P. 1
Consumers and (1)

Consumers and (1)

|Views: 37|Likes:
Published by Sagar Patel

More info:

Published by: Sagar Patel on May 19, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/22/2011

pdf

text

original

Consumers and brands: a study of the impact of self-image congruence on brand preference and satisfaction

Ahmad Jamal Lecturer in Marketing, Cardiff Business School, Cardiff, UK Mark M.H. Goode Lecturer in Quantitative Methods and Marketing, Cardiff Business School, Cardiff, UK

Keywords

Brands, Consumer behaviour, Jewellery, Customer satisfaction, United Kingdom

Introduction
It is a well-known fact that consumer products have significance that goes far beyond their utilitarian, functional, and commercial value (Czikszentmihalyi and Rochberg-Halton, 1981; Ericksen, 1996; Leigh and Gabel, 1992; Levy, 1959; Mick, 1986). Consumers do not ``consume products for their material utilities but consume the symbolic meaning of those products as portrayed in their images'' (Elliot, 1997, p. 286). Thus the products that are consumed are not only ``bundles of attributes that yield particular benefits'' (Holt, 1995, p. 1) but they are capable of signifying symbolic meaning to consumers. This was confirmed by a recent study by Bhat and Reddy (1998) who reported that brands have both functional as well as symbolic significance for consumers. The symbolic meaning, which is attached to brands, is often communicated through the use and consumption of brands (Gottdeiner, 1985; McCracken, 1986). The implication for brand managers is that they have to manage the relationship between their respective brands and the meanings that consumers associate with those brands. In this context, brand managers often spend millions of pounds every year to create and support brand images, which, they hope, are consistent with the symbolic meaning of brands as well as with consumers' self images. This is due to the fact that the impact of brand symbolism depends upon the interrelationship between a brand's perceived image and the consumer's selfimage (Zinkham and Hong 1991). This paper reports findings from a research study which was conducted to determine the effect of selfimage brand image congruity on consumers' brand preference and satisfaction in the precious jewellery market in the UK.
The research register for this journal is available at http://www.mcbup.com/research_registers

Abstract

Previous research indicates that the self-image product image congruity (commonly known as self-image congruence) can affect consumers' product preferences and their purchase intentions. Self-image congruence can also facilitate positive behaviour and attitudes toward products. This paper reports findings from a research study which was conducted to determine the effect of self-image congruity on brand preference and satisfaction in the precious jewellery market in the UK. A questionnaire was sent to 500 consumers of precious jewellery in five major cities of the UK. Results indicate that selfimage congruity was a very strong predictor of consumers' brand preferences and a good predictor of consumer satisfaction. Respondents with higher levels of self-image congruity were more likely to prefer the brand and enjoy higher levels of satisfaction with the brand as compared to those with lower levels of self-image congruity. The paper discusses the implications for brand managers so that they can position their brands in an effective way.

Precious jewellery is defined as jewellery which is manufactured of precious metals such as gold, silver, or platinum, with or without gemstone(s). According to an industry estimate, the UK precious jewellery market in 1999 was worth £1,750 million (Mintel 1999). The remainder of this paper is organised in seven sections. The next section reviews the literature related to self-image congruity. In the following section, the measures adopted for the current study are described. The next section reports the hypotheses; data collection and data analysis are reported in the following two sections respectively. This is followed by the last section, which reports conclusion and implications.

Literature review
Self concept
Self concept may be defined as ``the totality of the individual's thoughts and feelings having reference to himself as an object'' (Sirgy, 1982; Wylie, 1961). An exploration of self-concept, which is apparently ``a cognitive appraisal of the attributes about oneself'' (Hattie, 1992 cited in Abe et al., 1996) can help marketers to understand the way consumers make choices in the context of symbolic meanings attached to various brands (Onkvisit and Shaw, 1987). The self-concept is basically a cognitive structure which is in many ways associated with strong feelings or behaviours. On the basis of this one can argue that self-concept is the knowledge of oneself which includes the driving thrust of other behaviours (Zinkham and Hong, 1991). In an earlier work, Grubb and Grathwohl (1967) postulated that selfconcept is formed in an interaction process between an individual and others, and that the individual will strive for selfenhancement in the interaction process.
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at http://www.emerald-library.com/ft

Marketing Intelligence & Planning 19/7 [2001] 482±492 # MCB University Press [ISSN 0263-4503]

[ 482 ]

