This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
TOPIC: DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, ABSTRACT AND SYNOPSIS WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW
SUBMITTED TO: SIR SHEHZAD BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SUBMITTED BY: KHALID KHAN M 10 MBA 1ST SEMESTER DATE: 19 SEPTEMBER, 2008
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, ABSTRACT AND SYONPSIS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
An executive summary is a report, proposal, or portfolio, etc in miniature. That is, the executive summary contains enough information for the readers to become acquainted with the full document without reading it. Usually, it contains a statement of the problem, some background information, a description of any alternatives, and the major conclusions. Someone reading an executive summary should get a good idea of main points of the document without becoming bogged down with details. An executive summary differs from an abstract in that an abstract is usually only about six to eight lines long. Its purpose is to inform the reader of the points to be covered in the report without any attempt to tell what is said about them. Covering no more than a page in length, the executive summary is longer and is a highly condensed version of the most important information the full document contains. Both the executive summary and the abstract are independent elements rather than a part of the body of the document. Both are placed at the beginning of the document. With the possible exception of the conclusion and recommendation, the executive summary is the most important part of a report. As such, it should be the best-written and most polished piece of the document. This is because many readers may only look at the executive summary when deciding whether or not to read the entire document. In some companies, the executive summaries are distributed so that employees are informed as to what information is available, and interested readers may request the entire document. In short, you may expect that an executive summary will be read more frequently and by more people than will your entire document. Since the executive summary is a condensation, when creating it, you omit any preliminaries, details, and illustrative examples. You do include the main ideas, the facts, and the necessary background to understand the problem, the alternatives, and the major conclusions. Brevity and conciseness are the keys to a well-written
summary. Do not take a few sentences from key sections of the document and string them together. Rather, go over the entire document and make notes of the elements you consider important. From your notes, create a rough draft of the summary. Then, polish what you have written until it is smooth and seamless without unnecessary wordiness. Do not include any introductory or transitional material. Finally, ensure that your executive summary is accurate and representative of your full document. It should not be misleading, but it should give readers the same impression as if they had read the entire report.
An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject or discipline, and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose. When used, an abstract always appears at the beginning of a manuscript, acting as the point-of-entry for any given scientific paper or patent application. Abstraction and indexing services are available for a number of academic disciplines, aimed at compiling a body of literature for that particular subject.An abstract is a self-contained, short, and powerful statement that describes a larger work. Components vary according to discipline; an abstract of a social science or scientific work may contain the scope, purpose, results, and contents of the work. An abstract of a humanities work may contain the thesis, background, and conclusion of the larger work. An abstract is not a review, nor does it evaluate the work being abstracted. While it contains key words found in the larger work, the abstract is an original document rather than an excerpted passage.
A synopsis is a brief overview of a report’s most important points, designed to give readers a quick preview of the contents. It’s often included in long informational reports dealing with technical, professional or academic subjects and can also be called an abstract. Because it’s a concise representation of the whole report, it may be distributed separately to a wide audience; interested readers can then order a copy of the entire report.
ABSTRACT VS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, DIFFERENCES These are the differences between Abstract and Executive Summary: ABSTRACT NATURE AUDIENCE SCOPE Abbreviated summary. Specialized (researchers) or mere readers. Informational, academic, administrative, and other general documents (thesis, articles, and patents). Give information. Ascertain the purpose of the whole document; give an overview or preview of its content. Mainly technical: 1. Present the problem and scope; 2. Expose the used methodology; 3. Report observations and results; 4. Draw conclusions and recommendations. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Unique selling point (USP). Decision makers, e.g. corporate managers. Solicited or unsolicited sales proposals and bids (P&B).
Call for action. Persuade readers to buy on the recommended solution addressing the problem, namely, make your unique selling point (USP). Mainly managerial (The 4 rules of persuasion): 1. State outcomes and benefits; 2. Substantiate benefits with proofs of concept; 3. Apply benefits to the reader's particular; context (win themes); 4. Recommend a solution to address the problem.
Short. Shorter than the executive summary. Technical, static, and more academic.
Short. Longer than the abstract. Managerial, dynamic, and more enthusiastic.
As revealed by the side-by-side comparison above, the key difference between an abstract and an executive summary resides on their antipodal purpose, and consequently on the format used to achieve this goal. Indeed, while the abstract aims at convincing the reader to go through the whole document in order to quash his thirst of information, the executive summary, at the opposite, aims at persuading the reader, who is supposed to be a decision maker, to take of forgo an action, whether usually buying a product, or approving another action.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY VS SYNOPSIS
An executive summary is a fully developed mini version of the report itself, intended for readers who lack the time or motivation to study the complete text while a synopsis is a prose table of contents that outlines the main points of the report. So an executive summary is more comprehensive than a synopsis, often as much as 10 percent as long as the report itself. Unlike synopsis executive summary may contain headings, well-developed transitions, and even visual aids. It is often organized in the same way as the report, using a direct or an indirect approach.
WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW
A literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge on a particular topic. Most often associated with science-oriented literature, such as a thesis, the literature review usually precedes a research proposal, methodology and results section. Its ultimate goal is to bring the reader up to date with current literature on a topic and forms the basis for another goal, such as the justification for future research in the area. A good literature review is characterized by: a logical flow of ideas; current and relevant references with consistent, appropriate referencing style; proper use of terminology; and an unbiased and comprehensive view of the previous research on the topic. It helps with all types of assignments as well.
A literature review can be just a simple summary of the sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis. A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information. It might give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations. Or it might trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates. And depending on the situation, the literature review may evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant. According to Cooper (1988) "A literature review uses as its database reports of primary or original scholarship, and does not report new primary scholarship itself. The primary reports used in the literature may be verbal, but in the vast majority of cases reports are written documents. The types of scholarship may be empirical, theoretical, critical/analytic, or methodological in nature. Second a literature review seeks to describe, summarize, evaluate, clarify and/or integrate the content of primary reports". Undertaking a review of a body of literature is often seen as something obvious and a task easily done. In practice, although research students do produce what are called reviews of the literature, the quality of these varies considerably. Many reviews, in fact, are only thinly disguised annotated bibliographies. Quality means appropriate breadth and depth, rigor and consistency, clarity and brevity, and effective analysis and synthesis; in other words, the use of the ideas in the literature to justify the particular approach to the topic, the selection of methods and demonstration that this research contributes something new. The originality of a research topic often depends on critical reading of a wideranging literature. The nature of these concerns, on one hand, immersing oneself in the topic to avoid the shallowness of quick and “dirty” research and, on the other, there is the need to identify the key ideas and methodologies from which some contribution to knowledge might be made. Without a systematic search and critical reading of the literature it would be very difficult to see how academic research could make a new application of a methodology or contribute in some way, no matter how small, to knowledge. In other words, knowledge generation and understanding is an emergent process and not a universal product. In order to know
the nature and character of the implications of a development you need to know the intellectual context of that development.