance downstream does not pass upstream.9.2 2 9.172 y2 y1 = (1/2) F H 1 + 8 Fr12 − 1 = (1/2) I K F H 1 + 8 × 7.9.9. Determine the downstream conditions if a hydraulic jump takes place downstream.7 It can be seen that for streaming flows with Fr > 5.1 3 25.Flow in Open Channels hL Fr12 2 y1 = [1 – (y2/y1)] + 2 [1 − ( y1 / y2 ) ] 413 (12.655 Chapter 12 . Expressing (y2/y1) in terms Froude number.552 m/s Fr2 = 0. energy may be dissipated without damage to the structure.33 m/s while the flow depth is 0. Pressure adjustment is automatic with normal shock and so also in hydraulic jump.5 2.1 6 56.81 × 0.5436 hL y = 1 y1 4 y2 LM y Ny 2 1 −1 OP Q 3 = 1 1 × [9.655 I K ∴ ∴ y2 = 9.8) (y2/y1) is obtained from Equation (12. Normal shock occurs in supersonic flow. a larger fraction of the mechanical energy is dissipated by eddies. Example 12.239 0.33/ 9.7 4 39.21 In the flow through a sluice in a large reservoir. This idea is used to dissipate the energy of water flowing over spillways. back pressure changes will not pass the supersonic region. There is head increase in hydraulic jump.5436 m V2 = 0. There is a pressure rise across normal shock.1 5 49. the velocity downstream is 5.655 × 0. By proper design.0563 = 7.1722 − 1 = 9.655 – 1]3 = 16.0563 m. Calculate the energy dissipated by eddies in the jump. Fr hL/E1 1.7).78 4 9. Hydraulic jump is similar to normal shock in compressible flow.9) As hL is positive (y2/y1) should be greater than one. Fr = V/ gy = 5. In flow through supersonic nozzles. Hydraulic jump occurs in supercritical flow. hL ( a − 3) 3 where a = = E1 [8( a − 1)(2 + Fr12 )] 1 + 8 Fr12 (12.4 8 66. the loss can be expressed as a fraction of specific energy at section 1.

the flow surface becomes parallel to the crest.414 ∴ Specific energy at inlet hL= 16.0563 = 1. rather it jumps from 1 to 2 directly.5 yc = (2/3)E.78 × 0.10.9. This can be shown on the specific energy diagram in Figure 12. The flow upstream will be subcritical and the downstream allows free fall.504) × 100 = 62.5 or q = (gyc3)0. Fr = 7. 12.10. As there is no restraint downstream the flow will be maximum or the depth above the weir surface will be the critical depth yc.504 m 2 × 9.10.1 shows a broad crested weir with free fall.1) .945 m = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery V12 5. hL E1 = 0.82 %. Considering rectangular channel.6283 About 63% of mechanical energy is dissipated by the hydraulic jump. The upstream edge is well rounded to avoid losses.332 + y1 = + 0. Fig.945/1.10 FLOW OVER BROAD CRESTED WEIR A broad crested weir consists of an obstruction in the form of raised portion of bed extending across the full width of the channel with a flat upper surface sufficiently broad in the direction of flow.1 Broad crested weir ∴ As yc = (Q2/gb2)1/3 = (q2/g)1/3 Q = b(gyc3)0. As the crest is broad. The phenomenon is similar.81 2g ∴ % dissipation = (0. Q = b {g × (8/27) E3} = 1. expression for flow rate is derived Y1 /2g 2 Ye Y1 E Figure 12.705 bE3/2 (12.172.053 = 0. 12.1. The jump does not proceed along the specific energy curve. The solutions for hydraulic jumps in other than rectangular channels is similar to that of rectangular channel. Froude number should be calculated using hydraulic depth. check using hL = E1 Substituting 8 LMF NH LM N 1 + 8 × Fr12 − 3 1 + 8 × Fr12 − 1 ( Fr2 + 2) I K OP Q 3 OP Q .

12.705 × b × y3/2 415 The measurement of h (over the crest of the weir) would be sufficient to determine the discharge. In case the bed level downstream is equal to the bed level upstream. similar to venturimeter. The upstream level will adjust as per the height of the weir.11. the arrangement is called Venturi Flume. Chapter 12 .1) The flow rate Q = Cd A2 V2 where Cd is the coefficient of discharge having values in the range 0. the depth in the reduced section will decrease.11 EFFECT OF LATERAL CONTRACTION The channel width may be reduced keeping the bed horizontal. 12. In that case Q = 1.5 and Q = b2y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0. The height of the weir will not affect the flow over the crest. and if critical conditions occur at the throat.95 to 0. it can be shown that L 2 gh OP V = M NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 2 1 1 2 0. the flow rate is given by. In this case though the level over the crest will decrease. Flumes with lateral contraction followed by expansion can be used for flow measurement.11. If the upstream flow is supercritical the level in the reduced section will increase. then. The rate of flow is calculated using Bernoulli equation and continuity equation.99. If the upstream flow is subcritical. In case the upstream flow is subcritical. If the free surface in the section does not pass through critical depth.1 b1 b2 Energy line 2 V1 /2g V2 /2g 2 Free surface Y1 Y2 Critical depth x Figure 12.1 Lateral contraction Using continuity and energy relations.11. where E is the specific energy and b is the channel width. The details are shown in Fig.5 (12. it may not fall to the critical value yc.Flow in Open Channels E = y1 + (V12/2g) In the tranquil flow upstream V1 is small. the level downstream will rise.

025 OP Q = 1.11. bed slope = 1/2500 . Q = 1.6 – 0. The bed slope is 1 in 2500.8% and hence may be neglected. V1 = 0.5 b1 = 2 m. As friction factor is given Chezy’ constant can be determined.5607/(2 × 0. the flow will revert to subcritical condition downstream by means of a hydraulic jump.705 b2 E3/2 In case the flow velocity upstream is small.416 Q = 1.4 m.2 = 0.11. C= 8 g / f = [8 × 9.2 – 0.3 × 0. calculate the flow assuming upstream depth is still 0.9 m. Compared to 0.1 Determine the flow rate of water in a rectangular channel of 3 m width when the depth of flow is 1 m.6) QP 2 0.2) Q = 1. Friction factor f = 0. A = 3 × 1 = 3 m2 .705 × 1.3736 m3/s When standing wave forms consider the equation (12. Chezy’s constant.025 m.705 b2 H3/2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (12.3 × 0. If the difference in level between the throat and downstream is 25 mm and both upstream and downstream depths are 0.81/0.375 / 2 × 0.50607 m3/s The velocity head portion of energy upstream is neglected in this case. Example 12. b2 = 0.81 × 0.375 m.5 = 0.5 = 45.6.11. Such a flume is known as standing wave flume. L 2 × 9. In this case if the bed slope down stream is the same as in upstream.2) (12. ∴ Rh = 3/5 = 0.038. E = the total head at construction which is 0.3) where H is the difference between the level at the throat and upstream water level. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 12.2 m above that of the channel.375 M NM 1 − (1. In the case the downstream conditions are changed such that a standing wave forms after the throat.1] Q = b2y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0. The flow rate is given by the equation [Refer equation 12. then.011 m.11. h = 0.6 – 0. this is 2.705 b2 E3/2. determine the rate of flow.025 = 0.6) = 0.3 m and raising floor level in the constricted section by 0.6 m.4673 m/s ∴ V12/2g = 0.6 m.038]0. The velocity upstream. y2 = 0.43 = 0. P = 3 + 1 + 1 = 5 m.22 A venture flume is formed in a horizontal channel of 2 m width by constructing the width to 1.45 To determine the hydraulic depth.4 m ∴ Q = 1.3 × 0.

0 1.5 Rh 0.76 1.46 0.9 0.11 1. V V = C Rh Sb = 45.5 2.9 Fr 0.5.60 0. Problem 12.1.0 2. Slope Depth 0.88 1.9 1. As depth increases the flow increases more rapidly because both velocity and area increase with depth.5 2. 1/1500.5 5.9 1.4 4.75 0.8 0.0 5.40 V 0.8 0.9 1.75 0.3 0.72 7.2 0.3 0.56 0.3 0.3 0. indicating velocity by.6 Note.60 7.39 1/1000 Q 1.81 × 1 = 0. The values calculated using Chezy’s equation are tabulated below.24 1.8 0.57 1.1 3.2 Analyse the flow in the channel of problem 12.1 6.6 6.5 1.2 0.32 3.6 0.8 0.60 0.33 1. 417 Flow rate = VA = 0. Flow rate Q.98 10. Depth and Rh are given in m. Considering combination of depths of 0. Problem 12.97 1/500 Q 1.2 0.6 / 2500 = 0.57 1. m3/s.7 0. Slope Depth 0.88 1. 2 and 2.9 2.704 m/s.8 .2 determine the Froude number in each of the cases.5 V 0.8 0.86 0.5 m with bed slopes of 1/500. Depth and Rh are given in m.11 m3/s Froude number = V/ gy = 0.5 1.94 V 1.9 Q 2.9 1.88 1.2 0.8 V 0.7 0.38 0.38 0.0 1/2000 Fr 0. m/s.1 1.1 1/1500 Fr 0.50 0.0 2.88 1.34 5. 1/2000 and 1/ 2500.225 So the flow is in the subcritical region.0 1.2 V 0.11 1.0 1. Fr = V/ gy .9 0.7 0.2 0.30 0.6 0.7 0.5 Rh 0.32 0.39 1/1000 Fr 0. Chapter 12 0.40 0.33 1.1 1. 1/1000. Velocity V.3 In problem 12. but not in direct proportion.8 0. 1.4 1/2500 V 0.24 1.76 1.28 V 0.6 7.86 0.1 2. As slope becomes less steep the velocity and flow rates decrease.97 1/500 Fr 0. velocity increases but Froude number decreases and flow is subcritical.92 11.0 1.3 14. 2.24 1.45 0.704 × 3 = 2.5 8.2 1/2500 V 0.3 0.24 1.87 4.6 0.7 4.3 0.3 0.4 V 0.35 0.0 1/2000 Q 0.6 0.Flow in Open Channels Using Chezy‘s equation.1 1/1500 Q 1. As slope becomes steeper Froude number increases for the same depth due to velocity increase.704/ 9.42 0. 1.2 As depth increases for a given slope.94 V 1.

the bed slope being 1/2000. A = y × b = y × 2y = 2y2 = 8 ∴ y = 2.022.5 Determine the maximum discharge through a rectangular open channel of area 8 m 2 with a bed slope of 1/2000. ∴ Rh = 8/8 = 1 m Q= A 8 1 Rh2/3 Sb1/2 = (1)2/3 N 0.12.12 and 8.4721 y2 Hydraulic mean depth (A/P) for economical section: P = b + 2y ∴ n 2 + 1 = b + 2 y 5 = 4.4721y2 0.9443y Rh = A/P = 2.4 Determine the slope with which a waste water pipe of 2 m diameter is to be laid for carrying water at the rate of 1500 l/s.418 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 12. called normal depth.022 2000 FG H IJ K 0. Sb = 1/2000 3/ 2 ∴ 10 = y 1 × 2. For economical section perimeter should be minimum. 8.1 and 2. b + 2ny = y n 2 + 1 . The condition for the same is (n-side slope) Refer example 12.11 m3/s-very near the optimum value but is still less. to carry 10 m3/s. Q = 1500l/s = 1.5 m.5) 2 / 3 (Sb ) 1/ 2 × 2 0.5 m3/s 1. Assume Manning coefficient as 0. Problem 12. Assume CI pipe with Manning constant N = 0. 2 b = y ( 20 − 4) = 0. A = (b + 2y) y = 2.13 m3/s This is maximum can be verified by calculating the flows for different depths like 1.9443 y = y/2 Q = 10 m3/s. Assume Mannings constant as 0.5 = ∴ Sb = 1/1934 The flow rate and depth uniquely define the slope. b = 4. Here n = 2 and b + 4y = 2y 5 . Similarity flow rate and slope uniquely define the depth.5 = 8.4721 y2/4.05.015 Rh = (π/2)/π = 0.022.9. P = π D/2 = π m Rh2/3 Sb1/2. 2. N = 0. 1.8. Manning equation for discharge is Q= ∴ ∴ π×2×2 π 2 A = m . The depth of flow is to be half the diameter. Problem 12.11. 8.8.4721 y. For rectangular section the optimum depth equals half the width and maximum discharge occurs for this condition.2 for which the flows are 8.6 Determine the economical cross-section for an open channel of trapezoidal section with side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal.022. A = 4×2 2 N π 1 (0.022 2 FG IJ H K (Sb)1/2 .

5 Q will be maximum if A3/P is maximum.9429 m (check for flow) Problem 12.4721y 2 × (y)3/2 3/ 2 2000 0. and Let the angle subtended be θ. Wetted perimeter P = 2 R θ Flow area = (2 θ/2 π) πR2 – R sin θ R cos θ = R2θ – (R2/2) sin 2θ = (R2/2) (2θ – sin 2θ) Using Chezy’s equation. using LM d( A / P) OP N dθ Q = 0 3 i. dθ A = (R2/2) [2θ – sin 2θ] dA R 2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ). b = 0.69 radian or about 154°.8884 y7/2 y = 1.e. 12.0818 R2 2 = 2Rθ = 5..3756 R ∴ Rh = 0.9971 m. Let the flow depth be y. ∴ dP = 2 R. P × 3 × A2 dA dP − A3 dθ dθ = 0 P2 or 3P dA dP =A dθ dθ P = 2 R θ.Flow in Open Channels 10 = ∴ 419 1 1 2.7 This is a transcendental equation to be solved by trial.7 Derive the expression for depth of flow in a channel of circular section for maximum flow. The condition is determined. Q = AV = AC A3 A Sb Sb = C P P LM N OP Q 0. Refer figure.5733 R Chapter 12 . (check using radian mode in the calculator) The area for flow Perimeter = R2 θ – R2 sin 2θ = 3.022 2 FG H IJ K 1/ 2 = 0. θ = 2. Substituting = dθ 2 3 × 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = (2 – 2 sin 2θ) 2R 2 2 q R y 3θ(1 – cos 2θ) = [θ – (sin 2θ/2)] 2θ – 3θ cos 2θ + sin 2θ =0 2 Figure P.

9494 D A N FG A IJ H PK 3/ 2 Sb1/2 = 1 A 5/ 2 S 1/2 N P 3/ 2 b or A 5 should be maximized with θ as independent variable P3 P3 × 5 × A4 dA dP – A5 3P2 = 0.8 Derive the condition for maximum velocity of flow in a channel of circular section. Q= A5/ 2 P 3/ 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = R – R cos θ = R(1 – cos θ) = 1.8988 R or 0. V = C Rh Sb .247 radians. dθ dθ 5P dA dP – 3A =0 dθ dθ and Substituting for dA dP and dθ dθ 5 × 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = 3 (2θ – sin 2θ) × 2R 2 2 5θ(2 – 2 cos 2θ) – 3(2θ – sin 2θ) = 0. Rh = P 2 For V to be maximum.7.813 D Note: This is using Chezy equation. A= A R2 (2 θ – 2 sin 2θ).901 D Problem 12.802 R or 0.420 Depth of flow Note: This uses Chezy equation: In case Manning equation is used. then the flow. dθ 2 dθ 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = (2θ – 2 cos 2θ) 2R 2 2 2θ(1 – cos 2θ) = 2θ – sin 2θ or tan 2θ = 2θ – 2θ cos 2θ + sin 2θ = 0 ∴ Solving G = 2.75° Depth for maximum velocity y = R(1 – cos θ) = 1.5007 radian or 4θ – 10θ cos 2θ + 3 sin 2θ = 0 143. the same result is obtained as in equation A.28° In this case depth R – R cos θ = R(1 – cos θ) = 1.626 R or 0. Substituting = (2 – 2 cos 2θ). or Solving. Refer problem Problem 12. . P = 2Rθ. A/P should be maximized. In case Manning equation is used. d ( A / P) dθ FG P dA − A dP IJ /P H dθ dθ K 2 =0 ∴ P dA dP =A dθ dθ (A) dP dA R2 = 2 R . Substituting. or 128. θ = 2.

6086 m Q = 2.049 m3/s 1000 (Note: Compare the flows for maximum discharge. R = 1.5 = 4.81 × 5 2 2 1/ 3 At critical condition.81 × 1 = 0.9 Determine the maximum discharge through a circular pipe of 2 m diameter with a bed slope of 1/1000.38 = 0.7351/4. V = 10/5 × 1 = 2 m/s. Specific energy = Q2 10 2 + 1 = 1.573 × FG 1 IJ = 4.083 m2.573 m Q = AC Rh Sb = 3.7351 m2 P = 2Rθ = 2 × 1 × 2.083/5. yc FQ I = G H gb JK 2 F =G H5 10 2 2 × 9.81 I JK 1/3 = 0.494 = 0.247 – sin (2 × 2.5 ∴ Q = π × 60 0.69 – sin (2 × 2. Flow velocity.38 m Rh = A/P = 3. Q = 2.247 radians A= Chapter 12 1 R2 (2θ – 2 sin 2θ) = ( 2 × 2.083 × 60 0.215 m3/s 1000 0.7) A= ∴ A= R2 (2θ – 2 sin 2θ).494 m Rh = A/P = 2.69)] = 3. P = 2Rθ.64 Flow is in the subcritical region. Froude number = V/ gy = 2/ 9.247 = 4.2039 m 2 + y= 2 gA 2 × 9.7415 m .0 m.7351 × 60 × In case of full area flow: A = π × 12 = πm2 P = πD ∴ Rh = π/π D = 1/2 = 0. Also determine the depth for maximum velocity and the corresponding discharge Chezy’s constant C = 60 Adopting Chezy equation (Refer problem 12.69 radians 2 1 [2 × 2.247)) 2 2 = 2. Determine the critical depth and the alternate depth.Flow in Open Channels 421 Problem 12.10 In a rectangular open channel of 5 m width the flow rate is 10 m3/s and depth of flow is 1. 2 P = 2 × 1 × 2.6086 × 1 = 4.69 = 5.43 m /s H 1000 K 3 For maximum velocity: θ = 2. maximum velocity and full flow) Problem 12.

3051 × Sb . V22 = 2g Q2 2 gb y2 2 2 FG Q IJ HA K 2 = Q2 b2 y 2 1 + y2 = 1.341 m3/s To determine Mannings constant 1.5 2 2 = 5.3333 × 50 1.3051 m 10 = 13.565 m and V2 = 3.2039 + y23 = 1. Problem 12.81 × 0. Fr = 1. Rh = 5.12 Calculate the water discharge through an open channel shown in figure.3333 m2.81 × 5 2 y2 2 + y2 = 1. Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb .12 .5 + (π × 1.5 + 0.7123 = 0.745) = 2.2039. Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb A = 2 × [6 + (2/3)] = 13.5 = 6.6971 m/s Froude number Minimum energy Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 2.0343/5.2039. Also calculate the Mannings constant for the flow. 10 2 2 × 9.0343 m2 P = 0.2039 0.6971/ 9.0343 × 60 [0.2039 y22 + 0.2036 (checks).5036.5 m Figure P.5 m π × 1. A = (3 × 0.8813 m Q = 5.2039 = 0 Solving by trail y2 = 0. Solving.8813/2000]0.2039 y22 or y23 – 1.7415 = 1.3333/10.0 (checks) = (3/2) yc = 1. 12.422 Velocity at this condition = 10/(5 × 0. P=6+ FH 2 2 + (2 / 3) 2 IK 2 = 10. Assume Chezy’s constant as 60 and bed slope as 1 in 2000.2164 = 1. ∴ Supercritical region.2164 m Rh = A/P = 13.11225 m 2 To determine the alternate depth.5) + 0.5398 m/s. V2 2 + y2 = 1. Assume Chezy’s constant as 50.7123 m.5) = 5. Sb = 1/5800 3m Problem 12. Water flows at the rate of 10 m3/s at a depth of 2 m. Check for energy : ∴ (V2/2g) + y = 1.11 Calculate the bed slope of a trapezoidal channel of bed width 6 m and horizontal to vertical side slope of 1:3.

