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Assist. Prof. Dr. G. Gülsev Uyar Aldaş
What is technical drawing?
It is a formal and precise way of communicating information about the shape, size, features and precision of physical objects. A universal language of engineering used in the design process for solving problems, quickly and accurately visualizing objects, and conducting analysis. A graphical representation of objects and structures. It can be done by using freehand, mechanical, or computer methods
Who use technical drawing?
Sketching or Drawing
We will treat "sketching" and "drawing" as one. "Sketching" generally means freehand drawing. "Drawing" usually means using drawing instruments, from compasses to computers to bring precision to the drawings.
Manual drafting tools for technical drawing
Mechanical pencils: 0.7 and 0.5 mm, or 0.5 and 0.3 mm combinations; Pencil grades – HB and H, or F and 2H combinations) Compass and one divider One set of 45- and 30/60degree triangles Scales (one English unit and one Metric unit) Irregular curve (French curve) Protractor One good eraser
Use of drafting tools – a few examples .
Pencil grades .
The shapes and thicknesses of lines are given in TS88.1. . Sides and surfaces of these components are visible but some of them can not be seen because they are behind the back sides. General information Generally. these lines should be drawn at same thickness and shape by everyone.2. LINES 2. Pieces are composed of variable geometric component. technical drawing is the expression of bodies (or matters) by lines. drawing should be done by using variable lines (instead of using same lines). To obtain full and precise info about the piece. Moreover.
• A A Same line shapes and thicknesses are used in this drawing. A -A A A • This figure shows the same piece. one have an full idea of the piece. In this way. . which is drawn by using variable lines differ in shapes and thickness to show visible and invisible lines. axis and dimensions. Therefore it is very difficult to have an idea of the shapes and dimensions of the piece.
2.2. lines are classified as 9 types: Type of lines A Application places A1.Type of lines According to the “TS 88 technical drawing standard” published at 1978. A2.End of the screw Continuous line (thick) .Surroundings and sides of the matters.
Type of lines Application places B1.Backside section line B2.It is used when free hand lines are drawn by tool.Measure lines. C2. guide lines B3.To state the code of the places B Continuous line (thin) C1 C2 Free hand lines Zigzag line (thin) C1-To state the place that limit section and appearance of matter or to state the place teared off.Simplified axis lines B4. .At diagonal lines which are used to state plane surface B5.
D E Dash line (thin)* E1.Axis lines of symmetrical drawing Dash line with point (thin) E2. etc. To state the center of gravity . F1.To state the secondary situation of moving (thin) pieces.To draw the traces at section plane G H Dash line with point (thick) G.To state the place which will processed additionally. to harden.Invisible surrounding and sides of the matter. (to coat.) H1.To show the surroundings of neighbor pieces Dash line with two points H2.D1.In front of section planes F Section plane with thick ends and thin mid points.
They should be 3∼6 mm. 3. b.Drawing of lines a.Dash lines should be drawn at equal spaces and thickness.1..5 D1 .8.5 mm according to the size of the picture.6 0..At free hand drawing: Continuous and thick lines should be drawn by B or 2B pencil.3.2. Continuous and thin lines should be drawn by H or 2H pencil.. or 0..8~1.Thickness of lines should be drawn according to the standards... c.
d.. 7...15 111 10 111 E1 G1 10 11111 H1 .Dash lines with point should be drawn according to the size of the picture with below mentioned sizes.
2.f.Junctions of circle arcs and lines should be tangent.Intersected continuous lines should not be overflowed or uncompleted at the intercept points. Thicknesses should be same and corners should be sharp. d: Thickness of lines.Minimum space of two parallel lines should not be less than two times of the thick lines. h.d . g. d 2.
Below picture shows this type of matter: Point Plane surface Line Arc Ellipse surface Curved line Tangents Hyperbole surface Helix Sphere cover Square prism Intercept lines Parallel lines Narrow angle Inclined line Cone Wide angle Cylinder . lines and planes.3-GEOMETRICAL DRAWINGS Any matter is occurred by geometrical elements like points.
Point: It is a non-dimensional geometrical element. Various lines . It is occurred by interception of various lines.a.
b. Line: It is a 1D geometrical element occurred by moving of a point in various direction. drawn in various directions. The picture below illustrates lines. Parallel lines Narrow Wide angle angle Vertical Intercept angle lines Curved line HorizontalVertical line line Vertical lines Zig zag line Curved line . and other geometrical elements occurred by these lines.
shape and name of the plane will change. The connection of infinite points at certain conditions form circle. When the number of element forming a plane increases. The connection of four points at certain conditions form square. Plane: A plane is occurred by at least three points or connection of one point and one line. The connection of three points at certain conditions form triangle. A plane is always 2D.c. A A D A Circle Square Triangle B 3 Point C B 4 Point C Infinite point .
1.Drawing of parallel lines .1.Geometrical drawings related with lines 3.3.1.
