1) doctrine of severability :-one thing to noted in article 13 is that, it is not the entire law which is affected by the provisions

in part 3, but on the other hand, the law become invalid only to the extent to which it is inconsistent with the fundamental rights. So only that part of the law will be declared invalid which is inconsistent, and the rest of the oaw will stand. However, on this point a clarification has been made by the courts that invalid part of the law shall be severed and declared invalid if really it is severable, i.eif after separating the invalid part the valid part is capable of giving effect to the legislature¶s intent, then only it will survive, otherwise the court shall declare the entire law as invalid. This is known as severability.
Doctrine of Severability: It provides that only that part of the law will be declared invalid which is inconsistent with the fundamental rights and the rest of the law will stand. However, invalid part of the law will be severed only if it is severable, i.e., if after separating the invalid part, the valid part is capable of giving effect to the legislature¶s intent, then only it will survive otherwise the court shall declare the entire law as invalid.

2) doctrine of eclipse:-the another noteworthy in a article 13 is that, though an existing law inconsistent with a fundamental right become in operative from the date of the commencement of the constitution, yet it is not dead altogether. A law made before the commencement of the constitution remains eclipsed or dormant to the extent it comes under the shadow of the fundamental rights

Doctrine of Eclipse : It provides that a law made before the commencement of the constitution remains eclipsed or dormant to be extent in comes under the shadow of fundamental rights i.e., is inconsistency brought about by the fundamental rights is removed by the amendment to the Constitution of India.

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