Rh = A/P = 1/3 = 0. Use Kutter’s formula and calculate the discharge through it.0005) + (1 / 0.0005))(0.3333 0.5 = 3 m.5 = 1 m2.0005)1/5 = 94.682 ∴ Q = 1 × 26.5 m deep with a slope of l in 2500. Rh = 2 m. Sb = 1/2000 = 0.00155 / Sb )) Rh 23 + (0.0005 1 N C= N 1 + (23 + (0. taking Manning constant as 0.5 + 2 + 0.333)2/3 0.0005 = 90.303 / 0.8813 2 / 3 6.025 2500 FG H IJ K 1/ 2 = 0. determine and compare the flow. P = 0. Assume Bazins constant k = 1. If Manning constant for this type is 0.00155 / 0.025.9 1 + 1. For concrete.13 Using Bazins formula.012)22/3 (0. Kutters constant = 0. Q= 1 1 (0. Discharge Q = AC 86.0343 0.682 FG 1 IJ = 0.333 C= 86.012) = 89.59 2 × 0.00155 / 0.0163 Problem 12.66 m3/s.385 m3/s Problem 12.00155 / Sb ) + = 23 + (0. P = 16 m.012 / 2 Q = 32 × 89.303.333 × = 26.012 Q = (32/0.3081 m /s H 2500 K 3 By Mannings equation.9 Rh Sb . C = 1 + k / R h A = 2 × 0.14 A rectangular open channel having 4 m depth and 8 m width is concrete lined with a bed slope of 1 in 2000.65 m3/s Chapter 12 .012 Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb A = 32 m2. determine the discharge through a rectangular ordinary earthen channel 2 m wide and 0.341 = 2000 N 423 LM NM FG H IJ OP K QP 1/ 2 ∴ N = 0.Flow in Open Channels 1 5.59 1 + (23 + (0.

y = 0.83 Problem 12. Discharge.17 Determine the most economical cross-section of a rectangular channel of width b and depth y to carry 1000 litres of water per second with a bed slope of 1 in 500.5 m.7 = 7. Find the discharge in the channel for a depth of flow of 0.83 = 0.05) × (0. The bed slope is 1 in 2000.8324 m Hydraulic mean depth = Rh = A/P = 7.9642)2/3 Sb1/2 ∴ Sb = 1/3295 0.8324 = 0.022 2 1= Solving depth FG IJ FG 1 IJ H K H 500 K 2 /3 1/ 2 .25 m. assume Mannings constant. flow rate = 1000 l/s or 1 m3/s N h 2 y2 y 0.012 Area = Wetted perimeter 2 × 3 tan 40 × 3 = 7.5/2 = 0. A = {(1 + 3)/2} × 1 = 2 m2 .5519 × C 0.25 / 1000 = 3.5519 m2.9642 m Q = 10.022 Area = A = b × y For most economical cross-section b = 2y.424 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 12. N = 0. Q = AC Rh Sb = 5 × 50 0.83 m.58 m3/s = 580 l/s Problem 12.7028 m. A = 2y2.5224)2/3 × (1/2000)1/2 = 0. N P = 1 + 2 12 + 12 = 3.15 Determine the slope for a V-shaped concrete lined channel with total included angle of 80° and a depth of 3 m if the discharge is 10.7 = 7. Rh = A/P = 2/3. Rh = y /2 Q= A R 2/3 Sb1/2. Manning constant N = 0.7 m3/s.5519 (0.05 Discharge Q= A × Rh2/3 × Sb1/2.4056 m Problem 12. Use Manning formula with constant N = 0. Assume the Chezy constant C = 50 and bed slope as 1 in 1000. For most economical cross-section of the trapezoidal channel Rh = y/2 = 0.552/7. 2 = 2 × 3/cos 40 = 7.95 m3/s . C 10.16 Estimate the discharge of water in an open channel of trapezoidal section with bottom width of 1 m and side slope of 1:1 with a flow depth of 1 m.9642 × FG H 1 3295 IJ K 1/ 2 ∴ C = 82.012 Calculating the corresponding Chezy constant. width b = 1.5224 m ∴ Q = (2/0.18 The most economical cross-section of a trapezoidal open channel is 5 m2.

006 × Sb 2 ∴ Slope. Depth of water on the upstream side of the jump. Hence flow is supercritical.06 + 2 2 y1 + 2 y1V12 / g 4 =− 0.5 into a 5 m wide apron with 1/3000 slope at a velocity of 5 m/s.5238 m 4 9.06 = 0.5757 m/s 0.006 m 2.e. 2 = 50 1.006 in equation (1) y= 2. 2.472 y2 = 5 Substituting equation (1) in equation (2) 2. The side slope vertical to horizontal may be taken as 1 in 2 and Chezy constant C = 50 A= Q 5 = = 2.4638 m V2 = V1 y1 5 × 0.81 × 0. 2. Sb = 1/316 m3/s Problem 12. Depth of water on the downstream side of jump y2 = – y1 + 2 0.06 ∴ Fr = = 6.5 = b × y + 2y2.5 – 2 × (1.006)2 b = 0.472 (2) Velocity. Substituting y = 1.52. y= 1. V = C Rh Sb i.5 Q = = 0.5.19 Design the bed slope for the most economical cross-section for a trapezoidal earthen open channel with a flow velocity of 2 m/s and discharge of 5 m3/s. For most economical cross-section V 2 (1) A = y(b + ny) = y(b + 2y). Rh = y/2 = A/P = 2.472y2 = 5. b × y = 2.472 y2 = 2.06 m V1 × b 5 × 5 5 9. Determine the height of the hydraulic jump and energy loss.5238 – 0.5 – 2y Also Perimeter Rh = y/2 P = b + 2y n 2 + 1 = b + 2y 5 .06 × 5 2 + = 0.5238 y2 Chapter 12 1.006 b = 2. Hence hydraulic jump is possible.5/(b + 2y 5 ) b × y + 4.20 A rectangular channel of 5 m width discharges water at the rate of 1.06 2 2 × 0.5 m2.81 Height of hydraulic jump = y2 – y1 = 0.06 = = 0.5 – 2y2 + 4.Flow in Open Channels 425 Problem 12.473 m .5 = 1.

05 m head of water. Depth of water on the downstream of the jump (modified equation 12.6399 = 5. Determine the normal depths for each case. The Manning constant is 0. Solving y1 = 0.5727 I F 5 = G 0.06 + 2 × 9.81J G 2 × 9. Show that a hydraulic jump has to occur and calculate the downstream flow height.9. Normal depth is . Determine the height of the hydraulic jump and the loss of energy.082 I JK = GH 2 × 9.7 + = − + 4 g 2 0.7) y2 = − V2 = y1 + 2 2 y1 2 y1 V12 0. 0.75 m3/s/m.86 m/s. Substituting the values Q= 1/ Sb 2 5/3 y N ∴ 3.75 = (1 / 95) 1/ 2 5/3 y1 . Problem 12.69 y2 Energy loss = E1 – E2 V12 V22 = y1 + 2 g − y2 + 2 g F GH I F JK GH I F 0. A Wide channel of uniform rectangular section with a slope of 1/95 has a flow rate of 3.75/0.81 V1 h1 8 × 0.21 Water is discharged at a velocity of 8 m/s with a depth of 0.69 m 4 9. Rh = y.7 + 8 I − F 2. Supercritical flow For slope 1/1420.6399.22.7 m in a horizontal rectangular open channel of constant width when the sluice gate is opened upwards. Problem 12.5238 + 0. Sb = 1/95.082 m/s 2.7 = = 2.81J K 2 2 = 1. The normal depth is obtained from the Manning equation Q= A R 2/3 Sb1/2 N h Here A = 1 × y.69 + 2.013 V1 = 3.7 × 8 2 + = 2. Suddenly the slope changes to 1/1420.426 V12 V22 Energy loss = E1 – E2 = y1 + 2 g − y2 + 2 g 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery I F I JK GH JK I − F 0.339. As the channel is said to be wide the hydraulic mean depth will be equal to the depth of flow.7 2 2 × 0. Fr1 = 2.81 J K H K H 2 F GH = 0.013.81JK GH 2 × 9.7937 m head of water.

Specific energy = V = 22. Chezy’ constant = 50 m1/2 s–1.5/(6 × 3) = 1.6568y Rh = Chapter 12 b = 2y [(n2 + 1)0. A = (b + y) y = y2 + 0.0796. Expressing V2 in terms of flow. The conditions for the most optimum section are b = 2y [ 2 − 1] = 0.82y = 3. .8284y + 2. b = 0. V2 + y2 = 3.9 Velocity Flow is subcritical.75 = (1 / 1420) 1/ 2 y25/3.75/1.29287y5/2 Solving y = 1.5 y)(1 / 2500) = 1.013 427 V2 = 3.6926 ∴ Subcritical As flow is from supercritical to subcritical flow. (equation 12. Fr = 1.1907 m.5 – n] and n = 1 As slope 1:1 ∴ 1.0796 m 2g 2 × 9.9.81 = 0. Refer section 12.0796y2 + 0.81 × 1. Determine the optimum dimensions.7) y2 = = y1 − 1 + 1 + 8 Fr12 2 LM N OP Q OP Q 0.9863 m Problem 12.6035 m/s Fr2 = 2.8284 y2 = 1.4404 = 0. 2g Q2 2 2 gb 2 y2 3 + y2 = 3.8208 m 2 LM N Problem 12.23 V22 1.8284 y 2 = 0.24 A rectangular channel of 6 m width has a flow rate of 22. Solving by trial.8284 y2 P = b + 2 ( y 2 + y 2 ) = 0.6399 − 1 + 1 + 8 / 2.0796.Flow in Open Channels 3. Determine the alternate depth and the critical depth.25 m/s.726 = 0. The channel is to carry 2 m3/s.252 +y= + 3 = 3. or y2 – 3.339 2 = 1.81 The specific energy is the same at the alternate depth.6035/ 9.4404 m 0. Solving y2 = 1.6568 y Q = 2 = 18284 y2 × 50 (0. Side slope is 1:1.25/ 3 × 9.5 m3/s when the depth is 3 m. hydraulic jump should occur.23 A trapezoidal channel has a bed slope of 1/2500.4404 = 2.8284y.5 y 3.

Assume Cd = 0.54 × 10 I J = MG NH 0.5 = 0.666/12 × 1.428 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery y2 = 0.03 – 0.94 × 1.4 × 0.691 m.1).54 × 10–3 m3/s As the flow is maximum the level above the crest should equal critical depth.549 m Q = 0. In case a standing wave forms downstream.705 × 0.981 m/s E = 1. The depth of water upstream is 0.5302 m.5302 = 3. correcting for the velocity of approach.07 m. Given b = 0.4 m.1275 = 1 22.10. The discharge is given by the equation (12.32/ 9.705 × 6 × 1.705 b H3/2.5493/2 = 18.1275 Problem 12.94 × 1. V2 = 7.5 m.1275 m Emin = (3/2) yc = 1.33 Hence supercritical To find the critical depth.26 A venturi flume with level bed is 12 m wide and the depth of flow upstream is 1.5 I =G H 9. ∴ Velocity upstream ∴ Q = 0. H = 0.25 Water flows across a broad crested weir in a rectangular channel 0.5 + 0.020 m = 0. Q = 1.4 m wide. where H the upstream level above the crest in the channel. Assume negligible velocity of approach. yc FQ I =G H gb JK 2 2 1/ 3 F 22. yc = (Q2/gb2)1/3 ∴ drop in depth LMF 3.705 × 6 × 1. Fr = 7.666 m3/s = 17.32 m/s.94. In this case the first assumption is E = y upstream. calculate the rate of flow of water.03 m ∴ Q = 1.53/2 = 17.81 × 6 JK 2 2 1/ 3 = 1. Now using the corrected value of E .02 = 0.81 × 0.07/ 9. Refer section 12.81 × 1.07 m and the crest of the weir is 40 mm above the channel bed.81) = 1.5 = 3. Determine the fall in the surface level and the discharge over the weir. 6 × 1.54 m3/s Further iteration can be made using this flow. Vc = Fr = 3.01 m or 10 mm Problem 12. As there is free fall over the weir.98142/(2 × 9.81 OP PQ 1/ 3 = 0.705 b2 E3/2 where b2 is the throat area and E is the specific energy.4 K −3 2 1 9.033/2 = 3. the flow will be maximum. The throat is 6 m wide.11 For venturi flume with standing wave downstream Q = Cd1.

8321 m Substituting in equation (A). The depth of water after the jump is given by equation (12.705 × 1.8321 + 2 × 9.2 × 0.6261 = 0.2 m.5939 I F 4 = G 0.2 × 13/2 = 2. 1.046 m3/s.8321 × 4 = 1.2832 + 2.4. Solving for y. Q = 1.2 × 0.81 J K H K H 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 = 1. E = 1.9 + (V2/2g).9) = 1.041 m. Specific energy E = 0.8321 − 1 + 1 + 8 × 1.9 m.5 where h is the difference in levels between upstream and throat L 2 × 9.81J G 2 × 9.27 A venturi flume is placed in a rectangular channel of 2 m width in which the throat width is 1.Flow in Open Channels 429 Problem 12.17 m3/s In case upstream velocity is neglected. V2 = = = 2.1) Q = b 2 y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0.2832 m.5 = 1. Also calculate the loss of specific energy.9.0411.663 m/s. Calculate the depth of flow after the jump.2832 y2 LM N Loss = y1 + F V I −Fy + V I GH 2 g JK GH 2 g JK I − F 1. y = 0.6476 – 1.9 / 2 × 1) Q 2 0.705 b2 E3/2 = 1. If a standing wave forms downstream of throat determine the flow. The Froude number is 1.28 Water enters a channel at a velocity of 4 m/s.021 m head.9 M N 1 − (1.797 m3/s In case standing wave forms. .81 y .705 × 1.81 × 0. Fr = V/ gy . The upstream flow depth is 1 m and the depth at the throat is 0. Determine the flow rate.2 × 1. considering upstream velocity.11.1 OP Q = 1. In the first case the flow Q is given by equation (12.2 × 0. Problem 12. As V = 1.4 2 2 y1V1 0.5939 m/s 1. y2 = 0. then Q = 1. Assume the bed to be horizontal.797/(1.4 = 4/ 9.7) y2 = Chapter 12 y1 − 1 + 1 + 8 Fr12 2 LM N OP Q OP Q (A) To determine.5 = 2.

95 × diameter of circular section. O Q. Derive the condition for the best side slope of the most economical trapezoidal channel. Define open channel flow. h = 0. Derive an expression for wave celerity. Answers (1) Lowest point of the channel section (2) Wetted perimeter (3) Wetted perimeter (4) Energy gradient (5) 500 (6) 2000 (7) Reynolds. 11. (10) A strong hydraulic jump causes about __________ of energy dissipation. Kutter and Manning formula for uniform flow through an open channel. 5. Show that in a rectangular open channel the critical depth is two thirds of specific energy. Explain the term hydraulic jump. Surface roughness (8) Hydraulic jump (9) Specific energies (10) 95% .2 Fill in the blanks (1) Depth of flow is the vertical distance between the free liquid surface to the __________ (2) The channel lining (side and base of the channel) which comes in direct contact with the liquid stream is called __________ (3) The hydraulic mean depth represents the ratio of the flow area to the __________ (4) The slope of the total energy line is referred to as __________ (5) The flow is laminar in an open channel if the Reynolds number is less than __________ (6) The flow is certainly turbulent in an open channel if the Reynolds number is greater than __________ (7) The Chezy coefficient C is a variable with its value depending on the flow __________ number and the __________ (8) The phenomenon of sudden increase in depth of flow in a channel is referred to as __________ (9) The energy loss through a hydraulic jump equals the difference between the __________ at the upstream and downstream sections. Explain the terms (i) specific energy (ii) critical depth and (iii) Critical velocity. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2. State Chezy. Derive the condition for the most economical section of a rectangular channel. 12. Distinguish between uniform and non uniform open channel flow. 8. 9. 3. 4. Derive an expression for critical depth and critical velocity. critical and supercritical flow (6) Specific energy (7) Alternate depths (8) Normal depth (9) Energy grade line (10) Hydraulic grade line (11) Manning roughness coefficient (12) Optimum cross section of channels (13) Critical depth (14) Hydraulic jump (15) Venturi flume (16) Broad crested weir (17) Standing wave (18) Bed slope. 10. 6.430 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1.1 Define the following terms (1) Froude number (2) Wetted perimeter (3) Hydraulic radius (4) Wave celerity (5) Subcritical. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. 7. 12. the depth of flow. Prove that for a channel of circular section for flow to be maximum. Derive an expression for the downstream depth of hydraulic jump.

As roughness increases. specific energy remains constant. Flow rate through open channels is inversely proportional to square root of bed slope (Sb1/2). 8. The flow depth in subcritical flow will be __________ compared to the flow depth a critical flow. Hydraulic radius is the ratio of wetted perimeter to area or (P/A). 9. the specific energy is minimum. Hydraulic jump helps to dissipate energy without damage to surfaces/structures. 7. 10. 12 Incorrect : 1. At critical flow. Increases O Q. Chezy’s constant is a dimensional constant. When supercritical flow meets a bump in the bed. Subcritical 7. 11. As Mannings constant increases the flow will increases. For a given specific energy as flow depth increases Froude number will __________ 6. Decrease 5. For a given specific energy the two possible depths of flow are called __________ 9.4 State Correct or Incorrect 1. Higher than one 2. Answers 1. 4. Decrease 6. Higher 8. Disturbance in supercritical flow will not be communicated upstream. 6. Semicircular 11. As roughness increases Mannings coefficient will __________ 10.5 State Correct or Incorrect : 1. 4. Normal depth 3. Mannings constant will decrease. Alternate depths 9. L / T. Answers Correct : 2. For a given area __________ section gives the maximum flow. Increase 10. Chapter 12 . 8. 3. 13. 5. For a supercritical flow Froude number should be __________ 2. the depth is called __________ 3. 12. 3. 5. The dimension of Chezy constant is 6. 12. 4. 10.Flow in Open Channels O Q. For a given slope and flow rate in a channel. Hydraulic gradient line represents the depth of flow. 8. 13 O Q. 11. 7. The flow depth __________ across hydraulic jump.3 Fill in the blanks : 1. For a given specific energy if one flow depth is supercritical the other will be __________ 431 7. Kutters formula considers bed slope. 7. 3. At critical depth of flow Froude number should be equal to one. Across the hydraulic jump. 8. As depth increases the wave velocity decreases. 9. 12. 6. The slope is unique for a given flow rate and depth of flow in a given rectangular channel. Hydraulic jump 4. 2. 4. Manning proposed that C varied as Rh1/3. 2. When there is a change in slope in supercritical flow __________ will form. Hydraulic depth is the average depth (Area/Topwidth). Specific energy is the sum of kinetic head and flow depth. Bazin formula does not relate chezy coefficient C to bed slope Sb. Across a hydraulic jump specific energy will __________ 5. 12. the level at that point will decrease. 11. 5. If one depth of flow for a given specific energy is at supercritical condition the alternate depth also should be at supercritical condition.

