Crop Protection Review

EDÌTO B. SUMÌLE, Ph. D.
Plant Pathology
Deals with the study of nature, causes and control of plant
disease
Art of dealing with the application of knowledge gained from
studying science which include disease diagnosis,
assessment, forecasting, recommendation and appropriate
control and field application of suitable control
The ultimate objective of Plant Pathology is to prevent or
minimize plant diseases not only to increase food production
but also to maintain quality and quantity of harvested
commodity until it reaches to the consumers.
Economic Importance oI Plant
diseases
Men and other forms of animals exist solely on
earth as guests of the Plant kingdom because
only the green plants can produce their own food
Plants are the only source of food, clothing,
shelter and numerous luxuries, drug, etc.
When disease kills plant, all forms of life will be
adversely affected
Types oI Crop Losses
#eduction in yield
Deterioration of harvested produce during storage, marketing
or transport
#eduction in quality of the produce
Production of toxins
Predispose the plants to other infection
Diseases increase production cost
Development oI Plant Pathology in the
Philippines
offee rust and coconut bud rot were the first disease being studied in the
country
offee rust was first noted in Batangas in 1885 and in 1890, coffee
plantations in that area were totally devastated
oconut bud rot was reported by Dr. opeland the first dean of Agriculture
in UPLB established in 1908.
B. #obinson (1911) reported occurrence of leafblight in corn
Baker (1912) reported downy mildew of corn and published his book "The
lower Fungi in the Philippines Ìslands¨ in 1914
#einking (1918) published the " Philippine Economic Plant Diseases¨
Unit 2
Concepts oI Plant Disease
Whetzel (1912)- defined disease as malfunctioning caused by animate agents; physiogenic disease
caused by inanimate agents
Stakman and Harar (1957)- any deviation from normal growth or structure of plants that is sufficiently
pronounced and permanent to produce visible symptoms or to impair quality or economic value
Horsefall and Dimond (1959)- malfunctioning process caused by a continued irritation
National Academy of Science (1968)- harmful alteration of the normal physiological and biochemical
development of plants.
Merril- dynamic interaction between an organism and its environment which result in abnormal
physiological and morphological or neurological changes in the organism
Agrios (1978)- any disturbance brought about by a pathogen or an environmental factor which interferes
with manufacture, translocation or utilization of food, mineral nutrients and water in such a way that the
affected plant changes in appearance or a decrease in yield
DeIinition and Terminologies in Plant
Pathology
Pathogen- any agent that causes the disease
Parasite ÷ an organism which depends wholly or partly on another organism
Obligate parasite- organism that is restricted to subsist on living organism and attacks only living
tissues.
Facultative parasite- organism which subsist on no-living materials (saprophytes)
Host- refers to the plant that is being attacked by a parasite
Pathogenesis- refers to the chain of events leading to disease development in plant
Pathogenicity- the capacity of a pathogen to cause disease.
Symptoms- expression of the plant of a pathologic condition
Signs- expression of the pathogen causing the disease.
continuation
Primary symptoms- immediate and direct results of the causal agent's activities on
the invaded tissues
Localized symptoms- distinct and limited expression
Histological symptoms- expression that are observed only under a microscope
examination
Hypoplastic symptoms- inhibition or failure in the development of some aspect of
plant growth as in stunting
Hyperplastic symptoms- overdevelopment of plant tissues as in gall formation
Plant disease diagnosis- is the identification of specific plant disease through their
characteristics symptoms and signs including factors related to disease development
ClassiIication oI Plant Diseases
lassification according to the affected plant
organ- root diseases, leaf disease, fruit diseases,
etc
According to symptoms ÷ leaf spot, rust, smuts,
etc.
