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Knowledge Engineering

TRANSFORMER TRAINER

EXPERIMENT MANUAL

MODEL : LFT-TET

Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT- TET

CONTENTS

CONTENTS ............................................................................................................. i 1. OVERVIEW .......................................................................................................... 1 2. ABOUT THE TRAINER .................................................................................. 2

2.1. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ..................................................................... 2 2.2. SETTING UP THE TRAINER ........................................................................ 3 2.3. SAFETY ON EXPERIMENT .......................................................................... 3

3. BASIC THEORY ..................................................................... 4

3.1. WHY TRANSFORMERS ARE IMPORTANT TO MODERN LIFE? ....................................................................................... 4 3.2. TYPES AND CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSFORMERS ............................. 5 3.3. THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER ....................................................................... 6 3.4. THEORY OF OPERATION OF REAL SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS ........................................................................................ 16 3.5. THE PER-UNIT SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENTS..................................... 27 3.6. TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE REGULATION AND EFFICIENCY .......... 34 3.7. TRANSFORMER TAPS AND VOLTAGE REGULATION ....................... 35 3.8 3.9 THE AUTOTRANSFORMER....................................................................... 35 THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS ............................................................ 43

3.10. SUMMARY ................................................................................................... 52 4.

EXPERIMENT .................................................................................................. 53

4.1. POLARITY OF TRANSFORMER…………………………………….. ..... 54 4.2. SERIES CIRCUIT IN A MULTIPLE WINDING TRANSFORMER……. 57 4.3. OPEN CIRCUIT TESTING…………………………………………… ....... 61 4.4. SHORT CIRCUIT TESTING ........................................................................ 66 4.5. TURN RATIO OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WINDING................. 69 4.6. IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION ........................................................... 73 4.7. VOLTAGE REGULATION .......................................................................... 76 4.8. FULL WAVE RECTIFIER ............................................................................ 78 4.9. WYE – DELTA CONNECTION ................................................................... 82

LABTECH

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Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT- TET

4.10. WYE – WYE CONNECTION ....................................................................... 90 4.11. THREE PHASE RECTIFIER ........................................................................ 96

LABTECH

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Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT- TET

1 OVERVIEW

Transformer trainer is designed for student to learn and practice about the typical application of the transformer. There are many kind of transformer applications that can be observed in this trainer. This trainer is also completed with all equipment that needed in the experiment, so makes the learning process easier. The trainer is divided into two parts, the base station and transformer module. The base station is fixed in the special case for safety user and easy operation. In the top cover of the base station, there are two voltmeters and two ammeters that are used to measure the voltage and current. Either voltmeters or ammeters can be switch on and off in order to give protection to them when the power source is turned on. In the main base station, there are many components that support in the experiment, such as RCCB, MCB, and Digital Wattmeter. RCCB is provided in this trainer to detects current leakage and protect the user from electric shock. The voltage and current characteristics of the transformers in the different load can be observed by change the loads of the transformer. Student can make any connections according the manual instruction using jumper cables by plug-in it into the jumper cable sockets that available on the base station. The student can make connections from transformer module to the base station using jumper cables and absolutely have to follow the experiment manual instruction. The experiment manual is accompanied this trainer in order to give the basic theory of the transformer and how to use the trainer to the student.

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Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT- TET

**2 ABOUT THE TRAINER
**

2.1. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION A. SINGLE PHASE UNIT a. Transformer (LFT-TET-P1A) : Input : 0 – 220 – 240 Vac Output : 0 – 12 Vac (12 A) 0 – 24 Vac (6 A) 0 – 42 Vac (3 A) b. Transformer (LFT-TET-P1B) c. Base Station Digital Wattmeter RCCB MCB AC Voltmeter AC Ammeter Bridge diode B. THREE PHASE UNIT a. Transformer (LFT-TET-P3) b. Base Station Digital Wattmeter RCCB MCB AC Voltmeter AC Ammeter 3 Phase Rectifier

LABTECH

:

Input : 0 – 220 – 240 Vac Output : 0 – 120 Vac (5 A) 0 – 120 Vac (5 A)

: : : : : :

1000 Watt max. 40 Ampere, 30mA current leakage protection 6 Ampere 0 – 500 V 0 – 250 V 0–1A 0 – 10 A 10 A, 250 Vac max

:

Input : Three phase 0 – 380 – 415 Vac Output : Three phase 0 – 41.5 – 415 Vac

: : : : : :

1000 Watt max. 40 Ampere, 30mA current leakage protection 6 Ampere 0 – 500 V 0 – 500 V 0–1A 0–5A 10 A, 450 Vac max

2

Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT- TET

C. OPTIONAL ITEMS (in separated unit) 1. Single Phase Load Unit (LFT-TET-01) 2. Single Phase Variable Power Supply (LFT-TET-02) 3. Three Phase Load Unit (LFT-TET-06) 4. Variable Three Phase Power Supply (LFT-TET-07) 2.2. SETTING UP THE TRAINER a. Prepare the equipment required on your experiment. b. Switch off all of the switches (RCCB, MCB, and meter switches). c. Make connections between the base station to transformer unit and other equipment following the experiment. Use different cable colors for different connections. d. Plug the power cord to three phase power source. e. The trainer is ready to be used. 2.4. SAFETY ON EXPERIMENT a. Ensure the power cable and jumper cables are in best condition. No crack or ripped. b. Ensure the RCCB and MCB are OFF when making or changing the connection leads. c. Ensure the power is OFF when removing the connection leads. d. Ask your instructor to recheck your wiring before applying power to the circuit. e. Always use the different cable color for different connections.

LABTECH

3

If there is a third winding on the transformer. The transformer winding connected to the power source is called the primary winding or input winding. WHY TRANSFORMERS ARE IMPORTANT TO MODERN LIFE? The first power distribution system in the United States was a 120-V dc system invented by Thomas A. built by William Stanley in 1885.TET 3 BASIC THEORY A transformer is a device that changes ac electric power at one voltage level to ac electric power at another voltage level through the action of a magnetic field. central power stations were located every few city blocks to overcome this problem. In the 1880s. Edison’s s first central power station went into operation in New York City in September 1882. The fact that power could not be transmitted far with low-voltage dc power systems meant that generating stations had to be small and localized and so were relatively inefficient. The only connection between the coils is the common magnetic flux present within the core. It consists of two or more coils of wire wrapped around a common ferromagnetic core.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. and the second (and perhaps third) transformer winding supplies electric power to loads.1. his power system generated and transmitted power at such low voltages that very large currents were necessary to supply significant amounts of power. Figure 3. Unfortunately. One of the transformer windings is connected to a source of ac electric power. severely restricting the service area of a generating station. it is called the tertiary winding. 3. LABTECH 4 . Note that the core is made up of individual sheets of metal (laminations). These coils are (usually) not directly connected. These high currents caused huge voltage drops and power losses in the transmission lines. and the winding connected to the loads is called the secondary winding or output winding. Edison to supply power for incandescent light bulbs.1 The first practical modem transformer.

electric power is generated at voltages of 12 to 25 kV.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.g. etc. current sampling and impedance transformation).. This type of construction is known as core form and is illustrated in Figure 3.5 kV).5-kv range for local distribution and finally permit the power to be used safely in homes offices and factories at voltages as low as 120 V.3 to 34. is called a substation transformer. voltage sampling. Transformers then step down the voltage to the 12. Finally.3. the transformer that takes the distribution voltage and steps it down to the final voltage at which the power is actually used (110. and its voltage stepped down again for final use. In either case. 3. Without the transformer. the only difference among them is their intended use. Such an arrangement serves two purposes: 1. If a transformer steps up the voltage level of a circuit.2. depending on their use in power systems. It results in much less leakage flux than would be the case if the two windings were separated by a distance on the core. One type of construction consists of a simple rectangular laminated piece of steel with the transformer windings wrapped around two sides of the rectangle. Power transformers are given a variety of different names.2. 220 V. Transformers are also used for a variety of other purposes (e. the core is constructed of thin laminations electrically isolated from each other in order to minimize eddy currents. it must decrease the current to keep the power into the device equal to the power out of it. 208. Therefore. The primary and secondary windings in a physical transformer are wrapped one on top of the other with the low-voltage winding innermost. it would simply not be possible to use electric power in many of the ways it is used today. This type of construction is known as shell form and is illustrated in Figure 3. A transformer connected to the output of a generator and used to step its voltage up to transmission levels (110+ kV) is sometimes called a unit transformer The transformer at the other end of the transmission line. raising the transmission voltage and reducing the resulting transmission currents by a factor of 10 with transformers reduces power transmission losses by a factor of 100. In a modem power system.) is called a distribution transformer All these devices are essentially the same. TYPES AND CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSFORMERS The principal purpose of a transformer is to convert ac power at one voltage level to ac power of the same frequency at another voltage level. which steps the voltage down from transmission levels to distribution levels (from 2. Since the transmission losses in the lines of a power system are proportional to the square of the current in the lines. It simplifies the problem of insulating the high-voltage winding from the core. A transformer ideally changes one ac voltage level to another voltage level without affecting the actual power supplied.to 34. LABTECH 5 . but this chapter is primarily devoted to the power transformer. ac electric power can be generated at one central location. The other type consists of a three-legged laminated core with the windings wrapped around the center leg. Power transformers are constructed on one of two types of cores. 2. its voltage stepped up for transmission over long distances at very low losses. Transformers step up the voltage to between 110 kV and nearly 1000 kV for transmission over long distances at very low losses.TET The invention of the transformer and the concurrent development of ac power sources eliminated forever these restrictions on the range and power level of power systems.

This device is called a current transformer.TET In addition to the various power transformers. Core-form transformer construction. THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER An ideal transformer is a loss less device with an input winding and an output winding. and between the input current and the output current. The second type of special transformer is a device designed to provide a secondary current much smaller than but directly proportional to its primary current.3. Such a transformer is called a potential transformer.4 shows an ideal transformer. The first of these special transformers is a device specially designed to sample a high voltage and produce a low secondary voltage directly proportional to it. Both special-purpose transformers are discussed in a later section of this chapter. Figure 3. The transformer shown in Figure 3. The relationship between the voltage vP(t) applied to the primary side of the transformer and the voltage vS(t) produced on the secondary side is VP (t ) N = P =a VS (t ) NS Figure 3. LABTECH 6 . the difference between a potential transformer and a power transformer is that the potential transformer is designed to handle only a very small current.4 has NP turns of wire on its primary side and NS turns of wire on its secondary side. two special-purpose transformers are used with electric machinery and power systems. 3.2. A power transformer also produces a secondary voltage directly proportional to its primary voltage. are given by two simple equations.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. The relationships between the input voltage and the output voltage.

3.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.3 (a) Shell-form transformer construction.TET Figure. (b) A typical shell-form transformer Figure 3. LABTECH 7 . (b) Schematic symbols of a transformer.4 (a) Sketch of an ideal transformer.

2. Voltage polarities are the same with respect to the dots on each side of the core. To avoid this necessity.TET where a is defined to be the turns ratio of the transformer: a = Np NS The relationship between the current iP(t) flowing into the primary side of the transformer and the current iS(t) flowing out of the secondary side of the transformer is NPiP(t) = NSiS(t) or iP (t ) 1 = iS (t ) a In terms of phasor quantities. The dots appearing at one end of each winding in Figure 3. then the secondary voltage will be positive at the dotted end also. what would the polarity of the secondary circuit’s voltage be? In real transformers. it would be possible to tell the secondary’s polarity only if the transformer were opened and its windings examined. but they leave one question unanswered: Given that the primary circuit’s voltage is positive at a specific end of the coil. The equations above describe the relationships between the magnitudes and angles of the voltages and currents on the primary and secondary sides of the transformer.4 tell the polarity of the voltage and current on the secondary side of the transformer. LABTECH 8 .Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. the secondary current will flow out of the dotted end of the secondary winding. If the primary current of the transformer flows into the dotted end of the primary winding. The turns ratio of the ideal transformer affects the magnitudes of the voltages and currents. but not their angles. transformers utilize the dot convention. The relationship is as follows: 1. these equations are VP =a VS and IP 1 = IS a Notice that the phase angle of VP is the same as the angle of VS and the phase angle of IP is the same as the phase angle of IS. If the primary voltage is positive at the dotted end of the winding with respect to the undotted end.

The power out of a transformer is Pout = VSIS cos θS Applying the turns-ratio equations gives VS = VS /a and IS = a IP . The power supplied by the transformer secondary circuit to its loads is given by the equation. The primary and secondary windings of an ideal transformer have the same power factor. Since voltage and current angles are unaffected by an ideal transformer. Pout = VSIS cos θS where θS is the angle between the secondary voltage and the secondary current.TET Power in an Ideal Transformer The power supplied to the transformer by the primary circuit is given by the equation Pin = VPIP cos θP where θP is the angle between the primary voltage and the primary current.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. The same relationship applies to reactive power Q and apparent power S: Qin = VPIP sin θ = VSIS sin θ = Qout and Sin = VPIP = VSIS = Sout Impedance Transformation through a Transformer The impedance of a device or an element is defined as the ratio of the phasor voltage across it to the phasor current flowing through it: LABTECH 9 . the output power of an ideal transformer is equal to its input power. θP-θS = θ. so Pout = VP (aIP) cos θ a Pout = VPIP cos θ = Pin Thus. How does the power going into the primary circuit of the ideal transformer compare to the power coming out of the other side? It is possible to find out through a simple application of the voltage and current equations.

