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Sections

  • 1.1.1 TOOL WEAR PHENOMENA
  • 1.1.2 WEAR MECHANISM
  • 1.1.3 PREDICTION OF TOOL WEAR
  • 1.1.4 TOOL WEAR MODELS
  • 1.2.1 CONSEQUENCES OF TOOL WEAR
  • 1.2.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF TOOL WEAR
  • 1.3.1 HEAT GENERATION IN MACHINING
  • 1.3.2 ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
  • 1.3.3 HEAT TRANSFER IN MACHINING
  • 1.3.4 HEAT EFFECTS
  • 1.3.5 Finite Element Method in Thermal Analysis
  • 2.1 MODELS FOR DETERMINATION OF TEMPERATURE FIELD
  • 2.2 APPLICATION OF FEM FOR TOOL WEAR RESEARCH
  • 2.3 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE
  • 3.1 INSTRUMENTATION
  • 3.2.1 PLANNING OF EXPERIMENT
  • 3.2.2 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
  • 3.2.3 EXPERIMENT METHODOLOGY
  • 4.1 GOVERNING EQUATION FOR THE HEAT TRANSFER
  • 4.2 BOUNDARY CONDITION
  • 4.3 FEM FORMULATION
  • 4.4 HARDNESS OF TOOL
  • 4.5 SOLUTION SCHEME
  • 4.6 FLOW CHART OF SOLUTION PROCEDURE
  • 5.1 MACHINING PARAMETERS USED FOR EXPERIMENTATION
  • 5.2 MODELLING OF SOLUTION DOMAIN USING FEM
  • 5.3 VALIDATION OF RESULTS
  • 5.4 VARIATION OF HARDNESS WITH FLANK-EDGE DISTANCE
  • 5.5 VARIATION OF TEMPERATURE WITH CUTTING FORCE
  • 5.6 VARIATION OF FLANK WEAR WITH CUTTING FORCE
  • 5.7 VARIATION OF FLANK WEAR WITH MODIFIED CUTTING TOOL TEMPERATURE
  • 5.8 REGRESSION EQUATION
  • 5.9 VARIATION OF TEMPERATURE WITH CUTTING VELOCITY
  • 5.10 VARIATION OF FLANK WEAR WITH CUTTING VELOCITY (FOR CONSTANT FEED RATE)
  • 5.11 VARIATION OF FLANK WEAR WITH CUTTING VELOCITY (FOR CONSTANT DEPTH OF CUTS)
  • 5.12 CONCLUSIONS
  • 5.13 SCOPE FOR FURTHER WORK

1

THERMAL MODELING & ANALYSIS OF
CARBIDE TOOL USING FINITE ELEMENT
METHOD
A Thesis
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree
of
MASTER OF ENGINEERING
IN
CAD/CAM & ROBOTICS ENGINEERING

Submitted By
Amit Gupta
Roll No. 8038102

Under the supervision of

Mr.Gaurav Bartarya Mr. Ravinder K Duvedi
Lecturer, MED Lecturer, MED
T.I.E.T., Patiala T.I.E.T., Patiala

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
THAPAR INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
(Deemed University)
PATIALA-147004, (INDIA)
June 2005



2
CERTIFICATE


This is to certify that the seminar entitled “ Thermal Modeling & Analysis of Carbide
Tool Using Finite Element Method ”, being submitted by Mr. Amit Gupta in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering
(CAD/CAM & Robotics Engineering) at Thapar Institute of Engineering and
Technology (Deemed University), Patiala (INDIA) is a bonafide work carried out by
him under our guidance and supervision and that no part of this thesis has been submitted
for the award of any other degree .





(Mr. Gaurav Bartarya) (Mr. Ravinder Kumar Duvedi)
Lecturer, MED Lecturer, MED
T.I.E.T. Patiala-147004(PUNJAB) T.I.E.T. Patiala-147004(PUNJAB)





(Dr. S. K. Mohapatra) (Dr. D. S Bawa)
Professor& Head, MED Dean Academic Affairs
T.I.E.T. Patiala-147004(PUNJAB) T.I.E.T. Patiala-147004(PUNJAB)







3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my sincere gratitude to my guide, Mr. Gaurav Bartarya, and Mr.
Ravinder Kumar Duwedi, Mechanical Engineering Department, Thapar Institute of
Engineering & Technology for his valuable guidance, proper advice, and careful
reviews of my work at all stages, and their highly appreciated instruction and constant
encouragement during the course of my work on this thesis.
I am highly thankful to Dr. Vijay Jadon, Asst. Prof., Mechanical Engineering
Department, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala for his expert
advice, technical suggestions and moral support during my thesis work.
Especially, I want to express my deepest appreciation and thanks to my supervisor
Mr. Sukhdev Chand for his support and untiring help in conducting my experiments. I
do not find enough words with which I can express my feeling of thanks to all my
teachers and friends at T.I.E.T., for their help, inspiration and moral support which went a
long way in completion of my thesis.
I am also thankful to the authors whose works I have consulted and quoted in this
work. I also extend my thanks to all faculty and staff members of Mechanical
Engineering Department, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, for their direct
and indirect help and cooperation.






(Amit Gupta)










4
ABSTRACT
The problem of tool wear monitoring in machining operations, has been an active
area of research for quite a long time. The accurate prediction of tool wear is important to
have a better product quality and dimensional accuracy. In cutting tools the area close to
the tool tip is the most important region and conditions at the tool tip must be carefully
examined, if improvements in tool performance are to be achieved
The present work involves the study of tool wear caused by the change in
hardness of single point cutting tool for a turning operation to predict the tool life in
orthogonal cutting based on the heat transfer analysis using Finite Element Method
(FEM). The Experiments were performed with EN-24 steel as workpiece and Carbide
uncoated tool bit as a tool material and the flank wear has been measured experimentally.
An empirical relation is used to determine temperature at tool-tip and further Finite
Element Method is used to determine the distribution of temperature over the surface of
tool and its impact on hardness which is related by an empirical relations.
The study shows the effect of Modified temperature due to strain rate on carbide
tool to describe the thermal softening of tool material and becomes prone to wear. The
results reveal that by increasing process variables in machining the wear and temperature
increases causing thermal softening of tool causing it to wear.
The results obtained have been verified with the available results from literature
for the variation of wear with the temperature and thermal softening of carbide tool. The
results prescribed demonstrate the significance of cutting parameters (speed, feed and
depth of cut) in thermal analysis for study of the cutting tool wear.











5
INDEX

CONTENTS PAGE NO.
NOMENCLATURE (i)
LIST OF FIGURES (ii)
LIST OF TABLES (iii)
CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1 - 14
1.1 Tool Wear
1.1.1 Tool Wear Phenomena 2-4
1.1.2 Wear Mechanism 4-6
1.1.3 Prediction of Tool Wear 6-8
1.1.4 Tool Wear Models 8-10
1.2 Effects of the tool wear on technological performance
1.2.1 Consequences of tool wear 10-11
1.2.2 Characteristics of tool wear 11
1.3 Thermal analysis
1.3.1 Heat Generation in Machining 11-12
1.3.2 Analysis Techniques 12-13
1.3.3 Heat Transfer in Machining 13
1.3.4 Heat Effects 14
1.3.5 Finite Element Method in Thermal Analysis 14
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 15-23
2.1 Models for determination of temperature field 15-17
2.2 Application of FEM for tool wear research 17-23
2.3 Summary of Literature 23
CHAPTER 3: INSTRUMENTATION AND EXPERIMENTATION 24-28
3.1 Instrumentation
3.1.1 Force measurement 24-26
3.2 Experimentation
3.2.1 Planning of experiment 26
3.2.2 Experimental procedure 26-27
3.2.3 Experiment Methodology 27-28




6
CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS 29-38
4.1 Governing equation for the heat transfer 29
4.2 Boundary condition 29-30
4.3 FEM formulation 30-37
4.4 Hardness of tool 37
4.5 Solution Scheme 37
4.6 Flow chart of Program 38
CHAPTER 5: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 39-50
5.1 Machining parameters used for experimentation 39-41
5.2 Modeling of solution domain using FEM 41-42
5.3 Validation of results 42
5.4 Variation of Hardness with Flank-Edge Distance 42-43
5.5 Variation of Temperature with Cutting Force 43-44
5.6 Variation of Flank Wear with Cutting Force 44
5.7 Variation of Flank Wear with Modified Cutting Tool Temperature 44-45
5.8 Regression Equation 45
5.9 Variation of Temperature with Cutting Velocity 45-47
5.10 Variation of Flank Wear with Cutting Velocity (for Const. feed rate) 47-48
5.11 Variation of Flank Wear with Cutting Velocity (for Const.depth of cuts)48-49
5.12 Conclusions 49
5.13 Scope for Further Work 50


APPENDIX A 51
APPENDIX B 52
APPENDIX C 53


REFERENCES 54-57







7
NOMENCLATURE

DIMENSIONAL PARAMETERS
Z Y X , , : Cartesian coordinate system
η ξ, : Local coordinates
Γ Ω, : Solution Domains
K : Conductivity coefficient
h : Convection coefficient
V : Cutting velocity
d : Depth of cut
f : Feed rate
φ : Shear Angle
α : Rake Angle
Q : Internal heat
.
γ : Strain Rate
.
o
γ : Reference Strain Rate
ν : Poisson’s Ratio
MATRICES AND VECTORS
| | J : Jacobian matrix
| | N : Shape function matrix
| |
c
K : Conductivity matrix
| |
h
K : Convection matrix
{ }
h
R : Convection load vector
{ }
q
R : Heat flux load vector
{ } T : Nodal pressure vector



(i)



8
LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 1.1: Types of Tool Wear 3
Fig 1.2: Behaviour of Flank wear 3
Fig 1.3: Wear mechanisms 6
Fig 1.4: Influencing elements of tool wear 7
Fig 1.5: Zones of heat generation & dissipation during the metal cutting process 12
Fig 2.1: Schematic of cutting tool with zero degree rake angle, where w is the
Tool widths, VB the flank wear and θ is the relief angle 21
Fig 3.1 Wheatstone bridge 25
Fig 3.2 Dynamometer 25
Fig 3.3 Dimensions of the workpiece 27
Fig 3.4 Schematic diagram of the lathe and equipment setup 28
Fig.4.1 Model of chip formation used in Oxley’s analysis for Orth. machining 29
Fig 5.1 Relationship between Cutting tool temperature and flank distance 42
Fig 5.2 Relation between hardness and flank distance 43
Fig 5.3 Variation of Temperature with resultant cutting force 43
Fig 5.4 Variation of Flank Wear with the resultant cutting force 44
Fig 5.5 Variation of flank Wear with respect to modified temperature 44
Fig 5.6 Relation between Cutting velocity and temperature at feed rate (f = -1) 45
Fig 5.7 Relation between Cutting velocity and temperature at feed rate (f = +1) 46
Fig 5.8 Variation of Temperature versus cutting velocity at depth of cut (d = -1) 46
Fig 5.9 Variation of Temperature versus cutting velocity at depth of cut (d = +1) 47
Fig 5.10 Variation of flank wear with cutting velocity at constant feed rate(f = -1) 47
Fig 5.11 Variation of flank wear with cutting velocity at constant feed rate(f= +1) 48
Fig 5.12 Variation of flank wear with cutting velocity at constant depth of cut(d = -1) 48
Fig 5.13 Variation of flank wear with cutting velocity at constant depth of cut (d = +1) 49
FigA-C.1 Convection faces used in FEM analysis of Carbide cutting tool 53


(ii)



9
LIST OF TABLES


Table 1.1 Tool life and Tool wear rate models 9
Table 5.1 Cutting parameters 39
Table 5.2 Experimental Results of measured parameters against parameters V, f and d 40

























(iii)



10
CHAPTER - 1
INTRODUCTION
Tool wear monitoring/sensing should be one of the primary objectives in order to
produce the required end products in an automated industry so that a new tool may be
introduced at the instant at which the existing tool has worn out, thus preventing any
hazards occurring to the machine or deterioration of the surface finish. Cutting tools may
fail due to the plastic deformation, mechanical breakage, cutting edge blunting, and tool
brittle fracture or due to the rise in the interface temperatures.
Throughout the world today, there is a continuous struggle for cheaper production
with better quality. This can be achieved only through optimal utilization of both material
and human resources. Machining operations comprise a substantial portion of the world’s
manufacturing infrastructure. They create about 15% of the value of all mechanical
components manufactured worldwide. Because of its great economic and technical
importance, a large amount of research has been carried out in order to optimize cutting
process in terms of improving quality, increasing productivity and lowering cost.
Tool wear influences cutting power, machining quality, tool life and machining
cost. When tool wear reaches a certain value, increasing cutting force, vibration and
cutting temperature cause surface integrity deteriorated and dimension error greater than
tolerance. The life of the cutting tool comes to an end. Then the cutting tool must be
replaced or ground and the cutting process is interrupted. The cost and time for tool
replacement and adjusting machine tool increases cost and decreases the productivity.
Hence tool wear relates to the economic of machining and prediction of tool wear is of
great significance for the optimization of cutting process.
At present, the prediction of tool wear is performed by calculating tool life
according to experiment and empirical tool life equations such as Taylor’s equation or its
extension versions. Although Taylor’s equation gives the simple relationship between
tool life and a certain cutting parameters, e.g. cutting speed, and is very easy to use, it
gives only the information about tool life. For the researcher and tool manufacturer tool
wear progress and tool wear profile are also concerned. Tool life equation gives no
information about the wear mechanism. But capability of predicting the contributions of
various wear mechanism is very helpful for the design of cutting tool material and



11
geometry. In addition, such tool life equations are valid under very limited cutting
conditions. For example, when tool geometry is changed, new equation must be
established by making experiment.
Mostly researchers concentrate on the study of wear mechanism and investigate
the mathematical relationship between wear due to various wear mechanisms and some
cutting process variables such as relative sliding velocity of workpiece material along
tool face, cutting temperature of tool face and normal pressure on tool face. Some tool
wear equations related to one or several wear mechanisms are also developed, such as
Usui’s tool wear equation [15], and [19].
In the recent decades, with the emergency of more and more powerful computer
and the development of numerical technique, numerical methods such as finite element
method (FEM), finite difference method (FDM) and artificial Intelligence (AI) are widely
used in machining industry. Among them, FEM has become a powerful tool in the
simulation of cutting process because various variables in the cutting process such as
cutting force, cutting temperature, strain, strain rate, stress, etc can be predicted by
performing chip formation and heat transfer analysis in metal cutting, including those
very difficult to detect by experimental method. Therefore a new tool wear prediction
method may be developed by integrating FEM simulation of cutting process with tool
wear model.
1.1 TOOL WEAR
Cutting tools are subjected to an extremely severe rubbing process. They are in
metal-to-metal contact, between the chip and work piece, under conditions of very high
stress at high temperature. The situation is further aggravated due to the existence of
extreme stress and temperature gradients near the surface of the tool. During cutting,
cutting tools remove the material from the component to achieve the required shape,
dimension and finish. However, wears are occurring during the cutting action, and it will
result in the failure of the cutting tool. When the tool wear reach certain extent, the tool
or edge change has to be replaced to guarantee the ordinary cutting action.
1.1.1 TOOL WEAR PHENOMENA
Under high temperature, high pressure, high sliding velocity and mechanical or
thermal shock in cutting area, cutting tool has normally complex wear appearance, which



12
consists of some basic wear types such as crater wear, flank wear, thermal crack, brittle
crack, fatigue crack, insert breakage, plastic deformation and build-up edge. The
dominating basic wear types vary with the change of cutting conditions. Crater wear and
flank wear shown in figure1.1 are the most common wear types [28].

Figure1.1: Types of Tool Wear

• Crater wear: In continuous cutting, for example in turning operation, crater wear
normally forms on rake face. It conforms to the shape of the chip underside and reaches
the maximum depth at a distance away from the cutting edge where highest temperature
occurs. At high cutting speed, crater wear is often the factor that determines the life of the
cutting tool, because the tool edge is weakened by the severe cratering and eventually
fractures. Crater wear is improved by selecting suitable cutting parameters and using
coated tool or ultra-hard material tool. Crater wear and flank wear shown in figure1.1 are
the most common wear types.

Figure 1.2: Behaviour of Flank wear



13
• Flank wear: Flank wear is caused by the friction between the newly machined work
piece surface and the tool flank face. It is responsible for a poor surface finish, a decrease
in the dimension accuracy of the tool and an increase in cutting force, temperature and
vibration. Hence the width of the flank wear land “VB” is usually taken as a measure of
the amount of wear and a threshold value of the width is defined as tool reshape criterion.
Figure1.2 shows a variation of flank wear rate with cutting time, showing the initial wear,
steady wear, and severe wear periods.
1.1.2 WEAR MECHANISM
In order to find out suitable way to slow down the wear process, many research
works are carried out to analyze the wear mechanism in metal cutting. It is found that tool
wear is not formed by a unique tool wear mechanism but a combination of several tool
wear mechanisms.
Tool wear mechanisms in metal cutting include abrasive wear, adhesive wear,
delamination wear, solution wear, diffusion wear, oxidation wear, electrochemical wear,
etc. Among them, abrasive wear, adhesive wear, diffusion wear and oxidation wear are
very important.
• Abrasive wear: Abrasive wear is mainly caused by the impurities within the
workpiece material, such as carbon, nitride and oxide compounds, as well as the built-up
fragments. This is a mechanical wear, and it is the main cause of the tool wear at low
cutting speed.
• Adhesive wear: The simple mechanism of friction and wear proposed by Bowden
and Tabor is based on the concept of the formation of welded junctions and subsequent
destruction of these. Due to the high pressure and temperature, welding occurs between
the fresh surface of the chip and rake face because of the chip flowing on the rake face
results in chemically clean surface.
Severe wear is characterized by considerable welding and tearing of the softer
rubbing surface at high wear rate, and the formation of relatively large wear particles.
Adhesion wear occurs mainly at low machining temperatures on tool rake face, such built
up edge (BUE).Under mild wear conditions, the surface finish of the sliding surfaces
improves.



14
• Diffusion wear: Wear is a process of atomic transfer at contacting asperities. A
number of workers have considered that the mechanism of tool wear must involve
chemical action and diffusion. They have demonstrated welding and preferred chemical
attack of (W) tungsten carbide in (W-Ti) tungsten-titanium carbides. There are several
ways in which the wear may be dependent on the diffusion mechanism.
(i) Gross softening of the tool: Diffusion of carbon in a relatively deep surface layer of
the tool may cause softening and subsequent plastic flow of the tool. This flow may
produce major changes in the tool geometry, which result in high forces and a sudden
complete failure of the tool.
(ii) Diffusion of major tool constituents into the work (Chemical element loss): The
tool matrix or a major strengthening constituent may be dissolved into the work and chip
surfaces as they pass the tool. In cast alloy, carbide or ceramic tools, this may be the
prime wear phenomenon. With HSS tools, iron diffusion is possible, but it seems unlikely
to be the predominant wear process. Diamond tool – cutting iron and steel is the typical
example of diffusion wear.
(iii) Diffusion of a work-material component into the tool: A constituent of the work
material diffusing into the tool may alter the physical properties of a surface layer of the
tool. For example, the diffusion of lead into the tool may produce a thin brittle surface
layer, this thin layer can be removed by fracture or chipping.

• Oxidation wear: High temperatures and the presence of air mean oxidation for most
metals. A slight oxidation of tool face is helpful to reduce the tool wear. It reduces
adhesion, diffusion and current by isolating the tool and the workpiece. But at high
temperature soft oxide layers, for example Co
3
O
4
, WO3, TiO
2
, are formed rapidly, and
then taken away by the chip and the workpiece. This results in a rapid tool material loss,
which is oxidation wear.
• Chemical wear: Corrosive wear (due to chemical attack of a surface)
• Fatigue wear: Fatigue wear is often a thermo-mechanical combination. Temperature
fluctuations and the loading and unloading of cutting forces can lead to cutting edge
cracking and breaking. Intermittent cutting action leads to continual generation of heat
and cooling as well as shocks of cutting edge engagement.



15
Under different cutting conditions dominating wear mechanisms are different. For
a certain combination of cutting tool and workpiece, the dominating wear mechanisms
vary with cutting temperature, as shown in figure1.3. According to the temperature
distribution on the tool face, it is assumed that crater wear is mainly caused by abrasive
wear, diffusion wear and oxidation wear, but flank wear mainly dominated by abrasive
wear due to hard second phase in the workpiece material.


Figure 1.3: Wear mechanisms


1.1.3 PREDICTION OF TOOL WEAR
Prediction of tool wear is complex because of the complexity of machining
system [15]. Tool wear in cutting process is produced by the contact and relative sliding
between the cutting tool and the work piece and between the cutting tool and the chip
under the extreme conditions of cutting area; temperature at the cutting edge can exceed
530°C and pressure is greater than 13.79 N/mm
2
. Any element changing contact
conditions in cutting area affects tool wear. Figure 1.4 shows influencing elements of the
tool wear [15]. These elements come from the whole machining system comprising
workpiece, tool, interface and machine tool:
• Workpiece: It includes the workpiece material and its physical properties
(mechanical and thermal properties, microstructure, hardness, etc), which determine
cutting force and energy for the applied cutting conditions.



