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Copyright © 2007, 1999, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers All rights reserved. No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to rights@newagepublishers.com

ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2558-1

PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD

NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002 Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com

**Preface to the Second Edition
**

This book Basic Fluid Mechanics is revised and enlarged by the addition of four chapters on Hydraulic Machinery and is now titled as Fluid Mechanics and Machinery. The authors hope this book will have a wider scope. This book will be suitable for the courses on Fluid Mechanics and Machinery of the various branches of study of Anna University and also other Indian universities and the Institution of Engineers (India). Professor Obert has observed in his famous treatise on Thermodynamics that concepts are better understood by their repeated applications to real life situations. A firm conviction of this principle has prompted the author to arrange the text material in each chapter in the following order. In the first section after enunciating the basic concepts and laws, physical and mathematical models are developed leading to the formulation of relevant equations for the determination of outputs. Simple and direct numerical examples are included to illustrate the basic laws. More stress is on the model development as compared to numerical problems. A section titled “SOLVED PROBLEMS” comes next. In this section more involved derivations and numerical problems of practical interest are solved. The investigation of the effect of influencing parameters for the complete spectrum of values is attempted here. Problems involving complex situations are shown solved in this section. It will also illustrate the range of values that may be expected under different situations. Two important ideas are stressed in this section. These are (1) checking for dimensional homogeneity in the case of all equations derived before these equations can be used and (2) The validation of numerical answers by cross checking. This concept of validation in professional practice is a must in all design situations. In the next section a large number of objective type questions with answers are given. These are very useful for understanding the basics and resolving misunderstandings. In the final section a large number of graded exercise problems involving simple to complex situations, most of them with answers, are included. The material is divided into sixteen chapters. The first chapter deals in great detail with properties of fluids and their influence on the operation of various equipments. The next chapter discusses the determination of variation of pressure with depth in stationary and moving fluids. The third chapter deals with determination of forces on surfaces in contact with stationary fluids. Chapter four deals with buoyant forces on immersed or floating bodies and the importance of metacentric height on stability. In chapter five basic fluid flow concepts and hydrodynamics are discussed. Energy equations and the variation of flow parameters along flow as well as pressure loss due to friction are dealt with in chapter six. (v)

(vi) In chapter seven flow in closed conduits including flow in pipe net work are discussed. Dimensional analysis and model testing and discussed in a detailed manner in chapters eight and nine. Boundary layer theory and determination of forces due to fluid flow on bodies are dealt with in chapter ten. In chapter eleven various flow measuring methods and instruments are described. Flow in open channels is dealt with in detail in chapter twelve. Chapter thirteen deals with dynamics of fluid flow in terms force exerted on surface due to change of momentum along the flow on the surface. Chapter fourteen deals with the theory of turbo machines as applied to the different type of hydraulic turbines. The working of centrifugal and axial flow pumps is detailed in chapter fifteen. The last chapter sixteen discusses the working of reciprocating and other positive displacement pumps. The total number of illustrative worked examples is around five hundred. The objective questions number around seven hundred. More than 450 exercise problems with answers are also included. The authors thank all the professors who have given very useful suggestions for the improvement of the book. Authors

**Preface to the First Edition
**

This book is intended for use in B.E./B.Tech. courses of various branches of specialisation like Civil, Mechanical and Chemical Engineering. The material is adequate for the prescribed syllabi of various Universities in India and the Institution of Engineers. SI system of units is adopted throughout as this is the official system of units in India. In order to give extensive practice in the application of various concepts, the following format is used in all the chapters. • Enunciation of Basic concepts • Development of physical and mathematical models with interspersed numerical examples • Illustrative examples involving the application and extension of the models developed • Objective questions and exercise problems The material is divided into 12 chapters. The first chapter deals in great detail with properties of fluids and their influence on the operation of various equipments. The next two chapters discuss the variation of pressure with depth in liquid columns, at stationary and at accelerating conditions and the forces on surfaces exerted by fluids. The fourth chapter deals with buoyant forces and their effect on floating and immersed bodies. The kinetics of fluid flow is discussed in chapter five. Energy equations and the determination of pressure variation in flowing fluids and loss of pressure due to friction are discussed in chapters six and seven. Dimensional analysis and model testing are discussed in a detailed manner in chapters eight and nine. Boundary layer theory and forces due to flow of fluids over bodies are discussed in chapter ten. Chapter eleven details the methods of measurement of flow rates and of pressure in fluid systems. Open channel flow is analyzed in chapter twelve. The total number of illustrative numerical examples is 426. The objective questions included number 669. A total number of 352 exercise problems, mostly with answers are available. We wish to express our sincere thanks to the authorities of the PSG College of Technology for the generous permission extended to us to use the facilities of the college. Our thanks are due to Mr. R. Palaniappan and Mr. C. Kuttumani for their help in the preparation of the manuscript. C.P. Kothandaraman R. Rudramoorthy (vii)

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Contents

Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition (v) (vii)

1

**Physical Properties of Fluids .................................................................... 1
**

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1 Three Phases of Matter............................................................................................ 2 Compressible and Incompressible Fluids ............................................................... 2 Dimensions and Units .............................................................................................. 3 Continuum ................................................................................................................ 4 Definition of Some Common Terminology ............................................................. 4 Vapour and Gas ........................................................................................................ 5 Characteristic Equation for Gases .......................................................................... 6 Viscosity .................................................................................................................... 7 1.8.1 Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids................................................ 10 1.8.2 Viscosity and Momentum Transfer ...................................................... 11 1.8.3 Effect of Temperature on Viscosity ...................................................... 11 1.8.4 Significance of Kinematic Viscosity...................................................... 11 1.8.5 Measurement of Viscosity of Fluids ..................................................... 12 Application of Viscosity Concept .......................................................................... 13 1.9.1 Viscous Torque and Power—Rotating Shafts ...................................... 13 1.9.2 Viscous Torque—Disk Rotating Over a Parallel Plate ....................... 14 1.9.3 Viscous Torque—Cone in a Conical Support ....................................... 16 Surface Tension ...................................................................................................... 17 1.10.1 Surface Tension Effect on Solid-Liquid Interface ............................... 17 1.10.2 Capillary Rise or Depression ................................................................ 18 1.10.3 Pressure Difference Caused by Surface Tension on a Doubly Curved Surface ....................................................................................... 19 1.10.4 Pressure Inside a Droplet and a Free Jet ............................................ 20 Compressibility and Bulk Modulus ...................................................................... 21 1.11.1 Expressions for the Compressibility of Gases ..................................... 22 Vapour Pressure ..................................................................................................... 23 1.12.1 Partial Pressure ..................................................................................... 23 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 24 Objective Questions ................................................................................................ 33 Review Questions .................................................................................................... 38 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................... 39 (ix)

1.9

1.10

1.11 1.12

(x)

2

**Pressure Distribution in Fluids ............................................................... 42
**

2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 42 Pressure .................................................................................................................. 42 Pressure Measurement .......................................................................................... 43 Pascal’s Law ........................................................................................................... 45 Pressure Variation in Static Fluid (Hydrostatic Law) ........................................ 46 2.4.1 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Constant Density ........................... 47 2.4.2 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Varying Density ............................. 48 Manometers ............................................................................................................ 49 2.5.1 Micromanometer .................................................................................... 51 Distribution of Pressure in Static Fluids Subjected to Acceleration, as .......... 53 2.6.1 Free Surface of Accelerating Fluid ....................................................... 54 2.6.2 Pressure Distribution in Accelerating Fluids along Horizontal Direction ................................................................................................. 55 Forced Vortex ......................................................................................................... 58 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 60 Review Questions .................................................................................................... 71 Objective Questions ................................................................................................ 71 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................... 74

2.5 2.6

2.7

3

**Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids ................................................ 80
**

3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 80 Centroid and Moment of Inertia of Areas ............................................................ 81 Force on an Arbitrarily Shaped Plate Immersed in a Liquid ............................. 83 Centre of Pressure for an Immersed Inclined Plane ........................................... 84 3.3.1 Centre of Pressure for Immersed Vertical Planes .............................. 86 Component of Forces on Immersed Inclined Rectangles .................................... 87 Forces on Curved Surfaces .................................................................................... 89 Hydrostatic Forces in Layered Fluids .................................................................. 92 Solved Problems ..................................................................................................... 93 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 111 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 112 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 115

4

**Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies ............................. 119
**

4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Archimedes Principle ........................................................................................... 119 Buoyancy Force .................................................................................................... 119 Stability of Submerged and Floating Bodies ..................................................... 121 Conditions for the Stability of Floating Bodies .................................................. 123

(xi) 4.4 Metacentric Height .............................................................................................. 124 4.4.1 Experimental Method for the Determination of Metacentric Height ................................................................................................... 125 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 125 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 136 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 137 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 139

5

**Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts—Hydrodynamics .................................. 142
**

5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 142 Lagrangian and Eularian Methods of Study of Fluid Flow .............................. 143 Basic Scientific Laws Used in the Analysis of Fluid Flow ................................ 143 Flow of Ideal / Inviscid and Real Fluids ............................................................. 143 Steady and Unsteady Flow .................................................................................. 144 Compressible and Incompressible Flow ............................................................. 144 Laminar and Turbulent Flow .............................................................................. 144 Concepts of Uniform Flow, Reversible Flow and Three Dimensional Flow ................................................................................................. 145 Velocity and Acceleration Components .............................................................. 145 Continuity Equation for Flow—Cartesian Co-ordinates .................................. 146 Irrotational Flow and Condition for Such Flows ............................................... 148 Concepts of Circulation and Vorticity ................................................................ 148 Stream Lines, Stream Tube, Path Lines, Streak Lines and Time Lines ........ 149 Concept of Stream Line ....................................................................................... 150 Concept of Stream Function ................................................................................ 151 Potential Function ................................................................................................ 153 Stream Function for Rectilinear Flow Field (Positive X Direction) ................. 154 Two Dimensional Flows—Types of Flow ............................................................ 154 5.17.1 Source Flow .......................................................................................... 155 5.17.2 Sink Flow .............................................................................................. 155 5.17.3 Irrotational Vortex of Strength K ....................................................... 155 5.17.4 Doublet of Strength Λ .......................................................................... 156 Principle of Superposing of Flows (or Combining of Flows) ............................. 157 5.18.1 Source and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Half Body) .......................... 157 5.18.2 Source and Sink of Equal Strength with Separation of 2a Along x-Axis .......................................................................................... 157 5.18.3 Source and Sink Displaced at 2a and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Rankine Body) ................................................................ 158 5.18.4 Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow ............................................... 158 5.18.5 Doublet and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Cylinder) .......................... 158 5.18.6 Doublet, Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow ................................ 158

5.18

. 191 Concept and Measurement of Dynamic........................................................................................9 5.4 7....................................0 6.... 174 Exercise Problems ............... 181 6.......................... 219 7...7 5............................ 178 5..............7 6..6 6................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 182 6.............................................................................................................................18........5 6................................. 183 Variation in the Relative Values of Various Forms of Energy During Flow .................... 224 Darcy–Weisbach Equation for Calculating Pressure Drop ..................................................1............ 221 Features of Laminar and Turbulent Flows ................................6 7..................... 192 6............................................. 184 Energy Line and Hydraulic Gradient Line ....5 7.................................................... Opposite Rotation..........18..................3 6..1 7............1 Pitot Tube .. 226 .............. 180 6...............4 6...4 Internal Energy....................1.. 219 Boundary Layer Concept in the Study of Fluid Flow ..1........... 180 Forms of Energy Encountered in Fluid Flow..1 Kinetic Energy ..... Static and Total Head ..............................0 7........................8........................2 7......................................8 Parameters Involved in the Study of Flow Through Closed Conduits ................................................... 183 Euler’s Equation of Motion for Flow Along a Stream Line .1................2 6.. 181 6..................................... 159 Solved Problems ............ 220 Development of Boundary Layer in Closed Conduits (Pipes) .......................... 222 Hydraulically “Rough” and “Smooth” Pipes ..1........................ Separation by 2a) ....................... 160 Objective Questions ........................................ 182 6................................................................................................. 223 Velocity Variation with Radius for Fully Developed Laminar Flow in Pipes .......................................19 6 Bernoulli Equation and Applications .................................7 7............ 223 Concept of “Hydraulic Diameter”: (Dh) ..................... 194 Objective Questions .................................................................................................................... 187 Volume Flow Through a Venturimeter .............. 220 Boundary Layer Development Over A Flat Plate ............. 193 Solved Problems ......1 Introduction ....8 7 Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)....................................... 180 6...............8 5.....(xii) Source and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) .............. 159 Sink and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) ........... 213 Exercise Problems ...................................................3 7.5 Electrical and Magnetic Energy ............................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Potential Energy ........................................................... 215 6......................................3 Pressure Energy (Also Equals Flow Energy) ............. 183 Bernoulli Equation for Fluid Flow .................18............................................ 159 Vortex Pair (Equal Strength......................................................................... 159 Concept of Flow Net ........................................................................................ 188 Euler and Bernoulli Equation for Flow with Friction ......................................

..................................................15 7...............................................................1 Determination of π Groups............ 298 ................................................... 297 9................................2 Pipes in Parallel .4 8............ 265 8....3........9 7..... 270 8................13 7.... 293 9 Similitude and Model Testing ................................................................. 230 Minor Losses in Pipe Flow ..................................... 234 Concept of Equivalent Length ...........................................................1 Pipes in Series—Electrical Analogy .............................2 8.............................................. 245 Objective Questions ......16 7......... 235 Concept of Equivalent Pipe or Equivalent Length ..............................17 7........5..................19..............................................................................(xiii) 7............ 232 Losses in Elbows........................1 Problems with One Pi Term ........... 273 Solved Problems ........................................................................................................................................... 265 Important Dimensionless Parameters ...... 265 Buckingham Pi Theorem ....... 238 Network of Pipes .......3 Branching Pipes .......1 Geometric Similarity ...............................................12 7.......... Bends and Other Pipe Fittings ........................................5...........19......1 Condition for Maximum Power Transmission ............... 271 8............................19.................4 Pipe Network ................19......... 245 Solved Problems ..........................................................................18............................................................................................... 296 9........... 228 Significance of Reynolds Number in Pipe Flow .......................19 Hagen–Poiseuille Equation for Friction Drop .......0 9.......................................................... 243 7...2 Introduction ......2 Dynamic Similarity .....................................................2.....................................................5 Introduction ..................... 297 9....................................................................................................................... 238 7........2..... 229 Velocity Distribution and Friction Factor for Turbulent Flow in Pipes .............................................................. 241 7.....2 Problems with Two Pi Terms ........................................................2...........................................14 7..................5........................................................................11 7.......................................1 9...................... 296 Model and Prototype ............0 8..................10 7........................................................... 291 Exercise Problems ............... 297 9......................................... 234 Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line in Conduit Flow .............. 263 Methods of Determination of Dimensionless Groups .................................................................................. 259 8 Dimensional Analysis ............... 239 7. 240 7................................................................ 271 8.18 7.......... 270 Correlation of Experimental Data ......................................................................3 Problems with Three Dimensionless Parameters ...............................1 8....................3 Kinematic Similarity .................................................................. 296 Conditions for Similarity Between Models and Prototype ....................................................................................... 264 The Principle of Dimensional Homogeneity ...............3 8.............. 231 Expression for the Loss of Head at Sudden Expansion in Pipe Flow .................................................... 263 8.......................................... 256 Exercise Problems ....................................................... 273 Objective Questions ........................ 235 Fluid Power Transmission Through Pipes .............................................

......................... 341 Objective Questions ........1 Introduction .......................................................2 Introduction ........................................ 327 10..7 Momentum Thickness ........................2 Continuity Equation .3 Flow with Free Surface ...........................................................................................................2....................................1............................. 335 10.................... 360 11............................................. 330 10...1....................................................................... 322 10.................................................... 359 Velocity Measurements.............................2 Flow Around Immersed Bodies...2.................1......... 321 10........ 302 Conclusion .....3.............................. 362 11...................................................................... 321 10...........................2 Vane Anemometer and Currentmeter ...3 Hot Wire Anemometer.......................................6 Rotating Sphere and Cylinder ......................................................... 303 Objective Questions ............................................... 334 10....................................................................5 Integral Method ............. 317 9...........................................................................................................................2 10..........1 11............3............................ 325 10............................. 298 9.... 338 10.................0 10.................................... 334 10..........................6 Displacement Thickness ........4 9............................................................................3 Momentum Equation ...............................................................3...................................................................................... 315 Exercise Problems ..................2.......................2 Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag ................................1.2........................................ 363 ...................3..........3.......................................................................... 300 9............................. 301 Nondimensionalising Governing Differential Equations ....................................................................................4 Models for Turbomachinery .4 Solution for Velocity Profile ........1...........................................................................................................................5 10 Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces ................................................................ 362 11............................................................ 356 10............... 322 10....................................... 303 Solved Problems ..............3.....5 Lift and Coefficient of Lift ...................................................3 Types of Model Studies ........ 336 10.................... 331 Turbulent Flow ............................ 353 Exercise Problems ........... 299 9..................... 359 11......1........................................................... 339 Solved Problems .1 Flow Around Immersed Bodies – Drag and Lift .................1 Flow Through Closed Conduits ..............................1 Pitot Tube ........3 11 Flow Measurements .............................................................................. 298 9..................................3......... 324 10................................. 337 10.............................4 Laser Doppler Anemometer .3................................................................................................. 332 Flow Separation in Boundary Layers ...........4 Flow Over Spheres and Cylinders .....1 Flow Over Flat Plate ......................................................................3...(xiv) 9..... 359 11..........................................................................3 Pressure Drag ............................... 321 Boundary Layer Thickness ............3.......................1.....................

(xv) 11.3 Volume Flow Rate Measurement ........................................................................ 364 11.3.1 Rotameter (Float Meter) ..................................................................... 364 11.3.2 Turbine Type Flowmeter ..................................................................... 364 11.3.3 Venturi, Nozzle and Orifice Meters .................................................... 365 11.3.4 Elbow Meter ......................................................................................... 367 Flow Measurement Using Orifices, Notches and Weirs ................................... 367 11.4.1 Discharge Measurement Using Orifices ............................................ 367 11.4.2 Flow Measurements in Open Channels ............................................. 368 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 371 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 379 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 380 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 381

11.4

12

**Flow in Open Channels .......................................................................... 383
**

12.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 383 12.1.1 Characteristics of Open Channels ...................................................... 383 12.1.2 Classification of Open Channel Flow ................................................. 384 12.2 Uniform Flow: (Also Called Flow at Normal Depth) ......................................... 384 12.3 Chezy’s Equation for Discharge .......................................................................... 385 12.4 Determination of Chezy’s Constant .................................................................... 386 12.4.1 Bazin’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant .............................................. 386 12.4.2 Kutter’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant C ......................................... 387 12.4.3 Manning’s Equation for C ................................................................... 388 12.5 Economical Cross-Section for Open Channels ................................................... 390 12.6 Flow with Varying Slopes and Areas .................................................................. 395 12.6.1 Velocity of Wave Propagation in Open Surface Flow ....................... 395 12.6.2 Froude Number .................................................................................... 397 12.6.3 Energy Equation for Steady Flow and Specific Energy .................... 397 12.6.4 Non Dimensional Representation of Specific Energy Curve ............ 400 12.7 Effect of Area Change .......................................................................................... 404 12.7.1 Flow Over a Bump ............................................................................... 404 12.7.2 Flow Through Sluice Gate, from Stagnant Condition ...................... 406 12.7.3 Flow Under a Sluice Gate in a Channel............................................. 407 12.8 Flow with Gradually Varying Depth .................................................................. 409 12.8.1 Classification of Surface Variations ................................................... 410 12.9 The Hydraulic Jump (Rapidly Varied Flow) ...................................................... 411 12.10 Flow Over Broad Crested Weir ........................................................................... 414 12.11 Effect of Lateral Contraction ............................................................................... 415 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 416 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 430 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 430 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 432

(xvi)

13

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow.......................................................................... 435
**

13.0 13.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 435 Impulse Momentum Principle ............................................................................. 435 13.1.1 Forces Exerted on Pressure Conduits ................................................ 436 13.1.2 Force Exerted on a Stationary Vane or Blade ................................... 438 Absolute and Relative Velocity Relations .......................................................... 439 Force on a Moving Vane or Blade ....................................................................... 439 Torque on Rotating Wheel ................................................................................... 443 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 445 Exercise Questions ................................................................................................ 450

13.2 13.3 13.4

14

**Hydraulic Turbines.................................................................................. 452
**

14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 452 Hydraulic Power Plant......................................................................................... 452 Classification of Turbines .................................................................................... 453 Similitude and Model Testing ............................................................................. 453 14.3.1 Model and Prototype ............................................................................ 457 14.3.2 Unit Quantities .................................................................................... 459 Turbine Efficiencies ............................................................................................. 460 Euler Turbine Equation ....................................................................................... 461 14.5.1 Components of Power Produced ......................................................... 462 Pelton Turbine ...................................................................................................... 464 14.6.1 Power Development ............................................................................. 466 14.6.2 Torque and Power and Efficiency Variation with Speed Ratio ........ 470 Reaction Turbines ................................................................................................ 472 14.7.1 Francis Turbines .................................................................................. 473 Axial Flow Turbines ............................................................................................. 480 Cavitation in Hydraulic Machines ...................................................................... 482 Governing of Hydraulic Turbines ....................................................................... 484 Worked Examples ................................................................................................. 486 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 513 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 514 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 515

14.4 14.5 14.6

14.7 14.8 14.9 14.9

15

**Rotodynamic Pumps .............................................................................. 519
**

15.0 15.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 519 Centrifugal Pumps ............................................................................................... 519 15.1.1 Impeller ................................................................................................ 521 15.1.2 Classification ........................................................................................ 521 Pressure Developed by the Impeller ................................................................... 522 15.2.1 Manometric Head ................................................................................ 523

15.2

(xvii) 15.3 Energy Transfer by Impeller ............................................................................... 523 15.3.1 Slip and Slip Factor ............................................................................. 525 15.3.3 Losses in Centrifugal Pumps .............................................................. 525 15.3.4 Effect of Outlet Blade Angle ............................................................... 526 Pump Characteristics........................................................................................... 527 Operation of Pumps in Series and Parallel ........................................................ 529 Specific Speed and Significance .......................................................................... 531 Cavitation ............................................................................................................. 532 Axial Flow Pump .................................................................................................. 533 Power Transmitting Systems .............................................................................. 535 15.9.1 Fluid Coupling...................................................................................... 535 15.9.2 Torque Converter ................................................................................. 536 Solved Examples ................................................................................................... 538 Revierw Questions ................................................................................................ 556 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 556 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 557

15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9

16

**Reciprocating Pumps ............................................................................. 560
**

16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 560 Comparison ........................................................................................................... 560 Description and Working ..................................................................................... 560 Flow Rate and Power .......................................................................................... 562 16.3.1 Slip ........................................................................................................ 563 Indicator Diagram ................................................................................................ 564 16.4.1 Acceleration Head ................................................................................ 565 16.4.2 Minimum Speed of Rotation of Crank................................................ 569 16.4.3 Friction Head ....................................................................................... 570 Air Vessels ............................................................................................................ 572 16.5.1 Flow into and out of Air Vessel ........................................................... 575 Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps ................................................................ 576 16.6.1 Gear Pump ............................................................................................ 577 16.6.2 Lobe Pump ............................................................................................ 577 16.6.3 Vane Pump ........................................................................................... 577 Solved Problems ................................................................................................... 578 Review Questions .................................................................................................. 587 Objective Questions .............................................................................................. 587 Exercise Problems ................................................................................................. 587 Appendix ............................................................................................................. 590 Index .................................................................................................................... 595

16.5 16.6

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1.0

Physical Properties of Fluids

INTRODUCTION

The flow of ideal non-viscous fluids was extensively studied and mathematical theories were developed during the last century. The field of study was called as ‘Hydrodynamics’. However the results of mathematical analysis could not be applied directly to the flow of real fluids. Experiments with water flow resulted in the formulation of empirical equations applicable to engineering designs. The field was called Hydraulics. Due to the development of industries there arose a need for the study of fluids other than water. Theories like boundary layer theory were developed which could be applied to all types of real fluids, under various conditions of flow. The combination of experiments, the mathematical analysis of hydrodynamics and the new theories is known as ‘Fluid Mechanics’. Fluid Mechanics encompasses the study of all types of fluids under static, kinematic and dynamic conditions. The study of properties of fluids is basic for the understanding of flow or static condition of fluids. The important properties are density, viscosity, surface tension, bulk modulus and vapour pressure. Viscosity causes resistance to flow. Surface tension leads to capillary effects. Bulk modulus is involved in the propagation of disturbances like sound waves in fluids. Vapour pressure can cause flow disturbances due to evaporation at locations of low pressure. It plays an important role in cavitation studies in fluid machinery. In this chapter various properties of fluids are discussed in detail, with stress on their effect on flow. Fairly elaborate treatment is attempted due to their importance in engineering applications. The basic laws used in the discussions are : (i) Newton’s laws of motion, (ii) Laws of conservation of mass and energy, (iii) Laws of Thermodynamics, and (iv) Newton’s law of viscosity. A fluid is defined as a material which will continue to deform with the application of shear force however small the force may be.

1

2 1.1 THREE PHASES OF MATTER

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Generally matter exists in three phases namely (i) Solid (ii) Liquid and (iii) Gas (includes vapour). The last two together are also called by the common term fluids. In solids atoms/molecules are closely spaced and the attractive (cohesive) forces between atoms/molecules is high. The shape is maintained by the cohesive forces binding the atoms. When an external force is applied on a solid component, slight rearrangement in atomic positions balances the force. Depending upon the nature of force the solid may elongate or shorten or bend. When the applied force is removed the atoms move back to the original position and the former shape is regained. Only when the forces exceed a certain value (yield), a small deformation called plastic deformation will be retained as the atoms are unable to move to their original positions. When the force exceeds a still higher value (ultimate), the cohesive forces are not adequate to resist the applied force and the component will break. In liquids the inter molecular distances are longer and the cohesive forces are of smaller in magnitude. The molecules are not bound rigidly as in solids and can move randomly. However, the cohesive forces are large enough to hold the molecules together below a free surface that forms in the container. Liquids will continue to deform when a shear or tangential force is applied. The deformation continues as long as the force exists. In fluids the rate of deformation controls the force (not deformation as in solids). More popularly it is stated that a fluid (liquid) cannot withstand applied shear force and will continue to deform. When at rest liquids will assume the shape of the container forming a free surface at the top. In gases the distance between molecules is much larger compared to atomic dimensions and the cohesive force between atoms/molecules is low. So gas molecules move freely and fill the full volume of the container. If the container is open the molecules will diffuse to the outside. Gases also cannot withstand shear. The rate of deformation is proportional to the applied force as in the case of liquids. Liquids and gases together are classified as fluids. Vapour is gaseous state near the evaporation temperature. The state in which a material exists depends on the pressure and temperature. For example, steel at atmospheric temperature exists in the solid state. At higher temperatures it can be liquefied. At still higher temperatures it will exist as a vapour. A fourth state of matter is its existence as charged particles or ions known as plasma. This is encountered in MHD power generation. This phase is not considered in the text.

1.2

COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS

If the density of a fluid varies significantly due to moderate changes in pressure or temperature, then the fluid is called compressible fluid. Generally gases and vapours under normal conditions can be classified as compressible fluids. In these phases the distance between atoms or molecules is large and cohesive forces are small. So increase in pressure or temperature will change the density by a significant value. If the change in density of a fluid is small due to changes in temperature and or pressure, then the fluid is called incompressible fluid. All liquids are classified under this category.

Physical Properties of Fluids

3

Chapter 1

When the change in pressure and temperature is small, gases and vapours are treated as incompressible fluids. For certain applications like propagation of pressure disturbances, liquids should be considered as compressible. In this chapter some of the properties relevant to fluid mechanics are discussed with a view to bring out their influence on the design and operation of fluid machinery and equipments.

1.3

DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

It is necessary to distinguish clearly between the terms “Units” and “Dimensions”. The word “dimension” is used to describe basic concepts like mass, length, time, temperature and force. “Large mass, long distance, high temperature” does not mean much in terms of visualising the quantity. Dimension merely describes the concept and does not provide any method for the quantitative expression of the same. Units are the means of expressing the value of the dimension quantitatively or numerically The term “second” for example is used to quantify time. “Ten seconds elapsed between starting and ending of an act” is the way of expressing the elapsed time in numerical form. The value of dimension should be expressed in terms of units before any quantitative assessment can be made. There are three widely used systems of units in the world. These are (1) British or English system (it is not in official use now in Briton) (2) Metric system and (3) SI system (System International d’Unites or International System of Units). India has passed through the first two systems in that order and has now adopted the SI system of units. The basic units required in Fluid Mechanics are for mass, length, time and temperature. These are kilogram (kg), metre (m), second (s) and kelvin (K). The unit of force is defined using Newton’s second law of motion which states that applied force is proportional to the time rate of change of momentum of the body on which the force acts. For a given mass m, subjected to the action of a force F, resulting in an acceleration a, Newton’s law can be written in the form F = (1/go) m a (1.3.1) where go is a dimensional constant whose numerical value and units depend on those selected for force, F, mass, m, and acceleration, a. The unit of force is newton (N) in the SI system. One newton is defined as the force which acting on a mass of one kilogram will produce an acceleration of 1 m/s2. This leads to the relation 1 N = (1/go) × 1 kg × 1 m/s2 Hence go = 1 kg m/N s2 (1.3.2) (1.3.3)

The numerical value of go is unity (1) in the SI system and this is found advantageous in numerical calculations. However this constant should necessarily be used to obtain dimensional homogeneity in equations. In metric system the unit of force is kgf defined as the force acted on one kg mass by standard gravitational acceleration taken as 9.81 m/s2. The value of go is 9.81 kg m/kgf s2. In the English system the unit of force is lbf defined as the force on one lb mass due to standard gravitational acceleration of 32.2 ft/s2. The value of go is 32.2 ft lb/lbf s2.

4

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Some of the units used in this text are listed in the table below:

Quantity mass time length temperature force energy, work, heat power pressure Unit symbol kg s m K, (273 + °C) N (newton) Nm, J W = (Nm/s, J/s) N/m2, (pascal, pa) Derived units ton (tonne) = 1000 kg min (60s), hr (3600s) mm, cm, km °C kN, MN (106 N) kJ, MJ, kNm kW, MW kPa, MPa, bar (105Pa)

Conversion constants between the metric and SI system of units are tabulated elsewhere in the text.

1.4

CONTINUUM

As gas molecules are far apart from each other and as there is empty space between molecules doubt arises as to whether a gas volume can be considered as a continuous matter like a solid for situations similar to application of forces. Under normal pressure and temperature levels, gases are considered as a continuum (i.e., as if no empty spaces exist between atoms). The test for continuum is to measure properties like density by sampling at different locations and also reducing the sampling volume to low levels. If the property is constant irrespective of the location and size of sample volume, then the gas body can be considered as a continuum for purposes of mechanics (application of force, consideration of acceleration, velocity etc.) and for the gas volume to be considered as a single body or entity. This is a very important test for the application of all laws of mechanics to a gas volume as a whole. When the pressure is extremely low, and when there are only few molecules in a cubic metre of volume, then the laws of mechanics should be applied to the molecules as entities and not to the gas body as a whole. In this text, only systems satisfying continuum requirements are discussed.

1.5

DEFINITION OF SOME COMMON TERMINOLOGY

Density (mass density): The mass per unit volume is defined as density. The unit used is kg/m3. The measurement is simple in the case of solids and liquids. In the case of gases and vapours it is rather involved. The symbol used is ρ. The characteristic equation for gases provides a means to estimate the density from the measurement of pressure, temperature and volume. Specific Volume: The volume occupied by unit mass is called the specific volume of the material. The symbol used is v, the unit being m3/kg. Specific volume is the reciprocal of density.

Physical Properties of Fluids

5

Chapter 1

In the case of solids and liquids, the change in density or specific volume with changes in pressure and temperature is rather small, whereas in the case of gases and vapours, density will change significantly due to changes in pressure and/or temperature. Weight Density or Specific Weight: The force due to gravity on the mass in unit volume is defined as Weight Density or Specific Weight. The unit used is N/m3. The symbol used is γ. At a location where g is the local acceleration due to gravity, Specific weight, γ = g ρ (1.5.1) In the above equation direct substitution of dimensions will show apparent nonhomogeneity as the dimensions on the LHS and RHS will not be the same. On the LHS the dimension will be N/m3 but on the RHS it is kg/m2 s2. The use of go will clear this anomaly. As seen in section 1.1, go = 1 kg m/N s2. The RHS of the equation 1.3.1 when divided by go will lead to perfect dimensional homogeneity. The equation should preferably be written as, Specific weight, γ = (g/go) ρ (1.5.2)

Since newton (N) is defined as the force required to accelerate 1 kg of mass by 1/s2, it can also be expressed as kg.m/s2. Density can also be expressed as Ns2/m4 (as kg = Ns2/m). Beam balances compare the mass while spring balances compare the weights. The mass is the same (invariant) irrespective of location but the weight will vary according to the local gravitational constant. Density will be invariant while specific weight will vary with variations in gravitational acceleration. Specific Gravity or Relative Density: The ratio of the density of the fluid to the density of water—usually 1000 kg/m3 at a standard condition—is defined as Specific Gravity or Relative Density δ of fluids. This is a ratio and hence no dimension or unit is involved.

Example 1.1. The weight of an object measured on ground level where ge = 9.81 m/s2 is 35,000 N. Calculate its weight at the following locations (i) Moon, gm = 1.62 m/s2 (ii) Sun, gs = 274.68 m/s2 (iii) Mercury, gme = 3.53 m/s2 (iv) Jupiter, gj = 26.0 m/s2 (v) Saturn, gsa = 11.2 m/s2 and (vi) Venus, gv = 8.54 m/s2. Mass of the object, me = weight × (go/g) = 35,000 × (1/9.81) = 3567.8 kg Weight of the object on a planet, p = me × (gp/go) where me is the mass on earth, gp is gravity on the planet and go has the usual meaning, force conversion constant. Hence the weight of the given object on, (i) Moon (ii) Sun (iii) Mercury (iv) Jupiter (v) Saturn (vi) Venus = = = = = = 3567.8 × 1.62 3567.8 × 274.68 3567.8 × 3.53 3567.8 × 26.0 3567.8 × 11.2 3567.8 × 8.54 = 5,780 N = 9,80,000 N = 12,594 N = 92,762 N = 39,959 N = 30,469 N

Note that the mass is constant whereas the weight varies directly with the gravitational constant. Also note that the ratio of weights will be the same as the ratio of gravity values.

1.6

VAPOUR AND GAS

When a liquid is heated under a constant pressure, first its temperature rises to the boiling point (defined as saturation temperature). Then the liquid begins to change its phase to the

6

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

gaseous condition, with molecules escaping from the surface due to higher thermal energy level. When the gas phase is in contact with the liquid or its temperature is near the saturation condition it is termed as vapour. Vapour is in gaseous condition but it does not follow the gas laws. Its specific heats will vary significantly. Moderate changes in temperature may change its phase to the liquid state. When the temperature is well above the saturation temperature, vapour begins to behave as a gas. It will also obey the characteristic equation for gases. Then the specific heat will be nearly constant.

1.7

CHARACTERISTIC EQUATION FOR GASES

The characteristic equation for gases can be derived from Boyle’s law and Charles’ law. Boyle’s law states that at constant temperature the volume of a gas body will vary inversely with pressure. Charles’ law states that at constant pressure, the temperature will vary inversely with volume. Combining these two, the characteristic equation for a system containing m kg of a gas can be obtained as PV = mRT (1.7.1) This equation when applied to a given system leads to the relation 1.7.2 applicable for all equilibrium conditions irrespective of the process between the states. (P1V1/T1) = (P2V2/T2) = (P3 V3/T3) = (PV/T) = Constant N/m2, (1.7.2) In the SI system, the units to be used in the equation are Pressure, P → volume, V → m3, mass, m → kg, temperature, T → K and gas constant, R → Nm/kgK or J/kgK (Note: K = (273 + °C), J = Nm). This equation defines the equilibrium state for any gas body. For a specified gas body with mass m, if two properties like P, V are specified then the third property T is automatically specified by this equation. The equation can also be written as, Pv = RT where v = V/m or specific volume. The value for R for air is 287 J/kgK. Application of Avagadro’s hypothesis leads to the definition of a new volume measure called molal volume. This is the volume occupied by the molecular mass of any gas at standard temperature and pressure. This volume as per the above hypothesis will be the same for all gases at any given temperature and pressure. Denoting this volume as Vm and the pressure as P and the temperature as T, For a gas a, For a gas b, PVm = Ma Ra T PVm = Mb Rb T MaRa = MbRb = M × R = Constant (1.7.4) (1.7.5) (1.7.6) (1.7.3)

As P, T and Vm are the same in both cases. The product M × R is called Universal gas constant and is denoted by the symbol R. Its numerical value in SI system is 8314 J/kg mole K. For any gas the value of gas constant R is obtained by dividing universal gas constant by the molecular mass in kg of that gas. The gas constant R for any gas (in the SI system, J/kg K) can be calculated using, R = 8314/M (1.7.7)

Physical Properties of Fluids

7

Chapter 1

The characteristic equation for gases can be applied for all gases with slight approximations, and for practical calculations this equation is used in all cases.

Example 1.2. A balloon is filled with 6 kg of hydrogen at 2 bar and 20°C. What will be the diameter of the balloon when it reaches an altitude where the pressure and temperature are 0.2 bar and –60° C. Assume that the pressure and temperature inside are the same as that at the outside at this altitude. The characteristic equation for gases PV = mRT is used to calculate the initial volume, V1 = [(m RT1)/P1], For hydrogen, molecular mass = 2, and so RH = 8314/2 = 4157 J/kgK, ∴ V1 = 6 × 4157 × (273 + 20)/2 × 105 = 36.54 m3 Using the general gas equation the volume after the balloon has reached the altitude, V2 is calculated. [(P1V1)/T1] = [(P2V2)/T2] [(2 × 105 × 36.54)/(273+20)] = [(0.2) × 105 × V2)/(273 – 60)] solving, V2 = 265.63 m3, Considering the shape of the balloon as a sphere of radius r, Volume = (4/3) π r3 = 265.63 m3, solving Radius, r = 3.99 m and diameter of the balloon = 7.98 m (The pressure inside the balloon should be slightly higher to overcome the stress in the wall material)

1.8

VISCOSITY

A fluid is defined as a material which will continue to deform with the application of a shear force. However, different fluids deform at different rates when the same shear stress (force/ area) is applied. Viscosity is that property of a real fluid by virtue of which it offers resistance to shear force. Referring to Fig. 1.8.1, it may be noted that a force is required to move one layer of fluid over another. For a given fluid the force required varies directly as the rate of deformation. As the rate of deformation increases the force required also increases. This is shown in Fig. 1.8.1 (i). The force required to cause the same rate of movement depends on the nature of the fluid. The resistance offered for the same rate of deformation varies directly as the viscosity of the fluid. As viscosity increases the force required to cause the same rate of deformation increases. This is shown in Fig. 1.8.1 (ii). Newton’s law of viscosity states that the shear force to be applied for a deformation rate of (du/dy) over an area A is given by, F = µ A (du/dy) or (F/A) = τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y) m2, (1.8.1) (1.8.2)

where F is the applied force in N, A is area in du/dy is the velocity gradient (or rate of deformation), 1/s, perpendicular to flow direction, here assumed linear, and µ is the proportionality constant defined as the dynamic or absolute viscosity of the fluid.

8

uA FA ub FB ua

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
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ub FA FB

tA

tB

tA

tB

ub > ua , Fb > Fa µa = µb (i) same fluid

**ua = ub , µa < µb , Fb > Fa (ii) same velocity
**

Figure 1.8.1 Concept of viscosity

The dimensions for dynamic viscosity µ can be obtained from the definition as Ns/m2 or kg/ms. The first dimension set is more advantageously used in engineering problems. However, if the dimension of N is substituted, then the second dimension set, more popularly used by scientists can be obtained. The numerical value in both cases will be the same. N = kg m/s2 ; µ = (kg m/s2) (s/m2) = kg/ms The popular unit for viscosity is Poise named in honour of Poiseuille. Poise = 0.1 Ns/m2 Centipoise (cP) is also used more frequently as, cP = 0.001 Ns/m2 (1.8.3a) For water the viscosity at 20°C is nearly 1 cP. The ratio of dynamic viscosity to the density is defined as kinematic viscosity, ν, having a dimension of m2/s. Later it will be seen to relate to momentum transfer. Because of this kinematic viscosity is also called momentum diffusivity. The popular unit used is stokes (in honour of the scientist Stokes). Centistoke is also often used. 1 stoke = 1 cm2/s = 10–4 m2/s (1.8.3b) Of all the fluid properties, viscosity plays a very important role in fluid flow problems. The velocity distribution in flow, the flow resistance etc. are directly controlled by viscosity. In the study of fluid statics (i.e., when fluid is at rest), viscosity and shear force are not generally involved. In this chapter problems are worked assuming linear variation of velocity in the fluid filling the clearance space between surfaces with relative movement.

Example 1.3. The space between two large inclined parallel planes is 6mm and is filled with a fluid. The planes are inclined at 30° to the horizontal. A small thin square plate of 100 mm side slides freely down parallel and midway between the inclined planes with a constant velocity of 3 m/ s due to its weight of 2N. Determine the viscosity of the fluid. The vertical force of 2 N due to the weight of the plate can be resolved along and perpendicular to the inclined plane. The force along the inclined plane is equal to the drag force on both sides of the plane due to the viscosity of the oil. Force due to the weight of the sliding plane along the direction of motion = 2 sin 30 = 1N

(1.8.3)

6 mm gap 9 Chapter 1 2 sin 30 N 30° 2N 2N 30° 30° Figure Ex. F = (A × 2) × µ × (du/dy) (both sides of plate).Physical Properties of Fluids Viscous force.04.16 2.5.1 × 0.1 m (wall surface.00 9.63 2.1 × 2)] × [(3 – 0)/6/(2 × 1000)}] Solving for viscosity. The velocity of the fluid filling a hollow cylinder of radius 0. 1 = µ × [(0. Substituting the values.) Shear stress = µ (du/dy) or µ (du/dr).018 × 2000 r = 36 rN/m2 Shear force over 2 m length = shear stress × area over 2m = 36r × 2πrL = 72 πr2 × 2 = 144 πr2 The calculated values are tabulated below: Radius.02 N (weight of the plate) .18 0. The viscosity of the fluid is 0.12 ) = – 2000 r The – ve sign indicates that the force acts in a direction opposite to the direction of velocity. 0.02 0. µ = 0. For 2 m length of the cylinder.60 0.02.52 Velocity. N/m2 0.00 Example 1.06 0.3 Example 1.05 Ns/m2 or 0. u = 10 [1 – (r/0.06 0.1 m varies as u = 10 [1 – (r/0.40 6. F = τ (A × 2) = µ × (du/dy) (A × 2) = weight of the plate.60 8. Determine weight of the plate. u.04 0. The 8 mm gap between two large vertical parallel plane surfaces is filled with a liquid of dynamic viscosity 2 × 10–2 Ns/m2.4. m/s 0. when dropped vertically between the two plates attains a steady velocity of 4 m/s. N 0.00 0. Shear stress = 0.1)2] m/s ∴ du/dr = 10 (– 2r/0.72 1. 1.44 2.15 × 2] = 1.40 3.72 1.60 Shear force.88 3. dy = [(8 – 1)/(2 × 1000)] m and du = 4 m/s F = 2 × 10–2 [4/{(8 – 1)/(2 × 1000)}] [0.08 and 0. 0. Substituting the values.90 4.10 Shear stress. 0. determine the shear stress and shear force over cylindrical layers of fluid at r = 0 (centre line).08 0.00 0. A thin sheet of 1 mm thickness and 150 mm × 150 mm size.15 × 0. Assume that the plate moves centrally.5 Poise Oil Sliding plate 100 mm sq. m 0.00 0.1)2] m/s along the radius r.018 Ns/m2.

Determine the resistance offered to the downward sliding of a shaft of 400 mm dia and 0. After this limit it has a constant viscosity at any given temperature. Real fluids having viscosity are divided into two groups namely Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids.1) = 2714 N 1.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density is 900 kg/m3. Bernoulli equation can be used to analyse the flow.1 m/s.8. F opposing the movement of the shaft = shear stress × area F = µ (du/dy) ( π × D × L ) µ = 2. The viscosity at any given temperature and pressure is constant for a Newtonian fluid and is independent of the rate of deformation. 1. Two different plots are shown as different authors use different representations. Shear force is not involved in its deformation. F = 2.1 Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids An ideal fluid has zero viscosity. Force.1 m/s. Ideal plastic t 4 5 Real plastic Shear thinning 3 2 1 3 2 du/dy Newtonian 1 5 4 Shear thickening du/dy t Figure 1. the viscosity will increase with (du/dy) deformation rate. The kinematic viscosity is 2.1 m. Substituting. Paint.4 × 0. It means that the proportionality parameter (in equation 1. Shear stress is zero irrespective of the value of du/dy. viscosity. du = 0. The characteristics is shown plotted in Fig.2. An ideal fluid has to be also incompressible. tooth paste. L = 0.6.4 × 10–4 × 900 Ns/m2. In Newtonian fluids a linear relationship exists between the magnitude of the applied shear stress and the resulting rate of deformation. The shaft is to move centrally and axially at a constant velocity of 0.2.10 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 1. In non Newtonian fluids the viscosity will vary with variation in the rate of deformation.1 m length by the oil film between the shaft and a bearing of ID 402 mm. τ = µ (du/dy)).4 × 10–4 × 900 × {(0. ideal plastic and shear thinning. µ is constant in the case of Newtonian fluids (other conditions and parameters remaining the same).8. In plastics. Linear relationship between shear stress and rate of deformation (du/dy) does not exist.8.8. shear thickening and real plastic fluids. up to a certain value of applied shear stress there is no flow.1 – 0)/[(402 – 400)/ (2 × 1000)]} ( π × 0.2 Rheological behaviour of fluids Non Newtonian fluids can be further classified as simple non Newtonian. In shear thinning materials viscosity will decrease with du/dy. D= 0. In shear thickening materials. printers ink .4 m dy = (402 – 400)/(2 × 1000)m.

the viscous forces are due more to the breaking of cohesive forces than due to momentum transfer (as molecular velocities are low). Viscous forces can be considered as the sum of these two. more molecules cross over with higher momentum differences.8.8. the contribution to viscosity is more due to momentum transfer.2 Viscosity and Momentum Transfer In the flow of liquids and gases molecules are free to move from one layer to another.8. the molecules moving from the layer at lower speed to the layer at higher speed have to be accelerated.8. 1. It may be explained by modifying equation 1. in the case of gases. So. For liquids and gases absolute (dynamic) viscosity is not influenced significantly by pressure. Similarly the molecules moving from the layer at higher velocity to a layer at a lower velocity carry with them a higher value of momentum and these are to be slowed down. With increase in temperature kinematic viscosity decreases in the case of liquids and increases in the case of gases. When the velocity in the layers are different as in viscous flow.m/s2) (s/m2)] [m3/kg] = m2/s Popularly used unit is stoke (cm2/s) = 10–4 m2/s named in honour of Stokes. As temperature increases. But kinematic viscosity of gases is influenced by pressure due to change in density.3 Effect of Temperature on Viscosity When temperature increases the distance between molecules increases and the cohesive force decreases. the force due to momentum transfer and the force for overcoming cohesion. 1.8. (Ns/m2) (m3/ kg) = [(kg. So. Many other behaviours have been observed which are more specialised in nature. 1.8. These are also shown in Fig. When cohesive forces exist between atoms or molecules these forces have to be overcome. (µ/ρ) = ν kinematic viscosity gives the rate of momentum flux or momentum diffusivity. Centi stoke is also popular = 10–6 m2/s.2 τ = µ (du/dy) = (µ/ρ) × {d (ρu/dy)} = ν × {d (ρu/dy)} µρ ρ ρ d (ρu/dy) represents momentum flux in the y direction. A shear force is to be exerted to cause fluids to flow. The unit in SI system is m2/s. for relative motion between layers. In the case of gases. In the case of gases viscous forces are more due to momentum transfer as distance between molecules is larger and velocities are higher. which is usually for 1 atm. rather than tabulated values of kinematic viscosity. Kinematic viscosity represents momentum diffusivity. viscosity increases with temperature.Physical Properties of Fluids 11 Chapter 1 are some examples for different behaviours. Thus the molecules diffusing across layers transport a net momentum introducing a shear stress between the layers. Hence. viscosity of liquids decrease when temperature increases. ν = µ/ρ . In gas flow it is better to use absolute viscosity and density.2. The force will be zero if both layers move at the same speed or if the fluid is at rest.4 Significance of Kinematic Viscosity Kinematic viscosity. The main topic of study in this text will involve only Newtonian fluids.4) . (1. In the case of liquids. namely. 1.

9. diameter.13)/(15 × 0.1 Using Flow Through Orifices Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In viscosity determination using Saybolt or Redwood viscometers.25 cP. 1. of a fixed quantity of the liquid kept in a cup of specified dimensions is measured in seconds and the viscosity is expressed as Saybolt seconds or Redwood seconds. This situation is similar to that in a Foot Step bearing.3 Capillary Tube Method The time for the flow of a given quantity under a constant head (pressure) through a tube of known diameter d. Tb = µπ2 NR4/60 h 900 rpm Figure Ex. Torque due to shear on the cylindrical surface (eqn 1.2 + (0.2 = [(µ × π2 900 × 0.8.3).8. rpm and the torque. determine the viscosity of the oil. A sleeve surrounding the cylinder rotates at 900 rpm and the torque measured is 0. µ = 0.5. Torque on bottom surface (eqn 1.1a).9. Total torque = (µ π2NR3/ 15.7 Viscosity test setup Where h is the clearance between the sleeve and cylinder and also base and bottom. 200 .15 200 The total torque is given by the sum of the torque due to the shear forces on the cylindrical surface and that on the bottom surface.8.0015)] × [0. 1. If the film thickness between the cylinder and sleeve is 0. 0. In case the clearances are different then h1 and h2 should be used. the value of viscosity can be calculated. the time for the flow through a standard orifice. Refer Example 1. The outer cylinder is rotated keeping the inner cylinder stationary and the reaction torque on the inner cylinder is measured using a torsion spring.15 mm. and length L is measured or the pressure causing flow is maintained constant and the flow rate is measured. 1. However for design purposes viscosity should be expressed in the standard units of Ns/m2.5. the cylinder supported by a torsion spring is 20 cm in dia and 20 cm long. In this case both are assumed to be equal. The time is converted to poise by empirical equations.00225 Ns/m2 or 2.7. Knowing the length.h) {L + (R/4)}.1/4)] Solving for viscosity.8. substituting. Total torque is the sum of values given by the above equations. film thickness. 0.5 Measurement of Viscosity of Fluids 1. Example 1. In a test set up as in figure to measure viscosity. Ts = µπ2 NLR3/15 h.5. These are the popular instruments for industrial use.2 Nm.2 Rotating Cylinder Method The fluid is filled in the interspace between two cylinders. The procedure is simple and a quick assessment is possible.7.12 1.

9.80 attains a terminal velocity of 2mm/s. Q is experimentally measured using the apparatus.002) = 7. Hence µ can be calculated.53 × 15) = 0.8. D.9.8. The pressure difference across a length of 15 m of the pipe is 6 kPa.Physical Properties of Fluids ∆P = (32 µ VL)/d2 13 (1. P = µπ3N2LR3/450 h For equations 1.5. τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y). T = tangential force × D/2 =µ (πDN/60h) (πDL) (D/2) T = µ π2NLD3/ 120 h T= µπ2NLR3/15 h P = 2πNT/60. h should be in meter and N in rpm. Determine the viscosity of oil flowing through the pipe.1 Shear stress. as linearity is assumed u = π DN/60.8. A steel ball of 2 mm dia and density 8000 kg/m3 dropped into a column of oil of specific gravity 0. This equation is known as Stokes equation. 1.8.002/2)2 × 9. proper units are listed below: L. R. ρ1 and ρ2 are the densities of the ball and the liquid. gravity force will equal the viscous drag.9.0204 Ns m2 Example 1. substituting If radius is used.9.9. 1. V is the terminal velocity (constant velocity). Tangential force = τ × A.53 m/s µ = ∆ P × d2/32uL = (6000 × 0.052/4) = 1. The velocity is measured by timing a constant distance of fall. A = πDL Torque.81 × (8000 – 800)/(9 × 0.8. The ball will reach a uniform velocity after some distance.9. As power.052)/(32 × 1. The viscosity can be calculated using the flow rate and the diameter.1) (1. Determine the viscosity of the oil.5) Chapter 1 This equation is known as Hagen-Poiseuille equation. Volume flow per second.2. ∆P = (32 µuL)/d2 u = Q/(πd2/4) = 3 × 10–3/(π × 0.85 Ns/m2.9. 1 poise = 0. (1.9.4 Falling Sphere Method A small polished steel ball is allowed to fall freely through the liquid column. Using Hagen-Poiesuille equation-1. Q = ( π d2/4) V. At this condition.9 APPLICATION OF VISCOSITY CONCEPT 1.6 µ = 2r2g (ρ1 – ρ2)/9u = 2 × (0.1 and 1.1a) . Example 1.1 Viscous Torque and Power—Rotating Shafts Refer Figure 1.5 . y = h. Viscosity µ should be in Ns/m2 (or Pas). The head causing flow is known.6) where r is the radius of the ball.8.1 Ns/m2) (1. 1. clearance in m τ = µ (πDN/60h). µ = 2r2g (ρ1 – ρ2)/9V ρ (µ will be in poise.2) (1. Oil flows at the rate of 3 l/s through a pipe of 50 mm diameter. The torque will be obtained in Nm and the power calculated will be in W. Using Stokes equation.

001} = 188.1 Rotating Shaft in Bearing Note: Clearance h is also the oil film thickness in bearings.28 m/s τ = 0.h = [µπ2N/15. F = Aµ (du/dy) = A µ (u/y) (as y is small linear velocity variation can be assumed) u = 2 πrN/60. Shear stress on the shaft surface = τ = µ (du/dy) = µ(u/y) u = π DN/60 = π × 0.dr.995 Nm = 2 π NT/60 = 2 × π × 400 × 15.995/60 = 670 W. A = 2 π DL Force on shaft surface = τ × A = 188. Determine the power required to run a 300 mm dia shaft at 400 rpm in journals with uniform oil thickness of 1 mm.2.2. P = µ π3 N2LR3/450 h = 669.4 × (2 × π × 0.4 N/m2 Surface area of the two bearings.14 Bearing sleeve h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Oil of viscosity m N rpm D h L Figure 1. (check using eqn.03 Pas.2.3) = 106. 2πrN. dT = 2πr dr µ(2πrN/60h)r dT = 2πr.9. 1.2 Viscous Torque—Disk Rotating Over a Parallel Plate Refer Figure 1.6 × 0.9.3 × 400/60 = 6.15 = 15.9.3 × 0.r/60. Linear velocity variation is assumed. Two bearings of 300 mm width are used to support the shaft. Example 1. End effects are neglected.74 W) 1. Axial location is assumed.6 N Torque Power required = 106. A = 2πr dr Torque = Force × radius. (Pas = (N/m2) × s).µ.28 – 0)/ 0. The force on the strip is given by.03 {(6. substituting the above values torque dT on the strip is. The dynamic viscosity of oil is 0.9.10.h]r3dr . y = h. Consider an annular strip of radius r and width dr shown in Figure 1.9.

The oil used has a viscosity of 30 cP.682 = (30 × 0. substituting the given values.2 m ID and 0. Oil film Collar T = 0. Power = 2πNT/60 W. Solving torque. if 50 W was required to overcome viscous friction while running at 700 rpm.9. Determine the oil film thickness between the plates of a collar bearing of 0. T = µπ2NR4/60 h If diameter is used.9. P = 2πNT/60 P = µπ3N2R4/1800 h use R in metre.2 Rotating disk Integrating the expression from centre to edge i.0001 Ns/m2. N in rpm and µ in Ns/m2 or Pa s..206 mm . 0. Torque.11 This is a situation where an annular surface rotates over a flat surface.h µ = 30 cP = 30 × .0001) × π2 × 700 × (0.9. substituting the values. R4 = (1/16)D4 (1.3) For an annular area like a collar the integration limits are Ro and Ri and the torque is given by T = µπ 2N(Ro4 – Ri4)/60 h Power.3 m OD transmitting power. (1. P= µπ3N2(Ro4 – Ri4)/1800 h (1. 1.3a) (1. using equation 1.14)/60 × h ∴ h = 0.682 Nm Figure Ex.9. 0 to R. Viscosity m Plate 15 Chapter 1 h r Q dr Figure 1.154 – 0.000206m = 0.4) T = µπ2ND4/960 h The power required.9. Hence.5. 50 = 2π × 700 × T/60.11.Physical Properties of Fluids N rpm Oil. T = µπ2N (RO4 – Ri4)/60.6) Example 1.9.5) (1.e.9.

7) 2. R2 O dr A h r q r/cos q dx dr q A Figure 1. Hence contact surface area = 2πr. substituting the values . dT = π2µNr2dr.3 m and 0.9.m.r Torque on element.h.3.9. T = µπ2 N(R24 – R14)/60.8 is applicable in this case.3)/0.02 Ns/m2.sin θ = (πµN/15 h sin θ)r3 dr Integrating between r = 0 and r = R T = π2 µNR4/60.cos θ)} µ(2πrN. sin θ (1./sin θ. h and R in metre the torque will be in N. T= π2µ N (Ro – 4 dx q R1 0. The 1. 1.h sin θ (1. the length OA being r/cos θ.9.5 m.cos θ/60) (1/h) F = (π2µNr2dr)/(15.9.3 Rotating cone or conical bearing The velocity along the surface is (2πrN/60). as shown in figure 1. Torque = F.dr/sin θ.h.9.9) π Exmaple 1. P = 2πNT/60 = µ3N2[R24 – R14]/1800 h sin θ (1.9. h. this reduces to the expression for the disk—equation 1.h.cos θ.sin θ.9. When semicone angle Using µ in Ns/m θ = 90°. F = Aµ (du/dy) = {(2πr. tan θ = (0.8) Power required.5 – 0.3 Viscous Torque—Cone in a Conical Support Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Considering a small element between radius r and r + dr.5 m 0. Determine the power required to overcome viscous friction for a shaft running at 700 rpm fitted with a conical bearing.12. N rpm R.5 mm uniform clearance between the bearing and support is filled with oil of viscosity 0.3 = 0.12 Ri4)/ 60.667.cos θ and the film thickness is h.9.3.r/15.16 1.sin θ). The height of the cone is 0. For contact only between R1 and R2. The inner and outer radius of the conical bearing are 0.3 m 0.3 m 34° ∴ θ = 34° Figure Ex. The surface width of the element in contact with oil is dx = dr/sin θ The surface area should be calculated with respect to centre O as shown in figure—the point where the normal to the surface meets the axis—or the centre of rotation.3 m. Equation 1.

So also the formation of a free jet.34)/60 × 0. Wall Liquid surface Liquid surface Wall Adhesive forces lower b b Adhesive forces higher Liquid droplet Spreads Point contact Real fluids Wetting Non wetting Figure 1. Liquid molecules exhibit cohesive forces binding them with each other.54 – 0. Note the high value of viscosity 1. droplets and free jets are due to the surface tension of the liquid. The pressure inside the droplets or jet is higher due to the surface tension.1 Surface Tension Effect on Solid-Liquid Interface In liquids cohesive forces between molecules lead to surface tension. Force is found necessary to stretch the surface.10 SURFACE TENSION Many of us would have seen the demonstration of a needle being supported on water surface without it being wetted. All liquids exhibit a free surface known as meniscus when in contact with vapour or gas.9. when liquid flows out of an orifice or opening like a tap. So they stop and return back into the liquid.0015 × sin 34] = 10948 W. to form the surface. When they reach the surface they reach a dead end in the sense that no molecules are present in great numbers above the surface to attract or pull them out of the surface.36 Nm Power required = 2πNT/60 = 2π × 700 × 149. The work is actually required for pulling up the molecules with lower energy from below.Physical Properties of Fluids T = π2 × 0.0015 × sin 34 = 149.03 × 700 × (0.54 – 0.34]/ [1800 × 0. The formation of droplets is a direct effect of this phenomenon. Another definition for surface tension is the force required to keep unit length of the surface film in equilibrium (N/m). This cohesive bond exhibits a tensile strength for the surface layer and this is known as surface tension. A thin layer of few atomic thickness at the surface formed by the cohesive bond between atoms slows down and sends back the molecules reaching the surface.9 also. 17 Chapter 1 P = µ × π3 × 7002 × [0. The molecules below the surface are generally free to move within the liquid and they move at random. 1.10.1 Surface tension effect at solid-liquid interface . This is due to the surface tension of water.10.36/60 = 10948 W Check using equation 1. The formation of bubbles. Surface tension may also be defined as the work in Nm/m2 or N/m required to create unit surface of the liquid.

Solving.3 = 2 × 1 × Surface tension.10. At the interface this leads to the liquid surface being moved up or down forming a curved surface. h × γ × A = π × D × σ cos β. Force = 2 × 1 × Surface tension 0.10.2.2 Surface tension. When the adhesive forces are higher the contact surface is lifted up forming a concave surface. Such liquids are called nonwetting. the contact surface is lowered at the interface and a convex surface results as in the case of mercury. Determine the surface tension acting on the surface of a vertical thin plate of 1m length when it is lifted vertically from a liquid using a force of 0. These are shown in Fig. 1. These are said to be surface wetting. Example 1. water etc. the specific weight of liquid being γ. Surface tension.13. σ = 0.2) s b s b h b < 90° Liquid level h D s D s b > 90° (i) (ii) Figure 1.15 N/m. Equating.10. The vertical component of this force = π × D × σ × cos β This is balanced by the fluid column of height. The surface tension forces acting around the circumference of the tube = π × D × σ.1.1) At the surface this contact angle will be maintained due to molecular equilibrium. 1. exhibit such behaviour.3N. Two contact lines form at the surface and hence.10.18 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Liquids also exhibit adhesive forces when they come in contact with other solid or liquid surfaces. A = πD2/4 and so h = (4π × D × σ × cos β)/(γπ 2) = (4σ × cos β)/ρgD γπD γπ σ ρ (1. It can be shown that if the surface tension at the solid liquid interface (due to adhesive forces) is σs1 and if the surface tension in the liquid (due to cohesive forces) is σ11 then cos β = [(2σs1/σ11) – 1] σ σ (1.10. The curved surface creates a pressure differential across the free surface and causes the liquid level to be raised or lowered until static equilibrium is reached. Oils. The angle of contact “β” defines the concavity or convexity of the liquid surface. h.2 Capillary Rise or Depression Refer Figure 1. (i) capillary rise (ii) depression . When the adhesive forces are lower.10. Let D be the diameter of the tube and β is the contact angle. The result of this phenomenon is capillary action at the solid liquid interface.

Example 1. The sides are r1 dφ and r2 dθ long.82 × 10–3 m = – 4. doubly curved surface . In a closed end single tube manometer.81 × 0.09 mm (depression) Corrected height of mercury column = 757 + 5. Specific weight of mercury.Physical Properties of Fluids 19 Chapter 1 This equation provides the means for calculating the capillary rise or depression. = ρg = 13600 × 9. Using eqn.3 Pressure difference. Actual height of mercury column = Mercury column height + Capillary depression Specific weight of mercury Capillary depression.5 × cos130)/(13600 × 9. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum. Determine the actual height representing the atmospheric pressure if surface tension is 0. The ID of the tube is 2 mm.48 N/m.09 mm 1.09 × 10–3m = – 5.48 × cos135)/(0. γ = 13600 × 9.82 mm Example1. 2σr1dφ sin(dθ/2) + 2σr2 dθ sin (dφ/2) = (pi – po)r1r2 dθdφ df r1 dfs dq r1 df r2 dqs r2 d q R1 r2 dqs r1 dfs R2 PodA = Por1 df r2 dq Saddle surface Figure 1.14.15. The contact angle is 135°. Assume σ = 0. Components are σr1 sin (dθ/2) from θ direction sides and σr2 sin (dφ/2) from the φ direction sides.002 × 13600 × 9. The sign of cos β depending on β > 90 or otherwise determines the capillary rise or depression.10. the height of mercury column above the mercury well shows 757 mm against the atmospheric pressure. For equilibrium the components of the surface tension forces along the normal should be equal to the pressure difference. Determine the capillary depression of mercury in a 2 mm ID glass tube.10.5 N/m and β = 130°.09 = 762.3 Pressure Difference Caused by Surface Tension on a Doubly Curved Surface Consider the small doubly curved element with radius r1 and included angle dφ in one direction and radius r2 and dθ in the perpendicular direction referred to the normal at its center.002) = – 4.2.81) = – 5.81 N/m3 h = (4 σ × cosβ)/γD = (4 × 0. 1.10.81 N/m3 h = (4 σ × cosβ)/ρg/D = (4 × 0.

in radians.10. pressure force = DL(pi – po). surface tension force = 2σL (pi – po) = 2 (σ/D) = (σ/R) (1. (pi – po) = 2σ/R Fluid Mechanics and Machinery For small values of angles. This situation can be seen in the jet formed in tap flow where internal pressure cannot be maintained.4a) These equations give the pressure difference between inside and outside of droplets and free jets of liquids due to surface tension.10. The pressure inside a free jet will be higher compared to the outside.10. sin θ = θ. and so (pi – po) = σ/R (1. Pressure forces = Surface tension forces. Rearranging.20 σ [r1 + r2] = (pi – po) × r1r2.10.5) Considering a cylinder of length L and diameter D and considering its equilibrium.6) .10. The pressure inside air bubbles will be higher compared to the outside pressure. For cylindrical shapes one radius is infinite.3) (1. The pressure difference can be made zero for a doubly curved surface if the curvature is like that of a saddle (one positive and the other negative).4) where R is the radius of the sphere.10.10. Cancelling the common terms (1.10.4.4 Surface tension effects on bubbles and free jets Considering the sphere as two halves or hemispheres of diameter D and considering the equilibrium of these halves.4 Pressure Inside a Droplet and a Free Jet Refer Figure 1. s 2 RLD P = s 2 Ls s D PÕ R = 2 Õ Rs 2 s R s s L R Figure 1. 1. r1 = r2 = R So. taking two halves of the cylinder. (pi – po) = [(1/r1) + (1/r2)] × σ For a spherical surface. (pi – po)(πD2/4) = σ × π × D σ σ (pi – po) = 4(σ/D) = 2(σ/R) (1.

04/(0.1) where dp is the change in pressure causing a change in volume dv when the original volume was v. The negative sign indicates that if dp is positive then dv is negative and vice versa.11.67 kpa Example 1. Rearranging. Bulk modulus influences the velocity of sound in the medium. The symbol used in this text for bulk modulus is Ev (K is more popularly used). Ev = (– 500 × 105)/(–4/100) = 1.10. substituting the values.17. The value increases with pressure as dv will be lower at higher pressures for the same value of dp. so that the bulk modulus is always positive (N/m2). .0135 N/m 1. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = dp/(dρ/ρ) ρρ (1. The spray is of cylindrical shape P = σ/R = 0.05 = 1118 m/s.25 × 109/100]0. Also determine the velocity of sound in the medium if the density is 1000 kg/m3. The unit is the same as that of pressure. Determine the bulk modulus of a liquid whose volume decreases by 4% for an increase in pressure of 500 × 105 pa.000 atm.03 × 10–3/2) = 2666. Referring equation 1. Note that dv/v = – dρ/ρ. without any modifications. What will be the percentage increase in specific volume? The definition of bulk modulus.003/4) = 0. With temperature the bulk modulus of liquids generally increases.16. Example 1. In the case of gases. Bulk modulus is defined as Ev = – dp/(dv/v). The pressure of water in a power press cylinder is released from 990 bar to 1 bar isothermally.18.25 × 109 N/m2 Velocity of sound c is defined as = (go × Ev /ρ)0.5. Calculate the surface tension if the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 3mm dia is 18 N/m2. the value of compressibility will depend on the process law for the change of volume and will be different for different processes.04N/m.Physical Properties of Fluids 21 Chapter 1 Example 1. The value is in the range of 2000 MN/m2 or 2000 × 106 N/m2 or about 20. Example 1. Macroscopically the above equation can be modified as Ev = – {P1 – P2}{(v2 – v1)/v1}.5. For water the maximum is at about 50°C. This definition can be applied to liquids as such.19. σ = ∆P × D/4 = 18 × (0. reaches a maximum and then decreases. The surface tension is 0. obviously. ∆ P = 4σ/D Surface tension. The bulk modulus for liquids depends on both pressure and temperature. It can also be expressed in terms of change of density.03mm.5 ∴ c = [1 × 1.67 N/m2 = 2. If the average value of bulk modulus for water in this range is 2430 × 106 N/m2. Ev is defined as the ratio of the change in pressure to the rate of change of volume due to the change in pressure.11 COMPRESSIBILITY AND BULK MODULUS Bulk modulus. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) is used to obtain the solution. which equals (go × Ev/ρ)0. Determine the pressure difference across a nozzle if diesel is sprayed through it with an average diameter of 0.

5) c = [go × k P/ρ]0. 1. compressibility = k × P. At certain depth in water. then P = constant or the process is a constant pressure process.11. Process equation for gases can be written in the following general form (1. oxygen.2) Pvn = constant where n can take values from 0 to ∞. The value n = 1 means Pv = constant or isothermal process and n = cp/cv = k means isentropic process. The bulk modulus is 2290 × 106 N/m2. – (P2 – P1) = Ev × [{1/ρ2) – (1/ρ1)}/(1/ρ1)] = Ev × [(ρ1– ρ2)/ρ2] P2 = P1 – Ev × [(ρ1– ρ2)/ρ2] = 1 ×105 – 2290 × 106 {(1040 – 1055)/1055} = 32. For isentropic process. namely. Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = n × P (1.1 m/s and 1321. . For isothermal process. denoted as k). compressibility = – dp/(dv/v).3 m/s. If dp = 0.22 Change in specific volume = (v2 – v1)/v1 = – (P2 – P1)/Ev Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = (990 × 105 – 1 × 105)/2430 × 106 = 0. will depend on the process used. As an exercise the velocity of sound at 27°C for air. As Ev = – dp/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1 )/ [(v2 – v1)v1] v = 1/ρ.659 × 106 N/m2 or about 326.5 it can be shown that (1. These are not of immediate interest in calculating compressibility. Using the equation Pvn = constant and differentiating the same. compressibility = P.5 It may be noted that for a given gas the velocity of sound depends only on the temperature.59 bar. dp.4) Hence compressibility of gas varies as the product n × P. compressibility is infinite. In the case of gases the velocity of propagation of sound is assumed to be isentropic.11.11.6 m/s. The relationship between these can be obtained using the characteristic gas equation and the equation describing the process.0407 % change in specific volume = 4. If n = ∞.11. n = 1.11. For constant pressure and constant volume processes compressibility values are zero and ∞ respectively.20. then v = constant and the process is constant volume process. The processes of practical interest are for values of n = 1 to n = cp/cv (the ratio of specific heats. In the case of gases the variation of volume. 330. From the definition of velocity of sound as [go × Ev/ρ]0. Determine the pressure at that point.3 m/s. Density of sea water at the surface was measured as 1040 kg/m3 at an atmospheric pressure of 1 bar.3) rearranging and using the definition of Ev. Bulk modulus. nitrogen and hydrogen may be calculated as 347. the density was found to be 1055 kg/m3. 353.1 Expressions for the Compressibility of Gases The expression for compressibility of gases for different processes can be obtained using the definition.5 = [go × k × R × T]0.07% Example 1. compressibility is zero and if dv = 0. If n = 0. with variation in pressure. nPv(n–1)dv + vndp = 0 (1. dv.

The number of molecules escaping from the surface or re-entering will depend upon the temperature. Liquid will begin to boil if the pressure falls to the level of vapour pressure corresponding to that temperature. . If liquid is in contact with vapour both will be at the same temperature and under this condition these phases will be in equilibrium unless energy transaction takes place. In the gaseous state the binding forces are minimal. All liquids exhibit this phenomenon.12 VAPOUR PRESSURE 23 Chapter 1 Liquids exhibit a free surface in the container whereas vapours and gases fill the full volume. The atmospheric pressure is nothing but the sum of the pressures exerted by each of these components. (1. This pressure is known as vapour pressure corresponding to the temperature. Liquid molecules have higher cohesive forces and are bound to each other. This topic is studied under Psychrometry. This pressure is known as critical pressure.12.12. of the mixture can be determined from the composition.Physical Properties of Fluids 1. p2 = (m2R2T)/V in which T and V are the common temperature and volume. For example air is a mixture of various gases as well as some water vapour. The vapour pressure is also known as saturation pressure corresponding to the temperature. As the temperature increases. Of special interest in this case is the partial pressure of water vapour. The temperature corresponding to the pressure is known as saturation temperature. The various properties like specific heat. Molecules constantly escape out of a liquid surface and an equal number constantly enter the surface when there is no energy addition. Under equilibrium conditions these molecules above the free surface exert a certain pressure. gas constant etc.1 Partial Pressure In a mixture of gases the total pressure P will equal the sum of pressures exerted by each of the components if that component alone occupies the full volume at that temperature. For all liquids there exists a pressure above which there is no observable difference between the two phases.12. Such boiling leads to the phenomenon known as cavitation in pumps and turbines. more molecules will leave and re-enter the surface and so the vapour pressure increases with temperature. The vapour pressure increases with the temperature. cm = Σ (ci × mi)/ Σ mi (1. In pumps it is usually at the suction side and in turbines it is usually at the exit end. The pressure exerted by each component is known as its partial pressure. Sublimating solids also exhibit this phenomenon..2) where cm is the specific heat of the mixture and ci and mi are the specific heat and the mass of component i in the mixture.1) where p1 = (m1R1T)/V .. 1. The vapour pressure data for water and refrigerants are available in tabular form.. P = p1 +p2 + p3 + .

1.002)]} = 43.1. the film thickness being 1 mm. h = 0.475 × 0. u = 5 m/s.2.24 SOLVED PROBLEMS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1.17 5 28. Equating to zero y2 = (h – y)2 or y = h/2 or the plane should be located at the mid gap position for the force to be minimum. P 1. The force required for different location of the plate is calculated using the following data and tabulated below. In this problem kinematic viscosity and specific weight are given. y mm Force. µ = 0. Density = specific weight/g.002) + [1/0. Assume linear variation of velocity and unit area.17 h–y y h Figure P. Model calculation is given for y = 0.2.01 – 0. Problem 1.2). Let the velocity of the small plane be u. If the smaller plate is to be pulled with uniform velocity of 4 m/s. A small thin plane surface is pulled through the liquid filled space between two large horizontal planes in the parallel direction. Force on the bottom surface = µ × (u/y). Let the small plane be located at a distance of y from the bottom plane. Differentiating the expression A.014 × 5 × {(1/0.33 4 29. and the distance between the large planes be h. µ = 0. Velocity gradient on the bottom surface = u/y Velocity gradient on the top surface = u/(h – y).484 N. Show that the force required will be minimum if the plate is located midway between the planes.2 Problem model .03 × 10–4 × 9000/9. Force on the top surface = µ × u/(h – y) Total force to pull the plane = µ × u × {(1/y) + [1/(h – y)]} .014 Ns/m2 . So. or dF/dy = 0. A liquid with kinematic viscosity of 3 centi stokes and specific weight 9 kN/m3 fills the space between a large stationary plate and a parallel plate of 475 mm square. Stoke = 10–4 m2/s.8. where τ is shear stress. The force required (eqn 1. Considering unit area.00 6 29.475 = 2.. τ × A = A × µ × (du/dy).1 m.001) × 0.75 3 33.(A) To obtain the condition for minimisation of the force the variation of force with respect to y should be zero. and µ is dynamic viscosity.75 N/m2 Note that the minimum occurs at mid position Distance. N/m2 2 43. F = 0.002 m. determine the force required if the liquid film is maintained all through.03 × 10–4 × 9000/9.81 Ns/m2 Force = [0. dF/dy = µ × u {(–1/y2) + [1/(h – y)2]}.81] × (4.. Equation A is used in the calculation.0/0. Refer Fig.

µ = 0. u = 5 m/s. Equating to zero yields. the force for various locations is calculated and tabulated below: y.2 : Case 1: The velocity gradient is equal on both sides = u/(h/2) = 2 × u/h Total force = µ1 × {(2u/h) + (2u/h)} = 4 × µ1 × u/h Case 2: Velocity gradient on the top surface = u/(h–y) Velocity gradient on the bottom surface = u/y Total force = µ2 × u × {(1/y) + [1/(h – y)]} = µ2 × u × {h/[y × (h – y)]} Equating and solving.49/y) + [1/(0. Let the plate be located at a distance of y from the lower surface on the side where the viscosity is cµ. the derivative dF/dy should be zero. If a lighter oil of viscosity µ2 fills the gap what should be the location of the plate for the force to be the same when pulled with the same velocity u. Problem 1. The viscosity of the oil was µ1. A small plane is pulled along the centre plane of the oil filled space between two large horizontal planes with a velocity u and the force was measured as F. y2 = c × (h – y)2 Taking the root.0 57.87 1. The force will not be minimum if the plate is centrally located as the viscosity are not equal. A quadratic equation. N/m2 1.e. c × (h – y) = y or y = (h × c )/(1 + c ) = h/[1 + (1/ c )] Consider the following values for the variables and calculate the force for different locations of the plate. dF/dy = µ × u {[1/(h – y)2] – [c/y2]}.58 2.004 – y)]}. So the plane should now be located away from the central plane.7 .0 52. mm Force.Physical Properties of Fluids 25 Chapter 1 Problem 1..49 or c = 0. P1. Let it be located at a distance.001647 m Using F = 5 × 0.004 × 0.39 c = 0.63 1.7) = 0.4.014 N/m2 .5 60. (µ2/µ1) = 4 × y × (h – y)/h2 = 4[y/h] × [1 – (y/h)] Solve for (y/h).3.5 50. A large thin plate is pulled through a narrow gap filled with a fluid of viscosity µ on the upper side and a fluid of viscosity cµ on the lower side.7)/(1 + 0. Let the gap size be h. y from the lower plane as shown in Fig.014 × {(0. If the plane is located centrally in the case where the oil is lighter the force will be smaller.65 50. the total force for unit area will be F = cµ × (u/y) + µ × u/(h – y) = µ × u {(c/y) + [1/(h – y)]} At the minimum conditions the slope i.15 2. h = 4 mm and For optimum conditions y = (0. Derive an expression for the location of the plate in the gap for the total force to be minimum.

26 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1.2 m ID and 0.0005) = 0.. velocity = 0.1 and 1.182 m2.5 mm.16374 m/s.8.) Problem 1. (n is used to denote rpm) P = [µπ3n2LR3/450 h] The solution can be obtained from basics also. Torque = force × radius. Determine the viscous drag torque and power absorbed on one surface of a collar bearing of 0. check from basics.0525 × n × 0. (care should be taken to use radius value.0525 × n. A shaft of 145 mm dia runs in journals with a uniform oil film thickness of 0.6. Using equations 1. The force can be determined assuming that the sliding is between the developed surfaces.2885 × n N/m2.0005 m.0005)] Problem 1. Two bearings of 20 cm width are used. Force F = A × τ = 0. Solving speed.145 × n/60 = 7.45 × 3 × 0.3 m OD with an oil film thickness of 1 mm and a viscosity of 30 cP if it rotates at 500 rpm. µ = ρv = 2.20) × 0.592 × 10–3 × n/0. T = 0.216 Ns/m2. (h – clearance).3.9. The equation that can be used is.2885 × n × 0. Adopting the second method. The viscosity of the oil is 19 cP.019 × π3 × n2 (2 × 0. Clearance = (Do – Di)/2 = 0. Determine the uniform velocity of movement of the shaft if the drag resistance was 300 N.15 m. τ = µ (du/dy) = µ (u/y).7. let the rpm be n u = π Dn/60 = π × 0.8.9.182 = 0.07253/ (450 × 0.001).1 = µ × π2 × 300 × 0. (n denoting rpm) Torque T = (µ × π2 × n × R4)/(60 × h).592 × 10–3 × n τ = 0.216 × (u/0. P = 2πnT/60 = 15 = 2 × π × n 3. Determine the viscosity of the fluid if the torque required to rotate the disc at 300 rpm was 0. The equation to be used is 1.2 i.019 (7. (Check using the equation 1. Determine the speed if the power absorbed is 15 W.0005) Solving for u.9.5 mm.806 × 10–3 × n Nm Power.2) n = 194 rpm. 1. A = 2 × π DL = 0. 15 = [0. The interface is filled with oil of kinematic viscosity of 2.145/2 = 3. A circular disc of 0.019 Ns/m2. 0.154/ (60 × 0. R = 0. .3 m dia rotates over a large stationary plate with 1 mm thick fluid film between them. Problem 1.806 × 10–3 × n/60 n = 194 rpm.001 m.8.1 Nm. µ = 19 cP = 0. n = 300 rpm.4 × 10–4 × 900 = 0. speed. Solving for µ Viscosity µ = 4 × 10–3 Ns/m2 or 4 cP. h = 0.5 mm = 0. Solving. A hydraulic lift shaft of 450 mm dia moves in a cylinder of 451 mm dia with the length of engagement of 3 m. the area being π × D × L.2 Drag resistance = 300 = µ × 0.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density of 900 kg/m3. Substituting the values. y = 0.5.e.

5 – 0. A conical bearing of outer radius 0.5 = 17. τ = 17. The support is rotated at 500 rpm.2 = 1.5 m. R2 = 0.08 m from the surface.5012 Nm P = 2πnT/60 = 2 × π × 500 × 0.002)} = 0.10. T = µ × π2 × n × (Ro4 – Ri4)/60 × h substituting the values 27 Chapter 1 µ = 30 × 0. If the variation of velocity with distance from the surface.08 m.5012/60 = 26.001= 0.243 W. u = 10y0..9.154 – 0.54 – 0. It has to be approximated as (u2 – u1)/(y2 – y1) for near zero values of y.080. (du/dy) = 5/0.5.2 m 0. So θ = 45°. Determine the clearance if the power required was 1500 W.5.2 m runs on a conical support with a uniform clearance between surfaces.9.0 and 0.Physical Properties of Fluids The equation applicable is 1.9.03 Ns/m2.04 and 0. tan θ = (0.5.001 × π2 × 500 × {0.14}/{(60 × 0.5 whre u is in m/s and y is in m in a flow field up to y = 0. Considering layers y = 0 and y =10–6. A shaft of diameter 4 cm is placed centrally inside.5 m and inner radius 0.68.e. h = 0.5 m 0.1 m. In this case the clearance considered is large and so the assumption of linear velocity variation may lead to larger error. µ = 14 × 0. (du/dy) = 10000.08.3 m 45° 1500 = π3 × 0. h = 0.03 × 5002 × (0. Solution is obtained from basics. Ro = 0. Problem 1. determine the wall shear stress and the shear stress at y = 0. R1 = 0.63 mm Problem 1. h = 6.5). Determine the shear stress on the shaft wall. τ = 25 × µ y = 0.3 m and height 0. Oil with viscosity of 30 cP is used. The hollow cylinder rotates while the shaft is stationary.014 N/m2 .11.34)/1800 × h × sin 45° Solving for clearance. Using equation 1. y is given by u = 10 y0.15 m.3)/0. P = π3 × µ × n2 × (R24 – R14)/1800 × h × sin θ (µ = 30 cP = 0.001 Ns/m2. Ri = 0.5 = 25.01 m/s So At At (u2 – u1)/(y2 – y1) = 0.04 m.0. At the wall. n = 500 rpm.68 × µ (using u = 10 y0.9 i. The substitution y = 0 in the above will give division by zero error. The concept that the torque along the radius should be constant can be used to determine the torque more accurately. Shear stress is first calculated at the hollow cylinder wall (Assume 1 m length). Linear velocity variation is assumed. Clearance. Problem 1. the velocities are 0. (du/dy) = 5/y0. (du/dy) = 5/0.040. A hollow cylinder of 12 cm ID filled with fluid of viscosity 14 cP rotates at 600 rpm.626 × 10–3 m or 6. the difference in y value is 10–6.3 m) 0. τ = µ (du/dy) = 10000 × µ y = 0. The angle θ is determined using the difference in radius and the length.002 m T = 30 × 0.04.01/10–6 = 10000. n = 500 rpm.

06/s 0.32 N/m2 F = π × D × L × τ = π × 0. 0.) τ = 0.1)2].25/s.25 = 1.28 At the inside wall of the hollow cylinder. F = 2. τ = µ (du/dr).88 N/m2.13) du dr R1 = du dr R2 × (R22/R12) at 0. Considering L = 1 At At r = 0.04 The velocity gradient at the shaft surface = 94.1)2] m/s. determine the ratio of these velocity gradients.014 = 11.04 = 94. the velocity gradient is obtained by using this concept.12.25/s Shear stress at the shaft wall = 848. du/dr = – 10 × (2 × r/0.31 = 0. F = 0. At mid radius R = 0.08 × 1 × 0. u = 2 πRn/60 = 3.77/0.042 = 212. Problem 1.77 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (du/dr) = u/h = 3.12) = – 2000 r (the –ve sign indicates that the force acts opposite to the flow direction. Problem 1.25 × 0.628 N τ = – 4 N/m2.04. (see problem 1. Using general notations. du dr × 25 × 0.1 m. τi [2π ri × L] × ri = τo [2π ro × L] × ro τi = µ (du/dr)ri. Determine the shear stress and the shear force over the surface at r = 0. The torque required for the rotation will be the same in both cases.498 N torque = F × R = 0. The viscosity of the fluid is 0. Solving.014 × 94.513 N.86 10–3 = du dr du dr 0. τ = µ (du/dr)ro Substituting in the previous expression and solving (du/dr)i = (du/dr)o × [ro2/ri2] o .06 = 29.86 × 10–3 Nm Torque at all radii should be the same.014 × π × 0.1 m radius varies as u = 10 × [1 – (r/0.022 = 848.02 × (– 2000) × r = – 40 r.12 × 1 × 1.04.05. τ = µ (du/dr) = 0.498 × 0. r = 0.1. Assuming that when the sleeve rotates velocity gradient exists only at the sleeve surface and when the shaft rotates velocity gradient exists only at the shaft surface.062/0.25 × 0. = 212. τ = – 2 N/m2.04 m.05 and r = 0.02 Ns/m2 .06/s. u = 10 × [1 – (r/0. A sleeve surrounds a shaft with the space between them filled with a fluid.062/0.13. 29. The velocity along the radius of a pipe of 0.04 × 0.04 This can be checked using equation. Shear force F = 2πrLτ.

Derive an expression for the force required for axial movement of a shaft through a taper bearing as shown in figure.36 N.Physical Properties of Fluids 29 Chapter 1 This will plot as a second degree curve. The diameter of the shaft is D m and the length is L m.814 N. The total force required can be determined by integrating the elemental force over a differential length dX.0001}] × [ln(0. The clearance at the ends are t1m and t2m. In this case the clearance varies along the length and so the velocity gradient will vary along the length.0002 – 0. Determine the force required.14 Problem 1.14. 18.2 mm.15. The axial velocity of the shaft is 0.1 mm over a length of 0.3 × 4.1 mm. substituting dF = [{L × µ × u × π × D}] × [dX/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}] Integrating between the limits X = 0 to X = L F = [{π × D × u × L × µ 1 – t2}] × [ln(t1/t2)] µ}/{t π t1 t2 X L dX Figure P.3 m. Hence the shear stress also will vary along the length.8 × 10–2}/{0. τ = µ (du/dy). t = t1 – (t1 – t2) × (X/L) = {(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) X}/L du/dy = u/t = u × L/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X} The velocity gradient at this location is u/t. The oil has a viscosity of µ and the shaft moves axially at a velocity u.8 × 10–2 Ns/m2. t at location X is obtained.6 × 0.6 m/s. The viscosity of the oil filling the clearance is 4. . while the logarithmic average is what is determined in this problem. Problem 1. dF = τ dA = τ × π × D × dX.1.572 N. When the gap is large % error will be high if linear variation is assumed. For t = 0. assumed linear.1 = 27. F0. assuming t1 > t2. F = π × D × L × u × µ/t For t = 0. Using the equation derived in the previous problem as given below and substituting the values F = [{π × D × u × L × µ}/{t1– t2}] [ln(t1/t2)] F = [{π × 0. The clearance.0002/0.143 N The arithmetic average is 20. F0.0001)] = 18.2 = 13.814 N If the clearance was uniform. The clearance between the shaft of 100 mm dia and the bearing varies from 0.2 mm to 0.1 × 0.

0002/0. as linear profile is assumed. The distance between the ends is L m. Determine the capillary depression of mercury in a 4 mm ID glass tube. dF = τ dA = τ × π × D × dX. Determine the torque and power required. (depression) P = [{π3 × D3 × L × N2 × µ}/{3600(t1 – t2)}] × [ln(t1/t2)] .s (Ns/m2).29 Nm.1 × 10–2 Pa.3 × 6002 × 7. The clearance. Substituting and Integrating between the limits µ}/ X = 0 to X = L.431 mm.0001)] = 7.29/60 = 458W.8 W. The shaft runs at 600 rpm.1 × 10–2}/{120(0.81 N/m3. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} = [4 × 0. The oil has a viscosity of µ.0002 – 0.13 × 0. assuming t1 > t2 .81 × 0.1 × 10–2}/{3600(0.0001)}] × [ln (0. t = t1 – (t1 – t2) × (X/L) = {(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}/L The velocity gradient at this location X is u/t.0002 – 0. Assume surface tension as 0.45 N/m and β =115°.3 × 600 × 7.2 mm to 0. π Problem 1. The total torque required can be determined by integrating the elemental torque over a differential length dX.431 × 10–3 m or – 1. P = [{π3 × 0. hence P = [{π3 × D3 × L × N2 × µ µ}/{3600(t1 –t2)}] × [ln (t1/t2)]. Problem 1.0001)}] × [ln (0. In this case the clearance varies along the length and so the velocity gradient (du/dr) will vary along the length. substituting dF = [{L × µ × u × π × D}] × [dX/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X}] Torque = dF × (d/2) and u = (π DN)/60. Solving for h.13 × 0.30 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 1. Hence the shear stress and the torque also will vary along the length. Using the equations derived in the previous problem as given below and substituting the values T = [{π2 × D3 × L × N × µ}/{120(t1 – t2)}] × [ln(t1/t2)] T = [{π2 × 0. Equating the surface force and the pressure force. Torque = [{π2 × D3 × L × N × µ {120(t1 – t2)}] × [ln (t1/t2)] π Power = 2πNT/60. The viscosity of the oil filling the clearance is 7.1 mm over a length of 0. [h × γ × πD2/4] = [π × D × σ × cos β].3 m. The specific weight of mercury = 13550 × 9.45 × cos 115]/[13550 × 9. Derive an expression for the torque required to overcome the viscous resistance when a circular shaft of diameter D rotating at N rpm in a bearing with the clearance t varying uniformly from t1 m at one end to t2m at the other end. Check: P = 2π × 600 × 7.0001)] = 457.18.004] = – 1.0002/0.16.17 The clearance between the shaft of 100 mm dia and the bearing varies from 0. ∴ du/dy = u/t = u × L/{(t1 × L) – (t1 – t2) × X} τ = µ (du/dy). t at location X is obtained.

Assume β = 0. So (Pi – Po) = {2 × 0. Problem 1. The pressure inside the droplet will be higher compared to that at outside.0254 mm. Determine what force will be required to overcome the surface tension. Problem 1. Diesel injection nozzle sprays fuel with an average diameter of 0. .0365 N/m.22.21.08 N/m The surface tension of a liquid can be measured using this principle provided the fluid wets the surface.1005 N.1. 0. Solving σ = 0.1 N/m.1005 N A A 200 mm Figure P. Determine the surface tension of water.6 kN/m2.19.2 = 0.20. Also determine the pressure difference if the droplet size is reduced to 10 µm. The surface tension is 0. The force required at the time of separation was 0.748 kN/m2 When the droplet size is reduced to 10 µm the pressure difference is (Pi – Po) = {2 × 0. Problem 1. Surface tension is 0. The force will equal the product of surface tension and the length of contact.1 = 0. The force will equal the product of surface tension and the length of contact. Determine the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the nozzle. The specific weight of the liquid is 20601 N/m3.19 The total length of contact just before lifting from the surface will be twice the circumference or 2πD.15 N/m. The total length of contact just before separation from the surface will be twice the width of the plate or 2L. F = 2 × 1 × 0.02 N. Calculate the capillary rise and also the radius of curvature of the meniscus. A ring 200 mm mean dia is to be separated from water surface as shown in figure. σ × 2 × π × 0.0365 × 2}/{0. The equation applicable is (Pi – Po) = 2σ/R.1005 N. A glass tube of 8 mm ID is immersed in a liquid at 20°C.0365 × 2}/{10 × 10–6} = 14600 N/m2 = 14. A droplet forms at the mouth of the nozzle. The contact angle is 60°.Physical Properties of Fluids 31 Chapter 1 Problem 1.0254 × 10–3} = 5748 N/m2 = 5. A thin plate 1 m wide is slowly lifted vertically from a liquid with a surface tension of 0.

The pressure difference in the case of a sphere is given by. Initially the pressure is 10 bar. The average value of bulk modulus for the liquid is 2430 × 10–6 N/m2. The contact angle is 140°.51) × cos 140]/[13550 × 9.003] = – 3. In this case capillary depression is involved and so the true pressure = mercury column + capillary depression.0152/4} × 6 = 0. Determine the additional force required due to surface tension.81 N/m3. Problem 1.92 mm. (using equation 1.10. Problem 1.022}/{0. (Pi – Po) = specific weight × h 8 mm. The specific weight of mercury = 13550 × 9. Problem 1. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} = {4 × 0.0025} = 17.24. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum. So the additional force = 2 × 0.212 N. The contact angle is 60°.15]/ [1. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Capillary rise.45 N/m2. R = [2 × 0. A mercury column is used to measure the atmospheric pressure. The volume of liquid in a rigid piston—cylinder arrangement is 2000 cc.82 mm. So h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D} h = (4 × 0.15 × cos 60}/{20601 × 0.022 N/m. Calculate the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 2. h = {4 × σ × cos β}/{γ × D}. equation 1.45 × cos 60}/{0. Capillary rise. (depression) Hence actual pressure indicated = 762 + 3.81 × 0. .5 N/m2. The tube is 3 mm in dia.106 N As the immersion leads to additional buoyant force the force required to kept the cylinder floating will be double this value.82 × 10–3 × 2060] = 8 × 10–3 m or R = 2σ/(Pi – Po).5 mm dia if the surface tension is 0.5 (Pi – Po) = 2σ/R = {2 × 0.0 N/m2 Force = Area × (Pi – Po) = {π × 0. Problem 1.92 × 10–3 m or – 3. Determine the distance through which the piston has to move so that the pressure will increase to 200 bar.32 = 1. As (Pi – Po) = h × specific weight. equating forces.23.82 × 10–3 m or 1. The piston diameter is 100 mm. (Pi – Po) = {4 × σ × cos β}/D (Pi – Po) = {4 × 0. The temperature remains constant. [h × γ × π D2/4] = [π × D × σ × cos β].10. In this case a capillary rise will occur and this requires an additional force to keep the cylinder floating. A hollow cylinder of 150 mm OD with its weight equal to the buoyant forces is to be kept floating vertically in a liquid with a surface tension of 0.51 N/m.92 = 765.008} The meniscus is a doubly curved surface with equal radius as the section is circular.3) (Pi – Po) = σ × {(1/R1) + (1/R2)} = 2 σ/R So.25.15} = 6.106 = 0. Determine the true pressure in mm of mercury if surface tension is 0.92 mm of mercury.26. The height of column above the mercury well surface is 762 mm.

79 kg/m3 an increase of 4%. [(v2 – v1)/v1] also equals [(ρ1 – ρ2)/ρ2] = [(P2 – P1)/Ev] Use of this equation should also give the same answer.03772 × (1/1015)] + (1/1015) = 9. The bulk modulus of the fuel is 1100 × 106 N/m2.1 Ev = – dP/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1)/[(v2 – v1)/v1] So 2430 × 106 = –190 × 105/(dv/0.28. L = dv/area 33 Chapter 1 L = dv × 4/πD2 = 15.5 cc.5 × 10–6).03772 v1 = 1/1015 m3/kg.1 as Ev = – dP/(dv/v) = – (P2 – P1)/[v2 – v1)/v1]. The density will increase due to the pressure increase.11.11.64 × 10–6 × 4/π × 0.991 × 10–3 m = 1.11. Cohesive forces between molecules/atoms are highest in the _________ phase.48059 × 10–4 m3/kg Density = 1/(9. When the applied load is released solids _________. 1100 × 106 = – 200 × 105/(dv/1. [(v2 – v1)/v1] = – (P2 – P1)/Ev = – [880 × 105 – 1. Solids _________ applied shear while liquids _________.77 × 10–8 m3 Plunger movement = dv/area = – 2.347 mm (the pressure rise will also be affected by the expansion of the pipe line). dv = – 0.0% due to the increase in pressure. 2. The density increases by 4. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q 1. The pressure of water increases with depth in the ocean. Determine the density of sea water at the depth.48059 × 10–4 m3/kg) = 1054. By definition—eqn 1. v2 = [– 0. At a certain depth.01 bar. Assuming rigid barrel determine the plunger movement before delivery begins.77 × 10–8 × 4/( π × 0. The fuel volume in the barrel at the time of closure is 1. Solving.12 = 1.1 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1.27.64 × 10–6 m3 Piston movement.002). Solving dv = – 2.47 × 10–4 m = 0.00152) = 3. Problem 1. the density was measured as 1015 kg/m3.01 × 105]/2330 × 106 = –0. Bulk modulus is defined in eqn 1. . the pressure is 880 bar.991 mm (the piston-cylinder arrangement is assumed to be rigid so that there is no expansion of the container) Problem 1.002 × 190 × 105/2430 × 106 = 15.1—the bulk modulus is Ev = – dP/(dv/v). substituting the values in v2 = [v1 × {– (P2 – P1)/Ev}] + v1. At the surface. 3. A diesel fuel pump of 10 mm ID is to deliver against a pressure of 200 bar.Physical Properties of Fluids By definition—refer eqn 1. The average value of bulk modulus is 2330 × 106 N/m2. The atmospheric pressure is 1.

7. Answers (1) Solid. In solids _________ is proportional to the applied stress. Density is defined as _________. 9. A vapour is defined as _________. 7. O Q 1. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 9. Fluids _________ to deform when a shear force is applied. 10. The atoms/molecules are _________ to move in fluids. The three phases of matter are _________ . 8. Cohesive faces between atoms is least in _________. When heated the atoms in solids _________.2 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. 6. 3. 10. _________ have specific shape that does not change by itself.5. 5.34 4. 9. In some solids molecules come out when heated. 7. The phenomenon is called _________. . Gases _________ the container. The distance between molecules is highest in _________. 8. Liquids form a _________ when in a container. 10. For solids the proportionality limit between deformation and stress is called _________. The difference between liquids and gases is _________. A gas is defined as _________. Answers (1) shear force (2) continue (3) free (4) rate of deformation (5) that the atomic molecular spacing is much larger in gas and atoms move all over the container filling it (6) free surface (7) completely fill (8) gases (9) gases (10) saturation conditions (Boiling conditions) O Q 1. 2. A liquid is defined as _________. In liquids _________ is proportional to shear stress. Fluids cannot withstand _________. A fluid is defined as _________. Vapour is the gaseous state of matter when the temperature is near the _________. continue to deform (4) deformation (5) Solids (6) Solids (7) Solids (8) vibrate more (9) Sublimation (10) Elastic limit. 5. 6. Answers (1) Solid (2) regain their original shape (3) resist. A special state of matter at very high temperatures is _________. 3. Specific gravity is defined as _________. A mole is defined as _________.3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. 2. 6. 4. The distance between atoms is least in _________. Specific weight is defined as _________. 4. The mobility of atoms is least in _________. liquid & gas (2) plasma (3) mass per unit volume (4) force due to gravity on mass in unit volume (5) ratio of mass of substance/mass of water at 10°C per unit volume (6) Material which cannot resist shear stress or material which will continuously deform under applied shear stress (7) A material which will exhibit a free surface in a container (8) gaseous state . 8.

Capillary depression is when _________ forces predominate. Capillary rise is when _________ forces predominate.Physical Properties of Fluids 35 Chapter 1 very near the formation temperature at that pressure (9) material with low cohesive force with large distance between molecules which will occupy the full volume of the container (10) Molecular mass of a substance.4 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. Surface tension is defined as _________. The concept of bulk modulus is used in the analysis of _________ propagation in the medium. . Capillary rise is caused by _________ forces. 3. 2. Bulk modulus of liquid will _________ with pressure. An ideal plastic is defined as _________. A Newtonian fluid is defined as one having _________. 9. 8. 7. 2. Vapour pressure is defined as _________. Answers (1) a fluid whose viscosity varies with the velocity gradient (2) a material which requires a definite shear to cause the first deformation but then the stress is proportional to the velocity gradient (3) A substance whose viscosity increases with increase in velocity gradient (4) Work required to create a unit area of free surface in a liquid/force required to keep unit length of free surface in equilibrium (5) The pressure over the fluid due to the vapour over a liquid under equilibrium conditions of temperature (6) Cohesive (7) Adhesive forces (8) Adhesive (9) Cohesive (10) Surface tension O Q 1. An ideal fluid is defined as _________. O Q 1. 10. 5. A thixotropic fluid is defined as _________. Liquids have _________bulk modulus. 4. 6. 9. 10. When gravitational force increases density _________.5 Fill in the blanks with suitable words: 1. O Q 1. 4. 5. Unit of bulk modulus is the same as that of _________. Viscosity is defined as _________.6 Fill in the blanks with “increasing ” or “decreasing” or “remains constant”: 1. Kinematic viscosity is defined as _________. When gravitational force decreases density _________. Answers (1) –dp/(dv/v) (2) the process of change (3) increase (4) high (5) pressure (6) sound (7) µ = τ/(du/dy) the proportionality constant between shear stress and velocity gradient (8) µ/ρ (9) one with no viscosity or compressibility (10) A constant viscosity irrespective of the velocity gradient. When gravitational force decreases specific weight _________. Droplet formation and free circular jet formation is due to _________. Surface tension is due to _________ forces. A non Newtonian fluid is defined as _________. Bulk modulus of gases depend on _________. Bulk modulus is defined as _________. 6. 8. When gravitational force increases specific weight _________. 7. 3. 3. 4. 2.

In fluids the shear force is proportional to the rate of deformation. 7 O Q 1. 7. 4. 7. 9. The vapour pressure over a liquid _________ when other gases are present in addition to the vapour. 2. the capillary will rise. As molecular weight of a gas increases its gas constant _________. 10. 6. As the diameter decreases the pressure difference between inside and outside of a free jet _________. 10a Decrease 2. 8 Decreases 1. . 4. As tube diameter increases the capillary rise _________.8 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. As cohesive force _________ compared to adhesive forces. The shear force in solid is proportional to the deformation. Bulk modulus of liquids _________ with increase in pressure at constant temperature. At a given temperature the vapour pressure for a liquid _________. 3.7 Fill in the blanks with “increases”. Viscosity of liquids _________ with increase of temperature. 5. “decreases” or “remains constant” 1. Viscosity of gases _________ with increase of temperature. 3. 5. As temperature increases. the vapour pressure _________. The cohesive forces are highest in gases. 4. 9. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 6.36 5. Answers Increases 2. 10. As tube diameter decreases the capillary rise _________. 3. 8. 10. 10b Remains constant 3. 4. Newtonian fluid is one whose viscosity will increase directly with rate of deformation. The specific gravity _________ when density increases. Density is the ratio of mass of unit volume of liquid to the mass of unit volume of water. 9 O Q 1. 6. 8. the pressure exerted by a gas in a container _________ when the volume increases. 1. 10 Remains constant 7. Gases can be treated as incompressible when small changes in pressure and temperature are involved. Ideal fluid has zero viscosity and is incompressible. 8. 5. 8. Answers Increases 1. The product of gas constant and molecular weight _________. In the gas equation temperature should be used in Kelvin scale. 7. Specific weight is the mass of unit volume. 9. The vapour pressure will vary with temperature. At constant pressure the bulk modulus of liquids (a) _________ and then (b) _________ with increase in temperature. 6. 2. 5. At constant temperature. 6. 9. As the diameter of a bubble increases the pressure difference between inside and outside _________.

6. The weight of a man will be higher in Jupiter. 7. The viscosity is 1. The density is 600 kg/m3. 11 O Q 1.2 × 103 (d) 70 × 106 –4 Ns/m2. 8. The specific weight is (a) 2 N (b) 15 N (c) 5 N (d) 50 N 2. 37 Chapter 1 (d) 2/µ (4) d (5) b Answers Correct 1.2 × 10–10 N/m2 (a) 1. 2.Physical Properties of Fluids Answers Correct 2. 10 Incorrect 1. 5.2 × 102 N/m2 (d) 1. Specific weight is measured by a spring balance. Free surface of liquids 8. 6. 5. Gas flow Answers Surface tension 1. Viscosity of gases increases with temperature.2 × 10 (b) 1. 6 O Q 1. 9. The dynamic viscosity is 1. 9. 3. Mass is measured by a spring balance. 3.01 – r2). 4. 9. The head indicated by a water manometer is lower than the actual value. The shear stress is 3. 8.2 × 10–7 N/m2 (c) 1. 4. The head indicated by a mercury manometer is lower than the actual value. 8. 1. 4. 1. The weight of man will be lower on the moon. 3. 4. Capillary rise 3.002 m dia a fluid with surface tension of 0. 11. Classify them accordingly.01 N/m is (a) 10 (b) 20 (c) 4π (d) 0. 10 Incorrect 2. Momentum transfer 2.2 × 10–1 N/m 4.00004 π Viscosity 2. The excess pressure in a droplet of 0. The velocity distribution in a flow through a tube is given by u = (– 10/µ) (0.1 m. Drag 4. 8 Answers (1) d (2) b (3) a . Viscosity of liquids increases with temperature.11 Choose the correct answer.9 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. Dynamic viscosity is a measure of momentum diffusivity. The kinematic viscosity in m2/s is (a) 72 × 10–3 (b) 20 × 10–8 (c) 7. 7. 7 O Q 1. Higher the surface tension higher will be the pressure inside a bubble. 3. 1. Liquid bubble 5. 10. The shear stress at the wall in N/m2 is (a) 10/µ (b) 0 (c) 2µ 5.10 The following refer either to viscosity effects or surface tension effects. 5. The gravitational acceleration at a location is 5 m/s2. The mass of an object is 10 kg. Free jet 6. Heating of lubricating oil in bearings 7.2 × 10–4 Ns/m2. The pipe radius R = 0. 7. 6. 5. The velocity gradient is 1000/s. Specific weight of a body will vary from place to place.

Explain how liquid surface behaves by itself and when it is in contact with other surfaces. 18. 15. free surface (iii) 1. surface tension 3. Derive an expression for the pressure difference caused by surface tension on a doubly curved surface. Derive an expression for the torque and power required to overcome the viscous drag for a shaft running at a particular rpm. Derive the general expression for compressibility of gases. shear stress A. given the value of the contact angle β and the density and surface tension of the liquid. Derive an expression for the torque required to rotate a conical bearing. Define kinematic viscosity and explain the significance of the same. Newtonian fluid Set B A. momentum transfer C. Describe some methods to determine the viscosity of a fluid. gravitational acceleration D. 2-A. Set A (i) 1. 3-A. 4-B (ii) 1-D. Explain the concepts of (i) vapour pressure (ii) partial pressure and (iii) surface tension. specific volume. 2-C. 2-A. 5. 10. Define “Compressibility” and “Bulk Modulus”. surface tension Answers (i) 1-C. Distinguish between compressible and incompressible fluids. zero viscosity B. weight density and specific gravity. 11. 20. 3. 4-B REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Derive an expression for the capillary rise or depression. 4-C (iii) 1-D. N/m B. Distinguish between Newtonian and non Newtonian Fluids. Distinguish between vapour and gas. ideal fluid 4. Differentiate between the three states of matter. Explain how viscosity of liquids and gases behave with temperature. 12. 4. 13. 17. specific weight (ii) 1. weight 3. 6.38 O Q 1. dynamic viscosity 2. N/m3 C. m2 /s A. Derive an expression for the torque required to rotate a collar bearing (disc over a parallel plate). kg/m3 D. State the characteristic equation for gases and explain its significance. droplet formation 2. 3-B. density 2. Explain from microscopic point of view the concept of viscosity and momentum transfer. 9. 16. 2. kinematic viscosity 4. constant viscosity Fluid Mechanics and Machinery C. Derive expressions from basics for the pressure inside a droplet and a free jet. capillary rise 3. Explain the concept of “Continuum”. Define density. 19. .12 Match the pairs. 3-D. kinematic viscosity 4. 14. surface tension B. Define the term viscosity and explain the significance of the same. 21. 7. 8. liquid D.

Determine the weight of the plate if the (0. determine specific weight of the liquid.7 poise. 1. Two large plates are 6 mm apart and the space in-between in filled with a fluid.2 m and height 0. A small thin plate of 0.3.08.7 A shaft of 150 mm dia rotates in bearings with a uniform oil film of thickness 0.8 m/s. 113. (5 mm) E1.28 m OD running at 600 rpm was 0. If the force required to pull the smaller plate with a uniform velocity of 3 m/s was 1.2 m/s is 267. A liquid with kinematic viscosity of 2. specific weight and specific volume of air if the specific gravity (with water as reference fluid) is 0. (20. The interface is filled with oil of kinematic viscosity of 2. (1.5 cm square falls freely between the planes along the central plane and reaches a steady velocity of 2 m/s.94 N/m3. E1.02 Ns/m2.10 A conical bearing of outer radius 0.12 Determine the pressure difference between two points 10 m apart in flow of oil of viscosity 13.125 m square slides parallel and midway between the planes and reaches a constant velocity of 2 m/s. Determine the viscosity of the fluid.9.614 kg/m3. (5 kN/m2) E1.9 The torque to overcome viscous drag of the oil film of viscosity of 28 cp in collar bearing of 0.79 Nm.011614. Determine the ID of the cylinder.Physical Properties of Fluids EXERCISE PROBLEMS 39 Chapter 1 E1. The weight of the plate is 1 N.04 and 0. Two bearings of 15 cm width are used. (2 × 10–2 Ns/m2) E1. the flow velocity being 1.1 mm when dropped in the oil? (90 mm/min) .4.8 A circular disc rotates over a large stationary plate with a 2 mm thick fluid film between them. The torque required to rotate the disc at 200 rpm was 0.4 kN/m3) E1. (200 mm) E1. Determine the density.069 Nm.98 cp in a pipe. (11. determine the wall shear stress and the shear stress at y = 0. Assume linear velocity profile on either side.81 N. A hydraulic lift shaft of 500 mm dia moves in a cylindrical sleeve the length of engagement being 2 m. Also determine the power dissipated (Fig. 0.3).5. pipe of 40 mm diameter. 1340 W) E1. The force required was 0. Determine the viscosity of the oil used if the torque required was 21.2 mm) E1.8 mm. The viscosity of the oil is 22 cP.326 Nm. the film thickness being 1 mm.16 m ID and 0.7 centistokes fills the space between a large stationary plate and a parallel plate of 500 mm square. The support is rotated at 600 rpm.11 If u = 10 y1. Determine the distance between the plates. What will be the terminal velocity of a steel ball of density 7800 kg/m3 and dia 1.13 The viscosity of an oil of density 820 kg/m3 is 30.0 cP. Two large planes are parallel to each other and are inclined at 30° to the horizontal with the space between them filled with a fluid of viscosity 20 cp. Determine the diameter of the disc. Assume that the liquid film is maintained all over.734 N.0861 m3/kg) E1.6.4 × 10–4 m2/s and density of 888 kg/m3 .58 Nm) E1.32 N.08 m. E1. A plate of 1 mm thickness and 10 cm square is pulled parallel to the planes and midway between them with a velocity of 2 m/s. E1.1.2 m runs on a conical support with a clearance of 1 mm all around. Determine the torque if the speed is 210 rpm. Determine the film thickness.5 N) viscosity of the fluid filling the space is 0.4 m and inner radius 0. the viscosity of the fluid being 40 cp. Two large vertical plane parallel surfaces are 5 mm apart and the space between them is filled with a fluid.5 where u is in m/s and y is in m in a flow field up to y = 0. A thin plate of 12. (10. (8. The drag resistance when the shaft moves at 0.2.

Determine the value of surface tension. Also obtain an expression for the maximum speed of the block. m m u Figure E.0728 N/m) E1. r.22 Diesel injection nozzle sprays fuel of surface tension 0. (2 × 10–3 N/m2.0254 mm) . µ = 0.16 E1. Derive an expression for the viscous force on the block when it moves at a velocity u. a block of mass M slides on a horizontal table on oil film of thickness h and viscosity µ. β = 129°.511 N/m) E1. P= πµω 2 (ω1 – ω2) R4/2a) ω ω E1. Determine the value of surface tension.17 mm is due to capillary action.13 E1. Derive an expression for the torque and power transmitted. 1.1.18 The capillary depression of mercury in a 3.40 E1.1. Capillary rise adds to the column height and capillary depression reduces the column height. Determine the droplet size.25 mm ID glass tube was found as 2.99 mm. α and µ.14 As shown in figure. T= 2πµωR4 cos2 α 2 − cos α + 3 3 h LM MN OP PQ w R h q R wi wo µ a Oil film (velocity. out of this 3.19 In order to separate a ring of 160 mm mean dia from water surface the force required just at the point of separation was 0. ω. Determine the surface tension of water at that temperature. (0.15 Figure E.001 Ns/m2. in terms of h. Determine the value of surface tension.1 N/m) E1. (0.2 N was required at the instant of separation to overcome surface tension forces.20 In manometers an error in measurement will occur when a small bore tube is used. (T = πµ (ω1 – ω2) R4/2a. (0.16 Derive an expression for the torque in the case of a spherical bearing as shown in figure.0732 N. (0.94 N/m2) E1. (0.1. umax = mgh/µA) µ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery M h Oil.874 kN/m2.17 Calculate the shear stress due to fluid flow at the plate and at 10 mm above it if the velocity distribution along y direction is u = 2y – 2y3 + y4 .21 In order to lift a thin plate 1 m width slowly and vertically from a liquid.0365 N/m. The mass m causes the movement. (F = µu A/ h. The height of water column (at 20°C) in a tube of 8 mm ID is 12 mm. β = 0.15 A viscous clutch as shown in figure transmits torque. m) Figure E. Assume β = 0. The pressure difference between the inside and outside of the nozzle was 2.0728 N/m) E1. a force of 0.

Determine the value of surface tension. The surface tension is 0. determine the capillary rise in water. The specific weight of the liquid is 20601 N/m3. floating in a liquid with contact angle β = 60° due to surface tension effects.5 kg/m3.25 The actual atmospheric pressure was 765. (10 m) E1. γ is the specific weight and β is the contact angle. At the surface. the density was measured as 1024.1 bar and –50°C.23 Determine the droplet size if the pressure difference is increased to 7300 N/m3 in the nozzle of a diesel engine. The contact angle is 140°. (0. where ro and ri are the radii and σ is the surface tension. Determine the pres(1000 bar) sure increase. (172 N/m2) E1. (10 µm) E1. E1. E1. determine the percentage change in density. (0.82 mm. (0. The specific gravity of oil is 0.76 mm. Assume Ev = 2300 × 106 N/m2. Determine the coefficient of linear expansion for the vessel material.11 percentage increase in specific volume while the temperature remained constant.1 × 10–4 m3/m3 per °C.92 mm of mercury column. Determine the average value of bulk modulus for water in this range. (10 m) .7%.Physical Properties of Fluids 41 Chapter 1 E1.32 When the pressure of water in a press cylinder is released from 1000 × 105 N/m2 to 1 bar. Determine the average value of bulk modulus.04 × 109 N/m2. The bulk modulus of the liquid is 37. At a certain depth where the pressure was 900 bar the density was measured as 1065. if 5.63%) E1. The contact angle is 60°.51 N/m.30 Bubbles are to be blown using a glass tube of 2 mm diameter immersed in oil to a depth of 10 mm.43 kg/m3. (762 mm) E1.65 kg of hydrogen was charged into the balloon at ground level where the pressure and temperature were 1 bar and 30°C. determine the value of surface tension of the soap solution. If the surface tension of the oil is 0. (2340 × 106 N/m2) E1.6 × 10–6 m/m per °C) E1. The atmospheric pressure is 1. Determine the height of column above the mercury well in a Fortins barometer using a tube of 3 mm dia. σ = 0.0389 N/m. (2430 × 106 N/m2) E133 The pressure of water increases with depth in the ocean.24 A glass tube of 8 mm ID is immersed in a liquid at 20°C.96. E1.36 Determine the diameter of a spherical balloon at an altitude where pressure and temperature are 0.01 bar. For water the coefficient of cubical expansion is 2. 8 mm) E1.0735 N/m.28 Show that the capillary rise in an annulus is given by 2σ cos β/γ (ro – ri).0365 N/m.27 An additional force of 0.26 If the pressure difference between the inside and outside of a soap bubble of 2.5 mm dia is (0.212 N was required to keep a cylinder of 150 mm OD with weight equal to the buoyant forces.15 N/m. Determine the value of surface tension and also the radius of curvature of the meniscus.022 N/m) 17.34 When water was heated in a rigid vessel the pressure rise was 14.35 Due to an increase in pressure the volume of a liquid increases by 2.29 In case a capillary of diameter 3 × 10–6 m is used. Determine the pressure inside the bubble at formation. (3.49 × 106 N/m2. The capillary rise was 1.6 N/m2. Assuming that the vessel volume did not increase due to the increase in temperature or due to the stress induced.31 When 1000 cc of water is heated in a cylindrical vessel of 100 mm diameter from 20°C to 50°C the increase in the water level was 0. The space above the column may be considered as vacuum. Assume the value of surface tension as 0.45 N/m) E1. there was a 4.

A ship floating in sea is an example. This chapter also deals with pressure exerted by fluids due to the weight and due to the acceleration/deceleration of the whole mass of the fluid without relative motion within the fluid. Pressure is a surface phenomenon and it can be physically visualised or calculated only if the surface over which it acts is specified. Atmospheric air is in contact with the ground.0 INTRODUCTION Fluids are generally found in contact with surfaces. The force exerted by fluids vary with location. Liquids held in containers may or may not fill the container completely. Fluids filling vessels are in contact with the walls of the vessels. This is dealt with in a subsequent chapter. but this is usually small in magnitude.1 PRESSURE Pressure is a measure of force distribution over any surface associated with the force.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 2. In the case of gases molecular activity is the main cause of force exerted on the surfaces of the containers. Gas column will also exert a force on the base. However a more precise definition of pressure. P is as below: 42 . Surfaces may also be immersed in fluids. This alters the force distribution at stationary or atatic conditions. When liquids partially fill a container a free surface will be formed. Gases and vapours always expand and fill the container completely. 2. Water in the sea and in reservoirs are in contact with the ground and supporting walls. Pressure may be defined as the force acting along the normal direction on unit area of the surface. In this case the force exerted by the fluid is called buoyant force. When the whole mass of a fluid held in a container is accelerated or decelerated without relative motion between layers inertia forces also exert a force on the container walls. The force is mainly due to the specific weight of the fluid in the case of liquids. Fluids in contact with surfaces exert a force on the surfaces. The variation of force under static or dynamic condition is discussed in this chapter.

.Pressure Distribution in Fluids P = lim (∆F/∆A) = dF/dA ∆ ∆ A→a → 43 (2. 2. The details of some of the pressure measuring instruments are as shown in Fig.1. The atmospheric pressure is approximately 105 N/m2 and is designated as ‘‘bar’’. 2. In the metric system the popular unit of pressure is kgf/cm2. The end of the tube will move due to this action and will actuate through linkages the indicating pointer in proportion to the pressure.2. The scale is obtained by calibration with known pressure source.2 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT Pressure is generally measured using a sensing element which is exposed on one side to the pressure to be measured and on the other side to the surrounding atmospheric pressure or other reference pressure. As the magnitude is small kN/m2 (kPa) and MN/m2 (Mpa) are more popularly used. X Section X X X Flattened phosphere bronze tube P atm Pointer Sensor P Figure 2. This is also a popular unit of pressure. ‘a’ is the limiting area which will give results independent of the area. will actuate the pointer to indicate the vacuum pressure.1. The tube will tend to straighten under pressure. Vacuum also can be measured by such a gauge. dF = P dA (2.1. This is approximately equal to the atmospheric pressure or 1 bar. Under vacuum the tube will tend to bend further inwards and as in the case of pressure. This explicitly means that pressure is the ratio of the elemental force to the elemental area normal to it.1 Pressure gauges In the Borden gauge a tube of elliptical section bent into circular shape is exposed on the inside to the pressure to be measured and on the outside to atmospheric pressure.2.1) F is the resultant force acting normal to the surface area A.2) Chapter 2 The force dF in the normal direction on the elemental area dA due to the pressure P is The unit of pressure in the SI system is N/m2 also called Pascal (Pa).

The sum of the gauge pressure and the outside pressure gives the absolute pressure which actually is the pressure measured. Hence these meters provide the absolute pressure value.62 bar. Example 2. The amplified signal is generally calibrated to indicate the pressure to be measured.2.2 Barometer When the pressure measured is above surroundings. then Absolute pressure = gauge pressure + surrounding pressure The surrounding pressure is usually the atmospheric pressure. The deformation provides a signal either as a change in electrical resistance or by a change in the capacitance value.44 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The pressure measured by the gauge is called gauge pressure.1. Convert this pressure into kgf/cm2 Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure + Outside pressure = 150 + 12 = 162 kPa or 1.62 × 105 N/m2 . This is called Vacuum. 1.62 bar = 1. If the pressure measured is lower than that of surrounding pressure then Absolute pressure = surrounding pressure – gauge reading This will be less than the surrounding pressure. Gauge pressure will be specifically indicated.2. 2. A gauge indicates 12 kPa as the fluid pressure while. An amplifier is used to amplify the value of the signal. Electrical pressure transducers use the deformation of a flexible diaphragm exposed on one side to the pressure to be measured and to the surrounding pressure or reference pressure on the other side.2. The mercury barometer and bellow type meter have zero as the reference pressure. the outside pressure is 150 kPa. Determine the absolute pressure of the fluid. Vacuum (Zero pressure) Mercury H Pointer Bearing for pointer pivot spring box P atm P atm Thread Partially evacuated Figure 2. The outside pressure is measured using a mercury barometer (Fortins) or a bellows type meter called Aneroid barometer shown in Fig. In this text the mension pressure means absolute pressure. The other side of the measuring surface in these cases is exposed to vacuum.

dl × cos θ = dz So.81 × 104 N/m2 = 98100 N/m2 1. Py.3.1 Pascals law demonstration Consider a wedge shaped element in a volume of fluid as shown in Fig.1. This is possible only if the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions so that the resultant force at that point will be zero.8 mm of Hg 2. Let the thickness perpendicular to the paper be dy.3 – 80 = 21. For the element to be in equilibrium.3. Pθ × dl × dy × cos θ = Px × dy × dz But. The barometer indicates 1. First considering the x direction.81 N/cm2 = 9.3 kPa = (21.5 × γ × dx × dy × dz Chapter 2 .3) × 760 = 159.013 bar = 101. Pθ = Px When considering the vertical components. Pz × dx × dy = Pθ × dl × dy × sin θ + 0. 2.62 × 105 N/m2 = 1.2. the force due to specific weight should be considered.3 kPa = 760 mm of Hg.3 kPa 101.Pressure Distribution in Fluids As 1 kgf/cm2 = 9.3 PASCAL’S LAW In fluids under static conditions pressure is found to be independent of the orientation of the area. Let the pressure on the surface inclined at an angle θ to vertical be Pθ and its length be dl. Determine the absolute pressure inside the condenser.3/101.651 kgf/cm2 45 Example 2.013 bar. A vacuum gauge fixed on a steam condenser indicates 80 kPa vacuum. z y q q Pq dl dy dl Px dy dz x dz dx g dx dy dz/2 Pz dx dy Figure 2.3 kPa. The proof for the statement is given below. y and z directions be Px.62 × 105/98100 = 1. Tangential stress cannot exist if a fluid is to be at rest. (standard atmosphere) ∴ 21. Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure – vacuum gauge reading Absolute pressure in the condenser = 101. Barometer reading = 1. Let the pressure in the x. Convert this pressure into head of mercury. Pz. This concept is explained by Pascal’s law which states that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is equal in magnitude in all directions.