To understand this idea. it changes the ratio between voltage and current and hence the apparent impedance of an element. then the impedance of the load is given by ZL = VS IS The apparent impedance of the primary circuit of the transformer is Z′L = VP IP Since the primary voltage can be expressed as VP = aVS and the primary current can be expressed as IP = VS a the apparent impedance of the primary is Z′L = VP aVS V = a2 S = IP IS / a IS Z′L = a2ZL With a transformer. If the secondary current is called IS and the secondary voltage VS.TET ZL = VL IL One of the interesting properties of a transformer is that. refer to Figure 3. since it changes voltage and current levels. it is possible to match the magnitude of load impedance to source impedance simply by picking the proper turns ratio.21. LABTECH 10 .Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.

In the portion of the circuit that was not replaced.TET Figure 3. The polarities of voltage sources in the equivalent circuit will be reversed from their direction in the original circuit if the dots on one side of the transformer windings are reversed compared to the dots on the other side of the transformer windings. then the new circuit (without a transformer present) can be solved for its voltages and currents. The solution for circuits containing ideal transformers is illustrated in the following example. After the equivalent circuit has been substituted for one side. The process of replacing one side of a transformer by its equivalent at the other side’s voltage level is known as referring the first side of the transformer to the second side. (a) If the power system is exactly as described above (Figure 3.18 + j0.24 Ω. How is the equivalent circuit formed? Its shape is exactly the same as the shape of the original circuit. Answer the following questions about this system. then the easiest way to analyze the circuit for its voltages and currents is to replace the portion of the circuit on one side of the transformer by an equivalent circuit with the same terminal characteristics.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. what will the voltage at the load be? What will the transmission line losses be? (b) Suppose a 1:10 step-up transformer is placed at the generator end of the transmission line and a 10:1 step-down transformer is placed at the load end of the line (Figure 3.6a). Then the turns ratio of the transformer can be used to determine the voltages and currents on the other side of the transformer. Example 3. (b) Impedance scaling through a transformer Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal Transformers If a circuit contains an ideal transformer. the solutions obtained will be the correct values of voltage and current for the original circuit.5 (a) Definition of impedance.1 A single-phase power system consists of a 480-V 60-Hz generator supplying a load Zload = 4 + j3 Ω through a transmission line of impedance Zline = 0.6b). What will the load voltage be now? What will the transmission line losses be now? LABTECH 11 .

8 ∠ – 37.8° A)(5 ∠ 36.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.8 ∠ – 37.18Ω + j 0.9° V Therefore the load voltage is LABTECH 12 .18 + j 3.29∠37. Here IG = Iline = Iload.24 480∠0º = 5. Iline = V Z line + Z load 480∠0º V (0.24Ω) + (4Ω + j 3Ω) = = 480∠0º 4.8° A)(4 Ω + j3 Ω) = (90.TET Solution (a) Figure 3.8 ∠ – 37. 3.8° A Vload = Iline Zload = (90.6a shows the power system without transformers.9° Ω) = 454 ∠ – 0.8º = 90. The line current in this system is given by Figure.6 The power system of Example 3-1 (a) without and (b) with transformers at the ends of the transmission line.

Eliminate transformer T2 by referring the load over to the transmission line’s voltage level. Eliminate transformer T1 by referring the transmission line’s elements and the equivalent load at the transmission line’s voltage over to the source side.18 Ω + j0.18 + j300.7b shows the power system with the transformers. it is necessary to convert it to a common voltage level.003 ∠ 36.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.0024 Ω + 4 Ω + j3 Ω) = 5.3 ∠ 36.TET and the line losses are Ploss = (Iline)2 Rline = (90.18 Ω) = 1484 W (b) Figure 3.24 Ω + 400 Ω + j300 Ω ⎝ ⎠ = (0.8a.88° Ω 2 LABTECH 13 .88° Ω This equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 3.24 Ω = 500.8 A)2 (0. 2.0018 Ω + j0. This is done in two steps: 1. The value of the load’s impedance when reflected to the transmission system’s voltage is Z′load = a2 Zload ⎛ 10 ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ (4 Ω + j3 Ω) ⎝1⎠ = 400 Ω + j300 Ω The total impedance at the transmission line level is now Zeq 2 = Zline + Z′load = 400. The total impedance at the transmission line level (Zline + Z′load) is now reflected across T1 to the source’s voltage level: Z′eq = a2Zeq = a2(Zline + Z′load) ⎛1⎞ = ⎜ 10 ⎟ (0. To analyze this system.

88° A Knowing the current IG.0018 + j0.0024. Working back through T1.94 ∠ −36.88° A) 10 Working back through T2 gives NP2Iline = NS2Iload LABTECH 14 .7 (a) System with the load referred to the transmission system voltage level.594 ∠ −36. The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 3. we can now work back and find Iline and Iload. (b) System with the load and transmission line referred to the generator’s voltage level.TET Figure 3. The generator’s current is IG = 480∠0º V 5.7b.88° A 1 (95.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. we get NP1IG Iline = NSlIline = NP1 IG = = 9. Notice that Z″load = 4 + j3 Ω and Z′line = 0.94 ∠ −36.003∠36.88º Ω = 95.

88° A) 10 = 95.7 W Notice that raising the transmission voltage of the power system reduced transmission losses by a factor of nearly 90.94 ∠ −36.594 A)2 (0. the voltage at the load dropped much less in the system with transformers compared to the system without transformers.594 ∠ −36.88° A)(5 ∠ 36.87° Ω = 479.01° V and the line losses are given by Ploss = (Iline)2 Rline = (9. LABTECH 15 . This simple example dramatically illustrates the advantages of using higher-voltage transmission lines as well as the extreme importance of transformers in modem power systems. Also.7 ∠ 0.TET Iload = NP2 Iline NS2 = 1 (9. The load voltage is given by Vload = Iload Zload = (95.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.88° A It is now possible to answer the questions originally asked.18 Ω) = 16.94 ∠ −36.

LABTECH 16 . What can be produced are real transformers. This section deals with the behavior of real transformers. but only to a degree.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. The primary of the transformer is connected to an ac power source. The flux linkage λ is the sum of the flux passing through each turn in the coil added over all the turns of the coil: λ= ∑φ i =1 N i Figure 3. To understand the operation of a real transformer. The characteristics of a real transformer approximate the characteristics of an ideal transformer.4. The hysteresis curve of the transformer is shown in Figure 3. The basis of transformer operation can be derived from Faraday’s law: eind = dλ dt where λ is the flux linkage in the coil across which the voltage is being induced. and the secondary winding is open-circuited.9.8 Sketch of real transformer with no load attached to its secondary. refer to Figure 3.3 can of course never actually be made.8. THEORY OF OPERATION OF REAL SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS The ideal transformers described in section 3.TET 3. It shows a transformer consisting of two coils of wire wrapped around a transformer core. two or more coils of wire physically wrapped around a ferromagnetic core.

TET Figure 3.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. and the constant of proportionality is the reciprocal of the number of turns in the primary winding 1/NP. The total flux linkage through a coil is not just Nφ. where N is the number of turns in the coil.8 is vp(t). Not all the flux produced in the primary coil also passes through the LABTECH 17 . it is possible to define an average flux per turn in a coil. then that voltage is placed directly across the coils of the primary winding of the transformer. This flux is present in the primary coil of the transformer. When equation above is solved for the average flux present in the primary winding of the transformer. the result is φ = 1 VP (t )dt NP ∫ This equation states that the average flux in the winding is proportional to the integral of the voltage applied to the winding. How will the transformer react to this applied voltage? Faraday’s law explains what will happen. because the flux passing through each turn of a coil is slightly different from the flux in the other turns. If the total flux linkage in all the turns of the coils is λ and if there are N turns. However. then the average flux per turn is given by φ = and Faraday’s law can be written as λ N eind = N dφ dt The Voltage Ratio across a Transformer If the voltage of the source in Figure 3. What effect does it have on the secondary coil of the transformer? The effect depends on how much of the flux reaches the secondary coil.9 The hysteresis curve of the transformer. depending on the position of the turn within the coil.

which passes through the primary winding but returns through the air. bypassing the secondary winding: Figure 3. The portion of the flux that goes through one of the transformer coils but not the other one is called leakage flux.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. by passing the primary winding: φS = φM + φLS where φS φM = flux component linking both primary and secondary coils φLS = secondary leakage flux = total average secondary flux With the division of the average primary flux into mutual and leakage components. Faraday’s law for the primary circuit can be reexpressed as vP(t) = NP dφ P dt LABTECH 18 .TET secondary coil—some of the flux lines leave the iron core and pass through the air instead (see Figure 3. φ P = φM + φLP where φP = total average primary flux φM = flux component linking both primary and secondary coils φLP = primary leakage flux There is a similar division of flux in the secondary winding between mutual flux and leakage flux which passes through the secondary winding but returns through the air. The flux in the primary coil of the transformer can thus be divided into two components: a mutual flux. which remains in the core and links both windings. and a small leakage flux.10).10 Mutual and leakage fluxes in a transformer core.

the ratio of the total voltage on the primary of a transformer to the total voltage on the secondary of a transformer is approximately LABTECH 19 . Since in a well-designed transformer φM >> φLP and φM >> φLS. If this is done.TET = NP dφ M d φ LP + NP dt dt The first term of this expression can be called eP(t). then equation can be rewritten as vP(t) = eP(t) + eLP(t) The voltage on the secondary coil of the transformer can also be expressed in terms of Faraday’s law as dφ S vS(t) = NS dt dφM d φ LS = NS + NS dt dt = eS(t) + eLS(t) The primary voltage due to the mutual flux is given by eP(t) = NP dφ M dt and the secondary voltage due to the mutual flux is given by dφ M dt eS(t) = NS Notice from these two relationships that eP (t ) dφ M eS (t ) = = NP dt NS Therefore. and the second term can be called eLP(t). eP (t ) N = P eS (t ) NS This equation means that the ratio of the primary voltage caused by the mutual flux to the secondary voltage caused by the mutual flux is equal to the turns ratio of the transformer.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.

dt NP ∫ VM Sin.ωt. The core-loss current ih+e. If the flux in the transformer core is known.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Notice the following points about the magnetization current: LABTECH 20 .3. which is the current required to make up for hysteresis and eddy current losses.TET vP (t ) N P = =a vS (t ) N S The smaller the leakage fluxes of the transformer are.ωt. Figure 3.8. The Magnetization Current in a Real Transformer When an ac power source is connected to a transformer as shown in Figure 3. Such a sketch is shown in Figure 3. we see that the average flux in the core is given by φ = 1 vP (t )dt NP ∫ If the primary voltage is given by the expression vP(t) = vM cos ωt V.11a) are compared to the flux in the core at different times. it is possible to construct a sketch of the magnetization current in the winding on the core. This current is the current required to produce flux in a real ferromagnetic core. 2. The magnetization current iM. a current flows in its primary circuit. even when the secondary circuit is open-circuited. It consists of two components: 1. then the resulting flux must be φ = 1 VM Cos.Wb ωN P = If the values of current required to produce a given flux (Figure 3. the closer the total transformer voltage ratio approximates that of the ideal transformer discussed in section 3. Ignoring for the moment the effects of leakage flux.11 shows the magnetization curve of a typical transformer core. which is the current required to produce the flux in the transformer core. then the magnitude of the magnetization current can be found directly from Figure 3.11b.11.

The magnetization current in the transformer is not sinusoidal. The fundamental component of the magnetization current lags the voltage applied to the core by 90°. In general.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. 4. 1. (b) The magnetization current caused by the flux in the transformer core. The higher-frequency components in the magnetization current can be quite large compared to the fundamental component. a small increase in peak flux requires a very large increase in the peak magnetization current. the larger the harmonic components will become. The higher-frequency components in the magnetization current are due to magnetic saturation in the transformer core. 3. Once the peak flux reaches the saturation point in the core.TET Figure 3. 2. LABTECH 21 . the further a transformer core is driven into saturation.11 (a) The magnetization curve of the transformer core.

the core-loss current is greatest as the flux passes through zero. It is just the sum of the magnetization current and the core-loss current in the core: iex = im + ih+e The total excitation current in a typical transformer core is shown in Figure 3.TET The other component of the no-load current in the transformer is the current required to supply power to make up the hysteresis and eddy current losses in the core.13 Figure 3. The total current required to make up for core losses is shown in Figure 3. Figure 3. The fundamental component of the core-loss current is in phase with the voltage applied to the core. This is the coreloss current. The core-loss current is nonlinear because of the nonlinear effects of hysteresis. Therefore.12 The core-loss current in a transformer. 2. Notice the following points about the core-loss current: 1. Since the eddy currents in the core are proportional to dφ/dt. LABTECH 22 . the eddy currents are largest when the flux in the core is passing through 0 Wb. The total no-load current in the core is called the excitation current of the transformer.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.13 The total excitation current in a transformer.12. Assume that the flux in the core is sinusoidal.