According to type of affected plants ÷ vegetable
disease, field crop diseases
According to type of pathogen- infectious, non-
infectious
Unit 3
Non-parasitic agent oI Plant Diseases
ommon non-parasitic agent:
Excessive low temperature
Too high temperature
Lack of oxygen
Too much /little oxygen
Adverse meteorological conditions
Air pollutants
Mineral deficiencies
Mineral excesses
Unfavorable soil pH
Excessive pesticide levels
Ìmproper agricultural practices
Lack/excess soil moisture
Naturally occurring toxic chemical
Disease caused by too low temperature
Freezing injuries
hilling injuries
Diseases caused by too high temperature
Sunscald
Heat necrosis
Disease caused by lack of oxygen
Black heart of potato
Too much/ too little sunlight
Etiolation
Scorching
Adverse meteorological condition
Strong winds
Heavy rains
lightning
Air pollution
Ethylene
Nitrogen oxides
Peroxyacetyl nitrates
Ozone
Particulates
Parasitic agents oI Plant Disease
'iruses and 'irus-like pathogens
'ery small particles
With several shapes; spherical, rigid rod
onsist of nucleic acid surrounded by protein coat
Symptoms of virus infection
#eduction in growth
#eduction in vitality
olor deviation
Water shortage
Tissue and plant death
Malformation
Anatomical abnormalities
Virus Transmission
Transmission by vegetative propagation
Transmission through sap
Seed transmission
Ìnsect transmission
Mite transmission
Nematode transmission
Fungal transmission
Dodder transmission
Symptoms oI virus inIections
#eduction in growth- stunting or dwarfing
#eduction in vitality-increase susceptibility to
other pathogens
olor deviation
Mosaic- shades of green and yellow are usually irregular
angular but sharply delimited
Flecking or spotting- if discolored part is sharply bordered
but circular
Mottling- diffusely delineated variegation
hlorosis-less chlorophyll is produce (yellowing)
Symptoms oI virus inIection
Water shortage
Wilting-due to excessive transpiration or impeded supply
Withering-irreversible desiccation of tissues and implies death
Tissue and plant death
Malformation-imbalanced development (leaf rolling, curling,
distortion)
#ugosity-retarded growth of veinal tissue
#osetting-shortening of internodes
Epinasty-curling or turning of leaves downward
Enation-outgrowth of leaves, veins, stems
Swellings/tumors-enlargement of stem or roots
Symptoms oI virus inIection
Anatomical abnormalities
Hypotrophy-decrease in cell size
Hypoplasia-decrease in cell number
Hypertrophy-increase in cell size
Hyperplasia-increase in cell number
Control oI Plant Viruses
Exclusion-systems of quarantine, inspection and
certification
Eradication of infected plants or plant parts
ontrolling of insect vectors and removal weeds
serving as host
Soil fumigation for soil infested with nematode
Use of virus-free planting materials
Use of resistant varieties
Tissue culture
Bacteria as Plant Pathogen
Unicellular organism reproduce asexually by binary fission
Absence of chlorophyll
Genera of Pathogenic Bacteria
Acetobacter urtobacterium #hizobacter
Acidovorax Enterobacter Sphingomonas
Arthrobacter Erwinia #hodococcus
Bacillus Gluconobacter Serratia
Breneria Nocadia Spiroplasma
Burkholderia Pantoea Streptomyces
lavibacter Pectobacterium Xanthomonas
lostridium Pseudomonas Xylella
orynebacterium#alstonia Xylophilus
Common examples oI plant disease
caused by bacteria
Pectobacterium carotovorum - soft rot of
vegetables
#alstonia solanacearum - bacterial wilt of
solanaceous crops
anthomonas citri - citrus canker
anthomonas oryzea - bacterial leaf streak of rice
robacterium tumefaciens - crown gall of plants
Pectobacterium chrysanthemi - stalk rot of corn
$treptomyces scabies - potato scab
Symptoms oI disease cause by bacteria
Leafspot
Soft rot
blight,
Gall
anker
wilting
Mycoplasma as Plant pathogen
Non-motile, non-spore-forming, polymorphic
microorganism that lack cell walls and are
bounded by triple-layered unit membrane
Sensitive to tetracycline but resistant to
penicillin
#eproduce through transverse binary fission
Three families: Mycoplasmatacea,
acholeplasmatacea, spiroplasmatacea
ommon vectors: leafhoppers, planthoppers,
treehoppers, aphid, mite and psyllids
Symptoms and diseases caused by
Mycoplasma
Aster yellow-general chlorosis and stunting
of plants
Spiroplasma citri- stubborn disease of
citrus; plants affected exhibit an upright
bunchy growth of twigs and branches with
shortened internodes and numerous
shoots. Fruits and leaves are small and
deformed; diseased fruits have bitter taste
and disagreeable flavor and smell.
Fungi as Plant Pathogen
Spore-forming organism
horophyllous with filamentous vegetative
structures known as mycelium
The True Fungi
Phylum hytridiomycota
Phylum Zygomycota
Phylum Ascomycota
Phylum Basidiomycota
Diseases caused by Iungi
Pythium debaryanum ÷ cause damping off
Phytophtora infectans ÷ causes leaf bight of potato
Phytophthora palmivora ÷ coconut bud rot
lbuo candida ÷ white rust of crucifers
Plasmopara viticola ÷ downy mildew of grapes
Peronosclerospora philippinensis ÷ downy mildew of corn
remia lactucae ÷ downy mildew of lettuce
Pseudoperonospora cubensis ÷ downy mildew of cucurbits
lpidium brassicae ÷ parasitic in roots of cabbage
Physoderma maydis ÷ brown spot of corn
$ynchytrium psopocarpii ÷ orange galls of winged beans
#hizopus niricans ÷ soft rot of fruits and vegetables
hoanephora cucurbitarum ÷ soft rot of squash
ryphe raminis ÷ powdery mildew of grasses
Nematodes as Plant Pathogen
Thread-like organism, non-segmented, bilaterally symmetrical and are usually