4. if these relations are specified as (see also section 2. 2. Gravitational force is called body force as it acts on the whole body of the fluid. The surface forces are P at section s and P + dp at section s + ds.2). The body force due to gravity acts vertically and its value is γ × ds × dAs.1) This is the fundamental equation in fluid statics. 2. dS P+ dP dAS P Y S q X rg dAS ds Figure 2. dl × sin θ = dx. This can be extended to conditions where fluid as a whole (like a rotating container) is accelerated like in forced vortex or a tank of water getting accelerated without relative motion between layers of fluid.4.46 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The second term on RHS of the above equation is negligible.4 PRESSURE VARIATION IN STATIC FLUID (HYDROSTATIC LAW) It is necessary to determine the pressure at various locations in a stationary fluid to solve engineering problems involving these situations. . So. The pressure at a point has only one value regardless of the orientation of the area on which it is measured. The surface forces on the curved area are balanced.1. as shown in Fig. Hence. A force balance in the s direction (for the element to be in equilibrium) gives P × dAs – (P + dp) × dAs – γ × dAs × ds × sin θ = 0 Simplifying. its magnitude is one order less compared to the other terms. By using an element in the other direction. dp = – γ × ds × sin θ (2. The variation of specific weight γ with location or pressure can also be taken into account. Pz = Pθ Px = Pz = Pθ Note that the angle has been chosen arbitrarily and so this relationship should hold for all angles.4. the pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions. dp/ds = – γ × sin θ or. it can be shown that Py = Pθ and so Px = Py = Pz Hence.4. Surfaces generally experience compressive forces due to the action of fluid pressure. Also.1 Free body diagram to obtain hydrostatic law Consider an element in the shape of a small cylinder of constant area dAs along the s direction inclined at angle θ to the horizontal. Pressure forces are called surface forces.

4. the pressure gradient is zero along any horizontal line i. In equation 2.81 × 0.4.5) (2. If the fluid is incompressible.4.4. θ = 90 and sin θ = 1. ∴ θ = 0 and sin θ = 0.7) As y increases. P – P1 = – γ × (y – y1) = – ρ g (y – y1)/go As P1. planes normal to the gravity direction. s) For x axis. these being incompressible.68 N/m2 = 3217.4 = 3217.. This has to be calculated in two steps. P – P1 = – γ × (y – y1) = γ × (y1 – y) = ρ g (y1 – y)/go (2. The pressure will be the same at the same level in any connected static fluid whose density is constant or a function of pressure only. The oil does not mix with water. This leads to the statement.4) Chapter 2 In y direction. An open cylindrical vertical container is filled with water to a height of 30 cm above the bottom and over that an oil of specific gravity 0. y1 and γ are specified for any given situation.68 + 1 × 105 N/m2 = 103217.6. If the atmospheric pressure at that location is 1 bar. A consequence is that the free surface of a liquid will seek a common level in any container.68 N/m2 = 1. if y = y1 then P = P1 and dp = 0. Example 2. This result is used very extensively in solving problems on manometers.4. dP/dy = – γ = – ρg/go Rearranging and integrating between limits y1 and y (2.3. 2. where head is the y distance of the point from the reference location. In a static fluid.Pressure Distribution in Fluids γ = γ (P.82 for another 40 cm.4. then the pressure at any y location is the product of head and specific weight. P will be constant if y is constant. z p p1 dp = − γ z y y1 dy (2.4.81 × 0.e.1 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Constant Density Consider the equation 2. the pressure increases along the depth.3 = 2943 N/m2 . where the free surface is everywhere exposed to the same pressure. the pressure decreases and vice versa (y is generally measured in the upward direction).0322 bar = ρ × g × h = 1000 × 9. Density of the oil Gauge pressure at interface Absolute pressure at interface Pressure due to water column = 1000 × 0. determine the absolute and gauge pressures at the oil water interface and at the bottom of the cylinder.6.2) In a static fluid with no acceleration. dP/dx = 0 47 (2. first for oil and then for water.6) If γ is constant as in the case of liquids.4.82 = 820 kg/m3 = (ρ × g × h)*oil = 820 × 9.

3 and 2. Example 2. If γ = γ (P) then ∫ γ (P) dP = ∫ dy. If γ = γ (P. P50 = atmospheric pressure + pressure at top surface + ρgh = 1 × 105 + 0.81 × 0.. (P/γ) = (Po/γo).4. dP/dy = – γ Gamma can be a function of either P or y or both.4. 2.28 × (5000 – 0).28 N/m3 Integrating between 0 and 5000 m P – 1 × 105 = – 11.8145 bar (absolute) 2. P = 43.2.4 × 105 + 900 × 9. y) then the variables should be separated and integrated. If the atmospheric pressure is 1 × 105 Pa.4. *Note: go is left out as go = 1 in SI units Example 2.5 z z p1 p dp = − y y1 γdy γ = (P/RT) × g = {1 × 105/[287 × (273 + 30)]} × 9. at any location i.436 bar (ii) isothermal P × v = constant or (P/ρ) = constant or (P/ρ g) = constant or (P/γ) = constant.2 Pressure Variation in Fluid with Varying Density Consider equation 2.4.68 + 1 × 105 = 106160. The local atmospheric pressure at a place at 30° C is 1 bar.68 + 1000 × 9.e. calulate the absolute pressure at a depth of 50 m.7) .600 N/m2 = 0. The gauge pressure at the surface of a liquid of density 900 kg/m3 is 0.4. If γ = γ(y) then ∫ dP = – γ (y) dy. γ = (P × γo)/Po (dP/P) = – (γo/Po) dy Integrating from zero altitude to y m As (dP/dy) = – γ = – (P × γo)/Po.8145 × 105 Pa = 5. Solving. separating variables z In p1 ( dp/ p) = − (γ o / po ) dy 0 p z y (P/Po) = – (γo/Po) × y (2.81 × 50 N/m2 = 5.0616 bar This value also equals the sum of absolute pressure at interface and the pressure due to water column.4.5.4. Gas constant R = 287 J/kg K (i) constant air density.4.3 = 6160.81 = 11. using equation 2.005°C per metre.4 bar. Determine the pressure at an altitude of 5 km if (i) the air density is assumed to be constant (ii) if the temperature is assumed to be constant and (iii) if with altitude the temperature decreases linearly at a rate of 0.68 N/m2 = 6160.68 N/m2 or 1.48 Gauge pressure at the bottom Absolute pressure at bottom Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = gauge pressure at the interface + (ρ × g × h)water = 3217.

893 N/m2 = 0.10) Substituting for To = 303 and c = 0.8) z In or p1 ( dp/ p) = − ( g/ R) dy/(T1 − cy) 0 p z y (P/Po) = – (g/R) {1/(– c)} In {(To – cy)/(To – c × 0) = (g/Rc) ln {(To – cy)/To} P/Po = [(To – cy)/To]–g/RC P = 55. Another method of solving is to start from a point of known pressure as datum and adding γ × ∆y when going downwards and subtracting of γ × ∆y while going upwards. y = 5000 m and solving. (dP/P) = – (g/R) × [dy/(To – c × y)].4.55506 bar (2. (dP/dy) = – γ = – (g/R) × [P/(To – c × y)] or. Chapter 2 . The pressure at the centre point D can be calculated as Pd = Pc – γ2 × h′ Generally the pressure at various points can be calculated using the basic hydrostatic equation dP/dy = – γ and continuing the summation from the starting point at which pressure is known. go in SI system of units has a numerical value of unity.56893 bar (iii) The condition reduces to the form. Integrating. (P/ρ) = RT.5 MANOMETERS Manometer is a device to measure pressure or mostly difference in pressure using a column of liquid to balance the pressure. the pressure is the same. In Fig. P=1× 105 exp [– (11.5. The pressure at the end point will be the result of this series of operations. T = To – cy Pv = RT.4. the pressure inside the conduit is higher than atmospheric pressure.9) (2. ρ = (P/RT). 2.28 × 5000)/(1 × 105)] = 56.1 (a).5.506 N/m2 = 0. Very low pressures can be measured using micromanometers. ρ × g = (P × g/RT). The pressure due to a constant density liquid (ρ) column if height h is equal to ρ gh/go. The principle of operation is shown in Fig.1 (b).5. The basic principle of operation of manometers is that at the same level in contigues fluid at rest. The column of liquid marked AB balances the pressure existing inside the conduit. to the end point. The pressure at point C above the atmospheric pressure (acting on the open limb) is given by h × (γ1– γ2) where γ1 and γ2 are the specific weights of fluids 1 and 2. 2. 2.1 (a) and some types of manometers are shown in Fig. γ = Pg/RT = (g/R) × [P/(To – c × y)] 49 (2.Pressure Distribution in Fluids P = Po exp [– (γo × y/Po )]. and h is the height of the column of liquid (AB). It needs no calibration.4. For dimensional homogenity go should be used. It is a basic instrument and is used extensively in flow measurement. where the pressure is to be determined. Now y = 5000. 2. Hence it is often left out in the equations.005.

81 = Pa + 112349 N/m2 Expressed as gauge pressure PA = 112349 N/m2 = 112.5.6. Example 2.125 × 900 × 9.81 + 0.35 kPa gauge Pa Oil. 2.6.1 Types of manometers ∆P1–5 = γ1 ∆y1 + γ2 ∆y2 + γ3 ∆y3 + γ4 ∆y4 with proper sign for ∆y values.50 P atm D + g2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h¢ 1 C B h A 2 g1 g2 3 g1 g1 g1 1 g1 (a) B h A 2 (b) A q g2 B h Figure 2.9 m Water C B Hg (13.81 = Pa + 121178 N/m2 Consider the right limb PA = PB – 0.81 = Pa + 121178 – 0.600 kg/m ) 3 Figure Ex. Ex. The advantages of using manometers are (i) their simplicity (ii) reliability and (iii) ease of operation and maintenance and freedom from frequent calibration needed with other types of gauges.125 m A 0. 2.9 × 1000 × 9. 2.1 (b)).5.6 . The sensitivity of simple manometers can be improved by using inclined tubes (at known angle) where the length of the column will be increased by (1/sin θ) where θ is the angle of inclination with the horizontal (Fig.9 × 13600 × 9. pressure at left hand side = pressure at right hand side PC = PB Consider the left limb PC = Pa + 0.9 0. With respect to datum at B.9 × 1000 × 9. As only gravity is involved. A manometer is fitted as shown in Fig. Determine the pressure at point A. S = 0. horizontal distances need not be considered in the calculation.

Pressure at E = atmospheric pressure.1 Micromanometer Small differences in liquid levels are difficult to measure and may lead to significant errors in reading.3 N/m2 or 7161.81 × 1. For improved accuracy the manometer fluid density should be close to that of the fluid used for measurement.3] = Patm + 5886 – 2648. Chapter 2 PC = PD = 22342 N/m2 .81 × 0. An inverted U-tube manometer is fitted between two pipes as shown in Fig.3 kPa (gauge) 2.3 Pa PA = PB + [1000 × 9. These chambers are connected by a U tube having a much smaller area compared to the chambers A and B.81 × 0.9 × 1000) × 9.6 m D Water Oil.81 × 0. Determine the pressure at A. A multiple U-tube manometer is fitted to a pipe with centre at A as shown in Fig. The area ratio is the significant parameter.9 × 1000 × 9.8 m B 0.405. S = 0. The volumes above this manometric fluid is filled with a fluid of slightly lower density.3 C + A E 0.Ex.7.4] = Patm + 7161.1. S = 0. Ex.8. 2.81 × 0. Chambers A and B are exposed to the fluid pressures to be measured.19 kPa (gauge) P atm Oil.9 C D B B Water 1.2] = 29.6) = Patm + 5886 Pa As PC = PD PB = PC – [0.2.7.9 + A Water Figure Ex.9 × 1000) × 9.8] = 30190 N/m2 = 30.5.81 × 0. the reading may be amplified. 2.4 bar (gauge) PB = PA – [(0. Determine the pressure at E if PA = 0. PA – PB is the required value.2 N/m2 PC = PB – [(0.2.3 = Patm + 7161.7 = Patm + 3237.8] = 22342 N/m2 PE = PD + [1000 × 9. Patm PD = Patm + (1000 × 9.5.8. Using an arrangement as shown in Fig.7 Figure Ex. 2.2] = 40000 – [(0.8 Example 2.4 m E + 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 51 Example 2.9 × 1000) × 9.2 m 0.81 × 1.

1) Very often γ1 is small (because gas is generally the medium) and the last term is negligible. γ Example 2.52 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Let pressure PA > PB and let it cause a depression of ∆y in chamber A.5. The air density is 1.5. After connecting to the pressure sides let the level of manometric fluid be 3-3 on the high pressure side. The fall in level of the manometric fluid from 2–3 on the left limb will equal the rise of the level from 3 to 4 in the right limb. if the area of the well chamber is 10 times that of the tube.2 Micromanometer So Starting from level in chamber A and level 3 as datum PB = PA + {(y1 + ∆y) × γ1} + {(y2 + y3 – ∆y) × γ2} – {2y3 × γ3} – {(y2 – y3 + ∆y) × γ2} – {(y1 – ∆y) × γ1} = PA – [2 × y3 × (γ3 – γ2) + 2 × ∆y × (γ2 – γ1)] As ∆y = (a/A) × y3 PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] – [2 × y3 × (a/A) × γ1] (2. The fluid displaced goes into the U tube limb of area a.1 and the filler fluid is water. A micromanometer is to be used to find the pressure difference of air flowing in a pipeline between two points A and B. The micromanometer fluid is having a specific gravity of 1. The displacement in the limb will therefore by (y × A/a) which becomes better readable. Determine the pressure difference between the two points A and B. Let the specific weight of the pressure side fluid be γ1 and that of the other fluid be γ2 and that of the manometric fluid be γ3.2 kg/m3. it is necessary that (γ3 – γ2) is small. PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] (2. Y1 g1 A Dy g2 Filler fluid 2 g3 3 PA 1 1 PB g1 B DY g2 4 y3 2 y3 3 y2 Manometric fluid Figure 2. To facilitate improved reading accuracy or increased value of y3.2) For a given instrument y3 is a direct measure of ∆P → (PA – PB). . Under measuring conditions. Let the original level of manometric fluid in the U tube be at 2-2 and let the fluid levels originally in the chambers be 1-1. the manometric fluid movement on the pressure side is 5 cm. Let the displacement in the chamber A be ∆y.9.5.

2.81) – 1000 × 9.1 × sin 20 = 0.6 DISTRIBUTION OF PRESSURE IN STATIC FLUIDS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION.1 × 1000 × 9. and (a/A) = 1/10. aS Consider the small cylindrical element of sectional area dAs and length s inside the fluid.81} = 196.42 cm is amplified to 10 cm. The tube is inclined at 20° to horizontal as shown in figure.5. In case ordinary manometer is used the deflection will be 5 mm only.05 × (1/10) × 1.0342 m = 268.1%.81 × 0.81) PA – PB = 2 × y3 × [γ3 – γ2 × {1 – (a/A)}] – {2 × y3 × (a/A) × γ1} 53 × (1 – 1/10)] – {2 × 0. The advantage of this micromanometer is that the deflection is as high as 5 cm even for a pressure difference of 196.42 N/m2 (gauge) Reading accuracy is improved as 3. Using equation 2. For equilibrium along s direction.81 N/m3. The density of manometric fluid is 800 kg/m3. which is accelerated at as along the s direction.10 2.1 y3 = 5 cm = 0. P m 10 c Pressure at the tapping point = γ × y = 800 × 9.08 Pa.1 = 2 × 0.2 – 0.05 m. γ3 = 1. Surface forces + Body forces = Inertia forces The net force in the s direction = rate of change of momentum is s direction. Pressure force + Body force along s direction = {P × dAs – (P + dP) × dAs} – γ × dAs × ds × sin θ Chapter 2 .0342 20° Figure Ex.05 × [1. Determine the fluid pressure at a tapping connected with an inclined manometer if the rise in fluid level is 10 cm along the inclined tube above the reservoir level.81 N/m3.5. 2.11772 = 196.2 × 9.2 × 9. γ1 = 1. The actual head.81 N/m3. y = 0. γ2 = 1000 × 9.1 × 1000 × 9. This helps to measure very low pressure differences with sufficient accuracy.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Refer Fig.10.08 N/m2 The second term due to air is negligible as it does not contribute even 0. Example 2.

θ = 0° (2. (two dimensional) as = ay × sin θ + ax × cos θ . θ = 90° (2. However. as this surface is exposed to the same pressure all over. ρ are specified as functions of P or s.3) dP/dx = – ρ × ax (2.2) dP/dy = – (γ + ρ × ay) dP/dy will be zero when.54 dS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P+ dP dAs P Y S q X rg dAs ds aS Figure 2. in direction s inclined at θ to x direction.6) In general. These equations can be integrated if as. The above three equations are to be used to determine the pressure distribution in cases where the fluid as a whole is accelerated without flow or relative motion in the fluid.6. dP/ds = – (γ × sin θ + ρ × as) For the y direction.6. 2.2 Free surface of accelerating fluid γ × sin θ = – ρ × as or θ= sin–1 (– ρ × as/γ) = sin–1 (–as/g) (2. for acceleration. a pressure gradient in x direction (horizontal direction) is also possible.6.5) (2.6.6.6. variable density problems are more involved in this situation and solutions become more complex.6.6.6.1 ay Free surface ax q Container Figure 2. γ.1 Free Surface of Accelerating Fluid The pressure gradient along any free surface is zero. Using equation 2. If the direction of free surface is s then dP/ds = 0. γ = – ρ × ay For the x direction.1) This shows that when there is acceleration.1 Free body diagram for accelerating fluid element Inertial force = The rate of change of momentum = ρ × dAs × ds × as Equating and simplifying.

ds = dx. B are constants): Using equation 2. (2.2 Pressure Distribution in Accelerating Fluids along Horizontal Direction Using the general expression for the model (fluid under acceleration) and the equation 2.6. ρ = AP + B (A.6. liquids may not assume a free surface but will be influenced only by surface tension.6.1 (dP/ds) = – (γ × sin θ + ρ × as) θ = 0 for x direction. 55 (2. .8. When a closed container completely filled with liquid is accelerated a free surface cannot form.6.6. tan θ = – ax/ay (iii) In general.7.9) Chapter 2 The constant pressure surface (free surface) will be normal to the resultant acceleration. [dP/(AP + B)] = – ax × dx Integrating.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Substituting in equation 2. ay and g.6.6.6. between the locations x1 and x2 (1/A) × [ln( AP + B)] p2 = – ax(x2 – x1) or p1 ln [(AP2 + B)/(AP1 + B) = – A × ax × (x2 – x1) (AP2 + B) = (AP1 + B) exp [– A × ax × (x2 – x1)] or P2 = (1/A) [(AP1 + B) exp {– A × ax × (x2 – x1)} – B] (2.10) This equation provides solution for pressure variation in the x direction when density varies linearly with pressure. But the pressure at the various locations will be governed by these equations. a free surface will be formed as specified by the above equations.7) (iv) The free surfaces of liquids are constant pressure surfaces and hence follow equations 2.5–2. When gravity is not present. the free surface angle will depend on ax.6. 2. (ii) If density varies with pressure as.8) p1 z dp = − (ρ as ) x1 z dx (P2 – P1) = – (ρ × ax) (x2 – x1) P2 = P1 – (ρ × ax) (x2 – x1) ax is positive in x direction (towards right) and negative in the – x direction (left). the free surface will be horizontal (ii) If g = 0. In space liquid spilling poses problems because of this condition.6. as = ax (x directional acceleration) (dP/dx) = – (ρ × ax) (i) For constant density conditions: p2 x2 (2. When an open container filled with liquid accelerates.5 and rearranging tan θ = – [ax/(g + ay)] The consequence of these equations are (i) If ax = 0.

±5 m/s 2 2 150 kPa 2m 158 a + 150 _ a 142 Figure Ex.000 = P1 – 800 × 5 × 2.000 = P1 + 800 × 5 × 2 P1 = 1. . 1.2 × 10–5 × P is accelerated towards right at 15 m/s2.58. P2 = P1 – ρ × ax × (x2 – x1) Case (i) ax is towards right and so +ve and (x2 – x1) = 2 m 1. A horizontal long cylinder containing fluid whose density varies as = 1.9 can be used to solve this problem.12 Equation 2. Determine the pressure at the left end if the tube is 2 m long. 2.10 has to be used as density varies with pressure P2 = {1/A} {AP1 + B) × exp [– A × ax(x2 – x1)] – B} Here. (note the unit of pressure used is N/m2) Example 2. A cylinder (Figure Ex.225 kPa.6.12.50. Under this condition the pressure gauge fitted at the right end shows a reading of 150 kPa.50. B = 0. Determine the pressure at a point which is 5 m to the left of a point where the pressure gauge shows a reading of 250 kPa.2 × 10–5 × P1) × exp [(–1.56 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 2. 2. ax = 15 m/s2.8 is accelerated at 5 m/s2 towards (i) right and (ii) left.11) containing oil of specific gravity 0. Since the specific gravity of the oil is constant. 15 m/s 2 250 kPa 5m P P Figure Ex.000 Pa = 142 kPa.2 × 10–5 × 15 × 5)]} P1 = 250225 Pa = 250.11.11 Case (ii) ax is towards left and so –ve.8 P1 = 1. ∴ 1 S = 0.50. A = 1.000 = {1/1. x2 – x1 = 5 m 2.000 N/m2 = 158 kPa. equation 2.2 × 10–5.6. 2.42.2 × 10–5} × {(1/1.

2 – 0.25 m. Determine the acceleration which will cause water to just start to spill and also when half the water has spilled. As tan θ = 2h/A.6. tan θ = – ax/(g + ay) = – 10/(9.8 m long. As ay = 0. Free surface 0.5 × 0.5 m high.81 + 0) With reference to the figure.7 tan θ = – ax/(g + ay). The tank is uniformly accelerated to the right at 10 m/s2.1386875 m3 Example 2.0613125 = 0.5 × 0. A ax A Fluid tank volume or initial volume of fluid h q Figure Ex.4905 × 0. 2.5 0. Using equation 2.7.2 m3 Fluid spilled = 0.5 × 0. Chapter 2 . θ = tan–1 (ax/g) ax = g × tan θ. using eqn. So x = 0. h = A ax/2g Example 2.6. 0.5 m wide and 0. Since the fluid tank is accelerated in the horizontal direction ay = 0.15.14 This is similar to the formation of free surface with angle θ.8 = 0. Water is filled in a rectangular tank of 0. 2.5 q X Figure Ex. Determine the acceleration ax as a function of the angle θ and the distance A between legs.8 0.8 m long to a depth of 0.4905 m Remaining volume of fluid = (1/2) × 0. A U-tube as shown in figure filled with water to mid level is used to measure the acceleration when fixed on moving equipment.8 is filled fully in a rectangular open tank of size 0. Determine the volume of fluid spilled from the tank.81.13 tan θ = – 0. 2.0613125 m3 = 0.13.5 m high.5 = 0.5 m wide and 0.14. 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 57 Example 2. tan θ = – ax/g The acute angle θ will be given by.5/x = – 10/9. A fluid of specific gravity 0.

the pressure change along r1 and r2 is obtained as ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ × (ω2/2) × (r22 – r12) (2.8 = 0.25 × 9.81 m/s2 This is the situation of weightlessness.715 kN/m2 (above atmospheric) for the pressure at base to be atmospheric.16. What should be the acceleration if the pressure on the base to be atmospheric? Using equation 2.25 ∴ ax = 1. The radius r is taken as positive along the outward direction. Equation 2.81 = 6. ay = 9. the liquid as a whole rotates. and ar = – r × ω2 dP/dy = – γ as ay = 0 Using the first equation.1 is considered.6.7.26 m/s2 Example 2. (dP/dy) = – (γ + ρ × ay). The variation of the linear speed with radius causes a concave free surface to form. The angle of the free surface with horizontal at the time of starting of spill is ax/g = tan θ = 0. 2.6. Fluid particles rotating in concentric circle with velocities of r × ω along the tangent to the circles form a forced vortex.5 (9810 – 1000 × 3. where ay = – g.1 – 2.81 = 12.2.5/0. The angular velocity is the same at all points.5 (γ – ρ × ay) When half the water has spilled. but the linear velocity varies along the radius. dP = – (γ + ρ × ay) dy (P2 – P1) = (y1 – y2) (γ + ρ ×ay) (y1 – y2) = 1. A tank containing 1.5 m. The fluid rotates as a rigid body with velocity of ω × r at a radius r (ω being the angular velocity).5 m/s2.7.81/1000 = 14.1) . P2 – P1 = 0 = 1. at the time of spill the free surface will be along the left top and right bottom.7 FORCED VORTEX When a cylindrical container filled with a liquid is rotated about its axis. the pressure would have been 1.5)/1000 = 9.5 m height of water in it is accelerating downwards at 3.58 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Since the tank is half full.6.625 ∴ ax = 0. as ay is downwards and hence negative (P2 – P1) = 1. The pressure variations and gradients caused by the rotation can be determined using equations 2. with fluid moving away from the centre.. It is assumed that there is no relative sliding between layers.e.5 [9810 – 1000 ay].1 gives dP/dr = – ρ × as = ρ × r × ω2 as θ = 0. An element of fluid as shown in Fig. i.465 kN/m2 (above atmospheric) At static conditions.3.625 × 9.5/0. Determine the pressure at the base of the tank above the atmospheric pressure.5 × 1000 × 9.13 m/s2 tan θ = 0.6. the water will be at 0.4 m at bottom (P2 – P1) = 1. the weight of water is zero 2.4 = 1.

ay = 0.7. The height y at any radius depends on the angular velocity. (Pr – Po) = ρ × (ω2/2) × r2 = ρ × (ωr2)/2 (2.r and ω is constant If g = 0. the pressure at all other points on the base can be calculated.7.7.3) In order to determine the value of slope at any radius equation 2.4 (a)) y = yo + [(ω × r)2/(2 × g)] where yo is the height of liquid at the centre. v/r = constant as v = ω.7. (space application) then y → ∞ and the free surface becomes cylindrical or the liquid adheres to the surface in a layer. (P – Pb) = – γ × (y – yo) = – γ × y.2. Chapter 2 s dr .6.1 Free body diagram of rotating fluid element From centre to any radius r. A free vortex forms when the container is stationary and the fluid drains at the centre as in the case of draining a filled sink. 2.7. This gives Pb = P + γ × y (2.7. dy/dr = r × ω2/g ∴ dy = r dr × ω2/g Integrating from centre to radius r and rearranging.2) If the pressure at the centre of the base or any radius is known. The surface profile is shown in Fig. Here the fluid velocity is inversely proportional to the radius (volume flow depends on area). tan θ = – ax / (g + ay) For a rotating cylinder. the velocity near the centre being the highest (v × r = constant). taking yo as the datum Here P is the pressure at the surface at any radius and Pb is the pressure at the base at the same radius and y is the height of liquid at that location.4) (2.7 is used. In forced vortex. y2 – y1 = ω2 [r 2 – r12] 2g 2 (2. radius and g. ax = – r × ω2 and tan θ = dy/dr = rω2/g Hence.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Free surface A r PdA PdA + d (PdA) dF1 dq/2 dr 59 dF1 w dq 2 Figure 2. This shows that the free surface is a paraboloid.

A tall cylinder of 1 m dia is filled with a fluid to a depth of 0. The outside pressure is 1. ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ × (ω2/2) × (r22 – r12) Pr1 = 0 (gauge) at r1 = 0.7.81).17.52)/(2 × 9.4 Using equation 2.42)/2 × 9.4 m.42) N/m2 Pr2 = 11106.712/2) × (0.52 – 0. The cylinder is empty at the bottom surface up to a radius of 0. Pr2 – 0 = 1000 × (15. C and D are installed as shown in figure in chambers 1 and 2. Water is filled partially in a cylinder of 1 m dia and rotated at 150 rpm.1. The gauge A reads 0. Determine the pressure at the extreme bottom edge.81 = 1.60 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A Free surface q dr A dy w Figure 2.132 m SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 2.5 m and rotated at a speed such that the height at the centre is zero.7. Four pressure gauges A.4 y = yo + [(ω2 × r2)/(2 × g)].2 bar.7.2 Forced Vortex—Free surface Example 2.86 rad/s ω = 2π N/60.1 is applicable. It is to be noted here that the volume of a paraboloid of height h is equal to the volume of cylinder of half its height and the same radius.712 (0.52 – 0.01 bar. 0. Hence the height at the outer radius is 1 m. Determine the speed of rotation.4. Equation 2. B.5 m ω = 2 π N/60 = 2 × π × 150/60 = 15.86 × 60)/(2 × π) = 84.18. r2 = 0. 1 = 0 + (ω2 × 0. y2 – y 1 = ω2 [r22 – r12] 2g = 15.184 N/m2 (gauge). N = (8.6 rpm Example 2.7. while the gauge . substituting the values. ∴ ω = 8.4.71 rad/s. Also calculate the height of liquid at the edge. Using equation 2.

2 PA = P2 + PD . A.8 bar. The gauge is in chamber D.5 bar 2 2.3 bar. B. 0.01 + 0. 6 are obtained as below: P3: P4: P5: P6: PD = P3 + PC. PB = P6 + PA.11 = – 0.4 5 1. P. The pressures in chambers A.11 = 0.1 ∴ P2 = 1.5 bar gauge 1 should show 0.3 bar.4.1 bar respectively.01 – 1. 4.4 + P6 ∴ P3 = 0.2. C and D as shown in Fig. 3.8 bar Chapter 2 1 –0.2 = 1.8 + P3 1. ∴ P5 = – 1.1 bar Gauge D reads the pressure in chamber 1 as compared to chamber 2 gauge reading D = pressure in chamber 1 – pressure in chamber 2 = 1.6 bar.1 bar.8 and 2.21 – 1.1 = 1.6 + P4 1.8 4 C Gauge 2. PC = P4 + PB. 2. PB = P1 + PD. ∴ P4 = – 0.6 6 1 3.1 pressure in chamber 1 = atmospheric pr + reading of gauge A = 1. Determine the pressures in chamber 1 and chamber 2 and the reading of gauge C and D.21 bar pressure in chamber 2 = pressure in chamber 1 + reading of gauge B = 1.1 C . Figure P. denoting the gauge reading by the corresponding suffix. 1.21 – 0. 2.1 bar (opposite of gauge B) Problem 2.6 = 3.1 = 1.6 = P1 + 2. This gauge measures the pressure in chamber B and the gauge is situated in chamber D.11 bar atmospheric pressure reading of gauge = pressure in chamber 2 + reading of gauge C C = 1. 2.1 ∴ P1 = 0. ∴ P6 = – 0.2 2 B D Pressure in bar Figure P. 2.8 = 2.2 are 3. By similar procedure the reading of gaug 3. 2.2.1 D 3 A B 2. Determine the readings of gauges 1 to 6.8 = 3.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 61 B reads – 0. 5.4 + P5 2. PC = P5 + PA. Gauge 1.4 = P2 + 2. This gauge measures the pressure in Pressure in bar chamber A.6.

25) × 900 × 9. or P/γ1. The gauge pressure at the base was 4 kN/m2. Problem 2.81 + [(hw/1.000 m altitude. P1 γ1–k = P2γ2–k = P γ –k Let the specific weight at altitude y be γ..96 cm Problem 2.81 = (0. P/γk = Po /γok γk = (P/Po)γok γ = P1/k Po–1/k γο = γο Po–1/k P1/k.6 bar.25. (As hk = hw/1. integrating between limits yo and y = – Po–1/k (gPo / RTo) y P(k–1) / k = {Po(k–1)/k – [((k – 1)/k)] Po(k–1)/k (g/RTo) y} P = Po {1 – [(k – 1)/k] (g/RTo) y} (P.25) hw × 1000 × 9.4] = const.4. If the ratio of hw/hk = 1.5. Such a vacuum is not possible. A container has hw cm of water over which hk cm of kerosene of specific gravity 0.62 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The gauge readings show the pressure difference between the chambers connected and not absolute pressures.2 × 9. Problem 2.4 = const.1) The values at various altitudes are calculated using the equation and compared with air table values. On one side water of volume equal to 200 mm column over which kerosene of density 830 m3/kg of volume equal to 250 mm column are added.3 kPa. To = 300 K .. 2.4 = constant. (A) substituting in A and separating variables [k/(k – 1)] [P(k–1)/k – Po(k–1)/k] = Po–1/k (gPo / RTo) (y – yo) . Summing the pressures due to the two columns.81] = 4000 ∴ ∴ hw = 0.3. Denoting the index as k. Determine pressure at 10.81 × 830) Solving.25 × 9. Let the rise in mercury column be h. assuming that the condition of air can be represented by the law Pv1. A U-tube open to atmosphere is first filled to a sufficient height with mercury. h = 0. Determine the rise in the mercury column in the other limb.1896 m. Temperature at ground level is 27°C. The law can be written as [P/(ρg)1.2371 m.71 cm hk = 0. For example reading of P5 = – 1. or 23. Then h × 13600 × 9.9 floats. Then γ = (p/p1)1/kγ1 The hydrostatic equation is dP/dy = – γ or dP = – γ dy The equation ∴ or ∴ Pvk = constant can be rewritten as. dP/P1/k = – Po–1/k γο dy.5. The pressure due to the atmosphere at the earths surface is 101. or 18.02996 m or about 3 cm. determine the heights of the columns.81 × 1000) + (0.

(P . At the surface γo = 9810 N/m3 and Po = 101. 2.79 0. If the pressure measured at 1500 m was 14860 kPa. . kPa 1000 9930 2000 19798 4000 39652 6000 59665 Sealed B The specific weight at this location is Problem 2. The density of water is 992 kg/m3 at this condition.3 × 103 – K ln {[K – (9810 × 1500)]/K} 14758.8874 2000 0.7848 4000 0. Determine the pressure at B. Depth.715 × 106)/K] Solving by trial (generally K is of the order of 109) Assumed value of K RHS 2 × 109 14769 × 103 2.2622 63 20000 0.35 0.47 0.2.5 × 109 14758.γo/γo) ln [(K +γo y)/(K + γo × 0)] = – K ln [(K +γo y)/K] ∴ P = Po – K ln[(K +γo y)/K] 14860 × 103 = 101. In a fresh water lake the specific weight of water γ is found to vary with depth y as γ = K γo/(K + γo y) where K is the bulk modulus.5 × 109 gives the value nearest to LHS ∴ K = 2.61 0. m Calculated P/Po From air tables 1000 0.0561 dP/dy = – γ = – K γo /(K + γo y) ∴ dP = {– K γo /(K + γo y)} dy = – K γody/(K +γo y) P – Po = – (K.4657 8000 0.5 × 103 = – K ln [K – (14.7 Chapter 2 Problem 2. m P. PA = 1.25 0.3524 10000 0.5 × 109 + [9810 × ( – 1500)]} = 9868.6) 2.03 0.89 0.5 × 109 × 9810)/{2.5 × 103 3 × 109 14751 × 103 Note : y is –ve as measured downwards. the top of the longer limb.5 × 109 N/m2 γ = (2.7 A chemical reaction vessel of the shape given in figure is full of water with the top of the longer limb sealed and the top of the smaller limb open to atmosphere. substituting the given values Integrating between the surface and the depth .6086 6000 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids Altitude.3 kPa.013 bar 8m Figure P. determine the value of K. Using steam table indicate whether water will boil at this point if temperature is 30° C.6.08 N/m2 The pressure at various depths are tabulated.

Let the fluid with specific weight γs be having a height H.81. The pressure on both limbs at the level yy are equal.3 × 103 – (8 × 992 × 9.24 kPa.81 [– 950H – 950h + (950 × h/50) + 950H + 1000h + (1000 × h/50)] = 9. Solving. both limbs being exposed to the same pressure. A manometer of the shape shown in figure has limb A filled with water of specific gravity 1 and the other limb with oil of specific gravity 0.81 × 89h ∴ 22 = 9. Consider water side Py = P1 + 9. h = 9.81 [50h + 19h + 20h] = 9. Let the height of oil on the left limb above x-x be H.81 × 1000[0. what should be the length of the limb? 4. If the water just begins to boil.8. The rise of level in the water side will be (a/ A). In both cases assume that the liquid level remains in the enlarged section. A U-tube manometer has both its limbs enlarged to 25 times the tube area. Problem 2.8 P2 P1 h(a/A) h(a/A) H Oil. Now the liquid heights in each limb can be calculated.h (As the filled volumes remain the same).81 × 950[H + h – h(a/A)]. The fall of oil level in the other limit will be also (a/A). calculate the height h. when both pressures are equal.81 × 89h. 2.95 x x h y y gm Water . The height of water in the other side will be (γo /γw) H or 0.9. If the pressure difference is 22 N/m2. S = 0. Thus the sensitivity is improved appreciably by this arrangement.0252 m or 25.h Py is now calculated.45 kPa At 30°C.24 mm of water.246 × 103 = 101. Figure P. The area of the enlarged mouth portion is 50 times the area of the tube portion. Consider stationary condition. As P2 – P1 = 22 22 = 9. the saturation pressure as read from steam table is 4.2 mm A manometer with constant limb area will give a reading of only 2.64 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery PB = 101. Then the pressures at these points are equal as the same liquid fills the volumes below x-x. Derive an expression for the pressure difference in the limbs.95 H (in this case). Py = P2 + 9. When a pressure is applied to one of the limbs the manometric fluid rises by h m.81) = 23447.973 m Problem 2. Let the water level when P1 = P2 be at x-x. Then both limbs are filled with fluid of specific weight γs to the same level. Initially the tube is filled to some level with oil of specific weight γm.95H + h + h(a/A)] On the oil side.95. ∴ h = 0.8 N/m2 or 23. Now let pressure P2 act on the oil side limb and let the level of water below move down by distance h to the level yy. hence there will be no boiling at B.3 × 105 – h × 992 × 9.

Lubricating oil of specific gravity 0. Problem 2.81. 2.10 Figure P. consider pressures at y as the reference.85 A 400 300 70 x 40 S 20 50 +E 60 Water B Figure P. γs = 0.891 is filled over the water column on both limbs.Pressure Distribution in Fluids After pressures are applied. γm = 1000 × 9. Air Oil 100 90 Water D Oil. 2. Consider the left limb: P y = P2 + H + 65 FG H h h a − γs 2 2 A IJ K (h)a 2 A P2 P1 (h ) a 2 A Chapter 2 Consider the right limb: P y = P1 + h h a h γs γ + H− + 2 2 A 2 m FG H IJ K gS gS H Equating and solving ∴ P2 – P1 = h h h a γm + H − + γs 2 2 2 A FG H IJ K h/2 y h/2 y gm h = γ + γs 2 m FG H FG h a − hIJ H A K – H+ h h a γs − 2 2 A Figure P. S = 0. 2. If a U-tube with water was used the deflection will be of the order of 4 mm. The top of both limbs are open to atmosphere.81 ∴ ∴ 40 = h h − h = 1334.2 h.11 150 Hg C 400 . Determine the density of the unknown fluid (dimensions in mm).10.02998 m or 30 mm. A U-tube is filled first with a fluid of unknown density. Over this water is filled to depths as in figure. × 9810 + 0.9 × 1000 × 9.9 × 9810 25 2 FG H IJ K h = 0.9 IJ K Let P2 – P1 = 40 N/m2.

15) = 84623 Pa PD = PC = 84623 Pa (300 mm air column does not contribute much) PE = PD + ρw ghw = 84623 + (1000 × 9.13.81 × 891] equating and solving. What will be the angle of the free surface if the container is hauled up with an acceleration of 3 m/s2 along the plane.4 – (13600 × 9.81 × 0. Determine the acceleration.81 × 1000] + [(90/1000) × 9. Calculations can be started from the open limb where the pressure is known PA = Patm = 1.4) = 104635.66 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Consider level x-x in figure.12 A U-tube with a distance of 120 mm between the limbs is filled with a liquid to mid level for use as a crude accelerometer fixed on a moving vehicle.013 × 105 + (850 × 9.013 bar = 101300 Pa PB = PA + ρogho = 1. A compound manometer is used to measure the pressure in a pipe E carrying water. The coefficient of friction between the container and the plane is 0.97 kg. 2. Then using equation 2. The mass of the container is 50.11.81 × (0. A container in the shape of a cube of 1 m side is filled to half its depth with water and placed on a plane inclined at 30° to the horizontal.7.12) = 2. When the vehicle is accelerated the difference in level between the limbs was measured as 32 mm.032/0. as tan θ = (h/2)/(L/2) = h/L tan θ = ax/(g + ay) ay = 0.4) = 88547 Pa or 88547 kPa Problem 2.4 Pa PC = PB – ρHg g hHg = 104635.81 × 1000/1000) + (100 × 9.81 × 0. PXR = [(20/1000) × 9. on the left limb the pressure at this level is PXL = (70 × 9.81 × 0.2. Free surface aS = 3 m/s 13. Problem 2.6. Let the angle connecting the liquid surfaces in the limbs be θ.3° 13° FP x 30° Y Case (ii) FN Weight aS 30° ax Case (i) ay 2 Figure P.81 × ρ] + [(50/1000) × 9. ρ = 1445.616 m/s2 Problem 2. Determine the angle made by the free surface with the horizontal when the container slides down.30.13 . The dimensions are shown in Figure P.5 kg/m3 Note: Division by 1000 is to obtain specific gravity.11. Determine the pressure in the pipe. tan θ = ax/g or ax = g(h/L) = 9.81 × 891/1000) On the right limb at this level.

4 × 0.24 N Acceleration along the plane.13 Total mass = 1000 (0.9.6. same as the slope of the plane.81 × cos 60 = 2702.041)/(9. ay = 2.81 × cos 60 = 127.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 67 Irrespective of the inclination if the acceleration along and perpendicular to the horizontal are calculated. P.905 × cos 30 = – 4.5 N Force normal to plane Fy = 550.15.2478/(9.81 × sin 60 = 4680.2478.178) = + 0.356 m/s2 The component along horizontal.9 N The friction force acting against Fx is Fy µ = 4680.9 × 0.2 × 0.4525)] θ = –19.5 – 1404. Determine the pressure at the oil line using equation 2.5/26 = 4.2478/(9.4525.2. as = F/m = 1298. ax = 4. Refer Fig.9.97 kg Fx = 550.4 m is filled with water upto a depth of 0.2478 m/s2 Acceleration along y direction = 4.4 m × 0.905 m/s2 Acceleration along x direction = 4. the gauge indicated 980 kPa. then the angle made by the free surface can be obtained using equation 2. P2 = P1 – (ρ.7 tan θ = – [ax /(g + ay)] The total mass = (1 × 1 × 0. This is an interesting result.041 m/s2 The component along vertical. ax = 2.5)] θ = – 12.4525)] ∴ θ = 30°. slope = 0.81 – 2.97 = 550.26) = 1298.97 × 9. Determine the angle the free surface makes with the horizontal.2364 ∴ Case (ii) ∴ θ = + 13.5 m/s2 tan θ = – [2.598 m/s2. ay = 3 sin 30 = 1.6. Specific gravity of oil is 0.598/(9.µ = (2701. If the tank is moved up with the same acceleration determine the slope of the free surface. When the aircraft was accelerating at 10 m/s2 at level flight.81 + 1.24/550.14.1°.905 × sin 30 = – 2.4525 m/s2 tan θ = – [– 4.26 N Net downward force along the plane = Fx – Fy. ∴ tan θ = – [4.97 × 9.2 m.94° with horizontal Case (i) Force along the plane Chapter 2 Problem 2.53 N Acceleration as = 127.5 × 1000) + 50.2) + 10 = 26 kg Force along the surface = 26 × 9. ay = – 1. Try to generalise assuming other angles of inclination.81 + 2.3464 Problem 2.178 m/s2 (downwards) tan θ = (– 2.3° ax = 3 cos 30 = 2. When moving up. A tank 0.97 = 2. An aircraft hydraulic line pressure is indicated by a gauge in the cockpit which is 3 m from the line.ax) (x2 – x1) P2 = 980 ×103 – [(900 × 10) × (– 3)] = 1007 × 103 Pa or 1007 kPa .2 m size and of height 0.356 × cos 30 = – 2. The container slides without friction downwards on a surface making 30° with the horizontal. The mass of the container is 10 kg.81 – 1. with the same acceleration.3 = 1404.

r2 = 0. P = – [γ (ax /g)x] – γ y = – 9810 (ax /g) x – 9810y P = – 1000 axx – 9810 y In this case. saturation pressure is read as 0.ax (x2 – x1) For the pressure at A to be atmospheric.1 as the situation is similar to forced vortex ( Pr2 − Pr1 ) = ρ(ω2/2) (r22 – r12) r1 = 0. the general equation can be used. Vent P2 = P1 – ρ. choosing B as origin. ∴ θ = 14. 2. ay = 0 speed. 2.16 Problem 2. tan θ = ax / (g + ay). y = – 4 0 = – 4000ax + 4 × 9810.68 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 2. A D 400 mm 100 mm B Pr1 = 0. Determine the acceleration along the right which will cause the pressure at A to be atmospheric.P.81) = 0.1 m w Figure P. there should be a reduction of 4 m of water column due to the acceleration.04241 bar.013 bar. Determine the direction of the string measured from the vertical during the turn. Determine the rotational speed along AB in rad/s is the pressure at the closed end A should not fall below the saturation pressure of water at this temperature. Pr2 = 1. A fully air conditioned car takes a curve of radius 250 m at 90 kmph.ω2. ax = r. The balloon will move opposite to the pressure gradient at the location. ∴ ax = 9. ρ = 1000 kg/m3. During the travel along the curve. ∴ v = 90 × 1000/3600 = 25 m/s ω = (v/πD).04241 bar using equation 2.30 to the vertical. A tank as in Fig. The air within the car can be taken to move as a solid.18.81 m/s2 4m 2m B 2m A alternately.81 m/s2 Figure P. The left side is vented to atmosphere. Initial pressure all over the surface = Patm + 4 m of water head tan θ = 4/4 = ax /g ∴ ax = 9.2π = (25 × 2π)/(π/500) = 1/10 rad/s tan θ = 250 × (1/102) × (1/9. A U-tube shown in figure is filled with water at 30°C and is sealed at A and is open to atmosphere at D.17.2. x = 4.255.7. From steam tables at 30°C. the balloon will turn inwards by 14. A child holds a balloon with a string and it is vertical along straight road. ∴ P = 0.16 is filled with water.18 .3° As pressure increases outwards.16. Problem 2.

81 × 800 [0. ∴ PB = 0.013 – 0.12 ∴ ω = 139. but the weight is increased by the upward acceleration. ax = 3.16653 At B.20.6.7 × 0. T = 325 + 273 substituting (P2/Po) = 3002 × 352/[2 × 8314 × (325 + 273)] = 3.19. 2. The small opening at A is exposed to atmosphere.3] = 765 Pa PD = PC + (1 × 9. S = 0. Determine also the values of ax and ay if PA = PB = PC Case (i).902) = 3531 Pa Chapter 2 . ay = 4.Pressure Distribution in Fluids substituting.3 liquid head above i.45 m/s2 and ay = 4.1 namely dP/ds = – r sin θ + ρ as reduces when s is horizontal and in the case of rotation to dp/dr = ρ as = ρrω2.9 m/s2.902) = 0.9/9. Determine the gauge pressures at B. integrating between limits ln ln ∴ (P2/P1) = (ω2/2RT)r2 = V2/2RT V = 300 m/s.3 × 800(9. The maximum peripheral speed is limited to 300 m/s.. Pressure at A is atmospheric in all cases.8 · D 1m E· Figure P.902 m/s2. The molecular mass of the gas is 352. B is at 0. Assuming gaseous uranium hexafluride at 325°C is used.042421) × 105 = (1000/2). PB is lower ∴ PB = – 0. ay = 0. C.e.3 m 1m Oil.3 × 9.81 = 5493 Pa All the pressures are gauge pressures with atmospheric pressure as reference pressure Case (ii). C′ will be above C by 0. Universal gas constant = 8314 J/kgK. ax = 2. D and E when (i) ax = 3.902 m/s2 In this case tan θ = ax/(ay + g) or the slope is 2.45 m/s2. R = 8314/352.4 Pa PC = PC ′ – PC = 9. the imaginary free surface angle θ is given by (as ay = 0) tan θ = – ax/g = 3.19 Patm · (P.45/(9.81 × 800) = 8613 Pa PE = 0. Equation 2.0976 m head of fluid.33 rad/s 69 Problem 2.ω2 × 0. the pressure is less than at A by a column of 0. As compared to A.81 × 800 = – 2354. (1. when accelerated along the x direction. determine the ratio of pressures at the outer radius to the centre.39755 – 0.81 = 0. For a gas ρ = P/RT.8 × 9.81 + 4.186 P2/Po = 24.81 C B A · 0.19) Problem 2.20 ∴ The slope is 3.39755 as the length is 1 m. 2. A container filled with oil of density 800 kg/m3 is shown in figure.9 m/s2 and ay = 0 (ii) ax = 2.81 + 4. substituting dP/P = (ω2/RT) dr.3 m of liquid.9/9. Gas centrifuges are used to produce enriched uranium.

23.09/(7.16653 m above A.81 + 4.03 m/s2 Problem 2.01 + 9. As the level is the same the head difference between the centre and the outer radius is given by h = (ωr)2/2go = [(2π60/60) × 0. Determine the position of the free surface of the fuel in the tank. The air in the gap can be considered to rotate as a single body.81 + 4. ∆p = ρax(x2 – x1). At an instant an aircraft travelling along 40° to the horizontal at 180 m/s. If PC = PB. using equation 2. ∴ ay = – g or 9. Slope of the free surface of fuel = 0.69 × 10–6 m y ab R = 2600 m an 180 m/s 40° x Figure P. automatically B C should be constant pressure surface.5 cos 40 = 7.06]2/(2 × 9.3 × 800(9. The path of the aircraft is shown in figure. So ax = 0 Problem 2.659 Problem 2.659.81) = 7. A tanker lorry of cylindrical shape 6 m in length is filled completely with oil of density 830 kg/m3.24 × 10–3 m of air Considering density of air to be about 1. Neglect the weight component.3 × 800(9.81 m/s2 upwards. The accelerations are indicated.4°.6.5 m/s2. towards centre The acceleration along the tangent at = – 4 m/s2 The components along x and y directions are ax = – 4 cos 40 – 12. head of water = (7.1665) m PC = – 0. The plates rotate without any air flowing out. 40000 = 830 × ax × 6 ∴ ax = 8.21.70 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Now C′ is at 0. decelerates at 4 m/s2.902) × (0. If the pressure difference between the front and back at the centre line should not exceed 40 kPa. (gauge) what should be the maximum acceleration.7 × 800(9.81 + 4.5 sin 40 = – 11. C is above C′ by (0.2. 2.81) = 0.902)] = 10200 Pa PE = 0.9. The lorry accelerates towards the right.01 m/s2 tan θ = ax / (ay + g) = 11. Its path is along a concave upward circular curve of radius 2600 m.902) = 8239 Pa Case (iii). Air fills the gap between two circular plates held horizontal.3 – 0. The acceleration towards the centre of the curve is given by ax = V2/R = 1802/2600 = 12. If PA = PB then the weight of the liquid column should be zero due to the acceleration ay.16653) = – 1570 Pa PD = PC – [1 × 0.24 × 10–3 × 1.21 .3 – 0. If the radius is 60 mm and if the speed is 60 rpm.2)/1000 = 8.22. ∴ θ = 33.09 m/s2 ay = – 4 sin 40 + 12. determine the pressure difference between the centre and the circumference.

Pressure is defined as ________ 2. On a free surface of a liquid the pressure is ________ 4. 10.Pressure Distribution in Fluids REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. . Indicate the modifications where pressure varies along vertical and horizontal directions. horizontal 7. Manometers use the principle of ________ 8. Manometers are suitable for ________ pressure measurement. The shape of free surface in a forced vortex is ________ Answers 1. (R2 ω2/2 go) 10. 6. low 9. 9. basic hydrostatic equation. Distinguish between gauge pressure. 71 5. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. The pressure exerted by a column of fluid of height y m and specific weight γ is ________ 6. As a measure of force distribution over any surface associated with a fluid (dF/dA) 2.2. Derive an expression for the distribution of force in static fluid subjected to whole body acceleration in a general direction – s.1 Fill in the blanks: 1. the pressure exterted by a column of fluid is ________ 5. 6. 3. Derive the expression for the angle made by the free surface in a liquid that is subjected to both acceleration and gravitation. Explain the consequences of the law. the free surface will be ________ 7. State and prove Pascal’s law. absolute pressure and vacuum pressure. Indicate when the use of manometers is advantageous. 8. 9. In a forced vortex the height of liquid at the periphery of a cylinder of Radius R above that at the centre will be ________ 10. Define and explain the concept ‘‘pressure”. 2. 7. Derive an expression for the pressure distribution in an incompressible fluid accelerated horizontally. Chapter 2 4. At zero horizontal accelerating conditions on earths surface. is the same at all points 4. Explain what is meant by forced vortex and derive the expression for the radial pressure distribution in forced vortex. Explain how small pressure difference reading can be amplified by using a micro manometer or inclined tube manometer. Paraboloidal. y γ. Explain the basic principle involved in measuring pressure and pressure difference using manometers. When gravitational forces are zero. Pascals law states ________ 3. is zero 5. that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is equal in magnitude in all directions 3. (∆P = ∆ yγ) 8. Derive the expression for the pressure variation in a static fluid under gravitational forces.

The pressure at a point in fluid at rest is ________ of direction. 5. For low pressure measurement a manometric fluid with low density will be better.4 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. The pressure exerted by a liquid column on the base depends on the ________ of the liquid. As the density of manometric fluid decreases. 4. . small 5. 9. As a container with liquid is accelerated the pressure on the base along the direction of acceleration ________ 7. the angle the free surface will occupy is given by ________ 4. neglected/equal on both sides 6. 3. In a fluid at rest. The shape of a forced vortex in the absence of gravity will be ________ 7. 8. decreases. In a manometer. the density difference between the filler fluid and the manometer fluid should be ________ 5. The pressure in a fluid at rest ________ with depth.72 O Q. the fluid column will fall if the pressure inside is less than atmospheric. The forced vortex rise ________ with rotational speed. 10 Decreases : 4. Due to horizontal acceleration. 2.2. independent 8. 6. The pressure over a free surface of a fluid at rest will vary with location. 1. In micromanometer. 3. 7 O Q. the head of liquid for a given pressure ________ 5. As specific weight increases. 6. the gauge reading ________ when the angle is reduced. In a fluid at rest the pressure at a constant level will be equal at all locations. In a micromanometer. 5. Answers Increases : 1.2. 10. 8. the free surface of the fluid will be 45° when the acceleration equals ________ Answers 1. cylindrical 7. When a fluid is decelerated at a rate equal to g in the vertical direction the pressure on the base will be ________ 3. or remains constant. In a fluid at rest the pressure at a point ________ 4. If the density varies linearly with height the pressure will vary ________ with height. the pressure ________ 3. tan θ = – a/g 4. In inclined tube manometer. 1. In a manometer. the fluid column will rise if the pressure measured is above the atmosphere. the gauge deflection will increase if the area ratio _______ 10. The forced vortex rise ________ as density of the liquid increases. the pressure at a point varies with direction. The pressure on the base of a liquid column will depend upon the shape of the column. independent 10. 2.2 Fill in the blanks: Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. 9.2. 9. ax = g O Q. 8. 6 Remains constant : 2. Along the free surface in a liquid. 8. The capillary effect can be ________ when both limbs of a manometer have equal areas. 7. the manometric deflection for the same pressure difference ________ 6. exponentially 2.3 Fill in the blanks with increases. zero 3. The level rise in the forced vortex is ________ of the fluid. 2. specific weight 9. The vacuum gauge reading will increase as the absolute pressure decreases. When a fluid in a container is accelerated along the x direction at a m/s2.

55 × 0.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 9.4 × 1200 × 9. 6. 10.6 m is 0.55. the manometric rise is 0. 9 O Q.2 (c) 12. The pressure exerted by a column of 1 m of the fluid will be . The gravitational forces are negligible. The specific gravity of mercury is 13. A horizontal cylinder half filled with fuel is having an acceleration of 10 m/s2. The water pressure in m of water is (a) 14.4 m height a fluid of specific weight 1200 × 9. with y as the vertical direction. The angular velocity in radians is (a) 11. 10 Incorrect : 1. The free surface of the liquid will be (a) horizontal (c) vertical (b) slopes in the direction of acceleration (d) slopes in the direction opposite of acceleration 8. The density of fluid was 2000 kg/m3.55 × 0. In a circular cylinder of 0.2.55 × 0. In a forced vortex. 5. the pressure variation is given by (a) (c) dp =ρ dy dp =γ dy (b) (d) dp =–ρ dy dp =–γ dy Chapter 2 1.7 (a) hyperboloid (c) paraboloid (b) 5.44 (c) 32. The gravity at a location is 5 m/s2. the level at a radius of 0.000 N/m2 (d) 5 N/m2 2. In a manometer using mercury as manometric fluid and measuring the pressure of water in a conduit.81 N/m2 (c) 0. 3.2 m dia and 0.2 m. The pressure at the centre is (a) 0. The shape of forced vortex under gravitational conditions is 6.81 N/m2 5.81 N/m3 is filled to the brim and rotated about its axis at a speed when half the liquid spills out. 4. Absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure – vacuum gauge reading.1 × 1200 × 9.72 (d) 130. 7. 73 Answers Correct : 2. The absolute pressure is equal to the vacuum gauge reading.8 (b) spherical (d) cylindrical N/m2 (b) Zero (d) 0.2 × 1200 × 9. In a forced vortex (a) the fluid velocity is inversely proportional to the radius (b) the fluid rotates without any relative velocity (c) the rise depends on the specific weight (d) the rise is proportional to the cube of angular velocity 4.5 Choose the correct answer: (a) 400 N/m2 (c) 2000 N/m2 (b) 10.6 m above the centre. 8.2 (b) 13.2 (d) none of the above 7.81 3. In a static fluid.

2.1 to read the outside pressure shows 1.1 Figure E. Determine the absolute and gauge pressures in chamber A as shown in Fig.2 m is (a) 40. γ1/(K + γ1. the gauge pressure being referred to atmospheric pressure of 1. A gauge fixed into this chamber Fig.y. In a differential manometer a head of 0. 2. Determine the pressure below 1000 m in the sea if the specific weight changes as γ = K.000 N/m2 (c) 4000 N/m2 (b) 2000 N/m2 (d) 20.2 kN/m2.000 N/m3.2. c is a dimensional constant having a unit of N/m4. E.4.02 × 105 N/m2.74 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 9. [101.2. 290 kN/m2] E. the specific weight of air varies with the altitude y as γ = c. 2.1.y) where K is the bulk modulus having a value of 2 × 109 N/m2 and y is the depth in m.1.4. Determine the expression for pressure variation with altitude.2 kN/m2 absolute] P atm = 100.2.2. [9935 kN/m2] .2. The specific weight of a fluid is 20. d . where γ is in N/m3 and y is in m. Determine the outside pressure. The pressure (above atmosphere) in a tank bottom containing the fluid to a height of 0. c .3 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E. The ratio of specific gravities of A to B is (a) 2 (c) cannot be determined (b) 0.2.2 kPa – 60 kPa A 350 kPa 100 kPa Figure E. The surface pressure is 101.6 Match the pairs: (a) Free surface in forced vortex (1) Vertical (2) Paraboloid (3) Negative slope (4) Horizontal (b) Free surface in static fluid (c) Free surface in forced vortex without gravity (d) Free surface in a horizontally accelerating fluid Answers a . The pressure at y = 0 is 5000 N/m2.2 E. In this case c has a value of 1. In an artificial atmosphere. [P = 5000 – (y2/2)] E.3. [390.000 N/m2 10.2 kPa 1.2.18 Answers (1) b (2) b (3) b (4) b (5) c (6) c (7) c (8) d (9) c (10) b O Q.6 m of fluid A in limb 1 is found to balance a head of 0.2.5 (d) 0.2. A chamber is at a pressure of 100 kN/m2.2.3 kN/m2 and γ1 = 9810 N/m3. b . E.3 m of fluid B in limb 2.

8.2 m 0.2. E.4 0.9 Chapter 2 . Determine the pressure above the atmosphere at point 3 for the manometer and dimensions shown in Fig. a column of 0.7 E. Determine the pressure at point X for the situation shown in Fig.2. S = 0. 2. In a U-tube shown in Fig.7.6 Figure E.7.2 m of an unknown liquid.92. E.2.2.15 kN/m2] A 75 400 kPa Oil.5 E. Neglect gauge height.8 [8.2 + X Datum Figure E. S = 0.6 0. 2. [0.2. 2.8 Water Oil.2.75] E. Determine the specific gravity of the unknown liquid.8 0.04 kPa] Chemical S = 1. 92 6m B Figure E.5 m 0.2. A vessel of the shape shown in Fig. The pressure gauge at A reads 400 kN/m2. Determine the pressure read by a gauge (Bourdon type) fixed at B.6.6 m 1. 2. open to atmosphere at both ends.2.5.9 m S=2 Hg Hg Figure E.Pressure Distribution in Fluids E. E. E.9 m of water balances a column of 1. [65 kN/m2] Water + 3 Water Pa 1.6.5 is filled with a liquid of specific gravity 0. [454.

12.9. Determine the pressure at A above the atmosphere for the manometer set up shown in Fig. When pressures are equal. determine the pressure at point D.11. E.2. E.10.03 and the filler fluid is water. the level from the top to the filler fluid is .2. For the manometer shown in Figure E. 2.11.9 E.6 m A 1m 0.10 Figure E. 2.76 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E. The flowing fluid in which the pressure is to be determined is air with a density of 1.10. For the situation shown in Fig.91 kPa] P atm Oil S = 0. The specific gravity of the oil is 0.9 B Hg Figure E. The manometric fluid is having a specific gravity of 1. S = 0. 2.2.2.2.11 E.2 kg/m3 at the measuring condition.2.7 m D C Mercury C B D + P atm 0. [94.6 Oil.9.8 Water B A 1.2 m Figure E. [68. determine the length AB.2.9 and that of the manometer fluid is 0. In a micromanometer the area of the well chamber is 12 times the area of the U tube section.7. The pressure at point 1 and point 4 are 30 kPa and 120 kPa. [111.3 cm] 1 + L A + 4 0.04 kN/m2] E.

14 Figure E.2. E.65 N/m2] E.15.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 77 8 cm.81 N/m3. [88. Determine the pressure difference between A and B shown in Fig. S = 0.2. 2. An inclined tube manometer with limb at 10° to horizontal shows a column length of 8 cm above the reservoir level.08 P1 P2 0.16. Determine the pressure difference indicated.866 N/m2] 0. [122. 2. Under measuring condition the manometric fluid movement in one limb is 4 cm.14. Water Water S = 0. E.03 Figure E. If the temperature varies at the rate of – 0. The specific weight of the fluid is 900 × 9. Determine pressure above atmospheric level.9 0.2 2 Chapter 2 . Determine the pressures at location 1 and 2 in Fig. Determine the pressure at 3000 m.2.4 Hg 0.2.15 E. when the temperature was 20°C. 2.18 Water 0.13.4 + A + B 1 + + Oil.95 Figure E.2.04 S = 1. E.6 Water 0. The pressure at sea level was 102 kPa and the temperature is constant with height at 5°C.2.17. The atmospheric pressure at an elevation of 300 m was 100 kPa.14. E.15.2. determine the pressure at height of 1500 m.12 E.006° C/m.04 0. 0. The manometric fluid is 18 cm from top at filling.

6 m length tube to the left end of the fuel tank. 172.18.6.2.24.2 m dia filled upto a depth of 0.3 m high.19.05h kg/m3 where h is the depth in m from the surface. The pressure gauge is connected by a 0. A rectangular pan 0.2. A closed tank of cubical shape of 1 m side is accelerated at 3 m/s2 along the horizontal direction and 6 m/s2 in the vertical direction. The bourden type pressure gauge in the oxygen cylinder of a deep sea diver when he is at a depth of 50 m reads 500 kPa.2.22. E. The liquid in a tank when accelerated in the horizontal direction. [35. and if fuel specific gravity is 0. The pressure at the extreme edge at the bottom was 0.5 m side is filled to 2/3 of its height with water.92 as shown in Fig. if the fluid density varies as ρ = 0. Determine the acceleration which will cause water to spill.26.3 bar gauge.3 + 8 × 10–6 P.2.65 kg/m3] E.29. Using figure in Example 2. The reading under accelerating conditions at the right end was 200 kN/m2. Assume sea water density is constant and is 1006 kg/m3.905 m/s2] E. [120. The density of a fluid at rest increases with depth as 1000 + 0.2. Determine the pressure at the left end.8. Determine the pressure distribution on the base. E.20 is accelerated at 10 m/s2 towards (i) right and (ii) left.471 × 105 N/m2] E.25. where density is in kg/m3 and P is in N/m2 and if the pressure gauge at the right end reads 120 kN/m2. Determine the pressures at the top and bottom corners.28. [227.2. A rocket is accelerating horizontally to the right at 10 g. [0] E.2. determine the pressure gauge reading. [4. E. E. Determine the decrease in pressure within the liquid per metre distance along the direction of motion.3 m radius. Determine the liquid level at the centre when a tall cylinder of 1. If the pressure in the tank is 35 bar.038 kN/m2] E. E.6 m is rotated at 77 rpm.21.78 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E. If the acceleration in the horizontal (along the right) and vertical directions are 5 m/s2 and 7 m/s2. A closed cubical tank of 1.2.2.2. A cylinder of radius 0.2.8 is accelerated uniformly along the horizontal direction at 20 m/s2.15 m. Assume the base to be horizontal.20. 2. A cylinder containing oil of specific gravity 0.6 m filled partially with a fluid and axially rotated at 15 rad/s is empty upto 0.20 E.4 kN/m2] 3m 200 kPa as = ± 10 m/s 2 Figure E.3 m wide contains water to a depth of 0. Determine the density of the fluid.23.20.6 m long and 0. .2.2. if the acceleration is to the right at 10 m/s2. the bottom face being horizontal. Determine the pressure of oxygen above atmospheric pressure. Determine the acceleration. E. assumes a free surface making 25° with the horizontal. Determine the hydrostatic pressure at depth of 100 m. A tank containing liquid of specific gravity of 0. The tube is 3 m long. 0. determine the pressure at the left end. [987.27.

E.30 E.36. 2. A cylindrical vessel containing water is rotated as a whole.6 m 0. Determine the pressure at the closed end. A cubical box of 1 m side is half filled with water and is placed in an inclined plane making 30° with the horizontal.33. Determine the force on one of the faces. Calculate the acceleration that water will boil at point 4 at 40°C.32.5 m 2 A Figure E.30. Chapter 2 .34.2.34 E.2. 3 and 4. A tube with closed ends filled with water is accelerated towards the right at 5 m/s2. A hollow sphere of inside radius r is filled with water and is rotated about a vertical axis passing through the centre.37.Pressure Distribution in Fluids 79 E.2. E. At the same time.2.2. The pressure difference between radii 0. the container is accelerated downwards with a value of v m/s2.3 m of water. Derive an expression for the surface of constant pressure.35. Calculate the rotational speed. A small bore pipe 3 m long and one end closed is filled with water is inclined at 20° with the vertical and is rotated at 20 rpm with respect to a vertical axis passing through its mid point.2.2. A cylindrical vessel containing water is rotated about its axis at an angular speed ω (vertical).2. 2. 2.3 m and 0. determine the angle attained by the free surface.31. The U-tube shown in Fig.34 is rotated at 120 rpm about the vertical axis along A-A. E. Determine the pressure at points 1. If it is accelerated along the plane at 2 m/s2 (i) upwards.6 m is 0. (ii) downwards. 1 1m 2 Water 1m 3 1m 4 ax = 5 m/s 2 4m Figure E. E. Determine the circular line of maximum pressure. A 120 rpm 1 0. A box of cubical shape of 1.2. E. Determine the pressure at 1 and 2. E.5 m side with base horizontal filled with water is accelerated upwards at 3 m/s2. The free surface is at the top of the pipe.

4) A A 80 . The walls of reservoirs.0. i. P = γh. hcp = z hdF = γ z h 2 dA (3. Force on an elemental area dA as a depth. For the design of such structures it is necessary to determine the total force on them. sluice gates. flood gates. h. The point of action of the total force is known as centre of pressure or pressure centre.0. oil and water tanks and the hulls of ships are exposed to the forces exerted by fluids in contact with them.e. When a fluid is in contact with a surface is exerts a normal force on the surface.0.0 INTRODUCTION Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids In the previous chapter the pressure distribution in fluids in static and dynamic condition was discussed. will be dF = γhdA The total force is obtained by integrating the basic equation over the area F= γ (3.! 3.0. From the basic hydrodynamic equation it is known that the force depends on the pressure at the depth considered.2) A From the definition of centre of gravity or centroid z hdA = h A (3.1) z hdA (3. To determine the point of action of the total force. moment is taken of the elemental forces with reference to an axis and equated to the product of the total force and the distance of the centre of pressure from the axis namely hcp F.3) A where h is the depth of the centre of gravity of the area.. It is also necessary to determine the point of action of this force. The fluids are generally under static condition.

such that the moment about the axis is zero.3) As k is a constant. 3. The moment about the axis through the centre of gravity is always zero. Iy is defined as Iy = z z A x dA (3. With reference to the Fig.1.1 First moment and second moment of an area dA = A x dA − k A (3. .1. can be written as z A ( x − k) dA = z A x dA − k z z A Figure.4) A y dA (3.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 81 The integral over the area is nothing but the second moment or the moment of inertia of the area about the axis considered. 3. it is possible to choose a value of x = k. The moment of the area with respect to the y axis can be obtained by summing up the moments of elementary areas all over the surface with respect to this axis as shown in Fig.6) Considering an axis parallel to y axis through the centroid and taking the second moment of the area about the axis and calling it as IG. 3.1 x A The integral has to be taken over the area.5) z A x 2 dA (3. It can be shown that the moment of the area about any line passing through the centroid to be zero. Chapter 3 In the process of obtaining the resultant force and centre of pressure. If moments are taken with respect to a parallel axis at a distance of k from the y axis equation 3.1. the determination of first and second moment of areas is found necessary and hence this discussion.1. the second moment of an area about the y axis.1.1.1) (3.1.1.1. Thus there is a need to know the centre of gravity and the moment of inertia of areas.2) 0 y y x x 2.1.1. z A x dA − x A = 0 Such an axis is called centroidal y axis. The value of x can be determined using x = (1/A) Similarly the centroidal x axis passing at y can be located using y = (1/A) The point of intersection of these centroidal axes is known as the centroid of the area. 3. where x is the distance from the axis and the centroid.1 CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA OF AREAS New axis y k 1 (x – k) dA Area A Moment about y axis = Moment about x axis = z z G A x dA y dA (3.1.1.

7) A z A x dA + z A x 2 dA z A x 2 dA = I . The second moment is used in the determination of the centre of pressure for plane areas immersed in fluids. horizontal and minor axis is h CG h/3 2h/3 D/2 D/2 2D/3 π 4 R/3 π h/2 IG bh3/36 bh3/36 bD3/12 π D4/64 – – π bh3/64 π Ibase bh3/12 bh3/12 bD3/3 – D4/128 π R4/16 – . 7. The product of inertia is defined as Ixy = z A xy dA = IGxy + x y A (3. The location of the centre of gravity. 4.1 Centre of Gravity and Moment of Inertia for some typical shapes Shape 1. one radius horizontal Ellipse : area πbh/4 Major axis is b. side b height h and base zero of x axis Triangle. Triangle.1. 3. side b height h and vertex zero of x axis Rectangle of width b and depth D Circle Semicircle with diameter horizontal and zero of x axis Quadrant of a circle.9) (3. Therefore 2 IG = Iy – 2 x 2 A + x 2 A = Iy – x 2 A or Similarly Iy = IG + x 2 A Iy = I G + y 2 A (3.8) (3. z A x dA = x 2 A.11) It can be shown that whenever any one of the axes is an axis of symmetry for the area.1.1.1.10) The moment of inertia of an area about any axis is equal to the sum of the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the centroid and the product of the area and the square of the distance between this axis and centroidal axis. 5.1.82 IG = IG = By definition Fluid Mechanics and Machinery z z A ( x − x) 2 dA x 2 dA − 2 x (3. These two equations are used in all the subsequent problems. y z A x 2 dA = x A As x 2 is constant. Ixy = 0. 2. 6. moment of inertia through the centroid IG and moment of inertia about edge Iedge (specified) for some basic shapes are given in Table 3.1. Table 3.

So Chapter 3 . Let the trace of the plane (the end view of the line where it meets the horizontal plane) be ‘‘O’’.2. Semi ellipse with major axis as horizontal and x = 0 Parabola (half) area 2bh/3 (from vertex as zero) 2h/3 π yg = 3h/5 xg= 3b/8 – – π bh3/128 2bh3/7 83 3. Consider this line as reference and set up the axes as shown in figure. force = area × pressure The contribution due to the weight of the gas column is negligible. Refer Fig. The force dF on the elemental area is given by dF = P dA = γhdA = γ y sin θ dA The total force over the whole area is obtained by integration of this expression over the whole area. 3. force = Ayγ in which y may also be expressed as head of the fluid.2.1 Plane surface immersed in liquid at an angle Consider the plane AB of the given shape immersed in the liquid at an angle θ to the horizontal (free surface). Here also the pressure at all locations are the same. Case : Plane inclined at angle θ with horizontal. Consider the elemental area dA. P = – y × γ and as y is – ve. F= z A γ y sin θ dA = γ sin θ z A y dA From the definition of centroidal axis at y = z A y dA = y A. The resultant force acts vertically through the centroid of the area. 9. The resultant acts at the centroid of the area as the pressure at all depths are the same. Case 2 : Horizontal surface at a depth y. 3.2 FORCE ON AN ARBITRARILY SHAPED PLATE IMMERSED IN A LIQUID Case 1 : Surface exposed to gas pressure : For plane surface.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 8.1 O q Y A P h h hcp WL Y X dy B Ycp CG X XC CP Y P Figure.

2.1) In case x = x or y = y is an axis of symmetry for the area. F = γ A h (3.3.1. As h = y sin θ.2. and so h = y in this case.2. 1. γ h equals the pressure at the centroid. Along the y direction (more often the depth of centre of pressure is required) ycp = Ix / y A. (3.5) and those given in Table 3.1. let CP (xcp.10 z A x y dA. A special case of the situation is a vertical surface where θ = 90° and sin θ = 1. For surfaces with an axis of symmetry. Equations (3.2.3. 3.84 F = γ A y sin θ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (3. F = γ y A sin θ) As xcp = (1/ y A) From equations 3. In other cases xcp and ycp are calculated by the use of moments.4).2) This equation is extensively used in the calculation of total force on a surface.9 and 3. Referring to the Fig.1) and equating it to the product of the distance of the centre of pressure from this axis and the total force on the area (as calculated in section 3.2).1. z A x y dA = Ixy xcp = Ixy / y A = (IGxy + x A y ) = (IGxy / A y ) + x (3. The following important conclusions can be drawn from this equation. With reference to the Fig.1. As IX = IG + y 2 A ycp = (IG / y A) + y (3. 2.3 CENTRE OF PRESSURE FOR AN IMMERSED INCLINED PLANE The centre of pressure is determined by taking moments of the force on elementary areas with respect to an axis (say O in Fig. The total force thus equals the product of area and the pressure at the centroid.1. the centre of pressure will lie on that axis.1.1 xcp γ y A sin θ = A z z A x P dA and ycp F = z A y P dA γ x y sin θ dA (P = γ y sin θ.2) . 3. 3.1 are used to obtain the location of the centroid.1) Calling the depth at y (distance of centroid from the surface) as h . IGxy = 0 and the centre of pressure will lie on the axis of symmetry. 3. xcp F = The area element considered here being dxdy. ycp) be the centre of pressure.

If the plane is vertical.2a) This is the general equation when the depth of the centre of pressure is required in the case of inclined planes. h = 8 + (0.3.8 m 1m Sluice Figure Ex.3.433 × 0. y = h the depth to the centroid.81 × 8. then sin2 θ = 1. 3.5 × sin 60) / 2 = 8.74 cos 30 = 8.8 = 66182 N hcp = (IG sin2 θ / h A) + h .2) hcp / sin θ = [IG /{( h / sin θ) × A}] + h /sin θ ∴ hcp = [(IG sin2 θ)/ h A)] + h (3.433 m Total force = γ h A = 1000 × 9.433 = 8.2 1m 8/c os h 30° y = 9. The wall of a reservoir is inclined at 30° to the vertical.74 m h = 9.44 m Distance along the wall surface.8 m wide is closed by a plate.8 × 13 × sin2 60/8.3. The depth of centre of gravity.746 m Water level 4m 8m 30 = 9. Determine the location of the centre of pressure and the total force on the plate. These equations are fairly simple. 8. The depth of centre of lamina from water surface is 8 m.3) Chapter 3 y = h / sin θ (3.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 85 IG is the moment of inertia along the centroidal axis and y is the location of centroid along the y direction.2. IG = (1/12) bd3 [(1/12) 0.5 0. The top of the opening is 8 m below the water level. (along the plane) then substituting ycp = hcp/sin θ and Substituting in equation (3. In case the height hcp is required instead of ycp.8] + 8.1. If θ = 90° (vertical surface). Example 3.44/ cos 30 = 9. then. Determine the total force and its point of action on an annular lamina of 1m ID and 3 m OD placed at an inclination of 30 degrees to the horizontal under water. The angle with the horizontal is 60°. A sluice 1m long along the slope and 0.44 m 0. the main problem being the calculation of the moment of inertia for odd shapes.1 Problem model Example 3. .433 × 1 × 0.

y = P. A = bh/2 hcp = (2 b h3/ 36 b h P) + P = (h2 /18 P) + P These equations can be used as a short cut under suitable situations.0195 m IG = (π / 64) (D4 – d4) 30 – {8 × ((32 – 12) π/4)}] + 8 3.5 m Figure Ex.75) = 89394 N 1.3 .5) (6 + 0.1 Centre of Pressure for Immersed Vertical Planes Case 1: A rectangle of width b and depth d.9.3.4) b P P d d P h/3 h b (i) (ii) (iii) Figure 3. Case 2: A circle of diameter d.5 m with an oil of specific gravity 0. y = P.3.5) (3.3. It has a rectangular gate 1m wide and 1. 3. A = π d2/4 hcp = (π d4 × 4/64 πd2 P) + P = (d2 /16 P) + P Case 3: IG = bh3/36. Case 3: A triangle of height h with base b.3. y = P. An oil tank is filled to a height of 7.9 × 1000 × 9. Assuming the depth of CG to be P m in all the cases.6) (3. h = y in the case hcp = (IG/A y ) + y Case 1: IG = bd2/12. Force on the gate from oil side = γ A h = (0.5 m high provided at the bottom of a side face.3. horizontal and nearer the free surface. Determine the resultant force on the gate and also its point of action.3.1 Vertical Surfaces Example 3. A = bd hcp = (bd3/12 bd P) + P = (d2 /12 P) + P Case 2: IG = π d4/64.38 N (depth is directly specified) Depth of centre of pressure = (IG sin2 θ / h A) + h.81) (1 × 1.86 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9.81 × π (32 – 11) × 8/4 = 493104.5 m Gate 7. = [(π/64) (34 – 14) sin2 = 8. (3. the side of length b being horizontal.

021 m In order to locate the point of action of the resultant force. Ex.5 m below water surface. Example 3.78 m Check using eqn. moment is taken with reference to the surface to determine the depth.78 m 87 The resultant force will act at a distance of 6. 3.021 m 1m 2m C F 2. The plate can be considered as two rectangles (i) ABCD 1m wide and 2 m deep and (ii) CEFG 2.5583 m and at a distance of 1.4 COMPONENT OF FORCES ON IMMERSED INCLINED RECTANGLES Consider a case of a rectangle of a × d.78 m from the surface of oil at the centre line of the gate.5 = 2.5)) + 4 = 4.5 + 2 + 1/2) (1 × 2.25)]/(49050 + 98100) = 1.5) + (98100 × 1.5) = 2.0 m The resultant force acts at a depth of 3. = 147150 N hcpi = (Igi / hi Ai) + hi = [(1 × 23/12)/(1 × 2. with side d inclined at θ to the horizontal. hcpii = (12/12 × 4) + 4 = 4. 3. The net force acting perpendicular to the area is given by = γ A h The horizontal component equals = γ A h sin θ Chapter 3 .53/12)/6. For this case it can be shown that (i) The horizontal component of the resultant force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area and (ii) The vertical component equals the weight of the fluid column above this area. The top surface of the plate is 1.5) + 6. Fi = γ hi Ai = (1000 × 9.81) (1. 3.5 × 13/12) (1/4 × 2.5583 m Moment is taken about AF to determine the lateral location hcpx = [(49050 × 0.633 m hcpii = (Igii/hii Aii) + hii = ((2.75 × 1 × 1.1).0 m from the edge AF.5 m D E G WL 1.52 /12 × 6.4. Determine the net force and its point of action over an L shaped plate submerged vertically under water as shown in Fig.633 + 98100 × 4.4 Also by equation 3.021)/(49050 + 98100) = 3.4.4.5) = 98100 N Total force on the plate Considering ABCD Also by equation (3.5.3.5 + 2. 3.633 m hcpi = (d2/12P) + P = (22/12 × 2.4.5 m wide and 1 m deep.0/2) (1 × 2) = 49050 N Fii = γ hii Aii = (1000 × 9. IG = bd3/12.75 = 6. hcpy = (Fi hcpi + Fii hcpii)/(Fi + Fii) = (49050 × 2.81) (1. y = 6.3.75 m = ((1 × 1.75 = 6.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids hcp = (IG / y A) + y .5 m 1m A B Figure Ex. which is simpler.75) + 6.5 × 2)] + 2. hcp = (d2/12P) + P = (1. immersed in a fluid with its centroid at a depth of h m.

4.4.88 0 q WL h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery hcp a G Y Yc CP d p Figure 3. The horizontal force on the gate = γ h h/2 and acts at h/3 distance from O. The vertical component = γ A h cos θ The horizontal projection of the area = A cos θ The volume of the fluid column above this surface = A cos θ h The weight of the fluid column = γ A h cos θ Hence the vertical component of the force equals the weight of the fluid column above the area. Neglect the weight of gate. Water WL (3.5. 3. Determine the ratio of h/L. Using equation (3. ycp = (IG / y . Hence the horizontal component of the force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area.5.5 . denoting the distance along the plane as y. Ex. and in case the edge is at the free surface.1 The vertical projection of the area = A sin θ The centroid of this area will also be at h The force on the projected area = γ A h sin θ.2). 3. friction etc. It can also be shown that the location of the action of the horizontal component will be at the centre of pressure of the projected area and the line of action of the vertical component will be along the centroid of the column of the liquid above the plane. A) + y . An automatic gate which will open beyond a certain head h is shown in Fig.1) h h/3 L/2 0 L Figure Ex. Consider 1 m width of the gate The vertical force = L γ h and acts at a distance L/2 from O. y = d/2 The equation reduces to ycp = (2/3) d or (2/3) y sin θ from free surface Example 3.3.

4641 m. 3. Determine the value of h in terms of L.4. Hence the gate will open when water rises to 1m above O.506 m).6 FG 2 h from topIJ H 3 sin θ K W. Ex.265 m. A. Example 3. A = h/ sin θ and h = h/2 Using equation (3.6. A modified form of automatic gate is shown in Fig. The Chapter 3 . determine the value of water head h to open the gate.5774 h For example if L = 2 m. Total force normal to the plate F = γ . Ex. and Lw where W is the weight for unit width of gate and Lw is the distance from O to the line of action of W. The vertical force on the horizontal side = γ h L and acts upwards at L/2 from O. W = 8000 N. Taking moments about O.1. h = 1 m. h For unit width.7. See 3.6. the centre of pressure will be at (2/3)h from top. or LW Hinge L WL P1 h W 3 sin q q Figure Ex.6. Lw = 0. With the calculators available presently cubic equations can be solved directly. Using the equation derived in example 3. 3.5 = 0. Taking moments about O. the line of action along the inclined side can be obtained as h/3 sin θ from bottom edge. W. (The other solution is 0.Lw + γ (h/2) (h/sin θ) (h/ 3 sin θ) = γ h L L/2 γ (γ / 6 sin2 θ) h3 – (γ L2 / 2) h + W Lw = 0 γ Pressure force normal to plate = γ (h/2) (h/sin θ) and acts at (h/3 sin θ) from O.. 3. L = 1m.4.). (γ / 6 sin2 θ) h3 – γ (L2/2) h + W Lw = 0 (9810/ 6 sin2 50) h3 – 9810(12 / 2) h + 8000 × 0. Weight of the gate = W and acts downwards at Lw from O. θ = 50°. 3.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 89 Note : When the water level is at the top of vertical plate.5 FORCES ON CURVED SURFACES (i) Vertical forces : The vertical force on a curved surface is given by the weight of the liquid enclosed by the surface and the horizontal free surface of the liquid. Example 3. Considering unit width. then h = 3. For the following data.1. L γ h (L/2) = γ h (h/2) (h/3) L2 = h2/3 (or) L = h/(3)0. This is a cubic equation in h and can be solved by trial.6.265 = 0 or 2786 h3 – 4905 h + 2120 = 0 Solving by trial. An automatic gate which opens beyond a particular head is as shown in Fig.

These two statements can be proved as indicated below. The volume above the surface can be divided into smaller elements. gravity = 1. the force due to gas pressure equals the product of horizontal projected area and the gas pressure and acts at the centroid of the projected area. force due to the gas pressure cancels out. the vertical force equals the weight of the small element.1 be in equilibrium. If the other side of the surface is exposed to the same gas pressure.1. The horizontal component of the force acting on the curved portion AB = γ A h = (1025 × 9. The horizontal force on this area due B B¢ to liquid pressure should equal the horizontal force on the curved surface for the volume A′B′ AB to Figure 3. Ex. The element between A′B′ and the surface Projected AB is in equilibrium. (ii) Horizontal forces: The horizontal force equals the force on the projected area of the curved surface and acts at the centre of pressure of the projected area. 3. F = γ A h.81) (4 × 1)(15 + 4/2) = 683757 N Line of action of this horizontal force = h + (IG / h A) = 17 + [1 × 43/12] [1/(17 × 4 × 1)] = 17. Also determine the direction of action of the force. 3. where A is the projected area and h is the depth of the centroid of the area. Example 3. This applies to doubly curved surfaces and inclined plane surfaces.8. The value can be calculated using the general equation.0784 m from top and towards left The vertical force is due to the volume of sea water displaced.025) on the curved portion AB of an oil tanker as shown in Fig.8. Consider an imaginary vertical surface A′B′. Refer to Fig. In case there is gas pressure above the surface.5. Thus WL the total vertical force equals the sum of the weights of all the elements or the weight of the Sample liquid enclosed between the area and the horizontal element A A¢ surface.5. Hence the horizontal force equals the force on the projected area due to liquid pressure. Determine the force exerted by sea water (sp.90 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery force acts along the centre of gravity of the volume. A D Oil tanker C WL 15 m B E 4m 4m Figure Ex. At the base of each element. Consider 1m width perpendicular to paper. A′B′ gives the projected area vertical area. 3.8 .

0523 ) – 683757 × 2.e. Ex. Taking moments of the area about the edge.. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force due to water on a quadrant shaped cylindrical gate as shown in Fig. 3.302 × 42 p/4) + 2 × (15 × 4)] / [(42 π/4) + (15 × 4)] = 2. the difference is small and so the moments are equal and the resultant can be taken as zero.937 \ q = 43. (1/3) × 4) Vertical force = the weight to the liquid displaced = π × 42 × 1 × 9810/4 = 123276 N.14° The answer can be checked by checking whether the resultant passes through the centre of the circle (as it should) by taking moments about the centre and equating them. upwards.. at = 1.9. to the right It acts at the centre of pressure of the projected area i.16 N .333 m from the bottom (i.e.81] = 729673 N (acts upwards). Horizontal force = 9810 × 2 × 4 × 1 = 78480 N. Centre of gravity of the area ABE = (4 – 4R/3p) from the edge = (4 – 4 × 4/3p) = 2. 3. 91 To find the location of this force : Centre of gravity of the column BCDE is in the vertical plane 2 m from the edge. 729673(4 – 2.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force = [volume BCDE + volume ABE] g = [(15 × 4 × 1) + (42 × p × 1/4)] [1025 × 9. Chapter 3 The resultant force = (6837572 + 7296732)0. Check whether the resultant passes through the centre. the line of action of vertical force is = [(2.302 m from the edge. The direction of action to the vertical is. Example 3. Considering unit width. 4m WL Gate CG 4r 3p 4m Hinge 4m 123276 q 78480 Figure Ex.9 The horizontal force = γ A h where A is the projected area.078 = 337 Compared to the large values. Hence the resultant can be taken to pass through the centre of the cricle.5 = 999973.0523 m from the edge. tan q = 683757 / 729673 = 0.9.

∴ θ = 32.6366. Example 3.3. Pressures at the centroid of each layer is Pcg1 = 881 × 4 × 9. Specific gravity of oil is 0.81) = 330832 N/m2 . In such cases the total force will equal the some of the forces due to each fluid.3333) – 123276 × 1.698 m.. Compared to the values the difference is small and these can be assumed to the equal. F = F1 + F2 + .6 HYDROSTATIC FORCES IN LAYERED FLUIDS Two fluids may sometimes be held in a container one layer over the other. = P1 A1 + P2 A2 + .. Determine the total hydrostatic force and resultant centre of pressure on the side. from the hinge. The centre of pressure has to determined for each layer separately with reference to the centroid of each area.44 N/m2 Pcg2 = (881 × 4 × 9. (4.1 Total force.81 = 34570. The location of the point of action of the total force can be determined taking moments about some convenient references.2) ρ 1 g sin θ I xx + y1 P1 A1 This distance is with respect to the centroid of the area.81) = 64000 N/m2 Pcg3 = (881 × 4 × 9. Resultant force = (1232762 + 784802)0. 3.. A tank 20 m deep and 7 m wide is layered with 8 m of oil.. ycp1 = − (3.881 and that of mercury is 13.81) + (13600 × 2 × 9.1) Note : (P1 / ρ1) gives the head of the fluid as ρ is different for different fluids. F1 h1 ycp 1 Y2 Fluid 2 F2 h2 q ycp 2 Y1 Fluid 1 Figure 3.6.8.6.92 It acts at 4r/3π = 1.698 = 42. this form is prferable.10. 78480 × (4 – 1.5 = 146137 N Angle is determined by tan θ = 78480/123276 = 0.81) + (1000 × 3 × 9. 6 m of water and 4 m of mercury. Hence the resultant passes through the centre of the cricle.. The depth of centre of pressure of fluid 1 is determined using the eqn.48° where θ is the angle with vertical.81) + (1000 × 3 × 9... Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To check for the resultant to pass through the centre the sum of moment about O should be zero.

(3. Total force on the gate = γ A h = (1000 × 9.46 × 268808) + (16. 2 m and 2. (i) At 1. Also calculate the total force on a 6 m wide wall.81) = 45130 N/m2 F = (15700 × 2 × 6/2) + {(45130 + 15700) × 3 × 6/2} = 641670 N SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 3.887 × 106 N/m2 ycp1 = − ycp2 = 93 881 × 9.5 m.8 × 1000) × 9. A tank contains water upto 3 m height over which oil of specific gravity 0.81 × 43 × 7 = 0.81 × 2 = 15700 N/m2 P2.54 m 12 × 9263308 The line of action of the total force is determined by taking moment about the surface.4.8 is filled to 2 m depth.5 = 11770 N/m2 P2.333 m as θ = 90° 12 × 34570 P1 A1 1000 × 9.2).46 m. 12 × 2688018 13600 × 9. from the water level or 0. y × 13. Example 3.5 m depth.5 = 15700 + (1000 × 9.0625 m from the centre of the gate Check using eqn.1.81 × 1. Also determine the depth of the centre of pressure from the centre of the gate.54 × 9263308) Solving y = 13. hcp = (D2/16 h ) + h = (22/(16 × 4) + 4 = 4.8 × 1000) × 9. P = 15700 + (1000 × 3 × 9.333 × 1935944) + (11.5) = 20600 N/m2 At the base.0 = (0.11.5 = (0. The force due to water on a circular gate of 2m dia provided on the vertical surface of a water tank is 12376 N.81 × 83 × 7 ρ1 g sin θ I xx = = 1.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids F1 = Pcg1 × A1 = 34570 × 8 × 7 = 1935944 N F2 = Pcg2 × A2 = 64000 × 6 × 7 = 2688018 N F3 = Pcg3 × A3 = 330832 × 4 × 7 = 9263308 N Total force = 13.0625 m Chapter 3 ycp3 = . Calculate the pressure at 1.09 N Solving h = 4 m.81 × 63 × 7 = 0.81) (π × 22/4) × h = 123276. P1. So the depth of water above the centre = 4 m Centre of action of this force = (IG / h A) + h = (π × 24/64)/(4 × π × 22/4) + 4 = 4. Total force.0625 m.944 m.887 × 106 = (5. Determine the level of water above the gate.81 × 0.5 m.

the total force on which will equal the force on the remaining area.05625 m Centre of pressure for the annulus = 5 + [{π (34 – 2.121322 × 5] = 5. (iv) Show that the centres of pressure of the full area lies midway between these two centres of pressure.2.16875 + 5. m 5m 3m Figure P. force on the circular area = force on annular area. A1 = π (32 – d2)/4. (ii) The given condition is. 3.3 . (ii) Also determine the size of an inner rectangle with equal spacing on all sides.1125 m (same as the centre of pressure of full area) Problem 3.121324 × 4/64 × π × 2.3.1125 m.05625)/2 = 5. (i) Determine the total force on one side and the point of action of the force. (i) The total force on the circular plate γ A h = 9810 × (π × 32/4) × 5 = 346714 N Centre of pressure Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Water level d. (iii) Determine the centre of pressures for these areas and compare the moments of these forces about a horizontal axis passing through the centre of pressure for the whole area. 3. γ A1 h = γ A2 h assuming that the diameter of the smaller circle to be d.121324)/64}/{5 × π (32 – 2. A2 = π d2/4 equating ∴ 32 – d2 = d2 or 2d2 = 32 or d = 2.12132 m. with outside diameter being 3 m. The force on the inner circular area = 9810 (π × 32/2 × 4) × 5 = 173357 N (Checks as it is half of 346714 N) Centre of pressure for the circle = 5 + [π × 2. (iii) Determine also the centre of pressures for these two areas separately. Water level C 5m 4m 3m Figure P. A circular plate of 3 m dia is vertically placed in water with its centre 5 m from the free surface.16875 m The mid point of these two is = (5.121322)/4}] = 5. (ii) Also find the diameter of a concentric circle dividing this area into two so that force on the inner circular area will equal the force on the annular area.2 = h + (IG/ h A) = 5 + (π × 34 × 4/64 × 5 × π × 32) = 5. For the areas the centroid depth h is the same. A plane 3 × 4 m is vertically placed in water with the shorter side horizontal with the centroid at a depth of 5m. (i) Determine the force due to the fluid pressure on one side of the plate and also its point of application.94 Problem 3.

If the water level is upto the top edge of the gate.3833 m (iv) Moment of the force on the inner area about the CP of the whole area = 294300 (5.5 or 3.5 = 0.5 C + 1.15 m Centre of pressure for the outer area = 5 + (1/2) (3 × 43 – 2 × 33) / [5 × (4 × 3 – 3 × 2)] = 5. acts above) Moment of the force on the outer area = 294300 (5. C = 0.4 Chapter 3 . locate three horizontal positions so that equal forces will act at these locations due to the water pressure. Pressure on the smaller rectangle = 1000 × 9.2667 m 95 (ii) Assume a spacing of C m on all sides to form the inner rectangle. acts below) The moments are equal but are opposite in sign and the total is zero.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids (i) The total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9. (4 × 3) = 2(4 – 2C) (3 – 2C) C2 – 3.26667) = 34335 Nm (anti clockwise.81 × 5 × 3 × 2 = 294300 N (iii) Centre of pressure for the inner area = 5 + (1/2) (2 × 33/2 × 3 × 5) = 5. The smaller rectangle is of 2 m × 3 m size. The depth CG is the same for both areas As This reduces to γ A1 h = γ A2 h . As C = 3 is not possible.0. A1 = A2. (Check : 2 × 3 = 6.4.15) = 34335 Nm (clockwise. A water tank has an opening gate in one of its vertical side of 10 m × 5m size with 5m side in the horizontal direction.5. Problem 3. 4 × 3 = 12.3833 – 5. Water level 0 0 h1 h2 10 m A A h3 Solving C = 0.26667 – 5. 3.81 × 5 × 4 × 3 = 588600 N Centre of pressure = 5 + (1/2) (3 × 43/5 × 12) = 5. half the area) B B C 5m C Figure P.

A triangular surface is kept vertical in water with one of its edges horizontal and at the free surface.849.887 h 2 – (25/3) = 0 h 2 2 – 5. γ h 2 A2 = (1/3) γ A h γ h 2 × 5 × 2 ( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) = (1/3) × γ × 5 × 10 × 5 h 2 2 – 2 h 1 h 2 – (25/3) = 0 or h 2 2 – 2 × 2.887 m. let the centroid be h 2 .e.. at depths of 3..392 = 1.33 = 0.834 m h 3 = 10 – (1.887 (5 × 5.774 h 2 – 8.392 m Centre of pressure for this second strip = [IG2/ h 2 A2] + h 2 = [5 × 2. 7. Let h 1 be the centroid of the top portion of the surface on which the force acting is equal to 1/3 of the total.97 × (5 × 2.083 m Centre of pressure for third strip is = [IG3/ h 3 A3] + h 3 = 5 × 1.e. If the triangle is divided by a line drawn from one of the vertices at the free surface such that the total force is equally divided between the parts.97 – 2 × 2.5. 6.114 m.97 = 7.083 × 5 × 1. Then (i) γ h 1 A1 = (1/3) γ A h γ h 1 (2 h 1 × 5) = (1/3) × γ × (10 × 5) × 5 ∴ ∴ h 12 = 25/3 h 1 = 2. The depth of this second strip = 2( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) Force on the second strip.97 m The depth for second strip is = 2( h 2 – 2 h 1 ) = 2 (6.834) + 9.887) = 2.887 = 3.114 m To keep the gate closed supports at these locations will be optimum i.834/2) = 9.887 = 5. .038 and 9.7743/12 × 2.774 m Centre of pressure for first strip = [IG1/ h 1 A1] + h 1 = [5 × 5.038 m (iii) The depth of the third and bottom strip is = 10 – 5.8343/(12 × 9.774 – 2. The average of these values will equal the depth of centre of pressure for the whole gate i. solving h 2 = 6.8493 m (ii) For the second strip. Therefore the depth of the top strip is 2 × 2.392)] + 6. Then the centre of pressure for each of the areas should be located to obtain the points of application of the forces.667 m (check). determine the ratio by which the opposite side is divided.083 = 9.3923/12 × 6. Problem 3.774)] + 2.96 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To solve this problem the area should be divided into three parts in each of which the force will be equal to 1/3 of the total force on the surface.

Let h1 be the height of triangle ABD and let h2 be the height of triangle ABC along the The force on ABC = 2 × the force on ABD The centroids will be at h1/3 and h2/3 for these triangles. In a water reservoir.5 i.7.81 × (π × 32/4 × 2) × 0.4142 The opposite side is divided the ratio of (2)0. Let the AD divided the triangle such that the total force on ABD equals the force on ACD.5 But ∴ BC/BD = (h2/h1) = (2)0.81 [2 + 4 × 3/3 π] [π × 32/4] = 226976 N Chapter 3 .. Determine the total pressure and its point of action if water level is up to the top edge of the gate.4142 Problem 3.6366 m Total force = 1000 × 9. The gate is positioned in such a way that one straight edge of it is horizontal.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids b A h1 h2 D C B Water surface 97 Figure P. depth. Determine the force acting on the gate due to water and its point of action if the tank is filled with water upto 2 m above the edge. γ (bh2/2)(h2/3) = 2 (γ bh1/2)(h1/3).6366 = 22072 N = 22. Distance of centre of gravity of the gate from the top edge = 2D/3 π = 4r/3 π Total pressure on the gate = γ h A = 1000 × 9.5 Consider the triangle ABC.5 CD/BD = 0.6. BC/BD = 1. 3. rearranging h22 = 2 h12 or (h2/h1) = (2)0. the vertical gate provided for opening is a semicircular plate of dia 3 m with diameter horizontal and at the water level.8836 m Problem 3.6366) = 0.e. A water tank is provided with a gate which has a shape of a quadrant of a circle of 3 m radius. Total force on the gate = γ A h h = centre of gravity of the semicircular surface 2D/ 3π = 2 × 3/3 × π = 0.072 kN Ibase = π D4/ 128 (about the diameter) Depth centre of pressure = Ibase/A h = (π × 34/128)(2 × 4/π × 32) (1/0.

1921 + 3. . Problem 3. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery WL Xcp hcp h 2m y 3m dy CG x dy CP Figure P.2156 m from the vertical edge.976 × xp = 275.2732 × π 32/4)] + 3. 3.7 Depth of centre of pressure = [(π × 64/916)/(3.9 with one edge horizontal and at a depth of 2m. dM = (γ/2) (y + 2) (9 – y2) dy Integrating the above expression from y = 0 to y = 3 M = (γ/2) z 0 [– y3 – 2y2 + 9y + 18] dy y4 2 3 9 2 γ − − y + y + 18 y = 2 4 3 2 Equating the moment for the total force LM N OP Q 3 0 = (γ/2) [56. x2 + y2 = 9 (taking centre as 0.2732 = 3.906 ∴ xp = 1. A right angle triangle of 2m × 2m sides lies vertically in oil of specific gravity 0.25] = (9810/2) × 56. Determine the net force on one side and its point of action.h.2732 = 0.2156 m from the left edge The centre of pressure is located at 3. Circle equation is. Force on the strip = γ.8.x.dy Moment of force with respect to y axis dM = γ h x dy x/2 = [force acts at a distance of x/2 from y axis] As h = y + 2 and 3 γ hx2 dy.906 Nm 226. moment of elementary forces of the elementary strips is taken with reference to the y axis and equated to the product of total force and the distance to the centre of pressure from x axis.4653 m To determine the location of centre of pressure (as there is no line of symmetry with reference to the axes). 2 x2 = (9 – y2).98 Moment of inertia for the gate with reference to the diameter = π D4/ 2 × 128 IG = I – y 2 A Moment of inertia with reference to the centroid = [(1/2) × π D4/128] – (π D2/4 × 4) (2D / 3 π)2 = [(1/2) × π D4/128] – π D4/36 π2 = π D4 [(1/256) – (1/36 π2)].2732 m as r = 3. Simplyfying IG = π D4/ 916 Depth of centre of pressure = [IG/ h A] + h h = 2 + 4r/3π = 2 + 4/π = 3.4655 m below the free surface and 1. 0) Area of strip = x.25 = 275.dy.

625 m (checks) Whenever there is a line of symmetry for the axis. Total force = γ A h = 1000 × 9. which is the line of symmetry. The moment of inertia about the CG is bh3/36 where b is the base and h is the height.75 B 1. BE = 0.75 m from top and 0.9 / 2) M N4 Taking moments of the total force.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 99 The centre of gravity lies at 1/3 height from base. CD = 1 so. Referring to the figure. Check: A strip of width dy is considered.625 m The centre of pressure is 2. 3.625 2 CG 2m (i) A x (ii) Figure P. Chapter 3 2m CP dy .9 × (2 × 2/2)(2 + 2/3) = 47088 N (if water F = 47088/0. the centre of pressure will be on the median line.81 × 0.25/2). 2 4 − y3 − y 2 + 8 y 3 2 OP Q 2 = 29430 Nm 0 xcp = 29430/47088 = 0.625 m from the vertical side.25 E D y 0.75 m 2m 2m C 0. Integrating from 0 to 2 for value of y. Force on the strip = γ h A = γ (y + 2) (x dy) In this case.75 m In the x direction. M = (γ/2) z 2 0 (y3 – 2y2 – 4y + 8) dy 4 Ly = (9810 × 0. by similar triangle (AF = FG = 2 – y) ∴ x = (2 – y) Force dF = γ (y + 2) (2 – y) dy and Moment about the vertical edge = dF (x/2) dM = γ ((2 – y)/ 2) (y + 2) (2 – y) dy. (BE/CD) = (AB/AC) = (1.8 The depth of the centre of pressure = hcp = h + (IG/ h A) = (2 + 2/3) + [(2 × 33/36)/(2 + 2/3) (2 × 2/2)] = 2. the centre or pressure will be on it.9 N) Oil level 2m 2 m 3 2.

P.8) For triangle = 47088 × (1/0. The centre of gravity for the plate is on its diagonal.75 3.7 and P.8708 m to the left of the common edge The combined centre of pressure lies at a depth of 3. Determine the total force and torque required to close the opening by a hinged gate exactly if the oil (sp.3.7 and P. WL 1. 3. the centre of pressure is at depth = 2. An oil tank has an opening of 2 m square with diagonal horizontal in one of its vertical wall as shown in Fig.90) level is 5m above the centreline of the gate.10.9.4655) + (47088 × 2. P.100 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 3. Problem 3.2156 m (ii) For the triangle. Determine the centre of pressure and the total force for the combined area as shown in Fig. Assume water is the liquid.3.10.625 m (note CP is independent of density as long as density is constant) The forces are : C from the problems P.75/0.625 2.4655 m and distance from side = 1.2156 × 226976) – (0.3.8.9. The available values from these problems are (i) For the Quadrant of circle the centre of pressure is at depth = 3.9) = 52320 N For quadrant = 226976 N To locate the depth moment is taken about the surface.625 × 52320)]/(226976 + 52320) = 0. depth y = [(226976 × 3. 3. x = [(1. Taking moments about AB. gravity 0.9)]/(226976 + 52320) = 3.3313 m and 0.3.3313 m Taking moments about the common edge horizontal location is.3.4655 B Figure P.8708 m to the left from the vertical common edge. Moment of inertia = Moment of inertia of the top triangle + Moment of inertia of bottom triangle = bh3/12 + bh3/12 = 2 bh3/12 .75 m and distance from the side = 0.2156 A CP CP 0.9 The shape is a combination of the shapes of problems P.

3. Show that the torque required remains constant irrespective of the height of the fluid above the opening as long as it submerges the opening completely.0667 m Total force on the gate = γ A h = (1000 × 9.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids WL 101 2 m 5m Figure P.11.81 × 0. The gate is L m long along the slope and b m wide. The tension of the rope will equal W.0667 m The centre of pressure lies on the vertical diagonal at a depth of 5.12. Force on the gate = γ A h = γ (hb/sin θ) h/ 2.11 acts at (h/3. h = 5. and held in place by a torque.sin θ) from the hinge (position of centre of pressure). A square shaped vertical closing for an opening in a water tank is pivotted along the middle. A hinged gate is held in position by a counter weight W as shown in Fig. Determine the height of water for the movement of the gate outwards. P. W acts perpendicular to the gate which is inclined at angle θ .9) × 4 × 5 = 176. The counter weight.3333/5 × 4) + 5 = 5.11.3333 m4.10 h= Moment of Inertia 22 + 22 / 2 = 8 /2. The torque required = Net force × distance from centroid to centre of pressure = γ A h (hcp – h ) = γ A h (IG / A h ) = γ IG W WL F h Hinge q L Chapter 3 . Neglect the weight of the gate.778 Nm Problem 3. b = 8 = 2( 8 ) ( 8 /2)3/12 = 1. The force Figure P.580 kN Torque required to close the gate = (5. A = 4 Depth of centre of pressure = (1. 3.L = γ (hb/sin θ) (h/2) (h/3 sin θ) ∴ h3 = 6 W L sin2 θγ θγb Problem 3.0667 – 5) 176580 = 11. Let h m of water cause the gate to just start to move out. Taking moments about the hinge. W. 3.

If for example h = 6 m and a = 2 m. Problem 3. (hcp – h ) gives the distance of the hinge from the centroid (hcp – h ) = (IG /A h ).13. Determine the distance of this axis from the centroid if the height h is specified. Problem 3. 3.14 On the right side (as sin (90° – θ) = cos θ) the force is γ(h2/2) (h2/cos θ) and acts at (1/3) (h2/cos θ). A square gate of side. from hinge. in which case the centre of pressure will move upwards causing the opening. the force is given by (per unit width) Hinge γ (h1/2) (h1/ sin θ) and it acts at (1/3) (h1/ sin θ).14. Problem 3. The gate will begin to open if the hinge is at the level of the centre of pressure and the water level just begins to rises.54 m Total force = γ h A = 9810 × 9. If h1 = 2 m and h2 = 3 m. Taking moments about the hinge. then h = 6 + (11/2) sin 40 = 9. The top edge of the inclined plate is 6 m from the free surface. γ (h1/2) (h1/ sin θ) (h1/2) (h1/ 3 sin θ) = γ (h2/2) (h2/ cos θ) (h2/ 3 cos θ) ∴ (h1/ h2)3 = tan2 θ.15. a closing an opening is to be hinged along a horizontal axis so that the gate will open automatically when the water level reaches a certain height above the centroid of the gate. Determine the total force and location of the centre of pressure on a rectangular plate 11 m long and 6 m wide with a triangular opening immersed in water at an angle of 40° to the horizontal as shown in figure. below the centroidal axis. Gate WL WL h1 q A 96 – q h2 On the left side. As force increases the distance of centre of pressure from CG decreases and hence this result. then (hcp – h ) = 4/(6 × 6) = 1/9m.102 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As IG depends only on the plate dimension. If h1 = h2. the torque is independent of the height of fluid subject to the condition that it submerges the plate fully.77 kN . θ = 28. θ = 45° as tan2 θ = 1 tan θ = 1 (2/3)3 = tan2 θ.56° or the gate is tilted towards left. A gate of rectangular shape hinged at A divides the upstream and downstream sides of a canal 5 m wide as shown in figure. h = h/2. from hinge in both cases perpendicular to the plate. Determine the angle θ in terms of the head h1 and h2 for equilibrium. Figure P. IG = a4/12 (square plate of side a) ∴ (hcp – h ) = (a4 2/12 a2 h) = a2/6h The location of the hinge should be at (a2/6h) below the centroid. The angle between the plates is 90°. (i) Considering the whole plate without the opening This checks the expression.54 × 11 × 6/1000 = 6176. Neglect the weight of the gate.

The line of action (centre of pressure) is 1.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Depth of centre of pressure = h + (IG sin2 θ/A h ) = 9.54 + [6 × 113/12] [sin2 40/(11 × 6) 9. Height. Net force on the composite area of the gate = (6176.15 m Figure P.027 m Calculate the depth of the CG of the area and check whether it is lower than 10. the horizontal force = 9810 × 2 × 4 = 78480 N.027 m. WL 4m h 60° 4m Hinge 4 Figure P. moment is taken about O. Considering 1 m width.54] = 9.977 m (ii) Considering the triangular hole portion only h = 6 + (4 + 5/3) sin 40 = 9.52 m depth.33 kN Depth of centre of pressure = 9. CG is at 9.16 Chapter 3 .702 × 945330/sin 40] = [h/sin 40] [6176770 – 945330] where h is the centre of pressure of the composite area.16.16.6425 + [4 × 53/36] [sin2 40/9.33) = 5231.77 – 945.6425 m 103 Total force = γ h A = 9810 × 9.6425 × (4 × 5/2)/1000 = 945. Determine the resultant force and the direction of its action on the segmental gate shown in Fig.333 m from the bottom. 3. depth of centre of pressure of the composite area of the gate = 10. Solving. P. 3.977 × 6176770/sin 40] – [9.44 kN Problem 3.702 m WL 0 40° 6m 6m 4 m 5 m 11 m To determine the line of action of the resultant. at the surface [9. 3. h = 4 × 2 sin 30 = 4 m.6425 (4 × 5/2)] = 9.

18.5 = 498958 N Taking moments about the centre. The line of action will pass through O and its direction will be (90 – 79. Problem 3.18.84883 × 308189 = 0.73° from vertical The net force is (784802 + 142182)0. tan θ = 78480/14218. (14218 × 3. considering 1 m width.104 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vertical force (upwards) equals the weight of displaced.5 = 79757. The vertical upward force is equal to the weight of the water displaced = 5 × 9810 × π × 22/2 = 308190 N It acts at a distance of (4r/3π) = 0. So the resultant passes through the centre and as the resulting moment about the centre is zero. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the cylinder when water just begins to overflow. 3. 3. γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 5 × 2 = 392400 N This acts at a distance of 1. as shown in figure.73)° with horizontal.3333 m from bottom twoards the right. Substituting the values hCG = (2/3) × 4 × sin3 30/[(π / 6) – sin 30 cos 30] = 3. The quantities are equal. A = 4 × 1 γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 5 = 196200 N acts at 1.3333) – 0.58° Gate .84883 m left of centre and upwards Resultant = (3924002 + 3081902)0.17 WL 4r 3p 2m G 37.4494 m3 Weight = 1.17. Determine the magnitude and direction of the force on the elliptical tank portion AB as shown in Fig P.33) × 78477 = 0. The horizontal force on the elliptical portion equals the force on the projected area. The direction with horizontal is given by tan θ = 308190 / 392400. P. Problem 3.333 m from bottom Figure P.67974 m taking moments about the centre. A roller gate as shown in Fig. Volume of segment of circle = [(π R2 × 60/360) – (2 R sin 30 × R cos 30/2)] × 1 = 1. 3. As the net moment about the centre is zero the resultant passes through the centre.449 × 9810 = 14218 N upwards direction. Neglect weight of the gate.58°. θ = 37.5 N The centre of gravity of a segment of a circle from centre is given by (2/3) R sin3 θ/(Rad θ – sin θ cos θ) where θ is half of the segment angle.67974) – (2 – 1. 392400 × (2 – 1. θ = 79. The horizontal force equals the force on the projected area. h = 5m.17 has a span of 5 m.

Problem 3. Volume = 1 × (3 π + 9) m3 Weight = 9810 (3 π + 9) = 180747 N = Total vertical force The centre of gravity of the quarter of elliptical portion = (4b/3π). P. The area here is 1/4 th of the ellipse.5 m from the wall Taking moments and solving.5 = 91818 N A B 2m 2m WL C 2m Figure P.18 To determine the line of action. Problem 3. 3.666 – h) 192600 = (3 – 1.392 O P 47. Calculate the values for y = 3m.392 m. Then.392 m below O at an angle of 47.5 = 266766 N 3m 105 1. Consider unit width. h = 8. A = 12π.35° from vertical. 1. (2. = 4 × 3/3 π = 4/π m from the major axis (as b = 3 m) Centre of gravity of the rectangle = 1.19 = 9810 × (4 × 2 – π 22/4) × 1 = 47661 N (downward) Angle with vertical θ : tan– 1 (78480/47661) = 58.73° To fix the line of action.19. vertical force and the moment on the gate with respect to O.20.19.616 m from wall Resultant force = (1962002 + 1807472)0. 3. the line of action of the vertical force should be determined. let this line cut OA at a distance of h below O at P. 3. Determine the resultant force on the wall of a tank ABC as shown in Fig.35° A G B 3m 4m Figure P. Horizontal force equals the force on the projected area = γ A h = 9810 × 4 × 2 = 78480 N This force acts at 2. Area of ellipse = π bh/4 where b and h are minor and major axis.2y 2 forms the wall of a gate.6667 m from the top The vertical force equals the weight of the volume above the surface (unit width) Vertical force Resultant = (784802 + 476612)0.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force on the elliptical portion equals the weight of water above this area.5 + 3 π (3 – 4/π)] / [9 + 3 π] = 1. b = 6. Derive expressions for the horizontal force. the line of action passes through a point P. Considering unit width. A = 3 π m2 (ellipse portion) Rectangular portion above = 3 × 3 = 9 m2. P 3. Hence. The shape described as x = 0. Horizontal force = γ A h = γ × y × (y/2) = γ y2/2 Chapter 3 . as shown in Fig. taking moments about P.20.616) 180747 ∴ h = 1. the location x of vertical force = [9 × 1.

04 y5 = . Assuming unit width.5 = 47546 N To locate the actual line of action of the force.21.024 × 9) = 53680 N m The direction of the force with the vertical can be found using tan– 1 (44145/17658) = 68. 3. Vertical force: weight of volume above the surface. A hemispherical bulge of 3m diameter inwards is as shown in Fig.2 y3/3 z y 0 y2 dy Y X O = 0.2 y 2 Gate 3m z y 0 x.5 × π × 32) = 3.06 y2 Clockwise moment about O = (γ y2/2) × (y/3) + (0. x/2 = 0.66071 m .2 y3/3) γ × 0.04 2 z y 0 y 4 dy = x2 y 0.21.2 = xy/3 Vertical force = (xy/3) × γ × width = (0. The projected area = π D2/4 (i) Horizontal force = 9810 × 3. perpendicular distance from O × force = moment ∴ Distance = 53680/47456 = 1. Let it be x from y axis. x .129 m i) WL 2m ii) iii) Bulge A C B 3m It cuts the vertical from O at 1.216 m Problem 3. dy .06 y2 For y = 3 m and unit width Horizontal force Vertical force Clockwise moment = 9810 (3 × 3/2) = 44145 N = 0. 10 10 ∴ x = (3x/10) = 0.2 × 27 × 9810/3 = 17658 N = (γ × 27/6) (1 + 0. Force on the surface ABC is required. 3. 3.2 y3 γ/3 = 0.2 = 1. xy/3 = Figure P. the volume = area × width A= WL Fluid Mechanics and Machinery X = 0. the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the wall of the bulge (i) when water is full (ii) water level comes to the top of the bulge and (iii) water level upto the centre of the bulge.2° Resultant = (441452 + 176582)0.5 × π × 32/4 = 242700 N Depth of centre of pressure Figure P.dy = 0. P.5 + (π/64) (34 × 4/3.129/sin 68.21 = 3.20 z y 0 x .106 This force acts at y/3 from the bottom. Determine for the given dimensions.2 y3/3) × γ × width The position of line of action can be determined taking moment about the y axis.

Ib = π D4/128 IG = 0.9973 m.6366 × π × 1. θ = 36.16071 × 242700)} ≅ 0 (ii) When water level comes up to the edge. The angle with the horizontal will be 15. It does. horizontal force = γ h A = 9810 × 1. h = 2D/3 π.5625 m from wall. .5 = 252412 N The direction is given by (angle with vertical) θ.9. horizontal force = γ h A = 9810 × 0.5625 × 69343 – (0. Considering the surface of the left half of the tank.52/2)] = 0.31° (iii) When water comes to the centre. 23/12) 6 m long 2m 2 ∴ Figure P.5 + (π 34/64) (1/1. So the net force is due to the weight of the volume of liquid displaced and acts upwards.22 Chapter 3 Check whether the resultant passes through the centre by taking moment.05°. θ = tan– 1 (24700/69343) = 74.75 + [0. Vertical force = γ (1/4) (4 π R3/3) = 34672 N (upwards) Resultant = 43340N.75 × (π × 32/8) = 26004 N IG = Ib – A ( h ). The resultant is given by [2427002 + 693432]0. down from B. Resultant = [1040142 + 693432]0. centre of action from surface = 3 R/8 = 0. The vertical force on the surface BC is due to the liquid column above it and acts downwards.22. Similar force acts on the right half of the tank to the right.5 = 125009 N Does the resultant pass through the centre? Check. horizontal force = 9810 × 0.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Vertical force = weight of the liquid displaced γ (1/2) ( 4 π R3/3) = 69343 N and acts upwards For the hemisphere. angle with vertical = tan– 1 (104014/69343) = 56. Line of action. 3.333 m from top.95° {0.87° with vertical. Problem 3.875 m The vertical force remains the same. Determine the forces and their direction of action on the two sides and the ends.5) (4/π × 32) = 1.5 × (π × 32/4) = 104014 N Horizontal force acts at 1. at the same level. The tank is 6 m 3m long and has flat vertical ends.9 × 1 × 2 × 6 = 105948 N to the left Line of action = 1 + (6 × (1/1) (1/6 × 2) = 1.55565/(0.55565 Centre of pressure = 0. An oil tank of elliptical section of major axis 3 m and minor axis 2 m is completely filled with oil of specific gravity 0. 107 Note : The vertical force on the surface AB is due to the liquid column above it and acts upwards.

75 + (1/12) (2 × 1.9 × 1 × π × 3 × 2/4 = 41606 N = 1 + (π × 3 × 23/64) (1/1) (4/π × 3 × 2) = 1.9) = 54. Determine the horizontal and vertical forces on the curved surface.8172 m from top. tan– 1 (82072.23 .5/3π = 0. = 9810 [(120 × π × 12 × 2/360) + (cos 60 × sin 60 × 2/2)] + sin 60 × 2 × 20000 = 24794 + 34641 = 59435 N (upwards) The resultant = (82072. The tank is filled with water as indicated. The water is under a gauge pressure of 20.5 × 2) + 20.5) = 1.5 N (to the right) The first component acts at the centre of pressure and the second at the centre of gravity.5 × 1) + (60000 × 0. A square section tank of 3 m side and 2 m length as shown in Fig. Location of the net force is determined by taking moments about the top.5 × 2) = 22072. The vertical force can also be considered as the result of two action (i) the weight of displaced volume and (ii) the pressure on the projected area. from centre line Resultant = (1059482 + 208032)0. Also locate the line of action of the resultant force. The horizontal force is the force due to water pressure on the projected area.25 m from top. 20 kN/m 2 60° 1m 1. Centre of pressure due to fluid pressure = 0. Problem 3.5 = 107971 N Direction (with vertical) = tan– 1 (105948/20803) = 78.75 × (1. Similar force acts on the other half.09° Note : The problem can also be solved by considering an additional head of fluid equal to the gauge pressure.5 = 101333 N The resultant acts at an angle (with vertical).000 = 82072.000 × (1.5 + 60.5 m 2 m Figure P. 3.53/ 0.75 × 2 × 1.108 Vertical force on the left half = Weight of displaced liquid Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 9810 × 0.5 + 60.5 / 59434.23 has the top of one side wall in the shape of a cylinder as indicated.23. Ends: Elliptical surfaces : Line of action F = γ h A = 9810 × 0. P.75)} / (22072. It can be split up into two components (i) due to the water column and (ii) due to the pressure on the fluid The horizontal force =γ h A+PA = 9810 × 0. 3.000 N/m2.52 + 594352)0.63662 m.000) = 0.9 × (π × 3 × 2/4 × 2) = 20803 N downward and the location is 4h/3π = 4 × 1.0 m (from top). = {(22072.89°.

25 × 1) = 0. A bridge is in the form of an elliptical arch and wter flows just touching the bottom. The other horizontal force due to oil on CD is F Oil 1. The bridge is 4m wide.25) + π × 1.25 m Water B A D E 109 Figure P. The normal force on each gate on the upstream side = 9810 × (5.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Problem 3. 3.91 C 1.253 × 2/12 × 1. Determine (i) normal force on each gate and (ii) the reaction between the gates. Problem 3. Determine the upward force due to water pressure.833 m from the top surface The vertical upward force equals the weight of water displaced + weight of oil displaced (AEDG + CDG) = [9810 × (π × 1. Determine the vertical and horizontal forces on the cylinder shown in Fig.5 × 4 = 593505 N Chapter 3 = 9810 × 0.5 m from the base.5 m Figure P.25/2) + 1 × 1 × 1.25 The upward force is due to the weight of water displaced as shown in figure.25 m S = 0. P. The major axis is 8 m and the minor axis is 3 m. On the upstream side the water level is 5.25.26. 3. Water displaced Water level A D 8m E B C 1.252/4) × 0.5 m and 5.25 × 1. Area of half ellipse = πbh/8 = π × 8 × 3/8 = 3πm2 Area of rectangle = 8 × 1.25 × 1 = 6974.5 = 12 m2 Weight of water displaced = (12 – 3π) × 4 × 9810 = 101052 N Problem 3. A channel is closed by two swinging lock gates each of 4 m wide and 6 m height and when closed the angle between them is 120°.5 m and in the downstream it is 2m.25 × 1.252/2)] + [(1. The cylinder is in equilibrium.24.24.25/ 2) × 1. The horizontal force on AB and BC are equal and opposite.91 × 9810] = (24077 + 24904) N Total upward force = 48981 N Workout the resultant as an exercise. The horizontal force can be calculated as the sum of forces due to the oil and due to the water on projected area. determine the reaction at each hinge.24 [(1.5 /2) × 5. 3.3 N and this force acts at .91 × (1. Consider 1 m length. If the gates are hinged at 0.

