W E L L T E S T A N A L Y S I S F O R W E L L S PRO1)UCED AT A CONSTANT PRESSURE

BY
Christine Anna Ehlig- Economides

A DISSERTATION
S U B M I T T E D T O T H E D E P A R T M E N T O F PETROLElUM E N G I N E E R I N G AND THE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE S T U D I E S OF S T A N F O R D U N I V E R S I T Y

I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT O F T H E
R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E DEGREE: O F DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

JUNE 1979

To Michael and Alexander

STANFORD GEOTHERMAL PROGRAM STANFORD UNIVERSITY
STANFORD, CALlFORNlA 94305

Stanford Geothermal Program Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering and Earth Sciences STANFORD UNIVERSITY Stanford, California

SGP-TR-36

WELL TEST ANALYSIS FOR WELLS PRODUCED AT A
CONSTANT PRESSURE

BY Christine Anna Ehlig-Economides

June 1979

Financial support was provided through the Stanford Geothermal Program under Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AT03-80SF11459 and by the Department of Petroleum Engineering, Stanford University.

Jr. The m e t i c u l o u s d r a f t i n g of t h e f i g u r e s and e q u a t i o n s by M s .. f o r h i s e s s e n t i a l h e l p as a d v i s o r and D r . y To Michael. Thanks a l s o t o M s . T e r r y Ramey and M s . Susan Boucher f o r .ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o thank D r . Alexander. Connie Rieben and M s . whose encouragement and u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n s u r e d m s u c c e s s . Henry J. y y BAPCEIN XPH TAX’AYPION ECCETAI AMEINON F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e w a s provided by t h e Department of Energy Grant 1673500 through t h e S t a n f o r d Geothermal Program. I owe t h e g r e a t e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n . Rairoey. m son. t h e i r h e l p w i t h t h e f i n a l manuscript. And through h i s s h e e r p r e s e n c e . - iv - . Heber Cinco-L f o r h i s numerous useful suggestions. provided a new j o y i n m l i f e . Evelyn M o r r i s a r e g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged.

In addition. p r e s s u r e f l o w is c o m p l i c a t e d Thus. analytical solutions for determination of r e s e r v o i r p e r m e a - b i l i t y and p o r o s i t y and w e l l b o r e s k i n f a c t o r a r e provided i n t h i s study. t r a n s i e n t rate p r i o r t o shut.ABSTRACT Conventional w e l l test a n a l y s i s has been developed pri- m a r i l y f o r c o n s t a n t flow rate p r o d u c t i o n . I n t h i s work.in. t h e m e t h o d s of d r a w - down a n d b u i l d u p a n a l y s i s d e s i g n e d f o r c o r r s t a n t r a t e p r o d u c t i o n a r e n o t v a l i d for c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e p r o d u c t i o n . Reservoir l i m i t t e s t i n g and i n t e r f e r e n c e analy- sis are a l s o d i s c u s s e d .v - . production r e s u l t s i n a buildup after constant Constant pressure Pressure by t h e t r a n s i e n t rate response. theory f o r constant wellhore p r e s s u r e pro- Most o f t h e e x i s t i n g methods for pressure buildup analyp r e s s u r e f l o w h i s t o r y a r e em- sis f o r wells w i t h a c o n s t a n t pirical. t h e method of s u p e r p o s i t i o n i n time used t o g e n e r a t e an exact pressure of c o n t i n u o u s l y c h a n g i n g rates is solution for pressure buildup following constant . a n a l y s i s of flow a t c o n s t a n t w e l l h e a d p r e s s u r e is s h o w n t o b e a s i m p l e e x t e n s i o n of t h e e x i s t i n g duction. Some t r a n s i e n t r a t e a n a l y s i s m e t h o d s l i t e r a t u r e but a thorough study are o u t l i n e d i n t h e The necessary is l a c k i n g .

The method is g e n e r a l . . Brons. W e l l b o r e s t o r a g e a n d s k i n efand b o t h bounded and Buildup s o l u t i o n s are analysis.vi - . p r e s s u r e similar t o those a n d H a z e b r o e k1 8a r e p r o v i d e d f o r Additional a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h e changing c l o s e d bounded r e s e r v o i r s . unbounded r e s e r v o i r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d . fects are incorporated i n t o t h e theory. determination of static reservoir developed by Matthews. method of s u p e r p o s i t i o n i n time of c o n t i n u o u s l y rates are a l s o included.flow. graphed using 10 c o n v e n t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s for Hor- ner's method f o r plotting buildup after variable rate flow C u r v e s for is found t o b e a c c u r a t e i n a m a j o r i t y of cases.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in Time . Wellbore Effects . .e S o l u t i o n T e c h n i q u e . S h o r t Flow Time B e f o r e Shut. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Interference Analysis . . . . . . F u r t h e r A p p l i c a t i o n s of th. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E x p o n e n t i a l D e c l i n e A f t e r C o n s t a n t Rate Production . . . . . . . . . . . . E a r l y Shut. . . . 7 M e t h o d of S o l u t i o n . . . . .TABLE OF C O N T E N T S ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . .in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6 Unbounded R e s e r v o i r . . T h e C r i t i c a l Flow Phenomenon . . . PRESSURE B U I L D U P AFTER CONSTANT P R E S S U R E PRODUCTION Theoretical Expression f o r P r e s s u r e Buildup . . 27 P r o d u c t i o n a t C o n s t a n t W e l l h e a d P r e s s u r e . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 Fundamental F a r t i a l D i f f e r e n t i a l Equations . . I n t e r f e r e n c e a m o n g F l o w i n g Wells . . . . 30 E f f e c t o f W e l l b o r e S t o r a g e . . . . ANALYTICAL . . . . . . . A n a l y s i s of P r e s s u r e B u i l d u p . . . . . . . . . . iv V ABSTRACT SECTION 1. . . 76 79 - vii - . . Outer Boundary E f f e c t s . . . . . . . REFERENCES NORENCLATURE . . . Outer Boundary Effects . . . INTRODUCTION 2. . . . CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 44 46 47 47 50 54 54 56 57 57 60 60 63 67 73 . . . . . . . . . . S O L U T I O N S FOR TRANSIENT R A T K D E C L I N E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 B a s i c T r a n s i e n t R a t e S o l u t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 C o n s t a n t P r e s s u r e Bounded C i r c u l a r R e s e r v o i r . Horner Buildup Analysis . . . . . . Comparison w i t h Previous S t u d i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .eservoir . . . . . . . . . . 17 C l o s e d Eounded P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P r a c t i c a l L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e T h e o r y . . . .

Appendix A page . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . . . . . . . .viii . . . . . 111 . . . . . . . . UNITS CONVERSIONS . . . . . . . . C TABULATED SOLUTIONS COMPUTER P R O G R A M S . . . : 82 83 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

d i s c u s s i o n of The remainder of t h e methods a v a i l a b l e t h i s work.SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION Although c o n s t a n t . p r o d u c e d f l u i d s may d r i v e a open back. a r t e s i a n water w e l l s .r a t e production is u s u a l l y assumed i n s e v e r a l com- t h e development of w e l l test a n a l y s i s methods.1 - in the t h e o b j e c t i v e s of . Reservoir f l u i d s are o f t e n produced and constant decline into a constant pressure separator or pipeline. mon r e s e r v o i r p r o d u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n s r e s u l t i n f l o w a t a c o n stant pressure instead. HOW- analogous w e l l test methods have been proposed. wells. including flow at constant atmospheric pressure. . Fundamental considerations instruct that conventional p r e s s u r e drawdown a n d b u i l d u p a n a l y s i s m e t h o d s s h o u l d n o t b e a p p r o p r i a t e for wells p r o d u c e d ever. In geothermal reservoirs. low p e r m e a b i l i t y r e s e r v o i r s are o f t e n by n e c e s s i t y produced a t c o n s t a n t pressure. t h i s s t u d y is t o The p u r p o s e of review t h e e x i s t i n g methods for buildup a n a l y s i s and t o i n order t o produce a t r a n s i e n t rate d e c l i n e and p r e s s u r e c o n t r i b u t e new s o l u t i o n s w h e r e n e e d e d comprehensive w e l l test a n a l y s i s p a c k a g e for wells p r o d u c e d this s e c t i o n is a l i t e r a t u r e and at constant pressure.pressured t u r b i n e . Finally. p r e s s u r e flow p e r i o d of is a l s o maintained during Wells i n t h e rate reservoir depletion. at constant pressure.

mensionless flow rate v s et a l . h o w e v e r . et el.. and Hurst form for Results were presented i n graphical bounded and unbounded d i a l and t h e r e s e r v o i r s i n which t h e f l o w was r a - s i n g l e p h a s e f l u i d was s l i g h t l y compressible.Many o f t h e basic a n a l y t i c a l solutions for t r a n s i e n t rate The f i r s t s o l u (1933) d e c l i n e h a v e been a v a i l a b l e f o r some t i m e . (1962) a n d by Kucuk ( 1 9 7 8 ) developed type curves f o r t h e tranconstant pressure sient rate and c u m u l a t i v e production f o r production with e l l i p t i c a l flow. t i o n s were (1934). p u b l i s h e d by Moore. T a b l e s of d i - T h e s e s o l u t i o n s were n o t t a b u l a t e d . f o r t h e c l o s e d bounded c i r - T s a r e v i c h and Kuranov a l s o p r o v i d e d t a b u p r o d u c t i o n from a c l o s e d developed t h e type lated solutions f o r t h e cumulative bounded reservoir. Fetkovich (1973) c u r v e s f o r t r a n s i e n t rate v s t i m e i n t h e c l o s e d bounded c i r cular reservoir. . method f o r determining t h e s k i n effect iwas g i v e n b y Ear- lougher (1977). d i m e n s i o n l e s s time (1962) were p r o v i d e d later by F e r r i s . f o r t h e unbounded s y s t e m and by T s a r e v i c h a n d Kuranov ( 1 9 5 6 ) cular reservoir.2 - . exponential F e t k o v i c h was t h e the final first t o determine the decline for constant form of rate pressure production. (1975): the w e l l penetrates a f r a c t u r e were d e L o c k e a n d Sawyer et al. bounded reservoirs Type c u r v e s f o r rate d e c l i n e i n c l o s e d s e n s i t i v e rock and f l u i d A with pressure p r o p e r t i e s were d e v e l o p e d b y S a m a n i e g o a n d C i n c o ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Type c u r v e s f o r a n a l y s i s of the transient r a t e r e s p o n s e when v e l o p e d by P r a t s .

receivedl a thorough t r e a t - Another s u b j e c t which h a s n o t ment i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e is t h e a n a l y s i s of pressure buildup after constant pressure production. duction causes a variable Constant wellhead p r e s s u r e prowellbore pressure because the pressure drop due on t h e t r a n s i e n t t o friction in the w e l l b o r e is d e p e n d e n t found i n t h e rate. Ffnally. certain problems have n o t been d i s c u s s e d . One s u c h p r o b l e m i s t h e pressure at t h e wellhead e f f e c t of p r o d u c t i o n w i t h c o n s t a n t rather than t h e wellbore. These problems a r e d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 2 of t h i s work. A second subjeclt n o t l i t e r a t u r e is i n t e r f e r e n c e a n a l y s i s .i n i n c l u d e Odeh a n d S e l i g ( 1 9 6 3 1 .in. a solution for a for the early transient rate response trhich a l l o w s more r e a l i s t i c f i n i t e i n i t i a l r a t e h a s n o t been determined. San- .Although literature the rate decline fairly solution!s present in the provide a comprehensive list. The s e c o n d method was t o a s s u m e a p p r o x i m a t e t h e last established rate flow t i m e determined by d i t h e last established constant rate production by using i n conjunction with a corrected viding the cumulative p r o d u c t i o n by flow rate. calculations. two m e t h o d s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h t o shut.3 - . Hornar (1951) suggested variable rate production p r i o r but required long T h e f i r s t m e t h o d was e x a c t . fied at the The l a t t e r method was n o t t h e o r e t i c a l l y j u s t i - 'time a n d h a s b e e n q u e s t i o n e d in other studies. I n v e s t i g a t o r s who h a v e f o u n d f a u l t with t h e Horner approxi- mate p r e s s u r e b u i l d u p a n a l y s i s method f o r v a r i a b l e r a t e prod u c t i o n p r i o r t o s h u t .

Transmissivities calculated from t h e s l o p e of t h e l i n e and t h e a v e r a g e f l o w r a t e d u r i n g t h e f l o w p e r i o d agreed w i t h t h e v a l u e s determined from t y p e c u r v e matching.log straight line.d r e a (19711. In t h e l a s t p a r t o f Seca t h r e e a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h e t h e o r y iare p r e s e n t e d : constant i n i t i a l rate followed by c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e producproduction.in time divided time produced a semi. pressure buildup number of determined analyzed for a after constant pressure production w e l l s for w h i c h by t y p e t r a n s m i s s i v i t y had of a l r e a d y been response. curve analysis t h e rate T h e i r graph of r e s i d u a l drawdown v e r s u s t h e l o g of t h e t o t a l by the shut. L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e m e t h o d s f o r a n a l y s i s of s u r e buildup are a l s o considered. and Clegg (1967). t i o n 1 ) d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p e r i o d of 2) after the . dition. t i o n 3.4 - . T h e J a c o b a n d Lohman I n ad- method is shown t o b e of somewhat l i m i t e d :accuracy. methods f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n of w e l l b o r e s t o r a g e and skin e f f e c t a n d t h e s t a t i c r e s e r v o i r p r e s s u r e f r o m t h e p r e s s u r e b u i l d u p d a t a a r e shown t o be analogous t o t h e constant pres- rate case. In Section 3 of this study a solution for pressure buildup after constant pressure p r o d u c t i o n is d e r i v e d b a s e d The on s u p e r p o s i t i o n i n time o f c o n t i n u o u s l y v . r e s u l t i n g s o l u t i o n is g e n e r a l and c a n b e used t o j u s t i f y t h e modified Horner method t h e o r e t i c a l l y . a r y i n g r a t e s . The method of s u p e r p o s i t i o n i n time of c o n t i n u o u s l y v a r y i n g r a t e s h a s many a p p l i c a t i o n s . Jacob Their objections a n d Lohman ( 1 9 5 2 ) w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 3.

o n s e t of pseudo. and 3 ) i n t e r f e r e n c e among f l o w i n g wells p r o d u c e d a t c o n s t a n t r a t e o r c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e .5 - . .steady state.

which d e f i n e t h e b a s i c problem and In t h e assumptions required f o r t h e i r d e r i v a t i o n are given. Three important extensions Included t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e s o l u t i o n s t o w e l l test of the basic solutions are derived i n the final three sections. this the basic solutions for transient r a t e have been wells produced a t constant pressure no comprehensive a n a l y s i s h a s been o f f e r e d .6 - .3 t h e a n a l y t i c a l s o l u t i o n s i n real space for t h e u n b o u n d e d c i r c u i n t h i s section are lar reservoir are presented. p r o b l e m of constant pressure In section the production In from t h e c e n t e r of a equations c i r c u l a r r e s e r v o i r is examined.2. Section 2. d i s c u s s i o n s of analysis. rolled at Because t h e the The s o l u t i o n s g i v e n i n €or p r o d u c t i o n a t a c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e is n o r m a l l y c o n t the inner drop in t h e wellhead.1. e f f e c t of changing frictional pressure boundary c o n d i t i o n t o include t h e w e l l b o r e i s e x a m i n e d i n S e c t i o n 2. S e c t i o n 2. An a p p a r e n t a d v a n - t a g e of c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e t e s t i n g is t h e a b s e n c e of w e l l b o r e . In S e c t i o n 2. the first three sections apply wellbore pressure. lutions t o the t h e m e t h o d u s e d i n t h i s w o r k f o r o b t a i n i n g soe q u a t i o n s is o u t l i n e d .SECTION 2 A N A L Y T I C A L SOLUTIONS F O R TRANSIENT R A T E D E C L I N E A l t h o u g h many of decline for published.1.