elongated and cylindrical in shape
Groups of parasitic nematode
Semi ÷endoparasites
#otylenchus reniformis ÷ reniform nematodes
Tylenchulus semipenetrans ÷ citrus nematodes
Endoparasite
Pratylenchus ÷ lession nematode feeding on the root cortex
#adopholus similis ÷ burrowing nematode of banana
Hoplolaimus ÷ lance nematode
Helicotylenchus ÷ spiral nematode
Meloidogyne ÷ the root-knot nematode
Heterodera/Globodera ÷ the cyst nematode
Ectoparasite
Belonolaimus ÷ string nematode
Paratylenchus ÷ pin nematode
Trichodorus ÷ stubby root nematode of field crops and vegetables
Xiphinema ÷ dagger nematode of trees and many annuals
Inoculum, Inoculum Survival and
Inoculation
Ìnoculum ÷ any part of the pathogen that
could initiate infection
Ìnfection court ÷ any part of the plant where
the inoculum could initiate infection
Types of inoculum
Fungi ÷ spore , mycelia, sclerotial bodies
Bacteria ÷ bacterial cells, ooze
Nematode ÷ eggs, larvae, adult
DiIIerent Sources oI Inoculum
Ìnfected living plants
Plant debris
Ìnfected soil
Ìnfected seed/vegetative propagating
materials
ontaminated containers, storage areas,
equipment
Ìnsects, nematode and other living agents
Dissemination
Transfer of inoculum to an infection court
Steps in dissemination
Take-off ÷ getting the inoculum into the air
Flight ÷ moving the inoculum from one place to the other
Deposition ÷ settling of the inoculum from the atmosphere
Types of dissemination
Wind dissemination
#ain dissemination
Ìnsect dissemination
Seed and planting materials
Man dissemination
Disease Cycle
Ìs the sequence of events that leads to and is involved in
disease production
Parts of the disease cycle
Ìnoculation-deposition of inoculum
Penetration-entry of pathogen inside the host
Passive-pathogen plays no active role
Active- pathogen directly participate in the penetration
Ìnfection-when pathogen established and obtain food from the host
olonization-growth of the pathogen to the host tissues
Ìncubation-from inoculation to the production of visible symptoms
Dissemination-spread or transfer of the inoculum
Survival-the tiding over of the pathogen on adverse condition
Plant deIense mechanism
Defense mechanism to penetration
The cuticle offers physical and chemical barriers
losed or partially closed stomates
hemical barriers
utin of citrus contains acid toxic to organism
olored onion contains catechol and
protocatechuic acid
Passive deIense mechanism
Unavailability of nutrients in the host and
inadequate enzyme potential of the pathogen
Pre-formed toxic substances inside the cell
Tannins and phenolic cpds-caffeic acid, chlorogenic acids
and hydroquinones have fungitoxic properties
Osmotic pressure and parasitism-plants with high
osmotic pressure and reduced permeability would
make it difficult for invading organism to obtain
water and nutrients from them, thus rendering
them more resistant
Active deIense mechanism
Mechanical barriers to pathogenenis
Hypersensitivity and phytoalexins
Hypersensitibity-the rapid localized death of host cells
around the pathogen
Phyto-alexins-subtances formed by the host not only in
response to pathogenic invasions but also to injury and
foreign inanimate and animate agents
Post-insfectional toxic substances
detoxification
Other terminologies
Epidemiology ÷ study of disease development in population
Epidemic ÷ widespread, explosive disease outbreaks
Epiphytotics ÷ refers to the epidemics of plant disease
Endemic disease - native or indigenous to a particular place
Exotic disease ÷ introduced from some other areas
Pandemic disease- worldwide or widespread occurrence
throughout the continent or region
Sporadic disease ÷ occur at irregular intervals
Disease forecasting ÷ predicting when a disease will occur and how
severe it will be for farmers to be guided properly in making
decisions on disease control
Disease assessment ÷ appraisal on the amount of disease present
and relate these to yield loss
Factors aIIecting the development oI
epidemics
Susceptible plants
Practice of monocropping
Predisposition of plant to infection due to
excessive use of N fertilizer
Presence of abundant inoculum and
efficient vectors
Principles oI Plant Disease Control
Exclusion ÷ prevention of new pathogen from
being introduce into a locality
Protection ÷ involves the prevention of infection
by putting a barrier between the pathogen and the
host
Eradication ÷ measure that eliminate, inhibit or kill
the pathogens that have become established
within the plant or area
Ìmmunization ÷ modifying certain physiological
features or physical features of the host so that it
can repel infection
Terms related to Immunization
#esistance ÷ the relative ability of the plant to overcome the effects of the
pathogen
Tolerance- the ability of the suscept to undergo severe infection without
serious reduction in yield.
Klenduscity ÷ the lack of infection in a susceptible plant due the suscept's
effect on something other than the pathogen
Escape ÷ the suscept is not infected due to certain circumstances as
unfavorable environmental condition or luck of inoculum
'irulence ÷ a measure of the degree of infection or pathogenicity
Aggressiveness- a measure of the rate at which virulence is expressed
Types oI resistance
'ertical resistance-controlled by one or few
genes and is effective only against one or
few races of the pathogen
Horizontal resistance-controlled by several
genes and is theoretically effective against
all races/strains of pathogen.