5 – 0. (note the constant 0. (check total as 515025) Problem 3. Net normal force = 593505 – 78480 = 515025 N To determine the reaction R considering the equilibrium and taking moments about the point A.6667) = R1 (5. i. Problem 3. Consider a width of 1m. This acts perpendicular to the contact as shown. Determine the height of water which may just cause overturning of the dam wall. 515025 × 2 = R × 4 sin 30 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Hinge H = 5. 3. taking moments 20 × 6 × 2.8.667 m from bottom. Taking moments from the top hinge at 5. (as half the force only is causing the reaction at the hinge.83333) – (78480/2) (5.28. 3.5 – 1.5 should be dimensional. Weight × AB = Pressure force × AC Considering 1m length. (CP is h/3 from bottom). The total reaction at the hinges should also equal this value. At any section the height.27 z x 0 Z dx where Z = (x/0. To determine the reaction at each hinge.26 R = 515025 N. The average specific gravity of the material is 2.8 × 9810 × 3 = 9810 × (h/2) × h × (h/3) Solving. x = 0. The normal force on the downstream side on each gate = 9810 × (2/2) × 2 × 4 = 78480 N.5 A = 0. h = 18. 1/m). and as the reaction is at 30° to the plane of gate) (593505/2) (5.5)0. the structure will tilt.e. A= ∴ 6 20 C Pressure force h h/3 A B Weight of structure Water level Figure P.8333 m from the bottom. The area and centre of gravity are to be determined by integration. When the moment with downstream corner A of the structures weight equals the moment of the pressure force on the structure.27.5 / 3 = 1. Water stands upto x = 2m.5 – 0.5 Z2 where z is the width. This force acts at 2/3 = 0.22 m.5) sin 30 R1 = 359373 N and by similar calculation R2 = 155652 N.110 This force acts at 5.9428 x1.5 m R 120° R A Gates 4m×6m Hinge H=2m Figure P. Determine the resultant vertical force on the curved structure AB and also the line of action. A dam section is 6 m wide and 20 m high. Considering a strip at x and width dx. moments can be taken with reference to the other hinge.5 .5 m from base.

P = 0. Explain the importance of the study of fluid forces on surfaces and submerged bodies. 2. 7. 3. This force acts at Z = x0. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. (i) plate (ii) circle (iii) triangle.5. What will be the value of first moment of area about the centroid. h (i) the horizontal component of the resultant force equals the force on the vertical projection of the area and (ii) the vertical component equals the weight of the fluid column above this area. immersed in a fluid with its centroid at a depth. Derive an expression for the force on a thin plate of given arbitrary shape immersed in a liquid at an angle θ to the free surface.8856 = 0.225 m from Z = 0 position. Obtain simplified expressions for the centre of pressure of vertical planes.5 / 1. 0 Figure P. Explain the concept of Moment of Inertia of a surface and the application of the same in the study of forces due to fluid pressure on surfaces.5 ) = x0.6666 m2 Force due to water = 2. A = 2.8856 3m X A Air 0. z = 1. Weight = volume × sp. Chapter 3 . Explain the concept of centroid of an area or centre of gravity. To determine the line of action: 195959 × 1.75 m from the vertical at Z = 0 Total force = 195959 + 26160 = 222119 N.5)0. Considering 1 m width.9428 x1.28 Pressure force = 2.225 + 26160 × 0.5 = 2. 6. weight A = 0. 4. 5.75 = Z (222119). x = 2.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids To obtain the line of centre of gravity from z = 0 line A Z = ∴ x x 111 1m z 0 Z dx Z/2 = z 0 x dx = x2/2 Z = (x2 / 2) (1/0.169 m. 3.8 × 105 N = 195959 N. The vertical force due to the weight of water which stands upto x = 2 m over the surface.8 bar gauge z B Water level dx x Z The vertical force due to gas pressure = vertical projected area × pressure Top width.8 × 105 N/m2 2m 0. Show that in the case of a rectangle inclined to the horizontal.9428 x1.5 / 1. This acts along 1. weight = area × depth × sp.45 m. Z = (3/0.8 bar = 0.45 × 1 × 0. Explain how force on curved surfaces due to fluid pressure is determined.6666 × 9810 = 26160 N.

The centre of pressure will generally be _________ the centroid. The force due to gas pressure on curved surface in any direction _________. Answers (1) Centre of pressure. 9. The horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is equal to the force on _________.112 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. (7) (dp/dy) = – γ. 4. O Q. 5. IG / A h . (3) the centre of pressure of the vertical projected area. 3. 7. Fill in the blanks 1. decreases or remains constant : 1. 4. the centre. (6) the centre. 3. The law for calculating hydrostatic pressure is _________. The vertical force on a curved surface equals the _________. IG sin2 θ/ A h 11. The pressure at the same horizontal level in a static liquid is _________. 9. When a plane is tilted with respect to any centriodal axis the normal force on the plane due to liquid pressure _________. 3. (5) depth. 11. (2) zero.2 Fill in the blanks: 1. The second moment about any axis differs from the second moment through a parallel axis through the centroid by _________. The line of action of horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is_________. The force due to liquid pressure acts _________ to the surface. The distance between the centriod and the center of pressure _________ with depth of immersion. 6. (6) normal. x-distance between the axes. (3) lower. The location of centre of pressure of a plane immersed in a liquid _________ with change in density of the liquid. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2. The moment of area about any axis through the centre of gravity will be _________. The line of action of vertical force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid is _________. Answers (1) the vertical projected area. 10.3 Fill in the blanks using increases. 2. O Q.3. 6. The point of action of resultant fluid forces is called _________. (4) the centriod of the liquid column above the surface. 8. The resultant force on cylindrical or spherical surfaces immersed in a fluid passes through _______. (4) below. 2. The distance of centre of pressure from its centroid for a vertical area immersed in liquid is given by _________. The second moment of area about an axis through the centre of gravity will _________ compared to any other axis. The hydrostatic force on a submerged plane surface depends on the _________ of the centroid. . The force due to liquid pressure _________ with depth of immersion. (8) A x2.3. 5.3. 4. (2) the weight of column of liquid above the surface. The vertical distance between the centriod and centre of pressure over a plane area immersed at an angle θ to the free surface is given by _________.1. 10. (5) equals the product of gas pressure and projected area in that direction.

5 (2) Incorrect : 2. The density of a liquid is 1000 kg/m3. Answers (1) Correct : 1. 6. The location of the centre of pressure over a surface immersed in a liquid is (a) always above the centroid (b) will be at the centroid (c) will be below the centroid (d) for higher densities it will be above the centroid and for lower densities it will be below the centroid. O Q. (b) 5000 N/m3 (d) 5000 × 5 / 9. The pressure at a point y m below a surface in a liquid of specific weight γ as compared to the surface pressure. 4.3. Decreases : 2. The centre of pressure on a plane will be at a lower level with respect to the centroid.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids Answers Increases : 1. 4.3. 5.4 Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect : 1.81 N/m3 (b) h/3 m from top 3. 3. g/γ). The vertical force on an immersed curved surface will be equal to the column of liquid above the surface. Remains Constant : 3. The centre of pressure of a rectangular plane with height of liquid h m from base Chapter 3 . The horizontal force on a curved surface immersed in a liquid equals (a) the weight of the column of liquid above the surface (b) the pressure at the centroid multiplied by the area (c) the force on the vertical projection of the surface (d) the pressure multiplied by the average height of the area. 3. (above the surface pressure) is given by (a) ρ g (c) – γ d (b) γ d (d) (ρ/g)d (usual notations) 2. The pressure at a depth ‘d’ in a liquid. At location where g = 5 m/s2. 113 4. 6. 4. 6. O Q.81 / 5 N/m3 (a) h/2 m from bottom (c) h/3 m from bottom (d) can be determined only if liquid specific weight is known. When a plane is tilted along its centroidal axis so that its angle with horizontal increases. 2. the normal force on the plane will increase.5 Choose the correct answer : 1. The normal force on an immersed plane will not change as long as the depth of the centroid is not altered. In a plane immersed in a liquid the centre of perssure will be above the centroid. 5. P will be equal to (a) P + (y/γ) (c) P – (y g/γ) (b) P + yγ (d) P + (y . the specific weight of the liquid will be (a) 200 N/m3 (c) 5000 × 9. The resultant force due to gas pressure will act at the centroid.

3 – b. A sphere of R m radius is immersed in a fluid with its centre at a depth h m The vertical force on the sphere will be (a) γ (4/3)π R3 (c) γ (π R2 h + 8 π R2/3) (b) γπ R2 h (d) γ (π R2 h – 8 π R2/3). (III) Moment of inertia of various shapes : 1. Answers (1) b (2) b (3) c (4) c (5) c (6) b (7) a (8) a. 5 – c. (II) A 1. 3 – d. Second moment of area 4.6 Match the sets A and B : A (I) 1. Triangle about centroidal axis 4. Density 3. . Circle about centroidal axis 2. When the depth of immersion of a plane surface is increased. 2 – d. First moment of area 5. 2 – c. Free surface 4. 4 – a. Pressure (a) m3 (b) m4 (c) N/m2 (d) kg/m3 (e) N/m3 B Answers 1 – e.3. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7.114 (a) come closer to the centroid (b) move farther away from centroid (c) will be at the same distance from centroid (d) depend on the specific weight of the liquid. Second moment of area B (a) always positive (b) area moment zero (c) resultant force (d) constant pressure Answers 1 – b. O Q. 4 – c. 4 – a. Semicircle about base (a) B h3 / 36 (b) D4 / 64 (c) D4 / 128 (d) B h3 / 12 Answers 1 – b. Centre of pressure 3. the centre of pressure will 8. Rectangle about centroidal axis 3. 2 – d. 3 – a. Specific weight 2. Centroid 2.

4.3. Chapter 3 2m 1. WL h 5m 30° y=2 2 y = X /6 a 5m b Figure E.5 2m 1m 5m 3m X X X X 1m 60° 1m 2m 1m 1m X 1m 1m 1m 1m X X 1. For the shapes in Fig E.1 from the given reference lines.5 m 3m X Ellipse 1m Figure E. 3. X 3m X X 2m X 0.414 m X X . From basics (by integration) determine the forces acting on one side of a surface kept vertical in water as shown in Fig.3 E. determine the moment of inertia of the surfaces about the axis xx and also about the centroid.3. E.3.5 0. Determine the magnitude and location of the hydrostatic force on one side of annular surface of 2 m ID and 4 m OD kept vertical in water.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids EXERCISE PROBLEMS 115 E.2.3.3. 3.1 E.1.3. 3. E. Determine the centroid of the following shapes shown in Fig E. 3. 3.1.

3. E.3.6 E.6. A tank contains mercury upto a height of 0. 4 m wide. Determine the hydrostatic force on one side of the plane. E. E. the centre being at 4 m depth. shown in Fig. Show that the resultant force on a submerged plane remains unchanged if the area is rotated about an axis through the centroid. Also locate the centre of pressure.8. For a width of 1 m determine the total pressure and also the point of action of the same.9 E.3. Determine the net force on the gate due to the water.3.116 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E.11 weighing 9000 N with the centre of gravity 0. A trapezoidal gate of parallel sides 8 m and 4 m with a width of 3 m is at an angle of 60° to the horizontal as shown in Fig.3.3.6. 3. E.5 m over water.9 with 8 m length on the base level. WL 4m 3m Gate 8m 60° 4m Figure E.3. if the gate is hinged at (i) the mid diameter (ii) at the top.5 m to the right of the vertical face holds 3 m of water.11. .8 stands to a depth of 0.5 Figure E. An annular plate of 4 m OD and 2 m ID is kept in water at an angle of 30° with the horizontal. A gate as shown in Fig. 3.10. Also find the height above the base at which the resultant force acts. 3. 3. The top of the gate is 8 m from the water surface.5. 3. in the vertical wall of a reservoir. 3. E. E. Determine the moment required to hold a circular gate of 4 m dia.9. E. What should be the value of counter weight W to hold the gate in the position shown.3 m over which water stands to a depth of 1 m and oil of specific gravity 0. WL WL 1m 8m Hinge i) Strut 3m 60° Gate 30° 4m Figure E.7. Determine the compressive force on each of the two struts supporting the gate.

14. E.5 m high and 1 m wide is installed in a drainage channel as shown in Fig.3.11 Figure E. 3. Show that as the depth of immersion increases. An automatic flood gate 1.12.12 E. Compressed air is used to keep the gate shown in Fig. The mass of the gate is 2500 kg and its section is uniform. E. 3. 3. E. A dam section is shown in figure. E.5 2m Hinge level 1. WL WL 8m 4m 3 2m WL 2500 kg/m 20 m 11 2. The gate is 1 m wide. Determine the location where the resultant hydrostatic force crosses the base.3. the centre of pressure approaches the centroid.3.17. 1m W WL 5m 3m 9 kN 0. A rectangular gate of 2 m height and 1 m width is to be supported on hinges such that it will tilt open when the water level is 5 m above the top. Also calculate the maximum and minimum compressive stress on the base.15 E. The gate weighs 6 kN.13.16. 3. 3.3. Also determine the force at the edge required to lift the gate. E.5 Figure E.16. Determine the magnitude and line of action of the hydrostatic force on the gate shown in Fig. Determine the air pressure required.14 Figure E. Determine height of water backing up which can lift the gate.3. 3.15. 3.14.5 m y Figure E.3. E.Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Fluids 117 E.17 closed. Determine the location of hinge from the base.4 m 2m F 60° 3. Chapter 3 .

An inverted frustum of a cone of base dia 1 m and top dia 6 m and height 5 m is filled with water.3. E. Determine the total weight/m length of a gate made of a cylindrical drum and a plate as shown in Fig. Also determine the line of action.21.9362 m] . if it is in equilibrium when water level is at the top of the cylinder. E.8 m 0.118 WL Fluid Mechanics and Machinery WL Compressed air Hinge W 2m 6m 0.20. 3. Also determine the direction of action of the force.3. A gate 12 m long by 3 m wide is vertical and closes an opening in a water tank.3.20. [3. E.22.4 m 1m 1m W 60° 60° 0. E. 8. 3.21 E. E. 3.2 m Figure E. 3.73.4641 m. Figure E.4452 m 10. 3.8 m Plate 0. Determine the resultant force on one half of the sphere divided along the vertical plane. Determine the force on one half of the wall.21. Locate three horizontal positions so that equal forces acting at these locations will balance the water pressure.3.8 msq.19.16 Figure E.18. 3. F WL 0. The 3 m side is along horizontal. The water level is up to the top of the gate.17 E. Determine the force required to open the stopper.20 Figure E. A spherical container of 6 m diameter is filled with oil of specific gravity 0. A conical stopper is used in a tank as shown in Fig.3.

4. balloons and other such similar systems. The total force on the body can be calculated by considering the body to consist of a large number of cylindrical or prismatic elements and calculating the sum of forces on the top and bottom area of each element. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid and acts upwards through the centre of gravity of the displaced fluid.0 Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE In the previous chapter the forces due to fluid on surfaces was discussed. Other possible statements are: The resultant pressure force acting on the surface of a volume partially or completely surrounded by one or more fluids under non flow conditions is defined as buoyant force and acts vertically on the volume. The stability of such bodies against tilting over due to small disturbance can be also checked using this principle. Archimedes principle can be stated as (i) a body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced and (ii) a floating body displaces its own weight of the liquid in which it floats. Consider a prismatic element : Let the sectional area be dA.1 BUOYANCY FORCE Consider the immersed or floating body shown in Fig. F = γ Ah and is applied in the design of ships. This force is called buoyant force. ships. common for both terms) 119 . This point is called the centre of buoyancy for the body." 4. balloons and submersibles and also hydrometers. (i) Immersed body.1.1. 4. It is applicable in the design of boats. In addition to the discussion of forces the stability of floating bodies due to small disturbances is also discussed. If an object is immersed in or floated on the surface of fluid under static conditions a force acts on it due to the fluid pressure. boats. In this chapter the forces due to fluid on floating and submerged bodies is discussed. This principle directly follows from the general hydrostatic equation. Force on the top dF1 = dA γ h1 and Force on the base dF2 = dA γ h2 (cancelling Patm. The calculation of this force is based on Archimedes principle.

The difference between these two gives the maximum weight that may be carried by the balloon. where dV is the volume of the element.32/4) 0. Check the value from basics Buoyant force = Weight of water displaced = (π × 0. The pressure is assumed to be the same both inside and outside of the balloon. Considering an element of volume dV. Summing up over the area.6 × 1000 × 9.06 N This acts upward at the centre of gravity G Check: Bottom is at 1. Force on the top of the element dF1 = dA. (ii) Floating body. F = γ V.16 N Example. 4. as h2 > h1 Summing up over the volume.8 bar. . This force acts upwards.1 Proof for Archimedes principle Net force on the element (dF2 – dF1) = γ dA (h2 – h1) = γ dV.81 = 416.1 A cylinder of diameter 0. R = 287 J/kg. The pressure at the location is 0.1. Top is at 0. The forces that act on the balloon are its weight downward and the buoyant force upwards.81 × 1. K.6 – 1000 × 9. the weight of volume displaced.3 m and height 0.120 dF1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h1 = 0 WL dF1 h1 h2 h2 dA dF2 (ii) Floating body dF2 (i) Immersed body WL dA Figure 4. Example.6 m stays afloat vertically in water at a depth of 1 m from the free surface to the top surface of the cylinder.6 m depth Buoyant force = Force on the bottom face – Force on top face = (π × 0.6 m depth.0) = 416.32/4) (1000 × 9. The buoyant force equals the weight of the cold surrounding air displaced. F = γ V (or) the weight of the volume of liquid displaced.2 Determine the maximum weight that may be supported by a hot air balloon of 10 m diameter at a location where the air temperature is 20° C while the hot air temperature is 80° C. 4. It is seen that the equation holds good in both cases – immersed or floating. The volume of cold air displaced equals the volume of the balloon. Determine the buoyant force on the cylinder. Pa and Force on the base of the element dF2 = dA (γ h2 + Pa) dF2 – dF1 = γ dA h2 = γ dV where dV is the volume of the fluid element displaced.81 × 1.

46 × 9.2 STABILITY OF SUBMERGED AND FLOATING BODIES There are three possible situations for a body when immersed in a fluid. In the case of submarine its weight should equal the weight of water displaced for it to lay submerged. but in the opposite directions exist on a floating/submerged body.6 N Weight that can be carried by the balloon = 4886. Equilibrium of a body exists when there is no resultant force or moment on the body. about 84.6 – 4056 = 830.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies Volume of balloon = (4 × π × 53/3) = 523. (ii) If the weight of the body equals the weight of equal volume of liquid. then the body will submerge and may stay at any location below the surface. (ii) Neutral equilibrium Small disturbances do not create any additional force and so the body remains in the disturbed position.46 kg. the weight/volume of the ship will be less than the density of water. These are the gravitational force on the body (weight) acting downward along the centroid of the body and buoyant force acting upward along the centroid of the displaced liquid. then the body will be partly submerged and will float in the liquid. (iii) Unstable equilibrium: A small disturbance creates a couple which acts to increase the disturbance and the body may tilt over completely. (iii) If the weight of the body is less than the weight of equal volume of liquid. (i) If the weight of the body is greater than the weight of the liquid of equal volume then the body will sink into the liquid (To keep it floating additional upward force is required). However the apparent density calculated by the ratio of weight to total volume can be used to check whether a body will float or sink. to its original position.81] /[287 × (273 + 20)] = 4886. (i) Stable equilibrium: Small disturbances will create a correcting couple and the body will go back to its original position prior to the disturbance.g = 413.e. Under equilibrium conditions. A body can stay in three states of equilibrium. under equilibrium conditions these two forces are equal and opposite and act along the same line. two forces of equal magnitude acting along the same line of action. Chapter 4 . If these are equal.6 × 9. Weight of hot air = m. the body will sink. Stability of a body: A ship or a boat should not overturn due to small disturbances but should be stable and return.6 m3 Mass of hot air = (PV/RT) = 0. the body will float with part above the surface.6 N (i. If apparent density is higher than that of the liquid.81 = 4056 N Weight of cold air = [0.8 × 105 × 523. Whether floating or submerged. Comparison of densities cannot be used directly to determine whether the body will float or sink unless the body is solid over the full volume like a lump of iron.8 × 105 × 523. the body will stay afloat at any location.. If it is less. A submarine or ship though made of denser material floats because. 121 4.67 kg mass under earths gravity) This should include the weight of the balloon material and fittings. No further change in position occurs in this case.6/287 × (273 + 80) = 413.

Point C is the centre of gravity. The centre of gravity and the centre of buoyancy conicide. This body is in a state of stable equilibrium. In the case of Figure 4.1 (ii) the couple formed is in the same direction as the disturbance and hence tends to increase the disturbance. Under such a condition a couple is found to form by the two forces.2 (iii) shows the body under neutral equilibrium.1 (i) and 4.2.2.1 (v) shows the objects in Figures 4. In the case of figure 4. In the case of top heavy body (Figure 4.2. Figures 4.2. In the case of Figure 4. The couple is called righting couple.2. It is essential that the stability of ships and boats are well established. Now these two forces constitute a couple which may correct the original tilt or add to the original tilt.2.2 (ii)) the couple created by a small disturbance tends to further increase the tilt and so the body is unstable. If the couple opposes the movement. Equilibrium (i) WL Couple C B Neutral W B C (iii) W (iv) B Equilibrium (ii) B Tilted WL Couple disturbing C C Unstable Figure 4. WL W B C W Submerged. Equations will be derived for simple shapes and for small disturbances. This body is in unstable equilibrium.1 (iv) the couple formed is opposed to the direction of disturbance and tends to return the body to the original position.2.2.1 (iii) no couple is formed due to disturbance as both forces act at the same point. because the point of application of these forces are moved to new positions. Point B is the centre of buoyancy.2. It can be seen that the gravity and buoyant forces are equal and act along the same line but in the opposite directions.1 (i) and 4.1 (ii) shows bodies under equilibrium condition.1 Stability of floating and submerged bodies Figure 4. the calculations will be elaborate and cannot be attempted at this level. Hence the body will remain in the disturbed position. then the body will regain or go back to the original position.2.) . the position of the centre of gravity of the body (with respect to the body) remains at the same position.2. Figure 4.1 (ii) in a slightly disturbed condition. The equations and calculations are more involved for the actual shapes.1 (iv) and 4. (Note: For practical cases. If the couple acts to increase the tilt then the body becomes unstable.122 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery When the position of the body is disturbed or rocked by external forces (like wind on a ship). These conditions are illustrated in Fig 4. But the shape of the displaced volume of liquid changes and so its centre of gravity shifts to a new location.

The distance between the metacentre and the centre of gravity is known is metacentric height. the centre of gravity G is above the centre of buoyancy B. In this case metacentric height is positive and the body is stable. the floating body will be in neutral equilibrium. correcting the disturbance.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 4.3. better will be the stability. .1. additional analysis is required to establish stable conditions of floating. This is illustrated in Figure 4. When the body is disturbed the centre of gravity still remains on the centroidal line of the body. Chapter 4 If the metacentre is above the centroid of the body. the couple will be clockwise and it will tend to increase the disturbance or tilting. If it is at the centroid. the floating body will be stable. then the centre of gravity moves to the right of the original centre line. the resulting couple will act anticlockwise.3. If it is below the centroid. If M falls below G. There is no tendency to tilt further or to correct the tilt. This involves the concept of metacentre and metacentric height. when disturbed. the two forces act at the same point. The location M at which the line of action of buoyant force meets the centroidal axis of the body. the body is always stable under all conditions of disturbance. A disturbance does not create any couple and so the body just remains in the disturbed position. The magnitude of the righting couple is directly proportional to the metacentric height. The distance of this point from the centroid of the body is called metacentric height. The shape of the liquid displaced also changes and the centre of buoyancy also generally moves to the right. A righting couple is always created to bring the body back to the stable condition. It may also be noted that the couple is anticlockwise. (ii) When the centre of buoyancy coincides with the centre of gravity. is defined as metacentre. After a small clockwise tilt. Referring to Fig 4. Metacentric height Couple opposing WL C C M WL B B Equilibrium condition After small tilt Figure 4.1 Metacentric height. Larger the metacentric height.3 CONDITIONS FOR THE STABILITY OF FLOATING BODIES 123 (i) When the centre of buoyancy is above the centre of gravity of the floating body. stable condition When a small disturbance occurs.1. The line of action of this force is upward and it meets the body centre line at the metacentre M which is above G. The shape of the displaced volume changes and the centre of buoyancy moves from its previous position. say clockwise. (iii) When the centre of buoyancy is below the centre of gravity as in the case of ships.4. the floating body will be unstable. If the distance moved by the centre of gravity is larger. the centre of buoyancy has moved to B′. then the couple will be clockwise and the body will be unstable. If the distance moved by the centre of buoyancy is larger than the distance moved by the centre of gravity.

4. ∴ γ θ I = Vγ R (W = P) Centre line of the body M (Metacentre) q MG sin q W centroid G Original centre of buoyance B B¢ Centre of buoyancy after tilting Figure 4. the intersection of water surface and centre line. The original centre of buoyancy B was along the centre line. If G is below B +ve sign is to be used. R = MB sin θ or R = MB θ ∴ MB =R/θ = I/V (4.3) Both I and V are known. moment of inertia about the axis y – y W × R = γ θ I. P × S = W × R The moment P × S can be determined by taking moments of elements displaced about O.1 Metacentric height – derivation The force system consists of the original buoyant force acting at B and the forces due to the wedges and the resultant is at B′ due to the new location of the buoyant force.2) From the triangle MBB′. The new location B′ can be determined by a moment balance.4 METACENTRIC HEIGHT Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A floating object is shown in Figure 4. If G is above B –ve sign is used.4.4. Let the weight of the wedge portion be P.1 in section and plan view (part).124 4. As V = W/γ.2 . the metacentric height is given by.4. but W = Vγ where V is the displaced volume (4.4) GB is originally specified.4. expressed in radians) The mass of the element γ × θ dA (γ – specific weight).4. ∴ P × S = γ θ ∫A x2 dA = γ I θ (4. Originally the submerged portion is AFGHD. S F A WL F q M O G B G R C H q B¢ GM metacentric height y x dx E F D Plan Xd q I WL x dA y Figure 4. Uniform section is assumed at the water line. Let it move through a distance R.1) where I = ∫A x2 dA.4. Taking moments about B. MG = MB ± GB (4. So the metacentric height can be determined. as the angle of tilt is small. In the tilted position. Consider a small element at x with area dA The height of the element = θ × x (as θ is small. the submerged section is FGHE. The moment distance is x.

63 m4 .1 Determine the diameter of a hydrogen filled balloon to support a total of 1 kg at a location where the density of air is 0.4 A ship displacing 4000 tons has an angle of tilt of 5.15 – 1. 4. A known weight W1 is located at a distance of X from the centre line. in the upward direction W acts vertically downwards at G.63/970. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 4. MG = (2W1 X/W θ) = 2 × 200 × 1000 × 9.042 m (here X is half the distance moved) check using the degree of tilt and MG = 2MX/W sin θ.4. The mass of the ship is 1000 tons.81 (. MB = I/V = 3053. The angle can be measured by noting the length of the pendulum and the distance moved by the plumb bob weight. The centre of buoyancy is 1. 4. For small angles sin θ θ W1 2X = W MG sin θ = W MG θ (θ in radians) Metacentric height MG = 2 W1 X/W θ (X is half the distance or distance of weight from centre and θ is the angle in radians).62/970.87) – 1. Then the disturbing moment is W1 2X.5° caused by the movement of a weight of 200 tons through 2m from one side of centre line to the other.3 m below the water level.87 m3 . GB = 1. Hence the righting couple = γ V MG θ = W MG sin θ. 4. This situation is for small angles and uniform section at the water line.87 MG = MB – GB = (3053. This equals the restoring couple W MG sin θ. For pitching MG = (π × 12 × 363/64 × 970. MG = (I/V) ± GB.8 – 0.5. A plumb bob or pendulum is used to mark the vartical.5 = 3. The weight is now moved by 2X m so that it is at a distance of X m on the otherside of the centre line.3 A ship’s plan view is in the form of an ellipse with a major axis of 36 m and minor axis of 12 m.5 m For rolling: I = x (bh3/64) = π × 36 × 123/64 = 3053.87) – 1. Example.3 = 1. V = 1000.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 125 B = W acts vertically along B′ M.81 × 1/4000 × 1000 × 9.5 = 28. The distance between the couple formed is MG sin θ. V = W/γ = m/ρ Considering sea water of density 1030 kg/m3 and V as the liquid volume displaced.000/1030 = 970.1 Experimental Method for the Determination of Metacentric Height The weight of the ship should be specified.65 m (–ve) sign as B is below G).08 kg/m3. say W. This is positive and so the ship is stable about rolling by small angles. The angle of tilt of the pendulum or plumb bob is measured. Chapter 4 .5 = 1. Determine the value of metacentric height. Example.8 kg/m3 and that of the hydrogen in the balloon is 0. Determine the metacentric height for rolling (y – y axis) and pitching (x – x axis).3 m Highly stable in this direction.8 m below the water level and the centre of gravity is 0.5 × π/180) = 1.

5 + 0. the volume of fresh water displaced = 4000 × 1000/1000 = 4000 m3 Extra volume = 4000 – 3906. 9.3 × 0. The important thing to note is that the limiting condition is when the supporting cylinder just submerges.7.6 × 0.7 m Problem 4. Determine the maximum mass of equipment that can be supported in the bathy sphere. .2 Ship weighing 4000 tons and having an area of 465 m2 at water line submerging to depth of 4. (omitting 9.81.93/3) = 45.3 A bathy sphere of mass 6800 kg (empty) and having a diameter of 1. The box has a mass of 110 kg.8 – 0. Determine the depth of submergence in fresh water.8 m is to be used in an ocean exploration.9 m size just submerged in water.384 m Problem 4.81 [4500 + (π × 32 × 6 × 700/4)] = 335384.5 m in sea water with a density of 1024 kg/m3 moves to fresh water.25 m3 To support the same weight. Assume that sides are vertical at the water line.08) × 9.465 × 1024 × 9.25 = 93.8 = 54624.8 + 66708 = 402092. 6 m long Bathy sphere Figure P.4 A cubical block with a density of 2500 kg/m3 fully submerged in water is used to hold down a box 0.2 = 4.465 m3 Weight of water displaced = 45. Assume density of sea water as 1024 kg/m3.81 = 456717 N The weight of cylinder and oil = 9. Solving r = 0.692 m D = 2r = 1. Determine the weight of the block.81 × 1 = (4/3) × π × r3 × (0. It is supported by a cylindrical tank of 3 m dia and 6 m lenght of mass 4500 kg when empty and filled with oil of specific gravity 0.3 ∴ The total volume displaced = volume of cylinder + volume of sphere = (π × 33 × 6/4) + (4 × π × 0. Neglect metal thickness.126 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The weight that can be supported equals the difference in weights of air and hydrogen. Originally the weight of the ship equals the weight of sea water displaced.81 in both numerator and denominator) Volume of sea water displaced = 4000 × 1000/1024 = 3906.5 N (about 5568 kg of mass) Problem 4.75 m3 Area at this level = 465 m2.81 = 66708 N Total weight = 335384.8 N The additional weight that can be supported = 456717 – 402092. WL 3 m f.2 m ∴ The depth of submergence in fresh water = 4.8 N The weight of empty sphere = 6800 × 9. Equivalent Depth = 93.75/465 = 0. 4.

81 = 40 N Substituting for Ww in equaion 1 W = 22 + Ww = 62 N . 23. gravity h.85 164. When in water.05 102.85. Let buoyant force when in water be Ww and when in oil Wo Let the real weight of the object be W kg W – Ww = 22 N .22 + 9810 h3 = 1079. ∴ V = 4. Total upward force = (0. The total mass of the unit is 14 grams. it displaces V m3 and so also when in oil. [(4/3) π (0.80 × 9810) = 8 .004)2 h] × sp.00 115. Solving Weight of the block = 9.1 + 24525 h3 h = 0.3 × 0.2786/sp. If it is just floating.75 208.4 × 10–5 This reduces to h = (0. Problem 4.05 and 1.326065 m = 2500 × 9.6 A hydrometer (to measure specific gravity of a liquid) is in the form of a sphere of 25 mm dia attached to a cylindrical stem of 8 mm dia and 250 mm length.5 N/m3 Problem 4.0775 × 10– 3 m3 or 4. 0. Obviously this object is immersed in the fluid completely during weighment. Chapter 4 Subtracting Ww – WO = 8 N . So the buoyant force creates a righting couple and the instrument is stable till the spherical portion alone is immersed.8 1. Only the sphere will be immersed when the sp.95.0775 litre ∴ Ww = 4.9 × 9810) + (h3 × 9810) Downward force Equating.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 127 The upward forces are due to buoyancy on the block and buoyancy on the box.80.7 kg) Problem 4. This is due to the combined spherical and cylindrical shape. Cheak whether the intervals are uniform.711. 34. Let the side of the block be h m. mm 0. Determine the depth of immersion.15.3260653 = 850.15 79. Determine the depth of immersion of the stem in liquids of specific gravity of 0.81 [110 + h3 × 2500] 1589.5 Determine the volume and specific weight of an object which weighs 22 N in water and 30 N in oil of specific gravity 0.5 1.2 N (86. A block 1 m × 2 m area and 2 m deep weighing 19620 N floats in the liquid with the 2 m side vertical.5. Let its volume be V m3. gravity) – 0.0775 × 9. 0. gravity of liquid equals 1. downward from the surface.1628 The only unknown is h and is tabulated below Sp. Usually the major portion of the weight is placed in the spherical portion. 27.8181 × 10–6 + 5.81 × 0.025/2)3 + π (0. gravity × 9810 = 14 × 9. The volume of liquid displaced × sepecific weight = Weight of the hydrometer The volume is made up of the sphere and the cylindrical of length h.9.6 0.6 × 0.026 × 10–5 h] × sp.7. specific weight = W/V = 15205.75. The downward forces are due to the weight of the box and the block.81 × 1/1000 [0. its weight is balanced by the buoyant force and so the apparent weight will be zero.9 1. W – WO = 30 N V(9810 – 0. 1.7 The specific weight of a liquid varies as γ = 9810 (1 + y) where y is measured in m. gravity = 1.4 The intervals in mm are : 43.1 and hence not uniform.

3 m3. ∴ D = 1. When the unit sinks to a level such that the weight equals the buoyant force. ∴ V = 0. The unit is released in the sea.81.732 m (the other root is negative). So the assumption that the body floats is valid. Solving D = 0.79 N/m3 ∴ density of ice = γ /g = 878. Figure P. Let the vulume of iceberg be V m3.2 m f . The density of sea water is 1025 kg/m3. The buoyant force on the heavier sphere equals the weight of water displaced.9 N The weight of the sphere = 12000 N.10 A mass of volume 0. It was found that the spheres floated vertically with the lighter sphere just submerging. Buoyant force on the heavier sphere = (4/3) × π × 0. one heavier and weighing 12000 N and of diameter 1.1 + V) 10000 = 2000. Check whether it will be stable. Determine the density of ice. (4/3) × π × R3 × 9810 = 4000 + 3124. The original volume was 0.2 m and the other lighter and weighing 4000 N. This is less than the depth of the body. 4. The difference between these two is the tension in the The tenstion in the rope = 12000 – 8875.128 The weight of liquid displaced = weight of the body Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To determine the weight of the liquid displaced.1 N The weight of the lighter sphere and the rope tension together should balance the buoyant force on the smaller sphere of diameter D.1 m3 attached to a balloon of 0. Then integrating the expression and equating it to the weight of the solid.63 × 9810 = 8875. it will stop sinking further.3 m3 at a pressure of 1.4 bar (abs) weigh totally 2000 N. Problem 4.9 WL WL D=? 4000 N Rope 12000 N 1. (0. The buoyant force equals the weight of water displaced. Assume the specific weight of sea water as 10000 N/m3 and the air temperature in the balloon remains constant. Determine the level to which the unit will sink. The iceberg displaces 6/7 of its volume of sea water. Determine the diameter of the lighter sphere and the tension in the rope.1152 m Problem 4. are tied with a rope and placed in water.57 kg/m3 Problem 4. consider a small thickness by at distance y.8 An iceberg floats in sea water with 1/7 of the volume outside water.9 Two spheres.9 = 3124.1 . (as γ = 9810 (1 + y)) The weight of the element dW = 1 × 2dy × γ = 2 (1 + y) 9810 dy Let the depth of immersion be D. Let the volume of the balloon at this level be V m3. rope. As it goes down in the water the volume of the balloon shrinks due to the increase in surrounding pressure. ∴ y + y2 / 2 D 0 =1 or D2 + 2D – 2 = 0. Then 1 × γ × V = (6/7)V × 1025 × 9.1 m3. ∴ γ = 8618. 2 × 9810 z 0 D (1 + y) dy = 19620 . The weight of any floating body equals the weight of liquid displaced by it.

∴ D = 9. 4.12 Determine the diameter of the sphere to open a cylindrical gate hinged at the top and connected to the sphere as shown in Fig.1) = 4. The buoyant force on the balloon = Rope tension + weight of balloon Volume × (sq weight of surrounding fluid air – sp. ∴ V = 463.2 – 1.5 m. The gate weighs 4500 N and its centroid coincides with the centroid of the semicircle.11 A helium balloon is floating (tied to a rope) at a location where the specific weight of air is 11.2 N/m3 and that of helium is 1. acts from the hinge at: 1. The empty balloon weighs 1000 N. L = 1. (ii) horizontal force due to pressure and (iii) vertical force due to pressure and weight. Chapter 4 .92 m3.4. P2 = 1. 129 Hence the unit will sink to a depth of 31.81 = 18614 N.5 m.5) = 6.013) × 105.12 when the water level reaches 6 m above the centre of the gate. horizontal force due to water = 9810 × 6 × 2 × 1.5 × 23/6 × 2 × 1. as h = 6 m.5 N/m3.5) = 3500 + 1000. Vertical upward force = – 4500 + π (R2/2) L × 1000 × 9. P. weight of helium) = Rope tension + weight of balloon V × (11.0556 m. R = 1.6 m Problem 4.5 N = 176580 N Centre of pressure = 6 + (1/12) (1.4 × (0. WL D 6m Hinge 2m Gate 4500 N Figure P. (4πR3/3) = 463. The width of the gate is 1.92 m3. Vertical force = Weight of gate + Pressure force (Pressure force equals the weight of the volume displaced. acts upwards).87 m.0556 m.2 bar (abs) The depth at which this pressure reached is given by 10000 × y = (4. The sphere weighs 1500 N/m3. Determine the diameter of the balloon if the tension in the rope was 3500 N.12 The forces on the gate are (i) tension in the rope equal to the buoyant force on the sphere minus the weight of the sphere.2 – 1. Buoyant force = (4/3) πR3 [9810 – 1500] N acts at 2 m from hinge.3/0. Solving y = 31.87 m Problem 4.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies As (P2/P1) = (V1/V2).

15 floats in oil of specific gravity 0. The distance along the pole it acts = (1. A spring causes water to seep below the tank.16 m square section of length 3m and weighing 425 N and of dimensions as shown in Fig.5425 m When water rises to about 0.14 A wooden pole of 45 cm2 section and 3 m length is hinged at 1. Problem 4. Weight of the displaced water or buoyancy force = (45/104) × 9810 [3 – (1. Also determine the oil level for the pole to float vertically. (4R/3π) = 0.2/cos θ) +(1/2) [3 – (1.2/cos θ)].2 m above the water surface and floats in water at an angle of θ with vertical Determine the value of the angle. The depth of oil above the hinge (friction negligible) is 2 m. P.7244 m or D = 3.08 Nm. θ = 45°.4244 + (4/3) πR3 (9810 – 1500) Solving. Taking moment along the pole. 4. The total weight should equal the weight of water displaced. Check = (45/104) (9810/2) [32 – (1. . 176580 × 1.2 m high of mass 2250 kg is buried under loose soil at a depth of 1 m.2/cos θ)] Moment of buoyant force = (45/104) (9810/2) [32 – (1. The density of the soil is 480 kg/m3.14 The problem is solved by taking moment of the weight at the hinge and equating it to the moment of the buoyancy force at the hinge.22/cos2 45)] = 135.4244 m from hinge.15 A wooden pole of 0. Problem 4. it can be considered that the tank floats with a weight equal to its own and the weight of soil above it. If h is the height upto which the water rises.81 × 1000 × 6× 6 × h ∴ h = 0.2 m WL 40 cm 2 Figure P. checks This can be extended to analyse the water level control valve in tanks. 4. The pole weighs 90 N. then (2250 + 6 × 6 × 1 × 480) 9. At the point when the tank begins to break free due to water seeping all around. Hinge 3m q 1.2/cos θ)] = (1/2) [3 + (1. Determine the height of water that may cause the tank to break free and start to rise.815.81 = 9.4488 m Problem 4.0555 = 18614 × 0.13 An empty storage tank of square section 6 m side and 1.5425 m from battom the tank will begin to break free.22/cos2 θ)] Equating to 135 Nm and solving. Length of the submerged portion = 3 – (1. Taking moments about the hinge.130 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery It acts at the centroid of the semicircle. R = 1. Moment of the weight = (3/2) 90 = 135 Nm. Determine the angle of inclination of the pole with horizontal.2/cos θ).

The volume of fluid displaced in both cases are equal as the weight is submerged.0392/(π × 0. Equating the moments. a force of 100 N acting upward is required. The moment for the weight about the hinge (along × direction) = 425 × (3/2) cos θ.81) = 3466.7 kg/m3c Problem 4.162 × 9810 × 0.21/(1000 × 9. 4.8. Determine the depth upto which it will float in water.3117 m Case (ii) Let h be the depth of immersion. Solving h = 0.17 A cylindrical container of 0. 60 + (π × 0. The same mass requires a downward force of 100 N to keep it submerged in another liquid.21 N Volume of water displaced = 384. The weight of oil displaced (buoyant force) = (2/sin θ ) × 0.15 The problem is solved by taking moment about the hinge for the weight and the buoyant force and equating them. h × 0. Problem 4.81) m3 = 7. Determine the specific weight of the second liquid. Chapter 4 425 (3/2) cos θ = (2/sin θ) × 0.26°. If the level rises above this value. a vertical force will act on the hinge.815 = 425.16 In order to keep a weight of 160 N just submerged in a liquid of specific gravity of 0. When the pole begins to float vertically.162 × 9810 × 0. Let the angle of inclination be θ with horizontal.162 × 9810 × 0.3 m.3946 m . and 0.022 × h × 9810.0392 m3 ∴ Depth of immersion = 0.65 × 10–3 = 34008 N/m3 (Note : Buoyant force = volume displaced × sp.22) = 0. the weight equals the buoyant force. θ = 53.22 × h × 8600) = π × 0. The depth of oil will also be h.22 × 0.65 × 10–3 m3 Case (ii) The buoyant force = 160 + 100 = 260 N Specific weight of the other liquid = 260/7.0765 m.16 m sq Oil lever 2m q Hinge 131 Figure P.9 m height weighing 60 N contains oil of specific weight 8600 N/m3 to a depth of 0.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 3m 0.81) m3 = 0. weight of liquid) density will be = (34008/9.3 × 8600 N = 384.8 × 1000 × 9. h = 2. Also calculate the depth oil in the container so that the depth of oil and depth of immersion are equal.815 N Moment arm = (2/sin θ) (1/2) (cos θ).4 m dia. Case (i) Total weight of the container = 60 + π × 0.815 (2/sin θ)(1/2) cos θ Solving. Case (i) The buoyant force in this case = (160 – 100) N = 60 N The volume of the fluid displaced = 60/(0.

(iii) Relative density = 1.5 . Using equation (4. For stability. (1) For example if ∴ S = 0.19 A wooden cylinder having a specific gravity of 0. Determine the distance between the markings for 0. Determine the length of the wooden cylinder for the composite block to float vertically. Let the volume displaced be V2 V2 × 9810 = 0. MB = I/V MG = (I/V) ± GB. D > h. Indicate the direction of the markings as up or down also.2 + h). equating.4).5.707 × 10–6 m3 (V3 – V3) π (D2/4) × l1.8. Let ‘‘h’’ be the length of the wooden cylinder.3) and (4.04/(9810 × 1. the limiting condition is that the metacentre approach the centre of gravity. ∴ (I/V) = D2//16hS Also from basics GB = (h/2) – (h S/2) = h (1 – S)/2.132 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 4.1.2 m length attached to it at one end. D = 1. The weight of water displaced = π × R2 × 9810 (0.18 A cylindrical hydrometer weighing 0. Problem 4. (i) Relative density = 0.5) + (π × R2 × h × 9810 × 0.2 + h ∴ h = 0.4.6 h = 0. The specific gravity of the concrete is 2.20 A right circular cylinder of diameter D m and height h m with a relative density of (S < 1) is to float in water in a stable vertical condition. The volume displaced in each case equals the weight of the hydrometer. Work the problem for 1 m long cylinder and find the length above the water line. (D2/16hs) = [h (1 – S)]/2 ∴ (D/h) = 2 [2 S (1 – S)]0. 1.6 cm.6 has a concrete cylinder of the same diameter and 0. Here MG = 0 for the limiting condition.01311 m or 1.04 . ∴ V2 = 4.2 × 9810 × 2. Determine the limit of the ratio D/h for the required situation.097 × 10–6 m3 (ii) Relative density = 1. This is downwards as V2 is less than V1..8.5 + 0. (V – volume displaced). ∴ V1 = 5. V3 = 0. Solving l1 = 0.04. Let the volume displaced be V1 V1 × 9810 × 0. (V1 – V2) = π (D2/4) l1. The limiting condition is for the composite block to float with top surface at water level.1) = 3. the depth of immersion decreases and is non linear.8. (I/V) = GB I = π D4/64. V = π D2 h S/4.75 m The wooden cylinder should be atleast 0. Problem 4.0 and 1. As density increases.036052 m or 3. The weight of the composite block = (π × R2 × 0.1 specific gravity values.31 cm This is also downwards as V3 is less than V2. Equating and solving.75 m long for the composite cylinder to float vertically. Let the volume displaced be V3.6) This equals the weight of water displaced when the block just floats.8 = 0..1314 h .0775 × 10–6 m3.04 N has a stem diameter of 6 mm. 0.4. l2 = 0.

.5 = 0. Problem 4. Refer Problem 4.2354 Problem 4.7646 or 0.5 as in problem Problem 4.841 (compare with Problem 4.5. ∴ GB = 0. Problem 4.2. k = 0.3 – 0 – 3 × (7500/8900) MG = [(π × 0.6 × 7500)] – [0.22 Derive the expression for (D/h) for a hollow right circular cylinder of outer diameter D and inner diameter kD and height h. V = (π × 0. The same expression can be solved for limiting density for a given D/h ratio. equation 1. h = 1. to float vertically in a liquid with relative density S.2 m and h = 1.33333 to float in water. the cylinder is unstable.3 – (0. 1 in problem 4.20) D = 2h [2S (1 – S)]0.3 m dia and 0.6 × 7500)/(4 × 8900) Location of G = 0.23 Check the stability of a hollow cylinder with D = 1.34/64 Volume displaced.32 × 0.61788 m.(1) For example if k = 0 this becomes a solid cylinder and the expression reduces to (D/h) = 2 [2S ( 1 – S)]0.8 m. D = 2 × 0.5.3 m from bottom Location of B = 0.5 .20.036 m. The ID is 0.21 A right circular cylinder of 0.3 × (7500/8900) m from the bottom. Solving (D/h) = 2[2S (1 – S)/(1 + k2)]0. D > h. This is the value of D which is required for stability.32 × 0. where k = 0. then S = 0. Here. I = π × 0.6 m length with a specific weight of 7500 N/m3 is to float vertically in kerosene of specific weight of 8900 N/m3.20) I = D4 (1 – k4)/64. say if (D/h) = 1. (D/h) = 0. Consider a thin cylinder. Check : (use the eqn.34 × 4 × 8900)/ 64 × π × 0. MG = (I/V) – GB. GB = h (1 – S)/2 .5 .8 m with a specific gravity 0f 0. This is the reason why long rods float with length along horizontal..3 × 7500/8900)] = – 0.9 and S = 0.5 }/2. here S = 7500/8900 Substituting. The limiting condition for stability is MG = 0 or (I/V) = GB With usual notations (refer P 4. Chapter 4 Hence. For stability. The given cylinder is of lower diameter and hence unstable.6 [2 × (7500/8900) × (1 – 7500/8900)]0. Using equation 1 (D/h)2 = 8 S (1 – S) or 8 S2 – 8 S + (D/h)2 = 0 S = {1 ± [1 – (4/8) (D/h)2]0. V = π D2 (1 – k3) h S/4 where V is the volume of the liquid displaced. the minimum Value of D is given by D = 2h [2S (1 – S)/(1 + k2)]0.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 133 The diameter should be larger than the length. Determine the stability of the cylinder.20). [D4 (1 – k4)/64] [4/(D2 (1 – k2) hS] = h (1 – S)/2.8 then. G is located at h/2 from base and B is located at h S/2 from base.5D. Equating.20.

or (I/V) = GB.33333 (1 – 0.2 m.5. Problem 4.5 = 2.7826 m [Note : If the relative density is different from 0.5. So. MG = (I/V) – GB . Centre of gravity is on the water surface.26 Derive on expression for the ratio of length. h to side.8 × 0.5 when it floats in water with its axis vertical. The sides should be longer than the height. So it floats such that half its volume will be displaced.a (where k is a fraction).333333/4.33333)/2 = 0.. (a/h) = 1.8 [2 × 0. Then the stability is poorer along the shorter length ka. checks. for stability Fluid Mechanics and Machinery D = 2 × 1. (a/h) = [65 (1 – S)] 0. Centre of buoyancy will be at the CG of displaced volume equals 2d/3π.23 Consider S = 0. ∴ GB = (2d/3π) MG = {π [(D + d)4 – (D – d)4] × 8/[64 × π2 × D × d2] } – (2d/3π) Simplifying MG = {[(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/[8 × π × d × d2]} – (2d/3π) Problem 4.52)]0.62]} – {2 × 0.6 m with specific gravity 0.6/3π} = 1.134 Substituting the values.A . Position of G = h/2 and position of B = h S/2. Refer Problem 4.44 – 1. I = (a4/12) where a is the side of square.8 (1 – 0. The limiting condition for floating in a stable position is that metacentre and centre of gravity coincide.1474 (1 – 0. then.147 m > 1.8 × 0. I = π [(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/64 as the section along the free surface is annular with OD = D + d and ID = D – d. The relative density of the log is S.33333)/(1 + 0. Considering the calculated D = 2. I = π × 2.60002 and GB = 1.5. V = π × 2.5 S = 0. then (a/h) = 0.1472 (1 – 0. GB = h (1 – S)]/2 ∴ I/V = [(a4/12)(1/a2hS)] = [h (1 – S)/2].24 MG = {[(D + d)4 – (D – d)4]/[8 × π × D × d2]} – {2d/3π} = ([2..5 when floating in water with axis vertical.52) 1. I = ak3 a3/12.8.8 value. GB = h(1 – S)/2 (k3a4/12) (1/a2khS) = h(1 – S)/2. The expression can be generalised for a rectangular section with sides a and k. the determination of the value of GB is more involved as the determination of the position of CG is difficult] Problem 4. So it is not stable. MG = 0.5/k .6. (I/V) = 0. as S decreases (a/h) increases. Hence. The specified diameter is only 1. a of a square log to float stably in a vertical direction.54)/64. The volume displaced V = a2hS where h is the immersion height. The is the reason why long logs float with length along horizontal.24 Determine the metacentric height of a torus of mean diameter D with a section diameter d and specific gravity 0.8 m and d = 0.98. (a/h) = [6S (1 – S)]0. V = h Sa2 k .25 Determine the metacentric height of a torus of D = 1. V = (1/2) (πd2/4)πD. The specific gravity is 0.24]/[8 × π × 1.147 m.

4.5 }/2 if k = 1. D2 HS = d2h. S4/3) I/V = (D4 S(4/3)/64)/(D2 HS/12) = (3/16) (D3/H) S1/3 . P.28 A conical wooden block of 0.. Determine whether it can float in a stable condition.A G = 3H/4 (from vertex) and B = (3h/4) = (3/4) HS1/3 (from vertex) GB = (3/4) H (1 – S1/3) .6 m high has a relative density of 0.. 4. The cone displaces liquid upto a depth h where the diameter is d.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 135 Here the side has to be still larger or the height shorter.B (1/3)(πd2/4) Chapter 4 . reordering. h H H Figure P.. The limiting conditions is that MG = 0 or (I/V) = GB.5]/2 Problem 4. This expression can be used also to determine the limiting density for a given (side/height) ratio to float stably in a vertical position.27 Derive the expression for the ratio of base diameter to the height of a cone to float in a fluid in a stable condition given the relative density between the solid and the fluid as S.27. For stability. the limiting value of H is given by = h = (1/3) (πD2/4) HS I = πd4/64 = πD4 S4/3/64 (d4 =D4 . S = Also as (h/H) = (d/D) h/H = (d/D) = S1/3 D d WL G b 3 H 4 3 h 4 h WL d2 D 2 .27 Volume displaced ∴ ∴ Equating A and B (3D2S1/3/16H) = (3/4) H (1 – S1/3) (D2/H2) = 4 (1 – S1/3)/S1/3 or H2 = D2S1/3/4 (1 – S1/3) In actual case H2 should be less than this value for stability. This case is different from the cylinder due to variation of area along the height (Refer Problem 4.8 for a fluid in which it floats. The situation is shown in the Fig.20).. Consider the general eqn. In this case the volume displaced and the relationship between D and d and H and h are to be established. (1/3)(D2/4) HS = (1/3) (d2/4) h . then S = [1 ± {1 – (4a2/6h2)}0. (k2 × a2/h2) = 6S – 6S2 or S2 – S + (k2a2/6h2) = 0 ∴ S = { 1 ± [1 – (4k2a2)/(6h2)]0. Problem 4. A.4 m dia and 0.

The centre of gravity of each may be taken to be at the geometric centre. Calculate also the restoring torque for a tilt of 5° from vertical. 8m Solving.03226 m. Define metacentre and metacentric height.6 × 0.29 OB = 1.81/3) = 0. MG = (I/V) – GB = 0.136 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery H2 = D2 S1/3/4 (1 – S1/3) = 0.68 × 105 Nm. 8m wide and 3m deep weighs 6 × 105 N and carries a boiler of 4 m dia on its deck which weighs 2m 4 × 105 N.518 m2 ∴ H = 0. GB = OG – OB = 2. when it floats in river water. Problem 4. ∴ I/V = 0.371 m I = πd4 /64 = 9.8 = 0.81/3/4 (1 – 0. OP = 1.5 m.2742] – 2.557 m. Restoring torque = W MG θ (θ in radian) = 106 × 1.557) = 0.2742/2 = 0. Total weight = 106 N Depth of immersion: 106 = 10 × 8 × h × 9810. OG = 2.42/4) 0. Describe an experimental method to determine the metacentric height of a boat. OA = 5 m.2629 MG = (I/V) – GB = [(1/12) × 10 × 83]/[10 × 8 × 1.04642 – 0. The actual value of is 0. d = DS1/3 = 0. 7. Derive an expression for the height to diameter ratio of a cylinder of specific gravity S to float with its axis vertical in a stable condition. Define centre of buoyancy. 4. the position of the centre of 1.6 – 0.01416 m. 0 OP × 6 × 105 + OA × 4 × 105 = OG × 106.6 m. Describe how the density of liquid can be estimated using a cylindrical hydrometer. Prove Archimedes principle from basics.5 m P gravity from base can be determined by taking 3m B moments about O. h = H S1/3 = 0. 2.9 m. 4.4 m.0201 m3 .03226 = 0. Assuming the centres to be on the vertical line G (Common) WL WL for the combined unit.332 × 10–4 m4. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Determine the value of 5m A the meta centric height of the combined unit. Check: H = 0. V = (1/3) (πD2/4) HS V = (1/3) (π × 0. 5. . This is positive and hence stable.7197 m.2742 m Figure P. 6.29 A rectangular pontoon 10 m long.2629 = 1.9227 m This is positive and hence the unit is stable.42 × 0.7197 and so the cone will float in a stable position.9227 × (π × 5/180) = 1. ∴ h = 1.6371 m.6 < 0. State the conditions for the stability of floating bodies. 3. D = 0.04642 m GB = (3/4) (0.

When a given body floats in different liquids the volume displaced will ________ with increase in the specific gravity of the fluid. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in unstable equilibrium it will ___. decreases or remains constant 1. The height to diameter ratio for stable floating condition of a cone is ______. return to the original position 7. The weight of volume of water displaced 2. 4. The three states of equilibrium of a floating body are______. 10. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in neutral equilibrium it will ____. 9. stable 11. the weight of the body 3. The body displaces 1m3 of water when it floats. (H/D)2 = s1/3/[4(1 – s1/3)] 17. shorter O Q. 7. Stability of a floating body improves as the metacentric height ____ 2. 13. 5. The centre of buoyancy is defined as ______. 8. Metacenter is the point at which ________ cuts the body centre line. The condition for a square prism of given side to length ratio to float vertically in stable equilibrium is _____. 19. The position of a floating body will ______ when a small tilt is given if the metacentric height is positive. overturn 9. Answers 1. the centre of gravity of the displaced volume 4. the floating body will be in _______ equilibrium. 14. W MG θ 14. 16. Chapter 4 . 11. 9810 N 19.5 15.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 137 O Q. 6. The volume of liquid displaced by a floating body of wieght W will _______ irrespective of the shape of the body. The weight of volume of liquid displaced by a floating body equals _____. If the centre of gravity is below the centre of buoyancy the body will always be in _____ equilibrium. 3. 18. positive 12. When a small tilt is given to a body floating in stable equilibrium it will ____. Metacentric height is equal to _____. The statement of Archimedes Principle is ______. the buoyant force on a floating body equals the weight of the displaced volume and a floating body displaces it’s own weight of liquid in which it floats 5. 12. remain in the new position 8.5 16. The stability of a floating body deteriotes as the metacentric height ________. 15. When a body floats in water the buoyancy force equals _____. The condition for a cylinder of given diameter to length ratio to float vertically in stable equilibrium is _____. satble. W MG sin θ. 5. distance between the metacentre and centre of gravity 13. 3. If the centre of gravity coincides with the centre of buoyancy. 17. If the centre of gravity is above the centre of buoyancy the metacentric height should be ______ stable equilibrium. As the density of the floating body increases the distance between the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy _______ 4. neutral and unstable 6. 4. The line of action of the buoyant force in the displaced position 18. As fluid density increases the hydrometer will sink by a ______ distance. (d/h) = 2[2s(1 – s)]0. The righting moment due to a tilt of a floating body equals_____.2 Fill in the blanks with increases. (a/h) = [6s(1 – s)] –0. 6. 2.1 Fill in the blanks 1. 4. neutral 10. It’s weight is ______.

When the metacentre is between the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy the body will be unstable.138 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7. 7. 7. Answers Correct : 3. 2. 8. A floating body will displace the same volume of liquid irrespective of the liquid in which it floats. A solid with a specific weight 9020 N/m3 floats in a fluid with a specific weight 10250 N/m3. When it is fully immersed in water its weight will be (a) 25 N (b) 75 N (c) 50 N (d) None of the above.8 will be . (c) Above the centre of gravity of the object. 4. An object with specific gravity 4 weighs 100N in air. When the metacentric height is zero the floating body will be in stable equilibrium. 4. 7 O Q. When the centre of gravity is below the centre of buoyancy the floating body will be unstable. An object weighs 50 N in water. For a given floating body in stable equilibrium the righting couple will ______ with increasing metacentric height. 10 Remains constant 2. 5. For a given shape of a floating body the stability will improve when the density of the body_____ 9. The percentage of volume submerged will be (a) 90% (b) 92% (c) 88% (d) 78%. The buoyant force on a given body immersed in a liquid will be the same irrespective of the liquid. 4.3 Indicate whether the following statements are correct or incorrect 1. 5. 6. As the metacentric height increases the stability of a floating body will improve. 5 O Q. A given cubic piece will float more stably in mercury than in water. (d) Below the centre of gravity of the displaced volume. 9. 9. 10. 5. 4. The metacentric height of a given floating body will ________ if the density of the liquid decreases. Its weight when fully immersed in oil of specific gravity 0. (b) The centre of gravity of the volume of the liquid displaced. 2. 6. When the length of a square log is larger than the side of section the log will float horizontally.3 l. 10. 10 Incorrect 1. A floating body will displace a volume of liquid whose weight will equal the weight of the body. If a body is in stable equilibrium the metacentric height should be (a) zero (b) positive (c) negative (d) depends on the fluid. 4. 3. 9. 6. For a body immersed in a fluid the buoyant force _______ with increase in density of the body. 3. Its volume is 15. 8. 2. When the centre of buyoancy is below the metacenter the floating body will be in stable equilibrium.4 Choose the correct answer 1. 8 Decreases 3. 4. Answers Increases 1. 8. When a heavy object is immersed in a liquid completely the centre of byoyancy will be at (a) The centre of gravity of the object.

8 times its volume. O Q. (d) It will depend on the type of the ship.3 (c) 6. If water is filled in the tank. 8. 4. (d) heavier cube will submerge completely and the lighter one will submerge to 0. Neglect the self weight of the drum. 4. Metacentric height G below B Centre of buoyancy Buoyant force (6) a. [70632 N] E 4. (a) 40 N (b) 62. The surrounding air is at 20° C and 1 bar while the hot air inside the balloon is at a temperature of 70° C. (a) one cube will completely submerged and the other will be completely outside the surface. 7. (4) c. (c) will float in neutral equilibrium. (9) c. (4) a EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 4. (3) b. (5) c. (b) heavier cube will go down completely and the lighter one to 0. Determine the buoyant force and the weight that may be supported by the balloon. When a block of ice floating in water in a container begins to melt the water level in the container (a) will rise (b) will fall (c) will remains constant (d) will depend on the shape of the ice block. (2) b. For a floating body to be in stable equilibrium (with usual notations) (a) I/V = GB (b) I/V < GB (c) I/V > GB (d) I/V = MG. Two cubes of equal volume but of specific weights of 0.3 A closed cylindrical drum of 3 m dia and 2 m height is filled fully with oil of specific gravity 0.8 (d) a × 13. (2) d. 403.6.93 N.1 Determine the buoyant force on a cube of 2 m side which stays afloat in water with its top face horizontal and 0. (10) b B (a) (b) (c) (d) weight of displaced volume CG of displaced volume Stability Always stabe. 2. (7) b. the relative density of the cube will be (a) 6. Considering the relative density of mercury as 13.2 are connected by a weightless string and placed in water. (8) c. the drum will start floating.8 and 1.9 is placed inside an empty tank vertically. [3074.5 N (c) 80 N (d) 65 N.5 Match the sets A and B A 1. A cube of side. 9.3 (b) 7.25 times its volume. (3) b.6/2 . Answers (1) c. When a ship leaves a river and enters the sea (a) It will rise a little (b) It will sink a little (c) There will be no change in the draft.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 139 6. 3. Answers (1) b. [1.2 m above the free surface. at what height of water level.2 A hot air filled balloon of 8m diameter is used to support a platform. a floats in a mercury/water layers with half its height in mercury.80 m from bottom] Chapter 4 10.37 N] E 4.

56.6 m and height 2 m floats in water.65 × 10–3 m–3.17 The stem of a hydrometer is of cylindrical shape of 2. [1. It floats 22.667.7 An object weighs 20 N when fully submerged in water.21 A long log of 2.5 m dia and 4. 1265.5 m dia and 0. [1.16 Determine the metacentric height of the combined unit of a rectangular pontoon. 1.8 m. [1. Determine its volume and density.8 mm dia and it weighs 0. 51.8 m height to float stably in water.20 A wooden block when floating in glycerin projects 76 mm above the surface of the liquid. Calculate the diameter of the balloon? [2.8 Determine the specific gravity of a liquid when a hydrometer which is in the form of a sphere of 20 mm dia attached with a cylindrical stem of 5 mm dia and 200 mm length showed a depth of immersion of the stem of 100 mm.72 m] E 4.28 m] E 4. Check the stability of the cylinder if its specific gravity is 0. [7. Also calculate the restoring torque for a tilt of 4° from vertical. Calculate the volume and specific gravity of the material. Specific gravity of glycerin is 1. [5.00408 m3. [2.6 m] E 4. 9 m long. 1.5 with specific gravity 0.821. [0.5 m length and of specific gravity of 0.11 A cylinder with diameter 0. [0. [1 m] E 4.45.10 Determine the metacentric height of a ship which displaces 5000 kN of water when it tilts by 6° due to the movement of 300 kN weight through 3 m from one side of center line to the other. The cubic block is also submerged in water. Calculate the depth of floatation.88 kg/m3] E 4. 2. 7 wide and 2 m deep weighing 500 kN carrying on its deck a boiler of 3 m dia weighing 300 kN. If the specific gravity of the wood was 0. what is the required outer diameter? [unstable.9 m.81 m] E 4.9 Determine the metacentric height of a ship for rolling (Y – Y aixs) and pitching (X – X axis) whose plan view is in the form of an ellipse with major axis of 40 m and minor axis of 15 m. The centre of gravity of each unit may be taken to be at the geometric centre and along the same line.140 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 4.9 kg/m3.6. [756 kg/m3] E 4.6 Determine the depth of immersion of a cubic block of 2 m side weighing 20 kN which floats in a liquid whose specific weight varies as 9810 (1 + depth in m). If the fraction of volume above the surface was 0. The same object weighs 35 N when fully submerged in an oil of specific gravity 0.8] E 4.5 m floats in water.19 A piece of material weighs 100 N in air and when immersed in water completely it weighs 60 N.865 m.0416 × 105 Nm] E 4.5 floats in water. [50 mm] E 4. For stability of the cylinder.13] E 4.78] E 4. Determine the specific gravity of the oil. To support 50 N of weight in an atmospheric condition where the sir/density is 0.8. [7. Assume the centre to be on the vertical line.25 m and length 0.12 A hollow cylinder with ID 0. .45 floats in water.458] E 4. Determine its stability if its specific weight is 8000 N/m3. Assume density of sea water as 1025 kg/ m 3. [1.5 m below the water level. If the density of the cubic block material is 2000 kg/m3.15 Determine the maximum density of a conical wooden block of 0. determine the specific gravity of the metal. The total mass of hydrometer is 15 grams.0216 N. [unstable] E 4.5 mm deeper in an oil than in alcohol of specific gravity 0.14 Determine the D/h ratio for a stable floating log of circular cross section with density 800 kg/ m 3. Determine its metacentric height. OD 1.15 m] E 4.4.479 m] E 4. The weight of the ship is 9000 kN and the centre of buoyancy is 2 m below the water level and the centre of gravity is 0.18 A metal piece floats in mercury of specific gravity 13.5 A box of size 1m × 2m × 3m and weight 1000 N to lie just submerged in water is held down with a cubic block placed on it.08 kg/m3.4 A balloon is filled with hydrogen of density 0. [0.13 A torus of D = 2 m and d = 0. find the dimension of the cubic block. how much of the block wil project above the surface in water.67] E 4.

Determine the position of the block under equilibrium.753 m.2 and 0.02. E 4.24 Determine whether a cylinder of 0. Determine the metacentric height for rotation along the 26. Calculate the depth of immersion in fresh water. Determine the location of the centre of the sphere when it will float in nuteral equilibrium. and A is the sectional area of the stem. [0.08475 N] E 4.Buoyancy Forces and Stability of Floating Bodies 141 E 4. [0.4 and 0.34 Show that in the case of cylindrical hydrometer. E 4.6 and floats in a bath made of two layers of sepecific gravity 1. over the height h of immersion in water is given by h = V (S – 1) × A × S where V is the submerged volume in water. When 200 tons or water ballast is discharged. the top layer being 60 cm thick. the depth of immersion is 6.32 A cube of side 40 cm weighing 1050 N is lowered into a tank containing water over a layer of mercury.5 m and height 0. Also determine the restoring torque if it is rotated by 5° about the axis. The mass is 453.62 tons with load.5 m is forced into water by 666 N.28 A sphere of specific gravity 1. If the wedge is 50 cm wide. Water rises by 0. Determine the location of the base from the liquid surface.7 m centreline.026.23 A ship with vertical sides near the water line weighs 4000 tons and the depth of immersion is 6. If 3000 m3 protrudes above the water level calculate the total volume of the iceberg.27 The difference in specific gravities of 1. E 4. If a chain is used to tie it at the bottom so that it is submerged completely.95 mm] E 4.31 A wedge of wood of specific gravity 0.3 m length will float vertically in stable condition in oil of specific gravity 0. determine the tension in the chain. for a hydrometer of 10 mm dia.22 A tank of 1.7056 m in sea water of specific gravity 1.65 and base width 0.29 A cube side 60 cm is made of two equal horizontal layers of specific gravity 1. Determine the weight of the unit. [1.4 is to be shown by 40 mm by a hyrometer of mass 25 gram.25 m dia floats half submerged in water.5 m dia and 2 m length open at one end is immersed in water with the open end in water. E 4.83.1 and 1. the difference in the height of immersion in liquid of specific gravity S.92 floats in ocean water of specific gravity 1. The water level is 1 m from the top.6 m inside.33 An iceberg of specific gravity 0. (y in mm). E 4. E 4.2 m] E 4. Determine the weight of the tank.25 A sphere of 1. 1904 kN/m] E 4.7 m × 10 m and is 3 m in height.4 m. Chapter 4 . Investigate the stability.9.1 is 10 mm.26 The distance between the markings of specific gravity of 1 and 1.2 is immersed in a fluid whose sepcific gravity increases with depth y as 1 + 20 × 10–6 y.67 m dia and 1.30 A barge is of rectangular section of 26. E 4. What should be the diameter of the stem. The centre of gravity is at 4 m from bottom. determine the depth of immersion. E 4. [4. stable.

0 Fluid Flow—Basic Concepts— Hydrodynamics INTRODUCTION In the previous three chapters the pressure distribution in static fluids and its effect on surfaces exposed to the fluid was discussed. Such continuing deformation will lead to the displacement of the fluid element from its location and this results in fluid flow. Application of a shear force on an element or particle of a fluid will cause continuous deformation of the element. Hence these studies are applicable in real fluid flow also with some limitations. In real fluid shows. Just like the topography of a region is visualised using the contour map. The main attempt in this chapter is to visualise flow fields. the flow can be visualised using the velocity at all points at a given time or the velocity of a given particle at different times. 142 . The fluid element acted on by the force may move along a steady regular path or randomly changing path depending on the factors controlling the flow. fluids which are incompressible and inviscid. In some cases the velocity may vary randomly with time but the variation will be about a mean value . In this chapter the flow of ideal fluids will be discussed.# 5. In order to obtain a complete picture of the flow the fluid motion should be described mathematically. It is then possible to also define the potential causing the flow. The study of the velocity of various particles in the flow and the instantaneous flow pattern of the flow field is called flow kinematics or hydrodynamics. Such a study is generally limited to ideal fluids. The velocity may also remain constant with time or may vary randomly. beyond a certain distance from the surfaces. It may also vary completely randomly as in the atmosphere. It should be noted that the velocity at a point is the velocity of the fluid particle that occupies that point. A flow field is a region in which the flow is defined at all points at any instant of time. the flow behaves very much like ideal fluid. The means to that is to define the velocities at all the points at different times.

The flow description is particle based and not space based. This method provides an easier visualisation of the flow field and is popularly used in fluid flow studies.3 FLOW OF IDEAL / INVISCID AND REAL FLUIDS Ideal fluid is nonviscous and incompressible. (iv) Thermodynamic laws: are applied in the study of flow of compressible fluids. This also leads to the situation that the total energy of a fluid element in a steady flow field is conserved. A moving coordinate system has to be used. Chapter 5 (i) Law of conservation of mass: This law when applied to a control volume states that the net mass flow through the volume will equal the mass stored or removed from the volume. the description of flow is on fixed coordinate system based and the description of the velocity etc. The determination of flow velocity for a specified mass flow rate and flow area is based on the continuity equation derived on the basis of this law. t) and not with reference to a particular particle. 5. V = V (x. are with reference to location and time i. In the Eularian method. y. Under conditions of steady flow this will mean that the mass leaving the control volume should be equal to the mass entering the volume. This is the basis for the derivation of Euler and Bernoulli equations for fluid flow.1 LAGRANGIAN AND EULARIAN METHODS OF STUDY OF FLUID FLOW 143 In the Lagrangian method a single particle is followed over the flow field. z. Such an analysis provides a picture of various parameters at all locations in the flow field at different instants of time.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. 5.e. This method is more involved mathematically and is used mainly in special cases. The resultant force is calculated using the condition that it equals the rate of change of momentum. Shear force between the boundary surface and fluid or between the fluid layers is absent and only pressure forces and body forces are controlling..2 BASIC SCIENTIFIC LAWS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW (ii) Newton’s laws of motion: These are basic to any force analysis under various conditions of flow. (iii) Law of conservation of energy: Considering a control volume the law can be stated as “the energy flow into the volume will equal the energy flow out of the volume under steady conditions”. the co-ordinate system following the particle. This is equivalent to the observer moving with the particle to study the flow of the particle. However the final description of a given flow will be the same by both the methods. Momentum equation for flow is derived based on these laws. The reaction on surfaces are calculated on the basis of these laws. .

the properties vary with time or V = V(x. t) where t is time. For example a dye injected at a point in laminar flow will travel along a continuous smooth line without generally mixing with the main body of the fluid. For practical purposes turbulent flow is considered as steady flow as long as the mean value of properties do not vary with time.5 COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW If the density of the flowing fluid is the same all over the flow field at all times. The classification will depend upon the constancy or variability of the velocity with time. In unsteady flow the appearance of the flow field will vary with time and will be constantly changing. these are described. However the flow after a short distance from the surface is not affected by the viscous effects and approximates to ideal fluid flow. y. heat and mass transfer between layers will be at molecular level of pure diffusion. 5. z. The results of ideal fluid flow analysis are found applicable in the study of flow of real fluids when viscosity values are small. In turbulent flow fluid layers mix macroscopically and the velocity/temperature/mass concentration at any point is found to vary with reference to a mean value over a time period. y. These can be expressed as V = V(x. y. Low velocity flow of gases with small changes in pressure and temperature can also be considered as incompressible flow. 5. In this chapter the study is mainly on incompressible flow. If the density varies with location. Flow through fans and blowers is considered incompressible as long as the density variation is below 5%. Momentum.144 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Real fluids have viscosity and surface shear forces are involved during flow. z). P = P(x.4 STEADY AND UNSTEADY FLOW In order to study the flow pattern it is necessary to classify the various types of flow. but the mean value at a point over a period of time is constant. 5. The velocity or pressure at a point remains constant with time. In steady flow a picture of the flow field recorded at different times will be identical. In the next three sections. This causes . P = P(x. the flow is called compressible flow. In steady flow the property values at a location in the flow are constant and the values do not vary with time. In turbulent flow the velocity at any point fluctuates around a mean value. In laminar flow layers will glide over each other without mixing. z. then such flow is called incompressible flow. z) etc. t). For example u = u + u′ where u is the velocity at an instant at a location and u is the average velocity over a period of time at that location and u′ is the fluctuating component. Flow of liquids can be considered as incompressible even if the density varies a little due to temperature difference between locations. In the case of unsteady flow. y.6 LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW If the flow is smooth and if the layers in the flow do not mix macroscopically then the flow is called laminar flow.

In unsteady flow V = V(x. though ideally the flow may not be uniform. z. v and w. REVERSIBLE FLOW AND THREE DIMENSIONAL FLOW If the velocity value at all points in a flow field is the same.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 145 higher rate of momentum/heat/mass transfer. y and z directions as u. Depending on the relative values of u. y. In three dimensional flow all the three components will exist and V = V(x. This is the laminar region. y. The smoke in still air will be found to rise along a vertical line without mixing. v and w approximations can be made in the analysis. t) and w = w(x. no surface or fluid friction should exist. If the components of the velocity in a flow field exist only in one direction it is called one dimensional flow and V = V (x). The flow in a venturi (at low velocities) can be considered as reversible and the pressures upstream and downstream of the venturi will be the same in such a case. in one dimensional flow two of the components of velocity will be zero.v= dt dt and w = dz dt where t is the time and dx. dz are the displacements in the directions x. A dye injected into such a flow will not flow along a smooth line but will mix with the main stream within a short distance. Denoting the velocity components in x. The fluid can be restored to its original condition without additional work input. the flow becomes reversible. v = v(x. z. For a flow to be reversible. y. Turbulence will begin where inertia forces begin to increase and become higher than viscous forces. y). In two dimensional flow one of the components will be zero or V = V(x. dy. Laminar flow will prevail when viscous forces are larger than inertia forces. z. The difference between the flows can be distinguished by observing the smoke coming out of an incense stick. y. . z. z). The flow becomes irreversible if there are pressure or head losses. The velocity in the flow is independent of location. Chapter 5 5.7 CONCEPTS OF UNIFORM FLOW. At a distance which will depend on flow conditions the smoke will be found to mix with the air as the flow becomes turbulent. t). t) Defining acceleration components as ax = dw du dv and az = . 5. z. This describes the general steady flow situation. If there are no pressure or head losses in the fluid due to frictional forces to be overcome by loss of kinetic energy (being converted to heat). y.8 VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION COMPONENTS The components of velocity can be designated as u= dx dy . t). Certain flows may be approximated as uniform flow for the purpose of analysis. In general as u = u(x. then the flow is defined as uniform flow. y. z. ay = dt dt dt as u = u (x. y. t) .

only the convective acceleration terms will exist. the flow through face during time dt is given by ρu dy dz dt The flow through the y – z face at x + dx is given by ρu dy dz dt + ∂ (ρ u dy dz dt) dx ∂x (5. The last term is known as local accleration term.1. 5.9. First considering the y – z face.1 Derivation of continuity equation Consider an element of size dx. and ay = u az = u The first three terms in each case is known as convective acceleration terms.9 CONTINUITY EQUATION FOR FLOW—CARTESIAN CO-ORDINATES rvdx + ¶ (rvdx) dy ¶y B r u dy r v dx A C rudy + ¶ (rudy) dx ¶x D Figure. perpendicular to the x direction and located at x. because these represent the convective act of moving from one position to another.9. 5. Under steady flow conditions.2) . dz in the flow as shown in Fig 5.9.146 ax = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂z ∂u + + + ∂x ∂t ∂y ∂t ∂z ∂t ∂t ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w +v +w + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t =u Similarly.9. dy. Applying the law of conservation of mass.1) (5. for a given time interval. because the flow at a point is changing with time. The net mass flow into the element through all the surfaces = The change in mass in the element.

3) Similarly the net mass through the faces z – x and x – y in y and z directions respectively are given by ∂ (ρv) dx dy dz dt ∂x ∂ (ρw) dx dy dz dt ∂x (5.9. Chapter 5 ∂ ρu b g + ∂bρvg + ∂bρwg = 0 . Integrating ρuA = constant.4) (5.9.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 147 The net mass flow in the x direction is the difference between the quantities given by (5. like flow in a nozzle or venturi. or (5.2) and is equal to ∂ (ρu) dx dy dz dt ∂x (5.9.9.9.9. the equation reduces to ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (5.1) and (5. For steady flow ∂ ρu dy dz ∂x b g = 0 as dy dz = dA.9) Whether a flow is steady can be checked using this equation when the velocity components are specified. the first term of the general equation alone need be considered.9.7) This is the general equation.9.9.6) The sum of these quantities should equal zero. or velocity in one dimensional varying area flow.9. For two dimensional steady incompressible flow. cancelling common terms dx dy dz dt b g + ∂bρvg + ∂bρwg = ∂ρ ∂y ∂z ∂t (5.5 ) The change in the mass in the control volume equals the rate of change of density × volume × time or ∂ρ dx dy dz dt ∂t ∂ ρu ∂x (5.11) ρ1u1A1 = ρ2 u2 A2 This equation is used to calculate the area.8) For incompressible flow this becomes ∂u ∂v ∂w + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z ( 5. For steady flow this reduces to ∂x ∂y ∂z (5.10) For one dimensional flow with varying area.9.

The angle of rotation of x axis is given by (∂v/∂y). .Dt ¶y Db D C C Deformed element Figure 5.10. y) B Da ¶v Dx.10. For irrotational flow.10 IRROTATIONAL FLOW AND CONDITION FOR SUCH FLOWS Irrotational flow may be described as flow in which each element of the moving fluid suffers no net rotation from one instant to the next with respect to a given frame of reference. then the rotation is given by (with respect to the Z axis in the case of two dimensional flow along x and y) ωz = (1/2) (∂v/∂x – ∂u/∂y) and ωz = 0 for irrotational flow. The idea is illustrated in Fig. the angle of rotation of the axes towards each other or away from each other should be equal i.1) Another significance of irrotational flow is that it is defined by a potential function φ for the flow described in para 5.. y) v = v (x. In flow along a curved path fluid elements will deform.∆t.2) 5. 5.∆t.10. (5. ∆y.e.148 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. the flow is irrotational.1 Rotation in Flow An element is shown moving from point 1 to point 2 along a curved path in the flow field.11.11 CONCEPTS OF CIRCULATION AND VORTICITY Considering a closed path in a flow field as shown in Fig.Dt ¶x ¶u Dy. ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y or ∂u ∂v – =0 ∂y ∂x (5. (It is assumed that ∆x = ∆y.1 Irrotational flow : Da = Db y D Dy A 1 O Dx x 2A B u = u (x. circulation is defined as the line integral of velocity about this closed path. As it moves to location 2 the element is deformed. then the flow will be irrotational. The symbol used is Γ.10. This means that as long as the algebraic average rotation is zero.15. At 1 the undeformed element is shown. In case there is rotation. The angle of rotation of y axis is given by (∂u/∂y). If the axes of the element rotate equally towards or away from each other. 5. ∆y.1. the condition to be satisfied for irrotational flow is.

as its tangent at that point.1 (b).11. In polar coordinates Vorticity = ∂vθ 1 ∂vr vθ − + ∂r r ∂θ r 5. If at a fixed instant of time a curve is drawn so that it is tangent everywhere to the velocity vectors at these locations .. 5. The closed path may cut across several stream lines and at each point the direction of the velocity is obtained from the stream line. ¶x ¶x Figure. STREAM TUBE. then the circulation can be calculated as detailed below: dΓ = u dx + [v+(∂v/∂x)dx]dy – [u+(∂u/∂y). here area is dx dy. Stream lines b L V CO b b dL (a) (b) V y 4 v 1 u x 2 u+ ¶u . The velocity vector is a function of both position and time. 5.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Γ= 149 u cos β dL z z u ds = L L where dL is the length on the closed curve. PATH LINES. Vorticity = circulation per unit area. i.1) Chapter 5 Consider the element 1234 in Fig. dy is considered.11. vorticity and circulation are both zero.3b. ∂v dΓ ∂u = – ∂x ∂y dxdy (5.12 STREAM LINES.11. so Vorticity = (5.1 Circulation in flow The integration can be performed over an element as shown in Fig. u is the velocity at the location and β is the angle between the velocity vector and the length dL. ¶y ¶y 3 v+ ¶v .2) For irrotational flow. 5. In the cartesian co-ordinate if an element dx.e. STREAK LINES AND TIME LINES The analytical description of flow velocity is geometrically depicted through the concept of stream lines.dy] dx – vdy = [∂v/∂x – ∂u/∂y]dxdy Vorticity is defined as circulation per unit area. Starting at 1 and proceeding counter clockwise.11.

2. the flow through a stream tube will be constant along the length. At the instant of time considered the positions of the particles are at 1. A bundle of neighbouring stream lines may be imagined to form a passage through which the fluid flows. there can be no flow across the surface. Path lines and Streak lines Particles P1. Thus stream line shows the mean direction of a number of particles in the flow at the same instant of time. Streak lines provide an instantaneous picture of the particles. P3. In steady flow these lines will also coincide with stream lines.150 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery then the curve is called a stream line.12. Path line is the trace of the path of a single particle over a period of time. . such a line is defined as a stream line.13 CONCEPT OF STREAM LINE In a flow field if a continuous line can be drawn such that the tangent at every point on the line gives the direction of the velocity of flow at that point.1.12. Flow can be only through the ends. Under steady flow condition. If a number of adjacent fluid particles in a flow field are marked at a given instant. This line is called time line. In steady flow path lines and stream lines will be identical. Path lines and streak lines are shown in Figure 5. Path line shows the direction of the velocity of a particle at successive instants of time. Stream lines are a series of curves drawn tangent to the mean velocity vectors of a number of particles in the flow. In steady flow any particle entering the flow on the line will travel only along this line. For example the deformation of a fluid under shear force can be studied using time lines.12. Subsequent observations of the line may provide information about the flow field. Streak line Stream tube Stream lines End End (a) P (b) 1 P1 P3 P2 P4 Path lines 3 2 4 Figure 5. P4. starting from point P at successive times pass along path lines shown. Since the stream tube is bounded on all sides by stream lines.1. Since stream lines are tangent to the velocity vector at every point in the flow field. Such a passage is called a stream tube. they form a line at that instant. which have passed through a given point like the injection point of a dye in a flow. A line joining these points is the streak line.1 Stream tube. there can be no flow across a stream line. A stream tube is shown diagrammatically in Figure 5. P2. 5. 3 and 4. This leads to visualisation of a stream line in laminar flow as the path of a dye injected into the flow.

13.13. the flow along y direction = dx v the flow along x direction = dy u These two quantities should be equal for the condition that the flow across ds is zero.1 Velocity components along a stream line Referring to Fig. The flow along the stream line can be considered as one dimensional flow. In the cartesian co-ordinate system. 5. 5. The flow entering between two stream lines will always flow between the lines. along the stream line in two dimensional flow it can be shown that dx dy = u v v y u or v dx – u dy = 0 (5. and noting that the net flow across ds is zero. 5. thus proving the equation (5.1 Stream function—Definition Chapter 5 . though the stream line may be curved as there is no component of velocity in the other directions.14.1 showing the flow field.13. co-ordinate system and two stream lines. it is shown that stream lines in a flow can be described by a stream function having distinct values along each stream line.1). B y y + dy dy dy y + dy y y dy dx A y u dy – v dx B A O x Figure.1) Stream line (s) ds ds x dx dy dx v dx u dy dy Figure 5. 5. In the next para.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 151 There can be no flow across the stream line.5 considering the velocity at a point and taking the distance ds and considering its x and y components as dx and dy. as the velocity perpendicular to the stream line is zero at all points.14. The lines serve as boundaries for the stream.14 CONCEPT OF STREAM FUNCTION Refer to Fig. Stream lines define the flow paths of streams in the flow.

By substituting for the values of u and v in the continuity equation 5. Let the slow rate be denoted as ψ. Considering the stream line A in figure.14.14.1) If the stream function ψ can be expressed as ψ = ψ (x. It is also possible to combine two flows and then obtain the stream lines for the combined flow.152 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Stream function is a mathematical expression that describes a flow field. The definition is based on the continuity principle. The flow across any line between A and B will be dψ. with complex boundary conditions. y) (as it has a value at every point) dψ = ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂y (5.3) In the practical point of view equation 5. If the velocity is expressed for a flow field in terms of x and y then the stream function value can be obtained by integrating equation 5. Now taking components in the x and y directions. ψ= z ∂ψ dx + ∂x z ∂ψ dy + c ∂y (5.10 in terms of ψ. Then ψ is a constant of the streamline A. There are only a limited number of flows which are simple enough that stream function can be easily obtained. if the stream function for a stream line is known. It provides a means of plotting and interpreting flow fields. .9. the flow rate across any line joining 0 and any point on A should be the same as no flow can cross the stream line A. stream lines can be plotted and the flow values can also be obtained between the stream lines.4) The constant provides the difference in flow between various stream lines. then the velocity at each point can be determined and vice versa.14. If ψ can be described by an equation in x and y then stream line A can be plotted on the flow field. dψ = u dy – v dx then (5. it is seen that u= and v = – ∂ψ ∂x (5. Let the flow between stream lines A and B be dψ. Consider another stream line B close to A.5) As the value of the derivative is the same irrespective of the order in which it is taken the continuity equation is automatically satisfied by the stream function. ∂2ψ ∂2ψ − =0 ∂x∂y ∂y∂x (5. If the value of stream function is expressed in terms of x and y.14.3 can be considered as the definition of stream function.2) and comparing the above two equations.14. As a result of the definition.1.14.14. Many real flows can be obtained by the combination of the simple flows. This technique of superposition is found very useful in the analysis of more complex flows.

The proof is given in solved problem 5.3) Chapter 5 ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y .Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5.15.15 POTENTIAL FUNCTION 153 Flow is caused by a driving potential.. then equation 5. (5. v=− ∂y ∂x (5.10. Considering the continuity equation ∂2 φ ∂u ∂ 2 φ ∂v =− 2 . 5.1. Potential function and stream functions are orthogonal to each other.12 and 5. =− 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x Substituting.1 is satisfied i. it is mathematically possible to define a velocity potential function φ as u= − ∂φ ∂φ .10. If this condition is satisfied everywhere in a flow except at a few singular points.15.11. ∂2φ ∂2φ + ∂x 2 ∂y 2 =0 (5.1) The negative sign indicates that φ decreases in the direction of velocity increase. an equation known as Laplace’s equation results. =− =− ∂x∂y ∂y ∂y∂x ∂x as these two quantities are equal the irrotationality condition is satisfied. Converging flows.15. It will be useful to have an idea of the potential at various locations.1 (irrotational flow) ∂v ∂u − =0 ∂x ∂y ∂ 2 φ ∂u ∂2 φ ∂v . and flows outside the boundary layer are essentially irrotational. Substituting this in equation 5. ∂u ∂v = ∂y ∂x Fluid flows which approximate to this condition are found to be large in number. If a fluid flow is irrotational. Substituting these in the continuity equation. The method of determination of potential function given the velocities or the stream function is described under solved problems 5.2) This is similar to heat conduction equation with temperature T replacing φ as potential.e. These partial derivatives are known as potential gradients and give the flow velocity in the direction of the gradient. Potential functions exist only in irrotational flow whereas stream functions can be written for all flows.13.

For other flows can be generally approximated as combinations of these flows. 5. So and φ = cx = ux In polar coordinates ψ = ur sin θ. By applying the boundary at y = 0.16.16. The flow can be described by the condition. b) (5. The circulation Γ around any closed curve will be zero in this flow (check) Potential function is orthogonal to stream function. the simple flows are described.16.16 STREAM FUNCTION FOR RECTILINEAR FLOW FIELD (POSITIVE X DIRECTION) It is often found necessary to analyse flow fields around immersed bodies. C3 = 2ua etc.1. dy + z (0) dx = c1 y + c2 where c1 and c2 are constants.e.1. C1 = ua.1 Rectilinear flow stream and potential lines It y distances are equally spaced. d) y = C3 y = C2 y x y = C1 y=0 y = – C1 y = – C2 y = – C3 Figure.1. and the velocity distribution is uniform at a distance from the object.16. 5. Such a flow is termed as rectilinear flow and is of practical importance.154 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. φ = ur cos θ Considering uniform flow at an angle α with x-axis ψ = u(y cos α – x sin α). with distance ‘a’ then C0 = 0.. ∴ ψ= z const.1. . c) (5. In this section. coincident with x axis. f=0 f = – k1 f = – k2 f = k2 f = k1 y = Cy = uy (5.17 TWO DIMENSIONAL FLOWS—TYPES OF FLOW There are only a few types of flow for which stream and potential functions can be determined directly. i. a) (5.16. φ = u(x cos α + y sin α) The stream lines are shown in Fig. 5. u = constant and v = 0.16. The extent of the approaching flow is often large and possesses straight and parallel stream lines.1. c2 = 0.

17. φ = (q/2π) ln r The stream lines are shown in Fig.6) y=0 y = – C5 y = – C6 y = – C7 Figure 5. uθ = (K/2πr) ψ = – (K/2π) ln r.17.2. 5.17.17.17.17.17. The origin is a singular point. FG q IJ θ .1.8) Chapter 5 . Here C1. The velocity at all points at a given radial distance will be the same. the origin from where fluid is supplied at a constant rate q.3 Irrotational Vortex of Strength K (Free vortex. In this case also the velocity at all points at a given radial distance from the origin will be the same. 5. The circulation around any closed curve is zero. The equations describing the flow are ur = 0.7) (5.1 Source Flow 155 A source flow consists of a symmetrical flow field with radial stream lines directed outwards from a common point. uθ = 0. where the fluid is absorbed at a constant rate.17. H 2π K y = – C2 y = – C3 y y = – C4 y = – C1 f = k2 f = k1 z 5. C2 etc are simply Figure 5.17.17. As the area increases along the outward direction.5) (5. origin. counter clockwise is taken as +ve.17. ψ = – (q/2π)θ .4) y = C5 y = C6 y = C7 The potential function is represented by φ = – (q/2π) ln r The stream lines are shown in Fig.17.2 Sink Flow Sink is the opposite of source and the radial streamlines are directed inwards to a common point. φ = – (K/2π)θ (5. The velocity increases as the fluid moves inwards or as the radius decreases. the velocity will increase. where θ is the angle of the stream line.2 Stream and potential lines for sink flow 5. The equations describing the flow are ur = – (q/2πr) .17.1) y = C3 y y = C4 y = C2 y = C1 f = – k2 f = – k1 y=0 z Stream function is represented by ψ = (q/2π)θ The velocity in the tangential direction is zero uθ = 0 (5. The equations describing the flow are: by Velocity at radius r for flow rate of strength q is given ur = q/2πr (5. The origin is at the centre and is a singular point).1 Potential and stream lines for source flow The origin is a singular point. (5.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. the velocity will decrease and the stream lines will spread out as the fluid moves outwards.3) (5.2) (5. The circulation Γ around any closed curve is zero.17.17.

17. In this case Λ takes a definite value. 5.4 Potential and stream line for doublet . In this case the velocity varies inversely with radius. velocity will tend to be ∞ and that is why the centre is a singular point.3 Irrotational vortex Forced vortex is discussed in solved problem 5. The equations describing the flow are ur = – (Λ/r2) cos θ . where ds is the distance between them.156 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Circulation Γ = K for closed curve enclosing origin and Γ = 0 for any other closed curves. At r = o.9) (5. uθ = – (Λ/r2) sin θ ψ = – ( Λ sin θ/r).17. ds→0.4 Doublet of Strength Λ The centre is at the origin and is a singular point. f = – k2 f = – k3 f = – k1 y = – C4 y = – C3 y = – C2 y = – C1 f=0 z y f = – k4 f = – k5 f = – k6 f = – k1 Figure 5.10) The equation and the plot are for the limiting condition. Such a flow is obtained by allowing a source and sink of equal strengths merge and Λ = q ds/2π . f = k1 y = – C2 y = – C3 y f = k2 z f = – k2 y=0 f = – k1 y = – C1 y = C3 y = C2 y = C1 Figure 5.3.17. φ = – (Λ cos θ/r) (5.17.17.

5. Similarly φ = φA + φB Some of the examples follow. for sink flow ψ2 = – (q/2π) θ2. For source flow φ1 = – (q/2π) ln r.18. In polar coordinates ψ = (q/2π)θ + ur sin θ For uniform flow φ2 = – ux.18 PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSING OF FLOWS (OR COMBINING OF FLOWS) 157 Some of the practical flow problems can be more easily described by combination of the simple flows discussed in previous article. sink etc. The wake flow (behind the body) can be visualised by means of a sink and uniform flow.1.18.18. The simple rule for such a combination of two flows A and B is ψ = ψA + ψB where ψ describes the combined flow and ψA and ψB describe the component flows. 5. Combining φ = φ1 + φ2 = – (q/ 2π) ln r – ux. Combining ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = (q/2π)θ1 – (q/2π)θ2 = (q/2π) (θ1 – θ2) Similarly using φ1 = – (q/2π) ln r1 and φ2 = (q/2π) ln r2 φ = φ1 + φ2 = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) Figure 5. For example.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5. The velocity in uniform flow along the x direction is u and along y direction is zero. it is found useful to study such combination of flows.18. the flow area reduces.18. The stream lines nearer the body move closer to each other and the flow far removed from the body is still uniform.1 Source and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Half Body) The combined stream lines are shown in Fig.1 Source and uniform flow P 5. As equations for stream lines are available for flows like uniform flow.2 Source and Sink of Equal Strength with Separation of 2a Along x-axis For source flow ψ 1 = (q/2π) θ 1 . source. in polar coordinates.2 Source and sink of equal strength 2 a P Chapter 5 . This flow can be visualised by the combination of uniform flow and a source. φ = – (q/2π) ln r – ur cos θ Figure 5. The equations describing the flows are. For source flow ψ1 = (q/2π) θ . if in uniform flow a cylinder like body is interposed. The flow rate of the source is q. For uniform flow ψ2 = cy = uy ∴ ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = (q/2π) θ + uy.

1 and 2. ψ = ur [1 – (a2/r2)] sin θ φ1 = – (Λ cos θ/r).18.18.18.4 Vortex and uniform flow 5. and for K<4πau Figure 5.4.3 Source. ψ1 = (q/2π) (θ1 – θ2).18. ψ2 =uy ∴ ψ = (q/2π)(θ1 – θ2) + uy = (q/2π)(θ1 – θ2) + ur sin θ φ1 = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) and φ2 = – ux ∴ φ = (q/2π) ln (r2/r1) – ur cos θ here r is the distance from the origin to the point and θ is the angle made by this line with x axis.158 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5.3 for the vortex ψ = (K/ 2π) ln r (clockwise) For uniform flow ψ = uy ∴ ψ = (K/2π) ln r + uy.17.5 Flow past a cylinder P Figure 5.18.5 and 15. P 5.4 Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow Refer results of section 5. φ = (K/2π)θ – ur cos θ Figure 5. sink and uniform flow Figure 5.6 Doublet. vortex and uniform flow .18.17. For uniform flow ψ2 = uy = ur sin θ ∴ ψ = (Λ sin θ/r) + ur sin θ defining a2 = Λ/u. Vortex (Clockwise) and Uniform Flow Refer results of para 15. In polar coordinates.17.3 Source and Sink Displaced at 2a and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Rankine Body) In this case refer para 5. For uniform flow φ2 = – ux ∴ φ = (K/2π)θ – ux In polar coordinates. φ2 = – ux = – ur cos θ ∴ φ = – ur [1 + (a2/r2)] cos θ P 5.3 ψ = ur [1 – (a2/r2)] sin θ + (K/2π) ln r φ = – ur [1 + (a2/r2)] cos θ + (K/2π)θ where a2 = Λ/u.5 Doublet and Uniform Flow (Flow Past a Cylinder) Refer results of para 5.6 Doublet. For doublet ψ1 = Λ sin θ/r.18.18.18.18. ψ = (K/2π) ln r + ur sin θ For vortex φ1 = (K/2π)θ.

2a P Figure 5.1 and 3 ψ = (q/2π) θ – (K/2π) ln r φ = – (q/2π) ln r – (K/2π) θ P 159 Figure 5.17.9 Sink and vortex .17.8 Vortex pair 5. Such a plot is useful for flow visualisation as well as calculation of flow rates at various locations and the pressure along the flow. Chapter 5 Figure 5.18.18.18.3 ψ = (K/2π) ln (r2/r1).8 Sink and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) Refer results of para 15. Opposite Rotation. φ = (K/2π) (θ2 – θ1) Many more actual problems can be modelled by the use of this basic principle. Separation by 2a) Refer results of para 15.7 Source and vortex 5.9 Vortex Pair (Equal Strength. The idea that stream lines and potential lines are orthogonal is used in arriving at the plot.19 CONCEPT OF FLOW NET The plot of stream lines and potential flow lines for a flow in such a way that these form curvilinear squares is known as flow net.18.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 5.2 and 3 ψ = – (q/2π)θ – (K/2π) ln r φ = (q/2π) ln r – (K/2π)θ 5.18. The lines can be drawn by trial or electrical or magnetic analogue can also be used.18.7 Source and Vortex (Spiral Vortex Counterclockwise) Refer results of para 5.17.

. Hence stream lines and equipotential lines are orthogonal. 5.1. The slope of the stream line at this point is thus given by dy v = dx u Similarly. The pressure drop between adjacent potential lines will also be equal. ∴ Substituting for φ = φ (x. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery y f Tank Stream lines Equipotential lines Figure 5. y) ∴ dψ = ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂ψ and as – v and u ∂y ∂x Substituting from definition of ∴ ∴ ∂ψ = – vdx + udy vdx = udy as ψ is constant along a stream line dψ = 0.1 for flow through a well rounded orifice in a large tank. the mechanical labour in the plotting of such flow net has been removed.19. udx = – vdy ∴ ∂y = – u/v ∂x (2) These values of slopes show that the two sets of lines are perpendicular to each other. The flow rate along each channel formed by the stream lines will be equal. Prove that the stream function and potential function lead to orthogonality of stream lines and equipotential flow lines.1 Flow Net SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 5. ψ = ψ (x. With the advent of computer softwares for flow analysis. However the basic idea of flow net is useful.19. y) dφ = (1) ∂φ ∂φ dx + dy ∂x ∂y ∂φ ∂φ and as – u and – v ∂x ∂y dφ = – udx – vdy as dφ = 0 along an equipotential line.160 An example is shown in Fig.

vr = 0 = 2πr ∂r (radial velocity) Γ dr + (0) rdθ + C 2πr taking that ψ = 0 for the stream line at r =1 z − z ψ= For a clockwise vortex Γ ln r 2π (1) Γ ln r 2π Problem 5. circulation is constant for the vortex and Γ is known as vortex strength. Determine the stream function for a forced vortex. Determine the stream function in the case of free vortex.2. The stream function can be determined by integration vt = ∴ ψ= Γ − ∂ψ . The flow is irrotational except at the singularity. dr + r dvt = d (rvt) = 0 or vt r = constant for the flow This relationship holds at all locations except the centre (singular point) The circulation along any streamline can be calculated by the usual procedure of v dL and Γ = 2πrvt Chapter 5 z L As vt r = constant for the flow. This condition can be used to show that vt r = constant where vt is the tangential velocity. (r + dr) dq rdq 1 Vt dr dq 4 r Figure P. 161 In free vortex flow the stream lines are concentric circles around the singular point. y2 y1 vt dr r 0=1 y=0 3 2 vt + dvt. ψ= A forced vortex is obtained by rotating the fluid as a whole. 5.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Problem 5.3.2 dΓ = (vt + dvt) (r + dr) d θ + 0 – vt rd θ + 0 = 0 neglecting second order terms and simplifying v t. This is done by considering the circulation around the element going along 1234. The flow is characterised by the equation vt = – ωr and vr = 0 (– sign for clockwise vortex) .

Show that the flow is steady and 2.162 2 vt y 3 dq r wr r dq 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery w (r + dr) (r + dr) dq 1 dr Figure P. To check for irrotationality. P. ∂y x + y2 )2 ∂x ∂y ( ∂x ( x + y ) The difference is zero and hence the flow is irrotational.3 ∴ ψ= z (ωr) dr + z (0) rd ϕ + C = ωr2/2 + C taking ψ = 0 for the stream line at r = 0. v= − y x + y2 2 1. Problem 5. .3 and calculating the circulation and then vorticity d Γ = – ω (r + dr) (r + dr) d θ + 0 + ω r rd θ + 0 = – 2 ω rd rd θ as vorticity = d Γ/area and as area = r dθ dr Vorticity = – 2 ω . C will vanish and so ψ = ωr2/2 An important aspect of the flow is that the flow is rotational This can be shown by considering an element in the flow as shown in Fig. The vorticity is directly related to the angular velocity of the mass.4. the condition to be satisfied is. ∂u 2 xy ∂v ∂u ∂v 2 xy . = 2 − = 2 =0 2 2 . In a two dimensional flow the x and y directional velocities u and v are given by u= − x x +y 2 2 . 5. the continuity equation should be used. Check whether the flow is irrotational To check for steady flow.5. ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y LM N L (x + y ) − 2 y ∂v = −M ∂y N (x + y ) 2 2 2 2 2 ( x2 + y2 ) − 2 x2 x2 − y2 ∂u = 2 =– (x 2 + y2 ) 2 (x + y2 )2 ∂x 2 2 2 OP Q OP = y − x Q (x + y ) 2 2 2 The sum is zero and this satisfies the continuity equation and so the flow is steady. Hence flow is rotational.

(a) Check for steady flow: (ii) u = 3xy. = – t2 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = t2. Check whether the following flows are (i) steady and (ii) irrotational (i) u = 2y. = xt + 2y ∂y ∂x ∴ ∂u ∂v + = 0 So the flow is steady ∂x ∂y (ii) ∴ satisfies the continuity equation and flow is steady (iii) This does not satisfy the requirements for steady flow To Check for irrotational flow: ∂u ∂v − =0 ∂y ∂x ∴ flow is irrotational ∴ flow is not irrotational ∴ flow is not irrotational Chapter 5 (i) ∂u ∂v = 1. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = 3y.6.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics 163 Problem 5. (iii) u = –2x. = yt ∂y ∂x (ii) (iii) Problem 5. =–1 ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u = t2. Check whether the following velocity relations satisfy the requirements for steady irrotational flow. =0 ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = – 2. = 2x ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 0. v = – 3x. =1 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 2.5. v = x – y (ii) u = xt2 + 2y . =2 ∂y ∂x So steady flow prevails (ii) This is not a steady flow (iii) So steady flow prevails (b) Check for irrotational flow: ∂u ∂v – =0 ∂y ∂x (i) ∂u ∂v = 2. v = 0. v = 2y ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (i) ∂v ∂u = 0. v = x2 – y t2 (iii) u = xt2. v = xyt + y2 To check for steady flow use continuity equation: (i) ∂u ∂v = 1. =–3 ∂y ∂x Hence not irrotational . (i) u = x + y.

v (ii) the vorticity and (iii) circulation. y) u= ψ= ∂ψ = ƒ1 (x. y) dy + f (x) where the second terms is a function of x only (3) Let –v= ∂ψ = ƒ2 (x.164 (ii) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∂u ∂v = 3x. y) dy ] + f ′ (x) = f2 (x. ∂x ∂y (2) Let ∴ ∴ u = f1 (x. y). =0 ∂y ∂x Hence not irrotational (iii) Hence irrotational Problem 5.7. The stream function for a flow is given by ψ = xy. as ψ = xy. Describe the method of determination of the stream function given the velocity relationship and also determine the stream function given u = 4xy and (1) First check for continuity v = c – 2y2 The method used for the determination of stream function is described below ∂v ∂u + = 0. u = ∂ψ and ∂y v=– ∂ψ . y) ∂y z f1 (x. (i) From the definition stream function.8. u = =x ∂y ∂x u = x. Is the flow irrotational? Determine (i) u. Problem 5. v = – y ∂v ∂u = . =0 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = 0. = 0. y) = – v comparing the terms with f2 (x. y). ∂x v=– ∴ For irrotational flow ∂ψ ∂ψ = – y. ∴Flow is irrotational ∂y ∂x (ii) vorticity and (iii) circulation will be zero for irrotational flow. ∂x ∂ψ ∂ = [ ∂x ∂x z f1 (x. using equation 1 determine the derivative. ∂x ∂y ∂u ∂v = 0. f ′ (x) can be obtained .

= – 2 ∴ Satisfies continuity ∂y ∂x (2) ∂ψ = u = 2x + y ∂y ψ= z (2x + y) dy + f(x) (A) = 2xy+ (y2/2) + f(x) (3) Using A. v = – = – 2y + x ∂y ∂x Chapter 5 ∂ψ ∂ψ = 4xy. ψ= 165 z f(x)dx + z f1 (x. = – 4y. ∴ continuity is satisfied ∂y ∂x (2) ∴ u= ψ= ∂ψ = 4xy ∂y z 4xy dy = 2xy2 + f(x) (A) where f(x) is a function of x only (3) ∂ψ = – v = 2y2 – c ∂x = 2y2 + f ′ (x) (Using equation A) Differentiating equation (A) w. y)dy + constant v = c – 2y2 ∂v ∂u = 4y.9. f(x) = – cx (4) Now substitute for f(x) in A ψ = 2xy2 – cx + constant Check (use equation B) u= (B) Problem 5. f(x) = – x2/2 ψ = 2xy + (y2/2) – (x2/ 2) + Constant u= ∴ Check ∂ψ ∂ψ = 2x + y. x and comparing f ′(x) = – c.t. v = – = – 2y2 + c ∂y ∂x .r. u = 2x + y . ∂ψ = 2y + f ′ (x) = – v = 2y – x ∂x f ′ (x) = – x. Determine the stream function given. v = x – 2y (1) Check for continuity ∂v ∂u = 2.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics (4) (1) u = 4xy.

but if the flow is rotational potential function will not be valid. ∂y ∂y ∴ v=– ∴ So the flow is irrotational and hence the function is valid. Explain how the potential function can be obtained if the stream function for the flow is specified. = x. Validate the potential function given as (i) φ = y2 – x2 (ii) φ = xy A potential function should satisfy the laplace equation ∂2φ ∂2φ + =0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 It should also satisfy the condition for irrotational flow ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y Case (i) ∂φ ∂φ ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ = – 2x. φ can be determined using the same procedure as per the determination of stream function u=– ∴ φ=– ∂φ ∂x z udx – f(y) (A) where f(y) is a function of y only .v=– =–x ∴ ∂y ∂y Hence irrotationality is satisfied.10. The function is a valid potential function. (1) Irrotational nature of the flow should be checked first.166 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 5. Stream function may exist. ∂y ∂x 2 ∴ ∂2φ =0 ∂y 2 ∂v =–1 ∂x Hence valid. = 2y. To check for irrotational flow u=– ∂φ ∂( y 2 − x 2 ) =− = 2x. Case (ii) φ = xy. 2 = 2 ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂u =0 ∂y ∂v =0 ∂x Hence Laplace equation is satisfied. Explain how the validity of a given potential function φ is established. ∂φ =y ∂x ∴ ∂2φ ∂φ = 0. 2 = – 2. ∂x ∂x ∂φ ∂( y 2 + x 2 ) =– = –2y.11. Problem 5. (2) The values of u and v are obtained from the stream function as ∂ψ ∂ψ = u and =–v ∂y ∂x (3) From the knowledge of u and v. u=– ∂φ =–y ∴ ∂x ∂u ∂ψ =–1.

∂y –v= ∂ψ = – 8y ∂x ∴ v = 8y Check for irrotationality : ∂u ∂v . = 0 . determine the potential function (ii) ψ = – 8xy (iii) ψ = x – y ∂ψ ∂ψ = – 3y . (ii) ∂φ ∂φ = – 3y. φ = 3xy + constant check Chapter 5 ∴ f ′(y) = 0 and so f(y) = constant ∂φ ∂2φ ∂2 φ ∂2 φ ∂ 2φ + 2 = 0. ∴ f(y) = – 4y2 ∂φ = f ′(y) = – v = – 8y ∂y ∴ φ = 4x2 – 4y2 . so checks ∂x ∂y ∂φ ∂x ∴ φ= To check for irrotationality (2) u = – 3y. in this case both are zero. Hence flow is irrotational.12. u = – 3y. also u = – φ = 3xy +f(y) z 3ydx + f(y) (A) Differentiating equation A with respect to y and equating to v.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics ∂φ is determined and equated to – v ∂y 167 Comparing f ′(y) is found and then f(y) is determined and substituted in equation A φ=– (i) ψ = (3/2) (x2 – y2) (i) u= z udx – f(y) + C Problem 5. For the following stream functions. v = – 3x ∂y ∂x ∂v ∂u = . – v = = 3x. v = – = – 3x also checks. So also 2 = 0 ∂y ∂x 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x 2 u=– So checks. = 3y. ∂φ = 3x + f ′y = – v = 3x ∂y Substituting in A. here both are – 3. = ∂y ∂x ∂φ = – u = 8x φ = ∂x z 8xdx + f(y) = 4x2 + f (y) differentiating this expression with respect to y. ∂y ∂x ψ = – 8xy u= ∂ψ = – 8x ∴ u = – 8x.

A similar procedure is to be adopted to obtain stream function when potential function is specified.13. determine the stream function and potential function for the flow. Given that u = x2 – y2 and v = – 2xy. the condition for irrotationality is to be checked. ∂ψ = 2xy + f ′ (x) = – v = 2xy ∂x ∴ ∴ Check: f ′ (x) = 0 and f (x) = constant. Laplace equation etc. ∂v ∂u = 2x. ∂y ∂x Hence satisfies the condition Check for rotation: ∂v ∂u + =0 ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v = – 2y.r. ∂ψ ∂ψ = – 1. x. u= Hence flow is irrotational. ∂y ∂x ∂φ = – u = 1. ∂x Differentiating w. as an exercise. Problem 5. checks ∂x . a constant can be added to the function ψ as well as φ.r. Also calculate u and v from this expression and check (iii) ψ = x – y.t. = – 2y ∂y ∂x (i) To determine the stream function u= ∴ flow is irrotational ∂ψ = x2 – y2 ψ = x2 y – (y3/3) + f(x) ∂y Differentiating this expression w. = – 2x. φ= z 1 dx + f(y) = x + f (y) ∂φ = f ′(y) = – v = 1 ∂y ∴ φ=x+y ∴ f(y) = y (Check for other conditions) Note: In all cases.t.168 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Check for countinuity. Only in the case of potential function. v = – =–1 ∂y ∂x ∴ ∂u ∂v = = 0. ∂y ∂ψ = 2xy = – v . In this case stream function will always exist. y. ψ = x2y – y3/3 + constant ∂ψ = x2 – y2 = u. checks. Check for continuity.

5.14 Chapter 5 ψ1 = uy and in polar coordinates ψ1 = ur cos θ ∴ ψ1 = 10y ..6 26. y y2 1 2 3 y= 4 y1 7 6 5 4 10 0. 2y – 2y = 0 ∂x 2 ∂y (ii) To determine the potential function ∂φ = – u = – x2 + y2 . 5. (i) When the flow is uniform along the x direction with velocity u (ii) For uniform flow along negative y direction with velocity v ψ2 = – (– vx) = vx = 5x (iii) Combining ψ1 and ψ2.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics Also 169 ∂2ψ ∂2ψ + 2 = 0 i. y. Problem 5. ∂x 2 ∂y 2 (also check calculating u. ψ = 10y + 5x The combined streamlines are shown in Fig. φ = – x3/3 + y2x + f(y) ∂x Differentiating w.56° 7 9 8 0.2 0. P. v) and for orthogonality.t.r. ∂ψ = 2xy + f ′(y) = – v = 2xy ∂y ∴ ∴ f ′(y) = 0 and f(y) = constant φ = – x3/3 + y2x + c ∂2φ ∂2φ + = – 2x + 2x = 0. Derive an expression for the stream function for (i) uniform flow of 10 m/s along the x direction (ii) uniform flow of 5 m/s parallel to the negative y direction (iii) the combination of the two.6 0.2 3 2 4 2 1 x 0 0.14.e.8 Figure P.4 6 3 5 0.4 0.14. Hence checks.

5 –2 –3 –4 – 4.5 = (102 + 52)0.15 y2 – 1 y1 – 5 –4 –3 –2 –1 y 1 2 1. P. 5.5 y2 5 For the combined stream lines Figure P. Show the resulting stream lines.5 –1 2 3 4 4. Determine the stream function for a uniform x directional flow towards the origin from the positive x direction at 5m/s and a source of strength 12 m For uniform flow For the sink ψ1 = – uy = – 5y.5 1 – 5. ψ2 = – 12 θ/2π ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = – 5y – (12θ/2π) The combined flow is shown in Fig. Determine the stream function for a uniform flow in the negative x direction towards the origin at 5m/s combined with a sink flow of strength 12. P.5 4 3 –5 2 0.170 At any point the resultant velocity is (u2 + v2)0. 5. ψ2 = 12 θ/2π ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 = – 5y + (12θ/2π) The combined flow is shown in Fig.60 to the x axis Poblem 5.5 1 –4 y –3 –2 5.16 For the combined stream lines .5 3 4 y1 5 –1 – 1.15.18 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The direction is given by θ = tan–1 (5/10) = 26.15 Problem 5.5 = 11. 5.16. For uniform flow For the sink ψ1 = – uy = – 5y.

The velocity components at point (2. Assume steady incompressible flow.5 units v= 2y2 Problem 5. 2) is specified by the equation + 3y and v = – 2xy. ∂x ∂y u= z (2 – 4y) dx = 2x – 4xy + f(y) .18.17. Determine the accelerations and vorticity at this point.Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics y1 – 10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –0 2 4 6 8 10 y2 5 4 3 2 1 8 10 –2 0 2 4 6 y2 – 5 –4 –3 –2 y = 10 –8 –6 –4 –1 171 Figure P.16 u= x2 Problem 5. In a two dimensional flow. 5. ax = u ∂u ∂u ∂u +v + = (x2+ 3y) (2x) + (–2xy) 3 + 0 ∂x ∂y ∂t = 2x3 + 6xy – 6xy = 2x3 = 16 units ay = u Chapter 5 ∂v ∂v ∂v +v + = (x2+3y) (–2y) + (–2xy) (–2x) + 0 ∂x ∂y ∂t = – 2x2y – 6y2 + 4x2y = 2x2y – 6y2 = 2 × 8 – 6 × 4 = – 8 units wz = 1 1 ∂v ∂u = (– 2y – 3) = – (y + 1.5) − 2 2 ∂x ∂y FG H IJ K = – 3. The continuity equation is ∂u ∂v =0 + ∂x ∂y ∴ ∴ ∂u ∂v =− = – [4y – 2] = 2 – 4y. determine a possible x component given + 2x – 2y.

172

There are numerous possibilities for f(y). One possibility is ∴ f(y) = 0. u = 2x – 4xy.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 5.19. The velocity components in a flow are given by u = 4x, v = – 4y. Determine the stream and potential functions. Plot these functions for ψ = 60, 120, 180, and 240 and φ = 0, – 60, – 120, – 180, + 60, + 120, + 180. Check for continuity

∂u ∂v + = 4 – 4 = 0 checks ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u − =0 ∂x ∂y

flow is irrotational and so φ exists ψ=

z z

4x dy + f(x) = 4xy + f(x) , differentiating w.r.t. y

∂ψ = – v = – (– 4y) = 4y + f ′(x) ∴ f ′ (x) = constant ∂y

ψ = 4xy + constant or ψ = 4xy φ= – 4x dx + f(y) = – 2y2 + f(y),

∂ψ = – v = 4y = f ′(y) ∴ f(y) = 2y2 ∂y

φ = 2y2 – 2x2 + c or φ = 2y2 – 2x2 To plot the stream function, the values of y are calculated for various values of x, using ψ = 4xy or y = ψ/4x. The calculated values of y for x = 1 to 15 and ψ = 60 to 240 are tabulated below.

x ψ 60.000 120.00 180.00 240.00 15.00 30.00 45.00 60.00 7.50 15.00 22.50 30.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 3.75 7.50 11.25 15.00 3.00 6.00 9.00 12.00 1.50 3.00 4.50 6.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 1 2 3 4 5 10 15

These values are shown plotted in Fig P. 5.19 To plot the potential function the values of x or y are calculated for given values y or x using x=±

y 2 − (φ/2)

or y = ±

x 2 + (φ/2)

**Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics
**

The values of y so calculated are tabulated below. The range used is x → 1 to 15, φ → 0, – 60, – 120, –180.

x φ – 60.0 – 120.0 – 180.0 y φ 60.00 120.00 180.00 5.48 7.75 9.49 5.57 7.81 9.54 5.83 8.00 9.70 6.25 8.31 9.95 6.75 8.72 10.30 7.42 9.22 10.72 11.4 12.65 13.78 0 5.57 7.81 9.54 1 5.83 8.00 9.70 2 6.25 8.31 9.95 3 6.75 8.72 10.30 4 7.42 9.22 10.72 5 11.4 12.65 13.78 10 1 2 3 4 5 10 15

173

15.97 16.88 17.75 15

15.97 16.88 17.75

**(when values of x or y exceeded 15, then the corresponding values of y or x for exact values of 15 is calculated and used)
**

y = 60, 120, 180, 240 15 Y f=

0 0 18 12 60 – 0 – 60 0 12 0 18

10

5

0

0

5

X

10

15

Figure P. 5.19 Flux plot for plot of potential and stream lines

Chapter 5

–

**174 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
**

O Q. 5.1. Fill in the blanks: 1. Ideal fluid is defined as 2. Real fluids exhibit . .

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

3. Steady flow is defined as flow where the flow parameters 4. Incompressible flow is defined as flow when 6. Hydrodynamics deals with 7. Irreversibility in flow is due to 8. The laws of thermodynamics apply to 10. 11. In turbulent flow the velocity at a point In laminar flow momentum transfer takes place at . . flow. 5. Under unsteady flow conditions the flow parameters vary with

. does not vary . .

9. The various laws applicable for steady incompressible flow are . level.

.

Answers

1. fluid with zero viscosity 2. viscosity 3. does not vary with time 4. density, with location 5. time 6. ideal fluid flow providing mathematical model for such flow 7. Frictional effects 8. compressible 9. Law of conservation of mass, Newtons laws of motion, Law of conservation of energy 10. varies with time about a mean velocity 11. molecular/microscopic level. O Q. 5.2. Fill in the blanks: 1. Stream line is defined as the line along which to the line. 2. Path line is defined as 3. Streak line is defined as 4. Irrotational flow is defined as 5. Circulation is defined as 6. Vorticity is defined as 7. Stream function is defined by 8. Potential flow function is defined by 9. Potential flow function exists only if the flow is 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Continuity equation is derived using the law of A doublet is defined as a combination of The equation for a free vortex is The slope for stream line is The slope for velocity potential line is . . . . . . . . . . . . at any point is

Answers

1. the velocity vector is, tangent. 2. line described over time by a particle which has passed through a given point. 3. the line showing the location of various particles that passed through a specified point. 4. there is no net rotation of the fluid particles along the flow – equal deformation along the axes as the flow proceeds. 5. the line integral over a closed path, the product of differential length on the path and the velocity component along the length. 6. circulation per unit area. 7. a function describing the flow field in terms of velocities at various locations – a

Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics

175

function describing the stream lines for the flow field (∂ψ/dy = u, ∂ψ/∂x = – v) 8. a function which describes the flow field potential – a function describing the equipotential lines (∂φ/∂x = – u, ∂φ/ ∂y = – v). 9. irrotational. 10. law of conservation of mass. 11. a combination of a source and sink of equal strength. 12. uθr = constant 13. v/u 14. – (u/v) O Q. 5.3. Fill in the blanks 1. Rectilinear flow is defined as . . 2. A source is defined as . 3. A sink is defined as 4. The stream function for rectilinear flow is . . 5. The stream function for source/sink is 6. The stream lines and equipotential lines for a flow field are . . 7. The x and y directional velocities in a flow is specified by the stream function by 8. The x and y directional velocities in a flow field is given by the potential function as . . 9. The condition to satisfied by irrotational flow is . 10. The stream function for a combination of flows with ψA and ψB is

Answers

1. a flow having stream lines parallel to one of the axes axis 2. flow with radial stream lines, directed outwards 3. flow with radial stream lines directed towards the centre 4. ψ = cy where c is a constant equal to the velocity 5. ψ = q θ/2π, q = total flow, θ = angle (in polar co-ordinate), ψ = – q θ/2π 6. perpendicular to each other. 7. u = ∂ψ/∂y v = – ∂ψ/∂y (8) u = – ∂φ/∂x, = – ∂φ/∂y 9. ∂v/∂x = ∂u/∂y 10. ψ = ψA + ψB. O Q. 5.4. Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect. 1. An ideal fluid flow is a good approximation for real fluid flow if viscosity is small. 2. Compressible flow is flow of gases. 3. Turbulent flow is unsteady flow. 4. A stream line shows the path of a particle in any flow. 5. For every stream function a potential function should exist. 6. For every potential function a stream function should exist. 7. Stream function can exist only for irrotational flow. 8. Potential function can exist only for irrotational flow. 9. Circulation will be zero for irrotational flow. 10. Free vertex flow is irrotational. 11. Forced vertex flow is irrotational.

Answers

Correct: 1, 2, 6, 8, 9, 10 Incorrect : 3, 4, 5, 7, 11 O Q. 5.5. Choose the correct answer: 1. A flow is defined by u = 2 (1 + t), v = 3(1 + t) where t is the time. The velocyity at t = 2 is (a) 6 (b) 9 (c) 10.82 (d) 6.7. 2. The value of local acceleration in the x direction for flow with u = 2(1 + t) is given by (a) 0 (b) 2t (c) 2 (d) t. 3. The value of x directional convective acceleration in the case of flow with u = 2 (1 + t) and v = 3 (1 + t) equals (a) 0 (b) 5 (c) 1 (d) 5t.

Chapter 5

176

(a) 2x2y2 + 4xy2 + 6y + 8t2y + 6tx (c) x/y 5. The continuity equation is satisfied by (a) u = A sin xy, v = – A sin xy (c) u = 2x2 + cy, v = 3y2 (b) 4xy (d) 2x2y2 + 6tx.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

4. When u = 3 + 2xy + 4t2, v = xy2 + 3t. The x directional acceleration is given by

(b) u = x + y. v = x – y (d) u = x + 2y, v = 2x + y. (b) u = x2 + y2, v = – 2xy + 7 (d) u = 2x + y, v = 4y + x. (b) 3x2 – 3y2, 6xy (d) 3y2 – 3x2, 6xy. (b) φ = c cos x (d) φ = c (x2 + y2).

6. The following represent steady incompressible flow. (a) u = 4xy + 2y2, v = 6xy + 3x2 (c) u = x/y, v = y/x 7. If ψ = 3x2y – y3. The values u and v are (a) 6xy, 3x2 – 3y2 (c) (3x2 – 3y2), – 6xy 8. This is a valid potential function (a) φ = c ln x (c) φ = 3xy

9. The continuity equation for incompressible two dimensional steady flow is (a)

∂u ∂v + = 0, ∂y ∂x ∂u ∂v + = 0, ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(b)

∂u ∂v = 0, + ∂y ∂t ∂u ∂v = 0. + ∂y ∂t ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v=– ∂y ∂x ∂ψ ∂ψ ,v= . ∂y ∂x

(c) 10.

