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Zolotukhin Reservoir Engineering 002

Zolotukhin Reservoir Engineering 002

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Published by Anttonio Gómez

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Published by: Anttonio Gómez on May 21, 2011
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08/01/2014

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Laboratory determination of effective permeability is generally conducted as a special core
analysis test on representative and carefully preserved core plug samples. A reservoir condition
test is conducted at reservoir pore pressure conditions and reservoir temperatures with real
or simulated reservoir fluids. Such reservoir condition tests may model displacement under
unsteady state, or steady state conditions. Different equipment arrangements for those test are
shown in Figs.7.5 and 7.6.
Unsteady state rel.perm. test simulate the flooding of a reservoir with an immiscible fluid
(gas or water). The determination of rel. perm. is based on observation of the fractional flow
of displacing phase fluid from the outlet end of the core plug and its relationship with satu-
ration. The displacement theory of Buckley and Leverett is combined with that of Weldge in
a technique described by Johnson, Bossler and Naumann [38]. The detection of the break-
through time of the displacing phase at the outlet core face is critical in the representation of
relative permeability, and severe errors can occur with heterogeneous samples. Flow rates are
determined according to the method of Rappoport and Leas in order to minimize the effect
of capillary pressure forces in retaining wetting phase fluid at the outlet end face discontinu-
ity. The unsteady state or dynamic displacement test is most frequently applied in reservoir
analysis of strong wetting preference, and with homogeneous samples.
For reservoirs with more core-scale heterogeneity and with mixed wettability, the steady
state laboratory test is preferred. The steady state process provides simultaneous flow of dis-
placing and displaced fluids through the core sample at a number of equilibrium ratios. At each

7.5 Laboratory Determination of Relative Permeability Data

117

Hg
res.

Ruska
pump

Hg

Brine Oil

Chart
recorder

Oil
colector

Sample

3 way
valve

Brine
colector

Hg

Hg

Brine

Oil

Chart
recorder

0 - 50 psig
Transducer

Oil
colector

Sample

3 way
valve

Brine
colector

Soltrol

Oil Soltrol

300
cc 300
cc

1000
cc

Figure 7.5: Unsteady state relative permeability measurement at
constant rate (above) and at constant pressure (below).

ratio from 100% displaced phase to 100% displacing phase an equilibrium condition must be
reached at which the inflow ratio of fluids equals to the outflow ratio, and at which the pressure
difference between inlet and outlet is constant. At such a condition the Darcy law equation is
applied to each phase to calculate effective permeability at the given steady state saturation.
Capillary pressure tends to be ignored and a major difficulty is the determination of saturation
at each stage. Between five and ten stages are usually needed to establish rel.perm. curves.

118

Chapter 7. Relative Permeability

Hg
res.

Hg

Oil
res.

Brine

Oil

Oil

Chart
recorder

Sample

Constant displacement
Ruska pumps

Pressure
transducer

Figure 7.6: Steady state relative permeability measurement [8].

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