personal attributes. 1991). relationships. the Ford Escort. Markus and Kunda... Solomon. Mehta. 5).. Graeff (1996) found that consumers' evaluations of publicly consumed brands were more affected by the congruence between brand image and ideal self-image than actual self-image. Individuals are expected to have multiple selves (Markus and Kunda. Graeff (1996) looked into the congruence between brand image and two types of self-images (actual self-image and ideal self-image) and consumers' evaluation of two types of brands (publicly and privately consumed). 1996. Sirgy. consumers use products to demonstrate their self-concepts to themselves (Sirgy. Sirgy. The congruence between self-image and product image is also positively related to consumers' product evaluations (Graeff. 1982). 1996. 1999). Schiffman and Kanuk. Sirgy et al. taking the form of designer names [ 483 ] . 1995. Social self. 1996. However. For instance. . 1991. That is ``the more similar a consumer's self-image is to the brand's image. 413). see also Sirgy et al. 1991.. Following in the footsteps of others in the self-concept research (for instance. 2000): . Zinkham and Hong. 1999. 1986) whereby they act differently in different situations and with different individuals. cars. A variety of different conceptualisations for self-concept have been used in the literature. maintain and enhance their self-concept (Zinkham and Hong. Kassarjian. 1971. Goode Consumers and brands: a study of the impact of self-image congruence on brand preference and satisfaction Marketing Intelligence & Planning 19/7 [2001] 482±492 Others argue that self-concept encompasses a variety of things such as ``role identities. The self-image congruity facilitates positive behaviour and attitudes toward products and brands (Ericksen. 1991). Mehta. . 1982).H. . 1997. we attempt to measure the impact of self-image congruity on brand preferences in the precious jewellery market. self-image congruity may not be an important factor in the purchase and evaluation of all product categories. Sirgy. whereas actual and ideal congruence have equal effects on consumers' evaluations of privately consumed brands. Products that are conspicuous in nature and which rely heavily on images might lend themselves most readily to self-concept moderation (Mehta. branding in the precious jewellery market largely exists in the mid to higher end of the market. 1996). and other symbols that individuals use for the purpose of self creation and self-understanding'' (Schouten. and so on). 1996). beer. found that a relationship did exist between self-image congruity and intention to purchase the automobile. p. 2000). 1991). Sirgy. 1982. How an individual in fact sees himself/herself. cameras soft drinks. Ericksen. clothing. the theory has never been tested in the precious jewellery market. consumers often buy products or brands that are perceived to be similar to their own self-concept (Graeff. How an individual feels others see him/herself. p. 1986. This results in what is often described as self-image product image congruity ± or in short ``self-image congruity'' (Sirgy et al. 1982. Wallendorf and Arnould. How an individual would like to see himself/herself. Previous research indicates that the selfimage congruity can affect consumers' product preferences and their purchase intentions (Ericksen. How an individual would like others to see him/herself. Mehta. Zinkham and Hong. 1986). Markus and Nurius. 1999. Ericksen (1996) in her study involving European consumers related to an American automobile. Ideal social self. The perceptions of self are closely related with the personality in the sense that individuals tend to buy brands whose personalities closely correspond to individuals' own self-images (Schiffman and Kanuk. possessions. Actual self. In this study. Thus consumers might prefer brands that have images compatible with their perceptions of self (Belk et al. Sirgy et al. 1997). In other words. 1999. fantasies. 1982. 1991. Ideal self. 1996. this assumption has been challenged by research in the last couple of decades.Ahmad Jamal and Mark M. 1999. including the following (see for example Hawkins et al. 1985. credit cards. 1988). However. the self-expression process has been based on the assumption that a person has a stable set of personality traits and therefore he or she should behave in a similar way across different contexts (Aaker. 1983. 1999) the actual self-concept was used in the present study. Although the self-image congruity theory has been tested across many product categories (such as shoes. According to Mintel (1999). The underlying idea is that different personality traits can be accessed or can become differently salient in different social situations (Aaker.. Self-image congruity The significance of self-concept lies in the fact that in many cases what a consumer buys can be influenced by the image that the consumer has of him/herself (Zinkham and Hong. individuals express themselves by choosing brands whose personalities are perceived to be congruent with their own personalities (Aaker. 1991). 1999. consumers define. 1997. Traditionally.. As purchase and consumption are good vehicles for self-expression. the more favourable their evaluations of that brand should be'' (Graeff. Through the purchase and use of products. That is. 1982).