(d)

The velocity components in the x and y directions in terms of stream function ψ is given by (a) u = (b) u =

(c) u = –

(d) u = –

Answers

1. c, 2. c, 3. a, 4. a, 5. b, 6. b, 7. c, 8. c, 9. c, 10. b. O Q. 5.6. Choose the correct answer 1. The velocity components in the x and y directions in terms of potential function φ is given by (a) u = –

∂φ ∂φ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(b) u =

∂φ ∂φ ,v=– ∂y ∂x ∂φ ∂φ ,v=– . ∂y ∂x

(c) u =

∂φ ∂φ ,v= ∂y ∂x

(d) u = –

2. The condition for irrotational flow is (a)

∂u ∂v = ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y

(b)

∂u ∂v =− ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u =− . ∂x ∂y

(c)

(d)

**Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics
**

3. The equation of a stream line in two dimensional steady flow can be expressed as (a)

177

dy dx = u v dx dy = . u v

u dy = dx v dy dx = u v

(b)

(c) −

(d) −

4. The flow rate between stream lines with values ψ1 and ψ2 is given by (a) ψ1 + ψ2 (c) ψ2 – ψ1 (a) First law of thermodynamics (c) Newtons second law of motion 6. A path line describes (a) The velocity direction at all points on the line (b) The path followed by particles in a flow (c) The path over a period of times of a single particle that has passed out at a point (d) The instantaneous position of all particles that have passed a point. 7. The relationship between stream and potential functions ψ and φ is (a) (b) ψ1 + Cψ2 (d) C ψ1 + ψ2. (b) Conservation of energy (d) Conservation of mass.

5. The continuity equation is the result of application of the following law to the flow field

∂ψ ∂φ = ∂y ∂x ∂φ ∂ψ = ∂y ∂x

(b)

∂φ ∂ψ =− ∂x ∂y ∂2φ ∂2 ψ . = ∂x 2 ∂y 2

8. The value that will satisfy potential function φ is (a) φ = x2 + y2 (c) φ = x + y 9. The stream function is (a) constant along an equipotential line (c) defined only in irrotational flow 10. A potential function (a) is constant along a stream line (b) is definable if a stream function is available for the flow (c) describes the flow if it is rotational (d) describes the flow if it is irrotational. (b) along a stream line (d) defined only for incompressible flow. (b) φ = sin x (d) φ = ln (x + y).

Answers

1. d, 2. c, 3. d, 4. c, 5. d, 6. c, 7. c, 8. c, 9. b, 10. d. O Q. 5.7. Match the pairs 1. Set A A. Ideal fluid B. Steady flow C. Low velocity gas flow D. Friction Set B 1. Irreversible flow 2. Incompresible flow 3. Zero viscosity 4. Velocity at a point is constant.

Chapter 5

(c)

(d)

178

Answers

A – 3, B – 4, C – 2, D – 1. 2. Set A A. Stream line B. Streak line C. Equipotential line D. Path line Set B

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

1. Path of particles that passed a point 2. The path of a single particle that passed a point 3. Shows velocity 4. Described by potential function.

Answers

A – 3, B – 1, C – 4, D – 2.

EXERCISE PROBLEMS

E 1. Given u = kx in a two dimensional flow determine v. E 2. Given velocity potential, determine the velocity components u and v. (a) φ = ln xy (b) φ = 3 (x2 + y2) (c) φ = a cos xy [– (1/x), (1/y)] [– 6x , – 6y)] [aysinxy, axsinxy] [– ky + f(x)]

E 3. Given stream function ψ = 3x – 4y, calculate the slope of the line and also the value of resultant velocity. Does it satisfy continuity equation? Is the flow irrotational? [θ = 37°, v = 5 units] θ E 4. Given φ = x(2y – 1), determine ψ. E 5. Given ψ = 4x2 – 4y2, find φ. E 6. Find the relationship between a and b if in steady flow u = bx and v = ay, E 7. Show that for two dimensional steady flows with velocity components u and v, ax = u [– y2 + y + f(y)] [φ = 8xy + c] [b = – a ]

∂u ∂u +v ∂x ∂y

and ay = u

∂v ∂v +v . ∂x ∂y

E 8. Given u = 2y, v = x, sketch the flow. Also find ax, ay and a. E 9. If u = 3 + 2xy and v = xy2 determine ax, ay and a. E 10. If u = 3y and v = 2, determine ax and ay. E 11. If u = 0, v = 3xy, determine ax and ay. E 12. If u = – 2y, v = 3xy, determine ax and ay. E 13. Determine the normal and tangential components of acceleration for a circular stream line. E 14. Find φ and ψ given u = 2x and v = – 2y. E 15. If u = 2, v = 8x determine ψ. E 16. Tabulate the values of x and y for ψ = 0, 1, 2, 3 given (i) ψ = 10y. (ii) ψ = – 20x, (i) u = 5, v = 6 (iii) u = 3xy, v = 1.5x2 (v) u = 4 + 2x, v = – y. (iii) ψ = 10y – 20x. (ii) u = 3 + x, v =4 (iv) u = 3x, v = 3y E 17. Determine the stream function if it exists. Also check for irrotationality. [ψ = 2xy + c1, φ = – (x2 – y2) + c2]

Fluid FlowBasic ConceptsHydrodynamics

179

E 18. Calculate the values of x and y for stream lines. ψ = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4, given ψ = 1.2xy (for one quadrant). E 19. Tabulate and plot ψ = 1.5x2 + y2 for positive values of x, y. E 20. If ψ = x2 – y, find u and v and also the vorticity. E 21. A source discharging 1 m3/sm is at (– 1, 0) and a sink taking in 1m3/sm is at (+1, 0). If this is combined with uniform flow of u = 1.5 m/s, left to right, calculate the length of the resolution of closed body contour. E 22. Two sources one of strength 8π and the other of 16π are located at (2, 0) and (– 3, 0) respectively. For the combined flow field, calculate the location of the stagnation point. Also plot ψ = 4π, ψ = 8π and ψ = 0. E 23. A source of 20m3/sm at (0, 0) is combined with a uniform flow with u = 3m/s from left to right. Determine ψ for the flow. E 24. Given u = x2 + 2x – y and v = – 2xy – 2y, determine ψ. Also compute vorticity.

Chapter 5

$

6.0 INTRODUCTION

Bernoulli Equation and Applications

In chapter five flow of ideal fluids was discussed. The main idea was the study of flow pattern. The determination of equal flow paths and equal potential lines was discussed. No attempt was made to determine the numerical value of these quantities. In this chapter the method of determination of the various energy levels at different locations in the flow is discussed. In this process first the various forms of energy in the fluid are identified. Applying the law of conservation of energy the velocity, pressure and potential at various locations in the flow are calculated. Initially the study is limited to ideal flow. However the modifications required to apply the analysis to real fluid flows are identified. The material discussed in this chapter are applicable to many real life fluid flow problems. The laws presented are the basis for the design of fluid flow systems. Energy consideration in fluid flow: Consider a small element of fluid in flow field. The energy in the element as it moves in the flow field is conserved. This principle of conservation of energy is used in the determination of flow parameters like pressure, velocity and potential energy at various locations in a flow. The concept is used in the analysis of flow of ideal as well as real fluids. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It is possible that one form of energy is converted to another form. The total energy of a fluid element is thus conserved under usual flow conditions. If a stream line is considered, it can be stated that the total energy of a fluid element at any location on the stream line has the same magnitude.

6.1

FORMS OF ENERGY ENCOUNTERED IN FLUID FLOW

Energy associated with a fluid element may exist in several forms. These are listed here and the method of calculation of their numerical values is also indicated.

180

Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6.1.1 Kinetic Energy

181

This is the energy due to the motion of the element as a whole. If the velocity is V, then the kinetic energy for m kg is given by

mV 2 KE = Nm 2 go

The unit in the SI system will be Nm also called Joule (J) {(kg m2/s2)/(kg m/N s2)}

(6.1.1)

The same referred to one kg (specific kinetic energy) can be obtained by dividing 6.1.1 by the mass m and then the unit will be Nm/kg. KE =

V2 , Nm/kg 2 go

(6.1.1b)

In fluid flow studies, it is found desirable to express the energy as the head of fluid in m. This unit can be obtained by multiplying equation (6.1.1) by go/g.

o = Kinetic head = 2 2g go g

V2 g

V2

(6.1.2) =m

The unit for this expression will be

m2 s2 s2 m

Apparantly the unit appears as metre, but in reality it is Nm/N, where the denominator is weight of the fluid in N. The equation in this form is used at several places particularly in flow of liquids. But the energy associated physically is given directly only be equation 6.1.1. The learner should be familiar with both forms of the equation and should be able to choose and use the proper equation as the situation demands. When different forms of the energy of a fluid element is summed up to obtain the total energy, all forms should be in the same unit.

6.1.2 Potential Energy

This energy is due to the position of the element in the gravitational field. While a zero value for KE is possible, the value of potential energy is relative to a chosen datum. The value of potential energy is given by PE = mZ g/go Nm (6.1.3) Where m is the mass of the element in kg, Z is the distance from the datum along the gravitational direction, in m. The unit will be (kg m m/s2) × (Ns2/kgm) i.e., Nm. The specific potential energy (per kg) is obtained by dividing equation 6.1.3 by the mass of the element. PE = Z g/g0 Nm/kg (6.1.3. b) This gives the physical quantity of energy associated with 1 kg due to the position of the fluid element in the gravitational field above the datum. As in the case of the kinetic energy, the value of PE also is expressed as head of fluid, Z. PE = Z (g/go) (go/g) = Z m. (6.1.4)

Chapter 6

182

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

This form will be used in equations, but as in the case of KE, one should be familiar with both the forms and choose the suitable form as the situation demands.

**6.1.3 Pressure Energy (Also Equals Flow Energy)
**

The element when entering the control volume has to flow against the pressure at that location. The work done can be calculated referring Fig. 6.1.1.

Area – A Fluid element 1 P1 L 1 2 Control volume

2

Figure 6.1.1 Flow work calculation

The boundary of the element of fluid considered is shown by the dotted line, Force = P1 A, distance to be moved = L, work done = P1AL = P1 mv as AL = volume = mass × specific volume, v. ∴ flow work = P mv. The pressure energy per kg can be calculated using m = 1. The flow energy is given by FE = P.v = P/ρ, Nm/kg Note:

N m3 Nm → kg m2 kg

(6.1.5)

**As in the other cases, the flow energy can also expressed as head of fluid. FE =
**

P go ,m ρ g

(6.1.5a)

As specific weight γ = ρ g/go, the equation is written as, FE = P/γ, m (6.1.5b) It is important that in any equation, when energy quantities are summed up consistent forms of these set of equations should be used, that is, all the terms should be expressed either as head of fluid or as energy (J) per kg. These are the three forms of energy encountered more often in flow of incompressible fluids.

6.1.4 Internal Energy

This is due to the thermal condition of the fluid. This form is encountered in compressible fluid flow. For gases (above a datum temperature) IE = cv T where T is the temperature above the datum temperature and cv is the specific heat of the gas at constant volume. The unit for internal energy is J/kg (Nm/kg). When friction is significant other forms of energy is converted to internal energy both in the case of compressible and incompressible flow.

Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6.1.5 Electrical and Magnetic Energy

183

These are not generally met with in the study of flow of fluids. However in magnetic pumps and in magneto hydrodynamic generators where plasma flow in encountered, electrical and magnetic energy should also be taken into account.

6.2

VARIATION IN THE RELATIVE VALUES OF VARIOUS FORMS OF ENERGY DURING FLOW

Under ideal conditions of flow, if one observes the movement of a fluid element along a stream line, the sum of these forms of energy will be found to remain constant. However, there may be an increase or decrease of one form of energy while the energy in the other forms will decrease or increase by the same amount. For example when the level of the fluid decreases, it is possible that the kinetic energy increases. When a liquid from a tank flows through a tap this is what happens. In a diffuser, the velocity of fluid will decrease but the pressure will increase. In a venturimeter, the pressure at the minimum area of cross section (throat) will be the lowest while the velocity at this section will be the highest. The total energy of the element will however remain constant. In case friction is present, a part of the energy will be converted to internal energy which should cause an increase in temperature. But the fraction is usually small and the resulting temperature change will be so small that it will be difficult for measurement. From the measurement of the other forms, it will be possible to estimate the frictional loss by difference.

6.3

EULER’S EQUATION OF MOTION FOR FLOW ALONG A STREAM LINE

**Consider a small element along the stream line, the direction being designated as s.
**

s dA P+ ds r dz q P V r g d s dA ¶V ¶P . ds, V + . ds ¶s ¶s

Stream line Element considered

Figure 6.3.1 Euler’s equation of Motion – Derivation

The net force on the element are the body forces and surface forces (pressure). These are indicated in the figure. Summing this up, and equating to the change in momentum. PdA – {P + (∂P/∂s} dA – ρg dA ds cos θ = ρ dA ds as (6.3.1) where as is the acceleration along the s direction. This reduces to,

1 ∂P ρ ∂s + g cos θ + as = 0

(6.3.2)

Chapter 6

ρ as ρ = constant P V2 P g V2 + gz + +z + = const.3) (Note: in equation 6. as velocity. The unit of the terms will be energy unit (Nm/kg).4 BERNOULLI EQUATION FOR FLUID FLOW Euler’s equation as given in 6.3. dt (6. This equation after dividing by g.3. Cancelling ∂s and using total derivatives in place of partials as these are independent quantities. dV = ∂V ∂V ds + dt ∂s ∂t dividing by dt.4) which means that the quantity within the bracket remains constant along the flow.3. Steady flow 2. The assumptions involved are: 1. dp ρ + gdz + VdV = 0 (6. or = Constant 2 ρ 2 g0 ρ g0 FG IJ H K (6. dp V2 +d γ 2g F I GH JK + dz = 0 or d LM P + V + zOP N γ 2g Q = 0 2 (6.3.1) The constant is to be evaluated by using specified boundary conditions.3 can be integrated directly if the flow is assumed to be incompressible. Ideal fluid (frictionless) In the case on incompressible flow.4.2 reduces to.3 also it is better to write the first term as go. 1 ∂P ∂z ∂V ∂V + =0 ρ ∂s + g ∂s +V ∂s ∂t ds = V. a) For steady flow ∂V/∂t = 0. as = dV/dt.dp/ρ for dimensional homogeneity). This equation is known as Euler’s equation of motion. V = f(s. dP + gdz + VdV = 0. As dV ∂V ds ∂V = + dt ∂s dt ∂t and as cos θ = dz/ds. As it is. it will also have a unit of m/s2). is also written as. (t = time). this equation can be integrated to obtain Bernoulli equation.184 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Note: It will be desirable to add go to the first term for dimensional homogeneity. Multiplying by go.3. equation 6. Motion along a stream line and 3.3. t). 6.2. . the first term will have a unit of N/kg while the other two terms will have a unit of m/s2.

As P/γ is involved directly on both sides. If the pressure at section 1 is 10 bar. (6.83 m/s. Determine the flow rate when the throat pressure is 0.4. Substituting. V2 = 0. P2 = 9. P1 = 10 × 105 N/m2.092 bar (9.092 × 105 N/m2).6 m and 0. This equation is extensively used in practical design to estimate pressure/velocity in flow through ducts.1 A liquid of specific gravity 1.322 +0+ = + 1+ 9810 × 1. nozzle meter.3 flows in a pipe at a rate of 800 l/s. kg m/N s2 . The guage pressure at the entry is 1 bar. gauge pressure or absolute pressure can be used without error.2) (γ is the specific weight N/m3). V1 = 0.2) P V2 +z+ = constant. In this equation all the terms are in the unit of head of the fluid.8 × 4/π × 0.4. Using Bernoulli’s equation in the form. from point 1 to point 2 which is 1 m above point 1. Barometric pressure is 1 bar. or loss of head due to friction occurs.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 185 In SI units the numerical value of go = 1. orifice meter etc.4.81 9810 × 1. the equations will read as.3) Example 6. Using Bernoulli equation in the following form (6. The constant has the same value along a stream line or a stream tube. However. the second term the potential energy and the third term the kinetic energy. hf g P2 V2 2 z2 g P1 V12 z1 g + + +W − = + + ρ 2 go ρ 2 go go go go where W is the energy added and hf is the loss of head due to friction. γ 2g Taking the datum as section 1. The diameters at section 1 and 2 are 0. In case energy is added or taken out at any point in the flow. Equation 6.2 Water flows through a horizontal venturimeter with diameters of 0.4. Example 6.5 bar (vacuum). it is desirable to use absolute pressure to avoid negative pressure values (or use of the term vacuum pressure). determine the pressure at section 2. In calculations using SI system of units go may be omitting as its value is unity. 2 2 P1 P2 V1 V2 + Z1 + = γ + Z2 + γ 2g 2g Chapter 6 .832 P2 11. venturimeter.33 = 11. the pressure P2 can be calculated.1 can also be written as to express energy as head of fluid column. gravity × 9810. The first term represents (flow work) pressure energy.81 Solving.3 m respectively. P V2 + z+ = constant 2g γ (6.32 m/s 10 × 105 2.2 m.8 × 4/π × 0. γ = sp.3 2 × 9.3 2 × 9.6 m and 0.62 = 2.

the diameter of the jet at this point being 15 mm.6 m Q = 0. Determine the velocity and the diameter of the jet at 0. V1 = 1. Determine the manometer reading ‘‘h’’.01166 m or 11. V2 = Q × 4/(π × 0. Example 6.6.6.186 and noting Z1 = Z2. As the velocity is higher the flow area is smaller.5 × 10 5 +0+ Q2 = +0+ 2 × 9.81 2 × 9.3 Problem model using continuity equation (one dimensional flow) and noting that density is constant.4 Water flows in a tapering pipe vertically as shown in Fig.81 V2 = 4.6 m. The jet flows down vertically in a smooth stream.548 m3/s. 6.1 m /s Water A 0.43 m/s.542 31832 Q2 . Example 6. 2 × 105 0.83Q 3. γ γ 2g 2g P1 = P2. The pressure around the jet is atmospheric throughout. V1 = 2.3 m/s. P1 V2 P V2 + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 .6 m Jet V22 2.81 9810 9810 Solving. Z2 = – 0. γ = 9810 N/m3 V1 = Q × 4/(π × 0. 6.81 2 × 9.2 m f B 3 1 xm h Mercury Figure Ex.6 m below the tap outlet.4 Problem model .54 Q. Taking the tap outlet as point 1 and also taking it as the datum using Bernoulli equation. Entrainment of air may increase the diameter somewhat. Ex.6 + 2 × 9.62 = − 0.5 ×105 N/m2 (absolute).94 m/s. The manometer fluid has a specific gravity of 13. Q = 0. The flow rate is 100 l/s 0. A1V1 = A2V2 Figure Ex. π × 0152 π × D2 × 2. P1 = 2 × 105 N/m2 (absolute) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P2 = 0.3.4.6 m/s ∴ ∴ 0. ∴ D = 0.202) = 31.3 A tap discharges water evenly in a jet at a velocity of 2.6 m/s at the tap outlet.6 = × 4.1 m f 2 0. V2 = 17.602) = 3. kinetic energy increases. Z2 = 0.66 mm 4 4 As the potential energy decreases.

For the manometer configuration.Bernoulli Equation and Applications The velocities at sections 1 and 2 are first calculated.6 + x + sh γ γ (where x.81) = 8. V1 = 4 × 0. When losses (frictional) are negligible.6 + h(13.1 Energy and hydraulic gradient lines Chapter 6 Tank Energy line .732 m/s It is desired to determine P1 – P2.G. V2 = 4 × 0.6148 m or 61. An example of plot of these lines for flow from a tank through a venturimeter is shown in Fig.5 ENERGY LINE AND HYDRAULIC GRADIENT LINE The total energy plotted along the flow to some specified scale gives the energy line.183 m/s. considering the level AB and equating the pressures at A and B P1 P + x + h = 2 + 0.1832)/(2 × 9. line hydraulic gradient line. Energy line is the plot of are negligible.6 – 1) ∴ h = 0.22) = 3. potential and flow (pressure) energy are considered. For calculating the total energy kinetic.1.5. The plot of P + Z along the flow is called the γ P V2 +Z+ along the flow. γ 8.5.1/ (π × 0.346 = 0. substituting the values. Rearranging Bernoulli equation for this flow. The hydraulic gradient line provides useful information about pressure variations (static head) in a flow.48 cm 6. When velocity increases this will dip and when velocity decreases this will rise. the energy line will be horizontal or parallel to the flow direction.7322 – 3.12) = 12.346 m of water γ 187 For water γ = 9810 N/m3. Figure 6.6 + h(s – 1). 6. The difference between the energy line and hydraulic gradient line gives the value of dynamic head (velocity head). P1 − P2 = 0. h are shown on the diagram and s is specific gravity) ∴ P1 − P2 = 0.6 + (12.1/ (π × 0. It is constant along the flow when losses γ 2g H.

Figure Ex.5 LM2 gR P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 − Z2 ) UOP VQP W 0. Refer to Fig.5 = V2 LM F A I MN1 − GH A JK 2 1 2 0.1) This is a general expression and can be used irrespective of the flow direction. Z in m. Ex. inclination from horizontal or vertical position. LM2 g R P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 UO − Z ) VP WQP 2 0.5 (6.5 Under ideal conditions show that the volume flow through a venturimeter is given by LM2 gF P − P + b Z Q= G {1 − b A / A g } MN H γ A2 2 1 2 0.6 VOLUME FLOW THROUGH A VENTURIMETER Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 6.6. A in m2 and then volume A1 P1 1 Z1 A2 P2 Z Z2 Datum h A B A coeficient is involved in actual meters due to friction. V22. N/m2.5 A2 LM2 gR P − P T NM S γ 1 2 + ( Z1 − Z2 ) UOP VQP W 0.5 OP PQ V2 = ∴ Volume flow is A2V2 = 1 [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0. 6. ∴ (V22 – V12) = V22 LM F A I MN1 − GH A JK 2 1 OP PQ Applying Bernoulli equation to the flow and considering section 1 and 2.V 2= A1 2 1 ∴ FG A IJ HA K 2 1 2 2 . This equation is applicable for orifice meters and nozzle flow meters also. Pressure should be in flow will be m3/s. In numerical work consistent units should be used.5 [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0.5 Volume flow = A1 V1 = A2 V2 A2 V1 = V .5 where suffix 1 and 2 refer to the inlet and the throat.5 1 2 1 − Z2 gIJK OPP Q 0. P1 V2 P V2 + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 γ γ 2g 2g Rearranging.188 6.5 Venturimeter-flow . 6.

Example.1) with the problem at hand.7 when flow is established.5 LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K QP 0.06 m3/s A Water level C 1.5 A2 LM2 ghF S NM GH S IO − 1J P K QP 0. it is seen that it is sufficient to prove.6. 6.672 = 0.0 m Tank Pipe. i.7 Problem model Chapter 6 [1 − ( A2 / A1) ] 2 0. the volume flow is given by Q= A2 1 − ( A2 / A1)2 0. Considering locations C and B and taking the datum at B.e. these equations are applicable for orifice and nozzle meters also.6 Show that when a manometric fluid of specific gravity S2 is used to measure the head in a venturimeter with flow of fluid of specific gravity S1.5 [2 gH ]0. Ex. Flow rate = (π D2/4) × V = (π × 0.12/4) × 7. if the manometer shows a reading of hm.2) This equation leads to another conclusion. The pressure at C and B are atmospheric. 6. dividing by γ1. 6. causing the flow is equal to the manometer reading h[(S2/S1) – 1] and flow is independent of the inclination if the reading of the manometer and the fluids are specified.7 Determine the flow rate through the siphon Fig. 100 mm f 3m B Figure Ex. H = h[(S2/S1) – 1] Q= A2 If the pressure at various locations are specified.672 m/s. 6.6. Also determine the pressure at A. H. 0 + 0 + VB2/2g = 3 + 0 + 0 ∴ ∴ VB = 7. noting that the velocity at water surface at C = 0.5 Comparing the equation (6.. The fluid head.3) . γ P1 − P2 S + (Z1 – Z2) = h 2 − 1 = h 2 − 1 γ1 γ1 S1 F GH I JK F GH I JK 2 1 Hence volume flow.5 : The manometer connection at the wall measures the static pressure only) P1 + Z1 γ1 + hγ1 = P2 + Z2γ1 + hγ2 (P1 – P2) + (Z1 – Z1) γ1 = h(γ2 – γ1).Bernoulli Equation and Applications 189 Example 6.5 (6. Ex. Q= [1 − ( A2 / A1)2 ]0. h FG S HS 2 1 −1 = IJ K P1 − P2 + (Z2 – Z1) γ1 Considering the plane A–B in the manometer and equating the pressures at A and B Fig. applying Bernoulli equation.6. As the manometer reading converted to head of flowing fluid.5 (6.

Check: Consider points A and B 4+ PA VA 2 VB 2 + = + 0 + 0 as VA = VB. P1 V2 V2 P + Z1 + 1 = 2 + Z2 + 2 . Assume the pressure at radius r = 0. γ Example. r2 Integrating between the limits r = 0. P2 – P1 = γ (V 2 – V22) 2g 1 V12 = (0. Determine the net force acting on the bottom plate.7 m 25 mm dr r Top plate (fixed) 1 2 Bottom plate 0.8 Water flows in at a rate of 80 l/s from the pipe as shown in Fig.81) ∴ PA/γ = – 4m or – 4m of water head or 4m water-head below atmospheric pressure. The pressure at this location as compared to point 1 can be determined using Bernoulli equation.05 IJ OP = 17970 KQ N . P1 is atmospheric γ 2g γ 2g As Z1 = Z2.190 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The velocity at A is the same as velocity at B. Net force = 1000 × π (103. The top plate is fixed.1 m r dr Bearing Element considered Figure Ex. 2g 2g γ PA = – 4 m checks.025 × r)2 = 0.05 × 0.6722/ (2 × 9.05 to 0. 0.05 m is atmospheric. 3 + 0 + 0 = 4 + (PA/γ) + 7. the elemental force dF is given by.35 − 0.2594/r2 (P2 – P1) is the pressure difference which causes a force at the area 2πrdr at r.75 (0. The force on the element area of the bottom plate = 2πrdr (P2 – P1) Substituting and nothing γ = ρg/g0.75 V22 = (0.35 0. dF = ρ πrdr 103.08/2π × 0. 6.8 Problem model Consider an element area of width dr (annular) in the flow region at a distance r as shown in figure.025)2 = 103.75 − 0.2594 ln LM N OP Q LM N 2 FG H 0. 6.2594 .052 ) / 2) − 0.08/2π × 0.8 and flows outwards through the space between the top and bottom plates. Ex. 6. Now considering locations C and A.35.

+ 10 2g 2g . The losses due to friction in the pipe length is accounted for by 4. 4 Flow = A2 V2 = (If losses do not occur then. There is no loss in the nozzle.hf in head of fluid in metre height (check for the unit of the last term).9 The delivery line of a pump is 100 mm ID and it delivers water at a height of 12 m above entry. Let the shear stress be τ. Calculate the pressure at this point if the flow rate is 0. Determine the flow rate if losses in the pipe is given by 10 V22/2g. The Euler equation 6. ∴ V 22 = 8 × 2 × 9.178 m3/s. V2 = 3.10 A tank with water level of 12 m has a pipe of 200 mm dia connected from its bottom which extends over a length to a level of 2 m below the tank bottom.1. Equating the total energy at inlet and outlet. the force will equal τ 2πr ds (where r is the radius of the element.81 .3.53 m/s and flow will be 2. 6. Example 6.3 and Fig.Bernoulli Equation and Applications 6. Chapter 6 20 = 12 + 2 2 V2 V2 .7 EULER AND BERNOULLI EQUATION FOR FLOW WITH FRICTION 191 Compared to ideal flow the additional force that will be involved will be the shear force acting on the surface of the element.5 V22/2g. The pipe ends in a nozzle of diameter 60 mm. The total head at the entry to the pipe is 20 m.3.062 × 3.13 m3/min) Example 6.3 will now read as dP 2τds + VdV + gdZ – =0 ρ ρr V2 dP +d 2g γ F I + dZ – 2τds = 0 GH JK γr ds can also be substituted in terms of Z and θ Bernoulli equation will now read as (taking s as the length) 2τs P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 + γr 2g 2g γ γ The last term is the loss of head due to friction and is denoted often as hL.777 = 0.64 m3/min.01068 m3/s = 0. where V2 is the velocity at nozzle outlet. and A = π r2) Refer Para 6.777 m/s 11 π × 0. V2 = 12.

using Bernoulli equation and accounting for frictional drop in head (leaving out the atmospheric pressure which is the same at the water level and at outlet). If frictional drop is 2 m of water head.192 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Taking location of the outlet of the pipe as the datum. It is to be measured by a probe which will be perpendicular to the velocity direction.8. . Such a probe is called static probe.8.3/0. Considering the bottom as the datum. The pressure at the bottom is 200 kPa and at the top it is 80 kPa. γ 2 × 9.1 (b)) The total head is the sum of the static and dynamic head and is measured by a single probe facing the flow direction. the pressure term is known as static head.8.178/π × 0. (Figure 6. 14 = ∴ 14 – 5. V1 = 2. The head measured is also called Piezometric head.411 m/s 9810 2g Flow rate = A1 V1 = A2V2 = 0. The transition piece length is 6 m. one end of which should face the velocity direction and connected to one limb of a manometer with other end perpendicular to the velocity and connected to the other limb of the manometer.15)4 = 16V12 ∴ ∴ 2 V1 120 × 103 – 8 = 15 . (Figure 6.5 × ∴ 2 2 V2 V2 P2 + + 4.67 m/s P2 5.1 (c)) The location of probes and values of pressures for the above measurements are shown in Fig.672 = = 5 m of water head. Solving.81 P2 = 9810 × 5 N/m2 = 0.353 and V2 = 9.166 m3/s 6.49 bar (above atmospheric pressure) Example 6.1 (a)) The velocity term in the Bernoulli equation is known as dynamic head.8. 6.1. V2 V2 200 × 103 80 × 10 3 +0+ 1 = + 6 + 2 +2 9810 9810 2g 2g V22 = V12 (0. (Figure 6. It is measured by a probe. determine the rate of flow.8 CONCEPT AND MEASUREMENT OF DYNAMIC.1 = 5. STATIC AND TOTAL HEAD In the Bernoulli equation.11 A vertical pipe of diameter of 30 cm carrying water is reduced to a diameter of 15 cm.1 × 0.5 γ 2g 2g V2 = 0.

6. The head will be h (s – 1) of water when a differential manometer is used (s > 1).24 m Note.1 Pitot Tube The flow velocity can be determined by measuring the dynamic head using a device known as pitot static tube as shown in Fig. Considering the location at which the dynamic head is measured as the datum and converting the column of mercury into head of water. Pitot tube Dynamic head Manometer Static probe openings (^ r to flow) Total pressure probe (Facing flow) Figure 6.2 Pitot-Static tube Example 6. Chapter 6 .8. and noting that at the maximum point the velocity is zero. Determine the height to which the jet will rise when it is directed vertically upwards. then the head should be calculated as 0.6 + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + Z ∴ Z = 12. This instrument is also called pitot–static tube.12 The dynamic head of a water jet stream is measured as 0.1 Pressure measurement 6. The holes on the outer wall of the probe provides the static pressure (perpendicular to flow) and hole in the tube tip facing the stream direction of flow measures the total pressure.8. The velocity variation along the radius in a duct can be conveniently measured by this arrangement by traversing the probe across the section. If the head measured is given as the reading of a differential manometer. 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 193 h h V V Static head Dynamic head Total head (a) (b) (c) Figure 6.8. The difference gives the dynamic pressure as indicated by the manometer.9 (13.2.9 × 13.8.6 – 1) m.9 m of mercury column.

Ex.16 m of water. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 6. The outlet diameter is 1. (Below atmospheric pressure) γ Additional head provided due to the use of draft tube will equal 6.5 .13. The inlet diameter is 0. Consider equation 6.2 Figure Ex. V2 = 8 × 0.13 A diverging tube connected to the outlet of a reaction turbine (fully flowing) is called ‘‘Draft tube’’. If the reading of the manometer is the same when it is connected to a vertical pipe with flow upwards and (ii) vertical pipe with flow downwards. Though theoretically the pressure at turbine exit can be reduced to a low level. calculate the additional head provided by the draft tube. cavitation problem limits the design pressure.16 m of water Note: This may cause cavitation if the pressure is below the vapour pressure at the temperature condition. The height of the inlet above the water level is 3 m. In a draft tube as shown in Fig. Z2 = 0. Considering sections 1 and 2 2 2 P1 V1 V1 P + Z1 = 1 + + Z2 γ 2g 2g γ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0. When connected to a horizontal pipe the manometer reading was h cm. Also calculate the pressure at the inlet section.5 m 1 3m Tail race 2 1. The pressure head is recorded by a manometer.39 m/s.6.2 Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 2 0.52 = 1. 6. discuss in which case the flow is highest.194 Example 6.5 m and the flow velocity is 8 m/s. If the turbine outlet is open the exit pressure will be atmospheric as in Pelton wheel. The diverging section is immersed in the tail race water and this provides additional head for the turbine by providing a pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure at the turbine exit.392 P1 + +3= 2 × 9.81 γ ∴ P1 = – 6.5 b g LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K QP 0. 1.81 2 × 9.1 A venturimeter is used to measure the volume flow. 6.2 m. and calulating the velocities V1 = 8 m/s.13 Draft tube Considering tail race level. 2 as the datum.22 P2 = atmospheric pressure. Z1 = 3 82 1.

8.8. This is because of the fact that the manometer automatically takes the inclination into account in indicating the value of (Z1 – Z2).2452 /4) 3.03 / 0.732 2 P2 3 × 105 + +0= + +0 2 × 9.6. Substituting.3 Problem model (A2/A1)2 = (D2/D1)4 = (0.5 = 4.396 kg/s Chapter 6 Problem 6. 6.5 2 /4) V2 = V1 FG D IJ HD K 2 1 2 V2 = 0. Determine the flow rate.056 m/s can also use 2 (π × d /4) (π × 0.05g 4 0.056 2 12.1FG 13. h = 0. Substituting (π × 0.2 Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 2 0.6 − 1IJ O MN H 0.236 bar (absolute) = 1.032 ∴ as D2 = 3 cm Figure P.5 10 m A2 = (π/4) 0. Q= eπ × 0.03 / 4j L2 × 9. Problem 6. The pressure gauge fitted at the entry to the venturi reads 2 bar. S1 = 0.3 is used measure flow of petrol with a specific gravity of 0.6 = = 3. Using Bernoulli equation and neglecting losses P1 V12 P2 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2.81 2 × 9.732 m/s.5 m and 0.5 2 0.6.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 195 As long as ‘h’ remains the same.2 Water flows at the rate of 600 l/s through a horizontal venturi with diameter 0.05)4.245 m.245 l/s or 15282 l/hr or 3.136 bar (gauge) 3 cm f 5 cm f Using equation 6. Determine the throat pressure.6.282 m3/hr or 4. The manometer reads 10 cm of mercury of specific gravity 13. .245 × 10–3 m3/s or 15.6 = 12.3 A venturimeter as shown in Fig P.5 30° b g LM2 ghF S NM GH S 2 1 −1 IJ OP K QP 0.8 K PQ 1 − b0. the volume flow is the same for a given venturimeter as this expression is a general one derived without taking any particular inclination. P1 = 2 bar (gauge) = 3 bar (absolute) 3 × 105 N/m2 γ 2g 2g V1 = Q 0.81 9810 9810 ∴ P2 = 223617 N/m2 = 2. 6.10 m S2 = 13.03/0.81 × 0. Barometric pressure is 1 bar.

Using Bernoulli equation.83 × 10–3 m2 .6 mm.5 LM2 ghF S MN GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K PQ 0. h.5 Solving. The vertical distance between inlet and outlet is 6 m.04 2 = 1.5 A1 = A2 = π × 0. at the rate of 0. 4 π × 0. which is 1. of mercury column.9 m3/s 4 Solving for d2. If the manometer fluid is mercury (sp.6 Calculate the exit diameter.9m3/s.8 K Q I OP N JK P Q 2 0.5m above point 1.b) determine the value of manometer reading. Using equation (6.6.196 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6.5 Water flows upwards in a vertical pipe line of gradually varying section from point 1 to point 2. V2 = 19. P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g 0.26 × 10–3 m2 4 3 ×10–3 = 1.0146 m = 14. gr = 13.4 A liquid with specific gravity 0.81 9810 9810 e j Solving. Problem 6. . gauge pressure or absolute pressure can be used without error. However it is desirable to use absolute pressure to aviod nagative pressure values. Problem 6.52 V22 800 × 10 3 600 × 10 3 + +0= + +1. determine the pipe diameter at that location.26 × 10 −3 LM F 1. The flow rate of water is 1600 l/s.26 × 10 MN1 − GH 2. if at the inlet section of the draft tube the diameter is 1 m and the pressure is 0.5 0. h = 0.81 × hFG 13. Diameter of pipe at section 2 = 0.83 × 10 −3 −3 LM2 × 9.5 2 × 9. Flow = area × velocity.37 = 0.8 flows at the rate of 3 l/s through a venturimeter of diameters 6 cm and 4 cm.37 m/s.405 bar absolute.06 2 = 2.6 − 1IJ OP H 0.243 m As (p/γ) is involved directly on both sides. At section 1 the pipe dia is 0. 2 π × d2 ×19.9 × 4 / π × 0.2) Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 b g 2 0. If pressure at section 2 is 600 kPa.81 2 × 9. Neglect losses.5m and pressure is 800 kPa.

531 2 1 ∴ D2 = 1.07 = X V22 200 × 10 −3 × 4 = X 2g π × 0.07 m 1.3 × 10 5 (200 × 10 × 4)/(π × 0.2 ) + + 5 + losses 2 × 9.81 9810 Losses = 1.22 LM N OP /2 × 9.04 m/s π × 12 P2 = atmospheric pressure. where the draft tube is attached. Determine the head loss through the pipe.81 Q 2 ∴ X = 0.405 bar absolute means vacuum at the inlet section of the draft tube. The diameter at the bottom is 240 mm and at the top 200 mm and the length is 5m.516. V12 P1 P2 V2 + + Z1 = + 2 + Z2 + losses 2g γ γ 2g (200 × 10 −3 × 4) / π × 0.81 9810 9810 2 A2 V1 2.24 2 ) 2 8 × 10 2 + +0 2 × 9.81 2 × 9.405 × 10 5 1. cavitation problem limits the pressure level.96 m 0. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 (bottom) and 2 (top) and considering the bottom level as datum.531 m/s 2 × 9. The pressure at the bottom is 8 bar.04 D2 = V = 2 = A1 0.7 Water flows at the rate of 200 l/s upwards through a tapered vertical pipe.516 2 V2 2g Chapter 6 .013 × 10 5 + +6= + + 0 ∴ V2 = 0.04 2 0. Z1 = 6 m V22 2.81 9810 = ∴ −3 2 2 7. Express it as a function of exit velocity head. neglecting losses 197 P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g V1 = Q×4 π × D12 = 1600 × 10 −3 × 4 = 2.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2. Though theoretically the pressure at turbine exit. and the pressure at the topside is 7. Loss of head = 0. can be reduced to a vary low level. This may cause ‘‘cavitation’’ if this pressure is below the vapour pressure at that temperature. Problem 6. Z2 = 0 (datum).3 bar.

81 b g π × 0. Z2 = 2 m 2 0.81 × hFG 13.8 bar 0.8 × 10 5 + +0= + + 2 ∴V1 = 2. Q= A2 1 − A2 / A1 b g 2 0. P2 = 0.6.514 m3/s = 514 l/s 4 Using equation (6.8 2 × 9.5 2 bar Figure P.5 Solving.5 LM2 × 9.031IJ OP N NM H 0.5 0.031 m2.196 K QP 0.8.854 m .2) (with A2 = 0.25 V 2 2 2 1 6. P. Z1 = 0.8 2 × 9. 6.81 9810 × 0. Q = A1 V1 = Flow rate.8 Applying continuity equation between points 1 and 2 A1V1 = A2V2.25V1 V12 2 × 105 0.8) in the pipe line shown in Fig. h = 0. 0. Applying Bernoulli equation (neglecting losses) between points 1 and 2 P1 P2 V12 V22 + + Z1 = γ + + Z2 γ 2g 2g P1 = 2 × 105 N/m2. V2 = V1 A = V1 2 A1 F π × 0.8 Calculate the flow rate of oil (sp.62 = 0.2 2m 1 h 0. gravity.5 LM2 ghF S MN GH S 2 1 IO − 1J P K PQ 0.514 = H 0.62 m/s 9810 × 0.8 K Q LM1 − FG 0.5 2 × 2.6.8 ×105 N/m2 .5 /4 I GH π × 0.6 − 1IJ OP 0. A1 = 0.196 m2) Flow rate.2 /4 JK = 6.198 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6. Also calculate the reading ‘‘h’’ shown by the differential manometer fitted to the pipe line which is filled with mercury of specific gravity 13.031 2 0. 6.

38 bar Figure P. determine the direction of flow.81 e j 2 + 4 = 25. 2 V12 P1 P2 D1 V2 A + + Z1 = + 2 + Z2. This result shows that there are losses between 1 and 2 as the total energy at 2 is lower.3 m B A 1.02 m of water column The total energy at all points should be equal if there are no losses. Z1 = 0. Mercury with S = 13. P. 2 0.10 Petrol of relative density 0. Problem 6.2 m. Z2 = 1. V2 = V1 1 = V1 2 2g A2 γ γ 2g D2 F I GH JK ∴ V22 = V12 F D I = 16 V GH D JK 4 1 4 2 2 1 as D1/D2 = 2 Chapter 6 .15 m 0. Hence the flow will take place from points 1 to 2. Determine the flow rate.6. 6.6 is used as the manometer fluid.9 Water flows at the rate of 400 l/s through the pipe with inlet (1) diameter of 35 cm and (2) outlet diameter of 30 cm with 4m level difference with point 1 above point 2. The pressure value at locations 1 and 2 are given as 138 kPa and 69 kPa respectively and point 2 is 1. + 9810 e0.2 m 1 h 0. If P1 = P2 = 2 bar absolute.352 2 × 10 5 + 9810 2 × 9.82 flows in a pipe shown Fig.2m vertically above point 1. Consider datum as plane 2 Total head 1.69 bar 1.4 × 4/π × 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 199 Problem 6.27 m water column 2 × 10 5 Total head at 2.10 Problem Model Considering point 1 as a datum and using Bernoulli equation.10.4 × 4/π × 0.81 2 2 + 0 = 22. Also calculate the reading of the differential manometer connected as shown.3 j 2 × 9. 0.

6. P. indicated by point 1.82 1 LM2 × 9.22 m3/s or 180 kg/s 4 The flow rate is given by equation 6. Point A is 1m above the water level.5 0.3 K QP π × 0.81 + 3 = γ + 2 g + 0 as P1 = P2.106 = 0. The velocity at point 1 is 6 m/s. Solving.106 m/s 2g Volume flow = π × 0.15 2 /4 4 0.2 LM2 ghF S Q= LM F A I OP NM GH S MN1 − GH A JK PQ A2 2 2 0.3 2 × 6 π × d 2 × 9.82 × 9810 ∴ 3 – 1.6. Problem 6. 6. S = 0. determine the speed of the jet at outlet and also the pressure at A.12 A siphon is shown in Fig P.5 1 2 1 −1 IJ OP K QP 0.6 − 1IJ OP 0.15 IJ OP N NM H 0. If pressures at points 1 and 2 are to be equal.11.12.81 × hFG 13.5 Solving.2 = 15 V12 . h = 0.74 = 4 4 2 3m Figure P.200 V12 V12 138 × 10 3 69 × 103 + +0= + 16 2 g 2g 0.11 Water flows downwards in a pipe as shown in Fig. V1 = 3.74 m/s Using the relation A1 V1 = A2V2. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 (taking level 2 as datum) P1 P2 V22 62 γ + 2 × 9. .2355 m.11 Problem model ∴ d = 0.6. V2 = 9.82 K Q LM1 − FG 0. The bottom of the siphon is 8m below level A.3 m Problem 6.3 2 × 3.475 m of mercury column v1 = 6 m/s 1 0.6 .22 = H 0.82 × 9810 0.82 × 9810 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery F I GH JK + 1.2 b138 − 69g10 0.5 S2 13. π × 0. determine the diameter of the pipe at point 2. Assuming friction to be negligible.

3 m of water column (absolute) Problem 6. 2 P1 PA VA +0+0= γ +1+ γ 2g Considering P1/γ = 10.3 m. Determine the maximum height of the barrier if the pressure at this point should not fall below 1. V1 = 0. Atmospheric pressure is 10. between 1 and 2. PA P V2 = 1 – 1 – 2 = 10.0 m of water to avoid cavitation. γ γ 2g 2g P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure. Z1 = 8. As flow is the same. P1 = P3 ∴ 8= V32 2g ∴ V3 = 8 × 9.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Using Bernoulli equation. The pipe line has to go over a barrier which is above the water level.81 × 2 = 12. The velocity of water at the surface is zero. A 1m 201 1 8m 2 Figure P. ∴ ∴ 0+0= V2 = V22 –7 2g 7 × 2 × 9.81 = 11.12 Problem model P1 P2 V2 V2 + 1 + Z1 = + 2 + Z2 . Consider level 1 as datum.3 – 1 – 7 γ γ 2g = 2.72 m/s = VA Considering surface 1 and level A. Considering outlet level 3 as datum and water level as 1 and appyling Bernoulli equation.13 A pipe line is set up to draw water from a reservoir. The outlet is 8 m below water level. 6.53 m/s Chapter 6 . Z3 = 0.3 m of water.

3 ∴ Z2 = 9.5V1 V12 + 5= + 2.37 m/s.15 Uniform flow rate is maintained at a shutter in a wide channel.5 V1. Assume velocities V1 and V2 upstream and downstream of shutter and the datum as the bed level. Applying Bernoulli equation between point 1 in the upstream and point 2 in the downstream on both sides of the shutter. The width of the canal is 1m and flow is steady. Therefore the barrier can be 1. Substituting in equation (1). As V2 = V3. 2.81 2 × 9. P2/γ = 1 1 + Z2 = 10.81 2 (1) b g ∴ V1 = 3. Problem 6. both surface pressures being atmospheric.35 m/s. Q = 16. Problem 6. 2 × 9.5 m/s ∴ V2 = h 2 .3 m.13 Problem model Considering the barrier top as level 2 P2 P3 V22 V32 γ + 2 g + Z2 = γ + 2 g + Z3. Z3 = 0.742 m3/s. V12 V22 +5= +2 2g 2g Applying continuity equation. Assuming uniform velocity at any section if the flow rate per m length is 3m3/s/m.202 2 WL 1 h Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 8m 3 Figure P. 3 V2 = 2.3 m above water level. flow rate. V2 = 8. from flow rate V1 = 3/2 = 1. Q = A1V1 = A2V2 (1 × 5) V1 = (1 × 2) V2. 6.14 Determine the flow rate of water across the shutter in an open canal if the water level upstream of shutter is 5m and downstream is 2m. determine the level downstream. Using Bernoulli equation 2+ V12 V22 = h2 + 2g 2g (A) (B) Considering unit width from continuity 1 × 2 × V1 = 1 × h2 × V2 ∴ 3 V2 = (2/h2) V1. The water level in the channel upstream of shutter is 2m.

16 A pump with centre line 2m above the sump water level develops 50m head of water. This may be checked using the calculated velocity values. 2 + 0. 0. check using A. The loss of head in the suction line is given by 5 Vs2/2g. Chapter 6 . Let the velocity at the nozzle be Vn Velocity in the delivery pipe = Vd = Vn × 75 2 100 2 2 = Vn 4 9 V 16 n Velocity in suction pipe Vs= Vn 2 Vn 2g FG 75 IJ H 150 K = Kinetic head at outlet = Loss in delivery pipe = 2 Vd 9 = 12 × 2g 16 FG IJ H K 2 2 2 Vn Vn = 3.81 = Vn2 [5.81 h × 2 × 9.1147 h22 + 0. 0. 2m being trivial.54 m is the acceptable answer.3125 2g 2g 16 2 g Equating the head developed to the static head.52 32 = h2 + 2 2 × 9. this reduces to Solving. ∴ V2 = 5. h2 can be 2 m.797 2g 2g Loss in suction pipe = 2 2 Vs2 Vn 5 Vn = = 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Substituting 2+ 203 1. The delivery line is of 100 mm dia and the loss in the line is 12 Vd2/2g. The difference between the dynamic head values will equal the difference between the datum heads. losses and kinetic head.56 m/s. Determine the velocity at the nozzle outlet and the pressure at the pump inlet. Problem 6.4587 = 0 Simplifying. – 0.54 + 1.314 m/s Pressure at suction : Taking datum as the water surface and also the velocity of the water to be zero at the surface.797 + 0.81 h23 – 2. Using B. The water is delivered through a nozzle of 75 mm dia.425 m.109] ∴ Velocity at the nozzle Vn = 8.57 checks.3125] 2g 18 × 2 × 9. The delivery is at 30m above the pump centre line.54 × V2 × 1 = 2 ×1.54 m h2 = 0. 50 = 30 + 2 + 2 Vn [1 + 3.5 = 3.1147 = 0. The suction pipe is of 150 mm ID.

(using the second law of Newton) Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 The distance travelled along x direction X = Vxo t or t = X/Vxo Solving for t from B and substituting in A.314/4g I GH 2 × 9. Describe the path of the free jet. Problem 6. Kinetic head V2/2g. Zmax = ∴ X = VzoVxo/g 2 2 Vzo VzoVxo 1 g VzoVxo . Zmax = Vo2 sin2 θ/2g 2 g 2g = (D) The maximum height is achieved when θ = 90°. This describes an inverted parabola as shown in Fig. Xmax = 2Vo2 sin θ cos θ /g = Vo2 sin 2θ/g (E) Maximum horizontal reach is at θ = 45° or 2θ = 90° and for this angle it will reach half the vertical height. Hence . 2 Vxo 2 Vxo g g2 2 1 Vzo V 2 sin 2 θ = 0 .321 m below atmospheric pressure.81 JK × (5 + 1) 2 (as Vs = Vn/4) ∴ or P2 γ = 10. loss 5V2/2g 10. P.979 m absolute 3.3 – 3. distance travelled. 10.6. The vertical component Vzo = Vo sin θ.3 m of water column. Pressure is assumed to be uniform all over the trejectory as it is exposed to atmosphere all along its travel. In the vertical direction.17 Bernoulli equation shows that Zt + Vt2/2g = constant along the rejectory.17 A liquid jet at a velocity V0 is projected at angle θ.321 m = 6. 2 dx 2 Vxo Vxo Substituting in C. Also calculate the maximum height and the horizontal distance travelled. Z= Vzo 1 g X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo gX Vzo = 2 Vxo Vxo (A) (B) (C) Z value can be maximised by taking dz/dx and equating to zero dz 1 g V = zo – 2X.204 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery P1 as atmospheric. – . ∴ Xmas = 2 times x as Zmax. Vt is the velocity at that location when air drag is neglected. The horizontal component of the velocity of jet is Vxo = V o cos θ.3 = P2 +2+ γ F b8. during time t. Z.

becomes zero and then turns – ve) Total head = Energy grade line Vx0 2g 2 2 Jet path V0 2g 2 Vx0 V 2g Vx = Vx0 = constant Vz = Vz0 – gt Vz0 V0 sin q 0 q V0 Zmax = Vx0 = V0 cos q Vx0 Vz0 g X 2 Vz 0 2g P Z Figure P.17 Jet trejectory Problem 6. so the velocity decreases. 6. where a = – g. Substituting for t as X/Vxo with X = 25 m Chapter 6 Vzo 1 g X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo Z= Height cleared.32 × 10 Vxo Vzo = = 17. X = Vxot. Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2. .32 2 2 Vzo 10 2 = = 5. Calculate the height cleared by the jet at 25m from the discharge location? Also determine the maximum height the jet will clear and the corresponding horizontal location.215 m 17.Bernoulli Equations and Applications Zt + Vt2 /2g = constant for the jet. at time t.17). Ref Fig.32 2 17.097 m 2g 2 × 9.17 Vxo = Vo cos 30 = 20 cos 30 = 17. 6.32 m It would have crossed this height also at 10.81 × 25 – × 252 = 4.32 m/s.66 m 9.18 A jet issuing at a velocity of 20 m/s is directed at 30° to the horizontal.81 g Total horizontal distance is twice the distance travelled in reaching Zmax = 35. 205 (Note: Velocity at time t = Vzo t = V0 sin θ + a × t. P. Vzo = Vo sin 30 = 20 sin 30 = 10 m/s. Z25 = (A) 10 1 9.81 Maximum height of the jet trajectory = Corresponding horizontal distance = 17.43 m from the starting point (check using equations derived in Problem 6.

56 = 11. Vzo = Vo sin 40. Refer Problem 6. P.81 = 6. From basics.612 cos 2 40 2 When both Z and X are specified unique solution is obtained. Vxo Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 (A) Vo sin 40 1 9. Maximum height reached = Vzo2/2g = (Vo sin 40)2/2g = (17. (half total horizontal travel) X = VxoVzo/g = 17. Z = Vzo t – (1/2) gt2 The vertical velocity at any location/time is given by. 6. What will be the horizontal distance at which the jet will be again at 6m height.20 Determine the angle at which a jet with a given velocity is to be projected for obtaining maximum horizontal reach. 11. X = Vxo t.81 × 20 2 = 310 ∴ Vo = 17.56 m.81 = 15.612 sin 40 cos 40/9. t = Substituting for t as X/Vxo Z= Substituting the values. This shows that the jet clears 6m height at a distance of 20 m as it comes down.81 × 11. Vzt = dz = Vzo – gt dt . two values of X is obtained from equation A.206 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6. Vxo = Vo cos 40.53 m The X value corresponding to this is.19 Determine the velocity of a jet directed at 40° to the horizontal to clear 6 m height at a distance of 20m. Given Vo and Z.12 m check by substituting in equation B. Also determine the maximum height this jet will clear and the total horizontal travel.81 × 20 2 × 20 − × 2 Vo cos 40 2 Vo cos 2 40 1 9. 6= 1 g Vzo X– X2 2 Vxo 2 Vxo X . this can be calculated as – (20 – 15.61 m/s. The jet would have cleared this height at a distance less than 15.61 × sin 40)2 /2 × 9. referring to Fig.81 × 20 2 2 Vo 2 cos 2 40 6 = 20 tan 40 – ∴ Vo2 = (B) 2 cos 2 40(20 tan 40 − 6) 9.12 tan 40 – 9.17.56) + 15. By symmetry. Problem 6.12 1 × =6 2 17. X = Vxo t.17.56 m also.

In the first case it clears the height during the fall. X = Vo2/g as sin 2θ = 1.21 Determined the angle at which a jet with an initial velocity of 20 m/s is to be projected to clear 4m height at a distance of 10 m. Fall Rise 82. the projected angle should be 45°.262 = 0. solving tan θ = 7. Z= 2 1 gx 2 Vo sin θ 1 gx 2 x– = x tan θ – 2 (sec θ) 2 Vo 2 cos 2 θ Vo cos θ 2 Vo Z = x tan θ – 1 gx 2 (1 + tan2 θ) 2 Vo 2 Substituting the given values. 6.17.5613 This corresponds to θ = 82. X = 2 Vxo Vzo/g = 2 Vo2 cos θ sin θ/g = Vo2 sin 2θ/g For X to be maximum sin 2θ should be maximum or 2θ = 90° or θ = 45°. . C Chapter 6 1 9.155 tan θ + 4.594 or 0. 4 = 10 tan θ – Hence. 207 Problem 6.6.3°.21 Jet trejectory Refer Problem 6.81 × 10 2 (1 + tan2 θ) 2 20 2 Z= Vzo 1 gx 2 x– 2 2 Vxo Vxo Substituting in terms of Vo and θ.3° 4m 10 m Figure P. For maximum horizontal reach.21.Bernoulli Equations and Applications The horizontal distance travelled will be half the total distance travelled when Vzt = 0 or t = Vzo/g Total X distance travelled during time 2t. eqn.5° or 29. tan2 θ – 8. P.5° 29. The maximum reach. See Fig. In the second case it clears the height during the rise.

22 Problem model In this case the jets issue out at A and B horizontally and so the position can be taken as the Zmax position. y1 = 2g 2g V 2 zo2 2g or Vzo2 = or Vzo1 = 2 gy1 Similarly.22 From a water tank two identical jets issue at distances H1 and H2 from the water level at the top. Bernoulli equation reduces to V2 = 20. WL H1 H2 B A y1 y2 X GL Figure P. If the distance from the ground level to the jet levels are y1 and y2. Assuming the jet remains circular determine the flow rate and area of jet at 10 m height. reaches a maximum height of 20 m.17. 2 gH1 g 2 gy1 = 2 gH2 g 2 gy2 ∴ H1 y1 = H2 y2 Problem 6. Referring to Problem 6. As V = 0 at a height of 20 m. Both reach the same point at the ground level of the tank. 6. Show that H1y1 = H2y2.23 A jet of water initially 12 cm dia when directed vertically upwards. Vxo2 = 2 gH 2 (B) (C) Substituting results (A) and (C) in equation (B). and simplifying. 2g .208 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 6. y2 = 2 gy2 (A) (Vzo1 and Vzo2 are the Z components at point where the jet touches the ground) Xmax = Vxo1 = VzoVxo Vzo 1Vxo 1 Vzo2 Vxo2 and so = g g g 2 gH 1 . eqn. (D) Zmax = Vzo12 Vzo 2 .

the loss in kinetic energy is equal to the increase in potential energy.18 m/s Chapter 6 h0 h d π × 0. Derive an expression for the time taken to reduce the height to h. Z2 = Z1 – 10 = (20 – 10) = 10 20 = 10 + ∴ V 2 20 2g ∴ V2 2 = 10. Applying Bernoulli equation between the water level.0739 m3/s = 73.18 = 0.5 = 19. P1 = P2.5 × 10 5 V2 2 + + 0 + 4. A pressure gauge fitted at the bottom of the pipe which is 10 m below the water level shows 0.12 2 × 19.81 × 2)0.224 = π × D2 × 14 ∴ D = 0.24 Water is discharged through a 150 mm dia pipe fitted to the bottom of a tank.81)0.224 m3/s 4 209 When the jet reaches 10 m height. Consider this as level 2 and the maximum height as level 1 and ground as datum.5 = 14 m/s Flow rate = area × velocity.15 2 × 4. V1 = 0. 2 and this level as datum P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 + losses 2g 2g γ γ 0 + 0 + 10 = Solving.81 9810 2 × 9. 4 Problem 6. Flow rate = Considering point 1 at the top of the tank and point 2 at the orifice entrance.5V22/2g. Assume the frictional loss as 4.9 l/s. 0.1427 m 4 Problem 6.Bernoulli Equations and Applications ∴ V = (20 × 9.25 Problem model .809 m/s Flow rate = area × velocity = π × 0. 1 and the bottom of the pipe. Determine the flow rate.809 = 0. Also find the time tmax for emptying – dh the tank.25 An open tank of diameter D containing water to depth ho is emptied by a smooth orifice at the bottom.81 V2 = 4. 2g V2 = (10 × 2 × 9.5 bar.5 2 × 9. and point 2 as datum D V12 V2 Patm + + h = 2 + patm 2g 2g ∴ Also V2 V12 +h= 2g g 2 V12 = V22 2 LM d OP N DQ 4 Figure P. V2 2 0. 6.

d = 0.025 m.5 m. g/2 t= ho / FG DIJ H dK 4 −1 . ho = 0. The drop in level dh during time dt is given by (as dh is negative with reference to datum) V A dh d =− 2 2 =− dt A1 D 2 FG IJ H K 2 2 gh 1− FG d IJ H DK 4 Taking FG d IJ H DK inside and rearranging dh =− dt 2 gh FG D IJ H dK FG D IJ H dK FG D IJ H dK 4 4 −1 Separating variables and integrating z 2 h ho dh =− h 2g 4 .t z t 0 dt ho − h = 2g −1 (A) t = 2 ( ho − h ) / Equation (A) can be rearranged to give 2g g/2 = ho − h / FG D IJ H dK 2 o 4 −1 FG DIJ H dK 4 −1 (B) LM OP t g/2 h P h M = M1 − h MM FG DIJ − 1 PPP N H dK Q 0 4 (C) Equation (B) will be useful to find the drop in head during a given time interval.5 m. Time for emptying is calculated as h = 0. Let D = 0. Consider a numerical problem. −1 .210 ∴ V2 = 2 gh 1 − ( d/ D) 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Let the level at the time considered be h.

7 seconds. Chapter 6 t = 127. Consider top jet: x distance travelled in time t is 10 m. t z dt 2 In this case to empty the tank.5 (1 – 0. then time for employing is 1130 sec.5 / FG 0. 2 × 9.01 m. t. Problem 6.26 Two identical jets issuing from a touch as shown in figure reach the ground at a distance of 10 m.025 K 4 − 1 = 127.4764 m In case d << D. Determine the distances indicated as h and H. The same answer because the same diameter of the orifice is used. 2 gh Separating variables and integrating z h dh ho 2 [ ho – FG d IJ H DK h F dI h] = G J H DK =– 2 2g .5 = G H 0.5 K 2 . 2 Solving F 0.81 . ∴ Vxo1t = 10 t = 10/Vxo1 The height drop is as Vzo as start is zero. then V2 = 2 gh when head is h m dh AV =− 2 2 =–V d 2 dt A1 D FG IJ H K t 0 2 =− FG d IJ H DK 2 . ∴ Vzo1t = H = (A) 1 2 gt 2 (B) .5 IJ − 1 PP H 0. 2g .5 P h M = M1 − P h MM FG 0.0471) = 0. Say d = 0.71 s.81/ 2 × 0.81 / 2 211 = 0.025 IJ 0.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 9. LM OP 100 9.25K N Q o 4 2 = 0.5 IJ H 0.0471 ∴ Drop in head = 0. To find the drop in level in say 100 seconds.

25 – h = 50 g 25 = .212 Z Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 4m 1 h H 2 3 10 m x Figure P. Substituting 2 50 g 1 1Vo g = 2 2 Vxo2 Vxo2 2 (D) As at start only Vxo2 is present. 6. 6. 10 .25 × 4 = 4 × 6. This leads to 4+h h2 – 2. t = or H = 6.22.25h = 0. As in the previous case Vzoc = 0 at start H–h= H–h= 1 2 gt . is present. Substituting. V2xo1 = 2 g4 = 8g 50 g H Considering the second jet.25 m.25 m. as H = 6. .26 Problem model Substituting for t H= 1 100 g 2 Vxo2 ∴ V2xo = 50 g H (C) (as head available in 4 m) As jet issues from the nozzle it has any x directional velocity Vxo1. Vxo22 = (4 + h) g × 2 Substituting in (D) H–h= 6.25 m. H × 4 = (H – h) (4 + h). Vxo2 The head drop in (H – h) m.25 Hence this condition is also satisfied. 8g = Vxo2 t = 10. It may be also noted from problem 6. (4 + h) g × 2 4+h 25 . or h = 2.

(8) P/ρ (9) the microscopic activity of atoms/molecules of the matter. Answers (1) stream line (2) incompressible. Potential energy of a fluid element in Nm/kg is given by –––––––––––––––––. Fill in the blanks: 1. Kinetic energy of fluid element is due to its –––––––––––––––––. Pressure energy or flow energy of a fluid element is given in head of fluid by the expression ––– ––––––––––––––. Z being elevation (7) (P/ρ) (go/g) = p/γ. 9. 9. In the analysis of incompressible fluid flow. 5. If there are frictional losses the energy grade line will ––––––––––––––––– . 213 2. Potential energy of a fluid element in head of fluid is given by –––––––––––––––––.1. Potential energy of a fluid element is due to its –––––––––––––––––. Draft tube ––––––––––––––––– the available head in the case of reaction turbines. Eulers equation is applicable for flow along a –––––––––––––––––. Chapter 6 3.go where γ is specific weight. 8. 7. Answers (1) motion (2) where V is the velocity (3) V2/2go where go is the force conversion constant having a unit of m kg/Ns2 (4) location in the gravitational field. 4. Energy line along the flow ––––––––––––––––– if there are no losses. (5) Z.Bernoulli Equations and Applications OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. The amount of kinetic energy per kg is given by the expression ––––––––––––––––– the unit used being head of fluid. Electrical and magnetic energy become important in the flow of –––––––––––––––––. (8) increases (9) will be horizontal parallel to the flow (10) pressure and potential head (11) will increase by a step (12) dip. the elevation from datum (6) Zg/go. 6. Bernoulli equation is applicable for flows which are –––––––––––––––––. 2. Internal energy is due to ––––––––––––––––.2. . Total head in a steady incompressible irrotational flow is the sum of –––––––––––––––––. Bernoulli equation states that the total head –––––––––––––––––. V2/2g. Pressure energy or flow energy of a fluid element in the unit Nm/kg is given by the expression – ––––––––––––––––. 12. 3. 10. If a pump supplies energy to the flow the energy line ––––––––––––––––– . In steady flow along a horizontal level as the velocity increases the pressure ––––––––––––––. 11. 6. steady and irrotational (3) remains constant if there are no irreversibilities (4) dynamic head. exhibited by the temperature (10) temperature change is generally negligible (11) plasma. 11. 10. 8. Cavitation will occur when the pressure at a point –––––––––––––––––. pressure head and potential head (5) decreases (6) increases (7) goes below the vapour pressure of the fluid at that temperature. O Q. Hydraulic grade line represents the sum of ––––––––––––––––– along the flow. The pressure along the diverging section of a venturi –––––––––––––––––. 6. 6. Fill in the blanks: 1. The kinetic energy in the unit Nm/kg is given by the expression –––––––––––––––––. 4. 7. internal energy is rarely considered because ––––– ––––––––––––. 5.

Answers Correct – 1. For the same reading of the differential manometer connected to a vertical venturimeter. Flow will take place along hydraulic gradient. A pitot-static tube has probes both facing the flow and perpendicular to flow. A pitot probe connected perpendicular to flow will indicate the total head. the potential head is 4 m. In a flow along a varying flow cross section. 4. the pressure head is 3 m. 9. (e) all flows. 6. the energy line will decreases by a step. When a pump supplies energy to a flow stream. A pitot probe facing the flow will indicate the dynamic head. 5. 6. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. A pitot probe facing the flow will indicate the total head. Energy line along the direction of flow will dip if there are losses. 10. the flow will be independent of the position or flow direction.3. Choose the correct answer: 1. For ideal flows the energy line will slope upward along the flow. 6. 9. 11. The height of hydraulic gradient line at this location will be (a) 13 m (b) 9 m (c) 10 m (d) 7 m 4. 3. 3. the flow rate will be larger if flow is downwards. 6. Bernoulli equation is applicable for (a) steady rotational flow (b) steady rotational compressible flow (c) steady irrotational incompressible flow (d) unsteady irrotational incompressible flow (b) the initial velocity only (d) the angle of projection and initial velocity. For a free jet the maximum horizontal reach will depend on (a) the angle of projection only (c) the fluid flowing in the jet 2. 8. If the differential manometer reading connected to a venturimeter is the same. 12. In a steady flow along a stream line at a location in the flow. Flow will take place along energy gradient. 12 O Q. 2. 5.4. (b) increase 4 times (d) decrease to one sixteenth. 10. 6.214 O Q. 8. the velocity will (a) be halved (c) increase four fold (a) be doubled (c) increase 8 times (b) be doubled (d) decrease four fold. 4. 3. as the area decreases (a) the energy line will slope up (b) the hydraulic gradient line will slope up (c) the hydraulic gradient line will slope down (d) the energy line will slope down. the velocity head is 6 m. In steady flow in a varying section pipe if the diameter is doubled the kinetic energy will . 5. as the diameter is doubled. In a steady flow of incompressible fluid. 7. 7. 11 Incorrect – 2. the hydraulic grade line will dip along the flow direction. If velocity increases. Indicate whether the statement is correct or incorrect.

Match the sets 1. (36. Answers (1) 1c.1 m at the top over a length of 2 m. Eulers equation 4. Continuity equation 3. 6.5. kinetic energy 3.6) is used to measure the pressure. O Q. determine the reading of the manometer difference in m of mercury. In a source type of flow. Set B (a) plasma flow (b) temperature (c) position (d) velocity. 4a (2) 1c. neglecting losses. 3b. 3b.1.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 215 7. A pipe inclined at 45° to the horizontal converges from 0. the kinetic energy along the radius will vary (constant thickness of fluid along radius) (a) proportional to radius (b) directly proportional to the square root of radius (c) inversely proportional to the square of radius (d) proportional to the fourth power of radius 8.2 m dia to 0. the pressure along flow direction will (a) remain constant (c) increase (b) decrease (d) increase or decrease depending on the fluid. The differential manometer connected to two points along a pipe line gives a reading of h m. If a mercury manometer (specific gravity 13. Set A 1.854 N/m2. 9. 4a EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 6. 2d.201m) Chapter 6 . internal energy 4. Oil fills the limbs over mercury in the manometer. Oil of specific gravity 0.84 flows through the pipe. Answers (1) d (2) c (3) d (4) c (5) d (6) d (7) c (8) b (9) b. Laplace equation 2. Determine the pressure difference between the ends. 0. The flow will be (a) highest if the pipe is horizontal (b) independent of the slope of pipe and direction of flow (c) highest if flow is downwards (d) will depend on the fluid. electrical energy Set B (a) potential function (b) stream line (c) total head (d) conservation of mass. Bernoulli equation 2. potential energy 2. 2d. At the lower end the average velocity is 2m/s. In a vertical flow of incompressible fluid along a constant pipe section under steady conditions. Set A 1.

The suction pipe of a pump slopes at 1 m vertical for 5 m length.821 m.15 = 8. Calculate the flow rate. After some distance the diameter of reduces to 0. (2) the loss in head due to friction.8 m/s. The pressure at the entry to the pipe line of 0. Calculate (1) the power of the jet. The length is 300 m.11. (283. Determine the diameter of the jet and the velocity at a height of 6 m. 6.7.45 m at the start. P0.6. Water flows in the middle floor tap at 3 m/s. (84. A tapering pipe is laid at a gradient of 1 in 100 downwards.3 m and the levels rises by 3 m above the entrance. Determine the pressure at the location. Determine the efficiency and power that can be developed if the nozzle diameter is 75mm.3.91 determine the pressure at the fork and also at the end of the two branch pipes. Determine the total energy per kg with reference to the datum.225 = 19.2 kW) E 6. The flow rate of water is 5500 l/min.8. Pfork = 13. Oil flows through a horizontal pipe will line which has a diameter of 0.3%. is 8.105 m3/s) E 6. E. V0. (8.63 m. (0.225 m dia is 3.5 m3/min. what will be the diameter? Neglect losses. (ii) If the drop in pressure is 5 kN/m2.5.4. (35. Determine the velocities at the taps in the other two floors shown in Fig. A Utube mercury manometer shows a head 0. Neglect losses.2 m.4 and 0. (47. The supply head to a water nozzle is 30 m gauge.kg) E 6.9.4. The flow rate is 0. The pipe diameter gradually increases to 0. If the flow velocity in the pipe is 1. 6. Water flows from a reservoir 240 m above the tip of a nozzle.5 m/s.1 m/s. (i) If the drop in pressure is 1. 5.14 kW.2 m Supply 1.2 m to 0. A horizontal pipe carrying water is gradually tapering. If the pressure at the start is 20 m head of oil and the specific gravity of the oil is 0.4 E 6.104 bar at a reduced section determine the diameter at the section.33 m. P0. V=? 3m 3 m/s 2.8 bar.5 m/s.5 m) E.8 m V=? Figure E.6 m. The pressure and velocity at a section are 410 kN/m2 and 4. The velocity at the beginning is 1. (V at fork = 4.6 m/s.15 = 16.12. Oil of specific gravity of 0. A pipe line is 36 m above datum. The velocity of water leaving the nozzle is 22.8 m) E 6.2 bar and the flow rate at this section is 7.13 m3/s.05 m/s.2. At one section the diameter is 150 mm and flow velocity is 1. Determine the pressure at the lower location.15 m and 0. 6. 17.216 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 6. determine the maximum length. (38.3 m at which point the flow divides into pipes of 0. 100 mm) .14 bar) E 6. The diameter reduces from 1. (774.7 Nm.8 m/s and if the pressure in the pipe should not fall by more than 7 m of water. The velocity in the pipe line of 0.15 m dia.225 m diameter.8 m/s. 25.6 mm.98 m) E 6. The velocity at the nozzle outlet is 66 m/s.25 mm. A nozzle of 25 mm dia. (0. Neglect losses.9 flows through a venturimeter of diameters 0. The pressure at the upper location is 0. directs a water jet vertically with a velocity of 12 m/s.10.13 m/s) E 6.73 bar) E 6.

E. (43 l/min. 6.83 upward in the set up as shown in Fig.7 m/s. 9 m) E 6. if velocity at 3 was 11.17. (4. 6. 6. 6.16.19.14.8 m/s will rise when (i) The jet is directed vertically (ii) when it is directed at 45°.6 m 2 3 3 Figure E.13 m of water) Chapter 6 . 35 mm 450 mm 600 mm 105 mm S = 0. Determine the issuing velocity of the jet. 9 m. Atmospheric pressure is 10. A jet directed at 30° reaches a maximum height of 3 m at a horizontal distance of 18 m.18 E 6.5 cm.0 430 mm Figure E. In the setup of siphon for water flow. determine the height to which the jet will rise. (18 m) E 6.15.83 S = 1.17. E. Also find the horizontal distance travelled in this case.16 E 6.2 m of water. 6. A siphon is used to draw water from a tank. The arrangement is shown in Fig.18. E. 22.7mm. E.16. 1. shown in Fig. Calculate the height to which the jet.13. issuing at 18. (18 m. Determine the flow rate and also the pressure at point 2 in the siphon shown in Fig. The diameter of a water jet at nozzle exist is 75 mm. Diameter of the pipe is 2.18. (8 m.8 m 1 1m 1 hm 3. 6. 45. 6. when the jet is directed vertically. (16. If the diameter at a height of 12 m is 98.8 kPa ab) E 6. determine the value of ‘h’ and also the pressure at point 2.17 Figure E.19. The frictional loss equals 40 V2/2g. Determine the flow rate of a fluid of specific gravity 0. Calculate the flow rate and pressure at point 2.9 m/s) E 6.Bernoulli Equations and Applications 217 E 6.2 l/s.1 kPa ab) 2 1.

70 k Pa Air 200 mm 60° 0. y 0. 6.21 Figure E. Determine the necessary forces along and perpendicular to the pipe to hold it in place. 6.25.5 m y1 y 3m 3 Figure E.36 m /s 3 Figure E. Neglecting losses. E 6.24 Figure E. Determine the possible values of depth of water down stream. For the venturimeter shown in Fig.25. 6. Water flows up an inclined duct as shown in Fig.20.24 m /s 3 150 540 mm mm 150 mm 300 mm 300 mm 45° 0.218 2 7.21. E.24. 6. E.86 m/s 1m Oil S = 0.3 m 5 m/s 1.24. E. 6. Derive an expression for the variation of jet radius r with distance y downwards for a jet directed downwards. Assume uniform velocity of 5 m/s upstream. Neglect losses.3 m f 10 mm Figure E. determine the flow rate of water. 6. E. determine the flow rate in the setup shown in Fig. E 6. 6.5 m 9.5 m 1 f 25 mm Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1.20 E 6.25 .5 m WL 1. E 6.21 Determine the possible depth of water upstream. 6. 6.19 Figure E. A horizontal pipe divides into two pipes at angles as shown in Fig.22. Water flows through a channel as shown in Fig.5 m 2.22 E 6.75 Water 1. E 6. Assume that these are no losses. The initial radius is R and the head of fluid is H. 6.23.22. E.20. 6.

It is found necessary to design the pipe system to carry a specified quantity of fluid between specified locations with minimum pressure loss. The losses due to wall friction in flows was not discussed. modified Bernoulli equation is applicable in these flows. The inverse-namely the quantity flow for a specified pressure drop is to be also worked out on occasions.0 Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) PARAMETERS INVOLVED IN THE STUDY OF FLOW THROUGH CLOSED CONDUITS In the previous chapter. The flow may be laminar with fluid flowing in an orderly way. Blood flow through the arteries and veins is generally laminar. At any location the velocity varies about a mean value. It is also necessary to consider the initial cost of the piping system. Besides these laws. The flow turns turbulent under certain conditions with macroscopic mixing of fluid layers in the flow. The momentum transfer and consequent shear induced is at the molecular level by pure diffusion. Pressure drop for a given flow rate through a duct for a specified fluid is the main quantity to be calculated. The flow is controlled by (i) pressure gradient (ii) the pipe diameter or hydraulic mean diameter (iii) the fluid properties like viscosity and density and (iv) the pipe roughness. Fluids are conveyed (transported) through closed conduits in numerous industrial processes. 219 . Laminar condition prevails upto a certain velocity in fluids flowing in pipes. the energy level changes along the flow was discussed. Such flow is encountered with very viscous fluids. The basic laws involved in the study of incompressible flow are (i) Law of conservation of mass and (ii) Newton’s laws of motion. The velocity distribution in the flow and the state of the flow namely laminar or turbulent also influence the design.% 7. Air flow and water flow in pipes are generally turbulent. In this chapter the determination of drop in pressure in pipe flow systems due to friction is attempted. with layers not mixing macroscopically.

Velocity gradient exists only in the boundary layer.1. There is no intermingling of layers.1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery BOUNDARY LAYER CONCEPT IN THE STUDY OF FLUID FLOW When fluids flow over surfaces.1.1.1. The velocity of flow in this layer increases from zero at the surface to free stream velocity at the edge of the boundary layer.1. The viscous forces predominate over inertia forces. The fluid beyond this layer is not affected by the presence of the surface. Pressure drop in fluid flow is to overcome the viscous shear force which depends on the velocity gradient at the surface. mainly by diffusion. y Uµ uµ Leading edge dt uµ u dL u Laminar X Transition Turbulent Figure 7. the flow in the boundary layer becomes . Beyond this point. (zero thickness) the velocity is zero. Beyond a certain distance. Momentum transfer is at the molecular level.1 Boundary Layer Development (flat-plate) 7. The thickness of the boundary layer increases due to the continuous retardation of flow. 7.220 7. At the plane of entry (leading edge) the velocity is uniform and equals free stream velocity. but to a lower and lower extent. The development of the boundary layer in flow over a flat plate and the velocity distribution in the layer are shown in Fig. The study thus involves mainly the study of the boundary layer. The boundary conditions are (i) at the wall surface. (ii) at full thickness the velocity equals the free stream velocity (iii) The velocity gradient is zero at the full thickness. The fluid layer near the surface in which there is a general slowing down is defined as boundary layer.2 BOUNDARY LAYER DEVELOPMENT OVER A FLAT PLATE The situation when a uniform flow meets with a plane surface parallel to the flow is shown in Fig. The flow initially is laminar. The adjacent layers also slow down. Small disturbances are damped out. Use of the concept is that the main analysis can be limited to this layer. This slowing down is found limited to a thin layer near the surface. the molecules near the surface are brought to rest due to the viscosity of the fluid. the fluid near the surface comes to rest and adjacent layers are retarded to a larger and larger depth as the flow proceeds. 7.

The flow was observed to be laminar till a Reynolds number value of about 2300. 7.3. the boundary layers merge and further changes in velocity distribution becomes impossible.1a. The Reynolds number is calculated on the basis of diameter (ud/v). Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia and viscous forces.3. The laminar or turbulent nature of the flow was first investigated by Osborn Reynolds in honour of Turbulent flow um u 2 um u u Laminar flow Entry region (a) Laminar flow um Fully developed flow Laminar sublayer Entrance region (b) Turbulent flow Fully developed Figure 7. As long as the diameter Chapter 7 u . Inertia forces become predominant. 7. where v is the kinematic viscosity) of about 5 × 105 in the case of flow over flat plates. The velocity profile beyond this point remains unchanged. At some distance from the entrance. This change occurs at a value of Reynolds number (given Re = ux/v. The distance upto this point is known as entry length.04 Re × D. In pipe flow it is not a function of length.3 DEVELOPMENT OF BOUNDARY LAYER IN CLOSED CONDUITS (PIPES) In this case the boundary layer develops all over the circumference. In the turbulent region momentum transfer and consequently the shear forces increase at a more rapid rate. The velocity profiles in the entry region and fully developed region are shown in Fig. The initial development of the boundary layer is similar to that over the flat plate. It is about 0. The flow beyond is said to be fully developed.1 Boundary layer development (pipe flow) whom the dimensionless ratio of inertia to viscous forces is named.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 221 turbulent with macroscopic mixing of layers.

u is the average velocity and Re is the Reynolds number.186/Re0. The velocity profile in the fully developed flow remains constant and is generally more flat compared to laminar flow in which it is parabolic. Turbulence leads to higher frictional losses leading to higher pressure drop.4.316/Re0. The fluid layers do not mix macroscopically (more than a molecule at a time). the dye will travel along a straight line. The friction factor. 7. A dye injected into the flow will quickly mix with the fluid. After some length the boundary layers merge and the flow becomes fully developed.25 f= 0. The value of the flow Reynolds number is decided by the diameter and the velocity and hence it is decided at the entry itself. Hence the value of velocity determines the nature of flow in pipes for a given fluid.1b. In this region the viscous forces are able to damp out any disturbance. The friction factor is given by the following empirical relations. The development of boundary layer in the turbulent range is shown in Fig. The dye path is shown in Fig. can be calculated using the relation ux/v = 2000. In this case. A very thin laminar sublayer near the wall in which the velocity gradient is linear is present all through. Pipe Dye path Dye Figure 7. Most of the air and water flow in conduits will be turbulent.2 for Re < 2 × 104 for Re > 2 × 104 (7. f for pipe flow defined as 4τs/(ρu2/2go) is obtainable as f = 64/Re where τs is the wall shear stress. 7. the Reynolds number depends on the velocity for a given flow. f = 0. The entry length in turbulent flow is about 10 to 60 times the diameter.4. If a dye is injected into the flow.3.4 FEATURES OF LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOWS In laminar region the flow is smooth and regular.1 Reynolds Experiment In turbulent flow there is considerable mixing between layers. Laminar flow will be maintained till the value of Reynolds number is less than of the critical value (2300 in conduits and 5 × 105 in flow over plates). the average velocity is used to calculate Reynolds number. In the case of flow through pipes. there is a very short length in which the flow is laminar.1) (7.4.2) . This length.222 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery is constant. x.1. After this length the flow in the boundary layer turns turbulent. 7.4.

then the pipe is said to be hydraulically rough.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 223 These expressions apply for smooth pipes. the hydraulic diameter which determines the flow characteristics is defined by equation 7. This definition is applicable for any cross section. In rough pipes.3) 7.1 In model testing. then the pipe is considered as hydraulically smooth. It may be noted that the relative value of the roughness determines whether the surface is hydraulically rough or smooth. the laminar nature of flow near the surface is an acceptable assumption. A is the area of flow and P is the perimeter of the section.e.74/Re0. The surface area is proportional to the perimeter. As no fluid can flow up from the surface causing mixing. Re = Dh × u/v (7. a thin layer near the surface is found to be laminar. So the disturbance due to the roughness cannot be damped out.9}]2 (7.5. i. Discuss how the factors can be adjusted to obtain equal Reynolds numbers. 7.6 CONCEPT OF “HYDRAULIC DIAMETER”: (Dh) The frictional force is observed to depend on the area of contact between the fluid and the surface.6.8v/u f (7. Hence the pipe is hydraulically rough. similarity in flow through pipes will exist if Reynolds numbers are equal. Any disturbance caused by the roughness is within the laminar layer and is smoothed out by the viscous forces. If δl < 6ε. as the equals (4πD2/4πD). Dh = 4A/P (7. with a roughness height of ε. is given by f = 1. For circular section Dh = D. So the pipe is hydraulically smooth.4. For flow through ducts the length parameter in Reynolds number is the hydraulic diameter.. For flow in pipes the surface area is not a direct function of the flow.6. Here the inertial forces are predominant.1 and is used in the calculation of Reynolds number.7D) + 5.6. Reynolds number is defined as Re = uDρ/µ.325/[ln {(ε/3. The friction factor in rough pipe of diameter D.2) Example 7. So for a given section. the flow may turn turbulent below the critical Reynolds number itself. The disturbance now extends beyond the laminar layer. The flow is a direct function of the sectional area which is proportional to the square of a length parameter.5 HYDRAULICALLY “ROUGH” AND “SMOOTH” PIPES In turbulent flow. For two different flows u1 D1 ρ1 u D ρ u D u D = 2 2 2 or 1 1 = 2 2 µ1 µ2 v1 v2 .1) If the roughness height is ε and if δ1 > 6ε.1) Chapter 7 where Dh is the hydraulic diameter. The thickness of the layer δl is estimated as δl = 32.

the diameter should be 15 times that for water.1 .D/µ where G is the mass velocity in kg /m2s. It will vary inversely with the dynamic viscosity of the fluid. Consider an annular element of fluid in the flow as shown in Fig. The dimensions are: inside radius = r. length = dx. If velocities should be the same. For example if flow similarity between water and air is to be achieved at 20 °C then (using v values in eqn. the velocity at the wall is zero due to viscosity and the value increases as the centre is approached. Reynolds number will increase directly as the velocity.1a. the velocity being a function of radius only.006 × 10 − 6 Velocity of water × diameter in water flow = Velocity of air × diameter of air flow 15.7 VELOCITY VARIATION WITH RADIUS FOR FULLY DEVELOPED LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES In pipe flow. and using the relationship for force balance. the air velocity should be about 15 times the velocity of water for flow similarity. For experiments generally both are altered by smaller ratios to keep u × D constant.224 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As the kinematic viscosities v1 and v2 are fluid properties and cannot be changed easily (except by changing the temperature) the situation is achieved by manipulating u2 D2 and u1 D1 v2 u D = 2 2 v1 u1 D1 (A) this condition should be satisfied for flow similarity in ducts. Reynolds number can be expressed also by Re = G.06 × 10− 6 If diameters are the same. Surface area = 2πrdx Assuming steady fully developed flow. outside radius = r + dr.7. 7. A) 1. 7. So Reynolds number in a given pipe and fluid can be increased by increasing mass velocity.7. The variation if established will provide the flow rate as well as an average velocity. diameter and density. dr P P + dp r tr tr + dr dx umax = 2 um P + dp R Laminar dr r P R (a) (b) Turbulent Figure 7.

7.1 by (7.7. and using equation A πR 2 umax = πR2umean ∴ 2 umean = umax u The average velocity is half of the maximum velocity Q= ∴ u umean = 2 1− LM FG r IJ OP MN H R K PQ 2 (7.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Net pressure force = dp 2π rdr 225 d du µ 2πrdx dr .72) At a given radius.7. u = 0 (at the wall) ∴ B=– ∴ u= – LM FG IJ OP MN H K PQ 2 (7.3. at r = 0 ∴ C = 0 = dr µ dx 2 1 dp r 2 +B µ dx 4 1 dp R2 µ dx 4 r 1 dp R 2 1− µ dx 4 R Integrating again and after simplification.7. we get 7. u= at r = R. ∴ umax = – 1 dp R 2 µ dx 4 (7. Equating the forces and reordering dr dr Net shear force = FG H IJ K 1 dp d du r r = µ dx dr dr FG H IJ K Integrating r du 1 dp r 2 + C .3) (A) If the average velocity is umean then the flow is given by Q = π R2 umean The flow Q is also given by the integration of small annular flow streams as in the element considered Q= z R 0 2πurdr but u = umax 1 − Substituting and integrating between the limits 0 to R.1) The velocity is maximum at r = 0.7. dividing 7. which represents parabolic distribution.2). ∴ u umax =1– FG r IJ H RK 2 (7.7.4) Chapter 7 LM FG r IJ OP MN H R K PQ 2 .

Some empirical equations are given in section 7. t0 Using the definition of Darcy friction factor and conditions of equilibrium.8. So in the process of design of piping systems it becomes necessary to investigate the pressure drop for various diameters of pipe for a given flow rate.2) Extensive investigations have been made to determine the factors influencing the friction factor.8.87 umax for n = 10.79 umax for n = 6 and 0. In the process of such determination Darcy defined or friction factor f as ∆p∝ f = 4 τ0/(ρum2/2g0) This quantity is dimensionless which may be checked. (7. Another factor which affects the pressure drop is the pipe roughness. where n varies with Reynolds number. f= .8 DARCY–WEISBACH EQUATION FOR CALCULATING PRESSURE DROP In the design of piping systems the choice falls between the selection of diameter and the pressure drop. 7.8.4 and also under discussions t0 on turbulent flow.8. The selection of a larger diameter leads to higher initial cost. But the pressure drop is lower in such a case which leads to lower operating cost. The velocity will also be a factor and in this case the pressure drop will depend in the square of the velocity (refer Bernoulli equation). It is easily seen that the pressure drop will depend directly upon the length and inversely upon the diameter.226 ( 1/ n ) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In turbulent flow the velocity profile is generally represented by the equation u umax = 1− FG H r R IJ K . It is established that in laminar flow f depends only on the Reynolds number and it is given by 64 (7.3) Re In the turbulent region the friction factor is found to depend on Reynolds number for smooth pipes and both on Reynolds number and L roughness for rough pipes. given in the appendix. expression for pressure 1 2 drop in pipes is derived in this section.1) 2D The proportionality constant is found to depend on other factors. The value of friction factor with Reynolds number with roughness as parameter is um P1 P2 um available in Moody diagram. Consider an Figure 7. Hence we can say that LV 2 (7.1 elemental length L in the pipe. The average velocity is 0. The pressures at sections 1 and 2 are P1 and P2.

4) f ρ um 2 8 g0 Substituting and letting (P1 –P2) to be ∆P. In this case as h= P P g0 = γ ρg ∆ h = hf = f L um 2 2gD (7. π DL 8 g0 4 ∆P= This reduces to f L um 2 ρ 2 g0 D (7. f ρ um 2 π D2 = .6). It is found desirable to express the pressure drop as head of the flowing fluid. Net pressure force in the element is (P1 –P2) Net shear force in the element is τ0 π DL Force balance for equilibrium yields 227 π D2 = τ0 π DL 4 From the definition friction factor (P1 – P2) f = 4 τ0 / (ρ um2/ 2 g0) τ0 = (7.5) This equation known as Darcy-Weisbach equation and is generally applicable in most of the pipe flow problems.7) D5 Another coefficient of friction Cf is defined as Cf = f /4 . As mentioned earlier.8.8.8. Chapter 7 um = 4Q πD 2 . ∆P.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) The other force involved on the element is the wall shear τ0. we get hf = It is found that hf ∝ Q2 8 f L Q2 π 2 g D5 (7.6) The velocity term can be replaced in terms of volume flow and the equation obtained is found useful in designs as Q is generally specified in designs. The diameter for circular tubes will be the hydraulic diameter Dh defined earlier in the text.8. the value of f is to be obtained either from equations or from Moody diagram. um2 = 16 Q 2 π2 D4 Substituting in (7.8.

substituting ∆P = 128 µ L Q/π D4 Converting ∆P as head of fluid Q= hf = 32 vum Lg0 gD 2 (7.9. um 4 ∴ um = 4Q/πD2. 7.2) (7.3) This equation is known as Hagen-Poiseuille equation g0 is the force conversion factor having a value of unity in the SI system of unit.2). Refer to section (7.228 In this case hf = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 4C f L um 2 2gD (7.8) Now a days equation 7. 7.8.1.7. Substituting for − as 2 L dL dL R D2 ∆P = 32 µ um L D2 This can also be expressed in terms of volume flow rate Q as π D2 . Also (µ / ρ) = ν. Equations 7.9.7.9.1) (7.9 HAGEN–POISEUILLE EQUATION FOR FRICTION DROP In the case of laminar flow in pipes another equation is available for the calculation of pressure drop.7) equation (7.9.2 and 7.1) u= − 1 dp R 2 r 1− µ dL 4 R LM FG IJ OP MN H K PQ 2 dP can be approximated to ∆ P/L as the pressure drop is uniform along the length L under dL steady laminar flow Using eqn (7.3 are applicable for laminar flow only whereas DarcyWeisbach equation (7.5 are more popularly used as value of f is easily available. = 2um dL µ 4 − − 8 um µ dP = dL R2 8umµ 32um µ ∆P dP dP = = . The equation is derived in this section.8.6) is applicable for all flows .9.9. umax = − ∴ ∴ dP 1 R2 .8.

300.81 × 0. The equation are hf = 32 um vL fLum 2 and hf = 2 gD gD 2 equating and simplifying a very useful relationship is obtained. namely f= 64 2 × 32 ν = . inertia forces increase and particles are pushed upwards out of the smoother path. f = 64/Re).10 SIGNIFICANCE OF REYNOLDS NUMBER IN PIPE FLOW Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. laminar flow prevails in pipes.e.1) (Hagen-Poiseuille eqn.351 m head of oil.93 × 9810 = 3200 N/m2 At transition Re = 2000 (can be taken as 2300 also) Using (7. f = 64/930 = 0. Also determine the friction factor and the pressure drop over 10 m length. What should be the velocity for the flow to turn turbulent? Density = 930 kg/m3 . Inertia forces tend to move the particles away from the layer. Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. 7. in terms of Reynolds number in laminar region. When velocity increases.. Re = Friction factor.1 Ns/m2 (as N/m2 is call Pascal.2 Using the Darcy-Weisbach equation and the Hagen Poiseuille equation obtain an expression for friction factor f.u).1 × 930 uD ρ = = 930.1 µ . or ∆P = 0.1 × 1 × 10 0.06882 hf = f L um2/2gD = (64/930) × 10 × 12/(2 × 9. dividing ρuuD ρuD uD inertia force = = = µu µ v viscous force Viscous force tends to keep the layers moving smoothly one over the other. The inertia force is proportional to the mass flow and velocity i. (ρu. (same as by the other equation) Chapter 7 1 × 0.s).9. Example 7.) ∆P ∆ = 32 × µ × um × L D2 = 32 × 0. Dynamic viscosity µ = 0. The friction factor in flow is also found to be a function of Reynolds number (in laminar flow. Lubricating Oil at a velocity of 1 m/s (average) flows through a pipe of 100 mm ID. as Re um D FG u D IJ = Re H v K m In the laminar flow region the friction factor can be determined directly in terms of Reynolds number. As long as Reynolds number is below 2.12 = 3200 N/m2.351 × 0. laminar flow prevails in pipes.1) = 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 229 Example 7.3. When viscous force are sufficiently high so that any disturbance is smoothed down. so the flow is laminar 1 × 0. µ can be also expressed as Pa. The viscous force is proportional to µ(du/dy) or µ u/D.

A sample velocity variation is given in equation (7. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7.11.4) For rough pipes.2). = 5.3) Several other correlation using the reference velocity are listed below.47 m/s.33 f ) um – 2.5 ν (7. In laminar flow the velocity profile is parabolic and the mean velocity is half of the maximum velocity.8) .6) R + 4.75 log ( R − r ) u* + 7. u* = τ 0 g0 ρ Ru * + 5. u = (1 + 1.11 VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION AND FRICTION FACTOR FOR TURBULENT FLOW IN PIPES The velocity profile and relation between the mean and maximum velocity are different in the two types of flow.11.11.11.04 f um log (R/(R – 1)) (7.11. Such a relation is more complex in turbulent flow.7) ε u The laminar sublayer thickness is used for defining smooth pipe.75 (7.11.1 ∴ um = 2.1) The friction factor f is a complex function of Reynolds number.75 log (7.2). For example one such available relation is given by um 1 = umax 1 + 1. u u* = 5. u * u where ε is the roughness dimension.12. A new reference velocity called shear velocity is defined as below.33 f (7.1 × 930/0.5 ε (7.11.11.230 To determine velocity on critical condition 2300 = 4 m × 0.75 log = 5.75 ln ( R − r) + 8. For higher values of f the velocity variation will be well rounded at the centre compared to low values of f.6 ν/u* (7.5) The mean velocity um is obtained for smooth and rough pipes as um u and * = 5.5 ν (7. The thickness of this layer is given by * um δt = 11.

221/Re0.237) 1/ f = 1. it is necessary to take into account all such losses. several correlations are available for friction factor. These losses are generally expressed as hf = C um2/2g where C is constant. sudden decrease or increase in flow area or where direction of flow changes.13) Charts connecting f.15) 8 fL Q 2 hf = gπ 2 D 5 The value of f is to be determined using the approximate relations or the chart.11.5186 For rough pipes of radius R 1 f (7. The expression is applicable both for laminar and turbulent flows.14) (7.25 for Re < 2 × 104 For all ranges either of the following relations can be used f = 0.74 ε (7.12 MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE FLOW Additional frictional losses occur at pipe entry.0032 + (0. the value of which will depend on the situation and is called the loss coefficient. valves and fittings. As in laminar flow the frictional loss of head is given by hf = f L um2/2 gDh Also (7.9) 4 2 Similar to velocity profile. In a pipe system design. 7.11.11. losses take place due to the turbulence created downstream of the entrance.11.11.04 for this situation.10) (7.12) = 2 log R + 1.316/Re0.11.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 231 In the case of turbulent show the wall shear force is given by the following equation. f ρ um 2 . The frictional losses other than pipe friction are called minor losses. (7. Re and ε/D are also available and can be used without appreciable error. (a) Bell mouthed: This is a smooth entrance and turbulence is suppressed to a great extent and C = 0. Chapter 7 . τ0 = The friction factor for very smooth pipes can be calculated by assuming one seventh power law leading to. (i) Loss of head at entrance: At the entrance from the reservoir into the pipe.11.11) (7.8 log Re – 1. f = 0. These correlations together with correlations for velocity profile are useful in numerical methods of solution. Three types of entrances are known.

1.5 in this case. The discharge from reaction turbines into the tail race water is an example.12. 7. Using Bernoulli equation and denoting the ideal pressure at section 2 as P2 (without losses). (7. (iv) Sudden expansion: Here the sudden expansion creates pockets of eddying turbulence leading to losses.8. Gradual contraction will reduce the loss. C = 0.5. The values are generally available in a tabular statement connecting D2/D1 and loss coefficient. (v) Valves and fittings : Losses in flow through valves and fittings is expressed in terms of an equivalent length of straight pipe. (iii) Sudden contraction: When the pipe section is suddenly reduced. The value is 0. For 90° bends it is about 30 D. Square edged entrance is used more popularly. The loss coefficient in this case is about 0. For gate valves L = 8D.08 for angles of 10° to 60°. and for globe valves it is 340 D.1) where u1 and u2 are the velocities in the smaller and larger sections. The loss of head hf is given by Loss of head = (u1 – u2)2 / 2g. The loss coefficient. The loss coefficient is 1.12. (c) Reentrant inlet: The pipe may sometimes protrude from the wall into the liquid.232 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (b) Square edged entrance: Though it is desirable to provide a bell mouthed entrance it will not be always practicable. Such an arrangement is called reentrant inlet.05 to 0.33 for D2/D1 = 0. Gradual expansion will reduce the losses. The loss is reduced by providing a diverging pipe to reduce the exit velocity. P1 u12 u2 2 P2 – + = ρg 2g 2g ρg or P1 u12 u2 2 P2 – + = 2 2 ρ ρ (1) .1 Types of entrance (ii) Loss of head at submerged discharge: When a pipe with submerged outlet discharges into a liquid which is still (not moving) whole of the dynamic head u2/2g will be lost.13 EXPRESSION FOR THE LOSS OF HEAD AT SUDDEN EXPANSION IN PIPE FLOW The situation is shown in Fig 7.13. loss coefficient depends on the diameter ratio. For gradual contraction it varies with the angle of the transition section from 0.0. Bell mouthed Square edge Reentrant Figure 7. datum remaining unaltered.

2g Chapter 7 .1 Sudden Expansion Applying conservation of momentum principle to the fluid between section 1 and 2. The change in momentum is given by (ρ A2 u2 u2 – ρ A1 u1 u1) noting A1 u1 = A2 u2.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) P1¢ = P1 1 2 A2 A1 P1 P2¢ 233 P1 ¢ = P 1 2 Figure 7. The pressure forces are (here the pressure on the annular section of fluid at 1 is assumed as P1) (P1 A1 – P2′ A2).13. and denoting the actual pressure at section 2 as P2. replacing A1 u1 by A2 u2 and equating the net forces on the element to the momentum change. P1 A1 – P2′ A2 = ρ A2 u22 – ρ A2 u2 u1 Dividing by ρ and A2 allthrough P1 P2 ′ – = u22 – u1u2 ρ ρ or P2 ′ P1 = – (u22 – u1u2) ρ ρ Subtracting on either side of equations 1 and 2 (ideal and real) (2) P1 u12 u2 2 P1 P2 – P2 ′ – – – (u2 2 – u1u2 ) + = 2 2 ρ ρ ρ P2 – P2 ′ u12 u2 2 + (u2 2 – u1u2 ) – = ρ 2 2 Multiplying both sides by 2 ∴ 2 ( P2 – P2 ′ ) = u12 – u22 + 2u22 – 2u1 u2 = (u1 – u2)2 ρ Dividing the both sides by g and simplifying P2 – P2 ′ (u – u2 ) 2 = 2 2g ρg But ∴ P2 – P2 ′ = hf (head loss) ρg hf = (u1 – u2 ) 2 .

234 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 7.15.14 LOSSES IN ELBOWS. A pump takes in water from a level 5 m below its centre line and delivers it at a height of 30 m above the centre line. The loss will vary with radius of the bend. u2/2g. The fittings introduce losses equal to 10 m length of pipe in addition to the actual length of 45 m of pipe used. The losses may be accounted for by a term equivalent length which will depend on the type of fitting or in terms of (u2/2g) or dynamic head. . There will be sudden dips if there are minor losses due to expansions. This line will dip sharply if velocity increases and will slope upwards if velocity decreases. 7. The head to be developed will equal the static head. In large bends fitting curved vanes will reduce the loss. the rate of flow being 3 m3/hr. Globe valves are poorer compared to gate valves with regard to pressure drop. the loss is due to the variation of centrifugal force along different stream lines which causes secondary flows.15 ENERGY LINE AND HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE IN CONDUIT FLOW The plot of the sum of pressure head and dynamic head along the flow path is known as energy line. The diameter of the pipe line allthrough is 50 mm (ID). BENDS AND OTHER PIPE FITTINGS Fittings like valves. In the case of bends. 7.1 (pump is not indicated in figure). Introduction of a pump in the line will push up both the lines. WL Entry loss Reservoir HGL Expansion EL V2 /2g 2 Figure 7. This line will also dip due to frictional losses.1 Energy and Hydraulic grade lines Example 7. friction head and the dynamic head. Hydraulic grade line will be at a lower level and the difference between the ordinates will equal the dynamic head i. Specimen plot is given in Fig. fittings etc.15. The line will dip due to losses. elbows etc. Hydraulic grade line is the plot of pressure head along the flow path..4. Determine the head to be developed by the pump.e. For example in straight constant area pipe the line will slope proportional to the head drop per m length. This refers to the total available energy of the system at the location. Flow will be governed by hydraulic grade line. introduce frictional losses either by obstruction or due to secondary flows.

0092 = 35.25 = 0. Re = um D/v = 0. Head to be developed by the pump = 35.42442 = 0. The friction loss hf for pipe 1 with L1 and f1 is given by Chapter 7 .4244 m/s.021 discharges water from a reservoir at a level 5. 7. This length is known as equivalent length.81 × 0.2562 m.55 m/s.5 A pipe 250 mm dia.252/4) × 0.237 = 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Static head = 30 + 5 = 35 m. expansion–contraction and at entry in terms of a length of pipe which will at that discharge rate lead to the same pressure drop.05 m. Le um2/2g D = C um2/2g ∴ Le can be calculated As a number of fittings at various positions may be involved causing minor losses in a pipe system.316/210930. Le. ∴ ∴ The flow is turbulent Assuming smooth pipe. 7. Assuming the temperature as 20 °C.0032 + 0.006 × 10– 6 m2 / s. v = 1.052 = 0. f and D. um = (3/3600) 4/π × 0.25 = 0. minor losses may often be neglected.006 × 10– 6 = 21093 235 0. Dynamic Head = um2/2g When long pipes are involved. L = 45 + 10 = 55 m. Friction head = f L um2/2g D.021 × 4000 × um2)/(2 × 9.027 m3/s. Determine the rate of discharge.05 = 0. 4000 m long with f = 0.81 × 0.2 m below the water reservoir level. 5. From the relation knowing C. Flow rate = (π × 0. this is a convienent way to estimate minor losses.42442/2 × 9. or 97.55 = 0.17 CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT PIPE OR EQUIVALENT LENGTH When pipes of different friction factors are connected in series (or in parallel) it is convenient to express the losses in terms of one of the pipes (Refer to 7.23 m3/hr.2 = [(0.2562 m head of water.25)] + [um2 / (2 × 9. Example 7.0092 m 2 × 9.316/Re0.81 = 35 + 0.16 CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT LENGTH For calculation of minor losses it is more convenient to express the pressure drop in fittings. Frictional Head = f L um2/2g D. Frictional loss of head Dynamic head ∴ Total head f = 0.221/Re0.02622.05 × 0.265 m = um2/2g = (check f = 0.15).0241).02622 × 55 × 0. D = 0.02622 = 0.4244/1.11.81)] = 17. The head available should equal the sum of frictional loss and the dynamic head. using the value 0.176 um2 ∴ ∴ um = 0.265 + 0.

024) × (0. then 8 f1 L1 Q12 g π 2 D15 8 f2 L2 Q2 2 g π 2 D2 5 5 0. Hence hf2 = 8 f2L2 Q2/g π2 D25 Cancelling common terms f1 L1 D15 f2 L2 D2 5 f1 D2 5 f2 D15 = or L2 = L1 (7.1) If pipes are in series a common diameter can be chosen and the equivalent length concept can be used conveniently to obtain the solution. 300 m and 250 m respectively.79 + 834.30 0.5 = ∴ Q2 f1 L1 Q1 = f2 L2 LM MN FG D IJ HD K 2 1 OP PQ (7.81 m 12 = (8 × 0.1 Total length 8 f1 L1 Q 2 π g 2 D15 + 8 f2 L2 Q2 π g D2 2 5 + 8 f3 L3 Q2 π 2 g D35 Q2 = 0. 1 2 3 Length.021/0.2 m2/s. Q = 0.02 = 1545. Three pipes of 400 mm. The friction factors are 0.7. The lengths are 200 m.25 0. as the pressure loss is the same.4/0.019 respectively. m 600 800 400 Diameter.04. 0. Determine the flow rate neglecting minor losses. In parallel arrangement.35 Friction factor 0.79 m L3e = 250(0. 350 mm and 300 mm diameter are connected in series between two reservoirs with a difference in level of 12 m.024.81 × Q2)/(9.021 0.019/0. Two reservoirs are connected by three pipes in parallel with the following details of pipes: Pipe No. Example 7. the equivalent pipe will have a length L2.45) Q2 = 0. This problem can be solved using 12 = Solving Refer 7.04 ∴ Q = 0.236 hf1 = 8 f1L1 Q2/g π2 D15 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery For the same pressure loss and flow rate Q and discharge through another pipe of diameter D2 with f2.2) The idea of using equivalent length thus helps to reduce tediusness in calculations.17.4 m pipe as the base.024) × (0.019 0.4/0.3)5 = 834.2 m3/s Using equivalent length concept and choosing 0. m 0.35)5 = 511.17.024 × 1545.17.021 and 0.02 m = 200 + 511.024 . L2e = 300 (0.6. Example 7.81 × π2 × 0.

Chapter 7 5 0.8841 Q1 Q1 + Q2 = 1.024 400 GH 0.20867 m3/s Total = 0. f2 = 0.07854 m3/s Q2 = 1.3 I = M MN 0. Considering pipe 1 as base Q2 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 2 L1 L2 FD I GH D JK 2 1 5 0. Pipes 1 and 2 meet at a common location.4362 Q1 = 0.021 × 600 × F 0. D2 = 0. Determine the flow rate through the system.024.4 m. The total head drop equals the sum of the drops in pipe 1 and in pipe 3.021 × 600 × F 0. The water from the common point is drawn through pipe 3 of 0.11282/π2 × 9. The total head available is 25. Let the flow in pipe 1 be Q1 and that in pipe 2 be Q2.019 × 800 × 0. f2 = 0. hf = 8 × 0.4362 Q1 Q3 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 3 L1 L3 FD I GH D JK 3 1 5 0.8841 Q1 This flow goes through pipe 3. So.43 m.25JK L 0.019 800 GH 0. The two reservoir levels are equal.024 × 2000 × F 0. D1 = 0.4 m. The value of f3 = 0.81 × 0.8.4 m3/s 0.5 Using equation (7.021.35I = M MN 0.021.021 × 600 × 0. Water is drawn from two reservoirs at the same water level through pipe 1 and 2 which join at a common point.000 l/min.35 m Q2 = Q1 ∴ ∴ LM 0. eqn 7.55 m dia over a length of 1600 m to the supply location.11. D2 = 0.17.11280 m3/s Q3 = 2. L1 = 2000 m.5 .021 1500 GH 0.6569 Q1 = 5.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 237 The total flow is 24.35 I MN 0.4362 ∴ Q2 = 1.35 m.25JK 5 OP PQ OP PQ = 1.11.024. Let the flows be designated as Q1. Q2.5 OP PQ 5 0. L2 = 1500 m.15 Pipe 1 hf = 8 f L Q2/π2 g D5 8 × 0. f1 = 0. D1 = 0.6569 Q1 = 0.4 JK 5 OP PQ 0.078542/ π2 × 9.2).4362 Q1 + 2. 7. Determine the flow in each pipe and also the level difference between the reservoirs. L1 = 2000 m.6569 Q1 Total flow = 0.2. Q3 Then Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 24000/(60 × 1000) = 0. the head drops are equal (refer para 7.5 = 0.4001 m3/s Head loss or level difference (Ref para 7. Then Q2 = Q1 LM f MN f 1 2 L1 L2 FD I GH D JK 2 1 OP PQ Here f1 = 0. L2 = 1500 m.6569 ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ Q3 = 2.35 = 6.5 OP PQ L 0.81 × 0.4 = Q1 + 1.17.576 m Check with other pipes Pipe 2.255 = 6.0931 Q1 Q1 = 0.17.5 = 2.576 m Example 7. eqn.019.

Net head available = h – hf.355 = 17. Higher efficiencies can be obtained by the use of larger diameter pipes.46 = 25. Power = mass flow × net head Power. It is desirable to maximise the power transmitted as compared to an attempt to increase efficiency.46 m both are equal as required. Quantity flow = π D2 u/4 hf = f L u2/2gD.45 π 2 × 9.555 = 387. Check for drop in the third pipe hf3 = 8 × 0.45 m . Applications are also there in hydraulic drives and control equipments.46 m hf2 = 8 × 0.4 m3/s.18.1877 2 π 2 × 9.43 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 8 × 0.81 × 0.238 25.2123 m3/s.99 + 17. The choices of the pipe diameter depends on the expected efficiency of transmission and also on the economical aspect of the cost of pipe.4 5 = 17.555 Total head = 7. but this will prove to be costly.81 × 0.67%. dP π D2 ρ π D2 ρ = [h – 3(fLu2/2gD)] = [h – 3hf ] du 4 4 Equating to zero hf = h/3 (7. Q2 = 0.21232 π 2 × 9. checks. If the available rate of flow is known the velocity and then the diameter can be determined or if the diameter is fixed the flow rate can be obtained.18 FLUID POWER TRANSMISSION THROUGH PIPES High head and medium head hydal plants convey water from a high level to the power house through pressure pipe called penstock pipes. check for pressure at common point hf1 = 8 × 0.024 × 2000 × 0.1) For maximum power generation frictional loss will equal one third of available head and the corresponding transmission efficiency is 66. P= π D2 f L u3 π D2 ρ uh – uρ [h – (fLu2/2gD)] = 4 2g D 4 LM N OP Q Differetiating P with respect to u.021 × 1500 × 0.99 m π2 × 9.81 × 0.31 Q12 + 177. The friction factor for the pipe can be fixed as this is nearly constant above a .88412 Q12 + π 2 × 9.17 Q12 = 564. 7.1 Condition for Maximum Power Transmission Consider that the head available is h and the frictional loss is hf (neglecting minor losses) left the pipe diameter be D and the flow velocity be u.81 × 0. for maximum power.019 × 1600 × 0.019 × 1600 × 1.48 Q12 ∴ Q1 = 0.81 × 0.18. 7.024 × 2000 Q12 8 × 0.42 = 7.1877 m3/s Q3 = Q1 + Q2 = 0.

Velocity = 4 × 1/(π × 0.18755 m3 /s Power developed = Qρg × (h – hf ) = 0. and also calculate the velocity and power transmitted. The length of the pipe line is 3600 m. The frictional drop is equal to one third of available head. Here both u and D are not specified.07) = 524246 W = 524.014. Q = area × velocity u = 4Q/π D2 ∴ u2 = 16 Q2 /π2 D4 hf = fL 16 Q2 = 200. 25 cm penstock pipe with friction factor of 0. Q = 86.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 239 certain value of Reynolds number. hf = h/3 = 450/3 = 150 m 150 = (0.07 m Power = (π × 0. u = 3.924 MW Check for frictional loss hf = (0. Example 7.25 kW (ii) u = 3 m/s.5 m/s.014 × 3600 × 32)/(2 × 9. flow rate = (π D2/4) × u = 0.4 × 103 m3/day.48) = 516493 W = 516.82 m/s.81 × 0.4442)/(2 × 9.963 kW Example 7.81) D5.4445) = 200 m (checks) 7.9 In a hydroelectric plant the head available is 450 m of water. hf = (0.1.49 kW This brings out clearly that the maximum power for a given diameter and head is when the frictional drop equals one third of available head.10.014 × 3000 × 16 × 12)/(2π2 × 9.444 m/s Power = 1000 × 9. The available pipes have friction factor 0.4445 m .9 the power transmitted for u = 4.5 m/s and u = 3 m/s.19 NETWORK OF PIPES Complex connections of pipes are used in city water supply as well as in industrial systems. Using equation 7. D = 0.25) solving.48 m Power = (π × 0. Determine the maximum power that can be developed.014 × 3600 × u2)/(2 × 9. Example 7.18. pipe diameter is fixed and when diameter is specified the flow rate will be fixed. hf = (0.81 × 400 = 3.81 × 0.18.014 is used.81 × 0. ∴ But ∴ ∴ hf = 600/3 = 200 m hf = fLu2/2g D.81 × 0.25) = 208.252/4) × 4.81 (450 – 150) = 551963 W = 551. Determine the pipe diameter for transmitting maximum power.014 × 3000 × 6. Determine for the data in example 7. (i) u = 4.1.44452) = 6.4 × 103/(24 × 3600) = 1 m3/s 2π2 gD5 200 = (0.014 × 3600 × 4.5 × 1000 × 9. Some of these are discussed in the para.25) = 92.924 × 106 W or 3.11 In a hydrosystem the flow availability was estimated as 86.252/4) × 3 × 1000 × 9.18755 × 1000 × 9.01735.81 (450 – 208. Refer Eqn 7. The head of fall was estimated as 600 m.81 (450 – 92. The distance from the dam to the power house considering the topography was estimated as 3000 m.52)/(2 × 9. For maximum power when flow rate is specified. Chapter 7 D5 = 0.

355 π 2 × 9. As the total head is also known Q can be evaluated. No.19.15.02 0.1 Pipes in Series—Electrical Analogy Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Series flow problem can also be solved by use of resistance network. m 220 410 300 600 f 0.. 7.1. A reservoir at a level with respect to datum of 16 m supplies water to a ground level reservoir at a level of 4 m.463. For flow in series Q is the same through all pipes. WL L1.45 8 × 0. f3 Figure 7.015 × 600 8 × 0. Pipe 4.793 Q2 .015 The resistance values are calculated using Eqn.61 + 17.81 × 0. The circuit is shown in Fig. f1 L2.. R2 = π 2 × 9. m 0.30 0.12. D1.62 h = [R1 + R2 + R3 + R4] Q2 (16 – 4) = (149.81 × 0..455 8 × 0. Pipe 2. f2 Q R1 h1 R2 R3 h2 R = 8fL/p gD 2 5 L3.1 Equivalent circuit for series flow Example 7. hfn = hf = (R1 + R2 + R3 + . For given pipe specification the equation can be simplified as hf = 8 f L Q2/π2g D5 = R Q2 Note: The dimension for R is s2/m5..81 × 0. Consider equation 7.40 Length including minor losses.463 + 72.81 × 0. = 17. R1 = R3 = π 2 × 9.62) Q2 = 355..15 Pipe 1.35 π 2 × 9.45 0.. This leads to the relation hf1 + hf2 + hf3 + .018 0.61.013 0. Due to constraints pipes of different diameters were to be used.1 Pipe 3...19.35 0. R4 = = 72. D3. 7.11. + Rn) Q2 The R values for the pipe can be calculated.018 × 410 = 116..11.240 7.02 × 220 = 149. Determine the flow rate..19.. D2.013 × 300 8 × 0. The length L should include minor losses in terms of equivalent lengths. 1 2 3 4 Diameter.

7. 1 2 3 length. f2 P3 L3.022 0.14.02 0. 7. Case (ii) Total flow and pipe details specified. 3.3 0. D1.2 0.4 Friction factor 0.13 The details of a parallel pipe system for water flow are given below. Divide the total Q in the proportion Q1 : Q2 : Q3 to obtain the actual flow rates.449 = 12 m 241 7. 2.916 + 0. Using the value find Q2 and Q3. One of the methods uses the following steps: 1.046 + 3. m 0.2 Pipes in Parallel Such a system is shown in Fig.589 + 2.13 and Ex. these flow rates can be determined.2 Case (i) The head drop between locations 1 and 2 are specified: The total flow can be determined using hf = 8 f1 L1Q12 π 2 g D15 = 8 f2 L2 Q2 2 π 2 g D2 5 = 8 f3 L3 Q3 2 π 2 g D3 5 As hf and all other details except flow rates Q1. Total flow Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 The process can be extended to any number of connections. m 800 1200 900 Diameter.19. Determine the frictional loss.18365 m3/s Check Σ h = Σ (R1 Q12) = 5. 7. Assume by proper judgement the flow rate in pipe 1 as Q1. No. f3 Q1 Q2 Q3 h2 R1 h1 R2 R3 Q1 Q2 Q3 h2 Figure 7.19. D2. Case (iii) Electrical analogy is illustrated or in problem Ex. f1 P2 L2.019 Chapter 7 4. D3.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) ∴ Q = 0. Q2 and Q3 are specified. Example 7.19.2 WL h1 P1 L1. .

h1 – h2 = 15 m.81 × 0. If the frictional drop between the junctions is 15 m of water.242 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. 0. Q2 and Q3. The system is shown in Fig. determine the individual flow and the friction drop.13. Case (i) Let the flows be Q1. using equation 7.66 × 0.81 × 0.02 × 1200 × 0.35 Pipe 2 hf = = 23.52274 0. f = 0.1355 m3/s π2 × 9. f = 0. 15 = 8 f1L1Q12 π 2 g D15 = 8 × 0. Total flow Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3. Q = 0.02 900 m. Q = ? Case 2.07254 m3/s.66 m3/s .91 m .32971 m3/s Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0. 0.41629 m3/s 0. h = ? 2 WL 2 Figure Ex.022 WL 1 1200 m.022 × 800 × Q12 solving Q1 = 0.81 × 0.4 m f.11.32971 = 0.07254 2 = 23.019 × 900 × Q32 π 2 × 9.022 × 800 × 0. f = 0.2 5 8 × 0.3 m f.45 15 = 8 f2 L2Q22 π 2 g D25 = 15 = 8 f3 L3Q32 π g 2 D35 = solving Q3 = 0.2 m f.02 × 1200 × Q22 solving Q2 = 0.25 8 × 0. Adopting method 2 the total flow is divided in the ratio of Q1 : Q2 : Q3 as calculated above. Already for 15 m head individual flows are available.522 m3/s Case (ii) Total flow is 0. 7. 7.35 8 × 0.91 m π 2 × 9.66 × 0.05745 = 0.05745 m3/s π2 × 9. 0.15 800 m.66 × 0.81 × 0.17117 m3/s 0. Q1 = Q2 = Q3 = Calculation for frictional loss.81 × 0.52274 8 × 0.13 The flow rates are calculated individually with hf = 15 m and totalled.66 m3/s. determine the total flow rate 2.019 Case 1.171172 π 2 × 9. 0.66 m /s.13558 = 0. Pipe 1 hf = 0. Ex. If the total flow rate is 0.52274 0.

. 8 × 0.91/816.893 × 0.3).. and Q2 = hf /R Example 7.48 + 1 816..66. or Q1 = Q= hf / R1 .07 2 5 π × 9.17117 m3/s Q32 = hf /R3 = 23..48.07.98..14.. If none are specified. The simplest case is a three reservoir system interconnected by three pipes (Ref. If the head Chapter 7 7..91/4544. (ii) The Darcy-Weisbach equation should be satisfied for each pipe..022 × 800 = 4544.98 ∴ ∴ Case 2. hf LM MN + 1 R1 + 1 R2 + ....2 R3 = 8 × 0. Work out problem 7.91 m π2 × 9.893 ∴ Q2 = 15/54. Fig...19. If one of the flow rate is specified the solution is direct... The hydraulic grade line controls the situation..893 hf = R Q2 = 54. Q1 = 0.. trial solution becomes necessary.81 × 0.13497 K 2 = 54.522742 = 23. 7.019 × 900 π × 9..35 π × 9.416292 = 23.. Q2 = 0.4 2 5 = 137. ∴ R= FG 1 IJ H 0..19. If flows are Q1.. R = 54.81 × 0. The conditions to be satisfied are (i) The net flow at any junction should be zero due to continuity principle..Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Pipe 3 hf = 243 8 × 0..45 Electrical analogy : For parallel pipe network also electrical analogy can be used. OP PQ An equivalent resistance R can be obtained by 1 R = 1 R1 1 R2 + .. The flow may be from the higher reservoir to the others or it may be from both high level reservoirs to the low level one..52274 (checks with the previous case) Q = 0.81 × 0. 1 R = 1 4544...3 Branching Pipes . Total flow equals Q1 + Q2 + Q3 ..019 × 900 × 0...13 by analogy method. Q3 = 0.02 × 1200 R1 = 8 × 0..91 m Q12 = hf /R1 = 23.48..41629 m3/s Note: Checks in all cases. then the algebraic sum of Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0. Q2...893 = 0. If the head at the junction is above both the lower reservoirs. R2 = 2 = 816.......81 × 0.91/137. In the case of parallel flow as the pressure drop is the same hf = R1 Q12 = R2 Q22 = R3 Q32 . Case 1.98. both of these will receive the flow....07254 m3/s Q22 = hf /R2 = 23.2733 Q = 0.. Q3 ..07 + 1 137..

(8 – ZJ)/10.19.5196 = QC2 . the sum may have a positive value or negative value.15 Three reservoirs A.55 = 41. This is shown in Fig 7. (i) A value for the head at the junction is assumed and the flow rates are calculated from pipe details. But at the first attempt.0354 = QB2. Example 7.013 × 1200 π 2 × 9.19.81 × 0.81 × 0.015 × 1000 π 2 × 9. where ZJ level at junction J.3. 12 m and 8 m are connected by a pipe network. 1200 m length pipe of diameter 0.011.013 draws water from A. (25 – ZJ)/41. 8 × 0.2473. the total flow will be received by the lowest level reservoir.2473 = QA2.6 m diameter with f = 0. (iv) If it is negative.244 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery at the junction is below the middle one.4 m and f = 0.5196 Considering flow from A. The reservoir C is connected to this junction by 900 m length of pipe 0. Similarly for flow from B and C. Using the equation 7.3 The method of solution requires iteration. Such iteration can be also programmed for P.011 × 900 = 10. (iii) If it is positive.65 8 × 0.11. So increase the value of head assumed at the junction.015 draws water from B and joins the pipe end from A.5 m and f = 0.C. inflow to the junction is more. So reduce the value of head assumed.15 hf = 8 fLQ 2 π 2 g D5 . B and C at water levels of 25 m. and writing this hf = R Q2 RA = RB = RC = 8 × 0. Determine the flow from/to each reservoir.45 = 121. the outflow is more. 1 2 Q1 Q3 Q2 t 3 Figure 7. (12 – ZJ)/121. (ii) The sum of these (algebraic) should be zero. 1000 m length pipe of diameter 0.81 × 0.0354 π 2 × 9.

