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Darin J. Ulness Fall 2006 – 2007

Contents

I Basic Quantum Mechanics 15

16 16 17 17 22 22 23 24 27 27 27 29 30 31 31 34 38 40

1 Quantum Theory 1.1 The “Fall” of Classical Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Bohr’s Atomic Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 First Attempts at the Structure of the Atom . . . . . . . . 2 The Postulates of Quantum Mechanics 2.1 Postulate I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 How to normalize a wavefunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Postulates II and II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Setup of a Quantum Mechanical Problem The Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Quantum Mechanical Problem . . . . . . . The Average Value Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle . . . . . .

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4 Particle in a Box 4.1 The 1D Particle in a Box Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Implications of the Particle in a Box problem . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Harmonic Oscillator 5.1 Interesting Aspects of the Quantum Harmonic Oscillator . . . . . i

5.2 Spectroscopy (An Introduction) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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II

Quantum Mechanics of Atoms and Molecules

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46 46 49 51 52 55 55 56 58 59 60 60 61 62 63 64 66 67 67 68 72 72 73

6 Hydrogenic Systems 6.1 Hydrogenic systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Discussion of the Wavefunctions . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Spin of the electron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Summary: the Complete Hydrogenic Wavefunction 7 Multi-electron atoms 7.1 Two Electron Atoms: Helium 7.2 The Pauli Exclusion Principle 7.3 Many Electron Atoms . . . . 7.3.1 The Total Hamiltonian

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8 Diatomic Molecules and the Born Oppenheimer Approximation 8.1 Molecular Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.1 The Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.2 The Born—Oppenheimer Approximation . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Molecular Vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 The Morse Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Vibrational Spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Molecular Orbital Theory and Symmetry 9.1 Molecular Orbital Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Molecular Orbital Diagrams 10.1 LCAO–Linear Combinations of Atomic Orbitals . . . . . . . . . 10.1.1 Classiﬁcation of Molecular Orbitals . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10.2 The Hydrogen Molecule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Molecular Orbital Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 The Complete Molecular Hamiltonian and Wavefunction . . . . . 11 An Aside: Light Scattering–Why the Sky is Blue 11.1 The Classical Electrodynamics Treatment of Light Scattering 11.2 The Blue Sky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.1 Sunsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.2 White Clouds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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**III Statistical Mechanics and The Laws of Thermodynamics 88
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12 Rudiments of Statistical Mechanics 12.1 Statistics and Entropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.1 Combinations and Permutations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Fluctuations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 The Boltzmann Distribution 13.1 Partition Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1.1 Relation between the Q and W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 The Molecular Partition Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Statistical Thermodynamics 15 Work 15.1 Properties of Partial Derivatives 15.1.1 Summary of Relations . 15.2 Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2.1 Types of Systems . . . . 15.2.2 System Parameters . . . 89 89 90 92 94 96 97 99 103 107 107 107 108 108 109

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15.3 Work and Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 15.3.1 Generalized Forces and Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . 110 15.3.2 P V work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 16 Maximum Work and Reversible changes 16.1 Maximal Work: Reversible versus Irreversible changes . . 16.2 Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3 Equations of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.1 Example 1: The Ideal Gas Law . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.2 Example 2: The van der Waals Equation of State 16.3.3 Other Equations of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 113 115 116 116 117 118

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17 The Zeroth and First Laws of Thermodynamics 119 17.1 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . 119 17.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 17.2.1 The internal energy state function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 18 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics 18.1 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics . 18.1.1 Statements of the Second Law . . . . . . . . 18.2 The Third Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . 18.2.1 The Third Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.2.2 Debye’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.3 Times Arrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 124 127 127 128 129 130

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IV

Basics of Thermodynamics

134

19 Auxillary Functions and Maxwell Relations 135 19.1 The Other Important State Functions of Thermodynamics . . . . 135 19.2 Enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 19.2.1 Heuristic deﬁnition: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

19.3 Helmholtz Free Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.3.1 Heuristic deﬁnition: . . . . . . . . . . 19.4 Gibbs Free Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.4.1 Heuristic deﬁnition: . . . . . . . . . . 19.5 Heat Capacity of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.5.1 The Relationship Between CP and CV 19.6 The Maxwell Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Chemical Potential 20.1 Spontaneity of processes . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2 Chemical potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3 Activity and the Activity coeﬃcient . . . . . 20.3.1 Reference States . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3.2 Activity and the Chemical Potential

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137 138 138 139 139 139 140 142 142 144 146 147 148

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21 Equilibrium 151 21.0.3 Equilibrium constants in terms of KC . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 21.0.4 The Partition Coeﬃcient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 22 Chemical Reactions 22.1 Heats of Reactions . . . . . . . 22.1.1 Heats of Formation . . . 22.1.2 Temperature dependence 22.2 Reversible reactions . . . . . . . 22.3 Temperature Dependence of Ka 22.4 Extent of Reaction . . . . . . . 156 156 157 157 158 159 160

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23 Ionics 161 23.1 Ionic Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 23.1.1 Ionic activity coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 23.2 Theory of Electrolytic Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

23.3 Ion Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 23.3.1 Ion mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 24 Thermodynamics of Solvation 24.1 The Born Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.1.1 Free Energy of Solvation for the Born 24.1.2 Ion Transfer Between Phases . . . . . 24.1.3 Enthalpy and Entropy of Solvation . 24.2 Corrections to the Born Model . . . . . . . . 25 Key Equations for Exam 4 169 170 173 174 174 175 177

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V

Quantum Mechanics and Dynamics

180

26 Particle in a 3D Box 181 26.1 Particle in a Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 26.2 The 3D Particle in a Box Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 27 Operators 187 27.1 Operator Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 27.2 Orthogonality, Completeness, and the Superposition Principle . . 191 28 Angular Momentum 28.1 Classical Theory of Angular Momentum . . 28.2 Quantum theory of Angular Momentum . . 28.3 Particle on a Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.4 General Theory of Angular Momentum . . . 28.5 Quantum Properties of Angular Momentum 28.5.1 The rigid rotor . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 192 193 194 195 199 200

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. . . .2. . . . . .3 Term Symbols . . . . . 29. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2 An Example: Two Electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32. . .1 Molecular Vibrations . 201 201 202 202 203 204 205 30 Approximation Techniques 207 30. . .1 The Addition of Angular Momentum: 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Normal Modes and Group Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Mathematical Groups . . . . . . . . . . .1 Symmetry Operators .29 Addition of Angular Momentum 29. . . . . 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 30.1 Normal Modes . . . . . . . . .2. . . 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Quantum Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . 211 31. .1 The Two Level System . . . . .1 Example: The C2v Group . . . . . . . . . . 229 . .2 Variational method . . 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Symmetry of Functions . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 229 33. . . . .4 Spin Orbit Coupling . 209 31 The Two Level System and Quantum Dynamics 211 31. . . . 228 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32. . . .1. . . . Theory . 32. . . . . . . . .1 Direct Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . 214 VI Symmetry and Spectroscopy 220 221 222 222 223 223 225 225 32 Symmetry and Group Theory 32. . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . 33 Molecules and Symmetry 228 33. . . . . .1 Perturbation Theory . . . .2 Addition of Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Symmetry Breaking and Crystal Field Splitting . .1 Spin Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .2 Integrated rate laws . . .2 Rotational Spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 34. . . . . . .1 IR Spectroscopy . . . . . . . . .2 Molecular Collisions . . . 37 Fourier Transforms 245 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 35 Molecular Rotations 35. . . . . . . . . .1 Rate Laws . 35. . . . . . . . . .2 Franck—Condon activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 VII Kinetics and Gases 249 38 Physical Kinetics 250 38. . . .1. . . . . 39. .1 kinetic theory of gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Emission Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Fourier transformation . . . . . . . . . .2. 250 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Absorption Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .3 Rotation of Polyatomic Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Relaxing the rigid rotor . . . . 36.2. . . . . .1 The Franck—Condon principle 235 236 236 237 240 240 241 241 242 243 243 . . . . . . . 36. . 36 Electronic Spectroscopy of Molecules 36. . . . . . . . . . .1 The Structure of the Electronic State 36.2 Raman Spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . .3 Fluorescence Spectra . . . . . . . 36. . . 39. . . . . . . . . . .2 Determination of Rate Laws . . . . . . 36. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Diﬀerential methods based on the rate law 39. . . 254 254 258 259 259 . . . . . . . .34 Vibrational Spectroscopy and Group Theory 231 34. . . . . . 252 39 The Rate Laws of Chemical Kinetics 39. . . . . 35.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .4 Chain Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 P. . . . . . . . .1. 42. 41.3.1 Calculation of Entropy . . .2 Heat capacity CV for adiabatic expansions 42. . . . . . . . .4 Estimation of Virial Coeﬃcients . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Entropy of Gases 286 43. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Joule expansion . . . .2 α and κT for liquids and solids . . .3 Expansion of Gases .2. . . . . . .3. . .1 The Relationship Between CP and CV . . . 40. . . . . . . .2 Heat Capacity of Gases Revisited . . . . . . . .2. . . 42. . . . . . . . . 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41. . . . . .2 Theory of Reaction Rates . . .1. . . . . . .1 Relation to the van der Waals Equation of State 41. .3 Multistep Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Joule-Thomson expansion . . . . . . 286 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 261 262 262 265 267 269 269 270 271 272 272 273 274 274 275 275 276 276 279 279 280 281 282 283 41 Gases and the Virial Series 41. . . . .1 Isothermal and Adiabatic expansions . .1 Equations of State . . .1 Temperature Eﬀects on Rate Constants . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 288 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Temperature and Chemical Kinetics 40. . . .3.2 The Boyle Temperature . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42. . . . . . 40. . . . . . .1 α and κT for an ideal gas . . . .2 The Virial Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V and T behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42. . . .3 When P is the more convenient variable . . . 40. . . . . . . . 42. . 42. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41. . . . . . . . . . . 42 Behavior of Gases 42. . . . . . . 42. . . . . .1 Temperature corrections to the Arrhenious 40. parameters . . . . . . .1 Entropy of Real Gases . . . . . . . . . . 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The Virial Series in Pressure . . . . .

. . . . . .4 Henry’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Raoult’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Viscosity . . .3. . . . . . .3 Reference states for liquids . . . . .1 Measures of Composition . . Liquids . . . . . 46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Partial Molar Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44. .3 Thermal conductivity . . . 46. . . 46. . . .2. . . . .2 The Clapeyron Equation . . 44.1 The chemical potential and T and P . .3 Ideal Solutions (RL) .1. . .1 Thermal Conductivity of 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44. . . . . . .VIII More Thermodyanmics 292 293 293 294 295 296 296 297 298 298 299 300 301 301 303 305 306 307 308 308 308 309 310 311 311 312 314 316 44 Critical Phenomena 44. . . 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44. . . . . . . . . . .1 Activity (a brief review) 46. . . . . . . . . . .1 Notation . . 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46. . . . . . . .1. . . 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Phase Equilibrium .1 Diﬀusion . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Vapor Equilibrium and the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation 44. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Triple Point and Phase Diagrams . . . .3. . 44. .3. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 45. . . 45 Transport Properties of Fluids 45. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Thermal Conductivity of 46 Solutions 46. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .1 Gas Laws in the Critical Region . .2 Gas Constants from Critical Data . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .2 The Law of Corresponding States . . . . . . 46. . . . . . . . . 46. .2 Partial Molar Quantities . . 46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gases and Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Critical Behavior of ﬂuids .4 Equilibria of condensed phases . . . . . . .

1 Entropy Production due to Heat Flow .5 Echo Phenonmena . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Examples . 47. . . 47. . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . 318 46. . . . . .2 Entropy Production due to Chemical Reactions . .46. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 322 322 324 325 326 328 330 331 . . . . . . 319 47 Entropy Production and Irreverisble Thermodynamics 47. .4 Thermodynamic Coupling . . 47. . . . . .2 Osmotic Pressure .3. . . . . . . . . . .1 Freezing Point Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .1 Fundamentals . . . . .4 Colligative Properties . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . 318 46. .2 The Second Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chemistry 351: Physical Chemistry I 1 1 .

so it might be helpful to you to see some of these problems worked out. Even though there aren’t many “book” problems assigned during the year. you can still learn a lot be working these and looking that their solutions in the solution manual. The only way that you can be sure that you understand a concept at to be able to solve the problems associated with it. Tips for solving problems Working problem sets is the heart and sole of learning physical chemistry. Keep in mind this chapter provides some examples of how to solve problems for both physical chemistry I and physical chemistry II.Solved Problems I make-up most of the problems on the problems sets. Tips 2 2 . Simply skip those examples as you scan through this chapter. This takes time and hard work. Consequently early in the course some of the examples might seem very itimidating. But there are some things that you can do to help yourself with these problems.

Try to whip-oﬀ a few on the same day that you get the problem set.1. 4. There is a tendency to try to start solving the problem before fully understanding the question.. Part of the trouble is simply understanding what the problem is asking you to do. • Read the question carefully • Try to think about what topic(s) in lecture and in the notes the problem is dealing with. try to identify subsections of it. Try to ﬁgure out what mathematical techniques you need to express the solution to the problem. • Do not worry about not knowing how to solve it yet. If you think you can’t do the problem then maybe you need try a diﬀerent way of thinking about it. This will make the problem sets much more eﬃcient at helping you learn. 5. Then work on them consistently during the week.. 2. For problems that require a mathematical approach. Budget your time so that you don’t have to work on an overwhelming number of problems at a time. 3. The only reason you work them is to learn. You can do the problem. • Just identify the general ideas that you think you might need. • Do not be afraid. so if you solve them you will not become famous nor will you save the world. • Determine wether you need to approach the problem mathematically or conceptually or both. They have all been solved before. I don’t assign problems that you cannot do. • If the question is long. Remember nobody cares if you solve any particular problem on the problem set. 3 .

.• Do the math. Finally for the last function it is best to used Euler’s identity and write e−2ix = cos 2x + i sin 2x (1) The real part of this function. cos 2x. 4 . • Look for self-consistency. The second function we should remember from trig as having a period of 2π. . This occurs at x = nπ. . either you will be able to do this or you won’t. It might take some review on your part. • Make sure that the physical idea that you are using in your argument is correct. Problems Dealing With Quantum Mechanics Problem: What is the periodicity of the following functions • f (x) = sin2 x • f (x) = cos x • f(x) = e−2ix Solution: For the ﬁrst function it is easiest to see the periodicity by writing the function as f (x) = (sin x)(sin x). has a period of π as does the imaginary part. ±2 . start with a related concept that is better known by you. If you are not sure. sin 2x. • Always check to see if the math makes sense when you are done. so the periodicity is π. Therefore the entire function has a period of π.. 6.. n = 0. For problems that require a conceptual approach. ±1. Does you ﬁnal answer jive with what you know. We know that this function will repeat zeros when ever sin x = 0.

px ψ(x) = −i~ ˆ dx dx 6=cos kx (4) so. no. this function is an eigenfunction of the momentum operator. multiply by −i~ and check to see if the eigenvalue equation holds. If ˆ this equation is true then the function is an eigenfunction with eigenvalue λ. yes. For the second function px ψ(x) = −i~ ˆ de−αx dψ(x) ↓ 2 = −i~ = 2i~αxe−αx = 2i~αxψ(x). no. What is the probability of ﬁnding the object further than α away from the origin ( x = 0)? 2 5 . dx dx 2 (3) so. For the case of momentum all we need to do is take the derivative of each function. For the last function z }| { d cos kx dψ(x) = −i~ = −i~k sin kx. ˆ • ψ(x) = eikx • ψ(x) = e−αx 2 • ψ(x) = cos kx Solution: We need to determine if px ψ(x) = λψ(x) where λ is a constant. this function is not an eigenfunction of the momentum operator. Problem: A quantum object is described by the wavefunction ψ(x) = e−αx . px = −i~ dx . For the ﬁrst function px ψ(x) = −i~ ˆ deikx dψ(x) = −i~ = ~keikx = ~kψ(x). dx dx (2) so.Problem: Which of the following functions are eigenfunction of the momentum d operator. this function is not and eigenfunction of the momentum operator.

(7) Solution: First of all we do not know if this wavefunction is normalized. but we won’t. If you were working with a normalized wavefunction the denominator would be equal to 1 and hence not needed. Normalize this wavefunction. (5) |ψ(x)|2 dx −∞ Problem: A quantum object is described by the wavefunction ψ(x) = e−γx over the range 0 ≤ x < ∞.The ﬁrst integral in the numerator gives the probability that the object is at a position x < −α and the second integral in the numerator gives the probability for x > α. To do this using an unnormalized wavefunction we must evaluate R −α R∞ |ψ(x)|2 dx + α |ψ(x)|2 dx P (|x| > α) = −∞ R∞ . Plugging in the wavefunctions we have R −α −2αx2 R∞ 2 e dx + α e−2αx dx −∞ R∞ P (|x| > α) = . ψunnorm we know that this function must simply be some constant N multiplied by the normalized version of this function: ψ unnorm = Nψnorm We have shown generally that N is given by sZ N= |ψunnorm (x)|2 dx. We could normalize this wavefunction. The denominator accounts for the fact that the wavefunction is unnormalized. so we should assume that it isn’t. (6) e−2αx2 dx −∞ Mathematica can assist with these integrals to give the ﬁnal answer of √ 3 P (|x| > α) = erfc[ 2α 2 ]. space (8) (9) 6 . We are interested in ﬁnding the probability that the object is outside of the region −α < x < α. The limits of the integral in the denominator represent all space for the object. Solution: Following our general procedure from the notes if we have some unnormalized wavefunction.

The normalized 1s wavefunction is 1 ψ1s = p 3 er/a0 . ψ(x) = 2γe−γx . What is the average position of the object? Solution: We need to work with the normalized wavefunction that we found in √ the previous problem. (14) Remember the extra r2 sin θ is needed when integrating in spherical polar coordinates. πa0 (15) 7 . 2γ (13) So on average you will ﬁnd the object at x = 1 . Generally and average is calculated as Z ψ∗ (x)ˆψ(x).Which for this case is N= sZ ∞ 0 |e−γx |2 dx = sZ ∞ e−2γx dx = 0 r 1 2γ (10) So ﬁnally we get the normalized wavefunction by rearanging ψunnorm = Nψnorm : p (11) ψnorm (x) = 2γe−γx . o (12) hˆi = o space which in this case is Z ∞p Z p −γx −γx hˆi = x 2γe x 2γe dx = 2γ 0 ∞ xe−2γx dx = 0 1 . Problem: A quantum object is described by the wavefunction ψ(x) = e−γx over the range 0 ≤ x < ∞. 2γ Problem: What is the probability of ﬁnding an electron in the 1s state of hydrogen further than one Bohr radius away from the nucleus? Solution: We need to evaluate Z P (r > a0 ) = 2π 0 Z π 0 Z ∞ a0 |ψ1s |2 r2 sin θdrdθdφ.

e2 (16) So. What is the force constant associated with the Morse potential? Solution: The Morse potential is £ ¤ V (x) = De 1 − e−β(R−Req ) . but all it is asking is to express the wavefunction. (18) Problem: Expand the Morse potential in a Taylor’s series about Req . Solution: This problem appears hard at ﬁrst since we are not studying three dimensional systems. z) = ψ(x)ψ(y)ψ(z). about 68% of the time the electron would be found at some distance greater then one Bohr radius from the proton. 2 ˆ H = −~ ∇2 . We know that if the wavefunction is to be a product state then the Hamiltonian must be made up of a sum of independent terms.677. Express the wavefunction (in Cartesian coordinates) as a product 2m state. which is a function of the three spatial dimensions. Verify that the coeﬃcient for the linear term is zero. a term depending only on y and a term that depends only on z. To see this we write out the Laplacian to get µ ¶ −~2 ∂ 2 ∂2 ∂2 ˆ H= . y. Therefore the appropriate product state is Ψ(x. Ψ(x. (17) + + 2m ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 We see that indeed the Hamiltonian is a sum of term that depends only on x. Problem: A free particle in three dimensions is described by the Hamiltonian. y. z) as a product state. (19) 8 .We can do this integral by hand or have Mathematica help us to give P (r > a0 ) = 5 = 0.

The Taylor series about Req for this function is ¯ ¯ 2 ¯ dV (x) ¯ ¯ (R − Req ) + 1 d V (x) ¯ (R − Req )2 + · · · . The force constant is given by the coeﬃcient of the quadratic term so in this case k = β 2 De . The potential for the harmonic oscillator is described by a parabola centered about the equilibrium bond length. How many molecules are in the ﬁrst excited state of the ‘ring breathing’ mode (992 cm −1 )? How 9 . yes the coeﬃcient of the linear term (the term involving (R − Req ) to the ﬁrst power) is zero.So. The Morse potential does not have this symmetry. It is steeper on the “short” side of equilibrium and softer on the “long” side of equilibrium and this “softness” increases with increasing quantum number. Therefore without performing any calculations we can at least say that hRi increases as the quantum number increases. (20) V (x) = V (x)|Req + dx ¯Req 2! dx2 ¯Req | {z } | {z } | {z } =0 =0 = β 2 De Problems Dealing With Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics Problem: A vial containing 10 20 benzene molecules is at 300K. Hence no mater what the vibrational quantum number is there is just as much of the wavefunction on either side equilibrium thus hRi = Req for any quantum number. This will always be true when you perform a Taylor series expansion about a minimum (or maximum). compare hRi as a function of the vibrational quantum number for a diatomic modelled as a harmonic oscillator versus a Morse oscillator. Problem: Without performing any calculations. Solution: This problem requires the we think qualitatively about the wavefunctions and the potentials for the harmonic oscillator and the Morse oscillator.

except that an atom in state A can not be adjacent to an atom in state C. So. V (j+1) = MV (j) . To solve this problem it is useful to deﬁne the set of three dimensional column vectors V (j) such that the three elements are the total number of allowed conﬁgurations of a j-atom chain having the j th atom in state A. 1 2 5 The V (j+1) can be found from the V (j) vector using the matrix equation. Find the entropy per atom for this system as N → ∞. V = ⎣ 7 ⎦. Each of the atoms can be in one of three states A.many are in the ﬁrst excited state of the symmetric C—H vibrational mode (3063 cm −1 )? Solution: This is a problem that deals with the Boltzmann distribution. B or C. ¶ ³ µ ´ 3×992 992 rb × e− 2×208 × 1020 = 8.··· .02 × 1013 .0000402% of the benzene molecules are in the ﬁrst excited state for the C—H stretching mode. B or C. For example.41 × 1017 Nv=1 = 2 sinh (21) 2 × 208 and C—H Nv=1 We see that about 8. Problem: Consider a linear chain of N atoms.41×10 × 100% = 0.841% of the benzene molecules are in the 1020 13 ﬁrst vibrational excited state for the ring breathing mode and 4.02×10 × 100% = 1020 0. 0 1 1 ⎡ (24) ¶ ³ µ ´ 3063 − 3×3063 2×208 × 1020 = 4. where for this example ⎤ 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ M = ⎣ 1 1 1 ⎦. V = ⎣ 3 ⎦. ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ 1 2 5 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ (1) (2) (3) (23) V = ⎣ 1 ⎦. × e = 2 sinh 2 × 208 17 (22) (25) 10 .

The matrix M is the so-called transfer matrix for this system. So W = lim λN . For part (b) we need to list all states for the case of N = 3 and verify the we get the same result as calculated using the transfer matrix. 3. Verify V (3) explicitly by drawing all the allowed 3-atom conﬁgurations. max where λmax is the largest eigenvalue of M. 1. Tr[M N ] ≈ λN . It can be shown that the number of conﬁgurations W = Tr[M N ]. 4. Verify W = Tr[M N ] for N = 1 and N = 2. Now for large N. Use M to ﬁnd V (4) 2. Remembering that V (3) gives us the number of sequences that end in a given state we should organize our list in the same manner States ending in A States ending in B AAA ABA BAA BBA CBA AAB ABB BAB BBB BCB CBB CCB √ 7 states States ending in C ABC BBC BCC CBC Solution: For part (a) we simply problem (we are given V (3) ): ⎡ 1 1 ⎢ (4) V =⎣ 1 1 0 1 use the transfer matrix as directed in the ⎤ ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎡ 12 5 0 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎦ ⎣ 7 ⎦ = ⎣ 17 ⎦ . 5 states √ 5 states √ 11 . Use Boltzmann’s equation to ﬁnd the entropy per atom for this chain as N goes to inﬁnity. max N→∞ (26) 1. 12 5 1 .

For part (d) we use S k k k = ln W = lim ln λN = lim N ln λmax = k ln λmax . Therefore the limiting entropy per atom is ³ √ ´ S = k ln 1 + 2 . one at 20000cm−1 − 992cm−1 = 19008cm−1 and one at 20000cm−1 − 3063cm−1 = 16937cm−1 . Assume benzene has only two active modes (992cm −1 and 3063cm −1 ) and assume the Laser light used to do the scattering is at 20000cm −1 (this is 500nm–green light). max N→∞ N N→∞ N N N (28) So. calculate the positions of the Rayleigh. Using √ Mathematica we ﬁnd λmax = 1 + 2.States like AAC are not allowed because A and C are neighbors. we simply need to ﬁnd the maximum eigenvalue of the Transfer matrix. and C. BB. Solution: Since there are two vibrational modes we expect two Stokes lines to the red of 20000cm−1 . For N = 1. one at 20000cm−1 + 992cm−1 = 20992cm−1 and one at 20000cm−1 + 3063cm−1 = 23063cm−1 . B. CB and CC (Remember C and A cannot be neighbors). BC. Stokes and anti-Stokes spectral lines for benzene. (29) N Problem: Using the classical theory of light scattering. For part (c) we evaluate W = Tr[M N ] for N = 1 and 2. Likewise we expect two anti-Stokes lines. For N = 2. BA. in this case. ⎤⎤ ⎡⎡ ⎤⎤ ⎤⎡ ⎡⎡ 2 2 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ ⎥⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎢⎢ W = Tr[M 2 ] = Tr ⎣⎣ 1 1 1 ⎦ ⎣ 1 1 1 ⎦⎦ = Tr ⎣⎣ 2 3 2 ⎦⎦ = 7 (27) 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 2 This corresponds to the seven distinguishable microstates AA. W = Tr[M] = 3 This corresponds to the three distinguishable microstates A. AB. is 20000cm−1 . 12 . There is only one Rayleigh line and it is at the same frequency at the input laser beam which.

S. Solution: The equation representing a Berthelot gas is P = nRT n2 a − .Problem: A simple model for a crystal is a “gas” of harmonic oscillators. V − nb T V 2 (34) We are interesting in an equation of state for U(T. Writing out the total derivative of U(T. (33) ∂β 2 2 Problem: Express the equation of state for internal energy for a Berthelot gas. V ) we get ¶ ¶ µ µ ∂U ∂U dT + dV. S = −kβ ∂Qcrystal + k ln Qcrystal ∂β µ ¶ β~ω β~ω Nkβ~ω coth − k ln 2 sinh = 2 2 2 U =− (32) and N~ω β~ω ∂Qcrystal = coth . Solution: For this model the crystal is modelled as a collection of harmonic oscillators so we need the partition function for the harmonic oscillator. A = −kT ln Qcrystal = +NKT ln 2 sinh 2 (31) where we used properties of logs to pull the N out front and move the sinh term from to the numerator. and U from the partition function for this model. Determine A. V ). Ã ! 1 N Qcrystal = qHO = (30) 2 sinh β~ω 2 From our formulas for statistical thermodynamics ¶ µ β~ω . (35) dU = ∂T V ∂V T 13 .

We employ the “useful relation” µ ¶ ¶ µ ∂U ∂P =T −P (36) ∂V T ∂T V to eliminate U in favor of P so that we can use the equation of state for a Berthelot gas. (37) ∂T V V − nb T V V − nb T V 2 TV 2 Hence the equation of state for internal energy of a Berthelot gas is dU = CV dT + 2n2 a dV TV 2 ¡ ∂P ¢ (38) Problem: Use the identities for partial derivatives to eliminate the in ¶ µ ¶ µ ∂P ∂V Cp = Cv + T ∂T P ∂T V so that all derivatives are at constant pressure or temperature. CV . ¶2 µ ¶ µ ∂P ∂V . ∂T V factor (39) Solution: Here we either remember an identity or turn to our handout of partial ¡ ¢ derivative identities to employ the cyclic rule to ∂P V : ∂T µ ∂P ∂T ¶ V ∂P =− ∂V µ ¶ µ T ∂V ∂T ¶ . (40) P This eliminates the constant V term and so. One obtains ¶ µ ¶ µ n2 a n2 a ∂P nRT nR 2n2 a + 2 2 − + T −P =T = . Cp = Cv − T ∂T P ∂V T (41) 14 . but ∂V T is nothing convenient so we must ∂T proceed.¡ ¢ ¡ ∂U ¢ Now ∂U V is just heat capacity.

Part I Basic Quantum Mechanics 15 15 .

1. The photoelectric eﬀect 2.1. Among these experiments were 1. Low temperature heat capacity 3. • Many phenomena described by minimal and general concepts. experiments were being performed in which the results deﬁed explanation by means of the current understanding of physics. The “Fall” of Classical Physics A good theory: • explain known experimental results • self consistent • predictive • minimal number of postulates Around the turn of the century.1. Black body radiation and the ultraviolet catastrophe 16 16 . Atomic spectral lines 4. Quantum Theory The goal of science is uniﬁcation.

First Attempts at the Structure of the Atom The “solar system” model. Flaws of the solar system model • Newton: OK √ √ • Maxwell: problem 17 . • The electron orbits the nucleus with the attractive coulomb force balanced by the repulsive centrifugal force.5. Bohr’s Atomic Theory 1. The Stern-Gerlach experiment ∗ ∗ See Handouts ∗ ∗ 1.2.1. The two slit experiment 6.2.

— The system is not stable and the electron spirals into the nucleus. the atom acts as an oscillating dipole • — The classical theory of electromagnetism states that oscillating dipoles emit radiation and thereby lose energy. The atom collapses! Bohr’s model: Niels Bohr (1885—1962) 18 .— As the electron orbits the nucleus.

EN = −Z 2a0 N 2 Tests of the Bohr atom • Ionization energy of Hydrogen atoms — The Ionization energy for Hydrogen atoms (Z = 1) is the minium energy required to completely remove an electron form it ground state.2) 19 . N = 1 → N = ∞ µ ¶ 1 e2 −Z 2 e2 1 − 2 = (1. ~ = h/2π is Planck’s constant divided by 2π.1) Zme e2 where Z is the atomic number. N is a positive real integer called the quantum number. r= 4π 0 N 2 ~2 (1. • Therefore atomic orbitals must be quantized.. • If the orbital radius was continuous the gas would have a continuous spectrum.• Atoms don’t collapse =⇒ what are the consequences Experimental clues • Atomic gases have discrete spectral lines. me and e are the mass and charge of the electron respectively and 0 is the permittivity of free space.3) Eionize = E∞ − E1 = 2a0 ∞2 1 2a0 (1. me e2 The total energy of the Bohr atom is related to its quantum number µ 2 ¶ e 1 2 .52918 Å and is called the Bohr radius. i. 2 The constant quantity 4π e0e~ appears often and is given the special symbol a0 ≡ m 2 4π 0 ~2 = 0.e.

4) — Since the orbitals are quantized.6.605 eV (very good agreement) • Spectroscopic lines from Hydrogen represent the diﬀerence in energy between the quantum states — Bohr theory: Diﬀerence energies µ ¶ µ ¶ 1 1 e2 1 1 Ej − Ek = − 2 =R − 2 2a0 Nj2 Nk Nj2 Nk Initial state Nk 1 2 3 4 5 • Final States Nj 2. the atom may only change its orbital radius by discrete amounts.3.6.· · · 6.4.· · · 5.7.606 eV = 109. — Doing this results in the emission or absorption of a photon with energy v= ˜ 4E hc (1.5.7.· · · Series Name Lyman Balmer Pachen Brackett Pfund (1.· · · 4.· · · 3.5) Failure of the Bohr model • No ﬁne structure predicted (electron-electron coupling) • No hyperﬁne structure predicted (electron-nucleus coupling) • No Zeeman eﬀect predicted (response of spectrum to magnetic ﬁeld) 20 .5. R is called the Rydberg constant.4.e — Eionize = 2a0 = 13.8.667 cm−1 = R. 2 — Eionize experimentally observed from spectroscopy is 13.

• Spin is not included in theory The Bohr quantization idea points to a wavelike behavior for the electron.9 Laidler&Meiser ∗ ∗∗ The must be continuous and single valued Particles have wave-like characteristics The Bohr atom was an important step towards the formulation of quantum theory • Erwin Schrödinger (1887—1961): Wave mechanics • Werner Heisenberg (1902—1976): Matrix mechanics • Paul Dirac (1902—1984): Abstract vector space approach 21 . The wave must satisfy periodic boundary conditions much like a vibrating ring ∗ ∗ ∗ See Fig. 11.

The Postulates of Quantum Mechanics 2. y. It may. y. we will most often deal with time independent “stationary” states ψ(x. However the mod-square of the wavefunction. ψ. x. which contains all the information that can be known about the system. y and y +dy and z and z +dz is |ψ(x. the probability of ﬁnding a particle which is described by ψ(x. 22 22 . for example. in fact. Postulate I Postulate I: The state of a system is deﬁned by a wavefunction. We will normally take ψ to be a complex valued function of time and coordinates: ψ(t. φ)|2 r2 sin θdrdθdφ in spherical coordinates).1. θ. y. That is. ψ∗ ψ = |ψ|2 . y. be a function of momentum. The wavefunction ψ represents a probability amplitude and is not directly observable. z) at the position between x and x+dx. z)|2 dxdydz (or |ψ(r.2. z) and. represents a probability distribution which is directly observable. z) Note: In general the wavefunction need not be expressed as a function of coordinate.

Properties of the wavefunction • Single valueness • continuous and ﬁnite • continuous and ﬁnite ﬁrst derivative R • space |ψ(x. ψ unnorm = Nψnorm . where N = |ψunnorm (x. y. y. z)|2 to be exactly interpreted as a probability distribution. How to normalize a wavefunction If we have some unnormalized wavefunction. (2. z)|2 dxdydz < ∞ Normalization of the wavefunction In order for |ψ(x. ψunnorm we know that this function must simply be some constant N multiplied by the normalized version of this function: ψ unnorm = Nψnorm . z) must be normalizable. y. (2. 2.2. y.1) Now. ψ(x. qR That is.2) space space 23 . z)|2 dxdydz space R This assures that space |ψnorm |2 dxdydz = 1 as expected for a probability distribution From now on we will always normalize our wavefunctions. we take the mod-square of both sides and then integrate both sides of this equation over all space Z Z 2 |ψunnorm | dxdydz = |Nψnorm |2 dxdydz.

7) Notice that no where did we ever specify what ψunnorm or ψnorm actually were.but The N is just a constant so it can be pulled out of both the mod-square and the integral Z Z 2 2 |ψunnorm | dxdydz = N |ψnorm |2 dxdydz. (2.8) 2 normalized x |ψ(x)| dx 1 −∞ 2. Z |ψunnorm |2 dxdydz = N 2 × 1 = N 2 . 24 . z)|2 dxdydz. N unnorm (2. therefore this is a general procedure that will work for any wavefunction. y.6) So ﬁnally we get the normalized wavefunction by reagranging ψ unnorm = Nψnorm : ψ norm = 1 ψ . (2. sZ N= space |ψunnorm (x.4) This gives us an expression for N. To ﬁnd the probability for the particle to be in a ﬁnite region of space we simple evaluate (here a 1D case) R x2 Z x2 |ψ(x)|2 dx if ψ(x) x1 P (x1 < x < x2 ) = R ∞ =⇒ |ψ(x)|2 dx (2. So. Thus wherever R we see space |ψnorm |2 dxdydz we can replace it with 1.3) space space because that is the very deﬁnition of a normalized wavefunction.3. Taking the square root of both sides gives.5) space Z space |ψnorm |2 dxdydz = 1 (2. Postulates II and II Postulate II: Every physical observable is represented by a linear (Hermitian) operator. (2.

So in quantum mechanics operators act on the wavefunction to produce a new wavefunction The two most important operators as far as we are concerned are • x=x ˆ ∂ • px = −i~ ∂x ˆ and of course the analogous operators for the other coordinates (y.). Nearly all operators we will need are algebraic combinations of the above. There is a special operator equation called the eigenvalue equation which is ˆ Of (x) = λf (x) where λ is just a number.9) This is just like how a function takes a number and turns it into another number. etc. For a given operator only a special set of function satisfy this equation. These functions are called eigenfunctions. Postulate III: The measurement of a physical observable will give a result that is one of the eigenvalues of the corresponding operator. z) and coordinate systems (spherical. cylindrical. (2.10) 25 .An operator takes a function and turns it into another function ˆ Of (x) = g(x) (2.

So we want a solution to ˆ df (x) = λf (x) df (x) = λf (x) dx (2.11) So. Example ˆ ˆ Let O in the eignevalue equation be the operator that takes the derivative: O = ˆ d d = dx . So solution of the eigenvalue equation gives a set of eigenfunctions and a set of eigenvalues.The number that goes with each function is called the eigenvalue. we ask ourselves what function is proportional to its own derivative? ⇒ f (x) = eλx . So the eigenfunctions are the set of functions f (x) = eλx and the eigenvalues are the numbers λ 26 .

2. The eigenvalue equation for the Hamiltonian is ˆ Hψ = Eψ. 27 27 . 1. This equation is the (time independent) Schrödinger equation. Deﬁne the classical Hamiltonian for the system. This equation is the most important equation of the course and we will use it many times throughout our discussion of quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics.1) 3.1. The Hamiltonian The most important physical observable is that of the total energy E. The Setup of a Quantum Mechanical Problem 3. (3. The Quantum Mechanical Problem Nearly every problem one is faced with in elementary quantum mechanics is handled by the same procedure as given in the following steps.3. The operator associated with the total energy is called the Hamiltonian operator ˆ (or simply the Hamiltonian) and is given the symbol H.