16

Figure 1.4: Influencing elements of tool wear

• Tool: Tool material, tool coatings and tool geometric design (edge preparation, rake
angle, etc) need to be appropriately chosen for different operations (roughing, semi-
roughing, or finishing). The optimal performance of a cutting tool requires a right
combination of the above tool parameters and cutting conditions (cutting speed, feed rate,
depth of cut)
• Interface: It involves the interface conditions. In 80% of the industrial cutting
applications, coolants are used to decrease cutting temperatures and likely reduce tool
wear. Increasingly new technologies, such as the minimum liquid lubrication, have been
developed to reduce the cost of coolant that makes up to 16% of the total machining
costs.
• Dynamic: The dynamic characteristic of the machine tool, affected by the machine
tool structure and all the components taking part in the cutting process, plays an
important role for a successful cutting. Instable cutting processes with large vibrations
(chatters) result in a fluctuating overload on the cutting tool and often lead to the
premature failure of the cutting edge by tool chipping and excessive tool wear.
The problem of tool wear monitoring in machining operation has been active area
of research. This is because tool change strategies, product quality, tooling costs, and



17
productivity are all influenced by tool wear. Reduction in production cost and increase in
productivity can be realized by making the most use of a tool’s life and therefore
increasing the time between tool changes.

1.1.4 TOOL WEAR MODELS
Many mathematical models are developed to describe tool wear in quantity. They
can be categorized into two types: Tool life models and Tool wear rate models, and have
been elaborated below.
Tool life models: This type of wear models gives the relationship between tool life and
cutting parameters or variables. For example, Taylor’s tool life equation reveals the
exponential relationship between tool life and cutting speed, and Hastings tool life
equation describes the great effect of cutting temperature on tool life [19], as shown in
table 1.1. The constants n, C
1
, A and B are defined by doing a lot of experiments with
cutting speed changing and fitting the experimental data with the equation. It is very
convenient to predict tool life by using this equation. In various sizes of cutting database,
Taylor’s tool life equation and its extension versions under different cutting conditions
appear most frequently.
Tool life equations are suitable to very limited range of cutting conditions. As the
new machining technologies, e.g. high-speed-cutting or dry cutting, are getting spread in
manufacturing industry, the existing tool life equations need to be updated with new
constants and a lot of experimental work has to be done. In addition, except that tool life
can be predicted by these equations, it is difficult to get further information about the tool
wear progress, tool wear profile or tool wear mechanisms that are sometimes important
for tool designers.
Tool wear-rate models: These models are derived from one or several wear
mechanisms. They provide the information about wear growth rate due to some wear
mechanisms. In these modes, the wear growth rate, i.e. the rate of volume loss at the tool
face (rake or flank) per unit contact area per unit time (mm/min), are related to several
cutting process variables that have to be decided by experiment or using some methods.





18
Table 1.1: Tool life and Tool wear rate models
Empirical Tool Life Models Tool Wear Rate Models
Taylor’s basic equation:
VL
n
= C
1
( n,C
1
= Constants )
Taylor’s extended equation:
r q p
d f V
C
L
2
= ( p,q,r,C
2
= constants)
Takeyama & Murata’s wear model
(considering abrasive wear and
diffusive wear):
|
¹
|

\
| −
+ =
RT
E
D f v G
dt
dW
exp ) , (
(G,D =constants)
Taylor’s extended equation:
r q p m
BHN d f L
C
V
) 200 / (
3
=
( m,p,q,r,C
3
= constants)
Temperature-based equation(known as
Hasting’s tool life equation):
A TL
B
=
( A,B =constants)
Usui’s wear model
(considering adhesive wear):

|
¹
|

\
| −
=
T
B
V A
dt
dW
s n
exp σ
(A,B = Constants)

V = Cutting speed ,L = Tool life ,
n
σ = Normal Stress, f = Feed rate, d = Depth of cut
T = Cutting temperature ,BHN = Workpiece hardness, E = process activation energy
Vs = sliding velocity ,R = universal gas constant ,
dW/dt = wear rate (volume loss per unit contact area per unit time)


Takeyama & Murata’s model is developed by considering the combination action
of abrasive wear and diffusive wear. Therefore the equation sums two parts up. One part
shows that abrasive wear is influenced by the cutting speed and feed. Another part
including universal gas constant and tool temperature describes diffusive wear.
Usui’s equation includes three variables: Sliding velocity between the chip and
the cutting tool, tool temperature and normal pressure on tool face. These variables can
be predicted by FEM simulation of cutting process or combining analytical method and
FDM. Therefore Usui’s equation is very practical for the implementation of tool wear
estimation by using FEM or by using the combination of FDM and analytical method.



19
The constants in tool wear rate models are depending on the combination of workpiece
and cutting tool material.

1.2 EFFECTS OF TOOL WEAR ON TECHNOLOGICAL
PERFORMANCE
1.2.1 CONSEQUENCES OF TOOL WEAR
• Decrease the dimension accuracy;
• Increase the surface roughness;
• Increase the cutting force;
• Increase the temperature;
• Likely cause vibration;
• Lower the production efficiency, component quality;
• Increase the cost.
Influence on cutting forces: Flank wear (or wear-land formation) and chipping of the
cutting edge affect the performance of the cutting tool in various ways. The cutting forces
are normally increased by wear of the tool. Crater wear may, however, under certain
circumstances, reduce forces by effectively increasing the rake angle of the tool.
Clearance-face (flank or wear-land) wear and chipping almost invariably increase the
cutting forces due to increased rubbing forces.
Surface finish (roughness): The surface finish produced in a machining operation
usually deteriorates as the tool wears. This is particularly true of a tool worn by chipping
and generally the case for a tool with flank-land wear – although there are circumstances
in which a wear land may burnish (polish) the workpiece and produces a good finish.
Dimension accuracy: Flank wear influences the plan geometry of a tool this may affect
the dimensions of the component produced in a machine with set cutting tool position or
it may influence the shape of the components produced in an operation utilizing a form
tool.
Vibration or chatter: The vibration is another aspect of the cutting process which may
be influenced by flank wear. A wear land increases the tendency of a tool to dynamic



20
instability. A cutting operation which is quite free of vibration when the tool is sharp may
be subjected to an unacceptable chatter mode when the tool wears.
1.2.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF TOOL WEAR
• Huge contact stress at the rake and flank surface
• High temperature (800-1000 °C for carbide and steel combination)
Hence, generalized wear theory cannot be directly used for accurate study of the
tool wear.

1.3 THERMAL ANALYSIS:
In machining operations, mechanical work is converted to heat through the plastic
deformation involved in chip formation and through friction between the tool and
workpiece. Some of this heat conducts into cutting tool, resulting in high tool
temperatures near cutting edge. Elevated tool temperatures have negative impact on a
tool life. The temperature of the tool plays an important role in the thermal distortion and
the, machined part’s dimensional accuracy, as well as in the tool life in machining. Tools
become softer and wear more rapidly by abrasion as temperatures are increased, and in
many cases constituents of the tool life may diffuse into the chip or react chemically with
the workpiece or cutting fluid.
1.3.1 HEAT GENERATION IN MACHINING
Heat generation while machining has significant influence on machining. It can
increases tool wear and thereby reducing tool life [17]. It gives rise to thermal softening
of cutting tool. It is commonly accepted that both the wear and failure mechanisms which
develop in cutting tools are predominantly influenced by temperature and it also results in
modification to the properties of workpiece and tool material such as hardness. In order
to predict the wear and failure characteristics of a tool, it is necessary to quantify the
temperatures which develop during the cutting operation.
In machining operations, mechanical work is converted to heat through the plastic
deformation involved in chip formation and through friction between the tool and
workpiece. Figure 1.5 shows three regions of heat generation in turning; which are, the
shear zone, the chip-tool interface and the tool-workpiece interface zone [17]:



21
• The shear zone: The shear zone, where the main plastic deformation takes place due
to shear energy. This heat raises the temperature of the chip. Part of this heat is carried
away by the chip when it moves upward along the tool. Considering a continuous type
chip, as the cutting speed increases for a given rate of feed, the chip thickness decreases
and less shear energy is required for chip deformation so the chip is heated less from this
deformation. About 80-85% of the heat generated in shear zone.
• The chip-tool interface zone: The chip-tool interface zone, where secondary plastic
deformation due to friction between the heated chip and tool takes place. This causes a
further rise in the temperature of the chip. This chip-tool interface contributes 15-20% of
heat generated.

Figure 1.5: Zones of heat generation & dissipation during the metal cutting process.

• The tool-workpiece interface zone: The work-tool interface zone 3, at flanks where
frictional rubbing occurs. This area contributes 1-3% of heat generated.
As the portion of heat that flows into the tool cause very high temperature in
vicinity of tool tip which in turn decrease the hardness of the tool material and in extreme
case may even cause melting. The wear rate of tool therefore increases, resulting in a
decrease in useful life of the tool. It is increasingly important to understand how
machining temperature are affected by the process variable involved which are cutting
speed, feed rate, and tool geometry.
1.3.2 ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
Several methods have been used for measuring the temperatures generated during
metal cutting operations [12]. The main techniques used to evaluate the temperature
during machining are as following:



22
Experiment Retrospection: Many experimental methods have been devised to measure
the tool, chip or workpiece temperature and their distribution, these are:
• Tool-Chip Thermocouple Technique
• Embedded Thermocouple Technique
• Infrared Radiation Technique
• Metal Microstructure and Micro-hardness Variation Measurement
• Thermo-sensitive Painting Technique
• Temper Color Technique
Numerical Simulation: The numerical methods were successfully applied in calculating
the temperature distribution and thermal deformation in tool, chip and workpiece.
Especially, the finite element and boundary element methods can deal with very
complicated geometry in machining; they have great potential to solve the problems in
practice. These numerical methods used in measurement of temperatures are the
following:
• Finite Difference Method
• Finite Element Method
• Boundary Element Method
Semi-Analysis: In the semi analysis technique, some information such as chip surface
temperature or temperature distribution in workpiece is first obtained experimentally.
Then the temperature distribution and/or thermal deformation in chip and sometimes in
the tool and workpiece as well are calculated analytically. The inverse heat transfer
problem in machining is an example of these methods.
1.3.3 HEAT TRANSFER IN MACHINING
Heat is transferred across boundaries by conduction, convection and radiation
because of the temperature gradient, and air present at ambient temperature [8].
• Heat transfer inside the chip and workpiece, the tool and tool-holder is by conduction.
• Heat transfer between coolant/air and the chip/tool/workpiece is by convection.
• Radiation is rarely investigated in traditional machining operations.



23
1.3.4 HEAT EFFECTS
In metal cutting, severe deformations take place in the vicinity of the cutting edge
of the tool because of the high temperatures resulting from machining operation. These
elevated temperatures have a negative impact on tool life, and quality of surface.
Following are some of the effects of heat on various cutting parameters:
• Heat Influences on Cutting Forces: The heat influence on the cutting forces is mainly
because of the following reasons-the friction co-efficient is tightly dependent upon
temperature, and the properties of cut material also depend on temperature.
• Heat Effects on Tool Life
• Heat Influences on Surface Toughness
• Heat Influences on Thermal Deformation in Lathe.
• Heat Effects on Mass Transfer in Coolant Circulation System.
1.3.5 Finite Element Method in Thermal Analysis
Finite element analysis is a most useful and accurate approach for the
determination of field variables that is made possible by advancements in computational
and processing power of computers and thus it is almost used for all the computer aided
design methodologies in recent years. Applications range from deformation and stress
analysis to field analysis of heat flux, fluid flow, magnetic flux, seepage and other flow
problem. In this method of analysis, a complex region defining a continuum is discredited
into simple geometric shapes called finite elements. The Present work is also based on
the application of finite element for thermal analysis of single point cutting tool for
turning operation. Once the model developed for determination of temperature field for
single point cutting tool, it can also be implemented for other multipoint processes like
drilling, milling or grinding also.








24
CHAPTER - 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
The problem of tool wear monitoring in machining operations has been an active
area of research for quite some time. The machining processes are inherently dynamic in
nature due to various factors. Some of them can be mathematically modeled, but others
are too uncertain. Thus simplifications are made while modeling the extremely complex
machining processes. Research in the field of machining has been primarily done on
single point turning process, as it is the basic metal removal processes. Once a model has
been developed for turning operation, it can be implemented for other multipoint
processes like drilling, milling or grinding.
In this work tool wear along with temperature had been selected as the criterion
for the process control in turning operation. In recent years, numerical calculating
methods have been widely developed in most areas of engineering and have been used to
determine the thermal behaviour of cutting tools. In general, the application of finite
element and finite difference techniques has been successful, yet still relies heavily on the
accuracy of experimentally determined boundary conditions.
This chapter deals with the review of the work done on the topic. Firstly the
review is on the general analysis of tool, concentrating mainly on prediction of
temperature and tool wear. Then the concentration shifts on to second part, which is the
review on use of finite element in the thermal analysis of the cutting tool.
2.1 MODELS FOR DETERMINATION OF TEMPERATURE FIELD
Temperature measurement and prediction have been a major focus of machining
research for several decades. Throughout the 20
th
century, much effort has been
undertaken into measuring the temperature generated during cutting operations.
Interfacial temperatures in machining play a major role in tool wear and can also result in
modification to the mechanical properties of the workpiece and cutting tool.
Leshock et al [4] presented the results the tool chip interface temperature
measurement by the tool work thermocouple technique. Tool chip interface temperature
is analyzed under a wide range of cutting condition during turning of 4140 steel alloys
and Inconel 718 nickel based alloys with tungsten carbide tools. The obtained
experimental results are compared with the predictions based on the Loewen and Shaw’s



25
model. In addition an empirical model for the tool face temperature terms of cutting
parameters is established. Finally, the tool chip interface temperature is analyzed with
both flank and crater wear during machining of 4140 steel alloys.
Sullivan et al [12] presented different methods used for the measurement of
temperature of a single cutting tool. Initial experiments conducted involved the
simultaneous measurement of forces & temperature. Use of the tool-chip interface as a
thermocouple was one of the first methods of estimating interfacial temperatures in
machining process. These experiments focused on the use of embedded thermocouples
and using the infrared camera to monitor the process.
Komanduri et al [13] addresses two fundamental thermal issues of tribology in
orthogonal machining with a sharp tool, namely, the nature of the apparent heat partition
in the shear plane and the variable heat partition at the chip-tool interface. The
distribution of temperature in the chip, the tool, and the work material was determined
analytically considering the combined effect of these two heat sources in orthogonal
machining. The new analytical model was verified for a wide range of Peclet numbers,
using the available experimental data from the literature.
Huda et al [14] developed a technique for measuring temperature at the interface
between a cutting tool and a chip. A two-color pyrometer with fused fiber coupler was
applied to the temperature measurement of the tool-chip interface in dry and wet turning.
By using this pyrometer, it is possible to measure the temperature of a very small object
without emissivity affecting the results. The temperature distributions on the cutting tool
and the work material were analyzed using the finite element method. Good agreement
was obtained between the analytical results and experimental ones.
Miller et al [21] developed Experimental techniques using modern, digital
infrared imaging and successfully applied them during this study to gather cutting tool
temperature distributions from orthogonal machining operations. This new process has
seemingly overcome many problems associated with past experimental techniques.
Ranc et al [23] developed a high-speed broad band visible pyrometer using an
intensified CCD camera (spectral range: 0.4 mm–0.9 mm) for the measurement of the
machining temperature. The maximum temperature in the chip can reach 730°C and
minimal temperature which can be detected is around 550°C. The advantage of the



26
visible pyrometry technique is to limit the temperature error due to the uncertainties on
the emissivity value and to have a good spatial resolution (3.6 mm) and a large
observation area.

2.2 APPLICATION OF FEM FOR TOOL WEAR RESEARCH
A more promising approach for developing an orthogonal metal cutting model is
provided by an advanced numerical discretization scheme, such as the finite element
method. This part basically discusses about the application of FEM in predicting the tool
temperature and thus estimating the tool wear.
Shih et al [1] developed the, methodology using FEM for the simulation of plane–
strain orthogonal cutting processes with continuous chip formation. The orthogonal metal
cutting experiment was setup on a shaper, and the distributions of the residual stresses of
the annealed carbon steel are measured using the X-ray diffraction method. Along with
this, they also developed experimental procedures for orthogonal metal cutting and
measurement of distributions of residual stresses using the X-ray diffraction method.
They formulated a 4 nodes 8 degree of freedom, quadrilateral plane–strain finite element.
The finite element formulation was divided in two phases. Only thermal finite element
formulation is discussed here.
• Thermal finite element formulation: The temperature increment during the metal
cutting process is simulated using a linear thermal finite element formulation by
assuming that the thermal conductivity, density and heat capacity of the workpiece
material remain unchanged during the displacement increment. The thermal finite
element formulation for temperature analysis can be written in a matrix form as
( ){ }
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= + +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
. . .
] [ ] [ ] [ Ft Fp T K K T C
c k
(2.1)
Where, [C] =

v
T
cdV N N ρ } }{ {
[K
k
]= kdV B B
T
v
] [ ] [


[K
c
]=

c
S
c
T
hdS N N } { } {



27
{
p
F
.
}=
{ } dV q N
v

&

Here, {T} = Temperature vector at nodal points
{N} = Shape function vector
c = Heat capacity of workpiece
h = Convection coefficient
S
c
= Convection boundary of the workpiece
{
p
F
.
} = Vector of heat generation due to plastic work

.
q = Rate of plastic work
{
t
F
.
} = Heat generation rate on the boundary node of the workpiece due to
frictional work
k c, , ρ , and h are all assumed as direction independent.
Based on the equation (2.1), the temperature distribution of the workpiece is
obtained and the material properties are thus generated.
Shih [2] developed plane – strain Finite Element Method and applied to analyze
the orthogonal metal cutting process. Detailed work-material modeling, which included
the coupling of large strain, high strain rate and temperature effects, was used to simulate
the material deformation during cutting process. The finite element predictions of the
residual stresses were compared with measurements obtained from X-ray diffraction.
They concluded that finer element mesh configuration should be used to achieve more
accurate modeling of the cutting process and also to improve the FE predictions.
Gillibrand et al [3] developed a technique to predict the temperatures generated
along the tool/chip interface using standard analytical methods. The temperature
distribution along the tool/chip interface is applied as a heat source input to a finite
element model of the tool. They developed a package for estimating the thermal behavior
of both single and multi-point cutting tools using base data which are generally available,
or may be acquired through standard cutting tests. They concluded that with the
continued development of surface engineered cutting tools, and the product testing
involved, this easy-to-apply, rapid, low-cost package would be useful for giving an
indication of the expected thermal behavior of surface engineered cutting tools.