1.12 For analysis of the system the following conditions are used. The algebraic sum of the pressure drop around each circuit must be zero.6030 0. The flow into the junction should equal the flow out of the junction.603 m3/s 7.0 11.00019. the flows are QA = 0.5657 QB 0.4 Pipe Network More complex network of pipes exist in practice. 2.5768 – 0. 7. For each pipe the proper relation between head loss and discharge should be maintained.03802 m3/s and QC = – 0. The flow rates in the last column can be used.08 = = 2000 v 16 × 10 −6 Chapter 7 .0053 245 This is sufficient for the trial. Average flow velocity = volume flow/area = 4 × 0. What is head loss for a length of 10 m.8 QA 0.2409 0. Also calculate the velocity at the centre line and the velocity at a radius of 2.082 = 0.5 11. Analytical solution to such a problem is more involved.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) Assumed value of ZJ 10 13. Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent.6894 – 0.002/π × 0.4 m/s Re = uD 0. Use of the above conditions leads to a set of simultaneous equations. QB = 0.0406 QC – 0. A sample is shown in Fig. ZJ = 11.1. it is now possible to solve any number of simultaneous equations rather easily.1286 – 0.2556 – 0.825 m gives a residue of 0.0909 0.56517 m3/s. Q1 Q3 Q2 Q4 Figure 7. Methods of successive approximation are used. 7.6010 QA + QB + QC 0. Considering the value.5394 0. This set can be solved using computers.82 and kinematic viscosity 16 × 10–6 m2/s flows in a smooth pipe of 8 cm diameter at a rate of 2l/s. What will be the entry length? Also determine the wall shear.4 × 0.19. An oil of specific gravity 0. With the use of computers.4 Pipe network SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem.19.0596 0.5721 0.06423 0.5 cm.4360 – 0. 3.

246

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

This value is very close to transition value. However for smooth pipes the flow may be taken as laminar. Centre line velocity = 2 × average velocity = 0.8 m/s For velocity at 2.5 cm radius

2

u umax

=1–

FG r IJ H RK

∴ u = 0.8 1 −

LM F 2.5 I OP = 0.4875 m/s MN GH 4 JK PQ

2

f = 64/Re = 64/2000 = 0.032 hf = fLu2/2gd = (0.032 × 10 × 0.44)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.08) = 0.03262 m of oil as ∆p = hfγ = 0.03262 × 9810 × 0.82 = 262.4 N/m2 Entry length = 0.058 Re.D. = 0.058 × 2000 × 0.08 = 9.28 m For highly viscous fluid entry length will be long. Wall shear is found from the definition of f. τo =

f ρ um 2 0.032 820 0.4 2 = × × = 0.5248 N/m2 4 go 2 4 1 2 du dr

Wall shear can also be found using, τo = – ρ v u = umax 1 − Substituting,

LM N

r 2 du U max 2r du 2 , =− , at r = R, = – umax 2 R2 dr dr R R

OP Q

τo = 820 × 16 × 10–6 × 0.8 × 2/0.04 = 0.5248 N/m2.

Problem 7.2. A circular and a square pipe are of equal sectional area. For the same flow rate, determine which section will lead to a higher value of Reynolds number. Re = uDh/v, For the same section and same flow rate of a specified fluid, Re ∝ Dh hydraulic Diameter. Circular Pipe : as areas are equal, Dh = D a2 = πD2/4, ∴ a = 0.886 D Square Pipe of side a : Dh = 4a2/4a = a The hydraulic diameter of a square section of the same area is lower by about 11.4%. So the Reynolds number in this case will be lower by about 11.4% and hence for the same flow rate f will be higher for the square section. Problem 7.3. The kinematic viscosity of water at 30°C is 0.832 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the maximum flow rate through a 10 cm dia pipe for the flow to be laminar. Assume smooth pipe. Also determine the head loss/m at this flow condition. The condition is that Reynolds number should be about 2000. 2000 = (0.1 × u)/(0.832 × 10–6) ∴ u = 0.01664 m/s.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

The flow rate will be Head of water, = (π × 0.12/4) × 0.01664 = 1.307 × 10–4 m3/s = 0.1307 l/s. f = 64/2000 = 0.032

247

hf = 0.032 × 1 × 0.016642/(2 × 9.81 × 0.1) = 4.516 × 10–6 m/m.

Note: The flow turns turbulent even at a low flow velocity as the kinematic viscosity is low.

Problem 7.4. Air at 1 atm and 30 °C flows through a pipe of 30 cm dia. The kinematic viscosity at this condition is 16 × 10–6 m2/s. The density is 1.165 kg/m3. Determine the maximum average velocity for the flow to remain laminar. What will be the volume and mass flow rates at this condition? Also determine the head loss/m due to friction. The condition is that Reynolds number should equal 2000. ∴ 2000 = (um × 0.3)/16 × 10–6 ∴ um = 0.107 m/s = u A = 0.107 × π × 0.32/4 = 7.54 × 10–3 m3/s or 7.54 l/s = 8.784 × 10–3 kg/s f = 64/Re = 64/2000 = 0.032 hf = (0.032 × 0.1072 × 1)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.3) = 62.2 × 10–6 m/m (head of air) Problem 7.5. Oil with a kinematic viscosity of 241 × 10–6 m2/s and density of 945 kg/m3 flows through a pipe of 5 cm dia. and 300 m length with a velocity of 2 m/s. Determine the pump power, assuming an overall pump efficiency of 45%, to overcome friction. Re = uD/v = 2 × 0.05/241 × 10–6 = 415. So the flow is laminar. hf = (64/415) × [(22 × 300)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.05)] = 188.67 m head of oil Mass flow = (π × 0.052/4) 2 × 945 kg/s = 3.711 kg/s Power required = mg H/η = 3.711 × 9.81 × 188.67/0.45 W = 15,263 W or 15.263 kW. Problem 7.6. If, in problem P.7.5. the power available was 10 kW, what will be the pumping rate? Power available to overcome friction P = power × pump efficiency = 10 × 0.45 = 4.5 kW or 4500 W Mass flow = (πD2/4) uρ = (64v/uD) × (u2L/2gD) ∴ Power = mass flow × g × frictional head = (πD2/4) u ρ g (64vu2 L/u D 2g D) = 8 π ρ v Lu2 4500 = 8 × π × 945 × 241 × 10–6 × 300 u2 ∴ Flow rate u = 1.619 m/s = (π × 0.052/4) × 1.619 × 945 = 3kg/s

Chapter 7

Volume flow rate

Mass flow = volume flow × density = 7.54 × 10–3 × 1.165

Frictional loss in head of fluid= (64/Re) × (u2L/2gD)

Note: Check for the flow to be laminar. Re = 1.619 × 0.05/241 × 10–6 = 336

248

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 7.7. Oil of specific gravity 0.92 flows at a rate of 4.5 litres/s through a pipe of 5 cm dia, the pressure drop over 100 m horizontal length being 15 N/cm2. Determine the dynamic viscosity of the oil. Using the equation 7.9.2 – Hagen-Poiseuille eqn. ∆p = 128 µLQ/πD4 µ = ∆p . π.D4/128LQ = 15 × 104 × π × 0.054/128 × 100 × 0.0045 = 0.05113 Ns/m2 (Pa.s)

(Note: N/cm2 → 104 N/m2, litre = 0.001 m3)

Reynolds number ∴

= uD ρ/µ, u = Q × 4/πD2 Re = (4Q/π D2) × (D ρ/µ) = (0.0045 × 920 × 4)/(π × 0.05 × 0.05113) = 2061.6

**∴ Flow is laminar but just on the verge of turning turbulent
**

(Note: Re = 4Q/π Dv) π

Problem 7.8. In a capillary viscometer the tube is of 2 mm dia and 0.5 m length. If 60 of liquid is collected during 10 min with a constant pressure difference of 5000 N/m2, determine the viscosity of the oil. cm3 Using ∆p = 128 µL Q/πD4 (Hagen Poiseuille equation 7.9.2) µ = ∆p.πD4/128 L Q where Q is the discharge in m3 per second. Discharge = 60 × 10–6 m3/600 sec = 10–7 m3/s ∴ µ = 5000 × π × 0.0024/128 × 0.5 × 10–7 = 0.0393 Ns/m2 (or Pa.s) Problem 7.9. If an oil of viscosity of 0.05 Ns/m2 is used in the experiment of problem P.7.8 calculate how long it will take to collect 60 cc. Assume that the other conditions remain unaltered. ∆p = 128 µL Q/πD4 ∴ or 7.854 × 10–2 cc/s ∴ Time for 60 cc = 60/7.854 × 10–2 s = 763.94 s or 12.73 min Q = ∆p × πD4/128 µL where Q is in m3/s Q = 5000 × π × 0.0024/128 × 0.05 × 0.5 = 7.854 × 10–8 m3/s

Problem 7.10. Oil of viscosity 0.1 Ns/m2 is to flow through an inclined pipe by gravity. The pipe diameter is 25 mm and the density of the oil is 930 kg/m3. If the flow rate is to be 0.25 l/s determine the pipe inclination with horizontal. The inclination of the pipe should be such that the drop in head should equal the friction drop along the length or hf = L sin θ, ∆h = fLu2/2gD, f = 64/Re, h = ∆p/γ Using Darcy–Weisbach equation and substituting for f in terms of Re hf =

64 u2 L 64u2 = L sin θ or sin θ = Re 2 gD 2 Re gD uDρ = 0.5093 × 0.025 × 930/0.1 = 118.41 µ

u = 4Q/πD2 = 4 × 0.25/(π × 0.0252) 1000 = 0.5093 m/s ∴ Re =

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

∴ Flow is laminar sin θ = (64 × 0.50932)/(2 × 118.41 × 9.81 × 0.025) = 0.28582 ∴ θ = 16.6° with horizontal

249

Problem 7.11. In a double pipe heat exchanger (to obtain chilled water) water at 10° C flows in the annular area between 30 mm OD inside pipe and the 50 mm ID outer pipe. The kinematic viscosity at this temperature is 1.4 × 10–6 m2/s. Determine the maximum flow rate if the flow should be laminar. The sectional area for flow = (π/4) (D2 – d2) where D = out side dia, d = inside dia. of the annular area. Wetted perimeter = π (D + d) ∴ Dh = 4 × (π/4) (D2 – d2)/π(D + d) = D – d = 0.05 – 0.03 = 0.02 m Re = 2000 = (0.02 × u)/(1.4 × 10–6) ∴ u = 0.14 m/s ∴ flow rate = (π/4) (0.052 – 0.032) 0.14 = 1.76 × 10–4 m3/s or 0.176 l/s or 633.3 l/hr. The friction factor and friction drop in head and power required for a flow rate etc can be determined as in problem P. 7.5. taking care to use Dh in place of D. Problem 7.12. Water flows in an experimental 50 mm square pipe at a temperature of 10°C. The flow velocity is 0.012 m/s. Determine the head drop over a length of 10 m. Compare the same with circular section of the same area, v = 1.4 × 10–6 m2/s. As the section is square, the hydraulic diameter is to be used. Dh = 4 area/perimeter = 4a2/4a = a = 0.05 m Re = Dh u/v = 0.05 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 428.6 ∴ The flow is laminar. f = 64/Re = 64/428.6 hf = fLu2/2g Dh = (64/428.6) × 10 × 0.0122/(2 × 9.81 × 0.05) = 2.19 × 10–4 m head of water. Circular section: πD2/4 = 0.052 ∴ D = 0.05642 m Re = 0.05642 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 483.6, laminar, f = 64/483.6 = 0.1323 = 1.722 × 10–4 m ∴ Lower by: 21.4% Problem 7.13. If in the place of square a rectangular section of 100 mm × 25 mm is used for the data of P. 7.12 determine the head drop over a length of 10 m. Hydraulic diameter = 4A/P = 4 × 0.025 × 0.1/2(0.1 + 0.025) = 0.04 m Re = Dh u/v = 0.4 × 0.012/1.4 × 10–6 = 342.86 Frictional drop in head = f.L.u2/2g Dh = (64/342.86) × 10 × 0.0122/2 × 9.81 × 0.04 = 3.425 × 10–4 m head of water For the same flow area as compared to 1.722 × 10–4 m head of water for the circular section there is an increase of 100% in friction drop for the rectangular section.

Chapter 7

For laminar conditions Re should be less than 2000.

hf = 0.1323 × 10 × 0.0122/2 × 9.81 × 0.05642

250

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 7.14. Water flows out from a storage tank through a pipe of 50 mm dia. at a rate of 9.82 l/s. Determine the loss of head at entrance if it is (i) bell mounted (ii) square edged and (iii) reentrant. Refer section 7.12 (i) In this case the loss coefficient is 0.04 u = 4Q/πD2 = 4 × 9.82/(1000 × π × 0.052) = 5 m/s ∴ hf = 0.04 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 0.051 m. ∴ hf = 0.5 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 0.637 m ∴ hf = 0.8 × 52/2 × 9.81 = 1.019 m (ii) In this case loss coeffcient is 0.5. (iii) The loss coefficient in this case = 0.8

Problem 7.15. Water flowing in a pipe of 500 mm dia suddenly passes into a pipe of 750 mm dia. Determine the loss of head if the initial velocity was 2 m/s. Ref. eqn 7.12.1. In this case, hf = (u2 – u1)2/2g, u1 = 2 m/s, u2 = 2 × (0.5/0.75)2 = 0.889 m/s. ∴ hf = (2 – 0.889)2/2 × 9.81 = 0.0629 m. Problem 7.16. A 30 cm pipe with friction factor f = 0.024 carries water to a turbine at the rate of 0.25 m3/s over a distance of 160 m. The difference in levels between the water inlet and turbine inlet is 36 m. Determine the efficiency of transmission. The turbine outlet delivery is submerged into the tailrace and the velocity at the exit is 0.4 times the velocity in the pipe. The efficiency of transmission =

Available head for conversion to work Difference in datum

The losses in this case are the friction head and the dynamic head at exit. Flow rate = 0.25 m3/s, ∴ Friction head ∴ Dynamic head Total losses um = 0.25 × 4/π × 0.32 = 3.54 m/s. = fLu2/2gD = [0.024 × 160 × 3.542/(2 × 9.81 × 0.3)] = 8.176 m = (0.4 × 3.54)2/2 × 9.81 = 0.102 m = 8.176 + 0.102 = 8.28 m

Dynamic head: Exit velocity = 0.4 × 3.54 m/s.

Efficiency is high but the power delivered is not maximum. ∴ Efficiency of transmission = (36 – 8.28)/36 = 0.77 or 77% Problem 7.17. The flow in a pipe of 100 mm dia with Reynolds number value of 105 is found to have a friction factor f = 0.032. Determine the thickness of laminar sublayer. Also indicate whether the pipe is hyraulicaly smooth or not if the roughness height is 0.4 mm. Ref. section 7.5. δl = 32.8 v/um ∴ ∴

f , Re = um D/v = 105 f ) = 32.8 × 0.1/105

v/um = D/105, substituting for v/um δl = (32.8 × D)/(105 ×

0.032

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

= 1.83 × 10–4 m = 0.183 mm ε = 0.4 mm 0.3 ε = 0.12 mm, 6ε = 1.098 mm The sublayer thickness is larger than 0.3ε but less than 6ε. The pipe cannot be classified definitely as smooth or rough.

251

Problem 7.18. Petrol of sp. gravity 0.7 and kinematic viscosity of 0.417 × 10–6 m2/s flows through a smooth pipe of 250 mm ID. The pipe is 800 m long. The pressure difference between the ends is 0.95 bar. Determine the flow rate. In this case the determination off involves the velocity as the Reynolds number depends on velocity. The flow rate depends on velocity. A trial solution is necessary. So a value of f = 0.02 is first assumed. Pressure difference = 0.95 bar or 0.95 × 105 N/m2. Converting the same to head of fluid, 0.95 × 105/700 × 9.81 = 13.834 m of petrol column. 13.834 = (fLu2/2gD) + (u2/2g) = [(0.02 × 800 × u2)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] + u2/2 × 9.81 = (3.26 + 0.051)u2 ∴ Now or u = 2.045 m/s. Re = uD/v = 2.045 × 0.25/0.417 × 10–6 = 1.226 × 106 1/ f = 1.8. log Re – 1.5186 ∴ f = 0.01122

Ref. section 7.11, eqn 7.11.12, f = 0.0032 + (0.221/Re0.237) = 0.01117

so the value 0.02 is on the higher side. Now using the value 0.01117, 13.834 = [0.01117 × 800 × u2)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] + [u2/(2 × 9.81)] = 1.8727 u2 ∴ u = 2.7185 m/s, f = 0.1065. This is nearer the assumed value and further refinements can be made by repeating the procedure. Flow rate = 2.7185 × π × 0.252/4 = 0.1334 m3/s = 93.4 kg/s Problem 7.19. Determine the diameter of the pipe (smooth) required to convey 150 l of kerosene over a length 1000 m with the loss of head by friction limited to 10 m of kerosene. Density = 810 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity = 2.37 × 10–6 m2/s In this problem also as in P. 7.18, trial is necessary. Assume f = 0.012 Neglecting dynamic head, As u = Q/A, 10 = [(0.012 × 1000)/(2 × 9.81 × D)] × [(0.15 × 4)/(πD2)]2 ∴ u = (4 × 0.15)/πD2, Simplifying D5 = [(0.012 × 1000)/(2 × 9.81 × 10)] × [(0.152 × 42)/π2] = 2.231 × 10–3 ∴ D = 0.295 m and u = 2.195 m/s Re = 2.7185 × 0.25/0.417 × 10–6 = 1.63 × 106

Chapter 7

252

Refer eqn. 7.11.11,

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Re = 0.295 × 2.195/2.37 × 10–6 = 0.273 × 106 f = 0.0032 + (0.221/Re0.0237) = 0.0146 10 = [(0.014 × 10000)/(2 × 9.81 × D)] × [(0.15 × 4)/πD2]2 ∴ D5 = [(0.014 × 1000)/(2 × 9.82 × 10)] [(0.152 × 42)/π2] = 2.6 × 10–3 D = 0.304 m, u = 0.15 × 4/π × 0.3042 = 2.065 m/s Re = 2.065 × 0.304/2.37 × 10–6 = 0.265 × 106 f = 0.0032 + 0.221/(0.265 × 106)0.237 = 0.01466 The answer can be refined further using this value of f and reworking on the same lines. Assuming f = 0.014, to repeat the procedure

Problem 7.20. Two pipes of 0.35 m and 0.25 m dia and length 2000 m and 1500 m with f values 0.021 and 0.018 connected is series carry water from a reservoir to a supply system, the head available being 8 m. Determine the flow quantity neglecting minor losses. The head available should be equal to the sum of the frictional losses in the two pipes. Neglecting loss at sudden contraction δ = [(0.021 × 2000 × u12)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.35)] + [(0.018 × 1500 × u22)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] From continuity equation, we get [(π × 0.352)/4] × u1 = [(π × 0.252)/4]u2 ∴ u2 = (0.35/0.25)2 u1 or u22 = (0.35/0.25)4 u12 Substituting, and simplifying and solving, u1 = 0.542 m/s, u2 = 1.062 m/s flow rate check the frictional drop: hf = [(0.021 × 2000 × 0.5422)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.35)] + [(0.018 × 1500 × 1.0622)/(2 × 9.81 × 0.25)] hf = 1.8 + 6.2 = 8 m. Problem 7.21. A 300 mm dia pipe carries kerosene at a rate of 200 l/s. The roughness is 0.2 mm. Determine the frictional drop over 100 m length of pipe. using equation (7.11.13). ∴

1 f

= (0.542 × π × 0.352)/4 = 0.0521 m3/s or 187.7 m3/hr

= 2 log

0.15 R + 1.74 = 2 log + 1.74 = 7.49 0.2 × 10 −3 ε

u = 4 × 0.2/π × 0.32 = 2.829 m/s

f = 0.01782 m hf =

u2 0.01782 × 1000 × u 2 + = 3.0785u2 2 × 9.81 2 × 9.81 × 0.3

substituting the value of u, hf = 24.65 m (head of kerosene) Problem 7.22. Water is drawn from a reservoir through a pipe of diameter D and a constant friction factor f. Along the length water is drawn off at the rate of Km3/s per unit length and the length is L. There is no flow at the end. Derive an expression for the loss of head.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

Pipe K (L – X) X dx K (L – X) – Kdx

253

Figure P. 7.22

Consider a length dx at location x, using the equation, the drop dh over length dx is hf =

fLu 2 2 gD

∴ dh =

fdx u2 D 2g

(1)

At this location, the flow rate Q can be obtained as Q = K(L – x), as total flow is KL and draw off upto x is Kx. u= Substituting in eqn. (1) dh =

4Q πD

2

, u2 =

16Q 2 π 2 D4

=

16 K 2 ( L − x) 2 π2 D4

8 fK 2 fdx 16 K 2 ( L − x) 2 = (L – x)2 dx 2 5 2g gπ 2 D 5 π D

L

Integrating from x = 0 to L

8 fK 2 h2 – h1 = hf = gπ 2 D 5

∴ for the following data, hf =

z

fK 2 L3 [ L2 − 2 Lx + x 2 ]dx = 8 L3 − L3 + 2 5 3 gπ D 0

LM N

OP Q

8 fL3 K 2 ( Note: K has a unit m3/sm) 3 gπ 2 D 5

f = 0.024, K = 7.5 l/hr/m = 2.085 × 10–6 m3/s/m, D = 0.1 m, L = 4.8 × 103 m, hf =

8 × 0.024 × (4.8 × 10 3 ) 3 (2.085 × 10 −6 ) 2 = 31.73 m 3 × 9.81 × π 2 × 0.15

Chapter 7

The head drop between lengths L1 and L2 can be determined by difference i.e., (hf2 – hf1) Problem 7.23. A pipe line 200 mm dia. and 4000 m long connects two reservoirs with a difference in level of 60 m. Water is drawn at 1500 m point at a rate of 50 l/s. Friction coefficient f = 0.024. Determine the flow rates in the two sections. Neglect minor losses

4Q fLu 2 8 fLQ 2 16Q 2 2 hf = ,u= 2 ,u = 2 2 , hf = 2 gD πD π 2 gD 5 π D

Considering the two sections, (total drop) 60 =

8 × 0.024 × 1500 × Q12 8 × 0.024 × 2500 × Q2 2 + π 2 g × 0.25 π 2 g × 0.25

= 9295.5 Q12 + 15492.54 Q22

254

but or

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

Q22 = (Q1 – 0.05)2, Substituting and simplifying 60 = 9295.52 Q12 + 1549.25(Q12 + 0.052 – 2Q1 × 0.05) 24788.05 Q12 – 1549 .25 Q1 – 21.268 = 0 Q1 = =

1549.25 ± [( − 1549.25) 2 + 4 × 21.268 × 24788.05]0.5 2 × 24788.05

**1549.25 ± 2123.45 = 0.074082 m3/s, 2 × 24788.05 ∴ Q2 = 0.024082 m3/s The other solution is negative.
**

Check: For the first section hf = For the second section

8 × 0.024 × 1500 × 0.074082 2 = 51.015 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.2 5

8 × 0.024 × 2500 × 0.024082 2 hf = = 8.985 m, π 2 × 9.81 × 0.2 5

Total head = 60 m

Problem 7.24. Two adjacent city centres B and D receive water from separate sources A and C. The water level in A is 4 m above that in C. Reservoir A supplies city centre B by 0.4 m diameter pipe of 3000 m length with a level difference of 10 m. City centre D’s is supplied by reservoir C through a 4000 m long pipe of 0.45 m diameter, with a level difference of 15 m. After sometime it is found that centre B has excess water while centre D is staraved. So it is proposed to interconnect these lines and draw 100 l/s from the line A to B. The junction on AB is at a distance of 2000 m from A. The junction CD is at 3000 m from C. Determine the original supply rates and supply rates with interconnection to centres B and D. Also determine the diameter of the interconnecting pipe, if the length is 1500 m Friction factor, f = 0.01 in all cases. The arrangement is shown in Fig. P. 7.24

A 4m 2000 m 0.4 m f R 1000 m 1500 m S C

10 m

3000 m 0.45 m f

15 m

1000 m B E D

Figure P. 7.24

(i) Without interconnection : using equation 7.11.15 hf =

8 fLQ 2 π 2 gD 5

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

Drop in Line AB is 10 m 10 = ∴

255

8 × 0.01 × 3000 × Q 2 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5

QAB = 0.20325 m3/s or 203.25 l/s

Drop in line CD is 15 m

8 × 0.01 × 4000 × Q 2 15 = π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455

∴ QCD = 0.2894 m3/s or 289.4 l/s After interconnection: line AB: Let the flow up to R be Q and then in RB (Q – 0.1) Total frictional loss = 10 =

8 × 0.01 × 2000 × Q 2 8 × 0.01 × 1000(Q − 0.1) 2 + π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 0.5 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5

231 l/s

This reduces to 3Q2 – 0.2Q – 0.11393 = 0. Solving Q = 0.231 m3/s or Now the centre B will receive 131 l/s (previous 203 l/s) Line CD: Let the flow upto S be Q and then (Q + 0.1) upto D Total head loss = 15 =

**8 × 0.01 × 3000 × Q 2 8 × 0.01 × 1000(Q + 0.1) 2 + π 2 × 9.81 × 0.45 0.5 π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455
**

261 l/s

This reduces to 4Q2 + 0.2Q – 0.32499 = 0 Solving Q = 0.261 m3/s or Now the city center C will receive 361 l/s (previous 289.4 l/s) To determine the diameter of the connecting pipe RS: Head drop from A to R hf1 = Head drop from S to E hf2 =

8 × 0.01 × 2000 × 0.2312 = 8.61 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.4 5 8 × 0.01 × 1000 × 0.3612 = 5.84 m π 2 × 9.81 × 0.455

Head drop from A to E = 4 + 15 = 19 m ∴ Head available between RS = 19 – 8.61 – 5.84 = 4.55 m Considering Pipe RS 4.55 =

8 × 0.01 × 1500 × 0.12 Solving D = 0.307 m. π 2 × 9.81 × D 5

Chapter 7

**256 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
**

O Q. 7.1. Fill in the blanks:

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

1. In fully developed laminar flow in pipes the velocity distribution with radius is –––––––––––. 2. In fully developed laminar flow in pipes the shear stress variation with radius is –––––––––––. 3. A dye injected into laminar stream will travel –––––––––––. 4. Momentum transfer in laminar flow is at ––––––––––– level. 5. For laminar flow to prevail in a duct the value of Reynolds number should be –––––––––––. 6. The friction factor is defined as –––––––––––. 7. The friction factor in laminar flow is pipes in given by –––––––––––. 8. In laminar flow in a pipe the shear stress is maximum at –––––––––––. 9. Reynolds number is the ratio between ––––––––––– and ––––––––––– forces. 10. 11. The energy line represents –––––––––––. The hydraulic line represents –––––––––––.

Answers

(1) Parabolic (2) Linear (3) along a line without mixing (4) Microscopic, molecular (5) less than 2000. (6) 4 τ0 g0/(ρum2/2), (7) 64/Re (8) The wall (9) inertia, viscous (10) Total energy at each location (11) The pressure energy at the location. O Q. 7.2. Fill in the blanks 1. In laminar flow is through a pipe the average velocity is ––––––––––– of the maximum velocity. 2. In flow through pipes, the flow ––––––––––– change from laminar to turbulent condition. 3. Hydraulic diameter is defined as ––––––––––– 4. Hydraulic radius is defined as ––––––––––– 5. Entrance length is defined as ––––––––––– 6. In laminar flow the entrance length is approximately ––––––––––– 7. A pipe is hydraulically smooth when 6 ε is ––––––––––– 8. A pipe is hydraulically rough when ––––––––––– 9. Chart relating friction factor, Reynolds number and pipe roughness is known as ––––––––––– 10. 11. 12. For flow in non circular pipes, the length parameter used in Reynolds number calculation is –– ––––––––– In a network of pipes the algebraic sum of the frictional losses around any circuit will be ––––– –––––– In a network of pipes at any node the algebraic sum of flows will be –––––––––––

Answers

(1) One half of (2) does not (3) 4A/P, A-Area P-Perimeter (4) A/P (5) the length above which the velocity profile becomes constant (6) 0.58 Re D (7) less than δi (8) δ1 < 6 ε, (9) Moody diagram (10) Hydraulic diameter (11) zero (12) zero O. Q. 7.3. Fill in the blanks 1. The entrance head loss for square edged entrance is –––––––––––. 2. The head loss due to sudden expansion is –––––––––––. 3. The frictional loss in globe valve is ––––––––––– compared to that in gate valve. 4. To reduce losses in large bends ––––––––––– can be used.

**Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes)
**

5. Minor losses are losses due to –––––––––––. 6. The very thin layer adjacent to the wall in turbulent flow is callecl –––––––––––. 7. The velocity variation is ––––––––––– in laminar sublayer. 8. Equivalent length of pipe fitting is –––––––––––. 9. Equivalent length of a pipe as referred to another pipe is –––––––––––. 10. 11.

257

For the same flow area and flow rate, a square section will give a ––––––––––– pressure drop. For a given available head, maximum power will be transmitted when the frictional loss of head equals ––––––––––– of the total head.

Answers

(1) (2) (u1 – u2 (3) larger (4) vanes (5) changes in section and fittings (6) laminar sublayer (7) linear (8) pipe length with the same frictional drop (9) the length to produce the same frictional drop for the same flow (10) higher (11) 1/3 O Q. 7.4. Choose the correct answer 1. Reynolds number is given by (a) ρuµ/D, (b) µDρ/u, (c) ρu/µD (d) ρuD/µ. 2. Reynolds number signifies the ratio of (a) gravity forces top viscous forces (c) inertia forces to gravity forces (a) 640 (a) highly viscous fluids (c) high velocity of flow (b) 5 × 105 (b) inertial forces to viscous forces (d) buoyant forces to inertia forces. (c) 2000 (b) low viscosity fluid (d) small diameters (d) 64000 0.5u2/2g )2/2g

3. In pipe flow the critical Reynolds number is about 4. The entry length in pipe flow will be higher for

5. A pipe is said to be hydraulically rough if the laminar sublayer thickness δL as compared to physical roughness ε is (a) δL > ε (b) δL < ε (c) δL > 6ε (d) δL < 6ε. 6. With constant flow rate if the diameter is doubled in laminar flow in pipes, the frictional drop will change by a factor of (a) 2 (a) 2 (b) 0.5 (b) 0.5 (c) 1/32 (c) (d) 1/16. (d) 1/ 2 . 7. In laminar fully developed flow in a pipe the ratio, average velocity/maximum velocity is

2

(a) 32 times

(b) 16 times

(c) 8 times

(d) 4 times.

9. In laminar pipe flow for a given flow rate Q, the power required to overcome friction will be proportional to (a) Q 10. (b) Q2 (c)

Q

(d) Q3/2.

In turbulent flow in a pipe with flow rate Q the power required to overcome frictional losses is proportional to (a) Q (b) Q2 (c) Q3 (d) Q4 The shear stress at the wall of a 16 cm dia pipe in laminar flow is 36 N/m2. The shear stress at a radius of 4 cm in N/m2 is (a) 9 (b) 18 (c) 6 (d) 72

11.

Chapter 7

8. In fully developed turbulent flow, if the diameter is halved without changing the flow rate, the frictional drop will change by the factor

For the same total sectional area two equal diameter pipes will deliver more than a single pipe for the same pressure drop. 8. the pressure drop in turbulent flow will –––––––––– as the diameter increases. (c) 4. A bell mouthed inlet is desirable.064 The friction factor in laminar flow in a pipe was measured as 0. 12.025 (c) 1. 5. square section will have a lower Reynolds Number. (a) 5. 3. the boundary layer thickness –––––––––– with distance.4 (b) 0.64 (d) 1/1. 6. 7. 14.. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The velocity along the centre line in laminar flow through a pipe of 8 cm dia is 2 m/s. Answers Correct 1. 8. For the same flow rate and friction factor. . (a) 9. For the same sectional area and flow rate.414 (c) 0. (b) 8. As Reynolds number decreases in laminar flow in pipes. In turbulent flow for the same diameter and friction factor the pressure drop for a given length will vary as the square of flow rate.05. (d) 7. 3. (a) (15). If velocity is doubled the pressure drop will reduce to half the value. In flow through pipes. after the entry length the velocity profile ––––––––––.6. 2. The development of flow over a flat plate and entry section of a pipe will be similar.5 (b) 0.2 (c) 1. 11. 4. The velocity at a radius of 2 cm in m/s is (a) 1 (b) 1. 4. (b). 7. 10. 7. 5. Indicate whether the statements are correct or incorrect 1. (b) 12.0 (b) logarithmic (d) 4th degree polynomial. In flow over a flat plate. 16. 1.0. the friction factor ––––––––––. (d) 0. 10. (c) 11. The Reynolds number should be around (a) 1280 (b) 1000 (c) 640 (d) 2000.032.258 12. 6.e. (d) 13. An oil with a density of 800 kg/m3 and dynamic viscosity of 8 × 10–3 Ns/m2 flows through a smooth pipe of 100 mm dia. 3. 12 O Q. ‘‘decreases’’ for ‘‘remains constant’’. The maximum velocity for laminar flow to prevail will be (in m/s. (b) 10.) (a) 0. 11. 9. For a specified flow of fluid in a pipe. The velocity profile after the entry section in a pipe will remain the same.5. In the household pipe system the flow of water is laminar. Friction factor will be higher in laminar flow. The velocity profile in turbulent flow is (a) parabolic (c) 2nd degree polynomial 13. 15. Answers 1. 9.7. (b) O Q. (d) 2. Incorrect: 2. with fixed mass velocity) the Reynolds number will – ––––––––– as the dynamic viscosity of the fluid increases. Blood flow in blood vessels is turbulent. (d) 4. For the same sectional area and flow rate square section will lead to lower frictional drop.414. (b) 16. 6. Pipes of equal diameter and equal roughness will have the same friction factor. (d) 14. Fill in the blanks with ‘‘increases’’. 5. (b) 3. The friction factor in pipe flow at near critical conditions is around (a) 0. 2. (i. 4.

An oil with specific gravity of 0. (Re = 54. f ρu2 .077 N/m2. Show that in laminar flow through a pipe f = 64/Re. B – 3. the length –––––––––– 10. 0. Find the average velocity in terms of maximum velocity. . 259 6. Show that the velocity profile in laminar flow through a circular pipe is parabolic. Determine whether flow is laminar or turbulent.1. determine (a) centre line velocity. 5. 0.85 flows in a pipe of 100 mm dia. 3. (c) friction factor. 0.1. When two pipes in parallel flow are replaced by a single pipe with its area equal to the sum of the areas of the two pipes. the length –––––––––– 9. Match the pairs: (1) (A) Laminar flow (B) Turbulent flow (C) Laminar pipe flow (D) Turbulent pipe flow (2) In pipe flow. C – 2. Laminar) E 7. For the data in problem E 7. the flow rate being 0. B – 4. 6 O Q.3.37 × 10–3 m/m) Chapter 7 E 7. D – 1 (2) A – 4. beyond a certain Reynolds number the friction factor –––––––––– 8. (e) head loss/m. (d) wall shear and (0.5.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 7. 9 Remains constant: 2. Minor losses will –––––––––– as velocity increases. The kinematic viscosity at this condition is 1. 0.18. When a pipe with a lower friction factor is converted to an equivalent pipe with higher friction factor. 7.2.107 m/s.4.5u2/2g (3) 1 – (r/R)2 (4) ∆u2/2g (1) Logarithmic velocity profile (2) Parabolic velocity profile (3) Molecular level mixing (4) Macroscopic mixing Answers (1) A – 3.5 l/s. When a pipe of smaller diameter is converted to an equivalent pipe of larger diameter. 8. For a specified roughness.7. 4 2g (b) velocity at r = 2 cm.8 × 10–5 m2/s. 7. the flow rate will –––––––––– Answers Increases: 1. Show that the wall shear in laminar flow through a pipe τ0 = E 7.127 m/s. E 7. D – 1 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 7. C – 2.. (A) Sudden expansion (B) u/umax (C) Square entrance (D) Globe valve (1) 10u2/2g (2) 0. 10 Decreases : 4.

032 1200 m. the lengths being 300 m. at a rate of 0. pipe with roughness ε/R = 0. carries water over a length of 300 m.14.62.019. | |Q T W 2 2 2 c E 7.9 and dynamic viscosity 5.992 × 10–3 Ns/m2 flows in a pipe of 15 cm dia.04 connects two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m. Neglecting minor losses. 0. E. 0.2 m to 0.7.9 E 7.5 m. the pressure difference across a sudden contraction is V22 (P1 – P2)/γ = 2 g 1 + given by LM MN RF 1 I − 1U OP − V |G J | SH C K V P 2 g .024 C 36 m 15 m Datum Figure E.6 cm of water) E 7.083 m3/s) E 7. f = 0.006. Show using the expression in E 7. (iii) Contraction from 0.3 m to 0.124 m3/s) E 7.8.15 m. A riveted steel pipe of 300 mm dia. 7. (0. (i) Contraction from 0. 0.45 m to 0. (2. (0. Calculate the pressure difference between sections. the coefficient of contraction has a value of 0.02 60 m B 480 m 0.15 m.013 m3/s) A 600 m. Oil of specific gravity 0. E 7. determine the flow rate v = 1 × 10–6 m2/s. The pipe diameters are 30 cm.00018. turbulent) E 7.15. 20 cm and 25 cm. E 7. Water at 20 °C flows through a 50 cm dia. Determine the value of friction factor.13. Determine the flow rates in lines C. and 720 m length having a friction factor of 0.06 m3/s. 7. determine the flow rate.192 m in all cases.11. If the energy (0. Re = 11475.12. 150 m and 250 m respectively.2 m dia. v = 1 × 10–5 m2/s.13. f = 0.13 and 14).2 m f. (ii) Contraction from 0. Show from basics that in sudden contraction. Determine the flow rate if the roughness height is 3 mm.260 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 7.042. 0. A and B.055 m3/s. Pipe lines as shown in Fig. – 5. 0. see problem E 9. The pipe line rises to a level of 3 m above the level of the upper reservoir at a distance of 240 m. In the case of formation of vena contracta show that the loss equals [(1/Cc) – 1]2/2g.15 m f.10.6.673 m. (0. The friction factors are 0. Three pipes in series connect two water reservoirs with a level difference of 10 m.1 m f f = 0. Determine the flow rate and the pressure at the highest point.51 m3/s. the head available being 6 m.9 provide water supply from a reservoir. 0. 0.9.034. the loss of head equals (V2 – V1)2/2g. Is the flow laminar or turbulent? (0. 0.02 respectively.42 m3/s) gradient (hf/L) is 0. (0. Determine the diameter of the pipe to convey 250 l/s of oil over 3000 m length with a loss of 25 (413 mm) m. where Cc = Ac/A2. The head loss over a length of 120 m was found to be 16 m.021 and 0. A pipeline 1.54 m. A pipe carries 56 l/s of water and there is a sudden change in diameter. E. Determine in the following cases the loss of head (Hint.699 m) . 7.

E 7. neglect other losses.6 m of water) E 7. The first run ends at a level 1. Determine the discharge through a pipe system described below connecting two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m.51 m3/s. (2034 m. Derive the following expression the loss of head due to sudden expansion.02 m. Qc = 90.852 m) E 7.5 m. For a head loss of m 31 m determine the diameter of the pipe to provide the flow. 7. A single pipe of 0. determine the flow rate.65 l/s) E 7. The enlargement is sudden.18.5 m below the level of the higher reservoir and the total difference in levels is 13. (37.0192 and 0.23. (72. and 720 m length from a reservoir whose level is 6 m above the level of down stream reservoir.22.3 m f B C Figure E. Determine the difference in height between the reservoir level and the discharge point. Discharge is to atmosphere. connects two reservoirs.6 m dia. The values of friction factor are 0. (94.24.17. (0.22.024.16. If in the problem E 7. the first of 50 mm dia.24. determine the flow rate. Determine the flow to reservoirs B and C. Water is transported from reservoir A to reservoirs B and C by pipe line system shown in Fig.3 m f 1500 m 0. If the flow rate through the first pipe is 60 l/s. The friction factor is 0. one of the pipes downstream is closed for maintenance. f1 = 0.04.3 l/s) E 7.19. Two reservoirs are connected in parallel by two pipes. f = 0. 5. f = 0. f = 0. A pipe line of total length 3000 m is made up of two diameters.7 l/s) A 1500 m 0. of 3000 m length takes off from the higher reservoir and feeds to a junction from which. determine the flow rate through the second pipe. Determine the maximum length of the run so that the pressure at this point does not go more than 3 m below atmosphere. and 1500 m length to a common junction from where a pipe of 1200 mm diameter and 2400 m length carries it to the lower reservoir. 0. Assuming f = 0. If the difference in water levels is 10 m.02. (0.0232 for the pipes. f = 0.0207 m3/s) E 7.76 l/s) E 7.3 m dia.02 and the other pipe is 4000 m long and its diameter is 120 mm.04.5 l/hr per m length along the length of 4800 m pipe.04 (2. 200 mm for the first run and 150 mm for the second run. E. Neglect minor losses. The entry is sharp edged. two pipes of 0.Flow in Closed Conduits (Pipes) 261 E 7. and 3000 m length each feed the water in parallel to the lower reservoir.3 l/s. Supply is drawn uniformly at the rate of 7.025. A pipe line of two sections.2 m dia. The pipe line due to the terrain has to be laid such that its level is 3 m above that of the first reservoir level at a distance of 240 m from the entry. (QB = 28. and 15 m length and the second of 75 mm dia and 24 m length connected in series empties a reservoir at the rate of 168 l/min. hf = (V1 – V22)/2g. The friction coefficient for both sections is 0. Water is drawn from a reservoir through two pipes of 900 mm dia.3 m f 15 m 30 m 1500 m 0.21.20. Determine the pressure at this point and also the flow rate.1 m) E 7.24 E 7. Also calculate the flow rate. Water is conveyed by a pipe line of 1. (0.973 m3/s) Chapter 7 . One pipe is 5000 m long and the diameter is 100 mm. 7.25. Show that it can be reduced to the form k V12/2g where k = [1 – (A1/A2)]2.

(0. pipe with friction factor f = 0. determine the flow rate. At this point 36 l/s water is drawn off and the diameter is reduced to 0. If the middle 1 km pipe is replaced by two pipes of 0.04.16 l/s) E 7.307 m3/s) E 7. (43. The tip of the nozzle is 9 m above pump outlet.9 m dia. f = 0.02. 1. one inlet branch is shut off for maintenance.262 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (1. (2. Express the head loss as slope. A fire hose of 75 mm dia. f= 0. f = 0.03.28. and 180 m length ends in a nozzle of 25 mm dia. pipe takes off from the reservoir.347 m3/s) . Determine the head loss required for a flow rate of 9 m3/s. 0.56 m3/s) E 7. Two reservoirs with a level difference of 40 m are connected by a 3 km long. A ridge interposes between two reservoirs whose level difference is 30 m. 2. Determine the maximum height of the ridge that the line can cross if the pressure at this point should not go below 3 m of water (absolute). The distance upto the ridge is 300 m.048. A smooth concrete duct of square section of side 1.27. If one of the pipes in the middle section is blocked. E 7. Calculate the head to be developed by the pump for a flow rate of 480 l/min.64 m dia.31. (5 m. (72. The pipe diameter is 600 mm.021. Two reservoirs with a difference in level of 6 m are connected by a pipe system.26. calculate the flow rate.3 m for the next 3000 m. calculate the flow rate.6 m dia.1/100) E 7. f = 0. The discharge coefficient of the nozzle is 0. Determine the flow rate in the first branch. If in the problem E 7.5 m is 40 m long. Determine the flow rate.13m3/s. 3000 m length of 0.30.29. 1.25. Also determine the flow rate.94.008 m3/s. 0.44 m. The total length of the pipe is 3000 m.425 m) E 7.

& 8. the geometry. The mathematical method of dimensional analysis comes to our help in this situation. Flow through pipes can be considered as an example. Viscosity. If the effect of each of these parameters on flow is separately studied the number of experiments will be large. for example velocity u. The results will be applicable for various combinations of these parameters and so the results can be generalized and extended to new situations. Dimensional analysis is found to be a very useful tool in achieving this objective. When the number of these variables are combined to form a dimensionless group like (u D ρ/µ) few experiments will be sufficient to obtain useful information.1 illustrates the advantage dimensional analysis in experiment planning. density. particularly when more than three parameters are involved. In the study of flow of real fluids analytical methods alone are found insufficient. fluid properties and fluid velocity. In addition these groups facilitate the presentation of the results of the experiments effectively and also to generalize the results so that these can be applied to similar situations. The results will be applicable also for different fluids and different diameters provided the value of the group remains the same. The solution of realistic problems usually involves both anlytical and experimental studies. In the previous chapters analytical methods used in fluid flow studies were discussed. The topic is discussed in the next chapter. Experiments are used to validate analytical results as well as generalize and extend their applications. The number of parameters can be reduced generally to three by grouping relevant variables to form dimensionless parameters. Experimental work is rather costly and time consuming. flow velocity and diameter are found to influence the flow. Hence it is necessary to plan the experiments so that most information is obtained from fewest experiments. Also these results cannot be generalized and its usefulness will be limited. 263 .0 INTRODUCTION Dimensional Analysis Fluid flow is influenced by several parameters like. Experimental methods and results have contributed heavily for the development of fluid mechanics. Example 8. Depending either solely on analytical methods or experiments for the design of systems is found to lead to inadequate performance and high cost. The use of the results of dimensional analysis is the basis for similitude and modal studies. This parameter can be varied by varying one of the variables which will be the easier one to vary.

experiments needed = 10. Experiments can be conducted for obtaining this information by varying the parameter (uDρ/µ) and determining the values for F/ρu2D2.H. Rayleigh method: A functional power relation is assumed between the parameters and then the values of indices are solved for to obtain the grouping. This method is illustrated extensively throughout this chapter.1 METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF DIMENSIONLESS GROUPS 1. c. The 102 experiments have to repeated 10 times each for different values of µ. This is also tedious and considerable expertise is needed to form these groups as the number of unknowns will be more than the number of available equations. Some examples are: Viscous force vs inertia force.S. Intuitive method: This method relies on basic understanding of the phenomenon and then identifying competing quantities like types of forces or lengths etc. These parameters can be combined to obtain two dimensionless parameters. To study the effect of variation of diameter all the experiments have to be repeated 10 times each. and obtaining ratios of similar quantities.1. Total experiments for u. Indicate how the number of experiments can be reduced. This method is also called ‘‘indicial” method. µ and D. The drag force F on a stationary sphere in flow is found to depend on diameter D. d. viscous force vs gravity force or roughness dimension vs diameter. being zero as π terms are dimensionless. Note : It will be almost impossible to find fluids with 10 different densities and 10 different viscosities. velocity u. fluid density ρ and viscosity µ. estimate the total experimental points needed to obtain complete information. . 3. b. 2. Hence total experiments required = 104. for fixed values of ρ. To study the effect of ρ these 10 experiments should be repeated 10 times with 10 values of ρ the total now being 102. Buckingham Pi theorem method: The application of this theorem provides a fairly easy method to identify dimensionless parameters (numbers). To obtain a curve F vs u. 8. This is a difficult exercise and considerable experience is required in this case. Assuming that to study the influence of a parameter 10 experimental points are necessary.264 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 8. However identification of the influencing parameters is the job of an expert rather than that of a novice. and e are obtained by comparing the dimensions on both sides the dimensions on the L. F ρu D 2 2 =f FG ρ uD IJ H µ K (The method to obtain such grouping is the main aim of this chapter) Now only 10 experiments are needed to obtain a comprehensive information about the effect of these five parameters. For example in the problem in example 1 one can write (π1. π2) = F a ρbDcµdUe The values of a. ρ and µ = 103.

. expressed in the form g(π1.1 cannot be obtained from the analysis.. .. This has to be very carefully done.. In the expression. In such cases.. Later experiments will show that the π term with the doubtful Chapter 8 Irrespective of the method used the following steps will systematise the procedure. If unsure the parameter can be added.5 The limitation of this exercise is that the exact functional relationship in equation 8. πn–m) = 0 or π1 = g1 (π2.. as π5 = π1 π3π4 or π6 = π 22/ 3 π 10. B and (C/D) each should have the same dimension. then each of the additive term should have the same dimensions.3 BUCKINGHAM PI THEOREM The statement of the theorem is as follows : If a relation among n parameters exists in the form f(q1. 8. π2.. π3 and π4 it is possible to obtain π5.3. . if an equation of the following form expresses a relationship between variables in a process.’’ For example.3...3.. qn. π2 ..1) where m is the number of dimensions required to specify the dimensions of all the parameters. q2. qn) = 0 then the n parameters can be grouped into n – m independent dimensionless ratios or π parameters. π3 . Equations which are dimensionally homogeneous can be used without restrictions about the units adopted. q1. The value of the constants in such equations will vary with the system of units used..2 THE PRINCIPLE OF DIMENSIONAL HOMOGENEITY 265 The principle is basic for the correctness of any equation. It is also possible to form new dimensionless π parameters as a discrete function of the (n – m) parameters. the numeric constants are dimensional.. This principle is used in dimensional analysis to form dimensionless groups. π6 etc. Another application of this principle is the checking of the equations derived... A + B = C/D.. π terms may be formed but experiments then will indicate these as inadequate to describe the phenomenon. For example if there are four dimensionless parameters π1. It states ‘‘If an equation truly expresses a proper relationship between variables in a physical phenomenon. Note : Some empirical equations used in fluid mechanics may appear to be non homogeneous..... List all the parameters that influence the phenomenon concerned.1 Determination of π Groups Step 1.. The functional relationship is generally arrived at through the use of experimental results. . A. 8. then each of the additive terms will have the same dimensions or these should be dimensionally homogeneous. If some parameters are left out.. q2.Dimensional Analysis 8. πn–m) (8.

(mass. time and temperature) are some of the sets used popularly. Step 3. Units and Dimensions of Variables Variable Mass Length Time Force Temperature Area Volume Volume flow rate Mass flow rate Velocity Angular velocity Force Pressure. Ns/m2 m2/s N/m J/kg K W/mK ML2/T2 ML2/T2 ML2/T3 M/L3 M/LT L2/T M/T2 L2/T2 θ ML/T3 θ FL FL FL/T FT2/L4 FT/L2 L2/T F/L L2/T 2θ F/Tθ Unit (SI) kg m s N deg C or K m2 m3 m3/s kg/s m/s Rad/s N N/m2 Dimension MLT θ system M L T ML/T2 θ L2 L3 L3/T M/T L/T 1/T ML/T2 M/LT2 FLT θ system FT2/L L T F θ L2 L3 L3/T FT/L L/T 1/T F F/L2 . stress. Select a set of primary dimensions. J/s kg/m3 kg/ms. List the dimensions of all parameters in terms of the chosen set of primary dimensions.1. Energy Power Density Dynamic viscosity Kinematic viscosity Surface tension Specific heat Thermal conductivity Convective heat transfer coefficient Expansion coefficient W/m2 K (m/m)/K M/T3 θ 1/T F/LTθ 1/T Nm J.3. Usually three type of parameters may be identified in fluid flow namely fluid properties. Nm W. length. Hence a careful choice of the parameters will help in solving the problem with least effort.1. (mass. length and time). length and time). Bulk modulus Moment Work.3. Step 2. Table 8. Lists the dimensions of various parameters involved. geometry and flow parameters like velocity and pressure. (force.266 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery parameters as useful or otherwise. Table 8.

. This step is essential before proceeding with experiments to determine the functional relationship between the π terms. Check whether π terms obtained are dimensionless. d can be obtained.No. The solution of these set of equations will give the values of a. – 2 + a – 3b + c = 0 ∴ a + c = – 1 ∴ c = – 2.. ρ and µ are chosen as repeating variables. (b) Using Rayleigh method (power index) evaluate the dimensionless parameters. Set up a dimensional equation with the repeating set and one of the remaining parameters. u Density.. L2. Step 6. time and length as primary dimensions. 1 2 3 4 5 Parameter Pressure drop/m. D Velocity. ρ Dynamic viscosity. c and d. and (iv) the dynamic viscosity µ. Hence two π terms can be obtained. u (ii) diameter of the pipe. S. M0L0T0 = M L2 T 2 La M b Lc L3b T c 1+b=0 –2–c=0 ∴ b = – 1. (iii) the dependent parameter to be determined should not be chosen. ∆P Diameter. Choosing the set mass. (i) the chosen set should contain all the dimensions (ii) two parameters with same dimensions should not be chosen. Some guidelines are necessary for the choice. evaluate the dimensionless parameters for the flow. and in turn comparing indices of mass. D (iii) density of the fluid ρ. Select from the list of parameters a set of repeating parameters equal to the number of primary dimensions.Dimensional Analysis 267 Step 4. Example 8. The form of the equation is. Substituting the value of indices we obtain Chapter 8 Using the principle of dimensional homogeneity. µ Unit used (N/m2/m (N = kgm/s2) m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimension M/L2T 2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are five parameters and three dimensions.. to determine π terms numbering n – m. Thus the π term will be defined. q2b . length and time. qmd As the LHS term is dimensionless. an equation for each dimension in terms of a. π1 = qm+1 . b. q3c . Hence a = 1. in turn to obtain n – m such equations. the dimensions of the parameters are tabulated. b. . Substituting dimensions.2. The pressure drop ∆P per unit length in flow through a smooth circular pipe is found to depend on (i) the flow velocity. (a) Using π theorem method. say L. As ∆P is the dependent variable D. Step 5. L3. Let π1 = ∆P Daρbuc. c. q1a .

three equations are obtained as below a + c + d = 0. – 2a + b – 3c – d + e = 0. As DP. In case D. Example 8. a + c = – 2. In this case π1 represents the ratio pressure force/viscous force. Determine the dimensionless groups to correlate the flow parameters. – 2a + d – e = 0 There are five unknowns and three equations. DPaDbrcmdue = (p1 p2). m appears only in the viscous force. variables. viscous force and inertia force. – 1 – c = 0. the dependent variable can be considered to appear only once. Substituting dimensions. diameter D and average roughness height e. The following functional relationship is formed first. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery This represents the ratio of pressure force and inertia force. This method requires more expertise and understanding of the basics of the phenomenon. Ma L2 a T 2 a Lb Mc Md Le L3 c Ld T d T e = L0 M0 T0 Considering indices of M. . Rayleigh method: (Also called method of Indices). dynamic viscosity µ. u and µ had been choosen as the repeating. ρ. The parameter π1/π2 will give the dimensionless term. Similarly. studying the forces. π1 = ∆PD2/u µ and π2 = ρDu/µ. e = – 3. b = – 1. c=–1 a=–1 Substituting the value of indices. average velocity u. c = – 2. then p1 = DPD/ru2 and p2 = m/ruD.3. ∆P D/ρu2. There can be two p terms as there are five variables and three dimensions.268 ∴ Check the dimension : π1 = ∆PD/ρu2. Solving a = 1. This flow phenomenon is influenced by the three forces namely pressure force. substituting dimensions and considering the indices of M. The pressure drop ∆P in flow of incompressible fluid through rough pipes is found to depend on the length l. d = 1. L and T. Hence some assumptions are necessary based on the nature of the phenomenon. The significance of this π term is that it is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. M a M b Lc L LT L3b T c – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. Same as was obtained by p theorem method. π2 = µ/uρD M T L3 1 = M0L0T 0 LT L M L This term may be recognised as inverse of Reynolds number. b = 0. (p1 p2) = DPm/r2 u3. M0L0T0 = 1 + b = 0 or ∴ check. Multiply and divide by D. L and T. So π2 can be modified as π2 = ρuD/µ also π2 = (uD/v). fluid density. We can assume a = 1. M L2 T 2 L L3 T 2 = M0L0T 0 M L2 Let π2 = µ Da ρbuc. So we can assume d = 1.

π3 = µ ua Db ρc. c = – 1. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable ∆P l u ρ µ D e Unit N/m2 L m/s kg/m3 kg/ms L L Dimension M/LT2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT L L 269 There are seven parameters and three dimensions. L and T. So four π terms can be identified. D and ρ as repeating variables. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0.No. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. (as these sets are separate equations. π4 = e uaDbρc M0L0T0 = M LT 2 La T a Lb Mc L3c Equating the indices of M. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0.Dimensional Analysis The variables with units and dimensions are listed below. S. – 1 – a = 0 or a = – 1. a = – 2. L and T. ∴ b = – 1. L and T. b and c in all cases). Selecting u. ρ π3 = µ/ρDu M0L0T0 = L La Ta Lb ∴ b=–1 or ρuD/µ µ Mc L3c This gives. b = 0. e . c = 0. Consider π3 M0L0T0 = M La b M c L 3c LT T a L ∴ π2 = L/D Comparing the indices of µm. – a = 0. ρuD OP ND D µ Q Chapter 8 ∴ π4 = e/D . – 2 – a = 0. π2 = L uaDb ρc. c = – 1. Substituting the value of indices we get ∴ Consider π2. c = 0. gives 1 + c = 0 or ∴ Consider π4. The relationship can be expressed as ∆P ρu 2 =f LM L . ρ π1 = ∆P/ρu2 M0L0T0 = L La T a Lb Mc L3c Equating indices of M. no problem will arise in using indices a. b = – 1 These π terms may be checked for dimensionless nature. π1 = ∆P uaDbρc. Let Consider π1. 1 + c = 0. a = 0.

The degree of difficulty involved in experimentation will depend on the number of π terms. indicating significance and area of application of each. Re Froude Number Fr Euler Number Eu Cauchy Number Ca Mach Number M Strouhal Number St Weber Number We Lift coefficient CL ρu2l/σ. c–Velocity of sound ωl/u. ω–Frequency of oscillation P/ρu2 u/(gl)0.270 8. The exact functional relations between them can be established only by experiments.4 IMPORTANT DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Some of the important dimensionless groups used in fluid mechanics are listed in Table 8. σ = Surface tension L/(1/2 ρAu2) L = lift force ρu2/Ev (Ev– bulk modulous) u/c.4. Table 8.1.4.5 or u2/gl Pressure force/ Inertia force Inertia force/ Compressibility force Inertia force/ Compressibility force Local inertia Force/ Convective inertia force Inertia force/ Surface tension force Lift force/ Dynamic force Problems influenced by surface tension free surface flow Aerodynamics Unsteady flow with frequency of oscillation Compressible flow Description ρuD/µ or uD/v Significance Inertia force/ Viscous force Inertia force/ Gravity force Applications All types of fluid dynamics problems Flow with free surface (open channel and ships) Flow driven by pressure compressible flow 8.5 CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA Dimensional analysis can only lead to the identification of relevant dimensionless groups. .1 Important Dimensionless Parameters Name Reynolds Number.

8. to obtain a reliable value for c. The valid range should be between the two extreme values used in the experiment. However. This can be used to study the settling of dust in still air. T dimension set.Dimensional Analysis 8. Inclusion of additional variable. Example 8. This can be established by experiments.4.1 Problems with One Pi Term 271 In this case a direct functional relationship will be obtained but a constant c has to be determined by experiments. L. Equating indices of M.2 Problems with Two Pi Terms In example 8. Hence drag force F in free fall is given by F = 3πµuD. A suitable graph (or a computer program) can lead to the functional relationship between the π terms. 1 + a + b – c = 0. Substituting dimensions. 1 2 3 4 Parameter Drag Force Diameter Velocity Viscosity Symbol F D u µ Unit N or kgm/s2 m m/s kg/ms Dimension ML/T2 L L/T M/LT There are four parameters and three dimensions. If the dimensional analysis is valid then a single universal relationship can be obtained. Experiments should be conducted by varying one of the group say π1 and from the measurement the values of the other group π2 is calculated. Chapter 8 . The relationship will be of the form π1 = c. 2 + b + c = 0. Hence only one π term will result.4. The parameters are listed below using M. In this case an approximate solution was obtained theoretically for c as 3π. This is illusration by example 8. L and T 0 = 1 + c.5. velocity of fall u. b = – 1. Linear semilog or log/log plots may have to be used to obtain such a relationship. c = – 1 µ π1 = F/uDµ ∴ F/uDµ = constant = c µ or F = cuDµ or drag force varies directly with velocity. diameter and viscosity. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain a relationship between the variables. This relation is known as Stokes law valid for small values of Reynolds Number (Re << 1). The drag force acting on a spherical particle of diameter D falling slowly through a viscous fluid at velocity u is found to be influenced by the diameter D. This is illustrated in example 8. c = – 1. A single test will provide the value of the constant.5.5. Extrapolation may lead to erroneous conclusions. namely density will lead to another π term. S. the experiments may have to be repeated changing the values of the parameters. M0L0T0 = ML T 2 La Lb T b Mc Lc T c .No. π1 = F Da ub µc.2 two π terms were identified. and the viscosity µ.

The density of water = 1000 kg/ m3.78 – 1. Velocity.000 10.3 404 0.01512 11928 4.6 0. The correlation appears to be good.9 2766 1. N 0. u D∆P/ρu 2 ρuD/µ logRe log(D∆P/ρu) 0.01798 5964 3.000 60.00890 99400 4.92 2.9 0. D∆P ρu2 = 0.01202 29821 4. 8.020 0.01366 17894 4.821 0.5 6763 2.018 D DP ru 4 2 D DP ru 2 0. To fit an equation the following procedure is used.951 3 0.6 – 1. Scatter may indicate either experimental error or omission of an influencing parameter.745 0. Hence we can write.006 × 10–3 kg/ms.2508 When extrapolating we can write.997 – 2.272 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 8.008 0 20. A log log plot results in a straight line. Ex.16 FG PuD IJ H µ K −0. 8.78 – 1.5 (a).865 1.5 .0 0.014 0.997 – 3.08 – 1.2508 0..48 – 1. This corresponds to the value of 0. Viscosity = 1.022 0.995 5 0.010 0.0 11189 3 22748 5 55614 Determine the functional relationship between the dimensionless parameters (D ∆P/ρu2) and (ρuD/ µ).797.16.5 (b). The slope is obtained by taking the last values: = {– 2.6 1361 0.745)}/(4.5. as shown in the Fig.16 × Re–0. The variation of pressure drop observed with variation of velocity is tabulated below. m/s Pressure drop.01011 59642 4.3 0.000 80.78) = – 0.012 0.01119 39761 4. As the direct plot is a curve. Using the data the two π parameters together with log values are calculated and tabulated below. 8.000 40.2508 = 0.051 – (x)/(5 – 0) = – 0. In order to determine the pressure drop in pipe flow per m length an experiment was conducted using flow of water at 20°C through a 20 mm smooth pipe of length 5 m.051 – (– 1. the slope using the same – 2.25 – 1.051 A plot of the data is shown in Fig. fitting an equation can not be done from the graph.016 0.2508 This gives x = – 0.5 0.0000 4 × 10 2 10 –2 8 6 –3 10 3 2 4 ruD m (a) 6 8 10 ruD m (b) 4 2 4 6 8 10 5 Figure Ex.

1 2 3 4 5 Variables Pressure drop per unit length. By suitable mathematical techniques correlation of the form below can be obtained. These curves can also be converted to show the variation of π1 with π3 at constant values of π2 by taking sections at various values of π2. µ Unit (N/m2)/m m m/s kg/m3 Ns/m2 Dimensions F/L3 L L/T FT/L2 Chapter 8 FT2/L4 . and viscosity µ. ρ Viscosity. D Velocity. The dimensions of the influencing parameters are tabulated below choosing FLT set. S. 8. diameter D. The pressure drop ∆P in flow through pipes per unit length is found to depend on the average velocity µ. The procedure as described above can then be used to obtain the functional relationship. n n π2 = cπ 1 1 π 2 2 When there are more than three π terms.1. u Density. Such a set of experiments will result in curves of the form shown in Fig. density of the fluid ρ. p2 p3 = C1 (Constant) p3 = C2 p3 = C3 p3 = C4 p1 Figure 8.1 SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 8.3.No. Using FLT set of dimensions evaluate the dimensionless parameters correlating this phenomenon. varying π1 and calculating the corresponding values of π2.5.3 Problems with Three Dimensionless Parameters 273 In this case experiments should be conducted for different constant values of π3. ∆P/l Diameter. two of these should be combined and the numbers reduced to three.Dimensional Analysis 8.5.5.

c = – 1. S. The dimensions of the influencing variables are listed below. L and T solving for a. π1 = ∆Pdaubρc or F0L0T0 = La 1 + c = 0.2. L. Choosing D. u and ρ as repeating variables. – 3 + a + b – 4c = 0. the dimaeter D of the sphere and the fluid properties density ρ and viscosity µ. F Diameter. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ 1 + c = 0. u Density. d ρuD D∆P =f 2 µ ρu LM N OP Q The result is the same as in example 8. b and c. c. µ Unit N. (kgm/s2) m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML/T2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are five variables and three dimensions. or F0 L0 T0 = F L2 La Lb F c T 2c Tb L4 c Substituting the value of indices Comparing the value of indices for M. So two π terms can be obtained. – 2 + a + b – 4c = 0. c = – 1 substituting the values of a. ρ Viscosity. u and ρ as repeating parameters. b = – 1. Problem 8. Using dimensional analysis obtain the dimensionless groups to correlate the parameters. Let π1 = F Da ub ρc. a = – 1. The drag force on a smooth sphere is found to be affected by the velocity of flow.2. two π terms can be obtained. Let Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As there are five variables and three dimensions. using M. T set. b. or M0L0T0 = ML T2 La Lb M c T b L3c . F Lb F c T 2 c L4 c L3 Tb Comparing the indices of M. – b + 2c = 0 ∴ ∴ Let.274 Using D. u.No. D Velocity. b = – 2. 1 2 3 4 5 Variables Drag force. 1 – b + 2c = 0 π2 = µ/ρuD ρ or ρuD/µ µ Solving. The dimension set choosen should not affect the final correlation. a = 1 ∆ ρ π1 = D∆P/ρu2 π2 = µDa ub ρc.

forward velocity u. ρ Viscosity. D Forward velocity. ∴ c = – 1. u and ρ as repeating variables. Note: the significance of the π term. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. u Density. S. µ ρu D 2 π1 = ML L3 T 2 1 = M0L0T0 T 2 M L2 L2 LM N OP Q or π2 = M L LT L = M0L0T0 M L3 T force. L and T 1 + c = 1.Dimensional Analysis Comparing the values of indices for M. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. or M0L0T0 = ML La T 2 T a Lb Mc L3c Chapter 8 There are 6 variables and three dimensions. – 1 – b = 0 π2 = µ/ρuD ρ or ρuD/µ µ ∴ c = – 1.3. µ Rotational speed. So three π terms can be obtained. b = – 1. a = – 1 Susbtituting the values of a. The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below using MLT set. N Unit N m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms 1/s Dimensions ML/T2 L L/T M/L3 M/LT 1/T Let π1 = F uaDbρc. viscosity µ and rotational speed N. F/ρu2D2 → F/ρu Du → F/mu → Drag force/inertia Problem 8. b. b. – 2 – b = 0 ∴ ∴ Let b = – 2. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ 2 1 + c = 0. a = – 2 ρ π1 = F/ρu2 D2 π2 = µDaub ρc or M0L0T0 = M a Lb M c L LT T b L3c 275 Substituting the values of a. F ρ uD =f . c. F Diameter. c Comparing the values of indices of M.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters Thrust force. The thrust force. Determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate the phenomenon. Check for dimensions of π1 and π2. density ρ. Choosing D. . F generated by a propeller is found to depend on the folllowing parameters: diameter D.

– 1 – a = 0. ND OP Nµ uQ Problem 8. T set. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. viscosity and bulk modulus of the fluid. (Thrust force/Inertia force) π2 = µ uaDbρc or M0L0T0 = M La b M c L 3c LT T a L Comparing the indices M. b and c ∴ ∴ π3 = ND/u (Rotational speed/Forward speed) F/u2D2 ρ = f LM uDρ . Evaluate the dimensionless parameters for the system. a + b – 3c = 0. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ Let 1 + c = 0. L. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. – 2 – a = 0 a = – 2.4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Force. or M0L0T0 = Comparing the indices of M. The influencing parameters and dimensions are tabulated below. forward speed.No. E Unit N/m2 m m/s l/s kg/m3 kg/ms (m3/m3)N/m 2 Dimensions M/LT2 L L/T 1/T M/L3 M/LT M/LT2 . F Diameter.276 Comparing indices of M. L and T c = 0. b and c π3 = N ua Db ρc. c = – 1 ρ π2 = µ/ρuD or ρuD/µ (Inertia force/Viscous force) µ 1 La b M c L 3c T Ta L Substituting the values of a. rotational speed. ∴ a = – 1. b. L and T ∴ ∴ ∴ Let 1 + c = 0. At higher speeds where compressibility effects are to be taken into account the performance of a propeller in terms of force exerted is influenced by the diameter. c = – 1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Substituting the values of a. S. µ Bulk Modulus. D Forward velocity. – 1 – a = 0 a = – 1. using M. and c π1 = F/u2D2 ρ. ρ Viscosity. b = – 2. N Density. density. b = 1 Susbtituting the values of a. b = – 1. u Rotational speed.

Using dimensional analysis. or M0L0T0 = a = 0. The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below. µ Unit Nm m l/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML2/T2 1/T M/L3 M/LT Chapter 8 L . µ/ρuD π3 = µ/ρ or ρuD/µ (Reynolds number) µ M M a Lb LT 2 L3 a T b 1 + a = 0. c = – 1. or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ c = 0. viscosity and density of the fluid. – 1 – b = 0 Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π3 = µρa ubDc. E OP N u µ ρu Q Problem 8. a = – 1 ρ π1 = F/ρu2 → (force exerted/inertia force)/m2 π2 = NρaubDc.Dimensional Analysis 277 There are seven variables and three dimensions. The parameters influencing the torque can be identified as the diameter. – 3a + b + c = 0. c = 0 Lc π4 = E/ρu2 ρ ∴ F ρu 2 (Compressibility force/inertia force) 2 =f LM ND . c = 1. 1 2 3 4 5 Parameters Torque. Lc LT L3 a T b The general procedure is to compare the indices of M. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. N Density. D Rotational speed.5. using M. T set. So four π terms are possible. rotational speed. – 2 – b = 0 π4 = EρaubDc. or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. obtain a correlation for the frictional torque due to rotation of a disc in a viscous fluid. L. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. Selecting D. π2 = ND/u (or rotational speed/forward speed) M M a Lb c L LT L3 a T b 1 + a = 0. b = – 1. ρ Viscosity. b = – 2. – 2 – b = 0 Let 2 π1 = F ρaubdc. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. u and ρ as repeating parameters. ρ uD . L and T on both sides and from equations. 1 + a = 0. – 1 – b = 0 1 M a Lb c L T L3 a T b a = 0. b = – 2. S. τ Diameter. b = – 2.No.

b = – 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters Drag force. u density.278 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery There are five variables and three dimensions. as DN → u) ρ 5 =f LM µ OP N ρD N Q Check for the dimensions of π 2 1 and π2 Note: Rotational speed can also be expressed as angular velocity. L. N and ρ as repeating variables. a Velocity. a = – 5. F Width. – 1 – b = 0 ∴ c = – 1. a and width. b = – 2.6. Considering D. ω. u and ρ as repeating variables. Problem 8. µ Unit N m m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms Dimensions ML/T2 L L L/T M/L3 M/LT There are 6 parameters and three dimensions. A rectangular plate of height. – 1 + a – 3c = 0. a = – 2 π1 = F/ρu2b2 ρ . So two π parameters can be identified. and the fluid properties. 2 + a – 3c = 0. density ρ and viscosity µ. (Another form of Reynolds number. the velocity u. S. π1 = τ/ρN2D5 ρ 1 Mc T2 T b L3 c – 2 – b = 0 ∴ c = – 1. Selecting b. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. Hence three π terms can be obtained. a = – 2 π2 = µ DaNbρc or M0L0T0 = π2 = µ/ρD2 N. Obtain a correlation for the drag force in terms of dimensionless parameters. b = – 2. La ML2 M a 1 Mc L LT T b L3c 1 + c = 0. T set of dimensions.No. ρ Viscosity. In that case N will be replaced by ω as the dimension of both these variables is 1/T. b Height. The parameters with dimensions are listed adopting M. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ τ ρN D 2 π1 = τ DaNbρc or M0L0T0 = 1 + c = 0. The drag force on the plate is influenced by the dimensions a and b. – 2 – b = 0 π1 = F baubρc or M0L0T0 = ML La Lb M c T b L3c c = – 1. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ T2 1 + c = 0. b is held perpendicular to the flow of a fluid.

Dimensional Analysis Let π2 = a baubρc or a=–1 M0L0T0 = LLa Lb M c T b L3c 279 c = 0. adopting MLT set. D Viscosity. – 2 – a – c = 0 ∴ c = – 1. Problem 8. µ Unit Nm 1/s N/m2 m kg/ms Dimensions ML2/T2 1/L M/LT 2 L M/LT There are five parameters and three dimensions. b = – 1 π3 = µ/ρub or π3 = ρub/µ ρ µ F a ρ ub . b = 0 π2 = P/Nµ. – 1 + b – c = 0. ∴ µ τ P =f Nµ NµD 3 LM OP N Q Note : P/Nµ is also Reynolds number. a = – 1. Let ∴ ∴ π1 = τ NaDbµc or M0L0T0 = π 1 = τ /NµD3 Also π = τ/µuD ML2 T 2 1 b Mc L c c Ta LT 1 + c = 0. π3 = µbaubρc or b = – 1. 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Frictional Torque. In film lubricated journal bearings.No. Evaluate dimensionless parameters for application to such bearings in general. c = – 1. ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ π2 = a/b M0L0T0 = M a Lb M c L LT T b L3c 1 + c = 0. =f 2 2 b µ ρu b LM N OP Q π3 is Reynolds number based on length b. viscosity of the oil. – 2. π1 is (drag force/unit area)/inertia force. the load on the projected area and the diameter. try to verify. Considering N.7. 2 + b – c = 0. – b = 0. b = – 3 (τ–Torque) M Let ∴ ∴ ∴ 1 b Mc L c c LT 2 T a LT 1 + c = 0. – 1 + a + b – 3c = 0. P Diameter. Hence two π parameters can be found. S. – 1 – b = 0. Chapter 8 . The variables with dimensions are listed below. the frictional torque is found to depend on the speed of rotation. D and µ as repeating variables. τ Speed. a = – 1. N Load per unit area. – a – c = 0 π2 = PNaDbµc or M0L0T0 = c = – 1.

– 2 – a = 0 2 M La M b π2 = µ ua ρb lc or M0L0T0 = a = – 1. density and length as repeating variables. u Length of the body. b = 0 π3 = gl/u2 T 2 T a L3b b = 0. S. π3 = guaρblc or a = – 2. Considering velocity.) Lc LT 2 T a L3b 1 + b = 0. b = – 1 and c = – 1 ρ π2 = µ/uρl. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. g Bulk modulus. buoyant forces and compressibility of the fluid. So four π. – 2 – a = 0 Lc LT T a L3b 1 + b = 0.280 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 8.8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Resistance to motion. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. terms are possible. b = – 1 and c = 0 π4 = Ev/ρu2 ρ . – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. b = – 1 and c = 0 π1 = R/ρu2. Ev Unit N/m2 m/s m kg/ms kg/ms m/s2 N/m2 Dimensions M/LT2 L/T L M/L3 M/LT L/T2 M/LT2 There are seven parameters and three dimensions. µ Gravity.5 (Froude number. l Density of the fluid. – 2 – a = 0 π4 = Evuaρblc or M0L0T0 = a = – 2. R Forward velocity. ρ M La M b c L LT T a L3b 1 + b = 0. for the resistance to uniform motion of a partially submerged body (like a ship) in a viscous compressible fluid. The variables identified as affecting the situation are listed below using MLT set. The resistance can be considered to be influenced by skin friction forces. ρ Viscosity. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π1 = Ruaρblc or M0L0T0 = a = – 2. Obtain a relation using dimensional analysis. of the fluid. Euler number. – 2 – a = 0 L La M b M0L0T0 = Lc and c = 1 M La M b → can also be expressed as u/(gL)0.No.

c through a fluid is assumed to depend on the fluid density ρ and bulk modulus of the fluid Ev. Fr) 0. u OP N µ ( gl) Q = f(Re.5. Note: The definition of the bulk modulus is dp/(dv/v). g and H as repeating variables .5 π1 = c(ρ/Ev)0. gl . The following list of parameters can be identified as affecting the coefficient of discharge S. or c = const × (Ev/ρ)0. a = 0.10. the dimension being that of pressure. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parameters Diameter. this will reduce to R ρu 2 =f LM ulρ . So four π terms can be identified. Ev) Let.5 Problem 8. – 1 – 2b = 0. D Head. µ Unit m m m/s2 kg/m3 m N/m kg/ms2 Dimensions L L L/T2 M/L3 L M/T2 M/LT Let ∴ ∴ π1 = D ρagbHc or M0L0T0 = L c = – 1 ∴ π1 = D/H or M a Lb L3a T 2b a = 0.5. M/LT2. ρ Roughness height. k Surface tension. ∴ b = – 0. using the method of dimensional analysis. g Density of the fluid. – 2b = 0.Dimensional Analysis R ρu 2 281 =f LM µ . Lc H/D Chapter 8 There are seven variables and three dimensions. Writing c = f(ρ. The velocity of propagation of pressure wave.5 ρ Problem 8. 1 – 3a – b = 0. σ Viscosity. Froude number and Mach number) In the case of incompressible flow. Considering ρ. This is a case were there will be a direct relationship between the variables or one π term.9. E OP N ulρ u ρu Q 2 v 2 or Euler number = f (Reynolds number. Obtain a correlation for the coefficient of discharge through a small orifice. ∴ ∴ π1 = c ρaEvb or M0L0T0 L Ma Mb = T La Lb T 2b a + b = 0. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0.No. Using dimensional analysis obtain an expression for c in terms of ρ and Ev. H Gravity.

3 – a + b – 3c = 0. b = – 1/2. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. Lc a = 0. b = 0. Let ∴ ∴ L3 M a Mc Lb 3c T La T 2 a L a + c = 0. µ (ρH OP gH ) P Q Check the dimensions of these π terms. k .No. – 1 – 2a = 0. The volume flow rate of a gas through a sharp edged orifice is found to be influenced by the pressure drop. a = – 1. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain an expression for the flow rate. Problem 8. Q Pressure drop. As Cd is dimensionless ρ Cd = f LM D .282 Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π2 = kρagbHc or M0L0T0 = L Fluid Mechanics and Machinery M a Lb L3a T 2b a = 0. Choosing ∆P. v Unit m3/s N/m2 m kg/m3 m2/s Dimensions L3/T M/LT2 L M/L3 L2/T There are five parameters and three dimensions. (σ/ρ gH MN H H 2 ). 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Volume flow rate. D and ρ as repeating variables.11. D Density. c = 1/2. – 3a + b + c = 0. π4 = µ/(ρH gH ).5. c = – 1 ∴ π2 = k/H π3 = σρagbHc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb T 2 L3 a T 2b Lc a + 1 = 0. – 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. The variables and dimensions are listed below. adopting MLT system S. ∴ a = – (1/2). b = – 2 π1 = Q ∆PaDbρc or M0L0T0 = π1 = (Q/D2) (ρ/∆P)1/2 ρ∆ . ∆P Diameter. orifice diameter and density and kinematic viscosity of the gas. b = – 1. a = – 1. ρ Kinematic viscosity. – 2b = 0. c = – 1. – 2 – 2b = 0. – 1 – 2b = 0. c = – 2 σ/ρgH2 π3 = σ/ρ π4 = µρagbHc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb L LT L3 a T 2b c a + 1 = 0. So two π terms can be obtained.

g Unit m m m m/s kg/m3 kg/ms m/s2 Dimensions L L L L/T M/L3 M/LT L/T2 There are seven variables and three dimensions. b = – 1 π2 = (v/D) (ρ/∆P)1/2 or ρ∆ Q D2 FG ρ IJ H ∆P K 1/ 2 =f LM v F ρ I MN D GH ∆P JK 1/ 2 OP PQ Note : π2 can be also identified as Reynolds number. h Inlet diameter.12. µ Gravitational acceleration. c = 0. c = – 1. π3 = µ Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = . Determine dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. D Outlet diameter.No. g. S. a = – 1 ∴ π2 = d/D b = – 1. – 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Loss of head.Dimensional Analysis Let ∴ ∴ ∴ L2 M a Mc Lb 3 c T La T 2 a L a + c = 0. Considering D. c = 0 ∴ π2 = d Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = LLa M b Lc L3b T c a = – 1 ∴ π1 = h/D M b Lc L3b T c b = 0. c = (1/2). The influencing variables with dimensions are tabulated below with MLT set. In flow through a sudden contraction in a circular duct the head loss h is found to depend on the inlet velocity u. ρ and u as repeating variables. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. 283 π2 = v∆PaDbρc or M0L0T0 = a = – (1/2). Problem 8. Try to verify. ρ Viscosity. u Density. Hence four π parameters can be found. diameters D and d and the fluid properties density ρ and viscosity µ and gravitational acceleration. – 1 – 2a = 0. d Velocity. Let ∴ Let ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let π1 = h Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = LLa b = 0. a = – 1 π3 = µ/Dρu or ρDu/µ ρ µ π4 = g Da ρb uc or M0L0T0 = L T2 La M b Lc L3b T c Chapter 8 M a M b Lc L LT L3b T c b + 1 = 0. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. 2 – a + b – 3c = 0. – 1 – c = 0.

c = 2. The volume flow rate. – 1 – 2b = 0 b = – 0. 2 – 3a + b + c = 0. As θ. . the notch angle is a dimensionless parameter. and surface tension σ. 2 D D µ u LM N OP Q Note : gD/u2 is the ratio of Potential energy to Kinetic energy.No. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π1 = Q ρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = L3 M a Lb Lc T L3 a T 2b a = 0. g and h as repeating variables. Considering ρ. Q Unit kg/m3 m2/s N/m m m/s2 m3/s Dimension M/L3 L2/T M/T2 L L/T2 L3/T There are six parameters and three dimensions. Problem 8. – 2 – 2b = 0 ∴ a = – 1. – 1 – 2b = 0 b = – 0. σ Head of fluid. adopting MLT set. c = – 2 π3 = σ/ρ 2 ∴ Q = g1/2 h5/2 f σ/ρgh π3 = σ ρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = M M a Lb LM Ng 1/ 2 v σ . head of fluid over the vertex. π3 will not exist. 3 – 3a + b + c = 0. kinematic viscosity v. and acceleration due to gravity. ρ kinematic vicosity. S. Q over a V-notch depends on fluid properties namely density ρ. . v Surface tension. It is also influenced by the angle of the notch. – 3a + b + c = 0.5 ∴ π1 = Q/g1/2 h5/2 π2 = vρa gb hc or M0L0T0 = L2 M a Lb Lc T L3 a T 2b a = 0.5) ∴ π2 = v/g1/2 h3/2 Lc T 2 L3 a T 2b 1 + a = 0.5. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0.284 ∴ ∴ ∴ b = 0. . g Flow rate. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Density.θ 3/2 h ρ gh 2 OP Q Note : In case surface tension is not considered. b = – 1. h Gravitational acceleration. the other parameters are listed below with dimensions.13. c = (– 1. π2 can be identified as Reynolds number. – 2 – c = 0 c = – 2.5. So three π terms can be identified. a = 1 ∴ π4 = gD/u2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery h d ρDu gD =f . Determine the dimensionless parameters which can correlate the variables.

14. and a = – 2 π2 = σ/D2 gρ.15. h is the head and g is acceleration due to gravity. density ρ. h Gravitational acceleration. gravitational acceleration g and surface tension σ. 1 + a – 3b + c = 0. Considering D. S. σ Capillary rise. 2 Note : π2 can be identified as 1/Weber number. developed by a hydraulic turbine can be correlated by the dimensionless parameters P/ρ N3D5 and N2D2/gh. ρ Gravitational acceleration. Show that the power P. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variable Power. g Surface tension. c = 0 ∴ π1 = h/D π2 = σ Daρb gc or M0L0T0 = M T2 La M b Lc L3b T 2 c M b Lc L3b T 2 c 1 + b = 0. c = – 1. gρ can also be considered as specific weight γ ρ h =f D LM σ OP ND γ Q . – 2 – 2c = 0 ∴ b = – 1. The parameters with dimensions are tabulated below using MLT set. N Diameter.Dimensional Analysis 285 Problem 8. 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Diameter. The capillary rise h is found to be influenced by the tube diameter D. where ρ is the density of water and N is the rotational speed. D is the runner diameter. The variables are listed below adopting MLT set of dimensions. Determine the dimensionless parameters for the correlation of experimental results. ρ and g as repeating variables. P Density.No. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ π1 = h Da ρb gc or M0L0T0 = LLa b = 0. b = 0. S. ρ Speed. g Unit W kg/m3 1/s m m m/s2 Dimension ML2/T 3 1/T L L L/T2 Chapter 8 M/L3 .No. – 2c = 0 a = – 1. h Unit m kg/m3 m/s2 N/m m Dimension L M/L3 L/T2 M/T2 L There are five parameters and three dimensions and so two π parameters can be identified. a – 3b + c = 0. D Density. Problems 8. D Head.

adopting MLT set of dimensions. D and N as repeating variables. b = – 5 M0L0T0 = ML2 M a 3 3a Lb π1 = P/ρN3 D5 (Power coefficient) ρ π2 = h ρa Db Nc or M0L0T0 = L a = 0. Let π1 = P ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = ML2 M a T3 L3 a Lb Lc T 2c . and acceleration due to gravity.286 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery There are six parameters and three dimensions. speed N. 1 – 3a + b = 0. L Ma 2 Ma π3 = g ρa Db Nc or M0L0T0 = T a = 0. D Acceleration due to gravity. runner diameter D. Choosing ρ. Taking ρ. So three π terms can be found. D and g as repeating variables. g Unit W m m3/s kg/m3 1/s m m/s2 Dimension ML2/T 3 L L3/T M/L3 1/T L L/T2 There are seven variables and three dimensions and hence four π terms can be formed. ρ Speed. – 3 – c = 0 ∴ a = – 1. The parameters with dimensions are listed below. The power developed by hydraulic machines is found to depend on the head h. Obtain suitable dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Power. flow rate Q. Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ Let ∴ ∴ P ρN D 3 5 π1 = P ρa Db Nc or 1 T L Tc 1 + a = 0. Problem 8. c = – 3. P Head. Q Density. c = 0. g. 1 – 3a + b = 0. h Flow rate. S. 1 Lb c L3a T ∴ b = – 1 ∴ π2 = h/D. – 2 – c = 0 L 3a Lb 1 Tc c = – 2. N Diameter. b = – 1 ∴ π3 = g/DN2 π2 × π3 = gh/D2N2 (Head coefficient) ∴ =f LM gh OP ND N Q 2 2 In this expression the first term is called power coefficient and the second one is called head coefficient. 2 – 3a + b = 0. These are used in model testing of turbo machines.16.No. density ρ.

– 3 – 2c = 0 a = – 1. . b = – 5/2 π3 = Q/g1/2 D5/2 π4 = N ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = π4 = ND1/2/g1/2 1 M a b Lc L T L3a T 2c a = 0. – 1 – 2c = 0 ∴ a = 0. 2 – 3a + b + c = 0. Specific speed based on Q. c = – 3/2 π1 = ρ P/ρD7/2 ρ g3/2 Ma L3 a Lb Lc T 2c 287 ∴ b = – 7/2 π2 = h ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = L a = 0. 1 – 3a + b + c = 0. Flow coefficient gh N 2 D2 Q ND 3 = π42 π2 = hg DN 2 D = gh N 2 D2 = π3 Qg 1/ 2 Q = 1/ 2 5 / 2 = 1/ 2 π4 g D ND N D3 = π1 π4 3 3. These can be obtained from the above four π terms. Power coefficient P ρN 3 D 5 = ρD 7 / 2 Pg 3 / 2 P = 3/ 2 3 3/ 2 ρ N 3 D5 g N D N 3 / 2 D3 / 2 ( gh)3 / 4 N Q ( gh)3 / 4 4. Specific speed based on power. for Turbines Chapter 8 Nst = N P (power coefficient) 1/ 2 P 1/ 2 ( ND) 5 / 2 N P = 1/ 2 3 / 2 5 / 2 = 5/ 4 5 / 4 = 1/ 2 1/ 2 5/4 ρ ( gh)5 / 4 (head coefficient) D ( gh) ρ N ρ ( gh) P 5/4 F Dimensional Specific speed N GH h is commonly used as water is used in most cases I JK These are the popularly used dimensionally numbers in hydraulic turbo machinery. – 1 – 2c = 0 The coefficients popularly used in model testing are given below. c = 0 ∴ π2 = h/D π3 = Q ρa Db gc or M0L0T0 = a = 0. c = – 1/2. Nsp N Q ( gh) used) 3/4 = (flow coeff )1/ 2 (head coeff ) 3/ 4 = Q 1/ 2 N 1/ 2 D 3/ 2 = (dimensional specific speed N Q /h3/4 is commonly used as mostly water is the fluid 5. – 2c = 0 a = 0. 1. c = – 1/2. Head coefficient 2.Dimensional Analysis ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ 1 + a = 0. b = – 1. for pumps. b = 1/2 L3 M a b Lc L T L3 a T 2c a = 0. – 3a + b + c = 0. 3 – 3a + b + c = 0.

c Flow velocity. – 1 – a = 0. flow velocity and the diameter. – 2 – 3a – b = 0. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ π1 = h ka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0= M M a La Mb Mc T 3θ T 3 a θ a Lb T b L3c Ld 1 + a + b + c = 0. h Diameter D Thermal conductivity. µ Specific heat. u Unit W/m2K m W/mK kg/m3 kg/ms Nm/kgK m/s Dimension M/T3 θ L ML/T3 θ M/L3 M/LT L2/T2 θ L/T Three π terms are possible as there are seven variables and four dimensions.288 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 8. k Density. a = 0. Problem 8.18. 1 + a – b – 3c + d = 0. ρ and D as repeating variables. specific heat. c = 0. 2 + a – b – 3c + d = 0. Using dimensional analysis determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate the situation. – 1 – 3a – b = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Variable Convection coefficient.No. L2 M a La Mb Mc Ld hD uDρ cµ . The variables with dimensions are listed below using MLT θ set of dimensions. . viscosity. The temperature difference θ at a location x at time τ in a slab of thickness L originally at a temperature difference θ0 with outside is found to depend on the thermal diffusivity α. d = 1 π2 = uρD/µ (Reynolds number) ρ µ T 2 θ T 3 a θ a LbT b L3 c a + b + c = 0. b = 0. c = 1. – 1 – a = 0 a = – 1. In forced convection in pipes heat transfer coefficient h is found to depend on thermal conductivity. b = – 1. S. µ. Choosing k. density. d = 1 π1 = hD/k (Nusselt number) π2 = u ka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0 = L M a La M b M c d L T T 3a θ a LbT b L3c a + b + c = 0. ρ Viscosity. a – b – 3c + d = 0. c = 0. thermal conductivity k and convection coefficient h. Obtain dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results.17. d = 0 µ π3 = cµ/k (Prandtl number). π3 = cka µb ρc Dd or M0L0T0 θ0 = a = – 1. =f k k µ LM N OP Q These are popular dimensionless numbers in convective heat transfer. – 3 – 3a – b = 0. where θ is temperature. – a = 0. b = 1.

c = 0. Hence four π terms can be identified. a = – 1 π1 = θ/θ0 θ π2 = x θ0a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 = LθaLb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d a – d = 0. d = 0. L Location distance. d = 0 π4 = α τ 2 τ/L (Fourier number) Chapter 8 Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 =T θa Lb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d . choosing MLT θ set. L. b = 1. α and k as repeating variables. τ Thermal diffusivity. c = 0. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let π1 = θ θ0a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 = θ θa Lb L2 c M d Ld T c T 3d θ d d = 0. Choosing θ0. ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ a = 0. h Unit m m deg K deg K s m2/s W/mK W/m2 K Dimension L L θ0 θ T L2/T ML/T 3θ M/T3θ There are eight variables and four dimensions. – 3 – c – 3d = 0. x Initial temperature difference. k Convection coefficient. b = – 2. S. – c – 3d = 0. b + 2c + d = 0. a = 0. 1 + b + 2c + d = 0. θ Time. b + 2c + d = 0. a – d = 0. d = 0 π2 = x/L π3 = h θ0 a Lb αc kd or M0L0T0θ0 M a b L2 c M d Ld = 3 θ L T θ T c T 3d θ d ∴ 1 + d = 0. d = 0. c = 1. b = – 1.No. α Thermal conductivity. – 1 + a – d = 0. 1 + a – d = 0. θ0 Temperature difference at time τ. b = 0. b + 2c + d = 0. c = 0. a = 0. – c – 3d = 0. d = – 1 π3 = hL/k (Biot number) π4 = τ θ0 a d = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Parameter Slab thickness.Dimensional Analysis 289 The influencing parameters with dimensions are listed below. 1 – c – 3d = 0.

c Thermal conductivity.19. µ Specific heat. – 1 – d = 0. c = – 2. viscosity. x and k are chosen as repeating variables. the height of surface and the flow velocity. – b – 3d = 0. g Density.290 ∴ θ =f θ0 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM x . Convective heat transfer coefficient in free convection over a surface is found to be influenced by the density. b = 3. ρ Viscosity. S. Using dimensional analysis. π2 = β ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = – 2. x Temperature difference. k Convective heat transfer coefficient. π1 = ∆T ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = θ a = 2. Hence five π terms can be identified.No. 1 – d = 0. ∆T Coefficient of cubical expansion. hL . d = 1 Ma Mb Lc M d Ld π1 = ∆Tρ2 x2 k/µ3 ρ µ 1 Ma Mb M d Ld Lc 3 d d 3a b b θ L LT T θ a + b + d = 0. specific heat. b – 3d = 0. µ. gravitational acceleration. d = – 1 ρ π2 = β µ3/ρ2x2k π3 = g ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = L Ma Mb T 2 L3 a LbT b Lc M d Ld T 3d θ d . coefficient of cubical expansion. thermal conductivity. determine the dimensionless parameters that will correlate the phenomenon. b = – 3. There are the popular dimensionless numbers is conduction heat transfer. Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let L3a LbT b T 3dθ d a + b + d = 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Variable Height. This problem shows that the method is not limited to fluid flow or convection Problem 8. β Acceleration due to gravity. The variables with dimensions in the MLT θ set is tabulated below. h Unit m deg K (m3/m3)/deg K m/s2 kg/m3 kg/ms J/kgK W/mK W/m2K Dimension L θ 1/θ L/T2 M/L3 M/LT L2/T2θ ML/T3θ M/T3θ There are nine variables and four dimensions. ρ. c = 2. – 3a – b + c + d = 0. ατ OP NL k L Q 2 only. temperature difference. – 3a – b + c + d = 0.

b = 1. 4. 1 – 3a – b + c + d = 0. π6 = ∴ ∆Tρ2 x 2 k βµ 3 gρ2 x 3 ∆Tβgx 3ρ2 ∆Tgβx 3 × 2 2 × = = µ3 ρ x k µ2 µ2 v2 hx cµ ∆Tgβρ2 x 3 =f . π-theorem states that parameters can be obtained. L2 M a Mb M d Ld 291 π4 = c ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = 0. have 7. for . b = 0. One of the methods to check the correctness of an equation is to check for each of the additive terms. Fill in the blanks: 1. d = – 1 π5 = hx/k (Nusselt number) 1 + a + b + d = 0. The dimension for force in the MLT set is 2. 5. The dimension for mass in the FLT set is . – 1 – d = 0. π2 and π3 are combined as π1 × π2 × π3 to form the group known as Grashof number. The dimension for thermal conductivity in the MLT θ system is system is . OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. k k µ2 LM N OP Q Note : When there are more than three π parameters the set should be reduced to three by judicial combination. – 3 – b – 3d = 0. The approximate number of experiments to evaluate the influence of 5 parameters separately is assuming that 10 experiments are needed for each variable. As the π terms are too many π1. d = – 1 Lc π4 = c µ/k (Prandtl number) M Ma Mb T 3θ L3 a LbT b Lc M d Ld T 3dθd π5 = h ρa µbxckd or M0L0T0θ0 = a = 0. each additive term in the equations should . dimensionless and in FLT θ 3. b = – 2.1. 2 – 3a – b + c + d = 0. c = 1. The limitation of dimensional analysis is that the experiments. – 2 – b – 3d = 0. – 2 – b – 3d = 0.Dimensional Analysis ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ Let ∴ ∴ ∴ a + b + d = 0. 8. . – 1 – d = 0. If there are n variables and m dimensions. – 3a – b + c + d = 0. For an expression to be dimensionally homogeneous. c = 0. Chapter 8 6. has to be determined by 8. a = 2. d = 0. d = 0 µ π3 = g ρ2 x3/µ2 T 2 θ L3 a LbT b T 3dθ d a + b + d = 0. c = 3.

292 9. O Q. 2. Answers (1) Correct : 1. 3. Dimensional analysis by clubbing variables into groups facilitates presentation of results of experiments in a compact form. 9. Euler number is used in the study of 4. It is easier to investigate a problem varying the value of a group as a whole rather than individual variables. 4. 6. 10. 3. Dimensional analysis can provide an exact functional relationship between variables affecting a phenomenon. 8. flow. set must be reduced to 3 by Answers (1) (2) (3) n – m (4) ML/T3 θ. Froude number is used in the study of 3. flow. 7. 8. 9. Euler number is the ratio between Inertia force and viscous force. 5. The ratio of inertia to viscous force is called 10. Fill in the blanks: 1. flow. 4. Reynolds number is the ratio between gravitational force and the viscous force. Drag coefficient is the ratio of drag force to 9. 8 Incorrect : 2. 10. Lift coefficient is the ratio of lift force to 8.2. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery on the final dimensionless numbers deter- When there are more than 3 Pi terms determined for a phenomenon. is important. Cauchy number is used when 7. O Q. Weber number is used in the study of 5. The ratio of pressure force to inertia force is called 6. . number.3. ML/T2 FT2/L Answers (1) All types of flow (2) Free surface flow (3) Pressure driven flow (4) Free surface flow. The number used in the study of oscillating flows is . 7. 10 . State correct or incorrect: 1. Surface tension effects (5) Compressibility (6) Strouhal number (7) dynamic force (8) dynamic force (9) Reynolds numbers (10) Euler number. Dimensional analysis can be used to reduce the number of variables for investigation of a phenomenon. Reynolds number is used in the study of 2. number. Fluid dynamics problems can be completely solved by dimensional analysis. 8. flow. 5. for experimentation the . Weber number is used to study oscillating flow. Froude number is the ratio between inertia force and gravitational force. 6. The choice of dimension set has mined for a phenomenon. . F/Tθ (5) the same dimensions (6) the sameness of dimensions (homogeneous) (7) the exact functional relation (8) 105 (9) no effect (10) Combining terms in excess of two into a single π term. Grouping of variables into dimensionless parameters reduces number of experiments.

the density and viscosity of the liquid and gravitational acceleration. The speed u of free surface gravity wave in deep water depends on the depth D. z-height above datum) (g0 = kgm/Ns2) E 8. Find using dimensional analysis a functional relation.3. (τ/D3 µω = f(h/D) E 8. u gI GH rud d JK 2 E 8.12.1. h . Determine. Obtain the dimensionless parameters to correlate the flow. Determine the π terms to correlate the flow. Exρ/µ) press the correlation in the form of dimensionless groups. Determine the dimensionless parameters to express the relation between the variables. using dimensional analysis. (τw/ρu2) = f(µ/ρux) µρ τ ρ E 8. Using the method of dimensional analysis obtain a correlation in terms of dimensionless numbers. gh r I GH h h m JK 3 2 2 E 8. ρ-density. P = P0 – (1/2) ρu2 – ρgz (P-pressure. The centripetal acceleration of a particle in circular motion is dependent on velocity u and ω radius r. Check whether the equation is dimensionally homogeneous.11. density of the gas ρ. and acceleration due to gravity. The instantaneous volume Q drained by an orifice of diameter d from a circular tank of diameter D.5. In flow over a smooth flat plate. the wall shear τw in the boundary layer depends on the free stream velocity. (c P / ρ = constant) E 8. The time τ to drain a circular tank of diameter D by an orifice of diameter d is found to depend on the initial head h. Obtain a relationship for the torque τ to rotate a disk of diameter D in a fluid of viscosity µ at τ µω) an angular speed ω over a plate.6. wave length λ. (Q/uδ2) = f δ F m . with clearance h. Oil is moved up in a lubricating system by a rope dipping in the sump containing oil and moving up. depends on the pressure P and density ρ of the gas. and the speed N. depends on the speed u of the rope. volume flow rate Q. (Q/h2 (gh)1/2) = f(b/h) E 8. when the head is h depends on the density and viscosity of the fluid and acceleration due to gravity. c in a gaseous medium.7.9. (δ/x) = f(ux ρ/µ δ E 8. u-velocity.4. (P/(ρ D5N3)) = f(Q/D3 N) ρ E 8. (Note : Used in the determination of viscosity) (τµ 2 ρ) = f τµ/h τµ F D . the boundary layer thickness δ is found to depend on the free stream velocity u. the layer thickness δ.10. Determine dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. In flow over a smooth flat plate. density ρ and acceleration due to gravity. the width of the weir b. The velocity of sound. [ar = f(rω2)] E 8. d . The quantity of oil pumped Q. the density and viscosity of the oil and acceleration due to gravity. density and viscosity of the fluid and the distance from the leading edge.Dimensional Analysis EXERCISE PROBLEMS 293 E 8. a functional relationship between the varaibles. Find the unit conversion factor to make it dimensionally homogeneous. Using dimensional analysis determine the functional relation. Obtain a relationship between the variables in terms of dimensionless parameters. The volume flow Q over a weir depends on the upstream height h. gh r I GH d d m JK 3 2 2 Chapter 8 .8. fluid density and viscosity and the distance x from the leading edge. The power P to drive a fan is found to depend on the diameter D.2. (Qρ/d µ) = f ρ F D . (u/(gD)1/2 = f(λ/D) E 8.

ω and the roughness height e on the ball surface. The pressure P. temperature difference ∆θ (between gas and heated body) a length parameter L.14. Obtain dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results. diffuser diameter D. find the π terms that can be used to characterize the phenomenon. m . the volume flow Q and the density and viscosity of the fluid.13. and the density. The velocity of the jet is u. over a thin wire held between rigid supports is found to depend on length of the wire L. LM P NM ru 2 = f(E v /ru 2 ) OP QP E 8. The power required to drive a propeller in a gas medium depends upon the forward speed u. angular velocity of spin. A spherical ball of diameter D and weight w is balanced at the tip of a jet of diameter d at a height h. The deflection δ at the center due to fluid flow at velocity u.20. the ball diameter D. d elastic modulus of the wire. viscosity and flow velocity u of the fluid. density. developed in a jet pump is found to depend on the jet diameter d. ruD u D OP QP E 8. density and viscosity of the gas and the speed of sound c in the medium. LM Q NM ru L 3 2 . s I GH m rDu JK 2 E 8. D . diameter D.294 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 8. . LM t NM ru D 2 3 . the droplet size d is believed to depend on the jet diameter D. . c∆q u2 .15. jet velocity u. the velocity u of the jet.16.19. As the ball moves the spin rate will decrease. In the atomization of a fluid by passing it through an orifice under pressure. the rotational speed N.17. density and viscosity of air. Determine the π parameters for the situation. 2 . the heat transfer rate Q (W) is believed to depend on the specific heat of air. Determine the functional relationship among the variables in terms of dimensionless parameters. P rD u 2 2 =f LM ND . m ruL OP QP E 8. .18. E and fluid properties density and viscosity and the velocity u. viscosity and surface tension of the lqiuid. In an oven where materials are heated by convection. the density of fluid and the bulk modulous Ev. ruD OP Nd d m Q E 8. m d P . LM Q MN ud ity. If the other parameters are the liquid density and viscos- LM h . golf etc. The high pressure generated due to sudden closing of a valve in a pipeline (known as water hammer) is found to depend on the velocity of flow. Determine the dimensionless parameters to organize experimental results. (d/D) = f F ruD . ruD D ru 2 OP PQ E 8. c OP N u ruD u Q E 8. If the aerodynamic torque τ on the ball in flight depends on the forward speed u. diameter of the wire. Players use spin in ball plays like tennis. Determine dimensionless parameters for the phenomenon. m wD e . determine the dimensionless parameters to correlate situation.

rud .21.Dimensional Analysis Determine the π terms for the problem. Determine π terms to correlate the variables. (use ρ. The volume of flue gas Q flowing through a chimney of height h and diameter d is influenced by the density of the gas inside ρg. LM MN d Q 2 gD . d ra OP PQ Chapter 8 . the density of air outside ρa and acceleration due to gravity. d and µ as repeating variables) 2 295 LM d . L . Erd OP Also E/ρu ρ NM d d m m QP 2 2 E 8. h rg .

Model testing comes to our aid in this situation. Similarity of features enable the prediction of the performance of the full size unit from the test results of the smaller unit. Model testing is also used for evaluating proposed modifications to existing systems.1 MODEL AND PROTOTYPE In the engineering point of view model can be defined as the representation of physical system that may be used to predict the behavior of the system in the desired aspect. The effect of the changes on the performance of the system can be predicted by model testing before attempting the modifications. ships. As models are generally smaller than the prototype. at different pressures. Because of this it is not possible to rely solely on design calculations and performance predictions. turbines. these are cheaper to build and test. It will be a very costly failure if the design performance and the actual performance differ. These may also operate with different fluids. If we can predict its performance before manufacturing the unit it will be very useful. The system whose behavior is to be predicted by the model is called the prototype. Consider the case of a hydraulic turbine of 50 MW size. Fluid flow is influenced by several factors and because of this the analysis is more complex.' 9. harbours and tall buildings and structures. velocities etc. For many practical situations exact soluations are not available. pumps.0 INTRODUCTION Similitude and Model Testing Fluid flow analysis is involved in the design of aircrafts. The estimates may vary by as much as ± 20%. The discussion in this chapter is about physical models that resemble the prototype but are generally smaller in size. Constructing and testing small versions of the unit is called model testing. submarines. Experimental validation of the design is thus found necessary. 296 . 9. The application of dimensional analysis is helpful in planning of the experiments as well as prediction of the performance of the larger unit from the test results of the model. Models should be carefully designed for reliable prediction of the prototype performance.

..... For complete similarity all the linear dimensions of the model should bear the same ratio to those of the prototype. π2m = π2p.πnm) .πnm = πnp ... be equal for the model and prototype..2. All the similar linear dimension of the model and prototype should have the same ratio. For example the choice of the scale when applied to the Reynolds number may dictate a very high velocity which may be difficult to achieve at a reasonable cost.2.2. π1p = f (π2p .. Geometric scale cannot be chosen without reference to other parameters. If a model is to be similar to the prototype and also function similarly as the prototype. energy etc. The ratio is generally denoted by the scale or scale factor. 9.2.1... There are some situations where it is difficult to obtain such similarity. Weber number etc.. harbour or dams distorted models only are possible.2 CONDITIONS FOR SIMILARITY BETWEEN MODELS AND PROTOTYPE 297 Dimensional analysis provides a good basis for laying down the conditions for similarity.... π3m. In these cases the depth scale is different from length scale. viscous gravity and surface tension forces. Roughness is one such case. The PI theorem shows that the performance of any system (prototype) can be described by a functional relationship of the form given in equation 9. Froude number.2. This requirement is called dynamic similarity..1) The PI terms include all the parameters influencing the system and are generally ratios of forces.1 Geometric Similarity Some of the PI terms involve the ratio of length parameters.. This happens for example in the case of model tasting of ships. π3p. These numbers are ratios of inertia. 9. the parameter having a larger influence on the performance may have to be chosen. lengths.2..2. In such situations.. If model and prototype are dynamically similar then the performance of the prototype can be predicted from the measurements on the model..Similitude and Model Testing 9. In some cases it may be difficult to hold simultaneously equality of two dimensionless numbers.. One tenth scale model means that the similar linear dimensions of the model is 1/10 th of that of the prototype.1) πlm = f (π2m. In cases like ship. This is called geometric similarity.(9.3) Equation 9. This condition implies that the ratio of forces on fluid elements at corresponding points (homologous) in the model and prototype should be the same... It is also called similarity requirements or modelling laws.. Interpretation of the results of the tests on distorted models should be very carefully done. Chapter 9 9.3 provides the model design conditions.. then the PI terms for the model should also have the same value as that of the prototype or the same functional relationship as the prototype.. Both Reynolds number and Froude number should be simultaneously .2.(9.2) For such a condition to be satisfied. This is a basic requirement in model design. the model should be constructed and operated such that simultaneously πlm = πlp.(9....2 Dynamic Similarity Similitude requires that π terms like Reynolds number.πnp) . (eqn.

9. dynamic and kinematic should be maintained.2) If the fluid used for the model and prototype are the same. From dimensional analysis the pressure drop can be established as ∆P/ ρu2 = f FG ρuL . 9..geometric. scale = Lm/Lp.. This requires Lm εm Dm = = = λ.298 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery held equal between the model and prototype. Reynolds number is the most important parameter..(9. D IJ H µ L LK . the velocity to be used with the model has to be higher compared to the . This is not possible as this would require either fluids with a very large difference in their viscosities or the use of very large velocities with the model.1 Flow through Closed Conduits Flow through pipes. ε . To achieve complete similarity between model and prototype all the three similarities . then velocity ratios and acceleration ratios will be the same throughout the flow field. then Lp um = or um = up / λ. Lp εp Dp u pρ p L p umρ m Lm = µp µm um µ m ρ p Lp = up µ p ρ m Lm Reynolds number similarity leads to the condition for velocity ratio as ∴ . This is called kinematic similarly.1) The geometric scale is given by the ratio.3 TYPES OF MODEL STUDIES Model testing can be broadly classified on the basis of the general nature of flow into four types.(9. valves..2. These are (1) Flow through closed conduits (2) Flow around immersed bodies (3) Flow with free surface and (4) Flow through turbomachinery 9. fittings and measuring devices are dealt under this category.3. (M<0. but there may be changes along the flow direction.3. The pressure drop along the flow is more often the required parameter to be evaluated.3. The conduits are generally circular. Compressibility effect is negligible at low mach numbers. This is illustrated in problem 9.14.3 Kinematic Similarity When both geometric and dynamic similarities exist. Lm up As λ is less than one. This will mean that the streamline patterns will be the same in both cases of model and prototype. As the wall shear is an important force.3).

in this range.3) As ∆Pm is measured. 2 2 l l µ (1 / 2)ρu l LM N OP Q (9. (pr – pv)/(ρu2/2).3. Otherwise a different fluid with higher viscosity should be chosen to satisfy the requirements. defined by [Drag force /(1/2) ρu2 l2)] is the desired quantity to be predicted. cars and trucks and recently buildings are examples for this type of study. After this is established the model test results can be applied without regard to Reynolds number similarity. Unless cavitation effects are the aim of the study. then similarity of cavitation number should be established. such condition should be avoided. As viscous forces over the surface and inertia forces on fluid elements are involved in this case also. ∆PP = ρp ρm Fu I GH u JK p m 2 ∆Pm (9. Using the similitude. measured values of drag on model is used to estimate the drag on the prototype. i. In case cavitation effects are to be studied.3. CD = D l ε ρul = f 1. Drag coefficient. Generally the following relationship holds in this case.3. .5) From Reynolds number similitude um = µ m ρ p lp v lp up = m up µ p ρm lm vp lm (9. However. Where pr is the reference pressure and pv is the vapour pressure at that temperature. the Reynolds number similarity becomes unimportant. In such cases.3.2 Flow Around Immersed Bodies Aircraft. When Reynolds numbers are large the inertia forces are predominant and viscous forces will be small in comparison. The pressure drop in the prototype is calculated as in equation (9. Models are usually tested in wind tunnels.4) where l is a characteristic length of the system and l1 represents the other length parameter affecting the flow and ε is the roughness of the surface. the pressure drop in the prototype can be predicted. the model should be tested at various Reynolds numbers to determine the range at which its effect on pressure drop becomes negligible. Submarine.e.3 compressibility effect on similarity should be considered. particularly in testing components where at some points the local velocity may become high and pressure may drop to a level where cavitation may set in.3. 9.Similitude and Model Testing 299 prototype. Dp = Dm ρp ρm FG u Hu p m × lp lm IJ K 2 (9. using the model. Gravity and surface tension forces are not involved in this case and hence Froude and Weber numbers need not be considered. Another condition is the onset of cavitation at some locations in the flow. Chapter 9 When the flow speed increases beyond Mach number 0.6) . ∆P / ρu2.3) From equality of. In the sports area golf and tennis balls are examples for this type of study. Reynolds number of the model and prototype should be equal.3.

thus increasing the density. Strict Reynolds similarity need not be used in such situations. Where expense is of no consideration due to the requirement of utmost reliability as in space applications and development of new aircraft. In this case the use of Mach number similitude requires equal velocities while the Reynolds number similarity requires increased velocity for the model as per geometric scale.. rivers as well as flow around ships come under this category. then Reynolds number equality will not be insisted for model testing. then the model should operate at 1000 kmph. The prototype however will be operating at low Mach numbers where compressibility effect is negligible. The model will be influenced by compressibility effect due to the operation at high Mach numbers. 9.1 Variation of drag with Reynolds number for flow over cylinder Another situation arises in testing of models of high speed aircraft.3.0 CD 1 0.6.7) The model velocity should be higher by the geometric scale.1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 9. the velocity will now be at a reasonable level. Another method is to pressurise the air in the wind tunnel.(9. It may be seen that above Re = 104 the curve is flat. If the prototype is to operate at 100 kmph and if the scale is 1:10.1. and reducing the required velocity of the model. This may be overcome by using different fluids say water in place of air. which will mean a high Mach number. Using equation 9.. In such cases distorted model is used to predict prototype performance. .3 Flow with Free Surface Flow in canals. 9.3. as kinematic viscosity of air is about 10 times that of water. Hence the performance prediction will be in error.3. If the operation of the prototype will be at such a range. the Reynolds number is found to have little influence on drag. full scale models are also used. In some cases at higher ranges. The variation of drag due to variation in Reynolds number for cylinder and sphere is shown as plotted in Fig. In these cases gravity and inertia forces are found to be governing the situation and hence Froude number becomes the main similarity parameter.3.300 When same fluid is used for both prototype and model um = (lp/lm) up Fluid Mechanics and Machinery . 10 1.3.

The fluid properties are the density and viscosity. In many practical applications in this type of situation the influence of Weber and Reynolds number is rather small. 9.10 simultaneously. the power P and the speed N.3. In such a case distorted model may have to be selected. it is impossible to satisfy the condition of equations 9. if the same vertical and horizontal scales are used.3. A special situation arises in the case of ships. Considering Froude number.3. Pumps are power absorbing machines which increase the head of the fluid passing though them. substituting this value of velocity ratio. In case of design of river model. The shear drag is analytically determined and the pressure drag on the model is calculated by subtracting this value.9) In case Reynolds number similarity has to be also considered. head and efficiency can be expressed as functions of π terms as in equation 9.Similitude and Model Testing 301 In some cases Weber number as well as Reynolds number may also influence the design of the model. The drag on the prototype is determined using Froude number similarity. The calculated value of viscous drag is then added to obtain the total drag. Hence generally models are designed on the basis of Froude number similarity. The operating variables of the machines are the flow rate Q.4 Models for Turbomachinery Pumps as well as turbines are included in the general term turbomachines.21). the depth will be low for the model and surface tension effects should be considered.3. If surface tension also influences the flow.10) As these situations involve use of water in both model and prototype. it is still more difficult to choose a fully similar model. The total drag on the ship as it moves is made up of two components: (1) The viscous shearing stress along the hull. the velocity of the model is calculated as below.11 (refer problem 9. (vertical scaling smaller than horizontal scaling) overcomes this problem.3. Chapter 9 . As it is not possible to build and operate a model satisfying simultaneously the Reynolds number similarity and Froude number similarity ingenious methods have to be adopted to calculate the total drag.8) um = up (9. um glm ∴ = up gl p lm = up lp scale (9.9 and 9. the ratio of kinematic viscosities is given as vm 3/2 vp = (scale) (9. Turbines are power generating machines which reduce the head of the fluid passing through them.3.3. The total drag on the model is first measured by experiment. But the use of distorted model. (2) Pressure induced drag due to wave motion and influenced by the shape of the hull. Power. The machine parameters are the diameter and a characteristic length and the roughness of the flow surface.

12a) h3 / 4 In the case of turbines. This can be used to predict the performance of the pump at other speeds using the various coefficients defined. defined as Cp = P/ρ N3 D3. combining power and flow coefficients. When differential equations describing the system are available.11) The term ε / D is not important due to the various sharp corners in the machine..302 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fl ε Q Power = f G . The model can be run at a constant speed when the head is varied.12) Popularly used dimensional specific speed for pumps is defined as Nsp = N Q (9. the power and head coefficients will also be equal for the machines. the specific speed is obtained as N P ρ1/ 2 ( gh)5 / 4 Popularly used dimensional speed for turbines is Nst = Nst = N P (9.3. The performance of the prototype can be predicted from the results of the tests on the geometrically similar model. The head coefficient is defined as Ch = gh/N2 D2 . similarity parameters can be deduced by non dimensionalising the equations. The dimensionless term involving power is defined as power coefficient. the power and flow rate can be measured.13a) h5 / 4 In model testing at a particular speed.4 NONDIMENSIONALISING GOVERNING DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS When differential equations describing the phenomenon is not available. 3 ρND 2 µ I JK (9. This will then lead to the same efficiency. The procedure for turbines will also be similar. ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y . 9.3. The term Q/N D3 is called flow coefficient. the flow rate at various delivery heads can be measured. If two similar machines are operated with the same flow coefficient. HD D N D 1 .. .3.3.(9. Combining flow and head coefficients in the case of pumps will give the dimensionless specific speed of the pump. Nsp = N Q ( gh) 3 / 4 (9. the method of dimensional analysis is used to obtain similarity conditions.3.13) . Consider the continuity and x directional momentum equations for two dimensional flow.

Mach number can be obtained by a similar method.Similitude and Model Testing ρ 303 2 2 FG ∂u + u ∂u + v ∂uIJ = − ∂P + µ FG ∂ u + ∂ u IJ H ∂t ∂x ∂y K ∂x H ∂ x ∂ y K 2 2 The various quantities can be made dimensionless by dividing by reference quantities. Reynolds and Froude numbers. The discussions in this chapter is limited to basics. 9. In case air is used determine the ratio of pressure drops. Determine the ratio of pressure drops between model and prototype if water is used in the model. In actual model making and testing as well as interpretation of results many other finer details have to be considered for obtaining accurate predictions about the performance of the prototype. µ L P . Euler. As the equation describes the general unsteady flow all the numbers are involved. the momentum equation reduces to the form LM L OP ∂u N τ U Q ∂t * * + u* ∂u * ∂t * + v* ∂u * ∂t * =− LM P OP ∂P + LM µ OP FG ∂ u N ρU Q ∂x N ρUL Q H ∂x 0 * 2 2 * * * 2 + ∂ 2 u* ∂y* 2 I JK It may be noted that the non dimensionalised equation is similar to the general equation except for the terms in square brackets. Case (i) Water flow in both model and prototype. P* = . τU ρU 2 ρUL In case gravity force is added. These are the similarity parameters thus identified. If other forms of forces like surface tension is added. .5 CONCLUSION SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 9. If equations for compressible flow is used. gL/U2 will be identified. These are forms of Strouhal. . Substituting. y* = . as given below u* = Then p u * v x y t . Reference may be made to the problems in chapter 8. Reynolds number similarity is to be maintained.1 To study the pressure drop in flow of water through a pipe. = 2 ∂x 2 L2 ∂x* ∂x L ∂x * Similar method is used in the case of other terms. a model of scale 1/10 is used. Chapter 9 In all the problems in this chapter on model testing the π terms identified in chapter 8 are used.v = . x* = . t* = P0 U V L L τ ∂ 2 u U ∂ 2 u* ∂u U ∂u * = . Weber number can be identified.

Problem 9.58 × 10–6 m2/s.18 × 10–6 m2/s For pipe flow. dp um = = 10. Density = 1. µw = 1. Also the drag coefficients will be equal. As ρm = ρp and um/up = 10.224 m/s Drag coefficient F/ρu2 should be the same for both pipes. = u p µ p dm ρm ∆p p ρ p ρp ρm Fµ GH µ m p × dp dm × ρp ρm I JK 2 = 100 Fµ I GH µ JK m p 2 From data tables at 200 C. Determine the corresponding flow velocity of air in the larger duct and also the pressure drop over 90 m length.205 1.6 m/s. dm up The pressure drop is obtained using pressure coefficient [∆P/(1/2) ρu2]m = [∆P/(1/2) ρu2]p ∴ ∆p m ρ m u m 2 = . a square pipe of 50 mm side was used with water flowing at 3.23 kg/m3.006 × 10–3 kg/ms ∴ ∆Pm 1000 18. µair = 18. For square section hydraulic mean diameter = 4 A/P = 4a2/4a = a (side itself) Re = uD/v = 3.304 um dmρ m u p d p ρ p µm µp ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery um µ m d p ρ p = × × up µ p dm ρ m As viscosity and density values are the same.006 × 10 −3 F GH I JK 2 = 26.18 × 10–6 = 152542 For air 152542 = 14. The pressure drop over a length of 3 m was measured as 940 mm water column.05/1.2 To determine the pressure drop in a square pipe of 1 m side for air flow.98 This illustrates that it may be necessary to use a different fluid in the model as compared to the prototype. ∆p p ρp u p2 Case (ii) If air is used in the model.14 × 10–6 kg/ms. Reynolds number analogy should be used.14 × 10 −6 = 100 × × ∆Pp 1.6 × 0. then um µ m d p ρ p ∆pm ρ m = × × . ρair = 1. ρw = 1000 kg/m3. ∆Pm/∆PP = 102 = 100.205 kg/m3. Fair ρ air uair 2 Fw ρ wuw 2 . Kinematic viscosity of air = 14.58 × 10 −6 1× u ∴ u = 2. Kinematic viscosity of water = 1.

4 A model of 1/8 geometric scale of a valve is to be designed. u p dm v p Qp = πD p 2 4 up dm = dp/8 = 0.8315 × 10–6/6.23 127 × 10 −6 . For model testing water at 300C is used. As roughness etc are similar. Determine the flow required for model testing.05 2 × 1.082 × 2. ∆Pw = aw aair a Dividing and substituting for Fair/Fw ∆Pair Lair a F L a ρ × w × air = air × w × air = ∆Pw Lw aair Fw Lw aair ρw Fu I GH u JK air w 2 90 × 0. ∴ uair = 0. i. Qm = The pressure drop can also be predicted from the model measurements using F ∆p I = F ∆p I GH ρu JK GH ρu JK 2 2 p m Chapter 9 ∴ 0. Reynolds number similarity is required.224 = 1 × 3 × 1000 3.23kg/m3. area = a2. Density of water = 1000 kg/m3.9726 m/s. then the model velocity has to be 8 × 3. . which is rather high.04 × 1. 24.033 mm of water column Problem 9. The diameter of the prototype is 64 cm and it should control flow rates upto 1m3/s.732 m/s Problem 9.87 m/s. Dynamic viscosity of air = 17.8315 × 10–6 m2/s This is a situation of flow through closed conduits. For square section.521 × 10–5 ∆Pair = 940 × 3.02 × 1000 112 × 10 −3 = uair × 0. for pipe flow.1085 m/s.9726 = 0. What will be the critical velocity of air at 100C in a similar pipe of 40 mm diameter.1085 × 8 × 0. Density of air = 1. ∆Pair = .521 × 10–5 = 0.12 × 10–3 kg/ms. um dm u p d p = . Kinematic viscosity is 0. vm vp 1=π× ∴ um d p vm = × .3 Water at 15°C flowing in a 20 mm pipe becomes turbulent at a velocity of 0.23 2.Similitude and Model Testing 305 The pressure drop equals the shear force over the area.956 × 10–6 m2/s.956 × 10–6 = 2. perimeter = 4a ∴ ∆P = 4 Fw Lw 4 Fair Lair 4FL . 114 × 0.114 m/s.64/8 = 0.e.1085 m/s 4 um = 3. Dynamic viscosity of water = 1.6 FG H IJ K 2 = 3.64 2 up ∴ up = 3.0149 m3/s 4 4 If the valve is to be used with water. reynolds number similarity is to be used. The kinematic viscosity of brine at the saturated condition is 6. The valve is to be used with brine in a cooling system at –100C.08 m πdm 2 π um = × 0.7 × 10–6 kg/ms.