7 Incorrect : 1. The included angle at optimum flow in a triangular channel is 45°. (2. Assuming Chezy constant C = 50. 10.9 A rectangular channel of 5 m width carries water at the rate of 15 m3/s. 11 Incorrect : 2. 4. 12.1 A rectangular open channel has 5 m width and 1. 12 O Q.2 A triangular open channel with 0. If the bed slope is 1:137 and Chezy constant C = 52.83 m3/s. 8.4 m.5 times the flow depth. The bed slope is 1:1000.7 Determine the dimensions of a trapezoidal section for a discharge of 40 m3/s with a bed slope of 1:2500 and Manning’s constant N = 1/50. (11. For maximum flow through a sluice gate the downstream depth should be 2/3 of upstream depth. 5. calculate the slope required to maintain a depth of 2 m. 11. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The distance between energy gradient line and hydraulic line represents velocity head. Assume Chezy constant as 60.69 m/s) m2. Answers Correct 1.3 A semicircular open channel of diameter 1 m conveys water at the rate of 1.4 Determine the bed slope of a circular pipe that should carry 2.47 m3/s of water at half full condition. Vc = 3. . the flow height for maximum flow is the same as per maximum velocity. (hc = 0. 6. 7. maximum value for hydraulic mean depth will be for semi circular shape. Energy gradient line represents specific energy. 2. In the case of circular section. If Chezy constant is 65. 5. (1:2500) E12. (40 liters/s) E12. 4.16 m. determine it’s cross-section and slope. 6.459 m) E12. For optimum area in a rectangular channel. For a given area. determine the flow rate. 1:746) Find the base width and flow E12. 5. (h = 4. Calculate the critical depth and velocity.432 9. 12.138 m) E12. 9.972 m. 3. Answers Correct : 3. fine the Chezy constant.8 × 1. E12.5 m depth. Pipe diameter is 256 cm. (1:736) E12.5 A rectangular channel with most economical cross-section carries 8000 l/s of water with an average velocity of 2 m/s. determine the flow rate. the depth should be twice the width. w = 4.6 State Correct or Incorrect 1.48 m3/s) E12. If the slope of the bed is 1:950.86 m. 4. In subcritical flow level will increase for negative bump. Side slope is 1 vertical 2 horizontal. (h = 3. Assuming Manning’s constant N = 1/50. 2.25 m depth and 60° angle conveys water.6 The area of cross-section of a trapezoidal channel is 30 depth for most economical design if the slope of the bed is 1 in 1500.8 Water flows at the rate of 5 m3/s in a rectangular open channel of 3 m width. Optimum circular section for a given flow is a semicircle. As velocity drops hydraulic gradient line will rise. 10. 7. 6 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E12. w = 5. the kinetic head will be 0. 3. At minimum specific energy condition for flow through a rectangular channel.

(hc = 0. E12.14 The measurement of the parameters of a small stream shows that A = 26 m2.20 Determine the critical depth in a rectangular channel 10 m wide when the flow rate is 200 (3. E12. Also determine the minimum depth above the weir. (3. The slope is 1/1796.563 m/s) Chapter 12 . determine the two depths of flow possible. the Froude numbers upstream and downstream are related by Fr2 = 2 [(1 + 8 Fr2 )1/ 2 − 1]3 1 8 Fr2 1 .467 m. 0. Determine the flow rate. The height of the bump at any location is h(x). Also calculate the Froude numbers.03. (7. It is observed that the waves created do not travel upstream. P = 16 m and Sb = 1/3100. 0.18 Water flows in a rectangular channel of width b and depth b/3. 3.21 Show that for a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel.19 Determine the percentage reduction flow in an equilateral triangular section. determine the flow rate per m width of the spillway. E12. (2. Determine the average shear stress on the wetted perimeter of the channel. (0.24 In a horizontal rectangular channel there is a small bump of height 30 mm on the bed. E12. determine the width at the water line.2 m.333 m) E12.15 Determine the percentage reduction in flow in a rectangular channel if a thin partition in the middle divides it into two equal widths along the flow.14 N/m2) E12. Calculate the minimum velocity of the stream. determine the diameter of a circular channel that will carry the same flow when (i) half full (ii) Maximum flow condition and (iii) Maximum velocity condition. At upstream the depth is 0. Considering same slope and Manning coefficient.11 In a pensive mood a boy throws a stone in a mountain stream 1.16 A trapezoidal channel with side slopes of 45° and bottom width of 8 m is to carry a flow of 20 m3/s. show that the slope of the water surface dy/dx = – (dh/dx)/[1 – (u2/gy)] where u is the velocity and y is the depth at location x where the height of the bump is h. If the width of the channel is 2 m.426 m) E12. If the free surface well upstream is at 0.29 m3/s.571 m/s) E12.71) E12. with water wetting the surface.44 m) m3/s.3 m and velocity is 0. 0. E12.5 m3/s per m width.10 Water flows through a rectangular open channel at the rate of 2 m3/s. (0.2 m .7%) E12.7 m and 3.6 m.5 m above the bed.12 Water flows in a wide rectangular channel with a flow rate of 2.13 Water flows over a smooth bump in a wide rectangular channel.17 Compare the perimeter length for a (i) 90° triangle and (ii) square section to carry water at 2 m3/s with a slope of 1/80. (5.715 m) E12. 0.97.5 m above the weir surface. If the specific energy is 2. (23.23 Water flows over a broad crested weir with a height of 1.12 m.267 m.34) E12. Determine the height of flow above the bump and the flow speed at this section. 0.3395 m3/s.Flow in Open Channels 433 E12. Considering Mannings coefficient as 0.5 m/s. what would be the rise in water level.3 m deep.22 In a hydraulic jump in a spillway the upstream and downstream depths are 0. Neglecting energy losses. (12 m) E12. flowing full if the top is closed. (23. what would be the critical depth of the channel ? If a standing wave is to be formed at a point where the upstream depth is 0.

Also calculate the maximum flow rate. 0. Estimate the depth and velocity downstream. E12.28 In a venturi flume the bed is horizontal.09 m3/s) E12.942 m) E12.2 m/s. (10.44.93/1000) E12. 2.5 m and the velocity is 0.3 mm and the velocity was 5. Determine the bed slope.4 m bottom width and 45° side slope the flow rate is 7. 3.33 m/s. Determine the flow rate.3 m.0883 m3/s) E12. 2.31 A hydraulic jump occurs on a horizontal apron downstream from a spillway at a location where the depth is 0.022 (1.30 In the above problem with the same conditions as mentioned if the flow rate is increases to 15 (1.3 m3/s/m.9%) .26 Compare the flow rates of square and semicircular channels of 2 m water surface. Calculate the downstream depth and head loss across the jump. when slope is 1/1000 and Manning coefficient N = 0. Upstream the depth is 1. (0.79 m) m3/s. The width reduces from 600 mm to 300 mm at the throat while the flow depth changes from 300 mm to 225 mm at the throat.015. with normal depth of flow of 1.2 m.18 m/s. (6. Assuming that specific energy remains constant determine the depth downstream.14 m3/s/m) rate is 0.9 m and speed is 25 m/s. determine the normal depth.29 In a trapezoidal channel of 2. 67.27 At the exit flow under a sluice gate the depth of flow was 56. Also calculate the percentage loss of head.0563 m. if the flow (0.543 m. N = 0.25 Water flows under a sluice gate.1 m3/s. E12.434 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E12. (0.

In this chapter the forces exerted by fluid particles on the surfaces over which they flow. 13. In equation from (F and V are in the same direction) ΣF = d (mV ) dt (13. the fluid particles exert a force on the surface.1.1 a) where m is the mass of the body and V is the velocity of the body and t is the time. through which the fluid is flowing.! 13. In turn the surfaces exert an equal and opposite force on the fluid particles. The force exerted by moving fluid particles on the surface is called dynamic force.1) This can also be written as ΣF dt = d (mV) (13.1. Forces due to viscous resistance is excluded in the discussions in this chapter to reduce complexity in the analysis. When applied to control volume. Dynamic force always involves a change in the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the fluid. the principle can be stated as “The sum of forces on the fluid equals the difference between the momentum flowing in and momentum flowing out and the change in momentum of the fluid inside the control volume under steady flow condition the last term vanishes. In case the surfaces cause a change in the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the fluid particles. is discussed. This also means the impulse Fdt equals the change in momentum of the body during the time dt.1 IMPULSE MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE When applied to a single body Newtons second law can be started as “The sum of forces on the body equals the rate of change of momentum of the body in the direction of the force. So the forces in the fluid is given by 435 .0 INTRODUCTION Dynamics of Fluid Flow In chapter 3 the forces exerted by static fluid on the containment surfaces was discussed.

v and w are the components of velocity in the x.1.4b) (13. the equation in scalar form is written as ΣFx = ρQ ∆u ΣFy = ρQ ∆v ΣFz = ρQ ∆w where u. When calculating the momentum flowing in or out.1. This can also be written as ΣF = ρ2 Q2V2 – ρ1Q1V1 If the fluid is in compressible.1.6) .6a) This force is the force exerted by the reducer on the fluid in the x direction.1.3) 1 AV 2 z u 2 dA (13.1 (b) : 1 u1 2 u2 P1A1 (b) Fx P2A2 (a) Figure 13.1. then ΣF = ρQ (∆V) (13. The correction factor β is given by β= where V is the average velocity.4) (13. ΣFx = P1A1 – P2A2 – Fx = ρQ (u2 – u1) or the force on the fluid is given by Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 – ρQ (u2 – u1) (13.1. In case the forces in the cartesian co-ordinate directions is required.1.1.1. The force exerted by the fluid (13. The numerical value will show the actual sign. if the velocity over the section is not uniform a correction has to applied.1.3a) In this case ∆V should be taken as the vectorial addition of V1 and V2 and the force will be in the direction of the resultant of V1 and V2 . This force acts towards the left as assumed in the figure.4a) (13.1.436 ΣF = d ( mV ) out d (mV ) in – dt dt Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (13.6 is due to this assumption.1 (a).1. (13. y and z directions. The free body diagram is given in Figure 13. The negative sign in the LHS of 13. the net force on the fluid mass is equal to the net rate of out flow of momentum across the control surface.2) In other words.1 Assuming ideal fluid flow.1.1.5) A 13.1 Forces Exerted on Pressure Conduits Consider the reducer section shown in Figure 13.

7) and (13.2 A 45° bend in the horizontal plane is shown in figure.01 – 40 (8 – 4) = 540 N on the fluid towards left.1 A reducer in the horizontal plane has an inlet area of 0. In case both the magnitude and direction of the velocity is changed by a reducer bend then the force exerted by the bend on the fluid. On the reducer 540 N along positive x direction. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the bend. (suffix F indicates as on the fluid) FxF = P1A1 – P2A2 cos θ – m (V2 cos θ – V1) FyF = P2A2 sin θ + m V2 sin θ The forces on the bend will be equal and opposite to these forces.1. In this case the force on the bend is required. the turning angle being θ. Determine the force exerted by the reducer on the fluid.1. The pressures at inlet and cutlet are 40 and 30 kPa respectively. The pressures are 40 kPa at inlet and 10 kPa of outlet.1.6a) 45° Figure Ex. The velocity of water at inlet is 12 m/s.02 m2 and the outlet area is 0.6 m 40 kPa V1 = 12 m/s P1 1. u1 = 12 m/s ∴ u2 = 24 m/s Mass flow = 12 × 1. .1. V2 = 2V1 = 8 m/s Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 – m (u2 – u1) m = 4 × 0.1. Refer Figure 13. (13.8) Chapter 13 Example 13.7) (13.2 m2 and the outlet area is 0.1 As A1/A2 = 2.Dynamics of Fluid Flow 437 on the reducer will be equal and opposite to this force Fx.4 × 103 kg/s Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 cos θ – m (V2 cos θ – V1) Fy = P2A2 sin θ + m V2 sin θ Using equations (13. The velocity at the inlet is 4 m/s.01 m2. It is convenient to calculate the forces in the x and y directions separately. Example 13.2 × 1000 = 14.02 – 10 × 103 × 0. The inlet area is 1. 13.1. P2 = 30 kPa 0.2 m 2 2 Using equation (13.8) As the flow is in the horizental plane body forces are neglected.01 × 1000 = 40 kg/s Fx = 40 × 103 × 0.2 For convenience the control volume should be chosen such that the inlet and outlet areas are normal to the velocities at these sections.6 m2. The plus and minus signs used in the equations depend in the + ve or – ve directions of the co-ordinate system along which the force is assumed to act.

the force on a vane due to the fluid flowing over it is discussed.3 A blade turns the jet of diameter 3 cm at a velocity of 20 m/s by 60°.3) 2 2 = 259. The resultant is The direction is with the negative y direction q 257.2 Force along x direction by the blade on fluid. There is negligible change in the magnitude. In turbomachines the blades are in motion.4 × 103 × 24 × sin 25 = 257.3 kN along x and 257.1. The flow is assumed to occur in the horizental plane.04° 257. 13. V2 Free body diagram Jet V1 q Fy (Blade on water) Blade Fx (Blade on water) Figure 13. with the assumed direction : Assuming V2 = V1 as no other energy transfer occurs. In the case considered pressure forces are equal both at inlet and outlet.6 × sin 45 + 14.14 (20 cos 60 – 20) = – 141.1 kN in the +ve y direction.438 Substituting the values.1 kN downwards. Determine the force exerted by the blade on the fluid.1.1.9) Fy = m (V2y – V1y) = m V1 sin θ Example 13.4 N .65 N.8) (13.032 × 20 × 1000 = 14.4 × 103 (24 cos 45 – 12) = – 36.3 = 8. – Fx = m (V2u – V1) = m (V2 cos θ – V1) = m (V1 cos θ – V1) (13.1 36.1.14 kg/s 4 – Fx = 14. Rate of flow m= π × 0. Force m the fluid is Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fx = 40 × 103 × 1. in the –ve x direction Fy = 30 × 103 × 0.1 y Figure Ex. Here the direction of the velocity is changed.2 FORCE EXERTED ON A STATIONARY VANE OR BLADE In the case of turbomachines fluid passes over blades and in this context.3 kN.6 × cos 45 – 14. The forces on the bend will be 36. To start the analysis force on stationary vane is considered.3 x 257.2 13.2 – 30 × 103 × 0. θ = tan–1 36.1 + (− 36.

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

or Fx = 141.4 N. in the assumed direction Fy = 14.14 (20 × sin 60) = 244.9 N The forces on the blade are 141.4 N along x direction and 244.9 in the –ve y direction. Resultant = (244.92 + 141.42)0.5 = 282.8 N

244.9 q 141.4

439

x

θ = tan–1

**141.4 = 30° 244.9
**

y

30° with the negative y direction as in figure.

Figure Ex. 13.3

In order to determine the force on moving blades and the energy transfer between the blades and the fluid the relative velocity between the fluid and the blade becomes an important factor. The blade may move in a direction at an angle to the velocity of the fluid. The relative velocity of a body is its velocity relative to a second body which may in turn be in motion relative to the earth. The absolute velocity V of the first body, is the vector sum of its velocity relative to the second body v, and the absolute velocity of the latter, u Vectorially V=u+v This is easily determined by vector diagram called as velocity triangle. Some possible diagrams are shown in Figure 13.2.1.

V a u Vu V a u Vu

u b

v

v b V Vu a u b

Figure 13.2.1 Sample Velocity diagrams

Some of the general relations are V sin α = v sin β Vu = V cos α = u + v cos β (13.2.1) (13.2.2)

Vu is the component of the absolute velocity of the first body in the direction of the velocity u of the second body.

**13.3 FORCE ON A MOVING VANE OR BLADE
**

The force on a single moving vane is rarely met with. But this forms the basis for the calculation of force and torque on a series of moving vanes fixed on a rotor. There are two main differences between the action of the fluid on a stationary vane and a moving vane in the direction of the

Chapter 13

13.2 ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE VELOCITY RELATIONS

440

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

fluid motion. In the case of the moving vane it is necessary to consider both the absolute and relative velocities. The other difference is that the amount of fluid that strikes a moving vane at any time interval is different from that which strikes the stationary vane. If a jet of area A with a velocity V1 strikes a stationary vane, the mass impinging per unit time on the vane equals 8AV1 kg/s. But when the vane moves away from the direction of the jet with a velocity u, then the mass of water striking the vane equals ρA(V1 – u) kg/s. (V – u) is the relative velocity between the jet and the vane. This can be realised when the consider the velocity of the vane to be equal to that of the jet. In this case no water will strike the vane, obviously. Consider the flow as shown in figure 13.3.1.

Blade V1 Inlet Jet b2 u u Vr = V – u u V2 V2 b2 Outlet V1

Vr2

Figure 13.3.1

The velocity diagram with as inlet and outlet are shown in the figure. Considering the force on the fluid in the direction of blade velocity (can be considered as x direction) Fu = ρA (V1 – u) (Vu2 − Vu1 ) Vu2 = (Vr2 cos β 2 − u) , denoting Vr as relative velocity ∴ In the case shown, Fu = ρA (V1 – u) (Vr2 cos β 2 − u − Vu1 )

Vu1 = V itself

(13.3.1)

(13.3.2)

It is possible that (Vr2 cos β 2 − u) or Vu is negative depending upon the relative values 2 of u and Vr i.e. u > Vr2 cos β2. It is to be noted that the vane angle at the inlet should be in the direction of the relative velocity of the water when it touches the vane. Otherwise loss will occur due to the jet hitting the vane at an angle and then turning the follow on the vane surface. It was assumed that the relative velocity at inlet and at outlet are equal as no work was done by the vane on the fluid. In case of friction, Vr2 = cVr1 where c is a fraction. In case the vane moves at a direction different from that of the jet velocity say at an angle α, then force on the fluid on the vane will be at an angle. In such a case, Fx = ρA (V1 cos α1i – Vr cos β2 – u) (V1 cos α1 – u) 2 = ρA (V1 cos α1 – V2 cos α2)

Dynamics of Fluid Flow

441

As it was already mentioned, a single moving vane is not of practical importance when a series of vanes fixed on the periphery of a well is struck by the jet, then the mass of fluid striking the when will be ρAV itself. Work or energy transfer between the fluid and the water will be F × u .

Example 13.5 A 4 cm diameter water jet with a velocity of 35 m/s impinges on a single vane moving in the same direction at a velocity of 20 m/s. The jet enters the vane tangentially along the x direction. The vane deflects the jet by 150°. Calculate the force exerted by the water on the vane.

35 m/s 4 cm f 150° 20 m/s Inlet V1 = 35 m/s u = 20 m/s u = 20 m/s 15 m/s V2 7 m/s 30° Vr2 Outlet

15 m/s

Figure Ex. 13.5 The relative velocity is given by Vr = 35 – 20 = 15 m/s.

**Vu1 = 30 m/s itself in the direction of blade velocity.
**

From exit velocity triangle

**Vu2 = u – Vr cos 30 = 20 – 15 cos 30 = 7 m/s 2
**

This is in the same direction as Vu1 ∴ ∆Vu= 35 – 7 = 28 m/s. Fu = Energy transfer rate

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × (35 – 20) (28) = 527.8 N. 4

= F × u = 527.8 × 20 = 10556 Nm/s or W. Fy =

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × (35 – 20) × (15 sin 30 – 0) = 141.37 N 4

**(Note V2 sin α2 = Vr sin β2). 2 In case series of vanes have been used, Fx = Energy transfer
**

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × 35 × 28 = 1231.5 N 4

= 1231.5 × 20 = 24630 W

In case there is friction for the flow over the blade, Vr2 = k Vr1 In case the water jet direction and blade velocity direction are at an angle α1,then at the inlet Vu ≠ V1 but will be Vu = V1 cos α1. This is illustated by the following example.

Chapter 13

442

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Example 13.6 A water jet 20 mm in diameter and having a velocity of 90 m/s strikes series of moving blades in a wheel. The direction of the jet makes 20° with the direction of movement of the blade. The blade angle at inlet is 35°. If the jet should enter the blade without striking, what should be the blade velocity. If the outlet angle of the blade is 30°, determine the force on the blade. Assume that there is no friction involved in the flow over the blade. This problem has to be solved using the velocity diagram.