• The total energy for a classical system is Ecl = T + V.2) (3. y. Solve the Schrödinger equation. y. y. where T is the kinetic energy and V is the potential energy.6) ˆ V = V (ˆ. ∂z 2 and (3. 2 2 ˆ −~ ∇2 = −~ ∇2 . Hψ = Eψ.5) where ∇2 ≡ ∂2 ∂x2 + ∂2 ∂y2 + ∂2 .7) ˆ 3. x.. Thus. • The kinetic energy is always of the form T = ¢ 1 ¡ 2 px + p2 + p2 y z 2m (3. with their appropriate operators. −~2 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ∇ + V (x. x ˆ ˆ So. z) − E) ψ = 0 (3. px etc.8) ⇒ 2m 28 . z) (3. y . z). y. z) ψ = Eψ 2m −~2 2 ∇ ψ + (V (x.4) • Note: Some quantum systems don’t have classical analogs so the Hamiltonian operator must be hypothesized. ˆ T = 2m 2m (3. z) H =T +V = 2m (3. 2. y.3) • The potential energy is almost always a function of coordinates only V = V (x. which is now a second order diﬀerential equation of the form ¸ ∙ 2 −~ 2 ∇ + V (x. z ) = V (x. Use Postulate II to replace the classical variables.

However. If ψ is not an eigenfunction of a particular operator. or average. hˆi = x and hˆx i = p Z Z ψ xψdxdydz = ˆ ∗ space Z space x |ψ|2 dxdydz ψ∗ ∂ψ dxdydz ∂x (3.11) space ψ px ψdxdydz = −i~ ˆ ∗ Z (3. This is given by Z hˆ i = α ψ∗ αψdxdydz ˆ (3. The Average Value Theorem Postulate III implies that if ψ is an eigenfunction of a particular operator representing a physical observable.10) space For example. then all measurements of that physical property will still yield an eigenvalue. z) which determines whether this is easy or hard to do. but we cannot predict for certain which one. We can.12) space 29 . give an expectation.• Note: It is solely the form of V (x. however. y.9) 3.3. then all measurements of that physical property will yield the associated eigenvalue. value for the measurement. • For one-dimensional problems −~2 d2 ψ + (V (x) − E) ψ = 0 2m dx2 (3.

¯ 2i ¯ 2 (3..4. This idea is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and is of profound importance. be simultaneously known to arbitrary precision. ˆ (3. β ˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ (3. x]i| = |hˆx x − xpx i| p ˆ p ˆ ˆˆ 2 ¯Z 2 ¯ µ ¶ ¯ 1¯ ¯ ψ ∗ ~ ∂ x − x ∂ ψdx¯ = ¯ 2¯ i ∂x ∂x ¯ ¯ ¯~¯ ~ = ¯ ¯= . The commutator is ˆ where the notation α.3. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle In quantum mechanics certain pairs of variables can not. even in principle. (n.13) 2 h i ˆ means the commutator of α and β. Such variables are called complimentary. β ¯ . β ˆ ˆ deﬁned as h i ˆ ≡ αβ − β α. the y position and the x momentum to arbitrary precision.) Suppose we know the position of a particle perfectly. what can we say about its momentum? 30 .15) So. for example.b. α. The general statement of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is 1 ¯Dh ˆ iE¯ ¯ ¯ δαδβ ≥ ¯ α.14) The most important example of complimentary variables is position and momentum. at the very best we can only hope to simultaneously know position and momentum such that the product of the uncertainty in each is ~ . we can 2 know. δpx δy = 0. We see δpx δx ≥ 1 1 |h[ˆx .

4. 31 31 .1) Because of the inﬁnities at x = 0 and x = a. 4. It also can be used as a “zeroth order” model for certain physical systems. Nevertheless it is of great pedagogical and practical value. shown in the ﬁgure and given by ⎧ x≤0 ⎪ ∞ ⎨ V (x) = 0 0<x<a . This system is very simple which is one reason for beginning with it.1. We shall soon see that the particle in a box is a physically unrealistic system and. we need to partition the x-axis into the three regions shown in the ﬁgure. V (x). Particle in a Box We now will apply the general program for solving a quantum mechanical problem to our ﬁrst system: the particle in a box. we must violate one of our criteria for a good wavefunction. as a consequence. ⎪ ⎩ ∞ x≥a (4. The 1D Particle in a Box Problem Consider the potential.

): ψ(0) = 0 and ψ(a) = 0. where k = q 2mE . dx2 ~ The general solution of this diﬀerential equation is ψ(x) = A sin kx + B cos kx. Hψ 2m dx2 (4. ψ must equal zero in these regions. ~2 (4. the particle can never exist so.c. 32 . Therefore it must satisfy the boundary conditions (b. The particle must be found only in region II. in region I and III. where the potential is inﬁnite.4) Now ψ must be continuous for all x.3) (4.Now.2) which can be rearranged into the form d2 ψ(x) 2mE + 2 ψ(x) = 0. The Schrödinger equation in region II is (V (x) = 0) 2 2 ˆ = Eψ =⇒ −~ d ψ(x) = Eψ.

ψ(a) = 0. now we have nπx . n = 1.8) 33 . · · · . So. ψn (x) = A sin a kn = (4. a (4. We obtain A from Z ∞ Z a nπx nπx ∗ sin dx. 1=A sin2 nudu = A2 π 0 2 / 2 π (4. we see that the constant B must be zero because cos kx|x=0 = 1.5) (4. 2. places certain restrictions on k.c. In particular. a The values of k are quantized. So we are left with ψ(x) = A sin kx for our wavefunction.. 3. the second b.From the ψ(0) = 0 b.7) du = π dx. this becomes a Z π π A2 a a/ 2a = . ψn (x)ψ n (x) = 1 = A2 sin a a −∞ 0 Letting u = πx . As can be inferred from the following ﬁgure.6) The constant A is the normalization constant.c. nπ .

a in a box are I II III . (4.Solving for A gives A= r 2 .2. 2ma2 8ma2 (4.11) 4.10) We can get the energy levels from kn = En = and kn = nπ : a h n2 π 2 ~2 ~= 2π n2 h2 = . Implications of the Particle in a Box problem Zero Point Energy 34 .9) Is this wavefunction OK? Thus our normalized wavefunctions for a particle ⎧ ⎪ 0 ⎪ q ⎨ 2 ψn (x) = sin nπx a ⎪ a ⎪ ⎩ 0 q 2mEn ~2 (4.

has nonzero energy.12) That is. x ˆ Features of the Particle in a Box Energy Levels • The energy level spacing is 4E = En+1 − En = 4E = (2n + 1) (n + 1)2 h2 n2 h2 h2 − = (n2 + 2n + 1 − n2 ) / / 8ma2 8ma2 8ma2 (4. But we also know that the particle is located within a ﬁnite region of ˆ space. This residual energy is called the zero point energy and is a consequence of the uncertainty principle. 8ma2 (4. so δˆ 6= ∞. or ground state. δˆδp = 0 which violates the uncertainty principle.The smallest value for n is 1 which corresponds to an energy of E1 = h2 6= 0.13) h2 8ma2 • This spacing increases linearly with quantum level n • This spacing decreases with increasing mass • This spacing decreases with increasing a • It is this level spacing that is what is measured experimentally The Curvature of the Wavefunction 35 . x Hence. the lowest energy state. δ p = 0. If the energy was zero then we would conclude that momentum was exactly zero.

Applying this idea to the particle in a box we an anticipate both zero point energy and the behavior of the energy levels with increasing a.14) ψ2 (x)xψ 2 (x)dx = x sin2 [ x]dx = a 0 a 2 −∞ 36 . The particle in a box problem illustrates some of the many strange features of quantum mechanics. It must have some curvature and hence some zero point energy. This is an important concept for the qualitative understanding of wavefunctions for any quantum system. • We know the wavefunction is zero in regions I and III. a wavefunction with more curvature will have a larger second derivative and hence it will posses more kinetic energy. We also know that the wave function is not zero everywhere. As another example consider the expectation value of position for a particle in the second quantum level: Z ∞ Z a 2 a 2π ∗ hxi = (4. Therefore the energy levels decrease in energy as does their diﬀerence. • As a is increased. 2m dx2 The important part of this is d2 .ˆ The operator for kinetic energy is T = −~ 2 d2 . Therefore it must do something between x = 0 and x = a. dx2 From freshman calculus we know that the second derivative of a function describes its curvature so. We have already seen such nonclassical behavior as quantized energy and zero point energy. the wavefunction is less conﬁned and so the curvature does not need to be as great to satisfy the boundary conditions.

37 .yet the probability of ﬁnding the particle at x = a is zero: ψ2 ( a ) = 0. So even though the particle may be found anywhere else in the box and it may get from the left side of the node to the right side. it can never be found at the node. There is 2 2 a a node at x = 2 .

We shall begin by reviewing the classical harmonic oscillator and than we will turn our attention to the quantum oscillator. Setting x = R − Req we can measure the displacement about the equilibrium position. The classical example is a ball on a spring The harmonic oscillator is arguably the single most important model in all of physics. where k is the spring constant and Req is the equilibrium position of the ball. 38 38 . The Harmonic Oscillator The harmonic oscillator model which is simply a mass undergoing simple harmonic motion.5. The force exerted by the spring in the above ﬁgure is F = −k(R − Req ).

5) This diﬀerential equation is not easy to solve (you can wait to solve it in graduate school).E. where ω = conditions.E. we get dt 2 d2 x k d2 x m 2 = −kx ⇒ 2 + x = 0 dt dt m (5. 2 2 |2m dx } | {z } {z µ ¶ 1 2 kx − E ψ = 0 2 (5.3) 2 Since energy is on an arbitrary scale we can set C = 0. we need to express the force of the spring in terms of potential energy V . 2 By postulate III the Schrödinger equation becomes ⎛ ⎞ K.x From Newton’s law of motion F = ma = m d 2 . P. (5. so in going to the quantum oscillator.2) and A and B are constants which are determined by the initial For quantum mechanics it is much more convenient to talk about energy rather than forces. 39 .4) (5. Thus V = 1 kx2 . This can be rearrange into the form −~2 d2 ψ + 2m dx2 1 ⎜ −~2 d2 ⎟ ˆ Hψ = Eψ ⇒ ⎝ + kx2 ⎠ ψ = Eψ.1) This is second order diﬀerential equation which we already know the solutions to: x = A sin ωt + B cos ωt. q k m (5. We know Z 1 V = − F dx = kx2 + C.

An = p √ . 2 where ν 0 = 1 2π (5. m (5.7) Note the energy levels are often written as 1 En = (n + )hν 0 .12 Laidler&Meiser ∗ ∗∗ 5.The equation is very close to the form of a know diﬀerential equation called Hermite’s diﬀerential equation the solutions of which are called the Hermite polynominals. Interesting Aspects of the Quantum Harmonic Oscillator It is interesting to investigate some of the unintuitive properties of the oscillator as we have gone quantum mechanical 40 . y = (5. As it turns out. 2 where again ω = q k .1.8) q k m and is called the vibrational constant.6) x. the solutions (the eigenfunctions) to the Schrödinger equation for the harmonic oscillator are ¶1 µ 2 km 4 1 − y2 ψn (y) = An Hn (y)e . 2 ~ 2n n! π where An is the normalization constant for the nth eigenfunction and Hn (y) are the Hermite polynomials. 11. ∗ ∗ ∗ See Fig. The eigenvalues (the energy levels) are 1 En = (n + )~ω.

then we would conclude that the momentum of the oscillator was zero. 2.1. δx = 0. Consider the ground state (the lowest energy level) • There is residual energy in the ground state because 1 E0 = (0 + )~ω. — On the other hand. Consider the wavefunctions. In other words the quantum mechanics must contain classical mechanics as a limit. • It is a consequence of uncertainty principle — If the ground state energy was really zero. • The wavefunctions penetrate into the region where the classical particle is forbidden to go — The wavefunction is nonzero past the classical turning point. we would conclude the particle was located at the bottom of the potential well (at x = 0) — Thus we would have δp = 0. Interpretation of the wavefunctions and energy levels 41 . the quantum system must behave like a classical system. 2 • Just like for the particle in a box. this energy is called the zero point energy. so δpδx = 0 Not allowed! — The uncertainty principle forces there to be some residual zero point energy. • The probability distribution |ψ|2 becomes more and more like what is expected for the classical oscillator when v → ∞. — This is a manifestation of the correspondence principle which states that for large quantum numbers. 3.

2. Spectroscopy (An Introduction) The primary method of measuring the energy levels of a material is through the use of electromagnetic radiation.• Remember the wavefunctions are time independent and the energy levels are stationary • If a molecule is in a particular vibrational state it is NOT vibrating. 5. 42 . These speciﬁc values correspond to the energy level diﬀerence between the initial and ﬁnal states. Atoms and molecules absorb or emit light only at speciﬁc (quantized) energies. Experiments involving electromagnetic radiation—matter interaction are called spectroscopies.

(5. sZ N= space |ψunnorm (x)|2 dx. (5.10) • The Schrödinger equation (which should be posted on your refrigerator). ˆ Hψ = Eψ. Equations • The short cut for getting the normalization constant (1D. This section should not substitute for your studying of the rest of this material. N unnorm (5. The equations listed here are out of context and it would help you very little to memorize this section without understanding the context of these equations. The equations are collected here simply for handy reference for you while working the problem sets.Key Equations for Exam 1 Listed here are some of the key equations for Exam 1. see above for 3D).9) • The normalized wavefunction: ψ norm = 1 ψ .11) 43 43 .

16) • The energy level spacing for the 1D particle in a box. ω = 2 k m (5. y = √ . r • The energy levels are 1 En = (n + )~ω. Z ψ∗ αψdx.• The Schrödinger equation for 1D problems as a diﬀerential equation. a a • The energy levels for the 1D particle in a box. 2 n n! π ~ 2 (5. 2m dx2 • How to get the average value for some property (1D version).17) • The wavefunctions for the harmonic oscillator are ¶1 µ 2 km 4 1 − y2 x.15) (5.12) (5. ∂x (5. 2ma2 8ma2 (5. An = p ψn (y) = An Hn (y)e .18) where An is the normalization constant for the nth eigenfunction and Hn (y) are the Hermite polynomials. En = h n2 π 2 ~2 ~= 2π n2 h2 = .14) • Normalized wavefunctions for the 1D particle in a box. r nπx 2 ψn (x) = sin . −~2 d2 ψ + (V (x) − E) ψ = 0.13) • The momentum operator px = −i~ ˆ ∂ .19) 44 . ˆ hˆ i = α space (5. 4E = (2n + 1) h2 8ma2 (5.

Part II Quantum Mechanics of Atoms and Molecules 45 45 .

The Schrödinger equation for all the other atoms on the periodic table must be solved by approximate methods. That is they are completely symmetric about the nucleus.1. These system are centrosymmetric.6. 6. we move onto the quantum mechanical treatment of atoms. Hydrogen is the only atom for which we can exactly solve the Schrödinger equation for. The Hydrogen atom (one proton and one electron) is the obvious example Ions such as He+ and Li2+ are also hydrogenic systems. So this will be the ﬁrst atomic system we discuss. Hydrogenic systems Hydrogenic systems are those atomic systems which consist of a nucleus and one electron. Hydrogenic Systems Now that we have developed the formalism of quantum theory and have discussed several important systems. The obvious choice for the coordinate system is to use spherical polar coordinates 46 46 .

ˆ Hang ψang (θ.1) −Ze2 −~2 ˆ 2 ˆ . φ). φ) = Eψang (θ.7) 47 .8) (6. ∇ + H= 2me (4π 0 )ˆ r (6. r ˆ Hrad and ¸ ∙ Ze2 −~2 1 ∂ 2 ∂ r − = 2me r2 ∂r ∂r (4π 0 )r µ ∂ 1 ∂2 1 ∂ sin θ + sin θ ∂θ ∂θ sin2 θ ∂φ2 ¶ (6. ψ must be a product state. θ.3) ¶ µ 2 2 −Ze −~ ˆ 2 ψ ∇ + Eψ = 2me (4π 0 )ˆ r µ 2∙ ¶ µ ¶¸ −~ 1 ∂ 2 ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂2 1 ∂ −Ze2 Eψ = r + sin θ + ψ + 2me r2 ∂r ∂r r2 sin θ ∂θ ∂θ sin2 θ ∂φ2 (4π 0 )r The Hamiltonian is (almost) the sum of a radial part (only a function of r) and an angular part (only a function of θ and φ): 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ H = Hrad + 2 Hang .4) (6.6) Since the Hamiltonian is the sum of two terms.with the origin located on the nucleus.5) −~2 ˆ Hang = 2me (6. The classical potential energy for these hydrogenic systems is V (r) = So the Hamiltonian is −Ze2 . ψ(r. (4π 0 )r (6. φ) It turns out that solving the Schrödinger equation. (6.2) Schrödinger’s equation (in spherical polar coordinates) becomes ˆ Eψ = Hψ (6. φ) = ψrad (r)ψang (θ.

φ) = ER(r)Ylm (θ. φ) H 2me r2 (6. φ) Hang ψang (θ.yields ψ ang (θ.9) where the Ylm (θ. φ) = Ylm (θ. φ) ¶ µ 1 ˆ ˆ Hrad + 2 Hang R(r)Ylm (θ. φ). θ.) We shall use the spherical harmonics more next semester when we develop the quantum theory of angular momentum. φ)’s are the spherical harmonic functions characterized by quantum numbers l and m. r ˆ Operating with Hang we get ¶ µ 2 ˆ rad + l(l + 1)~ R(r)Ylm (θ. φ) ˆ HR(r)Ylm (θ. (6. The spherical harmonics are known functions. 2me (6. θ.10) (6. ˆ It also turns out that the energy associated with Hang is found to be E = El = So. φ) = Eψ(r. φ). The full Schrödinger equation becomes ˆ Hψ(r. φ) = ER(r)Ylm (θ. (Mathematica knows them and you can use them just like any other built-in function like sine or cosine.13) 48 . φ) = 2me Now let’s denote the radial part of the wavefunction as ψ rad (r) = R(r).11) l(l + 1)~2 . φ) = ER(r)Ylm (θ.12) (6. l(l + 1)~2 ˆ ψang (θ.

i. the energy levels are given by En = − Z 2R n2 (6.18) 6. (6. φ) can now be cancelled to leave a one dimensional diﬀerential equation: µ ¶ Ze2 l(l + 1) −~2 1 ∂ 2 ∂ r − − R(r) = ER(r).2. the solutions to our diﬀerential equation are closely related to the Laguerre polynomials. 49 . So. depends on the n and l quantum numbers as sµ ¶3 2Z (n − l − 1)! Anl = − (6. φ) (6.The Ylm (θ. φ) = Rnl (r)Ylm (θ. the total wavefunction that describes a hydrogenic system (ignoring the spin of the electron. θ.e. n In fact. Anl . µ ¶l µ ¶ 2σ 2σ −σ/n 2l+1 Rnl (σ) = Anl . which will be brieﬂy discussed later) is ψ nlm (r. (6. Discussion of the Wavefunctions We are now very close to having the atomic orbitals familiar from freshman chemistry..16) na0 2n[(n + l)!]3 The energy eigenvalues.15) e Ln+1 n n where the normalization constant.17) Note: The energy levels are determined by n alone–l drops out. Also Note: the energy levels are the same as for the Bohr model.14) 2me r2 ∂r ∂r 4π 0 r r2 This diﬀerential equation is very similar to a known equation called Laguerre’s diﬀerential equation which has as solutions the Laguerre polynomials Ll (x).

50 . The atomic orbital you are used to from freshman chemistry are the “chemists” picture of atomic orbitals In the above table ψ1s . ψ 3d0 are pure real and so these are the same in the “chemists” picture as in the “physicists” picture. The wavefunctions that chemists like are pure real. So one needs to form linear combinations of these orbitals such that these combinations are pure real. ψ 2p0 . ψ 2s .We have explicitly derived the “physicists” picture of the atomic orbitals orbital n l 1s 2s 2p 3d 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 0 0 1 1 2 2 2 m 0 0 0 ±1 0 ±1 ±2 wavefunctions (σ = r/a0 ) ψ1s = ψ100 = e−σ ¡ ¢ ψ2s = ψ200 = 1 − σ e−σ/2 2 ψ2p0 = ψ210 = σe−σ/2 cos θ ψ2p±1 = ψ21±1 = σe−σ/2 sin θe±iφ ψ3d0 = ψ320 = σ2 e−σ/3 (3 cos2 θ − 1) ψ3d±1 = ψ32±1 = R32 (r) cos θ sin θe±iφ ψ3d±2 = ψ32±2 = R32 (r) sin2 θe±i2φ The wavefunctions in the “physicists” picture are complex (they have real and imaginary components). The table below lists the atomic orbitals in the “chemists” picture as linear combinations of the “physicists” picture wave functions.

51 . Spin of the electron ψ3dz2 = ψ3d0 £ ¤ 1 2 ±1 ψ3dxz = √2 ψ3d1 + ψ3d−1 £ ¤ 1 2 ±1 ψ3dyz = i√2 ψ3d1 − ψ3d−1 £ ¤ 1 2 ±2 ψ3dxy = √2 ψ3d2 + ψ3d−2 £ ¤ 1 ψ3dx2 −y2 = i√2 ψ3d2 − ψ3d−2 2 0 ψ1s = ψ1s ψ2s = ψ2s ψpz = ψ2p0 £ ¤ 1 ψ2px = √2 ψ2p1 + ψ2p−1 £ ¤ 1 1 ±1 ψ2py = i√2 ψ2p1 − ψ2p−1 As we know from freshman chemistry. so we can not write down an explicit function of the coordinate space variables.3.orbital n l 1s 2s 2p 1 2 2 2 2 3d 3 3 3 3 0 0 1 1 m 0 0 0 ±1 wavefunctions (σ = r/a0 ) 6. For now we must be satisﬁed with the following: • There are two quantum numbers associated with spin: s and ms • s is the spin quantum number and for an electron s = 1/2 (always). The spin wavefunction is a function in spin space not the usual coordinate space. Spin is actually rather peculiar so we will put oﬀ a more detailed discussion until next semester. electrons also posses an intrinsic quantity called spin. • ms is the spin orientation quantum number and ms = ±1/2 for electrons.

We simply denote the spin wavefunction generally as χs. n: determines the total energy of the systems and the atomic shells.ms = ψn. (6. 1 (the “spin-up” state) and β ≡ χ 1 .l. . can take on values of 1.3.− 1 (the “spin-down” state) 2 2 2 2 6. When a particular spin state is needed a further notation is commonly used: α ≡ χ 1 . It also determines the atomic sub-shells (6.4.m (θ. n.m. En = − The quantum numbers of the hydrogenic system • The principle quantum number.20) n2 where recall. • The angular momentum quantum numbers. — The principle quantum number.m χs.l. l: determines the total angular momentum of the system. Again note that for a free hydrogenic system the total energy depends only on the principle quantum number n.19) 52 .ms and “tack it on” as another factor of the complete wavefunction. .ms = Rnl (r)Yl.s. Summary: the Complete Hydrogenic Wavefunction We are now in position to fully describe all properties of hydrogenic systems (except for relativistic eﬀects) The full wave function is Ψn. φ)χ The energy is given by Z 2R .2.

His theory also made the 53 . 1. • The spin quantum number. The Schrödinger theory is a non-relativistic one. We also had to add spin in an ad hoc manner to account for what we know experimentally–spin did not fall out of the theory naturally. • The orientation quantum number. m. l. . . can take on values of 0. s: determines the total spin angular momentum. l = 2 is called d. developed a relativistic quantum theory in which the well established phenomenon of spin arose naturally. can take on values of 0. ±1. spin-up or spin-down). . in the late 1920’s. ± l. . it can not account for relativistic eﬀects which show up in spectral data. .— The angular momentum quantum number. • The spin orientation quantum number.e. . — For electrons s = 1/2. that is. It also determines the orientation of the atomic sub-shells — The magnetic quantum number. Dirac. This is not the full story however.. (n − 1) — For historical reasons l = 0 is called s. l = 3 is called f etc. ms : determines the projection of the spin angular momentum onto the z-axis (i. — For electrons ms = ±1/2 We have accomplished quite a bit. m: determine the projection of the angular momentum onto the z-axis. l = 1 is called p. We have determined all that we can about the hydrogen atom within Schrödinger’s theory of quantum mechanics.

bold prediction of the existence anti-matter that has now been veriﬁed time and again. because there still existed experimental phenomena that was not properly described. QED is the best theory ever developed in terms of matching with experimental data. so we limit ourselves to the non-relativistic Schrödinger theory. 54 . Both the relativistic Dirac theory and QED are beyond our reach. In 1948 Richard Feynman developed the beginnings of quantum electrodynamics (QED). The Dirac theory was still not fully complete.

The helium atom is an example of the “three-body-problem”–diﬃcult to handle even in classical mechanics–one can not get a closed form solution.1) K. helium.E of electron 1 K. Multi-electron atoms 7. repulsion where r12 = |r1 − r2 | is the distance between the electrons.E of electron 1 P.E of eletcron 2 elec.E of electron 2 P. The electron—electron repulsion term is responsible for the diﬃculty of the problem. it is so complicated that it can’t be solved exactly. It makes a closed form solution impossible. Although the extension from hydrogen to helium seems simple it is actually extremely complicated.—elec. for example. Two Electron Atoms: Helium We now consider a system consisting of two electrons and a nucleus. The Hamiltonian for helium is ~2 2 ˆ H= − ∇ 2me 1 | {z } ~2 2 − ∇ 2me 2 | {z } Ze2 − 4π r | {z 0 1 } Ze2 − + 4π 0 r2 | {z } e2 4π 0 r | {z 12 } . (7. The problem must be solved by one of the following methods • Numerical solutions (we will not discuss this) 55 55 . In fact.7.1.

electrons) must be antisymmetric under the exchange of indistinguishable fermions.g. The Pauli Exclusion Principle Electron are fundamentally indistinguishable. 1). only |ψ|2 is directly measurable–not ψ itself. 2) = or ⎪ ⎩ −ψ(2.2) antisymmetric The Pauli exclusion principle states: The total wavefunctions for fermions (e.2.g.. helium 56 . 1 and 2 must be exactly the same as when the electrons are labelled 2 and 1. Now. They can not truly be labelled.• Perturbation theory (next semester) • Variational theory (next semester) • Ignore the electron—electron repulsion (good for qualitative work only) 7. Note: a similar statement exists for bosons (e.. 1) symmetric (7. photons): The total wavefunction for bosons must be symmetric under exchange of indistinguishable bosons. Let us consider the two electron atom. ⎨ ψ(1. All this implies that ⎧ ⎪ +ψ(2. say. All physical properties of a system where we have labelled the electrons as.

However considering the symmetry with respect to exchange we see the following • Ψa has symmetric spatial and spin parts and is there for symmetric.3) Since a complete solution for helium is not possible we must use approximate wavefunctions. Likewise if the spatial part is odd then the spin part must be even. Ψ = ψ(1)ψ(2)χ(1)χ(2). The Pauli exclusion principle implies that if the spatial part is even with respect to exchange then the spin part must be odd. 2) (7. Since we are doing this.The total wavefunction is Ψ = ψ(1.4) where the single particle wavefunctions are that of the hydrogenic system.5) 57 . • Similarly for Ψd . 2)χ(1. but the spin part is neither symmetric or antisymmetric. (7. • Ψb and Ψc have symmetric spatial parts. | {z }| {z } spatial part spin part (7. It must be excluded. one must make an antisymmetric linear combination of the spin parts. we may as well simplify matters and use product state wavefunctions (products of the hydrogenic wavefunctions). So. Now let’s blindly list all possibilities for the ground state wave function of helium Ψa = ψ1s (1)α(1)ψ1s (2)α(2) Ψb = ψ1s (1)α(1)ψ1s (2)β(2) Ψc = ψ1s (1)β(1)ψ1s (2)α(2) Ψd = ψ1s (1)β(1)ψ1s (2)β(2) These appear to be four reasonable ground state wavefunctions which would imply a four-fold degeneracy.

.8) . .7) (7. . . . The product wavefunction for the ground state is determined by applying the aufbau principle. .6) 7. . . Many Electron Atoms The remaining atoms on the periodic table are handled in a manner similar to helium. . . . Namely the wavefunction is product state that must be antisymmeterized in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle. The aufbau principle states that the ground state wavefunction is built-up of hydrogenic wavefunctions To arrive at an antisymmetric wavefunction we construct the Slater determinant: ¯ ¯ ¯ ψ (1)α(1) ψ1s (1)β(1) · · · ψn (1)α(1) ψn (1)β(1) ¯ ¯ 1s ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ψ1s (2)α(2) ψ1s (2)β(2) · · · ψn (2)α(2) ψn (2)β(2) ¯ ¯ Ψ=¯ (7. . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ψ (N)α(N) ψ (N)β(N) ψn (N )α(N) ψn (N)β(N) ¯ 1s 1s 58 . ¯ ¯ . Consequences of the Pauli exclusion principle • No two electrons can have the same ﬁve quantum numbers • Electrons occupying that same subshell must have opposite spins (7.The appropriate linear combination is α(1)β(2) − α(2)β(1). .3. So the ground state wave function for helium is Ψg = ψ1s (1)ψ1s (2) [α(1)β(2) − α(2)β(1)] .

11) H= 2me i 4π 0 ri j>i 4π 0 rij i=1 59 . ψ1s β.3. • We construct the Slater determinant as ¯ ¯ ¯ ψ (1)α(1) ψ (1)β(1) ψ (1)α(1) ¯ 1s 1s 2s ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ψ1 = ¯ ψ1s (2)α(2) ψ1s (2)β(2) ψ2s (2)α(2) ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ψ (3)α(3) ψ (3)β(3) ψ (3)α(3) ¯ 1s 1s 2s or ¯ ¯ ¯ ψ (1)α(1) ψ (1)β(1) ψ (1)β(1) ¯ 1s 2s ¯ ¯ 1s ¯ ¯ Ψ2 = ¯ ψ1s (2)α(2) ψ1s (2)β(2) ψ2s (2)β(2) ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ψ (3)α(3) ψ (3)β(3) ψ (3)β(3) ¯ 1s 1s 2s (7.10) • The short hand notation for these states is (1s)2 (2s)1 7.9) (7. As an example consider lithium: • There are three electrons so we need three hydrogenic wavefunctions: ψ1s α. and ψ2s α (or ψ 2s β). It is also antisymmetric under exchange of columns. Another property of the determinant is that if two rows are the same (corresponds to two electrons in the same state) the determinant is zero.1.The reason one can be sure that this wavefunction is the antisymmeterized is that we know from linear algebra that the determinant is antisymmetric under exchange of rows (corresponds to exchanging two electrons). The Total Hamiltonian The total Hamiltonian for a many electron (ignoring spin-orbit coupling which will be discussed next semester) atom is " # N X −~2 X e2 Ze2 ˆ ∇2 − + (7. This agrees with the Puli exclusion principle.

we are able to begin the discussion of molecules. R determines the internuclear separation and θ and φ determine the orientation. This chapter will be limited to diatomic molecules. Diatomic Molecules and the Born Oppenheimer Approximation Now that we have applied quantum mechanics to atoms.1. 3n of these describe the position of the n electrons. θ.8. 8. This leaves three degrees of freedom (R. Molecular Energy A diatomic molecule with n electrons requires that 3n+6 coordinates be speciﬁed. Three of these describe the center of mass position. φ) which describe the position of the nuclei relative to the center of mass. 60 60 .

e2 4π 0 rji is the electron—electron potential energy operator. ˆ VNN = ZA ZBe e2 4π 0 R is is the nuclear—nuclear potential energy operator.8. The Hamiltonian In the center of mass coordinates the Hamiltonian for a diatomic molecule is ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ H = TN + Te + VN N + VNe + Vee . P ~2 ˆ 2 ˆ Te = i − 2me ∇ei is the kinetic energy operator for the electrons. 61 .2) m1 m2 m1 +m2 ˆ where J is angular momentum operator for molecular rotation and μ = the reduced mass of the diatomic molecule. + ZB e2 4π 0 rBi P ˆ VNe = − i P ˆ Vee = i>j h ZA e2 4π 0 rAi i is the nuclear—electron potential energy operator.1. R T 2μ 2μR2 ∂R ∂R 2μ (8. ˆ TN is the nuclear kinetic energy operator and is given by 2 2 ~2 ˆ2 ∂ ˆ2 ∂ ˆN ˆN = − ~ ∇2 = − ~ + J .1.1) (8.

8.1.2. The Born—Oppenheimer Approximation The Born—Oppenheimer approximation: The nuclei move much slower than the electrons. (classical picture) We put the Born—Oppenheimer approximation to work by ﬁrst deﬁning an eﬀective Hamiltonian ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Hef f = Te + VN N + VNe + Vee . (8.3) The approximation comes in by treating R as a parameter rather than an operator (or variable). So one writes ˆ Hef f ψe (R, {ri }) = Ee (R)ψ e (R, {ri }). ψe is the so-called electronic wavefunction. Now the Schrödinger equation for the diatomic molecule is ³ ´ ˆ ˆ TN + Hef f ψ(R, {ri }) = Eψ(R, {ri }). (8.4)

(8.5)

Since the Hamiltonian is a sum of two terms, one can write the wavefunction ψ(R, {ri }) as a product wavefunction ψ = ψN ψe , (8.6)

where ψN is the so-called nuclear wavefunction. Substituting the product wavefunction into the Schrödinger equation gives ³ ´ ˆ ˆ (8.7) TN + Hef f ψN ψe = EψN ψe ³ ´ ˆ / / TN + Ee (R) ψ N ψe = EψN ψe ³ ´ ˆ TN + Ee (R) ψ N = EψN .

62

The last equation is exactly like a Schrödinger equation with a potential equal to Ee (R). One now models Ee (R) or determines it experimentally.

8.2. Molecular Vibrations

As stated earlier R is the internuclear separation and θ and φ determine the orientation. Consequently, R is the variable involved with vibration whereas θ and φ are involved with rotation. Considering only the R part of the Hamiltonian (under the Born—Oppenheimer approximation), we have ∙ 2 2 ¸ ~ ∂ − + Ee (R) ψvib = Evib ψvib . (8.8) 2μ ∂R2 It is convenient at this point to expand Ee (R) in a Taylor series about the equilibrium position, Req : ¶ µ ¶ µ ∂E 1 ∂2E 0 (R − Req ) + (R − Req )2 + · · · . (8.9) Ee (R) = E + 2 ∂R Req 2! ∂R Req Now E 0 is just a constant which, by choice of the zero of energy, can be set to an arbitrary value. Since we are at a minimum, One deﬁnes ³

∂2E ∂R2

´

¡ ∂E ¢

∂R Req

must be zero, so the linear term vanishes.

Req

≡ ke as the force constant.

The remaining terms in the expansion can collective be deﬁned as O[(R−Req )3 ] ≡ Vanh , the anharmonic potential.

63

As a ﬁrst approximation we can neglect the anharmonicity. With this, the Schrödinger equation becomes ∙ 2 2 ¸ ~ ∂ 1 2 − + ke (R − Req ) ψvib = Evib ψvib . (8.10) 2μ ∂R2 2 If we let x = (R − Req ) this becomes ¸ ∙ 2 2 1 ~ ∂ 2 + ke x ψvib = Evib ψvib , − 2μ ∂x2 2 which is exactly the harmonic oscillator equation. Hence √ 2 ψ vib,n = An Hn ( αx)e−αx /2 , where α ≡ And q q

ke μ . ~

(8.11)

(8.12)

1 Evib,n = hc˜ e (n + ), ω 2

ke . μ

(8.13)

where ω e ≡ ˜

1 2π

8.2.1. The Morse Oscillator Neglecting anharmonicity and using the harmonic oscillator approximation works well for low energies. However, it is a poor model for high energies. For high energies we need a more realistic potential–one that will allow of bond dissociation. The Morse potential Ee (R) = De [1 − e−β(R−Re q ) ]2 , (8.14)

64

μ where De is the well depth and β = 2πc˜ e 2De is the Morse parameter. Note: ω this expression for the Morse potential has the zero of energy at the bottom of the well (i.e. R = Req , ;Ee (Req ) = 0).

q

The Morse Potential can also be written as Ee (R) = De [e−2β(R−Req ) − 2e−β(R−Re q ) ]. (8.15)

Now the zero of energy is the dissociated state (i.e. R → ∞, ;Ee (R → ∞) = 0). We approach this quantum mechanical problem exactly like all the other. The Schrödinger equation is ¸ ∙ 2 2 ~ ∂ −β(R−Req ) 2 + De [1 − e ] ψvib = Evib ψvib − 2μ ∂R2

(8.16)

This is another diﬀerential equation that is diﬃcult to solve.

As it turns out, this Schrödinger equation can be transformed into a one of a broad class of known diﬀerential equations called conﬂuent hypergeometric equations– the solutions of which are the conﬂuent hypergeometric functions, 1 F1 . Doing this yields the wavefunctions of the form ψvib,n (z) = z Apn e−z 1 F1 (−n, 1 + 2Apn , 2z), √ 2De μ −βx e , z = βh √ 2μ , A = βh p −1 − n pn = De + 2 A and energy levels of the form 1 1 Evib,n = −De + hc˜ e (n + ) − hc˜ e xe (n + )2 , ω ω 2 2 (8.17)

(8.18)

65

where ω e xe together is the anharmonicity constant, with xe = ˜ ∗ ∗ ∗ See Handout ∗ ∗∗ 8.2.2. Vibrational Spectroscopy

hc˜ e ω . 4De

Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy are the two most widely used techniques to probe vibrational levels. The spectral peaks appear at v = ˜

4E hc

(in units of wavenumbers, cm−1 ).

The transition from the n = 0 to the n = 1 state is called the fundamental transition. Transitions from n = 0 to n = 2, 3, 4 · · · are called overtone transitions. Transitions from n = 1 to 2, 3, 4 · · · , n = 2 to 3, 4, 5 · · · , etc. are called hot transitions (or hot bands) Since the energy levels depend on mass, isotopes will have a diﬀerent transition energy and hence appear in a diﬀerent place in the spectrum. Heavier isotopes have lower transition energies.