on the other hand. 1997. Levesque and McDougall. The new method also induced subjects to conjure up the product-user image right at the moment of response rather than through the use of some predetermined images. 1995. Sirgy et al. Further to this. (1997). satisfaction was considered as a composite of overall customer attitude towards a particular brand that incorporated a number of measures. no research has yet been undertaken to demonstrate the effect of selfimage congruity on post-purchase behaviour. Precious jewellery is also likely to be considered as a discretionary and expensive purchase by most of its consumers. Naser et al. 1981. At the same time. consumption settings. 1994). while looking into the predictive validity of the traditional method of measuring self-image congruence. 1996. They did so with reference to a specific product category. (1997) proposed a new method of measuring self-image congruence. consumer satisfaction. Sirgy et al. Then the person's perceptions of a brand on the same traits are obtained. Jones and Sasser. Cartier) was chosen to elicit consumers' self congruity and the impact of that on consumers' brand preferences and Measurement of self concept A common or traditional method of measuring self-concept involves the use of [ 484 ] . Moutinho and Goode. Customer satisfaction is thus widely recognised as a key influence in the formation of consumers' future purchase intentions (Taylor and Baker. 2 the possible use of irrelevant images. For the purpose of this study. self-image congruity was a strong predictor of consumer satisfaction with travel destination.H. the precious jewellery market. we attempt to measure the significance of self-image congruity on consumer satisfaction in a different product category. i. (1997). overall quality. Sirgy et al. 1968.e. Dissatisfied customers. however. (1997) then compared the predictive validity of the two methods (old and new) in six studies involving different customer groups. In their study. precious jewellery is likely to be considered by many as a very personal and cherished belonging with high levels of adornment attached to its possession. After discussing the problems in detail..e. This is the main reason for us to adopt measures of self-image congruence and brand preference (see Table I) from the new method reported by Sirgy et al. youthful vs emotional and so on) is generally obtained. 1999. are likely to switch brands and engage in negative word of mouth advertising. Ernest Jones and QVC's Diamonique use their retail brand names to differentiate their products on the basis of their retail and distribution style. Malhotra. With the exception of Sirgy et al. Goode Consumers and brands: a study of the impact of self-image congruence on brand preference and satisfaction Marketing Intelligence & Planning 19/7 [2001] 482±492 (such as De Vroomen or Elsa Peretti).. Also retailers such as H. three frequently used measures (i. Consumers are also likely to use the precious jewellery to enhance their self-images while treating it as a very special personal belonging. exciting vs calm.e. 1989). After reviewing the literature related to customer satisfaction. According to Sirgy et al. Sirgy et al. Following Sirgy et al. travel destination. i. 1990. Grubb and Hupp. a well known consumer brand in the precious jewellery product category (i. In this study.e. semantic differential scales or Likert-type scales (see for example. Satisfied consumers are likely to tell others of their favourable experiences and thus engage in positive word of mouth advertising (File and Prince. identified three important problems with the traditional method. Samuel. Richens. 1989. Thus. fashion houses (such as Chanel or Gucci) and well established jewellery design retailers (such as Cartier. rugged vs delicate. 1999. the significance of consumer satisfaction and recommendation to others for brand managers cannot be underestimated (see for example. Their findings provide significant support for the high predictiveness of the new method over and beyond the traditional one. 1997). the researchers identify the match or gaps between the person's self-concept and his or her perception of the personality of the brand. Oliver 1980.e. 1992. and dependent variables. satisfaction with the brand and recommendation to others) were included in the study (Hausknecht. Tiffany and Georg Jensen). a self-concept profile of a person in terms of selected personality traits (e. 1997). Piercy. (1997) attempted to measure the significance of self-image congruity on an important post-purchase behaviour ± i. and 3 the possible use of compensatory decision rule.. most research dealing with the self-image congruity has been confined to the pre-purchase types of consumer behaviour (Sirgy et al. The new method measured the self-image congruence experience directly rather than indirectly through the use of product-user images and self images. Sirgy et al. products. For instance. 1994). 1997. then they are likely to engage in a repeat purchase and try line extensions (East.. By comparing the two profiles.g. It is a well known fact that if consumers are satisfied with a particular brand after its use. The three problems were: 1 the use of discrepancy scores.Ahmad Jamal and Mark M. 1995). (1997). 1983). (1997). Naser et al. Wylie.

a regression equation is used to test the strength of the relationship where the estimated slope co-efficient on the independent variable self-image congruency should be both positive and highly statistically significant. Hypotheses Sirgy et al.. (1997) has looked into the extent to which self-image congruency can lead to consumer satisfaction. program choice. Both statistical tests should be met before each of the first two hypotheses can be accepted. Initially. which suggests that consumers might prefer brands that have images compatible with their perceptions of self (Belk et al. Individuals with different levels of self-image congruency will exhibit different behaviours in terms of their brand preferences and satisfaction with the brand in the precious jewellery market. two key hypotheses were tested in this study (Figure 1). Solomon. Peterson and William. Consumer satisfaction is an important theoretical concept with practical implications for most brand managers and service providers (Churchill and Suprenant. Moutinho and Goode.Ahmad Jamal and Mark M. brand preference and consumer satisfaction in the precious jewellery market in the UK. However. Ericksen. 1996. Therefore the second hypothesis: H2.H. Goode Consumers and brands: a study of the impact of self-image congruence on brand preference and satisfaction Marketing Intelligence & Planning 19/7 [2001] 482±492 satisfaction. Oliver. brand attitudes. There is a strong positive relationship between self-image congruency with a brand and satisfaction with the brand in the precious jewellery market. Mehta (1999) reported that respondents with higher self-congruence levels were more interested in purchasing the brand than those with lower levels of self-image congruence. In their study. we develop our third and final hypothesis (Figure 2): H3. 1980. Measures were also included in the questionnaire to capture the demographic profile of the respondents. 1995. On the basis of this. Levesque and McDougall. Graeff (1996) reported that higher congruence subjects had more favourable attitudes towards advertising that encouraged them to think about their selfimage as compared to those with lower congruence levels. Zinkham and Hong. i. There is a strong positive relationship between self-image congruency with a brand and brand preference in the precious jewellery market. A key characteristic of these studies was that they reported a one-to-one relationship between self-image congruence and each of the many consumer behaviour constructs that they studied such as brand preferences. 1996. The first hypothesis dealt with the relationship between brand preferences and self-image congruency in the precious jewellery market (particularly towards the mid to higher end of the market). Table I Measures Independent variables Self-image congruence (five-point LT) Wearing the Cartier brand of precious jewellery at formal occasions is consistent with how I see myself People similar to me wear the Cartier brand of precious jewellery at formal occasionsWearing the Cartier brand of precious jewellery at formal occasions reflects who I am Dependent variables Brand preference (five-point LT) I like Cartier better than any other brand of precious jewellery I would use Cartier more than I would use any other brand of precious jewellery Cartier is my preferred brand over any other brand of precious jewellery I would be inclined to buy Cartier over any other brand of precious jewellery Consumer satisfaction (five-point LT) After considering everything I am extremely satisfied with Cartier brand of precious jewellery The overall quality of Cartier brand of precious jewellery is excellent If any one asked me I would strongly recommend him/her the Cartier brand of precious jewellery [ 485 ] .e. Previous research also suggests that individuals with different levels of self-image congruence are likely to exhibit differences in the way they choose a brand or make their purchase intentions (Mehta 1999). and consumer satisfaction. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient matrices can be used to test for the sign and significance of the relationship. 1994). The first two of the hypotheses can be tested using a two-stage process. preference for product form. This is backed up by literature. no study (with the exception of just one reported by Sirgy et al. 1982. It is hypothesised that consumers who feel self-image congruency with a brand will also feel satisfied with the brand. The second hypothesis tests the relationship between self-image congruency and satisfaction. (1997) conducted six different studies to test the predictive validity of their new measure of self-image congruence across a variety of consumer behaviours. 1991): H1. we wanted to re-confirm the validity of this one-to-one relationship between self-image congruence and two consumer behaviour constructs. 1992). On this basis. Churchill and Surprenant. 1983. A number of studies have focused on the conceptual development and measurement of consumer satisfaction (Bearden and Teel. to the best of our knowledge. Piercy. In a related domain. In our study. 1983. Then. 1982. 1982.

