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**Pushover Analysis for Structure Containing RC Walls
**

Chung- Yue Wang1 and Shaing-Yung Ho2 Abstract In this paper, a method for the determination of the parameters of plastic hinge properties (PHP) for structure containing RC wall in the pushover analysis is proposed. Response-2000 and Membrane-2000 code. Nonlinear relationship between the lateral shear force and lateral deformation of RC wall is calculated first by the The PHP (plastic hinge properties) value of each parameter for the pushover analysis function of SAP2000 or ETABS is defined as the product of two parameters α and β . Values of α at states of cracking, ultimate strength and failure of the concrete wall under shear loading can be determined respectively from the calculations by Response-2000. While the corresponding β value of each PHP parameter is obtained from the regression equations calibrated from the experimental results of pushover tests of RC frame-wall specimens. The accuracy of this newly proposed method is verified by other experimental results. It shows that the presented method can effectively assist engineers to conduct the performance design of structure containing RC shear wall using the SAP2000 or ETABS codes. Keywords: pushover analysis, RC wall, plastic hinge properties Corresponding Author Name: Chung-Yue Wang Address: Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan 32054, ROC E-mail: cywang@cc.ncu.edu.tw Tel: 886-3-4227151 ext. 34127 Fax: 886-3-4252960

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1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Pushover Analysis Pushover analysis is a static, nonlinear procedure in which the magnitude of the structural loading is incrementally increased in accordance with a certain predefined pattern. Static pushover analysis is an attempt by the structural engineering profession to evaluate the real strength of the structure and it promises to be a useful and effective tool for performance based design. The ATC-40 (1996) documents have developed modeling procedures, acceptance criteria and analysis procedures for pushover analysis. These documents define

1 2

Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan 32054, ROC Associate Professor, Department of Construction Engineering, Vanung University, Chungli, Taiwan 32061, ROC

As shown in Figure 1. Taiwan November. It is clear to be observed that the pattern of the experimental cure is continuous and is different from the general Skelton model shown in Fig. but user-defined properties are recommended for final analyses (Habibullah and Pyle. Currently SAP2000 allows hinges can only be introduced into frame elements. flat column. 2007 force-deformation criteria for hinges used in pushover analysis. These built-in properties can be useful for preliminary analyses. The authors have been developed a dual parameters method to define the PHP properties of RC frame structure for the pushover analysis (Ho and Wang. Figure 2 illustrates a typical representation of capacity curve of RC structure containing shear wall. The purpose of this paper is to extend the application of this method to the RC structures containing RC shear wall. Major shear (V2) . B. As shown in that figure. D. followed by cracking (with concrete cracking) to yield point C. and CP are used to define the acceptance criteria for the hinge. general-purpose. Taipei. five points labeled A. followed by final collapse and loss of gravity load capacity at point E. 2006). B. The IO. 27-29. Yielding and post-yielding behavior can be modeled using discrete user-defined hinges. the default properties are available for hinges in the following degrees of freedom: 1. followed by yielding (possibly with strain hardening) to ultimate point D. respectively. Life safety and Collapse Prevention. SAP2000 program includes several built-in default hinge properties that are based on average values from ATC-40 for concrete members.2 SAP2000 SAP2000 is a well known and widely accepted. the RC shear wall is treated as a wide. three-dimensional structural analysis program. 1. the LS and the CP stand for Immediate Occupancy. In the procedure of the pushover analysis. the response is linear to an effective crack point. Axial (P) 2. The pushover analysis module has been installed into the SAP2000. 1. In order to use the functions provided by the SAP2000 code. C. FORCE IO B LS CP C D E A DISPLACEMENT Figure 1: Force-displacement curve defined for the plastic hinge in the pushover analysis. LS. the assignment of the values of plastic hinge properties (PHP) strongly affects the prediction of the capacity curve of RC structure. and E are used to define the force-displacement behavior of the hinge and three points labeled IO.The 2nd International Conference on Urban Disaster Reduction. These are informational measures that are reported in the analysis results and used for performance-based design. In SAP2000. 1998). Modeling a RC wall as a wide and flat column (frame elements) not only can consider the steel reinforcements in RC elements exactly. the PHP properties can be assigned to a frame element at any location along it. but also can assign the PHP of RC walls according to its plastic behavior.