66

**9. Molecular Orbital Theory and Symmetry
**

9.1. Molecular Orbital Theory

One of the most important concepts in all of chemistry is the chemical bond. In freshman chemistry we learn of one model for chemical bonding–VSEPR (valence shell electron-pair repulsion) theory, where hybridized atomic orbitals determine the bonding geometry of a given molecule. We are now prepared to discuss a bonding theory that is more rigorously based in quantum mechanics. Basically we will treat the molecules in the same way as all our other quantum mechanical problems (e.g., particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, etc.) As you might expect, it is not possible to obtain the exact wavefunctions and energy levels so, we must settle for approximate solutions. As a ﬁrst example, let us consider the molecular hydrogen ion H+ . 2 The Hamiltonianfor H+ is 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ H = TN + Tel + VNel + VNN 67

67

(9.1)

We use the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and treat the nuclear coordinates as a parameters rather than as variables. So we only worry about parts of the Hamiltonian that deal with the electron. The eﬀective Hamiltonian becomes ˆ ˆ ˆ H = Tel + VNel e2 e2 −~2 2 ∇ − − . = 2me 4π 0 rA 4π 0 rB The eigenfunctions of this Hamiltonian are called molecular orbitals. The molecular orbitals are the analogues of the atomic orbitals. • Atomic orbitals: Hydrogen is the prototype and all other atomic orbitals are built from the hydrogen atomic orbitals. • Molecular orbitals: The hydrogen molecular ion is the prototype and all other molecular orbitals are built from the hydrogen molecular ion molecular orbitals. (9.2)

There is one signiﬁcant diﬀerence between the above, which is the hydrogen atomic orbitals are exact whereas the hydrogen molecular ion molecular orbitals are not exact. In fact, we shall see that these molecular orbitals are constructed as linear combinations of atomic orbitals.

9.2. Symmetry

Let the atoms of the hydrogen molecular ion lie on the z-axis of the center of mass coordinate system.

68

• If a = +1 the molecular wavefunction is even with respect to inversion and is called gerade and labelled with a “g”: ˆψ g = ψg ı • If a = −1 the molecular wavefunction is odd with respect to inversion and is called ungerade and labelled with a “u”: ˆψ u = −ψu ı • The terms gerade and ungerade apply only to systems that posses inversion symmetry. y. ı • Moreover the eigenvalue a can be either +1 or −1. −y. z). y. ˆ. −z). −y. y.Inversion symmetry • The potential ﬁeld of the hydrogen molecular ion is cylindrically symmetric about the z-axis. −z) = aψ(x. That is ı ˆψ(x. z) = ψ(−x. z) must equal the electron density at (−x. • Because of the symmetry the electron density at (x.3) Cylindrical symmetry 69 . (9. • The above symmetry therefore requires that the molecular orbitals be eigenfunctions of the inversion operator.

. — We use λ to label the molecular orbitals as shown in the table λ 0 label σ ±1 ±2 · · · π δ ··· Mirror plane symmetry 70 . . . • The molecular wavefunction is described by an eigenvalue λ = 0. ±2.• The cylindrical symmetry implies that the potential energy can not depend on the φ. ±1.

• There is also a symmetry about the x-y plane called horizontal mirror plane symmetry: operator σ h . but we will put that discussion oﬀ for the time being. — If the eigenvalue is −1 (odd with respect to σ h ) the molecular orbital ˆ is called an antibonding orbital. — If the eigenvalue is +1 (even with respect to σ h ) the molecular orbital ˆ is called a bonding orbital. ˆ • Thus the molecular wavefunction must be an eigenfunction of σ h with eigenˆ value ±1. • There are also vertical mirror plane symmetries. 71 .

Let us again consider the hydrogen molecular ion H+ : let one H atom be labelled 2 A and the other labelled B.1.1) and (1sB ) = ke−rB /a0 (10. Molecular Orbital Diagrams 10. We will discuss the approximation which models the molecular orbitals as linear combinations of atomic orbitals (LCAO). LCAO–Linear Combinations of Atomic Orbitals Now that we know what symmetry the molecular orbitals must posses. Unfortunately we can’t have both. LCAO is qualitatively very useful but it lacks quantitative precision. Useful can mean qualitatively useful or quantitatively useful. we need to ﬁnd some useful approximations for them.10. Linear combination of the 1s atomic orbital from each H atom is used for the molecular orbital of H+ : 2 (1sA ) = ke−rA /a0 (10.2) 72 72 .

For molecular orbitals we shall also classify them according to angular momentum.5) As can be seen from the above ﬁgure. Conversely Φ− represents a situation in which the electron density is very low between the nuclei and thus represents an antibonding orbital 10.4) (10.We construct two molecular orbitals as Φ+ = C+ (1sA + 1sB ) and Φ− = C− (1sA − 1sB ) The normalization condition is Z Φ± Φ± dΩ = 1 (10.1. But we shall also classify them according to their inversion symmetry and wether or not they are bonding or antibonding.3) (10. Classiﬁcation of Molecular Orbitals With atoms we classiﬁed atomic orbitals according to angular momentum. Φ+ represents a situation in which the electron density is concentrated between the nuclei and thus represents a bonding orbital. 73 .1.

pz ⇒ σ. The ground state of the system would consist of two separate hydrogen molecules in their ground atomic states: (1s)1 74 .g. e. The Hydrogen Molecule Let us now consider the hydrogen molecule.g. If the two atoms are inﬁnitely far apart. σ g or σ u etc. This molecules is a homonuclear diatomic with two electrons. σ g is a bonding orbital and σ ∗ is an antibonding u orbital. 10. The classiﬁcation according to bonding or antibonding is an asterisk is used to denote antibonding. s ⇒ σ. For example. For example. Those with m = ±1 form π type molecular orbitals. px ⇒ π etc. λ 0 orbital symbol σ ±1 ±2 · · · π δ ··· Atomic orbitals with m = 0 form σ type molecular orbitals.2.. The classiﬁcation according to inversion symmetry is simply a subscript “g” or “u”..The classiﬁcation according to angular momentum is as follows. e.

u (10.6) 75 . These are σg = 1sA + 1sB and σ ∗ = 1sA − 1sB .7) (10. so one forms linear combinations of the atomic orbitals. their respective s orbitals begin to overlap. There are two acceptable linear combinations. It is now more appropriate to speak in terms of molecular orbitals.As the atom are brought closer together.

10. 76 . We will focus on the second row homonuclear diatomics and some simple heteronuclear diatomics.It can be shown mathematically that the energy level associated with σg is lower than σ∗ . It is also to be expected since we know H2 is a stable molecule.3. The molecular orbital diagram for H2 is shown below Molecular orbital diagrams can be drawn for any molecule. Molecular Orbital Diagrams The energy levels associated with the molecular orbitals are drawn schematically is what is called a molecular orbital diagram. u We can intuit this qualitatively however since the σ ∗ orbital must have a node u whereas the σ g does not. Some get very complicated.

The molecular orbital diagrams for the second row homonuclear diatomics are rather simple. The supplement that follows this section contains some examples of heteronuclear diatomics. 77 . This disparity is not present for homonuclear diatomics. Heteronuclear diatomics are some what more complicated since there is a disparity in the energy levels of the atomic orbitals for the separated atoms. Bond order • One important property that can be predicted from the molecular orbital diagrams is bond order. For example a high lying 1s orbital may combine with a low lying 2s orbital to form a σ molecular orbital.8) • Examples follow in the supplement. ∗ ∗ ∗ See Supplement ∗ ∗∗ The supplement that follows this section contains examples for each of the second row diatomics. A consequence of this energy level disparity is that molecular orbitals may be formed from nonidentical atomic orbitals. • Bond order is deﬁned as BO = 1 (# of bonding electrons − # of antibonding electrons) 2 (10.

Next semester we will discuss molecular rotations and just like for vibrations and electronic transitions they are governed by the rotational Hamiltonian and described by the rotational wavefunction.4. (Next semester will we look at the details of this for polyatomic molecules) ˆ Hmol Ψmol = Emol Ψmol (10. Likewise we have discussed molecular orbitals which are the electronic wavefunctions.9) ´ ³ ˆ ˆ ˆ Hele + Hvib + Hrot ψele ψvib ψrot = (Eele + Evib + Erot ) ψele ψvib ψrot 78 . We can succinctly express the Schrödinger equation for a molecule as follows.10. The Complete Molecular Hamiltonian and Wavefunction We have discussed molecular vibrations which under the Born-Oppenheimer approximation are governed by the vibrational Hamiltonian and described by the vibrational wavefunction.

we have to take several key results from that theory on faith. 11. (11. When the light interacts with the molecule an electric dipole is induced according to μ = αE. An Aside: Light Scattering–Why the Sky is Blue This chapter addresses the topic of light scattering from two diﬀerent perspectives.11. The Classical Electrodynamics Treatment of Light Scattering As usual we work under the electric dipole approximation and only focus on the interaction of the electric ﬁeld part of light with a dipole.1) where α is the polarizability of the molecule describing the “ﬂexibility” of its electron cloud. 79 79 .1. • Classical electrodynamics • Classical statistical mechanics Since this is not a course on electrodynamics.

(11. Thus the light—matter interaction is described as μ(t) = α(t)E(t) = (α0 + α1 cos ω v t) E0 cos ωt = α0 E0 cos ωt + α1 E0 cos ω v t cos ωt ⎡ ⎤ α1 E0 ⎣ cos(ω − ω v )t + cos(ω + ω v )t ⎦ = α0 E0 cos ωt + | {z } {z } | {z } | 2 Rayleigh Stokes Raman AntiStokes Raman (11. That is. ω − ωv and ω + ω v as part of three terms in the above expression. there is a vibrational (and rotational) contribution to the polarizability: α(t) = α0 + α1 cos ωv t (here for simplicity we assume only one vibrational mode). In this case we see the dipole oscillates at three distinct frequencies: ω.2) The polarizability also depends on the positions of nuclei to some degree. 80 . the electric ﬁeld part is E(t) = E0 cos ωt. The ﬁrst term corresponds to Rayleigh scattering where the scattered light is at the same frequency as the incident light. The second term corresponds to Stokes Raman scattering where the scattered light is shifted to the red of the incident frequency.3) (11. According to classical electrodynamics an oscillating dipole emits an electromagnetic ﬁeld at the oscillation frequency.For light.4) where a trig identity was used in the last step.

2. 11. The important point to note is that I ∝ ω 4 or alternatively I ∝ 1/λ4 . The Blue Sky The spectrum of visible light from the sun incident on the outer atmosphere is essentially ﬂat as shown below. It can be shown that the emitted intensity is I= ω4 2 μ. the reason why the sky is blue (from the point of view of classical electrodynamics) and is called the Rayleigh scattering law. 81 . This quartic scattering dependence is. Classical electrodynamics can describe exactly how the oscillating electric dipole emits electromagnetic radiation.The third term corresponds to anti-Stokes Raman scattering where the scattered light is shifted to the blue of the incident frequency.5) where μ0 = α0 E0 for the case of Rayleigh scattering and μ0 = α1 E0 /2 for the case of Raman scattering. 3c3 0 (11. To explicitly derive this expression we would need a fair bit of electrodynamics and so the derivation is not shown here. in fact. There is a very strong dependence on frequency (or wavelength).

We just learned that light scatters as it traverses the atmosphere according to Rayleigh’s scattering law: I(λ) ∝ 1/λ4 . but red sunsets occur for the same reason– Rayleigh scattering. Sunsets We have focused on a blue sky.1. 82 .2. The following ﬁgures illustrate why Rayleigh scattering implies that the sky is blue. 11.

11.2. This more pronounced at dawn or dusk since the light must traverse more of the atmosphere at those times then at noonday at which time the sun appears yellow in color.2. White Clouds We might expect that clouds should be highly colored since they consist of droplets of water which scatter light very eﬀectively.If we look directly at the sun during a sunset (or sunrise) it appears red because most of the blue light has scattered in other directions. 83 .

In some contexts.The key diﬀerence between light scattering by clouds versus by the atmosphere is the size of the scatterer. In this limit an entirely diﬀerent analysis is made–one does not have Rayleigh scattering but instead has a process called Mie scattering. The water droplets are much larger than the wavelenght of the light–quite the opposite case as above. Mie scattering is referred to as Tyndall scattering 84 . particularly in liquid suspensions.

Rnl (σ) = Anl (11. (11. θ. The equations listed here are out of context and it would help you very little to memorize this section without understanding the context of these equations. Equations • The wavefunctions for the hydrogenic system are ψnlm (r. Anl . φ) = Rnl (r)Ylm (θ.6) µ 2σ n ¶l e −σ/n 2l+1 Ln+1 µ 2σ n ¶ . This section should not substitute for your studying of the rest of this material. The equations are collected here simply for handy reference for you while working the problem sets.7) where the normalization constant.8) na0 2n[(n + l)!]3 85 85 . depends on the n and l quantum numbers as sµ ¶3 2Z (n − l − 1)! Anl = − (11. φ) • The radial part is.Key Equations for Exam 2 Listed here are some of the key equations for Exam 2.

2 n n! π ~ 2 (11. . .11) Ee (R) = De [1 − e−β(R−Re q ) ]2 . with xe = ˜ hc˜ e ω . (11. R = Req .9) • The wavefunctions for the harmonic oscillator are ¶1 µ 2 km 4 1 − y2 ψ n (y) = An Hn (y)e . An = p √ .14) 86 .13) Now the zero of energy is the dissociated state (i.Ee (Req ) = 0).e. • The energy levels are 1 En = (n + )~ω. ω = 2 • The Morse potential is r k m (11. 2 2 where ω e xe together is the anharmonicity constant.10) where An is the normalization constant for the nth eigenfunction and Hn (y) are the Hermite polynomials.• The energy levels for the hydrogenic system are given by En = − Z 2R n2 (11. • The Morse Potential can also be written as Ee (R) = De [e−2β(R−Req ) − 2e−β(R−Req ) ]. y = x. 4De (11. ω Note: this expression for the Morse potential has the zero of energy at the bottom of the well (i. (11. • The energy levels for the Morse oscillator are of the form 1 1 ω ω Evib.12) q μ where De is the well depth and β = 2πc˜ e 2De is the Morse parameter.Ee (R → ∞) = 0).e. R → ∞.n = −De + hc˜ e (n + ) − hc˜ e xe (n + )2 .

16) 87 .15) • The Rayleigh scattering law is I(λ) ∝ 1/λ4 ∝ ω 4 (11.• Bond order is deﬁned as BO = 1 (# of bonding electrons − # of antibonding electrons) 2 (11.

Part III Statistical Mechanics and The Laws of Thermodynamics 88 88 .

at least 100 million molecules. We will need some deﬁnitions • Ensemble: A large collection of equivalent macroscopic systems. However.1. to write down and solve the Schrödinger equation for those 100 million molecules. 89 89 . Rudiments of Statistical Mechanics When we study simple systems like a single molecule. most of the time in the real world we are dealing with macroscopic systems. It is simply impossible. even with the fastest computers. but often Avogadro’s number of molecules. So we need a less detailed theory called statistical mechanics. Statistics and Entropy Probability and statistics is at the heart of statistical mechanics.12. quantum mechanics. The systems are the same except that each one is in a diﬀerent so-called microstate. 12. which allows one to handle macroscopic sized systems without losing to much of the rigor. we use a very detailed theory. say.

12.2) (12. p!(N − p)! (12. (12. p) = N! . The Boltzmann equation is S = k ln W Where S is entropy and k is Boltzmann’s constant.1) The number C(N. • Conﬁguration: The collection of all equivalent microstates.3) 90 .• Microstate: The single particular state of one member of the ensemble given by listing the individual states of each of the microscopic systems in the macroscopic state. p)xp .1.1.. ﬂipping coins). Boltzmann developed an equation to connect the microscopic properties of an ensemble to the macroscopic properties. outcome 1 after N measurements.g. say. One valuable piece of statistical information about system is knowing how many diﬀerent ways the system appears p times in. Combinations and Permutations Consider a random system that when measured can appear in one of two outcomes (e. The number of possible conﬁgurations is deﬁned as W. p) is also called the binomial coeﬃcient because it gives the coeﬃcient for the pth order term in the expansion (1 + x) = N N X p=0 C(N. This is given by the mathematical formula for combinations C(N.

So rather than a particular combination.This formula will allow us to derive a normalization constant so that we can obtain the probability of obtaining p measurements of state 1. {Ni }) = N! N1 !N2 !N3 ! · · · (12. Sometimes the order is important. p) = 1 1 N! C(N. Set x = 1 in the above. ∗ ∗ ∗ See Examples on Handout ∗ ∗∗ For both combinations and permutations we need to evaluated factorials. This is given by W (N.5) For combinations we did not care what order the results of the measurements occurred. So the probability of any one outcome of N measurements is P (N. we are interested in a particular permutation. p). This gives (1 + 1) N = N X p=0 N X p=0 C(N. p) = N N 2 2 p!(N − p)! (12. 91 .4) 2N = C(N. p)(1)p (12.6) where N is the total number of measurements and Ni is the number of indistinguishable results of type i.

Macroscopic equilibrium is a dynamic rather than static equilibrium. O σ O is consider the range of the observable property. It can be shown that (12.9) 1 √ N = 10−12 92 .7) 12. Fluctuations When we list the macroscopic properties of a material such as a beaker of benzene or the air of the atmosphere. we speak of the average value of the property. • Sterling’s approximation is ln(N!) ' N ln N − N (12. ¯ O N where N is the number of particles. Sterlings Approximation: • In place of evaluating factorials of large number one can use Sterling’s approximation to approximate the value of the factorial. The ﬂuctuation about an average value for any observable property O is described by the variance which is deﬁned as ¯ σ 2 ≡ O2 − O2 . but sometimes it is important. So for example if N = 1024 then (12.This is no problem for small numbers. Consequently. Often this ﬂuctuation is not important.8) σO 1 ≈√ . the value of a certain property ﬂuctuates about the average value. but when we consider macroscopic systems (1020 or so molecules) no calculator can handle factorials of such large numbers.2.

93 .For ensembles having large numbers of particles measured values of a property are extremely sharply peaked about the average value.

94 94 .13.1) Ni (13. (13. N1 !N2 ! · · · (13. The total energy is given by E= where Ni is the number of particles in energy state i. Since the system is isolated the total energy.2) The number of conﬁgurations for the system is then given by the number of distinct permutations of the system W = N! .3) A system in equilibrium always tries to maximize entropy and minimize energy and so the equilibrium conﬁguration is a compromise between these two cases. N= X i X i Ni i . of course. and the total number of particles will be constant. The Boltzmann Distribution Consider a isolated system of N molecules that has the set { i } energy levels associated with it. The total number of particles is. E.

95 . That is all Ni = 1 or 0. These two situations are contradictory and some compromise must be obtained. This would be the situation in which every particle was in a diﬀerent energy state. This is done using the mathematical technique of Lagrange multipliers (page 951 of your calc book). We start by considering our original system–that being one with constant energy. We will not discuss this method in detail and consequently we cannot derive the equilibrium conﬁguration. E and number of particles N To determine the equilibrium conﬁguration we must ﬁnd the maximum W subject to the constraint of constant energy and constant number of particles. Minimizing energy would be the case where all the particles are in the ground state (say 1 ). Maximizing entropy corresponds to maximizing W (via S = k ln W ). (13.4) −β j j gj e | {z } pi where β ≡ 1 kT and gj denotes the degeneracy of states having energy j. The derivation using Lagrange multipliers arrives at the conﬁguration in which the gi e−β i Ni = N P .For the moment let us relax the isolation constraint.

5) j Since we started with a isolated system. This partition function is not very useful to us so we will not discuss it further. The analysis readily generalizes to variable energy i.1.e. nonisolated systems by considering T as a variable. 96 . A given energy E will correspond to a unique temperature T. This is the Boltzmann distribution gi e−β i Pi = P −β j gj e (13.. Partition Functions We have already come across both the partition functions that we will use in this class.6) and is called the canonical partition function. The ﬁrst is W –the number of conﬁgurations. This is called the microcanonical partition function. The second partition function is Q= X j gj e−βEj (13. β and hence T are constants. 13.The pi represents the probability of ﬁnding the a randomly chosen particle or system which has energy i .

There are other partition functions that are useful in diﬀerent situations but we will do nothing more than list two important ones here: i) the grand canonical partition function and ii) the isothermal—isobaric partition function 13. (Note: the symbol Z is also often used for the canonical partition function. In the following we give an argument which provides a relation between the partition functions.This was ﬁrst encountered as the denominator of the Boltzmann distribution and it is extremely important in statistical mechanics. Relation between the Q and W When we get to connecting quantum mechanics with thermodynamics it will prove convenient to use Boltzmann’s equation (S = k ln W ) but as was stated earlier it is not convenient to use the microcanonical partition function (W ). the partition function contains all that can be known about the ensemble. In fact we have already seen this in the S = k ln W.1. But this an inconvenient connection because.) The partition function is to statistical mechanics as the wavefunction is to quantum mechanics. energy levels and temperature do not explicitly appear. for among other reasons. We shall see in the next chapter that the partition function will provide a link between the microscopic (quantum mechanics or classical mechanics) and the macroscopic (thermodynamics). but it is a very good approximation for large numbers of particles. That is.1. It is not an exact relation as we derive it. 97 .

The microcanonical partition function describes a system at ﬁxed energy E. In fact W is the number of available states of the ensemble at the particular energy E. This is essentially the same as the degeneracy of the ensemble gE . Conversely the canonical partition function describes a system with variable energy. However, based on our previous discussion of ﬂuctuations, even though the energy of the ensemble is allowed to vary, the number of states with energy equal to the ¯ average energy E is overwhelmingly large. That is, almost every state available ¯ to the ensemble has energy E. We can express these ideas mathematically to come up with a relation between W and Q. The canonical partition function is Q= but to a good approximation Q ' gE e−β E . ¯

¯

X

j

gj e−β j ,

(13.7)

(13.8)

Now since the degeneracy is essentially the microcanonical partition function we have ¯ (13.9) Q ' W e−β E . So the canonical partition function is a Boltzmann weighted version of the microcanonical partition function. We will soon make use of the Boltmann’s equation in terms of the canonical

98

**partition function: ln Q ' ln(W e−β E ) = ln W + ln(e−β E ) ¯ E = ln W − | {z } kT .
**

S/k ¯ ¯

(13.10)

so,

S = k ln Q +

¯ E T

(13.11)

**13.2. The Molecular Partition Function
**

We ended the previous chapter by stating the total molecular energy (about the center of mass) as = ele + vib + rot . (13.12) This is a consequence of the Born Oppenheimer approximation If we include the center of mass translational motion this is = The ith total energy level is

i ele

+

vib

+

rot

+

trans

(13.13)

=

ele,n

+

vib,v

+

rot,J

+

trans,m .

(13.14)

Now if we have a collection of molecules in a macroscopic system. A given conﬁguration (say, conﬁguration j) of that system has total energy Ej . So the canonical partition function is Q= X

j

gj e−βEj

(13.15)

99

**But, each Ej is made up of the contributions of all of the molecules: Ej =
**

a l

+

b m

+

c n

+ ···

(13.16)

**The partition function for the molecule is written as Q = = X
**

j

**gj e−βEj = gla e−β {z
**

a l

X |l

qm o l,a

where the qmol,i are the molecular partition functions.

}|m

X

l,m,n···

a gm e−β qm o l,b

X {z

**b c (gla gm gn · · · )e−β( l + m + n +··· )
**

a m

a

b

c

(13.17)

}| n {z

X

a gn e−β n · · ·

a

qm o l,c

}

The total canonical partition function is the product of the molecular partition functions. For the case where the molecules are the same then all the qmol,i are the same: qmol,i = qmol thus qN (13.18) Q = mol . N! This allows us to focus only on a single molecule: qmol = X

i

**gi e−β i = gele,n e−β
**

qele

X |n

n,v,J,m

ele ,n

X }| v

n s,m ) gele,n gvib,v grot,J gtrans,m e−β ( ele,n + v ib ,v + ro t,J + tra(13.19)

{z

X

gvib,v e−β

qv ib

v ib ,v

{z

}| J

X

grot,J e−β

qro t

ro t,J

{z

}|m

X

gtrans,m e−β

qtra n s

tra n s,m

{z

}

We now collect below the expression for each of these partition functions. You will get the chance to derive each of these for your home work

100

The Translational Partition Function qtrans = where V Λ3 (13.20)

h Λ≡ √ 2πmkT is the thermal de Broglie wavelength. The Rotational Partition Function (linear molecules)

(13.21)

We will discuss rotations next semester. However, the high temperature limit, which works for all gases (of linear molecules) except H2 is T (13.22) qrot ≈ σθr

h where θr ≡ 8π2 Ik (I is the moment of inertia) and σ is the so-called symmetry number in which σ = 1 for unsymmetrical molecules and σ = 2 for symmetrical molecules.

2

**The Vibrational Partition Function qvib e− 2 β~ω 1 = = −β~ω 1−e 2 sinh 1 β~ω 2
**

1

(13.23)

Note this is for the harmonic oscillator. At temperatures well below the dissociation energy this is a very good approximation. (You will derive this as a homework problem.) The Electronic Partition Function There is usually only a very few electronic states of interest. Only at exceedingly high temperatures does any state other that the ground state(s) become important

101

so qele =

X

i

gele,i e−β

tele ,i

≈ gele,ground

(13.24)

102

14. Statistical Thermodynamics

The partition function allows one to calculate ensemble averages which correspond to macroscopically measurable properties such as internal energy, free energy, entropy etc. In this chapter we will obtain expressions for internal energy, U, pressure, P, entropy, S, and Helmholtz free energy, A. With these quantities in hand we will, in the subsequent chapters, formally develop thermodynamics with no need to refer back to the partition function. Ensemble averages The ensemble average of any property is given by 1 X ¯ O= Oi gi e−β i . Q i Internal energy One critical property of an ensemble is the average (internal) energy U. 1 X −β i ¯ . U ≡E= i gi e Q i Let us look closer at the above expression. Recall that Q= X

i

(14.1)

(14.2)

gi e−β i .

(14.3)

103

103

**Now take the derivative of Q with respect to β gives Ã #! " ¶ µ X µ ∂e−β i ¶ ∂ X −β i ∂Q = gi e = gi ∂β n,V ∂β i ∂β n,V i n,V X = − gi i e−β i
**

i

(14.4)

**By comparing this to the expression for U, we see µ ¶ ¶ µ 1 ∂Q ∂ ln Q U =− =− , Q ∂β n,V ∂β n,V where we used the identity
**

1 ∂y y ∂x

(14.5)

=

∂ ln y . ∂x

Pressure Another important property is pressure. When the ensemble is in the particular state i, d temperature and number of particles ¶ µ ∂ i pi = − ∂V n,β

i

= −pi dV . So at constant (14.6)

Thus the ensemble average pressure is given by ¶ µ 1 X ∂ i P =p=− ¯ gi e−β i . Q i ∂V n,β Multiplying by β/β we get 1 X P =− gi βQ i Using the chain rule in reverse, i.e., ∂e−β ∂V z }| ¶ µ ¶ µ ¶ µ −β i { ∂ i ∂e ∂ i = =− βe−β ∂ i ∂V ∂V

−βe−β

i

(14.7)

µ

∂ i ∂V

¶

βe−β i .

(14.8)

n,β

i

i

(14.9)

104

β Entropy We have already obtained the expression for entropy. It is S = U + k ln Q T µ ¶ ∂ ln Q = −kβ + k ln Q ∂β n.β n.V (14. βQ ∂V n.10) 105 .β β ∂V n.11) (14.we proceed as ! Ã µ −β i ¶ ∂e 1 1 X ∂ X −β i P = gi = gi e βQ i ∂V βQ ∂V i n.β µ ¶ µ ¶ ∂Q 1 1 ∂ ln Q = = .

The Helmholtz free energy has the most direct relation to the partition function as can be seen from µ ¶ ¶ µ ∂ ln Q ∂ ln Q A ≡ U − TS = − + kT β − kT ln Q (14.Helmholtz Free Energy Free energy is the energy contained in the system which is available to do work.V n. That is. 106 . We will make the distinction between the Helmholtz free energy and the more familiar Gibb’s free energy (G) later as well.V = −kT ln Q Any thermodynamic property can now be obtained from the above functions as we shall see in the following chapters.12) ∂β ∂β n. it is the energy of the system minus the energy that is “tied-up” in the random (unusable) thermal motion of the particle in the system: A ≡ U − T S Free energy is probably the key concept in thermodynamics and so we will discuss it in much greater detail later.

Thermodynamics is completely independent of the microscopic structure of the system. Properties of Partial Derivatives Of critical importance in mastering thermodynamics is to become proﬁcient with partial derivatives. The chain rule for partial derivatives: µ ¶ µ ¶ µ ¶ ∂u ∂z ∂z = ∂x y ∂u y ∂x y 107 107 (15. Thermodynamics is a theory describing the most general properties of macroscopic systems at equilibrium and the process of transferring between equilibrium states. Summary of Relations 1.15.1.2) .1. 15. ∗ ∗ ∗ See Handout ∗ ∗∗ 15. Work We now begin the study of thermodynamics.1.1) (15. The total derivative of z(x. y): µ ¶ µ ¶ ∂z ∂z dz = dx + dy ∂x y ∂y x 2.

Types of Systems Isolated system: A system that cannot exchange matter or energy with its environment.3.1. The cyclic rule: ¶ y ∂z =− ∂y ∂z ∂x ¶ µ ¶ µ x ∂y ∂x (15. Environment: Everything not included in the system (or set of systems) Note that the distinction between the system and the environment is arbitrary and is chosen as a matter of convenience.4) ¶ z 5. Microscopic systems: Systems containing a small number of particles. Closed system: A system that cannot exchange matter with its environment but may exchange energy.2. Finally µ ∂z ∂x ¶ = u µ + y µ ∂z ∂y ¶ µ x ∂y ∂x (15. Deﬁnitions System: a collection of particles Macroscopic systems: Systems containing a large number of particles.2.3) y 4. 15.5) u 15. The reciprocal rule: µ µ ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ¶ µ y ∂x ∂z ¶ =1 ¶ (15. 108 .

volume. System Parameters Extensive parameters (or properties): properties that depend on the amount of matter.2. 109 . = density. Work and Heat A system may exchange energy with its environment or another system in the form of work or heat. mass. heat capacity. heat capacity mass 15. 15. volume moles = molar volume. Extensive property For example mass volume (15. • For example. • Heat is exchanged if only internal parameters are changed during the process.6) = speciﬁc heat. pressure. • For example. Intensive parameters (or properties): properties that are independent of the amount of matter. Extensive properties can be “converted” to intensive properties through ratios: Extensive property → Intensive property.Open system: A system that may exchange matter and energy with its environment. Adiabatic system: A closed system that also can not exchange heat energy with its environment.2.3. temperature. • Work is exchanged if external parameters are changed during the process. density.

The inﬁnitesimal amount of work done on the system is then given by dw = Ada.8) Ai dai (15. times and inﬁnitesimal change in position.’ Note that the generalized force need not have units of force (e. is positive (q > 0) if heat is absorbed by the system. 15. w. meters). a. we need a more general deﬁnition if inﬁnitesimal work. is positive (w > 0) if work is done on the system. A may be considered as a ‘generalized force’ which is coupled to a particular internal parameter. F .Convention Work.. (15. Any given external parameter. Newtons) and the generalized displacement need not have units of position (e.1. q. Heat is negative (q < 0) if heat is released from the system. Heat.7) For thermodynamics. which acts as ‘generalized displacement..9) 110 . Joules). Work is negative (w < 0) if work is done by the system.g.3. Generalized Forces and Displacements In physics you learned that an inﬁnitesimal change in work is given by the product of force..g. but the product of the two must have units of energy (e. dx: dw = F dx. or more generally as dw = X i (15.g.

That is dw = −P dV. P V work In principle all work is interchangeable so that without loss of generality we will develop the formal aspects of thermodynamics assuming all work is due to changes in volume under a given pressure. dh −P dV σdε γdA EdQ HdM μdn mgdh 15.2. (15. dV Strain. mg Volume. When we get to applications of thermodynamics we will then be concerned with the various forms of work like those shown in the table above.10) Expanding Gases Consider the work done by a gas expanding in piston from volume V1 to V2 against some constant external pressure P = Pex (see ﬁgure) 111 . E Magnetic Field. H Chemical Potential.if more than one set of parameters change.3. The following table gives some examples of generalized forces and displacements Generalized Force. a Contribution to dw Pressure. dn Height. this is called P V work. σ Surface tension. dM Moles. −P Stress. γ Voltage. A Generalized Displacement. dA Charge. dQ Magnetization. dε Surface area. μ Gravity.

This can be manipulated as Z x2 Z x2 Z V2 F w=− F dx = − Adx = − Pex dV (15.12) 112 .The force exerted on a gas by a piston is equal to the external pressure times the area of the piston: F = Pex A ⇒ Pex = F/A. Rx Recall from physics that work is the (path) integral over force: w = − x12 F dx.11) A |{z} x1 x1 |{z} V1 dV Pex If Pex is independent of V then Z Z V2 Pex dV = −Pex w=− V1 V2 V1 dV = −Pex 4V (15.

16.1. Maximum Work and Reversible changes Now that we have learned about PV work we will consider the situation where the system does the maximum amount of work possible.1) 113 113 . In the ﬁgure wA = − Z V2 V1 Patm dV = −Patm (V2 − V1 ) (16. Maximal Work: Reversible versus Irreversible changes The value of w depends on Pex during the entire expansion. 16.

So.3) w2 = − Vi Patm dV = −Patm (V2 − Vi ) (16.5) V1 This is the limiting case of path B in the previous ﬁgure.2) V1 Patm+2W dV = −Patm+2W (Vi − V1 ) Z V2 (16.4) Hence it is clear that |wB | > |wA | .and wB = w1 + w2 . Now consider case in the ﬁgure below The expansion is reversible. That is. wrev = wmax . Namely Pgas = Pex . where w1 = − and Z Vi (16. 114 . wrev = − Z V2 Pgas dV (16. Thus wrev is the maximum possible work that can be done in an expansion. there is always an intermediate equilibrium throughout the expansion.

it is not a constant. To make an intensive property 1.g. heat capacity is a function of T .6) (16. CV (T ) = dT V and CP (T ) = dT P are not the same Heat capacity is an extensive property.7) That is. (16. heat is related to temperature through the heat capacity dq dT n.9) V 115 .b. ¡ dq ¢ ¡ dq ¢ e. dq amount of heat energy is transferred. C(T ) = From this equation dq = C(t)dT. when the temperature of a substance having a heat capacity C(t) is changed by dT.2. divide by the number of moles to get molar heat capacity µ ¶ 1 dq CV m (T ) = n dT V 2.8) (16.. Temperature is an intensive property and heat is an extensive property.16.. The heat capacity also depends on the conditions during the temperature change. However. µ dq dT ¶ (16. Temperature is not the amount of heat. divide by mass to get speciﬁc heat 1 cV = m We will discuss heat capacity more later. Heat Capacity Temperature and heat are diﬀerent.

16. homogeneous material (in the absence of external ﬁelds) is given by the values of any two intensive properties.3.12) 116 .16. n m V The equation of state can also be expressed in terms of density ρ = mass m/n) MP mP = . The ideal gas equation of state can be expressed in terms of intensive variables only P Vm = RT . (16. Equations of State The macroscopic properties of matter are related to one another via a phenomenological equation of state.3.) The functional dependence of any property on the two independent variables is an equation of state.315 J K−1 mol−1 ) and n is the number of moles. P independent then heat capacity is a function of T and P . e. Example 1: The Ideal Gas Law The equation of state for volume of an ideal gas is P V = nRT .1.g. (16.10) where R is the gas constant (8.. ρ= nRT RT (and molar (16. The state of a pure. T .11) where Vm = V . but behave in the same way as the more simple pure system. so we will focus our development of thermodynamics on simple systems. P ). (More complicated systems require more than two independent variables. C(T.

13) The parameter a attempts to account for the attractive forces among the particles The parameter b attempts to account for the repulsive forces among the particles b originates from hard sphere collisions (see ﬁgure): 117 .16. Example 2: The van der Waals Equation of State A more realistic equation of state was presented by van der Waals: P = nRT n2 a − 2.3.2. V − nb V (16.

Other Equations of State The van der Waals equation of state is not the only one that has been proposed. Some other equations of state are • Berthelot • Dieterici n2 a a nRT RT − − = 2 2 V − nb T V Vm − b T Vm an a P = (16.15) RT e− RT Vm nRT e− RT V = P = V − nb Vm − b nRT n2 a a RT −√ −√ = V − nb Vm − b T V (V − nb) T Vm (Vm − b) (16.16) • Redlich-Kwang P = (16.In term of intensive variables P = a RT − 2.3.17) 118 .3. Vm − b Vm (16.14) 16.

The Zeroth and First Laws of Thermodynamics Over the course of the next two lectures we will discuss the four core laws of thermodyanmics.15 119 119 . Next time we will cover the second and third laws which both deal with entropy.1. The temperature at which (for ﬁxed V and n) the pressure is zero is deﬁned as T =0K • T (Kelvin) = T (Celsius) + 273. Today we will cover the zeroth and ﬁrst laws.17. 17. which deal with temperature and total energy respectively. Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Temperature tells us the direction of thermal energy (heat) ﬂow. • Heat ﬂows from high T to Low T. Temperature scales • Celsius: A relative scale based on water (T = 0◦ C for melting ice and T = 100◦ C for boiling water) • Kelvin: An absolute temperature scale based on the ideal gas law.

Thermal equilibrium: If two systems are in contact along a diathermic wall and no heat ﬂows across the wall. is chosen as a thermometer then it will read the same temperature when it is in thermal contact along a diathermic wall with system A as when it is in thermal contact along a diathermic wall with system B. (17. 120 .15 K and P = 1 bar. (Vm (STP) = 22.15 K and P = 1 atm. Adiabatic wall: A wall the does not allow heat to ﬂow through it.Standard conditions • standard temperature and pressure (STP): T = 273. The zeroth law of thermodynamics • Mathematical statement: If TA = TB and TB = TC .1) The zeroth law implies that if an arbitrary system. (Vm (SATP) = 24. then the systems are in thermal equilibrium.789 L/mol) Diathermic wall: A wall that allows heat to ﬂow through it. then TA = TC This the mathematical statement of transitivity • Verbal statement: If system A is in thermal equilibrium with system B and system B is in thermal equilibrium system C then system A is also in thermal equilibrium with system C. C.414 L/mol) • standard ambient temperature and pressure (SATP): T = 298.