Ahmad Jamal and Mark M. brand preference and satisfaction [ 486 ] .H. Goode Consumers and brands: a study of the impact of self-image congruence on brand preference and satisfaction Marketing Intelligence & Planning 19/7 [2001] 482±492 Figure 1 A model of brand preference Figure 2 A hypothetical relationship involving self-image congruency.

which although looked low when compared to the number of questionnaires. understanding brand preferences and satisfaction of male consumers is essential for marketers of the motorcycles in the Indian market.H.6 28. A significant majority (81 per cent) of the respondents belonged to the age group of 25-54. 117 were considered as valid. However.0 33. A total of ten pilot tests were conducted with consumers who were seen as similar to the population for the study. By doing so.2 1. The purpose of the pre-testing was to refine the questionnaire and to assess the validity and applicability of measures for the precious jewellery market. In the meantime. the sample size has to be greater than or equal to 30 (n  = 30). the data sets will be divided into approximately two equal portions so that people with higher levels of self-image congruence will display congruency above the median.0 21. Furthermore. The three companies in this study were chosen for their length of experience and extensive knowledge in the jewellery industry.Ahmad Jamal and Mark M. the data are in line with the overall trend in the Indian society where most of the motorcycle purchases are male consumers. In total. To encourage a higher and quicker response rate. met this criterion. The hypothesis can then be tested using student t methodology. a significant majority (93 per cent) of the respondents were females. Out of a total of 118 returned questionnaires. whereas people with lower levels of self-image congruence will be below the median.0 51. as one of the questionnaires was discarded due to the fact that it was not correctly completed.6 per cent. the median would be a more appropriate way of dividing the data sets. corresponding amendments were made to the questionnaire after the pilot tests. Apparently. for confidentiality reasons the names of these companies have been withheld. Goode Consumers and brands: a study of the impact of self-image congruence on brand preference and satisfaction Marketing Intelligence & Planning 19/7 [2001] 482±492 Dividing the data sets using a measure of central tendency like the mean or the median can test H3. the respondents were offered an opportunity to enter into a prize draw for a set of precious jewellery priced at £300 by responding by a certain date. who had profiled the names and addresses of their present and potential customers for each of these five cities. The response rate. a large majority of them were married (63 per cent). In this case. Data collection A stratified random sampling method was used to collect the primary data for the study. however. The population was divided in terms of nonoverlapping groups of consumers from five different cities (stratas) in the UK. Table II indicates that a significant majority of the respondents Table II A profile of the respondents Frequency Gender (n = 116) Male Female Age (n = 116) 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 and over Marital status (n = 116) Single Married Other Education (n = 115) Primary Secondary College University Others 14 102 14 36 25 33 6 2 35 73 7 1 8 38 59 9 Percentage 12. A total of 118 completed questionnaires were Data analysis and testing Respondents' profile Table II reports the profile of the respondents.1 31. The sample was then selected from each strata randomly using the customer profiles of three precious jewellery companies.4 5. a sample of 500 consumers was randomly selected from many thousands of consumers of precious jewellery. a questionnaire was developed on the basis of an extensive review of the literature as well as extensive interaction with executives of one of the companies involved. The choice of these cities was based on existing literature.9 7. the gender distribution was quite unevenly distributed. Pre-testing was also carried out with two academic members of staff at the Cardiff Business School. The questionnaire was then mailed to all of the 500 consumers.0 0.7 30. Thus.2 62. To ensure the sampling distribution is normally distributed.9 6.3 7. According to Table II. which showed that these towns comprised customers who generally had a high income level with more preference towards precious jewellery as a product category. received generating a response rate of 23.8 [ 487 ] .9 12.1 87. which might result in sampling errors caused by gender bias reducing the reliability of the data.

