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Policy Formulation Presentation

Policy Formulation Presentation

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Policy Formulation and Case Study

Jeremiah V. Pacer MA Public Administration Department of Political Science Rizal Technological University

Policy a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business or individual. defined as the process by which governments translate their political vision into programs and actions to deliver 'outcomes' ² desired change in the real world. can take a range of different forms, including nonnonintervention; regulation, for instance by licensing; or the encouragement of voluntary change, including by grant aid; as well as direct public service provision.

3.involve in the distribution of services or benefits to particular segments of the population-individual. Substantive -what government is going to do. 2. how: it includes organizational matters. payment of benefits. benefits and cost to the people. populationorganizations and communities involve in the use of public funds to assist particular groups-social reform agenda. Distributive . groups- . It directly distributes advantages and disadvantages. Procedural -pertain to how something is going to be done or who is going to take action.Classification of Policies 1. groups. such as the construction of highways.

. 6. police your own rank. 5. Material-provide tangible resources and substantial power to their Materialbeneficiaries or impose real advantages on those who are adversely affected. are usually sought and supported by the regulated group as a means of protecting and promoting the interests of its members. Regulatory-involve the imposition of restrictions or limitations on Regulatorythe behavior of individuals and group. it reduces the freedom or discretion to act of those who are regulated.involve restriction or control of some matter or regulatorygroup. Self regulatory.Classification of Policies 4.

are difficult because they involve the reallocation of money. power and rights. such as Symbolicpeace. . Redistributive. Symbolic-they appeal to the cherished values of people. patriotism and social justice. 8. income.deliberate efforts of the government to shift the Redistributiveallocation of wealth. property or rights among broad classesclasses.Classification of Policies 7.

Stages of the Policy Process  Problem identification  Agenda setting  Policy formulation  Decision  Implementation  Evaluation .

national security. and makes existing issues more complicated . citizens  Globalization expands the problems facing society. poverty. government.Problem Identification  Outcomes affecting the lives of people and the condition of the nation are described  Typical examples: unemployment. crime  Not all problems are matters of public concern  Who identifies problems? Media.

interest groups. think tanks.Agenda Setting  Problems are selected for official consideration  Agenda setters: Media. citizens  Globalization gives many outsiders a role in agenda setting . political parties. government officials.

Policy Formulation  Specification of problem: define terms and identify relevant population  Explanation of problem  Alternatives for addressing problem  Costs and benefits assessed  Globalization makes explaining problems more contentious .

Decision  Policy makers choose one or more solutions to the problem  Political battles of previous stages are partly geared toward affecting this stage  Combinations of options can be chosen  Non-action is a choice  Globalization changes the incentives and challenges democracy .

equipment). more privatization . the domain of the executive branch  Globalization has recently meant greater reliance on markets and market-like structures.  determine lines of authority  In general. personnel.Implementation  Taking action  Allocate resources (money. establish rules and standard operating procedures.

Evaluation  In political debate. evaluation may be political or oriented toward activities rather than outcomes  Globalization means it is harder to identify relevant population or the reasons things happen . evaluation is pervasive  Systematic evaluation tools are highly developed. but often not used  Good evaluation focuses on measuring outcomes  Instead.

An Example: Iraq  What was the problem in 2002?  How did Iraq get on the agenda?  What policy options were available to solve the problem?  Why was war chosen?  How was the war implemented?  How are things working out? .

classes.Political Power  Who controls the agenda? Who decides?  A central concern of Political Science  Many theories have been developed to answer such questions  System-centered  Society-centered: groups. social movements  State-centered: Government officials and structure .

classes.Society-centered  Groups. and individuals in society hold power  Elite theory  Class analysis  Social movements theory  Group theory  Pluralism .

State-centered  Government officials take the initiative  Structure of government determines in part what happens  Bureaucratic actors dominate policy process .

System-centered  Relationship of country to the rest of the world determines its policy preferences  Distribution of power (powerful countries prefer open world economy)  World system (unequal distribution of wealth)  Globalization (US turns to world market to solve economic problems at home) .

Case Studies Filipino First Policy -Embodied in the advocacy of President Carlos Garcia.prothe 1987 Constitution. -Ensured the welfare and dominance of local businessmen and entrepreneurs. . -Deprived PHISIX and entire local economy of necessary capital outpour from foreign conglomerates and multinational companies. -Reflected in the 60-40 pro-filipino ownership requirement in 60. -Encouraged the subsistence of dummies.

-The current cost of the computerization has taken a great toll on the budget of the commission. -Programmed to minimize electoral frauds like Dagdag Bawas.Case Studies COMELEC Modernization and Computerization -Conceptualized to fast-track the results of the triennial polls fastand other mandated elections provided by law. -The initial undertaking of computerization was stalled due to the decree issued by Supreme Court. -Instituted to streamline and limit the number of personnel rendering service during elections. .

. proves to be difficult and a risk on the part of national security. however.Monetary gains from the conversion may not serve its raison d·etre. -Relocation. .Case Studies Bases Conversion of Camp Crame and Aguinaldo -Patterned after the development of Fort Andres Bonifacio into a bustling commercial hub. -Government is envisioning large income from these transactions that will sustain the modernization of military and police personnel.

-The authors specifically pointed out to the exponential gains and profits of pharmaceutical firms. .Case Studies Cheaper Medicines Act -The purpose of the measure is to lower the cost of health care maintenance and medication.Government made a compromise in classifying certain family of medications subject to Cheaper Medicines Act. . -Along the way. the government wavered in the full implementation of the act because of the political pressure coming from medication drug manufacturers and distributors.

-Leaders of the Catholic Church fervently opposed the bill as it is against the teachings and dogma of the christian faith. . -The bill is made to encourage and support the people in using contraceptives and family-planning schemes. family-The bill does not compel nor coerce the community to adopt family planning schemes.Case Studies Reproductive Health Bill -Piece of legislation made to address the growing concern of population in the Philippines. -Implementation systems are still on the verge of uncertainty and dilemma.

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