. So for a system where all the work is P V work the ﬁrst law becomes Z V2 4U = q − Pex dV V1 (17.4) 121 . The value of the state function depends only on that given state and on no other possible state of the system. The ﬁrst law of thermodynamics: • Mathematical statement: or in diﬀerential form dU = dq + dw (17.g.2) • Verbal statement: The change in internal energy of a system is equal to the amount of work done on the system plus the amount of heat provided to the system.1. P )). V (T. The First Law of Thermodynamics Deﬁnitions: • State: the state of a system is deﬁned by specifying a minimum number in intensive variables • State Function: A function of the chosen independent variables that describes a property of the state (e.2. one is concerned with the work done on the system (w) and the heat supplied to the system (q). The energy of a system is called the internal energy (U) of the system.17. The internal energy state function For characterizing the change in energy of a system.3) 4U = q + w (17. 17.2.

7) µ (17. V ) is µ ¶ ¶ µ ∂U ∂U dU = dT + dV ∂T V ∂V T Consider adding heat at a constant volume then ¶ ¶ µ µ ∂U ∂U dT + dV = dq − Pex dV. the most convenient at this time are V and T. ∂T The other slope.9) (17. V ). U → U(T.10) V 122 .8) . is called the internal pressure (it has no standard symbol).in diﬀerential form this is dU = dq − Pex dV (17. ¶ ¶ µ ∂U ∂U dq = CV dT = dq =⇒ = ∂T V ∂T V dT ¡ ¢ Hence the slope ∂U V is the heat capacity. A useful relation (derivation to come) is ¶ ¶ µ µ ∂U ∂P =T −P ∂V T ∂T V Example: A van der Waals gas n2 a nRT − 2 ⇒ P = V − nb V µ ∂P ∂T ¶ = nR V − nb (17.5) Although U can be expressed as a function of any two state variables. dU = ∂T V ∂V T So. ¡ ∂U ¢ ∂V T (17. The total diﬀerential of U (T.6) (17.

ii) ideal gas or at constant volume.so the useful relation becomes ¶ µ nRT nRT n2 a nR ∂U −P = − + 2 = T ∂V T V − nb V − nb V − nb V 2 na = + 2 V (17. Start with the total diﬀerential of U ¶ ¶ µ µ ∂U ∂U dT + dV dU = ∂T V ∂V T ¡ ∂U ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ but ∂U V = CV and ∂V T = T ∂P V − P (useful relation). V.13) is the equation of state for U. and P. A useful approximation is 4U = CV 4T which is valid for i) heat capacity nearly constant over 4T and with no phase transitions.11) The equation of state for U : Express U in terms of T. Hence ∂T ∂T ¶ ∙ µ ¸ ∂P − P dV dU = CV dT + T ∂T V (17.12) (17. 123 .

Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics We learned from statistical mechanics that entropy.1. S is also a state function .18. S= So we may write dS = (18.1) T ¯ Now. Furthermore we derived the simple relation between the Helmholtz free energy and the canonical partition function as A = −kT ln Q. U A 1 − = (U − A). is a measure of the disorder of the system and is expressed via Boltzmann’s equation S = k ln W (where W is the micocanonical partition function) We expressed Boltzmann’s law in terms of the more convenient canonical partition function as ¯ E S = + k ln Q. and T are state functions. A. T T T Since U.3) 124 . S. the average energy of the system E is in fact what we call internal energy: ¯ U ≡ E. (18.2) 1 (dU − dA) T 124 (18. The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics 18. Hence.

Recall the deﬁnition of Helmholtz free energy–the energy of the system available to do work. Then dS = 1 1 (dU − dwrev ) = (dqrev + dw rev − dw rev ) / / T T dqrev .4) Note: An alternative approach to thermodynamics which makes no reference to molecules or statistical mechanics is to simply begin by deﬁning entropy as dS ≡ dqrev T The principle of Clausius • “The entropy of an isolated system will always increase in a spontaneous process” • Mathematical statement: (dS)U.V ≥ 0 For a general process: dU = dq − Pex dV For a reversible process Pex = P and dq = T dS so dU = T dS − P dV 125 . (Reversible process) = T (18.for an isothermal process. We learned previously that the maximum amount of work one can extract from the system is the work done during a reversible process. Hence dA = dwrev . For now let us limit the discussion to reversible processes.

This is a mathematical statement of the second law of thermodynamics (18. Thus for any spontaneous process T dS ≥ dq. P.5) 126 . but in general. For some dU. dq − Pex dV = T dS − P dV ⇒ T dS = dq − Pex dV + P dV T dS = dq + (P − Pex ) dV • Case i) Pex > P then (spontaneous) dV is negative so (P −Pex )dV is positive.Since U. S. dU = T dS − P dV holds for any process. T dS is not heat and −P dV is not work. • Case iii) P = Pex then (spontaneous) dV is zero so (P − Pex )dV is zero. (see ﬁgure) T dS is heat and −P dV is work only for reversible processes. • Case ii) P > Pex then (spontaneous) dV is positive so (P −Pex )dV is positive. T. and V are state functions.

A cyclic process must transfer heat from a hot to cold reservoir if it is to convert heat into work.18. 2. 4. 3. Spontaneous processes are irreversible in character. T (18.1. Statements of the Second Law Unlike the ﬁrst law. the second law has a number of equivalent statements 1. dU = dq + dw = dq − Pex dV (18. The entropy of an isolated system will always increase in a spontaneous process (the principle of Clausius) 18. dU = CV dT but also dU = T dS. So. The entropy of the universe is increasing 5.6) From our earlier discussion of heat capacity dq = CV dT (CV since constant volume).2. Work must be done to transfer heat from a cold to a hot reservoir. 6. So CV dT =⇒ 4S = dS = T Z T2 (18. The Third Law of Thermodynamics Consider the ﬁrst law for a reversible change at constant volume. A useful perpetual motion machine does not exist.1.7) T1 CV dT.8) 127 .

9) 4S = T T1 18. 128 . Consider the heat capacity near T → 0. Thus CP → 0.11) Hence the mathematical statement of the third law is Z T2 CP S(T2 ) = dT + S0 T 0 (18.. Alternative statement of the third law: Absolute zero is unattainable. The Third Law Verbal statement The third law of thermodynamics permits the absolute measurement of entropy. For S0 to have signiﬁcance CP T must be ﬁnite (not inﬁnite) as T → 0.. S0 6= 0 for imperfect crystals and crystals of asymmetric molecules (e.2. O2 etc. Ar.1. CO).A very similar derivation can be done for a reversible change at constant pressure (we can not do it quite yet) to yield Z T2 CP dT (18.10) 4S = T T1 now let T1 → 0 4S = S2 − S0 = Z T2 0 CP dT T (18.g. a microscopic point of view suggests S0 = 0 for perfect crystals of atoms or of totally symmetric molecules (e.).12) From a macroscopic point of view S0 is arbitrary. To derive the mathematical statement of the third laws we starting with Z T2 CP dT (18.g. However.

the ever present random ﬂuctuations in energy provide the inﬁnitesimal amount of heat and so you can never reach absolute zero corresponding to an average energy of zero. (Debye) Postulate: CP m = aT 3 . T ∗ are the lowest temperature data points.2. an inﬁnitesimal amount of heat causes an inﬁnite change in temperature. In view of what we have learned about ﬂuctuations. ∗ ∗ CP m . Debye’s Law Heat capacity data only goes down so far. 129 . So. In other words. 18. So one needs a theoretical extrapolation down to T = 0. That is at low temperatures heat capacity goes as the cube of the temperature.2.But CP = dq dT → 0 implies dT dq → ∞. a = CP m /T ∗3 .

130 . Times Arrow ∗ CP C =aT 3 CP m dT P m = T T ∗3 0 ¯T ∗ ∗ ∗ CP m T 3 ¯ ¯ = CP m . Both Newton’s laws and Quantum dynamics (next semester) are the same if you replace t with −t.3. Yet.13) 0 Entropy and the second law give a direction to time. We know which picture was taken ﬁrst. if we see a picture of your PChem book in mint condition and we see a picture of your PChem book all battered and beaten. The interesting thing is that each molecule in a macroscopic system obeys time invariant dynamics.The molar entropy is Sm (T ) = = ∗ Z 18. the behavior of the macrosystem deﬁnitely changes if you replace t with −t. For example. T ∗3 3 ¯ 3 0 T∗ Z T∗ T 2 dT (18. Thus the simple fact that you have an enormous number of particles induces a perceived asymmetry in time.

14) (18. This section should not substitute for your studying of the rest of this material.15) • The canonical partition function is Q= gj e−βEj (18.Key Equations for Exam 3 Listed here are some of the key equations for Exam 3.16) 131 131 . The equations listed here are out of context and it would help you very little to memorize this section without understanding the context of these equations. (18. The equations are collected here simply for handy reference for you while working the problem sets. Equations • The Boltzmann equation is • The Boltzmann distribution : g e−β i P i −β j gj e X j j S = k ln W.

18) Λ where h Λ≡ √ (18.V ´ ∂ ln Q = −kβ ∂β n. (18.V ¡ ∂Q ¢ 1 1 = βQ ∂V n. σθr 2 (18.V n. 2 sinh 1 β~ω 2 (18. O= Q i (18.17) N! • The Translational Partition Function V qtrans = 3 (18.20) h where θr ≡ 8π2 Ik (I is the moment of inertia) and σ is the so-called symmetry number in which σ = 1 for unsymmetrical molecules and σ = 2 for symmetrical molecules • The Vibrational Partition Function is qvib = 1 . • The Rotational Partition Function (linear molecules) is T qrot ≈ .21) • The ensemble average of any property is given by 1 X ¯ Oi gi e−β i .β 132 .• The relation between the partition function and the molecular partition function is qN Q = mol .22) • The relations between the canonical partition function and the thermodynamics variables are Internal energy Entropy Helmholtz Free Energy A = −kT³ln Q ´ 1 U = −Q ∂Q ∂β S Pressure P n.β = β ³ =− + k ln Q ¡ ∂ ln Q ¢ ∂V ³ ∂ ln Q ∂β ´ n.19) 2πmkT is the thermal de Broglie wavelength.

133 . dU = T dS − P dV. dq = C(t)dT.28) 0 CP dT + S0 T (18.27) (18. in diﬀerential form this is dU = dq − Pex dV. 3 (18.30) ∗ where CP m is the molar heat capacity at the lowest temperature for which there is data.29) • Debye’s law for entropy at very low temperatures Sm (T ∗ ) = ∗ CP m .23) (18. (18. • The second law • The third law T dS ≥ dq.26) (18. Also. S(T2 ) = Z T2 (18.25) (18.• P V work is • Heat capacity: • General forms of the ﬁrst law: dw = −P dV.24) 4U = q + w.

Part IV Basics of Thermodynamics 134 134 .

Auxillary Functions and Maxwell Relations We have stated that thermodynamics as we are studying it deals with states in equilibrium or transitions between equilibrium states. So far we have encountered two state functions which characterize the energy of a macroscopic system–the internal energy and. the concept of equilibrium plays a key role in much of what we will discuss for the remainder of the year. Consequently. The equilibrium constant for a thermodynamic process. 19. The Other Important State Functions of Thermodynamics As was the case in quantum mechanics. 135 135 . K.1.19. and kinetics–topics we will encounter throughout the year. (which you are familiar with from general chemistry) serves are a common point which connects thermodynamics. electrochemistry. brieﬂy the Helmholtz free energy. here too is energy the key property with which to work.

This is U = U(S.1) we say that the natural (most convenient) variables for the equation of state for U are S and V . it is handy to deﬁne state functions which have diﬀerent pairs of natural variables. so that no mater what situation arises we have convenient equations of state to work with. 136 .From the ﬁrst law as stated as dU = T dS − P dV (19. V ) Unfortunately S can not be directly measured and most often P is a more convenient variable than V Because of this fact. Enthalpy We want a state function whose natural variables are S and P Let us try the deﬁnition H ≡ U + P V. (T and V ) and (T and P ) The table below lists these state functions State function Internal Energy Enthalpy Helmholtz free energy Gibbs free energy Symbol Natural variables U H A G S S T T and V and P and V and P Deﬁnition H ≡ U + PV A ≡ U − TS G ≡ H − TS Units energy energy energy energy We consider each of these functions in turn 19.2. The other pairs of natural variables being (S and P ).

So a change in enthalpy is the change in internal energy adjusted for the P V work done. 19. consider an reversibly expanding gas under constant pressure (dP = 0) and adiabatic (dq = 0) conditions. As Freshmen we learn this as 4H = qp . so (19. but dU = T dS − P dV. The enthalpy of the system on the other hand does not change–it is the internal energy adjusted by an amount of energy equal to the P V work done by the system.3.1. Since the process is adiabatic no heat energy can ﬂow in to compensate for the work done and the gas cools.2) / / dH = T dS − P dV + P dV + V dP = T dS + V dP.2. 19. Hence Enthalpy does indeed have the desired natural variables. Helmholtz Free Energy Now we want a state function whose natural variables are T and V 137 . The system does work during the expansion.Now formally dH = dU + d(P V ) = dU + P dV + V dP. The total internal energy decreases. For example. in doing so it must lose energy. Heuristic deﬁnition: (19.3) Enthalpy is the total energy of the system minus the pressure volume energy. If the process occurs at constant pressure then the enthalpy change is the heat given oﬀ or taken in.

4. (19. but from above dH = T dS + V dP. so (19. Now formally dG = dH + d(T S) = dH − T dS − SdT. 19. Hence Gibbs free energy does indeed have the desired natural variables.3.7) (19. Gibbs Free Energy Finally we want a state function whose natural variables are T and P Let us try the deﬁnition G ≡ H − T S.1.5) Hence Helmholtz free energy does indeed have the desired natural variables.6) 138 .Let us try the deﬁnition A ≡ U − T S. Formally dA = dU − d(T S) = dU − T dS − SdT. (19. 19. Heuristic deﬁnition: As we have said before Helmholtz free energy is the energy of the system which is available to do work–It is the internal energy minus that energy which is “used up” by the random thermal motion of the molecules. so dG = T dS + V dP − T dS − SdT / / = V dP − SdT.4) / / dA = T dS − P dV − T dS − SdT = −P dV − SdT. but dU = T dS − P dV.

The Relationship Between CP and CV To ﬁnd how CP and CV are related we begin with dH = T dS + V dP at constant pressure and reversible conditions dH = T dS dH = dq but dq = CP dT (19.1.4.8) The constant pressure heat capcity can then be expressed in terms of enthalpy as ¶ µ ∂H .1. ¶ ¶ ¶ µ µ ∂ (U + P V ) ∂U ∂V CP = = +P (19. (19. Use an identity of partial derivatives ∂T ∂T µ µ ∂U ∂T ¶ = P µ ∂U ∂T ¶ + V µ ∂U ∂V ¶ µ T ∂V ∂T ¶ (19.19. Heuristic deﬁnition: Gibbs free energy is the energy of the system which is available to do non P V work–It is the internal minus both that energy which is “used up” by the random thermal motion of the molecules and used up in doing the P V work.5.5. 19.9) (19.13) P 139 .10) (19.12) ∂T ∂T P ∂T P P ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ note ∂U P is not CV we need ∂U V .11) CP = ∂T P So. Heat Capacity of Gases 19.

6.18) 19.16) V Example: Ideal gases 1.15) ∂P ∂T ¶ (19.14) CP = ∂V T ∂T P ∂T P V ¶ ∙µ ¶ µ ¸ ∂U ∂V = CV + +P . The Maxwell Relations Summary of thermodynamic relations we’ve seen so far Deﬁnitions and relations: • H = U + PV 140 . Then ∂T µ ∂U ∂T µ CP = CV + Finally CP = CV + T µ ∂V ∂T ¶ ∙ µ ¶ ¸ ∂P T −P +P / / ∂T V P µ ∂V ∂T ¶ µ P ¶ (19.thus ¶ µ ¶ ¶ µ ∂V ∂U ∂V + +P (19.17) ∂T P ∂T V nRT nR nR = nR = CV + T P V PV Thus CP = CV + nR or CP m = CV m + R (19. Ideal gas (equation of state: P V = nRT ): This equation is easily made explicit in either P or V so we don’t need any of the above replacements ¶ µ ¶ µ ∂P ∂V CP = CV + T (19. ∂T P ∂V T ¡ ¢ ¡ ∂U ¢ Recall the expression for internal pressure ∂V T = T ∂P V − P .

CP = ¡ ∂H ¢ ∂T P basic equations dU = T dS − P dV dH = T dS + V dP dA = −P dV − SdT dG = V dP − SdT Maxwell relations ¡ ∂T ¢ ¡ ¢ = − ∂P V ∂V S ¡ ∂T ¢ ¡ ∂S ¢ = ∂V P ∂P S ∂S ¡ ∂S ¢ ¡ ¢ = + ∂P V ∂V T ¡ ∂S ¢ ¡ ∂T ¢ = − ∂V P ∂P T ∂T working equations £ ¡ ¢ ¤ dU = CV dT + T ∂P V − P dV ∂T £ ¡ ¢ ¤ dH = CP dT − T ∂V P − V dP ∂T ¡ ¢ dS = CV dT + ∂P V dV T ¡ ∂T ¢ dS = CP dT − ∂V P dP T ∂T We will get plenty of practice with derivations based on these equations and on the properties of partial derivatives. (See handout and Homework) 141 .• A = U − TS • G = H − TS • CV = ¡ ∂U ¢ ∂T V .

V = dq − T dS From the second law. The tendency to maximize entropy Let us begin with Helmholtz free energy The total diﬀerential of A is (A = U − T S) dA = dU − T dS − SdT = dq − Pex dV − T dS − SdT For constant T and V.V = 0.2) . Chemical Potential 20. (dA)T. The tendency to minimize energy 2. Spontaneity of processes Two factors drive spontaneous processes 1. T dS ≥ dq for a spontaneous process.20. (dA)T. Hence at equilibrium (dA)T.1. For chemistry it is most often more convenient to use Gibbs free energy The total diﬀerential of G is dG = dH − T dS − SdT = dq − Pex dV + P dV + V dP − T dS − SdT 142 142 (20.1) (20.V ≤ 0 for a spontaneous process.

6) (20. Note free energy provides no information about how fast a process proceeds to equilibrium. The free energy functions are the workhorses of applied thermodynamics so we want to get a feel for them. Returning to the total diﬀerentials of free energy.P = 0.P ≤ 0 for a spontaneous process. Plugging these into the total diﬀerentials of free energy gives dA = −SdT − P dV and dG = −SdT + V dP (20.P = dq − T dS Again from the second law. (20.5) (20.4) Expressing dU and dH generally as dU = T dS − P dV and dH = T dS + V dP (remember that in general T dS cannot be identiﬁed with dq and P dV cannot be identiﬁed with −w). (dG)T.For constant T and P = Pex . So free energy provides a measure of the thermodynamic driving force towards equilibrium. dA = dU − T dS − SdT and dG = dH − T dS − SdT. T dS ≥ dq for a spontaneous process. (dG)T. Hence at equilibrium (dG)T.3) 143 .

The total diﬀerential of A is also dA = dq + dw − T dS − SdT.7) (20. For constant T and P = Pex . the Gibbs free energy is the energy of the system available to do non-P V work. 20.P = dwmax =⇒ (4G)T.9) (20. (dG)T. In general dw = dw0 − Pex dV where dw0 is the non-P V work. The total diﬀerential of G becomes dG = dq + dw0 − Pex dV + P dV + V dP − T dS − SdT.These expressions are quite general. as stated earlier. Hence (dA)T = dwmax =⇒ (4A)T = wmax . For a reversible process dq = T dS and work is maximal. but i) only P V work and ii) closed systems.10) So.8) (20.P = wmax (20. For reversible processes q = T dS and this becomes 0 0 (dG)T. Chemical potential What if the amount of substance can change? 144 . As we have stated in words a number of times before. The total diﬀerential of G is also dG = dq + dw + P dV + V dP − T dS − SdT.2.P = dq + w0 − T dS.

13) = −SdT − P dV + P dV + V dP + μdn / / / / = −SdT + V dP + μdn. | {z } =A ¡ ∂A ¢ ∂n V.T . n) and the total diﬀerential becomes µ ¶ ¶ µ µ ¶ ∂A ∂A ∂A dA(T.14) P.11) ∂T V. this is a measure of the potential to change the amount of material.T 145 .Extensive properties depend on the amount of “stuﬀ” For example A(T. n) = dT + dV + dn (20.n P.n ∂n V. V.n T. V. • Physically.T .n ∂V T.T Let’s focus on the slope ¡ ∂A ¢ ∂n V.12) dG = dA + P dV + V dP (20. • It deﬁnes the chemical potential μ ≡ So we can also write dA = −SdT − P dV + μdn What about the relation of the chemical potential to Gibbs’ free energy? G = H − T S = U − T S + P V = A + P V so. but from dG = µ ∂G ∂T ¶ dT + µ ∂G ∂P ¶ dP + µ ∂G ∂n ¶ dn (20. • This is a measure of the change in Helmholtz free energy of a system (at constant T and V ) with the change in the amount of material. (20. V ) now becomes A(T.

(20. a solute is dissolved in a solvent. Activity is hard to deﬁne in words and indeed it has an awkward mathematical deﬁnition as we will soon see. pressure. and ζ ª is the value of ζ at the reference state.T So. μ is also a measure of the change in Gibbs free energy of a system (at constant T and P ) with the change in the amount of material and it still has the same physical meaning. for example. (Gm = μ) 20. The Gibbs free energy per mole (Gm ) for a pure substance is equal to the chemical potential.. mole fraction. The activity coeﬃcient has a more convenient deﬁnition which is that it is the measure of how a particular real system deviates from some reference system which is usually taken to be ideal. concentration etc.3. 146 . To account for this one must introduce the concept of activity and the activity coeﬃcient.).g.15) P.we see that μ= µ ∂G ∂n ¶ . there exist complicated interactions which cause deviations from ideal behavior. Activity and the Activity coeﬃcient When.16) where g(ζ) is any reference function (e. The mathematical deﬁnition of activity ai of some species i is implicitly stated as ζ→ζ lim ª ai =1 g(ζ) (20.

we can deﬁne are zero of energy any where we want. if we are talking about a gas we will mostly likely choose the ideal gas law in terms of pressure (P = nRT /V ) as our reference function and the reference state being when P = 0 since we know all gases behave ideally in the limit of zero pressure. That is.1. but it is often the case that the reference state is chosen to be some ideal state.This implicit deﬁnition is awkward so for convenience one deﬁnes the activity coeﬃcient as the argument of the above limit.3. Reference States Thermodynamics is founded on the concept of energy which we know to have an arbitrary scale. γi ≡ which we can rearrange as ai = γ i g(ζ). The choice of this state is completely up to us.17) 147 .18) The deﬁnition of activity implies that γ i = 1 at g(ζ ª ) (the reference state) 20. Because of this it is always necessary to specify a reference state to which our real state can be compared. ai g(ζ) (20. (20. Let us consider the activity of a real gas for the above reference function and reference state. For example. Note: the activity of gases as referenced to pressure has the special name fugacity (fugacity is a special case of activity).

so γ= a ⇒ a = γP. Activity and the Chemical Potential One cannot measure absolute chemical potentials. For the state of interest μi = μª + RT ln ai (20. Based on the condition that γ → 1 as we approach the reference state (P = 0 in this case) we see that the activity (or fugacity) of a real gas becomes equal to pressure for low pressures 20.3. i i i i i i (20.Our reference function is very simple: g(ζ) = ζ = P . This ideal state is in turn referenced to the standard state.2. By convention we chose a standard state and measure relative to that state. P (20. μi − μª = RT ln ai . i (20.19) Thus the activity of our real gas is given by the activity coeﬃcient times the pressure of an ideal gas under the same conditions.22) 148 . only relative potentials can be measured.20) Rather than referencing to the standard state one can also reference to any convenient “ideal” state. The deviation of the chemical potential at the state of interest versus at the reference state is determined by the activity at the current state (the activity at the reference state is unity by deﬁnition).21) i and for the ideal state μid = μª + RT ln aid ⇒ μª = μid − RT ln aid .

but any pressure. (Note that as P → 1.26) (20.24) Now we integrate from the reference state to the current state of interest Z Z RT id dP. Starting from the begining dμ id dμid = Vm dP RT dP. μid → μª ).25) dμ = μª Pª P This gives P .29) 149 . dμid = P z}|{ = dGm = −Sm dT + Vm dP =0 (20. μi = μid − RT ln aid + RT ln ai i i (20. Thus μ = μª + RT ln f.Thus.23) μi − μid = +RT ln ai − RT ln aid i i ai = RT ln id ai Example: Real and ideal gases at constant temperature.28) (20. (20. so a = f for real gasses. Pª The usual standard state is the ideal gas at P ª = 1. then at a given pressure μ = μª + RT ln a.27) For gases activity is usually called fugacity and given the symbol f . (20. so μid − μª = RT ln μid = μª + RT ln P. Lets say our gas is not ideal. (20.

e. 150 .31) (20. μid = μª + RT ln P where we will take the reference state to be at sea level.32) The gas ﬁelds the gravitational force which gives it a potential energy per mole of Mgh at height h. P ª = 1 atm. P Example: The barometric equation for an ideal gas. So at sea level id ª (20. μ = μid − RT ln P + RT ln f f μ = μid + RT ln .Lets say that instead of referencing to the ideal gas at P = 1.33) (20. we want to reference to the ideal gas at the current pressure P. i. We add this energy per mole term to the chemical potential (which is free energy per mole) thus at equilibrium μid (0) = μid (h) + Mgh Referencing to the reference state we get ª ª μ/ = μ/ + RT ln Ph + Mgh (20. This is easily done by using μª = μid − RT ln P in the above equation for μ.34) RT ln Ph = −Mgh Ph = e −M gh RT The last line is the barometric equation and it shows that pressure is exponentially decreasing function of altitude.30) and at elevation h z }| { μ (0) = μ + RT ln 1 = μª μid (h) = μª + RT ln Ph =0 (20. We have an ideal gas so.

for this process. Ka .1) 151 151 . if we multiply the above by n moles we have aB −4Gª = nRT ln aA as a consequence of the equilibrium condition. Equilibrium First let us consider the equilibrium A B.3) (21. μA = μª + RT ln aA A and μB = μª + RT ln aB B So the equilibrium condition becomes μª + RT ln aA = μª + RT ln aB A B −4μª = μª − μª = RT ln aB − RT ln aA A B aB −4μª = RT ln aA Since chemical potential is free energy per mole.2) (21. The quantity aB deﬁnes the equilibrium constant.21. Since A and B are in equilibrium their chemical potentials must be equal μA = μB Now. aA (21.

aA Again multiplying by n gives 4G = 4Gª + nRT ln aB . Consider a more complicated equilibrium aA + bB cC + dD.5) 4μ = μª − μª + RT ln aB − +RT ln aA B A aB 4μ = 4μª + RT ln .9) 152 .Say the system A → B is not in equilibrium then we can not write μA = μB but we can write 4μ Proceeding as above we get z }| { μA + μB − μA = μB (21. In a manner similar to the above aμª + aRT ln aA + bμª + bRT ln aB = cμª + cRT ln aC + dμª + dRT ln aD (21.8) A B C D Rearranging gives z }| { ac ad aμª + bμª − cμª − dμª = RT ln C D A B C D aa ab A B ≡−4rx n Gª (21.4) μª + RT ln aA + 4μ = μª + RT ln aB A B (21.7) (21. The equilibrium condition is aμA + bμB = cμC + dμD .6) (21. aA If the 4G < 0 then the transition A → B proceeds spontaneously as written.

We now consider the problem of determining the equilibrium concentrations of a solute A in both phases of an immiscible mixture. The Partition Coeﬃcient Up to now we have only considered miscible solutions. (21.12) If the reactants are solutes then as the solution is diluted all the activity coeﬃcients 0 go to unity and KC → Ka .the equilibrium constant is ac ad Ka = C D =⇒ 4Gª = −RT ln Ka aa ab A B (21.0.11) which is related to Ka by Ka = 0 KC . Equilibrium constants in terms of KC Equilibrium constant in terms of a condensed phase concentration: 0 KC = [C]c [D]d [A]a [B]b µ γc γd C D γa γb A B . 21.0.3.10) Note: n is absent in the above since the molar values are implied by the stoichiometry.4. 21. ¶ (21. 153 .

it is called the partition coeﬃcient.14) (21. The equilibrium constant for this process has a special α α→β β β/α name.The equilibrium equation is Aα Aβ The equilibrium expression for this process is 4Gα→β = 0 = 4Gª − nRT ln Ka . α aA ª (21. the drugs must transfer between an aqueous phase and a oil phase.15) [A]β . 4Gª ≡ Gª −Gª . 154 .16) Knowledge of the partition function is important on the delivery of drugs because. P β/α ≡ Kpart . [A]α (21. α→β (21. We can solve for the partition coeﬃcient to yield P For low concentrations P β/α ' β/α 4G α→β aβ = A = e− nRT .13) where. to enter the body. for species A in the α—β mixture.

For most drugs 0 < Ppart < 4 o/w (21. can the drug handle the acidic environment of the stomach? 155 . For example.17) Partition coeﬃcient o/w Delivery mechanism low Ppart (likes water) injection o/w medium Ppart oral o/w high Ppart (likes oil) skin patch/ointment Factors other than the partition coeﬃcient inﬂuence the drug delivery choice.

Chemical Reactions Up to now we have only been considering systems in the absence of chemical reactions. 4rxn H > 0 for Endothermic reactions.D − aSm.1) .B 22. 156 156 (22. For any extensive property • 4rxn (Property) = property of products − property of reactants • Example — Reaction: aA+bB= cC+dD — 4rxn S = cSm.C + dSm.A − bSm.22. After chemical reactions take place the system is in a ﬁnal “product” thermodynamic state that is in general diﬀerent from the initial “reactant” state. Heats of Reactions Exothermic reaction: heat is given oﬀ to the surroundings Endothermic reaction: heat is given taken in from the surroundings At constant pressure (Pex = P q = 4rxn U − w = 4rxn U − P 4rxn V = 4rxn H 4rxn H < 0 for Exothermic reactions.1.

C(graphite) are examples of atoms in their natural state. Heats of Formation Hess’s Law of heat summation: 4rxn H is independent of chemical pathway Example: C2 H2 +H2 = C2 H4 .22.2. Example: Formation of water • H2 + 1 O2 = H2 O not 2H2 +O2 = 2H2 O 2 • 4rxn H = ponent.97 kJ H2 + 1 O2 →H2 O(liq) 4rxn H ª = −285. where ν i is the stoichiometric factor of the ith com- Example: H2 O(liq)→H2 O(gas) at SATP H2 + 1 O2 = H2 O(gas) 4f H ª = −241.2) 157 .49 kJ The heat of formation 4f H ª is the 4rxn H at STP in forming a compound from its constituent atoms in their natural states. Temperature dependence of the heat of reaction Z T2 4rxn CP dT 4rxn H(T2 ) = 4rxn H(T1 ) + T1 (22.830) = 44.830 kJ 2 H2 O(liq)→H2 O(gas) 4rxn H ª = −241.818 kJ 2 H2 + 1 O2 = H2 O(liq) 4f H ª = −285. O2 .1. H2 . This direct reaction is not easy but it can be done in steps C2 H2 + 5 O2 → 2CO2 +H2 O(liq) 4rxn H ª = −1299.63 kJ 2 2CO2 +2H2 O(liq)→C2 H4 + 3O2 4rxn H ª = +1410.1.83 kJ 2 C2 H2 +H2 = C2 H4 4rxn H ª = −174. P i ν i 4f H(i).012 kJ 22.818 − (−285.1.

i So. 4rxn G = G(products) − G(reactants) = (remember μi = Gm.22.i for pure substance i).3) (22. For the reaction aA + bB = cC + dD Ka = ac ad C D aa ab A B (22.5) Using the property of logarithms: a ln x + b ln y = ln(xa y b ) the above expression becomes 4rxn G = 4rxn Gª + RT ln Q Y i aν i i (22. Reversible reactions Recall the requirement for a spontaneous change: 4G < 0 for constant T and P. As we saw before μi can be deﬁned in terms of activity μi = μª + RT ln ai . z }| { X X ν i μª + RT ν i ln ai . where Q ≡ i aν i is the activity quotient. (22. 4rxn G = i i i 4rx n Gª X i ν i μi .7) • Note that the activity of any pure solid or liquid is for all practical purposes equal to 1. Ka depends on T but is independent of P.2.6) 4rxn G = 4rxn Gª + RT ln Q. i At equilibrium. 4rxn G = 0 and Q = Ka (Thermodynamic equilibrium constant).4) (22. 158 .

we get ¶ µ 4rxn H ª ∂ ln Ka ind.3.8) νi . (22.14) T1 For a reasonably small range T2 − T1 this is well approximated by µ ¶ ª 4rxn Hm 1 1 − ln Ka (T2 ) = ln Ka (T1 ) − R T2 T1 (22. ³ From this ∂(G/T)) = H. ai = useful relation KP = Pi Pª = Xi P Pª (P ª = 1 bar) This leads to the sometimes or more generally KP = Ka (P ª ) c d ¡ ¢c+d−a−b PC PD (P ª aC )c (P ª aD )d = = Ka P ª . ∂(1/T P Applying this to 4rxn H ª 4rxn Gª = − 4rxn S T T gives ¶ µ ∂(4rxn Gª /T ) = 4rxn H ª ∂(1/T ) P ª Using 4rxn G = −RT ln Ka .9) 22.10) (22. So at equilibrium. d ln Ka =− = ∂(1/T ) P of P d(1/T ) R or (using d d(1/T ) (22. 4rxn G = 4rxn Gª + RT ln Q becomes 0 = 4rxn Gª + RT ln Ka ⇒ 4rxn Gª = −RT ln Ka .13) (22. a b PA PB (P ª aA )a (P ª aB )b i (22.11) (22.12) = dT d d(1/T ) dT d = −T 2 dT ) 4rxn H ª d ln Ka = dT RT 2 Integration gives 1 ln Ka (T2 ) = ln Ka (T1 ) + R Z T2 ª 4rxn Hm T2 (22.• For ideal gases.15) 159 . Temperature Dependence of Ka Starting with G =´H − T S or G/T = H/T − S.

Kn = KP • From concentration Cj = Equilibrium “constants” “constants” expression Ka KP KX Kn KC nj V = Pj . Extent of Reaction There are other equilibrium “constants” that are used in the literature. P is known when V is known and constant when concentration known (RT )−4υg ¡ RT ¢−4υg 160 .4. • From Pj = Xj P . KX = KP P −4υg V • From nj = Pj RT (ideal gas approximation). RT KC = KP (RT )−4υg ¡ RT ¢−4υg V relation to Ka – µ Ka −4υ g Kγ P ª ¶ situation used when an exact answer is needed gas reactions activity(products) activity(reactants) partial pressure(products) partial pressure(reactants) mole fraction(products) mole fraction(reactants) moles(products) moles(reactants) concentration(products) concentration(reactants) µ µ Ka −4υ g Kγ P ª Ka −4υ g Kγ P ª Ka −4υ g Kγ P ª ¶ ¶ P V −4υ g when eq.22.

23. 23.1. The chemical potential for the salt may be written in terms of the chemical potential for each of the ions: μsalt = v+ μ+ + v− μ− To determine the activity we start with μj − μª j .3) (23. To understand these processes we must know something about how ions behave in solution.1) where v+ (v− ) is the number of cations (anions) and z+ (z− ) is the charge on the cation (anion). ln aj = RT and ln asalt = j = + or − (23. (23.2) μsalt − μª salt . RT (23. Ionic Activities Consider a salt in solution Mv+ Xv− → v+ M z+ (aq) + v− X z− (aq).4) 161 161 . Ionics Many chemical processes involve electrolytes and or acids and bases.

(23. Ionic activity coeﬃcients The activity coeﬃcients for ionic solutions can also be deﬁned via a+ = γ + m+ .1.7) It is the case that 1 mole of salt behaves like v = v+ + v− moles of nonelectrolytes in terms of the colligative properties. asalt = av+ av− (23. (23.Substituting the expression for μsalt into this gives ln asalt v+ μ+ − v− μ− + v+ μª − v− μª + − = RT v+ μ+ − v+ μª v− μ− − v− μª + − + = RT RT | {z } | {z } v+ ln a+ v− ln a− (23.6) (23. (23.5) So. alternatively. a− = γ − m− .9) The quantity a± is the mean ionic activity.8) v v We see that 1/v asalt = (av+ av− )1/v ≡ a± .11) 162 . 23. ln asalt = v+ ln a+ + v− ln a− or. where m+ = v+ m and m− = v− m. The mean ionic activity coeﬃcient is + − γ ± = (γ + γ − ) (23. This suggests that the interesting quantity is μsalt : v μª μsalt 1/v = salt + RT ln asalt .1.10) v v 1/v .

2 i i (23. γ + and γ − cannot be measured individually.The quantities a+ .2. So. Recall how γ was calculated from the Gibbs-Duhem equation: Z m j ln γ ± = −j − dm0 . Theory of Electrolytic Solutions Ionic strength is deﬁned as I= 1X 2 z mi . a− .13) (23. One can use the colligative properties to measure the ionic activity coeﬃcients.16) 163 . Similarly freezing point depression is redeﬁned as θ = vφKf m. (23.15) where z is the charge of the ion and m its concentration. vmM1 (23. Results from Debye—Hückel theory: point charge in a continuum The Debye—Hückel equation: √ −α |z+ z− | I √ .14) 23. ln γ ± = 1 − Ba0 I (23.12) where the subscript 1 refers to the solvent. vφ corresponds to the empirical factor i discussed earlier. It is convenient to redeﬁne the osmotic coeﬃcient as φ= −1000 g/kg ln a1 . m0 0 where j = 1 − φ.

It is seen that √ the DHLL correctly predicts the m dependence of ln γ ± . 2 A useful empirical approximation is to set Ba0 = 1 and to add an empirical correction to get the : √ µ 2 ¶ 2 v+ + v− −α |z+ z− | I √ ln γ ± = + 2βm .20) v+ + v− 1− I This equation works well to ionic strengths of about I = 0.18) 1000εkT a0 is the radius of closest approach. Ion Mobility Current.1 23. (23.where α= e3 (εkT )3/2 B= µ 2πρ• L 1000 ¶1/2 .21) 164 . (23. Q: I= dQ dt (23.3. e is the charge on the electron.19) This gives the dependence of ln γ ± for dilute solutions (m → 0). (23. Notice that the parameters α and B depend only on the solvent. which is observed exP perimentally (recall I = 1 i zi2 mi ). One important approximation to this equation is to neglect the B term to get the Debye—Hukel limiting Law (DHLL): √ ln γ ± = −α |z+ z− | I.17) 8πLe2 ρ• . I is given by the rate of change (in time) of charge. ε is the dielectric constant for the pure solvent and L is Avogadro’s number. ρ• is the density of the pure solvent. (23.