70.154 n. 51 per cent of them had university education whereas a further 33 per cent had college education.141 0. self-image congruency.328** n.455* 0. Notes: Elements on the leading diagonal are Cronbach alpha scores.330** 0.09 SD 3.a. Age Income Mar.005 n. ±0. the Cronbach alpha scores reported by Sirgy et al. brand preference and satisfaction and the demographic variables.012 ±0.Ahmad Jamal and Mark M.032 ±0. Satisfac.64 ±0.73 11. The averages of all the multi-item scales are very close to the centre of the scale and display similar levels of dispersion as measured by the coefficient of variation. 0.a. As shown in Table IV.a. Self-image Brand pref.703** 0. 1997).246* 0.072 0.790** 0. is not applicable due to formative nature of the scale [ 488 ] was high and significant (r = 0.82 for satisfaction (for six studies that were reported).063 0. ±0. self-image congruency.42 0. the correlation between self-image congruency and brand preference Table III Mean scores Description Self-image congruency (n = 112) Brand preference (n = 108) Satisfaction (n = 111) Number of items in scale 3 4 3 Mean 9.a.72 to 0.189* 0. The three variables.666** 0. (1997) were between 0.59 Coefficient of variation 0. n. i. pref. A breakdown of descriptive statistics for the critical variables in this study (namely arithmetic means and standard deviations) is shown in Table III.186 0. Thus.38 4.106 0.01 level (two-tailed).90 for self-image congruence.001). These constructs were tested for reliability using Cronbach alpha scores and all constructs easily passed the minimum level recommended by Nunnally (1978) of 0. ** = Correlation is significant at the 0.e.140 0.23 Table IV Correlation matrix and reliability coefficients Self-image Brand cong.096 ±0. Following Sirgy et al.880 0.102 ±0. 0.35 0.98 for brand preference and 0.a. Sex Education Age Income Marital stat. As a point of comparison. Table IV also reports the correlation scores among the three major variables ± i. The results indicated a high and significant beta weight for the self-image congruency (. standard multiple regression was performed with self-image congruency as independent variable and brand preference as dependent variables (see Table V).148 ±0. (1997).006 0. the Cronbach alpha scores reported here are very much in line with those reported by Sirgy et al. 0.949 0.82 to 0.11 0. brand preference and satisfaction. p < 0. The calculated Cronbach alpha scores are shown in the correlation table below (see Table IV).79 11.a.H.875 ±0.098 0.229* n.e.187* 0. Sex Edu. Satis. Goode Consumers and brands: a study of the impact of self-image congruence on brand preference and satisfaction Marketing Intelligence & Planning 19/7 [2001] 482±492 were well educated.790.91 2. (1997). were all measured using multi-item scales (Sirgy et al. 0.061 n.

hence H1 was accepted. (1997) who argued that a relationship did exist between self-image congruency and brand preference. Following Sirgy et al. p < 0.001). The results indicated a high and significant beta weight for the self-image congruency (. with the independent variable accounting for about 62 per cent of the variance in brand preference scores (adjusted R2 = 0. (1997).644. Our findings thus confirm the findings reported by Sirgy et al. standard multiple regression was performed with self-image congruency as an independent variable and satisfaction as dependent variable (see Table V). These findings provide support for the first hypothesis that there exists a strong relationship between selfimage congruency and brand preference. = 0.621).790. p < 0.001). The correlation between self-image congruency and satisfaction was also high and significant (r = 0.

Overall. The other variable. hence H2 was also accepted. Hence multi-variate regression was performed with self-image congruence. we can conclude that individual levels of satisfaction is an important variable within brand preference. with the independent variable accounting for 49 per cent of the variance in satisfaction scores (adjusted R2 = 0. p < 0.490). However. the multivariate regression equation correctly predicts 66 per cent of the brand preference outcomes with self-image congruence being the major driving variable within the equation (p < 0. is also statistically significant (p < 0. = 0. These results provide evidence for H2 that there exists a strong relationship between self-image congruency and satisfaction. satisfaction. Therefore. (1997).01). this can also be seen by reference to the correlation matrices in that the single . satisfaction. Our findings in connection with a relationship between self-image congruency and satisfaction are also in line with those reported by Sirgy et al. we also felt that consumers' brand preferences can be modelled using a multi-variate regression equation which links brand preferences to self-image congruence and satisfaction and a number of demographic variables.001). recommendation to others and a number of demographic variables as independent variables and brand preference as dependent variable (see Table VI).703.001).

655 Table V Regression results using self-image congruence as an independent variable Dependent variables Brand preference Satisfaction . namely age. As all the adjusted goodness of fit coefficients are considerably lower than for the full model. we can conclude that multicollinearity does not appear to be a serious problem within the exogenous Table VII Multicollinearity tests Exogenous variable Self image congruency Satisfaction Sex Education Age Income Marital status Full model Adjusted R2 0.H.493 0. income. are not statistically significant at the 10 per cent level. education is significant at the 10 per cent level. The results are shown in Table VII.129 0. more educated people would appear to display higher brand preference than less educated people.531 0. Therefore. marital status. This regression equation was tested for multicollinearity using the approach suggested by Maddala (1977) in which all exogenous variables were regressed on all other exogenous variables within the system.263 0.031 0.Ahmad Jamal and Mark M. However. Goode Consumers and brands: a study of the impact of self-image congruence on brand preference and satisfaction Marketing Intelligence & Planning 19/7 [2001] 482±492 variable self image congruency appears to be the best predictor of the brand preference. and this finding may not be repeated with lower priced product.300 0.023 0. This is not a surprising outcome given the high cost of the product within this research project. The biographical variables. and gender.

