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**Department of Education BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
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DepEd Complex, Meralco Ave., Pasig City

INTRODUCTION

This Handbook aims to provide the general public – parents, students, researchers, and other stakeholders – an overview of the Mathematics program at the secondary level. Those in education, however, may use it as a reference for implementing the 2002 secondary education curriculum, or as a source document to inform policy and guide practice. For quick reference, the Handbook is outlined as follows: ∗ ∗ The description defines the focus and the emphasis of the learning area as well as the language of instruction used. The unit credit indicates the number of units assigned to a learning area computed on a 40-minute per unit credit basis and which shall be used to evaluate a student’s promotion to the next year level. The time allotment specifies the number of minutes allocated to a learning area on a daily (or weekly, as the case may be) basis. The expectancies refer to the general competencies that the learners are expected to demonstrate at the end of each year level. The scope and sequence outlines the content, or the coverage of the learning area in terms of concepts or themes, as the case may be. The suggested strategies are those that are typically employed to develop the content, build skills, and integrate learning. The materials include those that have been approved for classroom use. The application of information and communication technology is encouraged, where available. The grading system specifies how learning outcomes shall be evaluated and the aspects of student performance which shall be rated. The learning competencies are the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that the students are expected to develop or acquire during the teachinglearning situations. Lastly, sample lesson plans are provided to illustrate the mode of integration, where appropriate, the application of life skills and higher order thinking skills, the valuing process and the differentiated activities to address the learning needs of students.

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The Handbook is designed as a practical guide and is not intended to structure the operationalization of the curriculum or impose restrictions on how the curriculum shall be implemented. Decisions on how best to teach and how learning outcomes can be achieved most successfully rest with the school principals and teachers. They know the direction they need to take and how best to get there.

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DESCRIPTION

First Year is Elementary Algebra. It deals with life situations and problems involving measurement, real number system, algebraic expressions, first degree equations and inequalities in one variable, linear equations in two variables, special products and factoring. Second Year is Intermediate Algebra. It deals with systems of linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations, rational algebraic expressions, variation, integral exponents, radical expressions, and searching for patterns in sequences (arithmetic, geometric, etc) as applied in real-life situations. Third Year is Geometry. It deals with the practical application to life of the geometry of shape and size, geometric relations, triangle congruence, properties of quadrilaterals, similarity, circles, and plane coordinate geometry. Fourth Year is still the existing integrated ( algebra, geometry, statistics and a unit of trigonometry) spiral mathematics but in school year 2003-2004 the graduating students have the option to take up either Business Mathematics and Statistics or Trigonometry and Advanced Algebra.

**UNIT CREDIT/Time Allotment
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See DepEd Order No. 37, s. 2003, “ Revised Implementing Guidelines of the 2003 Secondary Education Curriculum Effective School 2003-2004”

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**SCOPE AND SEQUENCE
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Elementary Algebra (First Year) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Measurement Real Number system Algebraic Expressions First Degree Equations and Inequalities in One Variable Linear Equations in Two Variables Special Products and Factors

Intermediate Algebra (Second Year) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Systems of Linear Equations and Inequalities Quadratic Equations Rational Algebraic Expressions Variation Integral Exponents Radical Expressions Searching for Patterns in Sequences: Arithmetic, Geometry,etc.

Geometry (Third Year) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Geometry of Shape and Size Geometric Relations Triangle Congruence Properties of Quadrilaterals Similarity Circles Plane Coordinate Geometry

Advance Algebra, Trigonometry & Statistics (Fourth Year) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Functions Linear Functions Quadratic Functions Polynomial Functions Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Circular Functions and Trigonometry Triangle Trigonometry Statistics

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SUGGESTED STRATEGIES AND MATERIALS Strategies in mathematics teaching include discussion, practical work, practice and consolidation, problem solving, mathematical investigation and cooperative learning. Discussion

**• It is more than the short question and answer which arise during
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exposition • It takes place between teacher and students or between students themselves. Practical Work

• • • •

More student-centered activities Teacher acts as facilitator Concretizes abstract concepts Develops students' confidence to discover solutions to problems

Practice and Consolidation

**• Develops mastery of a particular concept which is needed in
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problem solving and investigation Problem Solving

**• Process of applying mathematics in the real world • Involves the exploration of the solution to a given situation
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Mathematical Investigation

**• An open-ended problem solving • It involves the exploration of a mathematical situation, making
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conjectures and reason logically Cooperative Learning

**• Members are encouraged to work as a team in exchanging ideas,
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successes and failures. Materials include DepEd approved textbooks and lesson plans. Features of the lesson plans are:

• Application of higher order thinking skills • Integration of values education

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2003. 37. “ Revised Implementing Guidelines of the 2003 Secondary Education Curriculum Effective School 2003-2004” 6 .• Provision of teaching-learning activities that address multiple intelligences • Use of cooperative learning strategies GRADING SYSTEM See DepEd Order No. s.