Ion mobility 165 .602177 × 10−19 C. • Faraday’s constant F = Le = 96485 C/mol (Avogadro’s number of electrons) 23. is required to move a change through a potential (or voltage).22) Power is given by the product of the voltage and the current: p = −εI Resistance is given by the ratio of the voltage to current: R= ε I (23. Some relevant constants • charge of an electron e = 1. ε: w = −εQ (23. w.1.3.(Electrical) work.23) Conductance is the inverse of the resistance (R−1 ).

24) dQi dNi = |zi | e .25) Ni Ni dNi Avi 4t =⇒ = Avi V dt V Ni Avi V (in vacuum) (23. i. dt dt (23. −. (23. the viscous drag equals the Coulomb force. dx (23. zi eE zi eE = f vi =⇒ vi = . Hence Fi = 0.27) (23.e.The total current passing through an ionic solution is determined by the sum of the current carried by the cations and by the anions I = I+ + I− Now Ii = where i = +.31) f The drag f has three basic origins.29) The moving ions experience a viscous drag f that is proportional to their velocities. dt (23. where E is the electric ﬁeld. For uniform ion velocity (vi ) the number of ions arriving at the electrode during any given time interval 4t is 4Ni = so Ii = |zi | e Recall Coulomb’s law Fi = zi eE. 166 . (23. E = Also recall Newton’s law dε .28) Fi = mai = m dvi = zi eE.30) The ions quickly reach terminal velocity.. So the total force on the ions is a sum of the Coulomb force and the viscous drag Fi = zi eE − fvi (in solution).26) (23.

1. Relaxation eﬀects • solvation shell must re-adjust as ion moves. a “dressed” ion. • oppositely charged ions “pull” at each other 3. 167 . Electrophoretic eﬀect. Stoke’s Law type force • “spherical” ion moving through a continuous medium • this contribution is independent of the other ions 2.

(23.32) E For the case for parallel plate capacitors E = ε .33) ui = ε Here the current carried by ion i is Ii = |zi | e Ni ui ε A . V l (23. (23.36) I− / ν −/ |z− | u− A / Vεl α n / F / ν − |z− | u− u− Thus the ratio of the currents is determined by simply the ratio of the mobilities. 168 . =1 z }| { / ν +/ |z+ | u+ A / Vεl / F / ν + |z+ | u+ u+ α n I+ = = = (23. The current then becomes Ii = |zi | e αν i Ln ui ε F=Le ε A = αν i n |zi | ui AF V l Vl (23.35) It is of interest to determine the ratio of the current carried by the cation versus the anion. then each mole of salt gives: N+ = αν + Ln and N− = αν − Ln.34) Suppose a salt has a degree of dissociation α (α = 1 for strong electrolytes) to produce ν + cations and ν − anions. vi l .A more fundamental quantity than ion velocity is the ion mobility. vi ui = . ui which is the ion’s velocity per ﬁeld. where l is the separation of the l plates. So.

− Gion in vac . Since Gibbs free energy corresponds to non-P V work. Solvation describes how a solute dissolves in a solvent. 169 169 . The way to investigate the ion—solvent interaction upon solvation from a thermodynamics point of view is to consider the change in the properties of the ion in a vacuum versus the ion in solution. As a basic treatment of solvation we shall consider the solvent as a non-structural continuum and the ion as a charged particle. We will focus on ions in solution.24. Of course this is an approximation and numerous statistical mechanical models for solvents which incorporate a more realistic structure can be used. Primarily we will determine 4Gv→s ≡ Gion in solv. Thermodynamics of Solvation An extremely important application of thermodynamics is to that of ion solvation. 4Gv→s can be determined by calculating the reversible work done in transferring an ion into the bulk of the solvent. but we will stick with this simple thermodynamic model.

1.24. The Born Model The Born model is a simple solvation model in which the ions are taken to be charged spheres and the solvent is take to be a continuum with dielectric constant εs 170 .

wtr = 0. wdis . 171 . done in charging the sphere which is now in the solvent. • Determine the work. done in discharging the sphere. wch . (This is an approximation). • Determine the work. • Assume the uncharged sphere can pass from the (neutral) vacuum to the neutral solvent without doing any work.4Gv→s for the Born model is obtained by considering the following contribution to the work of ion transfer from the vacuum state to the solvated state (see ﬁgure) • Begin with the state in which the charged sphere (the ion) is in a vacuum.

4Gv→s = wdis + wtr + wch = wdis + wch (24. 172 .1) Work done in discharging the sphere: The act of discharging a sphere involves bringing out to inﬁnity from the surface inﬁnitesimal amounts of charge. The work done is discharging is some what complicated since as one removes the charge the work done in removing more charge changes according to the amount of charge currently on the sphere.So.

So. ri is the radius of the sphere (ion) and 0 is the permittivity of free space. = − 8π 0 ri (24.4) The above expression is 4Gv→s /ion. e is the charge of the electron.This is expressed mathematically as Z 0Z ∞ σ wdis = drdσ 2 ze ri 4π 0 r Z 0 σ dσ = ze 4π 0 ri (ze)2 . For n moles of ions (nL = N) 4Gv→s (24.5) 173 .1.3) 24.1. Free Energy of Solvation for the Born Model Combining the above two expression for work gives 4Gv→s = − (ze)2 (ze)2 + 8π 0 ri 8π 0 εs ri µ ¶ (ze)2 1 = −1 8π 0 ri εs N (ze)2 = 8π 0 ri µ ¶ 1 −1 εs (24. wch = + (ze)2 8π 0 εs ri (24. Work done in charging the sphere: The only diﬀerence in charging the sphere is that the sign of the work will be diﬀerent and that since we are charging in a solvent we must multiply the permittivity of free space by the dielectric constant of the solvent.2) where z is the oxidation state of the ion.

3. 24.2.The dielectric constant of any solvent is always greater than unity so ε1s − 1 is always negative hence 4Gv→s < 0. Enthalpy and Entropy of Solvation We may employ the standard thermodynamic relations which we have derived earlier to obtain the entropy and enthalpy for the Born model. Thus ions always exist more stably in solution than in a vacuum.7) 24. Ion Transfer Between Phases We can quickly generalize the Born model to describe ion transfer between phases in a solution of two immiscible phases Consider an immiscible solution of two phases α and β having dielectric constants εα and εβ . Since Gibbs free energy is a state function we can write the change in free energy for transfer of an ion form the β phase to the α phase as z }| { 4Gβ→v + 4Gv→α µ µ ¶ ¶ N (ze)2 1 N (ze)2 1 = − −1 + −1 8π 0 ri εβ 8π 0 ri εα µ ¶ 1 N (ze)2 1 − = 8π 0 ri εα εβ =−4Gv →β 4Gβ→α = (24.1.1.6) The Partition Coeﬃcient We can now write the partition coeﬃcient for the Born model as α/β Pi =e −4Gª β→α nRT =e − 8πr L(ze)2 i 0 RT 1 − ε1 εα β (24. 174 .

(24.8) we ﬁnd entropy to be 4Sv→s ∂ =− ∂T " N (ze)2 8π 0 ri µ ¶# 1 −1 .2. Unfortunately however.11) 24. the Born model does not make quantitatively correct predictions in many cases. µ ¶ 1 N (ze)2 ∂εs N (ze)2 ∂ .10) = 4Sv→s = − 8π 0 ri ∂T εs 8π 0 ri ε2 ∂T s Enthalpy is obtained via the relation: 4Hv→s = 4Gv→s + T 4Sv→s µ ¶ N (ze)2 1 N (ze)2 T ∂εs = −1 + 8π 0 ri εs 8π 0 ri ε2 ∂T s ¶ µ 2 N (ze) 1 T ∂εs −1 = + 2 8π 0 ri εs εs ∂T (24.9) The only variable in the above equation that has a temperature dependence is the dielectric constant of the solvent so. εs (24.From µ ∂G ∂T ¶ P = −S ⇒ µ ∂4Gv→s ∂T ¶ P = −4Sv→s . We simply list here several phenomena that more sophisticated theories of solvation must consider 175 . (24. Corrections to the Born Model The Born model is very valuable because of its simplicity–qualitative statements about solvation and ion transfer between phases can be made.

2. 176 . Speciﬁc interactions: any interaction energy speciﬁc to the particular ionsolvent pair: Hydrogen bonding being the prime example. so the initial structure of the solvent must breakdown and the new structure must form. Annihilation of defects: A small ion may be captured in a micro-cavity within the solvent releasing the energy of the micro-cavity defect. The solvophobic eﬀect: a cavity must form in the solvent to accommodate the ion. 3.1. 4. Changes in solvent structure: the local environment of the ion has a diﬀerent arrangement of solvent molecules than that of the bulk solvent.

The equations are collected here simply for handy reference for you while working the problem sets. 177 177 dH = T dS + V dP dA = −SdT − P dV dG = −SdT + V dP (25.2) . This section should not substitute for your studying of the rest of this material. Equations • Some thermodynamic relations H = U + PV A = U − TS G = H − TS • The chemical potential equation μi = μª + RT ln ai i • The 4G equation (this should be posted on your refrigerator) 4G = 4Gª + RT ln Q. Key Equations for Exam 4 Listed here are some of the key equations for Exam 4.25.1) (25. The equations listed here are out of context and it would help you very little to memorize this section without understanding the context of these equations.

At equilibrium 4G = 0 and 4Gª = −RT ln Ka • For an ideal gas CP m = Cvm + R (25.3)

(25.4)

• The Debye—Hukel limiting Law (DHLL):

√ ln γ ± = −α |z+ z− | I.

(25.5)

• The ratio of the current carried by the cation versus the anion in terms of ion mobility is I+ u+ = (25.6) I− u− • The chemical potential equation μi = μª + RT ln ai i • The 4G equation (this should be posted on your refrigerator) 4G = 4Gª + RT ln Q. At equilibrium 4G = 0 and 4Gª = −RT ln Ka • 4G for the Born model: 4Gv→s N (ze)2 = 8π 0 rs µ ¶ 1 −1 εs (25.9) (25.8) (25.7)

(25.10)

• 4G for transfer of an ion form the β phase to the α phase, µ ¶ N (ze)2 1 1 − 4Gβ→α = 8π 0 ri εα εβ

(25.11)

178

Chemistry 352: Physical Chemistry II

179

179

Part V Quantum Mechanics and Dynamics

180

180

26. Particle in a 3D Box

We now return to quantum mechanics and investigate some of the important models that we omitted from the ﬁrst semester. In particular we will look at the particle in a box in more than one dimension. We will also solve models which deal with rotations.

**26.1. Particle in a Box
**

Recall that the important ideas from the 1D particle in a box problem were The potential, V (x), is given by ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ∞ ∞ x≤0 0<x<a . x≥a

V (x) =

0

(26.1)

Because of the inﬁnities at x = 0 and x = a, we need to partition the x-axis into the three regions shown in the ﬁgure.

181

181

Now, in region I and III, where the potential is inﬁnite, the particle can never exist so, ψ must equal zero in these regions. The particle must be found only in region II. The Schrödinger equation in region II is (V (x) = 0) −~2 d2 ψ(x) ˆ Hψ = Eψ =⇒ = Eψ, 2m dx2 The general solution of this diﬀerential equation is ψ(x) = A sin kx + B cos kx, where k = q

2mE . ~2

(26.2)

(26.3)

Now ψ must be continuous for all x. Therefore it must satisfy the boundary conditions (b.c.): ψ(0) = 0 and ψ(a) = 0. From the ψ(0) = 0 b.c. we see that the constant B must be zero because cos kx|x=0 = 1. So we are left with ψ(x) = A sin kx for our wavefunction.

182

The second b.c., ψ(a) = 0, places certain restrictions on k. In particular,

nπ , n = 1, 2, 3, · · · . a The values of k are quantized. So, now we have kn = ψn (x) = A sin nπx . a

(26.4)

(26.5)

The constant A is the normalization constant. Solving for A gives A= r

2 . a

(26.6)

Thus our normalized wavefunctions for a particle in a box are (in region II) r nπx 2 sin . (26.7) ψ n (x) = a a We found the energy levels to be En =

h n2 π 2 ~2 ~= 2π n2 h2 = . 2ma2 8ma2

(26.8)

**26.2. The 3D Particle in a Box Problem
**

We now consider the three dimensional version of the problem. The potential is now V (x, y, z) = ( 0, 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b, 0 < z < c . ∞, else (26.9)

183

Now the Schrödinger equation is −~2 2 ˆ ∇ ψ = Eψ Hψ = Eψ ⇒ 2m µ ¶ −~2 ∂ 2 ψ ∂ 2 ψ ∂ 2 ψ + 2 + 2 = Eψ. ⇒ 2m ∂x2 ∂y ∂z

(26.10)

It is generally true that when the Hamiltonian is a sum of independent terms, we can write the wavefunction as a product of wavefunctions ψ(x, y, z) = ψx (x)ψ y (y)ψ z (z). (26.11)

This lets us perform a mathematical trick which is sometimes useful in solving partial diﬀerential equations. Subbing the product wavefunction into the Schrödinger equation we get µ ¶ −~2 ∂ 2 ψx ψy ψz ∂ 2 ψx ψy ψz ∂ 2 ψx ψy ψz = Eψ x ψy ψz + + (26.12) 2m ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 µ ¶ −~2 ψy ψz ∂ 2 ψx ψx ψz ∂ 2 ψy ψx ψy ∂ 2 ψz = Eψ x ψy ψz . + + 2m ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2

We now divide both sides by ψx ψy ψz to get µ ¶ 1 ∂ 2ψy 1 ∂ 2ψz −~2 1 ∂ 2 ψx = E. + + 2m ψx ∂x2 ψy ∂y 2 ψz ∂z 2 This equation is now of the form f (x) + g(y) + h(z) = C, where C is a constant. If we take the derivative with respect to x we get d→ f (x) + g(y) + h(z) = C, dx → dC df (x) dg(y) dh(z) + + = , dx dx dx dx df (x) = 0, dx

(26.13)

(26.14)

(26.15)

184

Similarly for g(y) and h(z) Applying this to our Schrödinger equation means that we have converted our partial diﬀerential equation into three independent ordinary diﬀerential equations. (26. 8mc2 (26. 8ma2 n2 h2 y = . a a r ny πy 2 sin .16) √ ny πy nz πz 2 2 nx πx sin sin ψ=√ sin a b c abc E = Ex.ny Ez.nx + Ey.19) and the total energy is (26.So. Hence we immediately have ψx = ψy ψz and Ex. −~2 d2 ψx −~2 1 d2 ψx = Ex =⇒ = Ex ψx 2m ψx dx2 2m dx2 −~2 d2 ψy −~2 1 d2 ψy = Ey =⇒ = Ey ψy 2m ψy dy 2 2m dy 2 −~2 d2 ψz −~2 1 d2 ψz = Ez =⇒ = Ez ψz 2m ψz dz 2 2m dz 2 which we recognize as the 1D particle in a box equations. 8mb2 n2 h2 z = .nx = Ey.17) (26.nz .20) 185 .ny + Ez. = b b r nz πz 2 sin = c c r (26. f (x) is a constant.nz The total wavefunction is n2 h2 x .18) nx πx 2 sin .

21) 186 .Degeneracy The 3D particle in a box model brings up the concept of degeneracy. Let the 3D box be a cube (a = b = c) then the states (nx = 2. ny = 1. nz = 1). ny = 2. (nx = 1. nz = 2) have the same total energy and thus are degenerate. (26. nz = 1). When n(> 1) states have the same total energy they are said to be n-fold degenerate. ny = 1. (nx = 1.

describes how a dependent variable.27. ˆ • Operator: An operator.. Addition on the set of real numbers. transforms a function. • Algebra: An algebra is a speciﬁc collection of rules applied to a set of objects and a particular operation — Rules ∗ Transitivity ∗ Associativity ∗ Existence of an identity ∗ Existence of an inverse — e. Operators 27. y = x2 . say x: y = f(x) — e. say y. Deﬁnitions • Function: A function. y = sin x. Multiplication on the set of real numbers 187 187 .. say f. say g: Of(x) = g(x).g. say O. etc.g. into another ˆ function.1. Operator Algebra We now take a mathematical excursion and discuss the algebra of operators. say f . is related to an independent variable.

2) Algebraic rules for operators 1.6) 188 . Addition: ˆ if αf (x) = g(x) and βf (x) = h(x).— Note: Commutivity is not a requirement of an algebra ∗ example 1: multiplication on the set of real number is commutive: ab = ba ∗ example 2: multiplication on the set of n × n matrices is not commutive: ab 6= ba in general. Equality: ˆ if α = β. e.g. ˆˆ 4.5) (27. then αf (x) = g(x) = βf (x) ˆ ˆ ˆ 2. " #" # " # 1 0 3 1 3 1 = (27. Multiplication: ³ ´ ˆ (x) = α βf (x) ˆ αβf ˆ ˆ (27. Inverse: ˆ if αf (x) = g(x) and βg(x) = f (x) ˆ ˆ ˆ then β = α−1 and is said to be α inverse ˆ (27. ˆ ˆ ˆ then (ˆ + β)f (x) = αf (x) + βf (x) = g(x) + h(x) α ˆ 3.3) ˆˆ ˆ α β αf (x) = β (ˆ f (x)) .1) 2 1 1 1 7 3 but " 3 1 1 1 #" 1 0 2 1 # " 5 1 3 1 # " 3 1 7 3 # = 6= (27. ˆˆ but in general αβf (x) 6= β αf (x).4) (27..

z) = ∂ ex + ∂ ey + ∂ ez f(x.7) 189 . z) = ∂x2 + ∂y2 + ∂z2 f (x. y. z) = f (−x. y. −y. y. where λ is a complex number. and ˆ ˆ ˆ — α(λf (x)) = λˆ f (x). This leads to the construction of the ˆˆ ˆˆ commutator. ◦]: h i ˆ ≡ αβ − β α. [◦. • x: xf(x) = xf(x) ˆ ˆ ³ ´ ¢ ¡ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ d • d2 : d2 f (x) = d df (x) = d dx f (x) = d f (x) dx d dx ˆ ˆ • d: df (x) = • ˆ: ˆf (x. y. β ˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ (27.Linear operators: • A special and important class of operators • They obey all of the above properties in addition to — α (f (x) + g(x)) = αf (x) + αg(x). −z) ı ı ´ ³ ˆ ∇f(x. α. z) ˆ • ∇: ∂x ∂y ∂z ´ ³ 2 2 2 ∂ ∂2 ∂2 ˆ ˆ • ∇ : ∇ f (x. z) ¡d dx ¢ f (x) = d2 f (x) dx2 Commutators: We have seen that in general αβ 6= β α. ˆ α Hermitian operators: • A special class of linear operators • All observables in quantum mechanics are associated with Hermitian operators • The eigenvalues of Hermitian operators are real Some important operators 1. y.

then α. ˆˆ ˆ ˆ If αβ ˆ ˆ ˆ The eigenvalue equation: If αf (x) = g(x) and g(x) = af(x). ˆ (27. ³ ´ ˆ α β (ˆ f ) = α βf ˆ ˆ ³ ´ ³ ´ ˆ α βf = a βf . ˆ ˆ If αf (x) = af (x) and β and α commute.9) (27.h i ˆ = β α.11) ˆ which states that βf is an eigenfunction of α with eigenvalue a. ˆ Thus (27. ˆ On the other hand.8) The eigenvalue equation is of fundamental importance in quantum theory.10) ˆ because β and α commute. αf (x) = g(x) ˆ ˆ becomes the eigenvalue equation αf (x) = af (x). Commuting operators and simultaneous sets of eigenfunctions. this to be true is if βf 190 . ˆ ˆ (27. We shall see that eigenvalues of certain operator can be identiﬁed as experimental observables. then the operator equation. ˆ ˆ The proof goes as follows: On the one hand. The only way for ˆ ˆ = bf. then βf (x) = bf (x). ˆ α ˆ ˆ β (ˆ f ) = β (af) = aβf because f is an eigenfunction of α. β = 0 and α and β are said to commute with one another.

Completeness.27.13) i 191 . Orthogonality.2.12) j space Theorem 2: The eigenfunctions of a Hermitian operator form a complete set Corollary (the superposition principle): Any arbitrary function ψ in the space of eigenfunctions {ϕi } can be written as a superposition of these eigenfunctions: X ψ= ai ϕi (27. j 6= k. (27. and the Superposition Principle Theorem 1: The eigenfunctions of a Hermitian operator corresponding to diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal: Z ψ∗ ψk = 0.

28. Angular Momentum

We will encounter several diﬀerent types of angular momenta, but fortunately they are all described by a single theory Before starting with the quantum mechanical treatment of angular momentum, we ﬁrst review the classical treatment.

**28.1. Classical Theory of Angular Momentum
**

The classical angular momentum, L, is given by L=x×p (28.1)

Hence,

The vector cross-product can be computed by ﬁnding the following determinant: ¯ ¯ ¯ ex ey ez ¯ Ly Lx Lz ¯ z }| { ¯ z }| { z }| { ¯ ¯ (28.2) L = ¯ x y z ¯ = (ypz − zpy )ex + (zpx − xpz )ey + (xpy − ypx )ez ¯ ¯ ¯ px py pz ¯ Lx = (ypz − zpy ) , Ly = (zpx − xpz ) , Lz = (xpy − ypx ) . (28.3) (28.4) (28.5)

**Another quantity that we will ﬁnd useful is L2 = L · L = L2 + L2 + L2 x y z 192
**

192

(28.6)

**28.2. Quantum theory of Angular Momentum
**

So, in accordance with postulate II, we replace the classical variables with their operators. That is, µ ¶ ˆ x = (ˆpz − z py ) = ~ y ∂ − z ∂ , (28.7) L yˆ ˆˆ i ∂z ∂y µ ¶ ∂ ∂ ~ ˆ z −x , (28.8) zˆ ˆˆ Ly = (ˆpx − xpz ) = i ∂x ∂z µ ¶ ∂ ∂ ~ ˆ x −y . (28.9) xˆ ˆˆ Lz = (ˆpy − y px ) = i ∂y ∂x Recall the basic commutators. ∙ ¸ ∂ , u = 1, ∂u ∙ ¸ ∂ , v = 0, ∂u (28.10)

where u, v = x, y, or z and u 6= v. From these basic commutators one can derive h i i h ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ x , Ly = i~Lz , ˆ y , Lz = i~Lx , L L

and

i h ˆ ˆ ˆ z , Lx = i~Ly L

(28.11)

i h i h i h ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 2 , Lx = L2 , Ly = L2 , Lz = 0 L

(28.12)

It is often convenient to express the angular momentum operators in spherical polar coordinates as follows. ¶ µ ∂ ∂ ˆ Lx = i~ sin φ + cot θ cos φ , (28.13) ∂θ ∂φ ¶ µ ˆ y = −i~ cos φ ∂ − cot θ sin φ ∂ , (28.14) L ∂θ ∂φ

193

∂ ˆ Lz = −i~ ∂φ µ 2 ¶ 1 ∂2 ∂ ∂ 2 2 ˆ + cot θ + L = −~ ∂θ sin2 θ ∂φ2 ∂θ2

(28.15) (28.16)

**28.3. Particle on a Ring
**

Consider a particle of mass μ conﬁned to move on a ring of radius R. The moment of inertia is I = μR2 The Hamiltonian is given by ˆ −~2 d2 L2 ˆ H= z = 2I 2I dφ2 (note that we use d rather than ∂ since the problem is one-dimensional). The Schrödinger equation becomes −~2 d2 ψ = Eψ 2I dφ2 (28.18) (28.17)

Notice that this Schrödinger equation is exactly the same form as the particle in a box. The only diﬀerence is the boundary conditions. The boundary condition for the particle in a box were ψ was zero outside the box. Now the boundary condition is that ψ(φ) = ψ(φ + 2π). The wavefunction must by 2π periodic. The allowable wavefunctions are

⎧ ⎪ A cos mφ ⎨ ψm (φ) = A sin mφ , ⎪ ⎩ Aeimφ

(28.19)

194

m = 0, ±1, ±2, ±3, . . . These wavefunctions are really the “same.” It will be most convenient to use ψm (φ) = Aeimφ as our wave functions. Plugging ψm (φ) = Aeimφ into the Schrödinger equation gives −~2 d2 Aeimφ = Em Aeimφ 2I dφ2 ~2 m2 imφ Ae = Em Aeimφ 2I Therefore the energy levels (the eigenvalues) for a particle in a ring are m2 h2 ~2 m2 = . 2I 8π2 I Next we need to ﬁnd the normalization constant, A. Z 2π ψ∗ ψdφ 1 = Z0 2π 1 = A2 e−imφ eimφ dφ 0 Z 2π 2 1 = A dφ = 2πA2 , Em =

0

(28.20)

(28.21)

(28.22)

thus

1 . 2π Hence the normalized wavefunctions for a particle on a ring are 1 ψ = √ eimφ . 2π A=

r

(28.23)

(28.24)

**28.4. General Theory of Angular Momentum
**

To discuss angular momentum in a more general way it is convenient to deﬁne two so-called ‘ladder’ operators ˆ ˆ ˆ L+ ≡ Lx + iLy (28.25)

195

and ˆ ˆ We collect here the commutators of L+ and L− : h i ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Lz , L+ = L+ ⇒ L+ Lz = Lz L+ − L+ i h ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Lz , L− = −L− ⇒ L− Lz = Lz L− + L− ˆ ˆ ˆ L− ≡ Lx − iLy (28.26)

(28.27) (28.28)

ˆ ˆ Now, since Lz and L2 commute there must exist a set of simultaneous eigenfunctions {ψi } ˆ (28.29) Lz ψi = mψ i and ˆ L2 ψi = k2 ψi (28.30) Physically, k~ represents the length of the angular momentum vector and m~ represents the projection onto the z-axis. (Note: for simplicity in writing we are ‘hiding’ the ~ in the wavefunctions.) On these physical grounds we conclude |m| ≤ k, i.e., k sets an upper and lower limit on m. Let’s deﬁne the maximum value of m to be a new quantum number l ≡ mmax . (Thus l ≤ k). And let’s deﬁne the minium value of m to be a new quantum number l0 ≡ mmin . (Thus −l0 ≤ k) Now, at least one of the eigenfunctions in the set {ψ i } yields the eigenvalue mmax ˆ (or l) when operated on by Lz . Let’s call that eigenfunction ψl ; ˆ Lz ψl = lψ l . ˆ Now we can operate on both sides of this equation with L− : ˆ ˆ ˆ L− Lz ψl = L− lψ l (28.32) (28.31)

196

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Using the commutator relation L− Lz = Lz L− + L− we get ´ ³ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Lz L− + L− ψl = lL− ψl ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Lz L− ψl + L− ψl = lL− ψl

(28.33)

Bringing the second term on the left hand side over to the right hand side gives ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Lz L− ψl = lL− ψl − L− ψl ˆ ˆ ˆ Lz L− ψl = (l − 1)L− ψl | {z } | {z }

ψ l−1 ψ l−1

(28.34)

ˆ ˆ We see that L− ψl ≡ ψl−1 is in fact an eigenfunction of Lz (with associated eigenvalue (l − 1)) and is thus a member of {ψi } . The eigenfunction ψl−1 has an associated eigenvalue that is one unit less then the maximum value. ˆ− The above procedure can be repeated n times so that Ln ψl = ψl−n provided n does not exceed l − l0 . The eigenfunction ψ l−n has an associated eigenvalue that is n units less then the maximum value, i.e., ˆ Lz ψl−n = (l − n)ψ l−n . (28.35) The largest value of n is l − l0 . For that case, ˆ Lz ψl0 = (l − l + l0 )ψl0 = l0 ψl0 . (28.36)

ˆ Similar behavior is seen for the operator L+ , except in the opposite direction–the ˆ eigenvalue is increased by one unit for each action of L+ . For example ˆ ˆ ˆ L+ Lz ψl0 = L+ l0 ψl0 ´ ³ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Lz L+ − L+ ψl0 = l0 L+ ψl0 (28.37)

ˆ ˆ ˆ Lz L+ ψl0 = (l0 + 1)L+ ψl0 .

197

ˆ ˆ The raising and lowering nature of L+ and L− is why they are called ladder operators. ˆ ˆ We can not act with L+ and L− indeﬁnitely since we are limited by l–we reach the ends of the ladder. This requires that ˆ L− ψl0 = 0 (we can’t go lower than the lowest step) and ˆ L+ ψl = 0 (we can’t go higher than the highest step). ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Often times the ladder operators appear in tandem either as L− L+ or L+ L− so it is useful list some identities for these products ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆz ˆ L− L+ = L2 − L2 − Lz and ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆz ˆ L+ L− = L2 − L2 + Lz (28.41) (28.40) (28.39) (28.38)

We can use these identities to derive a relation between the quantum numbers k and l. We begin with ³ ´ ˆ ˆ − L+ ψl = L− L+ ψl = 0, ˆ ˆ L

(28.42)

Therefore

but from the ﬁrst of the above identities ´ ³ ˆz ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ L− L+ ψl = L2 − L2 − Lz ψl = (k2 − l2 − l)ψ l k2 − l2 − l = 0 ⇒ k = p l(l + 1).

(28.43)

(28.44)

198

48) (28.51) 199 . −l. l(l + 1) − l02 + l0 = 0. (28.49) If we write out the ﬁrst of these explicitly in spherical polar coordinates as a partial diﬀerential equation we obtain 1 ∂ 2 ψlm ∂ 2 ψlm ∂ψlm + + cot θ + l(l + 1)ψ lm = 0 ∂θ sin2 θ ∂φ2 ∂θ2 (28. l − 1. −l + 1 . Quantum Properties of Angular Momentum The eigenfunctions of angular momentum are entirely speciﬁed by two quantum numbers l and m: ψlm .47) 28.We we can also consider ³ ´ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ L+ L− ψl0 = L+ L− ψl0 = 0 ´ ³ ˆ ˆ ˆz ˆ ˆ L+ L− ψl0 = L2 − L2 + Lz ψl0 = (k 2 − l02 + l0 )ψl0 . . (28. This also implies that the number of ‘rungs’ is 2l + 1 and that l must be either an integer or a half-integer. . mmin = −l and so m = l. φ).46) substituting in the relation we just found for k gives (28.50) The solutions to this partial diﬀerential equation are known to be the spherical harmonic functions ψ lm = Ylm (θ.5. . . simplifying gives l = −l0 Thus mmax = l. ˆ L2 ψlm = l(l + 1)ψ lm ˆ Lz ψlm = mψ lm (28.45) and (28. l − 2.

( Z 2π Z π 1 l0 = l and m0 = m (28. but they are a product of a function only of θ and a function only of φ.The spherical harmonics are functions of two variables. meaning. We know that there are 2l + 1 diﬀerent m values for a particular l value.54) l(l + 1)h2 l(l + 1)~2 = = El .52) where the Pl (θ) are the Legendra polynomials and A is normalization constant. (28.55) (28.53) Yl∗m0 (θ. The spherical harmonics (and hence the angular momentum wavefunctions) are orthonormal. φ) sin θdθdφ = 0 0 l0 6= l or m0 6= m 0 0 28. All 2l + 1 of these wavefunctions correspond to the same energy. φ) = APl (θ)eimφ . They are also built-in functions of Mathematica. We say the there is a 2l + 1 degeneracy of the energy levels. the energy levels are determined only by the value of l.56) 2I 8π2 I There is no m dependence for the energy. 2I 2I Thus Elm = (28. The rigid rotor Rotational energy For general rotation in three dimensions the is ~2 ˆ ˆ H = L2 . 200 . |m| |m| (28.5. 2I so the Schrödinger equation is ~2 ˆ ~2 ˆ Hψ lm = Elm ψlm ⇒ L2 ψlm = Elm ψlm ⇒ l(l + 1)ψlm = Elm ψlm . In other words. ψlm = Ylm (θ. φ)Ylm (θ. Both the spherical harmonics and the Legendra polynomials are tabulated.1.

One peculiarity of this system is that the wavefunctions are 4π periodic (and 2π antiperiodic): ψs (θ) = −ψs (θ + 2π) (29.1) and ψ s (θ) = ψs (θ + 4π). Addition of Angular Momentum 29.2) That means that the system has to ‘rotate’ twice (in spin space not coordinate space) to get back to its original state. These systems have no classical analogs.29.1. l = s = 1/2. One example of such a system is the spin of an electron. (29. The values of m = ms are limited to +1/2 and −1/2. ∗ ∗ ∗ See in-class demonstration: the belt trick ∗ ∗∗ 201 201 . Systems in which l takes on half-integer values are peculiar. Spin Angular Momentum We learned above that l may take on integer or half-integer values.

LS coupling (also called Russell-Saunders coupling) • works well for low atomic weight atoms (ﬁrst couple of rows of the periodic table) P • ﬁnd the total spin angular momentum S = Ms. jj coupling • applies to higher atomic weight atoms • ﬁnd subtotal angular momentum for each electron ji = li + si P • then ﬁnd total angular momentum by J = i ji . (Ms = i msi ) P • ﬁnd the total orbital angular momentum L = Mmax .2.29.2. (M = i mi ) • then J = L + S 2. One measures. Addition of Angular Momentum In atoms the are a number of sources of angular momentum: The l’s and s’s of each of the electrons.1. the total angular momentum.max .) 202 . The Addition of Angular Momentum: General Theory Consider two sources of angular momentum for a system represented by the opˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ erators J1 and J2 (J1 and J2 could be L or S angular momentum. The are two main coupling schemes which account for the total angular momentum of the atom. we use J when we speak generally. 1. 29. • we will not use this method. J. The electrons in many electron atoms couple. however.

6) 203 . |j1 − j2 | + 1.3) We need to determine the allowed values of the total angular momentum quantum number J. An Example: Two Electrons The table below shows the total spin angular momentum S for a two electron system (29.5) The total angular momentum is quantized is exactly the same manner as any other angular momentum. j1 + j2 − 1. . Jmin = |j1 − j2 | . The maximum value of J is determined by the maximum value of M by Jmax = Mmax = m1max + m2max = j1 + j2 (29. |j1 − j2 | . Thus the allowed values of J are J = j1 + j2 . 29.2.2. That is.4) This corresponds to a situation in which component angular momentums add in the most favorable manner The minimum value of J is determined by the case when the components add in the least favorable manner. (29. .ˆ ˆ ˆ The total angular momentum is JT = J1 + J2 . . ˆ ˆ ˆ The total z-component of the angular momentum is JzT = Jz1 + Jz2 The last statement implies that the orientation quantum number of the total system is simple the sum of that for the components M = m1 + m2 (29. .

those being 1 S and 3 S during our discussion of helium.3. L 0 symbol S 1 P 2 D 3 F 4 5 .2. Term Symbols We have already seen several term symbols. G H 204 . For historical reasons L values are associated with a letter like the l values of a hydrogenic system are. 29. In general the term symbol is simply notates the total orbital angular momentum and spin degeneracies of a particular set of states (or a state in the case of a singlet state). The orbital degeneracy is given by gL = 2L + 1. In the above example the degeneracy is gS = 3 for the S = 1 states and gS = 1 for the S = 0 states. So.spin state α(1)α(2) β(1)β(2) α(1)β(2) + β(1)α(2) α(1)β(2) − β(1)α(2) ms1 1 2 ms1 1 2 MS 1 −1 0 0 S 1 1 1 0 −1 2 0 0 −1 2 0 0 Counting states: The spin degeneracy. Term symbols are useful for predict and understanding spectroscopic data. of the states is given by 2S + 1. Term symbols are simply shorthand notion used to identify states. gS . it is worthwhile to brieﬂy discuss them.

p1 and p5 have the same term symbol. The spin—orbit Hamiltonian is [ ˆ HSO = hcAL · S ´ ³ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ SO = hcA J 2 − L2 − S 2 . These dipoles interact with a certain spin—orbit interaction energy ESO . H 2 (29.4. If several terms have the same multiplicity then ground state will be that of the largest L. Rules: 1. Hund’s Rule for the ground state only.g. S = 0. The ground state will have maximum multiplicity. All closed shells have zero spin and orbital angular momentums: L = 0. 3. These states are all singlet S states.. An electron and a “hole” lead to equivalent term symbols. 2. 3. Highest J value (inverted) “hole” 29. 1. An electron has orbital and spin magnetic dipoles.2.7) 205 .The term symbol for a particular states is constructed from the following general template gS LJ . • E. Lowest J value (regular) “electron”. Spin Orbit Coupling A charge possessing angular momentum has a magnetic dipole associated with it. Many electron atoms have term symbols associated with their states. notated by 1 S 2.

8) 206 .where A is the spin—orbit coupling constant. From the Hamiltonian the spin—orbit interaction energy is ESO = hcA [J(J + 1) − L(L + 1) − S(S + 1)] 2 (29.

Last semester. Consequently we must be satisﬁed with using approximation methods.30. Now we will consider two important quantitative approximation methods: (i) perturbation theory and (ii) variational theory 30. • Treat the diﬀerence between the two systems as a perturbation to the solvable system • Use the solvable system’s wavefunctions as a zeroth order approximation to the wavefunctions for the unsolvable system. Approximation Techniques As we learned last semester. there are very few models for which we can obtain an exact solution.1. • These wavefunctions are used to ﬁnd a ﬁrst order correction to the energy. 207 207 . we always took the simplest approximation to give the qualitative properties of the unsolvable system. Perturbation Theory The basic procedure of perturbation theory • Find a solvable system that is similar to the system at hand.