We can therefore conclude that this model does not appear to suffer from any heteroscedasticity problems. Table VI Regression results for self-image congruency Variables Constant Self image congruency Satisfaction Sex Education Age Income Marital status Adj.66 2. The model was also tested for heteroscedasticity using the method suggested by Glejser (1969) in which the absolute or squared values of the residuals are regressed on the dependent variables.26) ±0.42) +0. whereas respondents displaying higher levels above ten were considered as those with higher levels of self-image congruency. independent student t tests were applied to brand preference and satisfaction. Whether or not heteroscedasticity exists depends on whether the estimated coefficients are significantly different from zero.12 (+1.37) 0.08 (±1. Therefore the results from this model do not appear to violate the standard assumptions of ordinary least squares and the model appears to be robust. the dependent variables were not statistically significant from zero.621 0.72 Notes: t-results are shown in brackets below the estimated coefficients. The variable self-image congruency ranged from a minimum of three to a maximum of 15.783 Note: * indicates statistically significant at the 1 per cent level.63) +0. R2 Standard error F statistic Estimated coefficients ±1. This variable appeared to be symmetrically distributed about the mid point of ten as defined by both the median and the mean.80 (±0.529 106. there was a strong statistical difference (p < 0.03 (±0. Using this definition of high and low levels of self-image congruency.86 29.29***) +0.490 F-values 176. using several functional forms to which the variance of the disturbance terms is thought to be related.703* t-value 13. Weight 0. These results provide evidence for the third hypothesis that individuals with different levels of self-image congruency will exhibit different behaviours in terms of their brand preference and their satisfaction with the brand. * indicates statistically significant at the 10 per cent level.286 10.08 (±1. ** indicates statistically significant at the 1 per cent level.001) between the high and the low self-image congruencies for both brand preference and satisfaction (see Table VIII).89) ±0.64 (+7. [ 489 ] . Respondents displaying a level below ten were categorised as those with lower levels of self-image congruency.68***) ±0. two-tailed test.23 (+2.334 Adjusted R2 0. It was therefore decided to use the median point of ten to divide the distribution into two equal parts.96*) +0.06 (+0. hence the third hypothesis was also accepted. In both cases. In all cases. two-tailed test variables.790* 0.

``The malleable self: the role of self-expression in persuasion''. two-tailed test.H..44 3. we wish to note a number of limitations of our study. (1999). 1959. our findings are in line with those reported by Sirgy et al. Brand managers can develop advertising messages that could encourage consumers to think about their self-images. 1982.11 1. 1. The findings reported here might not be applicable to the entire category of precious jewellery. February. This is in line with the findings reported by Graeff (1996). Mehta. Leigh and Gabel. Levy. Bagozzi.. who argued that brand managers can manage the effects of image congruence. Ericksen. Solomon. who argued that different segments of customers are likely to exhibit different levels of self-image congruence. 1991) Results from this study provide support for a strong relationship between self-image congruency and satisfaction. This is significant in the sense that the symbolism and the functionality of the brand are two distinct concepts in consumers' minds (Bhat and Reddy. more work is needed to establish the significance of self-congruence on brand preferences and satisfaction in the case of high frequency and low value brands. That is. implications and limitations The results of our study provide support for a strong relationship between self-image congruency and brand preference. (1996). 1986).85 3.44 1. References Notes: Student t results are shown above.45 1. P. (1997). 1985. This could be expensive for most brand mangers that may wish to vary their main promotional message rather than develop specific promotional messages for each of their target audiences. In today's highly competitive business environment.76 1. 1996.773 ±1.978*** +8. R. the findings may not be applicable in a different cultural context as the symbolic meanings attached to brands tend to vary across cultures.. Goode Consumers and brands: a study of the impact of self-image congruence on brand preference and satisfaction Marketing Intelligence & Planning 19/7 [2001] 482±492 Conclusion. self-image congruity can be considered as a strong predictor of satisfaction in the precious jewellery market. the way a brand is positioned in terms of brand images is extremely important (Arnold. Graeff (1996).87 Respondents with lower levels of self-congruency n Mean 54 56 61 60 61 61 61 8. However. and Sadarangani. 1983. the significance of developing promotional messages that could tempt or persuade consumers to think about the fit between their self-images and brand's images cannot be underestimated.94 12. Thus.72 2. 1998. Brand managers can significantly improve the effectiveness of their brand positioning strategy by measuring the image of their brand and self-images of their target audience. Zinkham and Hong. J. In such situations. 1986).59 2. as branding is said to be significant in the mid to higher end of the market. The findings also have implications for brand managers.90 3. who reported similar findings in the travel destination market. 1992. This is in contrast to those who have lower levels of self-image congruence. Mick.759*** ±0. This is because advertising appeals that are Table VIII Mean scores Respondents with higher levels of self-congruency n Mean Brand preference Satisfaction Sex Education Age Income Marital status 54 55 55 55 55 55 55 14. ``An investigation of construct validity and generalizability of the self concept: self-consciousness in Japan and the United . given the findings of this study.52 9. Journal of Marketing Research. twotailed test [ 490 ] Aaker. Sirgy et al. * indicates statistically significant at the 10 per cent level. Results from our study also suggest that consumers with higher levels of self-image congruence with a particular brand are highly likely to prefer that brand and enjoy higher levels of satisfaction.69 t-test +8. ** indicates statistically significant at the 5 per cent level. Our findings also confirm the notion that consumers might prefer a brand on the basis of its symbolic properties rather than its functional qualities (Bhat and Reddy.. pp. 1997. brand managers can attempt to match the brand image and self-image for each of their target segment by developing specific promotional messages. 1992. Our findings thus confirm the notion that consumers might prefer brands that have images compatible with their perceptions of self (Belk et al.905*** +2.L. Vol. made similar arguments on consumers' evaluation of brands and advertising.093** +1. Abe.P. different and challenging to authority.690 congruent with viewers' self-concept are likely to be superior to incongruent appeals in terms of enhancing advertising effectiveness (Zinkham and Hong. Also. two-tailed test. 45-57. That is why success of many famous contemporary brands in the UK lies in the fact that the brand conveys the image of its users as being creative. 1998). 1999.969* +2.Ahmad Jamal and Mark M. particularly in the context of their brand positioning strategies. 1991).22 3. Finally. S. Similarly. 36 No. Park et al. *** indicates statistically significant at the 1 per cent level.