division. express relationships between two quantities using ratios 4. real numbers 1. subtraction. use integers to describe positive or negative quantities visualize integers and their order on a number line. Real Number System 1. Measurement 1.g. integers. use instruments to measure length. round off numbers to a given place (e. irrational numbers. nearest ten. multiplication. volume. state and illustrate the 7 .6 determine the absolute value of a number. solve simple absolute value equations using the number line 1. solve problems involving measurement B.5 1.1 1. describe the real number system: natural numbers. weight.DETAILED LISTING OF LEARNING COMPETENCIES HIGH SCHOOL MATHEMATICS Elementary Algebra (1st year High School) A. illustrate integers on the number line. convert measurements from one unit to another 5. illustrate the development of measurement from the primitive to the present international system of units 2.4 1.3 1. round off measurements.2 review operations on whole numbers describe opposite quantities in real life. represent movement along the number line using integers arrange integers in increasing/decreasing order define the absolute value of a number on a number line as distance from the origin. whole numbers. time. rational numbers.7 perform fundamental operations on integers: addition. 1. nearest tenth) 6. temperature. angle 3.

define monomials.3 if the square root of a number is not rational. approximate the square root of a positive rational number 2. translate rational numbers (both terminating and repeating/non-terminating) from fraction form to decimal form and vice versa 1.1 identify monomials. distributive. 4. Algebraic Expressions 1. define constants. inverse) 1. binomials.11 review operations on decimals square roots of positive rational numbers 2.10 review simplification of and operations on fractions 1.different properties (commutative.9 arrange rational numbers in increasing/decreasing order 1. trinomials and multinomials and illustrate these simplify monomials using the laws on exponents 6. 8 . associative. 2. coefficient and exponent in a monomial 6. 5. determine two integers or rational numbers between which it lies give examples of other irrational numbers use knowledge related to signed numbers and square roots in problem-solving C. algebraic expressions simplify numerical expressions involving exponents and grouping symbols translate verbal phrases to mathematical expressions and vice versa evaluate mathematical expressions for given values for variable(s) involved the 3. identity.1 define the square root of a rational number.2 identify square roots which are rational and which are not rational (irrational numbers) 2. variables. identify the base.8 define rational numbers.

1 distinguish between mathematical phrases and sentences 1. m – n is a negative number if m < n.6.1 addition and subtraction 8.4 express numbers in scientific notation 7.3 distinguish between equations and inequalities 2. define polynomials. 8. First Degree Equations and Inequalities In One Variable 1. classify algebraic expressions as polynomials and non-polynomials perform operations on polynomials 8.2 distinguish between expressions and equations 1.4 division : polynomial by a monomial division : polynomial by a polynomial 9.2 multiplication : polynomial by a monomial 8. introduce first degree equations and inequalities in one variable 1.3 simplify and perform operations on monomials 6. translate verbal statements involving general or unknown quantities to equations and inequalities and vice versa 9 .2 laws on exponents • • a man = am+ n (ab )m = a mbm • • (a ) m n = a mn am ⎛a⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = m b ⎝b⎠ m • am = am−n an where m – n is a positive number if m > n. 6.3 multiplication : polynomial by another polynomial 8. problem solving involving polynomials D.

plot points on the Cartesian Coordinate Plane 2. business. origin) 2.1 construct a table of values for x and y given a linear equation in two variables. determine the solution set of first degree equations in one variable by applying the properties of equality 6. review the basic properties of real numbers. define first degree equations and inequalities in one variable 3.2 draw the graph of Ax+By=C based on a table of values for x and y 10 . uniform motion.3 given the coordinates of a point.4 find the solution set of simple equations and inequalities in one variable by inspection 4.2 illustrate the solution set of equations and inequalities in one variable on the number line 3.1 given a point on the coordinate plane. determine the solution set of first degree inequalities in one variable by applying the properties of inequality.1 define the solution set of a first degree equation or inequality 3. Ax+By=C 3. 3. Linear Equations in Two Variables 1. geometry. define a linear equation in two variables: Ax+By=C. y-axis. describe the Cartesian Coordinate Plane (x-axis. plot the point 2.g.etc.2 given a pair of coordinates.3. quadrant. money problems. determine the quadrant where it is located 3.3 find the solution set of simple equations and inequalities in one variable from a given replacement set 3. visualize solutions of simple mathematical inequalities on a number line 7. give its coordinates 2.) E. solve problems using first degree equations and inequalities in one variable (e. relations among numbers. describe points plotted on the Cartesian Coordinate Plane. state and illustrate the different properties of equality 5.

3 define x and y intercepts. range 3.4 determine the following properties of the graph of a linear equation Ax + By = C : • • • • • 4.1 draw the graph of a linear equation in two variables described by an equation using • • • the intercepts any two points the slope and a given point 4. domain.2 construct a table of ordered pairs and draw the graphs of the following: • • • • • y= x y= x +b y= x -b y = x+b y = x−b 11 .1 review the meaning of the absolute value of a number 5. define an absolute value equation y = x 5.3 obtain the equation of a line given the following: • • • the intercepts any two points the slope and a point 4. rewrite in the form y = mx + b.2 determine whether the graph of Ax+ By = C is increasing or decreasing 4. intercepts trend (increasing or decreasing) domain range slope given a linear equation Ax + By = C.3.4 use linear equations in two variables to solve problems ENRICHMENT FOR LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES: 5. slope. and vice versa 4.

use special products and factoring to solve problems 12 . review multiplication of polynomials 1. factor polynomials • • • • polynomials whose terms have a common monomial factor trinomials which are products of two binomials trinomials which are squares of a binomial products of the sum and difference of two quantities ( x 2 − y 2 . x3 − y 3 ) 3.2 binomial by binomial – using the distributive property. identify special products • • • • polynomials whose terms have a common monomial factor trinomials which are products of two binomials trinomials which are squares of a binomial products of the sum and difference of two quantities ( x 2 − y 2 . given a polynomial.• y = x+b + c F. x3 + y 3 . x3 + y 3 .1 monomial by polynomial – using the distributive property 1. factor completely ENRICHMENT FOR SPECIAL PRODUCTS AND FACTORING 5. Special Products and Factoring 1. x3 − y 3 ) 4. using the FOIL method 2.