a limitation on the depth/span ratio of the frame component should exist. 2007 3.α VI ). moment and shear based on the familiar assumption “plane sections remain plane” of engineering beam theory. the interaction between wall and columns make the behavior of RC frame containing RC wall more complicated. to have a reasonable analysis result. Taiwan November.0. 2. D. Furthermore. a mechanics based reinforced concrete analysis method should be selected. Response 2000 will calculate strengths and deformations for beams and columns subjected to axial load. C. Due to the parabolic distribution of the shear stress from top to bottom of a beam section.α VE = 0. I = B. α ) C ∆ C V E D (α ∆ = 2. β ∆ D E ( 2. Shear drift ratio capacities are defined in ATC-40 Table 9-11. As shown in Fig. Taipei. The physical meaning of the β parameter is close to the shear factor in the Timoshenko beam theory. Deep beams (short and flat columns) can be considered as special beams where shear force is much more predominant than bending moment.The 2nd International Conference on Urban Disaster Reduction. Collins. 1978). the major shear (V2) is adopted as the PHP type of RC walls.95α VD ) D D ( β ∆α ∆ . βV α VD ) (2) Modification by βV . α ) D ∆ D V (α . 27-29. E] predicted by the Response 2000 based on the plane section remaining plane assumption. it is more appropriate to use shear drift ratio as the deformation measure. parameters I βV and β ∆ .6 β ∆α ∆ . .6α ∆ .3 Response-2000 To reasonably model the interactions among steel reinforcements and concrete material of a member under shear.are used to modified the capacity curve [( α ∆ . A definitive description of the MCFT can be found in the paper published by the American Concrete Institute. In the present method. the cross sections of a deep beam which were originally plane surfaces become warped (Timoshenko and Gere. Major moment (M3) 4. Response 2000 uses the Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) firstly proposed by Collins (Mitchell and Collins. 1. (1) Calculate α from Response2000 (α . Coupled P-M2-M3 (PMM) Since the wall or wall segment behavior is governed by shear. 1972). β V α VB ) Figure 2 Construction of the capacity curve of RC structure containing shear walls in the pushover analysis with SAP2000 by dual parameters. βV α V ) (3) Experimental curve B B ( β ∆α ∆ . 1974. Therefore.95 β V α VD ) C C C ( β ∆α ∆ . (Vecchio and Collins. This is the reason of using dual parameters to characterize the PHP properties. 1986).

As shown in Fig.1 Construction of the Skeleton Curve α Experimental results of 11 RC frames containing RC walls under pushover tests were adopted to construct the regression formulae of the modification parameters ( βV . Taipei. as shown in Figs. present method adopts the average value of experimental results at final stage to define the failure point and use the factor 0. The material properties and size of these specimens were given in Table 1. another parameter βV is defined as the ratio of the ultimate strength of experiment and the ultimate strength predicted by Response 2000 from the previous step.6 to time the ultimate shear force and ultimate lateral displacement respectively to define the failure point E. Estimated from Response 2000 The approximation curve Ultimate point Failure point Characteristic point 2 (yielding) Characteristic point 1 (initial cracking) Figure 3 Selection of the characteristic points from the response curve predicted by Response 2000. 27-29. .2 Regression Formulae for the Parameters β V and β ∆ To construct the regression formula of the parameter β V which is used to modify the ultimate strength. 2. Therefore. 2 and 3. The ultimate values α ∆D and α VD are modified by parameters β ∆ and β V . One thing has to be mentioned is the definition of failure point in the pushover analysis. Experimental data show that the failure point can not be identified exactly due to a rather precarious condition at final stage of the experiment. 2007 2.The 2nd International Conference on Urban Disaster Reduction. crack or yielding point can not be decided easily from the relational curve. respectively. Therefore. The Response is used first to obtain a reference skeleton curve. However. These modification coefficients are also applied to points B and C and E on the skeleton curve. β ∆ ). Regression formulae for parameters β ∆ and β V are obtained by comparing the ultimate values of predicted and experimental data. Taiwan November. the present method selected the ultimate point as the reference to scale down all other characteristic points by its modification coefficients ( βV . three characteristic points denoted as crack. 2. β ∆ ). Detail procedure is explained in the following sections. yield and ultimate states are selected to form a skeleton curve for the determination of the values of PHP. But. one can estimate the ultimate point according to maximum strength of the capacity curve predicted by response 2000. DETERMINATION OF PHP AND REGRESSIVE FORMULA OF β The core idea of the determination of the PHP of RC wall by dual parameters is illustrated by Fig.95 and 2. 2. 2. The capacity curve of RC frame containing RC wall is calculated first by the code Response 2000.