28
Mills et al [5] developed a technique to monitor the deformation and crack
propagation around inclusions using a micro cutting device in a scanning electron
microscope while machining is being carried out. The temperature distribution field
within a cutting tool under conditions of adherent layer formation was determined using
the FEM. It was found that the temperature gradient in the cutting tool from the tool face
at a position 0.25 to 0.5 mm from the major cutting edge is much smaller in the presence
of an adherent layer than without an adherent layer.
Tieu et al [6] presented a research work carried out on the cutting tool temperature
field with adhering layer formation when machining Ca-S tree-cutting stainless steel. By
means of combining thermocouple measuring method and finite element (FE) analysis,
the cutting temperature distributions and their relation with the formation of adhering
layer were investigated. Based on the experimental work using a miniature thermocouple
and the analytical results from FE modeling, they concluded that the adhering layer
thickness was uneven and the average temperature of cutting zone for adhering layer
formation was within a range of 950-1050°C.
Chu et al [7] developed technique for measuring temperature close to primary
cutting edge in turning operation. The cutting temperatures of a 0.16 % carbon bright
drawn mild steel, have been measured for a range of cutting speed and feedrates at a
constant depth of cut. Tool nose radius was also varied. The correlations for workpiece
temperature of cutting speed & feed have been developed. It showed that cutting speed &
feed rates have significant impact on temperature but nose radius has little effect.
Ostafiev et al [8] analyzed heat flux transfer in the cutting tool in steady state
orthogonal cutting. The method involved as interactive procedure to determine
temperature distributions in the tool from varying heat flux transfer conditions. The
temperature distributions determined from this procedure were compared with those
obtained experimentally. A coincidence of the experimental and theoretical temperature
distributions implied that the chosen heat flux model was appropriate.
Yen et al [15] developed a methodology to estimate the tool wear of carbide tool
in orthogonal cutting using FEM. In metal cutting, tool wear is strongly influenced by the
cutting temperature, contact stresses, and relative sliding velocity at the interface. These
process variables depend on tool and workpiece materials, cutting condition, tool



29
geometry, use of coolants etc, for the given application. Based on temperatures and
stresses on the tool face, tool wear may be estimated with acceptable accuracy by using
an empirical wear model and using FEM simulation. The methodology proposed by them
has three different phases, the first phase includes, a development of tool wear model for
the specified tool-workpiece pair, the second phase includes, modifications in the
commercial FEM code and last phase includes experimental validation of the developed
methodology. The wear prediction procedure starts with a coupled thermo-viscoplastic
Lagrangian cutting simulation with isotropic strain-hardening using DEFORM
®
-2D. In
order to obtain the cut chip geometry near the steady state, a special simulation module,
“Konti-Cut”, developed by WZL at University of Aachen (RWTH), Germany, was
utilized.
Zhao et al [18] developed a methodology to investigate the effects of the internal
cooling on the flank wear of the cutting tools in orthogonal cutting. A flank wear model
for a cutting tool in orthogonal cutting is presented which is based on previous wear
models and includes the normal stress and the effect of temperature on the flank wear.
According to the prediction of this model, the wear performance of carbide cutting tools
and HSS cutting tools are different due to their different thermal softening behavior, and
they have formulated the following methodologies:
1. Flank wear model for orthogonal metal cutting
In all the previous wear models studied by them, hardness H and normal stress
t
σ are two main parameters closely related to the wear and the wear rate is usually
proportional to
t
σ and inversely proportional to H. Mathematically wear can be expressed
as follows: dW = K
H
dL
t
σ

The wear volume can be converted to the wear land measurement VB with the
assumption of a zero degree rake angle of the cutting tool
W = θ tan
2
1
2
B
wV
Where, W is the volume worn away on the relief face, V
B
is the measurement of
wear land on the tool, w the width of cut and θ is the relief angle of the tool[18], as shown



30
in figure 2.1. The apparent area of the tool–work contact interface can be written as
follows: A = w V
B
The normal stress at the flank face can be calculated as given by the following
relation:
B
t t
t
wV
F
A
F
= = σ
Where F
t is
the thrust force in cutting .V
B
is a variable that increases with the
development of flank wear. Thus the equation to predict flank wear can be written as:
V
B
= K
3
1
3
1
2
tan
2
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
H
t F
w
V
t c
θ

Where, K is a coefficient which can be determined by experiments, L is the
cutting length, H is the hardness of the cutting tool, V
C is
the cutting speed, and t is the
cutting time.

Figure 2.1: Schematic of cutting tool with zero degree rake angle, where w is the tool width, V
B
the
flank wear and θ is the relief angle

2. Effects of temperature on flank wear in orthogonal cutting
To consider the effects of the temperature on the flank wear, it is necessary to
know the thermal softening of the cutting tool material versus the temperature. The
exponential function used to predict thermal softening is as follows:
H (T) = Ho exp (−αT)
Where H (T) is the hardness of a material at a given temperature, T is in

C, H
o

and α are constants obtained by Curve-fitting .Since the relationship between the thermal



31
softening and temperature can be obtained by curve-fitting experimental data, different
equations can be used. The following is the equation used them:
H (T) =
4 3
2
2
3
1
C T C T C T C + + +
Where H is the hardness of the cutting tool material, T is the temperature in

C
and C
1
, C
2
, C
3
and C
4
are constants that can be determined by curve-fitting. The values of
C
1
, C
2,
C
3
and C
4
for different tool materials are:
For Carbide Tool Material
C
1
= 0.000006, C
2
= −0.0054, C3 = 0.5853, and C
4
= 1517.
For HSS Tool Material
C
1
= −0.000002, C
2
= 0.0002, C
3
= −0.2122, and C
4
= 853.81.
The flank wear in arbitrary units versus the temperature was calculated by them
for both carbide and HSS material.
YC Yen et al [19] developed a methodology to estimate the tool wear and tool life
of a carbide tool in orthogonal cutting using FEM simulation. The proposed procedure for
predicting the tool wear at any time instance t
k
was divided in four phases.
• “Konti Cut” Simulation
• Pure Heat Transfer Analysis
• Calculating Tool Wear Rate
• Updating the Tool Geometry
The simulations using a cutting tool with constantly updated rake face and flank
face geometries have shown that it is possible to predict the evolution of tool wear at any
given cutting time from FEM simulations by using the proposed methodology by them.
Amir et al [20] developed methodology to extend the applicability of Oxley’s
analysis of machining to a broader class of materials beyond the carbon steels used by
Oxley and co-workers. The performance of the model was studied by comparing its
predictions with experimental data for different materials and it was found that model
accurately produces the dependence of the cutting forces and chip thickness as a function
of undeformed chip thickness and cutting speed and accurately estimates the temperature
in the primary and secondary shear zones.
Arsecularatne et al [22] investigated the application of the Oxley modeling
approach to high speed machining (HSM) process for gaining a fundamental



32
understanding and performance prediction of this process which is gaining increased
popularity due to its many economic and technological advantages such as faster metal
removal rates, efficient use of machine tools and, improved surface finish and lower
cutting forces. In the present work, this theory has been applied for two plain carbon
steels and low alloy steel under HSM conditions. The predicted cutting forces, chip
thicknesses, and secondary deformation zone thicknesses are then compared with the
experimental results obtained under identical conditions. Good agreement has been
shown between measured and predicted results.
Moufki et al [26] developed an analytical approach for thermomechanical
modeling of oblique cutting process. The material characteristics such as strain rate
sensitivity, strain hardening and thermal softening were considered. A critical study was
also presented by them in order to show the influences of the input parameters of the
model including the normal shear angle, the thickness of the primary shear zone and the
pressure distribution at the tool–chip interface. The model permits to predict the cutting
forces, the chip flow direction, the contact length between the chip and the tool and the
temperature distribution at the tool–chip interface which has an important effect on tool
wear.
Molinari et al [27] developed an analytical approach to model the
thermomechanical process of chip formation in a turning operation. The model presented
can be used to predict the cutting forces, the global chip flow direction, the surface
contact between chip and tool and the temperature distribution at the rake face which
affects strongly the tool wear. The tendencies predicted by the model were also compared
qualitatively with the experimental trends founded in the literature.

2.3 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE
From above literature review, it can be concluded that FEM has been effectively
implemented to determine the temperature distribution on the tool surface, in order to
predict the tool wear. Since machining parameters affect the wear and heat generation in
tool, so further study has been carried out to develop the relation between machining
parameters and mechanical properties which are governed by modified machining
temperatures due to strain rate.



33
CHPATER - 3
INSTRUMENTATION AND EXPERIMENTATION
The objective of the present work is to develop methodology to relate tool wear
with mechanical properties of a material such as Hardness. Here hardness is related with
the modified temperature, including the effect of strain rate, of cutting tool. Finite
Element Analysis is used to depict the temperature at various points of cutting tool by
changing various machining parameters such as cutting speed (V), depth of cut (d), feed
rate (f).
3.1 INSTRUMENTATION
The various instruments used for experimentation are discussed here in this
section:
3.1.1 FORCE MEASUREMENT
A force measurement actually involves the measurement of a deflection, caused
by that force, with a suitable calibration between the force and the deflection it produces.
For measuring small deflections, various devices have been used. Some of them are listed
below:
1. The dial indicator.
2. Pneumatic devices.
3. Optical devices.
4. Piezoelectric crystals.
5. Strain Gauges.
Out of these, most widely used dynamometer is of strain gauge type. In this
category, bounded- wire strain gauges have commonly been used. Usually these bonded
wire gauges have been specified by the resistance and the gauge factor (F). The gauge
factor is a measure of sensitivity of gauge and is defined as:
R
R
l l
R R
F


=


=

Where, ∈ is the normal strain and can be calculated as:
l
l ∆
∈=



34
In our case, bonded wire strain gauge of resistance 120+ and gauge factor 2, have
been used. In order to measure the strains of the order of 1+, the changes of the resistance
of the same order of magnitude need to be measured. This can be made by means of
Wheatstone bridge as shown in figure 3.1[24]. No current will flow through the
galvanometer (G) if the four resistances satisfy the equation
3
2
4
1
R
R
R
R
=

For the sake of simplicity, the lathe operation is frequently taken as a orthogonal
cutting process. In this case, the resultant force will act in a known plane and only two
force components are required to analyze the cutting process. A schematic diagram of the
dynamometer used in the present work is shown in the figure 3.2[24]. In the present case,
the axial cutting force, Fc, and the tangential cutting force, Ff, have been used.

Figure 3.1: Wheatstone bridge



Figure 3.2: Dynamometer



35
A two component cutting force dynamometer of cantilever type is used in the
present work. The dynamometer structure is made of aluminum. The action of the forces
is to bend the structure. The axial cutting force, Fc, bends the structure about the one axis
and the tangential feed force, Ff, bends the structure about another axis. Strain gauges
have been used to measure these distortions (moments), and the recordings are calibrated
to give a measure of the forces applied.
3.2 EXPERIMENTATION
Experiments were carried out on a turning lathe. A carbide tip turning tool was
clamped in a two component strain gauge dynamometer using a tool holder designed in a
machine lab during the thesis work. For the experimentation, EN 24 steel workpiece of
600mm length was held in a three – jaw chuck and supported by a center in the tail stock.
Tool height and tool overhang was set to the required level with the help of gauges. A
rough turning pass was made initially to eliminate the runout of the workpiece. The
output flank wear was measured with the help of a tool room microscope. The straight
edge with Rake angle 0 = α has been used to have an orthogonal cutting.
3.2.1 PLANNING OF EXPERIMENT
A scientific approach to planning of experiments must be incorporated in order to
perform an experiment most effectively. Statistical design of experiments is the process
of planning the experiments so that the appropriate data could be collected which may be
analyzed by statistical method resulting in valid and objective conclusions.
Planning of experiments was employed in order to fulfill the following requirements:
• To get the data uniformity distributed over the whole range of controllable factors to
be investigated.
• To reduce the total number of experiments.
• To establish a relationship between different input variables and the output accurately
in the selected range of investigation
3.2.2 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
The experiments were made on the HMT lathe using a bar turning process under
dry conditions. For the range of range of cutting conditions (cutting speed, feed, and
depth of cut) it was required to measure the two force components F
t
and F
f
, thickness of
chip and flank wear. A total of eight experiments were carried out, all with the same basic



36
56 mm
configuration and carbide inserts were replaced after performing a single test so as to see
the effect of temperature on the tool individually at different cutting conditions. The
selected ranges of each parameter used are given below:
• Work material: The EN 24 Steel (0.35- 0.45 %C, 0.45- 0.6 %Mn, 1.3 - 1.8 %Ni)
was chosen for the present investigation with a diameter of 60 mm and 600 mm length.




600mm
Figure 3.3: Dimensions of the workpiece


The figure 3.3 shows the dimensions of the workpiece (EN24) before the turning
process.
• Tool material: The tool material used should be capable of high speed machining
with dry cutting conditions. In present investigation carbide inserts were used for
performing the experiments.
• Tool geometries:
a) Tool length: 16.02mm
b) Tool width: 8.02 mm
c) Nose radius: 0.4 mm
• Test conditions: carbide inserts were used to machine EN24 steel with following
cutting parameters
a) Rotational speed:70.08 – 179.82 (m/min)
b) Feed: 0.0787 – 0.175 (m/sec)
c) Depth of cut: 0.508,0.762,1.27 (mm)

3.2.3 EXPERIMENT METHODOLOGY
A HMT make lathe was used for turning experiment whose specifications have
been given in appendix -A. Figure3.4 shows the schematic diagram of the machine and
equipment setup.



37
Cutting tool



Figure 3.4: Schematic diagram of the lathe and equipment setup

Then the actual experiments have been carried out with the different input cutting
conditions for different experiments for constant volume of material removal in each
case. The experiments carried out can be classified:
1. Carry out experiment on lathe machine using EN 24 as work piece and commercial
available Carbide Tool of triangular shape.
2. Machining is done with different sets of Cutting speed, depth of cut, & feed rates.
3. Measuring the cutting forces with dynamometer.
4. Measuring the deformed chip thickness using vernier calliper.
5. Measuring the flank wear of the carbide insert with microscope.
6. Correlating these wear trend with thermal softening of tool due to rise in temperature
in insert.
The output flank wear is measured with the help of a metallurgical microscope
having graduation marked on the eyepiece. These input cutting conditions are fed to
program and value of temperature and Hardness at every nodes of the tool is thus
calculated.




Workpiece
Dynamometer Display



38
CHAPTER - 4
ANALYSIS

The present chapter deals with the formulation of three-dimensional governing
equation for heat conduction used to obtain the temperature distribution on the face of the
tool bit, to be used for obtaining the hardness at the various positions on the tool. The
eight noded brick elements have been used for the FEM modeling.
4.1 GOVERNING EQUATION FOR THE HEAT TRANSFER
Governing equation for the heat transfer problem can be written as:
|
¹
|

\
|




x
T
K
x
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|




y
T
K
y
+ |
¹
|

\
|




z
T
K
z
+Q = 0 (4.1)
Following assumptions have been considered for the simplicity if the computation
required:
1. Conduction occurs in the steady state,
2. Material is isotropic and homogeneous as (K
x
= K
y
= K
z
= K)
3. Internal heat generation is zero.
This equation is solved with appropriate boundary conditions, and heat transfer is
considered in three-dimensional solid Ω bounded by a surface Γ.
4.2 BOUNDARY CONDITION
Following boundary conditions have been used for the solution of the present problem:
1. Temperature is specified at nodes which are in touch with shear zone[1], [4], [20],and
[22], and have been calculated by relation given below:
T
mod
(
o
K) = T
avg
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|

.
.
log 1
o
γ
γ
ν

Here,
y
V
∆ −
= .
) ( cos
cos
.
α φ
α
γ

|
|
¹
|

\
|

=

α
α
φ
sin 1
cos
tan
1
r
r

Figure 4.1: Model of chip formation used
in Oxley’s analysis for Orth. machining



39
y ∆ = spacing between successive planes (25 *10
-4
mm)
4 . 0 2 . 0 5 . 0
int .
1700 ) ( f d V C T
erface avg
=
ο

2. Convection is taking place on surface from the tool bit to air, taking
Where, C T
ο
27 =


) (

− = T T h q
n

h
air
=14 W/m
2 o
C

n
q = Heat flux normal to the boundary


T = Ambient temperature
4.3 FEM FORMULATION
Using Galerkin’s orthogonality, equation (4.1) becomes;
∫ ∫
Ω Ω
= Ω + Ω
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|




+
|
|
¹
|

\
|




+ |
¹
|

\
|




0 d QN d N
z
T
K
z y
T
K
y x
T
K
x
i i
(4.2)
Where dz dy dx d . . = Ω
Now, since internal heat generation has been assumed to be zero;
Thus,
0 = Ω


d QN
i
The various components of equation (4.2) can be obtained from the relations as
written below:
∫ ∫ ∫
Ω Ω







= Ω |
¹
|

\
|




dz dy dx
x
N
x
T
K dz dy
x
T
K N d N
x
T
K
x
i
z y
i i
. . .
,


∫ ∫
Ω Γ





− Γ


= d
x
N
x
T
K d
x
T
K N
i
i

∫ ∫ ∫
Ω Ω







= Ω
|
|
¹
|

\
|




dz dy dx
y
N
y
T
K dz dx
y
T
K N d N
y
T
K
y
i
z x
i i
. . .
,


∫ ∫
Ω Γ





− Γ


= d
y
N
y
T
K d
y
T
K N
i
i

∫ ∫ ∫
Ω Ω







= Ω |
¹
|

\
|




dz dy dx
z
N
z
T
K dy dx
z
T
K N d N
z
T
K
z
i
z x
i i
. . .
,




40

∫ ∫
Ω Γ





− Γ


= d
z
N
z
T
K d
z
T
K N
i
i

Thus, the equation (4.2) becomes;

0 = Ω
|
|
¹
|

\
|




+




+




− Γ


+ Γ


+ Γ


∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
Ω Γ Γ Γ
d
z
N
z
T
y
N
y
T
x
N
x
T
K d
z
T
K N d
y
T
K N d
x
T
K N
i i i
i i i

(4.3)
Let q
x,
q
y,
and

q
z
be the

heat flux in x, y and z direction respectively and can be written as:
x
T
K q
x


− = ,

y
T
K q
y


− = and
z
T
K q
z


− =
Putting these values of q
x
, q
y
, q
z
in equation (4.3), we have:

( ) 0 = Ω
|
|
¹
|

\
|




+




+




− Γ + + −
∫ ∫
Ω Γ
d
z
N
z
T
y
N
y
T
x
N
x
T
K d n q n q n q N
i i i
z z y y x x i
(4.4)
Where, n
x
, n
y
, n
z
are the direction cosines of unit normal to the surfaces.
And, let
z z y y x x n
n q n q n q q + + =
Therefore equation (4.4) becomes,
∫ ∫
Ω Ω
= Ω
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|




+
|
|
¹
|

\
|




+ |
¹
|

\
|




− Γ − 0 d
z
N
z
T
y
N
y
T
x
N
x
T
K d q N
i i i
n i
(4.5)
Here,
n
q is normal heat along the unit outward normal, which is specified by
boundary conditions.
Now the heat flux in the tool is because of the heat load at the specified contact of
tool and workpiece, and heat loss because of convection at the other surfaces of the tool
exposed to air/coolant.

Thus, ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
Γ − + Γ = Γ

d T T h N d N q d q N
i i o n i
(4.6)
From equations (4.5) and equation (4.6), the final FEM equation has been
developed, as written below:




41
( ) 0 = Ω












− Γ − − Γ −
∫ ∫ ∫
Γ

Γ
d
z
T
y
T
x
T
z
N
y
N
x
N
K d T T h N d N q
i i i
i i o
(4.7)
1 2 3

Explanation of each part of above equation (4.7) is as given below:
1. The first part of equation (4.7) is represented { }
q
R ,which represents heat load vector
arising from specified surface heating

{ } | |

Γ
Γ − = d N q R
T
o q
[N]
T
=

4
3
2
1
N
N
N
N

Where, N
i
=, N
1
, N
2
, N
3
, N
4
, are shape functions
Γ Represents surface area A
Further, vector {R
q
} can also be written as
{ } dA N q R
T
o q
] [
1
1
1
1
∫ ∫
+

+

=
Here, dA=|det J| η ξd d
η
Where

( ) 4 1
1
ηξ ξ η + − − = N


( ) 4 1
2
ηξ ξ η + + − = N
ξ

( ) 4 1
3
ηξ ξ η − + + = N


( ) 4 1
4
ηξ ξ η − − + = N

(-1, 1) (1, 1)
(1,-1) (-1,-1)



42
Jocobian matrix also represented as [J], which can be expanded as given below

| |



+ +




+ +




+ +




+ +




+ +




+ +




+ +




+ +




+ +


=
8
8
1
1
8
8
1
1
8
8
1
1
8
8
1
1
8
8
1
1
8
8
1
1
8
8
1
1
8
8
1
1
8
8
1
1
... ... ...
... ... ...
... ... ....
z
N
z
N
y
N
y
N
x
N
x
N
z
N
z
N
y
N
y
N
x
N
x
N
z
N
z
N
y
N
y
N
x
N
x
N
J
ζ ζ ζ ζ ζ ζ
η η η η η η
ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ


Finally {Rq} equation written as below,
{ } | |
∫ ∫
− −
=
1
1
1
1
] [ η ξ d d J N q R
T
o q (4.8)

2. Second part of the equation (4.7) can be further expressed in two separate parts as
written below:

( )
∫ ∫ ∫
Γ

Γ Γ

Γ + Γ − = Γ − − d hT N hTd N d T T h N
i i i
Where, h = convective heat transfer coefficient


T = convective exchange temperature of air/fluid.
T = unknown surface temperature.
The first part of above equation is heat load vector arising from surface convention
and denoted as { }
h
R

{ }

Γ

Γ = d T h N R
i h (4.9)
Now vector {R
h
} can further be written as:

{ } | |
∫ ∫
− −

=
1
1
1
1
η ξ d d J T h N R
T
h





43
Second part represents element conduction matrix related to convention and represented
as:
| |{ }

Γ
Γ − = d T h N T k
i h
Here, [K
h
] = Element Conductance Matrix related to Convection,
{T} = Element Nodal Temperature Vector.
Where, T=

=
8
0 i
i i
T N

Or, T = N
1
T
1
+N
2
T
2
+………………+ N
8
T
8

Putting this in above equation,
Thus we have,
| | | | | |
∫ ∫
− −
=
1
1
1
1
η ξ d d J N N h K
T
h (4.10)

3. The third part of equation (4.7) is the element conductance matrix related to the
conduction (coefficient matrix). It is represented by | | { } T K
c


Where,
| |{ }













= d
z
T
y
T
x
T
z
N
y
N
x
N
K T K
i i i
c
(4.11)

Temperature gradient within the element is given by
8
8
3
3
2
2
1
1
....... .......... T
x
N
T
x
N
T
x
N
T
x
N
x
T


+


+


+


=


(4.11a)

8
8
3
3
2
2
1
1
....... .......... T
y
N
T
y
N
T
y
N
T
y
N
y
T


+


+


+


=


(4.11b)

8
8
3
3
2
2
1
1
....... .......... T
z
N
T
z
N
T
z
N
T
z
N
z
T


+


+


+


=


(4.11c)




44
In matrix form, the above relations can be represented as:







z
T
y
T
x
T
=
8 3
8 2 1
8 2 1
8 2 1
.......... .......... .......... .......... ..........
.......... .......... .......... .......... ..........
.......... .......... .......... .......... ..........
×



















z
N
z
N
z
N
y
N
y
N
y
N
x
N
x
N
x
N
1 8
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
×

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

Using the above relations equation (4.11) can be written as
| |
∫ ∫ ∫
− − −
=
1
1
1
1
1
1
ζ η ξ d d d J B B K K
T
c
(4.12)
Where B matrix is given as



















=
z
N
z
N
z
N
y
N
y
N
y
N
x
N
x
N
x
N
B
8 2 1
8 2 1
8 2 1
... ...
... ...
... ...