effects. et. This is discussed in Section 2. isotropic. k. F l o w through the porous m e d i u m is s t r i c t l y radial with negligible gravity effects. g i v e n by: The t h r o u g h p o r o u s m e d i a is d i f f u s i v i t y e q u a t i o n i n radial T h e porous medium is contained in t h e region between t h e re. 2. and with constant thickness. 1J. which may rW. T h e f l u i d viscosity.6 c o n t a i n s a d i s c u s s i o n of i n t e r f e r e n c e a n a l y s i s f o r w e l l s produced at c o n s t a n t pressure. porolsity. 2.storage Finally. I m p l i c i t in t h e b e i n f i n i t e or finite. compress i b i 1i t y . u s e of t h i s e q u a t i o n a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g assumptionls: 1.1 FUNDAMENTAL PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS T h e f u n d a m e n t a l partial d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n representthe diffusivity g e o m e t r y is ing idealized f l o w equation. S e c t i o n 2.5. f i n i t e w e l l b o r e raduis. and t h e r e s e r v o i r radius. T h e porous m e d i u m is h o m o g e n e o u s and h. is c o n s t a n t . permeability. - 7 - . and t h e total f l u i d and t h e porous of t h e m e d i u m is s m a l l in m a g n i t u d e and c o n s t a n t . 3.

p i . Pressure gradients a r e small e v e r y w h e r e s u c h that gradient squared terms may be neglc scted. For a reservoir initially at a constant pressure. t ) r+co pi (2.4) = F o r t h e c l o s e d outer b o u n d a r y t h e c o n d i t i o n is: . b o t t o m h o l e pressure.(re. A c o m p l e t e mathematical d e f i n i t i o n of tihe problem of con- s t a n t p r e s s u r e p r o d u c t i o n from a c i r c u l a r r e s e r v o i r r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l e q u a t i o n s w h i c h represent t h e a p p r o p r i a t e initial and b o u n d a r y conditions.- 4.8 - . and pwf is t h e flowing T h r e e d i f f e r e n t o u t e r b o u n d a r y condian i n f i n i t e l y l a r g e r e s e r v o i r r tions a r e often considered: a c l o s e d o u t e r boundary. t h e initial c o n d i t i o n is g i v e n b y : p(r.O) = P i (2. o n e phase.p r e s s u r e outer boundary.2) T h e i n n e r b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n is: w h e r e s is t h e w e l l b o r e s k i n factor. T h e last t w o a s s u m p t i o n s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d for a l i q u i d s a t u r a t e d .t) aP ar = 0 (2. and a c o n s t a n t . T h e c o n d i t i o n f o r a n i n f i n i t e l y l a r g e r e s e r v o i r is: Rim p ( r .5) . i s o t h e r m a l r e s e r v o i r .

of t h e s y s t e m d e s c r i b e d b y The f l o w i n t o t h e wellbore i s g i v e n by: In order t o provide g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n s .and f o r t h e c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e o u t e r b o u n d a l r y . Eqs. 1 i s a s c h e m a t i c diagram 2.2. 2 . d i m e n s i o n l e s s vari a b l e s may b e d e f i n e d a s follows: rD = r/rw (2.6. is: the condition Fig.9 - .11) The r e s u l t i n g equations i n dimensionless variables a r e (2.13) .l o ) (2.1.12) (2.

1: Schematic Diagram of a Well Producing a t a Constant Wellb o r e P r e s s u r e from a C i r c u l a r R e s e r v o i r - 10 - ...k I t h I ------I4 I I -.-- L- O ?w -r re F i g u r e 2.-..

16) (2. (2. 1 7 com- pletely describe the problem of a w e l l p r o d u c i n g a t a con- s t a n t w e l l b o r e pressure from t h e c e n t e r of a c i r c u l a r reserv o i r under t h e assumptions l i s t e d next section.PD(lYtD) = 1 + s r =1 D w i t h o u t e r boundary c o n d i t i o n one of t h e f o l l o w i n g : Rim pD(rDytD) = 0 rD (Z). By this method.14) + (2.12-2. 2.17) The f l o w r a t e is d e t e r m i n e d from: (2.18) Eqs.16. Carslaw and J a e - u s e d t h e Laplace t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t o s o l v e t h e d i f equation.2 METHOD SOLUTION A straight-foreward method f o r s o l v i n g Eqs. the equations are t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a s y s t e m of ordinary differential equations - 11 - .17 in- v o l v e s u s e of g e r (1947) fusivity t h e Laplace transformation. In the m e t h o d of s o l u t i o n u s e d i n t h i s work is 2. 2. 2. the in this section.12-2. o r 2 . described.15. and o n e of Eqs.15) (2. 2.11.

De- - 12 - .1.w h i c h can be s o l v e d a n a l y t i c a l l y .21) (2.R) r* D = 0 (2. results in: (2. The resulting solution f o r t h e L a p l a c e t r a n s f o r m of of t h e L a p l a c e v a r i a b l e t i determine t h e pressurer Laplace space s o l u t i o n s Laplace transformation.19) (2. pDI the pressureIpD - I is a f u n c t i o n r D .12-2. To and t h e s p a c i a . t h e the inverse must b e i n v e r t e d u s i n g Application 2. 1 v a r i a b l e .23) (2.18 of the Laplace transfolrmation to Eqs.24) The s o l u t i o n s i n L a p l a c e s p a c e f o r a l l t h r e e boundary cases are given i n T a b l e 2. A r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e L a p l a c e t r a n s f o r m e d so- l u t i o n s f o r t h e c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e and c o n s t a n t rate problems w h i c h was i n d i c a t e d b y v a n E v e r d i n g e n a n d H u r s t ( 1 9 4 9 ) . as a f u n c t i a l n of r D a n d tD.22) (2.20) Rim pD(rD.

Table 2.1: Laplace Space S o l u t i o n s f o r a W e l l Producing a t a Constant P r e s s u r e from t h e Center of a C i r c u l a r R e s e r v o i r I N F I N I T E OUTEP BOUNDARY - 13 - .

Unfortunately. (2. and t h e p r e s s r ~ r eu n d e r constant rate production dimensionless cumulative production under constant r e l a t i o n is g i v e n by: p r e s s u r e p r o d u c t i o n by Q D . and t h e r e s u l t i n g i n t e g r a l s The s o l u t i o n s tabu- cannot be reduced t o simple functions.25) w h e r e QD i s d e f i n e d b y : (2. f r o m b a s i c p r o p e r t t i e s of by combining E q s . from t h e p r i n c i p l e of s u p e r p o s i - The c u m u l a t i v e p r o d u c t i o n is r e l a t e d t o t h e t r a n s i e n t r a t e by: T h i s is e a s i l y v e r i f i e d transformation. - 14 - .ed the t h r o u g h u s e of the Mellin inversion integral. this (2. q> D ( ' tion. 2.26) This result can b e derived tion. t h e Laplace Finally.1 can only be obtain. solutions i n Table t h e i n v e r s e L a p l a c e t r a l n s f o r m a t i o n of 2.27. a n y s o l u t i o n f o r PwD(k) f o r constant rate production f o r c o n s t a n t pressure produc- h a s a n a n a l o g s o l u t i o n .25 and 2.28) Thus.noting t h e dimensionless wellbore b y pWD.

i) ! ! (2.lated i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e were o b t a i n e d f r o m numerical intet h e so- g r a t i o n s of t h e i n v e r s i o n i n t r e g r a l s .k ) ! (2k. may b e d e t e r m i n e d b y comp a r i s o n w i t h known a n a l y t i c a l s o l u t i o n s . lutions are numerical determined using I n t h i s work. t h e v a l u e computed t h e g r e a t e r N is. The a l g o r i t h m is b a s e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a g i v e n by S t e h f e s t : (2. but i n practilce roundoff Thus. t h e r e i s a n optimum v a l u e - 15 - . S t e h f e s t observed t h e m o r e a c c u r a t e is errors for F(t). an a l g o r i t h m f o r approximate The ta- i n v e r s i o n of t h e L a p l a c e s p a c e s o l u t i o n s . . i n c r e a s e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g N. bulated solutions i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e serve a s a c h e c k of t h e ''a p p r o x i m a t e*' s o l u t i o n s d e t e r m i n e d h e r e i n most e x a c t numerical a g r e e m e n t was f o u n d integration.29) where f ( s 1 is t h e Laplace t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of F ( t ) . t h e n u m b e r o f terms i n t h e s u m . / 2 1 N = (-1) vi [(~/2)+i1 i+l k= 2 k N j 2 (Z!k)! [ (N/2)-k] !k! ( k .l ) ~ ( i . that theoretically. p r o v i d e s t a b u l a r s o l u t i o n s f o r a w i d e v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t i n well test a n a l y s i s . a n d t h e Vi are: min{ i . In general alo b t a i n e d by with solutions The a l g o r i t h m f o r n u m e r i c a l i n v e r s i o n of t h e transformed This algorithm problems of s o l u t i o n s w a s p r e s e n t e d by S t e h f e s t ( 1 9 7 0 ) .30) N.

Stehfest algorithm are tabulated tions tabulated in t h i s work h a v e been c h e c k e d a g a i n s t exGenerally.3 BASIC TRANSIENT R A T E SOLUTIONS P o r t i o n s of the analytical solutions for transient rate decline discussed i n t h i s s e c t i o n have appeared elsewhere i n the literature. The S t e h f e s t algorithm provides a convenient method f o r obtaining real s p a c e s o l u t i o n s from tions given i n Table 2. 2. tions agree for a t l e a s t t h r e e or. ervoirs resthe are considered: the unbounded - 16 - . derivation did not require Laplace transformations. I n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n g r a p h s of along w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s o l u t i o n s are presented t h e i r u s e i n w e l l test a n a l y s i s . the constant f o r con- s t a n t p r e s s u r e f l o w was u s e d an algorithm for deriving H e developed pressure solutions This from t h e c o n s t a n t r a t e s o l u t i o n s u s i n g s u p e r p o s i t i o n .f o r N which c a n o n l y b e d e t e r m i n e d by cclmparing v a l u e s f o r F ( t ) w i t h known v a l u e s . A c o m p l e t e s t u d y of how t h e y may b e a p p l i e d T h r e e types of reservoir. i n well t e s t a n a l y s i s h a s b e e n l a c k i n g . An a l t e r n a t i v e method for obtaining solutions by J u a n (1977). casesI significant figures. i n most t h e solufour i s t i n g s o l u t i o n s whenever p o s s i b l e .1. t h e Laplace space solufrom t h e The s o l u - Solutions calculated in A p p e n d i x B.

a n a l y s i s of F o r e a c h t y p e of p r e s s u r e drawdown f o r t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n s t a n t rate case are indicated. WD 2. nores the skin lues t o effect and a s s i g n s u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y h i g h vaA Also t h e flow rates during t h e early flow period.l o g g r a p h of shown i n t h i s s o l u t i o n is shown i n F i g .closed. t h e f i g u r e is a g r a p h of l/pwD w h e r e pwD is t h e wellbore pressure d r o p determined from t h e f i n i t e wellbore radius solution f o r constant rate production. bounded r e s e r v o i r . m of t h e s e m i .2. Earlougher despermeability for determining reservoir from t h e s l o p e . two s o l u t i o n s which a r e The c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y between t h e r e l a t e d e x a c t l y i n L a p l a c e s p a c e b y Eq. 2 8 may b e s e e n i n 4 E a r l o u g h e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) d e t e r m i n e d t h a t f o r t D > 8x10 . analogies with t h e reservoir. a g r a p h of l/qD vs l o g t D p r o d u c e s a s t r a i g h t line if cribed t h e flow period t h e method q' is l o n g enough. agree within D 1%. Because t h e p e r i o d when l / q D the a n d pwD c o i n c i d e i s i n t h e s e m i .3. solutions for an unbounded the transient the rate reservoir represent transient behavior before boundary e f f e c t s become e v i d e n t . 2. ig- T h e t r a n s i e n t r a t e s o l u t i o n b y J a c o b a n d Lohman ( 1 9 5 2 1 . Fig. a n d t h e c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e bounded reservoir.l o g s t r a i g h t l i n e : - 17 - .1 Unbounded R e s e r v o i r As i n t h e case of c o n s t a n t r a t e p r o d u c t i o n . and l/q 2 . 2.l o g s t r a i g h t p o r t i o n of wD ' function.2. l o g .

rl o o c c a re c t L3 (D - 0 v) 0 - d- 0 - - 18 - ..rl.

Earlougher indicated wellbore skin f a c t o r could b e e s t i m a t e d from: . I s = . For p o s i t i v e s k i n fac- t h e following approximation c a n o f t e n be used: - 19 - .80907 ] (2.Rn 10 I: )( [ m 9 hr 2 - Rog k 2 4Wctrw - 0.32) where ( l / q ) hr is t h e e x t r a p o l a t e d v a l u e of t h e semi.rrmqh(Pi-Pwf) that the (2. I f qDM i s t h e v a l u e f o r qD which c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e v a l u e q log t overlaying the type curve.log s t r a i g h t l i n e a t a f l o w t i m e of one hour.34) The t y p e c u r v e i n t o account.k = p'Rn 10 4.zero s k i n f a c t o r is p r e s e n t . on t h e g r a p h of log q v s t h e p e r m e a b i l i t y c a n be determined from: (2. A second method for determining t h e reservoir permeabil- i t y is by t y p e c u r v e m a t c h i n g w i t h a g r a p h of l o g q D v s l o g tD. timate f o r k by t y p e c u r v e matching w i l l be accurate. for q If D vs tD does n o t take t h e s k i n effect t h e esbut a non.33) Likewise. t h e estimate for @ w i l l b e i n e r r o r .31) In addition. T h i s m e t h o d was d e s c r i b e d b y J a c o b a n d Lohman ( 1 9 5 2 ) . points: t h e p o r o s i t y c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d from t h e time m a t c h (2. tors.

DM 2 (2.9e-2s ktM/(uc r t ) t w . A r e a r r a n g e m e n t of Eq.tl) . of l/Iq(t)-q(tl)l vs log (t-tl) a graph c a n b e examined f o r a s e m i - log straight line. (19431 analogous t o changes a n a l y s i s of producing Hurst response t o F e tkov ic h of the a p p l i e d t h e i d e a s of t o determine the In a simi- rate response t o a change i n producing pressure.36 results in: Hence. t e s t i n g is multiple (1973) For i n s t a n c e . - 20 - .36) For t - t 1 << tl. a graph of log [q(t>-q(tl>l vs l o g ( t .-- . s u r e from p a s t e p change i n t h e flowing bottomhole presresults in: wf 1 t o Pwf a t t i m e tl 2 (2. q ( t ) = q(. 2.35) The methods d e s c r i b e d t h u s f a r f o r transient rate analyanalogous t o t h e S t i l l other analo- sis of a n unbounded r e s e r v o i r a r e e x a c t l y pressure transient analysis techniques.t l ) Furthermore. gous techniques can be derived. lar fashion. m u l t i p l e r a t e t h e rate pressure. can be matched w i t h t h e qD v s t Dt y p e c u r v e .