The easiest way to calculate the values of RC and XM is to look first at the admittance of the excitation branch. their admittances add. a transformer’s secondary winding is open-circuited. Full line voltage is applied to the primary of the transformer. the open-circuit test and the short-circuit test.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. and the input voltage. and the total excitation admittance is YE = Gc . input current. and input power to the transformer are measured. An adequate approximation of these values can be obtained with only two tests.14 Connection for transformer open-circuit test. it is possible to determine the power factor of the input current and therefore both the magnitude and the angle of the excitation impedance. From this information. The open-circuit test connections are shown in Figure 3. The magnitude of the excitation admittance (referred to the primary circuit) can be found from the open-circuit test voltage and current: YE = I OC VOC 23 LABTECH . In the open-circuit test.jBM = 1 1 – j RC XM Figure 3. and its primary winding is connected to a full-rated line voltage.TET Determining the Values of Components in the Transformer Model It is possible to experimentally determine the values of the inductances and resistances in the transformer model.14. The conductance of the core-loss resistor is given by Gc = 1 RC 1 XM and the susceptance of the magnetizing inductor is given by BM = Since these two elements are in parallel.

and the primary terminals are connected to a fairly low-voltage source. current. It would not be a good idea to burn out the transformer’s windings while trying to test it. and the overall impedance angle θ is positive: LABTECH 24 . the secondary terminals of the transformer are short-circuited. In the short-circuit test. Since the input voltage is so low during the short-circuit test. then all the voltage drop in the transformer can be attributed to the series elements in the circuit. If the excitation current is ignored. it is possible to determine the values of RC and XM directly from the open-circuit test data.TET The angle of the admittance can be found from a knowledge of the circuit power factor.) The input voltage. the admittance YE is YE = I OC ∠ -θ VOC I OC ∠ -θ cos –1 PF VOC = By comparing equations above. Therefore.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. as shown in Figure 3. The open-circuit power factor (PF) is given by PF = cos θ P = OC VOC I OC and the power-factor angle θ is given by θ = cos –1 POC VOC The power factor is always lagging for a real transformer. so the angle of the current always lags the angle of the voltage by θ degrees. (Be sure to keep the primary voltage at a safe level. The input voltage is adjusted until the current in the short-circuited windings is equal to its rated value.15. The current angle is thus negative. and power are again measured. negligible current flows through the excitation branch. The magnitude of the series impedances referred to the primary side of the transformer is Z SE = VSC I SC The power factor of the current is given by PF = cos θ P = SC VSC I SC and is lagging.

8000V 240-V. The open-circuit test and the Short-circuit test were performed on the primary side of the transformer. Fortunately. the results will naturally yield the equivalent circuit impedances referred to the secondary side of the transformer instead of to the primary side. If the tests are performed on the secondary side.15 Connection for transformer short-circuit test.214 A POC = 400 W Short-circuit Test (on primary) VSC = 489 V ISC = 2.TET θ = cos-1 PSC VSC I SC Therefore.5 A PSC = 240 W LABTECH 25 . It is possible to determine the total series impedance referred to the primary side by using this technique. but there is no easy way to split the series impedance into primary and secondary components. ZSE = VSC ∠0° I SC ∠ − θ ° V = SC ∠0° I SC The series impedance ZSE is equal to ZSE = Req + jXeq =(Rp + a2Rs) + j(Xp + a2Xs) IIIIIII Figure 3. 60-Hz transformers are to be determined. Example 3. Also these same tests may be performed on the secondary side of the transformer if it is more convenient to do so because of voltage levels or other reasons. such separation is not necessary to solve normal problems.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. and the following data were taken: Open-circuit Test (on primary) VOC = 8000V IOC = 0.2 The equivalent circuit impedances of a 20-kVA.

0000261 0.000026 1 = 38. Solution. RC = 1 .214 A ∠ – Cos-1 0.214 A) = 0. The power factor during the open-circuit test is: PF = cos θ = = cos θ = POC VOC I OC 400W (8000V )(0.5 A) The series impedance is given by ZSE = VSC ∠ .Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.5º Ω = 0. 0.234 lagging The excitation admittance is given by YE = I OC ∠ – Cos-1 PF VOC 0.0000063 – j 0.0000063 = 159kΩ XM = 1 0. and sketch that circuit.0000261 = 1 1 –j RC XM Therefore.TET Find the impedances of the approximate equivalent circuit referred to the primary side.0000268 ∠ – 76.196 lagging (489V )(2.4kΩ The power factor during the short-circuit test is: PSC PF = Cos θ = = VSC I SC 240W Cos θ = = 0.Cos-1 PF I SC LABTECH 26 .234 = 8000V = 0.

the required conversions are handled automatically by the method itself. THE PER-UNIT SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENTS As the relatively simple Example 3.4 Ω X eq =192 Ω The resulting simplified equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 3.4 + j l92 Ω = Therefore. amperes. Only after this step has been taken can the system be solved for its voltages and currents. the equivalent resistance and reactance are Req =38.16 The equivalent circuit of example 3. Any quantity can be expressed on a per-unit basis by the equation Quantity per unit = Actual value . etc. etc. Instead.2 showed. circuits containing many transformers can be solved easily with less chance of error. 3. solving circuits containing transformers can be quite a tedious operation because of the need to refer all the different voltage levels on different sides of the transformers in the system to a common level.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.2 There is another approach to solving circuits containing transformers which eliminates the need for explicit voltage-level conversions at every transformer in the system. Figure 3.7º = 38.16. and other electrical quantities are not measured in their usual SI units (volts.TET 489V ∠ 78. impedances. each electrical quantity is measured as a decimal fraction of some base level. This method of calculation is known as the per-unit (pu) system of measurements. the voltages. base value of quantity where “actual value” is a value in volts. amperes.5 A = 195.6 ∠ 78.).7º 2. currents. In the per-unit system. powers. without ever requiring the user to worry about impedance transformations. Because such impedance transformations can be avoided. LABTECH 27 . Instead. ohms. watts.5. ohms.

The impedance of the transmission line is 20 + j60 fl. In a power system.3 A simple power system is shown in Figure 3. Find the power supplied to the load in this system.17.17 The power system of Example 3. and a load. and the impedance of the load is l0<30o.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. On the other hand. all the other base values are related to them by the usual electrical laws. an ideal 20:1 step-down transformer. a base apparent power and voltage are selected at a specific point in the system. and apparent power at every point in the power system. This system contains a 480-V generator connected to an ideal 1:10 step-up transformer. (a) (b) (c) (d) Find the base voltage. current. a transmission line. Convert this system to its per-unit equivalent circuit. Figure 3.TET It is customary to select two base quantities to define a given per-unit system. The ones usually selected are voltage and power (or apparent power). so the value of Vbase changes at every transformer in the system according to its turns ratio. LABTECH 28 . A transformer has no effect on the base apparent power of the system. Find the power lost in the transmission line. impedance. the process of referring quantities to a common voltage level is automatically taken care of during per-unit conversion. Because the base quantities change in passing through a transformer. Once these base quantities have been selected. The base values for this system are Chosen to be 480 V and 10 kVA at the generator. In a single-phase system. all other base values can be computed easily.3. since the apparent power into a transformer equals the apparent power out of the transformer. Example 3. these relationships are: Pbase’ Qbase’ or Sbase = Vbase Ibase Zbase Y base and Zbase Vbase I base I = base Vbase = = (Vbase ) 2 Sbase Once the base values of S (or P) and V have been selected. voltage changes when it goes through a transformer.

1.83 A = 23. so the base voltage in the load region is: V base 3 = Vbase2 a 4800V = 20 = 240 V LABTECH 29 . Vbase = 480 V and Sbase = 10 kVA. so I base 1 = Sbase Vbase1 10.TET Solution (a) In the generator region.083 A = 2304 Ω The turns ratio of transformer T2 is a = 20/1 = 20.000VA 4800V = 2.83A Zbase 1 = Vbase1 I base1 480V = 80.1 = 4800 V The other base quantities are: S base 2 = 10 kVA I base 2 = 10.083 A Z base 2 = 4800V 2.04Ω The turns ratio of transformer T1 is a = 1/10 = 0. so the base voltage in the transmission line region is Vbase 2 = Vbase1 a 480V = 0.000VA = 480V = 20.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.

0087 + j 0.3.000VA I base 3 = 240V = 41. The generator’s per-unit voltage is its actual value divided by its base value: V G.18 The per-unit equivalent circuit for Example 3.pu = 480∠0°V 480V = 1. Figure 3. LABTECH 30 .pu = 20 + j 60Ω 2304Ω = 0.736 ∠ 30º pu The per-unit equivalent circuit of the power system is shown in Figure 3.0 ∠ 0º pu The transmission line’s per-unit impedance is its actual value divided by its base value: Z line.76 Ω (b) To convert a power system to a per-unit system.67 A = 5.0260 pu The load’s per-unit impedance is also given by actual value divided by base value: Z load.TET The other base quantities are: S base 3 = 10 kVA 10.67 A Z base 3 = 240V 41.76Ω = 1. each component must be divided by its base value in its region of the system.pu = 10∠30°Ω 5.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.18.

000 VA) = 28.868) 1∠0° = 1.2W When only one device (transformer or motor) is being analyzed. If a per-unit system based on the transformer’s own ratings is used.6° = 0. while the core-loss resistance is usually between about 50 and 200 per unit.pu = (0.000 VA) = 4870 W (d) The per-unit power lost in the transmission line is: Pline. For example. PU 1∠0° (0.00282 and the actual power lost in the transmission line is: Pline = Pline. and the series reactance is usually between 0.0087 + j 0.01 per unit.0087 + j 0.pu Sbase = (0.00282)(10. In general.0260) + (1.894 1∠0° = 1.503 + j 0.02 and 0. a power or distribution transformer’s characteristics will not vary much over a wide range of voltage and power ratings. the larger the transformer is the smaller the series impedances.757∠30.pu Sbase = (0. the series resistance of a transformer is usually about 0.569)2(0.736∠30°) 1∠0° = (0. The magnetizing reactance is usually between about 10 and 40 per unit. the per-unit power of the load is: Pload. its own ratings are usually used as the base for the per-unit system.569)2(1.569 ∠ -30.0087) = 0. pu = I2puRpu = (0. Because per unit values provide a convenient and meaningful way to compare transformer characteristics when they are of different sizes.TET (c) The current flowing in this per-unit power system is: Ipu = = VPU Z tot .512 + j 0.503) = 0.10 per unit.487 and the actual power supplied to the load is: Pload = Pload.487)(10.pu =I2puRline.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. transformer impedances are normally given in per-unit or as a percentage on LABTECH 31 .6º pu Therefore.0260) + (1.

Q. X.TET the transformer’s nameplate.19 (a) Atypical 13. The same idea applies to synchronous and induction machines as well: Their per-unit impedances fall within relatively narrow ranges over quite large size ranges. Z) PU on base 2 = (R. Per-unit values given to another base can be converted to the new base by converting them to their actual values (volts. amperes. If more than one machine and one transformer are included in a single power system. VPU on base 2 = VPU on base 1 Vbase1 Vbase 2 (Vbase1 ) 2 ( Sbase 2 ) (Vbase 2 ) 2 ( Sbase1 ) (R. Alternatively.Q.S) PU on base 1 Sbase1 Sbase 2 Figure 3. (P. ohms. but the entire system must have the same base.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.) as an in-between step. One common procedure is to choose the system base quantities to be equal to the base of the largest component in the system. X. the system base voltage and power maybe chosen arbitrarily. Z) PU on base1 LABTECH 32 .S)PU on base 2 = (P. etc.2 kV to 120/240V distribution transformer. they can be converted directly by the equations. (b) A cutaway view of the distribution transformer showing the shell-form transformer inside it.

2 is rated at 20 kVA.000VA = 3200 Ω Therefore. Solution. expressed to the transformer’s own base. so to convert it to per-unit. The transformer in Example 3. Use the transformer’s ratings as the system base.4 Sketch the approximate per-unit equivalent circuit for the transformer in Example 3.TET Example 3.7 PU ZM. On the primary.PU = 38.4kΩ 3200Ω = 12PU The per-unit approximate equivalent circuit.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.000 VA Zbase 1= (Vbase1 ) 2 Sbase1 (8000V )2 = 20.20.4 + j192Ω 3200Ω = 0. ZSE.16) developed in the example was referred to the high-voltage side of the transformer.06PU RC.012 + j0. is shown in Figure 3.PU = 38. the primary circuit base impedance must be found. LABTECH 33 .PU = 159kΩ 3200Ω = 49.2. 8000/240 V. The approximate equivalent circuit (Figure 3. Vbasel = 8000 V Sbase 1 = 20.

TET Figure 3.6. TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE REGULATION AND EFFICIENCY Because a real transformer has series impedances within it. PU Usually it is a good practice to have as small a voltage regulation as possible. 3. then voltage regulation can be expressed as VR = VP . though—sometimes high-impedance and high-voltage regulation transformers are deliberately used to reduce the fault currents in a circuit. fl. fl x 100% VS. it is customary to define a quantity called voltage regulation (VR). VR = 0 percent.4. PU x100% VS .20 The per-unit equivalent circuit of Example 3. PU − VS . n.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. fl x 100% VS. fl If the transformer equivalent circuit is in the per-unit system. fl . l − VS. the voltage regulation can also be expressed as VR = VP / a − VS. To conveniently compare transformers in this respect. Full-load voltage regulation is a quantity that compares the output voltage of the transformer at no load with the output voltage at full load. LABTECH 34 . It is not always a good idea to have a low-voltage regulation. VS = VP/a. fl VR = Since at no load. the output voltage of a transformer varies with the load even if the input voltage remains constant. It is defined by the equation VS. For an ideal transformer.

7. Throughout those sections. transformers were described by their turns ratios or by their primary-to-secondary-voltage ratios. Basically. Normal loads need to be supplied an essentially constant voltage. TRANSFORMER TAPS AND VOLTAGE REGULATION In previous sections of this chapter. How can a power company supply a controlled voltage through high-impedance lines to loads which are constantly changing? One solution to this problem is to use a special transformer called a tap changing under load (TCUL) transformer or voltage regulator. a TCUL transformer is a transformer with the ability to change taps while power is connected to it. In such circumstances. Distribution transformers have a series of taps in the windings to permit small changes in the turns ratio of the transformer after it has left the factory. each rated at about the same voltage. Such voltage variations might be due to a high line impedance between the generators on the power system and that particular load (perhaps it is located far out in the country).TET 3. A specialpurpose transformer. this is not quite true. the turns ratio of a given transformer was treated as though it were completely fixed. A typical installation might have four taps in addition to the nominal setting with spacings of 2. called an autotransformer.8 kV. is used instead. Sometimes a transformer is used on a power line whose voltage varies widely with the load.5 percent of full-load voltage between them.5 percent taps on its primary winding. Such special transformers are very common in modern power systems.5% tap 12.540/480V The taps on a transformer permit the transformer to be adjusted in the field to accommodate variations in local voltages. A voltage regulator is a TCUL transformer with built-in voltage sensing circuitry that automatically changes taps to keep the system voltage constant. These small rises may be made necessary by voltage drops that occur in power systems a long way from the generators. For example. it is wasteful and excessively expensive to wind a transformer with two full windings. Such an arrangement provides for adjustments up to 5 percent above or below the nominal voltage rating of the transformer. Example 3. 3. They must be set once and left alone. 13.860/480V +2.2 to 13. What are the voltage ratios of this transformer at each tap setting? Solution The five possible voltage ratings of this transformer are +5.870/480V -5. these taps normally cannot be changed while power is being applied to the transformer.5% tap 13.0% tap 13. it may be necessary to increase a voltage from 110 to 120 V or from 13. THE AUTOTRANSFORMER On some occasions it is desirable to change voltage levels by only a small amount.530/480V Nominal rating 13. However. In almost all real distribution transformers.0% tap 12.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.200/480-V distribution transformer has four 2.5 A 500-kVA.8. LABTECH 35 .200/480V -2.