1 given a pair of linear equations in two variables. review graphs of linear equations in two variables 3.3 given a system of linear equations in two variables. solve systems of linear equations in two variables 4. determine whether or not their graphs intersect.3 represent the solution set of a system of linear inequalities by graphing B. define a quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 . number relations. define a system of linear inequalities 6. define “root of an equation” 13 .1 review the definition of solution set of an equation.Intermediate Algebra (2nd year High School) A. review the Cartesian Coordinate System 2. uniform motion. work) 6. Quadratic Equations 1.2 draw the graph of a linear inequality in two variables 6. by drawing the graphs and obtaining the coordinates of the intersection point) 4.1 translate certain situations in real life to linear inequalities 6. and if they do. mixture.g. and those that coincide 4.e. find the solution of the system algebraically • • by elimination by substitution 5.2 given a system of linear equations in two variables find the solution of the system graphically (i. those that intersect. define a system of linear equations in two variables 4. Systems of Linear Equations and Inequalities 1. geometric relations. investment. use systems of linear equations to solve problems (e. distinguish a quadratic equation from a linear equation 2. identify those whose graphs are parallel. review the definition of inequalities. find the solution set of a quadratic equation 2.

1 find the least common denominator 4. solve rational equations 7. translate verbal expressions into rational algebraic expressions 3. define a rational algebraic expression.1 check for extraneous solutions 8.2 determine the solution set of a quadratic equation algebraic methods: ax 2 + bx + c = 0 by • • • factoring quadratic formula completing the square 2.3 derive the quadratic formula 3.2 change two or more rational expressions with unlike denominators to those with like denominators 4.2. use quadratic equations to solve problems C. identify rational algebraic expressions. solve rational equations which can be reduced to quadratic equations 4. simplify rational algebraic expressions(reduce to lowest terms) 4. Rational Algebraic Expressions 1. review simplification of fractions including complex fractions. simplify complex fractions 7. review operations on fractions 2.3 simplify results 5. multiply and divide rational algebraic expressions 6. add and subtract rational algebraic expressions 4. domain of a rational algebraic expression. solve problems involving rational algebraic expressions 14 .

inverse variation and joint variation E. inverse square variations or joint variations 3. identify relationships between two quantities in real life that are direct variations. Variation 1. direct square variations. or a graph. Integral Exponents 1. and vice versa • • • • • “_____ is directly proportional to _____” “_____ is inversely proportional to _____” “_____ varies directly as _____” “_____ varies directly as the square of _____” “_____ varies inversely as _____” 4. demonstrate understanding of expressions with zero and negative exponents 2. translate statements that describe relationships between two quantities using the following expressions to a table of values.3 rewrite algebraic expressions with zero and negative exponents 2. define the following: • • • • direct variation direct square variation inverse variation joint variation 2. direct square variation. a mathematical equation.4 use laws of exponents to simplify algebraic expressions containing integral exponents 3.D. review concepts related to positive integer exponents • • • the meaning of ax when x is a positive integer laws on exponents multiplying and dividing expressions with positive integral exponents 2.2 evaluate numerical expressions involving negative and zero exponents 2. review the use of scientific notation 15 .1 give the meaning of ax when x is 0 or a negative integer 2. solve problems on direct variation.

Arithmetic. name two rational numbers between which it lies 2.3 rationalize a fraction whose denominator contains square roots 4. Searching for Patterns in Sequences.2 given a number in the form n x where x is not a perfect nth root.1 identify the radicand and index in a radical expression 3. a mathematical expression (rule) for generating the sequence 2.1 identify expressions which are perfect squares or perfect cubes. and find their square root or cube root respectively 1. demonstrate understanding of a sequence 1.2 derive.1 list the next few terms of a sequence given several consecutive terms 1.2 simplify the radical expression contains no perfect nth root n x in such a way that the radicand 3. add and subtract radical expressions 5. review roots of numbers 1. solve radical equations 7. simplify radical expressions 3. solve problems involving expressions with exponents F.4. multiply and divide radical expressions 6. Radical Expressions 1.1 use laws of exponents to simplify expressions containing rational exponents 2. demonstrate understanding of expressions with rational exponents 2. Geometric and Others 1. solve problems involving radical equations G.2 rewrite expressions with rational exponents as radical expressions and vice versa 3. demonstrate understanding of an arithmetic sequence 16 . by pattern-searching.