Methods oI plant Disease Control
Sanitation
ultural methods-crop rotation, concept on sustainable agriculture,
fallowing, tissue culture
Physical methods-heat treatment, low temperature storage,
irradiation
hemical method-seed treatment, fumigation of soil/warehouse,
control of insect vectors
Biological method-use of microorganism that compete with,
parasitize or are antagonistic to the pathogen
ross protection-protection by a mild pathogen virus strain against infection
by another strain of the same virus which is more virulent
Ìnterference-mycorrhizae interfere with pathogen
Use of bacteriophages
Use of parasites
Use of resistant varities
Entomology
Study of insect, their nature, effects and control
Ìnsect lassification
Super class Hexapoda ÷ six legged organism
lass Parainsecta ÷designates small, wingless, soil-dwelling
arthropods of the order Protura and ollembola
lass entognatha- small wingless, soil dwelling arthropods
that have their mouthparts retracted in the head.
lass insecta- insects do not have their mouthparts retracted
in the head
Basic Concept oI Entomology
Ìnsects ÷derived from the latin "insecare¨ meaning "to cut into¨
refering to the bodies of some insects that are almost cut in half by
constriction of the neck and waist
Subclass Apterygota-insects without wings
Subclass Pterygota ÷ insects with wings
Ìnfraclass Paleoptera-winged insects that unable to fold their wings
flat over their bodies
Ìnfraclass Neotera-meaning "modern type of wings¨ insects that can
fold their wings flat over their backs
Division Exopterygota-wings developed externally and are visible
on the youngs as small wing pods
Division Endopterygota-have wings rudimentary that develop
internally during the early life of the insects. Life history is divided
into two groups that are strikingly different forms and habits
Characteristics oI Insects
More or less elongate and cylindrical in form
Bilaterally symmetrical
Segmented body regions
Paired segmented appendages
hitinous exoskeleton
Tubular alimentary canal with mouth and anus
Open circulatory system
Insect Body Parts
Insect body regions
Head
One pair of antenna
ompound eyes and ocelli
One pair of mandible
One pair of maxilla
A hypopharynx
A labium
Front Head
The mouthparts
Labrum-upper lip
Hypopharynx-tongue
Pair of mandible-jaws
Pair of maxillaserve as accesory jaws
aiding in the holding and chewing of food
Labium-lower lip
Insect mandible
Insect Labium
Insect Maxilla
Types oI mouthparts
Mandibulate/chewing mouthparts
Adapted for chewing
Haustellate/sucking mouthparts
Adapted for sucking
Position oI mouthparts
Hypognathous-the mouthparts hang
ventrally from the head capsule
Prognathous-anteriorly directed position of
the mouthparts
Opisthognathous-mouthparts are directed
ventroposteriorly relative to the head
capsule
The thorax
Three pairs of legs
Often one or two pairs of wings, borne by
the second and/or third of the three thoracic
segments
The abdomen
The gonophore at the posterior end of the
abdomen
No locomotor appendages on the abdomen
of the adult
The body wall
overed by exoskeleton
Ìt serve not only as covering of the body but
as a supporting structure, muscle
attachment and reception of external stimuli
The insect antenna
Are paired segmented appendages located
on the head usually between or below the
compound eyes
Ìt acts as organ of taste, organ of smell and
in some cases organ of hearing
Parts oI the insect antenna
Scape-the basal segment
Pedicel-second segment
Flgellum-remainder
Forms oI antenna
Setaceous-bristlelike, the segment becoming more slender distantly. Ex.
Dragonfly, damselfly and hoppers
Filiform-threadlike, the segments nearly uniform in size, and usually
cylindrical. Ex. Ground beetle, tiger beetle
Moniliform-like string beads, the segments are similar in size and more or
less spherical in shape
Serrate-sawlike, the segment, particularly those in the distal half or two
thirds of the antenna more or less triangular. Ex. lick beetle
Pectinate-comblike, most segment with long slender, lateral processes
lubbed-the segments increasing in diameter distantly
lavate-increase is gradual
apitate-if the terminal segments are rather suddenly enlarge
Lamellate- if the terminal segments are expanded laterally to form rounded or oval
platelike lobes
Flabellate-where the terminal segments have long, parallel-sided sheetlike, or
tongue-like lobes extending laterally
Continuation..
Geniculate-elbowed, with the first segment long
and the following segments are small
Plumose-feathery, most segments with whort of
long hairs. Ex. Male mosquitoes
Aristate-the last segment usually enlarged and
bearing a conspicous dorsal bristle, the artista;
Ex. Housefly
Stylate-the last segment bearing an elongate
terminal styletlike or fingerlike process the style.
Ex. #obber fly
Some Insect Antennae
The thorax
The middle region of the body and bears the legs
and the wings (functionally, it is the locomotory
tagma)
omposed of the three segments, the prothorax,
mesothorax and the metathorax
Each segments bear a pair of legs
Meso and the metathorax bear the pairs of wings.