A diagram of a step-down autotransformer is shown in Figure 3. Now.TET A diagram of a step-up autotransformer is shown in Figure 3. The voltage and current on the low-voltage side of the transformer are called VL and IL respectively. In Figure 3. However. In Figure 3. a different terminology is used for the autotransformer than for other types of transformers.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.21b the voltages and currents in the coils are related by the equations VC NC = VSE NSE The voltages in the coils are related to the voltages at the terminals by the equations VL =VC VH = VC + VSE and the currents in the coils are related to the currents at the terminals by the equations IL = IC + ISE LABTECH 36 . while the voltage at the output is just the voltage on the common winding. The voltage on the common coil is called the common voltage VC and the current in that coil is called the common current IC The voltage on the series coil is called the series voltage VSE.21a. The primary side of the autotransformer (the side with power into it) can be either the high-voltage side or the low-voltage side. Here the voltage at the input is the sum of the voltages on the series winding and the common winding. From Figure 3. the two coils of the transformer are shown in the conventional manner.21 A transformer with its windings (a) connected in the conventional manner and (b) reconnected as an auto-transformer.21b. the first winding is shown connected in an additive manner to the second winding. and the current in that coil is called the series current ISE. The smaller winding is called the series winding. Figure 3. the voltage at the output of the whole transformer is the sum of the voltage on the first winding and the voltage on the second winding. because its voltage appears on both sides of the transformer.22. The first winding here is called the common winding.21. Because the transformer coils are physically connected. because it is connected in series with the common winding. the relationship between the voltage on the first winding and the voltage on the second winding is given by the turns ratio of the transformer. depending on whether the autotransformer is acting as a step-down or a step-up transformer. while the corresponding quantities on the high-voltage side of the transformer are called VH and IH.

we get . so NSE VC NC VH = VL + NSE VL NC = NSE + NC VL . so NC LABTECH 37 . VH = VC + VSE But VC NC = VSE NSE VH = VC + Finally.22 A step-down autotransformer connection. noting that VL = VC.TET IH = ISE Voltage and Current Relationships in an Autotransformer What is the voltage relationship between the two sides of an autotransformer? It is quite easy to determine the relationship between VH and VL The voltage on the high side of the autotransformer is given by Figure 3. or NC VL NC = VH NSE + NC The current relationship between the two sides of the transformer can be found by noting that IL = IC + ISE NSE IC = xISE .Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.

the apparent power in the transformer windings is SW = VCIC = VSEISE The relationship between the power going into the primary (and out the secondary) of the transformer and the power in the transformer’s actual windings can be found as follows: SW = VCIC = VL (IL . if a conventional transformer is reconnected as an autotransformer. As a result. it can handle much more power than it was originally rated for.IH) = VLIL .VLIH SW = VLIL .VLIL NC NSE + NC 38 LABTECH .TET IL = Finally.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. by using the voltage and current equations.21b. refer again to Figure 3. However. or NC IL NSE + NC = IH NC The Apparent Power Rating Advantage of Autotransformers It is interesting to note that not all the power traveling from the primary to the secondary in the autotransformer goes through the windings. noting that IH= ISE . we find NSE xISE +ISE NC IL = NSE xIH + IH NC NSE + NC = xIH . To understand this idea. Notice that the input apparent power to the autotransformer is given by Sin = VLIL and the output apparent power is given by Sout = VHIH It is easy to show. that the input apparent power is again equal to the output apparent power: Sin = Sout = SIO where SIO is defined to be the input and output apparent powers of the transformer.

6 LABTECH 39 . Such an autotransformer would actually have windings rated at SW = SIO NSE NSE + NC 28 28 + 110 = (5000 kVA) = 1015 kVA Figure 3. while SW is the apparent power actually traveling through the transformer’s windings (the rest passes from primary to secondary without being coupled through the transformer’s windings). the greater the advantage.TET = VLIL ( NSE + NC ) − NC NSE + NC = SIO NSE NSE + NC Therefore. Note that the smaller the series winding.23 The autotransformer of Example 3. Here SIO is the apparent power entering the primary and leaving the secondary of the transformer. the ratio of the apparent power in the primary and secondary of the autotransformer to the apparent power actually traveling through its windings is SIO NSE + NC = SW NSE Equation above describes the apparent power rating advantage of an autotransformer over a conventional transformer. For example. a 5000-kVA autotransformer connecting a 110-kV system to a 138-kV system would have an NC/NSE turns ratio of 110:28.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.

while a conventional transformer doing the same job would need windings rated at 5000 kVA.max = S max VSE 100VA = 12V = 8. A 100-VA 120/12-V transformer is to be connected so as to form a step-up autotransformer (see Figure 3. For this reason. examine the series winding. and the volt-ampere rating of the winding is 100 VA. The following example illustrates autotransformer analysis and the rating advantage of autotransformers. the secondary apparent power is Sout = VSIS = VHIH = (132 V)(8.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.23). the maximum series winding current is ISE. To accomplish a step-up transformation with a 120-V primary. The voltage VSE on the winding is 12 V. it is very advantageous to build transformers between two nearly equal voltages as autotransformers.6.33 A Since ISE is equal to the secondary current IS (or IH) and since the secondary voltage VS = VH = 132 V.33 A) = 1100 VA = Sin LABTECH 40 . Solution. How much input or output apparent power can this provide? To find out. The autotransformer could be 5 times smaller than the conventional transformer and also would be much less expensive. the ratio of the turns on the common winding NC to the turns on the series winding NSE in this transformer must be 120:12 (or 10:1). (a) This transformer is being used as a step-up transformer. (a) What is the secondary voltage of the transformer? (b) What is its maximum voltampere rating in this mode of operation? (c) Calculate the rating advantage of this autotransformer connection over the transformer’s rating in conventional 120/12-V operation. A primary voltage of 120 V is applied to the transformer. The secondary voltage is VH : VH = NSE + NC VL NC = 12 + 120 120V 120 = 132 V (b) The maximum volt-ampere rating in either winding of this transformer is 100 VA. Example 3.TET The autotransformer would have windings rated at only about 1015 kVA. Therefore.

24. The proof of this statement is left as a problem at the end of the chapter.TET (c) The rating advantage can be calculated from part (b) (d) From part b. It turns out that. In transformers built specifically as autotransformers. the apparent power rating is increased by a factor of 11. The Internal Impedance of an Autotransformer Autotransformers have one additional disadvantage compared to conventional transformers. If a particular application does not require electrical isolation. compared to a given transformer connected in the conventional manner. because the closer the two voltages are. unlike ordinary transformers. there is a direct physical connection between the primary and the secondary circuits. the effective per-unit impedance of an autotransformer is smaller by a factor equal to the reciprocal of the power advantage of the autotransformer connection.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. It is not normally possible to just reconnect an ordinary transformer as an auto-transformer and use it in the manner of Example 3. because the insulation on the low-voltage side of the ordinary transformer may not be strong enough to withstand the full output voltage of the autotransformer connection. the insulation on the smaller coil (the series winding) is made just as strong as the insulation on the larger coil. LABTECH 41 . the greater the autotransformer power advantage becomes. SIO SW = 1100VA 100VA = 11 SIO SW = NSE + NC NSE 12 + 120 12 = 11 = By either equation. where the low-voltage tap moves up and down the winding. Such a variable autotransformer is shown in Figure 3. They are also used as variable transformers.6. so the electrical isolation of the two sides is lost. The principal disadvantage of autotransformers is that. This is a very convenient way to get a variable ac voltage. It is common practice in power systems to use autotransformers whenever two voltages fairly close to each other in level need to be transformed. then the autotransformer is a convenient and inexpensive way to tie nearly equal voltages together.

2/12—kV stepdown autotransformer in a power distribution system.2 or 10:1.000kVA = (b) The transformer’s impedance in a per-unit system when connected in the conventional manner is Zeq = 0. 12/1.01 + j 0. The reduced internal impedance of an autotransformer compared to a conventional twowinding transformer can be a serious problem in some applications where the series impedance is needed to limit current flows during power system faults (short circuits).00727 PU autotransformer LABTECH 42 .00091 + j 0. The effect of the smaller internal impedance provided by an autotransformer must be taken into account in practical applications before autotransformers are selected. so the per-unit impedance of the autotransformer connected as described is Zeq = 0. Example 3.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.TET Figure 3.08 11 = 0. and the apparent power (voltampere) rating will be SIO NSE + NC SW NSE 1 + 10 = 1000kVA 1 = 11.08 PU separate windings The apparent power advantage of this autotransformer is 11.7 A transformer is rated at 1000 kVA.2/12 kV. This transformer is to be used as a 13.01 + j0. Under these conditions. (b) Cutaway view of the autotransformer. 60 Hz when it is operated as a conventional two-winding transformer.24 A variable-voltage autotransformer. The voltage rating of this transformer will be 13.2 kV. In the autotransformer connection. (a) what is the transformer’s rating when used in this manner and (b) what is the transformer’s series impedance in per-unit? Solution (a) The NC/NSE turns ratio must be 12:1. respectively. its series resistance and reactance are given as 1 and 8 percent per unit.

27 The key to analyzing any three-phase transformer bank is to look at a single transformer in the bank. The construction of a single three-phase transformer is the preferred practice today. cheaper. it is necessary to understand how transformers are used in them. and similar calculations for three-phase transformers are done on a per-phase basis. using exactly the same techniques already developed for single-phase transformers. One approach is simply to take three single-phase transformers and connect them in a three-phase bank. Transformers for three-phase circuits can be constructed in one of two ways. Any single transformer in the bank behaves exactly like the single-phase transformers already studied. Three-Phase Transformer Connections A three-phase transformer consists of three transformers. Wye—wye Wye—delta Delta—wye Delta—delta (Y .Y) (Δ .Δ) These connections are shown in Figure 3.25 and 3. 3. but that does not outweigh the advantages of a combined three-phase unit for most applications.Y) (Y . However. An alternative approach is to make a three-phase transformer consisting of three sets of windings wrapped on a common core. 2. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of three-phase transformer connection are discussed below. there are still a great many installations consisting of three single-phase units in service. That approach had the advantage that each unit in the bank could be replaced individually in the event of trouble.Δ) (Δ . Since three-phase systems play such an important role in modem life. since it is lighter. efficiency.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. This gives a total of four possible connections for a three-phase transformer bank: 1.9. either separate or combined on one core. smaller. THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS Almost all the major power generation and distribution systems in the world today are threephase ac systems. The older construction approach was to use three separate transformers. These two possible types of transformer construction are shown in Figures 3. LABTECH 43 .TET 3. and slightly more efficient. The primaries and secondaries of any three-phase transformer can be independently connected in either a wye (Y) or a delta (A). 4.26. The impedance. voltage regulation.

overall the voltage ratio on the transformer is 3VθP VLP = =a VLS 3VθS Y-Y LABTECH 44 .26 A three-phase transformer wound on a single three-legged core.25 A three-phase transformer bank composed of independent transformers. The Y-Y connection of three-phase transformers is shown in Figure 3.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.27a. Figure 3. the primary voltage on each phase of the transformer is given by VøP = VLP / √3.TET Figure 3. WYE-WYE CONNECTION. In a Y-Y connection. Therefore. The phase voltage on the secondary is then related to the line voltage on the secondary by VLS = √3VØs. The primary-phase voltage is related to the secondary-phase voltage by the turns ratio of the transformer.

If a third Δ connected winding is added to the transformer. This third-harmonic voltage can be larger than the fundamental voltage itself. Third-harmonic voltages can be large. However. If loads on the transformer circuit are unbalanced. Add a third (tertiary) winding connected in Δ to the transformer bank. If a three-phase set of voltages is applied to a Y—Y transformer. This LABTECH 45 . This connection permits the additive third-harmonic components to cause a current flow in the neutral instead of building up large voltages. 2. the third-harmonic components of each of the three phases will be in phase with each other.TET Figure 3. then the third-harmonic components of voltage in the A will add up. Solidly ground the neutrals of the transformers. 2. then the voltages on the phases of the transformer can become severely unbalanced.or 60-Hz fundamental voltage. There are always some third-harmonic components in a transformer because of the nonlinearity of the core. and these components add up. The result is a very large third-harmonic component of voltage on top of the 50. especially the primary winding’s neutral. since there are three cycles in the third harmonic for each cycle of the fundamental frequency.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Both the unbalance problem and the third-harmonic problem can be solved using one of two techniques: 1.27 Three-phase transformer connections and wiring diagrams: (a) Y-Y The Y-Y connection has two very serious problems: 1. The neutral also provides a return path for any current imbalances in the load. causing a circulating current flow within the winding. the voltages in any phase will be 120º apart from the voltages in any other phase.