43 2004[Xiao] HWFH1 200 x340 150x25x40 4-#5 428.72 22.72 27.72 25x25x300 4-#5 428.] No.13 #3@15cm 458.72 200x200x12 #3@17cm #3@23cm 458. 27-29.72 25x25x300 4-#5 428. W: width (cm).72 200x200x12 #3@23cm #3@23cm 458.72 25x25x200 4-#5 390 #3@10cm 458.6 2002 [ Qio] WF12C 350 x205 250x30x50 8-#6 571 #3@20cm 446 50x30x155 10-#6 571 #3@30cm 446 155x250x12 #3@30cm #3@30cm 446 21 2002 [ Qio] WF15C 350 x205 250x30x50 8-#6 571 #3@20cm 446 50x30x155 10-#6 571 #3@30cm 446 155x250x15 #3@20cm #3@20cm 446( double ) 22.72 200x270x12 #3@23cm #3@23cm 458.72 23.] No.72 25x25x200 4-#5 390 #3@10cm 458.75 2004 [Xiao] LWF2 320 x240 270x30x40 4-#5 390 #3@10cm 458. section Main steel fy (Mpa) Stirrup fy (Mpa) LxWxD Wall section Longitudinal Transverse fy (Mpa) 2004[Xiao] HWFL1 200 x340 150x25x40 4-#5 428.13 #3@10cm 458. Taipei.45 2004[Xiao] MWF2 250 x240 200x30x40 4-#5 390 #3@10cm 458.13 #3@15cm 458.13 #3@15cm 458. of specimen frame (W .72 25x25x200 4-#5 390 #3@10cm 458.6 Concrete fc’ (Mpa) L: Length (cm).13 #3@10cm 458.72 25x25x300 4-#5 428.The 2nd International Conference on Urban Disaster Reduction. H: height (cm). H) LxWxD Beam section Main steel fy (Mpa) Stirrup fy (Mpa) LxWxD Col. Taiwan November.72 200x270x12 #3@17cm #3@23cm 458.45 Concrete fc’ (Mpa) Table 1 Material properties and dimensions of RC frames containing shear wall Year [ref.73 2004[Xiao] MWF1 250 x240 200x30x40 4-#5 390 #3@10cm 458. D: depth (cm).72 23.72 300x150x12 #3@23cm #3@23cm 458.04 2004[Xiao] HWFL2 200 x340 150x25x40 4-#5 428.72 300x150x12 #3@17cm #3@23cm 458. of specimen frame (W .75 2001 [Ye] WF15Y 350 x205 250x30x50 8-#6 571 #3@20cm 446 50x30x155 10-#6 571 #3@30cm 446 155x250x15 #3@20cm #3@20cm 446(double) 21. H) LxWxD Beam section Main steel fy (Mpa) Stirrup fy (Mpa) LxWxD Col.72 28.72 300x150x12 #3@17cm #3@23cm 458.13 #3@10cm 458. 2007 Year [ref.72 25x25x200 4-#5 390 #3@10cm 458.72 25x25x300 4-#5 428.72 300x150x12 #3@23cm #3@23cm 458.13 #3@10cm 458. section Main steel fy (Mpa) Stirrup fy (Mpa) LxWxD Wall section Longitudinal Transverse fy (Mpa) 2004 [Xiao] LWF1 320 x240 270x30x40 4-#5 390 #3@10cm 458.03 2004[Xiao] HWFH2 200 x340 150x25x40 4-#5 428.72 23. fy : yielding stress (Mpa) .72 23.13 #3@15cm 458.72 23.

The 2nd International Conference on Urban Disaster Reduction. d=0. G is the shear modulus of concrete (Mpa). Taiwan November. b=－2. ( Pu ) sum /( Pu ) wall : ultimate strength of columns connected to wall divided by ultimate strength of wall. ( K ) ratio : the ratio of rigidity between two columns connected to wall and wall at ultimate stage. Aw is the total cross sectional area of RC wall and columns section (mm2). H / w : the height of wall divided by the width of wall. the lateral displacement. ∆ u at ultimate stage is proposed by the following equation. c=0.39019. Hence. βV = a + b × ( K ) ratio + c × ( Pu ) sum /( Pu ) wall + d × ( H w ) (1) 1tt Using part of the data and test results of the specimens shown in Table 1 and the values of βV . ∆ u = a( H w ) 2 Vcr H H3 H + b( ) 2 Vcr Aw G I g Ec w (2) Where Vcr is the lateral force at cracking stage(KN). I g is the total mass moment of inertia of RC wall and side columns (mm4).00001519.07647. The lateral displacement of the shear wall is controlled by the shearing resistance and the bending rigidity inherited in the wall system. 2007 Following parameters are selected to construct the regression formula: 11. Taipei. 12. Using part of the data and test results of the specimens shown in Table 1. β ∆ = ∆ u /( ∆ u ) response (3) Where ∆ u is the regressive value which was estimated from the regression equation (2). while the ( ∆ u ) response is the ultimate displacement calculated from Response 2000. those coefficients of the regression equation (2) can be determined as a = 0. Ec is the elastic modulus of concrete (Mpa). 3.0018214，b =－0. those coefficients of the regression equation (1) can be determined as a=0. Hence.84652. 27-29. For any specimen a modification parameter β ∆ can be calculated by the following equation. This β ∆ is used to adjust the displacement coordinate of each characteristic point in Fig. the regressive formula is in the following form. (a) Specimen SW7 (b) Specimen HM4-3 .09413. 13.