generalized stereotypes. Vol. (1978). G. 73 No. ``Symbols for sale''. and brand selection''. A. Jamal. (1990). Journal of Advertising Research.L. 491-504. pp. 51 No. Vol.C. Oliver. Malhotra. Vol. M. 13 No. T. 316-23. pp. Journal of International Consumer Marketing. Journal of Consumer Research. Journal of Marketing Research. East. C. Journal of Marketing. McGraw-Hill. 1-15. 196-213. M. and Prince R. File. pp. International Journal of Bank Marketing. ``How consumers consume: a typology of consumption practices''. ``Consumer self-concept. Vol. R. pp. Czikszentmihalyi. and Al-Khatib. (1971). ``An investigation into the determinants of customer satisfaction''. pp. Vol. pp. 13. Journal of the American Statistical Association. Graeff. and Teel. Mintel International Group.E. H. J. 64. Vol. Vol. S. 13 No. London. 41-56.E. Journal of Consumer Research. pp. Mehta. New York. Vol.B. Elliott. Cambridge University Press. 6. (1989). (1996). D. and Gabel. L. Churchill.Ahmad Jamal and Mark M. 17 No. Journal [ 491 ] . ``Personality and consumer behaviour: a review''. S. ``Gender effects to the formation of overall product satisfaction: a multivariate approach''. J. I. Levy. and Reddy S.A. Consumer Behaviour: Advances and Applications in Marketing. 6 No. G. N. (1986). 409-18. Vol. (1995). Journal of Consumer Marketing. (1996). DC. January/ February. Ericksen.A. pp. Z.J. Prentice-Hall. ``Selected determinants of consumer satisfaction and complaint reports''. (1992). pp. (1982). 4. R. London. 1. K. 31 No. ``Determinants of customer satisfaction in retail banking''. T. and product concetps''. Addison-Wesley. ``A scale to measure self-concepts. 5 No. Econometrics.L. ``Existential consumption and irrational desire''. 3/4. Washington. Vol. pp.L.. and Nurius. H. (1999). The Meaning of Things: Domestic Symbols and the Self. 22-7. and Rochberg-Halton. 456-64. Vol. July-August. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Fall. ``Using self-concept to assess advertising effectiveness''. November. 4-18. Maddala.C. (1977).G. Vol. ``Hegemony and mass culture: a semiotic approach''. International Journal of Bank Marketing. M. ``Positive word-of-mouth: customer satisfaction and buyer behaviour''. Naser. Markus. The Handbook of Brand Management. Vol. 2. K. pp.N. 81-9. 12-20. pp. J. pp. Goode Consumers and brands: a study of the impact of self-image congruence on brand preference and satisfaction Marketing Intelligence & Planning 19/7 [2001] 482±492 States''. Best. (1967). ``Symbolic and functional positioning of brands''. 4-17. Gottdeiner. 285-96. 117-24. E. person concepts. ``Why satisfied customers defect''. 25-9. ``A new test for heteroscedasticity''. Mintel International Group Limited (1999). Markus. Vol. (1995). Journal of Consumer Marketing. and Hupp. Kassarjian. 10. Journal of Marketing Research. Consumer Behaviour: Implications for Marketing Strategy. ``Possible selves''. 1. ``Perceptions of self. McGraw-Hill. G. Mick. 14 No. 3. Journal of Euro-Marketing. (1969). International Journal of Bank Marketing. February. Psychometric Theory. Vol. Jones.R.H. 21-8. 8 No. 18. (1986).D. pp. Hawkins. 71-84. D. 39. Vol. 6th ed. ``Measurement scales in customer satisfaction/dissatisfaction''. 8. Holt. Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behaviour. ``Symbolic interactionism: its effects on consumer behaviour and implications for marketing strategy''. pp. (1996). (1986).. 15 No. p. pp. A Report on Precious Metal Jewellery. H. (1983). Bahn K. June. The Journal of Services Marketing. Hausknecht. Vol. Vol. W. H. ``Stability and malleability of the self concept''. 32-43. Belk.O. (1992). 3. ``Islamic banking: a study of customer satisfaction and preferences in Jordan''. pp.A. (1985). and Sasser. 8 No. Glejser. ``Processing of the satisfaction response in consumption: a suggested framework and research propositions''. and McDougall. T. (1997). Vol. McCracken. ``Consumer research and semiotics: exploring the morphology of signs. E. (1981). pp. E. Tokoyo. pp. Vol. T. Journal of Consumer Research. 97. pp. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction. and Coney.H. Cambridge.G. 979-1001. H. D. November. pp. 71-91. Vol.K. American Journal of Sociology. symbols. 19. and Mayer R. R. Journal of Marketing Research. (1982). Grubb.L. M. 90. 954-69.O. and significance''. G.W.. and Grathwohl. Arnold. P. (1981). Grubb. pp. (1968). 3. pp. Summer. 7. 1. (1986). 20 No. 58-63. and Kunda. pp. Journal of International Consumer Marketing. J. Moutinho. 135-50. Reading. A. 5-16. 37. and Goode.. D. Jr (1995). MA. June.. Harvard Business Review. Vol. pp. (1998). 858-66. 3/4. Bhat. (1997). 6 No. W. 31 No. G. Journal of Marketing Research. R. Vol. 88-99. (1992). Vol. Vol. K. 1. Irwin. 1. Nunnally. K. ``Culture and consumption: a theoretical account of the structure and movement of cultural meaning of consumer goods''.K. Levesque. pp. American Psychologist. European Journal of Marketing.S. (1995). Kogakusha. K. 3. ``Using self-congruity and ideal congruity to predict purchase intention: a European perspective''. 1-11.H. Vol. D. (1999). and Surprenant. ``Using promotional messages to manage the effects of brand and self-image on brand evaluations''. 4. ``Developmental recognition of consumption symbolism''. Leigh.M. 1. November. Journal of Consumer Research. NY. symbolism and market behaviour: a theoretical approach''. Bearden. Journal of Marketing Research. (1959). Harvard Business Review. 10 No.H. 22. pp. Vol.G. Roger.