T
B is the transpose of B matrix.
To achieve the close boundary representation the scientists have developed
curvilinear side element based on transforming simple geometric shapes of some local
coordinate system into distorted shapes in global Cartesian system and then evaluating
the element equation for the distorted element. The parent element may be selected from
lagrangian / serendipity family. The Local Coordinate System associated with parent
element is called curvilinear coordinate.
The Serendipity coordinates for elements are represented as:

=
=
c
n
i
i i
x M x
1




45

=
=
c
n
i
i i
y M y
1


=
=
c
n
i
i i
z M z
1

Here, n
c
= Total number of nodes per element
and for isoparametric elements, M
i
= N
i

Therefore,

=
=
8
1 i
i i
x N x


=
=
8
1 i
i i
y N y


=
=
8
1 i
i i
z N z
Here, N
i
is a function of ( ζ η ξ , , ).
Now to evaluate the B–matrix we need to evaluate the derivative of shape function
with respect to x, y and z. The derivative cannot be found out directly as shape function is
expressed in terms of natural coordinates ( ζ η ξ , , ). So by using chain rule
differentiation
ξ ξ ξ ξ ∂



+




+




=

∂ z
z
N y
y
N x
x
N N
i i i i
. . .
η η η η ∂



+




+




=

∂ z
z
N y
y
N x
x
N N
i i i i
. . .
ζ ζ ζ ζ ∂



+




+




=

∂ z
z
N y
y
N x
x
N N
i i i i
. . .







ζ
η
ξ
i
i
i
N
N
N
=



















ζ ζ ζ
η η η
ξ ξ ξ
z y x
z y x
z y x







z
N
y
N
x
N
i
i
i

The final heat transfer equation can be written as
| | | | | | { } { }
h h c
R T K K = +



46
The above equation can be further written in the form as given below
| |{ } { } Q T K =
(4.13)
Where
[K] = Thermal conductance coefficients matrix
{T}= Nodal temperature vector.
{Q}= Nodal heat flux or heat load vector.

4.4 HARDNESS OF TOOL
Since effects of temperature are being considered on flank wear, so it becomes
necessary to consider thermal softening of cutting tool material. Relationship between
temperature and thermal softening can be given by [18]

4 3
2
2
3
1
) ( C T C T C T C T H + + + =
Where H is hardness of cutting tool material, T is temperature in
o
C and C
1
, C
2
, C
3
,
and C
4
are constants for tool material.
For carbides tool the values for these are:
C
1
= 0.000006, C2

= -0.0054, C
3
= 0.5853, C4=1517

4.5 SOLUTION SCHEME
• The three-dimensional solution domain corresponding to tool bit is discredited for the
solution of the final heat conduction equation (4.13) and appropriate boundary
conditions are applied.
• The value of elemental matrices [Kc] and [Kh] are calculated in functions stiff( ) and
convection_stiff( ) and they are added appropriately to find L.H.S. of the equation
4.10 and 4.12 respectively.
• The [Rh] matrix is calculated as per equation in function load( )
• Appropriate boundary condition are applied in boundary( ) and then the global {T}
vector is calculated from function solver( ).
• The function separate( ) gives the values of {T}, which are thus used in function
hardness( ) to calculate the value of hardness at different nodes.




47
4.6 FLOW CHART OF SOLUTION PROCEDURE

START
Call data( ), h_data( )
Read 3D mesh data and boundary
condition
Call stiff( )
Generate [Kc] matrix equation (2)
Call connection_stiff( )
Generate stiffness matrix due to
convection boundary condition
Call load( )
Generate R.H.S of equation (vector {R
h
})
Call boundary( )
Call solver( )
Call separate( )
Call Hardness( )
STOP



48
CHAPTER - 5
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

In the present chapter the results for the present problem, that is for the solution of
the thermal softening of the tool material in order to predict the tool wear have been
developed in accordance with the previously developed models for tool wear [4], [20]
and [22]. The number of experiments has been conducted to find out the cutting forces
and flank wear of the tool, made of tungsten carbide, at varying machining parameters,
which are cutting speed (V), cutting feed (f) and depth of cut (d). Using the experimental
data, the strain rate and average interface temperature for the various cutting conditions
have been obtained, which have been ultimately used to determine the modified
temperature at the tool and the workpiece contact area. The measured experimental
values are than fed into the FEM program to predict the temperature at all the nodes of a
cutting tool. For simplicity the tool is assumed to be a single point with zero nose radius.
This temperature of contact area have been used to determine the overall temperatures at
the various parts of the cutting tool using the heat transfer equation developed and using
the FEM methods for the solution of these equations for the present problem with the
appropriate boundary condition as has been explained in chapter 4. This predicted
temperature is than related with the hardness of the cutting tool (Thermal softening).

5.1 MACHINING PARAMETERS USED FOR EXPERIMENTATION

Table 5.1: Cutting parameters
Cutting speed v (rpm)
(Range)
Feed f (mm/rev)
(Range)
Depth of cut d (mm)
(Range)
420 0.08 0.5
710 0.16 0.75

The table 5.1 shows the numerical values of the various machining parameters
(cutting speed, feed and the depth of cut), that have been selected for experimentation, for
the measurement of the temperature, strain rate and flank wear. The EN24 steel
workpiece material has been used for experimentation, and its specifications have been



49
shown in appendix B. The cutting material used is Tungsten Carbide, and its specification
has been mentioned in appendix C.
The table 5.2 shows the experimental values of wear, strain-rate and resultant
cutting forces for different speed, feed and depth of cuts for the different set of
experiments conducted on the carbide cutting tool. The levels of the process variables,
which have been used for the experiments of the validation set, are in between the [-1, 1]
range. Here, -1 stands for the minimum, and +1 stands for the maximum level of
parameters.

Table 5.2: Experimental Results of measured parameters against parameters V, f and d
S. No. v d f
Wear(exp)in
mm
Strain
Rate(exp)
1s
-1

Resultant
Forces (N)
1 -1 -1 -1 0.02 577 340
2 -1 -1 +1 0.025 569 410
3 -1 +1 -1 0.03 165 470
4 -1 +1 +1 0.035 550 560
5 +1 -1 -1 0.045 840 245
6 +1 -1 +1 0.05 880 500
7 +1 +1 -1 0.065 820 390
8 +1 +1 +1 0.075 830 398

To eliminate the effect of wear on the experiments, the tools have been replaced
after every cut of constant volume of workpiece material. In total eight carbide bits have
been used for all the different set of experiments to be conducted. Tool edge has been
made straight or parallel to the chuck to have an orthogonal cut. Constant volume
signifies that equal amount of material was removed in all the different sets of experiment
conducted. This has been done so that all the measurements should be taken correctly at
the same operating conditions to have a good accuracy in results with minimum possible
error.
The relationship between machining parameters and temperature generated at tool
workpiece interface has been calculated using the empirical relations as mentioned in the
references [4], [24], and [26]. The temperature at tool tip was calculated by changing
different depth of cut, feed rate and cutting velocity. Strain rate has also been measured
using the empirical relations and than both the measured temperature and the strain rate



50
are put into the equation to find the modified temperature which considers the effect of
both.
This temperature has been applied to analyze the temperature distribution on the
tool at different edge, nodes and elements through finite element analysis, considering
heat loss because of conduction in the tool material and convection with air at ambient
temperature. Tool material hardness has been calculated with the help of the temperature
distribution obtained as a result of FEM analysis [18]. The results have been obtained for
tool wear with the change in machining parameters by relating the heat generated at the
tool-workpiece interface and taking hardness of tool material as a function of temperature
[18].
5.2 MODELLING OF SOLUTION DOMAIN USING FEM
In order to use the finite element technique, mathematical expressions have been
derived and discussed in the previous chapter and have been used to predict the
temperature at the various locations of the cutting tool. Computer program in VC
++

environment based on the FEM formulation presented in the previous chapter have been
developed and numerical results for temperature and its effect on the hardness of the
cutting tool have been obtained and discussed in preceding topics.
The following are the details of the discritization of the solution domain carried
out for the FEM Analysis and thus used in the developed computer program for the
generation of the results.

Problem is for : 3 D heat conduction
Type of elements : Eight Noded brick elements (Serendipity family)
Total node : 288
Total element : 168
Node per element : 8
Node per face : 4
Number of fixed nodes : 3 (temperature at the tip of the cutting tool)
Number of convection Faces : 6 (shown in Appendix–C)





51
The properties of the cutting tool used (Carbide bits) are:
18 . 0 = ν ,
1
.
1

= s γ ,

T =27
o
C (for air), K = 0.076 W/m
2
k
5.3 VALIDATION OF RESULTS

Figure 5.1: Relationship between Cutting tool temperature and flank distance

In order to check the validity of the analysis and the solution procedure discussed
in chapter 4, the results for temperature field and its effect on thermal softening of cutting
tool have been obtained from the developed computer program by using the experimental
data of strain-rate and flank wear, and have been compared with the results of Leshock et
al [4], for checking the validity of the results. The relation between flank edge distance
and the final temperature variation on the cutting tool have been developed for the range
of the cutting parameters as given in the table 5.1, and have been shown here in
graphically form in figure 5.1. It is interpretable from the graph, that as we move away
from the flank edge, the temperature keeps on decreasing and thus the tip of the carbide
cutting tool is prone to more wear rather than the distances away from the tool tip. The
results from the reference are well in accordance with the results of the present work, as
the maximum variation in the results is only of the order of 5.8 %.
5.4 VARIATION OF HARDNESS WITH FLANK-EDGE DISTANCE
The figure 5.2 shows the relation of tool hardness with the flank distance at
different temperature distribution on flank edge of the carbide tool bit. As at the tool tip
the temperature is maximum, therefore the hardness is less. Using the mathematical
model for modified cutting temperature as discussed in section 4.2, the three different
values of modified cutting temperatures 750 K, 900 K, and 1050 K, have been calculated



52
from the corresponding strain-rate values which are 840 s
-1
, 830 s
-1
, and 577 s
-1

respectively, corresponding to the different values of feed, speed and depth of cut as
shown in table 5.1. At the same flank-edge distance, for these values of modified cutting
temperatures, we have different hardness values along the flank face of the tool. The
temperature starts decreasing because of heat loss as we move away from the tool tip
along the flank surface the hardness of material increases.
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50
Flank Edge Distance (mm)
H
a
r
d
n
e
s
s

(
B
H
N
)
Temp. at tip = 1050
Temp at tip = 900
Temp at tip = 750

Figure 5.2: Relation between hardness and flank distance

5.5 VARIATION OF TEMPERATURE WITH CUTTING FORCE
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
200 300 400 500 600 700
Resultant Force(N)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
s

(
o
K
)
Temperature (K)
Mod. Temp. (K)

Figure 5.3: Variation of Temperature with resultant cutting force

The figure 5.3 shows the variation of temperature with the cutting force. As
shown in the graph, as the cutting forces increases the temperature at the tip of the cutting
tool also increases due to higher frictional forces at the tip of the carbide tool bit. This



53
increased temperature of the tool leads to the reduction of hardness value of the cutting
tool and thus the tool wear.
5.6 VARIATION OF FLANK WEAR WITH CUTTING FORCE

Figure 5.4: Variation of Flank Wear with the resultant cutting force

The figure 5.4 shows the variation of the wear with the cutting tool Force. As
shown the flank wear of carbide insert increases with the increase in the forces during the
bar turning process. This is because increase in forces leads to increase in the temperature
of the cutting tool as shown in figure 5.3 and increased temperatures further leads to the
flank wear of the cutting tool due to the thermal softening.
5.7 VARIATION OF FLANK WEAR WITH MODIFIED CUTTING
TOOL TEMPERATURE


Figure 5.5: Variation of flank Wear with respect to modified temperature




54
The figure 5.5 shows the variation of the wear with the modified cutting tool
temperature due to the strain rate. As shown the flank wear of carbide insert increases
with the increase in the temperature of the cutting tool. As increased temperatures at the
tip of the cutting tool leads to the reduction of the hardness value, that is the thermal
softening, and thus to the flank wear of the carbide cutting tool.
5.8 REGRESSION EQUATION
Regression equations obtained from the experimental data of a bar turning process
using carbide insert were obtained using Data Fit software Version8.0.x developed by
Oakdale Engineering. The regression equation relating tool flank wear of a carbide insert
with cutting parameters (V, f, d) is as follows.

D) f C d B f (A
e (mm) Wear
+ × + × + ×
=
15 16 15
e 1.612 D , e 2.015 C , e 6.44 - B 1.045, A × = × = × = =
Where v, f and d are levels of cutting speed (v), feed (f) and depth of cut (d)
respectively and values for these levels can be obtained by following Formula:


level) middle and maximum Between e (Differenc
range) the of mean value - range in the value (actual
Level =

5.9 VARIATION OF TEMPERATURE WITH CUTTING VELOCITY
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
-1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50
Cutting Velocity at f -1
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
K
)
d = -1
d = +1

Figure 5. 6: Relation between Cutting velocity and temperature at feed rate (f = -1)




55
The figure 5.6 shows a relation of cutting velocity versus temperature, at constant
feed at different levels depth of cuts used in experimentation work. The inference that can
be drawn from the above graph is that when we increase the cutting velocity the
temperature keeps on increasing.

Figure 5.7: Relation between Cutting velocity and temperature at feed rate (f = +1)

The figure 5.7 depicts the same trends as figure 5.6, from these trends it’s
depicted that with the increase in velocity of cutting, the temperature raises. These two
graphs are at constant depth of cuts for each curve. The figure 5.8 shows results of
temperature with cutting velocity at constant depth of cuts. It shows temperature increase
with increase in depth of cut.

Figure 5.8: Variation of Temperature versus cutting velocity at depth of cut (d = -1)




56
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
-1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50
Cutting Velocity at d =+1
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e


(
k
)
f = -1
f = +1

Figure 5.9: Variation of Temperature versus cutting velocity at depth of cut (d = +1)

Similarly figure 5.9 shows the graph but at different machining parameters and
conditions (d = +1). The trend line is depicted to be same as it increases with rise in
velocity of cutting.
5.10 VARIATION OF FLANK WEAR WITH CUTTING VELOCITY
(FOR CONSTANT FEED RATE)

Figure 5.10: Variation of flank wear with cutting velocity at constant feed rate (f = -1)

Here the results have been shown for the variation of wear with the cutting
velocity of the tool. In figure 5.10 trend of cutting velocity with wear has been shown at
constant feed of -1, that is the lowest feed taken in experiments at different depth of cuts



57
shows almost same pattern of increasing flank wear with increase in velocity. The figure
5.11 depicts same trends of wear but here now feed rate is (f = +1). The results seem
almost similar for this case too.
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
-1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50
Cutting velocity at f =+1
F
l
a
n
k

w
e
a
r
(
m
m
)
d = -1
d = +1

Figure 5.11: Variation of flank wear with cutting velocity at constant feed rate (f= +1)

5.11 VARIATION OF FLANK WEAR WITH CUTTING VELOCITY
(FOR CONSTANT DEPTH OF CUTS)
The graphs discussed till now were at constant feed rate, for better understanding
of wear trends graphs are also shown at constant depth of cuts. The figure 5.12 shows
results of wear with cutting velocity at constant depth of cuts.
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.03
0.035
0.04
-1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50
Cutting velocity at d=-1
F
l
a
n
k

w
e
a
r
(
m
m
)
f = -1
f = +1

Figure 5.12: Variation of flank wear with cutting velocity at constant depth of cut (d = -1)




58
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
-1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50
Cutting velocity at d=+1
F
l
a
n
k

w
e
a
r
(
m
m
)
f = -1
f = +1

Figure 5.13: Variation of flank wear with cutting velocity at constant depth of cut (d =+1)

The figure 5.13 also shows similar results but at depth of cuts (d = +1). The trend
is almost same depicted in other graphs as shown before, that is with increase in the
cutting velocity for some constant value of depth of cut, the tool wear increases.
5.12 CONCLUSIONS
Based on the results presented in previous sections, the following conclusions
have been observed:
1. The hardness increases with increase in distance from the flank edge and with
decrease in the tool-workpiece contact temperature.
2. The change in the tool workpiece contact temperature depends upon the cutting
parameters and it increases with increase in resultant cutting force, but do not follow a
linear trend and thus we can find an optimum set of machining parameters to have a
minimum heat generation at tool-workpiece contact.
3. The flank wear is directly proportional to the resultant cutting force and
approximately follows a linear trend.
4. The flank wear increases with increase in modified cutting tool temperature (due to
increase in the strain rate), but there is a nonlinear trend so we can find an optimum value
of cutting parameters so as to give minimum strain rate, because heat generated increases
with increase in the strain rate.
5. The contact temperature increases with the increase in the cutting velocity, but at
constant cutting velocity, there is a significant increase in the contact temperature with



59
increase in the depth of cut as compared to the increase in the contact temperature with
the increase in the feed rate.
6. The flank wear increases significantly with the increase in the cutting velocity. Also
at constant cutting speed it increases with increase in both feed rate and depth of cut.
Thus finally it can be observed that we must select the cutting parameters, which
are cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut, in such a way so as to have the optimum
temperature at the tool tip-workpiece contact because of the heat generated, so that the
minimum tool wear is encountered, and thus we could have the longest tool life and
better machining economy.
5.13 SCOPE FOR FURTHER WORK
With increasing competitiveness as observed in the recent times, manufacturing
systems in the industry are being driven more and more aggressively. So there is always
need for perpetual improvements. Thus for getting still more accurate results we can take
into account few more parameters as given below:
• The transient analysis for the machining operation can be studied.
• The study can also be extended on coated carbide tools, CBN, or other harder tools.
• CNC machines can be used for the experimentation to have the better control of the
process variables and also parameters can be set to the desired accuracy.
• The presently developed system can be used for other conventional as well as
unconventional processes such as milling, drilling.
• The other combinations of machine, cutting tool and work material can be studied.










60
APPENDIX - A
SPECIFICATIONS OF THE CENTRE LATHE
Center Height 200 mm
Center Distance 1000 mm
Swing
Over Bed 420 mm dia
Over Cross slide 220 mm dia
In Gap 550 mm dia
Gap Width 155 mm dia
Transverse
Of Cross slide 225 mm
Of Top 125 mm
Of Tailstock Spindle 150 mm
Spindle Bore 53 mm dia
Spindle Bore Taper Metric Short No. 7
Spindle Speed 32-1200 rpm
Spindle Speed Ratio 1.69
Tool Shank Size 25x25, 20x20 mm
Feed
Longitudinal Feeds 0.05-2.7 mm/rev
Cross Feed 0.01-0.54 mm/rev
Main Motor 2.2KW/3 HP
Weight of Machine 1250 Kg
Height of the Spindle Center above Floor 1035 mm
Floor Space 915x2725 mm
3 Phases, 415 V, 50 Hz, AC Supply




61
APPENDIX –B
WORKPIECE SPECIFICATIONS

• Work piece material : EN 24steel
• Work piece combination : 0.35- 0.45 %C
0.45- 0.6 %Mn
1.3 - 1.8 %Ni
0.9 - 1.4 % Co
0.2 - 0.3 % Cr
0.1 - 0.35% Si
And rest is Iron
• Work piece hardness : 260BHN
• Cutting tool material : K10 CARBIDE INSERT
• Hardness : 1500 BHN




















62
6
5
3
1
2
4
APPENDIX – C
WORKPIECE SPECIFICATIONS













Figure A-C.1: Convection faces used in FEM analysis of Carbide cutting tool

Here 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 are the faces through which the heat is lost to the environment
(convection heat loss).

