6 solve problems involving arithmetic sequences 3. find the common difference and the nth term for a specified n 2. solve problems involving arithmetic means 2.2 given two specified terms of a geometric sequence.5 derive the formula for an infinite geometric series 3.2 describe an arithmetic sequence by any of the following ways: • • • giving the first few terms giving the formula for the nth term drawing the graph 2. find: the first term. the common difference or a specified nth term 2.3. demonstrate understanding of a geometric sequence 3.3.7 solve problems involving geometric sequences 17 .1 define and give examples of an arithmetic sequence 2.2 describe a geometric sequence in any of the following ways: • • • giving the first few terms of the sequence giving the formula for the nth term drawing the graph 3.3.4 derive the formula for the sum of the n terms of an arithmetic sequence 2. find: the first term.3 derive the formula for the nth term of a geometric sequence 3.2 given two terms of an arithmetic sequence.4 derive the formula for the sum of the terms of a geometric sequence 3.1 given the first few terms of an arithmetic sequence.5 define an arithmetic mean.3.6 define a geometric mean.3 derive the formula for the nth term of an arithmetic sequence 2.1 define and give examples of a geometric sequence 3. solve problems involving geometric means 3. the common ratio or a specified nth term 3. find the common ratio and the nth term for a specified n 3.1 given the first few terms of a geometric sequence.2.

6 state and illustrate the Binomial Theorem 6.7 state and apply the formula for determining the coefficients of the terms in n the expansion of (a + b ) .7 determine the harmonic mean of two numbers 4. harmonic series. introduce the Binomial Theorem 6. introduce the Fibonacci sequence. 18 . define a harmonic sequence. and harmonic mean 4.6 illustrate a harmonic sequence and determine the sum of the first n terms 4.8 solve problems involving harmonic sequences 5. define and illustrate the Fibonacci sequence 6.4.

name and identify different kinds of triangles and their parts (e. angles. median. name and define a quadrilateral and its parts 3.4 illustrate. identify. name and identify a triangle and its basic and secondary parts (e. Angles 2. identify and define different kinds of angles ray • acute • right • obtuse 3. identify and define an angle name and identify the parts of an angle read or determine the measure of an angle using a protractor illustrate. vertices. Geometry of Shape and Size 1. identify.2 define.5 illustrate.2 illustrate.g. sides.. name. central angle.1 describe the ideas of point.Geometry (3rd Year High School) A.1 2. name and identify the different kinds of quadrilaterals 3. hypotenuse) • classify triangles according to their angles and according to their sides 3. line. altitude) 3.g. legs. Polygons 3. and name the subsets of a line • segment • 2.6 determine the sum of the measures of the interior and exterior angles of a polygon • sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180 • sum of the measures of the exterior angles of a quadrilateral is 360 19 .1 illustrate. and plane 1. base.. Undefined Terms 1.2 2. angle bisector.4 illustrate.3 2.3 illustrate. and define different kinds of polygons according to the number of sides • illustrate and identify convex and non-convex polygons • identify the parts of a regular polygon (vertex angle. name. exterior angle) 3.

cylinder.2 illustrate. triangular prism. Measurements 5. cylinder. diameter and chord) 5. square. Relations involving Segments and Angles 1. and a sphere • Volume of a rectangular prism. sphere. pyramid. cone. rectangular prism) 5. and a sphere 5. identify and define perpendicularity illustrate and identify the perpendicular bisector of a segment 20 . and rectangle Circumference of a circle Area of a triangle. rectangular prism. identify and define congruent segments illustrate.3 1. identify and define the different kinds of angle pairs • • • • • • 1. square. pyramid.1 1. identify and define the midpoint of a segment illustrate.2 state and apply the formulas for the measurements of plane and solid figures • • • • Perimeter of a triangle. name. identify.3 solve problems involving plane and solid figures B.4 1.7 supplementary complementary congruent adjacent linear pair vertical angles illustrate.2 1. and define the terms related to the circle (radius. cylinder. square pyramid. and circle Surface area of a cube. Geometric Relations 1. Circle 4. identify and define the bisector of an angle illustrate.1 define a circle 4.1 identify the following common solids and their parts: cone.• sum of the measures of the interior angles of a quadrilateral is • (n – 2)180 4. cone. trapezoid. parallelogram.5 illustrate and define betweeness and collinearity of points illustrate.6 1.

Angles and Sides of a Triangle 2. alternate interior angles alternate exterior angles corresponding angles angles on the same side of the transversal Problem Solving involving the Relationships between Segments and between Angles 4.2 State and apply the Properties of Congruence • • • Reflexive Property Symmetric Property Transitive Property 1.3 3.2. SSS Congruence SAS Congruence ASA Congruence SAA Congruence Applying the Conditions for Triangle Congruence 21 .1 derive/apply relationships among the sides and angles of a triangle • Exterior and corresponding remote interior angles of a triangle • Triangle inequality 3. Angles formed by Parallel Lines cut by a Transversal 3.4 Apply deductive skills to show congruence between triangles • • • • 2.4 illustrate and define Parallel Lines illustrate and define a Transversal identify the angles formed by parallel lines cut by a transversal determine the relationship between pairs of angles formed by parallel lines cut by a transversal • • • • 4.1 Solve problems using the definitions and properties involving relationships between segments and between angles C.2 3.1 3. Triangle Congruence 1. Conditions for Triangle Congruence 1.1 Define and illustrate congruent triangles 1.3 Use inductive skills to establish the conditions or correspondence sufficient to guarantee congruence between triangles 1.