P o e t tmann i n pressure w i l l not propagate upstream. <approximately half flow. a critical o r i f i c e or flow sand face and t h e r e s t r i c t i o n anywhere between t h e control the surface could i n i t i a l flow of rate. t h e pressure drop across t h e o r i f i c e . possibly due t o t h e c r i t i c a l f l o w phenomenon. and sure at t h e sand face dropped t o the desired p e r h a p s f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d of t i m e d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e l o c a t i o n of the critical choke. and could prevent instantaneous establishment an a r b i t r a r y constant bottomhole flowing pressure. p o s s i b l e r a t e of p e n d e n t of C r i t i c a l f l o w i s t h e maximum and is i n d e T h e maxi- flow f o r a p a r t i c u l a r o r i f i c e . If a partit h e re- cular bottomhole production pressure s u l t could be is s p e c i f i e d . constant rate flow u n t i l t h e reservoir presvalue. i t is o f t e n shown t h a t a pressure drop t h e u p s t r e a m p r e s s u r e w i l l cause c r i t i c a l and Beck (1963) h a v e s h o w n t h a t s i m i l a r r e s u l t s may b e o b T h e e x i s t e n c e of t a i n e d f o r m u l t i p h a s e flow of g a s and o i l . production is t h a t computed p r o may b e unrealistically the initial rates very A early in time realistic assumption might be that flow rate f o r an instantaneous drop i n t h e wellbore pressure must be equal t o o r less t h a n some r a t e q. e s t a b l i s h e d when t h e f l o w sound i n t h e flowing f l u i d . a f u n c t i o n of t h e u p s t r e a m p r e s s u r e o n l y . Then t h e r a t e would begin t o - 21 - . mum r a t e is v e l o c i t y of v e l o c i t y reaches t h e Downstream c h a n g e s and t h e f l o w r a t e is For ideal gases.One d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e a n a l y t i c a l s o l u t i o n s f o r c o n s t a n t pressure (transient rate) duction large.

2 C l o s e d Bounded R e s e r v o i r of a F e t k o v i c h (19731 showed t h a t one important effect c l o s e d boundary on c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e e r a t i o n of long times.5. p s e u d o .rate p r o d u c t i o n a f t e r t h e o n s e t of Eq.s t e a d y s t a t e b y u s e of closed reservoirs (1971) showed 2.38) Thus : - 22 - . after constant pressure production presented Hencer t h i s s o l u t i o n is d i s c u s s e d i n Section 3. that this important i n s t a t e must be the terminal s t a t e for a n y p r o d u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n . The e x p o n e n t i a l d e p l e t i o n dimensionless wellbore s t a t e can b e d e r i v e d from t h e pressure function for constant.s t e a d y s t a t e f o r a constant rate produced a t that: Ramey a n d Cclbb (2. 2.d e c l i n e a s t h e p r e s s u r e is held constant. The mathematics needed t o p r o v i d e a s o l u t i o n f o r i n i t i a l constant t i o n of the r a t e decline after the t o t h e mathematical solu- flow i s a n a l o g o u s pressure buildup i n S e c t i o n 3. I t is an exponential decline p r o d u c t i o n is t h e gen- i n t h e production rate at T h i s s t a t e was termed " e x p o n e n t i a l d e p l e t i o n " .1.3. For p s e u d o .28.

28) and (2. be substi- wellbore radius rw' = r ' e. To a l l o w f o r a skin factor.40) for tDA (tpss)D' ' w h e r e (tpss)D is t h e time r e q u i r e d f o r development of true pseudo. a f t e r t h e o n s e t of exponential decline: knr = R r t ~ ~ eD PWD + - 3/4 (2.S W should For c l o s e d bounded c i r c u l a r r e s e r v o i r s .41) F o l l o w i n g t h e same p r o c e d u r e a s t h a t u s e d .steady state at t h e producing w e l l f o r t h e constant See rate case. t o d e m o n s t r a t e e x ponential decline f o r other reservoirs : r e s e r v o i r sha:pes. reservoir shape. and is dependent on t h e (1968).(2. for circular - 23 - . E a r l o u g h e r a n d Ramey the effective t u t e d f o r rw.

a g r a p h of log q vs t will h a v e an intercept.2.3.40 exponential rate decline. f l o w w h i c h has In t h e final been at while the d e p l e t i o n of a n oil f i e l d . An a n a l o g y f o r r e s e r v o i r limit t e s t i n g from c o n s t a n t r a t e production d a t a e x i s t s for Eqs. given by: - 24 - . which contained a slight for the correct v a l u e of t o s u b s t i t u t i o n of 112 2.42) for tDA 0.42. 2. 2. rate e v e n t u a l l y a constant declines exponentially remains constant.(2. p r o d u c t i o n is wellbore o r wellhead p r e s s u r e T h i s t y p e of d e c l i n e following c o n s t a n t r a t e s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t . Again.1 2 Fetkovich ( 1 9 7 3 ) drew type curves for rate d e c l i n e in closed bounded c i r c u l a r r e s e r v o i r s error d u e 3 1 4 in Eq. and a s l o p e . 1 1 : -41TtDA Rtlt q = Rn 4A 2 "Arw Thus. wellbore skin effects may be included = rwe-s b y t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n of r:q f o r rw. 'n it . * m . T h e Fetkovich t y p e curves a r e reproduced in Fig. From and 2 .5. and is treated in S e c t i o n 3.

I

n

Lfv

I

" 0 '

-

#

\

n
n

Y

U

m
0)

..
h 3

N

M

I

9-i

,

VO

F

-

25

-

(2.44)

and

:

(2.45)

Solving f o r In

(4A/yCAr:

1

i n both

e q u a t i o n s and e q u a t i n g

the resulting expressions:
(2.46)

T h e n CA c a n b e e s t i m a t e d f r o m e i t h e r E q .

2.44

or 2 . 4 5 :
(2.47)

CA =

-exp [ - 4 ~ k h / m $pctA] 4A 2
Y W '

*

(2.48)

The Laplace s p a c e s o l u t i o n f o r c u m u l a t i v e p r o d u c t i o n d u r ing t h e exponential Eq. Eq.
2.25. 2.40,

r a t e d e c l i n e p e r i o d is

determined from

T h e d e r i v a t i o n is

s i m i l a r t o t h e d e r i v a t i o n of
bounded

and t h e r e s u l t is t h a t f o r c l o s e d ,

reser-

voirs:
QD(tD)
=

A 21~r 2
W

[

1

-

exp [4mDA/tn -

(2.49)

-

26

-

for t

DA-

>t pSSD'

For c i r c u l a r reservoirs:

r

L

0

QD(tD>2 [I = f o r tDA 0 . 1 . >

eD

-

exp(-2ntDA/(Rn reD - 3 / 4 ) ) ]

(2.50)

A t y p e c u r v e g r a p h of

l o g (PD/reD2 1

vs log

tD / ( l n
2.4.

'eD -

3/41

f o r c i r c u l a r r e s e r v o i r s is shown i n F i g .

2.3.3

C o n s t a n t Pressure Bounded C i r c u l a r - R e s e r v o i r

The s o l u t i o n for c o n s t a n t pressure p r o d u c t i o n f r o m a c i r -

cular r e s e r v o i r w i t h c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e boundary i n v o l v e s t h e
t r a n s i t i o n from the infinite acting The f i n a l v a l u e f o r

rate function

to true

steady- state.

t h e r a t e may b e w r i t t e n for radial

immediately from t h e flow:
5

s t e a d y state rate equation

1

Steady state flow occurs f o r t

DA -

>

Y/Q

= 1/2.2458nr.

This

v a l u e was d e t e r m i n e d b y e q u a t i n g t h e
2.51 with t h e

r i g h t h a n d s i d e of E q .

semi- log approximate s o l u t i o n f o r

l/qD.

and

solving for t

D

.

Fig.

2 . 5 i s a g r a p h of

the solution for a

constant p r e s s u r e o u t e r boundary.

This concludes stant wellbore

t h e d i s c u s s i o n of

the solution from a

f o r con-

pressure procudtion

c i r c u l a r reser-

-

27

-

nl* T I I- c 0 ( I b \ - 28 - .

a h h p l m a ups a b b a m o m > 5-d V b e a b u a ml+ c 5 o u au rl ae u o 5FQ a b h u a aal a a 5 o a r l m r l a g: c a 4 w m b m O U a u e a psa 3 w c a 0 u v 0 0 rl k b rlv c a m u m c a a 22 m u $ E E O n w r l h u l . a h N I 0 rl I Fr 0 & - 29 - ..

discussed are not directly solutions previously valid for wells produced a t c o n s t a n t w e l l h e a d pressure. the pressure drop When t h e w e l l h e a d p r e s - in t h e w e l l b o r e d u e t o t h e flow rate.4 P R O D U C T I O N AT CONSTANT W E L L H E A D P R E S S U R E Frequently r e s e r v o i r f l u i d s are produced w i t h a c o n s t a n t fluids gas pressure a t t h e wellhead. s u r e is c o n s t a n t . and The f l o w i n g f r i c t i o n v a r i e s as a f u n c t i o n of hence. 2.52) - 30 - . In t h e next section. The r e s u l t i n g s o l u t i o n is a s i m p l e e x t e n s i o n o f lutions. t h e t h e o r y is e x t e n d e d t o s o l u t h e wellhead tions for constant pressure at instead of a t t h e sand face i n t h e wellbore. s u r e problem is a s i m p l e p r e s s u r e problem i f T h e c o n s t a n t w e l l h e a d pres- e x t e n s i o n of t h e c o n s t a n t w e l l b o r e t h e f l o w u p t h e w e l l b o r e is l a m i n a r . t h e w e l l b o r e s a n d f a c e p r e s s u r e is n o t c o n s t a n t . into a constant pressure Examples a r e p r o d u c t i o n of s e p a r a t o r and p r o d u c t i o n of into a constant pressure pipeline.voir. tion the solution for when t h e f l o w I n t h i s sec- constant wellhead pressure production up t h e w e l l b o r e is laminar is d e r i v e d . Assuming n e g l i g i b l e lance t h e e x i s t i n g so- h e a t loss t h e m e c h a n i c a l form for t h e flowing e n e r g y bathe in differential fluid in w e l l b o r e is g i v e n by: vdp + dH + qc + dWf = - d W S (2.

and t h e d e n s i t y . H is v e r t i c a l distance.52 be- - dWf - dH (2. t h e wellbore. For one phase l i q u i d flow i n t h e tubing: p-3 ITD 2 (2. s h a f t work. comes: vdp = Eq.53) T h e f r i c t i o n a l e n e r g y loss i s g i v e n b y : 4fyTJ 2 dL dWf 2gcD (2.56) where p wf is t h e w e l l b o r e f l o w i n g p r e s s u r e . t i o n f a c t o r is g i v e n by: (2. and ptf p’ i s t h e a v e r a g e wellhead flowing t h e Moody f r i c - density in pressure. F ’ is approximatly constant. 2. is t h e F o r laminar flaw i n t h e w e l l b o r e .w h e r e v is s p e c i f i c volume. and U 15 fluid velocity. W f is f r i c t i o n a l e n e r g y loss. t h e e q u a t i o n f o r t h e p r e s s u r e d r o p i n t h e w e l l b o r e f o r flowi n g l i q u i d is g i v e n by: (2. is Assuming i n a d d i t i o n t h a t t h e s h a f t work term a n d t h e k i n e t i c e n e r g y t e r m may b e n e g l e c t e d .57) - 31 - .55) Hence. W.54) where L is t h e t u b i n g l e n g t h a n d D is t h e tubing diameter.

2.60) and: (2.58) T h e inner boundary c o n d i t i o n is: P ( r w y t > = PWf + s(r E) rr - + W C o m b i n i n g Eqs. Eq.3: (2.56 becomes : 4q. 5 9 yields: + s W P ( r w . (2.where N = RE 2.62 -b)q in 2 . t ) = Ptf + a ( P i .61) w h e r e b = @ .63) - 32 - .60-2.62) S u b s t i t u t i o n of Eqs.58 and 2.rrUD is t h e R e y n o l d s number. 2.Ql.59) R e d e f i n e t h e following d i m e n s i o n l e s s g r o u p s : (2.P t f D + b (2. Thus. F i n a l l y let: (2.

2. Eq. and hence.66) The i n n e r boundary c o n d i t i o n . 2.+b (2. b e c o m e s : - 33 - . 2.b) . Eq. t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s form of The s o l u t i o n s for constant t h e i n n e r boundary c o n d i t i o n used p r e v i o u s l y . 2 .. discussed i n t h i s c h a p t e r are t h e r e f o r e v a l i d wellhead p r e s s u r e production w i t h laminar bore.65) where: (2. Furthermore. the f r i c t i o n f a c t o r d e p e n d s o n l y upon t h e r e l a t i v e r o u g h n e s s of In t h e w e l l p i p e and would b e a c o n s t a n t f o r a g i v e n case.64) Eq.01. 1 4 . the t r a n s i e n t r a t e r e s p o n s e is i n t h e e f f e c t i v e s k i n fectypical values for the t y p i c a l l y less than identical except for an increase tor. I n t h e c a s e of fully turbulent flow i n t h e wellbore. . . in a indicates that s + a = s.3. flow i n t h e w e l l - if t h e dimensionless variables are redefined as i n t h e preceding.Rearranging yields: (2. In particular. s u b s t i t u t i o n of a is parameters 0.ptf .53 applies with t h e friction f a c t o r con- Pf " - Ptf = a'qD z (pi . t h i s case stant.64 i s e x a c t l y l i k e Eq.

v a r i a b l e f l u i d p r o d u c t i o n from t h e wellbore causes a variable rate the constant rate case. of t h e constant wellhead pressure solu- 2. tion.67) Redefining dimensionless yields: g r o u p s as b e f o r e and rearranging pD(l. i t was b e y o n d t h e o b j e c t i v e s of this study t o do so.5 EFFECT WELLBORE STORAGE pressure. used t o include wellbore storage T h e same p r o c e d u r e c a n b e f o r t h e case of constant pressure production. t h e surface rate is c o n s t a n t . The d e r i v a t i o n f o l l o w s . For t h e e f f e c t of w e l l b o r e s t o r a g e is i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e i n n e r boundary c o n d i t i o n through a ma- t e r i a l b a l a n c e on t h e w e l l b o r e . t h e effect of wellbore storage is examined as a further extension tion. at t h e sand face.(2.tD) = 1 + a’ D (2.68) Although t h e problem could be r e s o l v e d u s i n g t h i s c o n d i t i o n . whether due t o constant fluid production When A drop i n t h e wellhead rate or c o n s t a n t pressure flow can c a u s e from t h e w e l l b o r e i t s e l f i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e formation. - 34 - . The c o n d i t i o n was o n e f i n d i n g of t h e s t u d y and poses an i n t e r I n t h e n e x t sec- e s t i n g problem f o r f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n .

is: (2. V W . and a n y a d d i t i o n a l v o l u m e of fluid c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e w e l l b o r e w h i c h may be produced without changing t h e sand face qtp pressure.70) Thus. t h e p r o d u c t i o n r a t e from t h e w e l l b o r e p r o d u c t i o n r a t e from t h e s a n d face.3: and : (2. 2.The isothermal defined b y : c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y of t h e w e l l b o r e f l u i d is c W = --(%) 1 ay v T (2. q . t h e a n n u l u s . T h e t o t a l s u r f a c e fluid p r o d u c t i o n rate. t h e r a t e of fluid p r o d u c t i o n f r o m t h e well’bore volume.71) V w includes t h e volume of t h e wellbore.69) B y t h e c h a i n r u l e for d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n : W = -v 1 (x)T/($)T av (2.73) - 35 - . Thus: and t h e (2. is t h e s u m of qw9 volume.72) From E q .