The location and number of shear walls strongly affect the load capacity of the structure. Figure 6 illustrates the agreement between the prediction and experimental result of each case. as shown in Fig. . Taipei. 2 bays 2 stories RC structures with and without shear walls. 3. 2007 (c) Specimen SW16 (d) Specimen PWL Figure 4 Comparison of experimental results and predictions by the dual parameters method for the determination of PHP values of RC structures containing shear walls. were adopted to do the study. Figure 4 shows the predictions of the capacity curves of some specimens that were not used in the regression analysis by the method and associated regression formulae proposed in this paper.The 2nd International Conference on Urban Disaster Reduction. Comparing with the experimental results. EXAMPLES In order to evaluate the capability and accuracy of proposed method on the analysis of real larger structure. Figure 5 Geometrical data and reinforcement details of a 2 bays.2 stories frame specimen. 5. it shows that the proposed dual parameters method for the determination of PHP can provide quite good predictions of the capacity of the structures containing shear walls. Taiwan November. 27-29.

27-29. 1988. 3. M. and Stephen.(2001). “Diagonal Compression Field Theory – A Rational Model for Structural Concrete in pure Torsion. Vol. Mitchell..” Journal of American Concrete Institute.. References: Applied Technology Council (1996)﹐“Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings. D. F. S. C. Xiao." National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering .. P. Litton Educational Publishing Inc. (2004). (2006). P. S. U. A Study of Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Walls which Retrofit with FRP. and Gere J.The 2nd International Conference on Urban Disaster Reduction. National Taiwan University of Science and Technology. Vecchio. pp. P. (in press) (in Chinese). Experimental and Numerical Studies on Reinforced Concrete Framed Shear Walls. pp. Kuo-Chun and Sen-Nann Shain.. of Civil Engineering. Tainan. pp. Dissertation. 8. Vol. 85. Z. F. (2002). “Towards a Rational Theory for RC Members in shear.. 396-408. Dep. D. Ashraf. Master Thesis. (1974).1-8. 649-666. and Collins.. Collins. 71. Dep. Y. Timoshenko S. New York. M.Y. (1978).039. Qio. Taiwan.” ATC-40﹐Redwood City. Taipei. of Construction Engineering.” Structural Engineering of Taiwan. Pyle (1998). ASCE. Dep. P.A. “Determination of the Plastic Hinge Properties of RC structure containing Brick Walls. P.” Journal of the Structure Division. 104. . A Study of Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Walls which Retrofit with FRP. X. Nation Cheng Gong University. Ye. Ho. M (1972). of Construction Engineering. and Wang. M.... Taipai. 126.S. The effectiveness of this simple method is verified by the agreement of the prediction curves with some additional test data. U. pp. Taiwan. 4. “Predicting the Response of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Shear Using Modified Compression Field Theory.” ACI Structural Journal. Conclusions A dual parameters method is introduced to define the plastic hinge properties (PHP) of RC wall in the pushover analysis of RC structure. No. Taiwan (2003). 2007 Figure 6 Comparisons of experimental curves and predicted curves of 2 bays-2 stories RC frames with and without RC walls. Master Thesis. J. “Practical Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Static Pushover Analysis. and Collins. Habibullah. NCREE – 03 . This newly proposed method is quite simple and is easy for engineers to link with commercial structural analysis code to conduct the performance design of structure under seismic loading. . Taiwan. Mechanics of Materials. Y. California. Taipai. Chang.1-2.3.” Structure Magazine. Taiwan November. p. National Taiwan University of Science and Technology. Ph.. 258-268. A. " Seismic Upgrade of RC Frames with Infilled Brick Walls. C.

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