. Example: the quartic oscillator • Consider the quartic oscillator described by the potential V (x) = 1 kx2 +ax4 2 where a is very small and can be treated as a perturbation. (0) (30. √ 2 This has energy levels En = ~ω(n+ 1 ) and wavefunctions An Hn ( αx)e−αx /2 . H=− 2 2m dx 2 (30. The nth state energy in perturbation theory: (0) (1) En = En + En + . This process get algebraically intensive so we will only go as far as listing the ﬁrst order energy correction. . 2 q where α = km ~ (30.3) • The perturbative part of the Hamiltonian is ˆ H (1) = ax4 . This is given by Z (1) ˆ En = ψ(0)∗ H (1) ψ(0) dx.1) (1) where En is the nth state energy for the unperturbed (solvable) system and En is the ﬁrst order correction. • The obvious solvable system is the harmonic oscillator: 1 ~2 d2 ˆ + kx2 .• The ﬁrst order energy is then used to make a ﬁrst order approximation to the wavefunction.4) 208 . . (30.2) n n all space ˆ where H (1) is the ﬁrst order correction to the Hamiltonian–the perturbation. • The procedure is repeated to get higher and higher order approximations.

p.7) 209 . gives a trial wavefunction which is closest to the real wavefunction. that we use to minimize the trial energy by setting dEtrial =0 dp (30. The trial energy is calculated by Etrial = R R all space ˆ ψ∗ Hψtrial dx trial ψ∗ ψtrial dx trial (30.5) E0 = −∞ Z ∞ 2 2 A0 e−αx /2 ax4 A0 e−αx /2 dx = −∞ Z ∞ 2 2 x4 e−αx dx = aA0 √ −∞ 3 πaA2 0 = . The basis for this is the variation theorem which states Etrial ≥ E. 5 4α 2 so the ﬁrst order ground state energy for a quartic oscillator is √ ~ω 3 πaA2 0 + E0 ' .6) all space The trial energy is now a function of the adjustable parameter. We will not prove this theorem here. 5 2 2 4α 30.2. the ground state energy correction is then calculation from Z ∞ (1) (0)∗ ˆ (0) ψ0 H (1) ψ0 dx (30. Etrial . The value of the parameter which minimizes the energy.• For example. Variational method The basic idea behind the variational method is to use a trial wavefunction with an adjustable parameter.

and solving for p. but with reasonably good trial functions one is pretty safe in having a minimum. (Strictly speaking we should check that we have a minimum and not a maximum or inﬂection point.) 210 .

We shall ﬁnally get to quantum dynamics in this chapter. the two level system is a close second. Unlike the harmonic oscillator it has no classical analogue.1.31. The Two Level System If the harmonic oscillator is the most important model in all a physics. The spin system discussed above is an example of a two level system. The time variable never appears in any expression. 31. Obviously there are cases where quantum objects move with time. but ﬁrst we will discuss the very important model of the two level system. 211 211 . The Two Level System and Quantum Dynamics Our entire discussion of quantum mechanics thus far had dealt only with time independent quantum mechanics. ﬁring an electron down a particle accelerator. For example. The two level system is inherently quantum mechanical in nature.

ˆ H= 1 δ 1.Consequently. j 6= k (31.1) TLS R where TLS dΩ means integration over the two level space (which is really just the P sum 2 ).° “projects out” the j th state of the wavefunction being acted on.° .° + 2 δ 2. The two level system consists of two states ψ1 and ψ2 separated by energy 4 = 2 − 1 as shown below The states ψ1 and ψ2 are orthonormal: Z ψ∗ ψk dΩ = j ( 1 0 j=k . (31.2) where δ j. i=1 The states ψ 1 and ψ2 are eigenfunctions of the two level Hamiltonian. we can not use our usual procedure of writing down the classical Hamiltonian and then replacing the variables with their corresponding operators. 212 .

2 2 (31.4) (31.7) 213 .° ) (aψ 1 + bψ2 ) 2 δ 2. We can invert above equations and solve for ψ1 and ψ2 in terms of ψL and ψR 1 1 ψ1 = √ ψL + √ ψR 2 2 and 1 1 ψ2 = √ ψL − √ ψR .3) (aψ1 + bψ2 ) + (aψ1 + bψ2 ) = a 1 ψ1 + b 2ψ2 Another orthonormal set of wavefunctions are the so-called ‘left’ 1 1 ψL = √ ψ1 + √ ψ2 2 2 and ‘right’ 1 1 ψR = √ ψ1 − √ ψ2 2 2 (31.° 2 δ 2.° + = 1 δ 1.5) states.6) (31. then ˆ Hψ = ( 1 δ 1.° (31.For example let some arbitrary wavefunction ψ = aψ 1 + bψ2 .

t)dx¯ (31. 214 .31. This is given by ¯Z ¯2 ¯ ¯ ∗ P (x.8) We can verify this by obtaining the time independent Schrödinger equation from the more general time dependent ∂Ψn (x.10) Does this mean the eigenstates are not stationary states? To determine this we need to calculate the probability of ﬁnding the particle in the same eigenstate at some future time. Ψn (x. t) ≡ ψn (x)e− ~ En t i (31. What has been kept hidden up to now is the fact that the eigenfunctions are really multiplied by a phase factor of the form . Quantum Dynamics So far we have been concerned with the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues (energy levels) of the various quantum systems that we have discussed. 0)Ψn (x. t) i ˆ = Hψn (x)e− ~ En t i ˆ = Hψn (x)e− ~ En t i ˆ = Hψn (x)e− ~ En t i (31. t) = ¯ Ψn (x.9) ˆ En ψn (x)e− ~ En t = e− ~ En t Hψn (x) ˆ En ψn (x) = Hψ n (x) (31.2.11) ¯ ¯ ¯2 ¯Z ¯ ¯ i ∗ − ~ En t dx¯ = ¯ ψ n (x)ψ n (x)e ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯2 Z ¯ −iE t ¯ ∗ ¯e ~ n ψn (x)ψ n (x)dx¯ = ¯ ¯ ¯ i ¯2 ¯ ¯ = ¯e− ~ En t (1)¯ = 1. t) ∂t i ∂ψn (x)e− ~ En t i~ ∂t i ∂e− ~ En t i~ψ n (x) ¶ ∂t µ i i i~ψ n (x) − En e− ~ En t ~ i~ i ˆ = HΨn (x.

Thus the eigenstates are stationary states. t) 2 2 exposing the phase factors we get i i 1 1 Φ(x. The phase factor does become important for superposition states.14) i i ∗ ∗ − ~ E1 t − ~ E2 t ¯ ¯2 +ψ2 (x)ψ 1 (x)e + ψ2 (x)ψ 2 (x)e The “cross-terms” (those of the form ψ∗ (x)ψ 2 (x) and ψ ∗ (x)ψ 1 (x)) are zero when 1 2 215 . t)¯ P (x. t) = ¯ ¯ ¯Z µ ¶¯2 ¶µ ¯ ¯ i i 1 ∗ 1 ∗ 1 1 − ~ E1 t − ~ E2 t ¯ ¯ √ ψ1 (x) + √ ψ2 (x) √ ψ1 (x)e = ¯ + √ ψ2 (x)e ¯ 2 2 2 2 ¯ Z Ã ! ¯2 i i ¯ ¯1 ψ ∗ (x)ψ 1 (x)e− ~ E1 t + ψ∗ (x)ψ 2 (x)e− ~ E2 t ¯ ¯ 1 1 dx¯ .12) (31. Similar to before we calculate ¯2 ¯Z ¯ ¯ ¯ Φ∗ (x.13) Let’s now track the probability of ﬁnding the particle in the same superposition state.so no matter what time t we check we will always ﬁnd the system in the same eigenstate. t) + √ Ψ2 (x. In general the state of the system need not be in one particular eigenstate. = ¯ (31. it may be in a superposition of any number of eigenstates. 0)Φ(x. As an example consider the state 1 1 Φ(x. t) = √ Ψ1 (x. The “left” and “right” wavefunctions that we saw in the discussion of the two level system are examples of superposition states. t) = √ ψ1 (x)e− ~ E1 t + √ ψ2 (x)e− ~ E2 t 2 2 (31.

This leaves ¯2 ¯Z ¯ ¯ ¯ Φ∗ (x. t) = ¯ ¯ ¯ Z ³ ´ ¯2 ¯ ¯1 i i ∗ ∗ − ~ E1 t − ~ E2 t dx¯ ψ 1 (x)ψ 1 (x)e + ψ2 (x)ψ 2 (x)e = ¯ ¯ ¯2 ¯ µ ¶¯2 Z Z ¯1 − i E t ¯ i ∗ ∗ − ~ E2 t 1 ¯ e ~ ψ1 (x)ψ 1 (x)dx + e ψ2 (x)ψ 2 (x)dx ¯ = ¯ ¯ 2 ¯ ³ ´¯2 ´³ i ´ ³ i ¯1 − i E t ¯ i i i ¯ e ~ 1 + e− ~ E2 t ¯ = 1 e+ ~ E1 t + e+ ~ E2 t e− ~ E1 t + e− ~ E2 t = ¯ ¯ 2 4 ¶ ³ ´ 1µ i i (E1 − E2 ) 1 + ~ (E1 −E2 )t − ~ (E1 −E2 )t 1+e 1 + cos t . +e +1 = = 4 2 ~ The probability of ﬁnd in the system in its original superposition states is not one for all times t.integrated because the eigenfunctions are orthogonal. t)¯ (31. 0)Φ(x.15) P (x. 216 .

This section should not substitute for your studying of the rest of this material. Z ψ∗ αψdxdydz. (31. Equations • The short cut for getting the normalization constant . N unnorm (31.17) • How to get the average value for some property. sZ N= space |ψunnorm (x. z)|2 dxdydz. ˆ hˆ i = α space (31.16) • The normalized wavefunction: ψnorm = 1 ψ .Key Equations for Exam 1 Listed here are some of the key equations for Exam 1. y. The equations are collected here simply for handy reference for you while working the problem sets.18) 217 217 . The equations listed here are out of context and it would help you very little to memorize this section without understanding the context of these equations.

j=k . j 6= k (31.19) • Normalized wavefunctions for the 3D particle in a box. (31. sin ψn (x) = √ a b c abc • The energy levels for the 3D particle in a box.• The Laplacian ∇ = 2 µ ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 ∂x2 ∂y ∂z ¶ .20) (31. 8ma2 8mb2 8mc ( (31. √ ny πy nz πz nx πx 2 2 sin sin . Lz = 0. 2I 8π2 I (31.25) • The energy levels for a particle in a ring are Em = (31. Lx = i~Ly (31.22) • Superpostion: ψ= X i ai ϕi (31.nz • Orthonormality: Z n2 h2 n2 h2 n2 h2 y x = + + z 2.26) • The normalized wavefunctions for a particle on a ring are 1 ψ = √ eimφ .27) 218 . Ly = i~Lz . ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ L m2 h2 ~2 m2 = .ny . ˆ z . ˆ y . 0. Lz = i~Lx . Ly = L2 .21) ψ∗ ψk j = space 1. Lx = L2 .24) L L L and h i h i h i ˆ 2 . 2π (31. Enx .23) • Commonly used comutators of the angular momentum operators are h i i i h h ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ x .

t) ≡ ψn (x)e− ~ En t i (31.• The eigenfunctions of angular momentum are entirely speciﬁed by two quantum numbers l and m: ψ lm . ˆ L2 ψlm = l(l + 1)ψ lm • The energy levels for the rigid rotor are El = l(l + 1)~2 .32) • In general Ψn (x. 2I (31.31) • The trial energy in variation theory is calculated by R ∗ ˆ all ψ trial Hψ trial dx space Etrial = R ∗ all ψ trial ψ trial dx space (31. • The ﬁrst order energy correction in pertubation theory is Z (1) ˆ ψ(0)∗ H (1) ψ(0) dx. En = n n all space (31.33) • The left and right superposition states are 1 1 ψL = √ ψ1 + √ ψ2 2 2 and 1 1 ψR = √ ψ1 − √ ψ2 2 2 (31.30) (31.29) ˆ Lz ψlm = mψ lm (31.34) (31.28) • Degeneracy for general angular momentum is gJ = 2J + 1.35) 219 .

Part VI Symmetry and Spectroscopy 220 220 .

Inherent to group theory is symmetry. we will • determine the symmetry of a particular molecule. • The mathematical properties of all the possible groups have been worked out • These mathematical properties translate into a wide variety of variety of physical properties including — Bonding — Properties of wavefunctions — Vibrational modes — Many more applications 221 221 . As far as we are concerned.32. Symmetry and Group Theory We now take a short break from physical chemistry to discuss ideas from the mathematical ﬁeld of group theory. • The types of symmetry it has will determine to which symmetry group it belongs.

2. Symmetry Operators Any operator that leaves |ψ|2 invariant are symmetry operators for that particular system: ˆ O |ψ|2 = |ψ|2 . The group is associative (but not necessarily communative) with respect to the operation. An identity element exits and is a member of the group 222 . 1. 2. These operators deal with symmetry about the center of mass. (32.32. ı ˆ An example of symmetry operator that is not a point group symmetry operator would be an operator that performed some sort of translation in space. the eigenvalues for the particular symmetry operator are 1 or −1. This type of operator arrises in the treatment of extended crystal structures. which has the following properties. It is a set of objects and a single operation. We have seen two such operators in ˆ and σ h . That is.1. Mathematical Groups In mathematics the term “group” has special meaning. For molecules we will be dealing with point group symmetry operators.2) 32.1) This implies ˆ Oψ = ±ψ. ∗ ∗ ∗ See Handout on Symmetry Elements ∗ ∗∗ (32.

Example: The C2v Group ˆ ˆ ˆ The C2v group consists of the symmetry elements E. the wavefunctions must be symmetric or antisymmetric with respect to all elements of the group. for any member of the group one can ﬁnd another member of the group which. C2 . upon “multiplication. Water is an example of a molecule described by this point group.1.3. In other words. σ v (in-plane) and σ 0v ˆ (transverse). 4.2. The “product” of any two members of the group yield a member of the group.” yields the identity element.3. ∗ ∗ ∗ See Handout on Naming Point Groups ∗ ∗∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ See Handout on Assigning Point Groups ∗ ∗∗ Associated with a given group is a “multiplication” table. The multiplication table for the C2v group is C2v ˆ E ˆ C2 σv ˆ σ 0v ˆ ˆ E ˆ E ˆ C2 σv ˆ σ 0v ˆ ˆ C2 ˆ C2 ˆ E σ 0v ˆ σv ˆ σv ˆ σv ˆ σ 0v ˆ ˆ E ˆ C2 σ 0v ˆ σ 0v ˆ σv ˆ ˆ C2 ˆ E 32. 223 . The inverse of every member of the group is also in the group. 32. Symmetry of Functions In the absence of degeneracy.

1. ˆ • The ﬁrst value has to be +1 since the only eigenvalue of E is 1 ˆ • The eigenvalue of C2 can be +1 or −1 — When it is +1 the vectors are labelled A — When it is −1 the vectors are labelled B • The eigenvalue of σ v can be either +1 or −1 ˆ — When it is +1 the vectors are labelled with a subscript 1 — When it is −1 the vectors are labelled with a subscript 2 • The eigenvalue of σ 0v can be either +1 or −1 ˆ • Finally there is a restriction do to the fact that the eigenvalues must obey the group multiplication table. In this case one can collect the eigenvalues (either +1 or −1) for each of the four symmetry operators as a four component vector. −1. As it turns out there is four possible sets of eigenvalues–hence four diﬀerent vectors: A1 = (1. −1) B1 = (1.Connecting with the C2v group example lets consider the wavefunctions for water. −1. 1. −1. 1. −1) B2 = (1. 1). 224 . To see where these four vectors come from. 1. ˆ — This restriction forces the eigenvalues of σv and σ 0v to be the same for ˆ the A type vectors and opposite for the B type vectors. 1) A2 = (1. consider the following. −1.

Direct Products The direct product of a two vectors is deﬁned as (x1 . Symmetry Breaking and Crystal Field Splitting We shall investigate how degeneracies of energy levels are broken as one reduces the overall symmetry of the system. −1) = A2 (32.3. x2 . .) ⊗ (y1 . −1. −1) ⊗ (1. .4) (32. −1. x3 y3 . 1. −1. . the vectors represent what is call an irreducible representation of the group.The above considerations leave four vectors. . These vectors make up the : C2v A1 A2 B1 B2 ˆ E ˆ C2 σv ˆ σ 0v ˆ 1 1 1 1 1 1 −1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 −1 1 ∗ ∗ ∗ See Handout on Character Tables ∗ ∗∗ 32. . there will always be the same number of vectors as symmetry elements. . .) For the example of the C2v group consider B1 ⊗ B2 = (1. x2 y2 . In fact. 1. . .4.) = (x1 y1 . 1) = (1.3) 32. −1. y2 . Altogether. 225 . y3 . x3 .1.

For example placed at the center of a cube which has other atoms at the centers of each face of the cube. The vectors are the labeled according to the angular momentum quantum numbers S. 5 for D and so on as is familiar to us already. 3 for P. The degeneracies of these vectors are 1 for S. The P vector is triply degenerate and has the symmetry of x. 226 . The S vector has the symmetry of a sphere (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) and hence is totally symmetric. First consider a free atom. D.In doing this we will. y and z as we see from the character table for the spherical group. Now consider the free atom being placed in a crystal lattice of octahedral symmetry. nondegenerate in the octahedral case. In this case there is complete rotational symmetry.) This is the group associated with the particle on a sphere model and the angular part of the hydrogen atom. consider only proper rotations (Cn ). In the octahedral crystal the degeneracy remains in tact and these states are represented by the T1 group. for simplicity. When moving to octahedral symmetry we now must look at the character table for such a case–the O group (remember we are considering only proper rotations). P. It remains totally symmetric so it is now represented by the vector A1 . Thus the symmetry group is the spherical group (see character table handout. F. Mirror symmetry will not be considered (although in real applications one must consider all symmetry). of course. etc. It is also nondegenerate so it will be.

227 . The remaining four atoms remain in place.The D vector has a degeneracy of ﬁve and the symmetry of 2z 2 − x2 − y 2 . The F states have a degeneracy of 7 and the symmetry of z 3 . This is not readily apparent from the character tables so one needs to inspect a little harder to see it (see homework). The T1 states from the O group become a A2 type state and a E type state. Now the A1 vector of the O group becomes the A1 vector of the D4 group. xy. The triply degenerate T1 vector splits into a A2 state and a doubly degenerate E state. This breaks the octahedral symmetry and the system now assumes D4 symmetry. The E states from the O group become a A1 type state and a B1 type state. z(x2 − y 2 ). Looking at the table for the O group we see the degeneracy splits: two states become E type and the remaining three become T2 type. In an octahedral environment the states split with one becoming A2 . xz. x2 − y 2 . yz 2 . yz. xz 2 . x(x2 − 3y 2 ) and y(3x2 − y 2 ). The T2 states from the O group become a B2 and a E type state. The octahedral group is still highly symmetric. Lets say that two atoms on opposite sides of the cube are moved slightly inward. xyz. three becoming T1 and three becoming T2 .

One must now consider two diﬀerent types of polyatomic molecules: Linear and Nonlinear. • For linear molecules there are 2 rotational degrees of freedom • For nonlinear molecules there are 3 rotational degrees of freedom This now leaves one with 3N − 5 vibrational degrees of freedom for linear polyatomic molecules and 3N − 6 vibrational degrees of freedom for nonlinear molecules. To do so we begin with the 3N nuclear degrees of freedom. Molecular Vibrations As for diatomic molecules.33. With polyatomic molecules one needs to specify the coordinates of N nuclei rather than just two nuclei. it is convenient to work with center of mass coordinates. So. 33.1. Molecules and Symmetry From our chapter on diatomic molecules last semester we have learned a great deal which caries over directly to polyatomic molecules. As for the diatomic case 3 degrees of freedom determine the center of mass motion. 228 228 . in this chapter we simply investigate some of the speciﬁc details regarding polyatomic molecules. That leaves us with 3N − 3 coordinates to specify.

This is analogous to writing an arbitrary wavefunction as a linear combination of eigenfunctions.1. Example: Water The point group symmetry of the water molecule is C2v . the symmetric stretching vibration and the asymmetric stretch.1. that motion is some linear combination of fundamental vibrational motions called normal modes. 229 . The number of normal modes equals the number of vibrational degrees of freedom. 33. however.1. Normal Modes Polyatomic molecules can undergo very complicated vibrational motion.33. The character table is C2v A1 A2 B1 B2 ˆ E ˆ C2 σv ˆ σ 0v ˆ 1 1 1 1 1 1 −1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 −1 1 Water has three nuclei and it is nonlinear so it has 3(3) − 6 = 3 normal modes. Normal Modes and Group Theory The symmetry of the normal modes are associated with entries in the character table of the point group of any particular polyatomic molecule. The three modes are the bending vibration. At low energies the normal modes are well approximated as harmonic oscillators. Regardless of what type of vibrational motion is taking place.2. One example was the “left” and “right” states of the two level system.

however. For the bending mode. ˆ 230 .The normal modes are associated with a particular vector (row) of the character table by considering the action of the each of the symmetry elements on the normal mode. is associated with B1 since C2 and σ0v transform ˆ the mode into its opposite and σ v leaves it unchanged. ˆ The asymmetric stretch. the vibration is complete unchanged by any of the symmetry elements. Consequently the bending mode is associated with A1 The same is true for the symmetric stretching mode. It too is associated with A1 .

The typical “energies” for IR absorption are from 400 to 4000 cm−1 . This is in the Infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. in particular.34. IR Spectroscopy IR absorption is exactly the same as regular electronic absorption except the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation is much less. The electric dipole approximation • Molecule is viewed as a collection of charges • Multipole expansion monopole + dipole + quadrapole+ · · · 231 231 (34. Vibrational Spectroscopy and Group Theory We now investigate how group theory and.1) .1. As for electronic absorption one typically employs the electric dipole approximation. the character tables can be used to determine IR and Raman spectra and selection rules for polyatomic molecules 34.

y 2 . or z for the particular group. In order for absorption of the electromagnetic radiation to take place. The character table is C2v A1 A2 B1 B2 ˆ E ˆ C2 σv ˆ σ 0v ˆ Functions (34. The upshot of all this is as far as group theory is concerned is the following selection rule: • The vibrational coordinates for an IR active transition must have the same symmetry as either x. The electric dipole is μ = μx ex + μy ey + μz ez where μx = qx.2) 1 1 1 1 z. 232 . yz The last column describes the symmetry of several important functions for the point group.• Light—matter interaction is dominated by the light—dipole coupling so the other interactions are ignored. μz = qz. x2 . xz 1 −1 −1 1 y. y. z 2 1 1 −1 −1 xy 1 −1 1 −1 x. it must be able to couple to a changing (oscillating) electric dipole. We now need a column of the character table which we have ignored up to this point. Example: Water Recall that the point group symmetry of the water molecule is C2v . μy = qy.

Raman Spectroscopy Raman spectroscopy is somewhat diﬀerent than IR spectroscopy in that vibrational frequencies are measured by way of inelastic scattering of high frequency (usually visible) light. The light loses energy to the material in an amount equal to the vibrational energy of the molecules is the sample. Raman scattering is based on the polarizability of the molecule Roughly speaking the polarizability of a molecule determines how the electron density is distorted through interaction with an electromagnetic ﬁeld. and B2 . From before we know the modes of water have A1. So we can see immediately that the IR active modes of any molecule having this point group will be A1 . y. and B1 symmetry and hence are all IR active and appear in the IR spectrum 34. 233 . B1 . This lose of energy shows up in the scattered light as a new down shifted frequency from that of the original input light frequency. and z.Among these functions are x. Unlike IR absorption which is based on the electric dipole. The A2 mode is IR forbidden and any vibrations having this symmetry will not appear in the IR spectrum (or it may appear as a very weak line).2.

all modes are Raman active Rule of Mutual exclusion • Vibrational mode can be both IR and Raman active or inactive • If. the molecule has inversion symmetry (contains ˆ as a symmetry ı element) then no modes will be both IR and Raman active. yz. α. We will not get into tensors in this course except to say the polarizability tensor elements are proportional to the quadratic functions. xz. (or any combinations thereof). xy. One can now inspect the character table to determine which modes will be Raman active. z 2 . ↔ 234 .The molecular quantity of interest is the polarizability tensor. however. For the example of water. y 2 . x2 .

We now turn our attention to the angular components to describe rotations.3) This is the so-called rigid rotor energy. under the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. φ). ~2 ˆ2 (35. 2I Now.2) J . The R was involved in vibrations.4) (35. = 2μR2 8π 2 I (35. R is a parameter. (35.6) . Recall also the Kinetic energy operator for the nuclei in the center of mass coordinates 2 2 ~2 ˆ2 ∂ ˆ2 ∂ ˆN = − ~ ∇2 = − ~ ˆN T + J .5) (35. θ.1) R 2μ 2μR2 ∂R ∂R 2μ We will now be concerned only with the angular part. It is common to deﬁne Be ≡ as the rotational constant. Then Erot = J(J + 1)hBe with a degeneracy of gJ = 2J + 1 235 235 h 8π 2 I (35.35. For constant R the rotational energy is given by − Erot = J(J + 1)~2 J(J + 1)h2 . Molecular Rotations Recall that the three degrees of freedom that described the position of the nuclei about the center of mass were (R.

236 .1. Alternatively.9) is the centrifugal stretching constant. where Dc ≡ 3 4Be ω2 ˜e (35.8) (35. In either case the selection rule for the transition is 4J = ±1. • One deﬁnes a rotational interaction constant that depends on the vibrational level.2. n. Relaxing the rigid rotor Of course the rigid rotor is not a perfectly correct model for a diatomic molecule.7) 2 where αe is an empirical rotational—vibrational interaction constant. Centrifugal stretching: • Rotation tends to stretch the diatomic distance R. Rotational Spectroscopy A rotational transition can occur in the same vibrational level n. 2. ¶ µ 1 Bn ≡ Be − n + αe .35. This is called a pure rotational transition. • This is corrected for by the term −J 2 (J + 1)2 Dc . There are two corrections we will now make 1. a rotational transition can accompany a vibrational transition. Vibrational state dependence: • The R value is dependent on the particular vibrational level. (35. 35.

3. The principle axes coordinate system is the one in which the z-axis is taken to be along the principle symmetry axis. Rotation of Polyatomic Molecules There are a few additional details regarding rotations for polyatomic molecules as compared to diatomics Of course one could set-up an arbitrary center of mass coordinate system.It turns out that typical rotational energy gaps are on the order of a few wavenumbers or less. at room temperature is about 200 cm−1 . I = Ixx + Iyy + Izz The Hamiltonian in the principle axes system is # " ˆ2 ˆ2 ˆ2 Jy ~2 Jx Jz ˆ + + H= 2 Ixx Iyy Izz (35. This means that at room temperature the many excited rotational states are populated. The total moment of inertia.10) 237 . ∗ ∗ ∗ See Handout ∗ ∗∗ The selection rules and the thermalized states combine to yield a multi-peaked ro-vibrational spectrum. ∗ ∗ ∗ See Handout ∗ ∗∗ 35. kT. Thermal energy. But one system is special–the principle axes coordinate system.

carbon dioxide) • Izz = 0. Symmetric tops (e. Ixx = Iyy ˆ ˆ2 ˆ2 • J 2 = Jx + Jy • The Hamiltonian is • The rotational energy is Erot = hBJ(J + 1).12) ~2 ˆ2 ˆ J H= 2Ixx (35. Linear (e. where A= (35.g.g.. benzene) • Ixx = Iyy h 8π2 Ixx (35.11) (35.There are four classes of polyatomic molecules regarding rotations 1.15) h ..13) ˆ ˆ2 ˆ2 ˆ2 • J 2 = Jx + Jy + Jz • The Hamiltonian is # " ˆ2 ˆ2 ˆ2 ~2 Jx + Jy Jz ˆ + H= 2 Ixx Izz (35.17) B= 2 8π Ixx and K is the quantum number describing the projection of the angular momentum onto the z-axis 238 . (35.16) 8π 2 Izz h (35.14) • The rotational energy is Erot = hBJ(J + 1) + h(A − B)K 2 . where B= 2.

g.19) ~2 ˆ2 ˆ J H= 2Ixx (35. Spherical tops (e. where B= h 8π2 Ixx (35..20) 4.18) (35.3. Asymmetric tops • Ixx 6= Iyy 6= Izz • These are more complicated and we will not discuss them in detail 239 . methane) • Ixx = Iyy = Izz ˆ ˆ2 ˆ2 ˆ2 • J 2 = Jx + Jy + Jz • The Hamiltonian is • The rotational energy is Erot = hBJ(J + 1).

The Structure of the Electronic State Last semester we saw that under the Born—Oppenheimer approximation we were able to write the molecular wavefunction as a product of an electronic part and a nuclear part. Ee . Ee as a function of R describe the eﬀective potential for the nuclei. R.36. We found that in doing so the electronic energy level. It had a qualitative shape similar to the Morse potential. on the other hand. have numerous lines (bands) due to the fact that electronic transitions are accompanied by vibrational and rotational transitions. 240 240 . 36. was parameterized by the internuclear distance. Atomic spectra consist of single sharp lines due to transitions between energy levels.1. Molecular spectra. Electronic Spectroscopy of Molecules The electronic spectra of molecules are quite diﬀerent than that of atoms.

Absorption Spectra In absorption spectroscopy. 36.1.1.1. 241 . Note: The potential minima are not at the same value of R for each of the electronic states. ∗ ∗ ∗ See Spectroscopy Supplement p1 ∗ ∗∗ 36.In the ﬁgure below the ground and ﬁrst excited electronic levels (as a function of R) are shown. light demotes an electron from the ground vibrational state of the excited electronic state to any one of a number of excited vibrational levels in the ground electronic state. light promotes an electron from the ground electronic state (and usually from the ground vibrational state too) to the excited electronic state and any of the excited vibrational states of the excited electronic state. Emission Spectra In emission spectroscopy.2.

Fluorescence Spectra All during the process of absorption.1. the process of is taking place. Hence the Stokes shift. This is known as the Stokes shift. • The system then very rapidly (on the order of tens to hundreds of femtoseconds) relaxes to the ground vibrational state of the excited electronic state. The main stream explanation for the stokes shift is as follows • Light promotes the system from the ground vibrational and ground electronic state to excited vibrational levels in the excited electronic state.3. 242 . ∗ ∗ ∗ See Spectroscopy Supplement p3 ∗ ∗∗ As seen in the supplement the ﬂuorescence spectrum is shifted to lower energies (red shifted) from the absorption spectrum. • This process is called • The molecule than emits a photon to drop back down into an excited vibrational state of the ground electronic state. • This requires a lower energy (or “more red”) photon.∗ ∗ ∗ See Spectroscopy Supplement p2 ∗ ∗∗ 36.

i ψvib.1) all space el space vib space 243 . ˆ el.i ψvib. Assuming the electronic transition is allowed one must calculate the probability of the vibrational transistion as well. The Franck—Condon principle When the Born—Oppenheimer approximation is applied to spectroscopic transitions. The Franck—Condon principle states that the nuclei do not move during an electronic transition.f ¯ (36.f vib.2.1. Physically this means that for a particular transition to be Franck—Condon active there must be good overlap of the vibrational wavefunctions involved in the transition. 36.i → Ψf = ψel. Mathematically this means that the strength of a transition from Ψi = ψel. Franck—Condon activity We have seen than an electronic tranistion involves not only a change in the electronic state but also in the vibrational state in general (and in the rotaitonal state as well.f is given by ¯Z ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯2 ¯Z ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ψ∗ μel Ψi ¯ = ¯ ˆ f ¯ ¯ Z ¯2 ¯ ¯ ψ∗ ψ∗ μel ψel. This is down by evaulating the Franck—Condon integral.f ψvib. but we will ingore this).2.i ¯ .36. one obtains the Franck—Condon principle.

allowed Franck—Condon 244 . (36. We can separate the integrals as ˆ ¯2 ¯Z ¯2 ¯Z ¯¯ ¯ ¯ ¯¯ ¯ ¯ ∗ ∗ ψel.where μel is the electronic transition dipole.2) ¯ ¯ ¯ vib ¯ ¯ el space space | {z }| {z } if 6=0.i ¯ .f μel ψel.f ψvib.i ¯ ¯ ˆ ψvib.

and is given by Z ∞ ˜(ω) = = [f (t)] = f f(t)eiωt dt. The mathematics which governs these qualitative statements is Fourier transform theory which we now review. in this work. f (ω). One should be familiar with qualitative aspects of this time—frequency relation. The Fourier transformation The Fourier transformation. Furthermore. of a function f (t) will. if the signal decays slowly it will have a narrow spectrum. =. (37.37.1. Fourier Transforms As a spectroscopist it is imperative to have a deep understanding of the relationship between time and frequency.1) −∞ 245 245 . by denoted ˜ by a tilde. 37. if the signal decays rapidly it will have a broad spectrum and. Spectroscopic data is obtained either in the time domain or in the frequency domain and one should readily be able to look at data in one domain and know what is happening in the other domain. such as if a signal oscillates in time it will have a peak in it frequency spectrum at the frequency with which it is oscillating. conversely.

e.The Fourier transformation is unique and it has a unique inverse. i. For simplicity the symbol = will be used to represent the Fourier transformation ˜ operation. = [f (t)] = f (ω).e. i. so one must take care to know exactly which convention is being used. Other authors use diﬀerent conventions. f (ω) = f (t) = 2π −∞ The above two relations form the convention used throughout this work. Whereas the symbol =−1 will represent the inverse h i −1 ˜ Fourier transformation.2) f(ω)e−iωt dω.. =−1 . = f(ω) = f(t). 246 .. which is given by Z ∞ h i 1 −1 ˜ ˜ = (37.

3) h 8π 2 I (37.4) . The equations are collected here simply for handy reference for you while working the problem sets. 247 247 (37. The equations listed here are out of context and it would help you very little to memorize this section without understanding the context of these equations. This section should not substitute for your studying of the rest of this material. Equations • Vibrational degrees of freedom — linear: 3N − 5 — not linear: 3N − 6 • The so-called rigid rotor energy is Erot = J(J + 1)hBe .Key Equations for Exam 2 Listed here are some of the key equations for Exam 2. where Be ≡ is the rotational constant.

• The degeneracy of the rigid rotor is gJ = 2J + 1 • Franck—Condon Factor: ¯Z ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯2 ¯ ¯ ψ∗ ψvib.8) 248 .f ¯ Z ∞ (37.i ¯ vib.6) • The Fourier transformation is ˜ = [f (t)] = f (ω) = f (t)eiωt dt. (37.7) −∞ • The inverse Fourier transformation is Z ∞ h i 1 −1 ˜ ˜ = f(ω)e−iωt dω.5) vib space (37. f (ω) = f (t) = 2π −∞ (37.

Part VII Kinetics and Gases 249 249 .

hence a momentum of p = mv and a kinetic energy of KE = 1 mv · v = 1 mv 2 . m is the molecular (or atomic) mass • Each particle of mass m has velocity v.38. vzi ). dzi . t. y. V (L is Avogadro’s number): Consider the ith particle at position xi = (x. 2 2 • A sample of N molecules is characterized by its number density n∗ = • From the ideal gas law P V = nRT = N PL = RT = n∗ V N RT L N . This can represented in velocity space by dt dt dt dt the vector vi = (vxi .1. vyi . 38. ¡ ¢ Its velocity is vi = dxi = dxi . t) which is in general a function of time. z) in coordinate (position) space. kinetic theory of gases A microscopic view of gases Consider a gas of point mass (m). dyi . vy . vz . Physical Kinetics We now turn our attention to the molecular level and in particular to molecular motion. 250 250 . The velocities of the particles are characterized by a probability distribution function for velocities F (vx .

stationary distributions–those independent of time–are often encountered. NVv . in velocity space is Z Z Z Z NVv = N F (v. t) If we choose the origin of our coordinate system to be at the center of mass of the gas. φ. θ. t). n. t) = F (v. F (v. φ). θ.. then for many cases the velocity distribution will be isotropic–independent of θ and φ. θ. vy . The probability distribution function then becomes F (v. t)dv = N F (vx . φ.b. t) = F (v. v is simply a magnitude (not a vector)–it is the speed. F (v.The number of particles. (38. Vv . φ). θ. φ. vz . (38.3) 251 .1) Vv Vv It is more convenient to switch to spherical polar coordinates in velocity space (v. t)dvx dvy dvz (38. θ. having velocities in a macroscopic volume.2) Furthermore.

5) 2πkT 0 0 s r µ ¶ 8kT L Lk=R 8RT = = πm L Lm=M πM It will be convenient to deﬁne number density as n∗ ≡ N where N is the number V N P nRT LP ∗ of particles.380658 × 10−23 is Boltzmann’s constant. It can be shown from ﬁrst principles that µ ¶3 2 −mv 2 m F (v) = 4π e 2kb T v 2 (38. Molecular Collisions The average speed of a particle can calculated from Maxwell’s distribution: Z ∞ Z ∞ m 3 − mv2 ) 2 e 2kT dv hvi = v = ¯ vF (v)dv = v 3 4π( (38. This is the Maxwell’s distribution (of speeds). 38.We shall consider stationary isotropic distributions F (v).2. n = = RT . For an ideal gas (V = P ).4) 2πkb T where kb = 1. n RT |{z} =L A simple model for molecular collisions: 252 . So F (v) represents a distribution of speeds.

48 ¯ m .7) From the above expression one deﬁnes the mean free path λ to be v ¯ / λ= √ 2n∗ πσ 2/ v ¯ LP n∗ = RT = RT √ 2P Lπσ 2 (38. ∗ ∗ ∗ See Handout ∗ ∗∗ • The number of collisions equals the number of particles with their centers in V : number of collisions = n∗ πσ 2 v4t (38.5 nm 253 .25 × 109 s−1 . • A Particle moving at v sweeps out a cylinder of radius σ and length v4t =⇒ V = πσ2 v4t.6) • The collision frequency = n∗ πσ 2 v For the above model we need to ﬁnd the average collision frequency. frequency λ = 72.8) Example: Ar at SATP (T = 298 K. v12 = h|v1 − v2 |i ¯ It can be shown that r v12 = ¯ √ √ collision 16RT = 2¯ =⇒ v = 2n∗ πσ 2 v . ¯ πM frequency (38. Since the molecules are moving relative to one another we must ﬁnd the average relative velocity. s collision = 5.• Particles are hard spheres of radius σ. P = 1 bar): v = 380.

Will the reaction occur? We need kinetics. 254 254 . d[B] d[C] d[D] d[A] or − or or (39. That is. equal b. We must account for the stoichiometry. Rate Laws Consider a general four component reaction aA + bB = cC + dD (39. The Rate Laws of Chemical Kinetics Thermodynamics described chemical systems in equilibrium. in general. however. address the question. For this we turn to the ﬁeld of chemical kinetics.2) − dt dt dt dt BUT this is ambiguous because a moles of A reacts with b moles of B and a does not. We can. from thermodynamics. For the study of chemical reactions it is important understand systems that can be very far from equilibrium.39. answer the question: How fast will the reaction occur? 39.1) The time dependence of this reaction can be observed by following the disappearance of either of the reactants or appearance of either of the products.1.