63
REFERENCES
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[3] G.K.Lal, “Introduction to machining science”, New Age International Publishers,
1999.
[4] R.K.Jain, “Production Technology”, Khanna Publishers, 2001
[5] Tirupathi R.Chandrupatla, Ashok D. Belegundu, “Introduction to Finite Elements
in Engineering”, Pearson Education, 2002.
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[1] Shih Albert J., Yang Henry T.Y., “Experimental and Finite Element Predictions
of Residual Stresses due to Orthogonal Metal Cutting”, International Journal for
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[2] Shih Albert J, “Finite Element Simulation of Orthogonal Metal Cutting”, Journal
of Engineering for Industry”, ASME, vol. 117(1995), pp. 84-93.
[3] Gillibrand D., Bradbury S.R., Yazdanpanah, Mobayyen S.,“A Simplified
approach to Evaluate the Thermal Behaviour of Surface Engineered Cutting
Tools”, Journal of Surface & Coatings Technology, vol. 82(1996), pp.344- 351.
[4] Leshock C.E., Shin Y.C., “Investigation on cutting Temperature in Turning by a
Tool-Work thermocouple technique”, Journal of Manufacturing Science and
Engineering, vol. 119 (1997), pp. 502 – 508.
[5] Mills B., Hao C.S., Qi H.S., “Formation of an adherent layer on a cutting tool
studied by micro machining and finite element analysis”, Wear, vol. 208(1997),
pp. 61-66.
[6] Tieu A.K., Fang X.D., Zhang D., “FE analysis of cutting tool temperature field
with adhering layer formation”, Wear, vol. 214 (1998), pp. 252-258.
[7] Chu T.H., Wallbank J., “Determination of the temperature of a machined
surface”, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, vol.120 (1998), pp.
259-263.



64
[8] Ostafiev V., Kharkevich A.,Weinert K.,Ostafiev S., “Tool Heat Transfer in
Orthogonal Metal Cutting”, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering,
vol. 121(1999),pp. 541-549.
[9] Chou Kevin Y., Evans J.Chris, “White layers and thermal modeling of hard
turned surfaces”, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, vol. 39
(1999), pp. 1863–1881.
[10] Choudhury S.K., Kishore K.K., “Tool Wear Measurement in Turning using Force
Ratio”, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, vol.40(2000),
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[11] Lim C.Y.H., Lau P.P.T., Lim S.C., “The effects of work material on tool wear”,
Wear, vol. 250(2001),pp. 344–348.
[12] Sullivan D.O., Cotterell M., “Temperature measurement in single point turning”,
Journal of Material Processing Technology, vol. 118(2001), pp. 301-308.
[13] Komanduri R., Hou Z.B., et al, “Tribology in Metal Cutting-Some Thermal
issues”, Journal of Tribology, vol.123 (2001), pp. 799 - 815.
[14] Huda Mahfudz Al, Yamada Keiji, Hosokawa Akira, Ueda Takashi, “Investigation
of Temperature at Tool-Chip Interface in Turning Using Two-Color Pyrometer”,
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, vol. 124(2002),pp. 200-207.
[15] Yen Y.C.,Sohner J.,Weule H.,Schmidt J.,Altan T., “Estimation of tool wear of
carbide tool in orthogonal cutting using Fem simulation”, Machining Science &
Technology, vol. 6(2002) ,pp. 467-486.
[16] Strenkowski J.S., Shih A.J., Lin J.C., “An analytical finite element model for
predicting three-dimensional tool forces and chip flow”, International Journal of
Machine Tools & Manufacture ,vol. 42 (2002),pp. 723–731.
[17] Chiou Richard Y., Chen Jim S J., Lu Lin, and Cole Ian, “Prediction of heat
transfer behavior of carbide inserts with embedded heat pipes for dry machining”,
Proceedings of ASME 2002.
[18] Zhao H., Barber G.C., Zou Q., “A study of flank wear in orthogonal cutting with
internal cooling”, Wear, vol. 253 (2002),pp. 957–962.



65
[19] Yen Yung-Chang, Sohner Jorg, Lilly Blaine, Altan Taylan, “Estimation of tool
wear in orthogonal cutting using the finite element analysis”, Journal of Material
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Analysis of Machining to Use Different Material Models”, Transactions of the
ASME ,vol. 125 (2003) ,pp. 656-666.
[21] Miller Mark R., Mulholland George, Anderson Charles, “Experimental Cutting
Tool Temperature Distributions”, Journal of Manufacturing Science and
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[22] Arsecularatne J.A., Kristyanto B.,and Mathew P., “An Investigation of the high
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Machining Science and Technology ,vol.8 (2004) ,pp. 211-233.
[23] Ranc N., Pina V., Sutter G., Philippon S., “Temperature Measurement by Visible
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[24] Sinha Aman, “Condition monitoring of tool and workpiece in turning using neural
network”, M Tech thesis, Department of Mechanical Engg. TIET, Patiala, India
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[25] Chou Kevin Y., Song Hui, “Thermal modeling for white layer predictions in
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(2004), pp.1–15 (Article in Press).
[26] Moufki A., Devillez A., Dudzinski D., Molinari A., “Thermo mechanical
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Machine Tools & Manufacture, vol. 44 (2004), pp. 971–989.
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[28] CAKIR Cemal M., ISIK Yahya., “Finite element analysis of cutting tools prior to
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66
Turning using Finite Element Method”, M Tech thesis, Department of Mechanical
Engg. TIET, Patiala, India 2004.

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the seminar entitled “ Thermal Modeling & Analysis of Carbide Tool Using Finite Element Method ”, being submitted by Mr. Amit Gupta in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (CAD/CAM & Robotics Engineering) at Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology (Deemed University), Patiala (INDIA) is a bonafide work carried out by him under our guidance and supervision and that no part of this thesis has been submitted for the award of any other degree .

(Mr. Gaurav Bartarya) Lecturer, MED T.I.E.T. Patiala-147004(PUNJAB)

(Mr. Ravinder Kumar Duvedi) Lecturer, MED T.I.E.T. Patiala-147004(PUNJAB)

(Dr. S. K. Mohapatra) Professor& Head, MED T.I.E.T. Patiala-147004(PUNJAB)

(Dr. D. S Bawa) Dean Academic Affairs T.I.E.T. Patiala-147004(PUNJAB)

2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I express my sincere gratitude to my guide, Mr. Gaurav Bartarya, and Mr. Ravinder Kumar Duwedi, Mechanical Engineering Department, Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology for his valuable guidance, proper advice, and careful reviews of my work at all stages, and their highly appreciated instruction and constant encouragement during the course of my work on this thesis. I am highly thankful to Dr. Vijay Jadon, Asst. Prof., Mechanical Engineering Department, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala for his expert advice, technical suggestions and moral support during my thesis work. Especially, I want to express my deepest appreciation and thanks to my supervisor Mr. Sukhdev Chand for his support and untiring help in conducting my experiments. I do not find enough words with which I can express my feeling of thanks to all my teachers and friends at T.I.E.T., for their help, inspiration and moral support which went a long way in completion of my thesis. I am also thankful to the authors whose works I have consulted and quoted in this work. I also extend my thanks to all faculty and staff members of Mechanical Engineering Department, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, for their direct and indirect help and cooperation.

(Amit Gupta)

3

The results prescribed demonstrate the significance of cutting parameters (speed. has been an active area of research for quite a long time. The study shows the effect of Modified temperature due to strain rate on carbide tool to describe the thermal softening of tool material and becomes prone to wear. 4 . The Experiments were performed with EN-24 steel as workpiece and Carbide uncoated tool bit as a tool material and the flank wear has been measured experimentally. The results reveal that by increasing process variables in machining the wear and temperature increases causing thermal softening of tool causing it to wear. The accurate prediction of tool wear is important to have a better product quality and dimensional accuracy. An empirical relation is used to determine temperature at tool-tip and further Finite Element Method is used to determine the distribution of temperature over the surface of tool and its impact on hardness which is related by an empirical relations.ABSTRACT The problem of tool wear monitoring in machining operations. The results obtained have been verified with the available results from literature for the variation of wear with the temperature and thermal softening of carbide tool. feed and depth of cut) in thermal analysis for study of the cutting tool wear. if improvements in tool performance are to be achieved The present work involves the study of tool wear caused by the change in hardness of single point cutting tool for a turning operation to predict the tool life in orthogonal cutting based on the heat transfer analysis using Finite Element Method (FEM). In cutting tools the area close to the tool tip is the most important region and conditions at the tool tip must be carefully examined.

INDEX CONTENTS NOMENCLATURE LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1.3 Thermal analysis 1.1 Tool Wear Phenomena 1.2 Analysis Techniques 1.3 Experiment Methodology 26 26-27 27-28 24-26 11-12 12-13 13 14 14 15-23 15-17 17-23 23 24-28 10-11 11 2-4 4-6 6-8 8-10 PAGE NO.1 Force measurement 3.1.1 Tool Wear 1.1 Models for determination of temperature field 2.1.4 Tool Wear Models 1.1.2 Wear Mechanism 1.3.2 Effects of the tool wear on technological performance 1.2.2 Experimentation 3.1 Instrumentation 3.2.5 Finite Element Method in Thermal Analysis CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Heat Generation in Machining 1.3.3.2.3 Summary of Literature CHAPTER 3: INSTRUMENTATION AND EXPERIMENTATION 3.2 Characteristics of tool wear 1.1 Consequences of tool wear 1.1.3 Heat Transfer in Machining 1. (i) (ii) (iii) 1 .2 Experimental procedure 3.2 Application of FEM for tool wear research 2.14 5 .2.1.4 Heat Effects 1.3.3.1 Planning of experiment 3.2.3 Prediction of Tool Wear 1.

5 Solution Scheme 4.13 Scope for Further Work 49 50 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C 51 52 53 REFERENCES 54-57 6 .depth of cuts)48-49 5.11 Variation of Flank Wear with Cutting Velocity (for Const.1 Machining parameters used for experimentation 5.5 Variation of Temperature with Cutting Force 5.2 Modeling of solution domain using FEM 5.3 Validation of results 5.12 Conclusions 5.4 Variation of Hardness with Flank-Edge Distance 5.6 Flow chart of Program CHAPTER 5: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 5.8 Regression Equation 5.3 FEM formulation 4.6 Variation of Flank Wear with Cutting Force 5.1 Governing equation for the heat transfer 4. feed rate) 29-38 29 29-30 30-37 37 37 38 39-50 39-41 41-42 42 42-43 43-44 44 44-45 45 45-47 47-48 5.10 Variation of Flank Wear with Cutting Velocity (for Const.9 Variation of Temperature with Cutting Velocity 5.7 Variation of Flank Wear with Modified Cutting Tool Temperature 5.2 Boundary condition 4.CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS 4.4 Hardness of tool 4.

NOMENCLATURE DIMENSIONAL PARAMETERS X . Γ : Local coordinates : Solution Domains : Conductivity coefficient : Convection coefficient : Cutting velocity : Depth of cut : Feed rate : Shear Angle : Rake Angle : Internal heat : Strain Rate K h V d f φ α Q . Z : Cartesian coordinate system ξ . Y . : Reference Strain Rate : Poisson’s Ratio ν MATRICES AND VECTORS [J ] [N ] [K c ] [K h ] {Rh } : Jacobian matrix : Shape function matrix : Conductivity matrix : Convection matrix : Convection load vector : Heat flux load vector : Nodal pressure vector {R } q {T } 7 (i) . γ γo .η Ω.

4: Influencing elements of tool wear Fig 1.13 Variation of flank wear with cutting velocity at constant depth of cut (d = +1) 49 FigA-C.9 Variation of Temperature versus cutting velocity at depth of cut (d = +1) Fig 5.5 Variation of flank Wear with respect to modified temperature Fig 5.4 Variation of Flank Wear with the resultant cutting force Fig 5.8 Variation of Temperature versus cutting velocity at depth of cut (d = -1) Fig 5.1 Convection faces used in FEM analysis of Carbide cutting tool 53 8 (ii) .11 Variation of flank wear with cutting velocity at constant feed rate(f= +1) 21 25 25 27 28 29 42 43 43 44 44 45 46 46 47 47 48 3 3 6 7 12 Fig 5.12 Variation of flank wear with cutting velocity at constant depth of cut(d = -1) 48 Fig 5.10 Variation of flank wear with cutting velocity at constant feed rate(f = -1) Fig 5. where w is the Tool widths.2 Relation between hardness and flank distance Fig 5.1 Model of chip formation used in Oxley’s analysis for Orth.7 Relation between Cutting velocity and temperature at feed rate (f = +1) Fig 5.4 Schematic diagram of the lathe and equipment setup Fig. VB the flank wear and θ is the relief angle Fig 3.6 Relation between Cutting velocity and temperature at feed rate (f = -1) Fig 5.3 Dimensions of the workpiece Fig 3.5: Zones of heat generation & dissipation during the metal cutting process Fig 2.1 Relationship between Cutting tool temperature and flank distance Fig 5.3 Variation of Temperature with resultant cutting force Fig 5.LIST OF FIGURES Fig 1.1: Schematic of cutting tool with zero degree rake angle.2: Behaviour of Flank wear Fig 1. machining Fig 5.4.2 Dynamometer Fig 3.1: Types of Tool Wear Fig 1.3: Wear mechanisms Fig 1.1 Wheatstone bridge Fig 3.

LIST OF TABLES Table 1. f and d 40 9 (iii) .1 Cutting parameters 9 39 Table 5.2 Experimental Results of measured parameters against parameters V.1 Tool life and Tool wear rate models Table 5.

tool life and machining cost. it gives only the information about tool life. Machining operations comprise a substantial portion of the world’s manufacturing infrastructure. increasing productivity and lowering cost.1 INTRODUCTION Tool wear monitoring/sensing should be one of the primary objectives in order to produce the required end products in an automated industry so that a new tool may be introduced at the instant at which the existing tool has worn out. thus preventing any hazards occurring to the machine or deterioration of the surface finish.g. a large amount of research has been carried out in order to optimize cutting process in terms of improving quality. The cost and time for tool replacement and adjusting machine tool increases cost and decreases the productivity. But capability of predicting the contributions of various wear mechanism is very helpful for the design of cutting tool material and 10 . there is a continuous struggle for cheaper production with better quality. and tool brittle fracture or due to the rise in the interface temperatures. increasing cutting force. Although Taylor’s equation gives the simple relationship between tool life and a certain cutting parameters. For the researcher and tool manufacturer tool wear progress and tool wear profile are also concerned. cutting edge blunting. Cutting tools may fail due to the plastic deformation. When tool wear reaches a certain value. machining quality. At present. Tool life equation gives no information about the wear mechanism. e. They create about 15% of the value of all mechanical components manufactured worldwide. Throughout the world today.CHAPTER . Hence tool wear relates to the economic of machining and prediction of tool wear is of great significance for the optimization of cutting process. This can be achieved only through optimal utilization of both material and human resources. cutting speed. Then the cutting tool must be replaced or ground and the cutting process is interrupted. The life of the cutting tool comes to an end. vibration and cutting temperature cause surface integrity deteriorated and dimension error greater than tolerance. the prediction of tool wear is performed by calculating tool life according to experiment and empirical tool life equations such as Taylor’s equation or its extension versions. Tool wear influences cutting power. mechanical breakage. Because of its great economic and technical importance. and is very easy to use.

when tool geometry is changed. under conditions of very high stress at high temperature. such as Usui’s tool wear equation [15]. Therefore a new tool wear prediction method may be developed by integrating FEM simulation of cutting process with tool wear model.geometry. the tool or edge change has to be replaced to guarantee the ordinary cutting action. In addition. and it will result in the failure of the cutting tool. including those very difficult to detect by experimental method. Some tool wear equations related to one or several wear mechanisms are also developed. cutting tool has normally complex wear appearance. During cutting. Mostly researchers concentrate on the study of wear mechanism and investigate the mathematical relationship between wear due to various wear mechanisms and some cutting process variables such as relative sliding velocity of workpiece material along tool face. etc can be predicted by performing chip formation and heat transfer analysis in metal cutting. 1. high pressure. Among them. numerical methods such as finite element method (FEM). They are in metal-to-metal contact.1 TOOL WEAR PHENOMENA Under high temperature. finite difference method (FDM) and artificial Intelligence (AI) are widely used in machining industry. which 11 . 1. strain rate. When the tool wear reach certain extent. FEM has become a powerful tool in the simulation of cutting process because various variables in the cutting process such as cutting force. wears are occurring during the cutting action. In the recent decades. stress. new equation must be established by making experiment. cutting temperature.1. cutting tools remove the material from the component to achieve the required shape. such tool life equations are valid under very limited cutting conditions. dimension and finish. high sliding velocity and mechanical or thermal shock in cutting area. and [19]. with the emergency of more and more powerful computer and the development of numerical technique. strain. However. For example. cutting temperature of tool face and normal pressure on tool face.1 TOOL WEAR Cutting tools are subjected to an extremely severe rubbing process. The situation is further aggravated due to the existence of extreme stress and temperature gradients near the surface of the tool. between the chip and work piece.

thermal crack. insert breakage. It conforms to the shape of the chip underside and reaches the maximum depth at a distance away from the cutting edge where highest temperature occurs. because the tool edge is weakened by the severe cratering and eventually fractures.1 are the most common wear types [28]. for example in turning operation. plastic deformation and build-up edge. crater wear normally forms on rake face. Figure 1. Figure1. The dominating basic wear types vary with the change of cutting conditions. At high cutting speed. crater wear is often the factor that determines the life of the cutting tool. Crater wear is improved by selecting suitable cutting parameters and using coated tool or ultra-hard material tool. flank wear. Crater wear and flank wear shown in figure1.1: Types of Tool Wear • Crater wear: In continuous cutting. fatigue crack.1 are the most common wear types. brittle crack.2: Behaviour of Flank wear 12 .consists of some basic wear types such as crater wear. Crater wear and flank wear shown in figure1.

2 WEAR MECHANISM In order to find out suitable way to slow down the wear process. adhesive wear. the surface finish of the sliding surfaces improves. adhesive wear.Under mild wear conditions. solution wear. and it is the main cause of the tool wear at low cutting speed. delamination wear. and severe wear periods. 1. welding occurs between the fresh surface of the chip and rake face because of the chip flowing on the rake face results in chemically clean surface. Hence the width of the flank wear land “VB” is usually taken as a measure of the amount of wear and a threshold value of the width is defined as tool reshape criterion. oxidation wear. Adhesion wear occurs mainly at low machining temperatures on tool rake face. a decrease in the dimension accuracy of the tool and an increase in cutting force. many research works are carried out to analyze the wear mechanism in metal cutting. Severe wear is characterized by considerable welding and tearing of the softer rubbing surface at high wear rate.1. Among them. • Adhesive wear: The simple mechanism of friction and wear proposed by Bowden and Tabor is based on the concept of the formation of welded junctions and subsequent destruction of these. • Abrasive wear: Abrasive wear is mainly caused by the impurities within the workpiece material. Due to the high pressure and temperature. etc. diffusion wear and oxidation wear are very important. Tool wear mechanisms in metal cutting include abrasive wear. It is responsible for a poor surface finish. steady wear. abrasive wear. such built up edge (BUE). Figure1. electrochemical wear. It is found that tool wear is not formed by a unique tool wear mechanism but a combination of several tool wear mechanisms. such as carbon. This is a mechanical wear. showing the initial wear. diffusion wear.2 shows a variation of flank wear rate with cutting time. and the formation of relatively large wear particles. nitride and oxide compounds. temperature and vibration.• Flank wear: Flank wear is caused by the friction between the newly machined work piece surface and the tool flank face. 13 . as well as the built-up fragments.

this thin layer can be removed by fracture or chipping. which is oxidation wear. There are several ways in which the wear may be dependent on the diffusion mechanism. It reduces adhesion. carbide or ceramic tools. In cast alloy. A number of workers have considered that the mechanism of tool wear must involve chemical action and diffusion. WO3. This results in a rapid tool material loss. (ii) Diffusion of major tool constituents into the work (Chemical element loss): The tool matrix or a major strengthening constituent may be dissolved into the work and chip surfaces as they pass the tool. Diamond tool – cutting iron and steel is the typical example of diffusion wear. which result in high forces and a sudden complete failure of the tool. are formed rapidly. the diffusion of lead into the tool may produce a thin brittle surface layer.• Diffusion wear: Wear is a process of atomic transfer at contacting asperities. A slight oxidation of tool face is helpful to reduce the tool wear. and then taken away by the chip and the workpiece. This flow may produce major changes in the tool geometry. 14 . Intermittent cutting action leads to continual generation of heat and cooling as well as shocks of cutting edge engagement. (i) Gross softening of the tool: Diffusion of carbon in a relatively deep surface layer of the tool may cause softening and subsequent plastic flow of the tool. for example Co3O4. TiO2. They have demonstrated welding and preferred chemical attack of (W) tungsten carbide in (W-Ti) tungsten-titanium carbides. With HSS tools. this may be the prime wear phenomenon. But at high temperature soft oxide layers. diffusion and current by isolating the tool and the workpiece. (iii) Diffusion of a work-material component into the tool: A constituent of the work material diffusing into the tool may alter the physical properties of a surface layer of the tool. • Oxidation wear: High temperatures and the presence of air mean oxidation for most metals. • • Chemical wear: Corrosive wear (due to chemical attack of a surface) Fatigue wear: Fatigue wear is often a thermo-mechanical combination. Temperature fluctuations and the loading and unloading of cutting forces can lead to cutting edge cracking and breaking. but it seems unlikely to be the predominant wear process. For example. iron diffusion is possible.

