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# 1 Spherical astronomy 3 Telescopes

## Law of sines and cosines (+ cyclic change) Resolution ability: α = 1.22λ/D.

Magnification of the keplerian telescope: m = f1 /f2 (f1 - focal
a b c length of objective, f2 - focal length of eye-piece).
= =
sin α sin β sin γ
c2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos γ.
4 Stellar astrophysics
Spherical law of sines and cosines (+ cyclic change) Stefan-Boltzman law: L = 4πR2 σTef 4
(you don’t have to
know Planck’s formula I guess).
sin a sin b sin c
= = Wien displacement law: λmax = b/Tef
sin α sin β sin γ Pogson formula: m1 − m2 = −2.5 log(I1 /I2 ), m − M =
cos c = cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos γ. = 5 log r − 5 (when extinction or bolometric correction given,
Paralaksinis trikampis: spherical triangle, consists of zenith Spectral classification: (W - Wolf-Rayet stars) Oh Be A
Z, celestial pole P + given star S. ZP = 90 − ϕ (ϕ - latitude), Fine Girl and Kiss Me Like That! (Y - substellar objects)
P S = 90−δ (δ - declination), ZS = z (z - zenith distance), ang- Luminosity classes: 0 - hypergiants, I - supergiants, II -
le ZP S is hour angle t (measured from south clockwise), angle bright giants, III - normal giants, IV - subgiants, V - main
SZP is 180 − A (A - azimuth, measured from south clockwise); sequence stars, VI - subdwarfs, VII - white dwarfs (Sun is G2V
it provides transformation between azimuthal (A, z) and equ- star).
atorial coordinate system (t, δ) resp. (α, δ) where α = ϑ − t (ϑ Chandrasekhar limit: (between white dwarf and neutron
- sidereal time, α measured from vernal equinox point counter- star) 1.4Ms , TOV limit: (between neutron star and black ho-
clockwise) - just use sph. law of sines and cosines. le) 1.5 − 3Ms , Schwarzschild radius: R = 2GM/c2
The equation of time = tapp − tm (tapp - apparent solar time, Sun: ms = 1.99 · 1030 kg, Ls = 3.85 · 1026 W, Ms =
tm - mean solar time). = 4.83 mag, K = Ls /4πAU2 = 1368 W·m−2 , Ts = 5778 K,
Precession: period approx. 26000 y, vernal equinox point Rs = 6.96 · 108 m, Prot = 25 d.
moves in the opposite direction than right ascension increases. Hubble’s law: v = Hr, for small z: v = cz. H =
Aberration: tg α ≈ α = vc⊥ , v⊥ is the component of veloci- = (71.0 ± 2.5) km·s−1 ·Mpc−1 (WMAP, 2010).
ty perpendicular to comming rays. Refraction: near horizon
approx 35.40 , Paralax: π(arcsec) = 1/r(pc) (Annual)
5 Math & Physics
2 Celestial mechanics Doppler
p effect: v/c = z = ∆λ/λ. Relativistic: z =
= (c + v)/(c − v) − 1. Gravitational: for weak fields (Sun)
Conservation of: meachnical energy (kinetic + potential), can be derived from conservation of energy for photon (for pot.
angular momentum L ~ = mrv sin α (~r is energy use m = E/c2 = hf /c2 )
~ = m~r × ~v = const., |L|
radius vector, ~v is velocity). v
Gravitation: u 1 − 2GM 1 − rGM
u
r1 c2 1c
2
z=t 2GM
− 1 ≈ GM
− 1.
m1 m2 m1 m2 m1 m2 1 − r2 c2 1 − r2 c2
F = G 2 , Epot = −G , Etot = −G
r r 2a
Simple quantum formulas: E = hf = hc h
λ , λ = p (De Brog-
3rd and 2nd Kepler law:
lie wavelength, p - momentum).
(a1 + a2 )
3
G (m1 + m2 ) 1 2 πab Spectroscopy: electron transitions in the hydrogen atom
= , r ω = = const.
P2 4π 2 2 P 
1 1

∆E = hf = R − 2 ,
Elipse geometry: b2 + ε2 = a2 (ε is linear excentricity), e = m2 n
= ε/a (e is numeric excentricity), rp = a(1−e) (rp - pericenter), R ≈ 13.6 eV, ∆E - energy absorbed by transition from m-th to
ra = a(1 + e) (apocenter), S = πab p n-th level (thus f is the frequency of given spectral line, m = 1
Velocities: circular orbitp- vc = GM/r, parabolic orbit - Lyman, m = 2 - Balmer, m = 3 - Paschen).
(escape velocity) - vp = 2GM/r, eliptic orbit (don’t me- q
2

morize, derive it from conservation of mech. energy) - v = Special relativity: γ = 1/ 1 − vc2 , t0 = γt, l0 = l/γ, m =
el
= γm0 , p = mvγ. Energies: E = mc2 , E 2 − p2 c2 = m20 c4 ,
p
= GM (2/r − 1/a).
2
Sidereal period (orbital, prograde motion): (E - Earth’s Ekin = m0 c (γ − 1).
sid. period, S - planet’s synodical period) inferior (Mercury, Thermod.: pV = p nRT , U = f2 N kT (f - number of degrees of
p
Venus) resp. exterior (Mars, Jup. etc.) planets 1/P = freedom), vRM S = 3kT /m, vprob = 2kT /m.
= (1/E) + (1/S) resp. 1/P = (1/E) − (1/S). Optics: 1/f = (1/a) + (1/a0 ) (a - object distance, a0 - image
Sidereal period (rotation, prograde motion): 1/T = distance), sin α/ sin β = n2 /n1 ,interf. max. cond.: ∆ = kλ (∆
= (1/S) + (1/P ) (P - sid. orbital period, S - syn. rot. period). - path difference)
Retrograde motion would change signs, direction of Sun’s mo- Constants: c = 3 · 108 m, G = 6.673 · 10−11 N·m2 ·kg−2 ,
tion on the sky etc. - easy to derive (angular velocities). h = 6.626 · 10−34 J·s, k = 1.381 · 10−23 J·K−1 , σ = 5.67 ·
Earth + Moon: ae = 1.496 · 10 m, Re = 6.371 · 10 m, 10−8 W·m−2 ·K−4 , b = 2.9 · 10−3 m·K (Wien)
11 6

Me = 5.974 · 1024 kg, am = 3.844 · 108 m, Rm = 1.737 · 106 m, Approximations: (1 + x)n ≈ 1 + nx, sin x ≈ tg x ≈ x,
Mm = 7.348 · 1022 kg. cos x ≈ 1 − x2 /2, ln(1 + x) ≈ x.