∴ Pm = Lp Lm Pp = 10 × Pp or 10 times the operating pressure of the aircraft. predict the drag on the prototype. Determine the flow velocity and the scale of the model.5 1.5 To predict the drag on an aircraft at a flight speed of 150 m/s. the force ratio is high.32 m/s For Reynolds number similarity umρ m Lm u p ρ p L p = µm µp up ρ p µ m Lm 150 1. Lm ρm = Lp ρp ∴ ρm/ρm = Lp/Lm = 10 At constant temperature.5 kg/m3. In order to reduce the effect of compressibility. To estimate power requirements the drag is to be determined. generally the size of the model has to be on the higher side Drag force similarity is given by (F/ρu2L2)m = (F/ρu2L2)p Fm ρ mum 2 Lm 2 7.347 × 2 2 = Fp ρ pu p L p 1. . Hence Reynolds number similarity is required.32 7.322 = × (0. Problem 9. viscosity and local sonic velocity at tunnel condition are 7. This is fully immersed flow. 1.5 140.8 × 10 −5 × × = = = 0. up cp = um cm ∴ um = 150 × 290/310 = 140. Assume full dynamic similarity should be maintained. Mp = Mm.2 kg/m3 and 1. A model of 1/10 size is decided on. the model is proposed to be tested at the same speed in a pressurized tunnel.2 150 2 As the model size is larger.252)2 = 0. Estimate the pressure required.22 × 10–5 Ns/m2 and 290 m/s.8 × 10–5 Ns/m2. u p L pρ p um Lmρ m = µm µp A viscosity is not affected by pressure and as velocities are equal. Density and viscosity at the operating conditions are 1. where the condition of air is such that the local speed of sound is 310 m/s.22 × 10 −5 or about 1/4th scale.2 1. For Mach number similarity.6 An aircraft fuselage has been designed for speeds of 380 kmph. a pressurised low temperature tunnel is used. Density. When both Match number similarity and Reynolds number similarity should be maintained.252 × × Lp um ρ m µ p 140.306 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 9. If the drag on the model was measured as 100 N. pressure ratio will be the same as density ratio. In addition to Reynolds number similarity compressibility effect should be considered.

006 ×10–6 m2/s.195 FG H IJ K 2 × 82 = 24.7N and 9. Velocity of sound is C= Mach number Density at test conditions Density at flight conditions Velocity at flight condition 80.1525 m. Re = 15.7 The performance of an aeroplane to fly at 2400 m height at a speed of 290 kmph is to be evaluated by a 1/8 scale model tested in a pressurised wind tunnel maintaining similarity.1525 × 35 = 3.1 × 10–6 kg/ms. ∴ Drag on prototype = 8. The conditions at the flight altitude are temperature = – 10C.44/16 = 0.1 × 10 This is also low subsonic.1 × 10 −6 17.3 = 2150 × 103/(287 × 288) = 26. At the given flight conditions. at an air speed of 35m/s.961 25. If the width and frontal area of the prototype was 2. are 4.78 N. Conditions of air in the wind tunnel are the same as at the operating conditions of the bus.1 × 10–6 kg/ms. assuming length L.01 kg/m3 = 75 × 103/(287 × 272) = 0. gives Dp Dm as um = up 2 2 = (1 / 2)ρ p u p 2 L p 2 (1 / 2)ρ mum Lm 307 ∴ Dp = Dm (ρpLp2/ρmLm2) = 100 × (1/10) 102 = 1000 or 1 kN Problem 9.961 −6 g0 kRT = 1 × 1.6N.5 × 105. The width of the model = 2. and 150C.961 kg/m3 = 290000/3600 = 80. Assume that coefficient of drag remains constant above Reynolds number 105.06 × 10 −6 0.195 m/s × 8 18. Drag can be obtained using drag coefficient F/ρ Au2 ρ m Amum 2 Fm = Fp ρ p A pu p 2 ∴ Fp Fm = ρp ρm F u IJ ×G Hu K p m 2 × Ap Am = 26.4 × 287 × 272 = 330 m/s = 1190 kmph = 290/1190 = 0. 26. The test conditions are 2150 kN/m2.01 L ∴ u = 25.165 = 212 N Problem 9.56 × L × 0.Similitude and Model Testing The π parameter for drag force.78 × 24. Also determine the power required.56 × 0. Chapter 9 .195 m/s model speed is obtained as 8.7N.01 80.8 In a test in a wind tunnel on 1:16 scale model of a bus. pressure = 75 kN/m2. This condition is above 105. The drag resistance on the model measured at 18 m/s and 27 m/s. drag at 25.165 By interpolation using equality of F/u2. Determine the drag on the prototype. v = 1.8 m2. estimate the aerodynamic drag force on the bus at 100 kmph. the drag on the model was measured as 10.24 < 0.56 m/s =u× Hence Reynolds number similarity only need be considered.44 m and 7. µ = 18. Equating Reynolds numbers. D. µ = 17.

vw = 1. Re = Dm um ρm/µm = . µp µm um = up × Dp Dm × ρp ρm × µm = 10 × 25 × 1.205 × 35 2 × 7.4758 = Power required F (1 / 2)1.78) 2 ∴ F = 1725 N or or 47. ρa = 1.9 A water tunnel operates with a velocity of 3m/s at the test section and power required was 3.7 × 2 × 16 2 = = 0. by multiplying and dividing by u as F × u power F ×u ρAu u 2 = P ρAu 3 As A is the same. If the tunnel is to operate with air.e.02 and the viscosity ratio is 1.10 The performance of a torpedo.05.8/162 CD = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery F 10. i. determine for similitude the flow velocity and the power required.832 × 10 −6 For values of Re > 105 the coefficient of drag remains constant.75 × × 3 ρ w uw 1000 3 FG H IJ K 3 = 10. Hence strict Reynolds number similarity need not be insisted on beyond such value.78 m/s) 0.5 kW Problem 9. ua = v = = 38. 1 m diameter and 4 m long is to be predicted for speeds of 10 m/s. If a scale model of 1/25 size is used to predict the performance using a water tunnel.28 ρ air uair 3 = 3.85 m/s µp This is a very high speed generally not achievable in water tunnel.78 W = 47927 W Problem 9.95 m/s vw a 1.75 kW.8 × 10–6 m2/s. Hence Reynolds number similarity should be maintained D p u p ρ p Dmumρ m in the test. The length dimension is the same. va = 14.205 × 7.927 kW. = . This is a fully submerged flow.67 × 106 × 25 1000 × 0.02/1.832 × 10–6 m2/s. if the density of water was 1000 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity was 0. Also determine the value of Reynolds number.725 kN = 1725 × 27.8 Drag force on the prototype at 100 kmph.4758 (1 / 2)ρu 2 A 1. 1.05 = 242. Pair = Pw 38. determine the flow velocity required. 1 242.95 1. ua uw = va vw uw 3 × 14.14 × 10–6 m2/s In this case Reynolds number similarity is to be maintained.85 × 1000 = 11.308 Area of the model = 7.25 kg/m3.14 × 10 −6 Power can be determined from drag coefficient.8 × 10 −6 ∴ Velocity of air. The ratio of density between sea water and fresh water is 1. ( 27.8 × (27.

06 × 10–6 m2/s ρw = 1000 kg/m3.6 m/s.6 m/s in water at 20oC. Hence Froude number similarity is to be maintained. Problem 9.12 A sonar transducer in the shape of a sphere of 200 mm diameter is used in a boat to be towed at 2. u p × L × 1025 36. As it is fully immersed type of flow. To determine the drag on the transducer a model of 100 mm diameter is tested in a wind tunnel.25. Determine the speed of air for the test.39 × 10 –6 kg/ms at a speed of 36. vw = 1. . The density and kinematic viscosity values are : ρair = 1. Reynolds number similarity should be maintained.006 × 10–6 m2/s um Dm u p D p = vm vp um = up D p vm 200 15. As A ∝ D2 ρ mum Dm 2 2 = ρ pu p2 D p 2 ∴ Fp = 15 × 1000 2. a model of 1/75 scale is proposed.11 A 1/6 scale model of a submarine is tested in a wind tunnel using air of density 28. velocity around 2.6 × L × 28. Estimate the drag on the prototype.2 m/s = Fp ρ pu p2 L p2 2 2 ∴ Fp = Fm × ρp ρm FG u IJ FG L IJ Hu K H L K p p m m = 67 × 1025 15.5 kg/m3 and viscosity 18.637 × 10 −3 Using drag coefficient Fm ρ mum Lm 2 2 ∴ up = 15. the air being at 20o C.54 N Problem 9. Hence compressibility effect will be negligible. Reynolds number similarity should be considered in this case. Frm = Frp or um lm = up lp or um = up lm lp Chapter 9 Fm Fp .13 In order to predict the flow conditions after the turbine outlet (tail race) of a hydroelectric plant delivering 2400 m3/s.6 FG H IJ K 2 (6)2 = 14961 N Problem 9.5 m/s may be used for the test which corresponds to Re = 1.2 × 105.39 × 10 1.637 × 10–3 kg/ms if the model resistance was 67 N.5 36.205 kg/m3. Let L be the length of the prototype.85 × 100 LM N OP Q 2 = 55. This is a free surface flow. vair = 15.2 28.Similitude and Model Testing 309 In this case for example.85 m/s 100 1.6 × 200 × 1. The drag force is measured as 15 N.06 × 10 −6 × = 2.5 = −6 6 × 18.6 × = 77. The coefficient of drag should be same for this condition. Calculate the corresponding speed and drag of the prototype when submerged in sea water with density 1025 kg/m3 and viscosity 1. Determine the flow rate required.006 × 10 −6 Dm vp Mach number will be about 0.205 77.

16 N Wave drag on the model = 32 – 20. Fsm = 3.897 m/s lp The skin friction drag for the model is calculated using this velocity.84 × 1025 12 (40) 2 1000 1. Hence Froude number similarity is used to estimate wave resistance. For similarity determine the speed with which the model should be towed. From other tests the frictional resistance to the model was found to follow the law Fsm = 3.7 × 1. The total resistance to ships movement is made up of (i) wave resistance and (ii) frictional drag.13 × 103 N ∴ Total resistance = 1.5 = 0.7 u1.52 m/s Lp 3600 30 .5 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Qm Amum Lm 2 = = Qp A pu p Lp 2 Qm = 2400 Lm = Lp FL I GH L JK m p ∴ FG 1 IJ H 75 K 2. um gLm = up gL p ∴ um = up Lm 30 × 1000 1 = × = 1. The ship is to travel at 30 kmph. Froude number similarity is to be maintained. From the Froude number similarity.8 × 2500 = 635. In the case of ships the wave resistance is more difficult to predict. um = up lm = 12/400.95 × 2500/402 = 20.14 The total drag on a ship having a wetted hull area of 2500 m2 is to be estimated.15 A scale model of a ship of 1/30 size is to be towed through water.8971.04927 m3/s Problem 9.16 = 11.310 As flow (Q = Au) depends on area which varies as L2 ∴ 2. For wave resistance study Froude number similarity should be maintained.897 FG H IJ K 2 = 774.95 N/m2 of wetted area.8 N/m2 of wetted area Determine the expected total resistance.8971.84 N The wave drag is calculated using (F/ρ u2L2)m = (F/ρ u2L2)p Noting that sea water is denser with ρ = 1025 kg/m3 Fwp = Fwm ρp ρm m m Skin friction drag for the prototype Fsp = 2. Frictional drag is estimated by separate tests. The ship is to travel at a speed of 12 m/s. The ship is 135 m long.41 × 106 N or 1.41 MN FG L IJ FG u IJ H L K Hu K p p 2 2 = 11. A model 1/40 scale when tested at corresponding speed gave a total resistance of 32 N.9 × 121. But it is not possible to maintain these similarities simultaneously.95 × Am as Am = 2500/402 = 3.9 u1.38 × 103 N Problem 9. For the prototype the law is estimated to follow Fsp = 2.8 × Ap = 2.7 × 1.9 up1. For frictional resistance Reynolds number similarity should be maintained.5 = 1.

128 kg/m3 .6 × 103 N or 1050 kN Problem 9.006 × 10 −3 6 × = 6. Froude number similarity is to be maintained.5 1000 1. ρuD IJ HH µ K = 0.02 1 = . Determine the speed of the model and the wave resistance of the prototype in sea water.02 m.12 × 10–6 kg/ms ρm = 1000 kg/m3.06 m Chapter 9 The model dimension can be determined as Dm = 1/6 Dp ∴ D 0.976 FG H IJ K 2 (40)2 = 1049. Consider air temperature as 40o C. The density of sea water = 1025 kg/m3.17 Vortex shedding at the rear of a structure of a given section can create harmful periodic vibration. The resistance measured in fresh water was 16 N.976 m/s 40 The wave resistance is found to vary as given below.Similitude and Model Testing 311 Problem 9. The air speed is expected to be about 65 kmph. µ) Dimensional analysis leads to the π terms relation.36 m. Fm ρ mum Lm 2 2 = ρ pu p2 L p2 ∴ Fp = Fm × ρp ρm FG u IJ FG L IJ Hu K H L K p p m m 2 2 = 16 × 1025 12.16 The wave resistance of a ship when travelling at 12.36/0.056 m/s ∴ um = 18.6 = 0.5 m/s is estimated by test on 1/40 scale model. If the shedding frequency of the model was 60 Hz determine the shedding frequency of the prototype. ∴ um = up Lm L p = 12. a smaller model is to be tested in a water tunnel. µp = 1.12/0.006 × 10–6 kg/ms up = 65 × 1000/3600 = 18. Hm = 1/6 Hp = 0. The dimension of the structure are diameter = 0.128 1.056 × 1.6 = 0. = H 0.43 m/s 1000 19.06 3 ρ mum Dm ρ pu p D p = µm µp Reynolds similarity requires ∴ um = up ρ p µ m Dp ρ m µ p Dm The property values of air and water at the given temperatures are.5 Fp 1 = 1. To predict the shedding frequency.12 m. If the geometric scale is 1:6 and if the water temperature is 20o C determine the speed to be used in the tunnel. u.12 × 10 −6 1 . ρ. (refer Chapter 8) ωD =f u FG D . The frequency of vortex shedding can be related by the equation ω = F (d. ρp = 1. height = 0. µp = 19. h.

48 × 10 −5 ∴ Velocity of air.3 m diameter.25 m diameter was tested with air flow. due to water flowing at a speed of 14. This situation is open surface flow. up2 Problem 9.06 1 × × 60 = 28.ρa= 1. Thus Dp d pρ p u p 2 = Dm dmρ m um 2 ∴ Dp = Dm. The drag for unit length can be expressed in the dimensionless from as D/dρu2 where D is the drag and d is the diameter.5 × 1000/3600 = 4. The spillway is 40 m long and carries 300 m3/s at flood condition. Viscous and surface tension effects may be neglected.028 m/s u × 0.5 km/hr.5 0. 6. Determine the force on the bridge column per m length. um = up ( gL p ) 0.3 = a −6 1. 1/20 geometric scale model is to be used.5 ( gLm ) 0. Determine the flow rate required to test the model. Qp = upLp .25 54.43 6 The drag also can be predicted from the model.31 × 10–6 m2/s. dp dm ρm um 2 . vair = 1. ρp .48 × 10–5 m2/s.23 kg/m3 Similarity requires equal Reynolds numbers Velocity of flow of water = 14.028 × 0.61 m/s The force can be obtained by the dimensional parameter (drag coefficient) F/ρAu2 . Also determine the time scale for the model. vw = 1. u p Dp um Dm ωm = 18. ua = 54.61 FG H IJ K 2 = 1205 N Problem 9. here A = 1 × D ∴ The parameter in this case for force is F Fw Fa = ρDu2 ρw Dwuw 2 ρ a Da ua 2 or 2 Fw F ρ I F D IJ FG u IJ =F G JG Hρ K H D K Hu K a w a w a w a 1000 0.312 ω m Dm ω p D p = um up ∴ ωp = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vortex shedding frequency is determined.18 In order to determine the drag on supporting columns (of a bridge) of 0. Qm = um Lm.3 4. Using the third π parameter.08 Hz. a column of 0. Qm um L2 m = Qp u p L2 p .19 To ascertain the flow characteristics of the spillway of a dam.31 × 10 1.028 × × = 227 × 1. The resistance was measured as 227 N/m. Froude number similarity is required. under similar conditions of flow.5 u Lm or ∴ m = up Lp F I GH JK As 2 2 Q = uA = uL2.25 4.23 0.

Ns = N Q /H3/4 = 1170 70 /H3/4 = 2300 ∴ H = 6. the speed being 1400 rpm.5 2 = Qp FL I GH L JK m p 2.2236 Problem 9. um Lm t p = up L p tm ∴ t m Lm u p Lm = = L p um Lp tp FL I GH L JK p m 0.41 × = 2 m3/s 990 N1 The head coefficient H/ρN2D2 is used to determine the pressure rise.5 FG 1 IJ H 20 K 2.2 m. H2 = H1 (N1/N2)2 = 6. Chapter 9 FG 1750 IJ = 104. This is to work at a place where the air density is 0. running at 990 rpm was found to deliver 1. as D is the same Q2 = 70 3 Using head coefficient. Determine the flow.20 A fan when tested at ground level with air density of 1. ∆P2 = ∆P1 ρ2 N22 ρ1 N 1 2 = 141 × 0.5 FL I =G H L JK m p 0. As D is the same.9/3600 = 1316 W When operating at 1750 rpm.55 N/m2 Problem 9.3 kg/m3.41 m3/s at a pressure of 141 N/m2.5 = FG 1 IJ H 20 K 0. (At 1170 rpm).21 A centrifugal pump with dimensional specific speed (SI) of 2300 running at 1170 rpm delivers 70 m3/hr. For similarity condition the flow coefficient Q/ND3 should be equal. The head developed and the power at test conditions are determined first. Determine the volume delivered and the pressure rise.Similitude and Model Testing ∴ 313 u L 2 Qm = Qp m m2 = Qp u p Lp = 300 FL I FL I GH L JK GH L JK m p m p 0. using flow coefficient Q/ND3.7 /(15. The impeller diameter is 0. Also calculate the specific speed at this condition. head and power if the pump runs at 1750 rpm .92 1400 × 1.3 990 FG H IJ K 2 = 199. as velocity = length/time.92 kg/m3.9 × (1750/1170)2 = 15.44 m Using power coefficient : P/rN3D5. Q1 Q = 2 N1 N2 or Q2 = Q1 N2 1400 = 1.81 × 70000 × 6.9 m Power = mg H = 9.5 = 0. P2 L N OP =P × M NN Q 2 3 1 1 = 1316 × LM 1750 OP N 1170 Q 3 = 4404 W Specific speed for the model Ns = N Q /H3/4 = 1750 104.168 m3/s Time scale can be determined from velocities.7 m /hr H 1170 K .44)3/4 = 2300 Note: Specfic speeds are the same. H/N2D2.5 = 0.

267 × 10–6 m2/s. specific speed = 950 0. Problem 9. Dimensional analysis shows (Neglecting surface tension effects). 3 Consider power coefficient ρ 1ω 13 D15 2 = ρ 1ω 13 D15 5 P1 as ρ1 = ρ2 .468.θ v OP Q hw 3 / 2 hc 3 / 2 = vw vc .200 × 25 = 0.45 l/s Considering head coefficient.13). ve = 2. power coefficient scale and called flow coefficient (ω ∝ N) (Refer chapter 8. checks. Density = 1282 kg/m3. (suffix c refers to the solution properties) (Refer chapter 8. Problem 8. with ρ1 = ρ2 0.16). Also determine the ratio of power required. Q1 ρ1 h1 = Q2 ρ2 h2 . Determine the discharge and head of the smaller pump at the maximum efficiency conditions. denoting the larger machines as 1 and the smaller as 2. The discharge of the larger pump at the maximum efficiency was 200 litres/s at a total head of 25m.314 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 9.00 = 5. Water was used for the test at 20oC.2 /253/4 = 38.00 (checks) Specific speed =N Q /H3/4 = 1450 0. (g being common) gh1 = gh2 ω 12 D12 ω 2 2 D2 2 ∴ h2 = h1 2 FG ω IJ FG D IJ Hω K H D K 2 1 1 2 ∴ h2 = 25 × LM 1450 OP FG 20 IJ N 950 Q H 30 K P1 3 2 = 25.006 × 10–6 m2/s. The flow rate has to be found for various heads.885/0. The PI terms of interest are the head coefficient.09045 × 25.09045 / 25. Density = 1000 kg/m3.8853/4 = 38 (dimensional) For larger pump. determine the ratio of corresponding heads and mass flow rates of water and the solution at the corresponding heads. Q/ωD3 Considering flow coefficient. Problem 8. 5.885 m . 5 P2 ω2 P1 = ω 1 FG IJ FG D IJ = FG 1450 IJ FG 20 IJ H K H D K H 950 K H 30 K 1 = 0. Q g ∴ 1/ 2 h 5/ 2 =f LM g N 1/ 2 h3 / 2 .23 A V notch is to be used with utectic calcium chloride solution at 30oC.468 As efficiencies should be the same. vw = 1. Neglecting the effect of surface tension. ω 1 D13 Q1 = Q2 ω 2 D2 3 ∴ Q2 = Q1 ω 2 D2 3 1450 20 = 200 × 3 950 30 ω 1 D1 2 FG IJ H K 2 3 = 90.22 A pump running at 1450 rpm with impeller diameter of 20 cm is geometrically similar to a pump with 30 cm impeller diameter running at 950 rpm. Q being volume flow rate that for similarity the following parameters should be equal.

Dividing ρ µ QR 923 1.006 × 10 −3 = R × R = = 3. What should be the ratio of heads for the same flow rate.827 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. Models may also be used to predict the effect of 9.006 × 10 K GH 2. conditions for model testing. For dynamic similarity ratio of 10. µR = 2. in size compared to prototype. . 2.24 The discharge Q through an orifice is found to depend on the parameter ρD gH /µ.71884 hc 5 / 2 ∴ Qc = h Qc = c hw Qw F I GH JK 5/ 2 = (1. when surface tension effect is neglected. Dimensionless parameters provide 7. The system whose behaviour is predicted by the model is called 3. similarity. will exist. Determine the ratio of flow rates of water and refrigerant 12 at 20oC under the same head.7 × 10 −4 For the same flow rate ρ w D gH w µw = ρ R D gH R µR ∴ Hw µw ρR × = HR µ R ρw FG H IJ = F 1. For geometric similarity ratio of 8.Similitude and Model Testing ∴ 315 v hc = c vw hw FG IJ H K hw 5 / 2 Qw 2/ 3 = LM 2.873 Ratio of mass flow rates = 3.873 × (1282/1000) = 4. Qw ∝ ρw D gH /µw and QR ∝ ρR D gH /µr. If stream lines are similar between model and prototype it is called When geometric and dynamic similarities exist then automatically Chapter 9 .7 × 10–4 kg/ms.71884)5/2 = 3. Density of refrigerent = 923 kg/m3. should be equal.97 Problem 9.. Models are generally 4. The representation of a physical system used to predict the behaviour of the system is called .006 × 10 Q −6 −6 2 / 3 = 1. 5.006 × 10–3 kg/ms. 9. model is used.1 Fill in the blanks. to an existing system. When the prototype is very small 6.7 × 10 2 −3 −4 × 923 1000 I JK 2 = 11.267 × 10 OP N 1. µw = 1.44 × Qw ρw µ w 1000 2. 1. should be equal.

Pressurised 7. 4. Linear dimensions of model and prototype 8. 3. number similarity is used. . Mach 5. harbours etc. Froude.316 Answers Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1.4 State correct or incorrect. When gravity and surface tension are important. Reynolds. Reynolds. to have Reynolds and Mach analogy simultane- Wind tunnels are used to have simultaneously Reynlods and Mach analogy. number similarity is used. When gravity and inertia forces are important models are used. then 8. Modifications 6. 3. Reynolds 4. Froude 9. 1. Reason for distorted models for rivers etc. For complete similarity in general the be the same. and similarity are used. Model 2. number similarity is used. When the ratio of velocities and accelerations are equal at corresponding locations in the model similarity. For rivers. 6. Reynolds and Mach 3. Mach 11. 9. Webr number similarity is used to study wave drag. Weber 8. Geometric similarity will automatically lead to kinematic similarity. . Dynamic 7. similarity is used. 2. When viscous and inertia forces are important 5. Mach 4. Reynolds 5. Prototype 3. At high Reynolds numbers the coefficient of drag does not significantly Answers 1. 9. Smaller 4. be maintained simultaneously. Froude 9. Enlarged/larger 5. number similarity is used. 9. For compressible flow through closed ducts 3. number for the model and prototype should number similarity should be used. Impossible 6. Answers 1. Weber. For studying wave drag 10. Froude 10. For flow with free surface 10. 7. vary 10. similarity is used. and prototype it is called 7. Froude 6. 1.2 Fill in the blanks. 9. number similarity is used. Strouhal O Q. Under kinematic similarity conditions dynamic similarity will result automatically. To consider compressible flow effects When periodic motion is to be considered similarity is used. Forces at corresponding locations of model and prototype 9. cannot O Q. kinematic similarity. 2. Similarity 7.3 Fill in the blanks. 1. . O Q. 4. Geometric similarity will lead to dynamic similarity. For flow around immersed bodies 4. For flow around immersed bodies of compressible flow. 5. 11. In flow with free surface 8. In case of same fluid properties it is ously. Distorted 2. is because of 6. similarities are used in the case similarity is used in case of incompressible flow. Froude 8. Froude and Reynolds similarities and similarity is used. When wave resistance is important 9. kinematic 10. Very small flow height for model 3. For incompressible flow through closed ducts 2. Reynolds 2.

A 3 m dia weather balloon of spherical shape is to travel at 1. 5.21 m/s. The prototype has a chord length of 2 m and it is to fly at 15oC and 1 atm.2 m/s) E 9. (1. 8. Distorted models are used to study river flow.78 N. 12.Similitude and Model Testing 5. Determine the pressure of the tunnel for dynamic similarity. E 9. Determine the drag on the prototype. 7 kN) E 9. The temperature and pressure in the wind tunnel are 15oC and 10 atm absolute.5 m/s. 4. One fifth scale model of an automobile is tested in a towing water tank. 6.6. 43. Froude number similarity is used to study wave drag.345. 9. 9. 8 EXERCISE PROBLEMS Note: Property values are not specified. Determine the drag on the prototype (539 kPa. A dynamically similar model of an airfoil of 1/10 scale was tested in a wind tunnel at zero angle of attack at a Reynoles number of 5. 10. Determine the ratio of speeds of the model and prototype. the test speed being 75 m/s. Estimate the drag on the prototype when operating at 90 kmph.5.78 m/s in air at 15oC. ( (um/up) = 0. determine the speed in the tunnel. Dynamic viscosity is not affected by pressure. Also determine the ratio of drag forces. If air can be pressurised with temperature remaining at 20oC determine the minimum pressure required. Assume 20oC in both cases. 11. To determine the drag a model of dia 50 mm is to be tested in a water tunnel. At high Reynolds numbers viscous drag coefficient remains constant. A model of scale 1/20 is used for tests in a wind tunnel. If the drag force at this condition on the model was 618N.1. 10. Calculate the test speed and estimate the drag on the balloon.3. When gravity forces prevail Froude number similarity should be used. 0. An airship is to operate in air at 20oC and 1 bar at 20 m/s speed. It is found that the coefficient of drag remains constant for the model after speeds of 4 m/s and the drag at this speed was 182 N. The air temperatures are equal.978 N) E 9. A model of an automobile of scale 1/5 is tested in water tunnel for obtaining the performance of the prototype.4. A torpedo 533 mm dia and 6700 mm long is to travel in water at 28 m/s. Air speed in the tunnel should not exceed 110 m/s to avoid compressibility effect. Answers Correct : 2. 219 N) E 9. If the drag force on the model was 250 N. (both 39. 317 7.93 Mpa. determine the static pressure at the point. 6. A model of 1/5 scale is to be tested in a wind tunnel. For obtaining simultaneously Reynolds number and Mach number similarity pressurised tunnels are used. 12 Incorrect : 1. Determine the speed in the wind tunnel and the prototype speed. 1340 N) E 9. Under dynamically similar conditions the drag on the model was measured as 3. 3. If the prototype is to travel at 27. For fluctuating flow Strouhal number similarity should be used. Mach number similarity need not be considered for low velocities. These should be obtained from tables of properties.5 × 106 (based on chord length). (6.4. 11. Chapter 9 .2. If at a point the pressure coefficient was –1. 7. When surface tension forces prevail Froude number similarity should be used.

E 9.02 N.46 kN. Determine the velocity of operation of the boat for similarity. Determine the drag on the prototype and the power required. 1. An open channel of rectangular section of width 7 m carries water to a depth of 1 m and a flow rate of 2 m3/s. In this case the model size is to be 0.15. Determine the velocity of the model to achieve dynamic similarity. (2. The model is to be tested with water at 20oC and the velocity is limited to 10 m/s. Determine the flow rate of the model.318 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 9. E 9. (ii) Repeat the above in case a wind tunnel is used. The characteristic length of the unit is 7 m.13. E 9. Kin(0. the drag on the model was measured as 2.14. moving with a velocity of 15 m/s through water is to be estimated by a study on a model having 50 times this characteristic length.75 kW) . The density scale is 1.1 kW) E 9. The ship is to designed to cruise at 18 knots (knot = 1852 m).625 m2 when travelling at 22.5 mm. When tested at 1 atm and 15oC at a speed of 89. determine the velocity required.14 × 10–6 m2/s. (8 m.25 × 105) E 9. Also determine the ratio of drag values on model and prototype. The discharge scale is 1/1000. Determine the operating head and discharge of the model. E 9. The scale for the model is 1/4. (i) In case a water tunnel is used determine the velocity. The pressure drop through an elbow of 150 mm diameter is to be determined by test on a model. If the pressure drop in the model was measured as 15 kpa. In a flow the geometric scale is 1/4.45 × 10–5 m2/s. Assume a temperature 20oC in all cases. speeds are to be estimated.12. A model to have Froude number similarity is to be designed. A model 1/50 scale of a boat when tested at 1 m/s in water gave a wave resistance of 0. Assume same temperature in all cases.16.2 m is to be used in an atmospheric pressure wind tunnel. It is proposed to design a centrifugal pump to deliver 4. An enlarged model is used with 8:1 scale in a water towing tank. Oil flows over a submerged body horizontally at a velocity 15 m/s. If drag force on the model is 3.7. A laboratory model of 1/5 th scale is proposed for testing. (3. 17.8. Also determine the drag force and the power required for cruising the boat.6 m. 2500 N. Also determine the ratio between model and prototype drag. The model is to run at the same speed. predict the drag force on the prototype. In case a pressurised tunnel with a pressure of 8 atm is used.46 kN. density = 833 kg/m3. 0. A 1/50 scale model of a ship is tested in a towing tank to determine the wave drag on the ships hull. E 9. Determine the velocity with which the model is to be towed. Assume both model and prototype operate at the same efficiency.10.1 m3/s of water at 200 m head when running at 1200 rpm. The drag on a solid body having a characteristic length of 2.31m/s. If inertial gravitational.1 m/s. Determine the depth of flow in the model. E 9.062 m/s. Water flows at the rate of 40 m3/s through a spillway of a dam. The drag characteristics of a new design of an automobile at 32 kmph and 144 kmph. A model of 1.17.0328 m3/s) E 9. Determine the dimeter of the model.11. surface tension and viscous effects are important determine the viscosity and surface tension scales. The diameter of the impeller is to be 1 m.5 m width is proposed for laboratory test. determine the air velocity required. Determine the pressure drop in the prototype.4 m/s is to be estimated by a model to be tested in a wind tunnel.6 m/s. The width of the spillway is 65 m. If a model of 1. (1. (7. The flow through the elbow is water at 20oC. Neglect viscous drag.9. The power requirement of a tractor tailor with a frontal area of 0.24 × 10–3 m3/s) E 9.5 N. 55. The flow velocity is 5 m/s. The property values for oil are: kinematic viscosity = 3. F = 2666 N) ematic viscosity of water = 1.

The drag force on a sphere submerged in water at 20oC. ρg =1263 kg/m3 (2.25.001 kg/ms.5 MN/m2 and temperature of 20oC.478 × 10–6 m2/s. If the force at a certain point on the model was measured as 5 N. The flow rate over a spillway of a dam was 150 m3/s. 0. A small insect of about 1 mm dia moves slowly in sea water.2 cp and specfic weight is 10 kN/m3. Non dimensioalise the equation and obtain the diminsionless groups that characterise the flow.3 N. g ∂x ∂x E 9. + ρ ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x E 9. Calculate the model discharges. ρw = 998 kg/m3. Density of air = 17. Determine the flow rate of air at 80oC in a 50 mm diameter pipe that will give dynamic similarity for flow of 50 l/s of water at 60oC in a 400 mm diameter pipe if the pressure of air is 4 bar.35 m3/s. 7. If the same fluid conditions are used for the model and prototype determine the discharge ratio. Viscosity of air = 18. µw = 1.31 × 10–7 N) E 9.24. E 9. Kinematic viscosity of water = 1. A model of an aeroplane of 1/20 size is to be tested in a pressurised wind tunnel at the same speed as that of the prototype to get over compressibility effects. when moved at 1. Comment on the results. The scale ratio between model and prototype of a spillway is 1/25. 1/3125. E 9.14 × 10–6 kg/ms.96 m3/s) Chapter 9 .1 × 10–6 kg/ms.006 × 10–6 m2/s.19. Non dimensionless the equation and obtain dimensionless groups to characterise the flow. ∂u ∂u ∂h +u =– g .53 cm/s. u +v =– +v 2 .83 kg/m3. If a model 3 m length is to satisfy both Reynolds number and Froude number similarity calculate the kinematic viscosity of the fluid to be used with the model. Determine the condition for dimensional similarity.26. Dynamic viscosity of air = 20. Determine the ratio of velocities and discharges.21. determine the pressure in the wind tunnel in atm. Also determine the drag force on the model.22. Kinematic viscosity of water = 0.5 kg/ms. ∂τ ∂x ∂x E 9. Density = 4. A large veturimeter is calibrated using 1/10 scale model. 1 ∂P ∂ 2u ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u = 0.27. A ship 180 m long is to cruise at a speed of 40 kmph in sea water whose viscosity is 1. To determine the drag an enlarged model of 100:1 scale. Determine the speed of travel of the insect and also the drag force on it. Steady incompressible two dimensional flow.18. If the prototype discharges 3000 m3/s. If the temperatures are the same. neglecting gravity is described by the equations below. (1/5. E 9.28. The slope of the free surface of a steady wave in one dimensional flow in a shallow liquid layer is described by the equation below. µw = 0. An enlarged model of 3:1 scale was tested in a pressurised wind tunnel at a pressure of 1. Assume dynamic similarity conditions. Non dimensionlise the equation and obtain dimensionless groups to characetrise the flow. Determine the velocity for dynamic similarity. (1/10) E 9. =– .Similitude and Model Testing 319 E 9. The aeroplane is to be operated at 0.20. Determine the linear scale. E 9.24 kg/m3. tested in glycerin at a velocity of 30 cm/s measured a drag of 1. E 9. determine the force at the corresponding point on the prototype. One dimensional unsteady flow in a thin liquid layer is described by the equation below.5 m/s was measured as 10 N. ∂h u ∂u .23. If the flow rate over the model was 1.8 atm.

For the prototype the skin resistance is given by 4. ρa= 1.2 N. 1. Density of the sea water is 1025 kg/m3 E 9. E 9.35. A geometrically similar fan of 1/4 size is to be used running at twice the speed of the operating fan. Density of sea water = 1025 kg/m3.2 m/s measured a drag of 200 N. The prototype weir is to discharge under a head of 1. the skin resistance was 14. A centrifugal fan in operation when tested gave the following data. Volume delivered : 2.32.2 kW) wetted area is to be estimated.5 mm of wate column. [vm/vp = (geometric scale)1.67.75 m3/s. The diameter of the model is 1 m and when dragged at 1.95 up1. Total pressure 63.34.44 m3/s) E 9.48) flow rate of 15 m3/s. (2. The performance of a spherical balloon to be used in air at 20oC is to be obtained by a test in a water tank using 1/3 scale model. Determine the total resistance of the ship in sea water at speeds corresponding to that of the model. Determine the prototype wave resistance. A scale model of 1/10 size is proposed and the available flow is 42. The model of 1/20 scale with wetted area of 4 m2 when towed in fresh water at 1. measured a total resistance of 46. Determine the ratio of drag coefficients of prototype to model when tested at 1/3 rd density of air.85 and has a value of 43 N/m2.5 ] E 9. (0.95 N/m2. Determine the expected drag on the prototype if the water temperature was 15oC.12 m. Determine the speed ratio and power ratio.320 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 9.2 m/s. When tested at 3 m/s.2 m. A turbine model of 1/5 scale uses 2 m3/s of water. Power absorbed : 1.33 Nm2 and the ships skin resistance is estimated to follow the law F = c us1.33.51 m/s.36. determine the ratio of kinematic viscosity of fluids to be used with the model and prototype.5 l/s.9 N/m2. In model testing if both Reynolds number similarity and Froude number similarity should be simultaneously maintained. Assuming same conditions for the air determine the volume delivered. 3.8 mm w. The skin resistance of a ship model is given by 5. Determine the heads necessary and the corresponding discharge of the prototype weir. total pressure and power absorbed.205 kg/m3vw = 1. va = 15. 6530 kW) power needed to propel it.31. A model E 9. 13. The drag on a ship 122 m long and with 2135 towed at 1.22 um1.06 × 10–6 m2/s.30. The prototype turbine has to work with a (16. Determine the corresponding speed of the ship and the (7. but at the same Mach number.32 m3/s.3 N.9. E 9. (25:1) E 9. The skin resistance was separately analyzed and found to follow the law F = c um1. the geometric scale being 1/5. A ship model of scale 1/50 showed a wave resistance of 30 N at its design speed.75 kW.3 m/s through fresh water had a total drag resistance at 15.2015 × 10–6 m2/s (42.37.c.29. m2 .2 N) E 9. 142.

Beyond this layer the effect of viscosity was found negligible. If the surface is at rest. The flow field now can be divided into two regions.1 BOUNDARY LAYER THICKNESS In the solution of the basic equations describing the flow namely continuity and momentum equations of the boundary layer. then this layer comes to rest. When these fluids flow over surfaces. The determination of the velocity variation along the layer enables the determination 321 . one in which velocity gradient and shear existed and another where viscous effects are negligible. The adjacent layer is retarded to a lesser extent and this proceeds to layers more removed from the surface at rest. instead of the field extending to long distances for the determination of forces exerted on the surface by the fluid flowing over it. 10. Work is to be done to overcome the force. A velocity gradient forms leading to shear force being exerted over the layers. For a long time empirical equations based on experimental results were used in designs. “no slip condition” prevails. The need for the other boundary is met by edge of the boundary layer determined by the thickness. The velocity gradient is steepest at the interface and the shear is also highest at the interface. The layer near the surface has to have the same velocity as the surface. He observed that in the case of real fluids velocity gradient existed only in a thin layer near the surface. This layer was named as boundary layer. This region can be dealt with as flow of inviscid fluid or ideal fluid. one boundary is provided by the solid surface. The equations for the analysis of the complete flow field has been formulated by Navier and Stokes. The theory was proposed by Ludwig Prandtl in 1904. This was supported by measurement of velocity. But solutions for these equations for practical boundary conditions were not available. Real fluids have viscosity. The development of boundary layer theory enabled the analysis of such flows to be fairly easy. In the study of flow over immersed bodies like aircraft wings the analysis can be limited to the boundary layer. Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 10.0 INTRODUCTION Ideal inviscid fluids do not exert any force on the surfaces over which they flow.

1 Formation of boundary layer over flat plate The velocity is uniform in the flow field having a value of u∞.1. This is made possible by these two boundary conditions. the shear stress can be determined using the equation τ=µ du dy (10. Boundary layer begins to form from the leading edge and increases in thickness as the flow proceeds.1. 10. and the learner should become familiar with such softwares if he is to be current. Exact method : Solution of the differential equations describing the flow using the boundary conditions. This is because the viscosity effect is felt at layers more and more removed from the surface. At the earlier stages the flow is regular and layers keep their position and there is no macroscopic mixing between layers.322 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery of velocity gradient.2 Continuity Equation The flow of fluid over a flat plate in a large flow field is shown in Fig. 1. It is found that this method can be easily applied only to simple geometries. the boundary layer thickness is arbitrarily defined as the distance from the surface where the velocity is 0.1.1. The flow over the top surface alone is shown in the figure.1) This leads to the determination of resistance due to the flow. This proceeds farther till the velocity equals the free stream velocity.1 Flow Over Flat Plate The simplest situation that can be analyzed is the flow over a flat plate placed parallel to uniform flow velocity in a large flow field.1. This method is more versatile and results in easier solution of problems. As the distance for this condition is difficult to determine. Momentum transfer resulting in the retarding force is by molecular diffusion . The layer near the surface is retarded to rest or zero. 2. 10. The difference between the results obtained by the exact method and by the integral method is found to be within acceptable limits. There are two approaches for the analysis of the problem. The next layer is retarded to a lower extent. 10. At present several computer softwares are available to solve almost any type of boundary. velocity. Once the velocity gradient at the surface is determined. Approximate method : Formulation of integral equations describing the flow and solving them using an assumed velocity variation satisfying the boundary conditions.1.99 times the free stream velocity. uµ uµ uµ Laminar Transition Turbulent Figure 10.

the net mass flow should equal the change of mass in the elemental volume considered. If u decreases. The density of the fluid is ρ. ∂y ∂u ∂x Chapter 10 . Higher rates of momentum transfer takes place in such a flow. Also for incompressible flow density is constant.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 323 between layers. The algebraic sum of x and y directional flows is zero. Flow in across face AA. Time is not indicated in the equations.1. rvdx + ¶ (rvdx) dy ¶y A r u dy r v dx A dx B rudy + dy ¶ (rudy) dx ¶x B Figure 10. An enlarged sectional view of the element is shown in Fig. This type of flow is called laminar flow and analysis of such flow is somewhat simpler. ρudy + Net flow in the x direction = ∂ (ρudy) dx ∂x ∂ ρu ∂x b g dxdy ∂ ρv Similarly the net flow in the y direction is given by Hence ∂x Under steady conditions the sum is zero. The values of velocities are indicated in the figure. Unit time and unit Z distance are assumed. ρudy × 1 = ρudy Flow out across face BB. ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y b g dxdy (10. is – ve and so ∂v should be positive.2) This is known as continuity equation for steady incompressible flow. For the formulation of the differential equations an element of size dx × dy × 1 is considered. Under unsteady conditions.1.2 Enlarged view of element in the boundary layer The assumptions are (i) flow is incompressible or density remains constant. inertial effects begin to prevail over viscous forces resulting in macroscopic mixing between layers. Viscous effects prevail over inertial effects in such a layer. 10.1. Viscous forces maintain orderly flow. Under steady flow conditions the net mass flow across the element should be zero. (iii) there is no pressure gradient in the boundary layer. (ii) flow is steady. This type of flow is called turbulent flow. Continuity equation is obtained using the principle of conservation of mass. As flow proceeds farther.2.

The density of the fluid is ρ ¶u ¶ ¶u dx + m dydx ¶y ¶y ¶x A r dx ¶u dy ¶y ¶v dy ¶y m u+ v+ B r dy u+ ¶u dx ¶x u+ ¶u dx ¶x u (ru) dy dy A u (rv) dx dx m ¶u dx ¶x B Figure 10. Hence net x directional momentum flow is LMu ∂u + v ∂u OP ρ dxdy N ∂x ∂y Q . The flows are indicated on the figure unit time and unit Z distance are assumed. the net flow is (as ρ is constant) (u2 is written as u × u) ∂u ∂u ∂ +u [u(ρu)dy]dx = ρ dxdy u ∂x ∂x ∂x Considering the flow in the y direction. the net x directional momentum flow is ∂ ∂u ∂u [u(ρv)dy]dx = ρ dxdy u +v ∂y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q LM N OP Q Summing up. the second set in the above equation is zero. The net force on the surface of the element should equal the rate of change of momentum of the fluid flowing through the element. 10. the net momentum flow is ρ dxdy u LM MN ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂v +v + u + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y R L S MN T OPUOP QVPQ W From continuity equation.1.1.324 10.1.3.3 Momentum Equation Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The equation is based on Newton’s second law of motion. Here x directional forces are considered with reference to the element shown in Fig.3 Momentum analysis Consider the momentum flow in the x direction : Across AA momentum flow = u (ρu) dy Across BB momentum flow = u (ρu) dy + ∂ {u(ρu) dy} dx ∂x Taking the difference.

v is also called as momentum diffusivity. u ∂2u dxdy . 1 ∂P has to added on the ρ ∂x 10.6) the boundary conditions with the new variables are at y = 0.3) ∂2u ∂u ∂u +v = v 2 ∂y ∂y ∂x This is known as momentum equation for the boundary layer. u = 0.1.1. Only surface forces due to viscosity is considered.1. u = u∞. ∂u =0 ∂y The solution for these equations was obtained by Blasius in 1908 first by converting the partial differential equation into a third order ordinary differential equation and then using numerical method. at y = ∞. (ii) at y = δ. noting v = µ/ρ ∂y 2 (10. and simplifying. In case of pressure gradient along the flow – RHS.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 325 It was assumed that no body forces or pressure forces are present.1. η = 0 and Chapter 10 The two new vaiables introduced were . η = ∞ and ∂η ∂f =1 ∂η (10. At the bottom surface shear At the top surface shear = dx µ = dx µ ∂u ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂ µ dx dy + ∂y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q The net shear on the element is µ Εquating.4) where ψ is the stream function giving ∂ψ ∂x The resulting ordinary differential equation is u= and v = – 2 ∂ψ ∂y (10.5) d3 f d2 f +f =0 dη3 dη2 ∂f = 0.1. u∞ and f (η) = ψ/ vxu∞ xv η=y (10. The boundary conditions are (i) at y = 0.4 Solution for Velocity Profile The continuity and momentum equations should be simultaneously solved to obtain the velocity profile.

0 Slope 0.332 ρu∞ 2 Cfx = 0.332 dη2 Substituting this value and replacing v by µ/ρ and simplifying τw = 0.4.1.5 (10. at η = 0.1.99 is found to be 5.7) Rex This equation was more precisely solved in 1983 by Howarth. the value of .9) Defining skin friction coefficient.0 5. Cfx. Velocity gradient at the surface is of greater importance because it decides the shear on the surface at y = 0 ∂u τw = µ equals the value of µu∞ ∂y d2 f . as τw/(1/2)ρu∞2.10) Not that these results are obtained for laminar flow over flat plate for Re < 5 × 105.1.99 1. δ u∞ / vx = 5.5 L z 0 (10.8) (10.5 4.4 Velocity distribution in boundary layer u∞ where u/u∞ = 0. at η = 0 u∞ / vx dη 2 d2 f From the solution.1.0 2.326 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The results where plotted with u/u∞ as the dependent vairable and y u∞ or (η) as the vx independent variable resulting in a plot as shown in Fig. This y value is taken as the vx boundary layer thickness δ as per the definition of thickness of boundary layer.5 L Rex (10. The value of y i. .0 0.664 Rex–0.328 ReL–0. u/uµ = 0.1. we obtain The average value over length L can be obtained by using 1 Cf = C fx dx = 1.332 u/uµ 1.e. or δ = 5 u∞ / vx = 5x u∞ x / v 5x = 5x Rex–0. is obtained as 0. The significance of Reynolds number has already been explained under dimensional analysis as the ratio of inertia force to viscous force.0 3.1.0 (y/x) Rx Figure 10. 10.

2 0.11× 10–3 1.02 7. µ = 18.93 10. There is no flow through the face ad. Also note that because of higher viscosity the friction values are higher.1. (consider unit plate width) H Flow through face ab = z 0 ρudy Chapter 10 . mm 4.325 mm.56 × 105 2.8 m from leading edge.2. 10. Distance.33 × 10–3 2.5625 × 105 < 5 × 105 ∴ Laminar v 16 × 10−6 δ = 6. The values calculated using equation 10. Determine the boundary layer thickness and friction factors at lengths 0.1.8 m.5 Integral Method In this case flow rate. v = 16 × 10–6 m2/s.36 × 10–3 The values for other distances are tabulated below.1. m 0.328 ReL–0.2 m/s. both local and average.5 × 105 δ. 0.40 × 105 0. m 0. Also determine the skin friction coefficients.5 m.66 × 10–3 1. in the boundary layer are determined using integration over the thickness of the boundary layer.36 × 10–3 2.2 m.2 0.5 0.68 × 10–3 1.67 × 10–3 CfL 6. mm 5.32 × 10–3 3.006 × 10–6 m2/s.33 × 10–3 Note the same trends as in Example 1. δ = 5x Rex–0. The control volume chosen is shown in Fig.006 × 10–3 kg/ms. Example 10. 9 and 10 are tabulated below: Length.2. The value of kinematic viscosity = 1.99 × 105 1.5 0.66 × 10–3 Note that as distance increases the local skin friction factor decreases and the average value is higher than the local value.03 Cfx 3.8 Re 0.63 × 105 1.21 × 10–3 3. CfL = 1. Air at 30° C flows over a flat plate at a free stream velocity of 5m/s. 10.165 kg/m3.000 6. at these locations.5 ux = = 1.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 327 Example 10.1. Cfx = 1.664 Rex–0.59 × 105 δ.000 Cfx 2. µ = 1. The property values for air at 30 °C are obtained from tables.7.63 × 10–6 kg/ms. momentum etc.325 8.5.5. 0.33 × 10–3 CfL 5.66 × 10–3 4.5 m and 0. Also note that the boundary layer thickness increases along the flow direction. Water at 20° C flows over a flat plate at a free stream velocity of 0. ρ = 1.5 and 0.8 Re 0.5. CfL = 3. Determine the boundary layer thickness at distances 0. ∴ Rex = 5 × 0. Cfx = 0.68 × 10–3.5 Consider 0.

5 Boundary layer element for integral analysis The difference should flow through bc as no flow is possible across ad. It is assumed that there is no pressure gradient in the boundary layer.328 H Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Flow through face cd = z 0 d ρudy + dx b H LM MN H z 0 ρudy dx OP PQ c dy d y a dx d Figure 10. the net momentum flow through the control volume = d dx LM MN H z 0 (u − u∞ ) ρ udy dx OP PQ .1. Considering x directional momentum.. Momentum flow through ab = d Momentum flow through cd = uρ udy + dx 0 H z z 0 H uρ udy LM MN H z 0 uρ udy dx OP PQ The mass crossing the boundary bc has a velocity of u∞ d Momentum flow through bc = – dx LM MN H z 0 u∞ ρ udy dx OP PQ Summing up. Equating dy (10. (1) As (u – u∞) is zero beyond δ.11) y=0 d dx LM MN z 0 δ (u∞ − u) ρ udy = µ OP PQ du dy . So the only force on the control volume surface is – τw dx = – µ du dx. d ∴ Flow through face bc = – dx LM MN H z 0 ρudy dx OP PQ This is the result of continuity principle. The velocity gradient at face bc is zero.1. the integration limit can be taken as δ instead of H..

64. Out of the popularly used profiles the results obtained from a cubic profile given below is in closer agreement with the exact solution.646/Re 1/2 x x 4.1.64 ρu∞ x (10.1. N Q 3 ∴ du dy y=0 = u∞ LM 3 OP N 2δ Q ∴ τw = µu∞ LM 3 OP N 2δ Q Cf = τw /{(1/2) ρ u∞2} = ∴ Cfx = Cfx = 3µu∞ 2 1/2 2 2δ ρu∞ As δ = 4.64x/Re 3µu∞ 2 Re 0. The value of Cfx can be determined using the assumed velocity profile. at y = δ. This leads to . δ = 0.1.12 d u∞ 2 dx R | S | T z 0 δ LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ OP × LM1 − 3 NM 2 δ 2 H δ K QP NM 2 3 y 1 y + δ 2 δ FG H | IJ OP dyU = v du K QP V dy y = 0 | W 3 Carrying out the integration.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces or 329 d u2 dx ∞ LM MN z 0 δ du u u dy = v 1− dy u∞ u∞ du =0 dy FG H IJ K OP PQ (10.14) or 39 2 dδ 3 u∞ = v u∞ . The boundary conditions are at y = 0. 3 y 1 y u = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ LM OP N Q 3 (10.12 can be solved if a velocity profile satisfying the boundary conditions is assumed.1.5 x 2 2 × 4. gives d 39 2 3 u u∞ δ = v ∞ dx 280 2 δ LM N OP Q (10.64x/Rex0.64 x v u∞ x = 4.1.1.16) Chapter 10 z z δ dδ = x x 140 v dx 13 u∞ at x = 0.5 (10.12) y=0 This is called momentum integral equation.13) Substituting in equation 10. u = u∞ and Also d 2u = 0 at y = 0 (constant pressure gradient) dy2 Equation 10. 3 y 1 y u = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ LM OP .1. Separating variables and integrating dx 2 δ 280 0 0 δ = 4.5 = 0.15) This solution is closer to the exact solution where the constant is 5 instead of 4. u = 0.64 × x ρu∞ µ 3 Re 0.

A thickness δd can be defined by equating the reduction in flow to a uniform flow with velocity u∞ or ρu∞δd δd = z 0 δ (u∞ − u) dy = u∞ z FGH 0 δ 1− u dy u∞ I JK (10. with boundary conditions.330 Compared to 0.6 Displacement Thickness Compared to the thickness δ in free stream. (ii) u = u∞ at y = δ and (du/dy) = 0 at y = δ The first condition gives a = 0 and from the other two conditions c = – u∞ /δ2 and b = 2u∞ /δ . 10. Displacement thickness δd is the distance by which the solid boundary would have to be displaced in a frictionless flow to give the same mass flow rate as with the boundary layer.6. u = a + by + cy2. Analysis using linear and sine function profiles illustrated under solved problems. the flow in the boundary layer is reduced due to the reduction in velocity which is the result of viscous forces.1. Assuming (as there are three boundary conditions) the distribution.1. 10.6 Displacement thickness The reduction in volume flow is given by (for unit width) = z 0 δ ρ (u∞ − u) dy If viscous forces were absent the velocity all through the thickness δ will be equal to u∞. The idea is illustrated in Fig.1. (i) u = 0 at y = 0.17) Displacing the boundary by a distance δd would pass the flow in the boundary layer at free stream velocity.664/Rex1/2 by exact solution. The can be shown by assuming polynomial variation for velocity u in the boundary layer. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Due to flexibility this method becomes more versatile as compared to the exact method. In the absence of the boundary layer the flow rate that would pass through the thickness δ will be higher. The displacement thickness will equal δ/3. Boundary layer u¥ u¥ d u dd Figure 10.1.

m/s 1. mm 1.333 × 5 × 10–3 2. Example 10. The thickness which at free stream velocity will have the same momentum flow as the dificit flow is called momentum thickness.666 × 5 × 10–3 V(0–x). δd = δ/3 or displacement thickness equals one third of hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness. assuming 1 m width ∴ between x = 0 and x = 0.7 Momentum Thickness Similar to the conditions discussed in section (10. The deficit flow at any thin layer at y of thickness dy is (for unit width) ρ (u∞ – u) dy Chapter 10 .3.2.108 × 5 × 10–3 2.333 2. In case other profiles are adopted.0167 The volume flow out (deficit flow) equals δd u∞ × width.1.0211 0.29 × 10–4 6.0333 m/s. δd = z 0 δ F 1 − u I dy = R1 − 2 y + FG y IJ U dy = LM y − y S δ H δKV N δ GH u JK T W ∞ z 0 δ 2 1 y3 − 3 δ2 OP Q δ = (1/3)δ 0 i. mm 4.2 determine the displacement thickness at the various locations. The average velocity. mm 1.325 8.2 0.6) for displacement thickness.2 m2.02 7..666 Volume flow.03 δd. this constant will be different.5 0. there is a reduction in momentum flow through the boundary layer as compared to the momentum flow in a thickness δ at free stream velocity.67 × 10–3 1. Substituting in (10. m3/s 3.0333 0. (unit width is assumed) Distance 0.0 6.93 10. m3/s 1. m 0. But this is the value nearer the Blasius solution.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces Hence the profile is u y y =2 − δ δ u∞ 331 (10.1.5 0.8 δ.2 = 0.343 flow rate. Using data of problems Examples 10.06 × 10–3 0. For other lengths values are tabulated above.00 δd. In the case of example 10.2 0.69 × 10–4 V(0–x).8 δ.108 2.1. water flow the values are given below.17) and integrating.18) LM OP N Q 2 Note that this is different from the profile previously assumed for the solution of momentum integral equation. From example 10.35 × 10–4 5.1 air flow at 30 °C with free stream velocity 5 m/s.2 flow is 1. ∴ V = 1.e.643 3. m/s 0.673 2. Distance.1 and 10. The deficit flow should go out of the top of the boundary layer.84 × 10–3 10. mm 5.1. Area = 1 × 0. Also determine the flow out of the boundary layer in the y direction and the average values of velocity v in these sections.333 × 5 × 10–3/0. V = volume/area.333 × 5 × 10–3 m3/s.

332 Momentum for this flow is ρu (u∞ – u) dy Hence the deficit momentum = δ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery z 0 ρu (u∞ − u) dy Considering δm as momentum thickness.5 K 3 5 15 z 0 δ LM2 y − 5 L y O NM δ MN δ PQ +4 10.2 TURBULENT FLOW As flow preceeds farther along the flat plate. Generally the limiting Reynolds number for laminar flow over flat plate is taken as 5 × 105 (for internal flow the critical Reynolds number is 2000). For example if the velocity profiles as in the previous article is used. Boundary layer u0 u Deficit momentum A dm Figure 10.7 Momentum thickness The value of momentum thickness is generally taken as 1/7th of boundary layer thickness in laminar flow. As inertia force increases Reynolds number increases and the flow becomes turbulent.19) The concept of reduction in momentum is shown in Fig.1. inertia forces begin to prevail and viscous forces are unable to keep the flow in an orderly way. then u y y =2 − δ δ u∞ LM OP N Q 2 substituting in 10.7.1. δm ρu∞ u∞ = δm = z LM z MN 0 δ 0 δ ρu (u∞ − u) dy u u − u∞ u∞ FG IJ OP dy = H K PQ 2 z 0 δ u u dy 1− u∞ u∞ LM N OP Q (10.19 and simplyifying 2 3 4 δm = LM y OP − LM y OP OP dy N δ Q N δ Q QP 5 1 2 F 1 IJ δ δ=G = δ− δ+δ− δ= H 7. 10.1.1. The value will vary with the assumption about velocity distribution. Reynolds number is the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. .

005 m or 0.72 mm.40 N/m2 The boundary layer is thicker and shear stress is higher in turbulent flow. Compare the values with values calculated using laminar flow correlations.5 × 1000 × 1. Cf = In case laminar flow correlations were used: δ = 5x/Re0.22 = 0.2 = = 1.4) Re = δL = 0.0269 m or 26. Chapter 10 v = 1.2 m/s over a flat plate 1.4.0594/Re0. can be represented by u = u + u′ where u is the instantaneous velocity.5 = 5. (10. having different distributions at different heights is available.074Re–0.2 = 0. The flow is steady as u′ is constant at any location. One seventh power law has been adopted as a suitable velocity distribution for turbulent flow.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 333 Turbulent flow is characterized by the variation of velocity with time at any location.664/Re0.2 for combined laminar turbulent flow CfL = 0.2) – (10256/ReL) The friction coefficient is obtianed as Cfx = 0.0594/Rex0. ux 1.9/8 = 3.382 x/Rex0.2 × 1. . An accurate velocity profile known as universal velocity profile. Cf = 0.382x/ReL0.0 mm (about 1/5th) δd = δ/7 = 0.2.43 × 106 > 5 × 105 So the flow is turbulent v 1006 × 10−6 .003488 τw = Cf (1/2) ρ u∞ = (0.2) (10. boundary layer thickness is obtained as δ = 0.2 For combined laminar and turbulent flow.51 N/m2 5.2 m long. u y = δ u∞ FG IJ H K 1/7 (10.5 = 0.55 × 10–4 τ = 5. Water flows at a velocity of 1. u is the average over time and u′ is the fluctuating component.2.381x/ReL0.003488/2) × 1000 × 1.37 mm. The velocity at any location at any time.2 a) (10. Assume 1/7th power law and determine the boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness.2.2 = 0.22 = 2.3) (10.2.9 mm δd = z δ 0 FG 1 − u IJ dy = H uK ∞ 2 z δ 0 F 1 − F y I I dy = LM y − 7 y GH GH δ JK JK MM 8 δ NM 1/7 1+ 1 ∂ 7 1/ 7 OP PP QP = 1 δ 8 0 δdL = 26. δL = (0. However it is too cmplex for use with integral method at our level of discussion.2.1.1) Substituting in the integral momentum equation 10.006 × 10–6 m2/s.2.2 – 1742ReL–1 Displacement thickness is obtained as δd = δ/8 Example 10.55 × 10–4 × 0.

1 Flow Around Immersed Bodies – Drag and Lift When fluid flows around a body or the body moves in a fluid there is a relative motion between the fluid and the body.1 Flow separation If (dp/dx) increases to the extent that it can overcome the shear near the surface. then separation will occur. The body will experience a force in such a situation. airfoils etc. the force is parallel to the surface. This is shown in Fig. In turbulent flow. The shear stress at the wall is given by τw = µ du dy . Experimental results are used to predict such conditions. the pressure downstream of flow is higher compared to the pressure upstream.1.. Viscous forces exist in such flows. the momentum near the surface is high compared to laminar flow. ie. Separation will not occur in such flows. Simple analytical solutions are not available to determine exactly at what conditions separation will occur.3.3 FLOW SEPARATION IN BOUNDARY LAYERS Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Boundary layer is formed in the case of flow of real fluids.3. 10. there is a change in flow area due to the obstruction and hence an adverse pressure gradient may be produced. This means that the velocity gradient at the wall cannot be zero. blunt bodies. In the case of incompressible flow in a nozzle a favorable pressure gradient exists. In the case of diverging section of a diffuser. . which means (du/dy) ≤ 0.334 10. separation can occur if the rate of area increase is large. The increase in area along the flow causes a pressure rise. Stage I ¶P <0 ¶x II ¶P =0 ¶x ¶P >0 ¶x Diverging section III d Separation point Figure 10. In the direction of flow the pressure increases.3. An example is subsonic diffuser. In the case of flow over spheres. In the case of a flat plate positioned parallel to the direction of the flow. Such a situation does not arise when there is no pressure gradient opposed to the flow direction. cylinders. du dy y=0 cannot be zero. Hence at y = 0. Separation of flow is said to occur when the direction of the flow velocity near the surface is opposed to the direction of the free stream velocity. The wall shear cannot be zero. Hence turbulent layer is able to resist separation better than laminar layer. 10. Such a pressure gradient is called adverse pressure gradient..

the pressure force.2 For ReL up to 109.664/Rex0. So experimentally measured coefficients are used to compute drag and lift.3) Friction coefficient over flat plate in laminar flow.5) (10.455 (log Re L ) 2.3.3. 10.3.455/(log ReL)2.8) For the range 5 × 105 > Re < 109 CD = 0. Using the method of dimensional analysis the drage force can be related to flow Reynolds number by FD = f (Re) ρ AV 2 For generality velocity is indicated as V (10.2 Drag Force and Coefficient of Drag Drag is the component of force acting parallel to the direction of motion.328/ReL0.5 In turbulent flow in the range 5 × 105 > Re < 107 CD = 0.4) Chapter 10 (10. Fr) If compressibility effect is to be considered CD = f (Re.3. an obvious example being aircraft wings.9) The values of CD for laminar flow is in the range 0. FL. it is seen that CD = f (Re).074 Re 0. in laminar flow CD = 1. For a flat plate of length L.5.3. The component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag force FD and the component perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift force. The former may be called shear force and the other.3. CD = (1 / 2) ρ AV 2 FD (10. an empirical correlation due to Schlichting is CD = 0. In case wave drag is encountered.3. Determination of these forces is very important in many applications.7) (10.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 335 But generally in the case of blunt bodies. . Over a given length the average value is obtained as twice this value.1) Defining coefficient of drag as the ratio of drag to dynamic pressure.3.004.2) This applies to viscous drag only. Simple analytical methods are found to be insufficient for the determination of such forces.58 For combined laminar and turbulent flow in the range 5 × 105 > Re < 107 CD = 0.074/ ReL0.2 L − 1740 Re L 1610 Re L (10. M) (10.3.002 to 0.58 − (10. at a location was defined by Cfx = τw /(1/2) ρ A V2 = 0.6) (10. the force will neither be paraller nor perpendicular to the surface. then CD = f (Re.3. The force can be resolved into two components one parallel to the flow and the other perpendicular to the flow.

A ship having a wetted perimeter of 50 m and length of 140 m is to travel at 5 m/s.1 m2.17 1.6.18 1.3 Pressure Drag When flow is perpendicular to blunt objects.3. Determine the power required to overcome the skin friction.42 1. Example 10. So it is called pressure drag. Determine the speed after 50 secs.4 × 10–6 = 0.5 × 109 ) 2.7179 × 10–3) (1/2) × 140 × 50 × 1025 × 52 N = 0. These are applicable for Re > 103.2 kg/m3.77 × 106 W = 0. 2 . Also determine the time for the speed to reach 20 m/s.20 1.20 0.77 MW 10.336 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 10. like a plate or a disk.3.5 × 109 = 1.719 × 10–3 FD = CD A(1/2) ρu2 = (1. Density 1025 kg/m3 Re = 5 × 140/1. The total drag force at any instant for the car and the chute is given by (subscript C refers to car and P refers to parachute) FD = 1 ρu2 [CDC AC + CDP AP] and this force acts to decelerate the car. The drag is then mainly due to pressure difference between the faces.58 − 1610 0. The drag coefficient is based on the frontal area (or projected area) of the object.3.455 (log 0. shear does not contribute to drag force. So the equation applicable is 10.4 × 10–6 m2/s.32 and frontal area is 1.8 m diameter and drag coefficient is 1.154 × 106 × 5 = 0.5.2 Density of air = 1.1 below. A drag chute is used to slowdown a car with a mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 m/s. Assume kinematic viscosity v = 1.1 Drag coefficients for various shapes Shape Square plate Rectangle 1:5 Cube Disk Hemisphere facing flow Parachute Hemisphere facing downstream CD 1. The drag coefficient for same geometries are shown in Table 10. The value of coefficient of drag for the car is 0. The chute is of 1.05 1.9 CD = 0.3. In the case of airfoils the plan area is the basis for drag coefficient.154 × 106 N ∴ Power = FD u = 0.5 × 109. Table 10.38 It may be seen that the coefficient of pressure drag is independent of Reynolds number.

36 seconds ∴ (i) After 50 seconds.3.06811 ×29.0433 2 (k/m)u0 = (2. (A) k= ∴ 1.0433 .Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces Force = mass × Acceleration = m(du/dt) ∴ (du/dt) = force/mass ∴ 337 du FD k 2 ρ = =− u where k = [CDC AC + CDP AP] dt m m 2 Separating variables and integrating. z ∴ ∴ u du u2 u0 =− k m z t 0 dt 1 1 k − =− t u0 u m u= F kI 1+ G J u t H mK 0 u0 .1) + (1.2. 20 = 60/(1 + 0.3.2 [( 0.36) = 968 m 2.06811 u = 60/(1 + 0. ∴ s= z z 0 t udt = t 0 u0 u0 dt ln [1 + (k/m)u0t] = (m/k) ln [1 + (k/m)u0t] = ( k / m)u0 1 + ( k / m)u0t At t = 50 sec s = At t = 29.32 × 1.. The flow pattern and the variation of drag coefficient is shown in Fig. From experiments the boundary layer in the forward portion is found to be laminar in this range.0433 10. (ii) For The distance travelled can be obtained by integrating u dt. 10. Chapter 10 1800 ln (1 + 0.06811 × 50) = 1306 m 2.. The flow separation at the rear and formation of wake contributes to the pressure drag.4 Flow Over Spheres and Cylinders In these cases both pressure and friction drag contribute to the total drag.06811 × t) ∴ t = 29.2 ×π × 1.06811 × 50) = 13.36 sec s = 1800 In (1 + 0.0433 × 60)/1800 = 0.62 m/s u = 20.82/4)] = 2. Separation is found to occur at about mid section and a wide wake is found to exist with pressure in the wake below that at the front. It may be noted that the coefficient of drag is nearly constant from Re = 103 to 5 × 105.

reducing the pressure drag.2) CD is read as 0. Separation can be reduced by streamlining the body shape. The flow in the forward side is found to turn turbulent and separation moves downstream and wake is now narrow.7. reducing the net pressure drag leading to the abrupt decrease in the drag coefficient.2 Flow separation in flow over cylinder/sphere There is a sharp drop in the value of CD after the critical Reynolds number. Kinematic viscosity = 1.3. 10.3. The lift on airfoil is an example.45 ∴ FD = CD (1/2) ρ Au2 = 0.5 Lift and Coefficient of Lift The force on an immersed body moving in a fluid can be resolved into two components. Turbulent layer has a higher momentum near the surface resisting separation.006 × 10–6 m2/s Re = uD/v = 1 × 0.338 Laminar boundary layer Fluid Mechanics and Machinery S S Wake 10 Cylinder 10 £ Re £ 2 × 10 Turbulent boundary layer S S 3 5 1 CD Sphere –1 10 Effect of roughness –2 10 Re > 2 × 10 5 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 10.052 × 1020 × × 12 = 0.45 π × 0.10) . Stream lining is now adopted not only for aircrafts but almost for all transport vehicles.006 × 10–6 = 4. A model of a bathysphere 50 mm diameter is towed under water at a speed of 1 m/s. The coefficient of lift is defined by CL = (1 / 2) ρ Au 2 FL (10. The component along the flow direction is called drag. Example 10.05/1.3. An optimum streamlined shape is the one which gives minimum total drag. This generally increases the area thus increasing friction drag.3. The component perpendicular to the flow direction is called lift. Density of water = 1020 kg/m3.45 N 2 4 10. Determine the tension in the towline.97 × 104 From graph (Fig.

0 0. ratio. golf. where b is the span length and Ap is the planform area. The angle between the airfoil chord and the flow direction is called angle of attack. The coefficients of lift and drag are found to be a function of ω D/2u called spin . separation is delayed on the upper surface and it occurs earlier in the lower surface. This is difficult to apply due to mechanical restrictions. Presently computer softwares are available for the design of airfoil sections with a very high ratio of lift to drag. Spin can also be used to obtain a curved path of travel for the ball. One method of boundary layer control is by the use of moving surfaces at locations where separation may start. This will equal the ratio (span/chord) as. Chapter 10 10. Pressure is reduced on the upper surface and is increased on the lower surface and the wake is deflected downwards.3 Variation of Lift and Drag on an airfoil Lift is of interest mainly in the design of airfoil sections. The lift to drag ratio varies from 20 to 40 with the lower value applicable for small planes. The chord of an airfoil is the line joining the leading edge and the trailing edge. Airfoil blade shapes are also used in turbomachines. Spin alters the pressure distribution and also the location of boundary layer separation. known as stall. 10. However this principle is used in sports like baseball. For each airfoil section such plots are available. These data are for long spans and corrections should be made as per the aspect ratio defined by b2/Ap.3.02 CL CL 0.3.01 CD CD 339 0 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 Incident angle 6 8 0 10 Figure 10. For spin along the flow direction.5 0. particularly curved surfaces boundary layer control is used. The planform area (the maximum projected area) is used in the definition of lift and drag coefficients.3. Spin also provides significant aerodynamic lift to increase the distance travelled by the ball. Flow separation will result in sudden drop in the lift.3. Ap = bc.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 1.6 Rotating Sphere and Cylinder In order to reduce skin friction in flow over surfaces. A typical plot of the variation of lift and drag coefficients with angle of attack for a specified Reynolds number is shown in Fig. The lift and drag coefficients depend on the Reynolds number and angle of attack. cricket and tennis where spin is applied to control the trajectory of the ball.

– 1 – a = 0 1 La b L T Ta ∴ a=–1 ∴ b=1 L2 La b L . Reynolds number. FL CL and CD 0. namely L and T.8 Variation of Lift and Drag with spin ratio A force perpendicular to both direction of motion and the spin axis is created during the flight. –1 – a = 0 T Ta π1 = ω R/u = ω R/2u. This can cause drift in the flight path.6 Lift force.8. v LM w D . ∴ 2 + a + b = 0.8. Ex. 10. called spin ratio. uD OP N 2u v Q The variation of CL and CD are found to be influenced more by spin ratio than Reynolds number. Hence two π terms can be identified. these are not listed. R Angular velocity.2 V w Wake 1 2 3 4 Spin ratio w D/2 u 5 Figure Ex. u Radius. This is known as MAGNUS effect. v Unit m/s m Radians/s m2/s Dimension L/T L 1/T L2/T There are four variables and two dimensions. uD OP and C N 2u v Q =f LM w D . In the case of cylinders the area for definition of CL and CD is L×D CD 0. Show using dimensional analysis that the lift and drag coefficients are functions of spin ratio and Reynolds number.4 CL 0. 10. ω Kinematic viscosity. The variables affecting the phenomenon are listed below. Let π2 = vuaRb or L0T0 = ∴ Hence a = – 1 b = –1 π2 = CL = f v uR D or uD . The trend is shown in Fig. . Choosing linear velocity and radius as repeating variables Let ∴ π1 = ω uaRb or L0T 0 = a + b = 0.340 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 10. No 1 2 3 4 Variable Linear Velocity. As CL and CD are dimensionless.

1. Also determine the friction coefficient and the displacement and momentum thicknesses. This gives dy δ δ u∞ FG IJ H K 2 (Refer 10. δm = (1/7)δ Problem 10. .464x/Rex0.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces SOLVED PROBLEMS 341 Problem 10. As y =0 u y = u∞ δ ∴ u= u∞ y . and u = u∞. Momentum integral equation is d dx LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v du u∞ = δ dy OP Q du dy . du u y y =2 − = 0. displacement and momentum thicknesses. τ δ2 = (12vx)/u∞ = 12x2/(v/u∞x) = 12x2/Rex The constant is 3. Let u = a + by + cy2.5 u∞ 3.18) Substituting in the integral momentum equation. δ dδ = (6v/u∞) dx δ = 3.5. the thickness of boundary layer friction coefficient. determine the thickness of the boundary layer. Considering the integral part δ z ∴ δ 0 LM u MN δ 2 ∞ 2 2 2 u∞ δ u∞ δ 1 2 u∞ 2 − u δ y − 2 y dy = 2 3 = 6 ∞ δ OP PQ LM NM OP QP ∴ 2 u u∞ d u∞ u 2 dδ δ = v ∞ or ∞ =v dx 6 δ δ 6 dx LM NM OP QP Separating variables and integrating.5 x = 0.464 instead of 5 in the exact solution Cfx = 2 (1 / 2) ρu∞ = 2µu∞ 2 ρu∞ δ = 2v Re 0.577/Rex0. As against δ/3 δ The displacement thickness δd = Chapter 10 z LMN δ 0 1− u dy = u∞ OP Q z LMN δ 0 1− OP Q Momentum thickness is given by δm = z δ 0 u u dy = 1− u∞ u∞ LM N OP Q z δ 0 LM y − y OP dy = 1 δ − 1 δ = 1 δ Nδ δ Q 2 3 6 2 2 By the exact solution. The boundary conditions are u = 0 at y = 0. δ ∴τ= µu∞ . At y = δ.464 x y dy = (1/2)δ or δ/2.2 Assuming second degree velocity distribution in the boundary layer determine using the integral momentum equation.1 Assuming linear velocity variation in the boundary layer and using linear momentum integral equation.

τ = 2µu∞/δ z δ 0 LMF u I F u I MNGH u JK − GH u JK ∞ ∞ 2 OP u PQ dy = OP Q 2 ∞ 2 = u∞ z z δ 0 δ 0 LM2 F y I − F y I − 4 F y I + 4 F y I MN GH δ JK GH δ JK GH δ JK GH δ JK LM2 FG y IJ − 5 FG y IJ + 4 FG y IJ − FG y IJ MN H δ K H δ K H δ K H δ K 2 2 3 3 − 4 FG y IJ H δK 4 OP dy PQ OP dy PQ .5 ∞ FG IJ H K Note that the constant is 5. = sin . y= 0 u = u∞ 2 Considering the integral part.5 τ 4µ u∞ 4v x = = = = 0. du u π y du π πy = u∞ (π/2δ) at y = 0. 30 u x x = 30x2/Rex.477x/Rex0.644/Rex0.1.5 δd = 4v Re 0. 2 u∞ LM MN y y − δ δ FG H IJ K 2 OP du PQ .5 2 2 (1 / 2) ρu∞ ρu∞ δ u∞ δ 5.3 Assuming the velocity distribution in the boundary layer as πy u = sin u∞ 2δ FG IJ H K (in the range 0 ≤ y ≤ δ.5 Cfx = instead of 0.. δ = 5..477 xu∞ δm = z z 0 δ 0 δ LM1 − u OP dy = LM1 − 2 FG y IJ + FG y IJ OP dy = δ MN H δ K H δ K PQ 3 N uQ LM u F u I OP 2 MN u − GH u JK PQ dy = 15 δ (see equation A) ∞ z δ 2 0 2 ∞ ∞ Problem 10.477 x/Rex0. (A) 2 = u∞ δ − LM N 5 1 2 2 δ+δ− δ = u∞ δ 3 5 15 Substituting d 2 2 u∞ δ = 2vu /δ or ∞ dx 15 ∴ LM N OP Q 2 2 dδ = 2 vu∞ / δ u∞ = dx 15 δdδ = 15(v/u∞)dx Integrating v 2 δ2 = 30vx/u∞.12). using integral momentum method (Refer equation 10. As τ = 2µu∞/δ and δ = 5.342 d dx Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v OP Q du dy .477 as against 5 by exact solution. = cos dy u∞ 2δ dy 2δ 2δ FG IJ H K . and u/u∞ = 1 beyond δ ) determine the thickness of the boundary layer.73/Rex0. dy 2 y=0 = 2u∞/δ.

1366 u∞ Cfx = τw/(1/2)ρ u∞2.1366 δ] = = u v.1366 × u N 2 Q N π Q 0 δ ∞ 2× δ .Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces d dx 343 du dy y =0 LM N z δ 0 u(u∞ − u) dy = v OP Q Considering the integral part and substituting the velocity distribution.1366 u∞ vx δ2 π or δ = 4. Assuming cubic velocity profile.1366] u v dx 2δ ∞ dx 2δ ∞ ∴ Integrating δ dδ = v π dx 2 × 0.3625 δ = δ/2. The free stream flow for thickness of δ is ρ u∞ δ.655/Rex0.32 (refer result A) Problem 10. 2 uδ z δ 0 LMF u I F u I MNGH u JK − GH u JK ∞ ∞ 2 OP LMsin π y − sin dy = u PQ N 2δ 2 δ z δ 2 0 πy dy 2δ OP Q Noting z sin 2 ax = x sin 2 ax − 2 4a 2 = u∞ − 2 = u∞ LM 2δ cos π y − y + δ sin π y OP N π 2δ 2 2π 2π Q LM0 − δ + 0OP − LM− 2δ − 0 + 0OP = 0.1366 δ.8x/Rex0.5 = 0..4 Using the cubic velocity profile determine upto a length L the flow out of the boundary layer in terms of the boundary layer thicknes. instead of δ/3 δm = 0.. [u∞ × 0.76.8 u∞ x Chapter 10 z δ 0 LM1 − u OP dy = L1 − sin FG π y IJ O dy = Lδ + 2δ cos π y O MN H 2δ K PQ MN π δ PQ N uQ ∞ z δ δ 0 0 = [δ + 0] – [0 + (2δ/π)] = 0. at y = 0. or δ/7.5 = x δ u∞ 4. τw = µ (du/dy). τw = µ u∞ π/2δ 2µ u∞ π 2 2δ ρu∞ ∴ Cfx = δd = = π v π v Re 0.5 = 2 2 × 0. u = u∞ Mass flow through the boundary layer = LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ MN 2 δ 2 H δ K 3 OP PQ 3 z δ 0 ρ udy = z δ 0 ρ u∞ LM 3 y − 1 FG y IJ MN 2 δ 2 H δ K OP dy = ρ u LM 3 y PQ N2 δ ∞ 2 − 1 y4 8 δ3 OP Q δ = 0 5 ρ u∞ δ 8 . (A) π π d dδ 2 2 [u∞ × 0.

022 m/s This can also be calculated in a round about way using the continuity equation ∂u ∂u ∂v + = 0 . u = 0 and v = 0.56 × 105 ∴ v = (1.5 = 0. The value of can be obtained from the assumed profile and then equated to ∂x ∂x ∂y − ∂v . .64 x 1 1. At y = 0.. velocity = 3 4. Volume flow out of the boundary v = (3/8) u∞ δ. So Consider the cubic profile: ∂3 u should be zero.5 m. u∞ = 5 m/s. at a distance 0.344 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery ∴ Mass flow out of the boundary layer = (1–(5/8)) ρ u∞ δ = 3/8 ρ u∞ δ or displacement thickness times the free stream flow. Simplifying.5 x Re 0.6]. (Nota : δd = (3/8) δ for cubic profile) The average velocity in the y direction can be obtained by dividing the volume flow by area i. Integrating the same between 0 and δ the same result will be obtained. ∂ y3 3 u 3 y 1 y = − u∞ 2 δ 2 δ ∴ FG IJ H K 3 1 3 y2 ∂u − = u∞ 2 δ 2 δ3 ∂y LM N OP Q and ∂2 u 6 y = u∞ − ∂ y2 2 δ3 LM N OP ∂ u = – 3u /δ Q ∂y 2 3 ∞ 3 This is not zero. Re = 1. [Refer Problem 10.56 × 105)0.5 L L This will be low as Reynolds number will be high. Differentiating with ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂2 u ∂v ∂u ∂2 u ∂3 u +u + + v 2 = v 3 . − Deduce from the above that the cubic profile is approximate. ∂y Problem 10. Consider the x directional momentum equation. 1 × x for unit width. ∂3 u = 0.1) Air flow. Hence the second and third terms are also zero.e. Hence profile assume is approximate.74 × 5)/(1. ∂ y3 ∂u ∂u ∂2 u +v = v 2 .5 Using the continuity and momentum equations show that at y = 0. u resect to y. ∂ y ∂x ∂ x∂ y ∂ y ∂ y ∂y ∂y ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂2 u ∂2 u ∂3 u + +u +v 2 =v 3 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x∂ y ∂y ∂y LM N OP Q The first term is zero due to continuity equation. Consider the data from example (10.74u∞ = u∞ 8 Re 0.

v = 15. .205 kg/m3.06 × 10–6 m2/s Using equation (10.4).6 Derive a general expression for the y directional velocity at a location x in the boundary layer in flow over a flat plate.r. Assume cubic velocity variation. velocity expression ∂v ∂u =− reduces to u = c1 y x–1/2 – c2 y3 x–3/2.2. ρ = 1.87 Re 0.2. y. ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂u + =0 =− ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x u = u∞ LM 3 y − 1 F y I OP G J NM 2 δ 2 H δ K PQ .1 N/m2. Consider continuity equation.5 16 x x LM N OP Q Total mass flow when integrated over the length will equal (3/8) ρ u∞ δL (Refer Problem 10. Substituting for c 8c x 3 / 2 16 c 3 x 5 / 2 3 u∞ y 4 3 × u∞/ 2 3 u∞ u∞ 1/ 2 y 2 – 16 × 125v3 / 2 x 5 / 2 8 5v1/ 2 x 3 / 2 =δ 3 u∞ 2 1 y 4 y2 y4 3 3 y − u∞ 3 = − v = u∞ 8 δx 2 δ2 8 δ x 16 δ x LM N OP Q Chapter 10 (Check for dimensional consistency : dimensions of y2/δ x and y4/δ3 x cancel and v has the same unit as u∞) Maximum value occurs when ∂v = 0.7 The shear at a location 2 m from the leading edge of a flat plate was measured as 2. τw = Cfx (1/2) ρ u2. Equating to zero and solving y = δ ∂y 2δ 2δ This is physically explainable as the total flow in y direction should occur at y = δ.3) Cfx = 0. ∂y 1 ∂ 1 y 2 − 2 y 4 = 2 y − 2 4 y 3 . Indicate at what y location this will be maximum.0594/Rex0. and substituting for c1 and c2 v= v= Substituting 5 xv1/ 2 1/ u∞ 2 x 1/ 2 3 u∞ 2 3u∞ y 4 y – . δ = 5x/Re 3 x 1/2 = 5 xv1/ 2 1/ u∞ 2 x 1/ 2 = cx1/2 where c = [5v1/2/u∞1/2] substituting and putting c1 = 3u∞/2 δ and c2 = u∞/2 δ3.t. Problem 10.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 345 Problem 10. Velocity at y = δ is vδx = u∞ 3 u∞ δ = 0. = – [c1 × (–1/2) × y x–3/2 + (3/2) c2 y3 x–5/2] ∂y ∂x Integrating w. Assuming the flow to be turbulent from the start determine if air at 20°C was flowing over the plate (i) the velocity of air (ii) the boundary layer thickness and (iii) the velocity at 15 mm above the plate.

17 150 δ.17/(5 ×105)0.04 or u∞ = 35.2)1/7 = 32.0177 m = 5 × 0.1677 m ∴ Lo = 150. m 2.2 1061 1.51 0. The kinematic viscosity and density of the fluids are : S.808 × 106)0.2 mm If the velocity profile is assumed as u y = δ u∞ FG IJ H K 1/7 ∴ u = 35. Front side : CP = 1 – (r/R)6.0594 × (15.346 Equating 2.623 × 2/15. Using equation (10.2 = 0. kg/m3 1.8 Determine the length at which the flow over a flat plate will turn turbulent for air.205 u∞2.3) is justified. CP = ∆P/(1/2) ρ AV2 ∴ R r ∆P = CP(1/2) ρ AV2 = CP 2π rdr (ρ V2/2) Consider a small strip of width dr at a radius r.06 × 10–6 = 4.06 × 10–6 δ = 5x/Rex δ = 5x/Rex δ = 5x/Rex 0. Turbulent hence the use of equation (10.0352 m or δ = 35. mm 17.5 = 0.205 1000 888 Kinematic viscosity 15.42 Determine the drag coefficient for the disk.2.006 × 10–6 901 × 10–6 The flow turns turbulent at Re = 5 × 105 (1) Air : (2) Water : (3) Engine oil : 5 × 105 = 3 × La/15.51 m ∴ Lw = 0. The force on the area = ∆P × 2π rdr FD = z 0 ∆P × 2π rdr = 1 ρV 2 2 z R 0 C p 2π rdr = 1 ρV 2 2 z R 0 LM1 − F r IJ OP 2π rdr G NM H R K PQ 6 .0012 m = 5 × 150.5 Problem 10.51/(5 ×105)0. No Air Water Engine oil Density.808 × 106.05 m/s Problem 10.006 × 10–6 0.17 m = 5 × 2.5 5 × 105 = 3 × Lo/901 × 10–6 0.1).2. Solving.382 × 2/(4.9 The pressure distribution on the front and back surfaces of a thin disk of radius.2 0.5 = 0. R oriented perpendicular to a fluid stream was measured and the pressure coefficient has been correlated as below.1 = 1.2 × 1 × 1.2 u∞ 2 0. water and engine oil if the flow velocity is 3 m/s.06 × 10 −6 ) 0.5 ∴ La = 2.623 m/s Re = 35. Also determine the boundary layer thickness at the location.623 (15/35.06 × 10–6 Lcv. Temperature of the fluid = 20°C.2 = 0. 2 u∞ = 621.7 1.8 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0. Rear surface : CP = – 0.5 = 1.1677/(5 ×105)0.382x/Rex0.061 m dr 5 × 105 = 3 × Lw/1. δ = 0.

97 × 10–3 × 2(L – x)x–1/2dx Integrating between x = 0 to x = L F = 9. and assuming the length of base as 2L.5 OP Q L = 9.5 = 0.332 × 1.332 ρ u2/Re0. the pressure is independent of radius opposite direction ∴ Cp = 0.66 × 105 ∴ flow is laminar L−x × 2L × dx = 2(L – x)dx.94 × 10–3 × 0 4 × L1. 10.06 × 10–6)0. Determine the shear force on both sides of the plate.5 × (15.68 × LM Lx N 0. dA = Chapter 10 Re = 2 × 0.5 3 10–3 .205 kg/m3. Plate Flow 2m/s X dx 1m 45° x L Figure P.17 ∴ CD = Cp and it is in the Problem 10.10 Problem model Considering the maximum length of 0.5 N 1/ 2 x 1. ∴ F = 4.332 ρ u1.10. height will be L. kinematic viscosity is 15.5x–1/2 = 4. as 20°C.94 × 10–3 Here L = 0.205 × 21. P.332 ρ u2v1/2/u1/2x1/2 = 0.10. ρ = 1.5v1/2x–1/2 = 0.5 m.75 + 0.10 Air flows along a triagular plate as shown in Fig.5 m τx = 0.5 − 1.06 × 10–6 = 0.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 2 r8 1 2 r − = 2π × ρV 2 2 8 R6 347 LM N OP Q R = 0 R2 R 2 1 2π × ρV 2 − 2 2 8 LM N OP Q 1 ρV 2 π R 2 3 / 4 = (1/8) ρ AV2 2 CD = FD/(1/2) ρ AV2 ∴CD = 3/4 = 0.06 × 10–6 m2/s.97 × 10–3x1/2 Considering a strip of width dx at a distance x from base.42 = 1.5/15.75 = On the otherside. Assume air temperature. Force on the strip L dF = τx dA = 4.

2 – 1742ReL–1 = 2.88 × 10 = 717.5.93 × 106 ∴ The flow is turbulent considering combined laminar and turbulent flows. Problem 10.2 m wide and moves in water at 10 m/s.5 N Moment = 5022.2 × 16. For the spherical portion : Re = 12 × 100 × 1000 1 × = 2.5v1/2L1. kg m 1.662/2 = 5022.21 × 107 3600 1506 × 10 −6 The value of CD is read as 0. ρ = 1000 kg/m3. N = const Hence checks. v = 1.35 × 1.19 from graph by extrapolation. For the spherical portion M = (30 + 6) × 0.689 × 106 3600 1506 × 10 −6 The value of CD is read as 0.2 m diameter and 35 m height has been installed.5 × 35/2 = 87893 Nm or 87.782 = 359. Determine the moment at the base of the chimney.5 = kgm/s2 = N.23 × 35 × 1. M = FD × distance.35 ∴ ∴ FD = CD ρ Au2/2 = 0.2/17.006 × 10–6 = 11.11 A water ski is 1. P = 2 × 35. F = const ρ u1. As this is a uniform force.06 × 10–6 m2/s. For the cylindrical portion : Re = 2 × 100 × 1000 1 × = 3.6 × 10–6 = 1.5 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery m1.5 s 0.88 N Power required considering 2 skis. v = 17.78 m/s. Assume density of air as 1. FD = CD (1/2) ρ AV2. During a cyclone the wind reaches velocity in the range of 60 kmph.2 × 10/1. Problem 10.99 × 10–3 = 35.67 m/s Re = 16.348 Check for dimensional homogeneity.13 A overhead water tank is in the shape of a sphere of 12 m diameter and is supported by a 30 m tall tower of circular section of diameter 2 m.893 kNm. CfL = 0. Re = 1. ρ = 1. the water temperature is 20°C.2 × 2.205 × (π ×122/4) × 27. V = 100 × 1000/3600 = 27. Determine the moment at the base caused by the aerodynamic force due to cyclonic wind of speed 100 kmph.2 m long and 0.40 from graph by extrapolation. u = 600000/3600 = 16. it can be taken to act at the mid point.14 × 106 From graph for circular cylinder CD is read as 0.6 × 10–6 m2/s.99 × 10–3. Determine the viscous drag approximating it as a flat plate.6 × 103 Nm . Drag = CfL (1/2)ρ u2∆ Drag = (1/2) 1000 × 102 × 1.2 × 0.006 × 10–6 m2/s.12 In a power plant located near the sea a chimney of 1.5 m m 3 s 1.67 × 1.19 × (1/2) × 1.205 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity as 15.6 W Problem 10.2 kg/m3.074ReL–0.

.7364 × π × 0.5 m Figure P. Drag force = CD (1/2) ρ Au2. Assume the vessel is large.205 × 2 × 30 × 27.1) Net force = 120 × 9. Hailstone is assumed to be in the shape of a sphere with a density of 940 kg/m3. Problem 10.85 CD depends on Reynolds number which cannot be calculated without the value of velocity.16 A stirrer is constructed as shown in Fig.16. Determine the minimum diameter of the chute. For parachute CD = 1. The stirrer speed is 90 rpm.81 N 120 × 9. Substituting this value.15 m 0.6 + 167.022 u2 = (4/3) × π × 0. 10.4 × 103 Nm Total moment = (359. Neglect the drag on the rod and the shaft.45 for Re = 103 to 5 × 105.23 × (π D2/4) × 62 Solving D = 7.4 × (1/2) × 1. the value is about 0. Other body forces like buoyancy forces are negligible. The mass of the chute and the jumper is 120 kg.14 A parachute moves down at a speed of 6 m/s. P. The density and dynamic viscosity of air at the altitude of 5000 m where the stones are formed are 0. At the limiting condition thses can be taken as equal.628 ×10–5 = 0.023 × 9.7 kmph.52 m/s or 138.4) × 103 = 527.7364 kg/m3 and 1. (Refer table 10. The dimensions are indicated in the figure.94 ×105.81 = 1.2.2 × (1/2) × 1.15 Hail stones that are formed in thunder clouds are sopported by the drag due to the air draft upwards and will begin to fall when the size reaches a critical value. Equating and substituting the values. Looking at the graph for CD for spheres.628 × 10–5 kg/ms. The drag force should be just less than the gravity force when the hailstone begins to fall. Estimate the velocity upwards so that hailstones begin to fall when the diameter reaches a value of 40 mm.81 × 940 ∴ CD u2 = 667.51 m Problem 10.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces For the cylindrical portion 349 M = 15 × 0.04/1. CD = (1/2) × 0. V being the volume.0 × 103 Nm Problem 10. 10.52 × 0. 90 rpm 0. Gravity force = ρ Vg. u = 38. Determine the torque on the shaft and also the power required.3.23 kg/m3. Hence the assumed value of CD is acceptable. Density of the fluid is 1025 kg/m3.16 Stirrer details Chapter 10 Re = 38.782 = 167. Density of air = 1.

Torque = Force × torque arm.38 = 1. kinematic viscosity is 15.01)] 2 = 175.4 × 1.06 × 10–6 m2/s.7 N .38. 0.38 × 104 for 40 mm rod and 1.04 × π × 0. The coefficient of drag on the back = 0. Consider density of air as 1.17 An anemometer has hemispherical cups of 80 mm dia with an arm distance from the post to center of 130 mm.5 × 90 = = 4. A = π × 0.02 m f × 1.18 Determine the wind force on the antenna shown in Figure P.08 2 1.02) + (4 × 0.01 m f ×1m 0.152/4 ∴ FD = 1. The coefficient of drag when the cup faces the wind is 1.04/15.18 Antenna details Velocity of wind = 100000/3600 = 27. At this value CD is about 1.5 m 4 × 0.23 kg/m3. All the components face the wind blowing at 100 kmph.78 m/s The value of Reynolds number is given by Re = 27.31 N Torque = Force × torque arm = 235.17 × (1/2) × 1025 × (π × 0.42 – 0.782 [(5 × 0. 10.78 × 0.71242 = 235.17 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π DN π × 0. Determine the starting torque. Power = 2π NT/60 = (2π × 90 × 117. ρ = 1.4 for both cases.205 kg/m3.84 × 104 for 10 mm rod.65 Nm. 10.152/4) × 4.04 Force = CDAρ V2/2. the cups starts rotating at a wind speed of 3 m/s.18.76 × 10–3 Nm × 4 2 Problem 10.7124 m/s 60 60 Linear speed of the disk = CD = FD/(1/2) ρ AV2.13 = 3.5 = 117.23 × 32 × 0.04 m f ×5m Figure P.30 × 0.04) + (1.42.5 × 0. If due ot fiction.65)/60 = 1109 W Problem 10. ∴ ∴ Starting torque Net coefficient = 1. FD = 1. Substituting = 1.350 For circular plate CD = 1.06 × 10–6 = 7.205 × 27.

determine the lift coefficient. If the craft travels at 600 kmph.8936 Re = 30 × 0. when the ball is hit at a speed of 108 kmph and a top spin of 8000 rpm. u = 108000/3600 = 30 m/s. The lift force depends on the spin ratio and Reynolds number. 2 4 This force acts downwards due to top spin.064/16 × 10–6 = 1. For air density = 1.038 2 × 9.20 In championship tennis.21 A table tennis ball of mass 2.7 rad/s or 5488 rpm 2u .85 kg/m3. For this situation. R = 0.9808 = 52.5592 = 91.057 kg. The wing area is 160 m2.91 ωD = 0. Density and kinematic viscosity of air are 1. The lift force should be equal the weight at steady flight. Calculate the aerodynamic lift on ball and radius of curvature of path in the vertical plane.76 × 0.165 × 302 = 0.7 m 2. ω = 8000 × 2π/60 = 837. i.5 1 0.72 ∴ CL = 0.2578 From the graph for CL vs spin ratio.5592 N ∴ Total force = 0.3.064 m and mass is 0. with a back spin ω. balls are hit at speeds exceeding 100 kmph and good amount of spin. mg = CL(1/2) ρ u2A Chapter 10 In case only gravity force acts.25 × π × 1 0.19 The total mass of an aircraft is 70000 kg.91.81 = 0.165 × 122 × π × 1000 2 4 ∴CL = 0.e.81 = CL × 160 × (1/2) × 0.3635. Determine the value of back spin for the ball to travel in a horizontal path.2 × 105 By interpolation in Fig.81 = CL × × 1.25 ∴ Lift force = 0.7 m/s 70000 × 9. not dropping due to gravity. page 341 CL is read as 0..4) the value of spin ratio is read as 0.064 2 × × 1.85 × 166. Air density at the flight conditions is 0. the force due to gravity should equal the lift force.165 kg/m3 and 16 × 10–6 m2/s.064/2 × 30) = 0. Lift force FL is given by FL = CL A(1/2) ρ V2. 10. Top spin causes downward force.3. then R = 0.9808 N Equating it to the z directional acceleration F = mu2/R where R is the radius of the path in the vertical plane.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 351 Problem 10. 10.057 × 9.5 grams and a diameter of 38 mm is hit with a velocity of 12 m/s.057 × 302/0.057 × 302/0.3 m The ball comes down sharply due to the top spin. (Fig. flight speed. gravity force = 0. Neglect the compressibility effect.165 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity is 16 × 10–6 m2/s. The ball diameter is 0.4.76 radians/s ∴ Spin ratio = (837.4216 N. Problem 10. V = 600000/3600 = 166. Problem 10. Spin ratio = ω D/2u. ∴ ω = 574.

98 × 106 1.47 × 106 and CD = 0.22 A cork ball 0.45 m/s 2 4 3.352 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery If the velocity is more.45 × 0.22 Force diagram At equilibrium the components along the rope (at 30° to the horizontal) is taken up by the rope.45 for sphere 189.18 m/s Further iteration is necessary as the new value of Re = 1. Density of air = 1.21 is tied on the bed of a river. P.22.88/cos 60 = 189.56 N 3 Fb cos 30 = 94. The forces on the cork ball are shown in Fig.2 Corresponding V = 5.3 2 2 × 1000 × π × V . The components perpendicular to this line should balance.153 × 9. ∴ FD cos 60 = Fb cos 30 Fb = Buoyant force = difference in density × volume × g = 790 × ∴ 4 π × 0. for this spin the ball will rise. Problem 10. 10. At 30 m. At a certain time it rests at 30° to the horizontal due to the flow. displacement thickness is δd = 0. CD = 0. Problem 10.81 N = 109. The displacement thickness in meter is given by δd = 0. The flow with boundary layer can be taken as flow at the free stream velocity with the boundary moved by a distance equal to the displacement thickness.5 where x is the distance along the flow.0039 × 300. Determine the velocity outside the boundary layer at a distance of 30 m. Buoyant force FD V Drag force 30° Figure P. Determine the velocity of flow.02136 m .23 Air flows in a square duct of side 0.45 0.35.2 kg/m3. If the velocity is less then the ball will travel in an arc.6 m with a velocity of 3 m/s.3 m diameter with specific gravity 0. 10. ∴ FD = 94.3 = 0.66 N FD = CD (1/2) ρ AV2. Solving V = 3.5 = 0.88 N.06 × 10 −6 Reynolds number = For this value CD = 0.0039 x0.66 = 0.

6 × 3 = 0. Drag is the component of the total force on a body immersed in a flow in the _______________ direction. 10. In ideal flwo the forces that are important are _______________. Macroscopic mixing between layers occurs in _______________. In flow over surfaces. 2. . 8. 7.2 [3. 3. 5. Velocity gradient exists only in the _______________. The two methods of analysis of boundary layer flow are _______________. 2. Lift is the component of the total force on a body immersed in a flow in the _______________ direction.482 – 32] = 1. The study of non viscous fluid flow is called _______________. fluid at the surface takes on the velocity of the body as a result of _______________ condition. In turbulent flow viscous forces are _______________ compared to inertia force. 6. (3) Navier-Stokes (4) boundary layer (5) Ideal fluid (6) boundary layer (7) Inertia and viscous forces (8) pressure and inertia (9) shear stress (10) Laminar O Q. 9. Equations describing the complete flow field are know as _______________ equations.87 N/m2 The pressure drop can be calculated for the flow outside the boundary layer as 353 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q.5573 m Equating the volume flow rate 0. 8. 3. In laminar flow viscous forces are _______________ compared to inertia forces.6 × 0.02136) = 0.1 Fill in the blanks: 1. Boundary layer separation occurs when there is an _______________ pressure gradient. 10. Answers Chapter 10 (1) no slip (2) Theoretical hydrodynamics.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces The side of the square is reduced by twice this thickness. 7. Mass and momentum flow in laminar boundary layer is only at the_______________ level. 5.2 Fill in the blanks: 1. 10. 6.6 – 2 × 0. The forces which are important in the boundary layer are _______________. Turbulent flow over a flat plate is generally taken to start at a Reynolds number of ______________. Initially _______________ flow prevails in the boundary layer. The pressure gradient at the surface causes _______________ on the surface. ∴ Length of side considering displacement thickness is Ld = (0. 9.55732 × V2 ∴ V2 = 3. 10. The flow outside the boundary layer can be treated as _______________ flow. The effect of viscosity is important only in a thin layer adjacant to the surface called _______________.48 m/s ∆P = (1/2) ρ (V22 – V12) = (1/2) × 1. The ratio of inertia force to viscous force is called _______________ number. 4. 4.

The velocity profile in turbulent flow can be represented by _______________ power law. The coefficcient of drag is the ratio between _______________ and _______________. Spin ratio 8. Cubic 10. Flow O Q. Shortens O Q.5 Fill in the blanks: 1. 2. 3. approximate integral. 1.3 Fill in the blanks: 1. 7. decreases 7. dynamic force 5. The coefficient of lift on an airfoil _______________ with angle of incidence upto a limit and then _______________. dynamic force 6. 9. The force perpendicular to both the flow direction and the axis of rotation of an object in flow is known as _______________ effect. Adverse 6. Displacement thickness 2. One seventh O Q. Top spin _______________ the length of travel of a ball. Lift force. . Coefficient of drag has values in the range _______________. 0. The coefficient of lift is the ratio between _______________ and _______________.1 10. Coefficient of lift on an airfoil decreases when _______________ occurs. 6. 5. Answers 1. The drag due to boundary layer sparation is called _______________ drag. 3 Magnus effect 4. 8. 9. V being the forward velocity. Larger 7. 9. Adverse 9. 7. Reynolds 5. The layer thickness which will have the same flow rate as the boundary layer with free stream velocity is called _______________. The pressure gradient which will delay boundary layer seperation is called _______________ gradient. Separation 8. 8. In the range of Reynolds numbers 103 to 105. 6. 4. The coefficient of lift has values about _______________. Pressure 4. 10. 4. The lift and drag coefficient on a spinning sphere is dependent on _______________ defined as ωD/2V. 4. Answers 1. Increases. 10. Drag force. Rotating cylinders were proposed to propel ships by the use of _______________. Momentum thickness 3. Angle of incidence 7. the drag coefficient on a cylinder or sphere is _______________. Favourable 5. The layer thickness which will have the same flow momentum as the boundary layer with free stream velocity is called _______________.0. 10. 2. The drift of a shell fired is due to _______________. 3. microscopic 2. Turbulent flow. The distance from the wall where the velocity is 99% of its asymptotic limit is known as _______________ of a boundary layer. 3.4 Fill in the blanks: 1. 2. The angle between the flow direction and the chord of an airfoil is called _______________. 5. 10. 10.354 Answers Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1. Perpendicular 10. The velocity profile in laminar flow follows nearly a _______________ polynomial. Smaller 8. The pressure gradient which will induce boundary layer seperation is called _______________ gradient. 5 × 105 6. exact differential. Nearly constant 9.

9 Decreases : 2. Answers 1. 6.7 State True to False: 1. Turbulence _______________ in the direction of flow. u∞ IJ K Chapter 10 Answers . Rate of momentum transfers will be higher in turbulent flow. 355 4. 7. Momentum thickness will be larger compared to displacement thickness. 7. Boundary layer thickness _______________ along the flow direction. 5. Increases : 1. so that the flow equals the flow at free stream velocity. Molecular diffusion 3. 7. the momentum transfer is by _______________.6 Fill in the blanks with increases or decreases: 1. Momentum thickness is given by z FGH δ 0 u dy . At the separation point of boundary layer. The velocity gradient in the boundary layer is maximum at the top edge of the layer. 5. Local shear stress coefficient _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. 6. The velocity gradient will be zero at the top plane of the boundary layer. 4. 10. A boundary layer in which there is macroscopic mixing is called_______________. In a turbulent boundary layer over a smooth plate. 8. 9. Reynolds number _______________ with increase in kinematic viscosity of a fluid. 10. 5. 10. Shear stress within the boundary layer _______________ towards the boundary surface. Drag coefficient on a plate _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. In flow over a flat plate the boundary layer undergoes transition when the value of Reynolds number is about _______________. 8. 5. Thickness 2. greater 7. 9. The velocity gradient in turbulent boundary layer will be _______________ than in the laminar boundary layer. Pressure 9. Drag force _______________ with increase in free stream velocity. Boundary layer thickness will be smaller compared to displacement thickness. 3. Reynolds number _______________ in the direction of flow over flat plate. In flow of real fluids the viscous effects can be considered to be confined to the _______________. 6. Laminar sub layer 8. Boundary layer 5. 4. 2. 3. 3. The flow above the boundary layer can be treated as invicid flow. 7. 6. 10. 8. Displacement thickness is the thickness by which the plane is to be moved up. Displacement thickness is defined by 1 2 u∞ 1− z δ 0 (uu∞ − u 2 )dy . In laminar boundary layer. Local velocity within a boundary layer _______________ towards the boundary surface. The phenomenon of boundary layer separation takes place at adverse _______________ gradient. 9. Boundary layer thickness _______________ with increase in Reynolds number. Zero O Q. there exits a thin layer in which velocity variation is linear is called as _______________.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 2. The disturbed region downstream of boundary layer separation is known as _______________. 10 O Q. 3. Turbulent boundary layer 4. 8. 2. 5 × 105 6. 4. Wake 10. the velocity gradient will be _______________.

Drag coefficient 13.7 mm the free stream velocity being 25 m/s. If the velocity profile is given as u y y =2 − u∞ δ δ FG IJ H K 2 + C. Assume parabolic profile for laminar correlation u y y =2 − u∞ δ δ FG IJ H K 2 and 1/7th power law variation for turbulent correlation. Flow separation 10.2. Also determine the displaceδ (δd = 1.2. Lift coefficient 12.8 m at a distance of 6 mm from plate surface (i) Assuming cubic profile and (ii) linear profile. Turbulent flow 7. calculate the value of C.2 Derive an expression for the displacement thickness and Momentum thickness in flow over a flat plate assuming u u∞ = sin FG π y IJ .6 m for (i) air (ii) water and (iii) engine oil. (δt/δL = 144/105) δ δ E 10.06 × 10–6 m2/s ρ = 1. 10. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery In turbulent flow boundary layer thickness is proportional to x0. Drag coefficient 8. wing span of an airfoil.4 Assuming momentum thickness to be constant at the transition point whether laminar or turbulent flow correlation is used. E 10. 9. assuming 1/7th δ δ power law. Momentum thickness 3. 16 False : 1.76 mm) ment and momentum thicknesses at this section. 16. 15.5.356 10. E 10. Boundary layer thickness in laminar flow is proportional to x. Boundary layer thickness in laminar flow is proportional to x1/2. 14. Boundary layer thickness 2. Magnus effect.3 Compare the velocities for flow over a flat plate to turn turbulent at a distance of 0. 12.5 m and 0. Friction coefficient Cf = τw/ρ u∞2.0972) E 10. Chord. H 2 δK E 10. 12.205 kg/m3. EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 10. Laminar flow 6. Displacement thickness 4.1 Assuming that air at 20 °C flows over a flat with a free stream velocity of 6 m/s. 11. Coefficient of friction 5. determine the velocity at 0. the boundary layer thickness was measured as 5. 7.10.9 mm. Answers True : 2. Spin ratio 15. 3. 13. 11. (δm/δd = 0. Pressure drag 9. δm = 0.8. 4. In laminar flow Cf ∝ Re–0. 6. In case flow is turbulent use 1/7th power law. 13. find the ratio of laminar boundary layer thickness to turbulent boundary layer thickness. 15. 14 O Q. 11. In turbulent flow Cf ∝ Re0. Angle of incidence 14.5 Determine the ratio of δm/δd in the turbulent region of flow over a flat plate.8 Define 1. 5. all at 20 °C. . In turbulent flow Cf ∝ Re–0.6 In a flow of air over a flat plate at a distance 20 cm from leading edge. 8. v = 15.

(ii) Assume cubic profile and (iii) Assume 1/7th power law. E 10. E 10.3 m along flow).3 m.3 m/s. The static pressure is – 22.3 m long and 1 m wide is placed parallel to the flow.Boundary Layer Theory and Flow Over Surfaces 357 E 10.7 mm. Use the results of cubic velocity profile assumption. u∞ free stream velocity and δmL momentum thickness. drag force upto a length L on one side is given by FD = ρ u∞2 δmL b.15 Describe the types of drag when a disc is held parallel to flow direction and perpendicular to flow direction.287 x/R1/6) δ from leading edge. Determine the change in pressure between the sections. Density of air = 1. (2. The pressures and temperatures on the inside and outside are 1 bar and 20 °C.14 A large truck weighing 45000 N is be air dropped using a large parachute.12 Asuming (u/u∞) = FG y IJ H δK 1/ 9 . b = 1 m. If the terminal speed is 10 m/s in air at 1 bar and 20 °C. (18. ∆P = 2. (0. (1.3 m from inlet the displacement thickness is 1 mm.6 m/s.305 m. Also determine the change in static pressure.62 N) E 10.6 kN) E 10.19 N/m2) E 10.76 kN) E 10.2. Chapter 10 E 10. Determine the total viscous force on the plate. Determine the drag on the section. derive an expression for boundary layer thickness at a distance x (δ = 0.3 travelling at 100 m/s is to be decelerated using a drag chute of 2 m dia with CD = 1.16 An open C section of 30 cm dia and 8 m length is held with concave side facing the flow at 1 m/s of water.29 m/s) E 10. Air at 20 °C flows at 30 m/s.9 In a water tunnel the freestream velocity is 1. (0. The wind flows at 20 kmph.2.10 Show that for flow over a flat plate. and L = 0. where b is the width. E 10. A plate 0. At 0. (30 m) E 10. Determine the angle of inclination of the cable. the boundary layer thickness increases from 9. determine the total drag. (V = 1. (i) Assume linear velocity profile. the velocity of air is 18.4 m/s. the inlet velocity is 30 m/s. (3. determine the diameter of the chute.9 mm of water column (gauge).13 Determine the friction drag on an airship 100 m long and 20 m diameter when it travels at 130 kmph. In order to maintain the velocity constant. At the first location. Derive an expression for the drag on the plate. Derive an expression for the drag assuming the flow to be similar to that on a flat plate. For u∞ = 2 m/s.2 kg/m3.22 A flat plate of lenght L and width equal to the boundary layer thickness is held parallel to the flow direction. Determine the angle of slant between 2 m and 4 m distances from entry. Determine the total force on the board. (59 N/m2) E 10.81 N) E 10.11 Determine the velocity of water if the drag on a sphere of 12 cm dia is 5 N.21 A thin circular plate is held parallel to a flow with velocity u∞. E 10. The condition of air is 25 °C and 0.17 A spherical balloon of helium of diameter 3 m is held tied to a rope.5 mm to 12. E 10. determine the velocity at the second section. This is to compensate for the growth of the displacement thickness. Assuming turbulent flow conditions and 1/7th power law velocity profile. the walls are to be slightly slanted outward.19 A high speed car with a frontal area of 1 m2 and drag coefficient CD = 0.20 A wind tunnel of 1 m square section is 6 m long. Determine the speed 10 (45 m/s) seconds after the chute is deployed.9 bar. (8370 N) E 10. .8 In a wind tunnel square section of side 0. the value of CD being 1.7 In a wind tunnel of square section of side 80 mm. The water is at 10 °C.18 An advertisement board 3 m dia is exposed to a 100 kmph normal wind.

The angle made by the kite is 10° with horizontal.26 A spherical ballon of 1.8 falls in oil of relative density 0.22 kg/m3 E 10. Estimate the terminal velocity. If CD = 1.149 mm) viscosity = 1.25 The tension of the rope holding a kite is 20 N.53) E 10.8 that will settle in water with a density of 1000 kg/m3. when fg = gravity force and f is bouyant force N/m3. When the rope is at 45° to the horizontal.3 Pas. (8. Dynamic (V = 8. at a wind speed of 30 m/s. E 10. Calculate the lift and drag coeficients. The wind speed is 4 kmph.9. E 10.24 Determine the frequency of vortex shedding by a wire 5 mm dia. and weights 5 N. E 10. CD = 0.2 × 10–3 Ns/m2. Use stokes law. (1. Density (0. The weight of the empty ballon was 50 N. Determine the density of helium in the balloon. Take properties of water at 20 °C.2 and rate of descent is 6 m/s determine (7 m) the diameter of chute.5 m dia filled with helium when let go ascended at 6.30 A small stone of dia 5 mm and relative density 2.1 × 10–3 m/s.72.27 A chute carrying a bomb totally weighs 1 kN.2 kg/m3 and µ = 18 × 10–6 kg/ms. The kite is a square of side 6 m . d = 0.358 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 10.2 kg/m3. Density of air = 1.2 kg/m3.29 Derive the expression for terminal velocity of a particle V = D2(fg– f)/18µ. To overcome friction the power required was 5152 kW at a speed of 15 kmph.23 A ship 150 m long has a rough wetted area of 5000 m2.63 × 10–2m/s) .µ = 0.2 kg/m3) of air = 1. Determine the reduction in power required if the surface was smooth. Air density is 1.2 kHz) The density of air 1. (CL = 0.27 m/s in air. E 10. E 10.28 Determine the terminal velocity and the maximum diameter of a spherical particle with a relative density of 1.

in some instances. Out of the many parameters to be measured. Measurement of pressure and pressure difference between locations are discussed in chapter 2. teurbines. It is essential that the presence of the sensing device in the flow stream does not afffect the flow being measured. since any sensing device has a finite dimension. In this chapter the methods and instruments for the measurement of flow velocity and flow rate are described. 359 . Velocity is also measured directly. flow velocity and flow rate are involved in almost all cases. Other areas requiring measurement of flow parameters are irrigation systems. then it may be considered that the velocity measured is the velocity at a point. Measurement of velocity at a point is almost impossible. chemical process control and research work in fluid mechanics. However. 11.2 VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS The measurement of velocity at a point or a number of points throughout a section in a flow stream is often needed to establish the velocity profile. Tests and experiments involve various measuring instruments. by determining the distance travelled by a group of fluid particles during a measured time interval. Velocity is usually measured indirectly by measuring the difference between the stagnation and static pressures (pitot tube) or by the rotational speed of wheels (vane anemometer) or by the temperature drop on a thin cylindrical wire in cross flow (hot wire anemometer) and also by optical systems. 11. if the area of flow occupied by the sensing device is relatively small compared to the total area of flow stream. Performance tsting of pumps. fans and blowers are typical cases.1 INTRODUCTION Flow Measurements The performance of engineering equipments and systems should be validated by tests and experiments before these could be commissioned.

1 upstream at the submerged end of the tube and a point.2. A tapping perpendicular to the flow gives the static pressure.360 11.1 (c) for measurement of velocity in a pipe. This method is used as pick-up in velocity measurment. ρg ρg 2g (11.2. 11.1) ( P0 − P1 ) ρg[( y1 + h) − y1 ] V12 = = =h.3) where ρ and ρm are the densities of flowing and manometric fluids.2. the static pressure is P1 = ρgy1 Substituting and rearranging equation (11.2.2. Substituting for (P0 – P1) from equation 11.1 Pitot tube arrangements If Bernoulli equation is applied between a point. .1 Pitot Tube Fluid Mechanics and Machinery If a small bore hollow tube bent at 90° is placed in a flow stream with its end facing upstream. h h y1 V1 1 0 (a) (b) A y1 V1 1 0 y1 B V1 1 A 0 rf B hm rm (c) Figure 11.1 (b).2. Equating the pressure at the left and right side limbs of the manometer.2. 0 at the other end of the tube. at point 1.2. The static tube A and pitot tube B are connected to a U tube manometer as shown in Fig.2. fluid will rise in the vertical side of the tube as shown in Fig 11. The pitot probe held facing upstream measures the total pressure. For velocity measurement in ducts a different arrangement of pick ups is necessary. then leaving out Patm on both sides P1 V12 P0 + = ρg 2 g ρg Since stagnation condition exists within the tube P0 = ρg(y + h).1. 11. P1 + ρgy1 + ρmg hm = P0 + ρgy1 hmg(ρm – ρ) = P0 – P1 (11.1 (a).2) Note that h is the head expressed as the column of flowing fluid. The tube connection at this point is called static tube/probe.1) ∴ V1 = 2 gh (11. A typical method is illustrated in Fig.

2.2. The accuracy of the measurement is found to depend on the shape of the tip of the pitot tube.4 is modified as V1 = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m /ρ) − 1 b g (11. Chapter 11 . This instrument is extensively used for velocity measurements in gas flow.2 (b).5) where Cv is a coefficient and its value has to be determined by calibrating the device.4) ρm/ρ is to be replaced by sm/s in terms of specific gravities.Flow Measurements ρV12 2 The velocity of fluid near the tip of the pitot at section 1 is 361 hmg (ρm – ρ) = ∴ V1 = 2 ghm (ρ m − ρ)/ρ = 2 ghm (ρ m /ρ) − 1 b g (11.2(a)) is due to Prandtl and it is more accurate over the design of Brabbee as shown in Fig.2 (a) and (b). the inner tube measures the stagnation pessure and the tube with opening on the surface measures the static pressure.2. Though the set up illustrates the basic principle involved in the measurement. indicating the details of construction.2. Static pressure holes Flow direction (a) Static pressure holes Flow direction (b) Figure 11. Hence equation 11. it is not a practical arrangement.2 Prandtl and Brabbee pitot tubes In both these cases. In the case of subsonic gas flow. In practice the two tubes are combined together to be used as a single instrument called pitot static tube as shown in Fig.2.2. 11. the equation for the velocity should be modified. 11. This set up (Fig.2.2.6) where k = CP/Cv the ratio of specific heats. Standards are available for these instruments. considering compressibility as V1 = Cv 2 kRT1 k−1 LMF P I − 1OP NMGH P JK QP 0 1 (11. 11. Turbulent flows with more fluctuations at the tip may show a higher reading compared to the time averaged velocity at that location.

11. 2. Calibration is done by towing the meters through stagnant water or air at known speeds.4.2. The current flow though the wire is kept constant and the change in wire resistance from convection cooling is measured in terms of the voltage drop across it.2.2. Constant resistance method.3(a). Constant current method. Tw is the temperature of the wire. The heat transfer depends on the flow velocity.2.3 Vane anemometer 11.3 (b) and cones are fitted on the current meter as shown in the Fig 11. Drag force on the vanes and cones when fluid moves over them causes the rotary movement of the rotor. radiation and conduction being negligible. . The speed of rotation is generally indicated by means of electrical contacts made once in each revolution and the number of contacts made per unit time interval is a direct measure of the average speed of the fluid in the region traversed by the meters. When the hot wire is placed in a flowing stream. Two methods of measuring flow rate are: 1. V is the free stream velocity and ρ is the density of the fluid with constants A and B to be determined by calibration.3 Hot Wire Anemometer In hot-wire anemometers. R is the resistance of wire per unit length.2 Vane Anemometer and Currentmeter Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Vane anemometers and current meters are used to measure the velocity of air and water in larger flow fields.2. The wire resistance is kept constant by adjusting the current flow through it and the velocity is determined by measuring the current and calibrating the instrument accordingly. Atmospheric wind speed measurement is generally done using such devices. Hemispherical vanes are fitted on the radial arms of vane anemometer as shown in Fig.362 11. 11. The pick ups are shown in Fig. B B US US A (a) (b) A Figure 11. Ta is the ambient temperature. Impeller type wheels are also used for the measurement of gas flow velocity. Power/unit length I2R = = A + B ρV Tw − Ta Temperature difference where I is the instantaneous current. heat will be transferred from the wire mainly by convection. Fluctuations in velocity may be detected and recorded by suitable circuitry. an electrically heated thin wire is placed across a flowing stream.2. The following relationship is used to determine the velocity.

Flow Measurements Inconel wire Ceramic cement Ceramic tubing Ceramic Inconel cement tubing Ceramic tubing 363 Position of fine wire Position of fine wire (a) Ceramic cement Ceramic tubing Ceramic cement Inconel tubing Ceramic tubing Inconel wire (b) Figure 11. 11. There is an amplitude variation due to the frequency modification between the two beams.4 Hot wire anemometer 11.2. A frequency tracking filter locks onto the modulation frequency in the photodetector output to obtain the Doppler frequency which is linearly related to the velocity component through the optical system geometry. This size of particle can generally follow all motions in the fluid in which it is carried.5 is one of the technique used for velocity measurement. Chapter 11 Beam splitter Laser Photodetector Lens Frequency tracker Reference beam Fluid flow Measurement volume Figure 11.2.5 Laser Doppler anemometer . The reference beam mode with frequency tracking shown in Fig. A continuous velocity signal is possible with this type of measurement system from which turbulence characteristics can be analysed. Frequency shifted light that is scattered off particles passing through the measurement volume and the unshifted beam is collected at a photodetector. The doppler frequency will vary with time in unsteady laminar or turbulent flow. It measures the velocity of small particles that are either naturally present in most liquid flows or are seeded with 1 µm size particles in gas flows. A laser of fixed wavelength serves as a source of light and optical components split the laser beam into a reference beam and a secondary beam which are made to intersect at the measurement volume in the flow field.2.4 Laser Doppler Anemometer Laser Doppler anemometer is used to measure the velocity of a flow without disturbing the flow. The light scattered off a moving particle has its frequency shifted by an amount that is proportional to the particle speed. It is often used to measure turbulent velocity and also low volume flow rates.2.

2 Turbine Type Flowmeter Turbine type flow meter is used to measure flow in closed conduits. Propeller rotors are used in this meter. 11. A Flow area A Glass Float Flow Pipe AA Flow Figure 11. The same fluid and same range of flows as in the actual installation should be used for the calibration. the float assumes a position inside the tube where the forces acting on it are in equilibrium.1 The flow takes place upward through the tube.3. The following forces act on the float (i) downward gravity force (ii) upward buoyant force (iii) pressure and (iv) viscous drag force. 11. The advantage is that its capacity to measure the flow rate can be easily changed by changing the float or the tube. The major disadvantage of this system is its high cost and the requirement of optical access to the flow field. The number of turns of the rotor per unit time is counted and used as a . This device is also called as variable area meter or float meter. Also it cannot be used with liquids containing large number of solid particles and at high pressure conditions. It is also expensive. Flow meters (watermeter or rotameter) may be calibrated either by the manufacturer or by the user before installation. leaving only the pressure forces as the main variable.3.3.1 Rotameter 11. For a given flow rate. Hence the position of the float indicates the flow rate.1 Rotameter (Float Meter) The rotameter is a device whose indication is essentially linear with flow rate. In the case of constriction meters Bernoulli equation and continuity equation are applied between the upstream and downstream sections of the constriction to obtain an expression for the flow rate. the effects of changes in viscosity or density may be minimized. A major limitation in using rotameters is that these have to be installed in vertical position only. In this device a flot moves freely inside a tapered tube as shown in Fig. Pressure force depends on flow rate and area available for flow. 11.364 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Multicomponent measuring systems can be developed by using laser with different wave lengths or other frequency shifting techniques.3 VOLUME FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT Volume flow rate in pipes can be measured either using direct measuring devices such as watermeter or rotameters (float meters) or using a constriction or elbow meters which produce a measurable pressure difference that can be used to determine the flow rate. Through careful design.3.