1 to include r e s u l t s in: pD and (l 2L =1+for t h e infin- w i t h t h e s k iD f a c t o r adjusted n and rearranging tlellbore f r i c t i o n p r e s s u r e l o s s (2.74) t h e t o t a l d i m e n s i o n l e s s s u r f a c e r a t e is: qtD = D ' [(ZL D =1+ + + (2) + -aPD arD r =1 D (2.75) + rD=1 r e s u l t s in: T a k i n g t h e L a p l a c e t r a n f o r m a t i o n of qtD (2.D e f i n i n g p D and qD a s in mensionless storage by: S e c t i o n 2.77) - 36 - .76) r =1 D + S u b s t i t u t i n g t h e s o l u t i o n for i t e s y s t e m g i v e n in T a b l e 2. and defining t h e d i - v c w w 2 D ' 2T@rt h rW (2.4.

78 is C. p a g e 1029. to: T h u s Eq.77 t h a t they are approximately equal. i o d of t h e w e l l b o r e s t o r a g e e f f e c t may l a s t f o r a l o n g e r p e r - time. t h e p r o b l e m of c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e p r o - The f i n a l a s p e c t of d u c t i o n t o b e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r is i n t e r f e r e n c e an- alysis.6 INTERFERENCE ANALYSIS The w e l l test a n a l y s i s methods p r e s e n t e d t h u s f a r i n t h i s work h a v e c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e b e h a v i o r of the solutions a t - 37 - . t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the c o n l s t a n t term function. the and m u l t i p l i e d by t h e Dirac d e l t a . reduces (2.28). 2. i n Eq.. 6(tl. T h e l a c k o f p r o l o n g e d w e l l b o r e s t o r a g e e f f e c t s may HoweverI if b e a n a d v a n t a g e of c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e t e s t i n g .In the preceding section. The i n v e r s e 2. comparison of : i and s+a i n d i c a t e d 2. T h i s t o p i c is e x a m i n e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . Hurst (1949) e q u a t i o n d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 2. t h e i n i t i a l f l o w r a t e is l i m i t e d by a c r i t i c a l f l o w r e s t r i c tion. ( S e e Abramowitz and Stegun (1972 1 .2 (Eq. of t h e wellbore.78) This e x p r e s s i o n can be d e r i v e d from t h e v a n E v e r d i n g e n and 2.) theory implies an immediate unloading Thus. subsequent flow rates are unaffected by t h e w e l l b o r e s t o r a g e effect.

t D ) = 3(en + 0. a n a l y s i s is a method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g r e s e r v o i r parameters by observing t h e pressure response or non. (2. these approximations nonzero s k i n f a c t o r is p r e s e n t . v s t D/rD 2 pD . I c p D ( r D . Unlike t h e constant r'ate s o l u t i o n . that a different solution results for r . 2. 2. The mlost o b v i o u s d i f f i a g r a p h {of c u l t i e s a r e shown i n The f i g u r e i n d i c a t e s e a c h v a l u e of Fig. Interference analysis i s m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d when t h e pro- d u c t i o n is a t a c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e .79) p r e f e r s t o t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s p r e s s u r e drop f o r constant rate p r duction.80907 r (2. t h e p r o d u c t i o n r a t e m u s t b e known d u r i n g t h e entire i n t e r f e r e n c e test. If the rate v e r s u s t i m e d a t a is * In Eq.79)* D a r e v a l i d even i f a For z e r o s t o r a g e . holds: and t h a t f o r tD/rD2 > 25. I n o r d e r t o make u s e of t h i s is n o t particuthis property in w e l l larly useful. Although t h e for vs t / r D D shown i n F i g . Witherspoon (1965) i n t e r f e r e n c e at a nearby F o r t h e c o n s t a n t r a t e case. This s e c t i o n d e a l s idith t h e pressure Interference v a r i a t i o n i n t h e r e s e r v o i r away f r o m t h e w l e l l .producing w e l l .t h e producing w e l l . B - 38 - .6. Mueller and showed t h a t t h e l i n e slource s o l u t i o n c a n drop i n t h e reservoir for t h e log approximation be used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r e s s u r e rD > 25.'7 s h o w s t h a t qD th.e l o g approximation h o l d s . the D pressure d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r c o n s t a n t pressure production does not c o r r e l a t e with t h e l i n e g r a p h of EdrD 210 p /q source s o l u t i o n . test a n a l y s i s .

8. rates are c o n t i n u o u s l y varying. i n time of c o n t i n u o u s l y v a r y i n g i n Section t h e d e r i v a t i o n r e q u i r e s suT h e m e t h o d of s u p e r p o s i t i o n r a t e s o l u t i o n s is e x p l a i n e d i n t e r f e r e n c e between 3. and t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e in general. Furthermore. f o r every nonzero skin as s h o w n i n F i g . 2. Interference betueen f l o w i n g wells i s a l s o more compliimag- cated for constant pressure production.available. i t can b e a n a l y z e d d i r e c t l y . the t o p i c of f l o w i n g w e l l s i s r e v i s i t e d i n S e c t i o n 3. factor. - 39 - . Hence. produce a d d i t i o n a l information data does not. s o l u t i o n s f o r w e l l s produced a t con- s t a n t pressure are derived. a n o t h e r f a m i l y of c u r v e s r e s u l t s . about t h e r e s e r v o i r . ing used t o g e n e r a t e l i n e a r The method of boundaries near a w e l l requires When t h e s u p e r p o s i t i o n i n time of c o n s t a n t r a t e s o l u t i o n s . p e r p o s i t i o n i n t i m e and space.3.4. This concludes t h e discussion f o r wells produced a t c o n s t a n t t i o n pressure b u i l d u p of t r a n s i e n t rate analysis I n t h e n e x t sec- pressure.

- 40 - .

3 0 0 0 - N a L . d - - 41 - .

a..G u s M - 0 d o S" E "c u CJ u a . M N 0 rl Frr ik > - 42 - . 0 5 P a.0 II rl a u c " 3 Ro Ma.

but t h r o u g h u s e of s u p e r p o s i t i o n in t i m e of c o n s t a n t r a t e s o l u t i o n s . of t h e method of s u p e r p o s i t i o n in lutions a r e d i s c u s s e d in S e c t i o n 3. Methods are discussed for determination effect b y t y p e c u r v e m a t c h i n g .4. tegral e x p r e s s i o n pressure p r o d u c t i o n for the can be pressure buildup written. following constant pressure Pressure buildup after constant rate production is a s i m p l e r p r o b l e m t o h a n d l e a n a l y t i c a l l y . This a n in- after constant m e t h o d is ex- plained in t h e S e c t i o n 3. S e c t i o n 3. three additional applications t i m e of c o n s t a n t r a t e so- tions of t h e t h e o r y . - (13 - . In this section.2 r e v e a l s t h e s o l u how to apply to wells conventional p r o d u c e d at b u i l d u p and methods of pressure buildup analysis c o n s t a n t pressure.3 d i s c u s s e s t h e p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a Finally. p r o d u c t i o n is constant r a t e w e l l pressure buildup examined. and d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a v e r a g e reserv o i r pressure. of w e l l b o r e s t o r a g e and s k i n Horner b u i l d u p a n a l y s i s . 2 the transient rate pressure r e s p o n s e and pressure dis- for constant production were Methods analogous to pressure drawdown analysis for t e s t s w e r e provided.SECTION 3 PRESSURE B U I L D U P AFTER CONSTANT PRESSURE PRODUCTION In S e c t i o n distributions cussed.1. tion f o r pressure S e c t i o n 3.

3) where the time. t (3. t h e pres- each rate constant over a finite s u r e at t h e w e l l b o r e is g i v e n b y + where p WD 0 .2 it is e a s i l y s e e n that for a continuously c h a n g i n g rate. 3... .3 be- - 44 - . q(t).1 THEORETICAL EXPRESSION For a f i n i t e n u m b e r of PRESSURE BUILDUP c h a n g e s in p r o ~ d u c t i o n r a t e w i t h period in time.1) is t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s p r e s s u r e d r o p at t h e w e l l b o r e constant rate production.‘N-1 ) WD (t p . F r o m Eq. comes: prime indicates the derivative w i t h respect to I f p r o d u c t i o n is at c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e p wf.3.Eq.tN)I This equation (3. can be for unic r e w r i t t e n as t h e f o l l o w i n g : + . (qN . 3.

Re- 3. 2.8 i s g e n e r a l .in.3.4) where q D is t h e d i m e n s i o n l e s s and t if f l o w r a t e d e f i n e d b y Eq.(3. D i s d i m e n s i o n l e s s time.11 i n t h e preceding section. the I f t h e w e l l is s h u t i n . A t is t h e e l a p s e d t i m e after shut. 3. - =I$ qD(T)PwD'(tpD pD + AtD - T)dT (3. T h e f u n c t i o n s t o b e u s e d for % a n d pD c a n b e c h o s e n f o r a n y s e t of i n n e r and o u t e r boundary condi- - 45 - .4: t or: PD +AtD Pi - t Pws(AtD) Pi Eq. ite. f e r r i n g a g a i n t o Eq.6 i s d i f f i c u l t t o e v a l u a t e b e c a u s e q D( 0 ) However.8) Pwf t PD 3. The i n t e g r a l is i n f i n - 3. t h e e q u a t i o n can b e w r i t t e n i n a more e a s i l y e v a l u a t e d f o r m b y u s i n g Eq. production at constant pressure is changed t o c o n s t a n t rate p r o d u c t i o n w e l l b o r e p r e s s u r e a t t i m e t is g i v e n by: t after t i m e t P . mined from: p r e s s u r e b u i l d u p is e x a c t l y d e t e r t where i n Eq.

in period. 8 p r o v i d e s a n exact s o l u t i o n which is u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e meth- o d s of a n a l y s i s w h i c h a r e t h e o r e t i c a l l y v a l i d . 3. T h r e e p e r i o d s of s h u t .i n t i m e shut. E x a m i n a t i o n of the integration l i m i t s reveals that q D i s e v a l u a t e d f o r l a t e t i m e s ( t > t 1 a n d pwD' i s e v a l u a t e d P T h u s . a n d t h e l a t e time when o u t e r boundary effects are e v i d e n t . bore. phemonema s u c h a s w e l l b o r e beginning with t i m e zero. 8 i s s i m i l a r t o a c o n v o l u tion integral. are discussed: the early t h e period when w e l l b o r e e f f e c t s d o m i n a t e . later i n A l t h o u g h t h e i n t e g r a l i n Eq. storage. t h e p r e s s u r e f u n c t i o n as w e l l .i n time. while included i n t h e pressure boundary effects w i l l a f f e c t t h e rate funlction and. 3 .tions. t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o r p r e s s u r e b u i l d u p g i v e n by Eq. i s d i s c u s s e d i n Appen- 3. formation. However. should be o r a f r a c t u r e p e n e t r a t e d by t h e w e l l function. when H o r n e r b u i l d u p a n a l y s i s a p p l i e s .2 ANALYSIS pT PRESSURE B U I L D U P The problem of pressure buildup after constant pressure production has received only limited a t t e n t i o n i n t h e liter- ature. - 46 - . but t h e o r e t i c a l Evalua- petroleum and j u s t i f i c a t i o n of t i o n of t h e methods is a l m o s t n o n e x i s t e n t . 3 . . i t c a n n o t b e s o l v e d e a s i l y by L a p l a c e t r a n s Eq.8 c a n be i n t e g r a t e d n u m e r i c a l l y . Numerical e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i n t e g r a l d i x C. s h u t . skin effect. Methods of a n a l y s i s h a v e b e e n suiggested i n b o t h t h e t h e groundwater l i t e r a t u r e .

a log.log graph of t y p e c u r v e s of pws(At) . t i s es- < t + AtD.2.10) Thus.1 E a r l y Shut. tion.8 r e v e a l s t h a t p r e s s u r e r e c o v e r y c a n b e ap- PD < proximated a c c u r a t e l y by: ranging r e s u l t s in: (3. sentially constant for t i o n of Eq. 3. or t h e e v i d e n c e o f a f r a c t u r e . examinaPD 3. can be analyzed using conventional type curve matching techniques.pwf vs t i m e c a n be compared t o p r e s s u r e drawdown for constant flow rate production.in periods.2 Horner Buildup Analysis A c c o r d i n g t o t h e method by Horner (19511.2. buildup pres- s u r e s may b e g r a p h e d v s l o g t ( t + A t > / A t l a semilog s t r a i g h t line.3. The s l o p e i n order t o produce o f t h e l i n e is u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e p e r m e a b i l i t y from t h e e q u a t i o n : - 47 - . Hence.in Time t h e r a t e f u n c t i o n QD(T) ' I For small shut. Effects of e a r l y t r a n s i e n t b e h a v i o r partial penetra- s u c h as w e l l b o r e s t o r a g e and s k i n effects.

t h e last flow rate.k = qu*kn 10 4rmh (3. I n e v e r y case. correct value for and t h e s l o p e produced t h e when the data the permeability method. graphed p where t * = Q(tp>/q(tp>. i n s t e a d of 3. provided t h a t early transient in time. were graphed according t o Horner's The f o l l o w i n g d e r i v a t i o n shows t h a t graphing buildup data t h e H o r n e r m e t h o d of in the correct w i l l always result straight line. effects and Refer r i n g late boundary effects are separated a g a i n t o Eq.8. s e v e r a l cases pressure In the buildup p r e s e n t work. 3. + A t > / A t I a n d c a l c u l a t e d permea- b i l i t y f r o m Eq. 3. the permeability should rate production prior t o be calculated u s i n g Eq. involving pressure after constant production f o r infinite.in. a n d c o n s t a n t . P J a c o b a n d Lohman ( 1 9 5 2 1 ws (At) vs l o g [(t. w e d i v i d e b y q ( t + A t D > : D PD (3. and WS m d e t e r m i n e d from t h e s l o p e of a g r a p h of p ( A t > vs log [(tp * +At)/AtI.12) - 48 - .11 w i t h q equal t o t h e last e s t a b l i s h e d f l o w rate.11) Horner suggested t h a t for v a r i a b l e shut. c l o s e d bounded. qf. t h e s e m i l o g s t r a i g h t l i n e was p r e s e n t . i f t h e r e was a p e r i o d of t i m e when t h e p r e s - s u r e b u i l d u p was n o t d o m i n a t e d b y b o u n d a r y e f f e c t s .9. e r v o i r s were c o m p u t e d b y n u m e r i c a l 3.p r e s s u r e b o u n d e d c i r c u l a r resi n t e g r a t i o n of Eq.17 w i t h q e q u a l t o t h e a v e r a g e f l o w r a t e .