Ìf there is only one pair of wings they usually
borne from the mesothorax
The legs
Six segments
oxa-basal segment
Trochanter-small segment following the coxa
Femur-first long segment of the leg
Tibia-second long segment of the leg
Tarsus ÷ segmented
Pretarsus-may consist of a single claw
ModiIication oI the legs
Apodous-lacking legs
Ambulatory-adapted for walking
ursorial-adapted for running
Fossorial-adapted for digging
#aptorial-adapted for grabbing and holding prey
Saltatorial-adapted for jumping
Natatorial-adapted for swimming
Specialized structures
orbiculum-legs of honey bees as pollen
basket
Tympana- auditory organ
Pulvilli-found in the lower surface of each
tarsal segments as in the several members
of the orthoptera
The wing
Modified to:
Membranous-wings that are transparent
Tegmina-thickened, leathery wing of
grasshopper
Elytra-hardened forewings of beetles
Hemilytra-base of the forewing harden while the
remaining are membranous
Halteres-a pair of highly modified, club-shaped
structure important in the stability of flight
Wing-coupling mechanism
Hamuli - tiny hook found among
hymenopterans
Frenulum - spinelike found in moths
Jugum - lobelike found in lepidopterans
The abdomen
11 segments
Terminal segment bears a pair of appendages,
the cerci
Spiracles, the external ventilatory organ in each
segments
Female gonophore usually in the 8
th
or 9
th
segment
Male copulatory organ-aedeagus found in the 9
th
segment
Types oI metamorphosis
Metamorphosis-is a process of change in size,
shape and form of insects
Ametabola- no metamorphosis. No difference in
appearance as in adults except size. Egg ÷ young- adult
Hemimetabola ÷ incomplete metamorphosis- egg ÷ naiad
÷ adult
Paurometabola- gradual metamorphosis- changes in form
are simple ; egg ÷ nymph ÷ adult
Holometabola- complete metamorphosis ÷ egg ÷ larva ÷
pupa - adult
Complete Metamorphosis oI Insect
Incomplete Metamorphosis
Insect Reproduction
Bisexual reproduction ÷ both male and
female required
Parthenogenesis- there is no fertilization
hence there is no male needed
Paedenogenesis- the larva is capable of
reporduction
Mode oI giving birth
'iviparity- live young are born
Oviparity ÷ eggs are laid, and left or
attended to hatch
Physical and behavioral adaptation oI
insects to the environment
Protective coloration - camouflage or blending
with the color of the surroundings
Mimicry ÷ copying of other species for protection
Batesian mimicry ÷ palatable insects resembles the
appearance of a distasteful or poisonous insect
Mullerian mimicry ÷ several distasteful insect species, often
in unrelated families resemble each other
Wasmannian mimicry ÷ mimics by being guest within the
nest of other insects
Importance oI insect to man and
agriculture
Beneficial Ìnsects
Pollination
Ìndustrial products
Food
Scavenger
Predators
Use in medical and scientific research
Ìnjurious Ìnsects
Damage crop directly or by transmitting diseases
Destroy agri-products during storage
Attack, parasitize and annoy and transmit diseases to domestic
animals and reduce theirs values
Why insects so successIul
Body structures
Exoskeleton
Terrestrial forms- wax coating prevents desiccation
Metamorphosis ÷ immature insects and adults of a single species often exploit
different habitat
Small size
Ìndividual requires little food
Escape from enemies
dispersal
Adult flight
Dispersal
Escape from enemies
Utilize new/different habitat
#eproductive capacity
High reproductive capacity
Short generation time
DiIIerent Insect Orders
Order Archeognathans ÷ bristletails
Order Zygentoma/thysanura ÷ silverfish
Order Ephemeroptera ÷ mayflies
Order Odonata ÷ dragonflies and damselflies
Order Blattodea ÷ cockroaches
Order mantodea ÷ mantids
Order Ìsoptera ÷ termites
Order Grylloblatodea ÷ mole crickets
Order Dermaptera ÷ earwigs
Order Plecoptera ÷ stoneflies
Order Embiidina ÷ webspinners
Order Orthoptera ÷ grasshoppers and crickets and katydids
Order Phasmatodea ÷ sticks insects
Continuation..
Order Zoraptera ÷
Order Psocoptera ÷ psocid and booklice
Order Phthiraptera ÷ lice
Order Hemiptera ÷ bug and leafhoppers
Order thysanoptera ÷ thrips
Order Megaloptera ÷ dobsonfly, alderfliy
Order #aphidioptera ÷ snakefly
Order Neuroptera ÷ lacewing, antlion
Order oleoptera ÷ beetles
Order Sterpsiptera
Order Mecoptera ÷ scorpionfly
Order Diptera ÷ flies
Order Lepidoptera ÷ butterflies and moth
Order Trichoptera ÷ caddisflies
Order Hymenoptera - bees , wasp and ants
Crop Rotation Entomology
Economic injury ÷ the amount of injury which will give
significant loss once the economic plant part is affected
Ìnjury ÷ effect of the pest activities on the host physiology that
is usually deleterious
Damage ÷ measurable loss of the host utility, most often
including yield, quantity, quality and or aesthetics
Economic damage ÷ the amount of the injury which will justify
the cost of artificial measures
Economic injury level (EÌL) ÷ lowest number of insect that
will cause economic damage, or the minimum number of
insects that would reduce yield equal to the gain threshold
Economic threshold level (ETL)- number of insects that
should trigger management action.