2 P1 V12 P2 V2 2 + + + Z1 = + Z2 and V1A1 = V2A2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g Solving these equations. 2 g∆h 2 g∆h V2 = Q= 1 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 A2 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 Refer equations 11. Nozzle and Orifice Meters Chapter 11 Venturi.1 and 11. 11. The pulse rate may be indicated by a frequency meter or displayed on a CRO screen or counted by some type of meter which converts the pulses to a proportional DC output.3. As there is no intrusion in to the flow this type can be used to measure flow of chemicals also. C A – Turbine rotor B – Bearing support and straightening vanes C – Variable reluctance pickup B B A Figure 11.3.3. The rotor movement is sensed by a reluctance pickup coil.2. Nozzle and Orifice meters are the three obstruction type meters commonly used for the measurement of flow through pipes. 11. Applying Bernoulli and continuity equations between sections 11.2 Turbine flowmeter 11. In each case the meter acts as an obstacle placed in the path of the flowing fluid causing local changes in pressure and velocity as shown in Fig.2 the difference in pressure levels ∴ ∴ Flow rate LMF P + Z I − F P + Z I OP MNGH ρg JK GH ρg JK PQ 1 1 2 2 can be measured by the manometer reading. ∆h. .3 and 11.2.3 Venturi.Flow Measurements 365 measure of the flow rate. V2 = 1 1 − ( A2 / A1 ) 2 2 g[( p1 /ρg + Z1 ) − ( P2 /ρg + Z2 )] By connecting a manometer to the tappings at sections 11.3.3. The major problem inherent in this type of meter is the reduced accuracy at low flow rates. The arrangement is shown in Fig.2. A permanent magnet in the rotor body produces a voltage pulse everytime the rotor blade passes the pole of the coil.2.1 and 11.

9 depending on diameter ratio and Reynolds number to some extent. The approach curve in the nozzle flow meter must be proportioned to prevent separation between the flow and the well. ∴ Qactual = Qtheoretical × Cd where Cd is the coefficient of discharge. Higher the value D2/D1 lower the value of the coefficient.7 to 0.3. Cd for venturi meters is in the range 0.6 to 0. .366 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Dp 1 2 (a) Venturi meter Dp 1 2 (b) Nozzle meter Dp 2 1 (c) Orifice meter Figure 11. Orificemeter is the simple and cheap device compared to the other two.98.65. In both the above cases for Re > 105 the effect of Re on Cd is marginal. Cd for flow nozzle is in the range 0. Venturimeter is a highly accurate device with discharge coefficient falling within a narrow range depending on the finish of the entrance cone. The range for coefficient of discharge is 0. A parallel section is used to ensure that flow fills the throat. The value depends on the diameter ratio.3 Pressure variation in obstruction type meters This equation needs a modifying coefficient as viscous effects and boundary roughness as well as the velocity of approach factor that depend on the diameter ratio have been neglected. But sudden area of contraction in this device leads to higher pressure loss. The coefficient is defined by.95 to 0.

4. Applying Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 1 P2 V2 2 P1 V12 + + + Z1 = + Z2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g The velocity a point 1 is zero and the pressures at 1 and 2 are both atmospheric. NOTCHES AND WEIRS Flow out of open tanks are measured using orifices.Flow Measurements 11. higher pressure results at the outer wall surface than at the innerwall surface.4. When the fluid flows through the elbow fitted in a pipe line. 11.1 Discharge Measurement Using Orifices Fig. Venacontracta h 2 Figure 11. The elbow meter is inexpensive and accurate if it is calibrated carefully.1 Orifice meter Chapter 11 .3. The pressure difference is measured using a manometer as shown in Fig.4. Pipe bend Q U Pi Po Flexible tubing Manometer yi h yo Datum Figure 11.4 Elbow Meter 367 Elbow meter is used to measure the flow through a pipe.1 shows an orifice in an open tank through which the flow takes place.4 Elbow meter 11. 11. Flow from open channels and tanks is due to gravity and the change in velocity produced is due to the change in head. The difference in pressure at the outer and inner wall is a function of the flow rate.4 FLOW MEASUREMENT USING ORIFICES. 11. Flow out of open channels is measured using weirs.3.3. ∴ Z1 – Z2 = V22/2g V2 = 2 g ( Z1 − Z2 ) = 2 gh 2.4.

11.368 The theoretical flow rate is given by Qt = A2 2 gh Fluid Mechanics and Machinery where A2 is the area of cross-section at section 11. A rectangular notch is shown in Fig. The coefficient of contraction Cc is defined as follows Cc = Area of the jet at vena contracta ac = Area of orifice a The value of coefficient of contraction varies from 0. Cv = Actual velocity of jet at venacontracta = Theoritical velocity V 2 gh The value of Cv varies from 0. Cd = Qactual/Qtheoretical The values of Cd depends upon the contraction of the jet fromt the orifice to section 2 and on nonideal flow effects such as head losses which depend upon the roughness of the inside surface of the tank near the orifice and the flow rate. the stream lines converge and the area just outside the orifice is lower compared to the area of the orifice.4. Due to these effects. There is alsways some loss of energy due to viscous effects in real fluid flows. The velocity coefficients Cv is defined as follows.2. The actual flow rate is given by Qactual = Cd A0 2 gh where A0 is the area of orifice and Cd is the coefficient of discharge.95 to 0. As water leaves an open tank through an orifice. the actual flow velocity through the orifice will always be less than the theoretical possible velocity. . Cofficient of velocity (Cv).62.2 Flow Measurements in Open Channels Rectangular and triangular weirs are used to measure the flow in an open channel. Typical value for Cd is 0.4. 11.62. This section is called as vena contracta.61 to 0.99 for different orifices depending on their shape and size. Coefficient of contraction Cc. Area of jet at the vena contracta is less than the area of the orifice itself due to convergence of stream lines.69 depending on the shape and size of the orifice. A weir extends to the full width of the channel while a notch occupies a smaller width.2. Coefficient of discharge (Cd) Coefficient of discharge is defined as Cd = Actual area Actual velocity Actual discharge × = = Cc × Cv Theoretical area Theoretical velocity Theoretical discharge Average value of Cd for orifices is 0.

611 + 0. Consider a rectangular strip as shown in figure. Discharge over a triangular notch.2 Rectangular weir Rectangular weir.Flow Measurements 2 ha = va /2g 2 ha = va /2g 369 h dh Crest b Z H Figure 11.4.075 H z (11.1) .4. with height dh and width B at a height h above the strip.2) A trapezoidal weir with side slope of 1 horizontal to 4 vertical is used to compensate for flow reduction due to end contraction at the corners. The flow equation is the same with B as bottom width. The value of Cd is given by Cd = 0. Flow rate through the elemental strip = dq = Cd (B dh) Integrating between the weir tip and the water level Total discharge Q= 2 gh z H 0 Cd Bdh 3/ 2 2 gh = Cd B H 2g z H 0 h1/2 dh 0 The value of Cd depends the approach velocity which in turn depends on the ratio of head H and crest height z. It is called Cipolletti weir.4. The value of Cd will however be different. 11.3. Consider an elemental strip dh. Bernoulli equation is applied between upstream and drown stream of the weir. the discharge through the elemental strip dh is dq = Cd 2 H − h tan Total discharge Q= z H 0 FG b g θ dhIJ 2 gh H 2 K θ I F C G 2b H − hg tan dhJ 2 gh H 2 K d = 2 Cd 2 g tan θ 2 z H 0 ( H − h) h1/ 2 dh Chapter 11 Q = CdB 2 g LM h OP N3 / 2Q Q= 2 C B 2 g H 3/ 2 3 d (11.4. A triangular notch is called V notch as shown in Fig.

3) Table 11.370 b Fluid Mechanics and Machinery U h q q dh h H Stream tube Crest Weir Crest Figure 11. viscous liquids and slurries Clean and dirty liquids Accuracy ± 2 to 4% of the meter range ± 1% of meter range Pressure loss Medium Relative cost Low Venturi meter Low Medium Flow nozzle Pitot tube Elbow meter ± 1 to 2% of meter range ± 3 to 5% of meter range ± 5 to 10% of meter range ± 0.4.4. dirty and viscous liquids and some slurries Clean and dirty liquids Clean liquids Clean and dirty liquids and some slurries Clean and viscous liquids Dirty.3 Triangular notch Q = 2Cd 2 g tan θ Hh 3 / 2 h5 / 2 θ 5/2 8 − = Cd 2 g tan H 2 3/2 5/2 15 2 LM N OP Q (11.4.25% of flow rate ± 5% of meter range ± 2 to 5% of meter range Medium Very low Very low Medium Low Low Turbine meter Laser Doppler High Nil High High Rectangle and V notch Very low Medium . dirty liquids and some slurry Clean.1 A comparison of various flow measuring devices Flow meter Orifice Application Clean.

The head causing the flow is given as head of the flowing fluid. If the density of air and water are 1.81 × FG 1000 − 1IJ 5 = 28.2 The difference in mercury level of a pitot static tube connected to a submarine is 20 cm. Flow velocity.89 = 0. If the mean velocity is 0. V = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m / ρ) − 1 = 0. compute the discharge of water through the pipe. The density of sea water is 1019 kg/m3. Assume the coefficient of the pitot tube as 0.98 2 × 9. The manometer shows a difference in head of 5 cm of water.98 2 × 9. H 1019 K 100 Chapter 11 Problem 11. h which is head of air. Solving for. If the specific weight of air is 12 N/m3 determine the pressure difference the instrument will register.33 + 5. Assume Cv = 0.7 times the centre line velocity.821 m/s or 25.56 = 88.98 Speed of the submarine.81 × b g FG 13600 − 1IJ 20 = 6. ∆P = 419. V = Cv 2 ghm (ρ m / ρ) − 1 = 0.86 m/s H 1. hair = 419.98.4 The flow velocity of water in a pipe is measured by a pitot static tube.Flow Measurements SOLVED PROBLEMS 371 Problem 11.13 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3 determine the velocity of air. Hence the equation used is . The tube is placed at the centre of a 30 cm diameter pipe.1 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of air flowing through a duct.33 m/s.81 × h .32 × 12 = 5032 N/m2. V = Cv 2 gh 88.56 m/s 3600 Relative velocity of plane V = 83. 3600 20 × 1000 = 5. The difference between the stagnation and static pressures measured as head of mercury and converted to head of water is 10 cm. Problem 11. determine the velocity of water in the pipe.98.3 A pitot static tube is mounted on an aircraft travelling at a speed 300 kmph against a wind velocity of 20 kmph. Determine the speed of the submarine.6 kmph. Aircraft velocity Wind velocity = = 300 × 1000 = 83.13 K 100 Problem 11.98 2 × 9.89 m/s Velocity recorded by pitot tube.32 m. If the coefficient of velocity Cv = 0.

0752 = 0. ρ= P 107.98 2 × 9.152 = 0. Assume the gas constant for air as 287 J/kg K.068 m3/s or 68 l/s 4 Problem 11.2 = 35.7 × 1.98.73 × 10 3 = = 1.173 Differential pressure head = 8 cm of water = Air velocity V = Cv 2 ghair = 0.73 + 9 = 107. Calculate the coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter if the flow rate is 1. The water manometer shows a reading of 8 cm. Q = Area of cross section × Mean velocity Q= π × 0.6 × 103) (9.6 A venturimeter of 150 mm × 75 mm size is used to measure the flow rate of oil having specific gravity of 0.0177 m2. (Note : The size of venturimeter generally specified in terms of inlet and throat diameters) Refer equation (6.73 kN/m2 (absolute pressure) Density of air inside the duct.373 = 0.6.0283 m3/s.5 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of air in a duct. The reading shown by the U tube manometer connected to the venturimeter is 150 mm of mercury column.372 Centre line velocity Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = Cv 2 gh = 0.81 × (10 / 100) = 1. The local barometer reads 740 mm of mercury. 4 A2 = π × 0. The static pressure in the duct is 9 kN/m2 and the air temperature is 320 K.32 × 0.9.961 m/s Discharge through the pipe.2) Velocity V2 = Cd A1 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ and Q = V × A Hρ K m 2 2 Flow rate Q= Cd A1 A2 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m Inlet area Throat area Flow rate A1 = π × 0.85 m/s Problem 11.173 kg/m3 RT 287 × 320 8 1000 × = 68.373 m/s Mean velocity in pipe = 0.81 × 68.81) FG 740 IJ = 98.73 kN/m H 1000 K 2 ∴ Static pressure in the duct = 98. Atmospheric pressure = ρgh = (13.00442 m2 4 = (1.2 m of air 100 1.7/60) = 0.98 2 × 9. Calculate the air velocity if Cv = 0.961 = 0. Substituting .7 m3/min.

11.8 .96. The difference in manometer head is 40 mm of mercury.0284 A2 = 2 60 0. Solving A2 = 0.96. Calculate the throat diameter of the venturimeter.8.192 = 0. π × 0.81 × 0.0284 2 − A2 Let the diameter be d.15 FG 13.81 × 8 .8 A venturimeter is fitted in a pipe of 30 cm diameter inclined at 40° to the horizontal to measure the flow rate of petrol having a specific gravity of 0.96 × 0. Calculate the discharge through the venturimeter and the pressure difference between the throat and the entry point of the venturimeter.9 cm π Problem 11.0177 2 − 0. Assume the coefficient of discharge for the venturimeter as 0.0284 m2 4 2 × 9. Q = Cd A1 = A1 A2 2 gh 2 2 A1 – A2 .6 − 1IJ H 0. ∴ π × d2 = 0.0283 = ∴ 373 Cd × 0.00442 2 2 × 9.0098 = 9.7 A venturimeter is used to measure liquid flow rate of 7500 litres per minute. The ratio of areas of main pipe and throat is 5 and the throat is at 1 m from the inlet along its length. The pipe diameter is 19 cm.Flow Measurements 0. Assuming the coefficient of discharge as 0.0177 × 0.0098 m2 7500 × 10 −3 0. 1 m X 40° B Hg Y A 40 mm Figure P.9 K Cd = 0. The difference in pressure across the venturimeter is equivalent to 8 m of the flowing liquid.00442 0.963 Problem 11.0098 4 Chapter 11 d= 4 × 0.

32 N/m2 or 10. Discharge over a triangular notch Q = θ 8 CD 2 g tan h5/2 2 15 For right angled triangular notch. determine the discharge coefficient of venturimeter.12 = 0.81 × 0.6 − 1IJ H 0.81 × (13600 – 800) = 10067.8 K = 0.07 kN/m2 Problem 11.0707 0. A Hρ K m 1 = π × 0.0214 = Cd Cd = 0.374 Refer equation 6.0707 − 0.81 × 0.0314 / 0.0707/5 = 0.22 = 0.9 A venturimeter of 20 cm × 10 cm size is calibrated in a laboratory using a right angled V notch.04 × FG 13.0141 2 2 2 × 9.0141 m2.2 applicable for all orientations Q = Cd A1/A2 = 5 ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A1 A2 2 A1 − 2 A2 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ .96 2 × 9.0314 (0.1875/2 = 0.81 × (13600 – 800) = 800 × 9.6.81 × 0.04 × g × (ρm – ρ) = ρg (1 × sin 40) + 0.187 m is maintained over the notch with a coefficient of discharge 0.32 = 0.00785 2 ) − 1 2 0.39 .04) PA – PB = ρgx + 0.0707 m2 4 A2 = 0. Substituting.0785 m2.02143 m3/s / 2 A2 ) −1 2 gh .6.81 (1 × sin 40) + 0. Q= 0. tan (θ/2) = tan 45° = 1 ∴ For the venturimeter Q = Cd A2 = A1 2 ( A1 Q= 8 × 0.04 × 9.04) = PB + ρgx + ρgy + ρmg (0. the difference of head between he entrance and throat section of the Venturimeter is found to be 39 cm head of the fluid measured using notch as actual flow. A = 1 π × 0. When a steady head of 0.0486 m3/s Considering points A and B and level at A as datum PA + ρgy + ρg(0. 4 0.04 × 9.96 × 0.0141 × 0.6 × 15 2 × 9.0314 m2 4 π × 0.

13 kg/m3 and that of water as 1000 kg/m3.0095 (0.007 ∴ Cv = 0. Flow rate through the venturimeter Q = Cd A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A2 ) −1 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m A1 = π π × 0. The pressure difference across the venturimeter is 12 N/m2. The difference in water level in the manometer attached to the venturimeter is 50 mm.00332 ) − 1 2 2 Q = Cd 2 × 9. Assume the density of air as 1. Calculate the flow rate through the pipe and the coefficient of velocity of the pitot static tube.0992 m3/s ∴ Mean velocity down stream.81 × 0.95 is used to calibrate a pitot static tube. determine the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter.95 × 0.112 = 10.11 A venturimeter with throat diameter 5 cm and coefficient of discharge 0.95 Problem 11.112 = 0.81 × FG 12 IJ H 1000 × 9. The pitot static tube is placed downstream of the venturimeter and the water manometer attached to the pitot static tube shows a reading of 7 mm.05 FG 1000 − 1IJ H 1. Air flows through a 110 mm diameter horizontal pipe in which the venturimeter is fitted. if the pressure difference across it is 28 N/m2.0095 / 0.81 .13 K 10. A2 = × 0.10 A venturimeter with throat diameter 0.0652 = 0.0992/π × 0. Q = 0. Flow rate in venturimeter Qv = Cd A1 2 ( A1 2 / A2 ) − 1 2 gh P 12 h = ρg = 1000 × 9.00332 m2 4 4 0.81K Chapter 11 .96 is fitted in a pipeline which carries water in it. V = 4 × 0. If an orifice meter with 5 cm diameter is futted in the same pipe line.44 = Cv 2 × 9.96 A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A2 ) −1 2 × 9.065 m and coefficient of discharge 0.0095 m2.44 m/s Mean velocity measured by pitot static tube V = Cv 2 ghm FG ρ Hρ m −1 IJ K FG 1000 − 1IJ H 1.81 × 0.13 K = 0.Flow Measurements 375 Problem 11.

152 4 2 × 9.05OP N 1000 × 9.237 ∴ Cd = Problem 11. The pressure loss in elbowmeter is (suffices i and o indicate inside and outside) P0 Pi ∆P = ρg + y0 − ρg + yi FG H IJ FG K H IJ K Flow 150 Also pressure loss can be expressed in terms of the flow velocity in the bend as ∆P = k 50 V2 2g 10 kN/m2 ∴ P0 P V2 + y0 − i + yi k 2 = g ρg ρg 2g k 0 FG H IJ FG K H IJ K i i Figure P.12 Water flows in an elbowmeter creating a pressure difference of 10 kN/m2 between its outer and inner wall. 11.81 0.376 Flow rate through the orifice Q0 = Cd A1 2 ( A1 2 / A2 ) − 1 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2 gh Since the throat diameter of venturi and orifice are the same cancelling common terms 0. If the tapping point at the outer wall of the elbowmeter is 5 cm higher than the tapping point at the innerwall.63 0.149 = Cd × 0.81 × 28 1000 × 9.149 = 0.0486 m /s 3 . The elbowmeter is fitted in a vertical pipe of 15 cm diameter.81 Q = 0.96 2× 12 = Cd 1000 2 × 9.6 × π 0.237 Simplifying 0.12 V= LMF P + y I − F P + y I OP MNGH ρg JK GH ρg JK PQ 0 ∴ Discharge through the elbowmeter Q=A×V=A Assuming k = 1 Q = CdA 2g k LMF P + y I − F P + y I OP NMGH ρg JK GH ρg JK QP 0 0 i i i 0 2g LMF P − P + b y MNGH ρg 0 − yi gIJK OPP Q 3 = 0.81 LM 10 × 10 + 0. Calculate the flow rate through the elbowmeter.

Water stands 15 m above the centerline of the orifice. Cd = 0. 4 yh X Jet y Here x = 5 m. Cc and Cd of the orifice.81 × 15 .9124 2 gh π 7 × 4 100 FG IJ H K 2 × 2 × 9. Flow velocity in orifice = V = Cv 2 gh .5 m ∴ Cv = 52 = 0. coefficient of contraction and the theoretical discharge through the orifice.020 = Cd Coefficient of discharge Cd = 0.020 m3/s.81 × 3 Coefficient of velocity Cv = 0.6774 Coefficient of contraction = Cc = Cd 0. Find the hydraulic coefficients Cv. If the discharge measured in a collecting tank is 0.6774 = = 0. calculate the coefficient of velocity.14 .5 m vertical.9124 ∴ Actual discharge Q = Cd 0.Flow Measurements 377 Problem 11.81 × 3 Problem 11.7424 Cv 0. A point on the jet measured from the vena contracta has co-ordinates 5 m horizontal and 0. and y = 0.14 Water is discharged through a 15 cm diameter orifice in the vertical side of an open tank at the rate of 190 litres per second. ∴ π × 0.152 × 4 2 × 9. 6 = Cv 2 × 9.913 4 × 0.5 × 15 Figure P. 11.627 Let the jet travel during time t horizontally through a distance x and the jet fall by distance x = V × t = Cv 2 gh t or x2 = Cv2 2ght2 y = (1/2)gt2 ∴ x2 = 4Cv2h y Cv = Orifice ∴ x2 . Chapter 11 Actual discharge Q = Cd A 2gh 190 × 10–3 = Cd × y during this time.13 The actual velocity of a liquid issuing through a 7 cm diameter orifice fitted in an open tank is 6 m/s under a head of 3 m.

88 m3/s 3 Problem 11.65. Assume the coefficient of discharge of the rectangular notch as 0.155/2 = 0. Discharge Q= B5/2 = B 2 2 Cd B 2 g H3/2 or 0.687 0.5 m. Assume coefficient of discharge for orifice as 0.18 Water flow rate in an open channel is measured using a right angled V notch.81 × 0.0314 / 0.75 m.082 = 0.6. Cc = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.5 = 0.6 × 3 2 × 9. The head of water over V notch is 0.5 m3/s in an open channel.0314 m2. Assuming the coefficient of discharge of the notch as 0.6.6.626 Problem 11. A2 = × 0.0134 m3/s 8 × 0.81 3 3 2 FG IJ H K 3/ 2 0.75 FG 13600 − 1IJ H 800 K = 0.4.16 A rectangular notch is used to measure the flow rate of water in an open channel.81 tan 45 × 0. The width of the rectangular notch is 3 m and the head of water causing the flow is 0.8.81 × 0.22 = 0.799. B = 0. Calculate the discharge assuming the coefficient of discharge of the notch as 0. calculate the discharge in the channel.00503 m2 4 4 0.00503 ) − 1 2 2 2 × 9. The mercury manometer attached to the orifice shows a reading of 0. As θ/2 = 45°.913 Cv Problem 11.6 × B 2 × 9.378 Coefficient of contraction.4. and tan (θ/2) = 1.5 = × 0.65 × 15 . Discharge (Refer eqn 11. Q= = 8 C 15 d 2 g H5/2 2 × 9.1) Q= = 2 C B 2 g H3/2 3 d 2 × 0.15 An orifice of 8 cm diameter is fitted in a 20 cm diameter pipe that carries oil of specific gravity 0.53/2 = 1.047 m3/s = 47 l/s Problem 11. the flow equation 11. Calculate the oil flow rate throught the pipe.0314 (0.6 × 0.627 Cd = = 0. Flow rate Q = Cd A1 2 ( A1 / 2 A1 ) −1 2 ghm FG ρ − 1IJ Hρ K m A1 = Q= π π × 0.15 m. The head causing the flow should not exceed half the notch width.17 What should be the width of a rectangular notch that should be used to measure the water flow rate of 0.3 reduces to Discharge.914 m 0.

59 Notch 8 × 0. 1m Discharge θ 8 Q= C tan H5/2 2 15 d 2 g 0. Describe the methods of velocity measurement using it.20 ∴ H = 0.81 tan 45 × 0.81 tan 45 × H5/2 Figure P. Q= 2 C B 3 d 2 g H3/2 = 2 × 0.6. If the maximum depth of water is not to exceed 1 m. Explain the principle involved in measuring velocity of flow using a pitot static tube.6 15 2 × 9.41 m The distance of apex of V notch from the bed of channel = Maximum depth of water – H = 1 – 0.0485/2.202 m REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. 4. 2.5 m and the head causing the flow over it is 0.81 tan 45 × H5/2 ∴ H = 0.1 m.Flow Measurements 379 Problem 11. 3. Q= 0.6 and 0. 11.81 (0.045 m3/min maintaining a head of 0.59 m Problem 11. Discuss the method of velocity measurement using (i) Vane anemometer and (ii) Turbine meter.41 = 0. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the notch. Discharge through the rectangular notch.15 m3/s. The width of rectangular notch is 0.045 8 = C 60 15 d Problem 11.20 A right angled V notch is used to measure the flow rate in an open channel which carries water at the rate of 0.21 An open channel is fitted with a rectangular and right angled V notch with coefficient of discharge 0. Explain the method of velocity measurement using Laser Doppler anemometers.65 respectively.028 m3/s Discharge through the V notch. Determine the head of water over the V notch.048 m.1)3/2 = 0.028 = θ 8 Cd 2 g tan H5/2 2 15 8 × 0.15 = 0. Assume the coefficient of discharge as 0. Solving Cd = 0.5 3 2 × 9.63 0. find the position of the apex of the notch from the bed of the channel. Chapter 11 .19 Water flows over a right angled V notch at the rate of 0. Sketch and describe the construction details of a hot wire anemometer.6 × 0.65 15 2 × 9. Discharge Q= θ 8 Cd 2 g tan H5/2 2 15 2 × 9.

10. Coefficient of contraction is the ratio of ________________ 6. 2. Derive the expression for computing discharge through a Venturimeter. The more accurate flow measuring instrument is (a) Orificemeter (b) Venturimeter (c) Flowmeter (d) Elbow meter. O Q. 4.6 to 0.92 (d) 0.2 Select the correct answer 1. The rotary movement in vane anemometer and current meter is created by the ________________ 9. 8.1 Fill in the blanks 1.85 to 0. 6. In pitot static tube the opening perpendicular to the flow direction measures ________________ 3. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. higher pressure results at the ________________ 8. 7.11. In turbine meter the rotor movement is sensed by a ________________ 10. Define venacontracta. .85 (c) 0. 9. Drag force on vanes and cones 9. Derive an expression for the flow measurement using a triangular notch in an open channel. Derive an expression for the flow measurement in an open channel using rectangular notch. 5. Compare the flow measuring devices with respect to their accuracy.92 to 0. Velocity of flow 2. Actual flow/theoretical flow 7. In pitot static tube the opening facing the flow direction measures ________________ 4. Stagnation pressure 4.7 (b) 0. 3. Coefficient of discharge is the ratio of ________________ 7. Reluctance pickup coil 10. Electrically heated wire. Answers 1. Area of the jet at venacontracta to the area of orifice 6. Orificemeter and nozzlemeter. an ________________ is placed in a flowing stream. When a fluid flows though an elbow. Pitot static tube is used to measure ________________ 2. In a hot-wire anemometer. 6. A V notch is used to measure (a) Velocity in a pipe (b) Wind velocity (c) Discharge of liquid in an open channel (d) Viscosity. Rotameter is used to measure (a) Viscosity (b) Flow (c) Density (d) Pressure. A pitot static tube is used to measure (a) Stagnation pressure (b) Static pressure (c) Dynamic pressure (d) Difference between the static pressure and dynamic pressure. Outerwall 8. Actual velocity of jet at venacontracta to theoretical velocity 5. Coefficient of velocity of orifice is the ratio of ________________ 5. Compare the merits and demerits of flow measurement using Venturimeter. Static pressure 3. The range of coefficient of discharge for orifice meter is (a) 0.380 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 5. Derive the expression for flow measurement through an orifice in an open tank.7 to 0. Anemometer is used to measure (a) Velocity (b) Pressure (c) Viscosity (d) Density.11.98.

1 m throat diameter is used to measure the flow rate of oil in the pipe. A venturimeter with 0. calculate the air velocity. Assume coefficient of velocity as 0.18 m. A venturimeter having throat of 100 mm diameter is fitted to the pipe line for measuring the flow rate of oil.0064 m3/s) E 11.98.6 Oil of density 900 kg/m3 flows through a pipe of 150 mm diameter. d 9. (1.1 A water manometer attached to a pitot static tube used to measure air velocity shows a reading of 0.1 m of water.2 m diameter at the rate of 0.06 m3/s. Assume the velocity coefficient as unity. calculate the coefficient of discharge of the Venturimeter. (0. Answers 1. Assuming coefficient of discharge as 1.2 kg/m3. If the pressure difference recorded by the pitot static tube is 0.98) E 11. (b) Theoretical flow/Actual flow (d) Theoretical velocity/Actual velocity. calculate the water velocity in the pipe. b EXERCISE PROBLEMS E 11. b 5.29 m.3 A pitot static tube fitted in a pipe of 0. b 3.99) E 11. a 4. A mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 200 mm.8 A pipe of 0. calculate the coefficient of velocity of the pitot static tube.4 Air velocity in a duct is measured as 38. 381 8.3 kg/m3.25 m diameter carries water at the rate of 7. calculate the throat diameter of the venturi.17 m.Flow Measurements 7. determine the oil flow rate.98 and the density of air as 1.16 m diameter. (0. calculate the flow rate in the pipe. calculate the water velocity in the pipe line. If the mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 0.25 m diameter records the difference in stagnation and static pressure as 0. Current meter is used to measure (a) Pressure (b) Velocity (b) Triangular notch (d) Orifice.3 m/s) E 11.08 m throat diameter is used to measure the flow in a pipe line of 0.1 m.2 A pitot static tube is used to measure the velocity of water in a pipeline. Assuming the coefficient of discharge for Venturimeter as 0.7 A venturimeter with 0. c 7.3 m/s) E 11. c 2. b 8. (0. (0. Fluid velocity can be measured without disturbing the flow using (c) Density (d) Viscosity.5 Oil of density 800 kg/m3 flows in a pipe of 0.98.The pressure head at the entry of the venturimeter. Density of flowing air 1. (6. is equivalent to 6 m of water.085 m of water. (0. a 10. If the pressure head at the throat is zero. Flow rate in an open channel is more accurately measured using (a) Rectangular notch (c) Venturi (a) Pitot tube (c) Turbine meter 9. Assuming the ecoefficient of velocity as 0.2 m3/s. If the mercury manometer attached to it shows a reading of 0.3 m/s) . Coefficient of discharge is the ratio of (a) Actual flow/Theoretical flow (c) Actual velocity/Theoretical velocity 10. (b) Hot wire anemometer (d) Laser Doppler anemometer. A mercury manometer attached to it shows deflection of 0.2 m/s by a pitot tube. a 6. used to measure the flow rate in the pipe.12 m) Chapter 11 E 11. (39.05 m3/s) E 11.

E 11. If the actual discharge through the pipe is 8 l/s. 0.54) E 11. A mercury manometer fitted across the orifice shows a reading of 0.2 l/s.11 An orifice meter of 0. discharge and contraction. (0. determine the flow rate. (0.1 m diameter is fitted to the pipe to measure the flow rate.3 m diameter.1 m is fitted in the pipe line.382 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E 11. under a head of 0. If the pressure difference across the orifice is 10 m of water head. A venturimeter with throat diameter 0.17 Water flows at the rate of 106 l/ sec in a open channel in which rectangular and V notches are fitted. calculate the discharge assuming the coefficient of the discharge as unity. (0. (0. calculate the coefficients of velocity. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter if the flow (0.9 Water flows in a pipe of 0.65. (0.12 An orificemeter with 5 cm diameter is used to measure the flow rate of liquid. (0.59.59) . If the coefficient of discharge is 0.358 m3/s) E 11.15 m. (0.85. The width of the rectangular notch is 100 cm and the head of water over it is 0.14 A rectangular notch of 250 cm width is used to measure the flow rate of water in an open channel.65) rate measured by it is 0.6.15 m3/s) E 11.13 Oil of specific gravity 0.8 flows through a pipe of 0.082 m3/s.46. An orifice meter of 0.25 m diameter.4 m.8 m width used to measure the flow rate in an open channel.4 m of water. 0. The head causing flow is 0.2 m.62. (0.62) E 11.15 m diameter is fitted in a 0. Assume the coefficient of discharge of the orifice meter as 0. Calculate the coefficient of discharge of the notch if the actual flow rate measured is 26. A mercury manometer fitted across the orifice records a reading of 0. If the pressure difference recorded is 19. Under a head of 4 m. Assume the coefficient of discharge of orifice as 0.25 m diameter.16 Water flows over a right angled V notch to a height of 0. calculate the discharge in the pipe.16 m3/s.10 Oil of density 800 kg/m3 flows in a pipe of 0. An orifice of 0. If the actual flow rate is 1.15 m3/s) E 11.1 m diameter fitted in the pipe to measure the flow rate.8 m. 0.5 m/s.082 m3/s) E 11.3 m diameter pipe to measure the flow rate of water through it. the velocity of liquid at vena contracta is 7.15 Determine the coefficient of discharge of a rectangular notch of 0. Calculate the discharge through the pipe.8 m.253 m determine the coefficient of discharge of the notch. If the V notches is right angled calculate the coefficients of discharge of both rectangular and V notches.62) E 11.

Hence the flow is generally turbulent.1 Characteristics of Open Channels 2.0 Circular channel Shallow ditch Figure 12.5 1.1.0 1. The surface actually represents the hydraulic grade line. irrigation canals.5 2. 12. the driving force in open channel flow is due to gravity. Reynolds number are high.5 2. The balance of gravity forces and surface friction forces controls the flow. As most of the flow are large in scale and as viscosity of water is lower.5 1. 12.0 0. As seen in chapter 8 and 9.5 0. drainage ditches and aqueducts are some examples for open channel flow. and is proportional to the bed slope. In most cases water is the fluid encountered in open channel flow. While in closed conduits the flow is sustained by pressure difference. These flows occur with a free surface and the pressure over the surface is atmospheric.1 Velocity distribution in open channel sections 383 .5 1.0 2.5 2. The depth of flow is not restrained and this makes the analysis more complex.5 Trapezoidal channel Triangular channel 0.0 1.0 0.0 INTRODUCTION Flow in Open Channels Flow in rivers.5 1.0 1.0 1. Froude number is the improtant parameter in the general study of open channel flow which is free surface flow. Changes in channel cross-section and changes in the slope cause changes and readjustments in the flow depth which may or not propagate upstream.1.

384 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Open channels may have different cross-sections. due to area or slope changes. Some examples of velocity distribution is shown in Fig. 12. low near the wetted surface and increasing towards the free surface. The maximum velocity occurs at about 0. then such flow is called rapidly varying flow. However the velocity is not maximum at the surface. The two main physical dimensions used in the analysis are the flow area.1. 12. as mentioned earlier. Rh (alternately m) and is used in all analysis to take care of all types of sections. This is different from hydraulic mean diameter used in the analysis of flow through conduits which is four times this value. The slope of the free surface is governed by the way in which the slope and the area change. The maximum velocity occurs below the free surface.2 times the depth from top. 12. The average velocity occurs between 0. Rectangular and Circular sections. The value of Froude number characterises the nature of the flow in such situations. This is also non accelerating flow. Natural channels have very irregular sections and suitable approximations should be used for analysis.1 Flow at normal depth . The ratio of flow area to the perimeter is defined as hydraulic radius.8 times the depth from top. it is defined as gradually varying flow.2 Classification of Open Channel Flow The common classification is based on the rate of change of free surface depth. For such flow the slope and area should be uniform. Triangular. the hence velocity is constant. 12.1 by the dotted line. L 1 y x Y1 mg 1 Z1 2 q Z2 mg sin q Y2 q d sin q 2 Figure 12.2.2.4 and 0. When the depth changes gradually. With this definition laminar flow is limited to Reynolds number up to 500. For analysis. For steady uniform incompressible flow the height of the water level and area are constant. This represents the average depth of the section. volume flow rate/area. When the width is large. Hydraulic depth is another term defined as the ratio of flow area to top width. A and the wetted perimeter P. Some of the simpler ones are Trapezoidal.2 UNIFORM FLOW: (ALSO CALLED FLOW AT NORMAL DEPTH) This is the simplest and common type of flow and occurs when conditions are steady and slope is not steep. If the slope change rapidly or suddenly.1. it is considered as wide flat. But actually the flow velocity varies with the depth almost logarithmically. the average velocity is used. When the depth and velocity remain constant along the length of flow it is called uniform flow. For analysis purposes the average velocity of flow is used and this equals.1. Consider the control volume between sections 1 and 2 shown in Fig.

the force balance yields frictional resistance over the wetted surface equals the component of the gravity forces along the surface. As there is no change in the depth of flow or velocity (no acceleration). For the steady flow ∴ V1 = V2. Bed slope is defined as the ratio of change in elevation over a length with the length. y1 = y2 and for a length L. The sum of potential and kinetic heads between sections 1 and 2 should be the same if there are no losses. hL = z1 – z2 = L Sb (12. V1 = V2 or the velocity remains constant along the flow (ii) Momentum equation. the momentum flux through the control surface is zero. Assuming a loss of head of hL.2.2. 12.3 CHEZY’S EQUATION FOR DISCHARGE Considering the control volume shown in Fig.2. – Ff + mg sin θ = 0 (12.Flow in Open Channels 385 (i) Continuity equation. 12. Defining specific energy.3.1) ∴ Ff = mg sin θ = mg Sb mg sin θ is the component of gravity force parallel to the flow and Ff is the friction force on the wetted surface. on the volume. ρ1 A1V1 = ρ2 A2V2 as ρ1 = ρ2 and A1 = A2.3. For large values of Reynolds number the friction factor is independent of Reynolds number and wall shear stress is proportional to the dynamic pressure ρ V2/2g and is independent of viscosity. hydraulic grade line and the channel bed are all parallel. K ρV2 = ρ g Rh Sb 2 go Chapter 12 V12 V22 + y1 + z1 = + y2 + z2 + hL 2g 2g . act on the control volume. Gravity force component = mg A L sin θ Frictional force = τw PL (tan θ = sin θ = θ in radians for small angles) Equating the forces τw PL = ρg AL sin θ or (12. at a section by the sum (V2/2g) + y. Hence τw = K ρ V2/2 go where K is a constant of proportionality. As the pressure distribution is hydrostatic the net pressure force on the control volume is zero. E. The bed slope Sb( = sin θ) is small and pressure distribution is hydrostatic. the specific energy is constant along this type of flow. The energy grade line. Substituting in equation 12.2. Only body force due to gravity and friction forces/ on the wetted surfaces. (iii) Energy equation.1) τw = ρg (A/P) sin θ = ρ g Rh Sb (12.3.2) The head loss due to friction in steady flow between two sections equals the change in elevation of the bed. Ff.2) This is the reason for defining hydraulic radius as A/P.

5 Example 12.5 (12.704 m/s. C = 86.5. V = C Rh Sb Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (12. 0. ∴ ∴ ∴ Flow rate P = 3 + (2 × 1) = 5 m. For Brick lined channel the value is about 0.1) where k is known as Bazins constant.5 (RhSb)0.3.6) C = (8g/f)0. f = 0. Area = 3 × 1 = 3 m2 Rh = 3/5 = 0.112 m3/s 12. As the first two correlations are more complex.5 = 45. the friction head loss is given by hL = f L V2/ 2 gD.1 Determine the flow rate of water through a rectangular channel 3 m wide with a flow depth of 1 m. The bed slope is 1 in 2500.9/(1 + k/ Rh ) (12.038. This correlation is independent of bed slope. The value varies from 0. i etc are also used).038 K 0. three are more popular namely Bazins. and hL = L Sb. Kutters and Mannings.4) It may be noted that Chezy coefficient C is not dimensionless.3. As in the case of closed duct flow.445 (0.3.3. 12. Another method of deriving the equation is as below. Sb = 1/2500. = 3 × 1 × 0.455 V = 45.81IJ H 0.704 = 2.4.5 = 0.1 Bazin’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant The equation suggested by Bazin is given below. Out of these. Substituting D = 4Rh. Several correlations have been suggested from experimental measurements for obtaining the value of Chezy’s constant C. C = FG 8 g IJ HfK 0.3) This equation published in 1775 is known as Chezy’s equation and the constant C is known as Chezy’s constant.6 × 1/2500)0.386 Denoting 2ggo/K by constant C. Mannings correlation is generally used in designs. (for Rh and Sb other symbols like m.17 for earthen channel in rough condition.6 m.11 for smooth cement surfaces to 3.5) (12. wetted perimeter.5 F 8gI V=G J HfK Denoting constant V=C (RhSb)0. .5 (12.4. Flow rate Q = ρ A V = C ρ A (Rh Sb)0. It has a dimension of (length1/2/ time) and hence will have different numerical values in different systems of units.5 = FG 8 × 9.4 DETERMINATION OF CHEZY’S CONSTANT The Chezy’s equation is simple but the determination of the constant C is rather involved.

011 for smooth cement surface to 0. m3/s 3.250 1.847 0. 1 2 3 4 5 Nature of Surface Smooth cement lining Smooth brick Rubble masonry Earthen channel in ordinary condition Earthen channel in rough condition Bazins Constant 0.3 Determine the flow rate for a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep with a slope of 1/2500.Flow in Open Channels 387 Example 12.160 0. Equation (12. The value of Bazins constant.66 V.3.00155 / Sb ) + (1 / N ) (12.75 12.460 1. Rh = 0. m/s 1.16 0. Using the above values. (i) Smooth cement lining (ii) Smooth brick (iii) Rubble masonry (iv) Earthen channel is ordinary condition (v) Earthen channel in rough condition Rh = 3/5 = 0.4.6 / 2500 These values of Bazins constant k can be taken as typical values S.02 54.303 1.5 ) 23 + (0.060 0. k.46 1.65 72.4. the value of which varies from 0. are given below.6 ).750 Chezy’s Constant 80. Using the values of Kutters constant and conditions of surface given in the tabulation. V = C 0. For a bed slope of 1/2500 find the flow rate.75 3.35 2. the constant C is calculated by the equations below: C = 86.2 Kutter’s Equation for Chezy’s Constant C C= 1 + (23 + 0.51 1.06 m. Equation (12.6.2) is used for the determination of C.40 26.52 32.4. The results are also tabulated.53 1.116 0. A = 3 m2.502 0.413 Q. No.08 for poorly maintained earthen channels.06 0.2) Where N is Kutter’s constant.2 Calculate the value of the Chezy’s constants using Bazins equation in the case of a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep for the following conditions.24 : : : : : 0.303 1.6) is used to calculate V . Sb = 1/2500 Chapter 12 .00155 / Sb )( N + Rh 0. Example 12.9/(1 + k/ 0.

C = (8g/f)1/2 that C = (1/N) Rh1/6 (12.4.4 For a rectangular channel 3 m wide and 1 m deep with a slope of 1 to 2500 determine the values of Chezy’s constant and also the flow rate.011 to 0. No.4.95 0.51 2.2 and 2. When combined with Chezy’s equation (12.050 C 83.64 0. The types of surface with Mannings constant are tabulated.015 0.013 0.29 Q (m3/s) 3.6 m. particularly for earthen channels and natural streams.4. Rh = 0.51 2.02 51. A = 3 m2.64 61. 12.95 0.84 0.4) and are presented in the tabulation. Sometimes the reciprocal of N is also referred to as Mannings constant.3.52 53.3.017 0.3) where N is Mannings constant established by experiments for various types of surfaces.09 0. Note that in examples 2.79 0.53 61.79 0.022 0.6).37 1. No.022 0.4) The values of N is generally a small fraction varying from 0.3) and (12.017 0.85 2.018 0.27 Q. Example 12.388 S.110 0. this leads to V = (1/N) Rh2/3 Sb1/2 (12.32 2.28 2.90 50.06. m/s 1.25 71.88 3.74 18.36 1. Due to simplicity and availability of extensive experimental support Mannings correlation is more popularly used.65 0.74 41.11 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type of surface Smooth cement lining Smooth concrete Rough brick Rubble masonry/Rough concrete Clean earthen channel Earthen channel after weathering Earthen channel rough with bush Kutters const.23 54.48 70.86 2.80 It can be seen that as N increases the flow decreases for the same slope.011 0.29 1. The results are obtained using equation (12.96 3.02 41.4. The values of N are available for a few more conditions.5). Sb = 1/2500 S.3 Manning’s Equation for C In 1890 Robert Manning proposed in place of the relation given in equation (12.02 1714 V. m3/s 3.37 V (m/s) 1. N 0.85 .4.94 0. In this case the value will be in the range 16 to 90. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Surface type Smooth cement lined surface Smooth concrete Rough Brick Rubble masonary/Rough concrete Clean earthen channel Earthen channel after weathering Rough earthen channel with weeds N 0.018 0.3 there is good agreement between the results.91 0.013 0.32 1.84 0.050 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Chezy’s Constant 85.015 0.

Flow in Open Channels 389 Comparing with the result of example 12.5 m Chapter 12 .014 ± 0.003 0. smooth Steel.010 N Example 12.150 ± 0.025 ± 0.030 ± 0.010 0.010 0. The value of Mannings constant is 0.022 ± 0.005 0.5 Determine the slope required for a flow of 1500 litre of water per second for a pipe of 2 m diameter flowing half full.1.002 0.075 ± 0.014 ± 0. Table 12. painted Steel.015 ± 0. No.003 0.002 0. farm land Light brush Heavy brush Trees 3 Excavated eathen channels Clean Gravelly Weedy Stoney.2 and 12.004 0.020 0.002 0.013 ± 0. finished Concrete. Use Mannings equation.002 0.015 for the rough concrete lining used.035 ± 0.040 ± 0.3 it may be noted that there is close agreement between the results except in the case of earthen channels.035 ± 0.050 ± 0.005 0.022 ± 0. Area = π D2/(4 × 2).012 ± 0.005 0.025 0. ∴ Rh = D/4 = 2/4 = 0.010 0.012 ± 0.003 0.012 ± 0.011 ± 0.025 ± 0.050 0. cobbles 4 Lined channels Glass Brass Steel.002 0.002 0.003 0.002 0. riveted Cast iron Concrete.014 ± 0. Perimeter = π D/2.015 ± 0.1 Values of Manning’s coefficient.002 0. 1 Surface Type Natural channels Clean and straight Sluggish with deep pools Major rivers 2 Flood plains Pasture.030 ± 0.005 0. N S.010 ± 0.035 ± 0.005 0. Rough Planed wood Clay tile Asphalt Corrugated metal Rubble masonry Brick work 0. Values for some more types of surfaces are given in table 12.016 ± 0.

0000 3.7155 5.1622 P.9 and solved problem Problem 12.6330 1. assuming different ratios of depth to width determine the flow rates. It is to be noted that perimeter is minimum at this value. V= 1 1 1 .6458 2. is chosen. Example 12. Derivations are given in example 12.4371 Q.6 A smooth cement lined rectangular channel is proposed with a slope of 1/2500. m 1.55 m3/s.5) = 517 × 10–6 1 : 1934. The assumed depth to width ratios and corresponding values of depth d. and flow rates are tabulated below. Velocity = Volume flow/area V = 1.4142 1. Sb1/2 Rh2/3 = N 0.7331 5.3333 1.75 1:2 1 : 2. m 0.6920 Rh. width b.7027 V. velocity V.8782 Rh2/3 Q = A × V = 4 × 1.51/6 = 59. Sb = 1/1934 12.6695 5.8284 3.7. For a total area of 4 m2. perimeter P. This is illustrated in the problem Example 12.4495 2.9552/(59. Hence there can exist a section which will involve minimum section in terms of cost of excavation.4409 1.2649 b.7059 0.8 and 12.4. (1500l = 1. Rh2/3 (A) (B) = 1.5 d.4333 1.2728 Rh2/3 The results using equations (A) and (B) are tabulated below.7723 5. A wider shallow section or a narrower deeper section may carry the same flow under the same slope. After a particular type of section. circular etc.6. hydraulic radius Rh.7484 It is seen that the flow rate is maximum at d/b = 0.8182 = 7.011 2500 Rh2/3 FG H IJ K 0.4431 1.5 ECONOMICAL CROSS-SECTION FOR OPEN CHANNELS For a given flow rate and slope (determined by the ground slope) any one of several types of sections can be chosen.42 × 0. .6667 5. lining etc. various alternatives are possible.6569 5.7055 0.25 1 : 2. m3/s 5.6999 0.7658 5.011.955 m/s.7636 5. assuming depth and width. .5 m3) V2 = C2 Rh Sb ∴ or Sb = V2/C2 Rh = 0.7071 0.390 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery C = (1/N)Rh1/6 = (1/0.7.5 .5 1 : 1.4414 1.5119 1. m 2.0015) × 0. m 5. Mannings coefficient for the surface is 0.5 × (4 × 2/π × 2 × 2) = 0. d:b 1 : 1.5 or b = 2d for rectangular channel. m/s 1. 12. For the square section the perimeter is maximum at bm when the flow rate is minimum at 5. say rectangular. by a trial process.

5/P0.Flow in Open Channels 391 Thus in the case of rectangular channels. Q will be maximum when P is minimum and depth d is the independent variable. Example 12.. Assume uniform flow conditions. From equation (3). 12.7 Derive an expression for the ratio of depth to width for open channel flow in the case of a rectangular section of a given area for economical conditions.8 Derive an expression for the hydraulic radius for a trapezoidal channel section for maximum flow conditions. dp A = – 2 – a + 2(1 + a2)1/2 = 0 Solving for A dy y A = y2 [2 (1 + a2)1/2 – a]. Also for a given channel θ is fixed and hence a is fixed. using equation A dd A dP = – 2 + 2 = 0 (also d dd ∴ d2 P dd2 is – ve) The depth should be one half of the width for economical rectangular section.26 d Sb = (depth)8/3 (slope)1/2 N N (12. Chapter 12 A = 2d2 = d × b ∴ b = 2d .4. Consider a width b and depth d perimeter P = 2d + b = 2d + (A/d) Q = AC . In this case Rh = d/2 (see example 12.8 and as A. This is achieved when the flow is maximum for a given area or the perimeter is minimum. Ex. C and Sb are constants and as Rh = A/P.(A) A Sb P As A..5 Figure Ex. Also determine the optimum side slope.5) Example 12. 12.8 for variable names.e.6 also) Using Mannings equation the flow rate for the economical rectangular section is given in terms of the depth d as Q= 21/ 3 8/3 1/2 1. only variable is P in this case and so Q ∝ P–0. Or dP should be zero for such a condition. Using equation (3) and equating (dp/dy) to zero. Refer Fig.C and Sb are specified. Let a = cot θ.5 i. y being the independent variables. it appears that the economical section for a given area is the 1 : 2 section.5 A0. and P is to be minimized. Q is maximum when P is minimum. Area A = by + ay2 = y(b + ay) P = b + 2w = b + 2y(1 + Eliminating b using equation 1 a2)1/2 ay (1) (2) A b= – ay y ∴ As P= y q b A – ay + 2y(1 + a2)1/2 y (3) Q = C Rh Sb = C Sb0.

333 y2 = (4/3) y2 ∴ W = (2/ 3 )y b= A – ay. ∴ b = y ∴ b=W Example 12. Ex. and from equation 1.9 Area. A = d2 tan θ ∴ d = FG A IJ H tan θ K 0. ∴ Fluid Mechanics and Machinery A A – ay + 2y(1 + a2)1/2 = + y [2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] y y P = y[2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] + y[2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] = 2y[2 (1 + a2)1/2 – a] Rh = A y = P 2 ∴ A = 2y2. In the case of a rectangle a = 0 In order to determine the optimum value of a (cot θ) for a given section of area A and depth y.5 = 2{A(tan θ + cot θ)}0. b = 2y. 12. A = y2 [2(1 + a2)1/2 – a] y 2 3 ∴ b = 2y[(1 + a2)1/2 – a].5 0. P = 2d sec θ. Refer Fig.5 d sec q q d Perimeter. as it can be shown that base b = side length W W2 = y2 + a2y2 = y2(1 + a2). and solving a= 1 3 = cot θ ∴ θ = 60° Hence the optimum condition for economical section for a given area and depth is θ = 60° This shows that the section is half of a regular hexagon.392 P= Substituting for A. P = 4y. Substituting for d P = 2 sec θ FG A IJ H tan θ K 2 0. 12. P should be minimized.9 F A sec θ I = 2G H tan θ JK =2 F A(1 + tan θ) I GH tan θ JK 2 0.5 As Q = AV = AC ∴ For maximum of Q. A Sb P . using equation (3) 1 dP =–y+ × 2a × 2y(1 + a2)–1/2 Rearranging 2a/(1 + a2)1/2 = 1 2 da Squaring both sides. as a = cot 60 = 0.9 Derive an expression for the optimum angle for a triangular channel section of given d tan q area.5 Figure Ex.5774 W2 = 1.

Optimum geometry. b depth.5 or ∴ ∴ P = 2d sec 45 = 2 2 d = 2. ∴ A = LM QN OP MN S PQ 1/ 2 b 3/5 P2/5 Section Optimum Geometry Normal depth Cross sectional area Rectangular. 393 dP d = [tan θ + cot θ] = sec2 θ – cosec2 θ = 0 dθ dθ ∴ cos2 θ = sin2 θ ∴ θ = 45°.00 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 --- Chapter 12 Table 12.622 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 4 b = 2d/ 3 D = 2d L QN OP 1. d b = 2d L QN OP 0.828 d Rh = A/P = d/23/2 = 0. normal depth and area when flow rate and bed slope are fixed. Mannings coefficient and bed slope.917 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1. . width b.5 = A0. d Wide flat. Table 12. The optimum half angle is 45° A = d2 d = (A/tan 45)0.2 gives the conditions for optimum geometry for various sections together with normal depth d and cross sectional area in terms of flow rate. diameter.2. width. b depth. and minimizing P2.353 d 12.968 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1.5.682 M MN S PQ b 1/ 2 3/ 4 Trapezoidal width.583 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 4 b>>d L qN OP 1. and Rh = A/P. D depth. (Q/A) = Rh2/3 Sb1/2/N. flow/m θ = 60° L QN OP 0. d Circular.Flow in Open Channels Considering θ as independent variable.6 to 12.00 M NM S QP b 1/ 2 3/ 8 L QN OP 1.1 Examples 12. depth d q.9 provide the optimum geometry for some sections.

011 OP NM (1 / 2500) QP 1/ 2 3/ 8 = 0. (iii) Triangular and (iv) Circular sections.2)3/8 = 1.743/2 2 ) (d/2) = (1.37 1. (ii) Trapezoidal.743 = 3.04 m2 (ii) Trapezoidal (Note: QN/Sb1/2 = 2. N = 0.44 .039 m2. Diameter D = 2 × 1.3168 1.75 = 2.688 m A = π 2.2)3/8 = 1. b = 2 × 1. The triangular and rectangular sections need the same areas.2)3/4 = 2.84 m2.682(2.11 Using the results of Example 12. Using equations in table 12.75 = 3.86 m2 Note that the minimum area is in the case of the circular section.917 (2.968 (2.622(2. Example 12. (i) Rectangular: Normal depth F QN I d = 0.2)3/8 = 1.3166 1.93 3.301 m. top width = 2 × 1.41 Velocity using Manning’s m/s 1. the values are calculated as below.2)0.2347 m.2.45 0.93 m2 1 1 1 × R 2/3Sb1/2 = N h 0. but the depth is more for the triangular section.917 LM 4 × 0. determine the flow velocity in each case and check the same using Mannings equation.2)0.301 = 2.5 Rh2/3 = 1.38 0. V= check (1.468 m A = 3.10.344 m.011.32 1.502 + 1.301 cot 60) 1.4649 m A = d × b = 3. The velocity will be maximum in the circular section.6882/(2 × 4) = 2.344/2) 3.32 1.301/ 3 = 1. check: 1.8182 × Rh2/3 The result are tabulated below: Flow rate = 4 m3/s Section Rh Area m2 Velocity using Area m/s 1.502 m ∴ (iii) Triangular: (iv) Circular: A = 1.04 2. check: 1.394 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 12.2347/2 (d/2) = 1. Also A = 1.84 0.3650 1. Next comes trapezoidal one.297 (2.75 = 3.42 0. Mannings coefficient.917 G H S JK 1/ 2 b 3/ 8 = 0.344 = 2.04 m2.3950 Fr Rectangular Tapezoidal Triangular Circular (d/2) = 1. ∴ b = 2.2)0.04 2.04 m2 d = 1.583 (2.301/2 (d/2 2 ) = (1.0(2.2 from previous calculation is used in the following calculations) d = 0.011 2500 FG H IJ K 0.10 For a given slope of 1/2500 and flow rate of 4m3/s. determine the depth of flow and area of cross-section at optimum conditions for (i) Rectangular.743 m.682 (2.2)3/8 = 1.93 m2 d = 1.

slope etc.301 2. When the terrain changes the slope has to change.688 2 × 1.84 3. Assume that the depth is d as p = 3 m ∴ A = b × d = 3d.12 Determine the height of flow in the case of a rectangular channel of 3 m width and slope of 1/2500 for a flow rate of 4 m3/s.4545 × d × G H 3 + 2d K 2/ 3 Fd I GH 3 + 2d JK = 0.021)/(0.301(1.872 m. Trapezoidal y= 395 A d(b + d sin 30) 1. N h 1 1 4= × 0.2093. Q = AV = V × 3d. 12.5 × (0.6 FLOW WITH VARYING SLOPES AND AREAS It is found almost impossible to have open channels of uniform slope and or uniform area all over the length of the channel. Substituting the values. Example 12.011)] × (1/2500) 0.502 + 0.Flow in Open Channels Froude number is calculated on the basis of hydraulic depth = Area/top width Fr = V/ yg where y is the average depth given by. circular y = = 1. Area/top width. sometimes gradually and sometimes steeply. Hence iterative working is necessary.976 m3/s Note: Determination of depth or width for specified values of flow rate. Solving by trial d = 1.743 Triangular y= Note : Velocity is maximum in the case of circular section. involves polynomials of more than degree 2. 12. and hence the flow area also should change.021 m Check: Rh = (3 × 1.502 + 1. In stagnant surface any disturbance will spread uniformly around the point of disturbance.6033)2/3 = 3. Rh = 3d/(3 + 2d) V= 1 R 2/3Sb1/2. P = b + 2d = 3 + 2d.5 2/3 F 3d IJ × 3d = 5.6033 m Q = [(3 × 1.1 Velocity of Wave Propagation in Open Surface Flow The nature of readjustment of flow level due to slope change or sudden drop in bed level is found to depend on the velocity of propagation of any disturbance or wave velocity in the flow. Consider well finished concrete surface The value of Mannings coefficient for well finished concrete surface is 0. suddenly.011 2500 5/ 2 FG H IJ FG 3d IJ K H 3 + 2d K 0. In such conditions the flow depth readjusts in some cases gradually and in some cases.057 m 2. Certain situations like in spillways the energy in the flow has to be dissipated without damage to the surfaces. In case water is flowing with a velocity V and if the wave velocity is c then if V < c.65) = = = 0.6.04 = 0.021)) = 0.011.9991 Topwidth b + 2d sin 30 1. The study of such flows is an important and practical aspect of open channel flow. the disturbance will travel upstream at a Chapter 12 . An example is dropping of a small stone in a stagnant pool.021)/(3 + (2 × 1.

ρ gy ∆y = c2 ρ ∆y c2 = gy or c = gy (12.e. flow is equal at sections 1 and 2 ρ b(y + ∆y) (c – ∆V) – ρ byc = 0 Solving ∆V = c ∆y . Considering sections 1 and 2 and applying continuity conditions i. ρgy ∆y + g ∆y 2 2 Neglecting the second order term.6. 12. In case V ≥ c then disturbance cannot travel upstream and only the down steam flow will change. incompressible and the section is constant across the x direction with a width b. This will cause a small ripple or wave and let its velocity or propagation be c. as the pressure is hydrostatic at any section. The change is mainly in the form of change in height of flow. Plate dv C Dy y y C – DV x C y 1 2 Dy x Wave moving Dx x Wave at rest Figure 12.6. net force equals ρg y ∆y The rate of change of momentum is dV × flow rate ∴ dV ρcy Subsituting for dV from equation (A) and equating the force and change of momentum. y + ∆y ∆y y (A) as ∆y is small this can be approximately as ∆V = c Applying momentum equation to the sections.1. In order to facilitate analysis.1) .396 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery lower speed. Referring to Fig. the pressure force is given by (for unit width) ρ g y2/2 At section 1. Force = ρg y2/2 Net pressure force between the sections equals the difference between these two. Force = ρ g (y + ∆y)2/2 At section 2. the wave can be brought to rest by imposing a velocity c in the opposite direction to the wave movement.1 Wave celerity The flow is assumed steady.6. let a disturbance be created by moving the vertical plate slightly along the x direction.

Using equation (12. The downstream conditions can change the flow conditions upstream. where c is the sonic speed or velocity of propagation of small disturbance in the fluid.32 1000 99.1).2 Chapter 12 12. 1000 and 4000 m. which is seen near beaches. Such a disturbance can be produced by earthquake or volcanic activity. Disturbances cannot travel upstream.99 gy .5 2. Froude number in connection with open surface flow is defined as V/ gl . the wave height is small compared to the depth.21 1 3. Disturbances cannot travel upstream. Such a flow is called subcritical or tranquil flow. l.2 Froude Number . Hence Froude number can be represented by the ratio. Downstream conditions cannot be felt upstream. Case (i) If Fr < 1. 0. The resulting tidal waves may travel at this speed and cause heavy damage. there are three possible flow situations namely (V/c) < 1. Case (iii) Fr > 1. The flow is called critical flow. (V/c) = 1 and (V/c) > 1 or the Froude number for the flow is less than or equal to or greater than 1. finally leading to the breaking of the waves. (sin θ ≈ tan θ ≈ θ) (iv) Shear work term negligible.5. 397 The main assumption is that ∆y << y i. A standing wave may generally result. These are similar to subsonic.e. z1 z2 y1 V1 y2 V2 1 2 Figure 12. Changes occur only in the downstream flow. such flows are called supercritical or rapid or shooting flows. m/s 0. Only gradual changes occur in such a situation.Flow in Open Channels The wave velocity c is also called wave celerity. c = depth. As already indicated. In the case of open channel flow. 100.1 0. then V < c and any disturbance can travel upstream.6.05 4000 198. the characteristic length.6. the results obtained are tabulated below : 0. is the depth y and V is the flow velocity. Flow velocity/wave velocity.3 Energy Equation for Steady Flow and Specific Energy Assumptions in the case are (i) steady incompressible and uniform flow (ii) pressure distribution is hydrostatic (iii) small bed slope. 12. sonic and supersonic flows in the case of flow of compressible fluids where Match number is the governing factor also defined as V/c. The local depth at the crest of the wave is more compared to the trailing edge.13 10 9.91 100 31. Note that the velocity calculated is that of surface wave and not that of propagation at depths.1.6. For this depth the disturbance will travel at 198 m/s which is about 713 km/hr. Example 12.13 Compare the celerity of waves for depths of 0. Case (ii) Fr = 1.09 The depth of deep ocean is about 4 km. This causes accumulation of water in the crest and as the wave travels further the height increases. m velocity.6.

V= ∴ Q A and A = b × y where b is the width and y is the depth. dy gy ∴ y3 = Fq I GH g JK 2 2 1/ 3 or y= Fq I GH g JK 2 1/ 3 (12.3) and equating the result to zero. we get dE q2 = − 3 + 1 = 0.6. Bernoulli equation is written including head loss due friction hL. Differentiating the equation (12. The symbol used is E.6. The variation of depth and velocity for a given specific energy provides an idea about the type of flow.6.3) It will be useful to investigate the variation of depth and velocity for a given flow rate. 2 g 2 g b2 y2 The specific energy can now be expressed as below E=y+ For unit width. This quantity is defined as specific energy or specific head.4(a)) .1) As in pipe flow the pressure loss in due to friction in the open channel flow. The head due to change in level namely ( z1 – z2) equals the friction head hL.6.6.6. V2 Q2 = .6. For a flow rate Q and sectional area A. ∴ q = Q/b E=y+ Q2 2 g b2 y2 (12. ∴ yc Fq I =G J H gK (12. In this process the value of minimum energy for a given flow is found as follows. To illustrate the idea the case of a rectangular section is analysed in the following sections.2.398 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Considering sections 1 and 2 in the flow as shown in Figure 12. The term V2 + y is found 2g to be an important parameter is open channel flow.4) The value of y for the minimum every for a given flow rate is formed as critical depty yc.2) q2 2 gy 2 (12. V12 V2 2 + y1 + z1 = + y2 + z2 + hL 2g 2g (12.

7) At this critical depth condition the following relations hold. and gy = c Vc V = c = 1 or Froude number is unity.6.6.6. c gy Chapter 12 The flow rate at this condition is given by (for unit width) qmax = Vcyc = gyc 3 (12. Emin = yc + or yc= 2 yc 2 yc 3 399 = 3/2 yc.6. Fq I y =G J H gK 2 1/ 3 c .5a) From the definition of velocity.q = 2 c c gyc 3 and 2 Ac = byc = b q g F I GH JK 1/ 3 These relations specify only a single condition in the flow. These are called alternate depths and velocities.Flow in Open Channels Substituting the value in the general equation (12. Vc2 = g .6. ∴ Vc = c. 2g (12. 12. (12.6.6.5) 2 E . One plot is for a constant energy and the head variation with flow rate.6.4a for unit width at the critical condition.8) This equation leads to two positive values of y for a given E and q. This is shown in Figure 12. . This means that For a given value of E and q two combinations of depth and velocity exist. The third solution is negative and has no significance. To investigate the complete variation the general equation (12.6. and eqn. Vc = gyc . As two quantities are involved with depth of flow two separate plots are used to illustrate the flow variation.6.4. This is shown in Figure 12. 3 min (12.3 The other is for constant flow rate and head variation with energy.3).6) From the expression of wave velocity. Ec = 3 y. yc 3 q2 = = gy yc 2 yc 2 or Vc = gy (12.3) is modified and written as y3 – Ey2 + q2 = 0.

Similar curves will result for other value of specific energy E.4 Non Dimensional Representation of Specific Energy Curve By one dimensional representation a single curve will result for all values of specific energy.4 Variation of discharge with depth for a given specific energy In figure 12. This is shown by the line ABCD.5 Emin H B yR A Rapid E Figure 12. The flow velocity V will be less than Vc. When the depth is yT (AC). the kinetic energy is given by BD.6.6. the Froude number is less than 1 and any disturbance downstream will be felt upstream and the flow upstream will be readjusted by the disturbing wave. y = E. A curve for a given flow rate is shown ploted. the depth is AC and the dynamic head is CD. E qmax 2 = y qmax 2 1 + 2 gy 2 FG q IJ Hq K max 2 As qmax = (g yc3)1/2. For a given flow rate at any energy greater than E min.6. For example for the tranquil flow of the given q at A. Figure 12. The resulting curve shows that at any flow less than qmax. the kinetic energy is CD. In the tranquil flow region. The condition yc divides the flow into two regions namely tranuil and rapid flows.3 Variation of depth with specific energy for a given flow rate Figure 12. In the rapid flow region. At q = 0. this reduces to . In the tranquil flow the depth is larger and the velocity is smaller. In the rapid flow the depth is smaller and the velocity is more. When the depth is equal to yR = AB.4 is a plot of depth against specific energy for a given flow rate. 12. The specific energy curve can be presented in a non dimensional form by dividing the terms of equation (12. the Froude number is greater than one and down stream disturbances like changed slope will not be felt upstream. For different values of flow rate different curves will result. This is in the rapid flow region. one greater than yc and the other smaller than yc. At the critical condition a standing wave will be generated.6. In the rapid flow region.6. the depth is AB and the dynamic head is BD.6. At qmax or the critical condition there is only one solution for the depth. This is represented by the line at 45°.3) by qmax.3 the variation of depth with flow rate is shown plotted for a constant value of E. Here also very similar conditions are seen. there are two possible depths of flow. the flow can exist at two different combinations of depth and velocity. and V > Vc.400 y D E = constant C Tranquil H yT yCr B r A uR q Qmax O y Fluid Mechanics and Machinery q = constant D C Tranquil Rapid yT yCr 4.

4575 m.81 × 1. Similarly for given values of q.6) This will result in a single curve for all values of E when q is plotted against y.0 The alternate depth is obtained using equation (12.6.9717 = 1. the depth being 1.3).81 Chapter 12 E y 1 yc = + yc yc 2 y FG IJ H K 2 (12. The flow is supercritical check V2 4. Specific energy = (V2/2g) + y = 1.0874 × 0.6. 2g 2 × 9.9717 = 3 m3/s/m Fr = Emin = (3/2) × yc = 1.5162 +y= + 0. yal = 0. solving by trial. y3 – Ey2 + q2/2g = 0 As q and E are known. Fr = Critical height is given by check: V gy = 2 9.9717 m q = Vc × yc = 3.0874 m/s 3.516 9. the equation below will result in a single curve.5 = 0. Considering 1 m width Velocity = 3/(1.14 Water flows in a rectangular channel at the rate of 3 m3/s per m width.5214. Determine whether the flow is subcritical or supercritical.6643 m.7039 m.6643 = 1. This is obtained by dividing the general eqaution by yc and then simplifying This will result in a single curve for all values of q when E is plotted against y.Flow in Open Channels 1 E y = + 3 3 2 gy 2 gyc gyc 401 FG q IJ Hq K max 2 or FG q IJ Hq K max 2 = 2E yc FG y IJ Hy K c 3 2 −2 FG y IJ Hy K c 3 3 For a rectangular channel Emin = (3/2) yc ∴ FG q IJ Hq K max 2 =3 FG y IJ Hy K c −2 FG y IJ Hy K c (12. Example 12. Also determine the alternate depth and Froude numbers in both cases.81 × 0. Fr = ∴ V = 4. The flow is subcritical yc = (q2/g)1/3 = 0.516 m/s 4.5 m.6.7961. Vc = (g × yc)1/2 = 3.81 × 0.0874 9.7038 m.7) .6643 = 1.5 × 1) = 2 m/s.

6.6.. the hydraulic depth is given by Area/top width. and the side slope is 45° In the case of sections other than rectangles. yc = (2/3) E. A/top width From section 12. from section 12.6 + 2yc) Q = (1/3) m3/s. btop = 2yc + b. b = 0 and yc = (4/5) E (D) From equation (B) for a rectangular section as n = 0. Substituting . ln Q = ln y + ln (b + ny) + (1/2) ln (2g) + (1/2) ln (E – y) differentiating with respect to y. Ac = Fb GH 2 1/ 3 topQ g I JK . Chart solutions are available for various values of b and n.3.5 Example 12.3 when Q dy y b + ny 2( E − y) ∴ 1 n 1 =0 + − yc b + nyc 2( E − yc ) dQ = 0. ny V2 +y ∴ V= 2g 2 g( E − y) .6 m. Q = A V = y(b + ny) 2 g ( E − y) For constant value of E. Q is maximum when (dQ/dy) = 0 Taking natural log on both sides of equation (A). specific energy is given by E= A = (b + ny) y. In the case of triangle.15 Derive an expression for critical depth and critical velocity of a trapezoidal channel in terms of specific energy E. 5nyc2 + (3b – 4nE) yc – 2bE = 0 Solving for yc yc = − (3b − 4 nE) ± 9b2 − 24bnE + 16 n2 E 2 + 40bnE 10 n (B) = (4nE − 3b) ± 16n 2 E 2 + 16 nEb + 9b2 10n (C) This is a general solution. Hydraulic depth = yc .e. Assume a bottom width b and side slope 1 : n. as was established earlier. y = yc dy Rearranging after summing up and considering the numerator to be zero. The base width is 0. i.(A) y b Volume flow. 1 dQ 1 n 1 = + − .16 Determine the critical depth of a channel with trapezoidal cross-section with a flow of (1/3) m3/s. Area of section. In this case for critical flow. Critical velocity is obtained by substituting yc in the equation Vc = {2g[E – yc]}0.402 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Example 12. also Ac = yc (b +2yc) = yc (0..

5 m3/s.58.07 m/s.265) = 0. Chapter 12 .5/(6 × 0. Solving y = 0. Q = A × Rh2/3 Sb1/2/N.6 = 2.075/ 0.4837 × 0. the flow is supercritical.265 m Vc = (gyc)0.265 (0.81 × 0. Rh = 6 × 3/(6 + 2 × 3) = 1.2304 To determine alternate depth.6.5 = (6 × 3) × 1.6/(6 + 2 × 0.53 × 9. Case (1) depth = 3 m. Take Mannings coefficient as 0. 22.81)} + 3 = 3.6 + 0. the equation used is (12.5)2/3 Sb1/2.252/(2 × 9.5 = (9.012.53 m V = 22. Critical depth is given by the equation (12.6 m. solving Sb = 1/70.0796.6.012) (0. Calculate the critical depth also. q = (22.81K 1/ 3 = 0.5/6) m3/s/m y3 = 3.0796 y2 + 0.25/ 3 × 9.6 + 2yc)2 = Q2 1 = g 9 × 9.5 m To determine the slope.6) = 0.2244)0. Fr = 7.25 m/s ∴ E = (V2/2g) + y = {1.081 m (check) Case (2) 0. Substituting the values.17 A rectangular channel 6 m wide is to carry a flow of 22. For a depth of 0.5 Fr = 22.81 × 0.81 = 0.6 m depth.5 = (6 × 0.1 Specific energy calculated using this velocity is 3.1275 m Hence for a depth of 3 m. Rh = 6 × 0.81 × 6 JK 2 2 1/3 = 1.5 × 6 × 0. For depth of 3 m and 0.34 m3/s Example 12.6) × (1/0.5 I = G H 9.6 1 9.52 / 3 S 1/2.53) = 7.2244 m Area = (y + b) y = (b + 2yc) yc.7167 = 0. solving 0.0796 m Froude number: 1.6 m determine the slope required.5 = 1. Let it be equal to y check flow rate: 1.81 = 3.Flow in Open Channels 403 F (b + 2 y ) × Q I y (b + 2y ) = G JK g H c 2 c c 1/ 3 ∴ yc3 (0.012 b Sb = 1/7631 Velocity = 22.8) y3 – Ey2 + (q2/2g) = 0 Substituting values for E = 3. solving by trial the alternate value of y = 0.2246 m Solving by trial yc = 0. the Manning flow equation is used. the flow is subcritical.81 FG H IJ K ∴ yc (0. Also determine the Froude number and alternate depth for the specific energy conditions.6 + 2yc )2/3 F 1 IJ = G H 9 × 9.4a) (for rectangular section) FQ I y =G H gb JK 2 c 1/ 3 2 F 22.4867 m/s The actual depth is different from hydraulic depth.5/6 × 3 = 1.5 m 22.

7 EFFECT OF AREA CHANGE When changes in flow area occurs over short distances like over a short bump or flow under a sluice gate. 2g 2g Q = V1y1 = V2y2. 12. b Water surface 2 V1 Y1 y V y x h Figure 12. There is a bump in the channel bed as shown in Fig.81 12. and the water depth is y measured from the bed level at the location 2.404 Alternate depth is obtained using y3 – Ey2 + q2/2g = 0. Substituting for V1 and V2.7.1275 K 2 × 1 = 1.1) . b. The flow is assumed to be uniform at each section.1275 m F 22.513 At the critical flow condition. As friction is neglected Bernoulli equation applies for steady flow conditions. as calculated yc = 1. these cases can be analysed.7595 m. As the pressure on the free surface is the same at all locations.691 m. Fr = 0. is considered.5 IJ H 6 × 0.7.1.991 m 2 × 9. V = 2.7. checks.81 Substituting and solving by trial. which is 1.6 K 2 × 1 = 1. Assuming channel bed to be horizontal.1 Flow Over a Bump The flow along a horizontal rectangular channel of constant width.5 IJ E = 1. alternate depth is 1. Bernoulli equation reduces to (taking bed level as datum) V2 2 V12 + y1 = + y2 + h = constant over the bump.1275 + G H 6 × 1. The height of the bump at location x is h.1 Flow over a bump Q2 2 gb2 y12 + y1 = Q2 + y + h = constant 2 gb2 y 2 (12.137 m/s.5 × yc. E = 0.6 + Fluid Mechanics and Machinery FG 22. the effect of area change is more compared to frictional effects.7. 12. 2 × 9.

Consider sections 1 and 2 1 2 0. (similar to supersonic nozzle M > 1) 4. (similar to supersonic diffuser M > 1) The case of Fr = 1 is more complex and other factors have to considered to determine the flow downstream. The type of surface variations are listed below: 1. 12. 12.6 m 6 m/s y2 h = 0.2) As dh/dx is specified. Example 12. A smooth bump with a peak height of 0.6 m and the flow velocity is 0.H.06 m Figure Ex. Refer Fig.S. Ex. dy/dx can be determined. (similar to subsonic diffuser M < 1) 3. 2 3 2 gb y dx dx dx ( dh / dx) ( dh / dx) dy (dh / dx) = = dx [(Q 2 / gb2 y 3 ) − 1] = [(V 2 / gy) − 1) Fr 2 − 1 (12. (1) There are two possible variations in the bed level.6 m/s. is differentiated with respect to x.18 Under steady flow conditions. Bernoulli equation reduces to Continuity equation is ∴ V1y1 = V2y2 V2 V12 + y1 = 2 + y2 + h. the flow height is 0.Flow in Open Channels 405 In order to determine the variation of y along the flow. namely a positive bump and a negative bump or depression. (similar to subsonic nozzle M < 1) 2. Supercritical flow – ve bump decreases the flow height. Solving for (dy/dx). the expression on the R. For subcritical flow – ve bump increases the flow height. It is seen that the variation depends on the flow Froude number. For subcritical flow + ve bump decreases the flow height.7.18 In a rectangular channel. − Q2 dy dy dh + + = 0.06 m exists on the bed surface. V2 = (V1y1/ y2) 2g 2g Chapter 12 .18. Determine the flow velocity and depth over the peak of the bump. (2) There are two possible regimes of flow namely subcritical and supercritical. For supercritical flow + ve bump increases the flow height.

7.61835 – 0.3) Y0 Y1 V1 0 1 Figure 12.81 2g specific energy at section (1). ∴ V2 = 0.2 Flow Through Sluice Gate.06 = 0.5583 m.406 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.3323 m.3323 m. y0 = + y1 (12. substituting for V2 . V0 Applying Bernoulli equation between section 0 and 1 y0 = 0.0047 m 0.6725 m/s = 0. 12. . 2g y2 y2 = 0. decrease in level.81 × 0. then yc = (q2/g)1/3 = 0. change in surface level or 4.6 = 0.6 = 0. Fr = = (V1 y1)2 1 × 2 + y2 = 0.2473 In case Fr = 1 to occur at the bump. from Stagnant Condition The reservoir is assumed to be large or y0 = constant. solving by trial.7. The size of the bump corresponding to this can be worked out by the above procedure. E1 = specific energy at section 2.7.61835 m 2 × 9.6 + 0.3 Flow through sluice gate Rearranging y12 (y0 – y1) = Q2/2gb2 (12.4) The flow rate Q fixes the value of y1 and as the equation is a quadratic. The flow depth at section 2 should be 0. One will be in the subcritical flow and the other in supercritical flow region.6 V12 + y1 = + 0.5583 m. there can be two solutions.7 mm. V12 + y1.7.06 = – 0.5353 – 0. E2 = V22 + y2 = E1 – h 2g = 0.6 9. 2g Q2 2 gb2 y12 Since V = Q/A and A = by.5353 m.

7. 12. V12 E1 = + y1 Replacing V by q. 1.7. 12.0 Fr < 1 Y1 Y0 0.4) with respect to y1 . 2g E1 = q2 + y2 2 gy2 2 Chapter 12 Taking the derivative of equation (12. then qmax2/g = (8/27) y03 Vmax 2 2 qmax q 3 = max .666 Fr = 1 407 Fr > 1 1.7.e. 2y1y0 – 3y12 = 0 (12. At maximum flow rate there is a single value for y1. Also specific energy at section 1 equals specific energy at section 2.7. Fr2 = Vmax = qmax = 8 y 3 = 0 8 3 A 1 × y1 2 y0 27 gy1 gy1 FG IJ H K 3 =1 Maximum flow corresponds to Fr = 1 There is no correlation available relating y1 and the gate opening.. Qmax 2 gb 2 =2 LM 2 y OP LM y N3 Q N 0 2 0 − 8 2 y0 = y3 27 0 3 (12.7.5) y1 = (2/3) y0 Substituting this value in flow rate term.3 Flow Under a Sluice Gate in a Channel In this case water flows with velocity V1 at section 1 and the level before the gate is y1.6) OP Q Also Q/b = q. incompressible uniform flow is assumed. (flow/unit width).Flow in Open Channels The same is shown plotted in non dimensional form in Fig.2 Figure 12. Steady.7.4.0 Q /2g b y0 2 2 3 0. The velocity at section 2 is V2 and depth is y2.4 d Q2 dy1 2 gb2 ∴ LM N OP Q =0 i.

42 (6 – 2. (supercritical) Maximum flow occurs at y1 = (2/3) y0 = 4 m ∴ q2 = 42(6 – 4) × 2 × 9.3.2039 q = 2 × 2 = 4 m3/s/m This depth will be the alternate depth for the flow. q = 25.4 ∴ y1 = 6 × 0.8 × 6 = 4. V1 = 23. Fr = 6.732.45 q = 23.81 × 2 = 0. The water level in the dam above the level of the sluice is 6 m.264/ 9. Considering unit width.20 Water flows at the upstream of a channel at 2m/s and the depth is 2 m. m/s.7071.06 m3/s/m V = 25.29/4. y23 – 2. y0 = q2 2 gy12 + y1 q2 = 2g y12 (y0 – y1) = 4. Determine the depth at the downstream side.19 Water is let off from a large reservoir through a sluice gate.84. As y1 and V1 are specified.81 = 627. incompressible uniform flow is assumed to prevail. In case velocity V1 = 0.2039 m 2g 2g 9.8 m. Specific energy upstream = V12 22 + y1 = + 2 = 2.17/2.4 = 8.8 and 0.82 (6 – 4. But y0 will remain the same.852/ 9.3.81 × 2.17 m3/s/m. when the sluice is opened and flow is steady. From equation 12. Calculate the flow rate for values of y1/y0 = 0.06/4 = 6. When the sluice is opened to obtain this maximum flow.404 m/s Fr = 8. y2 is determined by trial using specific energy value.29 m3/s/m.81 = 406.4 = 2.4 (y1 is the flow depth downstream).404/ 9.e. (subcritical) Case (ii) y1/y0 = 0.7485 m 2 × 9.7. Example 12. Case (i) ∴ ∴ y1 = 0.e.8) × 2 × 9.6.84 q = 20. Expressing it in terms of q q2/(2gy22) + y2 = 2. specific energy remains constant. Solving by trial y2 = 0. depth velocity and flow rate downstream. Also determine the maximum flow rate and the minimum depth of flow down stream. this will be the value of y0 i.4 m.4) × 2 × 9. and 12.81 = 542 .264. q2 = 2. V2 = V1y1/y2 and so V2 can be determined. Also determine the maximum flow rate conditions i.81 .452 (subcritical) Fr = 2/ In case the velocity upstream is negligible.81 × 4 = 1 Example 12.2039 m As the downstream flow is the same. then the condition will give y0.4 = 1.408 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The depth y2 should be the alternative depth. Steady. y0 = 2. y0 = 6 m.8 = 0.8 = 4.2039 y22 + 42 = 0. the condition at section 1 will change. Maximum flow rate can be obtained by the condition that y2 = (2/3) y0.852 m/s Fr = V/ gy = 4. V = 20.81 × 4.

Slope S dx y y + dy Slope Sb Z q z + dz Figure 12.8. 12. The slope of the bed is Sb. d LM V OP N 2 g Q + dy = ( S 2 b – S) dx (12.469 = 5.8.1) Chapter 12 . As the change is continuous.58 m3/s/m When the sluice position corresponds to this flow rate. the upstream condition at section 1 will change.dhL= Sdx where S is the slope of the energy grade line.8 FLOW WITH GRADUALLY VARYING DEPTH When open channel flow encounters a change in bed slope or is approaching normal depth. 2g V2 V2 +d 2g 2g LM OP N Q + y + dy + z + dz + dh L where dhL is the head loss. Refer Fig.1.1 Flow with gradually varying depth The specific energy flowing in at location x is The energy flow out at location x + dx is V2 + y + z.4692 × 9. Water depth and channel bed height are assumed to change slowly. The slope of the energy grade line is S.8. The velocity at any section is assumed to be uniform.7485 = 5.344 m/s (supercritical) Maximum flow will occur when y2 = (2/3) y0 ∴ ymax = 2.81 = 3.2039 × (2/3) = 1. In this case the energy grade line and free surface are not parallel. The change in bed elevation can be expressed in terms of bed slope as – Sb dx.Flow in Open Channels V2 = 4/0.796 × 1.4692 As Fr = 1 Vmax = gymax = 1.796 m/s 409 qmax = 7. Taking the net flow and equating to the gravity drap. flow depth changes gradually. the analysis should take into consideration a differential control volume instead of sections upstream and downstream. 12.

8. .2) d V2 dx 2 g LM OP = d L q O = – 2 q 2 gy N Q dx MN 2 gy PQ 2 2 2 3 dy V 2 dy dy =− = − Fr 2 dx gy dx dx Substituting in 12. This is obtained from Manning’s equation S= N2V 2 R h 4/3 (12. critical slope and steep slope types.410 d V2 dy + = Sb − S dx 2 g dx expressing V in terms of flow q Fluid Mechanics and Machinery LM OP N Q (12.6) 3/ 2 Substituting in (12. The equation (12. yc and yn for these types there can be three types of profiles.8.3) The change in bed level dy along the flow direction for length dx is given by this equation.8. Then on the basis relative values of y.8. Sb [1 − ( S / Sb ] S −S dy = b 2 = dx 1 − Fr 1 − Fr 2 (12.8.8.4) we can show that.5).5) Using equation (12.8.8.8.3) can be applied to this situation. results in a first order nonlinear ordinary differential equation that describes the variation of water surface profile. when Rh = y.3).2. The sign of dy depends on the value of Froude number and the relative magnitudes of S and Sb 12.8.1 Classification of Surface Variations The study is somewhat simplified when applied to a wide rectangular channel of depth y.4) Substituting for S in equation (12. [ 1 − ( yn / y) 10 / 3 ] dy = Sb dx [1 − ( yc / y) 3 ] (12.8. The gradient of the energy grade line can be obtained by assuming that loss is equal to the loss in steady uniform flow at normal depth. where yn is the depth for normal flow Also FG IJ H K Fy I Fr = G J H yK y S = n Sb y c 10 / 3 (12.7) Also On the basis of relative values of yn and yc the flow can be classified as mild slope.8. S −S dy = b dx 1 − Fr 2 (12.

The abrupt change involves loss of mechanical energy due to turbulent mixing. Horizontal bed condition is assumed. The adjustment is sudden and can be only in the downstream side.1) (12. Net momentum flow = ρ Q (V2 – V1) = ρ V1y1b(V2 – V1) F1 = ρ gb y12/2. The flow upstream will remain unchanged. Change from supercritical to subcritical conditions thus cannot be smooth. the surface profiles are to be calculated by numerical methods.9 THE HYDRAULIC JUMP (RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW) In subcritical flow due to any change in bed slope or cross-section. The heat produced does not significantly affect the temperature of the stream. In supercritical or shooting flow such a disturbance cannot move upstream.1 Hydraulic jump . Such a change occurs by increase of flow depth downstream.9.Flow in Open Channels 411 In addition. Considering the control volume. Now computer software’s are also available to show the profiles graphically. 12.9. Chapter 12 Hydraulic jump is used to dissipate mechanical energy into heat in various hydraulic structures. the disturbance produced will move upstream and downstream resulting in smooth adjustment of the flow depth. This is called Hydraulic jump. F2 = ρ gb y22/2 (12. the net momentum flow is equal to the net force (b = width).1 shows a typical hydraulic jump. More often.9. horizontal bed slope and adverse bed slope type of flows will also lead to different shapes. Fig. 12.9.2) The pressure distribution in the flow depth is hydrostatic and acts at the centroids Control volume F2 Y1 Q V1 F1 V2 Y2 Y Jump Loss E Figure 12.

The loss is due of violent mixing. Depth down stream will be higher than critical depth.9.9.59 10 13. Bed is assumed to be horizontal.18 4.5 1.77 3.9.3) V1 y1 (V2 – V1) g Continiuity equation is y1 b V1 = y2bV2 = Q Energy equation is (y12 – y22)/2 = y1 + V12 V2 2 = y2 + + hL 2g 2g (12. 12.5 3.88 5 6. to eliminate V2 (y12 – y22)/2 = or (1/2) (y1 + y2) (y1 – y2) = V12 y1 (y1 – y2) gy2 V12 y1 (y1 – y2) gy2 (12. y Vs E diagram.07 3 3.7) The depth ratio is tabulated below for various values of upstream Froude number.67 2 2.37 2.5 4.9.9. As hydraulic jump is possible only in supercritical flow conditions.412 ∴ F1 – F2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fy = ρ gb G 2 H 1 1 2 1 − y2 2 2 I JK Equating ρ gb Fy GH 2 2 1 − y2 2 2 I JK = ρ bV y (V2 – V1) Rearranging (12. Fr > 1 alone is considered.0 1.5). Depth upstream should be smaller than critical depth. This leads to increase in specific energy which is not possible see Fig.48 4 5. from the quadratic equation above and nothing that – ve sign for the root is not possible y2 y 1 = (1/2) LM N 1 + 8Fr12 − 1 OP Q (12.6) Solving for (y2/y1).1. Note that if Fr1 < 1 then y2 < y1.4) Wall shear is neglected.9.9. From Equation (12.5 5. Using momentum and continuity equations. Fr y2/y1 1 1. loss of head can be directly determined as hL = (y1 – y2) + (V12 – V22)/2g .5) Cancelling (y1 – y2) and multiplying by (y2/y12) and nothing Fr1 = V1 gy1 FG y IJ + FG y IJ – 2Fr Hy K Hy K 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 =0 (12.7 The depth downstream is always higher than that at the upstream.

Expressing (y2/y1) in terms Froude number.552 m/s Fr2 = 0.33 = 0.239 0.655 Chapter 12 .5436 m V2 = 0.4 8 66.9.8) (y2/y1) is obtained from Equation (12.0563 m.1 3 25. Pressure adjustment is automatic with normal shock and so also in hydraulic jump. Fr = V/ gy = 5.7).5436 hL y = 1 y1 4 y2 LM y Ny 2 1 −1 OP Q 3 = 1 1 × [9.0563 × 5.9. Hydraulic jump occurs in supercritical flow.655 – 1]3 = 16.5 2.78 4 9.Flow in Open Channels hL Fr12 2 y1 = [1 – (y2/y1)] + 2 [1 − ( y1 / y2 ) ] 413 (12.9. In flow through supersonic nozzles.9. the velocity downstream is 5. the loss can be expressed as a fraction of specific energy at section 1.33 m/s while the flow depth is 0. There is a pressure rise across normal shock. Hydraulic jump is similar to normal shock in compressible flow.655 I K ∴ ∴ y2 = 9.7 It can be seen that for streaming flows with Fr > 5. There is head increase in hydraulic jump.1722 − 1 = 9.10) The ratio hL/E1 is shown tabulated below as a percentage for various values of Froude number. This idea is used to dissipate the energy of water flowing over spillways.33/ 9. Normal shock occurs in supersonic flow. Determine the downstream conditions if a hydraulic jump takes place downstream.0563 = 0.2 2 9.21 In the flow through a sluice in a large reservoir.4 10 72.0563 = 7.9) As hL is positive (y2/y1) should be greater than one. a larger fraction of the mechanical energy is dissipated by eddies.1 5 49. hL ( a − 3) 3 where a = = E1 [8( a − 1)(2 + Fr12 )] 1 + 8 Fr12 (12.655 × 0. Example 12.81 × 0. energy may be dissipated without damage to the structure.7 4 39. In hydraulic jump also the disturbance downstream does not pass upstream. back pressure changes will not pass the supersonic region. By proper design.172 y2 y1 = (1/2) F H 1 + 8 Fr12 − 1 = (1/2) I K F H 1 + 8 × 7. Calculate the energy dissipated by eddies in the jump. This equation can be also simplified (using a rather long algebraic work) as hL y1 y 1 = 4y 2 LM y Ny 2 1 O − 1P Q 3 (12. Fr hL/E1 1.1 6 56.

The upstream edge is well rounded to avoid losses. the flow surface becomes parallel to the crest.6283 About 63% of mechanical energy is dissipated by the hydraulic jump. The solutions for hydraulic jumps in other than rectangular channels is similar to that of rectangular channel.1) .705 bE3/2 (12. The jump does not proceed along the specific energy curve. rather it jumps from 1 to 2 directly. This can be shown on the specific energy diagram in Figure 12.81 2g ∴ % dissipation = (0. 12.1 Broad crested weir ∴ As yc = (Q2/gb2)1/3 = (q2/g)1/3 Q = b(gyc3)0.945/1. hL E1 = 0.1 shows a broad crested weir with free fall.10. Fig. Froude number should be calculated using hydraulic depth.332 + y1 = + 0. As there is no restraint downstream the flow will be maximum or the depth above the weir surface will be the critical depth yc.1.0563 = 1.053 = 0. The phenomenon is similar. As the crest is broad.10.82 %. expression for flow rate is derived Y1 /2g 2 Ye Y1 E Figure 12.10 FLOW OVER BROAD CRESTED WEIR A broad crested weir consists of an obstruction in the form of raised portion of bed extending across the full width of the channel with a flat upper surface sufficiently broad in the direction of flow.9.414 ∴ Specific energy at inlet hL= 16.945 m = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery V12 5. Fr = 7.5 yc = (2/3)E.504) × 100 = 62. The flow upstream will be subcritical and the downstream allows free fall.10.172.5 or q = (gyc3)0. Q = b {g × (8/27) E3} = 1.504 m 2 × 9. check using hL = E1 Substituting 8 LMF NH LM N 1 + 8 × Fr12 − 3 1 + 8 × Fr12 − 1 ( Fr2 + 2) I K OP Q 3 OP Q . 12. Considering rectangular channel.78 × 0.

the arrangement is called Venturi Flume.1) The flow rate Q = Cd A2 V2 where Cd is the coefficient of discharge having values in the range 0. In this case though the level over the crest will decrease. 12. it may not fall to the critical value yc. In case the upstream flow is subcritical.1 b1 b2 Energy line 2 V1 /2g V2 /2g 2 Free surface Y1 Y2 Critical depth x Figure 12. In case the bed level downstream is equal to the bed level upstream. Flumes with lateral contraction followed by expansion can be used for flow measurement.705 × b × y3/2 415 The measurement of h (over the crest of the weir) would be sufficient to determine the discharge. the flow rate is given by. The details are shown in Fig.1 Lateral contraction Using continuity and energy relations. and if critical conditions occur at the throat.Flow in Open Channels E = y1 + (V12/2g) In the tranquil flow upstream V1 is small. The upstream level will adjust as per the height of the weir. it can be shown that L 2 gh OP V = M NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 2 1 1 2 0. The rate of flow is calculated using Bernoulli equation and continuity equation.11.11 EFFECT OF LATERAL CONTRACTION The channel width may be reduced keeping the bed horizontal. If the upstream flow is subcritical.11.95 to 0. then. Chapter 12 .99. where E is the specific energy and b is the channel width. In that case Q = 1. If the free surface in the section does not pass through critical depth.11. 12. similar to venturimeter. If the upstream flow is supercritical the level in the reduced section will increase. the level downstream will rise. the depth in the reduced section will decrease.5 and Q = b2y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0.5 (12. The height of the weir will not affect the flow over the crest.

2 = 0.011 m.705 b2 E3/2.6 m. the flow will revert to subcritical condition downstream by means of a hydraulic jump.22 A venture flume is formed in a horizontal channel of 2 m width by constructing the width to 1.6 – 0.4 m.2 – 0.45 To determine the hydraulic depth.705 b2 E3/2 In case the flow velocity upstream is small.3 × 0. Example 12. A = 3 × 1 = 3 m2 . bed slope = 1/2500 . h = 0.5 b1 = 2 m.5 = 0. As friction factor is given Chezy’ constant can be determined. y2 = 0.81 × 0.3 m and raising floor level in the constricted section by 0. Compared to 0.416 Q = 1.11.6) QP 2 0.11.2 m above that of the channel.705 b2 H3/2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (12.8% and hence may be neglected.3736 m3/s When standing wave forms consider the equation (12. Such a flume is known as standing wave flume.2) Q = 1.038]0.375 M NM 1 − (1.2) (12.5 = 45. In this case if the bed slope down stream is the same as in upstream. Chezy’s constant. P = 3 + 1 + 1 = 5 m.1] Q = b2y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0.11.375 / 2 × 0.3 × 0.6. V1 = 0.1 Determine the flow rate of water in a rectangular channel of 3 m width when the depth of flow is 1 m. The bed slope is 1 in 2500. then. The velocity upstream. ∴ Rh = 3/5 = 0.4 m ∴ Q = 1.6) = 0. The flow rate is given by the equation [Refer equation 12. E = the total head at construction which is 0.5607/(2 × 0. Friction factor f = 0.3) where H is the difference between the level at the throat and upstream water level. this is 2. L 2 × 9. If the difference in level between the throat and downstream is 25 mm and both upstream and downstream depths are 0. b2 = 0. determine the rate of flow.705 × 1. Q = 1.6 – 0.81/0. C= 8 g / f = [8 × 9.6 m.038.11.43 = 0.025 m.4673 m/s ∴ V12/2g = 0.50607 m3/s The velocity head portion of energy upstream is neglected in this case.025 OP Q = 1.3 × 0.9 m. SOLVED PROBLEMS Problem 12. calculate the flow assuming upstream depth is still 0.375 m. In the case the downstream conditions are changed such that a standing wave forms after the throat.025 = 0.

40 V 0. 1/1000.5 5. V V = C Rh Sb = 45.94 V 1. Problem 12.57 1.9 1.2 As depth increases for a given slope.88 1.0 1.9 1.4 4.Flow in Open Channels Using Chezy‘s equation. m3/s. 1/1500.24 1.2 0.8 . m/s. 417 Flow rate = VA = 0.97 1/500 Q 1.32 0. velocity increases but Froude number decreases and flow is subcritical.5. As slope becomes steeper Froude number increases for the same depth due to velocity increase.40 0.3 0.2 V 0. The values calculated using Chezy’s equation are tabulated below.704 × 3 = 2.4 V 0.11 1.0 5.46 0.33 1.6 / 2500 = 0.60 0.42 0.98 10.5 8.0 2.33 1.0 1.9 Q 2.8 V 0.88 1. As slope becomes less steep the velocity and flow rates decrease.4 1/2500 V 0.2 1/2500 V 0.5 Rh 0.9 Fr 0.2 Analyse the flow in the channel of problem 12. Depth and Rh are given in m.88 1.50 0.2 determine the Froude number in each of the cases.8 0.7 0.2 0.87 4.1 1. Flow rate Q.0 1.76 1.3 0.6 Note.8 0. Problem 12. Slope Depth 0.7 0.38 0.3 0.7 0.24 1. 1/2000 and 1/ 2500.8 0. indicating velocity by.225 So the flow is in the subcritical region. 2.38 0.1 1/1500 Fr 0.1 2.72 7.9 0.6 7.3 In problem 12.11 1.5 V 0.24 1.97 1/500 Fr 0.8 0.39 1/1000 Q 1.30 0.60 0. 2 and 2.28 V 0.9 1. Depth and Rh are given in m.7 0. 1.75 0. Considering combination of depths of 0.0 1/2000 Fr 0. 1.92 11.34 5.75 0.2 0.88 1.24 1.5 1. but not in direct proportion.3 14.5 2.81 × 1 = 0.76 1.0 2.3 0.2 0.8 0.39 1/1000 Fr 0. Chapter 12 0.11 m3/s Froude number = V/ gy = 0.704 m/s. Slope Depth 0.5 Rh 0.94 V 1.3 0. Velocity V.5 m with bed slopes of 1/500. Fr = V/ gy .86 0.7 4.3 0.35 0.1 6.6 0.86 0.5 1. As depth increases the flow increases more rapidly because both velocity and area increase with depth.32 3.3 0.5 2.6 6.9 2.704/ 9.6 0.6 0.0 1/2000 Q 0.45 0.6 0.0 1.57 1.56 0.1.9 0.1 1.2 0.1 1/1500 Q 1.60 7.9 1.1 3.8 0.

13 m3/s This is maximum can be verified by calculating the flows for different depths like 1.4721 y2/4.022.1 and 2. 1. b + 2ny = y n 2 + 1 . Problem 12. N = 0.9443y Rh = A/P = 2.5 m3/s 1.6 Determine the economical cross-section for an open channel of trapezoidal section with side slopes of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal.12.418 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 12. to carry 10 m3/s. A = y × b = y × 2y = 2y2 = 8 ∴ y = 2. For rectangular section the optimum depth equals half the width and maximum discharge occurs for this condition.022 2 FG IJ H K (Sb)1/2 . called normal depth.5 = ∴ Sb = 1/1934 The flow rate and depth uniquely define the slope. Here n = 2 and b + 4y = 2y 5 .8.8.12 and 8. the bed slope being 1/2000.4721 y.11 m3/s-very near the optimum value but is still less. 8. b = 4.05.4 Determine the slope with which a waste water pipe of 2 m diameter is to be laid for carrying water at the rate of 1500 l/s.5) 2 / 3 (Sb ) 1/ 2 × 2 0.2 for which the flows are 8. The depth of flow is to be half the diameter.4721y2 0. Sb = 1/2000 3/ 2 ∴ 10 = y 1 × 2.11. A = (b + 2y) y = 2. The condition for the same is (n-side slope) Refer example 12.5 Determine the maximum discharge through a rectangular open channel of area 8 m 2 with a bed slope of 1/2000.022. A = 4×2 2 N π 1 (0.4721 y2 Hydraulic mean depth (A/P) for economical section: P = b + 2y ∴ n 2 + 1 = b + 2 y 5 = 4. Assume CI pipe with Manning constant N = 0.9443 y = y/2 Q = 10 m3/s.022. P = π D/2 = π m Rh2/3 Sb1/2. Problem 12.9.022 2000 FG H IJ K 0. Similarity flow rate and slope uniquely define the depth. Q = 1500l/s = 1. Manning equation for discharge is Q= ∴ ∴ π×2×2 π 2 A = m . 2 b = y ( 20 − 4) = 0.5 m. 2.015 Rh = (π/2)/π = 0. Assume Mannings constant as 0. ∴ Rh = 8/8 = 1 m Q= A 8 1 Rh2/3 Sb1/2 = (1)2/3 N 0. For economical section perimeter should be minimum.5 = 8. 8. Assume Manning coefficient as 0.

The condition is determined.8884 y7/2 y = 1.Flow in Open Channels 10 = ∴ 419 1 1 2. b = 0. θ = 2. P × 3 × A2 dA dP − A3 dθ dθ = 0 P2 or 3P dA dP =A dθ dθ P = 2 R θ. Substituting = dθ 2 3 × 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = (2 – 2 sin 2θ) 2R 2 2 q R y 3θ(1 – cos 2θ) = [θ – (sin 2θ/2)] 2θ – 3θ cos 2θ + sin 2θ =0 2 Figure P. Wetted perimeter P = 2 R θ Flow area = (2 θ/2 π) πR2 – R sin θ R cos θ = R2θ – (R2/2) sin 2θ = (R2/2) (2θ – sin 2θ) Using Chezy’s equation. 12.5733 R Chapter 12 . using LM d( A / P) OP N dθ Q = 0 3 i. Let the flow depth be y. ∴ dP = 2 R. (check using radian mode in the calculator) The area for flow Perimeter = R2 θ – R2 sin 2θ = 3.9429 m (check for flow) Problem 12..7 Derive the expression for depth of flow in a channel of circular section for maximum flow. Q = AV = AC A3 A Sb Sb = C P P LM N OP Q 0.022 2 FG H IJ K 1/ 2 = 0.7 This is a transcendental equation to be solved by trial.5 Q will be maximum if A3/P is maximum.0818 R2 2 = 2Rθ = 5.3756 R ∴ Rh = 0. dθ A = (R2/2) [2θ – sin 2θ] dA R 2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ).69 radian or about 154°.9971 m. Refer figure.4721y 2 × (y)3/2 3/ 2 2000 0. and Let the angle subtended be θ.e.

. d ( A / P) dθ FG P dA − A dP IJ /P H dθ dθ K 2 =0 ∴ P dA dP =A dθ dθ (A) dP dA R2 = 2 R .626 R or 0.420 Depth of flow Note: This uses Chezy equation: In case Manning equation is used. In case Manning equation is used. Substituting.9494 D A N FG A IJ H PK 3/ 2 Sb1/2 = 1 A 5/ 2 S 1/2 N P 3/ 2 b or A 5 should be maximized with θ as independent variable P3 P3 × 5 × A4 dA dP – A5 3P2 = 0. A= A R2 (2 θ – 2 sin 2θ). P = 2Rθ.75° Depth for maximum velocity y = R(1 – cos θ) = 1.7. Q= A5/ 2 P 3/ 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = R – R cos θ = R(1 – cos θ) = 1. θ = 2. dθ 2 dθ 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = (2θ – 2 cos 2θ) 2R 2 2 2θ(1 – cos 2θ) = 2θ – sin 2θ or tan 2θ = 2θ – 2θ cos 2θ + sin 2θ = 0 ∴ Solving G = 2. A/P should be maximized.802 R or 0. Rh = P 2 For V to be maximum.8 Derive the condition for maximum velocity of flow in a channel of circular section. or Solving.28° In this case depth R – R cos θ = R(1 – cos θ) = 1. dθ dθ 5P dA dP – 3A =0 dθ dθ and Substituting for dA dP and dθ dθ 5 × 2Rθ R2 R2 (2 – 2 cos 2θ) = 3 (2θ – sin 2θ) × 2R 2 2 5θ(2 – 2 cos 2θ) – 3(2θ – sin 2θ) = 0.247 radians. then the flow.8988 R or 0. V = C Rh Sb .901 D Problem 12. the same result is obtained as in equation A.813 D Note: This is using Chezy equation. Refer problem Problem 12. Substituting = (2 – 2 cos 2θ).5007 radian or 4θ – 10θ cos 2θ + 3 sin 2θ = 0 143. or 128.

2 P = 2 × 1 × 2.10 In a rectangular open channel of 5 m width the flow rate is 10 m3/s and depth of flow is 1.7351 m2 P = 2Rθ = 2 × 1 × 2.81 × 1 = 0. R = 1.494 = 0.5 = 4.69)] = 3.573 × FG 1 IJ = 4.7351/4.215 m3/s 1000 0.81 × 5 2 2 1/ 3 At critical condition.573 m Q = AC Rh Sb = 3. Flow velocity. maximum velocity and full flow) Problem 12.247 = 4. Specific energy = Q2 10 2 + 1 = 1.69 = 5.494 m Rh = A/P = 2.43 m /s H 1000 K 3 For maximum velocity: θ = 2. V = 10/5 × 1 = 2 m/s.Flow in Open Channels 421 Problem 12.049 m3/s 1000 (Note: Compare the flows for maximum discharge.6086 × 1 = 4.7415 m .083/5. P = 2Rθ. Q = 2.69 radians 2 1 [2 × 2. yc FQ I = G H gb JK 2 F =G H5 10 2 2 × 9.247 radians A= Chapter 12 1 R2 (2θ – 2 sin 2θ) = ( 2 × 2.083 m2.64 Flow is in the subcritical region. Also determine the depth for maximum velocity and the corresponding discharge Chezy’s constant C = 60 Adopting Chezy equation (Refer problem 12.38 = 0.0 m.247)) 2 2 = 2.81 I JK 1/3 = 0. Froude number = V/ gy = 2/ 9.7351 × 60 × In case of full area flow: A = π × 12 = πm2 P = πD ∴ Rh = π/π D = 1/2 = 0.69 – sin (2 × 2.38 m Rh = A/P = 3.247 – sin (2 × 2.6086 m Q = 2.9 Determine the maximum discharge through a circular pipe of 2 m diameter with a bed slope of 1/1000.083 × 60 0.5 ∴ Q = π × 60 0. Determine the critical depth and the alternate depth.7) A= ∴ A= R2 (2θ – 2 sin 2θ).2039 m 2 + y= 2 gA 2 × 9.

Fr = 1.6971 m/s Froude number Minimum energy Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 2.2039 0.2039 y22 or y23 – 1.5398 m/s.7123 = 0.3051 m 10 = 13.0343 × 60 [0. Rh = 5.5 + (π × 1.3333/10. Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb .2039.2039 = 0 Solving by trail y2 = 0.7123 m.5) = 5.12 Calculate the water discharge through an open channel shown in figure. 10 2 2 × 9.0343/5.2039 y22 + 0.2164 = 1. 12.81 × 5 2 y2 2 + y2 = 1.3333 m2.0343 m2 P = 0.11 Calculate the bed slope of a trapezoidal channel of bed width 6 m and horizontal to vertical side slope of 1:3. Assume Chezy’s constant as 60 and bed slope as 1 in 2000. Water flows at the rate of 10 m3/s at a depth of 2 m.7415 = 1.2164 m Rh = A/P = 13.2039 + y23 = 1. Assume Chezy’s constant as 50.2036 (checks). Check for energy : ∴ (V2/2g) + y = 1.2039. Sb = 1/5800 3m Problem 12.6971/ 9.81 × 0.341 m3/s To determine Mannings constant 1.12 .3333 × 50 1.0 (checks) = (3/2) yc = 1. Solving.5 = 6.5 m Figure P.565 m and V2 = 3.11225 m 2 To determine the alternate depth.5) + 0.5 m π × 1.5 2 2 = 5. V22 = 2g Q2 2 gb y2 2 2 FG Q IJ HA K 2 = Q2 b2 y 2 1 + y2 = 1.5036. Also calculate the Mannings constant for the flow.8813 m Q = 5.3051 × Sb . Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb A = 2 × [6 + (2/3)] = 13. A = (3 × 0. ∴ Supercritical region.8813/2000]0.745) = 2. Problem 12.422 Velocity at this condition = 10/(5 × 0. P=6+ FH 2 2 + (2 / 3) 2 IK 2 = 10.5 + 0. V2 2 + y2 = 1.

303.333 C= 86.012)22/3 (0.333)2/3 0. P = 16 m.9 1 + 1.0005)1/5 = 94.Flow in Open Channels 1 5.00155 / Sb )) Rh 23 + (0. Sb = 1/2000 = 0.0343 0.385 m3/s Problem 12.682 ∴ Q = 1 × 26.00155 / 0. Use Kutter’s formula and calculate the discharge through it.012 / 2 Q = 32 × 89.025 2500 FG H IJ K 1/ 2 = 0. determine and compare the flow. For concrete.0163 Problem 12.8813 2 / 3 6. Assume Bazins constant k = 1. Discharge Q = AC 86. taking Manning constant as 0.682 FG 1 IJ = 0.333 × = 26.0005))(0.00155 / Sb ) + = 23 + (0.5 = 1 m2.012 Q = (32/0.13 Using Bazins formula. determine the discharge through a rectangular ordinary earthen channel 2 m wide and 0.9 Rh Sb . Rh = A/P = 1/3 = 0.59 1 + (23 + (0. If Manning constant for this type is 0.66 m3/s. Rh = 2 m. Q= 1 1 (0. Kutters constant = 0.5 + 2 + 0.59 2 × 0.5 = 3 m.3333 0.025.341 = 2000 N 423 LM NM FG H IJ OP K QP 1/ 2 ∴ N = 0.0005 = 90. P = 0.0005 1 N C= N 1 + (23 + (0.012 Discharge Q = AC Rh Sb A = 32 m2.14 A rectangular open channel having 4 m depth and 8 m width is concrete lined with a bed slope of 1 in 2000. C = 1 + k / R h A = 2 × 0.012) = 89.5 m deep with a slope of l in 2500.65 m3/s Chapter 12 .00155 / 0.3081 m /s H 2500 K 3 By Mannings equation.0005) + (1 / 0.303 / 0.

width b = 1.5 m.7028 m. y = 0.7 m3/s.5224)2/3 × (1/2000)1/2 = 0.552/7. N P = 1 + 2 12 + 12 = 3.05 Discharge Q= A × Rh2/3 × Sb1/2. Use Manning formula with constant N = 0.4056 m Problem 12. Manning constant N = 0. A = 2y2. Rh = y /2 Q= A R 2/3 Sb1/2. Find the discharge in the channel for a depth of flow of 0.7 = 7.5224 m ∴ Q = (2/0.9642 × FG H 1 3295 IJ K 1/ 2 ∴ C = 82.05) × (0.25 / 1000 = 3.17 Determine the most economical cross-section of a rectangular channel of width b and depth y to carry 1000 litres of water per second with a bed slope of 1 in 500.9642)2/3 Sb1/2 ∴ Sb = 1/3295 0. The bed slope is 1 in 2000.16 Estimate the discharge of water in an open channel of trapezoidal section with bottom width of 1 m and side slope of 1:1 with a flow depth of 1 m. Q = AC Rh Sb = 5 × 50 0.15 Determine the slope for a V-shaped concrete lined channel with total included angle of 80° and a depth of 3 m if the discharge is 10.022 2 1= Solving depth FG IJ FG 1 IJ H K H 500 K 2 /3 1/ 2 .424 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 12. 2 = 2 × 3/cos 40 = 7.7 = 7. For most economical cross-section of the trapezoidal channel Rh = y/2 = 0.8324 m Hydraulic mean depth = Rh = A/P = 7.18 The most economical cross-section of a trapezoidal open channel is 5 m2.5519 m2. assume Mannings constant. Rh = A/P = 2/3. flow rate = 1000 l/s or 1 m3/s N h 2 y2 y 0. A = {(1 + 3)/2} × 1 = 2 m2 .5519 × C 0.5/2 = 0. C 10.022 Area = A = b × y For most economical cross-section b = 2y. N = 0.012 Area = Wetted perimeter 2 × 3 tan 40 × 3 = 7.5519 (0.83 m.83 = 0.012 Calculating the corresponding Chezy constant.8324 = 0.25 m.9642 m Q = 10. Assume the Chezy constant C = 50 and bed slope as 1 in 1000.83 Problem 12.58 m3/s = 580 l/s Problem 12.95 m3/s . Discharge.

5 = b × y + 2y2.06 × 5 2 + = 0.06 ∴ Fr = = 6.472y2 = 5.006)2 b = 0. Substituting y = 1.81 × 0.5 m2.473 m .06 = 0. Hence hydraulic jump is possible.006 × Sb 2 ∴ Slope.5 = 1.19 Design the bed slope for the most economical cross-section for a trapezoidal earthen open channel with a flow velocity of 2 m/s and discharge of 5 m3/s.4638 m V2 = V1 y1 5 × 0. V = C Rh Sb i.20 A rectangular channel of 5 m width discharges water at the rate of 1.06 + 2 2 y1 + 2 y1V12 / g 4 =− 0. Depth of water on the upstream side of the jump.81 Height of hydraulic jump = y2 – y1 = 0. b × y = 2.5757 m/s 0.006 in equation (1) y= 2. Rh = y/2 = A/P = 2.52. For most economical cross-section V 2 (1) A = y(b + ny) = y(b + 2y). Hence flow is supercritical.06 m V1 × b 5 × 5 5 9.5 – 2 × (1.5.5238 m 4 9. 2 = 50 1. Sb = 1/316 m3/s Problem 12.006 b = 2.5 into a 5 m wide apron with 1/3000 slope at a velocity of 5 m/s.5238 y2 Chapter 12 1.5 – 2y Also Perimeter Rh = y/2 P = b + 2y n 2 + 1 = b + 2y 5 . Determine the height of the hydraulic jump and energy loss. The side slope vertical to horizontal may be taken as 1 in 2 and Chezy constant C = 50 A= Q 5 = = 2.472 (2) Velocity.5/(b + 2y 5 ) b × y + 4. 2.06 = = 0.5 – 2y2 + 4. Depth of water on the downstream side of jump y2 = – y1 + 2 0.5238 – 0.e.Flow in Open Channels 425 Problem 12. 2. y= 1.06 2 2 × 0.472 y2 = 2.5 Q = = 0.472 y2 = 5 Substituting equation (1) in equation (2) 2.006 m 2.

Suddenly the slope changes to 1/1420.6399 = 5.7 × 8 2 + = 2.339. 0. Determine the normal depths for each case.7 + = − + 4 g 2 0. Sb = 1/95.21 Water is discharged at a velocity of 8 m/s with a depth of 0. Depth of water on the downstream of the jump (modified equation 12. Solving y1 = 0. Show that a hydraulic jump has to occur and calculate the downstream flow height.7) y2 = − V2 = y1 + 2 2 y1 2 y1 V12 0. Supercritical flow For slope 1/1420. Substituting the values Q= 1/ Sb 2 5/3 y N ∴ 3.013 V1 = 3.81J G 2 × 9.81 J K H K H 2 F GH = 0.7 = = 2.082 m/s 2. Problem 12.81J K 2 2 = 1.05 m head of water.5727 I F 5 = G 0.22.75 = (1 / 95) 1/ 2 5/3 y1 .7 2 2 × 0.69 m 4 9.86 m/s.75 m3/s/m. Fr1 = 2.5238 + 0.69 y2 Energy loss = E1 – E2 V12 V22 = y1 + 2 g − y2 + 2 g F GH I F JK GH I F 0. Problem 12. Determine the height of the hydraulic jump and the loss of energy.7 m in a horizontal rectangular open channel of constant width when the sluice gate is opened upwards. The Manning constant is 0.013.81 V1 h1 8 × 0.7 + 8 I − F 2. A Wide channel of uniform rectangular section with a slope of 1/95 has a flow rate of 3.75/0.426 V12 V22 Energy loss = E1 – E2 = y1 + 2 g − y2 + 2 g 2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery I F I JK GH JK I − F 0. The normal depth is obtained from the Manning equation Q= A R 2/3 Sb1/2 N h Here A = 1 × y.69 + 2.06 + 2 × 9. As the channel is said to be wide the hydraulic mean depth will be equal to the depth of flow. Rh = y. Normal depth is .6399.7937 m head of water.81JK GH 2 × 9.9.082 I JK = GH 2 × 9.

7) y2 = = y1 − 1 + 1 + 8 Fr12 2 LM N OP Q OP Q 0.339 2 = 1.4404 = 2. hydraulic jump should occur. Chezy’ constant = 50 m1/2 s–1.0796y2 + 0.1907 m. .8284 y2 = 1.726 = 0.23 V22 1. or y2 – 3.81 = 0.82y = 3.013 427 V2 = 3. Determine the optimum dimensions.23 A trapezoidal channel has a bed slope of 1/2500.81 The specific energy is the same at the alternate depth. Side slope is 1:1.252 +y= + 3 = 3.9863 m Problem 12.9. The conditions for the most optimum section are b = 2y [ 2 − 1] = 0.6399 − 1 + 1 + 8 / 2.0796. Determine the alternate depth and the critical depth.8284 y2 P = b + 2 ( y 2 + y 2 ) = 0.6926 ∴ Subcritical As flow is from supercritical to subcritical flow.75 = (1 / 1420) 1/ 2 y25/3. Solving by trial. 2g Q2 2 2 gb 2 y2 3 + y2 = 3.8284y + 2.5 y)(1 / 2500) = 1. V2 + y2 = 3.0796 m 2g 2 × 9. Expressing V2 in terms of flow. Solving y2 = 1. (equation 12.9 Velocity Flow is subcritical.4404 m 0.0796.5 m3/s when the depth is 3 m.6035 m/s Fr2 = 2.Flow in Open Channels 3.5 y 3.75/1.25 m/s.6035/ 9.6568y Rh = Chapter 12 b = 2y [(n2 + 1)0.6568 y Q = 2 = 18284 y2 × 50 (0.4404 = 0. b = 0.8284 y 2 = 0.24 A rectangular channel of 6 m width has a flow rate of 22.5 – n] and n = 1 As slope 1:1 ∴ 1.81 × 1.8208 m 2 LM N Problem 12. Specific energy = V = 22.29287y5/2 Solving y = 1. A = (b + y) y = y2 + 0. Refer section 12. Fr = 1.25/ 3 × 9.5/(6 × 3) = 1. The channel is to carry 2 m3/s.8284y.

4 m wide.81 × 1.25 Water flows across a broad crested weir in a rectangular channel 0. yc FQ I =G H gb JK 2 2 1/ 3 F 22.1275 Problem 12.32/ 9.5 I =G H 9.81 × 0.02 = 0. The discharge is given by the equation (12.5 m.26 A venturi flume with level bed is 12 m wide and the depth of flow upstream is 1.81) = 1.666/12 × 1.1). Assume negligible velocity of approach.81 × 6 JK 2 2 1/ 3 = 1. Now using the corrected value of E . correcting for the velocity of approach.705 × 0.666 m3/s = 17. H = 0.5 = 3.705 × 6 × 1.33 Hence supercritical To find the critical depth.94 × 1. Determine the fall in the surface level and the discharge over the weir.5 + 0. Assume Cd = 0. Fr = 7. The depth of water upstream is 0.5302 m.4 m.428 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery y2 = 0. The throat is 6 m wide.4 K −3 2 1 9.81 OP PQ 1/ 3 = 0.11 For venturi flume with standing wave downstream Q = Cd1.54 m3/s Further iteration can be made using this flow.98142/(2 × 9. ∴ Velocity upstream ∴ Q = 0.54 × 10 I J = MG NH 0.53/2 = 17.07 m.020 m = 0.549 m Q = 0.705 b H3/2.705 b2 E3/2 where b2 is the throat area and E is the specific energy.32 m/s.691 m.03 – 0.705 × 6 × 1.4 × 0. where H the upstream level above the crest in the channel.981 m/s E = 1.5493/2 = 18. V2 = 7.5302 = 3. calculate the rate of flow of water. Refer section 12. Vc = Fr = 3.03 m ∴ Q = 1.10.5 = 0. yc = (Q2/gb2)1/3 ∴ drop in depth LMF 3.07 m and the crest of the weir is 40 mm above the channel bed. Given b = 0.94. Q = 1. 6 × 1. the flow will be maximum.01 m or 10 mm Problem 12. As there is free fall over the weir.54 × 10–3 m3/s As the flow is maximum the level above the crest should equal critical depth.1275 m Emin = (3/2) yc = 1.07/ 9.94 × 1.1275 = 1 22. In this case the first assumption is E = y upstream. In case a standing wave forms downstream.033/2 = 3.

2832 y2 LM N Loss = y1 + F V I −Fy + V I GH 2 g JK GH 2 g JK I − F 1.9) = 1. considering upstream velocity.797/(1. Also calculate the loss of specific energy. Assume the bed to be horizontal.797 m3/s In case standing wave forms.5939 I F 4 = G 0.046 m3/s.6476 – 1.9 m. E = 1. The Froude number is 1.81 × 0.8321 m Substituting in equation (A). Problem 12.28 Water enters a channel at a velocity of 4 m/s.9 / 2 × 1) Q 2 0.2 m. .81J G 2 × 9. The depth of water after the jump is given by equation (12.2832 + 2. The upstream flow depth is 1 m and the depth at the throat is 0. 1. Determine the flow rate. y2 = 0. Fr = V/ gy .4.2 × 1.1) Q = b 2 y2 LM 2 gh OP NM 1 − (b y / b y ) QP 2 2 1 1 2 0.705 b2 E3/2 = 1.5 where h is the difference in levels between upstream and throat L 2 × 9.705 × 1.4 = 4/ 9.7) y2 = Chapter 12 y1 − 1 + 1 + 8 Fr12 2 LM N OP Q OP Q (A) To determine. y = 0. V2 = = = 2.705 × 1.11.81 y .1 OP Q = 1.8321 − 1 + 1 + 8 × 1.2832 m.2 × 13/2 = 2.9.4 2 2 y1V1 0.81 J K H K H 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 = 1. Solving for y.9 + (V2/2g).27 A venturi flume is placed in a rectangular channel of 2 m width in which the throat width is 1. Calculate the depth of flow after the jump.2 × 0. In the first case the flow Q is given by equation (12.5 = 2.9 M N 1 − (1.8321 + 2 × 9.6261 = 0. Q = 1. Specific energy E = 0. As V = 1.2 × 0.663 m/s.021 m head.0411.041 m.5 = 1.5939 m/s 1. then Q = 1.2 × 0.Flow in Open Channels 429 Problem 12. If a standing wave forms downstream of throat determine the flow.8321 × 4 = 1.17 m3/s In case upstream velocity is neglected.