. obtain point D. Open the compass with arc R.1. P I. A B 2. Accept point C as center. Drawing parallel line to a line from any P point (outside from the line): Accept point P as center. Draw another arc that cross point P and intercept AB line. intercept AB line and obtain point C.1. find point E. Connect the point P with point E.1. Put the compass to point C and intercept arc b.Drawing parallel line with compasses a. don’t move the compass. Way: 1. P r a R R b E r B 3.3. Open the compass as PD arc. A D C 4.
C D B . B 3. P E 4. Draw any line crossing point P. intercepting line AB. Connect point P and E. A A 2. obtain point D. Open the compass as CP. Accept point P and D as center. draw an arc. Way: P 1. respectively and find point E with intercepted arcs.II. Accept point C as center.
F a a B 4. Draw two arcs by accepting C and D points as center. E A a B 3.b. Drawing a parallel line to a line with a known distance. A C D . “a”. Open the compass as “a”. 2. Mark any C and D points on AB line. respectively. Draw EF tangent to these arcs. 1.
By accepting D and G points as center.1. respectively. Draw D and G point on line AB. .2. A D P G B Accept P point as center.Drawing of vertical lines with compass: To draw vertical line from the point on a line: 1.Drawing of vertical lines a. draw two arcs that are intercepted outside from AB line and form F Connect point D and F.3. F 3. 2.
Drawing a vertical line at the end of a line : I. Connect point P and D. Mark point D at the intersection point. draw an arc crossing point P and previous arc. 2. Connect point B and C and prolong this new line. Draw arc R and mark point B. Don’t move compass angle. draw an arc intercepting BC line. P D R C R R A B P 4. 3. way: 1. . Obtain point C.b. accept point B as center. 5. Accept point P as center. Accept point C as center.
A B P E C D 3. Open the compass as R amount and mark point B. Way: E 1. R C R D 2. Connect point P and E. Don’t move the compass. accepting B. Obtain point E. respectively. Accept point P as center. C and D as center. A B P .II. draw the arcs intersecting each other.
Draw an arc crossing line AB. 1.c. Drawing a vertical line to a line from an outside location Accept point P as center. Mark points C and D. P 2. Connect point E and P. Draw two arcs intercepting each other. respectively. Mark point E. A C D B E . 3. Accept point C and D as center.
obtain point E. . Connect the intercepting point and obtain point C. 4. Open the compass as little more than half of the line.3. Accept point A and B as center. A C D AD=DC B 3. E D C B AE=E D Repeat the same procedure for AD line. you can divide the line AB to two equal pieces. Draw intersecting two arcs. respectively. Obtain point D. the same procedure for AC Repeat line. A 5. In this way.3.1. A C AC=CB B 2. four and eight equal pieces: 1.Divide the lines to equal pieces: Dividing a line to two.
3.1.Types of angles: According to the situation of lines crossing each other. three types of angles occur. These angles are seen at the side pictures.2. A B Vertical angle 90 C 0 ı A Arms of the angle 2 2 B Wide angle A B Hill pointC C .GEOMETRICAL DRAWINGS RELATED WITH ANGLES 3.2.
Obtain point C. AB side is known.2. Open the compass as AB.2. A II B .1. (with compass) : C R 1. respectively. R A I C B 2.Drawing of triangles 3.3.Equilateral triangle a.2. Draw two arcs by considering A and B as center. Connect point C with A and B.2. Drawing of equilateral triangle-one side given.
The length between A and B points.. Point C. C 2. crossing the circle at two points. R R 3. Drawing of equilateral triangle in a circle (or.b. is connected with A and B points. A B 4. Draw an arc. diving a circle to three equal pieces) : 1. which is the opposite of the center. Open the compass as radius (R) of the circle. . is the beam length. Accept the intersecting point of the circle with lateral or vertical axis of the circle as center. obtained from previous step.
2. 3. Draw side AB. Connect point C with point B. C 4.2. 2.2. A Mark AC side with the help of compass at this vertical line. A B . Drawing of a perpendicular triangle of which two perpendicular sides are given: 1.Perpendicular triangle a.3. A C B Draw a vertical line at point A. Obtain point C.
1. 3. Draw a circle with radius R. A Mark any point on the circle. as A... Drawing a perpendicular triangle in a circle. Connect the point A with points B and C. C B . which are the crossing of circle with radius.b. 2.
4-DRAWING HANDOUTS INDEX Projection Orthographic or multi view drawings Pictorial drawings Isometric Oblique Perspective Dimensioning Sectioning .
and there is often some distortion of the object. For instance. a circular hole becomes an ellipse in an isometric 3-D projection. 3-D projections are useful in that they provide an image that is similar to the image in the designer’s mind’s eye. whether it is freehand sketching or CAD. Projection The goal in engineering graphics. Two definition are used in projection: Orthographic projection Pictorial projection .4. Multiview projections are used to overcome the weaknesses of 3-D projections. is to represent a physical object. Objects can be shown as 3-D projections or Multiview projections. Multiview projections are a collection of flat 2-D drawings of the different sides of an object Projection is the representation of a figure or solid on a plane as it would look from a particular direction.1. But 3-D projections are often weak in providing adequate details of the object.