1 Prove congruence and inequality properties in an isosceles triangle using the congruence conditions in 1. trapezoid.1 recall previous knowledge on the different kinds of quadrilaterals and their properties (square.2.3 • • • • Congruent sides in a triangle imply that the angles opposite them are congruent Congruent angles in a triangle imply that the sides opposite them are congruent Non-congruent sides in a triangle imply that the angles opposite them are not congruent Non-congruent angles in a triangle imply that the sides opposite them are not congruent 2.3 Solve routine and non-routine problems Enrichment Apply inductive and deductive skills to derive other conditions for congruence between two right triangles • • • • LL Congruence LA Congruence HyL Congruence HyA Congruence D. Different type of Quadrilaterals and their Properties 1. Properties of Quadrilaterals 1. rhombus.2 apply inductive and deductive skills to derive certain properties of the trapezoid • median of a trapezoid • base angles and diagonals of an isosceles trapezoid 1.3 apply inductive and deductive skills to derive the properties of a parallelogram • each diagonal divides a parallelogram into two congruent triangles • opposite angles are congruent • non-opposite angles are supplementary 22 . rectangle.2 Use the definition of congruent triangles and the conditions for triangle congruence to prove congruent segments and congruent angles between two triangles 2. parallelogram) 1.

1 verify sets of sufficient conditions which guarantee that a quadrilateral is a parallelogram 2.1 state and verify the Basic Proportionality Theorem and its Converse 3.4 define and identify proportional segments 1.2 define a proportion and identify its parts 1.6 3.5 apply the definition of proportional segments to find unknown lengths 2. Similarity between Triangles 3. Similarity 1.• opposite sides are congruent • diagonals bisect each other 1.4 apply inductive and deductive skills to derive the properties of the diagonals of special quadrilaterals • diagonals of a rectangle • diagonals of a square • diagonals of a rhombus 2 Conditions that Guarantee that a Quadrilateral is a Parallelogram 2.3 state and apply the fundamental law of proportion • Product of the means is equal to the product of the extremes 1.3 apply the properties of quadrilaterals and the conditions for a parallelogram to solve problems Enrichment Apply inductive and deductive skills to discover certain properties of the Kite E. Proportionality Theorems 2.9 define similar figures define similar polygons define similar triangles apply the definition of similar triangles • determining if two triangles are similar • finding the length of a side or measure of an angle of a triangle 23 .1 state and apply the definition of a ratio 1. Ratio and Proportion 1.2 apply the conditions to prove that a quadrilateral is a parallelogram 2.7 3.8 3.

then the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs 6. Similarities in a Right Triangle 4.5 state and verify the Similarity Theorems 3.2 derive the relationships between the sides of an isosceles triangle and between the sides of a 30-60-90 triangle using the Pythagorean Theorem Enrichment State and verify consequences of the Basic Proportionality Theorem • parallel lines cut by two or more transversals make proportional • segments bisector of an angle of a triangle separates the opposite side into segments whose lengths are proportional to the lengths of the other 2 sides State. verify and apply the ratio between the perimeters and areas of similar triangle Apply the definition of similar triangles to derive the Pythagorean Theorem • If a triangle is a right triangle.3.1 recall the definition of a circle and the terms related to it • radius • diameter • chord 24 . The circle 1. Circles 1.Word Problems involving Similarity 6. and to arrive at other properties 4.1 apply the AA Similarity Theorem to determine similarities in a right triangle • in a right triangle the altitude to the hypotenuse divides it into two right triangles which are similar to each other and to the given right triangle 4.6 apply the properties of similar triangles and the proportionality theorems to calculate lengths of certain line segments.1 apply knowledge and skills related to similar triangles to word problems F.

2 2. then it is perpendicular to the radius drawn to the point of tangency If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent to a circle.3 2. Angles formed by Tangent and Secant Lines 4.1 to 4.• secant • tangent • interior and exterior 2.6 25 . then the two segments are congruent 4.1 2.1 State and apply the properties of a line tangent to a circle • • If a line is tangent to a circle.1 Determine the measure of the angle formed by the following: • • • Enrichment Two tangent lines A tangent line and a secant line Two secant lines Illustrate and identify externally and internally tangent circles Illustrate and identify a common internal tangent or a common external tangent Geometric Constructions • • • • • • • Duplicate or copy a segment Duplicate or copy an angle Construct the perpendicular bisector and the midpoint of a segment Derive the Perpendicular Bisector Theorem Construct the perpendicular to a line From a point on the line From a point not on the line Construct the bisector of an angle Construct parallel lines Perform construction exercises using the constructions in 4. Arcs and Angles 2. Tangent Lines and Tangent Circles 3.4 2.5 define and identify a central angle define and identify a minor and major arc of a circle determine the degree measure of an arc of a circle define and identify an inscribed angle determine the measure of an inscribed angle 3.