The Y-Δ connection of three-phase transformers is shown in Figure 3-27b. The Δ -connected tertiary windings need not even be brought out of the transformer case. while the secondary line voltage is equal to the secondary phase voltage VLS = VθS. In practice. This arrangement does have one problem. The voltage ratio of each phase is VθP VθS =a so the overall relationship between the line voltage on the primary side of the bank and the line voltage on the secondary side of the bank is VLP VLS VθP VθS = 3VθP VθS 3a Y-Δ = The Y-Δ connection has no problem with third-harmonic components in its voltages. since the A partially redistributes any imbalance that occurs. The tertiary windings must be large enough to handle the circulating currents. the secondary voltage is shifted 30º relative to the primary voltage of the transformer. WYE-DELTA CONNECTION. One or the other of these correction techniques must be used any time a Y—Y transformer is installed. The phase angles of transformer secondaries must be equal if they are to be paralleled. since the same jobs can be done by one of the other types of three-phase transformers. but they often are used to supply lights and auxiliary power within the substation where it is located.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. though. the primary line voltage is related to the primary phase voltage by VLP = √3VθP. which means that attention must be paid to the direction of the 30º phase shift occurring in each transformer bank to be paralleled together. since they are consumed in a circulating current on the A side.TET suppresses the third-harmonic components of voltage in the same manner as grounding the transformer neutrals. The fact that a phase shift has occurred can cause problems in paralleling the secondaries of two transformer banks together. Because of the connection. LABTECH 46 . This connection is also more stable with respect to unbalanced loads. so they are usually made about one-third the power rating of the two main windings. In this connection. very few Y—Y transformers are used.

54b will cause the secondary voltage to be leading the primary voltage by 30º. Figure 3. The connection shown in Figure 3.27b will cause the secondary voltage to be lagging if the system phase sequence is abc.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.27 (continued) (c) Δ. If the system phase sequence is acb.TET Figure 3.-Y LABTECH 47 .27 (continued) (b) Y-Δ. then the connection shown in Figure 3.

VLP = VθP and VLS = VθS.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Figure 3. the primary line voltage is equal to the primary-phase voltage VLP = VθP while the secondary voltages are related by VLS = 3 VθS. the line-to-line voltage ratio of this transformer connection is VLP VθP = VLS 3VθS VLP 3 = VLS a Δ-Y This connection has the same advantages and the same phase shift as the Y—A transformer. as before. The Δ-Δ connection is shown in Figure 3. The connection shown in Figure 3.so the relationship between primary and secondary line voltages is VLP VφP = =a VLS VφS Δ. Therefore.TET DELTA-WYE CONNECTION. In a Δ-Δ connection.27c. In a Δ-Y connection.Δ This transformer has no phase shift associated with it and no problems with unbalanced loads or harmonics.27c makes the secondary voltage lag the primary voltage by 30º.27 (continued) (d) Δ-Δ DELTA-DELTA CONNECTION. LABTECH 48 .27d. A Δ-Y connection of three-phase transformers is shown in Figure 3.

The single-phase base equations apply to three-phase systems on a per-phase basis. If the windings are connected in delta.TET The Per-Unit System for Three-Phase Transformers The per-unit system of measurements applies just as well to three-phase transformers as to single-phase transformers.base.base ) 2 S Iφ .base = S I φ .base = (V φ ..8. (c) Calculate this transformer’s voltage regulation under the same conditions. while if the windings are connected in wye.base.base = Z. VL.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.base = Line quantities on three-phase transformer banks can also be represented in the per-unit system. base Vφ . A 50-kVA 13. using the calculated high-side impedance.base = Sbase 3 and the base phase current and impedance of the transformer are IØ. VL.base IØ.base ) S base 2 Z. If the total base voltampere value of the transformer bank is called Sbase.base = S base 3VL . using the perunit system.base 3(Vφ .base = √3VØ. (a) What is the transformer’s phase impedance referred to the high-voltage side? (b) Calculate this transformer’s voltage regulation at full load and 0.8 PF lagging. then the base voltampere value of one of the transformers SIØ base SIØ.800/208-V Δ-Y distribution transformer has a resistance of 1 Percent and a reactance of 7 percent per unit. The relationship between the base line voltage and the base phase voltage of the transformer depends on the connection of windings. Example 3. LABTECH 49 . The base line current in a three-phase transformer bank is given by IL.base The application of the per-unit system to three-phase transformer problems is similar to its application in the single-phase examples already given.base = VØ. base Sbase 3Vφ .

800) = 50.426Ω) = 114.800 V and a base apparent power of 50 kVA.01 + jO.000 = 11.PUZbase = (0. so the rated phase current on the primary is given by IØ = S 3Vφ The rated apparent power S = 50 kVA.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.208 A LABTECH IØ 3 (13 . so VR = VφP − aVφS aVφS x100% The rated transformer phase voltage on the primary is 13.01 + j0. so = 50 . Therefore.07 pu so the high-side impedance in ohms is Zeq = Zeq. determine the voltage regulation of any single transformer in the bank. Since the primary is A-connected. its phase voltage is equal to its line voltage. 000 VA = 1.426Ω The per-unit impedance of the transformer is Zeq = 0.base ) S base 2 2 Zbase = 3(13.800 V.07PU)(11.TET Solution (a) The high-voltage side of this transformer has a base line voltage of 13. The voltages on a single transformer are phase voltages. its base impedance is 3(Vφ .2 + j800Ω (b) To calculate the voltage regulation of a three-phase transformer bank.800 V ) 50 .

056 = 1. VR = VφP − aVφS aVφS x100% = 14.8 +j773. Therefore.1 =14.87º) + (j0. the output voltage is 1 ∠ 0º.j0.800 ∠ 0ºV+(114.506 − 13.0 = 5.730 The voltage regulation is VR = 1. the input voltage is VP = 1 ∠ 0º+ (0.800 V.800 = 5.13º =13. Assume that the transformer secondary is operating at the rated voltage and current.006 + 0. and find the resulting primary phase voltage: T ØP = aVØS +ReqIØ + jXeqIØ =13.800 + 110. the voltage regulation of the transformer bank is the same whether the calculations are done in actual ohms or in the per-unit system.042 + j0.4 ∠ 53.4 -j82.0 x100% 1.490 +j690.TET The rated phase voltage on the secondary of the transformer is 208 V/√3 = 120V.87ºA) =13. and the current is 1 ∠ -36.051 − 1. When referred to the high-voltage side of the transformer.87º) = 1 + 0.506 ∠ 2.73º V Therefore.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.008 .05 +j0.2Ω)(1.208 ∠ -36.051 ∠ 2.87ºA)+(j800 Ω)(1. this voltage becomes VØS = aVØS = 13.8 + 579.800 x100% 13.87º + 966.05 = 1.3 =14.87º.800 + 138 ∠ -36. LABTECH 51 .208 ∠ -6.1 % (c) In the per-unit system.07)(1 ∠ -36.01)(1 ∠ -36.1% Of course.

the connection destroys the electrical isolation between a transformer’s primary and secondary sides. the primary circuit’s magnetomotive force must be approximately equal and opposite to the secondary circuit’s magnetomotive force. The changing flux in the core then induces a voltage in the secondary winding of the transformer. Transformer imperfections are measured in a real transformer by its voltage regulation and its efficiency. LABTECH 52 . and copper losses. eddy current. but not both. because in this system the different system voltage levels disappear. However. a flux is produced in the core as given by Faraday’s law.TET 3. It plays an extremely important role in modem life by making possible the economical long-distance transmission of electric power. Because only a portion of the power in an autotransformer actually passes through the windings. A real transformer has leakage fluxes that pass through either the primary or the secondary winding. This fact yields the transformer current ratio. Potential transformers and current transformers can sample the voltages and currents present in a circuit. An autotransformer differs from a regular transformer in that the two windings of the autotransformer are connected. an autotransformer has a power rating advantage compared to a regular transformer of equal size. providing a convenient check for reasonableness in problem solutions. The voltage on one side of the transformer is the voltage across a single winding.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. SUMMARY A transformer is a device for converting electric energy at one voltage level to electric energy at another voltage level through the action of a magnetic field. The voltage levels of three-phase circuits can be transformed by a proper combination of two or three transformers. These effects are accounted for in the equivalent circuit of the transformer. The per-unit system of measurement is a convenient way to study systems containing transformers. Because transformer cores have very high permeability. In addition. the per-unit impedances of a transformer expressed to its own ratings base fall within a relatively narrow range.10. Since the net magnetomotive force is very small. Both devices are very common in large power distribution systems. In addition there are hysteresis. while the voltage on the other side of the transformer is the sum of the voltages across both windings. When a voltage is applied to the primary of a transformer. the net magnetomotive force required in the core to produce its flux is very small.

TET 4 EXPERIMENT LABTECH 53 .Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.

because if these adjacent terminals (H1-X1) are connected together. with H1 and X1 markings having the same significance as dots for polarity markings. respectively (i. ANSI standards require that for a two-winding transformer the high-voltage and low-voltage terminals be marked as H1-H2 and X1-X2.1. POLARITY OF TRANSFORMER OBJECTIVE After completing this experiment. Additive and subtractive transformer polarity refer to the physical positioning of high-voltage. Analog DC Voltmeter 6.e. in which case the distinction is meaningless. Single Phase Transformer unit (LFT-TET-P1A) 2. Similarly. energy flows from primary to secondary). then the transformer is said to be subtractive.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.TET SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER 4.. the voltage (H1-X2) is the sum of primary and secondary values. Connection Leads DISCUSSION The terms primary and secondary refer to source and load sides. 5. EQUIPMENT 1.1-1. you will be able to determine the polarity of the transformer. Transformer polarity (a) Subtractive (b) Additive LABTECH 54 . if adjacent terminals X1 and H2 are connected.5 V Battery 4. Push Button Switch. respectively. low-voltage dotted terminals as shown in Figure 4. Figure 4. Single Phase Transformer unit (LFT-TET-P1B) 3. If the dotted terminals are adjacent.1-1. The terms step up and step down refer to what the transformer does to the voltage from source to load. However. in many applications energy can flow either way. 1. the voltage between H2 and X2 is the difference between primary and secondary.

4. It shows that terminal A is given (-) polarity and terminal C to (+) polarity. PROCEDURES: 1. Press PB switch momentary while observing the DC voltmeter. What is the response of the voltmeter? Fill the result into table 4. then the secondary voltage will be positive at the dotted end also.5Vdc + B 220V 0 120V F E DCV + - C 240V 0 5A D (b) Figure 4.1-2a. On the secondary winding. Voltage polarities are the same with respect to the dots on each side of the core. Build the circuit as shown in Figure 4. Prepare all equipment. 12V PB I 12A 0 0 24V H G A 1. If the primary current of the transformer flows into the dotted end of the primary winding. 2. Observe Figure 4.5Vdc + B 220V 0 C 240V 6A F E DCV + - 42V 3A 0 D (a) PB A 0 120V 5A G 1.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. terminal E and D are connected to DC voltmeter. LABTECH 55 .1-1. the secondary current will flow out of the dotted end of the secondary winding.1-2a.TET If the primary voltage is positive at the dotted end of the winding with respect to the undotted end. Polarity Testing 3.1-2.

1-2.1-1. 6. On the secondary winding. Draw the transformer block diagram above and mark the polarity based on your experiment result. 14. Change the battery polarity to opposite direction. Press PB switch momentary while observing the DC voltmeter. 8. Let’s move to Figure 4. Remove the jumper connection after completing the experiments.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Change the DC voltmeter to G-F. Repeat step 9 and 10.1-2. LABTECH 56 . 9. 12. What is the response of the voltmeter? Write down the result. terminal E and D are connected to DC voltmeter. Repeat step 3 and 4. What is the response of the voltmeter? Write down the result. Change the DC voltmeter to G-F and I-H respectively.1-2b. Write down the result into table 4. but has larger secondary power and voltage ratings. Table 4. Change the battery polarity to opposite direction. Battery (+) to A and battery (-) to C. Return the equipment to their respective place. It shows a single phase transformer as well. 13. Battery (+) to A and battery (-) to C.TET Table 4. Write down the result into table 4.1-1. Polarity Test No Point Voltmeter deviation (Left/Right) Remark 1 2 3 E-D G-F I-H 5.1-2.1-2a. Terminal A is given (-) polarity and terminal C to (+) polarity. Press PB switch momentary while observing the DC voltmeter. Return the circuit configuration as Figure 4. Press PB switch momentary while observing the DC voltmeter. 15. Polarity Test No Point Voltmeter deviation (Left/Right) Remark 1 2 E-D G-F 11. What is the response of the voltmeter? Fill the result into table 4. 10. 7.

Therefore the current becomes very high. SERIES CIRCUIT IN A MULTIPLE WINDING TRANSFORMER.2. If not protected against overload the transformer will soon burn out. their phasing must be correct Phasing refers to the instantaneous polarity of the windings. Connection Leads DISCUSSION Some transformers are made with more than one primary as well as more than one secondary.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Single-phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1A) 3. as are the positive ends. Power Source 220VAC PRIMARY + 10V/1A + 6V/2A 16V/ 1A Power Source 220VAC PRIMARY + 10V/1A + 6V/2A 4V/ 1A Figure 4. EQUIPMENT 1. Before windings are connected in parallel. Transformer windings also can be connected in series so that they either aid or oppose each other. OBJECTIVE After completing this experiment you will able to connect a transformer in series winding so that it will either aid or oppose each other. Either primary or secondary windings (or both) can be connected in series or in parallel. Only the resistance of the secondary winding limits the secondary current. Incorrect phasing in parallel winding causes a dead short on the secondaries of the transformer. The voltage of each winding aids the other winding in producing secondary current.TET 4. They must have identical voltage ratings. When the secondary winding has identical voltage rating the negative ends of the two secondary windings are connected together. Series aiding winding connections (b) Series opposing winding connections LABTECH 57 . (LFT-TET-B) 2. With this connections the output voltage is still but the current will double. Multiple transformer windings can be connected in series or in parallel to change the voltage or current capabilities.Transformer Experimental Trainer base station. (a).2-1. For parallel connections. windings should have identical ratings. Single Phase.