15) 4nkh Noting t h a t q ( t 1 = q(tp+At) P f o r A t << tp. r e c t s l o p e rt * m u s t b e u s e d .6 may b e a p p r o x i m a t e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g : - 49 - ..o p r o d u c e t h e c o r - H o r n e r c o r r e c t e d f l o w time.15 t h e extrapollated pressure f o r t h e Horner pressure that is pi. ex- cept t h a t i f q ( t p l were c o n s t a n t . tP*. is i d e n t i c a l t o t h e con- T h e J a c o b a n d Lohman ( 1 9 5 2 ) m e t h o d of using the average following argu- rate p r i o r t o s h u t . i n f i n i t e shut.i n is j u s t i f i e d by t h e D ments.in t i m e .14) or: . Thus. Pws(At) = Pi - q(t + At) Rn[(tp + At)/At] (3. and: (3. t h e b e h a v i o r of buildup curve following constant pressure production h a s n o t shown a boundary i n f l u e n c e s t a n t r a t e case.When 4 10 5 t p 5 t I PSS t h i s can b e w r i t t e n a s : For A t D’ 5.. t h i s expres- s i o n is i d e n t i c a l t o t h e r e s u l t f o r c o n s t a n t r a t e f l o w . . t h e log a p p r o x i m a t i o n i s v a l i d f o r p. 3. t would b e e q u a l t o t h e Hence. If the variation i n q is small for 0 < %< tpD ’ 3. t h e n Eq. P A t Eq. t.

in. boundary effects are considered. *.16) Pws ( A t ) = pi - ht(t P + At)/Atl (3. the Horner method still produces because a semi. H o w e v e r r u n l i k e i n Eq.17) The l a s t e x p r e s s i o n is i d e n t i c a l t o the result for constant rate flow method t. b e a n e f f e c t i v e m e a n s of a n a - e v e n when boundary effects are evident prior to shut.For A t D 2 5 . 3 . but.3 O u t e r Boundary Effects When tp tpss . 3. - 50 - .pss except that is to the computed from Q ( t p l / t p Horner method as . 2 2 i s n o l o n g e r v a l i d . This is e q u i v a l e n t long a s t f Once e x p o n e n t i a l d e c l i n e h a s begun. p conventional notation. 3. t o use the t h e e x t r a p o l a t e d p r e s s u r e is n o t pi. p (t )may b e a s s u m e d t o b e c o n s t a n t .2. t h e approximation i n Eq. t h e l o g a p p r o x i m a t i o n is v a l i . d f o r p wD' and: (3.15.log s t r a i g h t l i n e f o r D PD A t s u f f i c i e n t l y small. T h e H o r n e r m e t h o d is s h o w n t o lysis. In the next section.

Brons.21) Eq.i n time t h a t P >>At b u t l a t e e n o u g h t h a t At.18) 1 -- * + '3: Rn[(tpD * + At.>/At. > 100 : (3.21 can b e used t o determine statilc p r e s s u r e correcd e r i v e d by Matthews. t i o n curves analogous t o those and Hazebroek (1954) for p r e s s u r e buildlup a f t e r constant of Q D ( t D ) rate production. Referring t o the definition in - 51 - .The equation for p * is derived as follows.l (3. 3.(At) = p* - q(t )u Rn[(tp * 4 vkh + At)/At] (3. For the c l o s e d bounded t reservoir.20) where: * (3. e a r l y e n o u g h i n s h u t .19) Rearranging: pw.

is i d e n t i c a l t o t h e equation for t h e Mathews.1.Eq - 2. average and . results in: 4mh(p *-p )= [En t * PDA + 3.(in t 1 2 PD * + 0. and r e c a l l i n g t h a t t * PD = Q D (ptD ) / q (t PD 1. c i r c u l a r .1 i s a g r a p h of - 52 - . p * . from the actual average reservoir pressure.26. reservoir produced a t Fig. F. is g i v e n by: 2 ’ (tpD) r e D D qD(tpD) -t . 3.23) S u b s t i t u t i n g t h e e x p o n e n t i a l d e c l i n e f u n c t i o n s f o r QD a n d qD. t h e d e p a r t u r e of t h e extrapolated pressure.45381 (3.Hazebroek curves f o r determining t h e p r e s s u r e i n a c l o s e d bounded a c o n s t a n t r a t e f o r t DA > 0. the average reservoir pressurer pressure at s h u t .i n for a c i r c u l a r r e s e r v o i r is g i v e n by: = 24 ( t D PD > / r e D2 (3.22) Hence.24) q t F-l P This result Brons.80907) (3.

.53 - .

both constant t o alert the p r e s s u r e and c o n s t a n t rate flow. reader t o possible p i t f a l l s i n t h e analysis. L i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of a d j u s t e d f l o w t i m e h a v e been g a t o r s i n c l u d i n g Clegg (19671. and f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s a n d the r e s u l t s h e r e i n a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n S e c t i o n 3. as p r e s s u r e Hence. The reasons t h e Horner method w i t h d i s c u s s e d by p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i Odeh and S e l i g (19631.3. For each of the three - 54 - . shown i n F i g . ranges of To alvoid e r r o r s i n t h e t h e e n g i n e e r n e e d s t o b e aware the approximate time f o r which t h e various methods a p p l y .2.in t h e p r o d u c t i o n t i m e before s h u t .log s t r a i g h t l i n e develops.i n is v e r y s h o r t . stant pressure pressure buildup f o r w e l l s produced a t con- can be analyzed as e f f e c t i v e l y c o n s t a n t ralte.1 Short Flow Time Before Shut. a n a l y s i s of of pressure buildup.3. Sandrea (197 11. 3.4.i n . t h r e e problems wellbore are discussed: a s h o r t f l o w time b e f o r e s h u t . and o u t e r boundary effects. 3. effects. If the w e l l b o r e p r e s s u r e m a y r e t u r n e s s e n t i a l l y t o t h e i n i t i a l reservoir pressure before the Such cases a r e semi.4. spe- buildup f o r w e l l s produced a t c i f i c l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e t h e o r y t o b e d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s section affect pressure buildup analysis after Nonetheless.3 P R A C T I C A L L I M I T A T I O N S OF THE THEORY In general.

k ! 5 i a f2 e v) c 1 z V + 0 *a c I I I N - 0 - 55 - .

5s)C D .i n time e x c e e d s a (60+3.log rate or a t constant pressure.f l o w times indicated. Earlougher indicated that s h u t . of 3 f o r t h e i n f i n i t e c o n d u c t i v i t y case. Inner boundary effects should t - 56 - .log s t r a i g h t l i n e . skin effect.log straight line w i l l develop for wells produced provided t h a t a t constant t h e semi. and fralcture effects f o r wells produced a t c o n s t a n t r a t e . and XfD 2 f o r t h e u n i f o r m f l u x case. a s l o .in t i m e the correct Chen and semi. t h e Horner buildup graph However. n g a s A t << tp f o r Such e f f e c t : s can g r e a t l y prorequireid for l e n g t h of shut. as t h e dashed each of these lines indicate. I f the dimen- time exceeds 4 10 . times f o r wells sionless flow the p r o b l e m also e x i s t s f o r produced a t constant rate.3. Brigham (1974) For e x a m p l e . failed to develop a semi. t h e d u r a t i o n of long t h e t h e effect. the correct semi.log s t r a i g h t l i n e t o develop. T h e same c u r v e s a p p l y f o r wells produced a t c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e . demonstrated t h a t wellbore :storage effects do 50CD e not vanish u n t i l AtD> and Earlougher estimated t h a t t h e s e m i l o g s t r a i g h t l i n e b e g i n s f o r Lit > D Similarly. outer 3.2 Wellbore Effects showed s c h e m a t i c a l l y of inner boundary t h e effects on Earlougher (19771 pressure buildup data effects such as wellbore storage. e f f e c t s of a f r a c t u r e d i m e n s i o n l e s s frac- exist until the ture time. s t r a i g h t l i n e p o r t i o n is n o t masked by w e l l b o r e a n d / o r boundary effects.

be analyzed
3.16.

by t y p e c u r v e

matching i n accordance

w i t h Eq.

3.3.3

O u t e r Boundary E f f e c t s

As m e n t i o n e d

i n S e c t i o n 3.3,

i f exponential rate d e c l i n e ,

o r constant rate production develops during t h e flow period, then the boundary, p e r i o d of buildup curve

w i l l show t h e

effects of
If

an outer t h e r e is a

i f

t h e s h u t - i n time is l o n g e n o u g h .

t i m e between t h e end of t h e i n n e r boundary effects
o u t e r boundary effects, develop, however, the

and t h e s t a r t of t h e

c o r r e c t semi- log s t r a i g h t l i n e w i l l long t h e rate

n o m a t t e r how

may h a v e b e e n d e c l i n i n g

exponentially,

if

3 rD > 10- C a r e m u s t b e t a k e n

t o choose t h e

semi- log s t r a i g h t

l i n e from t h e c o r r e c t p o r t i o n of t h e b u i l d u p graph.

3.3.4

Comparison w i t h P r e v i o u s S t u d i e s t h a t t h e c o r r e c t semi- log the pressure provided t h a t

Results of t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e

s t r a i g h t l i n e w i l l d e v e l o p d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of buildup after inner constant pressure production, boundary effects

and o u t e r

are

separated i n

time.

This conclusion studies.

is n o t i n

agreement with

certain previous

In t h i s section,

we

w i l l attempt t o explain t h e

d i f f e r e n t results. s t u d y was p u b l i s h e d

One s u c h

b y Clegsg ( 1 9 6 7 ) .

In his

analytical solution,

an approximation

of t h e p r e s s u r e d i s -

-

57

-

tribution at

the time

of s h u t - i n

was u s e d
2.1.

as an

initial

c o n d i t i o n i n t h e s o l u t i o n of

Eq.

The i n n e r boundary and t h e o u t e r

condition was specified as a zero

flow rate;

b o u n d a r y was a s s u m e d t o b e i n f i n i t e .

The e r r o r i n t h e i n i This error e x p l a i n s t h e Clegg approximate

t i a l c o n d i t i o n is s h o w n i n
the qualitati-ve

Fig.

3.3.

d i f f e r e n c e s between

s o l u t i o n f o r pressure buildup and t h e s o l u t i o n herein.

Other
(19631,

pertinent studies and Sandrea (19711.

are

those

b y Odeh

and

Selig

These investigators concluded l i n e would

that the

c o r r e c t semi- log s t r a i g h t

not develop

when s h u t - i n

follows an exponentially

declining production

rate,

p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e r e s e r v o i r h a s u n d e r g o n e c o n s i d Sandrea attributed d i f f e r e n c e s between wells to

erable depletion. the results

of H o r n e r a n d Odeh

a n d S e l i g f o r new

t h e method u s e d pret the data. reservoir

by Odeh a n d S e l i g t o

d i s c r e t i z e and i n t e r -

For o l d

wells,
would be

Sandrea concluded t h a t t h e underestimated and the
HOW-

permeability

static pressure
ever, Sandrea's

o v e r e s t i m a t e d by t h e Horner model assumes

method.

e x p o n e n t i a l d e c l i n e from t h e f i n i t e i n i t i a l rate.

beginning of

production with a

For a

large reservoir radius,

t h e r e is a

l o n g p e r i o d of r a t e d e Hence, t h e be-

c l i n e b e f o r e t h e e x p o n e n t i a l d e c l i n e perioid.

h a v i o r of t h e o l d wells d i s c u s s e d by S a n d r e a is n o t d i r e c t l y c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t h e r e s u l t s of t h e present study.

-

58

-

:

-I -

m

..
k

m
PI 3
M

'0

rl

F

-

59

-

4.3.25) For a c o n t i n u o u s l y c h a n g i n g p r e s s u r e : (3.1 i t e d i n i t i a l rate the possibility of a critical flow l i m f o r wells proUsing t h e superin the in the transient solution d u c e d a t c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e was d i s c u s s e d .27) If the i n i t i a l rate is c o n s t a n t a t wf qc until the wellbore pressure reaches t h e pressure p t i o n of the t h e n t h e r a t e as a f u n c of c o n s t a n t .1 The C r i t i c a l Flow Phenomenon In Section 2.p r e s s u r e pro- t i m e after t h e onset d u c t i o n is g i v e n by: - 60 - .26) 0 or: (3.3.T E C H N I Q U E of s u p e r p o s i t i o n i n time i s a p p l i e d t o t h r e e problems o t h e r than p r e s s u r e buildup. position in t i m e of solutions for s t e p changes wellbore pressure. 3.4 FURTHER APPLICATIONS In t h i s s e c t i o n t h e method THE SOLUTION. by: t h e rate as a f u n c t i o n of time is g i v e n (3.

q ( t .4. C D a n d s. quantity t h e time e l a p s e d d u r i n g t h e S i n c e q. i s solution for p = determined from t h e pD D 'wfD production. The i n i t i a l v a l u e f o r q ( t ) < t. known. If n o n z e r o s t o r a g e a n d / o r s k i n t h i s w i l l a f f e c t t h e v a l u e f o r t.t c ) and t h e following approximation holds: (3.. the e f f e c t of t h e i n i t i a l tion dies out i n t i m e . and hencer a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d become v a l i d . - 61 - .30 for specified p 3. 3. a n d pwf a r e s p e c i f i e d c o n s t a n t rate proconditions.30) c o n s t a n t r a t e on t h e solut h e analysis t e c h n i q u e s Approxixnate s o l u t i o n s c a n wf Thus. t h e time when constant rate = p is s p e c i f i e d .28) where tc is duction. the 2rkh QC i-I (pi-pwf) l u e o f pwf i s n o t . a l t h o u g h t h e vawfD in general. b e d e t e r m i n e d from Eq.(3. * ' 'wf D . i s g i v e n b y = q(t).29) or: = qD(tD) (3. Some s o l u t i o n s a r e g r a p h e d i n F i g . where 0 < t are present. T h e v a l u e of t. When t is s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e . .

I I I I I I 0 0 n 0 u 0 0 I I I I I I I I I I W n I 0 - 62 - .

31) R e f e r i n g t o Eqs. 2 . Assuming Then t h e w e l l is i t d e c l i n e s t o some m i - t h a t t h e pressure d e c l i n e when c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e P r o - has reached pseudo. Hence: 2 dPwD -. produced a t t h e f i n a l p r e s s u r e u n t i l nimum a l l o w a b l e v a l u e . integral results in: 3.2 Exponential Decline After C o n s t a n .37 a n d 3.4.t R a t e P r o d u c t i o n Often a well is produced a t a nearly depleted. the expression for p WD is g i v e n b y Eq. c o n s t a n t rate and t h e until the r e s e r v o i r h a s been constant rate can n o l o n g e r b e m a i n t a i n e d e c o n o m i c a l l y .32) S u b s t i t u t i o n o f Eq.3 8 .steady state duction begins.-2Trw /A dtD (3.31 a n d t h e d e f i n i t .38: t t (3. 3. i o n of q into the L C t-t - 63 - .3.

rates f o r c o n s t a n t . pressure.34) F o r (t-t.or: 1 qC . 2 . For t h i s e x a m p l e .r a t e produc- = . 5 0 may b e s u b s t i t u t e d f o r Q D ( t . in this c a s e t h e r a t e s a r e d i f f e r e n t for a l l t i m e .5.t c ) : q -2IT (t -t I)A/ (Rnr eD-3 qc e IT (t t c) DA/ ( Rnr eD-3 / 4 1 - = e (3. F o r a c l o s e d bounded c i r c u l a r r e s e r v o i r of d i m e n s i o n l e s s radius r eD 5 = 10 .42 i n d i c a t e s t h a t u n l i k e t h e the rate decline for a i n which c o n s t a n t f i n i t e i n i t i a l f l o w rate e v e n t u a l l y matches t h e dec l i n e f o r constant pressure production f o r a l l t i m e .025.7 a n d 3. be zero. An e x a m p l e of two rate h i s t o r i e s is shown i n F i g 3.1.6 s h o w s histories.)DA > 0. clines t o p wf' Fig. u n t i l the p r e s s u r e i n t h e w e l l b o r e de- and c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e p r o d u c t i o n t h e r e a f t e r . Eq. Figures t h e s k i n f < a c t o r was t a k e n t o for a positive 3. the cumulative production f o r t h e two rate 3. c u r v e A r e p r e s e n t s t h e p r o d u c t i o n rates a t a for t h e entire production time.35) As n o t e d b e f o r e qC = l/pwf where p w f i s t h e f i n a l production Eq. case i n E x a m i n a t i o n of the last section 2.8 s h o w r e s u l t s - 64 - . Curve c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e pwf B represents t h e production at(qc)D.2TQD(t - 2 tc)rw/A (3.