V = 1 90 m

V

r1

/s

b1

d1 = 20° u1 35°

40.61 u 30° V2 Vr1 53.67

Figure Ex. 13.6 u = V1 cos α1– Vr cos β1 1 V1 sin α1 = Vr sin β1 1

∴

∴

Vr1 =

V1 sin α 1 90 × sin 20 = 53.67 m/s sin β1 = sin 35

u = 90 cos 20 – 53.67 cos 35 = 40.61 m/s

**Vu1 = V1 cos α1 = 90 × cos 20 = 84.57 m/s Vu2 = Vr2 cos β2 – u = 53.67 × cos 30 – 40.61
**

= 5.87 m/s (opposite direction to Vu1 ) ∴ ∆Vu = 84.57 + 5.87 = 90.44 m/s =

π × 0.022 × 1000 × 90 = 28.274 kg/s 4

Series of blades : Mass flow ∴

**Force Fx = 28.274 × 90.44 = 2557 N = 2557 × 40.61 = 103845 Nm/s or W =
**

2 mV1 28.274 × 902 = = 1145097 W 2 2

Energy transfer rate Energy in the jet

Fy = (90 sin 20 – 53.67 sin 30) 28.274 = 111.6 N

Dynamics of Fluid Flow 13.4 TORQUE ON ROTATING WHEEL

443

Blades or vanes may be fixed at the periphery of the wheel in which case the radius at which fluid enters will be the same as at fluid exit. There are cases where the blades are fixed at the sides of a disc such that the radius at which the fluid enters the vane will be different from the radius at which it exits. The former type is known axial blading and the later is known as radial blading. In the former case the blade Entry velocity will be constant and in the latter case the blade velocity will very with radius. Thus the force on the blade Blades will very with the radius and the previous method cannot Exit be used to find the fluid force on the blade. In this case the moment of momentum theorem is used to determine the torque on the wheel. The theorem states that torque on the wheel equals the rate of change of moment of momentum of the fluid as it flows over the blades. Thus it is necessary to determine the moment of momentum at the inlet and Figure 13.4.1 Radial blading outlet to determine the torque. Torque can be produced only by the velocity component along the periphery. The components of the velocity in the tangential direction are Vu1 and Vu2 equal to V1

cos α1 and V2 cos α2. Momentum at entry = m V1 cos α1. Moment of momentum of entry = m V1 cos α1 × r1

**Similarly moment of momentum at exit = m V2 cos α2 × r2 T = m (r1V1 cos α1 – r2V2 cos α2)
**

Power = ωT. ω = Substituting :

2πN 60

2πr1 N = u1 tangential velocity at entry 60 2πr2 N = u2 tangential at exit 60

∴

P = m ( Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2 ).

where Vu1 and Vu2 are the components of the absolute velocities of the fluid in the tangential direction. In this case the direction of blade velocity is the tangential direction to the wheel on which the blades are fixed.

Example 13.7 Blades are fixed in a disc with outer and inner diameters of 0.8 m and 0.4 m. The disc rotates at 390 rpm. The flow rate through blades is 4000 kg/s. The inlet angle of the blade is 80°. The blade width is 0.25 m. If the flow at outlet is radial, determine the blade outlet angle. Determine the angle at which the water should flow for smooth entry. Determine the torque exerted and the power resulting

therefrom.

Chapter 13

444

u1 = ∴ From continuity

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

πDN π × 0.8 × 390 = = 16.34 m/s 60 60 16.34 × 0.4 D2 = = 8.17 m/s 0.8 D1

Vu1 u1 a1 V1 Vr1 80° VF

u2 = u1 ×

Q = πDbVf

where Vf is the flow velocity along the radius.

4000 = π × 0.8 × 0.25 × Vf 1000

∴ Vf = 6.37 m/s.

Vu1 = u1 + Vf /tan 80

Figure Ex. 13.7a

= 16.34 +

6.37 = 16.52 m/s tan 80 6.37 = tan α1, α1 = 21.09° 16.52

Vf1 Vu1

= tan α1,

The jet should be inclined at this angle to the periphery of the wheel ∴ V1 tan α1 = Vf1 ∴ V1 =

6.37 = 16.51 m/s. tan 21.09

u2 8.17 B2 Vf2 = 12.73 Vr 2 Exit triangle

As the blade width is constant, the flow velocity at exit is 4 = π × 0.4 × 0.25 × Vf2 ∴ ∴ ∴ As exit is radial,

Vf2 = 12.73 m/s

12.13 tan β2 = 8.17

β2 = 57.3°

Vw2 = 0 as Vf2 = V2

Figure Ex. 13.7b

T = m (r1 Vw – 0) = 4000 × 1 P = ωT =

0.8 × 16.52 = 26432 mN. 2

2 πN 26432 × 60 1000

= 1079.5 kW. Also equal to m Vw1 Vu1 (check)

We can also determine Vr1 and Vr2 if required.

Dynamics of Fluid Flow SOLVED PROBLEMS

445

Problem 13.1 A pipe line of 150 mm ID branches into two pipes which delivers the water at atmospheric pressure. The diameter of the branch 1 which is at 30° anti clockwise to the pipe axis is 75 mm. and the velocity at outlet is 12 m/s. The branch 2 is at 15° with the pipe centre line in the clockwise direction has a diameter of 100 mm. The outlet velocity is 12 m/s. The pipes lie in a horizental plane. Determine the magnitude and direction of the forces on the pipes.

0.075 m 12 m/s Fx 0.15 m 30° 15° 0.01 m 12 m/s x y

Figure P. 13.1

The flow rates in the pipes are Branch 1 :

π × 0.075 2 × 12 × 1000 = 53 kg/s 4

2=

π × 0.12 × 12 × 1000 = 94 kg/s 4

Branch Flow in the pipe

= 94 + 53 = 147 kg/s

Velocity in the pipe : V1 = 0.147 /

π 0.152 = 8.333 m/s 4

**To determine the pressure in the pipe
**

V22 P P1 V2 = 0 + – 1 , 2 S p 2

Assuming zero gauge pressure at exit. P1 = ρ

LM V MN

2 2

− V12 2

OP = 1000 LM 12 N PQ

2

− 8.332 2

OP Q

**= 37.3 × 103 N/m2 The x directional force assuming it to act in the – ve x direction Fx = 37.3 × 103 × = 242 N
**

π × 0.15 2 – 94 × 12 cos 15 – 53 × 12 cos 30 + 147 × 8.333 4

Chapter 13

446

To determine Fy : Assuming to act in the + ve y direction Fy = 53 × 12 sin 30 – 94 × 12 sin 15 = 26 N

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 13.2 A jet 30 mm diameter with velocity of 10 m/s strikes a vertical plate in the normal direction. Determine the force on the plate if (i) The plate is stationary (ii) If it moves with a velocity of 4 m/s towards the jet and (iii) If the plate moves away from the plate at a velocity of 4 m/s. Case (i) The total x directional velocity is lost. ∴ ∴ Case (ii) ∴ Case (iii)

F = m V,

F=

m = ρAV

π × 0.032 × 10 × 10 × 1000 = 70.7 N 4

m = ρA(Vr), Vr = V + u = 14

F=

π × 0.032 × 14 × 1000 × 10 = 99 N 4

F Vr = V – u = 6 m/s F=

π × 0.032 × 6 × 1000 × 10 = 42.4 N 4

Problem 13.3 A jet of water at a velocity of 100 m/s strikes a series of moving vanes fixed at the periphery of a wheel, 5 at the rate of kg/s. The jet is inclined at 20° to the direction of motion of the vane. The blade speed is 50 m/s. The water leaves the blades at an angle of 130° to the direction of motion. Calculate the blade angles at the forces on the wheel in the axial and tangential direction.

Inlet u2 = 50

V

V

1

Vf1

100

Exit a2 20° 50 u1

Vu2 50 V2 B2 55.7 130°

A1

b1

Vu1 u1

Figure P. 13.3

tan β1 =

100 × sin 20 V1 sin α 1 = 100 cos 20 − 50 V1 cos α 1 − u

Blade angle at inlet ∴ β1 = 37 .88°

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

sin β1 =

447

V1 sin α 1 Vr1 100 sin 20 = 55.7 m/s sin 37.88

and u2 = u1

∴

Vr1 =

**In this type of blade fixing
**

Vr2 = Vr1

**Referring to the exit triangle
**

Vr2 cos 50 < u = 50

Vr2 cos 50 = 35.8.

∴ Vu2 = 50 – 35.8

= 14 .2 m/s in the same direction as V u 1 ∴ Tangential force = 500 × (Vu1 − Vu2 )

**Vu 1 = 100 cos 20 = 93.97 m/s
**

∴ Tangential force = 5 (93.97 – 14.2) = 3488 N Axial force

**F = m [V1 sin α – Vr1 sin β2]
**

= 5 [100 sin 20 – 55.7 . sin 50] = – 8.5 N

Problem 13.4 Water jet at the rate of 10 kg/s strikes the series of moving blades at a velocity of 50 m/s. The blade angles with respect to the direction of motion are 35° and 140°. If the peripheral speed is 25 m/s, determine the inclination of the jet so that water enters the blades without shock. Also calculate the power developed and the efficiency of the system. Assume blades an mounting on the periphery of the wheel. In this type of mounting u remains the same so also relative velocity. β1, V1 and u are known : Refer figure

A

u2 = 25

q Vr1 b1

4.04

V

1

4.0

C a1 B u1 Vu1 u1

V2 Vr2 = Vr1

Figure P. 13.4

Chapter 13

Hence this shape

448

u V1 = sin θ sin (180 − β 1 )

∴ Solving

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

**25 50 = sin θ sin (180 – 35)
**

θ = 16.7°. ∴ α1 = 180 – (180 – 35) – 16.7 = 18.3°

Direction of the jet is 18.3° to the direction of motion.

Vu1 = 50 × cos 18.3 = 47.47 m/s,

Vr1 =

50 sin 18.3 = 27.37 m/s sin 35 Vr2 cos 40 = 20.96 < 25 (u)

β2= (180 – 140) = 40°,

**∴ The shape of the exit triangle will be as in figure
**

Vu2 = u – V cos β2 = 25 – 20.96 = 4.04 m/s r2

Tangential force Power Energy in jet

**= m (Vu1 − Vu2 ) = 10 (47.47 – 4.04) = 434.3 N = F × u = 434.3 × 25 = 10.86 × 103 W
**

10 × 50 2 = = 12.5 × 103 W 2

∴

η=

10.86 × 10 3 = 0.8686 or 86.86 % 12.5 × 10 3

Problem 13.5 Curved vanes fixed on a wheel on the surface receive water at angle of 20° to the tangent of the wheel. The inner and outer diameter of the wheel are 0.9 and 1.6 m respectively. The speed of rotation of the wheel is 7 revolutions per second. The velocity of water at entry is 75 m/s. The water leaves the blades with an absolute velocity of 21 m/s at an angle of 120° with the wheel tangent at outlet. The flow rate is 400 kg/s. Determine the blade angles for shockless entry and exit. Determine the torque and power. A also determine the radial force.

Inlet Vu2

V

1

uc 19.8 b2 120

Vf1

Vr1 b1

=7

5

2q u1 = 35.19 Vu1 u1

Vf2

21 Vr2 Exit

Figure P. 13.5

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

Blade velocity u1 = πdN = π × 1.6 × 7 = 35.19 m/s u2 =

449

9 × 35.19 = 19.8 m/s 16

**V1 sin α 1 75 × sin 20 tan β1 = V cos α − u = 75 × cos 20 – 35.19 1 1
**

Solving β1 = 36° tan β2 = Solving

**21 sin 60 19.8 + 21 cos 60
**

Chapter 13

β2 = 30.97°

**T = m [ Vu1 r1 + Vu2 r2 ] (in this case, Vu2 is in the opposite direction)
**

∴ ∆ Vw = Vu + Vu2 1 = 400 [0.8 × 75 cos 20 + 0.45 × 21 cos 60] = 24443 Nm Power = 24443 × ω = 24443 × 2π × 7 = 1075042 W or Power in the jet Ω 1075 kW. = η= Radial force

75 2 × 400 = 1125000 W or 1125 kW 2

1075 = 0.955 or 95.5% 1125

= 400 (75 sin 20 – 21 sin 60) = 2986 N.

Problem 13.6 A jet of water with a velocity of 30 m/s impinges on a series of vanes moving at 12 m/s at 30 to the direction of motion. The vane angle at outlet is 162° to the direction of motion. Complete (i) the vane angle at inlet for shockless entry and (ii) the efficiency of power transmission.

Inlet 19.5 u 18°

V

1

=3

0

V2 Vr2 Outlet

b1

30 12

Figure P. 13.6

V1 sin α 1 30 sin 30 tan β1 = V cos α − u = = 1.073 30 cos 30 – 12 1 1

∴

β1 = 47°

450

sin β1 =

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

30 sin 30 Vr1 30 sin 30 sin β 1 = 20.5 m/s = Vr2

∴

Vr1 =

**Vr2 cos β2 > u1 ∴ hence the shape of the triangle. Vu1 = 30 cos 30 = 25.98 m/s
**

Vu2 = 20.5 cos 18 – 12 = 7.5 m/s

**Assuming unit mass flow rate : P = u [ Vw1 + Vw2 ] = 12 [25.98 + 7.5] = 401.76 W/kg/s Energy in the jet ∴ = η=
**

30 2 = 450 W. 2

401.76 = 0.893 or 89.3% 450

EXERCISE QUESTIONS

E 13.1 Derive the linear momentum equation using the control volume approach and determine the force exerted by the fluid flowing through a pipe bend. E 13.2 Derive the expression for the force exerted by a water jet on a plate moving in the same direction of the jet with a velocity less than that of the jet. E 13.3 A horizontal Y is shown in figure. Determine the x and y components of the force exerted in the pipe.

60° 18.33 m/s

0

1.6 m f

.5 m

1m

60°

f

18.33 m/s

Figure E. 13.3 E 13.4 A nozzle of 5 cm diameter is fixed at the end of a pipe of 15 cm diameter with water flowing in the pipe at a velocity of 3 m/s. The jet discharges into the air. Determine the force exerted in the nozzle. E 13.5 Water flows through a right angled reducer bend with inlet diameter of 60 cm and exit diameter of 40 cm. The entrance velocity is 6 m/s. If the bend lies on a horizontal plane, determine the magnitude and direction of the force on the bend.

7 A jet of water 6 cm dia has a velocity of 30 m/s. α1 = β1 = 0°.5 cm water jet having a velocity of 30 m/s. E 13. determine the forces in the x and y directions. The outlet angle is 120° with x direction. If the force acting on the vane in the direction of the jet is 900 N determine the angle by which the jet is turned by the vane.9 A 5 cm2 area water jet impinges on a series of vanes as shown in figure. 13. Also determine the energy transfer rate. Chapter 13 .10 A water jet with a velocity of 60 m/s enters a series of curved vanes at an angle of 20° to the direction of blade movement. If it impinges on a curved vane which turns the jet by 90° determine forces on the vane if the vane moves in the direction of the jet at a velocity of 14 m/s.Dynamics of Fluid Flow 451 E 13. Calculate the vane inlet angle. V 1 =6 0m 30° /s u V 60° = 45 m /s 2 Figure E. E 13. If at the exit the component of absolute velocity along the direction of motion is zero. Assume shockless enters and exit.9 E 13. The vane velocity is 15 m/s.6 A jet of 5 cm diameter enters a blade in the x direction with a velocity of 60 m/s.8 A series of vanes is acted upon by a 7. The peripheral speed of the disc on which the blades are mounted is 25 m/s. The blade angle at inlet is 0°. The absolute velocities and their directions are indicated on the figure. determine the outlet blade angle. If the blade moves with a velocity of 25 m/s along the x direction. E 13. What is the power transmitted? Also determine the blade speed and blade inlet angle.

causing a reaction on the turbine runner. The nozzles convert the potential energy to kinetic energy in free water jets. Tunnels and channels are used for surface conveyance. 14. Dams in river beds provide larger quantities of water but with a lower potential energy. In some cases the nozzles may be replaced by guide vanes which partially convert potential energy to kinetic energy and then direct the stream to the turbine wheel. The conveying system may consist of tunnels. (ii) Conveying system (iii) Hydraulic turbine with control system and (iv) Electrical generator The storage system consists of a reservoir with a dam structure and the water flow control in terms of sluices and gates etc. The penstock pipes end at the flow control system and are connected to nozzles at the end. where the remaining expansion takes place.1 HYDRAULIC POWER PLANT The main components of hydraulic power plant are (i) The storage system. In such cases the potential energy in the water will be large but the quantity of water available will be small. Penstocks are pressure pipes conveying the water from a higher level to a lower level under pressure. channels and steel pipes called penstocks. Turbines are the primemovers of civilisation. The reader is referred to books on power plants for details of the components and types of plants and their relative merits. 452 . Steam and Gas turbines share in the electrical power generation is about 75%. Rest of 5% only is by other means of generation." 14.0 INTRODUCTION Hydraulic Turbines Most of the electrical generators are powered by turbines. These jets by dynamic action turn the turbine wheels. The reservoir may be at a high level in the case of availability of such a location. Hydraulic power depends on renewable source and hence is ever lasting. It is also non polluting in terms of non generation of carbon dioxide. In this chapter we shall concentrate on the details and operation of hydraulic turbines. About 20% of power is generated by hydraulic turbines and hence thier importance.

3. In chapter 8 the important dimension less parameters in the case of turbomachines have been derived (problem 8. These are (i) Impulse turbine (ii) Reaction Turbine. It is rather difficult to test each parameter’s influence separately.1) 2.). the specific speed increases. The relevant parameters in the case of hydraulic machines have been identified in that chapter.16). The specific sheed. The operating conditions in terms of available head and load fluctuation vary considerably. flow rate. The pressure inside the turbine is atmospheric. The idea of similitude and model testing comes to the aid of the manufacturer. In case of variation of the operation from design conditions. The potential energy available is generally denoted as “head available”. it is found the designs have to be validated by actual testing. Note that as head decreases for the same power and speed. With this terminology plants are designated as “high head”.4) Consistant sets of units should be used to obtain numerical values. 14.3. In addition to the operation at the design conditions. It is also not easy to vary some of the parameters. These are 1. (speed. Dimensional analysis comes to our aid. In the case of these machines more than three variables affect the characteristics of the machine.3. gH/N2D2 (14.3) 4. large units cannot be modified or scrapped easily. Radial flow machines are found suitable for moderate levels of potential energy and medium quantities of flow. In spite of sophisticated design methodology.2 CLASSIFICATION OF TURBINES 453 (ii) In reaction turbines the available potential energy is progressively converted in the turbines rotors and the reaction of the accelerating water causes the turning of the wheel. The flow coefficient. The representation is qualitative only. mixed flow and axial flow machines. It is found almost impossible to test a full size unit under laboratory conditions. Q/ND3 (14. The imulse provided by the jets is used to turn the turbine wheel. The last parameter has particular value when it comes to choosing a particular type under given available inputs and outputs. It has been established partly by experimentation and partly by analysis that the specific speed to some extent indicates the possible type of machine to provide the maximum efficiency under the given conditions. head available etc. The axial machines are suitable for low levels of potential energy and large flow rates. The power coefficient. In the case of impulse turbine all the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy in the nozzles.Hydraulic Turbines 14. All the four dimensionless numbers are used in model testing. the characteristics of operation under varying in put output conditions should be established.1 illustrates this idea. N p /ρ1/2(gH)5/4 (14. . The head coefficient. Figure 14.3. P/ρ N (14. for solving this problem. power. These are again divided into radial flow. Some people call this type as tangential flow units. This type is found suitable when the available potential energy is high and the flow available is comparatively low. Chapter 14 The main classification depends upon the type of action of the water on the turbine.3 SIMILITUDE AND MODEL TESTING Hydraulic turbines are mainly used for power generation and because of this these are large and heavy. Later discussion will show under what conditions this type is chosen for operation. “medium head” and “low head” plants.2) 3D5 3.

Figure 14. .82 0 1 2 3 4 Dimensionless specific speed (radian) Figure 14. 100 90 5000 to 1 00 50 5000 to 0 00 00 20 to 00 0 00 50 10 low Be in l/m 80 Efficiency % Over 5 1500 0000 0 to 50 00 0 70 50 40 2500 5000 10000 20000 30000 50000 80000 50 0 60 to 10 2 Specific speed Very narrow radial Wider radial cshortor Axial Figure 14.90 Axial flow turbines 0.2 gives another information provided by the specific speed.2 Variation of efficiency and flow passage with specific speed.3.3. h Francis turbines 0. For the same flow rate. there is an increase in efficiency with specific speed.454 0. As flow rate increases for the same specific speed efficiency is found also to increase.86 0.98 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Pelton wheel 0.1 Variation of efficiency with specific speed.3.94 Efficiency.

