BRUGIA TIMORI

EPIDEMIOLOGY:

Brugia timori is found in the lesser Sunda islands of the Indonesian archipelago, such as Timor . Like B. malayi it is locally confined to areas endemic to its mosquito vector

After ingestion. malayi and W. and males measure 13 to 23 mm in length by 70 to 80 m in width. The adults also differ morphologically from B. It is nocturnally periodic and is transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles barbirostris which breeds in rice fields. A mosquito ingests the microfilariae during a blood meal . Female worms measure 43 to 55 mm in length by 130 to 170 m in width. the microfilariae lose their sheaths and work their way through the wall of the proventriculus . an infected mosquito introduces thirdstage filarial larvae onto the skin of the human host. measuring 177 to 230 m in length and 5 to 7 m in width. The adult worms resemble those ofWuchereria bancrofti but are smaller. The typical vector for Brugia timori filariasis are mosquito species from the genera Mansonia and Aedes. bancrofti (see picture below taken from Peters and Gilles 1991). where they penetrate into the bite wound . During a blood meal. which are sheathed and have nocturnal periodicity. The microfilariae migrate into lymph and enter the blood stream reaching the peripheral blood . malayi. timori is almost identical to that of Wuchereria bancrofti and B. malayi. They develop into adults that commonly reside in the lymphatics .LIFE CYCLE: The life cycle of B. In addition the sheath does not stain pink with Giemsa stain like B. The microfilariae have several distinguishing features: they are longer with a cephalic space length to width of about 3:1. Adults produce microfilariae.

The life cycle of Brugia timori is very similar to that of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. cord like lymphatics are a hallmark of the disease. There the microfilariae develop into first-stage larvae and subsequently into third-stage larvae . which breeds in rice fields. found .and cardiac portion of the midgut to reach the thoracic muscles . One study of the prevalence of infection in Mainang village. The thirdstage larvae migrate through the hemocoel to the mosquito's prosbocis and can infect another human when the mosquito takes a blood meal . PATHOLOGY: The clinical and pathological features of timorian filariasis is very similar to malayan filariasis with acute recurrent lymphagitis and filarial abscesses in the lymphatic trunk in the leg (picture below taken Peters and Gilles 1991). Elephantiasis resulting from timorian infection is rare. leading to nocturnal periodicity of the disease symptoms. Subsequent scaring over thick hard. Brugia timori filariasis causes acute fever and chronic lymphedema. Like other human filariasis infections. It is locally confined to areas inhabited by its mosquito vector. Alor Island. So far Brugia timori has only been found in the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia.

such as spleen. including eosinophlis which ultimately leads to fibrosis.[6] Some researchers are confident that Brugia timori filariasis may be an eradicable disease. The newborn larvae circulate in the blood within the internal organs. this may lead to gradually to chronic lymphatic obstruction. However. and sometimes they migrate cyclically to the peripheral circulation. which in a small percentage of cases progress to the lymphadematous complication of elephantiasis.[7] . Treatment: Anthelmintics such as diethylcarbamazine and albendazole have shown promise in the treatment of Brugia timori filariasis. Tropical eosinophilic fever with pulmonary infiltration is often attributed to this infection. with 77 of them (13%) exhibiting lymphedema of the leg. when an adult worms dies severe lympadenitis with chronic inflammatory to grnulomatous rection result. In some multiply infected individuals. coincident with the biting habit of mosquito.microfilariae in the blood of 157 of 586 individuals (27%).[5] [edit] :: larvae are injected intradermally with a mosquito bite and find their way to the arge lymphatic where they mature and mate. Swelling of lymph nodes containing adult is a common features. usually in an extremity.

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