3 PREDICTION OF TOOL WEAR Prediction of tool wear is complex because of the complexity of machining system [15]. the dominating wear mechanisms vary with cutting temperature. microstructure.4 shows influencing elements of the tool wear [15]. temperature at the cutting edge can exceed 530°C and pressure is greater than 13. diffusion wear and oxidation wear. interface and machine tool: • Workpiece: It includes the workpiece material and its physical properties (mechanical and thermal properties.3: Wear mechanisms 1.1. According to the temperature distribution on the tool face. Any element changing contact conditions in cutting area affects tool wear. tool. 15 . which determine cutting force and energy for the applied cutting conditions. as shown in figure1.3. For a certain combination of cutting tool and workpiece. Figure 1. hardness. These elements come from the whole machining system comprising workpiece. but flank wear mainly dominated by abrasive wear due to hard second phase in the workpiece material. Figure 1. etc).79 N/mm2. it is assumed that crater wear is mainly caused by abrasive wear. Tool wear in cutting process is produced by the contact and relative sliding between the cutting tool and the work piece and between the cutting tool and the chip under the extreme conditions of cutting area.Under different cutting conditions dominating wear mechanisms are different.

etc) need to be appropriately chosen for different operations (roughing. product quality. coolants are used to decrease cutting temperatures and likely reduce tool wear. Instable cutting processes with large vibrations (chatters) result in a fluctuating overload on the cutting tool and often lead to the premature failure of the cutting edge by tool chipping and excessive tool wear. or finishing). plays an important role for a successful cutting. The problem of tool wear monitoring in machining operation has been active area of research. depth of cut) • Interface: It involves the interface conditions. affected by the machine tool structure and all the components taking part in the cutting process.4: Influencing elements of tool wear • Tool: Tool material. semiroughing. feed rate. • Dynamic: The dynamic characteristic of the machine tool. In 80% of the industrial cutting applications. such as the minimum liquid lubrication. and 16 . tool coatings and tool geometric design (edge preparation. have been developed to reduce the cost of coolant that makes up to 16% of the total machining costs. tooling costs. Increasingly new technologies. This is because tool change strategies. rake angle.Figure 1. The optimal performance of a cutting tool requires a right combination of the above tool parameters and cutting conditions (cutting speed.

Taylor’s tool life equation reveals the exponential relationship between tool life and cutting speed. the rate of volume loss at the tool face (rake or flank) per unit contact area per unit time (mm/min). The constants n. it is difficult to get further information about the tool wear progress. C1. In addition. and have been elaborated below.1. It is very convenient to predict tool life by using this equation. 17 . are related to several cutting process variables that have to be decided by experiment or using some methods. Tool life models: This type of wear models gives the relationship between tool life and cutting parameters or variables. Tool life equations are suitable to very limited range of cutting conditions. 1. the existing tool life equations need to be updated with new constants and a lot of experimental work has to be done. i. In various sizes of cutting database. As the new machining technologies. are getting spread in manufacturing industry. They can be categorized into two types: Tool life models and Tool wear rate models. the wear growth rate. A and B are defined by doing a lot of experiments with cutting speed changing and fitting the experimental data with the equation.4 TOOL WEAR MODELS Many mathematical models are developed to describe tool wear in quantity. except that tool life can be predicted by these equations. tool wear profile or tool wear mechanisms that are sometimes important for tool designers.e. Taylor’s tool life equation and its extension versions under different cutting conditions appear most frequently. For example. and Hastings tool life equation describes the great effect of cutting temperature on tool life [19]. Reduction in production cost and increase in productivity can be realized by making the most use of a tool’s life and therefore increasing the time between tool changes.productivity are all influenced by tool wear. high-speed-cutting or dry cutting. Tool wear-rate models: These models are derived from one or several wear mechanisms.g. e. In these modes.1. as shown in table 1. They provide the information about wear growth rate due to some wear mechanisms.

σ n = Normal Stress.1: Tool life and Tool wear rate models Empirical Tool Life Models Taylor’s basic equation: VL = C1 n Tool Wear Rate Models Takeyama & Murata’s wear model (considering abrasive wear and diffusive wear): dW −E = G (v. f ) + D exp  dt  RT  ( n.L = Tool life . These variables can be predicted by FEM simulation of cutting process or combining analytical method and FDM.r. Therefore Usui’s equation is very practical for the implementation of tool wear estimation by using FEM or by using the combination of FDM and analytical method. One part shows that abrasive wear is influenced by the cutting speed and feed. 18 .D =constants) Taylor’s extended equation: V= C3 L f d ( BHN / 200) r m p q Usui’s wear model (considering adhesive wear): dW −B = Aσ nVs exp  dt  T  ( m. tool temperature and normal pressure on tool face. dW/dt = wear rate (volume loss per unit contact area per unit time) Takeyama & Murata’s model is developed by considering the combination action of abrasive wear and diffusive wear.B =constants) (A.q.R = universal gas constant .q.C1 = Constants ) Taylor’s extended equation: L= C2 V f qd r p ( p.p. Usui’s equation includes three variables: Sliding velocity between the chip and the cutting tool.r. f = Feed rate. Therefore the equation sums two parts up. E = process activation energy Vs = sliding velocity .BHN = Workpiece hardness.Table 1.C3 = constants) Temperature-based equation(known as Hasting’s tool life equation): TLB = A ( A. Another part including universal gas constant and tool temperature describes diffusive wear.B = Constants) V = Cutting speed .C2 = constants) (G. d = Depth of cut T = Cutting temperature .

2 EFFECTS OF TOOL WEAR ON TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE 1. however. Increase the cost. reduce forces by effectively increasing the rake angle of the tool. Clearance-face (flank or wear-land) wear and chipping almost invariably increase the cutting forces due to increased rubbing forces. Crater wear may. Surface finish (roughness): The surface finish produced in a machining operation usually deteriorates as the tool wears. Vibration or chatter: The vibration is another aspect of the cutting process which may be influenced by flank wear. Dimension accuracy: Flank wear influences the plan geometry of a tool this may affect the dimensions of the component produced in a machine with set cutting tool position or it may influence the shape of the components produced in an operation utilizing a form tool. A wear land increases the tendency of a tool to dynamic 19 . component quality. 1.The constants in tool wear rate models are depending on the combination of workpiece and cutting tool material.2. Lower the production efficiency. Influence on cutting forces: Flank wear (or wear-land formation) and chipping of the cutting edge affect the performance of the cutting tool in various ways. under certain circumstances. Increase the cutting force. Increase the temperature. The cutting forces are normally increased by wear of the tool. Increase the surface roughness. Likely cause vibration.1 CONSEQUENCES OF TOOL WEAR • • • • • • • Decrease the dimension accuracy. This is particularly true of a tool worn by chipping and generally the case for a tool with flank-land wear – although there are circumstances in which a wear land may burnish (polish) the workpiece and produces a good finish.

generalized wear theory cannot be directly used for accurate study of the tool wear. as well as in the tool life in machining. the chip-tool interface and the tool-workpiece interface zone [17]: 20 . machined part’s dimensional accuracy. mechanical work is converted to heat through the plastic deformation involved in chip formation and through friction between the tool and workpiece. In machining operations.3. The temperature of the tool plays an important role in the thermal distortion and the. the shear zone. Elevated tool temperatures have negative impact on a tool life. and in many cases constituents of the tool life may diffuse into the chip or react chemically with the workpiece or cutting fluid.3 THERMAL ANALYSIS: In machining operations. 1. mechanical work is converted to heat through the plastic deformation involved in chip formation and through friction between the tool and workpiece. It is commonly accepted that both the wear and failure mechanisms which develop in cutting tools are predominantly influenced by temperature and it also results in modification to the properties of workpiece and tool material such as hardness. Tools become softer and wear more rapidly by abrasion as temperatures are increased. A cutting operation which is quite free of vibration when the tool is sharp may be subjected to an unacceptable chatter mode when the tool wears. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF TOOL WEAR • • Huge contact stress at the rake and flank surface High temperature (800-1000 °C for carbide and steel combination) Hence. it is necessary to quantify the temperatures which develop during the cutting operation. It gives rise to thermal softening of cutting tool. 1.instability.2. It can increases tool wear and thereby reducing tool life [17]. In order to predict the wear and failure characteristics of a tool. Figure 1. which are. resulting in high tool temperatures near cutting edge. Some of this heat conducts into cutting tool.1 HEAT GENERATION IN MACHINING Heat generation while machining has significant influence on machining.5 shows three regions of heat generation in turning.

• The shear zone: The shear zone. As the portion of heat that flows into the tool cause very high temperature in vicinity of tool tip which in turn decrease the hardness of the tool material and in extreme case may even cause melting. where secondary plastic deformation due to friction between the heated chip and tool takes place. and tool geometry. • The tool-workpiece interface zone: The work-tool interface zone 3.3. as the cutting speed increases for a given rate of feed. The main techniques used to evaluate the temperature during machining are as following: 21 . This causes a further rise in the temperature of the chip. Figure 1. Considering a continuous type chip. where the main plastic deformation takes place due to shear energy. resulting in a decrease in useful life of the tool. feed rate. This chip-tool interface contributes 15-20% of heat generated. It is increasingly important to understand how machining temperature are affected by the process variable involved which are cutting speed. This area contributes 1-3% of heat generated. the chip thickness decreases and less shear energy is required for chip deformation so the chip is heated less from this deformation. This heat raises the temperature of the chip. at flanks where frictional rubbing occurs. 1. About 80-85% of the heat generated in shear zone.2 ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES Several methods have been used for measuring the temperatures generated during metal cutting operations [12].5: Zones of heat generation & dissipation during the metal cutting process. Part of this heat is carried away by the chip when it moves upward along the tool. • The chip-tool interface zone: The chip-tool interface zone. The wear rate of tool therefore increases.

These numerical methods used in measurement of temperatures are the following: • • • Finite Difference Method Finite Element Method Boundary Element Method Semi-Analysis: In the semi analysis technique. • • • Heat transfer inside the chip and workpiece. Radiation is rarely investigated in traditional machining operations. convection and radiation because of the temperature gradient. Then the temperature distribution and/or thermal deformation in chip and sometimes in the tool and workpiece as well are calculated analytically.3. they have great potential to solve the problems in practice. The inverse heat transfer problem in machining is an example of these methods. and air present at ambient temperature [8].3 HEAT TRANSFER IN MACHINING Heat is transferred across boundaries by conduction. Heat transfer between coolant/air and the chip/tool/workpiece is by convection. 1. 22 . the finite element and boundary element methods can deal with very complicated geometry in machining. chip or workpiece temperature and their distribution. the tool and tool-holder is by conduction.Experiment Retrospection: Many experimental methods have been devised to measure the tool. some information such as chip surface temperature or temperature distribution in workpiece is first obtained experimentally. Especially. these are: • • • • • • Tool-Chip Thermocouple Technique Embedded Thermocouple Technique Infrared Radiation Technique Metal Microstructure and Micro-hardness Variation Measurement Thermo-sensitive Painting Technique Temper Color Technique Numerical Simulation: The numerical methods were successfully applied in calculating the temperature distribution and thermal deformation in tool. chip and workpiece.

5 Finite Element Method in Thermal Analysis Finite element analysis is a most useful and accurate approach for the determination of field variables that is made possible by advancements in computational and processing power of computers and thus it is almost used for all the computer aided design methodologies in recent years. 23 . severe deformations take place in the vicinity of the cutting edge of the tool because of the high temperatures resulting from machining operation. a complex region defining a continuum is discredited into simple geometric shapes called finite elements. Following are some of the effects of heat on various cutting parameters: • Heat Influences on Cutting Forces: The heat influence on the cutting forces is mainly because of the following reasons-the friction co-efficient is tightly dependent upon temperature. 1. Applications range from deformation and stress analysis to field analysis of heat flux. • • • • Heat Effects on Tool Life Heat Influences on Surface Toughness Heat Influences on Thermal Deformation in Lathe. seepage and other flow problem. it can also be implemented for other multipoint processes like drilling.3. and quality of surface. In this method of analysis. Once the model developed for determination of temperature field for single point cutting tool. milling or grinding also.1. fluid flow. magnetic flux. and the properties of cut material also depend on temperature. Heat Effects on Mass Transfer in Coolant Circulation System.4 HEAT EFFECTS In metal cutting.3. The Present work is also based on the application of finite element for thermal analysis of single point cutting tool for turning operation. These elevated temperatures have a negative impact on tool life.

CHAPTER - 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
The problem of tool wear monitoring in machining operations has been an active area of research for quite some time. The machining processes are inherently dynamic in nature due to various factors. Some of them can be mathematically modeled, but others are too uncertain. Thus simplifications are made while modeling the extremely complex machining processes. Research in the field of machining has been primarily done on single point turning process, as it is the basic metal removal processes. Once a model has been developed for turning operation, it can be implemented for other multipoint processes like drilling, milling or grinding. In this work tool wear along with temperature had been selected as the criterion for the process control in turning operation. In recent years, numerical calculating methods have been widely developed in most areas of engineering and have been used to determine the thermal behaviour of cutting tools. In general, the application of finite element and finite difference techniques has been successful, yet still relies heavily on the accuracy of experimentally determined boundary conditions. This chapter deals with the review of the work done on the topic. Firstly the review is on the general analysis of tool, concentrating mainly on prediction of temperature and tool wear. Then the concentration shifts on to second part, which is the review on use of finite element in the thermal analysis of the cutting tool.

2.1 MODELS FOR DETERMINATION OF TEMPERATURE FIELD
Temperature measurement and prediction have been a major focus of machining research for several decades. Throughout the 20th century, much effort has been undertaken into measuring the temperature generated during cutting operations. Interfacial temperatures in machining play a major role in tool wear and can also result in modification to the mechanical properties of the workpiece and cutting tool. Leshock et al [4] presented the results the tool chip interface temperature measurement by the tool work thermocouple technique. Tool chip interface temperature is analyzed under a wide range of cutting condition during turning of 4140 steel alloys and Inconel 718 nickel based alloys with tungsten carbide tools. The obtained experimental results are compared with the predictions based on the Loewen and Shaw’s 24

model. In addition an empirical model for the tool face temperature terms of cutting parameters is established. Finally, the tool chip interface temperature is analyzed with both flank and crater wear during machining of 4140 steel alloys. Sullivan et al [12] presented different methods used for the measurement of temperature of a single cutting tool. Initial experiments conducted involved the simultaneous measurement of forces & temperature. Use of the tool-chip interface as a thermocouple was one of the first methods of estimating interfacial temperatures in machining process. These experiments focused on the use of embedded thermocouples and using the infrared camera to monitor the process. Komanduri et al [13] addresses two fundamental thermal issues of tribology in orthogonal machining with a sharp tool, namely, the nature of the apparent heat partition in the shear plane and the variable heat partition at the chip-tool interface. The distribution of temperature in the chip, the tool, and the work material was determined analytically considering the combined effect of these two heat sources in orthogonal machining. The new analytical model was verified for a wide range of Peclet numbers, using the available experimental data from the literature. Huda et al [14] developed a technique for measuring temperature at the interface between a cutting tool and a chip. A two-color pyrometer with fused fiber coupler was applied to the temperature measurement of the tool-chip interface in dry and wet turning. By using this pyrometer, it is possible to measure the temperature of a very small object without emissivity affecting the results. The temperature distributions on the cutting tool and the work material were analyzed using the finite element method. Good agreement was obtained between the analytical results and experimental ones. Miller et al [21] developed Experimental techniques using modern, digital infrared imaging and successfully applied them during this study to gather cutting tool temperature distributions from orthogonal machining operations. This new process has seemingly overcome many problems associated with past experimental techniques. Ranc et al [23] developed a high-speed broad band visible pyrometer using an intensified CCD camera (spectral range: 0.4 mm–0.9 mm) for the measurement of the machining temperature. The maximum temperature in the chip can reach 730°C and minimal temperature which can be detected is around 550°C. The advantage of the 25

visible pyrometry technique is to limit the temperature error due to the uncertainties on the emissivity value and to have a good spatial resolution (3.6 mm) and a large observation area.

2.2 APPLICATION OF FEM FOR TOOL WEAR RESEARCH
A more promising approach for developing an orthogonal metal cutting model is provided by an advanced numerical discretization scheme, such as the finite element method. This part basically discusses about the application of FEM in predicting the tool temperature and thus estimating the tool wear. Shih et al [1] developed the, methodology using FEM for the simulation of plane– strain orthogonal cutting processes with continuous chip formation. The orthogonal metal cutting experiment was setup on a shaper, and the distributions of the residual stresses of the annealed carbon steel are measured using the X-ray diffraction method. Along with this, they also developed experimental procedures for orthogonal metal cutting and measurement of distributions of residual stresses using the X-ray diffraction method. They formulated a 4 nodes 8 degree of freedom, quadrilateral plane–strain finite element. The finite element formulation was divided in two phases. Only thermal finite element formulation is discussed here. •
Thermal finite element formulation: The temperature increment during the metal

cutting process is simulated using a linear thermal finite element formulation by assuming that the thermal conductivity, density and heat capacity of the workpiece material remain unchanged during the displacement increment. The thermal finite element formulation for temperature analysis can be written in a matrix form as
.  .   .  [C ] T  + ([ K k ] + [ K c ]){T } =  Fp  +  Ft        Where, [C] = ∫ {N }{N }T ρcdV
v

(2.1)

[Kk]= ∫ [ B] [ B]kdV
v

T

[Kc]= ∫ {N }T {N }hdS c
Sc

26

c. Here. They concluded that with the continued development of surface engineered cutting tools. = Temperature vector at nodal points = Shape function vector = Heat capacity of workpiece = Convection coefficient = Convection boundary of the workpiece { F p } = Vector of heat generation due to plastic work . Detailed work-material modeling.1). low-cost package would be useful for giving an indication of the expected thermal behavior of surface engineered cutting tools. this easy-to-apply. high strain rate and temperature effects. the temperature distribution of the workpiece is obtained and the material properties are thus generated. was used to simulate the material deformation during cutting process. q . Gillibrand et al [3] developed a technique to predict the temperatures generated along the tool/chip interface using standard analytical methods. They developed a package for estimating the thermal behavior of both single and multi-point cutting tools using base data which are generally available. The temperature distribution along the tool/chip interface is applied as a heat source input to a finite element model of the tool. k . Shih [2] developed plane – strain Finite Element Method and applied to analyze the orthogonal metal cutting process. 27 . They concluded that finer element mesh configuration should be used to achieve more accurate modeling of the cutting process and also to improve the FE predictions. {T} {N} c h Sc . or may be acquired through standard cutting tests. and h are all assumed as direction independent. Based on the equation (2.{ F p }= ∫ {N }qdV & v . The finite element predictions of the residual stresses were compared with measurements obtained from X-ray diffraction. rapid. which included the coupling of large strain. = Rate of plastic work t { F } = Heat generation rate on the boundary node of the workpiece due to frictional work ρ . and the product testing involved.

