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Phases in Product Design and Development:

The following are the phases of product design and development;

1. Idea generation
2. Feasibility analysis
3. Product specifications
4. Process specifications
5. Prototype development
6. Design review
7. Market test
8. Product introduction
9. Follow-up evaluation

1. Idea Generation:
Product development begins with idea generation. The idea generation is the conscious
identification of a product idea that logically addresses an opportunity.
An opportunity is defined as the identification of a gap in “need” and the likelihood that
if a product were developed to fill that need, it would also be “wanted” i.e., there would
be effective consumer demand.
Idea can come from variety of source;

Supply chain based

Ideas Competitor based

Research based

Supply Chain Based:

A supply chain can be a rich source of ideas. Supply chain sources are customers,
suppliers, distributors, employees, and maintenance and repair personnel. These sources
can provide valuable insights. Customers input can be obtained from surveys, focus
groups and by complaints. Information from the other remaining sources can be collected
through interviews, direct or indirect suggestions and complaints.
Competitor Based:
Competitor’s products and services are another source of idea. By studying a
competitor’s product and service and how the competitor operates an organization can
generate many ideas.

Reverse Engineering
For the study of competitor’s products, some companies purchase their product and then
carefully dismantle and inspect it, searching for ways to improve their own product, this
study is called reverse engineering.
Reverse engineering is the dismantling and inspecting
of a competitor’s product to discover product improvements.

Research Based:
Research is also a source of idea for new or improved products or services. Many
companies have their own research and development (R&D).
R&D refers to organized efforts to increase scientific knowledge and product or process
innovation & may involve:
1. Basic Research
2. Applied Research
3. Development

Basic Research:
Research done to enhance the understanding of subject (product, problem, opportunity) is
called basic research. Research objective is to advance knowledge about a subject
without commercial applications.

Applied Research:
Research done with the intention of applying the results of the findings to solve/achieve
specific problem/opportunity is called applied research. Research objective is to achieve
the commercial applications.

It converts results of applied research into commercial applications.

The benefits of successful R&D can be tremendous and the failure of research (product
innovation) leads to huge losses. The benefits and failure effects can be studies on pg #

2. Feasibility analysis.
Feasibility analysis comparises of following analysis;
• Market analysis
• Economic analysis
• Technical analysis

Market analysis:
İt deals with the demand and need of the product idea,
idea, competition is also analysed.

Economic analysis:
İt deals with development cost and production cost, profit potential.

Technical analysis:
İt deals with capacity requirements and availability, and the skills needed.

Feasibility report also provides answer to the question, Does the idea fit with the

3. Product specifications:
Product specification involves detailed descriptions of what is needed to meet customer
needs and wants, and requires collaboration between legal, marketing, and operations.
The product features are identified.

4. Process specifications:
Process specification is the next phase on which specifications for the process which will
be needed to produce the product is identified. Detail on pg #133.

5. Prototype development.
Prototype development is the development of samples which are developed to see if there
are any problems with the product or process specifications.

6. Design review.
In design review any necessary changes are
are made or abandon.

7. Market test.
A market test is conducted to determine the extent of consumer acceptance.

8. Product introduction.
Once the market test is successful product is introducedin the market and promoted.
promoted. This
phase is handled by marketing.

9. Follow-up evaluation.
Once the product is in market, it is evaluated, forecasts is refined and changes are
determined if needed .

Designing for Manufacturing:

Designing for manufacturing includes the design techniques that have greater
applicability for the design of products;
Concurrent Engineering:
Concurrent engineering means bringing engineering design and manufacturing people
together, early in the design phase to simultaneously develop the product and the process
for creating the product. Detail on pg # 137.

Advantages of Concurrent Engineering:

 Manufacturing personnel are able to identify production capabilities and
 Early opportunities for design or procurement of critical tooling.
 Technical feasibility of a design can be considered at early stages..
 The main focus will be on problem solution rather then conflict.

 Long-standing existing boundaries between design and manufacturing can be
difficult to overcome.
 Extra communication and flexibility needed which is difficult to achieve.

Computer-Aided Design:
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) uses computer graphics for product design. Detail on pg

Benefits of CAD:
• Increases productivity of designers, 3 to 10 times.
• Creates a database for manufacturing information on product specifications.
• Provides possibility of engineering and cost analysis on proposed designs.

Production Requirements:
Design needs to clearly understand the capabilities of production (i.e., equipments, skills,
types of materials, schedules, technologies, special abilities). Designers must take into
account production capabilities as this helps in choosing designs that match capabilities.