. This is also shown in Table 14.5 s 2. m5/4 S ρ1/ 2 ( gH ) 5 / 4 S 1/ 2 kg m 1/2 as kg1/2 m1/2/s the expression will be dimensionless. . speed should be in rps and power should be in W.663—1.72—0. (H < 60m) There is considerable variation in the specific speeds indicated by various authors. The speed is specified by the frequency of AC supply and the size.015—0. Speed N is used as rpm and power in kW by some authors. Lower the speed chosen. Worked examples will illustrate the idea more clearly. Power is estimated by the product of head and flow rate. This Substituting for Newton N can be checked N p → NS → 1 kg 1/ 2 m1/ 2 m1/ 2 m1.5 .1 to 4 are dimensionless and will give the same numerical value irrespective of the system of units adopted. larger will be the size of the machine for the same power. Ns = N p 5/ 4 Table 14. 5 / 4 . s 2.3. In practice dimensional specific speed is popularly used H where N is in rps.047—0. 2. Table 14. P in W and H in m.053 0.1.66 Dimensional specific speed in SI system 8—29 26—40 40—67 67—450 364—910 Type of turbine having the best efficiency at these values Single jet Pelton turbine Twin jet Pelton turbine Multiple jet Pelton turbine Radial flow turbine Francis type (H < 350m) Axial flow Kaplan turbine. 1/ 2 2.1. The specific speed is obtained from the data available at the location where the plant is to be installed. The value of the specific speed gives a guidance about the choice of the type of machine. Then only the value becomes dimensionless.5 → M° L° T° s s 1/ 2 h s kg m 1 k1/ 2 m11/ 2 m1/ 2 m1.5 .122—0.819 0.5 .1 Best specific Speed Range for Different Type of Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionles specific speed range 0.Hydraulic Turbines 455 The expressions given in the equation 14. 1/ 2 . Consider the following 1 N 1/ 2 m1/ 2 m 3 / 2 s 10 / 4 .072 0. Such use is dimensionly complex and will vary with values given in table 14. These data lead to the calculation of the specific speed for the plant. In the non dimensional form. Head is estimated from the topography. 1/ 2 . 1/ 2 . . Flow rate is estimated from hydrological data.1 provides some guidance about the type of turbine suitable at various ranges of specific speeds.122 0. the best shape is chosen for the maximum efficiency at that flow.5 → M°L°T° s s s kg m Chapter 14 The type of flow passage also varies with specific speed as shown in the figure. As the flow rate increases.

This can be easily seen from the values listed in table 14. Hence specific speed value increases with the drop in available head.92. Ns = Agrees with the former value.015 × 549 = 8. Power estimated 40000 kW. these conditions are generally not satisfied. This cannot be arranged in a fully flowing type of turbine. Non dimensional specific speed. wider rotors with mixed flow are found suitable.2. the specific speed increases with N and decreases with head. Determine the specific speed. The flow area required will be just the nozzle diameter. still the area required will be unsuitable for a reaction turbine. Example 14. Keeping the power constant. Single jet impulse turbine will be suitable. Specific speed does not indicate the speed of the machine. Head available : 900 m. When the head is large. Example 14.5 (40. As the head decreases still further and the flow increases. P → W or Nm/s. So multi jet unit is chosen in such a case.24 as in the tabulation.5 40. The power potential was 50. g → m s2 . Speed required : 417. Indicate what type of turbine is suitable. Hence axial flow units are found suitable in this situation. It can be considered to indicate the flow area and shape of the runner.1. the flow rate has to be higher.5 rpm. As the head reduces and flow increases purely radial flow reaction turbines of smaller diameter can be chosen. At a location the head available was estimated as 200 m. As the head drops further for the same power.815 / 4 × 9005 / 4 1000 Hence single jet pelton turbine is suitable.1.0163.000000)1/ 2 × = 0.1. Even with same actual installation data. But in the solved problems and examples. The diameter can be reduced further and the speed increased up to the limit set by mechanical design. ρ → kg/m3.000 kW.H→m ∴ Ns = 417. The sheed chosen is 600 rpm. × 60 9005 / 4 . In the discussions the specific speed values in best efficiency is as given in table 14. The speed variation is not as high as the head variation. When the flow increases. the velocity when potential energy is converted to kinetic energy will be high. the specific speed is found to vary from the listed best values for the type. Also indicate the suitable type of turbine Dimensionless specific speed : units to be used : N → rps. Significance of specific speed. Hence the best suited will be the impulse turbine.456 g1. Determine the specific speed for the data available at a location as given below (Both dimensionless and dimensional). the omitted quantities in this case are ρ1/2 = 549 ∴ 0. 417. 1/ 2 60 × 9.2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As a check for the dimensional value listed.0000001/2 = 8.

Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionless. In the laboratory head available was 20 m. It is necessary to obtain test results which will indicate the performance of the large unit. At a location.000 kW.3.000 600 . P → W.000000)1/ 2 × = 84. Example 14. A model satisfying these conditions is called “Homologous” model.g→ 2. Equal ratios of geometric dimensions leads to geometric similarity. Dimensionless Ns = 40. Head available = 200 m. Similar dynamic conditions in terms of velocity.000. At a location investigations yielded the following data for the installation of a hydro plant. it can be shown that specific speeds. The speed chosen was 500 rpm.000 kW.866 60 1000 1/ 2 (9. For kinematic and dynamic similarity the flow directions and the blade angles should be equal. Similar flow pattern leads to kinematic similarity.153.H→m kg s = 0. leads to dynamic similarity. The ratio between linear dimensions is called scale. Chapter 14 Hence Francis type of turbine is suitable. This is done by testing a “homologous” or similar model of smaller size and predicting from the results the performance of large unit. Ns = 600 40. . forces etc. Ns = 600 (40. head coefficients flow coefficient and power coefficient will be identical between the model and the large machine called prototype.0001/ 2 × = 475. Example 14.000. In such case. kinematic similarity and dynamic similarity. N → rps. It was proposed to construct a 1/6 scale model.1 Model and Prototype It is found not desirable to rely completely on design calculations before manufacturing a large turbine unit. acceleration. The speed chosen is 600 rpm.25 14. The power estimated is 40.09.81 × 50)5 / 4 Hence axial flow Kaplan turbine is suitable. 60 501. For example an one eight scale model means that the linear dimensions of the model is 1/8 of the linear dimensions of the larger machine or the prototype.81)5 / 4 × 1000 1/ 2 Dimensional. Dimensional Ns = 600 40. power available = 40. the head available was 50 m. g → 457 m m3 .4.000000 60 × (200 × 9. Also determine the flow rate required in terms of the prototype flow rate. Determine the speed and dynamo meter capacity to test the model. Similarity conditions are three fold namely geometric similarity. Determine the specific speed and indicate the suitable type of turbine. 60 2005 / 4 Hence agrees with the previous value. It is also possible from these experiments to predict part load performance and operation at different head speed and flow conditions. = 0.3. A model study was proposed.

7 rpm. In example 14.062 kW and run at 948.000 3 × 65 OP Q = 990. Choosing head coefficient. The test facility has a limited dynamometer capacity of 40 kW only whereas the speed and head have no limitations. 113 Example 14.08777 = m m3 = Qp 500 N p Dp 6 Qm is or 1 of Qp.6 rpm . head.458 The dimensional specific speed of the proposed turbine Ns = N P H 5/ 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 500 60 40.000.5.7 rpm Substituting in the specific speed expression.0747 = Solving Pm = 35062 W = 35.0747. the data in the proposed plant is given. As two unknowns are involved another parameter has to be used to solve the problem.4.5 = 948. (as both heads are known) Nm2 Dm 2 ∴ Hm = Hp N p 2 Dp 2 ∴ Nm2 = Hm . 40000 kW power and 500 rpm. In this case it is preferable to choose the power coefficient Pm Nm Dm 3 5 = Pp N p Dp 3 5 ∴ Nm3 = Dp Pm × N p3 × Pp Dm 1/ 3 F I GH JK 5 ∴ Nm L 40 × 500 = M N 40. N p2 Hp FD I GH D JK p m 2 Nm = LM 20 × 500 N 200 984.062 kW ∴ The model is to have a capacity of 35. These are 200 m. The flow rate ratio can be obtained using flow coefficient Qp N p D p3 Qm Nm Dm ∴ 3 = Qm N D 3 948. Determine the speed and head required for the model. The value of dimensional specific speed of the proposed plant is taken from example 14.4 as 70.000 2005 / 4 = 70.7 1 × 3 = 0.7 60 × 205 / 4 Pm 2 (6 2 ) OP Q 0.0747 The specific speed of the model should be the same. A one sixth scale model is proposed. 70.

000 990.6.0916 or = m m3 = times the flow in prototype. the same will not be taken into account in the calculation. 500 6 Qp N p Dp 109.Hydraulic Turbines Using the specific speed value (for the model) 70.G H D JK m p 2 = 200 × FG 1000 IJ FG 1 IJ H 500 K H 6 K 2 2 = 22.00926 = m .0747 = 459 40. The flow coefficient will lead to N1 D 3 Q1 Q2 Q2 N2 = Q1 N1 = N2 D 3 or Chapter 14 The flow rate can be obtained using the flow coefficient . Thus Head coefficient will now be N 12 H1 D 2 = H2 N2 D 2 2 or H2 N 2 = 22 H1 N1 The head will vary as the square of the speed.6 40. Test head required is 21.2 Unit Quantities The dimensionless constants can also be used to predict the performance of a given machine under different operating conditions. As the linear dimension will be the same. 70.000 × or Hm5/4 = 60 H m5 / 4 60 × 70.146 kW The flow ratio N D 3 Qm 1000 1 × 3 = 0. In this case determine power of the model and the test head required.8 m and test speed is 990. 108 14.6 990. m3 = N p Dp Qp 500 6 or 1 times the prototype flow. The test facility has only a constant speed dynamometer running at 1000 rpm.225 / 4 Solving P = 41146 W or 40.0747 Solving Hm = 21.6 rpm.9 Example 14. 990. Use the data for the proposed hydro plant given in example 14. The specific speed of the proposed plant is 70.0747 = 1000 P . Hm = Hp Nm 2 N p2 FD I .3.4. 60 × 22.8 m.22 m Substituting in the specific speed expression.0747 and the models should have the same value of specific speed. In this case the head coefficient is more convenient for solving the problem.6 1 Qm N D 3 1 × 3 = 0.

45 MW 14. A turbine is operating with a head of 400 m and speed of 500 rpm and flow rate of 5 m3/s producing the power of 17. This constant is called unit power. N12 H1 = N2 2 H2 ∴ N2 350 = N1 400 Q1 Q = 2 N1 N2 LM OP N Q 0. Gross head is defined as the difference in level between the reservoir water level (called head race) and the level of water in the stream into which the water is let out (called tail race).66 × FG 350 IJ H 400 K = 14.93531 = 4. The constant is called unit discharge. The head available changed to 350 m. Similarly N2 = N1 H2 H1 or N H = constant.5 Q2 = 5 × 0.677 m3/s P2 = P1 FH I GH H JK 2 1 3/ 2 ∴ P2 = 17.5 0. During the conveyance of water there are losses involved. Example 14. The difference between the gross head and head loss is called the net head or effective head.7 rpm Q2 N = 2 = Q1 N1 H2 350 = H1 400 2. or FG IJ H K 0.460 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Flow will be proportional to N and using the previous relation Q2 = Q1 H2 H1 or Q H = constant for a machine.93541 = 467. ∴ 3. flow and power ? Assume efficiency is maintained. This constant is called unit speed. 1. both levels to be observed at the same time. Hence when H is varied in a machine the other quantities can be predicted by the use of unit quantities.93541 or N2 = 500 × 0.5 = 0.7. It no other corrective action was taken what would be the speed.66 MW.4 TURBINE EFFICIENCIES The head available for hydroelectric plant depends on the site conditions. It can be measured . Using the power coefficient : N 3 D5 P1 P2 N 3 or = 23 = P1 N1 = N 3 D5 P2 FH I GH H JK 2 1 3/ 2 or P H3/2 = constant.

1) Chapter 14 where Q is the volume flow rate and H is the net or effective head.4) Also the overall efficiency is the product of the other three efficiencies defind η0 = NH Nm Nv (14.2) To some extent this depends on manufacturing tolerances. ηv = Q–∆Q Q (14. Hydraulic efficiency : It is defined as the ratio of the power produced by the turbine runner and the power supplied by the water at the turbine inlet. Overall efficiency : This is the ratio of power output at the shaft and power input by the water at the turbine inlet. .3) 4. This reflects the runner design effectiveness. windage losses and other frictional losses. η0 = Power available at the turbine shaft ρ QgH (14. 2. Mechanical efficiency : The power produced by the runner is always greater than the power available at the turbine shaft.4. Power produced by the runner is calculated by the Euler turbine equation P = Qρ [u1 Vu1 – u2 Vu2]. This is due to mechanical losses at the bearings. 3. which is taken by suitable thrust bearings. The radial component produces a bending of the shaft which is taken by the journal bearings. The following efficiencies are generally used.4.Hydraulic Turbines 461 by the difference in pressure between the turbine entry and tailrace level. Volumetric efficiency : It is possible some water flows out through the clearance between the runner and casing without passing through the runner.5 EULER TURBINE EQUATION The fluid velocity at the turbine entry and exit can have three components in the tangential. Out of these the tangential force only can cause the rotation of the runner and produce work. Indicating Q as the volume flow and ∆Q as the volume of water passing out without flowing through the runner.4. ηH = Power produced by the runner ρQ g H (14. axial and radial directions of the rotor. This also means that the force exerted on the runner can have three components. The axial component produces a thrust in the axial direction.4. Volumetric efficiency is defined as the ratio between the volume of water flowing through the runner and the total volume of water supplied to the turbine. This means that the fluid momentum can have three components at the entry and exit. ηm = Power available at the turbine shaft Power produced by the runner (14.4. 1.5) 14.

Inlet Vu2 Vr1 b1 Vu1 V1 a1 u1 V2 a2 Vr2 u2 b2 Exit Figure 14. τ = m (Vu1 r1 – Vu2 r2) = m Vu1 = m Vu2 = m Vu1 r1 = m Vu2 r2 (14. As the tangential velocity varies with the radius.5. shown in figure 14.462 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Thus it is necessary to consider the tangential component for the determination of work done and power produced.1.5. Consider the general velocity triangles at inlet and exit of turbine runner.3) 2π N r2 = u2 60 (14.5. Let u1 be the tangental velocity at entry and u2 be the tangential velocity at exit. Let Vu1 be the tangential component of the absolute velocity of the fluid at inlet and let Vu2 be the tangential component of the absolute velocity of the fluid at exit. the work done also will be vary with the radius. The help of moment of momentum theorem is used for this purpose.1 Velocity triangles .5. tangential force and the tangential velocity. Let r1 and r2 be the radii at inlet and exit. the – sign will become + ve sign. The tangential momentum of the fluid at inlet The tangential momentum of the fluid at exit The moment of momentum at inlet The moment of momentum at exit ∴ Torque.1 Components of Power Produced The power produced can be expressed as due to three effects. It is not easy to sum up this work.1) Depending on the direction of Vu2 with reference to Vu1. ∴ But ∴ 2π N 60 2π N (Vw1 r1 – Vw2 r2) 60 (14.4) is known as Euler Turbine equation. These are the dynamic.2) Power = m 2π N r1 = u1 and 60 (14. The work done or power produced by the tangential force equals the product of the mass flow.5.4) Power = m (Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2) Equation (14.5. centrifugal and acceleration effects. Power = ωτ and ω = where N is rpm.5.5. It states that the torque on the rotor equals the rate of change of moment of momentum of the fluid as it passes through the runner. 14.

5) The degree of reaction is considered in detail in the case of steam turbines where speed reduction is necessary. Vr1. u2 Tangential velocities at inlet and outlet. (Vu1 = V1 cos α1) V12 + u12 − vr 12 2 463 or u1 V1 cos α1 = Vu1 u1 = (A) From outlet velocity triangle (Vu2 = V2 cos α2) Vr22 = V22 + u22 – 2 u2 V2 cos α2 or u2 V2 cos α2 = u2 Vu2 = (V22 – u22 + Vr22)/2 Substituting in Euler equation. u1.Hydraulic Turbines V1. all the terms will be present. In impulse reaction turbines of radial flow type. the degree of reaction is defined by the ratio of energy converted in the rotor and total energy converted. R= (V12 – V2 2 ) + ( u12 – u2 2 ) + (Vr 2 2 – Vr 12 ) (u12 – u2 2 ) + (Vr 2 2 – Vr 12 ) (14. Hydraulic turbines are generally operate of lower speeds and hence degree of reaction is not generally considered in the discussion of hydraulic turbines. (Francis turbines is of this type). Chapter 14 Vr12 = V12 + u12 – 2u1 V1 cos α1 . The first term only will be present in Pelton or impulse turbine of tangential flow type. V2 Absolute velocities at inlet and outlet. In impulse reaction turbines. Power per unit flow rate (here the Vu2 is in the opposite to Vu1) (B) m (u1 Vu1 + u2 Vu2) = m 1 [(V12 – V22) + (u12 – u22) + (Vr22 – Vr12)] 2 V12 − V2 2 is the dynamic component of work done 2 u12 − u2 2 is the centrifugal component of work and this will be present only in the 2 radial flow machines ur 2 2 − Vr12 is the accelerating component and this will be present only in the reaction 2 turbines. From inlet velocity triangle. Vr2 Relative velocities at inlet and outlet.5. the last two terms only will be present. Vu2 Tangential component of absolute velocities at inlet and outlet. Vu1. In pure reaction turbines.

Brake nozzle Casing To main pipe Horizontal shaft Pitch circle of runner bucket Spear Jet Deflector Nozzle Bend Tail race Figure 14.464 14. This avoids interference of the incoming bucket on the jet impinging on the previous bucket.2 with relative dimensions indicated in the figure. Z.6. Equations are available to calculate the number of buckets on a wheel.6. Buckets are fixed on the periphery of the disc.1 Pelton turbine The rotor or runner consists of a circular disc. . A view of a bucket is shown in figure 14. A cut is made in the lip to facilitate all the water in the jet to usefully impinge on the buckets. made of cast or forged steel. It is formed in the shape of two half ellipsoids with a splilter connecting the two. fixed on suitable shaft.6 PELTON TURBINE Fluid Mechanics and Machinery This is the only type used in high head power plants. Pelton in 1889 and all the type of turbines are called by his name to honour him. (2) The nozzle assembly with control spear and deflector (3) Brake nozzle and (4) The casing. These buckets in small sizes may be cast integral with the runner. A sectional view of a horizontal axis Pelton turbine is shown in figure 14. Originally spherical buckets were used and pelton modified the buckets to the present shape. The number of buckets. The buckets are also made of special materials and the surfaces are well polished. In larger sizes it is bolted to the runner disc. The main components are (1) The runner with the (vanes) buckets fixed on the periphery of the same.1.A. Z = (D/2d) + 15 where D is the runner diameter and d is the jet diameter.6. This type of turbine was developed and patented by L. The spacing of the buckets is decided by the runner diameter and jet diameter and is generally more than 15 in number.

The velocity of the jet should not be changed to meet the load fluctuation due to frequency requirements. To avoid this a deflector as shown in figure 14. The deflector will than move to the initial position. In side the casing the pressure is atmospheric and hence no need to design the casing for pressure.6.6. the water flow should not be stopped suddenly. The jets in this case should not interfere with each other. It mainly serves the purpose of providing a cover and deflecting the water downwards. A fixed ratio between the jet velocity and runner peripheral velocity is to be maintained for best efficiency. A governor moves to and fro a suitably shaped spear placed inside the nozzle assembly in order to change the flow rate at the same time maintaining a compact circular jet. When load drops suddenly. The quantity of water flow only should be changed to meet the load fluctuation. Chapter 14 . The first wastes water and the second is mechanically complex.5 – 2.6.Hydraulic Turbines T 465 Jet diameter.8 T/d 0.3 is used to suddenly play out and deflect the jet so that the jet bypasses the buckets. Meanwhile the spear will move at the safe rate and close the nozzle and stop the flow. it will take a long time for the runner to come to rest due to the high inertia. d 10 to 15° d Spillter C2 e E d B U I L Figure 14. Even when the flow is cut off. The casing also supports the bearing and as such should be sturdy enough to take up the load. The spear assembly with the deflector is shown in figure 14.3.95 Notch width 1. Some other methods like auxiliary waste nozzle and tilting nozzle are also used for speed regulation.1 d + 5 mm The nozzle and controlling spear and deflector assembly The head is generally constant and the jet velocity is thus constant. To avoid this a braking jet is used which directs a jet in the opposite direction and stops the rotation. But the load on the turbine will often fluctuate and some times sudden changes in load can take place due to electrical circuit tripping. a vertical shaft system will be adopted.8 – 4 L/d 2.2 Pelton turbine bucket Bucket and wheel dimensions D/d 14 – 16 B/d 2. When the condition is such that the specific speed indicates more than one jet. Such a sudden action will cause a high pressure wave in the penstock pipes that may cause damage to the system. The nozzle is designed to satisfy the need. The casing is cast in two halves for case of assembly. In this case the shaft is vertical and a horizontal nozzle ring with several nozzle is used.

and V2 cos α2 is in the opposite direction to Vu1 and hence ∆ Vu1 is additive.6.4.6.4) . Steam turbines operate at 3000 rpm or 50 rps in the areas where the AC frequency is 50 cycles per second. Hence and Vu1 = V1 Vr1 = V1 – u In the ideal case Vr2 = Vr1. 14. In this case the jet direction is parallel to the blade velocity or the tangential velocity of the runner.1 Power Development The bucket splits the jet into equal parts and changes the direction of the jet by about 165°. F = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) τ = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) r P = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) u where m is given by ρ AV at entry. In many cases the speed in the range to 500 rpm. Hydraulic turbines handle heavier fluid and hence cannot run at such speeds.466 Spear Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (a) Deflector in normal position (b) Figure 14.3) (A) (B) m (Vu1 ± Vu 2 ) u 2u (Vu 1 ± Vu 2 ) u = V12 / 2 V12 m (14.6.6. As the water flows out on both sides equally axial thrust is minimal and heavy thrust bearing is not required. The product of the pairs of poles used in the generator and the speed in rps gives the number of cycles per second.1) (14.6. But due to friction Vr2 = k Vr1 and u2 = u1. The speed of the turbine is governed by the frequency of AC.2) (14. Power used in the region. The diagram shown is for the conditions Vr2 cos β > u.6. The velocity diagram for Pelton turbine is shown in figure 14.6.3 Nozzle assembly Generally the turbine directly drives the generator. Hydraulic efficiency ηh = (14.