7) Intermediates → Product Note that we shall use an equal sign when talking about the overall reaction and arrows when talking about the elementary reactions Example 255 . c or d and I = A. but certainly not all.4) 0 B0 → c0 C0 + d0 D0 b A rate law is the mathematical statement of how the reaction velocity depends on concentration. Many.We deﬁne the reaction velocity as v= 1 d[I] vi dt (39. −b.3) where vi = −a. or D. In general an overall reaction is made up of so called elementary reactions Reactant Reactant = → Product overall rxn (39. v = f (conc. rate laws are of the form v = k[A1 ]xA 1 [A2 ]xA 2 · · · [An ]xA n .6) The reaction is said to be of order xAi in species Ai and it is of overall order P i xA i . B. An example of this is ½ bB → cC + dD aA + (39. C.5) For the most part. This deﬁnition is useful but must be used with caution since for complicated reactions all the v’s may not be equal.) (39. rate laws are empirical. (39.

9) where kf is the rate constant for the reaction to proceed in the forward direction and kr is the rate constant for the reaction to proceed in the reverse direction. Trimolecular A + A + A → Product v = k[A]3 Trimolecular A + A + B → Product v = k[A]2 [B] Trimolecular A + B + C → Product v = k[A][B][C] Conversely.10) 256 . One possible set of elementary steps could be elementary rxn A + A → A0 A00 + 2B→ C + D A0 → A00 molecularity Bimolecular Unimolecular Trimolecular . Now. at equilibrium vf = vb which implies kf [A]a [B]b = kr [C]c [D]d (39.Let 2A + 2B = C + D be the overall reaction. Connection to thermodynamics Consider the overall or elementary reaction aA + bB cC + dD kr kf (39. rate laws for overall reactions can not be determined by stoichiometry.8) The rate laws for elementary reactions can be determined from the stoichiometry molecularity elementary rxn rate law Unimolecular A → Product v = k[A] Bimolecular A + A → Product v = k[A]2 Bimolecular A + B → Product v = k[A][B] . (39.

bringing kr to the LHS and [A][B] to the RHS we get [C]c [D]d kf 0 = = Kc a [B]b kr [A] 0 where Kc is the thermodynamic equilibrium “constant. Moral: Kinetics is very much an empirical science. the reaction is not elementary. Next consider the reaction between molecular hydrogen and molecular bromine. H2 + Br2 = 2HBr.12) The observed rate laws are vf = kf [H2 ][I2 ] and vr = kr [HI]2 . Objectives of chemical kinetics 257 . In fact. The velocity of a reaction is lost in this ratio and hence we still can not determine the speed of a reaction from thermodynamics. we have succeeded in connecting thermodynamics to kinetics BUT we have done so through the ratio of rate constants. this does not obey any common form. The observed rate law for this reaction is very complicated. Examples of rate laws Consider the (overall) reaction between molecular hydrogen and molecular iodine. (39. v= k[H2 ][Br2 ]1/2 1+ k0 [HBr] [Br2 ] (39.13) . The above two example are seemingly very similar but they have very diﬀerent observed rate laws. This suggests that the reaction is elementary.11) So.” (39. H2 + I2 = 2HI. Moral: Kinetics is very much an empirical science.

Consequently no one experimental technique can be used. • For medium reactions (min) either a continuous monitoring technique or a stopping technique can be used — A stopping technique used rapid cooling or destruction of the catalysts to stop a reaction at a given point.2. 258 . The rates of chemical reactions vary enormously from sub-seconds to years. • Very fast (sec/subsec) reactions cause problems because the reaction goes faster than one can mix the reactants. That is we must measure c(t) as a dt function of time and ﬁnd the rate of change of this concentration curve. Determination of Rate Laws Concentrations c(t) are measured not rates. To obtain the rate from the concentration we must take its time derivative dc(t) . • For slow reactions (hrs/days) almost any technique for measuring the concentration can be used.• To establish empirical rate laws • To determine mechanisms of overall reactions • To empirically study elementary reactions • To establish theoretical links to statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics — This involve nonequilibrium thermodynamics–more diﬃcult • To study chemical reaction dynamics — the dynamics of molecular collisions that result in reactions 39.

2. • problems 1. Method of isolation • for v = k[A]x [B]y rate laws • start with initial concentrations a and b equal to the stoichometry. Method of initial velocities • for v = k[A]x [B]y rate laws.1.39. • initially v0 = kax by where a and b are the initial concentrations of A and B respectively • taking the log of both sides gives lnv0 = ln[kax by ] = ln k + x ln a + y ln b • a and b can be varied independently so both x and y can be determined. say. 1. 259 .2. The main problem with such a method is that randomness in the concentration measurements gets ampliﬁed when taking the derivative.2. A so v ≈ kax [B]y 39. if the concentration drops very sharply 2. Integrated rate laws The above diﬀerential methods look directly at the rate law which is a diﬀerential equation. Diﬀerential methods based on the rate law Methods based directly on the rate law rely on the determination of the time derivative of the concentration. this gives the overall order of x + y • ﬂood with. if there is an induction period 2. The diﬀerential equation is not solved.

vi is a negative number)..b. type rate lawa) integrated rate lawa) 1st order 2nd order nth orderb) 1 vi 1 vi 1 vi 1 vi d[I] dt d[I] dt d[I] dt d[I] dt = k[I] = k[I]2 = k[I]n [I] = [I0 ]evi kt 1 = [I10 ] − vi kt [I] 1 [I]n−1 = 1 [I0 ]n−1 k[I] enyzme = km +[I] km ln [I0 ] + ([I0 ] − [I]) = −vi kt [I] a) [I] is the concentration of one of the reactants in an elementary reaction and vi is the stoichiometric factor for [I] (n.We now solve the diﬀerential equations to yield what are called the integrated rate law. The diﬀerential equations (rate law) and their solutions (integrated rate law) are simply listed here for a few rate laws. − (n − 1)vi kt 260 . For example n = 3/2 is a three-halves order rate law. b) The order need not be an integer.

kr (40. d(1/T ) R where Ea is the Arrhenious activation energy. take the log of this: ¸ kf = ln kf − ln kr .4) Now.1.3) (A is the constant of integration).2) (40.5) .1) (40. Temperature Eﬀects on Rate Constants An empirical rate constant was proposed by Arrhenious: Ea d ln k = or dT RT 2 Ea d ln k = .40. ln Ka = ln kr ∙ 261 261 (40. This is the Arrhenious equation Recall the equilibrium constant can also be obtained from kinetics 0 Kc = kf ' Ka . Integration of the above yields ln k = ln A − Ea Ea =⇒ k = Ae− RT RT (40. Temperature and Chemical Kinetics 40.

1.1.Substituting the Arrhenious equation for the rate constants gives ¸ ∙ i h Ea Ear f − RT − ln Ar e− RT ln Ka = ln Af e ∙ ¸ Ear − Eaf Af = ln + Ar RT 40.6) (40. k = Ae− RT = aT j ej e− Ea E 0 +jRT RT = aT j ej e/ e RT = aT j e RT / −j −E 0 −E 0 √ (40.10) 40. Theory of Reaction Rates Simple collision theory (SCT) • Bimolecular reactions (A.2.8) (40.9) We can verify this by starting with the Arrhenious equation and substituting the above expressions.7) (40. Temperature corrections to the Arrhenious parameters The Arrhenious parameters A and Ea are constants. Theoretical approaches to reaction rates predict rate constants of the form k = aT j e−E /RT .B) • Reaction rate determined by molecular collisions 262 . Forcing this to coincide with the Arrhenious implies Ea = E 0 + jRT and A = aT j ej 0 (40.

but intuitively the actual — the ability to react depends on orientation =⇒ a steric factor p — a minimum amount of collisional energy is required=⇒ e−Em in /RT • The actual reaction velocity is pzAB e− v= L Em in RT (40.13) [A][B] = pπσ AB L s 8RT − Em in e RT πLμ (40.12) • The rate constant for a bimolecular reaction is v k= [A][B] so SCT predicts k= pzA B e− L Em in RT (40. • The maximum reaction velocity is vmax = reaction velocity will be less because zA B L .11) is the reduced mass and σAB is the collision diameter.— Collision frequency for A–B collisions s 8RT zAB = πσ AB L2 [A][B] πLμ where μ ≡ mA mB mA +mB (40.14) 263 .

e.• Comparison to the (temperature corrected) Arrhenious equation suggests s 8RT 1 e2 (40.18) 264 .16) Activated complex theory (ACT) • An intermediate active complex is formed during the reaction. ACT is not limited to bimolecular reactions. [A][B] (40. • For the above example.g. the equilibrium constant is deﬁned as ‡ Ka = a‡ low [‡] ' aA aB conc. A + B → (AB)‡ → products.. thus we can apply thermodynamics to it. (40.15) A = pπσ AB L πLμ and 1 Ea = Emin + RT 2 (40.17) • The active complex is a state in the thermodynamic sense.

in what is called a reaction network. In general. f — accounts for the fraction of activated complex that becomes product.• Deﬁnition: transmission factor.3. Reactions may occur in series or in parallel or both. it can be shown that f = kb T /h where kb is Boltzmann’s constant and h is Planck’s constant.22) 40. h (40. — From statistical mechanics.19) • Thermodynamics tells us that ‡ 4G‡ = −RT ln Ka (40. Parallel reactions: 265 .20) which can be written as ‡ Ka = e− 4G‡ RT = e− 4H ‡ RT e 4S ‡ R (40. • The reaction rate constant for reactants going to products for ACT is ‡ k = f Ka = kb T ‡ K h a (40. the reactions we have studied have been single step reactions. there is many steps from initial reactants to ﬁnal products. Multistep Reactions Up to now. • The ACT reaction rate constant now becomes k= This is Eyring’s equation kb T − 4H ‡ 4S‡ e RT e R .21) where 4G‡ = 4H ‡ − T 4S ‡ .

when solved yields [A] = [A0 ]e−k1 t ¢ k1 [A0 ] ¡ −k1 t [B] = − ek2 t e k2 − k1 ¶ µ k2 e−k1 t − k1 ek2 t [C] = [A0 ] − [A] − [B] = [A0 ] 1 − k2 − k1 • See in class animation 266 .24) • The concentrations of A. dt which.23) A + B2 → D • The rate constant for the disappearance of [A] is simply the sum of the two rate constants: k = k1 + k2 k2 Series reactions: • Series reactions necessarily include and intermediate product. 1 A + B1 → C k (40.• Parallel reactions are of the form. for example. B and C are determined by the system of diﬀerential equations: − d[A] = k1 [A] dt d[B] = k1 [A] − k2 [B] dt d[C] = k2 [B]. They are of the form k1 k2 A→B→C (40.

267 .40. Initiation: Typically a molecule M reacts to form some highly reactive radical M → R·.4. The simplest chain reactions have three distinct steps (discussed below) Chain reactions are extremely important in polymer chemistry Steps of a chain reaction 1. Chain Reactions Chain reactions are reactions which have at least one step that is repeated indefinitely.

R·+M0 → M00 + R0 ·. Termination: The radicals interact with each other or with the walls of the container to forma stable molecule R0 ·+R0 · → M000 or R0 ·+wall → removed 268 . Propagation: The radical formed in the initiation step reacts with some so molecule M0 to form another molecule M00 and another radical R0 ·. 3.2. This step repeats an indeﬁnite number of times.

2) • The van der Waals gas equation of state P = or n2 a nRT − 2 V − nb V (41. The equation of state can also be expressed in term of density ρ = ρ= mP . (41.4) Vm − b Vm where the parameter a accounts for the attractive forces among the particles and parameter b accounts for the repulsive forces among the particles P = 269 269 . nRT m V (41. 41. Gases and the Virial Series Unlike liquids and solids.41.1. a particular particle has much less signiﬁcant interactions with the other particles.1) (41. This simpliﬁes the theoretical treatment of gases. Equations of State Recall from last semester several of the equations of states for gases.3) a RT − 2. We will now look in detail at the gases. • The ideal gas equation of state P V = nRT.

+ ··· . RT • z is unity for an ideal gas because for such a gas P V = nRT. C(T ) represents triplet interactions.6) • Redlich-Kwang P = (41.7) 41. n • For a real gas z must approach unity upon dilution ( V → 0). Conceptually B(T ) represents pair-wise interaction of the particles. The virial series in powers of z = 1 + B(T ) or µ V n V is + C(T ) µ ³ n ´2 V ¶2 + D(T ) µ ³ n ´3 V ¶3 +··· .9) B(T ). • z can be expended in a power series called the virial series.5) RT e− RT Vm nRT e− RT V = P = V − nb Vm − b nRT n2 a a RT −√ −√ = V − nb Vm − b T V (V − nb) T Vm (Vm − b) (41. etc. The Virial Series Deﬁnition: Compressibility Factor: z = PV nRT = P Vm . are called the virial coeﬃcients. (41.2.8) ³n´ 1 z = 1 + B(T ) Vm ¶ 1 + C(T ) Vm 1 + D(T ) Vm (41. etc. C(T ). 270 .• Berthelot • Dieterici P = nRT n2 a a RT − − = 2 2 V − nb T V Vm − b T Vm an a (41.

(41.12) The ﬁrst term is of the form 1 1−x 1 = 1 + x + x2 + · · · . 1−x Therefore b a +1+ + z=− RT Vm Vm the ﬁrst term is proportional to in the series expansion.11) = z so z= 1 a − . D(T ) = b3 . Relation to the van der Waals Equation of State Recall the van der Waals equation P = multiply both sides by Vm RT a RT − 2 Vm − b Vm (41.16) B(T ) = b − RT 271 .2.1. RT Vm Vm (41.10) to get V / a /T Vm R / P Vm = − m / 2 RT R / Vm − b RT Vm /T a Vm − = Vm − b RT Vm 1 a = − b RT Vm 1 − Vm but P Vm RT (41.41.14) 1 Vm and so it can be combined with the term µ ¶2 ³ a ´ 1 b z =1+ b− + + ··· . hence 1 Vm µ b Vm ¶2 + ··· . b RT Vm 1 − Vm which has the power series expansion (41. etc. C(t) = b2 . (41.15) This series can now be compared term by term to the virial series to give expression for the virial coeﬃcients: ³ a ´ .13) (41.

(41. The virial series at Tb becomes µ ¶2 µ ¶ µ ¶3 1 1 1 z(T = Tb ) = 1 + 0 + C(T ) + D(T ) + ··· Vm Vm Vm µ ¶3 µ ¶2 1 1 + D(T ) + ··· .2.41.19) RT 272 .18) The relation of this expansion to the one in V1 can be obtained.2. 41. The gas behaves more like an ideal The lowest order correction are now V1 m gas at Tb then for other temperatures. (41. One ﬁnds (see m homework) B(T ) B 0 (T ) = . The Virial Series in Pressure One can also expand the compressibility factor in pressure z = 1 + B 0 (T )P + C 0 (T )P 2 + D0 (T )P 3 + · · · .17) = 1 + C(T ) Vm Vm ³ ´2 .2. (41. Tb . The Boyle Temperature The temperature at which B(T ) = 0 is called the Boyle temperature.3.

4.2. b. (41. C(T ) = RT T B0 bc D(T ) = . c are tabulated constants • Estimates based on critical values (we will discuss critical values shortly. T3 B(T ) = B0 − where A0 .22) (41.24) 273 .23) (41. a. • Estimates based on Beattie-Bridgeman constants: c A0 − 3.21) 41. RT T A0 a B0 c − B0 b − 3 . Estimation of Virial Coeﬃcients The virial coeﬃcients can be estimated using empirical equations and tabulated parameters.20) D(T ) − 3B(T )C(T ) − 2B(T )3 (RT )3 (41. for now treat them as empirical parameters): µ ¶ 9RTc 6Tc2 B(T ) = 1− 2 . B0 .25) 128Pc T (41.C 0 (T ) = and D0 (T ) = C(T ) − B(T )2 (RT )2 (41.

• κT is diﬀerent from z. κT is the isothermal compressibility • At a given temperature. P ) = ∂T P ∂P T We can change this from a extensive property equation to an intensive property equation by dividing by V : µ ¶ µ ¶ 1 ∂V 1 ∂V dV = dT + dP. κT describes the change in volume with pressure.1) dV (T. • Positive κT means the volume of the ﬂuid decreases with increasing pressure. • At a given pressure.1. V and T behavior of dense ﬂuids (e. the compressibility factor.. P. V V ∂T P V ∂P T | {z } | {z } α −κT α is the coeﬃcient of thermal expansion. V and T behavior We shall brieﬂy consider the P. liquids). • Positive α means the volume of the ﬂuid increases with increasing temperature. α describes the change in volume with temperature. 274 274 . Taking volume as a function of P and T. we consider the total derivative ¶ ¶ µ µ ∂V ∂V dT + dP. (42. Behavior of Gases 42.42.g.

.1. V (P ) ≈ V0 [1 − κT (P − P0 )] .1. α and κT for liquids and solids Ã ¡ ¢! ∂ nRT 1 1 P = /R = n/ ∂T VP T |{z} P =n R / /T (42. it is.2) = = V ∂P T V ∂P V P T = and n/T 1 /R/ 1 1 nRT = = (P V ) P P /R/ P n/T | {z } =nRT 1 α= V µ ∂V ∂T ¶ P 1 = V 42. So one can expand the volume in a Taylor series about a known pressure. of course.b. At constant T ¶ ¶2 µ ∂V ∂V (P − P0 ) + (P − P0 )2 + · · · V (P ) = V0 + ∂P ∂P T | {z T } µ −V0 κT (42.42. P Ã ¡ ¢! µ ¶ µ ¶ nRT −1 ∂V −1 ∂ nRT −1 P − 2 κT = (42.2. absurd to treat a liquid as an ideal gas).3) In general.4) so.5) This approximation is quite good even over a rather large pressure range (P −P0 = 100 atm or so). (42. α and κT for an ideal gas As an exercise we shall calculate α and κT using the ideal gas equation of state (n. P0 . Starting with the ideal gas law: V = nRT . the compressibility and expansion of liquids (and solids) are very small. 275 .1.

42.1.H = U + PV CP = ∂T P so µ (42.Likewise at constant P ¶ ¶2 µ ∂V ∂V (T − T0 ) + (T − T0 )2 + · · · V (T ) = V0 + ∂T P ∂T T | {z } µ V0 α (42.11) P 276 .7) As one ﬁnal point. Use an identity of partial derivatives ∂T ∂T µ ∂U ∂T ¶ = P µ ∂U ∂T ¶ + V µ ∂U ∂V ¶ µ T ∂V ∂T ¶ (42. The Relationship Between CP and CV To ﬁnd how CP and CV are related we begin with ¶ µ ∂H .9) ¶ ¶ ¶ µ µ ∂ (U + P V ) ∂U ∂V = +P (42.10) CP = ∂T ∂T P ∂T P P ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ note ∂U P is not CV we need ∂U V . (42. Heat Capacity of Gases Revisited This section is a review from the ﬁrst semester with an additional example beyond the ideal gas. V (T ) ≈ V0 [1 + α(T − T0 )] .2.8) κT − ∂P T rule ∂T V 42.6) so.2. we can apply the cyclic rule for partial derivatives to determine the ratio κα : T ¡ ∂V ¢ ¶ µ α ∂P ∂T P cyclic = ¡ ∂V ¢ = (42.

Explicit in P : Replace µ 2.14) V For solids and liquids: µ so ∂V ∂T ¶ = V α.12) CP = ∂V T ∂T P ∂T P V ¶ ∙µ ¶ µ ¸ ∂U ∂V = CV + +P .18) 277 . Then ∂T µ ∂U ∂T µ CP = CV + Finally CP = CV + T µ ∂V ∂T ¶ ∙ µ ¶ ¸ ∂P T −P +P / / ∂T V P µ ∂V ∂T ¶ µ P ¶ (42. ∂T P ∂V T ¡ ¢ ¡ ∂U ¢ Recall the expression for internal pressure ∂V T = T ∂P V − P .16) κT For gases we need the equation of state which often is conveniently explicit in P or V but not both CP = CV + 1.17) T V ∂T with − ¡ ∂V ¢P ∂P T ¡ ∂V ¢ (42.13) ∂P ∂T ¶ (42. µ ∂P ∂T ¶ = α κT (42.thus ¶ µ ¶ ¶ µ ∂V ∂U ∂V + +P (42. Explicit in V : Replace µ ∂P ∂T ¶ ∂V ∂T ¶ with − ¡ ∂T ¢V ∂P ∂V P ¡ ∂P ¢ (42.15) P V α2 T V (42.

Ideal gas (equation of state: P V = nRT ): This equation is easily made explicit in either P or V so we don’t need any of the above replacements ¶ µ ¶ µ ∂P ∂V (42. = ∂T P P ∂T − ¡ ∂V ¢P = − ∂P T µ ∂V ∂P ¶ T =− nRT . This is explicit P in V so use case 2 above ¶ µ ¶ ¶ ¡ ∂V ¢ µ µ ∂P ∂V ∂V ∂T ¡ ∂V ¢P CP = CV + T = CV − T (42. nRT − P2 / RT n (42. P2 (42.21) so ¡ ∂V ¢ nR P + nB 0 / P (R + P B 0 ) n = .23) or (42.Examples 1.19) CP = CV + T ∂T P ∂T V nRT nR nR = = nR = CV + T P V PV Thus CP = CV + nR or CP m = CV m + R 2.24) 278 .20) ∂T P ∂T V ∂T P ∂P T The partial derivatives are ¶ µ ∂V nR + nB 0 . One term viral equation (equation of state: V = nRT + nB).22) Thus CP ! ¶Ã nR P (R + P B 0 ) + nB 0 = CV + / T P RT / ¶2 µ P B0 = CV + nR 1 + R µ CP m ¶2 µ P B0 = CV m + R 1 + R (42.

U (T.1. there is always an intermediate equilibrium throughout the expansion.27) Also recall that −wrev is the maximum possible work that can be done in an expansion. 42. Expansion of Gases Expanding gases do work: −w = Z V2 Pex dV (42. −wrev = −wmax .26) V1 this becomes Z V2 −wrev = V1 µ ¶ V2 nRT dV = nRT ln V V1 (42. Namely Pgas = Pex . 279 . So.3.3.25) V1 As we learned last semester the value of w depends on Pex during the expansion. Isothermal and Adiabatic expansions We shall consider two limits for the expansion of gases 1. Isothermal expansion T is constant 2. Recall that if the expansion is reversible. V ) = U(T ) (independent of V ). −wrev = For an ideal gas (P = nRT ) V Z V2 Pgas dV (42. So for isothermal expansion 4U = 0 = q + w =⇒ q = −w. Adiabatic expansion q = 0. Isothermal expansion • For the case of a ideal gas.42.

in terms of molar heat capacity 2 T2 ¯ CV m ln T1 µ ¶ V2 = −R ln V1 µ ¶ (42. Or. V (42. dU = dw = −Pex dV = −P dV (reversible).3. V2 ). Heat capacity CV for adiabatic expansions Considering an ideal gas going adiabatically from (T1 . V1 ) to (T2 .29) (42.30) T1 CV dT = T Z V2 V1 −nR dV. Recall ¶ µ ∂U CV = =⇒ dU = CV dT ∂T V So from above CV dT −nRdV −nRT dV =⇒ = V T V Going from (T1 .33) 280 . • For an ideal gas dU = −P dV = −nRT dV V (42. V1 ) to (T2 .2.31) If CV (T ) is reasonably constant over the internal T1 to T2 then this is approximately µ ¶ µ ¶ V2 T2 ¯ = −nR ln (42. V2 ): CV dT = Z T2 (42.Adiabatic expansion • Since q = 0.28) 42.32) CV ln T1 V1 ¯ where CV = 1 (CV (T1 ) + CV (T2 )) .

3. When P is the more convenient variable What if P is the more convenient variable? Then use H instead of U Let us still consider an adiabatic expansion H = U + P V. in terms of molar heat capacity 2 T2 ¯ CP m ln T1 µ ¶ P2 = R ln P1 µ ¶ (42. P1 ) to (T2 . P (42.38) CP ln T1 P1 ¯ where CP = 1 (CP (T1 ) + CP (T2 )) . in general.39) From the above two cases µ ¶ µ ¶ µ ¶ R −R P2 V2 T2 = ¯ ln = ¯ ln ln T1 P1 V1 CP m CV m (42.35) P For an ideal gas this becomes Cp dT = Going from (T1 .3. dH = dU + P dV + V dP (because both P and V can.40) 281 . CP = µ ∂H ∂T ¶ (42.42. change) / / dH = dq + dw + P dV + V dP dH = V dP.37) If CP (T ) is reasonably constant over the internal T1 to T2 then this is approximately µ ¶ µ ¶ P2 T2 ¯ = nR ln (42.36) CP dT = T P2 P1 nR dP. P2 ): Z T2 T1 nRT dP P Z (42. Now. Or.34) =⇒ dH = Cp dT = V dP (42.

43) 42. Joule expansion Consider a gas expanding adiabatically against a vacuum (Pex = 0).42) but Pi Viγ are arbitrary so this implies P V γ = constant (** NOTE: The axes should be reversed **) ¶γ ⇒ P2 V2γ = P1 V1γ .3. In this case q = 0 (adiabatic) and w = 0 (since −dw = Pex dV ).41) ¶ V1 = γ ln V2 µ ¶ V1 = ln V2 µ ¶γ (42. 282 .So P2 ln P1 µ ¶ µ µ ¶ hence P2 ln P1 V2 = −γ ln V1 P2 P1 ¶ = µ V1 V2 Thus µ µ ¶ ¯ V2 CP m = − ¯ ln V1 CV | {zm } ≡γ (42.4. (42.

3. Joule-Thomson expansion Consider the adiabatic expansion as illustrated by the ﬁgure below ¡ ∂U ¢ 283 . We want to ﬁnd Identity: ¡ ∂T ¢ ∂V (42. For real gases this is not strictly equal to zero.44) U . That is. Internal energy is constant.5.45) U For an ideal gas ∂V T = 0 (since U(T. for Joule type expansion the temperature of the gas does not change. V ) = U(T )). ¶ µ ¶ ¶ µ µ ∂U ∂U ∂T 1 =− = ∂U V ∂V T CV ∂V T | {z } 1/CV µ ∂T ∂V ¶ (42.This implies 4U = q + w = 0. Thus in as much as the ¡ ∂T ¢ gas can be considered ideal ∂V U = 0. 42.

¶ µ ¶ ¶ µ µ ∂H ∂T 1 ∂H =− = =μ ∂H P ∂P T CP ∂P T | {z } 1/CP ∂T ∂P ¶ (42. 4U = U2 − U1 = wL + wR = P1 V1 − P2 V2 Thus U2 + P2 V2 = U1 + P1 V1 ⇒ H2 = H1 For Joule-Thomson expansion the enthalpy is constant.49) H ≡ μ. Now.The work done on the left is wL = −P1 4V = −P1 (0 − V1 ) = P1 V1 .47) (42. We want to ﬁnd Identity: µ ¡ ∂T ¢ ∂V (42.46) (42.48) (42.50) H 284 . The work done on the right is wR = −P2 4V = −P2 (V2 − 0) = −P2 V2 . (the Joule-Thomson coeﬃcient).

52) Example: The one term virial equation: (equation of state P V = nRT + nB) µ ¶ nRT 1 −nRT 0 − nB + + nT B μ = CP P P −B + T B 0 .53) 285 .51) T P ¡ ¢ −V + T ∂V P ∂T μ= CP (42. so μ is positive–the gas cools upon expansion • High T : B 0 is nearly zero and B is positive. μ = CP m Limts: • Low T : B 0 is positive and B is negative.Recall the useful identity µ Thus ∂H ∂P ¶ =V −T µ ∂V ∂T ¶ (42. so μ is negative–the gas warms upon expansion • The Joule-Thomson inversion temperature is the temperature where μ = 0. (42.

• At constant V : — dU = dq + dw dq=CV dT =⇒ dU = CV dT. So Z T2 CP CP dT =⇒ 4S = dT.1) At constant P : (use H = U + P V instead of U) P — dH = dU +P dV +V dP = dq−P dV +P dV +V dP . Entropy change for changes in temperature. Entropy of Gases 43. but also dU = T dS. 286 286 . but also dH = T dS.2) dS = T T T1 dq=C dT Isothermal expansion of an ideal gas (P V = nRT ): • Recall that for isothermal expansion of an ideal gas dU = 0 = T dS − P dV dV ⇒ dS = P T .1. So dH = dq =⇒ dq=T dS dH = CP dT. Calculation of Entropy Entropy must be calculated along reversible paths.43. This is not a problem though since entropy is a state function. So Z T2 CV CV dT =⇒ 4S = dT. (43. dS = T T T1 (43.

there are simply two separate equations: 4SA = nA R ln and 4Smix = 4SA + 4SB (43.5) 287 .3) • Using the equation of state to express V1 and V2 in terms of P1 and P2 . Entropy of Mixing of an ideal gas • Since the gas is ideal. V1 P1 /R / n / T P1 /R / n / T (43.6) VA + VB . VA 4SB = nB R ln VB + VA VB (43.• Using the equation of state nRdV =⇒ 4S = dS = V Z V2 V1 V2 nR dV = nR ln . V V1 (43. V2 P2 dS = nR ln = nR ln P2 = −nR ln .4) If two variables change in going from the initial to ﬁnal states break the path into two paths in which only one variable changes at a time.

P So ¡ ∂S ¢ µ ∂S ∂P ∂P T = − ¡ ∂V ¢ ∂T P and single term viral equation. this becomes S2 − / 1 S ideal ideal = S2 − / 1 S ideal − nB 0 (P2 − P1 ) (43. S(P θ ) = S θ − nB 0 P θ (43.11) Letting P1 → 0 and P2 → P θ (Standard pressure 1 bar). so ideal ideal S2 − S1 = −nR ln (43.1. V = Hence ¶ T ∂V =− ∂T µ ¶ P =− nR − nB 0 P (43.12) ideal Deﬁning S2 . ⎛ ⎞ 1/XA 1/XB ⎜ nA + nB nB + nA ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ + nB ln 4Smix = R ⎜nA ln ⎟ = −R (nA ln XA + nB ln XB ) nA nB ⎠ ⎝ | {z } | {z } (43.8) µ ¶ → nR P2 → 0 − nB dP =⇒ S2 − S1 = −nR ln dS = − − nB 0 (P2 − P1 ) P P1 P2 P1 (43.10) Thus ideal ideal S2 − S1 = S2 − S1 − nB 0 (P2 − P1 ) (43.13) 288 . P2 → P θ as S θ .9) For an ideal gas B 0 = 0. So.• Recall Avogadro’s principle: n ∝ V for an ideal gas.1. So. Entropy of Real Gases Consider the question: How does S → S ideal as P → 0 ? Use Maxwell relation nRT + nB.7) 43.

P ) = S ideal (T.14) (43. P ) = S θ (T ) − nR ln P − nB 0 P Pθ (43.15) 289 .The entropy at any P and T can be obtained expresses as S(T. P ) − nB 0 P Thus S(T.

−mv2 (43. This section should not substitute for your studying of the rest of this material. The equations are collected here simply for handy reference for you while working the problem sets. The equations listed here are out of context and it would help you very little to memorize this section without understanding the context of these equations.18) 290 290 .Key Equations for Exam 3 Listed here are some of the key equations for Exam 3.17) RT λ= √ 2P Lπσ 2 (43. Equations • The Maxwell’s distribution of speeds is F (v) = 4π µ m 2πkb T ¶3 2 e 2kb T v2 .16) • The average speed of a particle is hvi = • The mean free path is r 8RT πM (43.

23) (43. Vm Vm Vm • Relation between heat capacities for an ideal gas: CP m = CV m + R (43.24) z= (43.22) • The van der Waals gas equation of state: P = • Compressibility Factor: a RT − 2.25) • The virial series is µ ¶ µ ¶2 µ ¶3 1 1 1 z = 1 + B(T ) + C(T ) + D(T ) + ··· .21) • Important thermodynamic relation: 4G = 4H − T 4S • Eyring’s equation is k= kb T − 4H ‡ 4S‡ kb T − 4G‡ e RT = e RT e R h h (43.27) 291 .• The reaction velocity is v= 1 d[I] vi dt (43. nRT RT (43.26) (43. Vm − b Vm P Vm PV = .19) • The relation between the rate constant and the thermodynamic equilibrium constant is kf Kc = (43.20) kr • The Arrhenious equation k = Ae− RT Ea (43.

Part VIII More Thermodyanmics 292 292 .

44. Tc . It is characterized by a critical temperature.1. and a critical density ρc . Critical Phenomena 44. 293 293 . Critical Behavior of ﬂuids The point on the top of the coexistence curve is called the critical point. Law of rectilinear diameters: The average density [ρave = 1 (ρliq + ρvap )] is 2 linear in temperature.

294 . Gas Laws in the Critical Region The vapor pressure of a substance is taken from the gas laws as the pressures where A1 = A2 in the above ﬁgure.44.1. Simple gas laws do not work well near critical points.1.

That is (for the van der Waals Equation) zc = 0. RTc 8 (44.2) 3 dVm ¯c (Vmc − b)2 Vmc and solving these three equations for Pc .44.375.375 3/8 = 0. Tc . setting 2 m the ﬁrst and second derivatives at the critical point equal to zero we get ¯ dP ¯ ¯ = −RTc + 2a = 0 (44.5) (44. Tc and Vmc gives Vmc = 3b. Tc = 27bR a . Vmc ) Pc = a RTc − 2 .1. The other equations of state give similar results van der Waals Berthelot Dieterici Redlich-Kwong zc 3/8 = 0. So.375 for all gases. Vmc − b Vmc 2 (44. Gas Constants from Critical Data Consider the van der Waals equation at the critical point (Pc . dVP = 0) at the critical point.1) dP d There is an inﬂection point ( dVm = 0.33 295 .7) Notice that both a and b whose values depend on the particular gas have dropped out.3) (44.4) (44.2. z. Pc = 27b2 ¯ d2 P ¯ ¯ = 2RTc − 6a = 0 2¯ 4 dVm c (Vmc − b)3 Vmc (44.27 0. 8a .375 2/e2 ' 0.6) These values can be used to ﬁnd the compressibility factor. at the critical point zc = Pc Vmc 3 = = 0.

and Vr = V /Vc . the pressure of the system when μβ = μα is the called the vapor pressure of the material at temperature T. β denote liquid (or solid) and vapor phases. then for a given T . 1.V = −P For a spontaneous process A deceases (dA < 0) z }| { (dVα + dVβ ) ¡ ¢ + μβ − μα dn At equilibrium dA = 0. Suppose some amount of material. RT zr is a “universal” function–it is nearly the same for all gasses. Phase Equilibrium Consider a homogeneous substance consisting of two phases α and β at a constant T and V. dn. Pr = P/Pc . This is actually not too far from the truth experimentally.18 Laidler&Meiser ∗ ∗ 44. Then zr = Pr Vrr . The Law of Corresponding States We have found that zc is predicted by the equations of state to be independent of the particular gas. goes from α → β • (dAα )T = −P dVα − μα dn • (dAβ )T = −P dVβ + μβ dn = 0 since V is constant • (dA)T. 296 .3.44. One can deﬁne unitless “reduced” variables Tr = T /Tc . This implies μβ = μα is the condition for equilibrium.2. ∗ ∗ See Fig. When α.

The chemical potential and T and P How does μ vary with T and P ? Generally for homogeneous substances.n P.8) (44. P ) = −Sm dT + Vm dP −S V (44.9) P. ∂n ∂T ∂T ∂n ∂T P µ ∂μ ∂T ¶ = −Sm . 44. = Vm .T µ ¶ ∂ ∂G ∂μ ∂ ∂G =− =− =− .12) T Now the total diﬀerential of μ is m z z m µ }|¶ { µ }| ¶ { ∂μ ∂μ dT + dP dμ(T. P ) = ∂T P ∂P T dμ(T. dG = −SdT + V dP + μdn Now.P = μβ − μα dn.3. (44. ∂G S=− ∂T So. P ) so. µ ∂μ ∂P ¶ (44.¡ ¢ For phase changes at constant T and P then (dG)T.10) But S = nSm (T.11) P Similarly. So again μβ = μα is the condition for equilibrium.1. (44.13) 297 . µ ∂S ∂n ¶ µ ¶ (44.

16) 44. The Clapeyron Equation At equilibrium μβ = μα so.18) (44.20) = d(ln P ) and dT T2 = −d(1/T ) so this becomes 4v Hm d(1/T ) R (44.vap − Vm.vap Assuming the vapor phase obeys the ideal gas equation of state.19) Collecting the T ’s on one side of the equation and the P ’s on the other we get (44.17) Substituting this into the Clapeyron equation gives 4v Hm 4v Hm P dP = = RT dT RT 2 T P 4v Hm dT dP = P R T2 Now we identify dP P (44. 4v V = RT P (44.14) = This is the Clapeyron Equation 4φ Hm T 4φ Vm (44. Now 4v V = Vm. −Smα dT + Vmα dP = −Smβ dT + Vmβ dP Now Smα − Smβ −4φ Sm dP = = dT Vmα − Vmβ −4φ Vm 4φ Hm dP = dT T 4φ Vm 4S= 4H T (44.15) (44.3. consider the liquidvapor phase transition.liq ' Vm.21) d(ln P ) = − 298 .3. Vapor Equilibrium and the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation The above Clapeyron equation applies to any phase transition.2.3.44.