0 .In II I I c L Y v) - 0 n LQ. cu I r '0 - 65 - .

Y v) L I I v) - 0 -0 c 3 -0 - - 66 - .M u -0 0 c .

is c o n s t a n t .8 shows t h e c u m u l a t i v e p r o d u c t i o n .36) w h e r e Ap.yi) 0 - 67 - . pD refers t o t h e dimensionless pressure If drop f o r constant rate production. (x . by: The p r e s s u r e drop a t any p o i n t (x.7.4. 3. 3. 3. The rate h i s t o r i e s are compared i n F i g .yi) i is t h e p r e s s u r e d r o p d u e t o t h e w e l l a t t h e p o i n t If q i p r o d u c e d a t t h e r a t e qi.3 I n t e r f e r e n c e a m o n q F l o w i n q Wells The f o l l o w i n g d e r i v a t i o n shows a ermining t h e p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n g e n e r a l method f o r det- and t r a n s i e n t rate s o l u - t i o n s f o r w e l l s p r o d u c i n g at c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e s i n i n t e r f e r ence with o t h e r w e l l s producing a t a r b i t r a r y c o n s t a n t rates is g i v e n or pressures.y) (3. then: (3.skin factor. is p r o d u c e d a t a c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e : the well at txi.37) (In this section. and F i g .

Y v) 11 r * c D n LQ) I 0 n I 11____7_1_ I - 0 U n - 68 - .I n .

0 I1 n LQ) 3 -0 - 01) - 0 - 69 - . .M -0 - u .c v. Y II u .

J J can be w r i t t e n i n t h e form: T h e s y s t e m of equations (3. then t h e TO d e t e r - p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n i s c o m p u t e d u s i n g Eq.39)' where r.y .42) - 70 - . ) l2 1/2. 3. 1J = I(xi-x. q i n must b e determined f i r s t .The rate f u n c t i o n s .41) and : (3.35.? + ( y i .. apply t h e Laplace transformation t o the equations pressure well: for t h e producing pressure at each constant (3.40) where: (3. mine t h e rate f u n c t i o n s .

45) Solving f o r GD(R): (3.48) - 71 - . D . As t h e Pressure disconsider an example.Once t h e r a t e f u n c t i o n s a r e d e t e r m i n e d . t ) g i v e n by: is I/(Pi-Pwf) (3. The L a p l a c e s p a c e s o l u t i o n f o r I p i .46) or (3.p ( x . distance r constant pressure p . t h e case of two wells a t a wf 3. y . t r i b u t i o n f o l l o w s f r o m Eq. each produced a t a Then: (3.47) Using t h e S t e h f e s t algorithm. a s o l u t i o n f o r qD(tD) can be determined numerically.44) In Laplace space: (3.35.

- 72 - . The method i s a p o w e r f u l tool.T h i s c o n c l u d e s t h e s e c t i o n on t h e u s e o f s u p e r p o s i t i o n i n time o f c o n t i n u o u s l y v a r y i n g r a t e s a s a method f o r g e n e r a t - ing s o l u t i o n s i n v o l v i n g wells produced a t c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e . and t h e s o l u t i o n s p r e s e n t e d ways i n which t h i s t o o l h e r e a r e meant t o s u g g e s t important can b e used.

r a t e well t e s t method. A is a n a n a l o g o u s c o n s t a n t . The t r a n s i e n t rate a n a l y s i s m e t h o d s may problems. same r e a s o n r more r e l i a b l e maintaining a constant wellhead p r e s s u r e is Pressure than maintaining a constant rate. buildup following constant. is n o t t e c h - and appears t o b e a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e method e s t a b l i s h i n g a constant rate which a v o i d s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r f o r some l e n g t h of t i m e prior t o shut.pressure production nology bound.p r e s s u r e n o t a b l e exception is i n t e r f e r e n c e a n a l y s i s . alyzing interference plicated.SECTION 4 CONCLUSIONS The s o l u t i o n s p r o v i d e d analysis methods f o r i n t h i s work show that w e l l test w e l l s produced at constant pressure p r o v i d e t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e r e s e r v o i r a s is d e t derived for constant- ermined from t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l methods rate production. Methods f o r anm o r e com- between producing w e l l s are and r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l s t u d y . method t h e r e For n e a r l y e v e r y c o n s t a n t .in. for the pressures. be limited in t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s by p r a c t i c a l f o r measuring p r o d u c t i o n rates is t h e measurement of transient The technology n o t n e a r l y as advanced as However. - 73 - .

2 for t h e infinite system D e t e r m i n a t i o n of CD 8 s. 1. H o r n e r b u i l d u p a n a l y s i s f o r w e l l s produced at c o n stant pressure - 79 - . effects.In s u m m a r y . t h e m e t h o d s p r o v i d e d h e r e i n c l u d e t h e following: -2s by t y p e c u r v e m a t c h i n g D e t e r m i n a t i o n of k a n d $ e w i t h a g r a p h of l o g q D system 2. and other inner boundary b y t y p e c u r v e m a t c h i n g of e a r l y p r e s s u r e buildup data with solutions conventional pressure transient 7. Determination s h a p e from a o f reservoir g r a p h o f log q v s t after t h e onset of e x p o n e n t i a l d e c l i n e 4. D e t e r m i n a t i o n of k a n d @e-2s from a n interference a g r a p h of log p test by t y p e c u r v e m a t c h i n g w i t h vs log t / . Analysis of transient rates when the wellhead p r e s s u r e is c o n s t a n t 5. Dr. vs log t for t h e i n f i n i t e Determination of k and s from t h e semilog straight l i n e in a g r a p h of l/q vs log t a r e a and approximate 3. xf f o r f r a c t u r e s pene- t r a t e d by t h e w e l l b o r e . 6. .

8. BronsI Hazebroek d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e s t a t i c reservoir p r e s s u r e - 75 - . Analogous methods for Mattheus.

: "Unsteady Flow of Fluids in Oil Reservoirs". 1977. Mar. 1967. Gong. W. 1943. M.W. "Theory of Aquifer Tests".: "The Use of Interpolation to Obtain Shape Factors for Pressure Buildup Calculations". 9. H. 12. 1951. 10. Tech.E.S.W. and Brigham. D.Jr..: "Water Influx into a Reservoir and Its Application to the Equation of Volumetric Balance". Paper SPE 4629. Oxford at the Clarendon Press. and Hawkins. Pet. 1962.C. AIME. Sec. Carslaw. SPE of AIIlE.B. and Ramey. Water Supply Paper 1563E. Earlougher.: "Pressure Buildup for a Well with Storage and Skin in a Closed Square".S.. 151. 8 Ferris. Monograph 5.A.. 7. Proc.. H. 5. and Stallman. R. Hurst. Tech. May 1968.: .: Conduction of Heat in Solids. Pet.. and I. Clegg. Dover Publications.G.: Advances in Well Test Analysis. M. Hurst. "Some Approximate Solutions of Radial Flow Problems Associated with Production at Constant Well Pressure". 20. 1959.. Series. 11. 1972. 1973. R.. Functions. Horner. 1934. 109.F. J. J. and Jaeger. Inc. Brown. M. D.K. W..REFERENCES 1 Abramowitz.J. 284. 11. Knowles.Jr. 2. presented at the 48th Annual Fall Meeting of SPE of AIME. 1959.. H.R. R.. Stegun: Handbook of Mathematical . Jan.: 5. 6. Craft. J. Fetkovich.: "Pressure Build-Up in Wells". 3.S. 31-42...503-523. W. 1974. Chen... Trans. Third World Pet.. Paper SPE 4890.C..Jr. the Hague. U. - 76 - . Earlougher. R.: "Decline Curve Analysis Using Type Curves". presented at the 44th Annual California Regional Meeting of the SPE of ALME.57. 4. Dallas.: Applied Petroleum Reservoir Engineering..C.J.C. Physics.. B. Prentice-Hall. J. M. Inc. 449-450.G.

R. World Oil. 93-99. AIME.182-191. and Hurst. presented at the 53rd Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition of the SPE of AIME. 24. Schilthuis.: "Pressure Build-Up Analysis. and Hazebroek. A.: "Effect of Vertical Fractures on Reservoir Behavior--Compressible-Fluid Case"... Trans. and Sawyer.. R. API Bull.: "A Method for Determination of Average Pressures in a Bounded Reservoir".. 1933. Locke.L. Pet. Proc. W. Odeh. 87-94. Pet.B.... C. T. 211. Prats. R. 559-569.. F.: "The Effect of Production History on Determination of Formation Characteristics from Flow Tests''.D. 17. SOC..: "Two-Rate Flow Test. c _ 23. Pet. J. S. 95-101. I. J.. 21. and Jones. - 77 - . Tech. P. Tech. 201. June 1962. and Nabor. Brons. W. 257. Hazebroek. 1483-1489. M.: "The Determination of Permeability from Field Data". Aug. 25.. J. Odeh. Tech.E.W.. Tech. Kucuk. March 1974. Trans. VariableRate Case".S. Paper SPE 7488. Eng.4.E. M.: "Transient Flow in Elliptical Systems". AGU. P. 1969.D.S.: "New Charts Developed to Predict Gas-Liquid Flow Through Chokes".13. Juan-Camas.S. 14.. 1977.S. Odeh.. L. 22. W. presented at the 41st Annual Fall Meeting of SPE of AIME. Texas.J. Jacob. 1952. University of Mexico.A.G. and Lohman... 790-794. and Beck.: "Nonsteady Flow to a Well of Constant Drawdown in an Extensive Aquifer".. 1-3. T.K. April 1965. 16. 1954. E. 1975. .. presented at the 50th Annual Fall Meeting of the SPE of AIME. Hurst..H.. C. J. AIME.. Houston. Trans.. and Brigham.. Pet.: "Deteminacion de las Propiedades de un Yacimiento Mediante Pruebas de Gasto en un Pozo a Presion Constante".R. Matthews. F. July 1963. and Brauer. W. J. 156. 1978. Pet.. W. 471-474. March 1963. P. J. Poettmann. AIME.V. C. and Strickler.History Match Using Numerical Simulation and Type Curve Analysis". F. 1966. Report. Trans. 18. Mueller. Nov.: "Constant Pressure Injection Test in a Fractured Reservoir . and Witherspoon. A..S.: "Pressure Interference Effects within Reservoirs and Aquifers". .. A. 20. 26. and Selig. Clark. Paper SPE 1515. 15.D. 228. Paper SPE 5594. Oct. Moore.W.. G.: "The Skin Effect in Producing Wells". Variable-Rate Case--Application to Gas-Lift and Pumping Wells".

: "Production Rate Decline in Pressure Sensitive Reservoirs".. H. 47-49. R.F. 1949.27. 305-324. and Cinco-L. and Kuranov.Jr.. H.. Ramey. presented at the 29th Annual Technical Meeting of the Petroleum Society of CIM. unpublished manuscript. 1. Sandrea. Dec. 1978. A..A. Trans.: "Numerical Inversion of Laplace Transforms". 13. F . 31. van Everdingen.. 1971. Tech. and Cobb.. 32..: "An Evaluation of Horner's Approximation in Pressure Buildup Analysis".No. K. and Hurst. : Rates for the Center Well in a Circular Reservoir Under Elastic Conditions". Laplace Transformation to Flow Problems in Reservoirs". Stehfest. 1970. W. 1971. Problems of Reservoir Hydrodynamics. - 78 - . Leningrad. 28. Jan. Part I. 1493-1504.: 11A General Pressure Buildup Theory for a Well in a Closed Drainage Area". J. H. 9-34. 1956. 29.M. Communications of the ACM. Samaniego. W : "The Application of the . V. I . Dec. 78-29-25. Pet. Paper No. AIME.J. 30. "Calculation of the Flow Tsarevich.

LtL/m c = = = = = = = 2 wellbore fluid compressibility. L Modified Bessel functions Laplace space variable wellbore length. L 2 = = shape factor vWcW dimensionless wellbore storage coefficient. m/Lt . Lt /m wellbore diameter.-Pwf = dimensionless wellbore pressure. L wellbore vertical length.NOMENCLATURE A CA CD t = area. L 2 slope of Horner buildup graph. m/Lt Pwf = 2 2 flowing bottom-hole pressure. L Moody friction factor units conversion factor reservoir thickness. 2nkh(pi-pWf) /qlJ = dimensionless pressure ratio. t initial reservoir pressure.vs log t graph for a constant-pressure test. m/Lt 2 ptf = flowing wellhead pressure. m/Lt 1 3 slope of . I - c = total compressibility. 2n$c thrw2 . t/L q 2 W D f M gC h H IO'I1 k %. p-= i'.K1 = = R L m m = = = = = = * m p 9 slope of the log q vs t graph for a constant pressure test Reynold's number pressure. m/Lt 2 = = PD ' w D pi P1 .79 - . L Modified Bessel functions reservoir absolute permeability.

L3 2 Q = QD = dimensionless cumulative production. e -S . t Horner corrected production time. t t * P - 80 - . m/Lt * p = = volumetric average reservoir pressure. r e W 1. L r ’ W = effective wellbore radius. m/Lt 2 2 p = extrapolated pressure on Horner buildup graph. L /t 2 q qD qC = = dimensionless production rate. Q/ [2r$cthrw (pi-pwf) 1 r D = dimensionless radius. t Wtrw = dimensionless time based on drainage area. qCp qM (qD)M = = = flow rate at match point Yf for type curve matching. A 27M-1 (pi-pWf 1 constant initial flow rate. L3/t n (qcID = dimensionless constant initial flow rate. L /t 2Tkh(p -P 1 dimensionless flow rate at match point for type curve matching 1 $) lhr 1 ordinate value at 1 hour on straight-line graph of (-) vs q 3 log t. t~~ 9 wtrw t = time at match point for type curve matching.pws = bottom-hole pressure after shut-in. r/rw r = reservoir radius. r /rw eD e rW = wellbore radius. L e r = dimensionless reservoir radius. 2 kt 2 M (tDIM = dimensionless time at match point for type curve matching t P = = production time. t/L cumulative production.L t = time lLL tD = dimensionless time. m/Lt 3 production rate.

in t i m e s = skin factor U = wellbore f l u i d velocity. t ( t p s s )D = d i m e n s i o n l e s s t i m e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of pseudo. niL2 / t 2 W = s h a f t work. m/L T = v a r i a b l e of i n t e g r a t i o n 3 - 81 - .steady s t a t e flow. mL / t 2 2 S y = e x p o n e n t i a l of E u l e r ' s c o n s t a n t . L / t v = w e l l b o r e f l u i d s p e c i f i c volume.t PSS = time a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of pseudo. L3 Wf = w e l l b o r e f r i c t i o n energy loss. m / L t p = a v e r a g e w e l l b o r e f l u i d d e n s i t y .1 = f l u i d v i s c o s i t y . L /m 3 V W = w e l l b o r e volume. t AtD = dimensionless shut. 7 8 1 @ = porosity 1.steady s t a t e flow At = shut.in time. y =" 1 .

m sec.6 qBp kh m a L = 27I a=- 1 141.2 qBp 2'irkh(Pi-Pwf1 QD Q/ .000264 k t 2 @wtrw 2 @wtrw 141. Pa 3 3 c m /sec. m ft 2 m d psi b a r r e l s /day ft hr CP darcy. Pa. sec cp. S I Metric U n i t s kt English Units . m a t m .1832 qBp kh 162. m /sec cm.sec - 82 - . Pa-1 psi cm.APPENDIX A UNITS CONVERSIONS Variable tD Darcy.2 -1 P atm -1 .