6.6. Vu2 = Vr2 cos β2 – u = kVr1 cos β2 – u = k(V1 – u) cos β2 – u ∴ Vu1 + Vu2 = V1 + k V1 cos β2 – u cos β2 – u = V1 (1 + k cos β2) – u(1 + k cos β2) = (1 + k cos β2) (V1 + u) Substituting in equation (14.4 can be modified by using the following relations.4) ηH = 2u V12 × (1 + k cos β2) (V1 + u) (14.4a) = 2(1 + k cos β2) LM u – u OP NM V V PQ 2 1 2 1 u is called speed ratio and denoted as φ. dη H = 2(1 + k cos β2) (1 – 2 φ) dφ ∴ φ= u 1 = V1 2 or u = 0. V1 ∴ ηH = 2(1 + k cos β2) [φ – φ2] (14.5) To arrive at the optimum value of φ. V1 = Vu1 u Vu2 Vu2 V2 a2 Vr1 u V2 Vr2 u b2 Alternate exit triangle Vu2 u b2 Vr2 V2 u > Vr2 cos b2 Figure 14.6) In practice the value is some what lower at u = 0.6. the power developed and the hydraulic efficiency will be different.5 V1 (14.6. For various values of u.4 Velocity triangles Pelton turbine Vu1 = V1. this expression is differentiated with respect to φ and equated to zero.52] .5 – 0.4a) we get ηH = 2(1 + k cos β2) [0. Equation 14.6.6. In this case Vu2 will be in the same direction as Vu1 and hence the equation (14.Hydraulic Turbines Once the effective head of turbine entry is known V1 is fixed given by V1 = Cv 467 2 gH .46 V1 Substituting equation (14.6) in (14.3) will read as P = m (Vu1 – Vu2) u Chapter 14 It is desirable to arrive at the optimum value of u for a given value of V1. In fact the out let triangle will be different from the one shown it u > Vr2 cos β.6.6.6.

The head available at a plant location is 500 m. Vr1 = Vr2 = 19.3 W = (96 – 58. Assume β2 = 165° and Cv = 0. ηH = 1 or But the actual efficiency in well designed units lies between 85 and 90%.3. Vr1 = Vr2 = 52. For various values of φ determine the work done 1 kg.2 = 4484 Nm/kg/s 5.3) × 76.7.8) = – 58.11) × 28.8 cos 15 – 67.3 Nm/kg/s 4.24 W = (96 + 17. φ = 0.5) × 57. Example 14. u = 57.8) = 36. 2 × 9. Vr1 = Vr2 = 28.2.45.2) = 7.5.8 = 3804.6 m/s Vw2 = (57. Vr1 = Vr2 = 48 Vw2 = (48 cos 15 – 48) = – 1.8 W = (96 + 7.8 Nm/kg/s 2.2) = 54.8.2 = 3804.468 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1 + k cos β 2 2 100 percent. Vr1 = Vr2 = 38.98) × 19.8) × 43.6) = – 20. Vr1 = 67.2 = 2898.6 cos 15 – 38.5 W = (96 – 20. u = 38.8 Nm/kg/s 3.4 cos 15 – 57. Vr2 = Vr1.8 Nm/kg/s 8.8 m/s = Vr2 Vw2 = (76. Vr1 = 76.11 m/s W = (96 + 36. u = 43. u = 76.2 × cos 15 – 28.4. u = 19.4. Vr1 = Vr2 = 57. φ = 0. u = 48.8 × cos 15 – 19.64 W = (96 – 1.2 = Vπ2 Vw2 = (67. φ = 0.6 = 4348.6. Vj = 0.2. φ = 0. It may be seen that in the case k = 1 and β = 180°.2) = – 39.8 cos 15 – 43.4) × 67.4 = 4348.8. φ = 0. φ = 0.6. u = 28.8 Nm/kg/s .2 cos 15 – 76.81 × 500 = 96 m/s φ = 0.8.64) × 48 = 4529 Nm/kg/s 6.4 W = (96 – 39.8 Vw2 = (52.98 W = (96 + 54.2. φ = 0.97 1.3 Nm/kg/s 7.2 Vw2 = (19.97.4) = 17.24) × 38.4 Vw2 = (38.8 Vw2 = (28.2.8 = 2898.8. u = 67.

6 (b) u Vw2 u b2 V2 V2 Vr2 Vw2 Vr2 (a) (b) Figure 14.5 f 0.9 Figure 14.8 0.7 0. 5000 469 4000 3000 W 2000 1000 0.Hydraulic Turbines The result is shown plotted in Figure 14.4 0.6.6.6 0.3 0.6.6 Exit velocity diagrams for pelton turbine Chapter 14 .4 by Fig 14.45 is given by Fig.6 (a) and beyond φ = 10. 14.1 0.2 0.5.6.6.5 Variation of power with variation of φ for constant jet velocity The shape of the velocity diagram at exit up to φ = 0.

It can be shown that the specific speed of impulse turbine is dependent on the jet diameter. N. As the torque versus φ is not a straight line. In the ideal case power is zero both at φ = 0 and φ = 1.a 1= 4 tu r ns 3 tur 2 turn 0° .7 0.2 0.6.7.7 and 0. But this does not increase in the same proportion as the size. op en 48 8. At higher heads any unit will operate at a slightly higher efficiency. Also torque is found to be zero at values less than φ = 1. k = s 0 1 turns Points of maximum efficiency along this line 0.6 Values of f (= u/ 2gh) 0. It is noted that the maximum efficiency lies in all cases between φ = 0. (d) wheel diameter (D) ratio or called jet ratio in short. Instead of speed the dimensionless speed ratio φ can be used for generality. 14.4 8 tu rn s tur 6 tu rns ns -i de al to rq ue . The power can be calculated from the torque curves.9).b 2= ns 18 0° . The curve is rather flat and hence impulse turbine can be operated at lower loads with reduced losses.8. . or u = V1.2 Torque and Power and Efficiency Variation with Speed Ratio It is useful to study the variation torque with speed.m under 30 cm head en 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0. This is done to friction and exit loss (V22/2) variation with various values of u.8. Efficiency is some what higher in larger sizes as compared to small sizes homologous units.3 0.4 and 0.7 Relation between torque and speed ratio at constant head for various nozzle openings.6.6.8 0. Most units operate at a constant speed but at varying loads.9 1.470 12 11 10 9 Depends on position of buckets Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 60 cm pelton wheel Net brake torque reduced to values under 30 cm head Ne ed Ne ed le le op Torque. the actual power curve is not a parabola.5 0. The power variation for constant value of V1with φ is shown in figure 14.6.6.1 8. It is interesting to observe the variation of efficiency with load at a constant speed (Figure 14. In the actual case power is zero even at φ is between 0.4 0.0 Figure 14.5. The actual variation of torque with speed ratio is shown in figure 14. The efficiency variation with speed ratio is similar to power versus speed ratio curve as the input V12/2 is the same irrespective of u/V1. In the ideal case the torque will be maximum at u = 0 or φ = 0 and zero at φ = 1.

9 1. This is shown in figure 17.8 0. Hence specific speed of an impulse turbine is mainly dependent on the jet diameter wheel diameter ratio.3 Figure 14. φ H 1/ 2 d . the best value of diamensional specific speed is about 17 and at that condition the wheel diameter is about 12 times the jet diameter.1 0.0 0. Inversely at the specific speed at which efficiency is maximum.4 0.2 Actual power with needle valve wide open Actual power with partly opened needle valve friction and windage 0.6 Values of f 0. there is a specific value of jet speed wheel speed ratio. For single nozzle unit.8 Speed ratio Vs power developed by pelton turbine Ns ∝ N∝ N H P 5/4 u φ φ H ∝ V1 ∝ D D D P ∝ Q H ∝ d2 V1 H ∝ d2 H H ∝ d2 H3/2 P ∝ d H3/4 H where d is the jet diameter.7 0.Hydraulic Turbines Power delivered to nozzle 24 Power in jet 21 18 Watts under 30 cm head 471 Ideal power (case 1) with needle valve wide open 60 cm pelton wheel power reduced to values under 30 cm head 15 12 9 6 3 0 Mechanical 0 0.10.6.6. φ does not vary much and the constant made up of efficiency and Cv also does not vary much. H 3 / 4 5/4 ∴ Ns ∝ ∝φ d d = constant φ D D Chapter 14 .5 0.

100 98 96 94 Maximum efficiency. . The pressure inside the runner varies along the flow.48 0.50 0.9 Variation of efficiency with load of constant speed for an impulse turbine.43 0. % 85 Single-nozzle impulse turbine under constant head 80 75 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Power output as a percentage of power output at maximum efficiency Figure 14. In the case of reaction turbine the potential energy is partly converted to kinetic energy in the stater guide blades. In the impulse turbine the potential energy available is completely converted to kinetic energy by the nozzles before the water enters the runner.49 0.10 Variation of efficiency at the D ratio for single jet inpulse turbine d 14.6. % 24 22 20 18 d D fe 0.6.45 12 10 8 6 0. ns = Figure 14.46 fe 14 D 0.472 90 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Efficiency. The pressure in the runner is constant at atmospheric level. The remaining potential energy is gradually converted to kinetic energy and absorbed by the runner.44 0.7 REACTION TURBINES The functioning of reaction turbines differs from impulse turbines in two aspects. 1.42 Single-nozzle impulse turbines 20 24 28 ne bpe h 5/4 32 36 40 Normal specific speed.47 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 78 76 74 0 4 8 12 16 h 16 d 0.

1 Typical sectional and front view of a modern Francis turbine.7. In the case of impulse turbine there is no drop in pressure in the bucket passage and the relative velocity either decreases due to surface friction or remains constant. In the case of reaction turbine the flow area between two blades changes gradually to accomodate the change in static pressure. But the design has gradually changed into a mixed flow turbine of today.5 to 3D3 05 to 1D3 Guide wheel D3 Draft tube Tail race Runner From pen stock Guide blades Rotor blades Figure 14. 14. The other differences are that reaction turbines are well suited for low and medium heads (300 m to below) while impulse turbines are well suited for high heads above this value. Chapter 14 .7. Shaft Guide blades Spiral casing 2. A sectional view of a typical Francis turbine of today is shown in figure 14. Most of the machines are of vertical shaft arrangement while some smaller units are of horizontal shaft type. In the case of impulse turbine the speed ratio for best efficiency is fixed as about 0. Francis. Also due to the drop in pressure in the vane passages in the reaction turbine the relative velocity at outlet is higher compared to the value at inlet. As there is no such limitation.7.46. Francis turbine was first developed as a purly radial flow turbine by James B. reaction turbines can be run at higher speeds. 473 In the reaction turbine as it is fully flowing all blades or vanes are engaged by water at all the time. In the impulse turbine only a few buckets are engaged by the jet at a time.Hydraulic Turbines 2.1 Francis Turbines Francis turbine is a radial inward flow turbine and is the most popularly used one in the medium head range of 60 to 300 m. an American engineer in 1849. The main components are (i) The spiral casing (ii) Guide vanes (iii) Runner (iv) Draft tube and (v) Governor mechanism.1.

7. The guide blades rest on pivoted on a ring and can be rotated by the rotation of the ring. whose movement is controlled by the governor. Its area of cross section decreases gradually around the circumference. These are classified as (a) slow runner (b) medium speed runner (c) high speed runner and (d) very high speed runner.2. This leads to uniform distribution of water all along the circumference of the runner. This reduces the outlet velocity and thus increases efficiency. 14. The development of mixed flow runners was necessitated by the limited power capacity of the purely radial flow runner. The guide vane outlet angle α1 also increases from about 15° to higher values as speed increases.7. In this way the area of blade passage is changed to vary the flow rate of water according to the load so that the speed can be maintained constant.3. These should also be not simple multiples of the runner blades. Water from the penstock pipes enters the spiral casing and is distributed uniformly to the guide blades placed on the periphery of a circle.1. The blade passages act as a nozzle in this aspect.7. The guide blades in addition to guiding the water at the proper direction serves two important functions. Guide vane Pivot More area of flow Less area of flow Figure 14. Guide vanee and giude wheel 14. In high speed runners in which the blades are longer a circular band may be used around the blades to keep them in position.1 Spiral Casing Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The spiral casing surrounds the runner completely.3 The Runner The runner is circular disc and has the blades fixed on one side. The shape of the runner and the corresponding velocity triangles are shown in figure 14.1.7. The variation of area between guide blades is illustrated in Figure 14.2 Guide Blades Water enters the runner through the guide blades along the circumference. The control mechanism will be discussed in a later section. The shape of the runner depends on the specific speed of the unit.1.7. As seen in the figure the velocity triangles are of different shape for different runners. The water entering the guide blades are imparted a tangential velocity by the drop in pressure in the passage of the water through the blades. The number of guide blades are generally fewer than the number of blades in the runner. It is seen from the velocity triangles that the blade inlet angle β1 changes from acute to obtuse as the speed increases.2.474 14. .7. A larger exit flow area is made possible by the change of shape from radial to axial flow shape. The casing should be strong enough to withstand the high pressure.

fe = 0. B D ns = 81 fe = 0. the outlet angle of the blades are so designed that there is no whirl component of velocity at exit (Vu2 = 0) or absolute velocity at exit is minimum.3 Variation of runner shapes and inlet velocity triangles with specific speed In all cases.7.7.Hydraulic Turbines D1 u1 a1 V1 (a) Slow runner u1 70 < Ns < 120 b1 V1 vr1 15° £ a1 £ 25° b1 < 90° Vr1 475 (b) Medium speed runner u1 a1 V1 120 < Ns < 220 b1 < 90° vr1 180 – b1 (c) High speed runner u1 a1 V1 180 – 220 < Ns < 350 b1 vr1 (d) Very high speed runner 300 < Ns < 430 Figure 14.4 Slow speed and highspeed runner shapes.70 Dd = Dt (a) B D Dt ns = 304.8 Dd (b) Figure 14. Chapter 14 a1 b1 < 90° .

476 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The runner blades are of doubly curved and are complex in shape. The height of the runner along the axial direction (may be called width also) depends upon the flow rate which depends on the head and power which are related to specific speed. This loss is reduced by connecting a fully flowing diverging tube from the turbine outlet to be immersed in the tailrace at the tube outlet. A draft tube arrangement is shown in Figure 14. The loss in effective head is reduced by this arrangement.1. This reduces the pressure loss as the pressure at the turbine outlet will be below atmospheric due to the arrangement. D2 4° Rotor Stator Straight divergent tube Moody’s bell mouthed tube HS Tail race Draft tube Patm Simple elbow Elbow having square outlet and circular inlet Figure 14.4 Draft Tube The turbines have to be installed a few meters above the flood water level to avoid innundation.7. In the case of reaction turbines. Two such shapes are shown in figure 7. In the case of impulse turbines this does not lead to significant loss of head.1 (as also in figure 14.7.7. the loss due to the installation at a higher level from the tailrace will be significant. Also because of the diverging section of the tube the kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy which adds to the effective head. As specific speed increases the width also increase accordingly. 14.1.7. Different shapes of draft tubes is shown in figure 14. These may be made separately using suitable dies and then welded to the rotor. The runners change the direction and magnitute of the fluid velocity and in this process absorb the momentum from the fluid.7.6 Various shapes of draft tubes .5). The draft tube thus helps (1) to regain the lost static head due to higher level installation of the turbine and (2) helps to recover part of the kinetic energy that otherwise may be lost at the turbine outlet.7.5 Draft tube Figure 14.6.4.

The height of the draft tube will be decided on the basis of cavitation.7.Hydraulic Turbines 477 The head recovered by the draft tube will equal the sum of the height of the turbine exit above the tail water level and the difference between the kinetic head at the inlet and outlet of the tube less frictional loss in head. By varying the widths at inlet and outlet suitably the flow velocity may be kept constant also.7. . it is directly possible to calculate Vf1 and Vf2. The divergence angle in the tubes should be less than 10° to reduce separation loss. Different types of draft tubes are used as the location demands. Vu1 u1 a1 V1 b1 V1 u2 Vf2 = V2 a2 Vr2 b2 Figure 14. 14. H is the height of turbine outlet above tail water level and hf is the frictional loss of head. Bell mouthed type gives better recovery. The efficiency of the draft tube in terms of recovery of the kinetic energy is defined us η= Chapter 14 V12 – V2 2 V12 where V1 is the velocity at tube inlet and V2 is the velocity at tube outlet.7 Velocity diagram for Francis runner Generally as flow rate is specified and the flow areas are known.7.5 Energy Transfer and Efficiency A typical velocity diagrams at inlet and outlet are shown in Figure 14.1. Elbow types are used when the height of the turbine outlet from tailrace is small. This is discussed in a later section. Hence these may be used as the basis in calculations. These are (i) Straight diverging tube (ii) Bell mouthed tube and (iii) Elbow shaped tubes of circular exit or rectangular exit.7. Hd = H + (V12 – V22)/2g – hf where Hd is the gain in head.

power P = m (Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery where m is the mass rate of flow equal to Q ρ where Q is the volume flow rate.478 From Euler equation. In all the turbines to minimise energy loss in the outlet the absolute velocity at outlet is minimised. As Q is more easily calculated from the areas and velocities. Hence the hydraulic efficiency is given by ηH = For unit flow rate. This is possible only if V2 = Vf2 and then Vu2 = 0. D1 . ∴ P = m Vu1 u1 E1 = Vu1 u1 The energy available in the flow per kg is Ea = g H where H is the effective head available. volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency and over all efficiency. From velocity triangle : Vu1 = Vf1 cot α1 . the + sign will change to – sign as β2 will become obtuse. the energy transfered from fluid to rotor is given by Vu1 u1 gH It friction and expansion losses are neglected W=gH– V2 2 2g ∴ It may be written in this case gH – η= V2 2 2g V2 =1– 2 . Q ρ is used by many authors in placed m . Runner efficiency or Blade efficiency This efficiency is calculated not considering the loss in the guide blades. b1 and N1 For other shapes of triangles. gH 2 gH The values of other efficiencies are as in the impulse turbine i.e. Vf1 = Q / π (D1 – zt) b1 Ω Q / π D1b1 (neglecting blade thickness) Vu1 = u1 + Vf1 / tan β1 = u1 + Vf1 cot β1 = u1 = π D1 N + Vf1 cot β1 60 π D1 N 60 ∴ Vu1 u1 can be obtained from Q1 .