Orthographic or multi view projection Orthographic projection is a method of producing a number of separate 2D inter-related views. .1. Orthographic projection is based on two principal planes — one horizontal (HP) and one vertical (VP) — intersecting each other and forming right angles and quadrants as shown in Figure 3. does not create an immediate three -dimensional visual picture of the object.4. This method. however. even the most complex shape can be fully described.1.1. as does pictorial projection. Using this projection. which are mutually at right angles to each other.
1.1.Orthographic or multi view projection Imagine that you have an object suspended by transparent threads inside a glass box. as in figure 4. .4.
Unfold the box (figure 5) and you have the three views.Draw the object on each of three faces as seen from that direction. We call this an "orthographic" or "multi view" drawing. .
.Figure 6 shows how the three views appear on a piece of paper after unfolding the box.
some objects need only two views. For example. Three views are not always necessary.Question: Which views should one choose for a multiview drawing? Answer: The views that reveal every detail about the object. we need only as many views as are required to describe the object fully. The circular object in figure 7 requires only two views. . while others need four.
2 Pictorial Drawings Shows an object like you would see in a photograph Give a three dimensional view of a room or structure Three common types Isometric Oblique Perspective .4.1.
Pictorial Sketch of Kitchen .
. In an isometric drawing.Isometric Drawing The representation of the machined block (figure 1) as an object in figure 2 is called an isometric drawing. the lines parallel to these three axes are at their true (scale) lengths. the object's vertical lines are drawn vertically. When drawn under these guidelines. Lines that are not parallel to these axes will not be of their true length.a. and the horizontal lines in the width and depth planes are shown at 30 degrees to the horizontal.
Isometric of a Cube .
In order to get a more complete view of the object.Any engineering drawing should show everything: a complete understanding of the object should be possible from the drawing. If the isometric drawing can show all details and all dimensions on one drawing. an orthographic projection may be used. it is ideal. if the object in figure 2 had a hole on the back side. . However. it would not be visible using a single isometric drawing.
b.Oblique Drawings The front view is drawn like it would be using orthographic projection The front view shows all features with true shape and size The top and side view are then projected back from the front view Views can be at any angle 15. 30 or 45 degrees are common Two types of oblique drawings cavalier cabinet .
Useful when the front contains more details and features than the side view A mental image can be created more quickly than with orthographic alone .
Cavalier Oblique The entire drawing uses the same scale Sometimes creates a distorted appearance .
Cabinet Oblique Measurements on the receding axes are reduced by half More visually realistic representation Often used for drawing cabinets .
c-Perspective Drawings The most realistic of all pictorial drawings Receding lines in the drawing “meet” at a vanishing point instead of being parallel Eliminates distortion at the back part of pictorial drawings Two types parallel (one-point) perspective angular (two point) perspective .
Parallel Perspective (One Point) One face of the object is shown as the front view Lines parallel to the front view remain parallel Lines that are perpendicular to the front view converge at a SINGLE VANISHING POINT .
Angular Perspective (Two-Point) Similar to isometric drawings One edge of the object is place in front The two faces that meet at this edge recede to DIFFERENT VANISHING POINTS All lines parallel to each face go to the different vanishing points .
Angular Perspective Drawing .
no less.4. try to think that you would make an object and dimension it in the most useful way. Dimensioning We have "dimensioned" the object in the isometric drawing in figure 8.2. As a general guideline to dimensioning. . Put in exactly as many dimensions as are necessary for the craftsperson to make it -no more. Do not put in redundant dimensions.
where the interior details are intricate and would be very difficult to understand through the use of "hidden" lines (hidden lines are. . We can get around this by pretending to cut the object on a plane and showing the "sectional view". Sectioning There are many times when the interior details of an object cannot be seen from the outside (figure 9). by convention. dotted) on an orthographic or isometric drawing.3.4. The sectional view is applicable to objects like engine blocks.
Imagine slicing the object in the middle (figure 10) Take away the front half (figure 11) .
mkn.plymouth.htm www.tr/~mkimrak/MAK112E_dersnotu.pdf .uk/dmme/dsgn131/DSGN131_Course_Notes.edu.ac.tech.itu.REFERENCES Bağcı M.pdf .. Bağcı C. MIT OpenCourseWare: http://www. “Teknik Resim I-II”. 1982.2006-11-09 http://www.ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/Mechanical-Engineering/2007Spring-2005/929103E2-EBAD-40DE-88BFE2258E0FEC49/0/drawings.
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