Chu et al [7] developed technique for measuring temperature close to primary cutting edge in turning operation. It was found that the temperature gradient in the cutting tool from the tool face at a position 0. These process variables depend on tool and workpiece materials. they concluded that the adhering layer thickness was uneven and the average temperature of cutting zone for adhering layer formation was within a range of 950-1050°C. It showed that cutting speed & feed rates have significant impact on temperature but nose radius has little effect. the cutting temperature distributions and their relation with the formation of adhering layer were investigated. Yen et al [15] developed a methodology to estimate the tool wear of carbide tool in orthogonal cutting using FEM. Ostafiev et al [8] analyzed heat flux transfer in the cutting tool in steady state orthogonal cutting.16 % carbon bright drawn mild steel. Based on the experimental work using a miniature thermocouple and the analytical results from FE modeling. A coincidence of the experimental and theoretical temperature distributions implied that the chosen heat flux model was appropriate. Tieu et al [6] presented a research work carried out on the cutting tool temperature field with adhering layer formation when machining Ca-S tree-cutting stainless steel. tool wear is strongly influenced by the cutting temperature. In metal cutting. have been measured for a range of cutting speed and feedrates at a constant depth of cut. The temperature distributions determined from this procedure were compared with those obtained experimentally. contact stresses. The correlations for workpiece temperature of cutting speed & feed have been developed.5 mm from the major cutting edge is much smaller in the presence of an adherent layer than without an adherent layer. Tool nose radius was also varied. The cutting temperatures of a 0. By means of combining thermocouple measuring method and finite element (FE) analysis. The temperature distribution field within a cutting tool under conditions of adherent layer formation was determined using the FEM. tool 28 . and relative sliding velocity at the interface.Mills et al [5] developed a technique to monitor the deformation and crack propagation around inclusions using a micro cutting device in a scanning electron microscope while machining is being carried out. The method involved as interactive procedure to determine temperature distributions in the tool from varying heat flux transfer conditions.25 to 0. cutting condition.

was utilized. a development of tool wear model for the specified tool-workpiece pair. W is the volume worn away on the relief face. for the given application. “Konti-Cut”. the second phase includes. According to the prediction of this model. as shown 29 . and they have formulated the following methodologies: 1. Mathematically wear can be expressed as follows: dW = K σ t dL H The wear volume can be converted to the wear land measurement VB with the assumption of a zero degree rake angle of the cutting tool W= 1 wV B2 tan θ 2 Where. modifications in the commercial FEM code and last phase includes experimental validation of the developed methodology. w the width of cut and θ is the relief angle of the tool[18]. use of coolants etc. Zhao et al [18] developed a methodology to investigate the effects of the internal cooling on the flank wear of the cutting tools in orthogonal cutting. a special simulation module. developed by WZL at University of Aachen (RWTH). hardness H and normal stress σ t are two main parameters closely related to the wear and the wear rate is usually proportional to σ t and inversely proportional to H. Based on temperatures and stresses on the tool face. the wear performance of carbide cutting tools and HSS cutting tools are different due to their different thermal softening behavior. tool wear may be estimated with acceptable accuracy by using an empirical wear model and using FEM simulation. Germany. A flank wear model for a cutting tool in orthogonal cutting is presented which is based on previous wear models and includes the normal stress and the effect of temperature on the flank wear. the first phase includes. VB is the measurement of wear land on the tool. The methodology proposed by them has three different phases.geometry. The wear prediction procedure starts with a coupled thermo-viscoplastic Lagrangian cutting simulation with isotropic strain-hardening using DEFORM®-2D. Flank wear model for orthogonal metal cutting In all the previous wear models studied by them. In order to obtain the cut chip geometry near the steady state.

VB the flank wear and θ is the relief angle 2. where w is the tool width.Since the relationship between the thermal 30 .1: Schematic of cutting tool with zero degree rake angle.1. VC is the cutting speed. T is in ◦C. it is necessary to know the thermal softening of the cutting tool material versus the temperature. The exponential function used to predict thermal softening is as follows: H (T) = Ho exp (−αT) Where H (T) is the hardness of a material at a given temperature. Figure 2. Ho and α are constants obtained by Curve-fitting . and t is the cutting time.VB is a variable that increases with the development of flank wear. L is the cutting length. The apparent area of the tool–work contact interface can be written as follows: A = w VB The normal stress at the flank face can be calculated as given by the following relation: σt = Where Ft is Ft F = t A wV B the thrust force in cutting . K is a coefficient which can be determined by experiments.in figure 2. H is the hardness of the cutting tool. Thus the equation to predict flank wear can be written as: 1 1  2V 3  F t 3 VB = K  2 c   t   w tan θ   H  Where. Effects of temperature on flank wear in orthogonal cutting To consider the effects of the temperature on the flank wear.

and C4 = 853.0002. T is the temperature in ◦C and C1.81. The values of C1. C3 = −0. C2 = 0. The following is the equation used them: H (T) = C1T 3 + C 2T 2 + C 3T + C 4 Where H is the hardness of the cutting tool material. C2. Arsecularatne et al [22] investigated the application of the Oxley modeling approach to high speed machining (HSM) process for gaining a fundamental 31 . C3 and C4 are constants that can be determined by curve-fitting. C3 = 0. YC Yen et al [19] developed a methodology to estimate the tool wear and tool life of a carbide tool in orthogonal cutting using FEM simulation. The proposed procedure for predicting the tool wear at any time instance tk was divided in four phases.softening and temperature can be obtained by curve-fitting experimental data. The flank wear in arbitrary units versus the temperature was calculated by them for both carbide and HSS material.5853.2122. The performance of the model was studied by comparing its predictions with experimental data for different materials and it was found that model accurately produces the dependence of the cutting forces and chip thickness as a function of undeformed chip thickness and cutting speed and accurately estimates the temperature in the primary and secondary shear zones. Amir et al [20] developed methodology to extend the applicability of Oxley’s analysis of machining to a broader class of materials beyond the carbon steels used by Oxley and co-workers. C2 = −0. and C4 = 1517.0054. For HSS Tool Material C1 = −0. C3 and C4 for different tool materials are: For Carbide Tool Material C1 = 0. C2.000006. different equations can be used.000002. • • • • “Konti Cut” Simulation Pure Heat Transfer Analysis Calculating Tool Wear Rate Updating the Tool Geometry The simulations using a cutting tool with constantly updated rake face and flank face geometries have shown that it is possible to predict the evolution of tool wear at any given cutting time from FEM simulations by using the proposed methodology by them.

3 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE From above literature review. Good agreement has been shown between measured and predicted results. strain hardening and thermal softening were considered. In the present work. improved surface finish and lower cutting forces. The predicted cutting forces. The model presented can be used to predict the cutting forces. this theory has been applied for two plain carbon steels and low alloy steel under HSM conditions. chip thicknesses. The tendencies predicted by the model were also compared qualitatively with the experimental trends founded in the literature. it can be concluded that FEM has been effectively implemented to determine the temperature distribution on the tool surface. Since machining parameters affect the wear and heat generation in tool. the surface contact between chip and tool and the temperature distribution at the rake face which affects strongly the tool wear. Molinari et al [27] developed an analytical approach to model the thermomechanical process of chip formation in a turning operation. the chip flow direction. the contact length between the chip and the tool and the temperature distribution at the tool–chip interface which has an important effect on tool wear. so further study has been carried out to develop the relation between machining parameters and mechanical properties which are governed by modified machining temperatures due to strain rate. in order to predict the tool wear. and secondary deformation zone thicknesses are then compared with the experimental results obtained under identical conditions. A critical study was also presented by them in order to show the influences of the input parameters of the model including the normal shear angle. The model permits to predict the cutting forces. Moufki et al [26] developed an analytical approach for thermomechanical modeling of oblique cutting process. efficient use of machine tools and. 2.understanding and performance prediction of this process which is gaining increased popularity due to its many economic and technological advantages such as faster metal removal rates. the thickness of the primary shear zone and the pressure distribution at the tool–chip interface. the global chip flow direction. 32 . The material characteristics such as strain rate sensitivity.

Optical devices. feed rate (f). most widely used dynamometer is of strain gauge type.1 INSTRUMENTATION The various instruments used for experimentation are discussed here in this section: 3. various devices have been used. depth of cut (d).1 FORCE MEASUREMENT A force measurement actually involves the measurement of a deflection. For measuring small deflections. Strain Gauges. 3.1. 4. Out of these.wire strain gauges have commonly been used. bounded. Here hardness is related with the modified temperature. 2. Some of them are listed below: 1. with a suitable calibration between the force and the deflection it produces. including the effect of strain rate. Finite Element Analysis is used to depict the temperature at various points of cutting tool by changing various machining parameters such as cutting speed (V). caused by that force. ∈ is the normal strain and can be calculated as: ∈= 33 .CHPATER . 5. The gauge factor is a measure of sensitivity of gauge and is defined as: F= ∆R R ∆R = ∈R ∆l l ∆l l Where. Pneumatic devices. In this category. 3. Piezoelectric crystals.3 INSTRUMENTATION AND EXPERIMENTATION The objective of the present work is to develop methodology to relate tool wear with mechanical properties of a material such as Hardness. Usually these bonded wire gauges have been specified by the resistance and the gauge factor (F). of cutting tool. The dial indicator.

Figure 3.2[24]. In this case. have been used. No current will flow through the galvanometer (G) if the four resistances satisfy the equation R1 R2 = R4 R3 For the sake of simplicity. bonded wire strain gauge of resistance 120+ and gauge factor 2.1: Wheatstone bridge Figure 3. This can be made by means of Wheatstone bridge as shown in figure 3. the axial cutting force.2: Dynamometer 34 . the lathe operation is frequently taken as a orthogonal cutting process. A schematic diagram of the dynamometer used in the present work is shown in the figure 3. Ff.1[24]. Fc. have been used. the changes of the resistance of the same order of magnitude need to be measured. and the tangential cutting force.In our case. In order to measure the strains of the order of 1+. the resultant force will act in a known plane and only two force components are required to analyze the cutting process. In the present case.

To reduce the total number of experiments.2 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE The experiments were made on the HMT lathe using a bar turning process under dry conditions. The output flank wear was measured with the help of a tool room microscope. The dynamometer structure is made of aluminum. For the range of range of cutting conditions (cutting speed. bends the structure about the one axis and the tangential feed force. Fc. To establish a relationship between different input variables and the output accurately in the selected range of investigation 3. thickness of chip and flank wear. and the recordings are calibrated to give a measure of the forces applied. Statistical design of experiments is the process of planning the experiments so that the appropriate data could be collected which may be analyzed by statistical method resulting in valid and objective conclusions. A rough turning pass was made initially to eliminate the runout of the workpiece. 3. Tool height and tool overhang was set to the required level with the help of gauges. The axial cutting force. and depth of cut) it was required to measure the two force components Ft and Ff. The straight edge with Rake angle α = 0 has been used to have an orthogonal cutting. all with the same basic 35 . 3. Strain gauges have been used to measure these distortions (moments). bends the structure about another axis.2 EXPERIMENTATION Experiments were carried out on a turning lathe.1 PLANNING OF EXPERIMENT A scientific approach to planning of experiments must be incorporated in order to perform an experiment most effectively. Ff. A total of eight experiments were carried out. EN 24 steel workpiece of 600mm length was held in a three – jaw chuck and supported by a center in the tail stock.2. The action of the forces is to bend the structure.2.A two component cutting force dynamometer of cantilever type is used in the present work. feed. Planning of experiments was employed in order to fulfill the following requirements: • • • To get the data uniformity distributed over the whole range of controllable factors to be investigated. For the experimentation. A carbide tip turning tool was clamped in a two component strain gauge dynamometer using a tool holder designed in a machine lab during the thesis work.

0.82 (m/min) b) Feed: 0.35.1.0787 – 0.45.175 (m/sec) c) Depth of cut: 0. The selected ranges of each parameter used are given below: • Work material: The EN 24 Steel (0.27 (mm) 3.3 EXPERIMENT METHODOLOGY A HMT make lathe was used for turning experiment whose specifications have been given in appendix -A. Figure3. 56 mm 600mm Figure 3.762. 1.45 %C.0.02 mm c) Nose radius: 0.508.1.4 mm • Test conditions: carbide inserts were used to machine EN24 steel with following cutting parameters a) Rotational speed:70.4 shows the schematic diagram of the machine and equipment setup.08 – 179.3: Dimensions of the workpiece The figure 3. 0. • Tool material: The tool material used should be capable of high speed machining with dry cutting conditions. In present investigation carbide inserts were used for performing the experiments.8 %Ni) was chosen for the present investigation with a diameter of 60 mm and 600 mm length. 36 .02mm b) Tool width: 8. • Tool geometries: a) Tool length: 16.0.6 %Mn.configuration and carbide inserts were replaced after performing a single test so as to see the effect of temperature on the tool individually at different cutting conditions.2.3 .3 shows the dimensions of the workpiece (EN24) before the turning process.

Measuring the cutting forces with dynamometer. 4. The experiments carried out can be classified: 1. Measuring the flank wear of the carbide insert with microscope. Carry out experiment on lathe machine using EN 24 as work piece and commercial available Carbide Tool of triangular shape. 6. 3. & feed rates. 5. Correlating these wear trend with thermal softening of tool due to rise in temperature in insert. The output flank wear is measured with the help of a metallurgical microscope having graduation marked on the eyepiece.4: Schematic diagram of the lathe and equipment setup Then the actual experiments have been carried out with the different input cutting conditions for different experiments for constant volume of material removal in each case. 37 . Measuring the deformed chip thickness using vernier calliper. depth of cut. These input cutting conditions are fed to program and value of temperature and Hardness at every nodes of the tool is thus calculated.Workpiece Cutting tool Dynamometer Display Figure 3. Machining is done with different sets of Cutting speed. 2.

4 ANALYSIS The present chapter deals with the formulation of three-dimensional governing equation for heat conduction used to obtain the temperature distribution on the face of the tool bit. Temperature is specified at nodes which are in touch with shear zone[1].CHAPTER . and have been calculated by relation given below: . [4].1 GOVERNING EQUATION FOR THE HEAT TRANSFER Governing equation for the heat transfer problem can be written as: ∂  ∂T  ∂  ∂T  ∂  ∂T   + K K + K  +Q = 0 ∂x  ∂x  ∂y  ∂y  ∂z  ∂z    (4.   γo  o      Here. to be used for obtaining the hardness at the various positions on the tool. and heat transfer is considered in three-dimensional solid bounded by a surface Γ . cos α cos (φ − α ) .  γ  T mod ( K) = Tavg 1 − ν log . Material is isotropic and homogeneous as (Kx = Ky = Kz = K) 3.1: Model of chip formation used in Oxley’s analysis for Orth. Conduction occurs in the steady state.and [22]. 2. V ∆y  r cos α  φ = tan −1   1 − r sin α     Figure 4. Internal heat generation is zero. [20]. This equation is solved with appropriate boundary conditions. γ = . machining 38 .2 BOUNDARY CONDITION Following boundary conditions have been used for the solution of the present problem: 1. The eight noded brick elements have been used for the FEM modeling. 4. 4.1) Following assumptions have been considered for the simplicity if the computation required: 1.

dy.4 2.dy. z ∫ N K ∂y dx. T ∞ = 27 ο C q n = h(T − T∞ ) hair =14 W/m2 oC q n = Heat flux normal to the boundary T∞ = Ambient temperature 4.2) can be obtained from the relations as written below: ∂  ∂T  ∂T ∂T ∂N i dx. Convection is taking place on surface from the tool bit to air.dz − ∫ K ∂x   i i y. z Ω 39 .  ∂  ∂T  ∂  ∂T  ∂  ∂T   ∫  ∂x  K ∂x  + ∂y  K ∂y  + ∂z  K ∂z   N idΩ + Ω QNi dΩ = 0 ∫          Ω  (4.int erface (ο C) = 1700V 0. since internal heat generation has been assumed to be zero.2 f 0.dz Now.dz ∂y = ∫ Ni K ∂ ∂T  ∂T ∂T ∂N i dΓ − ∫ K dΩ ∂y ∂y ∂y Ω ∂T ∂T ∂N i dx. Thus.2) Where dΩ = dx.5d 0.dy.dz − ∫ K ∂y i Ω Γ ∂T ∂T ∂N i dx.dz ∂x Ω ∫ ∂x  K ∂x  N dΩ = ∫ N K ∂x dy.3 FEM FORMULATION Using Galerkin’s orthogonality. z Ω = ∫ Ni K Γ ∂T ∂T ∂N i dΓ − ∫ K dΩ ∂x ∂x ∂x Ω ∂  ∂T  ∫ ∂y  K ∂y  Ni dΩ =     Ω x.∆y = spacing between successive planes (25 *10-4 mm) Tavg. Ω ∫ QN dΩ = 0 i The various components of equation (4.dy − ∫ K ∂z   i i x.dy.1) becomes. equation (4. taking Where.dz ∂z Ω ∫ ∂z  K ∂z  N dΩ = ∫ N K ∂z dx.

qy.3).= ∫ Ni K Γ ∂T ∂T ∂N i dΓ − ∫ K dΩ ∂z ∂z ∂z Ω Thus. qn is normal heat along the unit outward normal. the final FEM equation has been developed. and heat loss because of convection at the other surfaces of the tool exposed to air/coolant. and qz be the heat flux in x. And.5) and equation (4. ∫N K i Γ  ∂T ∂N i ∂T ∂N i ∂T ∂N i  ∂T ∂T ∂T dΓ + ∫ N i K dΓ + ∫ N i K dΓ − ∫ K   ∂x ∂x + ∂y ∂y + ∂z ∂z dΩ = 0  ∂x ∂y ∂z   Γ Γ Ω (4. − ∫ N i q n dΓ − Ω   ∂T ∂N i   ∂T ∂N i   ∂T ∂N i   K ∫   ∂x ∂x  +  ∂y ∂y  +  ∂z ∂z   dΩ = 0        Ω   (4.5) Here.6).3) Let qx. y and z direction respectively and can be written as: qx = −K ∂T ∂T ∂T . ∫ N i (qn )dΓ = ∫ qo N i dΓ + ∫ N i (h(T − T∞ ))dΓ (4. the equation (4. qy.4) Where. we have:  ∂T ∂Ni ∂T ∂N i ∂T ∂N i  − ∫ N i (qx nx + q y ny + qz nz )dΓ − ∫ K   ∂x ∂x + ∂y ∂y + ∂z ∂z dΩ = 0    Γ Ω (4. nz are the direction cosines of unit normal to the surfaces.6) From equations (4. ny. let qn = q x nx + q y n y + q z nz Therefore equation (4.2) becomes. nx. q y = −K and q z = − K ∂x ∂y ∂z Putting these values of qx. qz in equation (4. Now the heat flux in the tool is because of the heat load at the specified contact of tool and workpiece. which is specified by boundary conditions.4) becomes. as written below: 40 . Thus.

7) is as given below: 1. N1.7) is represented {Rq }.-1) 41 . N3. vector {Rq} can also be written as +1 +1 {R } q = −1 −1 ∫ ∫q o [ N ]T dA Here. dA=|det J| dξdη η Where N1 = (1 − η − ξ + ηξ ) 4 N 2 = (1 − η + ξ + ηξ ) 4 N 3 = (1 + η + ξ − ηξ ) 4 N 4 = (1 + η − ξ − ηξ ) 4 (-1. Ni =. N4.which represents heat load vector arising from specified surface heating {R q }= − ∫ q o [N ]T dΓ Γ  N1  N  2 [N] T =   N3    N 4  Where. 1) (1. 1) ξ (-1. are shape functions Γ Represents surface area A Further. ∂T   ∂x   ∂N ∂N i ∂N i   ∂T  − ∫ q o N i dΓ − ∫ N i h (T − T∞ )dΓ − ∫ K  i    dΩ = 0  ∂ x ∂y ∂z   ∂y  Γ Γ  ∂T     ∂z  1 2 3 (4. N2.7) Explanation of each part of above equation (4. The first part of equation (4.-1) (1.

+ 8 x8 ∂ζ   ∂ζ ∂N ∂N 1 y1 + .7) can be further expressed in two separate parts as − N i h(T − T∞ )dΓ = − N i hTdΓ + N i hT∞ dΓ written below: ∫ Γ ∫ Γ ∫ Γ Where.. + ∂ξ x8  [J ] =  ∂N1 x1 + .. T = unknown surface temperature.Jocobian matrix also represented as [J].... h = convective heat transfer coefficient T∞ = convective exchange temperature of air/fluid.. + 8 z8  ∂ξ ∂ξ  ∂N 8  ∂N1 z1 + .. + 8 y8 ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂N ∂N1  z1 + ... + 8 z8  ∂ζ ∂ζ   Finally {Rq} equation written as below.. which can be expanded as given below ∂N 8  ∂N 1  ∂ξ x1 + .. Second part of the equation (4. + z8 ∂η ∂η   ∂N ∂N1 z1 + . {R } = ∫ ∫ q [N ] q o −1 −1 1 1 T [ J ] dξ dη (4.. + y8 ∂η ∂η ∂N ∂N 1 y1 + ......8) 2.. + ∂N 8 x8  ∂η ∂η  ∂N ∂N  1 x1 + . The first part of above equation is heat load vector arising from surface convention and denoted as {Rh } {Rh } = ∫ N i Γ h T∞ dΓ (4. + 8 y8 ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂N 8 ∂N 1 y1 + .9) Now vector {Rh} can further be written as: {Rh } = ∫ ∫ [N ] −1 −1 1 1 T h T∞ J dξ dη 42 ..

...... + T8 ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂N 3 ∂N 8 ∂N 2 ∂T ∂N 1 = T1 + T2 + T3 ...Second part represents element conduction matrix related to convention and represented as: [k h ]{T } = − ∫ N i Γ h T dΓ Here.......7) is the element conductance matrix related to the conduction (coefficient matrix).... The third part of equation (4..11) Temperature gradient within the element is given by ∂N 3 ∂N 8 ∂N 2 ∂T ∂N 1 = T1 + T2 + T3 ... T= Or..11b) ∂N 3 ∂N 8 ∂N 2 ∂T ∂N 1 = T1 + T2 + T3 ........ + T8 ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y (4.. K h = [ ] ∫ ∫ h[N ]T [N ] −1 −1 1 1 J dξ dη (4... It is represented by [K c ] {T }  ∂T   ∂x    Where.. {T} = Element Nodal Temperature Vector.. [Kh] = Element Conductance Matrix related to Convection... ∑N T i =0 8 i i T = N1T1+N2T2+………………+ N8T8 Putting this in above equation.11a) (4.... + T8 ∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z ∂z (4... Thus we have.10) 3. Where..11c) 43 ...... [K c ]{T } = K  ∂N i ∂N i ∂N i   ∂T  dΩ ∫  ∂x ∂y ∂z   ∂y    Ω  ∂T     ∂z  (4...