4.95 × diameter of circular section. 9.2 Fill in the blanks (1) Depth of flow is the vertical distance between the free liquid surface to the __________ (2) The channel lining (side and base of the channel) which comes in direct contact with the liquid stream is called __________ (3) The hydraulic mean depth represents the ratio of the flow area to the __________ (4) The slope of the total energy line is referred to as __________ (5) The flow is laminar in an open channel if the Reynolds number is less than __________ (6) The flow is certainly turbulent in an open channel if the Reynolds number is greater than __________ (7) The Chezy coefficient C is a variable with its value depending on the flow __________ number and the __________ (8) The phenomenon of sudden increase in depth of flow in a channel is referred to as __________ (9) The energy loss through a hydraulic jump equals the difference between the __________ at the upstream and downstream sections. Kutter and Manning formula for uniform flow through an open channel. Derive an expression for critical depth and critical velocity. Prove that for a channel of circular section for flow to be maximum. 7. State Chezy. Show that in a rectangular open channel the critical depth is two thirds of specific energy. Define open channel flow. h = 0.1 Define the following terms (1) Froude number (2) Wetted perimeter (3) Hydraulic radius (4) Wave celerity (5) Subcritical. 10. Answers (1) Lowest point of the channel section (2) Wetted perimeter (3) Wetted perimeter (4) Energy gradient (5) 500 (6) 2000 (7) Reynolds. 3.430 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 2. Distinguish between uniform and non uniform open channel flow. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS O Q. O Q. Explain the term hydraulic jump. 12. Derive an expression for the downstream depth of hydraulic jump. 11. Derive the condition for the most economical section of a rectangular channel. Derive the condition for the best side slope of the most economical trapezoidal channel. 12. Surface roughness (8) Hydraulic jump (9) Specific energies (10) 95% . Explain the terms (i) specific energy (ii) critical depth and (iii) Critical velocity. (10) A strong hydraulic jump causes about __________ of energy dissipation. the depth of flow. critical and supercritical flow (6) Specific energy (7) Alternate depths (8) Normal depth (9) Energy grade line (10) Hydraulic grade line (11) Manning roughness coefficient (12) Optimum cross section of channels (13) Critical depth (14) Hydraulic jump (15) Venturi flume (16) Broad crested weir (17) Standing wave (18) Bed slope. 6. 8. 5. Derive an expression for wave celerity.

For a given slope and flow rate in a channel. 8. Across the hydraulic jump. Subcritical 7. Mannings constant will decrease. 5. Hydraulic jump 4. 7. Chezy’s constant is a dimensional constant. 12. 6.5 State Correct or Incorrect : 1. As roughness increases. When supercritical flow meets a bump in the bed. 12 Incorrect : 1. 2. 3. 11. 8. 8. For a given specific energy the two possible depths of flow are called __________ 9. Decrease 6. the depth is called __________ 3. When there is a change in slope in supercritical flow __________ will form. Chapter 12 . At critical depth of flow Froude number should be equal to one. Answers 1. 12. Hydraulic jump helps to dissipate energy without damage to surfaces/structures. specific energy remains constant. 4. Hydraulic gradient line represents the depth of flow. As Mannings constant increases the flow will increases. 7.Flow in Open Channels O Q. As depth increases the wave velocity decreases. For a given specific energy as flow depth increases Froude number will __________ 6. The slope is unique for a given flow rate and depth of flow in a given rectangular channel. The flow depth __________ across hydraulic jump. the specific energy is minimum. 11. 4. The dimension of Chezy constant is 6. 3. For a given specific energy if one flow depth is supercritical the other will be __________ 431 7. Flow rate through open channels is inversely proportional to square root of bed slope (Sb1/2). 4. Higher than one 2. 8. the level at that point will decrease. 9. Hydraulic depth is the average depth (Area/Topwidth). Higher 8. 10. Answers Correct : 2. As roughness increases Mannings coefficient will __________ 10. 5. The flow depth in subcritical flow will be __________ compared to the flow depth a critical flow. 12. Increases O Q. For a supercritical flow Froude number should be __________ 2. 13 O Q. 12.4 State Correct or Incorrect 1. 2. Across a hydraulic jump specific energy will __________ 5. 3. Hydraulic radius is the ratio of wetted perimeter to area or (P/A). 7. For a given area __________ section gives the maximum flow. 4. L / T. 13. Specific energy is the sum of kinetic head and flow depth. If one depth of flow for a given specific energy is at supercritical condition the alternate depth also should be at supercritical condition. 9. 6. Disturbance in supercritical flow will not be communicated upstream. Normal depth 3. 5. Bazin formula does not relate chezy coefficient C to bed slope Sb. Semicircular 11. At critical flow. 10. Kutters formula considers bed slope. Manning proposed that C varied as Rh1/3. 11. Alternate depths 9. Increase 10. Decrease 5.3 Fill in the blanks : 1.

3. 12. At minimum specific energy condition for flow through a rectangular channel. 7. fine the Chezy constant. 2.432 9.7 Determine the dimensions of a trapezoidal section for a discharge of 40 m3/s with a bed slope of 1:2500 and Manning’s constant N = 1/50. 11. the depth should be twice the width. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The distance between energy gradient line and hydraulic line represents velocity head. Assuming Manning’s constant N = 1/50. For optimum area in a rectangular channel. If the slope of the bed is 1:950. If the bed slope is 1:137 and Chezy constant C = 52.2 A triangular open channel with 0.25 m depth and 60° angle conveys water. 7 Incorrect : 1.972 m. 4. 5.16 m. Calculate the critical depth and velocity. the kinetic head will be 0.5 m depth. 5.1 A rectangular open channel has 5 m width and 1.5 A rectangular channel with most economical cross-section carries 8000 l/s of water with an average velocity of 2 m/s.138 m) E12. Assuming Chezy constant C = 50. 3. The bed slope is 1:1000. For a given area.8 × 1. Optimum circular section for a given flow is a semicircle. Energy gradient line represents specific energy. (11. 12 O Q.6 State Correct or Incorrect 1.9 A rectangular channel of 5 m width carries water at the rate of 15 m3/s. (hc = 0. Answers Correct 1. 4.6 The area of cross-section of a trapezoidal channel is 30 depth for most economical design if the slope of the bed is 1 in 1500. 6 EXERCISE PROBLEMS E12. determine the flow rate. If Chezy constant is 65. 12. (2. In subcritical flow level will increase for negative bump. 8. In the case of circular section.3 A semicircular open channel of diameter 1 m conveys water at the rate of 1. w = 4. determine the flow rate.4 Determine the bed slope of a circular pipe that should carry 2. 10. 10. w = 5. calculate the slope required to maintain a depth of 2 m. 11 Incorrect : 2. the flow height for maximum flow is the same as per maximum velocity. As velocity drops hydraulic gradient line will rise. Side slope is 1 vertical 2 horizontal. (1:736) E12.459 m) E12. 1:746) Find the base width and flow E12. Pipe diameter is 256 cm. determine it’s cross-section and slope.83 m3/s. 5. Answers Correct : 3. (h = 4. 6. 7. maximum value for hydraulic mean depth will be for semi circular shape. (h = 3. 9.4 m. (40 liters/s) E12.86 m. Assume Chezy constant as 60.48 m3/s) E12.5 times the flow depth. The included angle at optimum flow in a triangular channel is 45°. 6.47 m3/s of water at half full condition. 4. Vc = 3.69 m/s) m2. (1:2500) E12. E12. For maximum flow through a sluice gate the downstream depth should be 2/3 of upstream depth.8 Water flows at the rate of 5 m3/s in a rectangular open channel of 3 m width. 2. .

(12 m) E12.467 m. Also determine the minimum depth above the weir. flowing full if the top is closed.34) E12. Determine the height of flow above the bump and the flow speed at this section.426 m) E12.20 Determine the critical depth in a rectangular channel 10 m wide when the flow rate is 200 (3.2 m.10 Water flows through a rectangular open channel at the rate of 2 m3/s. The slope is 1/1796. E12. 3. Determine the average shear stress on the wetted perimeter of the channel. the Froude numbers upstream and downstream are related by Fr2 = 2 [(1 + 8 Fr2 )1/ 2 − 1]3 1 8 Fr2 1 . (2. Neglecting energy losses.23 Water flows over a broad crested weir with a height of 1. 0. show that the slope of the water surface dy/dx = – (dh/dx)/[1 – (u2/gy)] where u is the velocity and y is the depth at location x where the height of the bump is h. (hc = 0. (3.03.29 m3/s.17 Compare the perimeter length for a (i) 90° triangle and (ii) square section to carry water at 2 m3/s with a slope of 1/80.12 m. Calculate the minimum velocity of the stream.Flow in Open Channels 433 E12. P = 16 m and Sb = 1/3100.13 Water flows over a smooth bump in a wide rectangular channel. Considering Mannings coefficient as 0. with water wetting the surface.18 Water flows in a rectangular channel of width b and depth b/3. It is observed that the waves created do not travel upstream.3 m deep.3 m and velocity is 0.21 Show that for a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel. Determine the flow rate.22 In a hydraulic jump in a spillway the upstream and downstream depths are 0. (0.71) E12.2 m .3395 m3/s.5 m/s. E12. E12.5 m above the bed.7%) E12. determine the flow rate per m width of the spillway. 0. 0. (5.5 m3/s per m width.14 N/m2) E12. what would be the rise in water level.97.7 m and 3. Also calculate the Froude numbers.715 m) E12.571 m/s) E12.16 A trapezoidal channel with side slopes of 45° and bottom width of 8 m is to carry a flow of 20 m3/s. (23.5 m above the weir surface. what would be the critical depth of the channel ? If a standing wave is to be formed at a point where the upstream depth is 0. determine the two depths of flow possible. (7. At upstream the depth is 0.44 m) m3/s.333 m) E12.12 Water flows in a wide rectangular channel with a flow rate of 2.19 Determine the percentage reduction flow in an equilateral triangular section.267 m. The height of the bump at any location is h(x).24 In a horizontal rectangular channel there is a small bump of height 30 mm on the bed. 0. If the width of the channel is 2 m. determine the diameter of a circular channel that will carry the same flow when (i) half full (ii) Maximum flow condition and (iii) Maximum velocity condition.563 m/s) Chapter 12 . If the free surface well upstream is at 0.6 m. If the specific energy is 2. Considering same slope and Manning coefficient. (23.11 In a pensive mood a boy throws a stone in a mountain stream 1.14 The measurement of the parameters of a small stream shows that A = 26 m2. determine the width at the water line. (0.15 Determine the percentage reduction in flow in a rectangular channel if a thin partition in the middle divides it into two equal widths along the flow. E12. E12. 0.

2. Calculate the downstream depth and head loss across the jump. (10. with normal depth of flow of 1.015. (6.2 m.434 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery E12. The width reduces from 600 mm to 300 mm at the throat while the flow depth changes from 300 mm to 225 mm at the throat. Assuming that specific energy remains constant determine the depth downstream.14 m3/s/m) rate is 0.29 In a trapezoidal channel of 2.022 (1.44. when slope is 1/1000 and Manning coefficient N = 0.28 In a venturi flume the bed is horizontal.2 m/s. 3.26 Compare the flow rates of square and semicircular channels of 2 m water surface. 0.1 m3/s.0883 m3/s) E12. (0.3 m.4 m bottom width and 45° side slope the flow rate is 7. if the flow (0. Determine the flow rate. Determine the bed slope. Also calculate the percentage loss of head. 67.18 m/s.3 mm and the velocity was 5.543 m. Also calculate the maximum flow rate.27 At the exit flow under a sluice gate the depth of flow was 56.93/1000) E12.0563 m. Estimate the depth and velocity downstream. N = 0. determine the normal depth.09 m3/s) E12.3 m3/s/m.79 m) m3/s.33 m/s.25 Water flows under a sluice gate.942 m) E12. 2. E12. (0. Upstream the depth is 1. E12.5 m and the velocity is 0.9%) .30 In the above problem with the same conditions as mentioned if the flow rate is increases to 15 (1.31 A hydraulic jump occurs on a horizontal apron downstream from a spillway at a location where the depth is 0.9 m and speed is 25 m/s.

In case the surfaces cause a change in the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the fluid particles. When applied to control volume. the principle can be stated as “The sum of forces on the fluid equals the difference between the momentum flowing in and momentum flowing out and the change in momentum of the fluid inside the control volume under steady flow condition the last term vanishes. through which the fluid is flowing.0 INTRODUCTION Dynamics of Fluid Flow In chapter 3 the forces exerted by static fluid on the containment surfaces was discussed. In this chapter the forces exerted by fluid particles on the surfaces over which they flow. This also means the impulse Fdt equals the change in momentum of the body during the time dt. So the forces in the fluid is given by 435 . In turn the surfaces exert an equal and opposite force on the fluid particles. In equation from (F and V are in the same direction) ΣF = d (mV ) dt (13.1) This can also be written as ΣF dt = d (mV) (13. the fluid particles exert a force on the surface.1.1 IMPULSE MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE When applied to a single body Newtons second law can be started as “The sum of forces on the body equals the rate of change of momentum of the body in the direction of the force. The force exerted by moving fluid particles on the surface is called dynamic force.! 13. 13. Dynamic force always involves a change in the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the fluid. Forces due to viscous resistance is excluded in the discussions in this chapter to reduce complexity in the analysis.1. is discussed.1 a) where m is the mass of the body and V is the velocity of the body and t is the time.

1 (a).2) In other words. if the velocity over the section is not uniform a correction has to applied.6a) This force is the force exerted by the reducer on the fluid in the x direction. The free body diagram is given in Figure 13.4a) (13. In case the forces in the cartesian co-ordinate directions is required.1 Forces Exerted on Pressure Conduits Consider the reducer section shown in Figure 13.1. The force exerted by the fluid (13.4) (13.1. When calculating the momentum flowing in or out.1.6 is due to this assumption. the net force on the fluid mass is equal to the net rate of out flow of momentum across the control surface. The negative sign in the LHS of 13.1.1. The numerical value will show the actual sign. This can also be written as ΣF = ρ2 Q2V2 – ρ1Q1V1 If the fluid is in compressible.1.4b) (13. ΣFx = P1A1 – P2A2 – Fx = ρQ (u2 – u1) or the force on the fluid is given by Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 – ρQ (u2 – u1) (13. v and w are the components of velocity in the x. This force acts towards the left as assumed in the figure. the equation in scalar form is written as ΣFx = ρQ ∆u ΣFy = ρQ ∆v ΣFz = ρQ ∆w where u.1.1 (b) : 1 u1 2 u2 P1A1 (b) Fx P2A2 (a) Figure 13. The correction factor β is given by β= where V is the average velocity.1.5) A 13.436 ΣF = d ( mV ) out d (mV ) in – dt dt Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (13.1.1.1.3a) In this case ∆V should be taken as the vectorial addition of V1 and V2 and the force will be in the direction of the resultant of V1 and V2 .1 Assuming ideal fluid flow. (13. y and z directions.1.1.3) 1 AV 2 z u 2 dA (13.6) . then ΣF = ρQ (∆V) (13.1.

8) As the flow is in the horizental plane body forces are neglected. Example 13. In case both the magnitude and direction of the velocity is changed by a reducer bend then the force exerted by the bend on the fluid.01 × 1000 = 40 kg/s Fx = 40 × 103 × 0. The velocity at the inlet is 4 m/s.2 A 45° bend in the horizontal plane is shown in figure. The pressures are 40 kPa at inlet and 10 kPa of outlet. . P2 = 30 kPa 0.6 m2.2 × 1000 = 14.02 – 10 × 103 × 0.1 As A1/A2 = 2.01 m2. The velocity of water at inlet is 12 m/s. Determine the force exerted by the reducer on the fluid.2 m2 and the outlet area is 0.2 For convenience the control volume should be chosen such that the inlet and outlet areas are normal to the velocities at these sections. (13. 13.6 m 40 kPa V1 = 12 m/s P1 1.7) and (13. In this case the force on the bend is required. V2 = 2V1 = 8 m/s Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 – m (u2 – u1) m = 4 × 0. It is convenient to calculate the forces in the x and y directions separately. (suffix F indicates as on the fluid) FxF = P1A1 – P2A2 cos θ – m (V2 cos θ – V1) FyF = P2A2 sin θ + m V2 sin θ The forces on the bend will be equal and opposite to these forces. The plus and minus signs used in the equations depend in the + ve or – ve directions of the co-ordinate system along which the force is assumed to act. The inlet area is 1. the turning angle being θ. On the reducer 540 N along positive x direction.01 – 40 (8 – 4) = 540 N on the fluid towards left.7) (13. u1 = 12 m/s ∴ u2 = 24 m/s Mass flow = 12 × 1.1.2 m 2 2 Using equation (13.4 × 103 kg/s Fx = P1A1 – P2A2 cos θ – m (V2 cos θ – V1) Fy = P2A2 sin θ + m V2 sin θ Using equations (13.Dynamics of Fluid Flow 437 on the reducer will be equal and opposite to this force Fx.1. Refer Figure 13.02 m2 and the outlet area is 0.1.1.6a) 45° Figure Ex. The pressures at inlet and cutlet are 40 and 30 kPa respectively. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the bend.1.1.8) Chapter 13 Example 13.1 A reducer in the horizontal plane has an inlet area of 0.

θ = tan–1 36.2 FORCE EXERTED ON A STATIONARY VANE OR BLADE In the case of turbomachines fluid passes over blades and in this context. Force m the fluid is Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Fx = 40 × 103 × 1.4 N . with the assumed direction : Assuming V2 = V1 as no other energy transfer occurs.438 Substituting the values.9) Fy = m (V2y – V1y) = m V1 sin θ Example 13. V2 Free body diagram Jet V1 q Fy (Blade on water) Blade Fx (Blade on water) Figure 13. The flow is assumed to occur in the horizental plane. In the case considered pressure forces are equal both at inlet and outlet. To start the analysis force on stationary vane is considered. – Fx = m (V2u – V1) = m (V2 cos θ – V1) = m (V1 cos θ – V1) (13.1.1 kN in the +ve y direction.3) 2 2 = 259.3 kN along x and 257.1.4 × 103 × 24 × sin 25 = 257. in the –ve x direction Fy = 30 × 103 × 0. Rate of flow m= π × 0.032 × 20 × 1000 = 14.4 × 103 (24 cos 45 – 12) = – 36.3 A blade turns the jet of diameter 3 cm at a velocity of 20 m/s by 60°.1 36.2 13. The resultant is The direction is with the negative y direction q 257. Determine the force exerted by the blade on the fluid. The forces on the bend will be 36.65 N.1.3 x 257.2 Force along x direction by the blade on fluid. the force on a vane due to the fluid flowing over it is discussed. 13.6 × sin 45 + 14.8) (13.1 y Figure Ex.1 kN downwards. There is negligible change in the magnitude.3 = 8.14 (20 cos 60 – 20) = – 141.6 × cos 45 – 14.2 – 30 × 103 × 0.1.14 kg/s 4 – Fx = 14. Here the direction of the velocity is changed.04° 257.1 + (− 36. In turbomachines the blades are in motion.3 kN.

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

or Fx = 141.4 N. in the assumed direction Fy = 14.14 (20 × sin 60) = 244.9 N The forces on the blade are 141.4 N along x direction and 244.9 in the –ve y direction. Resultant = (244.92 + 141.42)0.5 = 282.8 N

244.9 q 141.4

439

x

θ = tan–1

**141.4 = 30° 244.9
**

y

30° with the negative y direction as in figure.

Figure Ex. 13.3

In order to determine the force on moving blades and the energy transfer between the blades and the fluid the relative velocity between the fluid and the blade becomes an important factor. The blade may move in a direction at an angle to the velocity of the fluid. The relative velocity of a body is its velocity relative to a second body which may in turn be in motion relative to the earth. The absolute velocity V of the first body, is the vector sum of its velocity relative to the second body v, and the absolute velocity of the latter, u Vectorially V=u+v This is easily determined by vector diagram called as velocity triangle. Some possible diagrams are shown in Figure 13.2.1.

V a u Vu V a u Vu

u b

v

v b V Vu a u b

Figure 13.2.1 Sample Velocity diagrams

Some of the general relations are V sin α = v sin β Vu = V cos α = u + v cos β (13.2.1) (13.2.2)

Vu is the component of the absolute velocity of the first body in the direction of the velocity u of the second body.

**13.3 FORCE ON A MOVING VANE OR BLADE
**

The force on a single moving vane is rarely met with. But this forms the basis for the calculation of force and torque on a series of moving vanes fixed on a rotor. There are two main differences between the action of the fluid on a stationary vane and a moving vane in the direction of the

Chapter 13

13.2 ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE VELOCITY RELATIONS

440

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

fluid motion. In the case of the moving vane it is necessary to consider both the absolute and relative velocities. The other difference is that the amount of fluid that strikes a moving vane at any time interval is different from that which strikes the stationary vane. If a jet of area A with a velocity V1 strikes a stationary vane, the mass impinging per unit time on the vane equals 8AV1 kg/s. But when the vane moves away from the direction of the jet with a velocity u, then the mass of water striking the vane equals ρA(V1 – u) kg/s. (V – u) is the relative velocity between the jet and the vane. This can be realised when the consider the velocity of the vane to be equal to that of the jet. In this case no water will strike the vane, obviously. Consider the flow as shown in figure 13.3.1.

Blade V1 Inlet Jet b2 u u Vr = V – u u V2 V2 b2 Outlet V1

Vr2

Figure 13.3.1

The velocity diagram with as inlet and outlet are shown in the figure. Considering the force on the fluid in the direction of blade velocity (can be considered as x direction) Fu = ρA (V1 – u) (Vu2 − Vu1 ) Vu2 = (Vr2 cos β 2 − u) , denoting Vr as relative velocity ∴ In the case shown, Fu = ρA (V1 – u) (Vr2 cos β 2 − u − Vu1 )

Vu1 = V itself

(13.3.1)

(13.3.2)

It is possible that (Vr2 cos β 2 − u) or Vu is negative depending upon the relative values 2 of u and Vr i.e. u > Vr2 cos β2. It is to be noted that the vane angle at the inlet should be in the direction of the relative velocity of the water when it touches the vane. Otherwise loss will occur due to the jet hitting the vane at an angle and then turning the follow on the vane surface. It was assumed that the relative velocity at inlet and at outlet are equal as no work was done by the vane on the fluid. In case of friction, Vr2 = cVr1 where c is a fraction. In case the vane moves at a direction different from that of the jet velocity say at an angle α, then force on the fluid on the vane will be at an angle. In such a case, Fx = ρA (V1 cos α1i – Vr cos β2 – u) (V1 cos α1 – u) 2 = ρA (V1 cos α1 – V2 cos α2)

Dynamics of Fluid Flow

441

As it was already mentioned, a single moving vane is not of practical importance when a series of vanes fixed on the periphery of a well is struck by the jet, then the mass of fluid striking the when will be ρAV itself. Work or energy transfer between the fluid and the water will be F × u .

Example 13.5 A 4 cm diameter water jet with a velocity of 35 m/s impinges on a single vane moving in the same direction at a velocity of 20 m/s. The jet enters the vane tangentially along the x direction. The vane deflects the jet by 150°. Calculate the force exerted by the water on the vane.

35 m/s 4 cm f 150° 20 m/s Inlet V1 = 35 m/s u = 20 m/s u = 20 m/s 15 m/s V2 7 m/s 30° Vr2 Outlet

15 m/s

Figure Ex. 13.5 The relative velocity is given by Vr = 35 – 20 = 15 m/s.

**Vu1 = 30 m/s itself in the direction of blade velocity.
**

From exit velocity triangle

**Vu2 = u – Vr cos 30 = 20 – 15 cos 30 = 7 m/s 2
**

This is in the same direction as Vu1 ∴ ∆Vu= 35 – 7 = 28 m/s. Fu = Energy transfer rate

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × (35 – 20) (28) = 527.8 N. 4

= F × u = 527.8 × 20 = 10556 Nm/s or W. Fy =

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × (35 – 20) × (15 sin 30 – 0) = 141.37 N 4

**(Note V2 sin α2 = Vr sin β2). 2 In case series of vanes have been used, Fx = Energy transfer
**

1000 × 0.04 2 × π × 35 × 28 = 1231.5 N 4

= 1231.5 × 20 = 24630 W

In case there is friction for the flow over the blade, Vr2 = k Vr1 In case the water jet direction and blade velocity direction are at an angle α1,then at the inlet Vu ≠ V1 but will be Vu = V1 cos α1. This is illustated by the following example.

Chapter 13

442

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Example 13.6 A water jet 20 mm in diameter and having a velocity of 90 m/s strikes series of moving blades in a wheel. The direction of the jet makes 20° with the direction of movement of the blade. The blade angle at inlet is 35°. If the jet should enter the blade without striking, what should be the blade velocity. If the outlet angle of the blade is 30°, determine the force on the blade. Assume that there is no friction involved in the flow over the blade. This problem has to be solved using the velocity diagram.

V = 1 90 m

V

r1

/s

b1

d1 = 20° u1 35°

40.61 u 30° V2 Vr1 53.67

Figure Ex. 13.6 u = V1 cos α1– Vr cos β1 1 V1 sin α1 = Vr sin β1 1

∴

∴

Vr1 =

V1 sin α 1 90 × sin 20 = 53.67 m/s sin β1 = sin 35

u = 90 cos 20 – 53.67 cos 35 = 40.61 m/s

**Vu1 = V1 cos α1 = 90 × cos 20 = 84.57 m/s Vu2 = Vr2 cos β2 – u = 53.67 × cos 30 – 40.61
**

= 5.87 m/s (opposite direction to Vu1 ) ∴ ∆Vu = 84.57 + 5.87 = 90.44 m/s =

π × 0.022 × 1000 × 90 = 28.274 kg/s 4

Series of blades : Mass flow ∴

**Force Fx = 28.274 × 90.44 = 2557 N = 2557 × 40.61 = 103845 Nm/s or W =
**

2 mV1 28.274 × 902 = = 1145097 W 2 2

Energy transfer rate Energy in the jet

Fy = (90 sin 20 – 53.67 sin 30) 28.274 = 111.6 N

Dynamics of Fluid Flow 13.4 TORQUE ON ROTATING WHEEL

443

Blades or vanes may be fixed at the periphery of the wheel in which case the radius at which fluid enters will be the same as at fluid exit. There are cases where the blades are fixed at the sides of a disc such that the radius at which the fluid enters the vane will be different from the radius at which it exits. The former type is known axial blading and the later is known as radial blading. In the former case the blade Entry velocity will be constant and in the latter case the blade velocity will very with radius. Thus the force on the blade Blades will very with the radius and the previous method cannot Exit be used to find the fluid force on the blade. In this case the moment of momentum theorem is used to determine the torque on the wheel. The theorem states that torque on the wheel equals the rate of change of moment of momentum of the fluid as it flows over the blades. Thus it is necessary to determine the moment of momentum at the inlet and Figure 13.4.1 Radial blading outlet to determine the torque. Torque can be produced only by the velocity component along the periphery. The components of the velocity in the tangential direction are Vu1 and Vu2 equal to V1

cos α1 and V2 cos α2. Momentum at entry = m V1 cos α1. Moment of momentum of entry = m V1 cos α1 × r1

**Similarly moment of momentum at exit = m V2 cos α2 × r2 T = m (r1V1 cos α1 – r2V2 cos α2)
**

Power = ωT. ω = Substituting :

2πN 60

2πr1 N = u1 tangential velocity at entry 60 2πr2 N = u2 tangential at exit 60

∴

P = m ( Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2 ).

where Vu1 and Vu2 are the components of the absolute velocities of the fluid in the tangential direction. In this case the direction of blade velocity is the tangential direction to the wheel on which the blades are fixed.

Example 13.7 Blades are fixed in a disc with outer and inner diameters of 0.8 m and 0.4 m. The disc rotates at 390 rpm. The flow rate through blades is 4000 kg/s. The inlet angle of the blade is 80°. The blade width is 0.25 m. If the flow at outlet is radial, determine the blade outlet angle. Determine the angle at which the water should flow for smooth entry. Determine the torque exerted and the power resulting

therefrom.

Chapter 13

444

u1 = ∴ From continuity

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

πDN π × 0.8 × 390 = = 16.34 m/s 60 60 16.34 × 0.4 D2 = = 8.17 m/s 0.8 D1

Vu1 u1 a1 V1 Vr1 80° VF

u2 = u1 ×

Q = πDbVf

where Vf is the flow velocity along the radius.

4000 = π × 0.8 × 0.25 × Vf 1000

∴ Vf = 6.37 m/s.

Vu1 = u1 + Vf /tan 80

Figure Ex. 13.7a

= 16.34 +

6.37 = 16.52 m/s tan 80 6.37 = tan α1, α1 = 21.09° 16.52

Vf1 Vu1

= tan α1,

The jet should be inclined at this angle to the periphery of the wheel ∴ V1 tan α1 = Vf1 ∴ V1 =

6.37 = 16.51 m/s. tan 21.09

u2 8.17 B2 Vf2 = 12.73 Vr 2 Exit triangle

As the blade width is constant, the flow velocity at exit is 4 = π × 0.4 × 0.25 × Vf2 ∴ ∴ ∴ As exit is radial,

Vf2 = 12.73 m/s

12.13 tan β2 = 8.17

β2 = 57.3°

Vw2 = 0 as Vf2 = V2

Figure Ex. 13.7b

T = m (r1 Vw – 0) = 4000 × 1 P = ωT =

0.8 × 16.52 = 26432 mN. 2

2 πN 26432 × 60 1000

= 1079.5 kW. Also equal to m Vw1 Vu1 (check)

We can also determine Vr1 and Vr2 if required.

Dynamics of Fluid Flow SOLVED PROBLEMS

445

Problem 13.1 A pipe line of 150 mm ID branches into two pipes which delivers the water at atmospheric pressure. The diameter of the branch 1 which is at 30° anti clockwise to the pipe axis is 75 mm. and the velocity at outlet is 12 m/s. The branch 2 is at 15° with the pipe centre line in the clockwise direction has a diameter of 100 mm. The outlet velocity is 12 m/s. The pipes lie in a horizental plane. Determine the magnitude and direction of the forces on the pipes.

0.075 m 12 m/s Fx 0.15 m 30° 15° 0.01 m 12 m/s x y

Figure P. 13.1

The flow rates in the pipes are Branch 1 :

π × 0.075 2 × 12 × 1000 = 53 kg/s 4

2=

π × 0.12 × 12 × 1000 = 94 kg/s 4

Branch Flow in the pipe

= 94 + 53 = 147 kg/s

Velocity in the pipe : V1 = 0.147 /

π 0.152 = 8.333 m/s 4

**To determine the pressure in the pipe
**

V22 P P1 V2 = 0 + – 1 , 2 S p 2

Assuming zero gauge pressure at exit. P1 = ρ

LM V MN

2 2

− V12 2

OP = 1000 LM 12 N PQ

2

− 8.332 2

OP Q

**= 37.3 × 103 N/m2 The x directional force assuming it to act in the – ve x direction Fx = 37.3 × 103 × = 242 N
**

π × 0.15 2 – 94 × 12 cos 15 – 53 × 12 cos 30 + 147 × 8.333 4

Chapter 13

446

To determine Fy : Assuming to act in the + ve y direction Fy = 53 × 12 sin 30 – 94 × 12 sin 15 = 26 N

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Problem 13.2 A jet 30 mm diameter with velocity of 10 m/s strikes a vertical plate in the normal direction. Determine the force on the plate if (i) The plate is stationary (ii) If it moves with a velocity of 4 m/s towards the jet and (iii) If the plate moves away from the plate at a velocity of 4 m/s. Case (i) The total x directional velocity is lost. ∴ ∴ Case (ii) ∴ Case (iii)

F = m V,

F=

m = ρAV

π × 0.032 × 10 × 10 × 1000 = 70.7 N 4

m = ρA(Vr), Vr = V + u = 14

F=

π × 0.032 × 14 × 1000 × 10 = 99 N 4

F Vr = V – u = 6 m/s F=

π × 0.032 × 6 × 1000 × 10 = 42.4 N 4

Problem 13.3 A jet of water at a velocity of 100 m/s strikes a series of moving vanes fixed at the periphery of a wheel, 5 at the rate of kg/s. The jet is inclined at 20° to the direction of motion of the vane. The blade speed is 50 m/s. The water leaves the blades at an angle of 130° to the direction of motion. Calculate the blade angles at the forces on the wheel in the axial and tangential direction.

Inlet u2 = 50

V

V

1

Vf1

100

Exit a2 20° 50 u1

Vu2 50 V2 B2 55.7 130°

A1

b1

Vu1 u1

Figure P. 13.3

tan β1 =

100 × sin 20 V1 sin α 1 = 100 cos 20 − 50 V1 cos α 1 − u

Blade angle at inlet ∴ β1 = 37 .88°

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

sin β1 =

447

V1 sin α 1 Vr1 100 sin 20 = 55.7 m/s sin 37.88

and u2 = u1

∴

Vr1 =

**In this type of blade fixing
**

Vr2 = Vr1

**Referring to the exit triangle
**

Vr2 cos 50 < u = 50

Vr2 cos 50 = 35.8.

∴ Vu2 = 50 – 35.8

= 14 .2 m/s in the same direction as V u 1 ∴ Tangential force = 500 × (Vu1 − Vu2 )

**Vu 1 = 100 cos 20 = 93.97 m/s
**

∴ Tangential force = 5 (93.97 – 14.2) = 3488 N Axial force

**F = m [V1 sin α – Vr1 sin β2]
**

= 5 [100 sin 20 – 55.7 . sin 50] = – 8.5 N

Problem 13.4 Water jet at the rate of 10 kg/s strikes the series of moving blades at a velocity of 50 m/s. The blade angles with respect to the direction of motion are 35° and 140°. If the peripheral speed is 25 m/s, determine the inclination of the jet so that water enters the blades without shock. Also calculate the power developed and the efficiency of the system. Assume blades an mounting on the periphery of the wheel. In this type of mounting u remains the same so also relative velocity. β1, V1 and u are known : Refer figure

A

u2 = 25

q Vr1 b1

4.04

V

1

4.0

C a1 B u1 Vu1 u1

V2 Vr2 = Vr1

Figure P. 13.4

Chapter 13

Hence this shape

448

u V1 = sin θ sin (180 − β 1 )

∴ Solving

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

**25 50 = sin θ sin (180 – 35)
**

θ = 16.7°. ∴ α1 = 180 – (180 – 35) – 16.7 = 18.3°

Direction of the jet is 18.3° to the direction of motion.

Vu1 = 50 × cos 18.3 = 47.47 m/s,

Vr1 =

50 sin 18.3 = 27.37 m/s sin 35 Vr2 cos 40 = 20.96 < 25 (u)

β2= (180 – 140) = 40°,

**∴ The shape of the exit triangle will be as in figure
**

Vu2 = u – V cos β2 = 25 – 20.96 = 4.04 m/s r2

Tangential force Power Energy in jet

**= m (Vu1 − Vu2 ) = 10 (47.47 – 4.04) = 434.3 N = F × u = 434.3 × 25 = 10.86 × 103 W
**

10 × 50 2 = = 12.5 × 103 W 2

∴

η=

10.86 × 10 3 = 0.8686 or 86.86 % 12.5 × 10 3

Problem 13.5 Curved vanes fixed on a wheel on the surface receive water at angle of 20° to the tangent of the wheel. The inner and outer diameter of the wheel are 0.9 and 1.6 m respectively. The speed of rotation of the wheel is 7 revolutions per second. The velocity of water at entry is 75 m/s. The water leaves the blades with an absolute velocity of 21 m/s at an angle of 120° with the wheel tangent at outlet. The flow rate is 400 kg/s. Determine the blade angles for shockless entry and exit. Determine the torque and power. A also determine the radial force.

Inlet Vu2

V

1

uc 19.8 b2 120

Vf1

Vr1 b1

=7

5

2q u1 = 35.19 Vu1 u1

Vf2

21 Vr2 Exit

Figure P. 13.5

**Dynamics of Fluid Flow
**

Blade velocity u1 = πdN = π × 1.6 × 7 = 35.19 m/s u2 =

449

9 × 35.19 = 19.8 m/s 16

**V1 sin α 1 75 × sin 20 tan β1 = V cos α − u = 75 × cos 20 – 35.19 1 1
**

Solving β1 = 36° tan β2 = Solving

**21 sin 60 19.8 + 21 cos 60
**

Chapter 13

β2 = 30.97°

**T = m [ Vu1 r1 + Vu2 r2 ] (in this case, Vu2 is in the opposite direction)
**

∴ ∆ Vw = Vu + Vu2 1 = 400 [0.8 × 75 cos 20 + 0.45 × 21 cos 60] = 24443 Nm Power = 24443 × ω = 24443 × 2π × 7 = 1075042 W or Power in the jet Ω 1075 kW. = η= Radial force

75 2 × 400 = 1125000 W or 1125 kW 2

1075 = 0.955 or 95.5% 1125

= 400 (75 sin 20 – 21 sin 60) = 2986 N.

Problem 13.6 A jet of water with a velocity of 30 m/s impinges on a series of vanes moving at 12 m/s at 30 to the direction of motion. The vane angle at outlet is 162° to the direction of motion. Complete (i) the vane angle at inlet for shockless entry and (ii) the efficiency of power transmission.

Inlet 19.5 u 18°

V

1

=3

0

V2 Vr2 Outlet

b1

30 12

Figure P. 13.6

V1 sin α 1 30 sin 30 tan β1 = V cos α − u = = 1.073 30 cos 30 – 12 1 1

∴

β1 = 47°

450

sin β1 =

**Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
**

30 sin 30 Vr1 30 sin 30 sin β 1 = 20.5 m/s = Vr2

∴

Vr1 =

**Vr2 cos β2 > u1 ∴ hence the shape of the triangle. Vu1 = 30 cos 30 = 25.98 m/s
**

Vu2 = 20.5 cos 18 – 12 = 7.5 m/s

**Assuming unit mass flow rate : P = u [ Vw1 + Vw2 ] = 12 [25.98 + 7.5] = 401.76 W/kg/s Energy in the jet ∴ = η=
**

30 2 = 450 W. 2

401.76 = 0.893 or 89.3% 450

EXERCISE QUESTIONS

E 13.1 Derive the linear momentum equation using the control volume approach and determine the force exerted by the fluid flowing through a pipe bend. E 13.2 Derive the expression for the force exerted by a water jet on a plate moving in the same direction of the jet with a velocity less than that of the jet. E 13.3 A horizontal Y is shown in figure. Determine the x and y components of the force exerted in the pipe.

60° 18.33 m/s

0

1.6 m f

.5 m

1m

60°

f

18.33 m/s

Figure E. 13.3 E 13.4 A nozzle of 5 cm diameter is fixed at the end of a pipe of 15 cm diameter with water flowing in the pipe at a velocity of 3 m/s. The jet discharges into the air. Determine the force exerted in the nozzle. E 13.5 Water flows through a right angled reducer bend with inlet diameter of 60 cm and exit diameter of 40 cm. The entrance velocity is 6 m/s. If the bend lies on a horizontal plane, determine the magnitude and direction of the force on the bend.

5 cm water jet having a velocity of 30 m/s. determine the forces in the x and y directions. If the blade moves with a velocity of 25 m/s along the x direction. The blade angle at inlet is 0°. Also determine the energy transfer rate.9 A 5 cm2 area water jet impinges on a series of vanes as shown in figure.8 A series of vanes is acted upon by a 7.6 A jet of 5 cm diameter enters a blade in the x direction with a velocity of 60 m/s. V 1 =6 0m 30° /s u V 60° = 45 m /s 2 Figure E. determine the outlet blade angle. E 13.9 E 13. E 13.Dynamics of Fluid Flow 451 E 13. α1 = β1 = 0°. 13. The outlet angle is 120° with x direction. The absolute velocities and their directions are indicated on the figure. Chapter 13 . Assume shockless enters and exit.10 A water jet with a velocity of 60 m/s enters a series of curved vanes at an angle of 20° to the direction of blade movement.7 A jet of water 6 cm dia has a velocity of 30 m/s. If it impinges on a curved vane which turns the jet by 90° determine forces on the vane if the vane moves in the direction of the jet at a velocity of 14 m/s. Calculate the vane inlet angle. What is the power transmitted? Also determine the blade speed and blade inlet angle. The vane velocity is 15 m/s. If at the exit the component of absolute velocity along the direction of motion is zero. E 13. The peripheral speed of the disc on which the blades are mounted is 25 m/s. If the force acting on the vane in the direction of the jet is 900 N determine the angle by which the jet is turned by the vane.

(ii) Conveying system (iii) Hydraulic turbine with control system and (iv) Electrical generator The storage system consists of a reservoir with a dam structure and the water flow control in terms of sluices and gates etc. Tunnels and channels are used for surface conveyance. Rest of 5% only is by other means of generation.0 INTRODUCTION Hydraulic Turbines Most of the electrical generators are powered by turbines. Steam and Gas turbines share in the electrical power generation is about 75%. About 20% of power is generated by hydraulic turbines and hence thier importance. In this chapter we shall concentrate on the details and operation of hydraulic turbines. The conveying system may consist of tunnels." 14. where the remaining expansion takes place. 452 . It is also non polluting in terms of non generation of carbon dioxide. Hydraulic power depends on renewable source and hence is ever lasting. channels and steel pipes called penstocks. causing a reaction on the turbine runner. In such cases the potential energy in the water will be large but the quantity of water available will be small. 14. The reader is referred to books on power plants for details of the components and types of plants and their relative merits. In some cases the nozzles may be replaced by guide vanes which partially convert potential energy to kinetic energy and then direct the stream to the turbine wheel. These jets by dynamic action turn the turbine wheels. The nozzles convert the potential energy to kinetic energy in free water jets. Penstocks are pressure pipes conveying the water from a higher level to a lower level under pressure. Dams in river beds provide larger quantities of water but with a lower potential energy. The penstock pipes end at the flow control system and are connected to nozzles at the end.1 HYDRAULIC POWER PLANT The main components of hydraulic power plant are (i) The storage system. The reservoir may be at a high level in the case of availability of such a location. Turbines are the primemovers of civilisation.

flow rate.). (speed. Radial flow machines are found suitable for moderate levels of potential energy and medium quantities of flow. The representation is qualitative only. mixed flow and axial flow machines. It is found almost impossible to test a full size unit under laboratory conditions. The imulse provided by the jets is used to turn the turbine wheel. In spite of sophisticated design methodology. It is rather difficult to test each parameter’s influence separately.1) 2. This type is found suitable when the available potential energy is high and the flow available is comparatively low. . These are (i) Impulse turbine (ii) Reaction Turbine.2) 3D5 3. The last parameter has particular value when it comes to choosing a particular type under given available inputs and outputs. The idea of similitude and model testing comes to the aid of the manufacturer. the characteristics of operation under varying in put output conditions should be established. head available etc. it is found the designs have to be validated by actual testing.3. The flow coefficient. Chapter 14 The main classification depends upon the type of action of the water on the turbine. In case of variation of the operation from design conditions. 14.1 illustrates this idea. Figure 14. The head coefficient. “medium head” and “low head” plants. In addition to the operation at the design conditions. It is also not easy to vary some of the parameters. Dimensional analysis comes to our aid. The power coefficient. N p /ρ1/2(gH)5/4 (14. Some people call this type as tangential flow units. Later discussion will show under what conditions this type is chosen for operation. It has been established partly by experimentation and partly by analysis that the specific speed to some extent indicates the possible type of machine to provide the maximum efficiency under the given conditions. The potential energy available is generally denoted as “head available”. In chapter 8 the important dimension less parameters in the case of turbomachines have been derived (problem 8. The relevant parameters in the case of hydraulic machines have been identified in that chapter. P/ρ N (14. The operating conditions in terms of available head and load fluctuation vary considerably.16).3. With this terminology plants are designated as “high head”. Q/ND3 (14. All the four dimensionless numbers are used in model testing. The specific sheed.3. power. gH/N2D2 (14. In the case of impulse turbine all the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy in the nozzles. In the case of these machines more than three variables affect the characteristics of the machine. the specific speed increases. The axial machines are suitable for low levels of potential energy and large flow rates.4) Consistant sets of units should be used to obtain numerical values. Note that as head decreases for the same power and speed. large units cannot be modified or scrapped easily.2 CLASSIFICATION OF TURBINES 453 (ii) In reaction turbines the available potential energy is progressively converted in the turbines rotors and the reaction of the accelerating water causes the turning of the wheel. These are 1.3.3 SIMILITUDE AND MODEL TESTING Hydraulic turbines are mainly used for power generation and because of this these are large and heavy.3) 4.Hydraulic Turbines 14. These are again divided into radial flow. The pressure inside the turbine is atmospheric. for solving this problem.

3. there is an increase in efficiency with specific speed.3.90 Axial flow turbines 0. h Francis turbines 0.1 Variation of efficiency with specific speed. As flow rate increases for the same specific speed efficiency is found also to increase.454 0.98 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Pelton wheel 0.94 Efficiency. Figure 14.86 0.3.2 gives another information provided by the specific speed. For the same flow rate. . 100 90 5000 to 1 00 50 5000 to 0 00 00 20 to 00 0 00 50 10 low Be in l/m 80 Efficiency % Over 5 1500 0000 0 to 50 00 0 70 50 40 2500 5000 10000 20000 30000 50000 80000 50 0 60 to 10 2 Specific speed Very narrow radial Wider radial cshortor Axial Figure 14.82 0 1 2 3 4 Dimensionless specific speed (radian) Figure 14.2 Variation of efficiency and flow passage with specific speed.

5 / 4 . Head is estimated from the topography. The specific speed is obtained from the data available at the location where the plant is to be installed. These data lead to the calculation of the specific speed for the plant.122 0.1. This Substituting for Newton N can be checked N p → NS → 1 kg 1/ 2 m1/ 2 m1/ 2 m1.1 to 4 are dimensionless and will give the same numerical value irrespective of the system of units adopted. This is also shown in Table 14. 1/ 2 .015—0. .5 . Then only the value becomes dimensionless. 2. P in W and H in m. Such use is dimensionly complex and will vary with values given in table 14. 1/ 2 . .072 0.5 → M°L°T° s s s kg m Chapter 14 The type of flow passage also varies with specific speed as shown in the figure.66 Dimensional specific speed in SI system 8—29 26—40 40—67 67—450 364—910 Type of turbine having the best efficiency at these values Single jet Pelton turbine Twin jet Pelton turbine Multiple jet Pelton turbine Radial flow turbine Francis type (H < 350m) Axial flow Kaplan turbine. s 2. Worked examples will illustrate the idea more clearly. Flow rate is estimated from hydrological data. larger will be the size of the machine for the same power.819 0.5 → M° L° T° s s 1/ 2 h s kg m 1 k1/ 2 m11/ 2 m1/ 2 m1. Power is estimated by the product of head and flow rate.Hydraulic Turbines 455 The expressions given in the equation 14. . (H < 60m) There is considerable variation in the specific speeds indicated by various authors. 1/ 2 2.5 . Consider the following 1 N 1/ 2 m1/ 2 m 3 / 2 s 10 / 4 .5 .5 s 2. Ns = N p 5/ 4 Table 14. Speed N is used as rpm and power in kW by some authors. Lower the speed chosen.053 0. Table 14. The value of the specific speed gives a guidance about the choice of the type of machine. speed should be in rps and power should be in W. In the non dimensional form.1 provides some guidance about the type of turbine suitable at various ranges of specific speeds.3.72—0. 1/ 2 .1.047—0. the best shape is chosen for the maximum efficiency at that flow.122—0. The speed is specified by the frequency of AC supply and the size. m5/4 S ρ1/ 2 ( gH ) 5 / 4 S 1/ 2 kg m 1/2 as kg1/2 m1/2/s the expression will be dimensionless. In practice dimensional specific speed is popularly used H where N is in rps.663—1.1 Best specific Speed Range for Different Type of Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionles specific speed range 0. As the flow rate increases.

5 40. This can be easily seen from the values listed in table 14. Head available : 900 m. Hence the best suited will be the impulse turbine. 417. Even with same actual installation data. Non dimensional specific speed. It can be considered to indicate the flow area and shape of the runner. As the head reduces and flow increases purely radial flow reaction turbines of smaller diameter can be chosen. Single jet impulse turbine will be suitable.1.0163. As the head decreases still further and the flow increases.015 × 549 = 8. the specific speed is found to vary from the listed best values for the type.H→m ∴ Ns = 417. In the discussions the specific speed values in best efficiency is as given in table 14. Also indicate the suitable type of turbine Dimensionless specific speed : units to be used : N → rps. Power estimated 40000 kW.000 kW. So multi jet unit is chosen in such a case.0000001/2 = 8. But in the solved problems and examples. The sheed chosen is 600 rpm. × 60 9005 / 4 . At a location the head available was estimated as 200 m. Specific speed does not indicate the speed of the machine.5 (40.815 / 4 × 9005 / 4 1000 Hence single jet pelton turbine is suitable. Determine the specific speed for the data available at a location as given below (Both dimensionless and dimensional). Hence axial flow units are found suitable in this situation. When the head is large. As the head drops further for the same power.000000)1/ 2 × = 0. g → m s2 . the omitted quantities in this case are ρ1/2 = 549 ∴ 0. the specific speed increases with N and decreases with head. these conditions are generally not satisfied. wider rotors with mixed flow are found suitable. P → W or Nm/s.1.2 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery As a check for the dimensional value listed. The diameter can be reduced further and the speed increased up to the limit set by mechanical design. Ns = Agrees with the former value. When the flow increases. the velocity when potential energy is converted to kinetic energy will be high. still the area required will be unsuitable for a reaction turbine.92. The speed variation is not as high as the head variation. 1/ 2 60 × 9. ρ → kg/m3. Hence specific speed value increases with the drop in available head. Example 14.24 as in the tabulation. the flow rate has to be higher. Determine the specific speed. The power potential was 50.2. Speed required : 417.5 rpm. The flow area required will be just the nozzle diameter. Significance of specific speed. Example 14.1. This cannot be arranged in a fully flowing type of turbine. Indicate what type of turbine is suitable. Keeping the power constant.456 g1.

The speed chosen is 600 rpm. the head available was 50 m.09.866 60 1000 1/ 2 (9. For example an one eight scale model means that the linear dimensions of the model is 1/8 of the linear dimensions of the larger machine or the prototype.000.0001/ 2 × = 475. Chapter 14 Hence Francis type of turbine is suitable. head coefficients flow coefficient and power coefficient will be identical between the model and the large machine called prototype.000 kW. N → rps.000 kW. it can be shown that specific speeds. Also determine the flow rate required in terms of the prototype flow rate. At a location. Similar flow pattern leads to kinematic similarity. = 0.3.25 14. Dimensionless Ns = 40.g→ 2. Determine the speed and dynamo meter capacity to test the model. . acceleration.000. At a location investigations yielded the following data for the installation of a hydro plant. Determine the specific speed and indicate the suitable type of turbine.153. leads to dynamic similarity. The speed chosen was 500 rpm. kinematic similarity and dynamic similarity. Similarity conditions are three fold namely geometric similarity. g → 457 m m3 . For kinematic and dynamic similarity the flow directions and the blade angles should be equal.1 Model and Prototype It is found not desirable to rely completely on design calculations before manufacturing a large turbine unit.H→m kg s = 0. P → W. The power estimated is 40. This is done by testing a “homologous” or similar model of smaller size and predicting from the results the performance of large unit. The ratio between linear dimensions is called scale. Equal ratios of geometric dimensions leads to geometric similarity. forces etc.4. Example 14. A model study was proposed. A model satisfying these conditions is called “Homologous” model. 60 2005 / 4 Hence agrees with the previous value. Dimensional Ns = 600 40. power available = 40. Head available = 200 m. Example 14.3.000000 60 × (200 × 9. It is also possible from these experiments to predict part load performance and operation at different head speed and flow conditions.81)5 / 4 × 1000 1/ 2 Dimensional. It is necessary to obtain test results which will indicate the performance of the large unit. Ns = 600 40. Similar dynamic conditions in terms of velocity.Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionless.000000)1/ 2 × = 84.000 600 . In the laboratory head available was 20 m. 60 501. It was proposed to construct a 1/6 scale model. In such case.81 × 50)5 / 4 Hence axial flow Kaplan turbine is suitable. Ns = 600 (40.

062 kW ∴ The model is to have a capacity of 35. In example 14. The value of dimensional specific speed of the proposed plant is taken from example 14.7 rpm Substituting in the specific speed expression. head. As two unknowns are involved another parameter has to be used to solve the problem. A one sixth scale model is proposed.7 60 × 205 / 4 Pm 2 (6 2 ) OP Q 0.7 rpm. 40000 kW power and 500 rpm.0747 The specific speed of the model should be the same. Choosing head coefficient.000 3 × 65 OP Q = 990.000.0747.458 The dimensional specific speed of the proposed turbine Ns = N P H 5/ 4 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery = 500 60 40. Determine the speed and head required for the model. N p2 Hp FD I GH D JK p m 2 Nm = LM 20 × 500 N 200 984. 113 Example 14. (as both heads are known) Nm2 Dm 2 ∴ Hm = Hp N p 2 Dp 2 ∴ Nm2 = Hm . the data in the proposed plant is given.0747 = Solving Pm = 35062 W = 35. The test facility has a limited dynamometer capacity of 40 kW only whereas the speed and head have no limitations.08777 = m m3 = Qp 500 N p Dp 6 Qm is or 1 of Qp. The flow rate ratio can be obtained using flow coefficient Qp N p D p3 Qm Nm Dm ∴ 3 = Qm N D 3 948. In this case it is preferable to choose the power coefficient Pm Nm Dm 3 5 = Pp N p Dp 3 5 ∴ Nm3 = Dp Pm × N p3 × Pp Dm 1/ 3 F I GH JK 5 ∴ Nm L 40 × 500 = M N 40.5.4. 70.4 as 70.000 2005 / 4 = 70.062 kW and run at 948. These are 200 m.6 rpm .5 = 948.7 1 × 3 = 0.

Thus Head coefficient will now be N 12 H1 D 2 = H2 N2 D 2 2 or H2 N 2 = 22 H1 N1 The head will vary as the square of the speed.2 Unit Quantities The dimensionless constants can also be used to predict the performance of a given machine under different operating conditions. The specific speed of the proposed plant is 70.000 × or Hm5/4 = 60 H m5 / 4 60 × 70.22 m Substituting in the specific speed expression.225 / 4 Solving P = 41146 W or 40.Hydraulic Turbines Using the specific speed value (for the model) 70. In this case determine power of the model and the test head required. The flow coefficient will lead to N1 D 3 Q1 Q2 Q2 N2 = Q1 N1 = N2 D 3 or Chapter 14 The flow rate can be obtained using the flow coefficient .0747 and the models should have the same value of specific speed.4. In this case the head coefficient is more convenient for solving the problem.146 kW The flow ratio N D 3 Qm 1000 1 × 3 = 0. 60 × 22.6 40. m3 = N p Dp Qp 500 6 or 1 times the prototype flow. As the linear dimension will be the same. 108 14.G H D JK m p 2 = 200 × FG 1000 IJ FG 1 IJ H 500 K H 6 K 2 2 = 22. Test head required is 21. the same will not be taken into account in the calculation.000 990. The test facility has only a constant speed dynamometer running at 1000 rpm.3.8 m. 70. 500 6 Qp N p Dp 109.00926 = m .0747 Solving Hm = 21.6 990.9 Example 14.0916 or = m m3 = times the flow in prototype.8 m and test speed is 990.0747 = 459 40.0747 = 1000 P .6. 990. Hm = Hp Nm 2 N p2 FD I .6 1 Qm N D 3 1 × 3 = 0. Use the data for the proposed hydro plant given in example 14.6 rpm.

The head available changed to 350 m. This constant is called unit speed. A turbine is operating with a head of 400 m and speed of 500 rpm and flow rate of 5 m3/s producing the power of 17.93541 = 467. Gross head is defined as the difference in level between the reservoir water level (called head race) and the level of water in the stream into which the water is let out (called tail race). It can be measured . Similarly N2 = N1 H2 H1 or N H = constant.93531 = 4. Example 14.66 MW. During the conveyance of water there are losses involved. The difference between the gross head and head loss is called the net head or effective head.7 rpm Q2 N = 2 = Q1 N1 H2 350 = H1 400 2.7.5 Q2 = 5 × 0. 1. The constant is called unit discharge. flow and power ? Assume efficiency is maintained.677 m3/s P2 = P1 FH I GH H JK 2 1 3/ 2 ∴ P2 = 17. N12 H1 = N2 2 H2 ∴ N2 350 = N1 400 Q1 Q = 2 N1 N2 LM OP N Q 0.5 = 0.460 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Flow will be proportional to N and using the previous relation Q2 = Q1 H2 H1 or Q H = constant for a machine.5 0. Using the power coefficient : N 3 D5 P1 P2 N 3 or = 23 = P1 N1 = N 3 D5 P2 FH I GH H JK 2 1 3/ 2 or P H3/2 = constant.4 TURBINE EFFICIENCIES The head available for hydroelectric plant depends on the site conditions. It no other corrective action was taken what would be the speed.93541 or N2 = 500 × 0.66 × FG 350 IJ H 400 K = 14. This constant is called unit power. or FG IJ H K 0. ∴ 3. Hence when H is varied in a machine the other quantities can be predicted by the use of unit quantities.45 MW 14. both levels to be observed at the same time.

4.4. This is due to mechanical losses at the bearings.4. .4. Mechanical efficiency : The power produced by the runner is always greater than the power available at the turbine shaft. This also means that the force exerted on the runner can have three components. This reflects the runner design effectiveness.4. The radial component produces a bending of the shaft which is taken by the journal bearings.5 EULER TURBINE EQUATION The fluid velocity at the turbine entry and exit can have three components in the tangential. η0 = Power available at the turbine shaft ρ QgH (14.Hydraulic Turbines 461 by the difference in pressure between the turbine entry and tailrace level. Out of these the tangential force only can cause the rotation of the runner and produce work. ηm = Power available at the turbine shaft Power produced by the runner (14.1) Chapter 14 where Q is the volume flow rate and H is the net or effective head. 3. windage losses and other frictional losses. Volumetric efficiency is defined as the ratio between the volume of water flowing through the runner and the total volume of water supplied to the turbine. ηv = Q–∆Q Q (14. Volumetric efficiency : It is possible some water flows out through the clearance between the runner and casing without passing through the runner. The axial component produces a thrust in the axial direction.3) 4. The following efficiencies are generally used. Overall efficiency : This is the ratio of power output at the shaft and power input by the water at the turbine inlet. This means that the fluid momentum can have three components at the entry and exit.4) Also the overall efficiency is the product of the other three efficiencies defind η0 = NH Nm Nv (14. Hydraulic efficiency : It is defined as the ratio of the power produced by the turbine runner and the power supplied by the water at the turbine inlet. 2. which is taken by suitable thrust bearings. Indicating Q as the volume flow and ∆Q as the volume of water passing out without flowing through the runner.2) To some extent this depends on manufacturing tolerances.5) 14. 1. axial and radial directions of the rotor. ηH = Power produced by the runner ρQ g H (14. Power produced by the runner is calculated by the Euler turbine equation P = Qρ [u1 Vu1 – u2 Vu2].

It is not easy to sum up this work. Consider the general velocity triangles at inlet and exit of turbine runner.4) is known as Euler Turbine equation.5. tangential force and the tangential velocity.5.2) Power = m 2π N r1 = u1 and 60 (14. The work done or power produced by the tangential force equals the product of the mass flow. The tangential momentum of the fluid at inlet The tangential momentum of the fluid at exit The moment of momentum at inlet The moment of momentum at exit ∴ Torque. The help of moment of momentum theorem is used for this purpose. These are the dynamic.5. As the tangential velocity varies with the radius. the work done also will be vary with the radius.5. centrifugal and acceleration effects. Power = ωτ and ω = where N is rpm. ∴ But ∴ 2π N 60 2π N (Vw1 r1 – Vw2 r2) 60 (14.1.5. Inlet Vu2 Vr1 b1 Vu1 V1 a1 u1 V2 a2 Vr2 u2 b2 Exit Figure 14. the – sign will become + ve sign. It states that the torque on the rotor equals the rate of change of moment of momentum of the fluid as it passes through the runner.1 Components of Power Produced The power produced can be expressed as due to three effects.4) Power = m (Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2) Equation (14.5.1) Depending on the direction of Vu2 with reference to Vu1.3) 2π N r2 = u2 60 (14.462 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Thus it is necessary to consider the tangential component for the determination of work done and power produced.1 Velocity triangles .5. Let Vu1 be the tangential component of the absolute velocity of the fluid at inlet and let Vu2 be the tangential component of the absolute velocity of the fluid at exit. Let r1 and r2 be the radii at inlet and exit. Let u1 be the tangental velocity at entry and u2 be the tangential velocity at exit. 14. shown in figure 14.5. τ = m (Vu1 r1 – Vu2 r2) = m Vu1 = m Vu2 = m Vu1 r1 = m Vu2 r2 (14.

The first term only will be present in Pelton or impulse turbine of tangential flow type. the degree of reaction is defined by the ratio of energy converted in the rotor and total energy converted. (Francis turbines is of this type). Vu1. In impulse reaction turbines. V2 Absolute velocities at inlet and outlet. Vr2 Relative velocities at inlet and outlet. Chapter 14 Vr12 = V12 + u12 – 2u1 V1 cos α1 .5) The degree of reaction is considered in detail in the case of steam turbines where speed reduction is necessary.Hydraulic Turbines V1. R= (V12 – V2 2 ) + ( u12 – u2 2 ) + (Vr 2 2 – Vr 12 ) (u12 – u2 2 ) + (Vr 2 2 – Vr 12 ) (14. the last two terms only will be present.5. Hydraulic turbines are generally operate of lower speeds and hence degree of reaction is not generally considered in the discussion of hydraulic turbines. From inlet velocity triangle. Power per unit flow rate (here the Vu2 is in the opposite to Vu1) (B) m (u1 Vu1 + u2 Vu2) = m 1 [(V12 – V22) + (u12 – u22) + (Vr22 – Vr12)] 2 V12 − V2 2 is the dynamic component of work done 2 u12 − u2 2 is the centrifugal component of work and this will be present only in the 2 radial flow machines ur 2 2 − Vr12 is the accelerating component and this will be present only in the reaction 2 turbines. (Vu1 = V1 cos α1) V12 + u12 − vr 12 2 463 or u1 V1 cos α1 = Vu1 u1 = (A) From outlet velocity triangle (Vu2 = V2 cos α2) Vr22 = V22 + u22 – 2 u2 V2 cos α2 or u2 V2 cos α2 = u2 Vu2 = (V22 – u22 + Vr22)/2 Substituting in Euler equation. all the terms will be present. In impulse reaction turbines of radial flow type. Vr1. In pure reaction turbines. u2 Tangential velocities at inlet and outlet. u1. Vu2 Tangential component of absolute velocities at inlet and outlet.

The main components are (1) The runner with the (vanes) buckets fixed on the periphery of the same. In larger sizes it is bolted to the runner disc. The spacing of the buckets is decided by the runner diameter and jet diameter and is generally more than 15 in number. (2) The nozzle assembly with control spear and deflector (3) Brake nozzle and (4) The casing. . This avoids interference of the incoming bucket on the jet impinging on the previous bucket. made of cast or forged steel.1 Pelton turbine The rotor or runner consists of a circular disc.6 PELTON TURBINE Fluid Mechanics and Machinery This is the only type used in high head power plants. A cut is made in the lip to facilitate all the water in the jet to usefully impinge on the buckets. Originally spherical buckets were used and pelton modified the buckets to the present shape.464 14. Buckets are fixed on the periphery of the disc. Equations are available to calculate the number of buckets on a wheel. These buckets in small sizes may be cast integral with the runner. A view of a bucket is shown in figure 14. Pelton in 1889 and all the type of turbines are called by his name to honour him.2 with relative dimensions indicated in the figure.A.1.6.6.6. Brake nozzle Casing To main pipe Horizontal shaft Pitch circle of runner bucket Spear Jet Deflector Nozzle Bend Tail race Figure 14. This type of turbine was developed and patented by L. It is formed in the shape of two half ellipsoids with a splilter connecting the two. Z = (D/2d) + 15 where D is the runner diameter and d is the jet diameter. fixed on suitable shaft. The number of buckets. Z. The buckets are also made of special materials and the surfaces are well polished. A sectional view of a horizontal axis Pelton turbine is shown in figure 14.

To avoid this a deflector as shown in figure 14. the water flow should not be stopped suddenly. A governor moves to and fro a suitably shaped spear placed inside the nozzle assembly in order to change the flow rate at the same time maintaining a compact circular jet. Chapter 14 . Meanwhile the spear will move at the safe rate and close the nozzle and stop the flow. A fixed ratio between the jet velocity and runner peripheral velocity is to be maintained for best efficiency. In this case the shaft is vertical and a horizontal nozzle ring with several nozzle is used. The spear assembly with the deflector is shown in figure 14. d 10 to 15° d Spillter C2 e E d B U I L Figure 14. To avoid this a braking jet is used which directs a jet in the opposite direction and stops the rotation.95 Notch width 1.6.3. Such a sudden action will cause a high pressure wave in the penstock pipes that may cause damage to the system.3 is used to suddenly play out and deflect the jet so that the jet bypasses the buckets. The first wastes water and the second is mechanically complex. The nozzle is designed to satisfy the need. When load drops suddenly. In side the casing the pressure is atmospheric and hence no need to design the casing for pressure. When the condition is such that the specific speed indicates more than one jet. The jets in this case should not interfere with each other. But the load on the turbine will often fluctuate and some times sudden changes in load can take place due to electrical circuit tripping. a vertical shaft system will be adopted. Even when the flow is cut off.8 T/d 0.2 Pelton turbine bucket Bucket and wheel dimensions D/d 14 – 16 B/d 2. it will take a long time for the runner to come to rest due to the high inertia.8 – 4 L/d 2.6. The casing is cast in two halves for case of assembly. It mainly serves the purpose of providing a cover and deflecting the water downwards. Some other methods like auxiliary waste nozzle and tilting nozzle are also used for speed regulation. The casing also supports the bearing and as such should be sturdy enough to take up the load.6.1 d + 5 mm The nozzle and controlling spear and deflector assembly The head is generally constant and the jet velocity is thus constant. The velocity of the jet should not be changed to meet the load fluctuation due to frequency requirements.Hydraulic Turbines T 465 Jet diameter. The quantity of water flow only should be changed to meet the load fluctuation.5 – 2. The deflector will than move to the initial position.

In this case the jet direction is parallel to the blade velocity or the tangential velocity of the runner. But due to friction Vr2 = k Vr1 and u2 = u1. and V2 cos α2 is in the opposite direction to Vu1 and hence ∆ Vu1 is additive.6.6.1 Power Development The bucket splits the jet into equal parts and changes the direction of the jet by about 165°.4) .466 Spear Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (a) Deflector in normal position (b) Figure 14.4. F = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) τ = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) r P = m (Vu1 ± Vu2) u where m is given by ρ AV at entry.6. Hence and Vu1 = V1 Vr1 = V1 – u In the ideal case Vr2 = Vr1. The velocity diagram for Pelton turbine is shown in figure 14.6. 14.1) (14. Power used in the region.6. The speed of the turbine is governed by the frequency of AC.2) (14.3) (A) (B) m (Vu1 ± Vu 2 ) u 2u (Vu 1 ± Vu 2 ) u = V12 / 2 V12 m (14. The diagram shown is for the conditions Vr2 cos β > u. The product of the pairs of poles used in the generator and the speed in rps gives the number of cycles per second.6. Hydraulic efficiency ηh = (14. Steam turbines operate at 3000 rpm or 50 rps in the areas where the AC frequency is 50 cycles per second.3 Nozzle assembly Generally the turbine directly drives the generator.6. Hydraulic turbines handle heavier fluid and hence cannot run at such speeds. As the water flows out on both sides equally axial thrust is minimal and heavy thrust bearing is not required. In many cases the speed in the range to 500 rpm.

4 can be modified by using the following relations. Equation 14.6. For various values of u.6. dη H = 2(1 + k cos β2) (1 – 2 φ) dφ ∴ φ= u 1 = V1 2 or u = 0. In fact the out let triangle will be different from the one shown it u > Vr2 cos β.5) To arrive at the optimum value of φ.4) ηH = 2u V12 × (1 + k cos β2) (V1 + u) (14.4 Velocity triangles Pelton turbine Vu1 = V1. In this case Vu2 will be in the same direction as Vu1 and hence the equation (14.6.4a) = 2(1 + k cos β2) LM u – u OP NM V V PQ 2 1 2 1 u is called speed ratio and denoted as φ.6.6. V1 ∴ ηH = 2(1 + k cos β2) [φ – φ2] (14. the power developed and the hydraulic efficiency will be different.Hydraulic Turbines Once the effective head of turbine entry is known V1 is fixed given by V1 = Cv 467 2 gH .3) will read as P = m (Vu1 – Vu2) u Chapter 14 It is desirable to arrive at the optimum value of u for a given value of V1.6) In practice the value is some what lower at u = 0.6) in (14.5 V1 (14.6.6. Vu2 = Vr2 cos β2 – u = kVr1 cos β2 – u = k(V1 – u) cos β2 – u ∴ Vu1 + Vu2 = V1 + k V1 cos β2 – u cos β2 – u = V1 (1 + k cos β2) – u(1 + k cos β2) = (1 + k cos β2) (V1 + u) Substituting in equation (14. V1 = Vu1 u Vu2 Vu2 V2 a2 Vr1 u V2 Vr2 u b2 Alternate exit triangle Vu2 u b2 Vr2 V2 u > Vr2 cos b2 Figure 14.4a) we get ηH = 2(1 + k cos β2) [0.46 V1 Substituting equation (14. this expression is differentiated with respect to φ and equated to zero.6.52] .6.5 – 0.

u = 43.8 Nm/kg/s 3. u = 67. It may be seen that in the case k = 1 and β = 180°. Vr1 = Vr2 = 28.3 Nm/kg/s 7. Vr2 = Vr1.8 cos 15 – 43.11) × 28.3 Nm/kg/s 4.6. Vr1 = Vr2 = 52.6 cos 15 – 38.4) = 17.2 = Vπ2 Vw2 = (67. u = 38.8 Vw2 = (28.2 Vw2 = (19. φ = 0.2.2 = 3804.8 cos 15 – 67. Assume β2 = 165° and Cv = 0.8 Nm/kg/s 8.2) = – 39. u = 48.6.8 W = (96 + 7.8.64) × 48 = 4529 Nm/kg/s 6.2 = 2898. φ = 0.7. φ = 0.4. Vr1 = 67.4 W = (96 – 39.2 cos 15 – 76.6 = 4348.8 Vw2 = (52.2. φ = 0. u = 19.3) × 76.5) × 57.4) × 67. The head available at a plant location is 500 m.45.8. ηH = 1 or But the actual efficiency in well designed units lies between 85 and 90%.2.8) = – 58.98 W = (96 + 54.8 m/s = Vr2 Vw2 = (76. Vj = 0.8 = 2898.8 Nm/kg/s 2. u = 57. u = 76.5.6) = – 20.8 Nm/kg/s . Vr1 = Vr2 = 38.5 W = (96 – 20. φ = 0.24) × 38. 2 × 9.81 × 500 = 96 m/s φ = 0.2.3.4 = 4348.2) = 7.98) × 19. Vr1 = Vr2 = 48 Vw2 = (48 cos 15 – 48) = – 1.468 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 1 + k cos β 2 2 100 percent.4 cos 15 – 57. Vr1 = 76.2) = 54. Example 14.6 m/s Vw2 = (57.97. φ = 0.97 1. φ = 0. For various values of φ determine the work done 1 kg.11 m/s W = (96 + 36.8 = 3804. Vr1 = Vr2 = 57.8) = 36. u = 28.8) × 43.2 × cos 15 – 28.8 × cos 15 – 19.4.24 W = (96 + 17.8.2 = 4484 Nm/kg/s 5. Vr1 = Vr2 = 19.4 Vw2 = (38.64 W = (96 – 1.3 W = (96 – 58.8.

Hydraulic Turbines The result is shown plotted in Figure 14.6.5. 5000 469 4000 3000 W 2000 1000 0.8 0.6 (a) and beyond φ = 10.6.4 by Fig 14.6 0.7 0.9 Figure 14.6. 14.4 0.6.6 (b) u Vw2 u b2 V2 V2 Vr2 Vw2 Vr2 (a) (b) Figure 14.3 0.6 Exit velocity diagrams for pelton turbine Chapter 14 .6.2 0.1 0.5 f 0.5 Variation of power with variation of φ for constant jet velocity The shape of the velocity diagram at exit up to φ = 0.45 is given by Fig.

But this does not increase in the same proportion as the size.7.8.6. In the ideal case the torque will be maximum at u = 0 or φ = 0 and zero at φ = 1.5. The actual variation of torque with speed ratio is shown in figure 14.6.a 1= 4 tu r ns 3 tur 2 turn 0° . .1 8. The power can be calculated from the torque curves.9 1. k = s 0 1 turns Points of maximum efficiency along this line 0. In the actual case power is zero even at φ is between 0.6 Values of f (= u/ 2gh) 0.6. It can be shown that the specific speed of impulse turbine is dependent on the jet diameter.9). Most units operate at a constant speed but at varying loads. 14.0 Figure 14.6. The power variation for constant value of V1with φ is shown in figure 14. Also torque is found to be zero at values less than φ = 1. or u = V1. This is done to friction and exit loss (V22/2) variation with various values of u.7 and 0. op en 48 8.5 0. It is interesting to observe the variation of efficiency with load at a constant speed (Figure 14.4 and 0. the actual power curve is not a parabola.2 0. The efficiency variation with speed ratio is similar to power versus speed ratio curve as the input V12/2 is the same irrespective of u/V1.470 12 11 10 9 Depends on position of buckets Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 60 cm pelton wheel Net brake torque reduced to values under 30 cm head Ne ed Ne ed le le op Torque.2 Torque and Power and Efficiency Variation with Speed Ratio It is useful to study the variation torque with speed. N.6. Instead of speed the dimensionless speed ratio φ can be used for generality.b 2= ns 18 0° .8 0. In the ideal case power is zero both at φ = 0 and φ = 1.m under 30 cm head en 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.7 0. (d) wheel diameter (D) ratio or called jet ratio in short. It is noted that the maximum efficiency lies in all cases between φ = 0.4 0.3 0.8. At higher heads any unit will operate at a slightly higher efficiency.4 8 tu rn s tur 6 tu rns ns -i de al to rq ue . The curve is rather flat and hence impulse turbine can be operated at lower loads with reduced losses. As the torque versus φ is not a straight line. Efficiency is some what higher in larger sizes as compared to small sizes homologous units.7 Relation between torque and speed ratio at constant head for various nozzle openings.

6.3 Figure 14. φ does not vary much and the constant made up of efficiency and Cv also does not vary much.2 Actual power with needle valve wide open Actual power with partly opened needle valve friction and windage 0. the best value of diamensional specific speed is about 17 and at that condition the wheel diameter is about 12 times the jet diameter.0 0. φ H 1/ 2 d .7 0.5 0.1 0. This is shown in figure 17.10. there is a specific value of jet speed wheel speed ratio.9 1. H 3 / 4 5/4 ∴ Ns ∝ ∝φ d d = constant φ D D Chapter 14 .6. Hence specific speed of an impulse turbine is mainly dependent on the jet diameter wheel diameter ratio.8 Speed ratio Vs power developed by pelton turbine Ns ∝ N∝ N H P 5/4 u φ φ H ∝ V1 ∝ D D D P ∝ Q H ∝ d2 V1 H ∝ d2 H H ∝ d2 H3/2 P ∝ d H3/4 H where d is the jet diameter. For single nozzle unit.4 0.6 Values of f 0.Hydraulic Turbines Power delivered to nozzle 24 Power in jet 21 18 Watts under 30 cm head 471 Ideal power (case 1) with needle valve wide open 60 cm pelton wheel power reduced to values under 30 cm head 15 12 9 6 3 0 Mechanical 0 0. Inversely at the specific speed at which efficiency is maximum.8 0.

9 Variation of efficiency with load of constant speed for an impulse turbine.10 Variation of efficiency at the D ratio for single jet inpulse turbine d 14.43 0.472 90 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Efficiency. The pressure in the runner is constant at atmospheric level. ns = Figure 14.45 12 10 8 6 0.46 fe 14 D 0. In the case of reaction turbine the potential energy is partly converted to kinetic energy in the stater guide blades.48 0.6. % 85 Single-nozzle impulse turbine under constant head 80 75 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Power output as a percentage of power output at maximum efficiency Figure 14. 100 98 96 94 Maximum efficiency. % 24 22 20 18 d D fe 0.44 0.50 0. The pressure inside the runner varies along the flow.49 0. .47 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 78 76 74 0 4 8 12 16 h 16 d 0. In the impulse turbine the potential energy available is completely converted to kinetic energy by the nozzles before the water enters the runner.42 Single-nozzle impulse turbines 20 24 28 ne bpe h 5/4 32 36 40 Normal specific speed.7 REACTION TURBINES The functioning of reaction turbines differs from impulse turbines in two aspects. 1. The remaining potential energy is gradually converted to kinetic energy and absorbed by the runner.6.

Also due to the drop in pressure in the vane passages in the reaction turbine the relative velocity at outlet is higher compared to the value at inlet. reaction turbines can be run at higher speeds.7. In the case of impulse turbine there is no drop in pressure in the bucket passage and the relative velocity either decreases due to surface friction or remains constant.7. Francis. Chapter 14 .7. 473 In the reaction turbine as it is fully flowing all blades or vanes are engaged by water at all the time. In the impulse turbine only a few buckets are engaged by the jet at a time. The other differences are that reaction turbines are well suited for low and medium heads (300 m to below) while impulse turbines are well suited for high heads above this value. 14. Francis turbine was first developed as a purly radial flow turbine by James B.46.Hydraulic Turbines 2.1 Typical sectional and front view of a modern Francis turbine.1.1 Francis Turbines Francis turbine is a radial inward flow turbine and is the most popularly used one in the medium head range of 60 to 300 m. an American engineer in 1849. As there is no such limitation. A sectional view of a typical Francis turbine of today is shown in figure 14. But the design has gradually changed into a mixed flow turbine of today. Shaft Guide blades Spiral casing 2.5 to 3D3 05 to 1D3 Guide wheel D3 Draft tube Tail race Runner From pen stock Guide blades Rotor blades Figure 14. The main components are (i) The spiral casing (ii) Guide vanes (iii) Runner (iv) Draft tube and (v) Governor mechanism. In the case of impulse turbine the speed ratio for best efficiency is fixed as about 0. In the case of reaction turbine the flow area between two blades changes gradually to accomodate the change in static pressure. Most of the machines are of vertical shaft arrangement while some smaller units are of horizontal shaft type.

The guide vane outlet angle α1 also increases from about 15° to higher values as speed increases. A larger exit flow area is made possible by the change of shape from radial to axial flow shape.7. Guide vane Pivot More area of flow Less area of flow Figure 14. This reduces the outlet velocity and thus increases efficiency.7. whose movement is controlled by the governor. The water entering the guide blades are imparted a tangential velocity by the drop in pressure in the passage of the water through the blades. The blade passages act as a nozzle in this aspect. The number of guide blades are generally fewer than the number of blades in the runner.1. The shape of the runner depends on the specific speed of the unit.2.1 Spiral Casing Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The spiral casing surrounds the runner completely.3. Guide vanee and giude wheel 14. These should also be not simple multiples of the runner blades.7. It is seen from the velocity triangles that the blade inlet angle β1 changes from acute to obtuse as the speed increases. The control mechanism will be discussed in a later section.474 14. As seen in the figure the velocity triangles are of different shape for different runners. The casing should be strong enough to withstand the high pressure.1. This leads to uniform distribution of water all along the circumference of the runner.3 The Runner The runner is circular disc and has the blades fixed on one side. These are classified as (a) slow runner (b) medium speed runner (c) high speed runner and (d) very high speed runner.7. . Water from the penstock pipes enters the spiral casing and is distributed uniformly to the guide blades placed on the periphery of a circle. Its area of cross section decreases gradually around the circumference. In this way the area of blade passage is changed to vary the flow rate of water according to the load so that the speed can be maintained constant. The shape of the runner and the corresponding velocity triangles are shown in figure 14. 14. In high speed runners in which the blades are longer a circular band may be used around the blades to keep them in position. The variation of area between guide blades is illustrated in Figure 14.2 Guide Blades Water enters the runner through the guide blades along the circumference. The development of mixed flow runners was necessitated by the limited power capacity of the purely radial flow runner. The guide blades rest on pivoted on a ring and can be rotated by the rotation of the ring.1.2. The guide blades in addition to guiding the water at the proper direction serves two important functions.7.7.

7.4 Slow speed and highspeed runner shapes. fe = 0.8 Dd (b) Figure 14. Chapter 14 a1 b1 < 90° .7.Hydraulic Turbines D1 u1 a1 V1 (a) Slow runner u1 70 < Ns < 120 b1 V1 vr1 15° £ a1 £ 25° b1 < 90° Vr1 475 (b) Medium speed runner u1 a1 V1 120 < Ns < 220 b1 < 90° vr1 180 – b1 (c) High speed runner u1 a1 V1 180 – 220 < Ns < 350 b1 vr1 (d) Very high speed runner 300 < Ns < 430 Figure 14.70 Dd = Dt (a) B D Dt ns = 304.3 Variation of runner shapes and inlet velocity triangles with specific speed In all cases. B D ns = 81 fe = 0. the outlet angle of the blades are so designed that there is no whirl component of velocity at exit (Vu2 = 0) or absolute velocity at exit is minimum.

5). 14.1. D2 4° Rotor Stator Straight divergent tube Moody’s bell mouthed tube HS Tail race Draft tube Patm Simple elbow Elbow having square outlet and circular inlet Figure 14. This loss is reduced by connecting a fully flowing diverging tube from the turbine outlet to be immersed in the tailrace at the tube outlet.476 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The runner blades are of doubly curved and are complex in shape. The loss in effective head is reduced by this arrangement.4. In the case of reaction turbines.6 Various shapes of draft tubes .4 Draft Tube The turbines have to be installed a few meters above the flood water level to avoid innundation.5 Draft tube Figure 14.7. The height of the runner along the axial direction (may be called width also) depends upon the flow rate which depends on the head and power which are related to specific speed. the loss due to the installation at a higher level from the tailrace will be significant. A draft tube arrangement is shown in Figure 14.7. These may be made separately using suitable dies and then welded to the rotor. Two such shapes are shown in figure 7.7. This reduces the pressure loss as the pressure at the turbine outlet will be below atmospheric due to the arrangement.6.7. The runners change the direction and magnitute of the fluid velocity and in this process absorb the momentum from the fluid. The draft tube thus helps (1) to regain the lost static head due to higher level installation of the turbine and (2) helps to recover part of the kinetic energy that otherwise may be lost at the turbine outlet. Also because of the diverging section of the tube the kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy which adds to the effective head. Different shapes of draft tubes is shown in figure 14.1.7.7.1 (as also in figure 14. As specific speed increases the width also increase accordingly. In the case of impulse turbines this does not lead to significant loss of head.

7.7 Velocity diagram for Francis runner Generally as flow rate is specified and the flow areas are known.5 Energy Transfer and Efficiency A typical velocity diagrams at inlet and outlet are shown in Figure 14. The height of the draft tube will be decided on the basis of cavitation.7.7.1. These are (i) Straight diverging tube (ii) Bell mouthed tube and (iii) Elbow shaped tubes of circular exit or rectangular exit.Hydraulic Turbines 477 The head recovered by the draft tube will equal the sum of the height of the turbine exit above the tail water level and the difference between the kinetic head at the inlet and outlet of the tube less frictional loss in head. . H is the height of turbine outlet above tail water level and hf is the frictional loss of head. The divergence angle in the tubes should be less than 10° to reduce separation loss. Hd = H + (V12 – V22)/2g – hf where Hd is the gain in head. Hence these may be used as the basis in calculations. The efficiency of the draft tube in terms of recovery of the kinetic energy is defined us η= Chapter 14 V12 – V2 2 V12 where V1 is the velocity at tube inlet and V2 is the velocity at tube outlet. Different types of draft tubes are used as the location demands. By varying the widths at inlet and outlet suitably the flow velocity may be kept constant also. Elbow types are used when the height of the turbine outlet from tailrace is small. This is discussed in a later section.7. Bell mouthed type gives better recovery. 14. it is directly possible to calculate Vf1 and Vf2. Vu1 u1 a1 V1 b1 V1 u2 Vf2 = V2 a2 Vr2 b2 Figure 14.

Vf1 = Q / π (D1 – zt) b1 Ω Q / π D1b1 (neglecting blade thickness) Vu1 = u1 + Vf1 / tan β1 = u1 + Vf1 cot β1 = u1 = π D1 N + Vf1 cot β1 60 π D1 N 60 ∴ Vu1 u1 can be obtained from Q1 .478 From Euler equation. b1 and N1 For other shapes of triangles. ∴ P = m Vu1 u1 E1 = Vu1 u1 The energy available in the flow per kg is Ea = g H where H is the effective head available.e. Q ρ is used by many authors in placed m . volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency and over all efficiency. Hence the hydraulic efficiency is given by ηH = For unit flow rate. gH 2 gH The values of other efficiencies are as in the impulse turbine i. From velocity triangle : Vu1 = Vf1 cot α1 . Runner efficiency or Blade efficiency This efficiency is calculated not considering the loss in the guide blades. the + sign will change to – sign as β2 will become obtuse. the energy transfered from fluid to rotor is given by Vu1 u1 gH It friction and expansion losses are neglected W=gH– V2 2 2g ∴ It may be written in this case gH – η= V2 2 2g V2 =1– 2 . In all the turbines to minimise energy loss in the outlet the absolute velocity at outlet is minimised. D1 . This is possible only if V2 = Vf2 and then Vu2 = 0. power P = m (Vu1 u1 – Vu2 u2) Fluid Mechanics and Machinery where m is the mass rate of flow equal to Q ρ where Q is the volume flow rate. As Q is more easily calculated from the areas and velocities.

At part loads the efficiency is relatively low. There is a drop in efficiency after 100% load. 600 50 100 Head 500 Value of h (m) 40 80 400 30 60 Eff ic cy ien t npu er i w 300 Po 20 40 200 n = 600 rpm 100 10 20 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 0 Brake Power = Power output (kW) Figure 14.7. Water Power = Power Input (kW) Chapter 14 .8 The efficiency curve is not as flat as that of impulse turbine.Hydraulic Turbines u1 = Vf [cot α1 + cot β1] ∴ u1Vu1 = Vf12 cot α1 [cot α1 + cot β1] Vf 2 2 Vf 1 2 V2 2 = u1 Vu1 + = u1 Vu1 + 2 2 2 479 Energy supplied to the runner is u1 Vu1 + (Assume Vf2 = Vf1) ∴ ηb= Vf 12 cot α 1 [cot α 1 + cot β 1 ] Vf 12 2 + Vf 12 cot α 1 [cot α 1 + cot β 1 ] Multiply by 2 and add and subtract Vf12 in the numerator to get ηb= 1 – In case β1 = 90° ηb= 1 – 1 1 + 2 cot α 1 (cot α 1 + cot β 1 ) 1 2 1+ tan 2 α 1 = 2 2 + tan 2 α 1 In this case Vu1 = u1 The characteristics of Francis turbine is shown in Figure 14.8.7.

0 100 8 6 4 2 0 400 300 200 100 0 Water power = Power input Tor que exe rted by w hee l t u tp u o er Efficiency ow P = r we po e ak Br Full gate opening Discharge.9. A sectional view of a kaplan turbines in shown in figure 14. The flow rate is changed without any change in head. m /s Torque.1 1.6 0.4 0. In such situations axial flow turbines are gainfully employed.2 0. The system is costly and where constant load conditions prevail.2 1.m 0.3 0.3 1.6 0. Guide blades direct the water into the chamber above the blades at the proper direction. In the discussions on Francis turbines. The water directed by the guide blades enters the runner which has much fewer blades (3 to 10) than the Francis turbine.1 0. There are many locations where large flows are available at low head. In this way a constant efficiency is achieved in these turbines.5 0.2 0 1000 1100 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 rpm 600 700 800 900 Figure 14.7. KN.7 Q = Rate of discharge 12 10 600 500 0. it was pointed out that as specific speed increases (more due to increased flow) the shape of the runner changes so that the flow tends towards axial direction.9 Francis turbine characteristics at variable speed and constant head 14.4 1. the simpler propeller turbines are installed. The speed governor in this case acts on the guide blades and rotates them as per load requirements.8 AXIAL FLOW TURBINES The popular axial flow turbines are the Kaplan turbine and propeller turbine. The blades are also rotated by the governor to change the inlet blade angle as per the flow direction from the guide blades.2 1. In such a case the specific speed increases to a higher value. In propeller turbine the blades are fixed.8. The water from supply pipes enters the spiral casing as in the case of Francis turbine.1. so Efficiency. These turbines are suited for head in the range 5 – 80 m and specific speeds in the range 350 to 900. % Power (kW) 3 .4 0.8 0. Value of φ 0.480 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The characteristics of Francis turbine at various speeds but at constant head is shown in figure 14. In the Kaplan turbines the blades are mounted in the boss in bearings and the blades are rotated according to the flow conditions by a servomechanism maintaining constant speed. the runner becomes purely axial flow type.7.0 1.8 0. This trend when continued.9 1.

Hydraulic Turbines 481 that entry is without shock. The important dimensions are the diameter and the boss diameter which will vary with the chosen speed.75.5 to 2. As the peripheral speed varies along the radius (proportional to the radius) the blade inlet angle should also vary with the radius.8. The flow ratio lies in the range 0.4.35 to 0. Shaft Guide blades Tail race Rotor blade Rotor Draft tube Figure 14.2. Typical velocity diagrams at the tip and at the hub are shown in Figure 14. At lower specific speeds the boss diameter may be higher. The speed ratio is calculated on the basis of the tip speed as φ = u/ 2 gH and varies from 1. many times the draft tube may have to be elbow type. As the head is low.1 Sectional view of kaplan furbine The number of blades depends on the head available and varies from 3 to 10 for heads from 5 to 70 m.8. u1 vu1 u1 a1 Vf1 V1 b1 a1 V1 u1 b1 Vf1 vu1 u1 u2 Vf2 = V2 b2 Vr2 Vf2 = V2 u2 b2 Vr2 (a) At Tip (b) At Hub Figure 14.2 Typical velocity diagrams for Kaplan turbine Chapter 14 Volute casing .8. The diagram is in the axial and tangential plane instead of radial and tangential plane as in the other turbines. Hence twisted type or Airfoil blade section has to be used.

In order to avoid cavitation.8. % 70 60 50 Constant rpm under constant pressure 40 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % of rated power 90 100 110 Figure 14. The load efficiency characteristic of the four types of turbines is shown in figure 14. Fi xe d bl ad e ax ia lf lo w an cis .3. 100 Kaplan 90 Impulse 80 Fr Efficiency. The process is called cavitation and the damage is called cavitation damage. Thus the part load efficiency is higher in this case. Turbine runners and pump impellers are often severely damaged by such action. the absolute pressure at all points should be above the vapour pressure. In the case of propeller turbine the part load efficiency suffers as the blade angle at these loads are such that entry is with shock. u1 Vu1 = Constant along the length of the blades or Vu1 decreases with redius. As the hydraulic efficiency is constant all along the length of the blades. This action produces very high dynamic pressure upon the adjacent solid walls and since the action is continuous and has a high frequency the material in that zone will be damaged. the liquid will then will boil at that point and bubbles of vapour will form.8.9 CAVITATION IN HYDRAULIC MACHINES If at any point in the flow the pressure in the liquid is reduced to its vapour pressure. Kaplan turbine has a flat characteristics for variation of efficiency with load.3 Load efficiency characteristics of hydraulic turbines 14. As the fluid flows into a region of higher pressure the bubbles of vapour will suddenly condense or collapse.482 Work done = u1 Vu1 (Taken at the mean diameter) ηH = u1 Vu 1 gH Fluid Mechanics and Machinery All other relations defined for other turbines hold for this type also. The flow velocity remains constant with radius.

The pressure corresponding to the water temperature of 15° C is 0.8.55 (Ns/444. To compare cavitation characteristics a cavitation parameter known as Thoma cavitation coefficient. Knowing σc the maximum value of z can be obtained as z = ha – hv – σe h (14.8.5 2 (14.6)1. The total head on a Francis turbine is 20 m.3 [Ns /444.8. It is defined as σ= ha − hr − z h (14. Chapter 14 .6]2. σ.82 H 380.17 m. For Francis runners For Kaplan runners σc = 0. The constants in the equations depends on the system used to calculate specific speed.8 σc = 0. The minimum pressure at the turbine outlet. The machine is at an elevation where the atmosphic pressure is 8.4 to 1. determine the level of the turbine outlet above the tail race. In the case of pumps such damage may occur at the suction side of the pump. In the range of specific speeds for Francis turbine σc varies from 0. obtained from experiments by Moody and Zowski. The minimum value of σ at which cavitation occurs is defined as critical cavitation factor σe. z is the height of the runner outlet above tail race and h is the total operating head.1 + 0. For high specific speed propeller units it may be desirable to place the runner at a level lower than the tailrace level.308 + G J 6. The flow will be disturbed from the design conditions.2) σc is found to be a function of specific speed.3 × 20 = 2.Hydraulic Turbines 483 Cavitation can occur in the case of reaction turbines at the turbine exit or draft tube inlet where the pressure may be below atmospheric level.43 m. z = Pa – Pv – σc h = 8.43 m above the tailrace level.5) Other empirical corrlations are Francis runner For Kaplan runner LM N OP N 380. In addition to the damage to the runner cavitation results in undesirable vibration noise and loss of efficiency. The turbine outlet can be set at 2.6) 2 (14.3) There are a number of correlations available for the value of σc in terms of specific speed.7) Example 14.8. where the absolute pressure is generally below atmospheric level.006 + 0.6 – 0.78 K σc = 0. is used. h0 can be obtained as h0 = ha – z – σc H (14.5.9. It critical cavitation factor is 0.17 – 0.4) (14. The critical factor in the installation of reaction turbines is the vertical distance from the runner to the tailrace level.78 Q 1 F N I σ = 0.8.3.8.8.625 s s c (14.1 to 0.1) where ha is the atmospheric head hr is the vapour pressure head.6 m. In reaction turbines the most likely place for cavitation damage is the back sides of the runner blades near their trailing edge.64 and in the range of specific speeds for Kaplan turbine σc varies from 0.

The governing system takes care of maintaining the turbine speed constant irrespective of the load and also cutting off the water supply completely when electrical circuits trip. The governor should be sensitive which means that it should be able to act rapidly even when the change in speed is small. Hydraulic system is used to move the spear in the nozzle or to change the positions of the guide blades because the force required is rather high. Similarly when suddenly load comes on the unit the speed will decrease.9 GOVERNING OF HYDRAULIC TURBINES Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Hydraulic turbines drive electrical generators in power plants. In hydraulic power plants the available head does not vary suddenly and is almost constant over a period of time. When the load decreases the speed will tend to rise if the water supply is not reduced. At the same time it should not hunt. The governor should step in and restore the speed to the specified value without any loss of time. So governing can be achieved only by changing the quantity of water that flows into the turbine runner. This means that the turbines should run at constant speed irrespective of the load or power output. The components of governing system are Pendulum of actuator Flyball Sleeve Attached to turbine main shaft Oil pump P2 P1 P3 c Relay or control valve a b P4 P5 Fulcrum Main lever Bell crank lever Roller Fulcrum Cam Nozzle Spear Oil sump Servomotor Spear rod Deflector From penstock Figure 14. It is also possible that due to electrical tripping the turbine has to be stopped suddenly. The movement of the spear is actuated by the governor to control the speed. As already discussed the water flow in pelton turbines is controlled by the spear needle placed in the nozzle assembly. It should not suddenly cut down the flow completely to avoid damage to penstock pipes. which means that there should be no ups and downs in the speed and stable condition should be maintained after the restoration of the speed to the rated value.1 Governing system for Pelton turbine . The frequency of generation has to be strictly maintained at a constant value. In reaction turbines the guide vanes are moved such that the flow area is changed as per the load requirements.484 14.9.

Hydraulic Turbines 485 (i) The speed sensing element which actuates the system (ii) Hydraulic power pack with suitable pump and valves. In the modern system electronic means of frequency detection is used to actuate the system. Under steady load conditions the value rod closes both inlets to the power cylinder and the spear remains at a constant position. The reverse happens when load increase on the turbine. The weights carry a sleeve which can move up and down the drive spindle. the power cylinder and the sensing system are the same. Connected to oil pressure governor piping Servomotor Spiral casing Regulating rod Regulating lever Regulating ring Turbine inlet Figure 14.9. In the older systems a centrifugal governor was used as the sensing element.9.1. The top and bottom are connected on one side to the power cylinder and to the sump on the other side. As sudden cut off is not desirable. At the some time the right side of the power cylinder is connected to the sump so that the oil in the right side can flow out. The rotation of the ring is actuated by the power cylinder when the load changes. The older type of system used in the case of pelton turbine is shown in figure 14. (iii) Distributing valve also called relay valve (iv) Power cylinder which provides the force required. The sleeve carries a lever which moves the control value in the relay cylinder. When the load decreases the turbine speeds up and the governor weights fly apart moving the sleeve up. The mechanical centrifugal governor is driven by the turbine shaft. the valve rod moves down connecting the oil supply to the left side of the power cylinder. The opposite movement takes place when the turbine speed reduces. a deflector is actuated by suitable mechanism to deflect the flow when sudden and rapid increase in speed takes place.2.9. This part of the system is shown in figure 14. The guide vanes are mounted on a ring and so mounted that these rotate when the ring rotates. In the case of reaction turbines.2 Reaction turbine governor linkage Chapter 14 . When the turbine speeds up. Oil under pressure is maintained at the central position of the realy cylinder. The piston in the power cylinder mover to reduce the flow.

12 ω As no external torque is applied and as there is no friction. Neglect friction.22 ω) 0.81 – Vp2 = 1.2 .02 × V p 2 2 g × 0. The sectional area at outlet is 1 cm2. Vj2 Dj4 = 1.486 WORKED EXAMPLES Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Problem 14.1 The flow velocity is 10–3/10–4 = 10 m/s. The energy equation is 90 – 600 × 0.12 ω) 0.05 Vj2 0.22 – 10 × 0.22 ω). The absolute velocity of Jet A = (10 – 0. Vp2 = Vj2 Dj4 / 0.2 A 20 cm pipe 600 m long with friction factor of 0.02 carries water from a reservoir to a turbine with a difference in head of 90 m. Let it rotate at an angular velocity ω.02 90 × 2 × 9.02 . Determine the diameter of the jet which will result in maximum power.22 = (10 + 0. The jets A and B exert forces in the opposite direction.05 V j 2 = Vj2 600 × 625 × 0.05 Vj2 0. 14.2 Vp = Vj Dj2 / 0.12 Solving ω = 15. Calculate the angular speed of rotation and the torque required to hold it stationary. Problem 14.2 2g 2g 600 × 0.05 Vs2/ 2g.24 = 625 Vj2 Dj4 1765.8 – – 0. The absolute velocity of jet B = 10 + 0. The friction loss in the nozzle is 0. As arm A is longer the sprinkler will rotate in the clockwise direction.1 A lawn sprinkler is shown in figure. B A 12 cm 22 cm Figure P.923 radions/second ω= 2π N . the resultant torque is zero.22.12) = 1 Nm. ∴ (10 – 0. Substituting and solving for N 60 N = 152 rpm Torque when stationary : (as mass) flow is equal = 1 kg/s = 1(Va ra – VB rb) = 1(10 × 0. The flow rate is 1ls on each side.

Assume Cv = 0. m 0.06 m or 60 mm.97 and efficiency is 88%.4 A turbine operates at 500 rpm at a head of 550 m.7 Maximum power is around Dj = 0.34 m π × 125 Doubling the speed will reduce the diameter but Ns also will be doubled and twin nozzle unit may have to be chosen.46 u = 0. the head will suggest two Francis turbines.04 0. which may not be suitable.85 132. Problem 14. π Dj2 4 × Vj g H × ρ Chapter 14 43.90 26.60 150.85 × 60 = 3. Select turbines.81 × 115 = 15230 × 103 W. the working speed of the turbine is required.10 Vj. A higher speed of operation say 500 rpm will give Ns Ω 60. m/s 40. Power = η m gH = η .81 × 115 = 21. Power = 15 × 103 × 9.18 π m = (π Dj2/4) Vj × 1000 51. A jet of 20 cm is used. A single nozzle unit can be selected.39 19.92 33. In order to calculate the specific speed.07 46. Problem 14.05 kW .46 determine the pitch diameter of the runner.25 = 30. Let us try impulse turbine : operating at 125 rpm.85 m/s 21.40 kg/s 95.3 At a location selected for installation of a hydro electric plant.46 ∴ D= 2 × 9. Which is for a narrow rotor.Hydraulic Turbines or Vj2 (1. power in the jet is determined as m Vj2 / 2 Dj.64 Power in jet = 487 m V12 / 1000 kW 2 50.26.08 0. This is a problem for which there could be a number of solutions. Ns = 15. For convenience of maintenance it is desired to select two units for the plant. At first sight. the head available was estimated as 115 m and water flow rate was estimated as 15 m3/s. 12 pairs of pole generator) Ns = 250 60 15230 × 10 3 / 2 115 1.53 This is not a suitable range for Francis turbine.06 0.19 27. If φ = 0. Determine the specific speed of the machine.8 Solving by trial by assuming Dj . Diameter : Assuming speed ratio of 0. Let us try 250 rpm (for 50 cycle operation.05 + 37500 Dj4) = 1765.

484 × 4 IJ d= G H 4 × π × 79.296 Assume 4 jets.5 At a location for a hydroelectric plant.46.45 m/s Blade velocity Runner diameter u = 0.5 =0.55 m/s D= 36.9 kW = 14.81 × 335 Jet velocity is next calculated Vj = 0. F Q × 4I d= G H π V JK j 0. φ = 0.81 × 550 × 9. Blade velocity coefficient is 0.5 = 0. u = 0.46 × 79.5 F 5. not suitable should be at least 10.77 m 60 πN π × 500 Problem 14.86 × 1000 × 9.4 m π × 500 Jet diameter assuming single jet. then F 5.97 2 × 9.D= = = 1.4 = = 4.022 A single jet pelton turbine is suitable Vj = 0.81 × 550 = 46.1482 m.97 2 × 9.5 d .45 K 0. Assume Cv = 0.98.81 × 335 = 79.296 m D 1.46 × 0.45 K 0.55 × 60 = 1.92 Dimensionless specific speed is = 0. The power availability with an overall efficiency of 86% was 15500 kW.484 m3/s 0.484 × 4 IJ =G H π × 79.81 × 550/1000 4 = 14517. The unit is proposed to run at 500 rpm.35 .45 = 36.98 2 × 9. the head available (net) was 335 m.97 ∴ Power = 0.46 Vj u = 0.488 Vj = 0.72.85 × 2g H Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π × 0.2 2 × 1000 × 0. d 0. If the bucket outlet angle proposed is 165° check for the validity of the assumed efficiency First flow rate is calculated Q= 15500000 = 5. D = 9.35 m/s u= π DN 60 u 60 × 46.97 2 × 9.518 × 106 W Ns = 500 60 145178 × 10 6 550 5 / 4 = 11.9.81 × 550 .

81 × 335) = 0.97 and φ = 0.6.55 = 1.46. 14.55 Outlet Vr2 = 0. 38.97 2 × 9. Assume Cv = 0.5 The velocity diagrams are given above Vu1 = 79.55(79.8 = 43 m/s Chapter 14 . A Pleton turbine running at 720 rmp uses 300 kg of water per second.45 15° ur = 36.6 = 40. Also find the diameter of the runner and jet.16 – 36.Hydraulic Turbines may be suggested Per jet.61) = 2962.8 Vr1 = 47.74 Vu2 40.8 15° 43 Figure P.6 m/s u = 0.6 – 40.6 = Vu1 u = 40. The velocity diagram is shown in figure V1 = 88.55 Vr1 = 43. Ns = 500 60 15500000 / 4 3355 / 4 489 = 11.9 × 47.9 36.44 Dimensionless Ns = 0. The bucket deflect the jet by 165°.9.81 × 425 = 88.51 Figure P.9 (9. If the head available is 425 m determine the hydraulic efficiency.8 0.9 × Vr1 = 39. Problem 14.16 Inlet V1 = Vu1 = 79. Blade velocity coefficient is 0. 14.45.46 × 88.6 Vj = Cv 2 g H = 0.8 m/s Vr2 = 0. Vu2 = 38. overall efficiency < hydraulic efficiency.8 m/s Vr1 = 88.45 + 1.9 Nm/kg ηH = 2962.0208 ∴ acceptable Such units are in operation in Himachal Pradesh.8 = 47.61 m/s ∴ W/kg = 36.9 or 90% Assumed value is lower as it should be because.

74 m/s Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Power = 300 × 40.06565 Overall efficiency = 1093.6 2 u × 60 40.5 d 0.3 IJ H π × 88.661 × 106 W Figure P. The jet is defleted by 160° by the bucket.082 = = 16.83 – 25 = 8.5 D= F 4Q IJ d=G HπV K 1 = FG 4 × 0.8 = 0.490 Vu1 = 88.5 × 10 3 720 = 3.79 .7 u = 25 m/s Exit Vu2 8.5 × 10 3 = 0.661 × 106 × 2 = 87.9286 = 92.7 The jet velocity in a pelton turbine is 65 m/s.81 × 425 1093.3 Vr1 = 40 m/s 25 20° V2 36 1 u1 1.5 kW Hydraulic efficiency = 1093.5 = 0.8743 or 87.83 m/s In the opposite direction of Vu1 hence addition P = 900 × 25 (65 + 8.74)/1000 = 1093. V = V = 65 m/s V1 = Vu1 = 65 m/s u = 25 m/s Vr1 = 65 – 25 = 40 m/s Vr2 = 0.6 + 0.06565 m D 1.86% 300 × 88. Determine the power developed and hydraulic efficiency of the turbine for a flow rate of 0.83 12.8 × 60 = = 1.37% ηH = 900 × 65 2 Exit loss =m V2 2 2 .9 m3/s. 14.8 (88.43% 300 × 9. Vu2 = 36 cos 20 – 25 = 33. 60 4255 / 4 Ns = Problem 14.9.83) = 1.5 × 10 3 × 2 = 0.9 × Vr1 = 36 m/s As 36 cos 20 = 33. The peripheral velocity of the runner is 25 m/s.82 < 25 the shape of the exit triangle is as in figure.082 m π × 720 πN 0.6 K 0.6 m/s Vu2 = 43 cos 15 – 40. The blade friction coefficient is 0.

37 . flow rate is to be calculated.99 So a single jet unit will be suitable.165 m Volume flow in a jet = π × 0.75 IJ H 2 × π × 94.13 = 43.81 × 1500 ∴ Q = 1. A Pelton turbine is to produce 15 MW under a head of 480 m when running at 500 rpm. The power available is estimated at 20. The head available at a location was 1500 m. It is proposed to use a generator to run at 750 rpm.97. If D/d = 10.35 = 103.75.13 = 2. The specific speed is calculated to determine the number of jets.Hydraulic Turbines V22 = 362 + 252 – 2 × 36 × 25 × cos 20 = 229.000.46 15 × 10 6 Q= = 3. The value of overall efficiency is necessary for the determination.55 ∴ Exit loss of power = 491 900 × 229.000 kW. determine the number of jets required.81 × 480 = 94.87 × Q × 1000 × 9. Chapter 14 Assume η0 = 85%. Ns = 750 60 20.000 1500 5 / 4 = 5.56225 m3/s . In order to determine the jet diameter. 60 480 5 / 4 Problem 14. It is assumed as 0.87 20. π × 500 d = 0.01 m3/s 4 Total required = 3.75 m3/s 0.000 = 0.5 The new diameter of the jets d′= FG 4 × 3.13 m/s u = 0. ∴ Two jets will be sufficient.85 × 1000 × 9.97 2 × 9.3 m/s D= ∴ 43.8.9.165 2 × 94. Cv = 0. Determine the mean diameter of the runner and the number of buckets.3 × 60 = 1.000.1593 m Ns = 15 × 10 6 500 = 14.81 × 480 Vj = 0.65 m. Investigate whether a single jet unit will be suitable. Estimate the number of jets and their diameter. 0. φ = 0.46 × 94.13 K = 0.3 × 103 W 2 Problem 14.

8 = 18. The flow rate was determined as 20 m3/s. the value of Cv is required.667 .28 = 90.95 m π × 750 1. = 5 × 14. The plant is located at a distance of 2 m from the entry to the penstock pipes along the pipes.10.4 × 0.46 × 60 = D ∴ D = 1.87 × 20 × 1000 × 9. d = 0.029 ∴ Total loss of head ∴ hf = 0.46. It is assumed as 0.81 × 531.46 m/s π DN = u.72 m 4 Net head = 550 – 18. The value of φ is assumed as 0. ∴ u = 166. determine how many single jet unit running at 300 rpm will be required.81 × 1500 = 166.97 2 × 9. the head is estimated as 550 m.029.56225 = π d2 × 166. Solving.81 × 2 = 14.492 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery To determine the jet velocity. D = 2 m.1093 m 4 In order to determine the runner diameter.6863 × 10 6 300 = 18.029 × 2000 × 3. 60 531. f = 0.9 + 15 Problem 14. The specific speed is to be determined first.1093 2d 24 numbers. = 8.6863 × 106 W Ns = 90.97 V = 0.4 × 0. the blade velocity is to be calculated. Vp × Ap × number of pipes = Q = 20 m3/s ∴ Vp = 20 Fπ2 GH 4 2 × 2 = 3.95 D + 15 = + 15 2 × 0. 60 ∴ 166. The number of buckets = Z .285 / 4 .183 m/s I JK L = 2000 m.72 = 531.4 m/s ∴ 1. Additional losses amount to about 1/4th of frictional loss. Net head = Head available – loss in head.98 m.28 m Power = η × Q × ρ × g × H = 0. Assuming an overall efficiency of 87%. Two pipes of 2 m diameter are proposed with a friction factor of 0. Frictional loss = f L Vp2/ 2g D.1832 / 2 × 9.4. At a location selected to install a hydro electric plant.

46 × 100. Vj = Cv 2 g H = 0. 60 531. Determine the jet and runner diameters.46. 0.5 F 4 × 20 IJ Jet diameter.28 5 / 4 = 10. d = 0. It drives a 15 MW generator. Alternate will be three single jet units.81 × 310 The velocity of the jet is determined from the head and Cv ∴ Q= Vj = 0.05 m/s π d2 × Vj = Q ∴ 4 F 4Q I d= G H π V JK j 0.93 m 300 π 60 Jet speed ratio = 2. Suitable In this case Ns = 90. Discussions about suitability of single jet unit.98. then.28 = 100.35 m and Jet speed ratio : 8. the speed and specific speed of the runner.034 493 This is within the range for a single jet unit. The following data refers to a Pelton turbine.6863 × 10 6 / 3 300 . Jet ratio is 12. ∴ D = = 2. From the power and efficiencies the flow rate is determined ηT ηg Qρ gH = 15 × 106 15 × 106 = 6.11.05. The speed ratio is 0.29 Jet speed ratio is about 10.95 × 0.3.16 m/s Chapter 14 .05 × 60 π DN = 0.95 = 6 too low. d = 0.77.86 × 1000 × 9. Nozzle velocity coefficient is 0.Hydraulic Turbines Dimensionless specific speed = 0.5 m (farily high) 0.81 × 310 = 76.43 = 35.98 × 2 × 9. Dimensionless value = 0.5 Consider a twin jet unit in which case.018 Hence a three jet unit can be suggested.0372 m3/s 0.43 m/s Runner tangential velocity is u = 0.98 2 × 9. Discussion of other consideration follow.81 × 531.5 0. Problem 14. The effective head is 310 m. low side. d = G H π × 100.46 × 76.05 K = 0. The generator and turbine efficiencies are 95% and 86% respectively.46 × 100. If three jets are suggested.

6632 H 1/ 2 [30100.4093 d2 H1/2 P = ηo × ρ g Q H = 0. φ = 0.3171 m Jet speed ratio is D = 12.25 H1.2096 D D Problem 14. The absolute velocity at the exit is 7 m/s.25 MW. Also find the absolute velocity at entrance. where N is rps.73 d2 H1. with a flow rate of 12 m3/s.0836 H1/2 πd –1 N = 0.0372 × 4 × Vj = Q.8 = 176.25 = 0. the .3171 = 3. the dimensionless specific speed is 0.71 rpm πD 6 176.25 D = 115.25 / 549 H1. Cv = 0. Show that for the following constants.73 d2H1.48 Vj = 0. The flow velocity at inlet is 9.12.5]1/2 / 10001/2 g1.068 d dH 1. ηo = 90%. u = 0.61 15 × 10 .5 = 0. ρ ( gH )5 / 4 1/ 2 Q= π d2 π d2 × Vj = × 0.9 × 1000 × 9.98 2 g H1/2 = 2.48.5 m/s.98 [2g H]1/2 4 4 = 3.43 LM N OP Q 0.48 × 0. = 8. The outer diameter of a Francis runner is 1. The speed of operation is 430 rpm.5 N= ∴ ∴ u .6632 H1/2 D Ns = 0. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery πd 2 6. The power developed is 12. 60 N= ∴ D = 12 × 0.16 × 60 / π × 3.13.764 60 3105 / 4 Ns = Problem 14.81 × 3. For shockless entry determine the angle of the inlet guide vane.8 m The turbine rotor speed is determined from the tangential velocity u × 60 = 35. Total head is 115 m.494 Jet diameter is found from flow rate and jet velocity. d π DN = u.2096 d . d = 4 π × 76.4093 d2 H1/2 × H = 30100.98 D Ns = N P .4 m.

25 As the inner diameter is not known blade angle at outlet cannot be determined.52) ∴ β1 = 84. A Francis turbine developing 16120 kW under an a head of 260 m runs at 600 rpm.43 m Ns = 12. The exit velocity at the draft tube outlet is 16 m/s.07 m 9.5 32.9029 or 90.39 m/s Vu1 > u1 ∴ The shape of the inlet Velocity triangle is as given. Problem 14. The runner outside diameter is 1500 mm and the width is 135 mm.52 Vu1 = 32.52 m/s 60 60 Vu1 = 32. The runner speed As Power developed 12.4 = = 31.07 – 2.81 Head loss in the absolute velocity at exit = ∴ 72 = 2.81 × 260 ηo = 0.14. Also find the guide vane outlet angle : Power developed 16120 × 10 3 Overall efficiency = = Hydraulic power 7 × 1000 × 9.5 = 8.39 – 31. head equal for Euler work = m Vu1 u1/g = Figure P.5 / (32.Hydraulic Turbines 495 runner blade angle at inlet and the loss of head in the unit. Assume zero whirl at exit.39 × 3152 .52 + 32.25 × 10 6 430 . Assuming zero whirl velocity at exit and neglecting blade thickness determine the overall and hydraulic efficiency and rotor blade angle at inlet.5 m 2 × 9.392]0.77° Total head = 115 m. 14.81 Loss of head = 115 – 104.13 9.29% Chapter 14 .75 m/s 32.5 m/s Vu2 = 0. Guide blade angle αr tan α1 = Blade inlet angle β1 tan β1 = 9. = m Vu1 u1 = 12 × 103 × Vu1 × 31.25 × Solving 106 u1 = πDN π × 430 × 1.5 = [9. = 104. = 223.39 m/s u1 = 31.12 60 115 1.35° V1 = (Vf12 + Vu12)0.5 = 33.39 ∴ α1 = 16.51 a1 b1 Vf1 = 9. Also fluid the specific speed. The flow rate is 7 m3/s .

14 Problem 14.12 m/s 60 Vu1 = 0.97.9.81) / 260 = 0. The diameter and width at inlet are 1310 mm and 380 mm.9468 = u1 Vu1 / gH u1 Vu1 = 0.58 m3/s Hydraulic efficiency = Overall efficiency/(Mechanical efficiency × Volumetric efficiency) ∴ ∴ ηH = 0.98% π × 1.496 Assuming no friction and other losses.9468 × 9.4 – 47. The overall efficiency is 0. The flow rate Q = P / ηo gH = 2555 × 103 / 0. Vu1 = ηH (gH)/u1 u1 = π DN / 60 = ∴ Vu1 > u ∴ The shape of the velocity triangle is as given.81 × 25 = 11.81 × 260 / 847. Hydraulic efficiency Fluid Mechanics and Machinery V2 2 = H − 2g / H F GH I JK where V2 is the exit velocity into the tailrace ηH = (260 – (162/2×9.4 ∴ ∴ α1 = 12.08° tan β1 = 11/(51.9498 or As Vu2 is assumed to be zero.12) β1 = 68. At the outlet these are 1100 mm and 730 mm. the guide blade outlet angle and the flow velocity at outlet.98. π D1b1 Vw1 = 51. 14.9 × 9.98 × 0. The whirl is zero at exit.4 m/s 7 Q = = 11 m/s π × 15 × 0.12 = 51.25 The specific speed of the unit = It is on the lower side.12 a1 Vr1 V1 b1 Vf1 = 11 tan α1 = 11 / 51.81 × 25 = 232.46 Figure P.5 × 600 = 47. ηm = 0. Vf1 = 94. A small Francis turbine develops 2555 kW working under a head of 25 m.97 = 0.135 . The runner blade angle at inlet is 135° along the direction of the blade velocity.15.74° 600 60 16120000 260 1.9 / 0. Determine the runner speed. β is the angle taken with the direction of blade velocity.4 u1 = 47. whirl velocity at inlet. Assume ηv = 0.9498 × 9.2 m . = 38.

385 × tan (180 – 135) = 7.26 m/s 60 60 4. The outer diameter and width are 2 m and 0.1 × 2 × 0.27 = 8 m/s ∴ u2 = 8/tan 16 = 27.1 × 0.99 a1 Vf1 7.26 The exit triangle is right angled tan (180 – β2) = ∴ Specific speed 180 – β2 = 15.59 16.9 m/s Vr2 16° u2 V2 = Vf2 π D2 N π × 1.9.99 m/s u1 = 2 497 u1 = 19.58.16 Chapter 14 . = 27.27 m. 60 × 25 1.2 × 0. Determine.9 ∴ α1 = 31.59 m/s = V2 Blade velocity at outlet u2 = π D2 N π × 1.1 × 282. Vu1 = 11.16.31 × 0.25 Problem 14.385 m/s tan (180 – 135) = Vf1 / (u1 – Vu1) ∴ u1 – Vu1 = 7. N = 4 × 60/π D = 19.2 = 0 ∴ u1 = 19.16 m.24° = N H P 5/4 Ns = 282. The whirl velocity at outlet is zero.4 2555000 = 134.385 / 11. 60 60 Solving N = 444 rpm Figure P. Assume ηH = 90%.2 u1 – 7.1 m/s. speed and blade angle at inlet and guide blade angle.4 = = 16. 14.73 = 4.385 u1 – 232. A Francis turbine works under a head of 120 m. The outlet blade angle is 16°.385 V1 Vr 135° Figure P. The outlet velocity diagram is a right angled triangle as shown Vf2 = Vf1 × D1 b1 / D2b2 = 8.2 m and 0.385) = 232.4 rpm 60 tan α1 = 7. The flow velocity at inlet is 8.37 Vu 1 = 11.38 = 7.37 m/s. 14.37 × 60 / π × 1.76°.63° Vf 2 = 11. power.Hydraulic Turbines The flow velocity at inlet Vf1 = 11.55/π × 1.15 π DN .58/π × 1.31 = 282.2 × N = u2.385 u1 (u1 – 7. The inner diameter and width are 1. β2 = 164.16 / 1.

04 = 0. 14.8 α1 = 19.44 m/s Vu1 = 29.81 × 120 .5 − 22. The blade inlet angle is 120 with the direction of wheel velocity.6) or ∴ Speed ratio u12 – 4.8 KW u1 Vu1 = 1220.09 m/s 1 .9732)1/2 = 26. Vu1 = = 22.16 ∴ β1 = 161° Flow rate = π D1 b1 Vf1 = π × 2 × 0.498 u1 = ηH = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery π D1 N π × 2 × 266.2 2 × 9.1 46.9 × 9.81 × 81 = 7.04 m2/s2 Flow ratio = 0.67 × 103/103 P = 1220.81 × 8.55° tan (180 – β1) = Vf 1 u1 − Vu 1 = 8. Solving.5 m/s 60 60 u1 Vu1 0.2.17 An inward flow reaction turbine of the Francis type operates with a flow rate of 1.44 – 4.143 m3/s Power = 0. The flow ratio is 0.8 m/s gH 46.4 = = 46.1 22.5 u1 Vu a1 Vf1 V1 Vr1 b1 u1 > Vu1 .16 × 8.8 Figure P. Determine runner diameter.67 m3/s runs at 416 rpm.842 + 7.973 = u1 – 4.81 × 1.67 × 103 = 731. β1 > 90° Vu1 = u1 – 7.6 tan 60 u1 Vu1 = 731.6 u1 – 731. the power developed and the speed ratio Power developed = 0. The available head is 81 m. u1 = 29. The shape of the inlet triangle is shown.04 = u1 (u1 – 4.6 = 24.2 = Vf 1 2g H .143 × 103 / 103 = 8627 kW Ns = 444 60 8627 × 10 2 1205 / 4 = 54.72 Problem.14. V1 = (24.8 × 103/1.1 = 8.973 m/s The shape of the velocity triangle is as shown. ∴ Vf1 = 0.92 × 81 × 9.9 × 120 × 9. tan α1 = ∴ Vf 1 Vu1 = 8.84 m/s u1 φ = V . Hydraulic efficiency is 92%.

b1 = 0.18 Determine the diameters and blade angles of a Francis turbine running at 500 rpm under a head of 120 m and delivering 3 MW. Vf1 = 0.79 Solving D1 = 1.14 2 g H = 0.193 × 500 = = 31.034 m3/s 10 3 × 9. D2 = 0.44 60 ∴ D = 1.1193 m. The hydraulic efficiency is 90% and the overall efficiency is 84%.81 × 120 × 0.615 m/s u2 b2 Vr2 Vu1 u1 a1 b1 Vf2 = V2 Vr Figure P. 60 811.84 Q = π D1b1 Vf1 = π D1 × 0.18 The outlet triangle is as shown as Vu2 = 0. Vu is required 1 0. b2 = 0.5 D1 and b1 = 0.79 m/s From the overall efficiency and power delivered Q= 3 × 10 6 = 3.9 = u1 Vu1 gH Chapter 14 .14 2 × 9. Assume flow ratio as 0.Hydraulic Turbines ∴ φ= 499 29.128 26.5° (23.14 and D2 = 0. assuming Vf2 = Vf1 tan (180 – β2) = ∴ Solving 6.5965 m.81 × 120 = 6.193 m.44 = 1.09 a1 Vf V1 Vr 1 u Vu 120° π D1 N = 29.615 β2 = 156.17 = 31. 14.23 m/s 60 60 u2 = 15.2386 m u1 = ∴ π D1 N π × 1.53 Problem 14.5°) To solve inlet angles.25 Figure P.35 m Ns = 1220 × 10 3 416 .79 15.1 D1.1 D1 × 6. 14.

5 Figure P.9482 or 94.79 33.00596 V12 = 10 ∴ ∴ V1 V12 V1 60° Vf 120° L OP 10 =M N 0.79 33.00596 Q 0. Determine the hydraulic efficiency assuming zero whirl at exit and constant flow velocity.10893 V12 + 0.93 − 31.6 OD and width as 0.342 1.93 ∴ α1 = 11. 14.23 Vf 1 Vu1 Vu1 > u1. Assume constant flow velocity and zero whirl at exit.1372 V1 1732 .767 = 0.33 m/s u = 1.33 = 8.1372 × 0.9397 .61 × 8. the method adoped is as below. u = Vu + Vf tan 60 (1) (2) = 0. Determine the runner diameter. and blade angles.23 ∴ β1 = 68. Assume ID = 0.3420 V1 is avaivable. The guide vane outlet angle is 20°. As no velocity value Vu = V1 cos 20 = 0.500 ∴ Vu1 = Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 0.9397 V1 Vf = V1 sin 20 = 0.342 V1 = 1.61 m/s Vu1 = 0.767 m/s ηH = 10.33 = 10.18 = 9. Assume no losses other than at exit.2 and blade blockage is 8 percent of flow area at inlet. The velocity diagram is as shown in figure.82% 9.9 × 9.93 m/s 31.10 D.81 × 10 Problem 14.3° Problem 14.1093 + 0.20 A Francis turbine delivers 16 MW with an overall efficiency of 85 percent and a hydraulic efficiency of 91 percent. when running at 350 rpm under a head of 100 m.1372 × 9.9397 × 9. .81 0. (3) Work done = headlosses (all expressed as head) Vf 2 u .9397 V1 + 0. The flow ratio is 0.81 9. The blade inlet angle is 120°. V12 = 10 – 2 × 9.81 × 120 = 33.19 In an inward flow reaction turbine the working head is 10 m. ∴ The triangle is as shown tan α1 = = 6.32° tan β2 = 6. Vu =H– g 2g 20° u Vu 2 0.

08) D2 = 19.85 × 9.78 a1 8.86 30.Hydraulic Turbines Overall efficiency = = 501 Power delivered ρQ g H ∴ Q= Power delivered ρη0 gH 16 × 10 6 = 19.1881 π × 0.81 × 100 2g H Chapter 14 Q = π D b Vf (1 – 0.1881 m3/s 1000 × 0.92 D = 2.74 m.86 17.86 m/s 19. Flow ratio = ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ Vf Vf = flow ratio × 2 g H = 0.64 m u1 = ηH = πD1 N π × 2.21 m/s.2 2 × 9.3° (as in figure) or 164.78 β1 = 15.78 m/s Vu1 < u1 ∴ The velocity diagram is as in figure Inlet 50.1 × 8.08).78 ∴ Guide blade outlet angle is 26.20 8.81 × 100 gH ∴ Vu1 = 17. 14.86 × (1 – 0.74 × 350 = = 50.13 b2 Exit Figure P.1881 = π D × 0.21 17.