Kinds oI Pest
Subeconomic pests ÷ pest in the true sense even if they
cause significant losses. The General Equilibrium Population
(GEP) is far below
Occasional Pest ÷ GEP substantially below the EÌL ÷ more
often does not cause economic damage though they are
present in the field
Potential and Severe Pest ÷ cause most serious and difficult
problems in the field ÷ key pest that attack the commodity
directly mostly in numbers
Perennial pest ÷ the GEP is below the ETL, but so close to
the economic damage occurs more years than not
Severe Pest ÷ have a GEP that is actually above the EÌL,
making them a constant problem
Biological Control
Pest management tactics involving purposeful
natural enemy manipulation to obtain a reduction
in a pest status
The use of living organism for the control of
another organism
Natural enemies ÷ living organism found in nature
that kill insects outright, weaken them and thereby
contribute to their premature death or reduced
their reproductive potential
Nature oI Biological control
Disadvantages
Slow action
Ecological problems
Specificity
#egulation and registration
Advantages
Longer effect
Effective
heap
specific
Agents oI Biological Control
Parasites ÷ animal that lives on or within a larger animal.
#equires one host to complete its cycle
Ìnsect orders considered parasitoid
oleoptera Lepidoptera
Neuroptera Strepsiptera
Diptera Hymenoptera
Predators ÷ are free living organism that feed on the other
animals, their prey sometime devouring them completely and
usually rapidly
Major predators of insects
Birds Fish
Amphibians #eptiles
Mammals Arthropods
Levels oI Feeding
Monophagous ÷ narrow prey range,
feeding almost exclussively on a single
species
Oligophagous ÷ narrow host range, feeding
only few prey species
Polyphagous ÷ tend to feed on a wide host
range
Examples oI Parasitoids and Predators
and their host
otesia plutellae ÷ Diamond backmoth larvae
Diadegma sp. ÷ Diamond Backmoth larvae
Trichogramma evanescens ÷ cornborer eggs
Trichogramma chilones ÷ earworm eggs
Apanteles sp. Eggplant shootborer larvae
helonus sp. ÷ eggplant shootborer pupae
Oencyrfus comperie ÷ gren soldier bug eggs
Telenomus pacificus ÷ geen soldier bug eggs
Ageniapsis citricola ÷ citrus leafminer larvae
Eucanthecona sp. ÷ lepidopterous larvae
Lady beetle ÷ aphids adults and nymphs
Tachinid fly ÷ aphis adult and nymps
Euboriella annulata ÷ cornborer larvae
Lycosa psuedoannulata ÷ aphid, planthoppers, leafhoppers
Pathogenic Microorganism
Bacteria
Bacillus popillae and B. lentimorbus ÷ cause milky disease
of japanese beetle
B. thuriengensis ÷ causing disease in many species of
lepidopterous pest, mosquitoes and beetles
'iruses
Nuclear polyhedrosis virus and Granulosis 'irus cuase
death of leppidopterous insect pest
Fungi
Beauveria, Nomurea, Metarhizium, Entomopthora and
Zoophthora
Chemical Control
Pesticide ÷ any chemical use to control pest
Advantages
Effective and rapid curative action
Economical
Ease of application
Adaptable in most situation
Disadvantages
Ìnsecticide resistance
Pest resurgence
Negative impact to non-target organism
#isks to users
SpeciIic Pestcides
Acaricide/miticide ÷ mites, ticks and spiders
Algaecide ÷ algae
Arboricide ÷ trees, shrubs, bushes
Avicide ÷ birds
Fungicide ÷ fungi
Herbicide ÷ weeds
Ìnsecticide ÷ insects
Molluscicide ÷ mollusks
Nematicide ÷ nematodes
Pissicide ÷ fish
Predacide ÷ vertebrate pest
#odenticide - rodents
Some insecticides that do not end with
cide and not necessarily killing the
pest
Attractants ÷ attracts insects
hemosterilant ÷ sterilized insects to prevent
reproduction
ÌG# ÷ stimulate or retard growth of insects
Pheromone ÷ release by one individual and affect the
physiology of others
#epellant ÷ repel insects
ClassiIication oI insecticide
According to the nature and sources
Ìnorganic ÷ lacking carbon
Arsenic
yanide
Mercury
Boric acid
Sodium arsenate
Sodium chlorate
opper sulfate
Organic- with carbon atom
Natural ÷ produce by refining natural substances
Synthetic ÷ manufactured by chemically joining elements or simple
compounds
Continuation..
According to the mode of entry
Stomach ÷ enters insect body through the gut
Systemic ÷ are taken up and translocated by
plants
ontact ÷ they usually enters the body when an
insect usually crawls with it. Absorbed through the
body wall
Fumigants ÷ insecticide that becomes gas and
enters insect body through tracheal system,
circulate and subsequently absorbed by the body
tissue
ClassiIication according to the
chemical composition
hlorinated hydrocarbons/Organochlorines
DDT
Lindane
yclodienes
polychloroterpenes
Organophosphates
Malathion
Dimethoate
Disolfoton
Dicrotophos
Trichloroform
Mathamidophos
Acephate
Parathion
phosmet
Methidathion
Diazinon
chlorpyriphos
Continuation ..
Pyrethroid ÷ resemblance of natural product cenerin from pyrethrum
Allethrin
#esmethrin
Fenvalerate
Permithrin
ypermthrin
Deltamethrin
Lamda-cyhalothrin
arbamates
arbaryl
arbofuran
Aldicarb
Methomyl
propoxur
Continuation.