2-2. Series aiding winding connections 4. Make circuit connections as shown in Figure 4. Ensure the power is OFF. Ask your instructor to recheck your wiring. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. 3. In summary. it is possible to obtain four voltages from two secondary windings: The voltage of secondary 1 The voltage of secondary 2 The sum of the voltages of secondaries 1 and 2 The difference between the voltages of secondaries 1 and 2 PROCEDURES: 1. Write down the result into table 4.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. This because all of the load current flows through both secondaries. 6. LABTECH 58 .2-1 the polarity markings indicate the instantaneous polarities for one half cycle. 12V RCCB N I 12A A 0 0 24V V1 H G B 220V L MCB 6A 0 F V2 GND C 240V 42V E 3A GND 0 D CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!! Figure 4.2-2.TET In Figure 4. We say the two voltages are bucking one another.2-1a). However the current is restricted to the lower rating of the two windings. 2. Note that the current is limited to the lower current rating of the two windings. Remove the secondary connection leads. the output voltage is the sum of the two secondary voltages.2-1. 7. 5. Turn off the MCB and RCCB. Measure the voltage at the primary and secondary points. When connected in a series-opposing configuration the two winding produce a voltage equal to the difference between the two voltages. Prepare all equipment. In the series-aiding configuration (Fig 4.

Series opposing winding connections 14. Ask your instructor to recheck your circuit. LABTECH 59 . Turn off the power. Write down the result into table 4. 12.2-2. Measure the voltage at point F-I. Turn off the power. Fill the result into table 4. 16. Remove the jumper connection after completing the experiments. Turn on the power. 13. Connect terminal G to terminal I. and voltmeter (V2) connected to terminal H-F. 17. Change the secondary connections. Connect point G-H. 15. Return the equipment to their respective place. Series aiding winding connections Step no 5 10 V1 (Vac) V2 (Vac) 11. 10. 18.2-2. 12V RCCB N I 12A A 0 0 24V V1 H G B 220V L MCB 6A F 0 GND C 240V GND 42V E 3A 0 D V2 CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!! Figure 4. Turn on the power.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Build the circuit as shown in Figure 4.2-3.TET 8. Remove the secondary connection leads.2-3. 20. Table 4. Measure the voltage (V1) and (V2). Measure the voltage (V1) and (V2). Fill the result into table 4. Turn off the power. Turn on the power. 9.2-1. 19.2-1.

2-2. Series opposing winding connections Step no 15 18 V1 (Vac) V2 (Vac) LABTECH 60 .TET Table 4.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.

and its primary winding is connected to a full-rated line voltage. In the open-circuit test. EQUIPMENT 1. so essentially all the input voltage is dropped across the excitation branch. Figure 4. Single phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1B) 4.3. OPEN CIRCUIT TESTING OBJECTIVE After completing this exercise you will be able to measure and determine the excitation impedance of a transformer. Look at the equivalent circuit in Figure 4. a transformer secondary winding is open-circuited. Under the conditions described. The series elements RP and XP are too small in comparison to RC and XM to cause a significant voltage drop. the open-circuit test and the short-circuit test. b) The transformer model referred to its secondary voltage level. LABTECH 61 . Single phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1A) 3. Connection Leads BASIC INFORMATION It is possible to experimentally determine the values of the inductances and resistances in the transformer model.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Single Phase Transformer Experimental Trainer base station (LFT-TET-B) 2.31.3-1 a) The transformer model referred to its primary voltage level.TET 4. An adequate approximation of these values can be obtained with only two tests. all the input current must be flowing through the excitation branch of the transformer.

Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.jBM = 1 1 – j RC XM Figure 4. it is possible to determine the power factor of the input current and therefore both the magnitude and the angle of the excitation impedance. and the input voltage. and the total excitation admittance is YE = Gc . their admittances add.TET The open-circuit test connections are shown in Figure 4.3-2. The magnitude of the excitation admittance (referred to the primary circuit) can be found from the open-circuit test voltage and current: I OC VOC YE = The angle of the admittance can be found from a knowledge of the circuit power factor. and input power to the transformer are measured. The open-circuit power factor (PF) is given by PF = cos θ LABTECH 62 . input current. Full line voltage is applied to the primary of the transformer. The conductance of the core-loss resistor is given by Gc = 1 RC and the susceptance of the magnetizing inductor is given by BM = 1 XM Since these two elements are in parallel. Connection for transformer open-circuit test. The easiest way to calculate the values of RC and XM is to look first at the admittance of the excitation branch.3-2. From this information.

Ask your instructor to recheck your wiring.A = ………. Build circuit as shown in Figure 4. so the angle of the current always lags the angle of the voltage by θ degrees. Therefore. 5. 2. current and power Primary Voltage (Voc) Primary Current (Ioc) Power (Poc) LABTECH = ……….W 63 . Prepare all equipment required.3-3. 4. the admittance YE is YE = I OC ∠ -θ VOC I OC ∠ cos –1 PF VOC = PROCEDURES 1. Turn on the RCCB and MCB.3-3. 12V RCCB N A1 V WATTMETER A I 12A A 0 0 24V V1 H G B 220V 0 6A F E L MCB GND C 240V 42V 3A GND 0 D CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!! Figure 4. Observe the voltage.TET = and the power-factor angle θ is given by POC VOC I OC POC VOC θ = cos –1 The power factor is always lagging for a real transformer.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Open circuit testing 3. Ensure the power is OFF.V = ……….

3-4. 12. Build a circuit as shown in Figure 4. Open circuit testing 13.A = ……….W RCCB N A1 V WATTMETER A A 0 120V 5A G V1 B 220V 0 120V F E L MCB GND C 240V GND 5A 0 D CAUTION : HIGH VOLTAGE!! Figure 4. Turn off the power and remove the connection leads. It uses the single phase transformer (LFTTET-P1B). current and power. Turn on the power. 10.TET 6. Calculate the admittance of the transformer LABTECH 64 . 9. Calculate the power factor of the transformer PF = cos θ = POC VOC I OC I OC ∠ cos –1 PF VOC 7. Primary Voltage (Voc) Primary Current (Ioc) Power (Poc) = ………. Measure the voltage.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Calculate the admittance of the transformer Y = 8. 11. Ask your instructor to recheck your wiring.V = ………. Calculate the power factor of the transformer PF = cos θ = POC VOC I OC 14.3-4.

Remove the jumper connection after completing the experiments.TET Y = I OC ∠ cos –1 PF VOC 15. Turn off the power. 16. LABTECH 65 .Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Return the equipment to their respective place.

Connection Leads DISCUSSION In the short-circuit test. as shown in Figure 3.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Single-phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1A) 3. and power are again measured. negligible current flows through the excitation branch. Short circuit testing Since the input voltage is so low during the short-circuit test. Single Phase Transformer Experimental Trainer base station (LFT-TET-B) 2. If the excitation current is ignored. then all the voltage drop in the transformer can be attributed to the series elements in the circuit. IIIIIII Figure 4. Single phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1B) 4. Variable Power Supply 5. the secondary terminals of the transformer are short-circuited. The magnitude of the series impedances referred to the primary side of the transformer is Z SE = VSC I SC The power factor of the current is given by PF = cos θ LABTECH 66 .4. The input voltage is adjusted until the current in the short-circuited windings is equal to its rated value. current.TET 4. and the primary terminals are connected to a fairly low-voltage source.4-1.15. It would not be a good idea to burn out the transformer’s windings while trying to test it. (Be sure to keep the primary voltage at a safe level. SHORT CIRCUIT TESTING OBJECTIVE After completing this experiment you will able determine the current ratio and impedance of a transformer EQUIPMENT 1.) The input voltage.

Short circuit testing.4-2. Vac = ………. 5..Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Prepare all equipment required. 4. and the overall impedance angle θ is positive: θ = cos-1 PSC VSC I SC PROCEDURE 1. W = 6A 7. Adjust the autotransformer gently until the ammeter (A2) shows 6 Amperes. LABTECH 67 .. Set the autotransformer to minimum position and turn off the power and meter switches. The current angle is thus negative. 12V RCCB N A1 AUTO TRANSFORMER V WATTMETER A I 12A A 0 0 24V V1 H G A2 B 220V 0 6A F E L MCB GND C 240V 42V 3A GND 0 D CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!! Figure 4. 8. Build circuit as shown in Figure 4. Read the meter measurement. V1 (Vsc) A1 (Isc) W (Psc) A2 = ………. Ensure the power and meter switch are OFF. Remove the cable jumper connections. Set the autotransformer to minimum position. Turn on the RCCB and MCB.4-2. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches. 2.. CAUTION: DO NOT EXCEED THE MAXIMUM CURRENT RATING!! 6. 3. Prepare the single phase transformer unit LFT-TET-P1B.TET = PSC VSC I SC and is lagging. Vac = ……….

.4-3. Remove the cable jumper connections. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches. 11. Adjust the autotransformer gently until the ammeter (A2) show 5 Ampere. W = 5A 12. V1 (Vsc) A1 (Isc) W (Psc) A2 = ……….TET 9. Build the circuit as shown in Figure 4. RCCB N A1 V WATTMETER A A 0 120V 5A G V1 B 220V 0 120V F E A2 L MCB GND C 240V GND 5A 0 D CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!! Figure 4..Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. LABTECH 68 .4-3. Vac = ………. Short circuit testing. Set the autotransformer to minimum position and turn off the power and meter switches. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. 10. Vac = ……….. Read the meter measurement.

the relationship between voltage and turns is very informative. Single Phase. Whether a secondary is a step-up or step down winding is determined by the primary to secondary turns ratio. the transformer is stepping the voltage down. This formula can be rearranged to show that: Npri _______ Vpri Nsec ________ Vsec = In this new arrangement. Mathematically we can write: Vpri Npri ________ Nsec _______ = Vsec In this formula. Variable Transformer DISCUSSION A transformer can either step up or step down a voltage. Thus. If the primary voltage is greater than the secondary voltage. In fact.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. When the primary turns exceed the secondary turns and the coupling is 100 percent.Transformer experimental Trainer base station. It shows that the turns-per-volt ratio is the same for both the primary and the secondary. EQUIPMENT 1. TURNS RATIO OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WINDING OF A TRANSFORMER. the turns ratio and the voltage ratio are equal. Some transformers with multiple secondaries have one or more step-up or step-down secondaries. OBJECTIVES After completing this experiment you will able to determine the voltage values according to the turns ratio and calculate the turn ratio by determining the voltage values. N is the abbreviation for the number of turns. once you determine the turns-per-volt ratio of any winding. If the voltage in the secondary exceeds the voltage in the primary the transformer is a step-up transformer. the turns-per-volt ratios of all secondary windings in a multiple-secondary transformer are equal.5. Furthermore. with 100 percent coupling. the transformer steps down the voltage. In this experiment we will use a single phase step-down transformer that consist of a primary winding and three secondary windings with the following specifications: LABTECH 69 . Connection Leads 4.TET 4. you know the ratios of all other windings. Single-phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1A) 3. (LFT-TET-B) 2.

6. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Φ : 1. Φ : 2.5-1.E Output voltage : 24 Volt Turns : 36 Max.G Output voltage : 12 Volt Turns : 18 Max. current : 6 Amp. Ask your instructor to recheck your circuit.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.C Secondary: Output voltage : 42 Volt Turns : 67 Max. Φ : 1. 2.5-1. Wait a moment then turn on the Voltmeter switch (V1) and Ammeter switch (A1).5 mm Connection Terminals : H .5-1. Prepare all equipment. By using Voltmeter (V2) measure the voltage on terminals D .E.8 mm Connection Terminals : F .TET Primary: Input voltage Turns Φ : 240 Volt : 377 : 1 mm Connection Terminals : A .I PROCEDURES: 1. 4. LABTECH 70 . 3. Also measure the voltage on terminal F – G and H – I. Build a circuit as shown in Figure 4. current : 6 Amp. Observe the Voltmeter and Ammeter reading and record the result in Table 4. current : 3 Amp. MCB and meter switches are OFF. Ensure the RCCB. Observe and record the result in Table 4.25 mm Connection Terminals : D . Adjust autotransformer to minimum. 7. 5.

for primary input voltage: 100V.TET 12V RCCB N A1 AUTO TRANSFORMER I 12A A 0 0 24V V1 H G B 220V 0 6A F E V2 L MCB GND C 240V 42V 3A GND 0 D CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!! Figure 4. F – G. LABTECH 71 . and then measure the voltage on terminals D – E. and H – I. Nsec Vsec = _______ x Vpri Npri Note: Vsec = Secondary voltage on points. 150V. Vpri = Primary voltage on point A-C Nsec = Secondary winding N pri = Primary winding 9.5-1 10. turn off the power and meter switches.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Increase primary input voltage by adjusting the variable Transformer output until voltmeter V1 shows 50Vac. Record the result in Table 4. 200V and 220V. Repeat step 8 above. Set the autotransformer to minimum position. Remove the cable jumper connections. D – E. Turn ratio experiment 8. and H – I.5-1. F – G.

TET Table 4. Turn ratio measurement Variable Transformer Output 0V 50V 100V 150V 200V 220V Measurement (Volt) Primary A-C Secondary D-E F-G H-I D-E F-G H-I Calculation (Volt) LABTECH 72 .5-1.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.