7. There is a drop in efficiency after 100% load.7.8. Water Power = Power Input (kW) Chapter 14 .Hydraulic Turbines u1 = Vf [cot α1 + cot β1] ∴ u1Vu1 = Vf12 cot α1 [cot α1 + cot β1] Vf 2 2 Vf 1 2 V2 2 = u1 Vu1 + = u1 Vu1 + 2 2 2 479 Energy supplied to the runner is u1 Vu1 + (Assume Vf2 = Vf1) ∴ ηb= Vf 12 cot α 1 [cot α 1 + cot β 1 ] Vf 12 2 + Vf 12 cot α 1 [cot α 1 + cot β 1 ] Multiply by 2 and add and subtract Vf12 in the numerator to get ηb= 1 – In case β1 = 90° ηb= 1 – 1 1 + 2 cot α 1 (cot α 1 + cot β 1 ) 1 2 1+ tan 2 α 1 = 2 2 + tan 2 α 1 In this case Vu1 = u1 The characteristics of Francis turbine is shown in Figure 14.8 The efficiency curve is not as flat as that of impulse turbine. 600 50 100 Head 500 Value of h (m) 40 80 400 30 60 Eff ic cy ien t npu er i w 300 Po 20 40 200 n = 600 rpm 100 10 20 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 0 Brake Power = Power output (kW) Figure 14. At part loads the efficiency is relatively low.

The blades are also rotated by the governor to change the inlet blade angle as per the flow direction from the guide blades. In the Kaplan turbines the blades are mounted in the boss in bearings and the blades are rotated according to the flow conditions by a servomechanism maintaining constant speed. A sectional view of a kaplan turbines in shown in figure 14.8 0.480 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The characteristics of Francis turbine at various speeds but at constant head is shown in figure 14.6 0. Guide blades direct the water into the chamber above the blades at the proper direction. Value of φ 0. KN. so Efficiency.9 Francis turbine characteristics at variable speed and constant head 14. In propeller turbine the blades are fixed. it was pointed out that as specific speed increases (more due to increased flow) the shape of the runner changes so that the flow tends towards axial direction. In such a case the specific speed increases to a higher value.1. In the discussions on Francis turbines.0 1. This trend when continued.7. the runner becomes purely axial flow type.3 0. In this way a constant efficiency is achieved in these turbines. the simpler propeller turbines are installed. The system is costly and where constant load conditions prevail.2 1.6 0.2 1. % Power (kW) 3 .m 0.3 1. In such situations axial flow turbines are gainfully employed.4 1.7.4 0.2 0.8 AXIAL FLOW TURBINES The popular axial flow turbines are the Kaplan turbine and propeller turbine. The speed governor in this case acts on the guide blades and rotates them as per load requirements.0 100 8 6 4 2 0 400 300 200 100 0 Water power = Power input Tor que exe rted by w hee l t u tp u o er Efficiency ow P = r we po e ak Br Full gate opening Discharge.1 0. There are many locations where large flows are available at low head.7 Q = Rate of discharge 12 10 600 500 0. The water directed by the guide blades enters the runner which has much fewer blades (3 to 10) than the Francis turbine.5 0.8 0.9 1. These turbines are suited for head in the range 5 – 80 m and specific speeds in the range 350 to 900.1 1.4 0. m /s Torque.8. The water from supply pipes enters the spiral casing as in the case of Francis turbine.9. The flow rate is changed without any change in head.2 0 1000 1100 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 rpm 600 700 800 900 Figure 14.

Hydraulic Turbines 481 that entry is without shock. The flow ratio lies in the range 0.1 Sectional view of kaplan furbine The number of blades depends on the head available and varies from 3 to 10 for heads from 5 to 70 m.2 Typical velocity diagrams for Kaplan turbine Chapter 14 Volute casing . Shaft Guide blades Tail race Rotor blade Rotor Draft tube Figure 14. The speed ratio is calculated on the basis of the tip speed as φ = u/ 2 gH and varies from 1. At lower specific speeds the boss diameter may be higher. The important dimensions are the diameter and the boss diameter which will vary with the chosen speed. The diagram is in the axial and tangential plane instead of radial and tangential plane as in the other turbines.8.8.4. As the head is low.2. many times the draft tube may have to be elbow type. Typical velocity diagrams at the tip and at the hub are shown in Figure 14. As the peripheral speed varies along the radius (proportional to the radius) the blade inlet angle should also vary with the radius.35 to 0.75. u1 vu1 u1 a1 Vf1 V1 b1 a1 V1 u1 b1 Vf1 vu1 u1 u2 Vf2 = V2 b2 Vr2 Vf2 = V2 u2 b2 Vr2 (a) At Tip (b) At Hub Figure 14. Hence twisted type or Airfoil blade section has to be used.8.5 to 2.

This action produces very high dynamic pressure upon the adjacent solid walls and since the action is continuous and has a high frequency the material in that zone will be damaged.482 Work done = u1 Vu1 (Taken at the mean diameter) ηH = u1 Vu 1 gH Fluid Mechanics and Machinery All other relations defined for other turbines hold for this type also. the absolute pressure at all points should be above the vapour pressure. The process is called cavitation and the damage is called cavitation damage. As the fluid flows into a region of higher pressure the bubbles of vapour will suddenly condense or collapse. the liquid will then will boil at that point and bubbles of vapour will form.8. 100 Kaplan 90 Impulse 80 Fr Efficiency. Turbine runners and pump impellers are often severely damaged by such action.3 Load efficiency characteristics of hydraulic turbines 14. u1 Vu1 = Constant along the length of the blades or Vu1 decreases with redius. Thus the part load efficiency is higher in this case.8.9 CAVITATION IN HYDRAULIC MACHINES If at any point in the flow the pressure in the liquid is reduced to its vapour pressure. In order to avoid cavitation. As the hydraulic efficiency is constant all along the length of the blades. The flow velocity remains constant with radius. Fi xe d bl ad e ax ia lf lo w an cis . % 70 60 50 Constant rpm under constant pressure 40 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % of rated power 90 100 110 Figure 14. The load efficiency characteristic of the four types of turbines is shown in figure 14. In the case of propeller turbine the part load efficiency suffers as the blade angle at these loads are such that entry is with shock. Kaplan turbine has a flat characteristics for variation of efficiency with load.3.

8.78 Q 1 F N I σ = 0. The critical factor in the installation of reaction turbines is the vertical distance from the runner to the tailrace level. The flow will be disturbed from the design conditions.8.6 m. For high specific speed propeller units it may be desirable to place the runner at a level lower than the tailrace level.2) σc is found to be a function of specific speed.78 K σc = 0.1 to 0. The minimum pressure at the turbine outlet. The total head on a Francis turbine is 20 m.8. It is defined as σ= ha − hr − z h (14. The minimum value of σ at which cavitation occurs is defined as critical cavitation factor σe.4) (14.Hydraulic Turbines 483 Cavitation can occur in the case of reaction turbines at the turbine exit or draft tube inlet where the pressure may be below atmospheric level.8 σc = 0.4 to 1. is used.3) There are a number of correlations available for the value of σc in terms of specific speed.308 + G J 6.3. The turbine outlet can be set at 2. obtained from experiments by Moody and Zowski. The pressure corresponding to the water temperature of 15° C is 0. In reaction turbines the most likely place for cavitation damage is the back sides of the runner blades near their trailing edge.8. z is the height of the runner outlet above tail race and h is the total operating head.6)1. In addition to the damage to the runner cavitation results in undesirable vibration noise and loss of efficiency.5. h0 can be obtained as h0 = ha – z – σc H (14.6 – 0.55 (Ns/444. The machine is at an elevation where the atmosphic pressure is 8. For Francis runners For Kaplan runners σc = 0. In the range of specific speeds for Francis turbine σc varies from 0. The constants in the equations depends on the system used to calculate specific speed.17 m. Chapter 14 .8.006 + 0.82 H 380.8.17 – 0.7) Example 14.43 m above the tailrace level. In the case of pumps such damage may occur at the suction side of the pump. determine the level of the turbine outlet above the tail race.6) 2 (14. σ. where the absolute pressure is generally below atmospheric level.3 × 20 = 2.5 2 (14.625 s s c (14.9.64 and in the range of specific speeds for Kaplan turbine σc varies from 0. It critical cavitation factor is 0.5) Other empirical corrlations are Francis runner For Kaplan runner LM N OP N 380.8.43 m.1 + 0. To compare cavitation characteristics a cavitation parameter known as Thoma cavitation coefficient. Knowing σc the maximum value of z can be obtained as z = ha – hv – σe h (14.3 [Ns /444. z = Pa – Pv – σc h = 8.1) where ha is the atmospheric head hr is the vapour pressure head.6]2.

9 GOVERNING OF HYDRAULIC TURBINES Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Hydraulic turbines drive electrical generators in power plants. Similarly when suddenly load comes on the unit the speed will decrease. It is also possible that due to electrical tripping the turbine has to be stopped suddenly.9. The governor should be sensitive which means that it should be able to act rapidly even when the change in speed is small.1 Governing system for Pelton turbine . The movement of the spear is actuated by the governor to control the speed. The frequency of generation has to be strictly maintained at a constant value. In reaction turbines the guide vanes are moved such that the flow area is changed as per the load requirements. At the same time it should not hunt. which means that there should be no ups and downs in the speed and stable condition should be maintained after the restoration of the speed to the rated value. This means that the turbines should run at constant speed irrespective of the load or power output. Hydraulic system is used to move the spear in the nozzle or to change the positions of the guide blades because the force required is rather high. In hydraulic power plants the available head does not vary suddenly and is almost constant over a period of time. The governing system takes care of maintaining the turbine speed constant irrespective of the load and also cutting off the water supply completely when electrical circuits trip. The governor should step in and restore the speed to the specified value without any loss of time. The components of governing system are Pendulum of actuator Flyball Sleeve Attached to turbine main shaft Oil pump P2 P1 P3 c Relay or control valve a b P4 P5 Fulcrum Main lever Bell crank lever Roller Fulcrum Cam Nozzle Spear Oil sump Servomotor Spear rod Deflector From penstock Figure 14. So governing can be achieved only by changing the quantity of water that flows into the turbine runner.484 14. It should not suddenly cut down the flow completely to avoid damage to penstock pipes. When the load decreases the speed will tend to rise if the water supply is not reduced. As already discussed the water flow in pelton turbines is controlled by the spear needle placed in the nozzle assembly.

Connected to oil pressure governor piping Servomotor Spiral casing Regulating rod Regulating lever Regulating ring Turbine inlet Figure 14. When the load decreases the turbine speeds up and the governor weights fly apart moving the sleeve up. The mechanical centrifugal governor is driven by the turbine shaft. This part of the system is shown in figure 14. In the modern system electronic means of frequency detection is used to actuate the system. In the case of reaction turbines. The top and bottom are connected on one side to the power cylinder and to the sump on the other side.9. The guide vanes are mounted on a ring and so mounted that these rotate when the ring rotates. The older type of system used in the case of pelton turbine is shown in figure 14.2 Reaction turbine governor linkage Chapter 14 . (iii) Distributing valve also called relay valve (iv) Power cylinder which provides the force required. The reverse happens when load increase on the turbine.2. Oil under pressure is maintained at the central position of the realy cylinder.9. the valve rod moves down connecting the oil supply to the left side of the power cylinder. The weights carry a sleeve which can move up and down the drive spindle. The opposite movement takes place when the turbine speed reduces. In the older systems a centrifugal governor was used as the sensing element. As sudden cut off is not desirable. At the some time the right side of the power cylinder is connected to the sump so that the oil in the right side can flow out. Under steady load conditions the value rod closes both inlets to the power cylinder and the spear remains at a constant position. When the turbine speeds up. The rotation of the ring is actuated by the power cylinder when the load changes. the power cylinder and the sensing system are the same. The piston in the power cylinder mover to reduce the flow.Hydraulic Turbines 485 (i) The speed sensing element which actuates the system (ii) Hydraulic power pack with suitable pump and valves.9.1. a deflector is actuated by suitable mechanism to deflect the flow when sudden and rapid increase in speed takes place. The sleeve carries a lever which moves the control value in the relay cylinder.

1 A lawn sprinkler is shown in figure. Let it rotate at an angular velocity ω.24 = 625 Vj2 Dj4 1765. Vp2 = Vj2 Dj4 / 0. As arm A is longer the sprinkler will rotate in the clockwise direction.12 ω As no external torque is applied and as there is no friction.486 WORKED EXAMPLES Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 14.22 = (10 + 0.22 – 10 × 0.22 ω).12) = 1 Nm.05 Vj2 0.22.12 Solving ω = 15.2 A 20 cm pipe 600 m long with friction factor of 0. The jets A and B exert forces in the opposite direction.81 – Vp2 = 1.02 carries water from a reservoir to a turbine with a difference in head of 90 m.12 ω) 0. The absolute velocity of jet B = 10 + 0.05 Vj2 0. The absolute velocity of Jet A = (10 – 0.923 radions/second ω= 2π N . The friction loss in the nozzle is 0. Vj2 Dj4 = 1. B A 12 cm 22 cm Figure P.02 × V p 2 2 g × 0.05 Vs2/ 2g.2 2g 2g 600 × 0. Problem 14.1 The flow velocity is 10–3/10–4 = 10 m/s.2 . Determine the diameter of the jet which will result in maximum power. The energy equation is 90 – 600 × 0.02 . 14. the resultant torque is zero. Substituting and solving for N 60 N = 152 rpm Torque when stationary : (as mass) flow is equal = 1 kg/s = 1(Va ra – VB rb) = 1(10 × 0. The sectional area at outlet is 1 cm2.02 90 × 2 × 9.2 Vp = Vj Dj2 / 0. Neglect friction.8 – – 0. ∴ (10 – 0.22 ω) 0. The flow rate is 1ls on each side. Calculate the angular speed of rotation and the torque required to hold it stationary.05 V j 2 = Vj2 600 × 625 × 0.

Which is for a narrow rotor. In order to calculate the specific speed.19 27. This is a problem for which there could be a number of solutions.40 kg/s 95. For convenience of maintenance it is desired to select two units for the plant.46 u = 0. If φ = 0. Problem 14. 12 pairs of pole generator) Ns = 250 60 15230 × 10 3 / 2 115 1.53 This is not a suitable range for Francis turbine. the head will suggest two Francis turbines.05 + 37500 Dj4) = 1765.39 19.60 150.3 At a location selected for installation of a hydro electric plant. the head available was estimated as 115 m and water flow rate was estimated as 15 m3/s.4 A turbine operates at 500 rpm at a head of 550 m.85 132.07 46.08 0.8 Solving by trial by assuming Dj . Let us try 250 rpm (for 50 cycle operation. A higher speed of operation say 500 rpm will give Ns Ω 60.85 × 60 = 3. π Dj2 4 × Vj g H × ρ Chapter 14 43. Ns = 15. At first sight. m 0. Problem 14. Diameter : Assuming speed ratio of 0.85 m/s 21.10 Vj.06 m or 60 mm.81 × 115 = 21. Assume Cv = 0.Hydraulic Turbines or Vj2 (1. Let us try impulse turbine : operating at 125 rpm.7 Maximum power is around Dj = 0.92 33.46 ∴ D= 2 × 9.97 and efficiency is 88%. the working speed of the turbine is required.34 m π × 125 Doubling the speed will reduce the diameter but Ns also will be doubled and twin nozzle unit may have to be chosen.90 26.64 Power in jet = 487 m V12 / 1000 kW 2 50. Power = 15 × 103 × 9. power in the jet is determined as m Vj2 / 2 Dj. A single nozzle unit can be selected. Power = η m gH = η .18 π m = (π Dj2/4) Vj × 1000 51. A jet of 20 cm is used. Determine the specific speed of the machine. which may not be suitable.81 × 115 = 15230 × 103 W.46 determine the pitch diameter of the runner.06 0.04 0.05 kW . Select turbines. m/s 40.25 = 30.26.

45 K 0.97 ∴ Power = 0.46.81 × 335 Jet velocity is next calculated Vj = 0.81 × 550 = 46.484 × 4 IJ d= G H 4 × π × 79.484 × 4 IJ =G H π × 79. d 0.1482 m.2 2 × 1000 × 0.5 At a location for a hydroelectric plant.5 F 5. not suitable should be at least 10.72.81 × 550 .022 A single jet pelton turbine is suitable Vj = 0. If the bucket outlet angle proposed is 165° check for the validity of the assumed efficiency First flow rate is calculated Q= 15500000 = 5.296 m D 1.488 Vj = 0.55 × 60 = 1.55 m/s D= 36. F Q × 4I d= G H π V JK j 0. D = 9.9 kW = 14.97 2 × 9.81 × 335 = 79.86 × 1000 × 9. the head available (net) was 335 m.46 × 79. then F 5.77 m 60 πN π × 500 Problem 14.81 × 550 × 9.92 Dimensionless specific speed is = 0.35 .81 × 550/1000 4 = 14517. The unit is proposed to run at 500 rpm.4 = = 4.D= = = 1.5 = 0.484 m3/s 0.5 =0. The power availability with an overall efficiency of 86% was 15500 kW. u = 0.46 Vj u = 0. φ = 0.45 K 0.98.97 2 × 9. Blade velocity coefficient is 0.4 m π × 500 Jet diameter assuming single jet.9.296 Assume 4 jets.5 d .97 2 × 9.45 m/s Blade velocity Runner diameter u = 0.518 × 106 W Ns = 500 60 145178 × 10 6 550 5 / 4 = 11.46 × 0.85 × 2g H Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π × 0.35 m/s u= π DN 60 u 60 × 46.98 2 × 9. Assume Cv = 0.45 = 36.

8 0.74 Vu2 40.6 m/s u = 0. A Pleton turbine running at 720 rmp uses 300 kg of water per second.9 or 90% Assumed value is lower as it should be because.6 – 40.55(79.6 Vj = Cv 2 g H = 0. Blade velocity coefficient is 0.61) = 2962. overall efficiency < hydraulic efficiency.44 Dimensionless Ns = 0.8 m/s Vr2 = 0. Problem 14.8 m/s Vr1 = 88.9 Nm/kg ηH = 2962. Ns = 500 60 15500000 / 4 3355 / 4 489 = 11.5 The velocity diagrams are given above Vu1 = 79. If the head available is 425 m determine the hydraulic efficiency. Assume Cv = 0.51 Figure P.8 = 43 m/s Chapter 14 .9 × 47.9 (9.55 Outlet Vr2 = 0.9 × Vr1 = 39.9. Also find the diameter of the runner and jet.Hydraulic Turbines may be suggested Per jet.46 × 88.55 Vr1 = 43.8 = 47. The velocity diagram is shown in figure V1 = 88.9 36.55 = 1. Vu2 = 38.61 m/s ∴ W/kg = 36. 14.8 Vr1 = 47. The bucket deflect the jet by 165°. 38. 14.0208 ∴ acceptable Such units are in operation in Himachal Pradesh.8 15° 43 Figure P.6 = Vu1 u = 40.16 – 36.45.97 2 × 9.97 and φ = 0.6 = 40.81 × 425 = 88.45 + 1.6.45 15° ur = 36.81 × 335) = 0.16 Inlet V1 = Vu1 = 79.46.

14.5 × 10 3 720 = 3.06565 m D 1.9286 = 92. Vu2 = 36 cos 20 – 25 = 33.5 × 10 3 × 2 = 0.5 d 0.7 The jet velocity in a pelton turbine is 65 m/s.082 = = 16. V = V = 65 m/s V1 = Vu1 = 65 m/s u = 25 m/s Vr1 = 65 – 25 = 40 m/s Vr2 = 0.83 – 25 = 8.5 = 0.6 2 u × 60 40.8 = 0.3 Vr1 = 40 m/s 25 20° V2 36 1 u1 1.661 × 106 W Figure P.9. 60 4255 / 4 Ns = Problem 14. Determine the power developed and hydraulic efficiency of the turbine for a flow rate of 0.661 × 106 × 2 = 87.83 m/s In the opposite direction of Vu1 hence addition P = 900 × 25 (65 + 8.5 kW Hydraulic efficiency = 1093.79 .43% 300 × 9.3 IJ H π × 88.7 u = 25 m/s Exit Vu2 8.9 × Vr1 = 36 m/s As 36 cos 20 = 33.6 + 0.5 × 10 3 = 0.8 (88.6 m/s Vu2 = 43 cos 15 – 40.490 Vu1 = 88.8 × 60 = = 1.8743 or 87.37% ηH = 900 × 65 2 Exit loss =m V2 2 2 .82 < 25 the shape of the exit triangle is as in figure. The jet is defleted by 160° by the bucket.5 D= F 4Q IJ d=G HπV K 1 = FG 4 × 0.74 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Power = 300 × 40.81 × 425 1093. The blade friction coefficient is 0.9 m3/s.06565 Overall efficiency = 1093.86% 300 × 88. The peripheral velocity of the runner is 25 m/s.74)/1000 = 1093.082 m π × 720 πN 0.83 12.83) = 1.6 K 0.