0) and at (h. Circles in the Coordinate Plane 3.1 Derive and state the Distance Formula using the Pythagorean Theorem 2.4 define a Linear Equation 1.3 define the slope of a line and compute for the slope given the graph of a line 1.2 represent ordered pairs on the Cartesian Plane and denote points on the Cartesian Plane 1.1 derive/state the standard form of the equation of a circle with radius r and center at (0.6 derive the equation of a line given two points of the line 1. Plane Coordinate Geometry 1..2 Derive and state the Midpoint Formula 2. find its center and radius 3.7 determine algebraically the point of intersection of two lines 1.1 name the parts of a Cartesian Plane 1.k) 3. points on the angle bisector are equidistant from the sides of the angle) G. Review of the Cartesian Coordinate System. Linear Equations and Systems of Linear Equations in 2 Variables 1.g.• Use construction to derive some other geometric properties (e.4 solve routine and non-routine problems involving circles 26 .3 determine the equation of a circle given: • • its center and radius its radius and the point of tangency with a given line 3. Coordinate Geometry 2.2 given the equation of a circle.4 Verify properties of triangles and quadrilaterals using coordinate proof 3.3 Apply the Distance and Midpoint Formulas to find or verify the lengths of segments and find unknown vertices or points 2.8 state and apply the definitions of Parallel and Perpendicular Lines 2.5 define the y-intercept 1. shortest distance from an external point to a line.

Advanced Algebra. 4. Enrichment: 8.g. Linear Functions 1. Draw a graph of a given set of ordered pairs. Draw the graph of a linear function given the following: • • • • any two points slope and one point slope and the y-intercept x and y intercepts 27 . Given some real life relationships. determine the value of f(x) given a value for x. Define a function and demonstrate understanding of the definition. Trigonometry and Statistics (4th Year High School) A. Define the linear function f(x) = mx + b. Use the vertical line test to determine whether a given graph represents a function or a mere relation. Determine whether a given equation in two variables represents a function or a mere relation. Determine whether a given set of ordered pairs is a function or a mere relation 5. describe points in a Cartesian coordinate plane.g. identify those which are functions (e. 6. Functions 1. 7. determine whether the graph represents a function or a mere relation. given a linear function Ax + By = C. the rule which assigns to each person his birth month) and those which are mere relations (e. Illustrate the meaning of the functional notation f(x). 3. the rule which assigns to each month the person having that as birth month). B. 2. rewrite in the form f(x) = mx + b and vice versa. 2. Recall the Cartesian coordinate plane.

Analyze the effects on the graph of changes in a. Determine f(x) = mx + b given: • • • • x and y intercepts any two points slope and one point slope and y-intercept 5. Draw the graph of a quadratic function using the vertex. identify quadratic functions. Given a quadratic function. Quadratic Functions 1. Apply knowledge and skills related to linear functions in solving problems.h)2 + k and vice versa. 3. and assignment of points. determine the following: • • • • x and y intercepts slope some points trend: increasing or decreasing 4. Determine the "zeros of a quadratic function" by relating this to "roots of a quadratic equation” review finding the roots of a quadratic equation using the following algebraic procedures: • factoring • quadratic formula • completing the square review the derivation of the quadratic formula 7. 5. Given f(x) = mx + b. 28 . Rewrite a quadratic function ax2 + bx + c in the form f(x) = a(x . h and k in f(x) = a(x-h)2 + k 6. C. axis of symmetry. 2. determine: • highest or lowest point (vertex) • axis of symmetry • direction of opening of the graph 4.3. Derive a quadratic function given the zeros of the function or given a set of points from the graph of a given function. Define a quadratic function f(x) = ax2 + bx + c.

Given the quadratic function f(x) = ax2 + bx + c. non-real. Use the Factor Theorem. Use synthetic division and the Remainder Theorem to find the value of p(x) for x=k 6. Use the graph of a polynomial functions to solve a polynomial inequality. Enrichment 9. find by synthetic division the quotient and the remainder when p(x) is divided by (x-c). determine the number of terms in a given polynomial function. Prove the Remainder and Factor Theorems. State and illustrate the Remainder Theorem. 8. Define a polynomial function as p(x) = a1xn + a2xn-1 + a3xn-2 + … + an-1x + a0. non-district) D.e. Review division of polynomials by divisors of the form x-c. real. illustrate the process of synthetic division. 11. determine the degree of a given polynomial function. 2. Review the definition of polynomials. 5. Polynomial Functions 1. determine the nature of the zeros (i. identify a polynomial function from a given set of functions. Enrichment: 9. 10. Apply knowledge and skills related to quadratic functions and equations in problem solving. 4. Draw the graph of polynomial functions of degree greater than 2. identify polynomials from a list of algebraic expressions. factoring techniques. State the Rational Zero Theorem and use it to find the zeros of a polynomial function with rational zeros. State and illustrate the Factor Theorem. 3. 29 . synthetic division and the depressed equations to find the zeros of polynomial functions of degree greater than 2.8. 7. Use the graph of a quadratic function to solve a quadratic inequality 10.

Solve simple logarithmic equations Enrichment 11. Draw the graph of the logarithmic function f(x) = loga x and describe some properties of the logarithmic function from its graph. and apply the laws for logarithms 10. population growth over time. 13.) 2. illustrate how the zero of an exponential function may be determined. 5. 6. Given an exponential growth or decay phenomenon. Draw the graph of an exponential function f(x) = ax and describe some properties of the function or its graph. 3. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 1. Define the logarithmic function f(x) = loga x as the inverse of the exponential function f(x) = ax 8. range. Identify certain relationships in real life which are exponential (e. state whether the trend is exponential or not. Define the exponential function f(x) = ax and differentiate it from other functions studied earlier. 9. etc.E. use the laws on exponents to find the zeros of exponential functions or solve exponential equations. 30 . State the domain. intercepts and trend (increasing and decreasing) of a given exponential function based on its graph. Define inverse functions. determine the inverse of a given functions. determine the rate of increase or decrease.g. • • a>1 0<a<1 4. Apply knowledge and skills related to exponential and logarithmic functions and equations in problem solving. 7. Review the laws on exponents. given a table of ordered pairs. growth of bacteria over time. State the laws for logarithms. Draw the graph of other exponential functions like f(x) = bax and f(x) = ax+c and compare these to the graph of f(x) = ax 12.