..... To achieve the close boundary representation the scientists have developed curvilinear side element based on transforming simple geometric shapes of some local coordinate system into distorted shapes in global Cartesian system and then evaluating the element equation for the distorted element............. .................. B T is the transpose of B matrix.... The Serendipity coordinates for elements are represented as: x = ∑ M i xi i =1 nc 44 ....... 8    ∂y ∂y  T5     ∂N 8  T6  ∂N 2 ............................................................    ∂x ∂x  T3  T4 ∂N ∂N 2 . ......11) can be written as [K c ] = ∫ ∫ ∫ K −1 −1 −1 1 1 1 B T B J d ξ dη dζ (4............ ...  ∂z  .. ∂y  ∂N 8  ..In matrix form... ∂z ∂z  3×8 T    7 T8  8×1    ∂T   ∂N 1  ∂x   ∂x  ∂T   ∂N  = 1  ∂y   ∂y  ∂T   ∂N    1  ∂z   ∂z  Using the above relations equation (4. The Local Coordinate System associated with parent element is called curvilinear coordinate.......12) Where B matrix is given as  ∂N1  ∂x  ∂N B= 1  ∂y  ∂N1   ∂z ∂N 2 ∂x ∂N 2 ∂y ∂N 2 ∂z ∂N 8  ∂x  ∂N 8   ...... the above relations can be represented as: T1  T  ∂N 8   2  ∂N 2 ................. The parent element may be selected from lagrangian / serendipity family.........

∂ξ ∂x ∂ξ ∂y ∂ξ ∂z ∂ξ ∂N i ∂N i ∂N i ∂N i ∂x ∂y ∂z = + + . The derivative cannot be found out directly as shape function is expressed in terms of natural coordinates ( ξ . So by using chain rule differentiation ∂N i ∂N i ∂N i ∂N i ∂x ∂y ∂z = . x = ∑ N i xi i =1 8 8 y = ∑ N i yi i =1 8 z = ∑ N i zi i =1 Here. + . + . . Ni is a function of ( ξ .y = ∑ M i yi i =1 nc nc z = ∑ M i zi i =1 Here. nc = Total number of nodes per element and for isoparametric elements. ζ ). + . ∂ζ ∂x ∂ζ ∂y ∂ζ ∂z ∂ζ  ∂N i   ∂x  ∂ξ   ∂ξ    ∂N i   ∂x  =  ∂η   ∂η  ∂N    i   ∂x  ∂ζ   ∂ζ    ∂y ∂ξ ∂y ∂η ∂y ∂ζ ∂z   ∂ξ  ∂z   ∂η  ∂z  ∂ζ    ∂N i   ∂x   ∂N   i  ∂y   ∂N i     ∂z  The final heat transfer equation can be written as [[K ] c + [K h ] {T } = ] {Rh } 45 . + .η . Now to evaluate the B–matrix we need to evaluate the derivative of shape function with respect to x. ζ ). Mi = Ni Therefore. y and z. ∂η ∂x ∂η ∂y ∂η ∂z ∂η ∂N i ∂N i ∂N i ∂N i ∂x ∂y ∂z = . .η .

C4=1517 4.10 and 4. {Q}= Nodal heat flux or heat load vector.4 HARDNESS OF TOOL Since effects of temperature are being considered on flank wear. 46 . • The value of elemental matrices [Kc] and [Kh] are calculated in functions stiff( ) and convection_stiff( ) and they are added appropriately to find L. of the equation 4.S. and C4 are constants for tool material.0054. T is temperature in oC and C1. which are thus used in function hardness( ) to calculate the value of hardness at different nodes.5853.12 respectively.The above equation can be further written in the form as given below [K ]{T } = {Q} Where [K] = Thermal conductance coefficients matrix {T}= Nodal temperature vector. C2. For carbides tool the values for these are: C1 = 0. (4.13) and appropriate boundary conditions are applied. C3. C3 = 0. The function separate( ) gives the values of {T}. Relationship between temperature and thermal softening can be given by [18] H (T ) = C1T 3 + C 2 T 2 + C 3T + C 4 Where H is hardness of cutting tool material. C2 = -0.5 SOLUTION SCHEME • The three-dimensional solution domain corresponding to tool bit is discredited for the solution of the final heat conduction equation (4.H. so it becomes necessary to consider thermal softening of cutting tool material. • • • The [Rh] matrix is calculated as per equation in function load( ) Appropriate boundary condition are applied in boundary( ) and then the global {T} vector is calculated from function solver( ).000006.13) 4.

h_data( ) Read 3D mesh data and boundary condition Call stiff( ) Generate [Kc] matrix equation (2) Call connection_stiff( ) Generate stiffness matrix due to convection boundary condition Call load( ) Generate R.6 FLOW CHART OF SOLUTION PROCEDURE START Call data( ).S of equation (vector {Rh}) Call boundary( ) Call solver( ) Call separate( ) Call Hardness( ) STOP 47 .4.H.

the strain rate and average interface temperature for the various cutting conditions have been obtained. For simplicity the tool is assumed to be a single point with zero nose radius. which have been ultimately used to determine the modified temperature at the tool and the workpiece contact area. The measured experimental values are than fed into the FEM program to predict the temperature at all the nodes of a cutting tool. made of tungsten carbide. [20] and [22].16 Depth of cut d (mm) (Range) 0. The number of experiments has been conducted to find out the cutting forces and flank wear of the tool.5 0. and its specifications have been 48 .1 shows the numerical values of the various machining parameters (cutting speed. for the measurement of the temperature.CHAPTER .5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS In the present chapter the results for the present problem. This temperature of contact area have been used to determine the overall temperatures at the various parts of the cutting tool using the heat transfer equation developed and using the FEM methods for the solution of these equations for the present problem with the appropriate boundary condition as has been explained in chapter 4. Using the experimental data. 5.08 0. cutting feed (f) and depth of cut (d). that have been selected for experimentation. strain rate and flank wear. that is for the solution of the thermal softening of the tool material in order to predict the tool wear have been developed in accordance with the previously developed models for tool wear [4].75 The table 5.1: Cutting parameters Cutting speed v (rpm) (Range) 420 710 Feed f (mm/rev) (Range) 0. at varying machining parameters. This predicted temperature is than related with the hardness of the cutting tool (Thermal softening). The EN24 steel workpiece material has been used for experimentation. feed and the depth of cut).1 MACHINING PARAMETERS USED FOR EXPERIMENTATION Table 5. which are cutting speed (V).

045 0. which have been used for the experiments of the validation set.03 0. Here. and [26]. This has been done so that all the measurements should be taken correctly at the same operating conditions to have a good accuracy in results with minimum possible error. are in between the [-1. No. feed and depth of cuts for the different set of experiments conducted on the carbide cutting tool.2: Experimental Results of measured parameters against parameters V.075 Strain Rate(exp) 1s-1 577 569 165 550 840 880 820 830 Resultant Forces (N) 340 410 470 560 245 500 390 398 To eliminate the effect of wear on the experiments. -1 stands for the minimum. The relationship between machining parameters and temperature generated at tool workpiece interface has been calculated using the empirical relations as mentioned in the references [4].2 shows the experimental values of wear.05 0.02 0. In total eight carbide bits have been used for all the different set of experiments to be conducted. The table 5.shown in appendix B. f and d S. the tools have been replaced after every cut of constant volume of workpiece material. The cutting material used is Tungsten Carbide. and its specification has been mentioned in appendix C. Constant volume signifies that equal amount of material was removed in all the different sets of experiment conducted. and +1 stands for the maximum level of parameters.065 0. Strain rate has also been measured using the empirical relations and than both the measured temperature and the strain rate 49 .035 0. 1] range.025 0. Table 5. The levels of the process variables. [24]. strain-rate and resultant cutting forces for different speed. feed rate and cutting velocity. Tool edge has been made straight or parallel to the chuck to have an orthogonal cut. v d f Wear(exp)in mm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 0. The temperature at tool tip was calculated by changing different depth of cut.

2 MODELLING OF SOLUTION DOMAIN USING FEM In order to use the finite element technique. Computer program in VC++ environment based on the FEM formulation presented in the previous chapter have been developed and numerical results for temperature and its effect on the hardness of the cutting tool have been obtained and discussed in preceding topics. considering heat loss because of conduction in the tool material and convection with air at ambient temperature. Problem is for Type of elements Total node Total element Node per element Node per face Number of fixed nodes : 3 D heat conduction : Eight Noded brick elements (Serendipity family) : 288 : 168 :8 :4 : 3 (temperature at the tip of the cutting tool) Number of convection Faces : 6 (shown in Appendix–C) 50 . 5. Tool material hardness has been calculated with the help of the temperature distribution obtained as a result of FEM analysis [18]. The results have been obtained for tool wear with the change in machining parameters by relating the heat generated at the tool-workpiece interface and taking hardness of tool material as a function of temperature [18]. nodes and elements through finite element analysis. mathematical expressions have been derived and discussed in the previous chapter and have been used to predict the temperature at the various locations of the cutting tool. This temperature has been applied to analyze the temperature distribution on the tool at different edge.are put into the equation to find the modified temperature which considers the effect of both. The following are the details of the discritization of the solution domain carried out for the FEM Analysis and thus used in the developed computer program for the generation of the results.

the temperature keeps on decreasing and thus the tip of the carbide cutting tool is prone to more wear rather than the distances away from the tool tip. and have been shown here in graphically form in figure 5.4 VARIATION OF HARDNESS WITH FLANK-EDGE DISTANCE The figure 5. The relation between flank edge distance and the final temperature variation on the cutting tool have been developed for the range of the cutting parameters as given in the table 5. γ = 1 s −1 . As at the tool tip the temperature is maximum. 900 K.The properties of the cutting tool used (Carbide bits) are: ν = 0. that as we move away from the flank edge.2. and 1050 K.2 shows the relation of tool hardness with the flank distance at different temperature distribution on flank edge of the carbide tool bit. the results for temperature field and its effect on thermal softening of cutting tool have been obtained from the developed computer program by using the experimental data of strain-rate and flank wear. as the maximum variation in the results is only of the order of 5. Using the mathematical model for modified cutting temperature as discussed in section 4. T∞ =27oC (for air).18. The results from the reference are well in accordance with the results of the present work. 5. therefore the hardness is less.8 %. K = 0.1. for checking the validity of the results. It is interpretable from the graph.076 W/m2k . and have been compared with the results of Leshock et al [4]. have been calculated 51 .1. 5.3 VALIDATION OF RESULTS Figure 5.1: Relationship between Cutting tool temperature and flank distance In order to check the validity of the analysis and the solution procedure discussed in chapter 4. the three different values of modified cutting temperatures 750 K.

5 VARIATION OF TEMPERATURE WITH CUTTING FORCE 1400 1200 Temperatures ( oK) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 200 300 400 500 600 700 Temperature (K) M od. This 52 .50 Temp.from the corresponding strain-rate values which are 840 s-1.00 2.1.3 shows the variation of temperature with the cutting force.50 1. As shown in the graph. at tip = 1050 Temp at tip = 900 Temp at tip = 750 Flank Edge Distance (mm) Figure 5. At the same flank-edge distance. corresponding to the different values of feed. for these values of modified cutting temperatures. speed and depth of cut as shown in table 5. as the cutting forces increases the temperature at the tip of the cutting tool also increases due to higher frictional forces at the tip of the carbide tool bit.00 0. 830 s-1.3: Variation of Temperature with resultant cutting force The figure 5.00 1. we have different hardness values along the flank face of the tool. 1600 1400 Hardness (BHN) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0. Temp. (K) Resultant Force(N) Figure 5. and 577 s-1 respectively. The temperature starts decreasing because of heat loss as we move away from the tool tip along the flank surface the hardness of material increases.50 2.2: Relation between hardness and flank distance 5.

4 shows the variation of the wear with the cutting tool Force.increased temperature of the tool leads to the reduction of hardness value of the cutting tool and thus the tool wear.3 and increased temperatures further leads to the flank wear of the cutting tool due to the thermal softening. 5.5: Variation of flank Wear with respect to modified temperature 53 . As shown the flank wear of carbide insert increases with the increase in the forces during the bar turning process.7 VARIATION OF FLANK WEAR WITH MODIFIED CUTTING TOOL TEMPERATURE Figure 5. 5.6 VARIATION OF FLANK WEAR WITH CUTTING FORCE Figure 5. This is because increase in forces leads to increase in the temperature of the cutting tool as shown in figure 5.4: Variation of Flank Wear with the resultant cutting force The figure 5.

8 REGRESSION EQUATION Regression equations obtained from the experimental data of a bar turning process using carbide insert were obtained using Data Fit software Version8. that is the thermal softening. 6: Relation between Cutting velocity and temperature at feed rate (f = -1) 54 .50 d = -1 d = +1 -1.00 1.The figure 5.6. D = 1.015 × e16 .9 VARIATION OF TEMPERATURE WITH CUTTING VELOCITY 1400 1200 Temperature (K) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 -1.00 0.44 × e15 . As shown the flank wear of carbide insert increases with the increase in the temperature of the cutting tool. The regression equation relating tool flank wear of a carbide insert with cutting parameters (V.mean value of the range) (Difference Between maximum and middle level) 5. B = . C = 2.00 -0. f and d are levels of cutting speed (v). feed (f) and depth of cut (d) respectively and values for these levels can be obtained by following Formula: Level = (actual value in the range . As increased temperatures at the tip of the cutting tool leads to the reduction of the hardness value. d) is as follows. f. Wear (mm) = e (A×f + B×d + C×f + D) A = 1. and thus to the flank wear of the carbide cutting tool. 5.612 × e15 Where v.045.50 0.5 shows the variation of the wear with the modified cutting tool temperature due to the strain rate.50 Cutting Velocity at f -1 Figure 5.x developed by Oakdale Engineering.50 1.0.

Figure 5. These two graphs are at constant depth of cuts for each curve. It shows temperature increase with increase in depth of cut.8: Variation of Temperature versus cutting velocity at depth of cut (d = -1) 55 .7: Relation between Cutting velocity and temperature at feed rate (f = +1) The figure 5. The inference that can be drawn from the above graph is that when we increase the cutting velocity the temperature keeps on increasing. at constant feed at different levels depth of cuts used in experimentation work. Figure 5.7 depicts the same trends as figure 5. the temperature raises.The figure 5. from these trends it’s depicted that with the increase in velocity of cutting.6 shows a relation of cutting velocity versus temperature.6. The figure 5.8 shows results of temperature with cutting velocity at constant depth of cuts.

5.9 shows the graph but at different machining parameters and conditions (d = +1).00 0.00 1. that is the lowest feed taken in experiments at different depth of cuts 56 .50 Cutting Velocity at d =+1 Figure 5.50 0.9: Variation of Temperature versus cutting velocity at depth of cut (d = +1) Similarly figure 5. In figure 5.50 1. The trend line is depicted to be same as it increases with rise in velocity of cutting.10: Variation of flank wear with cutting velocity at constant feed rate (f = -1) Here the results have been shown for the variation of wear with the cutting velocity of the tool.1400 1300 Temperature (k) 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 -1.10 VARIATION OF FLANK WEAR WITH CUTTING VELOCITY (FOR CONSTANT FEED RATE) Figure 5.00 -0.10 trend of cutting velocity with wear has been shown at constant feed of -1.50 f = -1 f = +1 -1.

00 -0.11: Variation of flank wear with cutting velocity at constant feed rate (f= +1) 5.50 1.07 Flank wear(mm) 0.00 1.03 0.01 0.50 -1.50 d = -1 d = +1 Cutting velocity at f =+1 Figure 5.025 0. 0. The figure 5.01 0 -1.shows almost same pattern of increasing flank wear with increase in velocity.04 0.12 shows results of wear with cutting velocity at constant depth of cuts.00 0.02 0.11 VARIATION OF FLANK WEAR WITH CUTTING VELOCITY (FOR CONSTANT DEPTH OF CUTS) The graphs discussed till now were at constant feed rate.50 0.005 0 -1.12: Variation of flank wear with cutting velocity at constant depth of cut (d = -1) 57 .015 0. The figure 5.06 0.00 -0.50 0. 0.11 depicts same trends of wear but here now feed rate is (f = +1).035 Flank wear(mm) 0.50 -1.02 0. The results seem almost similar for this case too.03 0.08 0.00 1. for better understanding of wear trends graphs are also shown at constant depth of cuts.50 1.50 f = -1 f = +1 Cutting velocity at d=-1 Figure 5.00 0.04 0.05 0.

06 0.03 0. The flank wear is directly proportional to the resultant cutting force and approximately follows a linear trend.01 0 -1.04 0.07 Flank wear(mm) 0. 3. but there is a nonlinear trend so we can find an optimum value of cutting parameters so as to give minimum strain rate. there is a significant increase in the contact temperature with 58 . but do not follow a linear trend and thus we can find an optimum set of machining parameters to have a minimum heat generation at tool-workpiece contact. that is with increase in the cutting velocity for some constant value of depth of cut. because heat generated increases with increase in the strain rate. the tool wear increases. The trend is almost same depicted in other graphs as shown before.13: Variation of flank wear with cutting velocity at constant depth of cut (d =+1) The figure 5.50 1. 4. 2.0. 5. The contact temperature increases with the increase in the cutting velocity. The flank wear increases with increase in modified cutting tool temperature (due to increase in the strain rate). The hardness increases with increase in distance from the flank edge and with decrease in the tool-workpiece contact temperature.05 0.00 0.50 f = -1 f = +1 Cutting velocity at d=+1 Figure 5. 5.12 CONCLUSIONS Based on the results presented in previous sections. The change in the tool workpiece contact temperature depends upon the cutting parameters and it increases with increase in resultant cutting force. but at constant cutting velocity.00 -0.00 1.02 0.08 0. the following conclusions have been observed: 1.50 0.13 also shows similar results but at depth of cuts (d = +1).50 -1.

5. Also at constant cutting speed it increases with increase in both feed rate and depth of cut. in such a way so as to have the optimum temperature at the tool tip-workpiece contact because of the heat generated.13 SCOPE FOR FURTHER WORK With increasing competitiveness as observed in the recent times. and depth of cut. 59 . The flank wear increases significantly with the increase in the cutting velocity. cutting tool and work material can be studied. CBN. drilling. which are cutting speed. so that the minimum tool wear is encountered. feed rate. Thus finally it can be observed that we must select the cutting parameters. The other combinations of machine. 6. manufacturing systems in the industry are being driven more and more aggressively. and thus we could have the longest tool life and better machining economy. So there is always need for perpetual improvements. The study can also be extended on coated carbide tools. The presently developed system can be used for other conventional as well as unconventional processes such as milling. CNC machines can be used for the experimentation to have the better control of the process variables and also parameters can be set to the desired accuracy. or other harder tools. Thus for getting still more accurate results we can take into account few more parameters as given below: • • • • • The transient analysis for the machining operation can be studied.increase in the depth of cut as compared to the increase in the contact temperature with the increase in the feed rate.

APPENDIX .2KW/3 HP 1250 Kg 1035 mm 915x2725 mm 225 mm 125 mm 150 mm 53 mm dia Metric Short No.01-0.05-2.54 mm/rev 2.A SPECIFICATIONS OF THE CENTRE LATHE Center Height Center Distance Swing Over Bed Over Cross slide In Gap Gap Width Transverse Of Cross slide Of Top Of Tailstock Spindle Spindle Bore Spindle Bore Taper Spindle Speed Spindle Speed Ratio Tool Shank Size Feed Longitudinal Feeds Cross Feed Main Motor Weight of Machine Height of the Spindle Center above Floor Floor Space 3 Phases. 415 V.69 25x25. 50 Hz. 7 32-1200 rpm 1. 20x20 mm 420 mm dia 220 mm dia 550 mm dia 155 mm dia 200 mm 1000 mm 60 .7 mm/rev 0. AC Supply 0.

9 .1.2 .45 %C 0.3 .0.0.1.APPENDIX –B WORKPIECE SPECIFICATIONS • • Work piece material Work piece combination : : EN 24steel 0.45.3 % Cr 0.35.1 .4 % Co 0.35% Si And rest is Iron • • • Work piece hardness Cutting tool material Hardness : : : 260BHN K10 CARBIDE INSERT 1500 BHN 61 .6 %Mn 1.0.0.8 %Ni 0.

6 are the faces through which the heat is lost to the environment (convection heat loss). 5.1: Convection faces used in FEM analysis of Carbide cutting tool Here 1. 62 . 3. 4. 2.APPENDIX – C WORKPIECE SPECIFICATIONS 3 5 1 4 6 2 Figure A-C.

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