9.8. ∴ Two jets will be sufficient.85 × 1000 × 9. φ = 0.87 × Q × 1000 × 9.81 × 480 = 94.56225 m3/s . It is assumed as 0.13 = 43.99 So a single jet unit will be suitable. The head available at a location was 1500 m.165 2 × 94.01 m3/s 4 Total required = 3.000 kW.3 × 60 = 1. determine the number of jets required.97 2 × 9.3 × 103 W 2 Problem 14. flow rate is to be calculated. A Pelton turbine is to produce 15 MW under a head of 480 m when running at 500 rpm.13 = 2. Determine the mean diameter of the runner and the number of buckets. It is proposed to use a generator to run at 750 rpm.000. The power available is estimated at 20.97.000. π × 500 d = 0.55 ∴ Exit loss of power = 491 900 × 229.75 IJ H 2 × π × 94. Ns = 750 60 20.000 1500 5 / 4 = 5. Cv = 0.65 m. Estimate the number of jets and their diameter.1593 m Ns = 15 × 10 6 500 = 14. 60 480 5 / 4 Problem 14.81 × 480 Vj = 0.35 = 103.13 m/s u = 0. 0. In order to determine the jet diameter.165 m Volume flow in a jet = π × 0. Chapter 14 Assume η0 = 85%.75.3 m/s D= ∴ 43. If D/d = 10.46 15 × 10 6 Q= = 3.Hydraulic Turbines V22 = 362 + 252 – 2 × 36 × 25 × cos 20 = 229. Investigate whether a single jet unit will be suitable.000 = 0.13 K = 0.37 .5 The new diameter of the jets d′= FG 4 × 3.87 20.81 × 1500 ∴ Q = 1.75 m3/s 0. The value of overall efficiency is necessary for the determination. The specific speed is calculated to determine the number of jets.46 × 94.

Frictional loss = f L Vp2/ 2g D. Net head = Head available – loss in head.029 × 2000 × 3.8 = 18.1093 m 4 In order to determine the runner diameter.46 m/s π DN = u. f = 0.1093 2d 24 numbers.029. It is assumed as 0.97 2 × 9. Vp × Ap × number of pipes = Q = 20 m3/s ∴ Vp = 20 Fπ2 GH 4 2 × 2 = 3.4 × 0. The number of buckets = Z .87 × 20 × 1000 × 9. the head is estimated as 550 m. the blade velocity is to be calculated.46 × 60 = D ∴ D = 1. Two pipes of 2 m diameter are proposed with a friction factor of 0.285 / 4 .9 + 15 Problem 14.56225 = π d2 × 166. Solving. At a location selected to install a hydro electric plant.81 × 531.97 V = 0.98 m.81 × 1500 = 166.4 × 0.667 . The flow rate was determined as 20 m3/s. = 5 × 14.4 m/s ∴ 1.72 = 531.28 m Power = η × Q × ρ × g × H = 0.81 × 2 = 14.183 m/s I JK L = 2000 m.6863 × 10 6 300 = 18.95 m π × 750 1. The specific speed is to be determined first.029 ∴ Total loss of head ∴ hf = 0. 60 ∴ 166.10.4.72 m 4 Net head = 550 – 18. 60 531. the value of Cv is required. determine how many single jet unit running at 300 rpm will be required. The plant is located at a distance of 2 m from the entry to the penstock pipes along the pipes. d = 0.95 D + 15 = + 15 2 × 0.46. The value of φ is assumed as 0.6863 × 106 W Ns = 90. ∴ u = 166.1832 / 2 × 9. D = 2 m.492 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To determine the jet velocity. Assuming an overall efficiency of 87%.28 = 90. Additional losses amount to about 1/4th of frictional loss. = 8.

Nozzle velocity coefficient is 0. The following data refers to a Pelton turbine.16 m/s Chapter 14 .05 m/s π d2 × Vj = Q ∴ 4 F 4Q I d= G H π V JK j 0.43 = 35.98 2 × 9. Determine the jet and runner diameters.5 0.35 m and Jet speed ratio : 8.0372 m3/s 0.43 m/s Runner tangential velocity is u = 0.5 F 4 × 20 IJ Jet diameter. Vj = Cv 2 g H = 0.46 × 100. 60 531. Suitable In this case Ns = 90.05 K = 0.28 = 100. low side. Alternate will be three single jet units.05. The speed ratio is 0. From the power and efficiencies the flow rate is determined ηT ηg Qρ gH = 15 × 106 15 × 106 = 6. the speed and specific speed of the runner. Dimensionless value = 0.46. The effective head is 310 m. d = 0. Discussion of other consideration follow.3.95 × 0.46 × 76.81 × 310 = 76.11.81 × 531.93 m 300 π 60 Jet speed ratio = 2. ∴ D = = 2.Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionless specific speed = 0.86 × 1000 × 9.98 × 2 × 9. d = 0.6863 × 10 6 / 3 300 .95 = 6 too low. d = G H π × 100. It drives a 15 MW generator. Discussions about suitability of single jet unit. then.018 Hence a three jet unit can be suggested. Problem 14.46 × 100.29 Jet speed ratio is about 10. 0.034 493 This is within the range for a single jet unit.77. The generator and turbine efficiencies are 95% and 86% respectively. If three jets are suggested.28 5 / 4 = 10.05 × 60 π DN = 0.81 × 310 The velocity of the jet is determined from the head and Cv ∴ Q= Vj = 0.98.5 Consider a twin jet unit in which case.5 m (farily high) 0. Jet ratio is 12.

98 2 g H1/2 = 2. 60 N= ∴ D = 12 × 0.0372 × 4 × Vj = Q. the dimensionless specific speed is 0.2096 D D Problem 14. where N is rps.494 Jet diameter is found from flow rate and jet velocity. with a flow rate of 12 m3/s.25 MW.48.6632 H 1/ 2 [30100.25 = 0.4093 d2 H1/2 P = ηo × ρ g Q H = 0.764 60 3105 / 4 Ns = Problem 14.4093 d2 H1/2 × H = 30100.25 / 549 H1.61 15 × 10 .98 [2g H]1/2 4 4 = 3.73 d2 H1.12.48 × 0.9 × 1000 × 9.25 H1.25 D = 115.2096 d .8 = 176.6632 H1/2 D Ns = 0. Also find the absolute velocity at entrance.5 m/s. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery πd 2 6. The power developed is 12.73 d2H1.0836 H1/2 πd –1 N = 0. = 8.5]1/2 / 10001/2 g1. the .16 × 60 / π × 3.71 rpm πD 6 176. For shockless entry determine the angle of the inlet guide vane. The outer diameter of a Francis runner is 1.98 D Ns = N P .81 × 3. The speed of operation is 430 rpm.5 N= ∴ ∴ u . ρ ( gH )5 / 4 1/ 2 Q= π d2 π d2 × Vj = × 0. ηo = 90%. u = 0. d = 4 π × 76. Show that for the following constants.3171 = 3.5 = 0.48 Vj = 0.3171 m Jet speed ratio is D = 12.43 LM N OP Q 0.8 m The turbine rotor speed is determined from the tangential velocity u × 60 = 35.068 d dH 1. The flow velocity at inlet is 9.4 m. The absolute velocity at the exit is 7 m/s.13. Cv = 0. φ = 0. d π DN = u. Total head is 115 m.

= 104.81 Loss of head = 115 – 104.39 m/s Vu1 > u1 ∴ The shape of the inlet Velocity triangle is as given.39 – 31.52 m/s 60 60 Vu1 = 32.5 m 2 × 9.29% Chapter 14 .12 60 115 1.5 = 8.07 – 2.14.13 9. Also find the guide vane outlet angle : Power developed 16120 × 10 3 Overall efficiency = = Hydraulic power 7 × 1000 × 9.5 = 33. Assuming zero whirl velocity at exit and neglecting blade thickness determine the overall and hydraulic efficiency and rotor blade angle at inlet.5 m/s Vu2 = 0. The runner outside diameter is 1500 mm and the width is 135 mm.39 m/s u1 = 31.52) ∴ β1 = 84.81 Head loss in the absolute velocity at exit = ∴ 72 = 2. The flow rate is 7 m3/s .43 m Ns = 12.5 = [9.51 a1 b1 Vf1 = 9.75 m/s 32.392]0. A Francis turbine developing 16120 kW under an a head of 260 m runs at 600 rpm.9029 or 90.5 32.07 m 9.35° V1 = (Vf12 + Vu12)0. 14.39 ∴ α1 = 16. Also fluid the specific speed.4 = = 31.25 × 10 6 430 . = m Vu1 u1 = 12 × 103 × Vu1 × 31.77° Total head = 115 m.39 × 3152 .Hydraulic Turbines 495 runner blade angle at inlet and the loss of head in the unit.25 As the inner diameter is not known blade angle at outlet cannot be determined.52 + 32. The runner speed As Power developed 12.5 / (32.25 × Solving 106 u1 = πDN π × 430 × 1. Assume zero whirl at exit. = 223. Problem 14.81 × 260 ηo = 0. Guide blade angle αr tan α1 = Blade inlet angle β1 tan β1 = 9. head equal for Euler work = m Vu1 u1/g = Figure P. The exit velocity at the draft tube outlet is 16 m/s.52 Vu1 = 32.

9498 × 9.4 u1 = 47.9468 × 9.98 × 0. The overall efficiency is 0. whirl velocity at inlet.5 × 600 = 47. the guide blade outlet angle and the flow velocity at outlet.12 m/s 60 Vu1 = 0.4 m/s 7 Q = = 11 m/s π × 15 × 0.135 . The runner blade angle at inlet is 135° along the direction of the blade velocity.81) / 260 = 0.9 × 9.2 m . π D1b1 Vw1 = 51. Vu1 = ηH (gH)/u1 u1 = π DN / 60 = ∴ Vu1 > u ∴ The shape of the velocity triangle is as given. The whirl is zero at exit.12 = 51.9468 = u1 Vu1 / gH u1 Vu1 = 0. = 38.496 Assuming no friction and other losses.12 a1 Vr1 V1 b1 Vf1 = 11 tan α1 = 11 / 51.81 × 25 = 232. The flow rate Q = P / ηo gH = 2555 × 103 / 0. At the outlet these are 1100 mm and 730 mm.15.4 – 47.81 × 25 = 11.08° tan β1 = 11/(51.97.98% π × 1. Hydraulic efficiency Fluid Mechanics and Machinery V2 2 = H − 2g / H F GH I JK where V2 is the exit velocity into the tailrace ηH = (260 – (162/2×9.4 ∴ ∴ α1 = 12.14 Problem 14.25 The specific speed of the unit = It is on the lower side.46 Figure P. 14.74° 600 60 16120000 260 1. β is the angle taken with the direction of blade velocity. A small Francis turbine develops 2555 kW working under a head of 25 m.9.9 / 0. Vf1 = 94.81 × 260 / 847. ηm = 0.12) β1 = 68.97 = 0. Assume ηv = 0.9498 or As Vu2 is assumed to be zero.98.58 m3/s Hydraulic efficiency = Overall efficiency/(Mechanical efficiency × Volumetric efficiency) ∴ ∴ ηH = 0. The diameter and width at inlet are 1310 mm and 380 mm. Determine the runner speed.

2 m and 0.37 Vu 1 = 11.9.99 a1 Vf1 7.31 = 282.385 / 11. The inner diameter and width are 1.385 u1 (u1 – 7.37 × 60 / π × 1.15 π DN .4 2555000 = 134. The flow velocity at inlet is 8.Hydraulic Turbines The flow velocity at inlet Vf1 = 11. 60 60 Solving N = 444 rpm Figure P.27 m.99 m/s u1 = 2 497 u1 = 19.385 m/s tan (180 – 135) = Vf1 / (u1 – Vu1) ∴ u1 – Vu1 = 7. 14. N = 4 × 60/π D = 19.2 × N = u2.27 = 8 m/s ∴ u2 = 8/tan 16 = 27.2 = 0 ∴ u1 = 19.385 V1 Vr 135° Figure P. The outlet velocity diagram is a right angled triangle as shown Vf2 = Vf1 × D1 b1 / D2b2 = 8. = 27.385) = 232.25 Problem 14.59 16.2 × 0.55/π × 1.1 × 0. β2 = 164.37 m/s.1 × 2 × 0.385 u1 – 232.26 m/s 60 60 4. Vu1 = 11.4 = = 16.26 The exit triangle is right angled tan (180 – β2) = ∴ Specific speed 180 – β2 = 15. 14.9 m/s Vr2 16° u2 V2 = Vf2 π D2 N π × 1.58/π × 1.1 m/s. The outer diameter and width are 2 m and 0.4 rpm 60 tan α1 = 7.16 m.9 ∴ α1 = 31.24° = N H P 5/4 Ns = 282.58.2 u1 – 7. Assume ηH = 90%.63° Vf 2 = 11.385 × tan (180 – 135) = 7. power.73 = 4. speed and blade angle at inlet and guide blade angle.38 = 7. The outlet blade angle is 16°.16.16 / 1.31 × 0. A Francis turbine works under a head of 120 m.76°. 60 × 25 1.1 × 282. The whirl velocity at outlet is zero.16 Chapter 14 . Determine.59 m/s = V2 Blade velocity at outlet u2 = π D2 N π × 1.

842 + 7.16 ∴ β1 = 161° Flow rate = π D1 b1 Vf1 = π × 2 × 0.92 × 81 × 9. ∴ Vf1 = 0.6) or ∴ Speed ratio u12 – 4.67 m3/s runs at 416 rpm.5 m/s 60 60 u1 Vu1 0.04 = u1 (u1 – 4.81 × 81 = 7.973 = u1 – 4. Hydraulic efficiency is 92%.498 u1 = ηH = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π D1 N π × 2 × 266.04 = 0.44 – 4.9 × 9. The flow ratio is 0.5 u1 Vu a1 Vf1 V1 Vr1 b1 u1 > Vu1 .143 × 103 / 103 = 8627 kW Ns = 444 60 8627 × 10 2 1205 / 4 = 54.8 × 103/1.2 = Vf 1 2g H .04 m2/s2 Flow ratio = 0.1 = 8.81 × 8.4 = = 46.1 22.6 u1 – 731. The shape of the inlet triangle is shown.55° tan (180 – β1) = Vf 1 u1 − Vu 1 = 8.8 m/s gH 46.5 − 22.17 An inward flow reaction turbine of the Francis type operates with a flow rate of 1. Vu1 = = 22. The blade inlet angle is 120 with the direction of wheel velocity. 14.973 m/s The shape of the velocity triangle is as shown.143 m3/s Power = 0.9732)1/2 = 26.67 × 103/103 P = 1220. u1 = 29.6 = 24.2.81 × 1. tan α1 = ∴ Vf 1 Vu1 = 8.44 m/s Vu1 = 29.8 Figure P. β1 > 90° Vu1 = u1 – 7. Determine runner diameter. V1 = (24.6 tan 60 u1 Vu1 = 731.14.16 × 8.09 m/s 1 .9 × 120 × 9. Solving.84 m/s u1 φ = V .1 46.8 KW u1 Vu1 = 1220.72 Problem.2 2 × 9.8 α1 = 19.67 × 103 = 731.81 × 120 . the power developed and the speed ratio Power developed = 0. The available head is 81 m.

44 = 1.84 Q = π D1b1 Vf1 = π D1 × 0.615 β2 = 156. assuming Vf2 = Vf1 tan (180 – β2) = ∴ Solving 6.5°) To solve inlet angles.Hydraulic Turbines ∴ φ= 499 29.1 D1 × 6.25 Figure P. Vu is required 1 0.14 2 × 9.193 m.53 Problem 14.128 26. b2 = 0.5 D1 and b1 = 0.79 m/s From the overall efficiency and power delivered Q= 3 × 10 6 = 3.14 and D2 = 0.2386 m u1 = ∴ π D1 N π × 1. 60 811. Assume flow ratio as 0.18 The outlet triangle is as shown as Vu2 = 0.5965 m.1193 m.193 × 500 = = 31.09 a1 Vf V1 Vr 1 u Vu 120° π D1 N = 29.18 Determine the diameters and blade angles of a Francis turbine running at 500 rpm under a head of 120 m and delivering 3 MW.79 15.9 = u1 Vu1 gH Chapter 14 . 14. b1 = 0.23 m/s 60 60 u2 = 15.35 m Ns = 1220 × 10 3 416 .81 × 120 = 6.44 60 ∴ D = 1. 14. Vf1 = 0. D2 = 0.034 m3/s 10 3 × 9.81 × 120 × 0.14 2 g H = 0.1 D1.5° (23.615 m/s u2 b2 Vr2 Vu1 u1 a1 b1 Vf2 = V2 Vr Figure P.79 Solving D1 = 1. The hydraulic efficiency is 90% and the overall efficiency is 84%.17 = 31.

81 9. (3) Work done = headlosses (all expressed as head) Vf 2 u .93 ∴ α1 = 11.9397 . Vu =H– g 2g 20° u Vu 2 0. The velocity diagram is as shown in figure.00596 Q 0. As no velocity value Vu = V1 cos 20 = 0.33 = 10.32° tan β2 = 6.23 Vf 1 Vu1 Vu1 > u1. Determine the runner diameter.9397 V1 Vf = V1 sin 20 = 0.19 In an inward flow reaction turbine the working head is 10 m.93 − 31.10893 V12 + 0.500 ∴ Vu1 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.82% 9.9397 V1 + 0. The blade inlet angle is 120°.9397 × 9.81 × 10 Problem 14.10 D. V12 = 10 – 2 × 9.81 0.2 and blade blockage is 8 percent of flow area at inlet.3420 V1 is avaivable. Assume constant flow velocity and zero whirl at exit.61 m/s Vu1 = 0.1372 × 9.93 m/s 31.5 Figure P.18 = 9. and blade angles. the method adoped is as below. 14.342 1. Determine the hydraulic efficiency assuming zero whirl at exit and constant flow velocity. u = Vu + Vf tan 60 (1) (2) = 0.33 m/s u = 1.1372 × 0. . ∴ The triangle is as shown tan α1 = = 6. Assume no losses other than at exit. when running at 350 rpm under a head of 100 m.79 33.9 × 9.342 V1 = 1.3° Problem 14.61 × 8.767 m/s ηH = 10.79 33. The flow ratio is 0.1093 + 0.81 × 120 = 33.33 = 8.767 = 0.23 ∴ β1 = 68. Assume ID = 0.6 OD and width as 0.1372 V1 1732 .20 A Francis turbine delivers 16 MW with an overall efficiency of 85 percent and a hydraulic efficiency of 91 percent.00596 V12 = 10 ∴ ∴ V1 V12 V1 60° Vf 120° L OP 10 =M N 0.9482 or 94. The guide vane outlet angle is 20°.

2 2 × 9.7° (along + ve u) 8.74 m. b = 0.92 D = 2.1881 m3/s 1000 × 0.1881 = π D × 0.3° (as in figure) or 164. 14.1 × 8.21 17.08).274 m ID = 1.81 × 100 gH ∴ Vu1 = 17.78 a1 8.86 m/s 19.64 m u1 = ηH = πD1 N π × 2.20 8.13 b2 Exit Figure P.5° tan α1 = tan β1 = ∴ 8.12 − 17.08) D2 = 19. Flow ratio = ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ Vf Vf = flow ratio × 2 g H = 0.74 × 350 = = 50.78 m/s Vu1 < u1 ∴ The velocity diagram is as in figure Inlet 50.78 ∴ Guide blade outlet angle is 26.21 × Vu 1 u1 Vu 1 .13 m/s 60 60 50.86 b1 8.86 ×