Define the cosine functions. Solve simple trigonometric equations Enrichment 31 . state the cosine of an angle (for special values) 7. State the fundamental trigonometric identities and use this to prove other identities 9. if available using a trigonometric table 8. Find the values of the sine and cosine of an angle by: • • using a scientific calculator.e. Define the unit circle. degree measure of an angle. Define the sine functions. Illustrate angles in standard position (i. convert from degree to radian and vice versa. state the sine of an angle (for special values) 6. Given a unit circle and an angle in standard position. 4. Visualize rotations along the unit circle and relate these to angle measures • • • measures of length of an arc clockwise or counterclockwise directions measures beyond 360o or 2∏ radians 4. 2. determine the coordinates of the point of intersection of the unit circle and the terminal side. illustrate coterminal angles and reference angles. Circular Functions and Trigonometry 1.1 9. state the tangent of an angle (for special values) 9.1 4.F.2 when one coordinate is given (apply the Pythagorean Theorem and the properties of special right triangles) when the angle is of the form: • • • • 1800n + 300 1800n + 600 1800n + 450 900n 5. initial side coincident with the positive x-axis). radian measure of an angle. 3. Define the tangent function.2 state and illustrate the sum and difference formulas of sine and cosine determine the sine and cosine of an angle using the sum and difference formulas 10.

16.1 state and explain the different sampling techniques 3. interpret accurately and draw conclusions from graphic and tabular presentations of statistical data. Solve problems involving right triangles.2 Π ≤ 2 ≤ 2 Π or . given some conditions G. 4. Solve problems involving right triangles using Law of Sines. Find the values of six trigonometric functions of an angle θ. 2. Solve problems involving right triangles using Law of Cosines. Statistics 1. Read and understand tables and graphs containing statistical data 4. Triangle Trigonometry 1.3600 ≤ 2 ≤ 3600 12. Collect statistical data and organize in a table.1 construct frequency distribution tables 5. Define statistics and statistical terms such as sample and population.4 use the rules of summation to find sums find the arithmetic and mean: ungrouped and grouped data Find the median: ungrouped and grouped data Find the mode: ungrouped and grouped data 32 . Apply knowledge and skills related to Trigonometry in problem solving.3 5. 13. Graph the tangent functions where . give the history and importance of the study of statistics. Graph the sine and cosine functions of the form y = a sin x and y = b cos x 14. 2.1 5. Analyze. Define the six trigonometric functions of an angle in standard position. H. 4.3600 ≤ 2 ≤ 3600 15.2 5. Graph the sine and cosine functions . median and mode of given data: grouped and ungrouped data 5.11. Describe the properties of the graphs of the sine and cosine functions.2 Π ≤ 2 ≤ 2 Π or . 2. Find the mean. 3.

1 give the characteristics of a set of data using the measures of variability 33 . grouped and ungrouped (a) range (b) standard deviation 6. Calculate the different measures of variability relative to a given set of data.6.

the students must be able to: 1. State that the rectangular coordinate plane are also called Cartesian plane can be constructed by drawing a pair of perpendicular number lines to intersect at zero on each line. y-axis. origin) Time Frame: 2 Sessions Objectives: At the end of the sessions. 3 2 1 -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 1 2 3 B. quadrant.Math I : Linear Equations in Two Variables Competency E1. describe its distance from the x or y axis 3. which are perpendicular lines. to develop the following ideas: The two number lines. describe the Cartesian Coordinate Plane (x-axis. given the coordinates of a point. plot the points 5. determine the quadrant where it is located Development of the Lesson: A. give its coordinates 4. given a pair of coordinates. Introduce the Cartesian coordinate plane using the number line. describe the Cartesian coordinate plane 2. 34 . given a point. given a point on the coordinate plane. are called coordinate axes. Ask the students to describe the two lines and their point of intersection.

The point where the two lines intersect is called the origin and is labeled 0 on both axes. third and fourth quadrants in a counterclockwise direction. The pairs of numbers will be the name of the point. 35 . Present the following examples and ask students to describe the distance of each point from the y or x-axis 1. 3) is located 2 units to the left of the y-axis and 3 units above the x-axis. 2nd Quadrant 2 1 -2 3rd Quadrant -1 0 -1 -2 1 2 1st Quadrant 4th Quadrant C. If x = -2 2. If y = -3 5. If x = 2 4. This pair of numbers is called ordered pair. that a pair of numbers is needed to tell how many units to the right or left of the y-axis and how many units above or below of the xaxis the point is located. The two axes divide the plane into four regions called quadrants: the first.The horizontal line is called the x-axis. The vertical line is called the y-axis. If y = 3 answer: the point is 2 units to the left of the y-axis answer: the point is in the y-axis answer: the point is 2 units to the right of y-axis answer: the point is 3 units below the x-axis answer: the point is 3 units above the x-axis Hence. the ordered pair (-2. State that each point in the coordinate plane has corresponding distance from the y-axis and from the x-axis. second. D. If x = 0 3.