(44.24) α β 299 . “A diamond is not forever!” At equilibrium μα = μβ this implies (for incompressible liquids and solids) μª + Vmα (P − P ª ) = μª + Vmβ (P − P ª ) α β (44. Equilibria of condensed phases Examples • Solid—liquid — ice—water.4.22) 44.23) This can be rearranged so that terms independent of pressure (the standard chemical potentials) are one side and the terms that depend of pressure are on the other side μª − μª = (Vmβ − Vmα ) (P − P ª ) (44. most other common liquids • Solid—solid — rhombic sulfur—monoclinic sulfur — grey tin—white tin — graphite—diamond For example a diamond at STP is metastable with respect to graphite.Rearranging again leads to 4v Hm d(ln P ) =− d(1/T ) R This is the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

At temperatures above the critical point there is no distinction between vapor and liquid. Triple Point and Phase Diagrams Deﬁnitions • Phase Diagram: A graph of P vs.Thus for any given T only one P allows for equilibrium.5.27) 300 .26) 4f Hm 4f Hm Tf → T ª where Tf is the freezing temperature at standard pressure (1 bar).25) We make the good approximation that 4f Hm is independent of T and solve the Clapeyron equation Z → 4f Vm dP Tf 4f Vm (P − P ª ) dT = ⇒ ln ª = (44. • Triple Point: The point where all three phases coexist in equilibrium: μsolid = μliq = μvap (44. Recall the Clapeyron equation 4f Hm Hmβ − Hmα dP = = dT T 4f Vm T (Vmβ − Vmα ) (44. T for a system which shows the lines of equal chemical potential • Critical Point: The terminal point of the liquid-vapor line. 44.

J= 1 dn A dt (45. Diﬀusion: The ﬂux of material down a concentration gradient 2. Transport Properties of Fluids Transport properties of matter deal with the ﬂow (or ﬂux) of some property along a gradient of some other property. So if there exists a concentration gradient there will be a net ﬂux. of material from high concentration to low concentration so as to establish an equilibrium. Viscosity: The ﬂux of momentum down a velocity gradient 3. J. Thermal Conductivity: The ﬂux of energy down a temperature gradient ∗ ∗ See Transport Phenomena handout ∗ ∗ 45. Flux: movement of something through a unit area.1) 301 301 . Diﬀusion At equilibrium concentration on a bulk solution will be uniform.1.45. We now consider three transport properties of ﬂuids: 1.

4) (45.3) (45. The change in concentration in a lamina between x and dx with time is given by the ﬂux in minus the ﬂux out of the lamina: J(x) − J(x + dx) ∂J ∂C = =− ∂t dx ∂x Using Fick’s ﬁrst law for J ∂ ∂C ∂C = D .5) 302 . ∂t ∂x ∂x If D is truly constant we get Fick’s second law of diﬀusion: ∂ 2C ∂C =D 2. ∂t ∂x (45.The ﬂux of material through a plane depends on the concentration diﬀerence J = −D dC 1 dn dC =⇒ = −D dx A dt dx where D is the diﬀusion constant dC 1 dn = −D A dt dx This is Fick’s ﬁrst law of diﬀusion (in one dimension).2) (45.

i.6) 2. 303 . t) = √ e− 4Dt 2 πDt (45.The solution of this partial diﬀerential equation depends on the boundary conditions. Step function solution # Z √x 4Dt 1 1 2 −√ e−y dy C(x. η.e. 45. The solution for two special boundary conditions are of interest and will simply be presented here without derivation 1. Viscosity Viscosity. The tendency of a liquid to ﬂow at the same velocity throughout. is the resistance to diﬀerential ﬂuid ﬂow.2..7) where erf and erfc are tabulated functions respectively called the error function and complementary error function. t) = C0 2 π 0 ¶¸ ∙ µ x 1 C0 1 − erf √ = 2 4Dt ¶ µ 1 x = C0 erfc √ 2 4Dt " (45. Numerous methods of solution exist for this equation but they are beyond the scope of the course. Point source solution x2 C0 C(x.

8) 4t 8ηl where 4P is the driving pressure. i. ¶ (45. (The units of η are g = cm·s . the volume of ﬂow 4V in time 4t is πr4 4P 4V =− (45. length l). • For a gas 4V πr2 = 4t 16ηl µ 2 Pi2 − Pf P0 where Pi is the inlet pressure.) mass . lenght·time 1 poise Poiseuille’s Formula • Applies to Laminar (nonturbulent) ﬂow • For a liquid ﬂowing trough a tube (radius r.9) Stoke’s law: spheres falling through ﬂuids 304 .dv The frictional (viscous) force is F = ηA dx ..e. the diﬀerence in pressure on either side of the tube. Pf is the outlet pressure and P0 is the pressure at which the volume is read.

11) • Related to diﬀusion constant: = kT 6πηr (45. κ. of a material is a measure of the tendency of energy in the form of heat to ﬂow through the material. Bird. Stokes showed f = 6πηr • Gravitational force (exerted downwards): Fg = gravitational acceleration (9. 4πr3 (ρ − ρ0 )g. Lightfoot Wiley New York 1960) The thermal conductivity.B.• The frictional force (exerted upwards) is proportional to velocity: Ff = −fv.E. 305 . 3 where g is the • Terminal velocity is reached when Ff + Fg = 0 giving −f vterm + vterm = using f = 6πηr vterm 4π r/ (ρ − ρ0 )g / 3 2r2 (ρ − ρ0 )g ¡ ¢ = = 9η 3 6π ηr / / D= kT f f =6πηr 4πr3 (ρ − ρ0 )g = 0 3 4πr3 (ρ − ρ0 )g 3f (45.10) (45. Thermal conductivity (This section closely follows parts of chapter 8 in Transport Phenomena by R. Consider a slab of solid material of area A between two large parallel plates a distance D apart.8 m/s2 ). W. Stewart and E. N.12) 45.3. The plates are held at constant but diﬀerent temperatures T1 and T2 (T1 > T2 ) for a suﬃciently long time that a steady state exists.

. (45. This is called Fourier’s law of heat conduction (one-dimensional version).3.13) A dt D If we take the limit where D becomes inﬁnitesimally small (D → dx) we obtain a diﬀerential form of this equation: 1 dq dT = Qf = −κ . from hot to cold.14) A dt dx where Qf is the heat ﬂux. 306 . Thermal Conductivity of Gases and Liquids ∗ ∗ See Reduced thermal conductivity handout ∗ ∗ From this handout we see that typically the thermal conductivity of gases at low densities increases with increasing temperature.1. 45.Under such conditions. whereas the thermal conductivity of most liquids decrease with increasing temperature. i. And a constant rate of heat ﬂow dq is needed to maintain dt the temperature diﬀerence 4T = (T1 − T2 ) 4T 1 dq = −κ . Thermal conductivities are positive quantities so Fourier’s law says that heat ﬂow down a temperature gradient.e. a linear steady state temperature distribution across the material is established. (45.

Thermal Conductivity of Solids For the most part. Frantz and Lorenz equation relates the thermal conductivity to electrical conductivity.45. In general metals are better heat conductors than nonmetals and crystals are better heat conductors than amorphous materials. (45.15) 307 .3. There is no analog to superconductivity for thermal conductivity. The Wiedemann. The Lorenz number is taken as constant because it is only a very weak function of temperature with a change of 10 to 20% per 1000 degrees being typical. κel T where L is the Lorenz number (typically 22 to 29 × 10−9 V2 /K2 ). Dry porous materials are poor heat conductors Rule of Thumb: Thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity go hand in hand. the thermal conductivity of solids have to be determined experimentally because many factors contributing to the thermal conductivity are diﬃcult to predict. The Wiedemann. Frantz and Lorenz equation breaks down at low temperature because metals become superconductive.2. κel for pure metals: κ = L = const.

So.2) .46. volume.2. n1 +n2 • mole fraction X2 = • molality m = • Molarity c2 = X1 = 1 − X2 1000X2 . Solutions Solutions are mixtures of two or more pure substances. 308 308 (46. Measures of Composition There are several measures of composition of solutions • mole ratio r = n1 n2 n2 . in addition to the parameters needed to characterize a pure substance. one also needs to keep track of the amount of individual species in solution 46. 4mix V = Vsoln − Vsolute − Vsolvent Consider a thermodynamic quantity.1) (46. For example. say. Partial Molar Quantities Thermodynamic properties.1. in general change upon mixing X 4mix = properties of soln − properties of pure. M1 X1 where M1 is the molecular weight of species 1 n2 L solution 46.

n1 .n2 ∂n1 T.P.P. it is a function of T.3) ³ ´ ∂V ¯ ≡ Vi . P.2.n2 ∂n2 T.P.n1 (46.n1 . Material Pure liquid i Vi• • Pure liquid i per mole Vmi Whole solution V Solution/(total moles) Vm ¯ Partial molar of i in solution Vi Apparent molar (of solute) φ V Reference state Viª a large number of symbols which we collect Hi• • Hmi H Hm ¯ Hi φ H Hiª Si• • Smi S Sm ¯ Si Siª G• i • μi G Gm μi μª i 309 .n2 ∂n1 T.4) ³ ´ ∂G ≡ μi . P. the total derivative is ¶ ¶ µ ¶ ¶ µ µ µ ∂V ∂V ∂V ∂V dV = dT + dP + dn1 + dn2 . 46. ∂ni T.n1 (46.In general.1. rather than simply the molar free energy as it was earlier. Notation The study of solutions brings with it here for future reference.nj Similarly ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ µ µ µ µ ∂G ∂G ∂G ∂G dT + dP + dn1 + dn2 . n1 and n2 : V (T.n2 ∂P T.n2 ∂n2 T.nj So now for the more general case of mixtures the chemical potential of a species of the partial molar free energy for that species. So. dG = ∂T P. ∂ni T.n1 .n2 ∂P T.P. ∂T P.n1 . n2 ).P.P. the partial molar volume.n1 .

dn1 = n1 dλ. one unit of baseballs are mixed with one unit of basketballs. More speciﬁcally 4mix V • • = V − (Vm1 n1 + Vm2 n2 ) ¡ ¢ • • ¯ ¯ = V1 n1 + V2 n2 − (Vm1 n1 + Vm2 n2 ) ¡ ¡ ¢ ¢ • • ¯ ¯ = V1 − Vm1 n1 + V2 − Vm2 n2 ¢ ¡ dλ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ dV = V1 n1 + V2 n2 dλ =⇒ V = V1 n1 + V2 n2 (46.8) 4mix V can be positive. 4mix V > 0. however. negative or zero. For example. Vi depends on concentration. 310 .5) ¯ Now.46. The total volume. the total volume of the solution is equal to the sum of the partial molar volumes each weighted by their respective number of moles. So. so change each amount of substance proportional to the amount substance present.6) That is.2. 2. (46. 1.2. Partial Molar Volumes Consider the partial molar volume For constant T and P ¯ ¯ dV = V1 dn1 + V2 dn2 (46. dn2 = n2 dλ. 4mix V < 0. is not necessarily the mole weighted sum of the volumes of each component in its pure (unmixed) state. one unit of baseballs are mixed with one unit of books.7) (46.

the ideal state for Raoult’s law 2. Activity (a brief review) Henry’s law limit Recall that activity gives a measure of the deviation of the real state from some reference state 311 . all neighboring molecules are diﬀerent than the given molecule 2.3. Reference states for liquids For liquids there are two more convenient ideal states 1.1. all neighboring molecules are same as the given molecule 2.46. neat (pure) solvent limit 1.3. the ideal state for Henry’s law Raoult’s law limit 46. inﬁnite dilution limit 1.

2. Raoult’s Law In discussing both Raoult’s law and Henry’s law.10) 46.3.. pressure.g.11) The deﬁnition of activity implies that γ i = 1 at g(ζ ª ) (the reference state) That is γ i → 1 as the real system approaches the reference state.9) ζ→ζ ª g(ζ) where g(ζ) is any reference function (e.). we are describing the behavior of a liquid solution by measuring the vapor (partial) pressures of the components 312 . This implicit deﬁnition is awkward so for convenience one deﬁnes the activity coeﬃcient as the argument of the above limit. and ζ ª is the value of ζ at the reference state. Connecting with the chemical potential we saw last semester that the deviation of the chemical potential at the state of interest versus at the reference state is determined by the activity at the current state (the activity at the reference state is unity by deﬁnition). (46. γi ≡ which we can rearrange as ai = γ i g(ζ). mole fraction. (46.12) i ai g(ζ) (46.Also recall that the mathematical deﬁnition of activity ai of some species i is implicitly stated as ai lim =1 (46. μi − μª = RT ln ai . concentration etc.

dG = μ1 dn1 + μ2 dn2 .18) Now. μ1 − μ• = RT ln 1 where Pi is the vapor pressure of the ith component above the solution. 313 . so dG = (μ1 n1 + μ2 n2 ) dλ then G = μ1 n1 + μ2 n2 . • ai Pi (46.14) (46. Recall that 4mix G = G(soln) − G(pure components) Hence.For simplicity we consider here only a two component solution.13) = (μ1 − μ• ) n1 + (μ2 − μ• ) n2 .15) (46. 1 2 ai low P Pi ' RT ln • .16) (46. Take diﬀerential change along a line of constant concentration. 4mix G = μ1 n1 + μ2 n2 − μ• n1 − μ• n2 1 2 (46.17) (46.

21) That is.24) (46. ∂T P ∂ (1/T ) P the entropy of mixing for an ideal Raoult solution is µ 4mix S = −R (n1 ln X1 + n2 ln X2 ) and the enthalpy of mixing is 4mix H = 0 id(RL) id(RL) id(RL) (46.26) 314 . The change in free energy upon mixing for solutions ideally obeying Raoult’s law is Ã ! • • X1 P/ X2 P/ id(RL) 1 2 4mix G = RT n1 ln + n2 ln (46.3.22) • • P1 / P2 / 4mix G = RT (n1 ln X1 + n2 ln X2 ) Again.3. this is for an ideal solution in the Raoult’s Law sense. From ¶ ¶ µ ∂G ∂ (G/T ) S=− and H = − .23) (46. Ideal Solutions (RL) Raoult’s Law: Pi = Xi Pi• (46.Thus or at low P ¶ µ P1 P2 4mix G = RT n1 ln • + n2 ln • P1 P2 ¶ µ a1 a2 4mix G = RT n1 ln • + n2 ln • a1 a2 (46. the vapor partial pressure of a component of a mixture is equal to the mole fraction of the component times the vapor pressure that the component would have if it were pure.20) 46.25) (46.19) (46.

there are speciﬁc interactions between particles. in reality.27) = γi (RL) Xi . ai =1 Xi →1 Xi lim implies ai and γ i (RL) (RL) (RL) (46. The physical interpretation of deviation from Raoult’s law is • positive deviation: the molecules prefer to be around themselves rather than other types of molecules. • no deviation: the molecules have no preference. real solutions generally deviate from Raoult’s law.(since G/T is independent of 1/T ). (46. It does not require any kind of interaction among the constituent particle making up the solution. The Reference State (RL) Let us apply the deﬁnition of activity for the Raoult’s law reference state.28) → 1 as Xi → 1 Deviations from Raoult’s Law Raoult’s law is a purely statistical law. Since. The reference function is g(ζ) = ζ = Xi . • negative deviation: the molecules prefer to be around other types of molecules than themselves. and the reference state is Xi = 1 So. 315 .

Positive deviation from Raoult’s lawNegative deviation from Raoult’s law 46. 316 .30) (46.4.e. at inﬁnite dilution. mixing with one substance may lead to a positive deviation but mixing with another substance may lead to a negative deviation. where kXi is the Henry’s law constant.29) Xi →0 Henry’s law applies to the solute not to the solvent and becomes more correct for real solution as the concentration of solute goes to zero (Xi → 0). i.3.It is very important to note that this deviation from Raoult’s law is a property of the solution and NOT any given component. kXi = lim µ Pi Xi ¶ (46.. For example. Henry’s Law Henry’s Law: Pi = kXi Xi . for a given component.

they apply to opposite species in the solution. molality or molarity is used then ai and ai respectively. X1 → 1.33) = γ Mi Mi (HL) (46. Raoult’s law applies to the dominant species.34) 317 . and the reference state is now Xi = 0 So. in summary • Raoult’s law: γ 1 → 1 as X1 → 1 • Henry’s law: γ 2 → 1 as X2 → 0 (HL) (HL) (HL) = γ (HL) mi mi (46. whereas Henry’s law applies to the subdominant species X2 → 0. So.32) ai → 1 as Xi → 0 and γ i If instead of mole fraction. Comparison of Raoult’s Law and Henry’s Law Both Raoult’s law and Henry’s law become better approximations for real solutions as the solution becomes pure. (HL) ai lim =1 (46.31) Xi →0 Xi implies (HL) (HL) = γ i Xi . (46. But.The Reference State (HL) Referring to the deﬁnition of activity again we see that the reference function is g(ζ) = ζ = Xi .

μ1 (solid) = μ1 (soln). | {z } μs 1 318 . Freezing Point Depression At Tf (freezing point).46. Colligative Properties Colligative properties: Properties of dilute solutions that are independent of the chemical nature of the solute Examples • Freezing point depression • Boiling point elevation • Vapor pressure lowering • Osmotic pressure We will consider the examples of freezing point depression and osmotic pressure 46.4.1.4.

Using the Raoult’s law reference state (since we are interested in the behavior of the dominant species). Osmotic Pressure RTf•2 ln a1 4f H We consider the osmotic pressure at a constant temperature.36) = H and integrating we get µ ¶ Z → −1 4f H s • d ln a1 = (H1 − H1 ) dT = dT 2 RT RT 2 → Z Tf 4f H dT ln a1 = • RT 2 Tf (46.4.38) •2 •2 • RTf Tf RTf • where Θ ≡ Tf − Tf . T. (46.37) • For small changes in the freezing point we may approximate T by Tf in the integrand. μ1 (soln) = μ• + RT ln a1 : 1 μs = μ• + RT ln a1 1 1 Rearranging this and taking the derivative with respect to T yields ¶ µ −1 ∂μs ∂μ• 1 ∂ ln a1 ∂ → 1 1 s • (μ − μ1 ) =⇒ = − ln a1 = ∂T → RT 1 ∂T RT 2 ∂T ∂T Now. using ∂μ ∂T (46. So. Z Tf −4f H 4f H ln a1 ' dT = Θ. (so. 319 . The freezing point depression is Θ=− 46.35) (46. dG = V dP ).2.

39) ¯ where V1 is the partial molar volume of the solvent in solution (diﬃcult to measure) and Π is the hydrostatic (osmotic) pressure. ' m1 =⇒ n2 ' n1 RT RT V• (46. Thus 1 z }| { • • V Π n1 Vm1 Π n2 . From the above equation ¯ V1 Π RT • ¯ Now we make the approximations V1 = Vm1 .42) ' n2 n1 for dilute solutions. a1 = X1 = 1 − X2 : ln a1 = ln(1 − X2 ) = • Vm1 Π RT (46. 2 3 (46. hence ¯ μ• = μ• + RT ln a1 + V1 Π. 1 1 (46.41) For dilute solutions X2 is small so ln(1 − X2 ) may be expanded as ln(1 − X2 ) = −X2 + but X2 = n2 n1 +n2 2 X3 X2 − 2 − · · · ' −X2 .40) (46.In the above ﬁgure μ1 (left) = μ1 (right).43) 320 .

Thus the solute in a very dilute solution behaves as if it were an ideal gas.or. Π= where c is the concentration of the solute. 321 . V1• |{z} 'c (46.44) Note the similarity of this equation with the ideal gas equation: P = cRT. n2 RT = cRT.

we will state their respective deﬁnitions here in a manner best suited for this chapter. This allows us to make a stronger connection between thermodynamics and kinetics. entropy production per unit time–how fast we are producing entropy.47. Entropy Production and Irreverisble Thermodynamics We have seen that thermodynamics tells us if a process will occur and kinetics tells us how fast a process will occur. 47. These two areas of physical chemistry appear to be rather disjoint. We now we consider thermodynamics of nonequilibrium states and investigate how (and how fast) these state move towards equilibrium.1. Fundamentals We know the diﬀerence between reversible and irreversible processes from before. ultimately. However. The main concept of this approach is the idea of entropy production and. 322 322 .

the one dimensional wave equation. κ ∂t ∂x2 κ ∂(−t) ∂x2 κ ∂t ∂x2 is not invariant under time reversal.g.. the one dimensional heat equation. • e. • e.. dS. ∂ 2 T t→−t 1 ∂T ∂ 2T ∂2T 1 ∂T 1 ∂T = = = =⇒ =⇒ − . • di S is the change in entropy due to internal changes of the system The quantity di S is called the entropy production. Deﬁnitions • de S is the change in entropy due to interactions with the exterior environment. 1 ∂ 2 u ∂ 2 u t→−t 1 ∂ 2 u ∂2u 1 ∂2u ∂2u = 2 =⇒ = 2 =⇒ = 2. 323 . c ∂t2 ∂x c ∂(−t)2 ∂x c ∂t2 ∂x is invariant under time reversal Irreversible process: dynamical equations are not invariant under time inversion (t → −t). which can be split into two components dS = de S + di S.1) We will be concerned with the change in entropy.Reversible process: dynamical equations are invariant under time inversion (t → −t). (47.g.2) (47.

This is simply another in our long list of alternative statements of the second law. The Second Law As you might expect. di S = dS ≥ 0. General criteria for irreversibility: • di S = 0 (reversible change) • di S > 0 (irreversible change) For isolated systems have di S = dS and the principle of Clausius. the second law underlies all the concepts of this chapter..e.Splitting up dS into these two parts permits an easy discussion of both open and isolated systems–the diﬀerence between the two appearing only in de S.2. We need a “local” formulation of the second law: • Absorption of entropy in one part of the system. holds. compensated by a suﬃcient production in another part is prohibited — i. 47. 324 . in every macroscopic region of the system the entropy production due to irreversible processes is positive.

heat ﬂow. for example. 47. mixing. di S I < 0 and di S II > 0 such that di S I + S II > 0 is excluded.I II Considering the above ﬁgure of an isolated system. (47. chemical reactions.4) ¡ ¢ and the possibility of. etc. Examples The idea of entropy production can be applied to any of the processes we have talked about. phase changes. As example we now consider the last two of these: heat ﬂow and chemical reactions.3) The local formulation statement implies di S I ≥ 0 and di S II ≥ 0 (47.3. 325 . we write the principle of Clausius as dS = dS I + dS II ≥ 0.

5) we get (47. 326 . so. Entropy Production due to Heat Flow Recall from the lecture on transport phenomena that the heat ﬂux Qf is given by Qf = −κ 4T D q 4t (47. (47.6) We are now interested in exposing the time dependence. one of which is held at temperature T1 and ¯ ¯ the other at T2 (take T1 > T > T2 ) where T is the temperature at the interface.3. using Qf = κA4T q =− 4t D in diﬀerential form this is dT dq = −κA .7) dt dx Example: Find the entropy production in a system consisting of two identical connected blocks of metal (I and II).1.47.

8) The quantity de qj is the amount of heat supplied by the environment to hold block j at its ﬁxed temperature. T1 T2 T1 T2 d S dS dS = (47. Furthermore the heat going out of I through the connecting wall is equal to the heat coming into II through the connecting wall: di qI = −di qII .9) (47. To do so we must consider the entropy production per unit time di S .Considering the whole system dqI dqII + T1 T2 e i z }| { z }| { de qI de qII di qI di qII = + + + . Using this we see that the entropy production is µ ¶ 1 1 . We have still not made a connection to kinetics.10) 327 . dt (47. − di S = di qI T1 T2 which we see is positive because di qI < 0 when T1 > T2 .

2. Extent of reaction: ξ is deﬁned by dξ = dni . where ni is the number of moles vi of the ith component and vi the stoichiometric factor of the ith component. T1 − T = − T − T2 ⇒ T = 2 D / D / (47. Entropy Production due to Chemical Reactions Deﬁnitions: 1.11) ¶ −Aκ4T di qI = . (47.P = − P − i vi μi P i vi μi and a ≡ − (4rxn A)T.14) a result we might have guessed. dt D So.V = 2. − ¢ ¢ κ/ κ/ /A ¡ / A ¡¯ ¯ ¯ T1 + T2 . 47.3.13) dt dt ¯ Using the above expression for heat ﬂow gives us T since.12) ¯ To determine T we use the fact that the heat ﬂow out of I is equal to the heat ﬂow into II: di qI −di qII = . −Aκ4T di S = dt D µ 1 1 − T1 T2 (47.For this example di qI di S = dt dt From chapter 24 we know µ 1 1 − T1 T2 ¶ (47. 328 . Chemical aﬃnity: a ≡ − (4rxn G)T.

V = X i dξ dt dnH2 dnNH3 dnN2 = = (−1) (−3) (2) (47.V dq − = (dU)T.17) z }| { z }| { (dA)T.V − T dS ⇒ dS = T T dq e i z}|{ z}|{ dq adξ + dS = T T (47. for the reaction N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 dξ = and a = 2μNH3 − μN2 − 3μH2 The connection to kinetics: reaction rate v = The connection to thermodynamics: (dA)T.16) but (dA)T.V is positive as is v.20) We see that for a spontaneous process the entropy production per unit time is positive.19) The entropy production per unit time for a chemical reaction is a function of both the chemical aﬃnity and of the reaction rate a dξ a di S = = v≥0 dt T dt T (47.18) d S dS (47.. This is because a = − (4rxn A)T.V so µ ¶ 1 dni = −adξ μi dni = vi μi vi | i {z }| {z } X −a dξ −adξ (47.15) (47.• e. 329 .g.

4. It says nothing about the entropy production of the individual component reactions other then the sum of all the component entropy productions must be positive. diﬀusion is the ﬂux of matter down a concentration gradient. (47. a2 v2 > 0 such that a1 v1 + a2 v2 > 0. Thermodynamic coupling need not be conﬁned to coupling between the same types of processes. Conversely. Thermodynamic Coupling Processes may be what is called thermodynamically coupled such that a process that normally is not thermodynamically favored can be coupled to another process that is thermodynamically favored so as to allow for the unfavorable process to proceed spontaneously. the so-called Dufour eﬀect is heat ﬂux down a concentration gradient 330 .Simultaneous Reactions For N simultaneous chemical reactions. 47. That is. the entropy production per unit time generalizes to N 1X di S = aj vj ≥ 0. For example in a system of two coupled reactions we could have a1 v1 < 0. We just saw an example of such a situation with the discussion of simultaneous reactions. The socalled Soret eﬀect is ﬂux of matter down a temperature gradient.21) dt T j=1 The second law requires that the total entropy production for simultaneous reactions is positive.

5. • Irreversibly — The evolution towards equilibrium cannot be undone–it is irreversible Example: The spin echo in pulsed NMR • A radio frequency pulse prepares an ensemble of nuclear spins such that they are all spinning coherently. The ensemble evolves in two ways • Reversibly — A second perturbation can “undo” or reverse the evolution. Echo Phenonmena Consider an ensemble that is perturbed away from thermal equilibrium by some means such as by applying a ﬁeld. 331 .The following table lists a number of thermodynamically coupled phenomena Flux Gradient q Thermoconductivity Mechanocaloric eﬀect m Thermomechanical eﬀect Hydrodynamic ﬂow material Soret eﬀect Reverse osmosis Q (charge) Seebeck eﬀect Potential of ﬂow Nernst Potential Electoconductivity T P C ε Dufour eﬀect Peltier eﬀect Osmosis Electrophoresis Diﬀusion Migration 47. If the perturbation is released the system will begin to evolve in time as it heads back towards the thermalized equilibrium state.

332 . • This cannot be undone with the second radio pulse. • Each nucleus is in a slightly diﬀerent environment so each spin frequency is slightly diﬀerent.• A strong signal is seen because all the spinning nuclei cooperate. • The diﬀerent environment (spin frequencies) cause the ensemble spinning nuclei to dephase • Dephasing causes a decrease in the observed signal because now not all nuclei are cooperating. • Now a radio pulse with the opposite phase is applied to make the nuclei spin in the opposite direction • This undoes or reverses the dephasing process and the signal regains strength • The full signal is not recovered however since all the while random thermalization is taking place to irreversibly destroy the coherence among the nuclei.

The equations are collected here simply for handy reference for you while working the problem sets.Key Equations for Exam 4 Listed here are some of the key equations for Exam 4.22) 333 333 .23) (47. This section should not substitute for your studying of the rest of this material. Equations • The Clapeyron Equation is 4φ Hm dP = . dT T 4φ Vm • The Clausius-Clapeyron equation is 4φ Hm d(ln P ) =− d(1/T ) R • Fick’s ﬁrst law of diﬀusion is dC 1 dn = −D A dt dx (47.24) (47. The equations listed here are out of context and it would help you very little to memorize this section without understanding the context of these equations.

γi (RL) → 1 as Xi → 1 (47.28) μ = μª + RT ln a (47.26) • Fourier’s law of heat conduction is dT 1 dq = Qf = −κ .33) = γi (HL) Xi . (47. γi (HL) → 1 as Xi → 0.29) Pi = Xi Pi• (47.34) 334 . µ ¶ (47. (47.32) where kXi is the Henry’s law constant.31) Pi = kXi Xi .• Fick’s second law of diﬀusion: ∂ 2C ∂C =D 2. A dt dx X (47. kXi = lim • Henry’s law reference ai (HL) Xi →0 Pi Xi .30) = γi (RL) Xi . 6πηr (47. ∂t ∂x (47.27) • Mixing 4mix = properties of soln − • Chemical potential • Raoult’s Law: • Raoult’s law reference ai • Henry’s Law: (RL) properties of pure. (47.25) • Relation between the viscosity and the diﬀusion constant: D= kT f f =6πηr = kT .

124. 99. 97. 178 partition coeﬃcient 174 Born—Oppenheimer approximation 62. 312 adiabatic expansion 280 and heat capacity 280 adiabatic wall 120 angular momentum addition of 202 classical 192 eigenfunctions for 199. 240 and the Franck—Condon principle 243 bosons 56 Boyle temperature 272 chain rule for partial derivatives 107 character table for the C2v group 225 chemical aﬃnity 328 chemical potential 144 for a salt 161 relation to activity 148 relation to Gibbs free energy 145 relation to Helmhotz free energy 145 . 96. 131 Boltzmann’s equation 90. 291 temperature corrected 262 atomic orbitals 49 chemists picture 50 physicists picture 50 aufbau principle 58 average value theorem 29 Berthelot gas 13. 219 spin 201 angular momentum quantum number 52 antibonding orbital 71 Arrhenious activation energy 261 Arrhenious equation 261. 270 binominal coeﬃcient 90 blue sky 81 Bohr model 18 335 335 Bohr radius 19 Boltzmann distribution 10. 235. 131 bond order 77 bonding orbital 71 Born model 170 corrections to 175 enthalpy of solvation 174 entropy of solvation 174 free energy of solvation 173.Index absorption spectroscopy 241 activity 146. 219 jj coupling 202 LS coupling 202 quantum numbers 199. 311 mathematical deﬁnition of 146 activity coeﬃcient 146.

323 due to chemical reactions 328 due to heat ﬂow 326 equation of state 116 for a Berthelot gas 118 for a Dieterici gas 118 for a Redlich—Kwang gas 118 for a van der Waals gas 117 for an ideal gas 116 for gases 269 equilibrium constant 135 336 . 189 completeness 191 complimentary variables 30 compressibility factor at the critical point 295 compressibilty factor 270. 333 Clausius-Clapeyron equation 299. 231 electrolytes strong 161 electrophoretic eﬀect 167 elementary reactions 255 and stoichiometry 256 molecularity 256 emission spectroscopy 241 enemble 89 ensemble average 103. 133 degeneracy 186 of the ensemble 98 diathermic wall 120 diatomic molecules electron-electron potential energy operator for 61 electronic kinetric energy operator for 61 electronic wavefunction for 62 Hamiltonian for 61 nuclear kinetic energy operator for 61 nuclear-electron potential energy operator for 61 nuclear-nuclear potential energy operator for 61 Schrodinger equation for 62 Dieterici gas 270 diﬀusion 301 diﬀusion constant 302 eigenfunction 5 eigenvalue 5 eigenvalue equation 190 electric dipole approximation 79. 291 conﬁguration 90 conﬂuent hypergeometric functions 65 correspondence principle 41 critical point 300 cyclic rule 14. 132 enthalpy 136 entropy 105 change for changes in temperature 286 change for isothermal expansion 286 change for mixing 287 of real gases 288 entropy production 322.Clapeyron equation 298. 108 cylindrical symmetry 69 Debye—Huckel limiting law 164. 333 coeﬃcient of thermal expansion 274 coexistence curve 293 colligative properties 318 commutator 30. 178 Debye—Huckel theory 163 Debye—Huckel—Guggenheim equation 164 Debye’s law 129. 300.

equlibrium constant 153 Euler’s identity 4 expansion of gases 111 reversible 114 extent of reaction 328 Eyring’s equation 265. 333 Fick’s second law 302. 334 Hermite polynominals 40 hot bands 66 Hund’s rule 205 hydrogen atom ioniztion energy of 19 hydrogen molecule 74 hydrogenic systems 46 energy levels for 49. 133 Heisenberg uncertainty principle 30 and the harmonic oscillator 41 helium 55 electron-electron repulsion term 55 Hamiltonian 55 Helmholtz free energy 106 Henry’s law 311. 334 Henry’s law constant 316. 85 potential energy for 47 Schrodinger equation for 47 wavefunction (no spin) 49 wavefunction (with spin) 52 ideal solution Raoult’s law 314 immiscible solutions 153 infrared spectroscopy 66 internal energy 103. 133 ﬂipping coins 90 ﬂuctuation 92 ﬂuorescence 242 stokes shift 242 Fourier’s law of heat conduction 306. 44. 86 potential energy 39 Schrodinger equation for 39 heat 109 sign convention 110 heat capacity 115. 334 Franck—Condon integral 243 Franck—Condon principle 243 free energy Gibbs 138 Helmholtz 137 fugacity 147 fundamental transistions 66 general equlibrium 151 generalized displacement 110 generalized force 110 gerade 69 Gibb’s free energy 106 Gibbs-Duhem equation 163 good theory 16 group mathematical deﬁnition of 222 multiplication table 223 group theory 221 Hamiltonian operator 27 Hamitonian classical 27 harmonic oscillator 38 energy levels for 40. 291 fermions 56 Fick’s ﬁrst law 302. 121 intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) 242 337 . 316. 86 Hamiltonian 47 normalization constant 49. 334 ﬁrst law of thermodynamics 121.

86. 290 mean free path 253.inversion symmetry 69 operator 69 ion mobility 166 and current 168 ion transfer 174 IR spectroscopy 231 and the character table 232 isothermal compressibility 274 isothermal expansion 279 Joule expansion 282 Joule-Thomson expansion 283 kinetic theory of gases 250 Lagrange multipliers 95 Laguerre polynominals 49 laminar ﬂow 304 law of corresponding states 296 law of rectilinear diameters 293 Legendra polynomials 200 linear combinations of atomic orbitals (LCAO) 72 Lorenz number 307 many electron atom Hamlitonian for 59 maximal work 113 Maxwell relations 140 Maxwell’s distribution of speeds 252. 290 mean ionic activity 162 mean ionic activity coeﬃcient 162 method of initial velocities 259 method of isolation 259 microstate 90 Mie scattering 84 mirror plane symmetry 70 molar heat capacity 115 molecular collisions simple model for 252 molecular hydrogen ion 67 Hamiltonian for 67 molecular orbital diagram 76 molecular orbitals 68 molecular rotations 235 asymmetric tops 239 centrifugal stretching 236 linear tops 238 polyatomic molecules 237 spherical tops 239 symmetric tops 238 vibrational state dependence of 236 molecular vibrations 228 molecule Scrodinger equation for 78 momentum operator 5 Morse oscillator 64 energy levels for 65. 86 Schrodinger equation for 65 wavefunction for 65 Morse potential 64. 240 force constant associated with 9 Taylor series expansion of 8 normal modes 229 operator Hermitian 189 ladder 195 linear 189 symmetry 222 operator algebra 187 orientation quantum number 53 orthogonality 191 overtone transitions 66 parameters extensive 109 intensive 109 338 .

particle in a box 31. 218 partition coeﬃcient 154 and drug delivery 155 for the Born model 174 partition function canonical 96. 291 reciprocal rule 108 red sunsets 82 Redlich-Kwang gas 270 reference states 147 relationship between CP and CV 139. 314. 132 Pauli exclusion principle 56 consquences of 58 perturbation theory 207 example of the quartic oscillator 208 phase diagram 300 Poiseuille’s formula 304 polarizability 79 postulate I (of quantum mechanics) 22 postulate II (of quantum mechanics) 24 postulate III (of quantum mechanics) 25 pressure 104 principle of Clausius 125. 181 energy levels 183 energy levels for 34. 324 principle quantum number 52 probability amplitude 22 probability distribution 22 PV work 111. 132 translational 101. 131 electronic 101 grand canonical 97 isothermal—isobaric 97 microcanonical 96 molecular 100 rotational 101. 276 relaxation eﬀects 167 rigid rotor 200 degeneracy of 235. 247 rotational energy levels 200. 218 Hamitonian for 194 wavefunctions for 195. 87 reaction velocity 255. 219 339 . 82. 44. 248 energy 235. 44. 218 particle on a ring 194 boundary conditions 194 energy levels for 195. 132 vibrational 101. 133 Raman scattering 80 Raman spectroscopy 66. 312. 334 deviations from 315 reference state 315 rate law 255 rate laws 254 determination of 258 integrated 259 Rayleigh scattering 80 Rayleigh scattering law 81. 233 and the character table 234 Raoult’s law 311. 218 features of the energy levels 35 normalization constant for 33 potenial energy 31 Schrodinger equation for 32 three dimensional 183 three dimensional energy levels 185 three dimensional wavefunction 185 wavefunction for 183 wavefunctions for 34.

219 Hamiltonian for 212 Tyndall scattering 84 ungerade 69 van der Waals equation 340 . 53 wavefunction 51 spin orientation quantum number 51. 133 tips for solving problems 2 total derivative 107 transfer matrix 11 triple point 300 two level system 211 ‘left’ and ‘right’ states 213. 200 spin 201 quantum number 51. 304 STP 120 superposition 191 systems types of 108 temperature 115 term symbols 204 thermal conductivity 301 of gases 306 of liquids 306 thermal equilibrium 120 third law of thermodynamics 128. 133 statements of 127 simple collision theory 262 Slater determinant 58 for lithium 59 solar system model 17 solvation 169 solvophobic eﬀect 176 speciﬁc heat 115 spherical harmonic functions 48. 53 spin-orbit coupling 205 Hamiltonian 205 interaction energy 205 spontaneous process 142 state function 121 table of important ones 136 Sterlings approximation 92 Stoke’s law 167.degeneracy of 200 rotational Hamiltonian 200 rule of mutual exclusion 234 Rydberg constant 20 SATP 120 Schrodinger equation time dependent 214 time independent 27 second law “local” formulation 324 second law of thermodynamics 126.

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