6. The voltage on the secondary terminals E2 is given by the voltage ratio equation: Es = (Ns / Np) Ep Since it is no exciting current.TET 4. This corresponds to the infinite impedance between secondary terminals C – D. the impedance between terminals A – B is infinite. It is equal to the value R multiplied by the square of the turns ratio. Also it will no leakage flux. LABTECH 73 . the resulting secondary current Is is: Is = (Es / R) The secondary current causes a current flow in the primary given by the current ratio equation: Ip = (Ns / Np) Is The impedance ZAB seen between terminals A and B is: ZAB = (Ep / Ip) We see that the impedance between the primary terminals is equal to the resistance across the secondary terminals multiplied by the square of the turns ratio. Variable load unit (LFT-TET-01) DISCUSSION For ideal transformer.Transformer experimental Trainer base station (LFT-TET-P1B) 2. and the resistance of its windings should be zero. there is no exciting current. Zp = (Np / Ns)2 R This is an example of impedance transformation. IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION OBJECTIVES In this exercise you will practice how a transformer can change the value of a resistance EQUIPMENT 1. the impedance between the primary terminals A and B is no longer infinite. Thus the transformer has the remarkable property of being able to transform the value of a resistance. If a resistor R is connected across the secondary terminals C and D. Single Phase. and leakage reactance. Connection Leads 4. Single-phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1A) 3. When the resistance R is connected to the secondary terminals.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.

12V RCCB N A1 I V2 A2 12A A 0 0 24V V1 H G B 220V 0 6A F E L MCB GND C 240V 42V 3A GND 0 D CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!! Figure 4. change the load as shown in Table 4. Ensure the RCCB and MCB and meter switches are OFF. Remove cable connections and return the equipment to their place. 7. It will burn the rheostat unit. 2. With the same way as you have done on above steps. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Prepare all equipment required in this experiment. Calculate the value of the impedance Zp that appears across terminal A and B: Zp = Vp/Ip = ……. 9. Note: You are not recommended to turn on the power while the rheostat is set to minimum position (below 1Ω). After completing this experiment.6-1 and write your measurement results. Set the variable load unit (Rheostat) to 15 Ω.TET PROCEDURES 1. Build circuit as shown in Figure 4. Wait a moment then turn on all of the meter switches.6-1. 6. 4.6-1.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Ω 8. LABTECH 74 . Calculate the theoretical value of the impedance that should appear between terminals A and B when the load resistor = 15 Ω : Zp = (Np / Ns)2 R = ………… Ω 5. 3. With load = 15 Ω measure primary current on ammeter A1. Impedance measurement. turn off the MCB and RCCB..

Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.TET Table 4.6-1 Primary Load (H-I) Ep (V1) Ip (A1) Zp (Ep/Ip) Zp Calculation Es (V2) Secondary Is (I2) Zs (Es/Is) Resistor 15 Ohm Resistor 20 Ohm Resistor 30 Ohm Resistor 50 Ohm Resistor 100 Ohm LABTECH 75 .

VOLTAGE REGULATION OBJECTIVES After completing this experiment. Single-phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1A) 3. so this analysis with purely resistive loads was a “best-case” condition. Build circuit as shown in Figure 4. Ensure the RCCB and MCB and meter switches are OFF. Variable load unit (LFT-TET-01) DISCUSSION The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer's voltage regulation. Inductive loads tend to create a condition of worse voltage regulation. 3. Single Phase. Incidentally. LABTECH 76 . Connection Leads 5. Single-phase transformer.Transformer experimental Trainer base station (LFT-TET-B) 2. It can be calculated from the following formula: “Full-load” means the point at which the transformer is operating at maximum permissible secondary current. This operating point will be determined primarily by the winding wire size and the method of transformer cooling.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. PROCEDURE 1.7. (LFT-TET-P1B) 4. this would be considered rather poor (or “loose”) regulation for a power transformer if less than 3%. you will be able to measure the voltage regulation of a transformer EQUIPMENT 1. 2.7-1. Prepare all equipment required in this experiment.TET 4.

Regulation percentage = Vfull-load – Vno-load Vno-load 9. Calculate the regulation percentage based on your experiment data.TET 12V RCCB N A1 I 12A A 0 0 24V V1 H G B 220V 0 6A F E V2 A2 L MCB GND C 240V 42V 3A GND 0 D CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!! Figure 4. Remove cable connections and return the equipment to their place.7-1. Voltage regulation measurement 4. x 100 % LABTECH 77 .Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. turn off the MCB and RCCB. 6. Wait a moment then turn on the meter switches. After completing this experiment. This condition can be said no load condition. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. It will burn the rheostat unit. Read the voltage at voltmeter (V2) V2 : ……………Vac (No-load voltage) 8. V2 : ……………Vac (Full-load voltage) 7. Read the voltage at voltmeter (V2). because the current will be very small. Set the variable load unit (Rheostat) knob to middle position. Note: You are not recommended to turn on the power while the rheostat is set to minimum position (below 1Ω). Set the rheostat until the ammeter (A2) show 3A. 5. Set the rheostat to maximum (500 Ω).

D1 and D3 are reverse-biased and are cut off.Transformer experimental Trainer base station (LFT-TET-B) 2. in a circuit Dl and D3 will conduct during alternation 1 while D2 and D4 will be cut off.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. through winding CD. Figure 4. D1 and D3 would act as a half-wave rectifier. Connection Leads 5. Single Phase. Thus. During the negative alternation (alternation 2). connected to point D. through D1. Single-phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1B) 4. DC Voltmeter 6. Current flows through RL. This makes the anode of D1 positive with respect to its cathode and D1is therefore forward-biased. and through D3. D3 is forward-biased. point C is positive with respect to D (the voltages at the opposite ends of a transformer winding are 180° out of phase).8-2b shows the positive-voltage waveform developed during alternation 1 across RL.8-2a shows that during the positive alternation there is a complete path for current for rectifiers D1 and D3. Similarly the cathode of D3. Oscilloscope DISCUSSION Figure 4.8-1 is the circuit diagram of a transformer-fed bridge rectifier. It is evident also that D2 and D4 are reverse-biased during alternation 1. EQUIPMENT 1.8-1.8. The high-voltage secondary winding of transformer T supplies four silicon rectifiers. LABTECH 78 . D1 to D4. Single-phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1A) 3. is negative relative to its anode. FULL WAVE RECTIFIER OBJECTIVE In this experiment you will practice how measure voltage characteristic of a fullwave rectifier with and without load. Operation of the circuit is as follows: Assume that during the positive alternation (alternation 1) of the input sine wave. with the polarity shown. If D2 and D4 were not in the circuit. Figure 4. Full wave rectifier Figure 4. Hence.TET 4. which are connected in series with the load resistor RL.

Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT- TET

Figure 4.8-2c shows that during the negative alternation (alternation 2), that is, when point C is negative relative to point D, the anode of D2 is positive with respect to its cathode, and the cathode of D4 is negative with respect to its anode. Hence, rectifiers D2 and D4 are forwardbiased, while D1 and D3 are reverse-biased.

Figure 4.8-2. Action of bridge rectifier (a, b) on positive alternation;(c,d) on negative alternation

Now D2 and D4 conduct, permitting current through RL. The polarity across RL is the same as in Figure 4.8-2d. Thus D1 in series with D3 rectifies during the positive alternation of the input, while D2 in series with D4 rectifies during the negative alternation. A bridge rectifier is therefore a fullwave rectifier. The center tap (CT) of the secondary is not connected in the bridge rectifier. In a conventional circuit rectifier, the CT acts as the common return, and the voltage across each diode is one-half the voltage across the transformer. Hence, if the same transformer is used, the output voltage of a conventional full-wave rectifier is only one-half that of a bridge circuit. The same type of filter arrangement can be used with a bridge rectifier as with any other rectifier circuit. For the bridge rectifier the voltage rating of the filter capacitors must be at least twice for the full-wave rectifier using the same transformer.

PROCEDURE

1. Prepare all equipment required in this experiment. 2. Ensure the RCCB and MCB and meter switches are OFF. 3. Build circuit as shown in Figure 4.8-3. 4. Set the rheostat to 20 Ω. 5. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.

LABTECH

79

Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT- TET

6. Observe the waveform at the input and output of the bridge rectifier. Compare the waveform. Draw the waveform into table 4.8-1. 7. Read the voltage and current measurement at V2, A2, and DC Voltmeter (Vdc). Fill the result into table 4.8-1. 8. Repeat step 6-7 for other load values as listed on table 4.8-1.

12V

RCCB N

A1

I

12A A 0 0 24V

V1

H G

A2

B

220V 0

6A

V2

L

MCB

F E

VDC

GND

C

240V

42V 3A

GND

0

D

OSCILLOSCOPE

Figure 4.8-3. Fullwave rectifier

Table 4.8-1

LOAD 20 Ω 25 Ω 50 Ω 100 Ω

A2 (A)

V2 (Vac)

VDC

Waveform

9. Turn off the RCCB, MCB and meter switches. 10. Assemble the circuit as shown on Figure 4.8-4. 11. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches. 12. Read the voltage and current measurement at V2, A2, and DC Voltmeter (VDC). Fill the result into table 4.8-1. 13. Repeat step 12 for other load values as listed on table 4.8-2.

LABTECH

80

**Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT- TET
**

RCCB N

A1

A

0

120V 5A

G

V2

A2

V1

B 220V

0 120V

F E

VDC

L

MCB

GND

C 240V

GND

5A 0 D

Figure 4.13. Rectifier with load Table 4.8-2

LOAD 120 Ω 150 Ω 200 Ω 500 Ω

A2 (A)

V2 (Vac)

VDC

LABTECH

81

Primary phase 1 Primary phase 2 Primary phase 3 A B G H C D I J E F K L Secondary phase 1 Secondary phase 2 Secondary phase 3 Figure 4. (This assumption implies that the core has no hysteresis loss). Phase 2 flux equals phase 3 flux plus phase 1 flux etc. the phase 1 LABTECH 82 .TET THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER 4.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Illustration of a 3 phase transformer construction The flux in the phase 1 lag is equal to the phase 2 flux plus phase 3. Connection Leads DISCUSSION Three phase voltages can be transformed either by a single three phase transformer or by three single phase transformer. The structure of a three-phase transformer is illustrated in Figure 4. like the current.9. of each phase is displaced by 120°. Three Phase Load Unit/Rheostat (LFT-TET-06) 4. EQUIPMENT 1.9-1. This is caused by the flux.9-1. Y-Δ CONNECTION OBJECTIVE After completing this experiment you will be able to construct three phase transformer and able to verify the voltage and current relationships in a wye-delta transformer. At instant A. The end is the same. all three of the phase voltages are changed.9-2 the flux of each phase is assumed to be in step with the current in the phase. In Figure 4. Three Phase Transformer Experimental Trainer base station (LFT-TET-B) 2. Three Phase Transformer Unit (LFT-TET-P3) 3.

the phase 1 flux is also zero.9-3 shows four possibility ways to connect a three phase transformer.TET current is zero. Therefore. Identifying the start of the windings is necessary before they can be properly phased. Notice that all windings are wound in the same direction (counterclockwise) when you start at the dotted end of the winding. The primary and secondary windings of a three phase transformer may be either wye connected or delta connected. The dots on one end of each winding indicate the beginning of each winding. current in phase 1 and phase 3 are both positive. Core flux in a three phase transformer.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Thus the phase 2 lag of the core has twice as much flux as either phase 1 or phase 3. At instant B. Figure 4. At this same time phase 2 current is negative and of twice the value of either phase 1 current or phase 3 current. Primary Secondary a) Delta-delta (Δ −Δ) Primary Secondary b) Delta – wye (Δ − Y) Primary Secondary c) Wye – wye (Y − Y) LABTECH 83 .9-2. The secondary does not have to have the same configuration (wye or delta) as the primary. A B C D Phase 1 Current Phase 2 Phase 3 Time Figure 4.

just be sure that two dotted ends are not connected together.9-3. causes excessively high primary current.TET Secondary Primary d) Wye . Incorrect phasing of the primary.9-4.9-3 shows four ways of connecting the windings to obtain correct phasing. destructive current. while the secondary line voltage is equal to the secondary phase voltage VLS = VθS. With a wye connection. The Y-Δ connection of three-phase transformers is shown in Figure 4. The identification may be made in several ways.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. If not protected against overload. in either the wye or the delta configuration.Delta (Y − Δ) Figure 4. the incorrectly phased primary can be destroyed by the excess current. It may be a colored strip wrapped around the insulation of the start lead or may be a number on a diagram mounted on the transformer. Three phase transformer connections The diagram in Figure 4. In this connection. Improper phasing of a delta connected secondary also causes excessive. The voltage ratio of each phase is VθP VθS =a so the overall relationship between the line voltage on the primary side of the bank and the line voltage on the secondary side of the bank is VLP VLS VθP VθS a VLP b c Primary NP1 NP2 NP3 V θP NS3 = 3 VθP VθS = 3 a Y-Δ Secondary c’ NS2 NS1 Vθ S b’ VLS a’ LABTECH 84 . correct phasing can also be obtained by connecting all the dotted ends to the star point. the dotted (start) of a winding is identified by the manufacturer. On a transformer. the primary line voltage is related to the primary phase voltage by VLP = √3VθP. In the delta connection all three windings can be reversed.