. . . . . 84 CLOSED OUTER BOUNDARY . . . . .APPENDIX B TABULATED SOLUTIONS CONTENTS Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 CONSTANT PRESSURE OUTER BOUNDARY . . . . . . .83 . . . . . . . . . . 100 I N F I N I T E OUTER BOUNDARY . . . . . .

Table B . l INFINITE OUTER BOUNDARY Skin = 0 QD tD QD - 84 - .

INFINITE OUTER BOUNDARY Skin = 5 t D QE QD tD QD - 85 - .

INFINITE OUTER BOUNDARY Skin = 10 QD qD QD - 86 - .

Q .. qD 't D QD - 87 - .INFINITE OUTER BOUNDARY Skin = 20 tD .

x eD =20 Table B . 2 CLOSED OUTER BOUNDMY Skin = 0 r eD = 200 n QD QD qD t eD = 500 QD r eD = 100 QD qD 1 : eD = 1000 QD qD exponential rate decline - 88 - .

CLOSED OUTER BOUNDARY Skin = 0 r eD = 2000 r QD tD eD = 1x104 QD QD r eD = 5x10 4 QD re D = 5000 QD - 89 - .

CLOSED OUTER BOUNDARY Skin = 0 re D = 1x105 tD QD r eD = 6 1x10 QD r eD = 51' x0 - 90 - .

5 r eD = 20 qD re D = 200 QD n 'D r = 50 eD r = 500 eD Q . QD r €?D = Q.CLOSED OUTER BOUNDARY Skin -. 100 r eD = 1000 QD qD - 91 - .

C0U 03 7.01 i. 0 0 ~ 07 1.0QU OY r eD = 5x10 QD 4 r eD = 5000 QD qD - 92 - .OOLl GS 6.oorl o!i 8.oor1 09 4.CCI.0011 OB 4.0011 07 3.OOLI o i 5.00Il O / 4.DOLI 05' 3.I 07 7.oor1 09 P.001l OH 3.Obll o / 6.WD 08 9 0 1 08 .CLOSED OUTER BOUNDARY Skin = 5 r eD = 2000 r 1 : eD = 1x10 4 qD QD D QD 1.G011 07 9 .0011 01 6 5.C'OlI 07 2.0011 07 0.COIl 0 f i 2.

CLOSED OUTER BOUNDARY Skin = 5 r€ D ! tD = 1x10~ QD 6 rei) = 1.~10 QD reD tD = 5x10 5 QD - 93 - .

CLOSED OUTER BOUNDARY Skin = 10

r

eD

= 20

r

eD

= 200
0 ,
b

QD

r.:
1
4 ,

y!

x x

* r * * Y * * *
Y h
h

reD= 50

x

r

eD

= 500

QD

Qn
t
Y

x

*
L 3.

Y * * * * * x * *
X

%

r,

I

-' e D =

100

x

r

eD

= 1000

QD

QD

-

94 -

CLOSED OUTER BOUNDARY Skin = 10

r

eD

= 2000
QD

4 r eD = lxl0
qD
t

D

QD

i . m i ~7
3.0011 (;7

3,001107
4.00LI 0 1 5.0011 07 6.00D 07 7.0011 07
0.0011 07

9.0011 07 1. o m 03
2.0011 0 8 J . O @ I I 08 4 I 0 ' ) I I OD

:i.oun oa I ocrl 0 3 ~ . O G I I oa U.0c.LI 08

.

9 * O c \ i I 00 f .O01! 09 2 0 L 09 .0l 3 . G 0 l l 09 4.0011 09 5 . 0 0 2 07
6,OOll 09

r
4-

eD

= 5x10

4

CD
reD = 5000
1.03D OS 2.00n 0:;

Q3
OR
5.2300D 06 1+0?74LI 07 1,5251 11 07 ? . o i r m 07 2.509211 07 2.997011 07 3,487711 07 3.96611.1 07 4*447r'iD cl7 4.9271D 07 Y.6170D 07 1.41.131I GH 1 I Fl :tim OB 2.261411 03 2.651511 00 3.045913 03 3.4lS7r.l OD :<.770911 08 4.1113D OB b.i)764n os 8.736:?D OH 9.Y5971'1 08 1.@?8.?11 09 1,13::4:1 07 3.. 1 7 G Y l : i 09
1 t YL@!.l i)Y

j.oort

QD

4.001! OH 5.oorl 08 6 , GO11 00 7,0011 OE! 6 , O O i l 00

Y.00U 08 1.0011 c 9 2.3011 09 3.001: 09
4.0iJi! 0 Y 5.0011 07

e.om

6.00II 0 9 7.0011 09
09

Y.0CLl 09 1.00LI 10 L'.OGII 10 3.00I.l 1 0 4.oorl i o 5.00l-i 10 6.0011 10 7.0011 10 C : . O > l l 10 Y.00LI 10 1.0311 11

1.:?1:;1I.I ( t ? 1 >';?:JSI! 0?

-

95

-

CLOSED OUTER E.OUNDARY Skin = 10

reD =-1 x10
t

5
qD

r

eD

=

6 1x10

D

QD

qD

t

5 r = 5x10 eD

QD

-

96

-

3? % . 3 F!. r = 500 eD tD QD 2 1 1 R 5 4 3 2 r eD = 100 1 3 Q .0 11 :.97 - .CLOSED OUTER EOUNDARY Skin = 20 r eD = 20 r = 200 eD QD r = 50 eD 0 .

4 qD r eD = 5000 QD r eD = 5x10 QD 4 - 98 - .CLOSED OUTER BOUNDARY Skin = 20 r = 1x10 eD Q .

00~ i o 7.0011 15 5.CLOSED OUTER BOUNDARY Skin = 20 1 : eD = 1x10 5 r 1.0011 10 3 .oor1 12 00i l? .00I. O O L I 10 4.0011 11 1.0I : 3.OOI.0011 11 8. ' 1 I' 1 1 - 99 - .GOII 10 IG 9+@01l 10 l.l 13 Y.00!t 11 J.0011 1 1 5.0dil 11 L.00KI 1 3 6.LI l? 1 ~ O O l l1 3 2 0 L 13 .0OLl 12 4.GOD s. 1 4 .I 1 3 4.OOri eD = 1x10 6 QD io 2.0011 12 s. O O D 10 6.00Il l! : 7. i l : * : : l '11 1.oor1 2.oor1 1 3 8.00u 12 2 0 I '1 .OOrl l i 7.001I 14 l .L)01I 11 11 3.ow I : ! r eD = 5x10' QD I.0l 9+0C.0l 3.009 11 9.00lI 1 3 1.0011 1 3 7.0011 10 S .

CONSTANT PRESSURE OUTER BCUNDARY r =20 eD Skin = 0 tD 1 '. :' 3 4 4 t. qD 1 & 7 H Skin = 20 Skin = 0 leD = 50 QD - 100 - .

D QD QD - 101 - .CONSTANT PRESSURE OUTER BOUNDARY r Skin = 10 t eD = 50 Skin = 20 D QD '% Skin = 0 Q . r eD Skin = 10 qD CL. Skin = 20 t.

CONSTANT PRESSURE OUTER BOLYDARY r Skin = 0 eD = 200 QD Skin = 5 Skin = 20 QD QD .102 - .

QD r eD '= 1000 qD tD - 103 - .

CONSTANT PRESSURE OUTER BOUNDARY r Skin = 0 eD =j20OO Skin = 10 tD QD QD qD Skin = 5 t Skin = 20 D QD qD tD Q9 - 104 - .

105 - .' CONSTANT PRESSURE OUTER BOUNDARY r Skin = 0 0 eD = 5000 Skin = 10 'D QD qD Skin = 5 QD QD Skin = 20 QD .

QD Skin = 20 QD - 106 - .CONSTANT PRESSURE OUTER BOUNDARY r Skin = 0 eD = 1x10 4 Skin = 10 Q .

CONSTANT PRESSURE OUTER BOUNDARY r Skin = 0 eD 4 = 5x10 Skin = 10 QD QD Skin = 0 QD Skin = 20 - 107 - .

CONSTANT PRESSURE OUTER BOUNDARY Skin = 0 reD = 1x10 5 Skin = 10 n QD Skin = 5 QD .

CONSTANT PRESSURE OUTER BOUNDARY r Skin = 0 t =I 5x1U5 eD Skin = 10 QD Q . Skin = 5 QD QD - 109 - .

110 - .CONSTANT PRESSURE OUTER BOUNDAK'S! Skin = 0 r eD =' 6 1x10 S k i n = 10 QD 39 OY QD 09 05' 09 qD 09 09 0Y 09 10 10 io 10 10 10 io io 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Skin = 5 QD qD QD qD .

.8 M::0 C SXON=' C C C C C C C C ' SOL. k I X A TO l O 1 O I X B IXR--l IXH-9 C C C C C C C C NSOLN = 1 FOR I N F I N I T E OIJ'IER BOIJNDRRY 2 FOR NO-FL05. APPENDIX C COMPUTER PROGRAMS C ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR CONSTANT WELLBORE PRESSIJRE C I M F ' L I C I T REAL18 (A-HrO-Z) COMMON/PARA/SKTNIRDIM?R~FFITFLOW COMMON/TSOLN/ICtiART I NSOLN I I T Y P E i I X A r I X R COhMON/HB/Gi 1 R 7 r G 3 r G 4 r G 5 Cl~flHllN/UAR/RL~!1000) r T K l ( l 0 0 0 ) r T U X ( 1 0 0 ) rAMODES(100) CtiAKACTER14 S I G N DOIJBLE F'FZECISI['IN TFORMITFORMAI TFORMhrBESKOI BESKI EXTERNAL TFORM I TFORMA P TFDRMB c 0. l I ON Li E SCR I I : h F'T ON I C H A R l = 1 FOlX Q D US TIS 2 FOF. m .T.N= 1 NTPMES =: NUMEER OF L O G CYCLE5 TO EVALUA'IE NTIMES=(IXR-IXA) PARAMETER VALUFS: S K I N = WELLBCIRE SKIN FACTOR SKIN=O. r ) ) GO 'rn 30 C C C C . 6) GO TO 70 IF (1C:HART e1.ER. R D I M = UIMENSIONLESS RADIUS ( 1 . LOG CYCLES NR[t=5 I F ( I C H A R T .AcE I N u E r w x N Nr. 3) GO TO 5 I F (ICHAFZT . TFLOW = FLUW TIME (FOR PRESSURE HJL U ' II D F a3 PD us RII) TFLOW=10 NFZli = NLlMEiER OF R M l I A l . L E * RlClIM + L E I REFF) RDIIY=l r O REFF = DIMENSIONLESS RESERVOIR RADIUS (FOR F I N I T E RESERVOIR) REFF=!50. 111 - .1 OUTER BOUNDARY 3 F O R CONS'TAN'I' PRESSURE OUTER BOUNIIAFCY NSOl. T rIwS s o I 10 I 100 I 10 I s 0 ) 1L N = NUMPIX OF 'rERMs I i-APL. Q D US TUA 3 FOR I N I T I A L L Y CONSTAN'f RATE 4 FIIH PD US R D 6 F O R BUILDUP FROM SUPERPDSITION ICCiC\RT=S L I M l T S F-OR TI3 ARE 1 O r k .

lPE10.AND.i r ~ ' r TI.EO+ 2 0 .O)IV(5O).2. P I S THE LAPLACE SPACE E.GO TO 50 SKIN=5* GO TO 11 SKIN=10* GO TO 11 SKIN=20t GO TO 11 C A L L OUTFORM .M) STOP ENU 40 300 SO 70 C C C SUBROUTINE L I N U ( P I IF A . [SEE STEHFEST (1970)l - 112 - . (NSOLN + E O + 2 ) ) SIGN='*' C A L L L I ( TFO RM I TD 1I 011 I M ) NU IN I N M CALL.)=L?III I F ( S K I N . J .41~X)~~l) STOP C A L L OlJTFORM CALL SPBU(N.9 1 T I S N ME C r111 20 r .) GO TO 21 I F ( S K I N .XPRESSIc3N TO HE NUMERICALLY INVERTED* T IS THE TIME AT WHICH THE SOLUTION I S TO HE EVALUA'IED. 8 ( A.1) ) C A L L LINU(TFORMITFLCIW IF'DINPM) WRITE (61300)R D I M I P D FORMAT ( ' '.EU+ 5.I(T. 2 ) TfllJLT=REFF*llEFF DO 10 J = l r N T I M E S D O 10 1 ~ 1 1 9 K=It(J-1)*9 TU( K)=DFILORT( I * l o + * * ( 1 X A t . L I NU ( TFOK'MR I TD I RrIJ I I ) Wlt I T E ( 6 I 300 ) TDX ( I ) I J I [?I1 I S I G N QD I RI.ti 9 0-Z ) T COMMON/LPL/G(. ) .ClL. 20 21 22 23 30 C C C CALCULATE F'U US RIS FOR TU = TFLOW DO 40 J=l.14159 C C C CALCULATE QD.C C CALCULATE TIMES FOR EUALLIA'TION+ *REFF*REFFtOtl 'I'MULT=l+ DLOl:<T=l */rIFI.EL?.W(2S)rGZ(1) LlOUBLE PRECISION * P L I N U (LAPLACE INVERTER) IS A FORTRAN TRANSLATION OF THE ALC.tI=TIl(I) t I N D I C A T E S EXPONENTIAL RATE DECLINE I F ( ( T I 1 1 . TO) .EO.2X. N T e.OAT(NTIMES) I F (I CHART Et".GT..2(1PE52. T 11 CALL. ) GO To 23 I F ( S K I N . FKOCEUURE GIVEN BY STEHFEST (1Y70).) GO TO 22 I ( SKIN F .N r M T I MF'L I C I REAL. FA I S THE WALIJE OF ThE SOLUTION AT T I M E T DETERMINEII BY THE NUMERICAL INUERSION OF THE LAPLACE SPACE SOLUTIONI N I S THE NUMBER O F TERMS I N THE SUMMATION.NRD K10 4 0 1 ~ 1 1 9 K=It(J-l)MY RII I M=DFLOAT ( I t10 t Xd ( J. OlJTFORM 5 TO=3. 0.1 ) ) 10 T L I X ( K ) = T ~ i ( K ) t T M I J l . i o .