Neonicotinoids resembles the natural products of
nicotine
Botanical insecticides
Pyrethrum ÷ from petals of chrysanthemum
Azadiractina ÷ neem tree
Nicotine - tobacco
Limonene ÷ citrus peel
#otenone ÷ Derris sp.
#yania ÷ stems and roots of #yania speciosa
Sabadilla ÷ seeds of Schoenocaulon officinale
Chemicals used with insecticides
Synergist- enhanced toxicity of insecticide used
Solvent ÷ enhance solubility in water
Diluents ÷ carriers and are necessary to obtain proper
coverage of treated surface
Surfactants - improves emulsifying, dispersing, spreading,
wetting and other modifying properties of the liquid
Emulsifier ÷ promote suspension of one liquid with the other
Ìnert ingredient ÷ inactive part of the pesticide
Safener ÷ counteract phytotoxicity effect of chemicals
Spreader ÷ facilitate creeping or spreading over a surface
Sticker ÷ increase adhesion
Types oI insecticide Iormulation
Aqueous solution (A) ÷ homogenous mixture of 2 solution
Emulsifiable concentrate (E) ÷ dissolved in small amount of
organic solvent when shaken with water emulsion is formed
Water Soluble powders (WSP) ÷ readily dissolve in water
Wettable powders (WP) formulated as finely ground powder which
when mixed with water in the presence of a dispersing agent will
form a suspension
Granules or pellets ÷ active ingredients are combined with inert
materials formed into particles. They are applied in dry form
Dust ÷
Aerosols ÷ active ingredient is suspended in a container under
pressure
Flowable ÷ the ingredients and deluent are ground to near colloidal
dimension, suspended a small amount of liquid
Host Plant Resistance
Property of the plant that enables the plant to avoid, tolerate or recover from injury by insect population
that would cause greater damage to other plants of the same species under similar condition
Advantages
First line of defense
Singular effective
No serious disruptive effects on the environment
ompatible with other control measures
Ìnexpensive
Safe
Practical at low value crops
Disadvantages
Development of resistant varieties is tedious, expensive and long process
#esistant cultivars may not be adoptive to certain localities
ultivars may be resistant to one but susceptible with other pest
#esistant cultivars may easily breakdown
Some resistant cultivars may have small effects
Mechanism oI Resistance
Nonpreference ÷ characteristic that lead away
from a particular hosts for food, oviposition, or
shelter (Antixenosis)
Allelochemic nonpreference ÷ presence of
chemicals
Morphological nonpreference ÷ plant structural
charateristics that disrupt physical condition of the
pest
Antibiosis ÷ refers to the deleterious effects on
insects survival of life history resulting from
feeding on a resistant host
Symptoms oI insects aIIected by
antibiosis
Death of youngs
#educed growth rate
Ìncrease mortality in pupal stage
Small adults
Shortened life span
Morphological malformation
#estlessness and other abnormal behaviour
Tolerance
#efers to the ability of a host to grow and
reproduce normally while supporting a pest
population that would be damaging to a
susceptible host.
Advantage
Places no selective pressure on insect population.
Without selection pressure, variants do not develop that
can overcome the resistance
Disadvantage
Ìnsect population may be allowed to sustain epidemics in
the area, causing problems in other crops
Other Iorms oI resistance
Ecological resistance ÷ relies more heavily on environmental
condition
Host evasion ÷ the plant passes through a susceptible stage
quickly or at a time such that its exposure to potentially
injurious insect is reduced
Ìnduced resistance ÷ form temporary resistance derived from
plant condition or the environment
Host escape ÷ lack of infestation of susceptible plants in a
population of otherwise infested plants
'ertical resistance ÷ refers to cultivars with resistance limited
to one or few pest genotypes
Horizontal resistance ÷ describes cultivars that express
resistance against a broad range of genotype
Weed Science
The study of weeds, and their control,
whether it is manual, mechanical, cultural,
biological, chemical or ecological
Main goal ÷ formulate the most satisfactory,
most efficient yet least expensive method
of controlling weeds
Weed ÷ a plant out place in time and space
Characteristics oI Noxious Weed
#apid vegetative growth and profuse root
production
#eproduce early and efficiently
Have the ability to survive and adapt to adverse
condition
Seeds posses dormancy
ause significant damage even at low density
#esistant to herbicide
Adapted to competition
Importance oI Weed
Negative
#educe yield of crops
Ìncrease costs for insect and diseases control
#educed quality of products
Ìncreases cost of production
#educes land value
Exude chemicals that are harmful to other plants
Ìmposed hazard to health
Positive
#educe soil erosion
Food for animals and humans
Prevent leaching of nutrients
Ìmportant sources of useful drugs
Sources of possible pesticides
Provide germplasm for crop improvement
Provide habitat for insect predator
Authentic values
ClassiIication oI Weeds
Based on morphological characteristics
Gross morphology
Grasses ÷ round and hollow stem, leaves aligned
in two rows
Sedges ÷ leaves aligned in three rows, stems are
solid and triangular
Broadleaves ÷ leaves may have various shapes