Measure the voltage and current as list on Table 4. 2. LABTECH 85 . 5.9-5. Make connections between base station and transformer module as shown in Figure 4.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. 3. This connection is also more stable with respect to unbalanced loads. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.9-4. Prepare all equipment required in this experiment. PROCEDURES 1.9-1. since they are consumed in a circulating current on the Δ side. Ask your instructor to recheck your circuit. since the Δ partially redistributes any imbalance that occurs. The Y-Δ connection has no problem with third-harmonic components in its voltages. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Ensure the RCCB and MCB and meter switches are OFF. 4. 6.TET a VLP b VθP PRIMARY SECONDARY c’ VθS b’ NP1 NS1 N P2 c N P3 n N S2 a’ N S3 Figure 4.

voltmeter (V1.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Wye-Delta measurement result Description Measurement Result VLine pri VF-I VC-F VC-I Vphase pri VC-G VF-G VI-G ILine pri LABTECH V V V V V V 86 .5V N V2 L3 ILP3 A1 D 0 C 415V 0 M 415V L N B 380V 41.9-5. V2) are used interchangeable.9-1. Table 4. Turn off the MCB when you change the ammeter and voltmeter position.5V Q V2 L1 ILP1 A1 G 0 F 415V V1 V1 0 P 415V O L2 ILP2 A1 V1 E 380V 41.5V K V2 GND A 0 0 J GND CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!! Figure 4.TET I 415V 415V R H 380V 41. Wye-Delta Configuration Note: The ammeter (A1).

TET ILP1 ILP2 ILP3 VLine sec VJ-L VM-O VP-R VLLP = (VC-F + VF-I + VC-I) / 3 = ………….9-6. P = ……… W Note: The wattmeter has been defaulted to measure the power on the primary winding 10. The wattmeter has been wired internally. Wye-delta connections with load LABTECH 87 .5V Q V2 VLS1 L1 ILP1 A1 G 0 0 P 415V O ILS2 A2 VLP1 L2 VLP3 V1 V1 F 415V ILP2 A1 E 380V 41. Calculate the line-to line voltage at the primary winding. 8. Measure the power which is drawn by the transformer without load.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.. Turn off the power and meter switches.5V K V2 VLS3 GND A 0 0 J GND Figure 4. V A A A V V V 7. VC-F / VC-G VF-I / VF-G VC-I / VI-G : ………… : ……………… : ……………… Does the comparison close to √3? 9.5V N V2 VLS2 VLP2 L3 V1 ILP3 A1 D 0 C 415V 0 M 415V L ILS3 A2 N B 380V 41. Calculate the ratio of VLine and Vphase on the primary side.9-6. Make circuit as shown in Figure 4. I 415V 415V R ILS1 A2 H 380V 41.

V V V A A A A A A 16.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Current measurement LABTECH 88 . Turn on the power. 13.5V N D 0 C 415V N 0 M 415V L IPS2 A2 B 380V 41. Turn on the power. Measure the current as shown in Table 4. 17. Turn off the RCCB. Wye-Delta with load measurement result Description Measurement Result VLS1 VLS2 VLS3 ILS1 ILS2 ILS3 IPS1 IPS2 IPS3 14.9-7. Table 4. MCB and meter switches.9-2. 15.TET 11.9-2.9-7.5V K GND A 0 0 J IPS3 A2 GND Figure 4. Measure the voltage and current as shown in Table 4. Make circuit as shown in Figure 4. I 415V 415V R H 380V 41. Set the Rheostat to 400 Ω. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.5V Q IPS1 L1 G 0 F 415V 0 P 415V O A2 L2 E 380V L3 41.9-2. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches. 12.

Remove all cable connections and return the equipment to their respective place. LABTECH 89 .TET 18. 20. Calculate ratio of the phase current and line current of the secondary winding. Vline will be same with the Vphase. 19. ILS1 / IPS1 ILS2 / IPS2 ILS2 / IPS2 : ……… : ……… : ……… Does the ratio close to √3 ? Note that in the delta connections.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Turn off the MCB and RCCB.

Three Phase Transformer (LFT-TET-P3) 3. EQUIPMENT 1. Connection Leads 5. Digital Multimeter DISCUSSION The Y-Y connection of three-phase transformers is shown in Figure 4. Therefore. There are always some third-harmonic components in a transformer because of the nonlinearity of the core. If a three-phase set of voltages is applied to a Y—Y transformer. The result is a very large third-harmonic component of voltage on top of the 50. The primary-phase voltage is related to the secondary-phase voltage by the turns ratio of the transformer. LABTECH 90 .TET 4.10. the voltages in any phase will be 120º apart from the voltages in any other phase. 2.or 60-Hz fundamental voltage. and these components add up. the primary voltage on each phase of the transformer is given by VøP = VLP / √3. In a Y-Y connection. Y-Y CONNECTION OBJECTIVE After completing this experiment you will be familiar with three phase transformer and able to verify the voltage and current relationships in a wye-wye transformer. overall the voltage ratio on the transformer is 3VθP VLP = =a VLS 3VθS The Y-Y connection has two very serious problems: Y-Y 1. Three Phase Transformer experimental Trainer base station (LFT-TET-B) 2. Third-harmonic voltages can be large. This third-harmonic voltage can be larger than the fundamental voltage itself. The phase voltage on the secondary is then related to the line voltage on the secondary by VLS = √3VØs. since there are three cycles in the third harmonic for each cycle of the fundamental frequency. However. Three Phase Load Unit (LFT-TET-06) 4. If loads on the transformer circuit are unbalanced. the third-harmonic components of each of the three phases will be in phase with each other.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. then the voltages on the phases of the transformer can become severely unbalanced.10-1.

10-1. The Δ -connected tertiary windings need not even be brought out of the transformer case. then the third-harmonic components of voltage in the A will add up. This connection permits the additive third-harmonic components to cause a current flow in the neutral instead of building up large voltages.TET Figure 4. In practice. causing a circulating current flow within the winding. 2. especially the primary winding’s neutral. so they are usually made about one-third the power rating of the two main windings. Solidly ground the neutrals of the transformers. very few Y—Y transformers are used. If a third Δ connected winding is added to the transformer. Three-phase transformer connections and wiring diagrams Y-Y Both the unbalance problem and the third-harmonic problem can be solved using one of two techniques: 1.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. This suppresses the third-harmonic components of voltage in the same manner as grounding the transformer neutrals. Add a third (tertiary) winding connected in Δ to the transformer bank. The neutral also provides a return path for any current imbalances in the load. One or the other of these correction techniques must be used any time a Y—Y transformer is installed. The tertiary windings must be large enough to handle the circulating currents. since the same jobs can be done by one of the other types of three-phase transformers. but they often are used to supply lights and auxiliary power within the substation where it is located. LABTECH 91 .

3. Ask your instructor to recheck your circuit. 4.10-1.5V Q V2 VPS1 V2 VLS1 L1 ILP1 A1 G 0 0 P 415V O VLP1 L2 VLP3 V1 V1 F 415V ILP2 A1 E 380V 41.TET PROCEDURES 1.5V K V2 VPS3 GND VPP3 A 0 0 J GND Figure 4. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. 5.10-1. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches. Y-Y Connections 6. Prepare all equipment required in this experiment.5V N V2 VPS2 V2 VLS2 V2 VLS3 VLP2 L3 V1 V1 ILP3 A1 VPP2 D 0 C 415V 0 M 415V L N B 380V V1 41. Ensure the RCCB and MCB and meter switches are OFF. 2. Y-Y Connections Measurement Description Measurement Result VLP1 VLP2 VLP3 VPP1 VPP2 VPP3 LABTECH V V V V V V 92 . current and power according to Table 4.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.10-2. Table 4.102. Make connections between base station and transformer module as shown in Figure 4. Measure the voltage. I 415V 415V R VPP1 V1 H380V 41.

VLP1 / VPP2 = …………. LABTECH 93 . Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches. 14.10-2. Ask your instructor to recheck your wiring... calculate the ratio of: VLP1 / VPP1 = …………. Turn off the power and meter switches. According to your result in step 5 and 6. VLS2 / VPS1 = …………. 11. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. 13. Is the ratio close to √3 ? 8. Calculate the average value of line to line voltage on the primary and secondary side VLLP = (VLP1 + VLP1 + VLP1 ) / 3 = …………. V 10. Measure the voltage. 12. V VLLS = (VLS1 + VLS2 + VLS3) / 3 = …………. VLP1 / VPP3 = …………. Watt Note: The wattmeter has been defaulted to measure the power on the primary winding 9. P = …………. current and power according to Table 4. VLS3 / VPS1 = ………….TET VLS1 VLS2 VLS3 VPS1 VPS2 VPS3 ILP1 ILP2 ILP3 V V V V V V A A A 7..103.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Set the rheostat to 500 Ω. VLS1 / VPS1 = …………. Measure the power which is drawn by the transformer without load. Make circuit connections as shown in Figure 4.

10-2. Y-Y Connections with Load Measurement Result Description Measurement Result VLP1 VLP2 VLP3 VPP1 VPP2 VPP3 VLS1 VLS2 VLS3 VPS1 VPS2 VPS3 ILP1 ILP2 ILP3 ILS1 LABTECH V V V V V V V V V V V V A A A A 94 .5V Q V2 VPS1 V2 VLS1 L1 ILP1 A1 G 0 0 P 415V O ILS2 A2 VLP1 L2 VLP3 V1 V1 F 415V ILP2 A1 E 380V 41.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Y-Y Connections with Load Table 4.5V K V2 VPS3 GND VPP3 A 0 0 J GND Figure 4.5V N V2 VPS2 V2 VLS2 V2 VLS3 VLP2 L3 V1 V1 ILP3 A1 VPP2 D 0 C 415V 0 M 415V L ILS3 A2 N B 380V V1 41.10-3.TET I 415V 415V R ILS1 A2 VPP1 V1 H380V 41.

LABTECH 95 .Watt Note: The wattmeter has been defaulted to measure the power on the primary winding 16.TET ILS2 ILS3 A A 15. Remove the jumper cable connections. Measure the power which is drawn by the transformer with load. Turn off the RCCB and MCB. P = ………. P = √3 VLLP x ILLP 17. Compare with your calculation.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.

and works as a six-pulse rectifier. Digital Multimeter DISCUSSION Parallel connection via interphase transformers permits the implementation of rectifiers for high current applications. Connection Leads 5. and alternating currents flow in the valveside transformer windings during both half periods. it can be seen that the three common cathode valves generate a positive voltage respect to the neutral. and saturation in the transformer magnetic core.TET 4.11-1 LABTECH 96 . The configuration does not need any special transformer. Single Phase Load Unit (LFT-TET-01) 4. These characteristics made the also called Graetz Bridge the most widely used line commutated thyristor rectifier. avoiding dc components into the windings. The result is a dc voltage twice the value of the half wave rectifier.11. Each half of the bridge is a three-pulse converter group. Figure 4. Three Phase Transformer experimental Trainer base station (LFT-TET-B) 2. as shown in the full-wave rectifier of figure 4. Three Phase transformer (LFT-TET-P3) 3.14. THREE PHASE RECTIFIER OBJECTIVE After completing this experiment you will be able to measure the characteristic of a three phase rectifier EQUIPMENT 1. With this arrangement. This bridge connection is a two-way connection. and the three common anode valves produce a negative voltage.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Series connection for high voltage is also possible.

TET PROCEDURE 1.11-2. Prepare all equipment required in this experiment.11-1. 2.11-1 Description Measurement Result VLP1 VLP2 VLP3 VPP1 VPP2 VPP3 VLS1 VLS2 LABTECH V V V V V V V V 97 . Make connections between base station and transformer module as shown in Figure 4. Measure the voltage and current according to Table 4. 6.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Ensure the RCCB and MCB and meter switches are OFF. 3.112. 5.5V K V2 VLS3 GND VPP3 A 0 0 J GND Figure 4. I 415V 415V R ILS1 A2 VPP1 V1 H 380V 41. Ask your instructor to recheck your circuit. Table 4.5V N V2 VLS2 VLP2 L3 V1 V1 ILP3 A1 VPP2 D 0 C 415V 0 M 415V L ILS3 A2 N B 380V V1 41. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches. 4.5V Q V2 VLS1 L1 ILP1 A1 G 0 0 P 415V O ILS2 A2 VLP1 L2 VLP3 V1 V1 F 415V Vo ILP2 A1 E 380V 41.

11-2. 9. ILS1 I 415V 415V R A2 VPP1 V1 H 380V 41. Turn off the power and meter switches.TET VLS3 ILS1 ILS2 ILS3 *Note that VLS will be same with VPS V A A A 7. Vdc 8. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.11-2 with single phase load unit as shown in Figure 4. 13.11-2. Repeat step 12. and power. current. 11. Measure the output of the bridge diode using dc voltmeter.5V K V2 VLS3 GND VPP3 A 0 0 J GND Figure 4.5V Q V2 VLS1 L1 ILP1 A1 G 0 0 P A2 Rheostat VLP1 L2 VLP3 V1 V1 F 415V 415V O A2 ILS1 ILS2 Vo ILP2 A1 E 380V 41. 10. Vo = ………….. Set the load to 500 Ω. Measure the voltage. Turn on the RCCB and MCB.5V N V2 VLS2 VLP2 L3 V1 V1 ILP3 A1 VPP2 D 0 C 415V 0 M 415V L A2 ILS2 ILS3 A2 N A2 ILS2 B 380V V1 41.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT. Write down into Table 4. Change the load as list on Table 4.11-3. LABTECH 98 .11-3 12. Connect output circuit in Figure 4.

Description Load 500Ω V V V V V V V V V A A A A A A Vdc W 400Ω V V V V V V V V V A A A A A A Vdc W 300Ω V V V V V V V V V A A A A A A Vdc W 250Ω V V V V V V V V V A A A A A A Vdc W VLP1 VLP2 VLP3 VPP1 VPP2 VPP3 VLS1 VLS2 VLS3 ILS1 ILS2 ILS3 ILP1 ILP2 ILP3 Vo P Note: VLS will be same with VPS The wattmeter has been wired to measure the power on the primary winding 14.Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT.TET Table 4. Turn off the RCCB and MCB. Remove the jumper cable connections. Calculate the secondary current ratio ILP1 / ILS1 : ……… ILP2 / ILS2 : ……… ILP3 / ILS3 : ……… Does the ratio close to √3? 15.11-2. Calculate the power and compare with measured power! P = √3 x VLP x ILP 16. LABTECH 99 .

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