ALSO INCLUDED ARE THE SOLUTIONS FOR THE PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS.XI(2r3) REAL A r X IlOUBLE PRECISION BESKOvBESKl C C C C C C TFORM CONTOINS THE LAPLACE TRANSFORMED SOLUTIONS FOR THE TRANSIENT RATE DECLINE F O R A WELL FRuriucEri A T A CONSTANT F'RESSLJkE FROM A CIRCULAR RESERVOIR. Kl=(It1)/2 K2=I IF ( K 2 + G T + NH) K2=NH r0 4 0 K=KlrK2 1 IF (2*K-I .EO+ K ) GO TO 38 V ( I ) =V ( I ) +H (K 1/ (G ( I-K 1 XG (2tK-I ) ) GO TO 40 37 U(I)=V(I)tH(K)/G(I-K) GO TO 4 0 38 V(I)~U(I)tH(K)/G(ZtK-I) 40 CONTINUE V(I)=SNJU(I) SN=-SN 50 CONTINUE 100 F A = O . N ) GO TO 100 CALCULATE U A R R A Y e M=N G( 1 )=1 NH=N/2 DO 5 I=2rN 5 G(I)=G(I-l)XI H(l)-Z+/G(NH-l) DO 10 I=2rNH FI=I IF (I +En. 10 8 H(I)=FIftNtitG(2XI)/(G(I)YG(I-1)) 10 CONTINUE ' SN=2*(NH-NH/2#2)-1 DO 50 I=lrN U(I)=O.*8 (A-HrO-Z) COMMON/PARA/SKINIADIMIREFFITFLOW COMMOM/TSULN/ICHAHT I N S O L N r ITYF'EI IXA P IXD COMMl'~~'HH/G1 9 G 2 I G3 I G4 r G5 DIMENSION ARO(3)rXK(2r3). NH) GO TO 8 H(I)=FIY*NHXG(2tI)/(G(NH-I)tG(I-I)tGI-l)~ GO TO ~. DLOGTW=+6731471805599453 C IF (M +EO. A = 111. 0 ) GO TO 37 IF (I ..N ARU-DFLOAT ( I ) * A 110 FA=FAtV(I)*P(ARG) FA=AXFA RETURN ENCl DC)UBLF PRECISION FUNCTION TFORM(S) IMPLICIT REAl.EO.OG TW / T DO 110 X=l. - 113 - .

~ ~ ~ Values for the required Bessel functions were obtained. SIJHROUTINE SPHU ( NI M ) I M P L I C I T REAL88 ( A-H I 0-Z) COMMON/PARA/SKINIK~IM.REFF.CALL B E S I ( A r 1 v X r I E R ) J 10 X I ( 2 1 ) = X I F (ICHART *EO.ER.. BESI.AKTINSOLNrITYPEI 1 x 6 1I X H C O I I M O N A J R R / R D ( 1 000)).TFLOW COMMON/'TSOLN/ICI. o I ) GO 'ro 7 0 F F'D::XK ( 1I 2 )/DENOM n~I=Sl*XK(2rl)/DENOM GO T O 50 C C C SOLUTION FOR NO-FLOW OUTER BOUNlJARY 30 D E N O M ~ S X ~ ~ X K ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ X I ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ X I ( ~ . ' T u ( 1000)I DTIS ( 100 ) I AMODES ( 100) DOURLE F'FZECISION T F O R M ~ 7 F O ~ M ~ r T F O ~ M E ~ a E S K O I B E S K l EXTERNAL TFORMITFOHM~ITFORMB C C C C C SPBU COMPUTES PRESSURE BUILDLJP SOLUTIONS FOR A WELL PHODUCEn A T A CONSTANT PRESSURE PRIOR TO SHUT. 3) GO TO 60 G O TO ( 2 0 1 3 0 1 4 0 ) f N S O L N C C C SOLUTION FOR I N F I N I T E OUTER HOUNUARY 20 D E N O M = S f ( X K ( l ~ l ) S S ~ I N I S l t X K ( 2 r l ) ) I (DENOM .-through use of BESKO and BESKl from the FUNPACK PACKET and the internal routine. THE TECHNIQUE F O R APF'KOXIMATING THE RESULTING INTEGRAL I S TO DETERMINE TIME L - 114 - .IN USING SUPERPOSITION OF CONTINUOUSLY WARY I N G CONSTANT RATE SOLUTIONS. available on the IBM 360 168 at the Stanford Computer Facility. Stanford University.

1 KiTLt(J)=TFLOWtlO.iJ VALUE. rlELiJ=. ( J K t 1 ) ) G O TO 30 IF((RD(J-l)-RD(J)) .11 C71:t(L)=UD(L-l) TD ( . THE SUM IS THEN COMPUTETI 13s 'THE APPROXIMATION O F THE' PRESSURE BUILDUP. ) SUM=SUM-aD(JM)Y(PnM-2172) t - 115 - . TO=* l f 3 . SUM=1 t C A L L PFORM ( DTD ( I I P DM I N r M I TO ) ) DO 40 J = l r J K I F ( T * L T .OS*REFFYREFF~(DLOO0-.IN TIMES ARE TO BE EVALUATED* KKl=4 KK-3 I F iNSDLN + E n .Y*~K-l) C C C C NLtT=KKI$KK DTF=DTD (NDT ) tTFLOW rtELC4 IS THE MAXIFUM V A R I A T I O N I N I N TIME REF'RESENTED BY A TERM I N AN A R R A Y OF TD A N D R D VALUES A R E DEL.1 I F ( ( P U M .LT. RFORM(TF'LOWr01?(1) r N r M r ' T 1 ) CALL L I N V (TFOKMA~TFLOW~CUMINVM) TD(l)=TFLOW C A L L GFORM ( D T F I RD (2) r M r T 1 ) rN IF ( ( R D ( l ) . G T . 0 .GT+ T 1 ) GO TO 60 2 DO 1 K l = l r K K l DO 1 K=1 rKK J=Kt(Kl-l)*KK C .1 D O 20 J .J ) z: ( TD ( J-1)t T D ( J ) )I 5 CALL.J .INTERVAL THE SUMMATION. A N D THEN APPROXIMATE THE RATE I N EACH SUCH INTERVAL BY A CONSTANT KATE OVER THE: INTERUAL+ 1 H I S RESULTS I N A SUM OF TERMS CONSISTING O F A R A T E TIMES A PRESSURE DIFFERENCE. 1) GO TO 2 I F ( T F L O W .R D ( 2 ) ) ~ G T I LIELRX) GO TD ( 2 ) =DTF JK.NrtT TT=D'I'D ( I tTFLOW ) 'T=TT-lOOe I F ( T . G T .c C C C C C I N l E R U A L S LIURING WHICH THE R A T E ONLY CHANGES BY A SET AMOUNT. ~ 5 ) G D TO 42 F SUM= (SLIM-PDPYRIS ( J-1 ) ) /nD( 1) GO TO 4 4 42 CALL WORM ( T r R D F r N 9 M I T 1 ) JM= J I F (J # N E + 1) J M z J . CREA'TELI WITH THE S F E C I F I E D TO 25 ' TO 20 5 10 20 25 30 . DELR) GO JK= J K t 1 DO 5 K = J r J K L=JK-KtJt1 TII ( I_) -TD ( L. 00% I l E L ~ ~ X ~ 1 e0YIIELU 00 CALL. T D ( J ) ) GO TO 4 3 TPtTT-TD ( J ) CALL PFORM(TPIPDP~NIM~TO) I F ( (PDM-PDF) e GT 0 ) SUM=SUM-RD ( J )k (PUM-F'DP 1 4 0 PDM=PDF 43 I ( T T .*t(Kl-KKl)*2.GE. 1 .75+SKIN) K K 1 ANLf K 1 SPECIFY WHAT SHUT. L T * l i I 3 5 ) T=TT THE RATE FOR EACH SUB.2 + 7 1 ) .2 r l O O O LIII 10 I = l r 8 I F (. R F O R M ( T r l ( J ) I O D ( J ) r N r M I T 1 ) CONTINUE WRI'TE(6?103) RETURN JK-JKt1 D O 50 r = i. 1 4 1 6 * R E F F * R E F F Tl=.

) NCASE=l I F .E PRECISION TFnRM./(StSdTFORM(S)) wrui-w 'END S ( J H R O I J T 1 N E PFORM(T. TFORM TFORMA TF-ORMEI F F O R M USES L I M I T I N G FORMS OF THE WELLBORE PRESSURE SOLUTION F O R CONSTANT RATE PRODUCTION WHENEVER POSSIBLE. 5 f ( D L O G ( T ) t . I C I ' r REALW ( A .LT.z ) riuuBt.REFFr TFLOW CDHhON/TSOLN/ICMART~~~DLNrITY~E~IX~~IXB DOUbl.E PRECI I N TFORM S O EX 'F: R N At. 8 0 9 0 7 ) + S K I N RETtJRN 24 P = D L O G ( R E F F ) .101) T F L O W ~ R E F F ~ N S O L N WRITEL' ( 6 I1 0 4 ) ( TU ( I 9 Q D ( I v I=l) 1 ) I JK RETurw 60 WRITE (6. .P. I F (T ('r END SUBROUTINE RFORM ( T v R f N I M r T l ) I M P L I C I T REALX8 (A-HrO-Z) COMMON/PARA/SKIN~H~~IM.01) GO TO 30 .LIT D ( I ) ) /DTD ( I 1 ) 50 WR I ( 6 P 100 1 SUM I T D ( I v DTH TE D ) WRITE (6. . NCASE=J I F ( T + L T + 0.7l*C~UF)/l?D( 1) 4 4 fl TH= ( CUM/RD ( 1) . BESliOr NESK1 E x w K N A t .m+ T O ) N C A S E = ~ GO TO ( 1 0 v 2 0 r 2 2 ) .. T FORM I.NrMrTO) I M P L I C I T REALtEL (A-HIO-Z) COMMLJN/PARA/SKIN9 RDIM. 100.a SUM=(SUM-2. * T / 3 r 1 4 1 6 ) RETURN . L .r 7 5 $ 2 ~ f T / ( R E F f t R E F F ) t S ~ I N RETURN 26 P=DLOG(REFF)SSKIN HETIJRN 10 CALL L I N U ( T F O R M F P T ~ P I N ~ M ) RE 'I Ui' iN 30 P = D S O R T ( 4 .TFORMRr'TFORMH.. N C A S E 20 GO TO ( 2 2 1 2 4 r 2 6 ) v N S O L N 27. TFORMB=l.H ~ o .102) RETURN 100 FORMAT(' 'r3(E12+4~2X)) 102 FORMAT(' EXPONENTIAL DECLINE IN PROGRESS') 103 FORHAT(' TOO MANY Q EVALUATIONS REQUIRED') 101 F O R M A T ( ' TFLOW =z ' I E ~ ~ + ~ ~ ~ X I ' R E F ' r E 1 2 + 4 9 2 X 9 ' N S O L N = ' ~ 1 1 ) = F 1 0 4 FORMAT ( ' ' 1 2 ( E 1 2 * 4 r 2 X ) ) END IlOUBLE PRECISION FUNCTION TFORMA(8) I M P L I C I T REALaH (A-HPO-2) DOUBLE PRECISION TFORM EX7 ERNAL TFORM C C C TFORMA I S THE LAPLACE SPACE SOLUTIONS FOR CUMUL. P = .KEFFITFLOW COMMON/TSOLN/ICHART~NSOLN~ITYf'E~IXA~IXB - 116 - .ATIVE PRODUCTION TFORMA=TFORM(S)/S RET URN END DOUBLE PRECISION FUNCTION TFORMH(S1 I m . TFORMI( IS THE LAPLACE SPACE SOLUTIONS FOR TRANSIENT WELLBORE PRESSURE WITH CONSTANT KATE PROD(JCTI0N.

T ( '1CONSTANT PRESSURE BOUNI!EII RESERVOIR' ) 103 FORMAT ( ' SKIN = ' I F ~ . IF ( T *LT.101) IF ( N S O L N + E O + 3) WRITE (6. ~ F O R M B ~ ~ E S K O ~ H E S K ~ EXTERNAL TFORMITFORMAPTFORMB C C C C OF'ORM USES LIMITING FORMS FOR THE RATE PRESSURE F'ROOUCTION WHENEVER F'OSSIHLE.Z ) CDMMf~lN/PARA/SKIN9R~~IMIKETF.l*T/Tl)/(rlLOG(REFF)-.102) G O TO ( 1 0 1 2 0 1 1 0 ~ ~ 3 0 ~ 4 0 ) r I C H A R T 10 WRITE (61103) SKINrKDIM IF' ( N S O L N .KXNITFLOW RETURN 4 0 WRITE (69103) SKINIRIIIM RE 'r URN 100 FORMAT ( '1UNBOUNDED RESERVOIR' ) 101.NE.105) RETURN WRI'IE ( 6 1 103) SKINvRDIM I F (NSOLN . ~ 2 .TFLOW C O M M O N / T S O L ~ N / I C H A ~ I I N ~ ~ L N ~ IXAi IXE~ I'~Y~E C O M R O N / H B / G ~ P G G 3 I G 4 I G5 I ~ COMMUN/VAR/QD( 1000)rTD( 1000)rTDX(100) vRMODES( 100) IF (NS0L. 1 ) WRITE (61110) REFF IF (ri-i:lIH 1 ) WRITE ( ~ ~ 1 0 6 ) IF (RDIM +NE.EO* 1 ) WRITE (6.Ea. - 117 - .NvM) RETURN ENIl SLJHROUTINE OU'TFORM IMPLICIT REALt8 ( A .313Xr'TD ' ~ E ~ ~ .4) = 104 FORMAT (/I~XI'TD'~~IXI'OD') 105 FClRMAT (/I~XI'TD'.N .NE* 1 ) WRITE (6. IlEdLINE FOR CONSTANT * NCASE=l IF('I' +LTe 5 l 1 4 NCASEZ1 . FORMAT ( ' 1 C L O S E D BOUNDED RESERVOIR' ) 102 FC1SMA. n)N C A S E = ~ 20 GO TO (Pi3126t28)rNE~6H 22 u=2 * / ( (TILOG ( ' T ) t 80Y07) tSKIN) RETIJKN 2 4 O=DEXP(-. ~ I / ~ ~ X I ' R ~ ~ ' I ~ ~ X . ~ I ~ X I ' R D '~E12.110) REFF IF ( R D I M .ET.104) I F (RDIM + N E * 1) WRITE (6. .75+SKIN) F'ETUKN 26 ~ 2 . 1) WRITE (61107) RETUF: N 30 WAI'I'E (6r108) S.. ' P D " 108 FORMAT ( ' SKIN 110 F O R M A 1 ( ' OUTER RADIUSI R D = '1E12.DOUBLE PRECISION T F O R M . 1 ) WHITE (69100) IF (NSCJI-N * E n * 2 ) WRITE (6.S~XI'PD') 106 FORMA'T (/~SX~'TDA'rllX9'QD8) 107 FORMAT ( / I 5X I 'TDA' I 1 1 X I 'PD' ) 'rF6.0) IF (T ./(DLOG(REFF)tSKIN) RETURN 10 CALL LINU(TFORMpTrL2.H v O .4) END 20 . T 2 ) GO TO 10 n=l. ' I F ~ K M A .

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