``Strategic brand concept image management''.. pp. Vol. ``Self-concept in consumer behaviour: a critical review''. Winter. 531-47. (1991). Park.L. and social linkage''. D. ``Measuring customer satisfaction: fact and artifact''. S.W. ``Cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions''. and response mode''. NJ. 9. Sirgy. 287-300. (1986). E. pp. 17. Vol. ``Assessing the predictive validity of two methods of measuring self-image congruence''.J. G. NB. (1985).C.R. J. Vol. (1989). Oliver.H.C. 69.. M. 412-25. Wylie. ``Using self-congruity and ideal congruity to predict purchase motivation''.J.H.W. (1991). Onkvisit. p. UT. Journal of Consumer Behaviour. Fall. Sirgy.F. Jaworski. (1997). Journal of Retailing. ``Self concept and advertising effectiveness: a conceptual model of congruency.A. [ 492 ] . Lincoln. Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behaviour. 20 No. M.B. pp. October. March. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. J. pp. 195-206. J. 1. Vol. (1992). Prentice-Hall. Johar. 19. and Berkman. R. in Holman. 7th ed. L. and Arnould. and MacInnis. Sirgy.L. 1. pp. 4. Lincoln. M. N. 16. 61-71. Journal of Consumer Research. pp. T. (1994). (1987). B. 1 No. Association for Consumer Research.. 22-44. Measures of Self-concept. March.W. 13. Claiborne. (1980). University of Nebraska. and William. Vol. D. 163-78. possessiveness.L. 18.G. (1983). (Eds). C. J. (1991). pp. 13-23. Vol. Vol.. Samli. p. and Kanuk. Vol. Taylor. 460-9. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science.. ``Negative word-of-mouth by dissatisfied consumers: a pilot study''. NB. M.J.S. Solomon. and Baker. R. Schouten. ``My favourite things: a cross cultural inquiry into object attachment. R. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 229-41. Mangleburg. Vol. Journal of Consumer Research. pp. 348-54. L. November. Winter. 2. pp. Vol. Vol. Zinkham. M. 135-45. and Shaw. (1961). Schiffman. A. M. Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. pp. Journal of Marketing Research.. Journal of Marketing. Richens. (2000).B. H.Ahmad Jamal and Mark M.J. pp. C. Sirgy. Grewal. (1988). 363-75.R. Johar. conspicuousness. (1983). 25 No. December. pp. Journal of Marketing Practice Applied Marketing Science.. 319-29. Provo. 1996. University of Nebraska. K. ``Self-congruity versus functional predictors of consumer behaviour''.F. 50. ``Self-concept and image congruence: some research and managerial implications''. Journal of Consumer Research. W. ``The role of products in social stimuli: a symbolic interactionism perspective''. Vol.. Piercy. Goode Consumers and brands: a study of the impact of self-image congruence on brand preference and satisfaction Marketing Intelligence & Planning 19/7 [2001] 482±492 of Consumer Satisfaction. J. and Solomon. R. 3. Consumer Bheaviour. 10.A.S. Chon. pp. C. Peterson. (1982). 17. Journal of Business Research. Journal of Marketing. (1994).R.J. Vol.J.C. J. Wallendorf. and Claiborne..M. S. M. The Self Concept: A Critical Survey of Pertinent Research Literature. ``Customer satisfaction and the internal market''.L.. pp. Journal of Consumer Marketing. Wylie. T. and Hong. ``An assessment of the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in the formation of consumers' purchase intentions''. 70 No. 2. R. 14. Vol. Park. ``Selves in transition: symbolic consumption in personal rites of passage and identity reconstruction''. Englewood Cliffs. M.J.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->