and arrangement of veins, leaves are wider than
those of grasses and sedges
Body texture
Herbaceous ÷ soft, succulent
Woody ÷ hard texture
Based on life span
Annual
Biennial
Perennial
Based on growth habit
'ine
Shrubs
Trees
Based on habitat
Terrestrial
aquatic
Longevity oI weed seeds
Longevity ÷ length of life or viability of weed
seed or vegetative propagules
Highly affected by soil type, sunlight
exposure, cultural practices and moisture
content
Seed dormancy
Dormancy ÷ is the inability of the seed or any
vegetative organ or tissue to germinate under
favorable condition
Primary dormancy ÷inherent property of the mature seed
as it leaves the parent plant
Secondary dormancy ÷ induced through encounter with
unfavorable condition
Ìnduced dormancy ÷ develops when a non-dormant seed
becomes dormant after exposure to such specific
environment condition
Enforced dormancy ÷ limitations of the habitat or
environment prevent seeds from germinating
Mechanism oI dormancy
Physical dormancy ÷ impermeability of
water and or oxygen
Physiological dormancy ÷ immature
embryo or presence of inhibitors
Methods oI breaking dormancy
Microbial action or abrasive treatments:
sulfuric acid, stratification
Passage through alimentary tract of
livestock
Dehulling (physical dormancy)
Alternate wet and dry conditions
KNO3, GA3, cytokinins , Auxins
Light and temperature treatment
Concept oI Weed Germination
Germination ÷ resumption of growth by the
embryo in the seed or of the young plantlet in a
tuber, bulb or rhizome
Phases of Germination
Ìmbibition
Period of rapid metabolic activity
#oot or root ÷ like elongation phase
Period of independent growth
ultural factors affecting weed germination
Water management
ultivation and light
Factors aIIecting seedling growth
condition
Soil factor
Light
Adaptation to growing condition
ompetitive power of weed
Seed reporduction and dispersal
Sexual reproduction
Annual weeds, usually reproduce by seed production
Factors affecting flowering and seed production
Photoperiod
'egetative growth
Temperature
Growth regulators
Magnitude of seed production
Asexual/ 'egetative propagation
Principal means of propagation by most perennial weeds
'egetative propagules
Tubers
Bulb
#hizome
Stolon
#unner
Offshoot/suckers
Factors inIluencing asexual
reproduction
Soil texture
Daylength
Light intensity
Mineral sufficiency
Dispersal oI weed propagules
Methods
Dispersal unit ÷ refer to the structure, usually
single-seeded or multiple seeded together with
accessory parts, that is disperse or separated
from the mother plant asnd whose function is to
perpetuate its kind in other areas
Agents of weed dispersal
Wind , water , animals/man, explosive mechanism
of weed
DeIinition oI terms on weed
interIerence
ompetition ÷ struggle for the limited
resources in the environment
ritical period of competition ÷ the length of
time wherein the crop is very sensitive to
weed competition
ritical threshold level ÷ the density of
weeds above which yield reductions could
be incurred
Types of competition
intra- specific competition
Ìnter specific competition
Factors affecting competition
Weed species, density and duration of competition
Seeding rate
rop variety or selection
Level of nutrition
Major factors for competition
Nutrients
Water
light
Methods oI weed control
Main purpose of weed management is to reduce
weed population to levels that will not significantly
reduce crop yield
Methods of weed control
ultural
use of quality, disease and weed seed - free planting
materials
ontrolling weeds before reproductive stage
Multiple cropping
Water management
Use of competitive crops
Manual
Proper land preparation
Handweeding/slashing
Hoe weeding
Ìnterrow cultivation
Mulching
burning
Biological control method
Deliberate use of weed natural enemies
such as insects and pathogens
Types of biological control
Ìnoculative approach ÷ use of imported living
organism
Ìnundative or augmentative approach ÷ use of
very large numbers of existing and locally
occurring natural enemies
Some bioherbicide
De 'ine ÷ the first fungal pathogen
commercially made available in 1981 made
of liquid formulation of Phytophthora
palmivora
ollego mycoherbicide commercially
made available in the US in 1982 a dry
powder of olletotrichum loeosporioides
ClassiIication oI Herbicide
Based on time of application
Preplant herbicide ÷ after land preparation but before planting
Preemergence herbicide ÷ applied after crop planting but before crop
emergence
Postemergence ÷ after emergence of the crop and weed
Based on movement in plants
ontact herbicide ÷ phytotoxicity is manifested on location where droplets
of herbicide are deposited
Systemic or translocated herbicide ÷ phytotoxicity is manifested at and
away from the site where droplets are deposited
Based on selectivity
Non-selective herbicide ÷ with broad spectrum activity that kills all
Selective herbicide ÷ kill some plants leaving practically others unharmed
Pesticide Calculation
#ecommended rate (a.i/ha)
Amount of Pesticide x 100
a.i in the formulation
Herbadox 330E is applied at the rate of 1.25 kg a.i/ha to effectively
kill #. exaltata. How many liters of Herbadox 330E do you need/ha?
Furadan 3G is applied at the rate of 0.5kg a.i./ha to control corn
borer. How many kilograms of Furadan 3G do you need for 2,500
square meters?

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