Design for Manufacturing (DFM):

Design for manufacturing is used for designing of products that are compatible with an
organization’s manufacturing capabilities.

Design for assembly (DFA):

Design for assembly (DFA) focuses on reducing the number of parts in a product and on
assembly methods and sequence.

Manufacturability refers to the ease with which products can be fabricated and assembly
which is important for:
Recycling means recovering materials for future use. Companies recycle for a variety of
 Cost savings.
 Environment concerns.
 Environmental regulations.

Design for recycling (DFR)

Design for recycling refers to design that facilitates the recovery of materials and
components in used products for reuse.
News clip at pg # 139 gives examples of recycling of cars and plastics.

Remanufacturing refers to refurbishing used products by replacing worn-out or defective
components. Detail on pg # 140.

Design For Disassembly (DFD):

Design for disassembly (DFD) refers to design products that can be more easily taken
apart. İt includes using fewer parts and less material.

Component Commonality:
Component commonality is the degree of similarity of features and components. It’s very
beneficial for companies when a part can be used in multiple products. Similar benefits
accrue in services. Detail on pg # 142.

Quality Function Deployment (QFD):

Quality Function Deployment is a structured approach for integrating the “Voice of the
customer” into both the product or service development process. Listening to and
understanding the customer is the central feature of QFD. Detail on pg # 143.

The main QFD matrix:

House of Quality:

Example of the house of quality:

The Kano Model:
The Kano model is a conceptualize design characteristics in terms of customer
satisfaction. It describes relationships between customer needs and customer satisfaction
for three categories of design characteristics; must have characteristics, expected
characteristics and excitement characteristics. Detail on pg #145.

Service Design:
Something that is done to or for a customer is called service.

Service delivery system:

The facilities, processes, and skills needed to provide a service is called service delivery

Product bundle:
The combination of goods and services provided to a customer is called product bundle.

System design involves development or refinement of the overall service package:

 The physical resources needed.
 The accompanying goods that are purchased or consumed by the customer, or
provided with the service.
 Explicit services (the essential/core features of a service, such as hair styling).
 Implicit services (ancillary/extra features, such as friendliness, courtesy).
Phases in the Service Design Process:
• Conceptualize Idea generation
Assessment of customer wants/needs
Assessment of demand potential
• Identify service package components needed
• Determine performance specifications
• Translate performance specifications into design specifications
• Translate design specifications into delivery specifications

Service Blueprinting:
A method used in service design to describe and analyze a proposed service.

Steps in service blueprinting:

• Establish boundaries for the service and decide on the level of detail needed.
• Identify and determine the sequence of customer and service actions and
• Prepare a flowchart of major process steps.
• Identify potential failure points and develop a plan to prevent or minimize them,
as well as a plan to respond to service errors.
• Develop time estimates for each phase of the process, as well as time variability.
• Analyze profitability.

Characteristics of Well-Designed Service Systems:

• Being consistent with the organization mission.
• Being user friendly.
• Being easy to sustain.
• Being cost-effective.
• Having value that is obvious to customers.
• Having effective linkages between back-of-the-house operations (i.e., no contact
with the customer) and front-of-the-house operations (i.e., direct contact with
customers). Front operations should focus on customer service, while back
operations should focus on speed and efficiency.
• Having a single, unifying theme, such as convenience or speed.
• Having design features and checks that will ensure service that is reliable and of
high quality.

Challenges of Service Design:

Challenges of service design are as follows
• There are variable requirements. This creates a need for a robust design that will
accommodate a range of inputs and perhaps a range of outputs.
• Services can be difficult to describe. By their very nature, verbal descriptions can
be somewhat imprecise.
• Customer contact is usually much higher in services.
• Service design must take into account the service-customer encounter. There can
be a relatively large number of variables to deal with in the service-customer

Differences between Product and Service Design:

• Products are Tangible. Services are intangible.
• Services created and delivered at the same time.
• Services cannot be inventoried.
• Services highly visible to customers.
• Services have low barrier to entry.
• Location important to service.
• Service systems range from those with little or no customer contact to those that
have a very high degree of customer contact.

Operations Strategy:
Product and service design is a fertile area for competitive advantage and increasing
customer satisfaction. Potential sources of such benefits include
1. Increase emphasis on component commonality
2. Packaging products and services to increase sales
3. Consider tactics for mass customization
4. Look for continual improvement
5. Shorten time to get new or redesigned goods and services to the market.
Shorten Time to Market involves

1. Use standardized components

2. Use technology
3. Use concurrent engineering

Detail on pg # 149-150.