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Fixed n.

P ( X = x ) = q x−1 p
Tables distribution Geo(p)
n! distribution B(n, p)
a !b !c !...
Assumptions: independence,
constant probability, 2 outcomes. Var[ X ] = E[ X 2 ] − {E[ X ]}2

n! P ( X = x ) = nC x p x q n − x
Coded data n n! Special
Think intuitively Cr =
r !(n − r )! distributions E[ X ] = ∑ xp

s.d =
∑x 2
−x 2

n Permutations
Sum of
Order important probabilities is 1.
∑x x=
∑ fx
n n Order unimportant
and Discrete random
Data in tables combinations variables
Raw data
Mean and diagrams
deviation Conditional P(A and B)
P( A | B) =
probability P ( B)
s.d =
∑ x2 − x2 Variance is the
n Probability
square of s.d.

Numerical 6∑ d 2 where d
rS = 1 −
statistics n(n 2 − 1)
Median and
quartiles Statistics 1 is the difference in ranks.

Mind map Measures tendency for
diagrams x and y to increase or
decrease together.

Box plots Scatter

graphs Spearman’s Rank

Graphical statistics
Measures the strength
Correlation of a linear relationship.
-1 ≤ r ≤ 1
r = 1: perfect straight line
(+ve gradient)
Histograms r = -1: perfect straight line
(-ve gradient) Product moment
correlation coefficient
frequency graphs freq density = Linear regression
class width

S xy
Variables can r=
Plot points at end S xx S yy
be random or Two possible
of each interrval
controlled. regression lines

Use if we want to find y

Used to estimate the Use if we want to work OR if x is a controlled
median and quartiles out x when given y. variable.
for grouped data
S xy = ∑ xy −
∑ x∑ y
x on y: y on x:
S xx = ∑ x 2 −
(∑ x)
x = a + by y = a + bx n
If the last interval is open-ended, you where b = S xy where b = S xy (∑ y )

choose its width to be twice the width S yy = ∑ y 2 −

S yy S xx n
of the previous interval.
and a = x − by and a = y − bx

Predictions will be accurate provided

the points lie close to a straight line and The PMCC is unaffected by
provided we are making predictions Both regression lines linear transformations of the
within the range of data collected. pass through the mean variables.