G 7.4) (-4.0) (0.-2) (8.3) (-9. negativenegative in III.-4) (9.g. D 4. C 3. A (3. x is called the x-coordinate or abscissa and y is called the y-coordinate or ordinate.6) 2.E. Ask students to give the coordinates of each point pictured in the graph. I 9.3 2 2 ) ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜10 . x and y are called coordinates of the point. B ans. (Both positive in quadrant 1.−3 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 36 . K (-7. H 8. F 6.5) (1. E 5. and positive-negative in IV.) F.-3) ( 1 1 -2 . Let the student observe what the signs are of the coordinates of the points in the different quadrants. State that in the ordered pair (x. y).2) 1. e. J 10. negative-positive in II. (5.

H.5). Ask the students to what quadrant each point is located.G G.K . Then proceed to the plotting of points by asking the students to locate the points in the plane whose coordinates are (3.Y .I . Present the following example 37 .B .D .E X . I.J .A .C . go over the exercises on __________. State that the process of marking a point in a plane is called plotting the points.F .H . To see whether the students understand the concept.

(2.-4). Q(2.0) 38 . (1. (-2. -7) 8. (-3.10) 4. (-2. -7) 13. (2. (2. (2.3). (3. -3) 7. -6) 11. (-2. (3. (2. -3) 14. -6) 10. P 3 2 1 1 Q -3 -2 -1 -1 -2 -3 2 3 4 5 R S J. (-3.0) 2. just like the example that follows: Plot the points on the graph provided. -7) 9. -2) 6. R(-3.2). the corresponding set of points in the plane represents the graph of the set. (0. (-1. Sometimes the points in the graph form a recognizable pattern.6) 5. State that when an entire set of ordered pairs is plotted.6) 3. -2) 15. 1. S(3.-5) in the plane.Locate the points P(-1. -7) 12. Connect each point with the next one by a line segment in the order given.

help the students to realize through several examples that every point on a vertical line has the same x-coordinate and every point on the horizontal line has the same y-coordinate. Assign student to observe and find other applications of the plane. go over exercises on __________. Provision for Life Skills or Higher Order Thinking Skills - In plotting points.Y X To see whether the students understand the concept of plotting points. Suggested Teaching Strategies: 1. Cite instances where the use of the Cartesian plane is found. - 39 .

1. Provision for Multiple Intelligences - To tap the visual/spatial intelligence of students ask them to draw pictures on a graph paper using only lines. product of a polynomial and a monomial Find the following products: a. places. Give the students a review of products of polynomials by going over the following exercises in class and asking the students to recite.2. The first group to plot the points correctly in the coordinate plane wins. Math I : Special Products and Factoring Competency F2. square of a binomial. ask the students to serve as markers in plotting the set of points given to them. Development of the Lesson: A. Done outside the classroom. The whole group will work for a common goal-to find the treasure. identify special products Time Frame: 3 Sessions Objective: At the end of the sessions. difference of two squares. prepare a game of treasure hunting. b. - 3. c. Indicate in the treasure map the reference point and the locations or position of buildings. sum or difference of two cubes. Identify the following special products: a. The students will then give the coordinates of the points where the lines intersect. the students should be able to: 1. To tap the interpersonal intelligence of the students. 2x(3x+4)=6x 2 +8 x 40 . Provision for Cooperative Learning - Prepare a group game on plotting of points.

Based on the exercise they just did. (2 x + 5)(x − 3) c. (3 x − 1)(2 x + 9 ) d.b. (a − 4)(a − 4) = a 2 − 8a + 16 c. Let the students do the following exercise by pairs: Find the following products: a. 5 x 2 − 6 (3 x − 10) ( ) B. In other words. 41 . the students should be able to see that a PST results from multiplying a binomial with itself. How many terms are there in each product? b. 1 5x 2 3x 4 + x3 + x(5 x + 2 x 2 + 3x 3 ) = 2 2 2 2. a PST is a square of a binomial. 2a (3a 2 + 2a + 1) = 6a 3 + 4a 2 2a d. Repeat the characteristics of a PST. ( x + 4)( x + 4) = x 2 + 8 x + 16 b. product of two binomials Use the FOIL method to find the following products: a. State that these answers suggests the characteristics of a special product called a Perfect Square Trinomial (PST). (2 x − 5)(2 x − 7 ) e. 4 y (6 + 3 y + 4 y 2 ) = 24 y + 12 y 2 + 16 y 3 e. 1. 3 x(5 x 2 + 4 x + 5) = 15 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 15 x c. Observe the middle terms of the products. What do you notice about the numerical coefficient of the middle term and the constant in each factor? C. What do you observe about the first and last terms of each product? c. (2 x − 7)(2 x − 7) = 4 x 2 − 28 x + 49 e. ( x + 4 )( x + 9 ) b. (3a + 5)(3a + 5) = a 2 + 30 x + 25 Answer the following questions: a. Start the study of special products with a discussion of squares of binomials. ( x + 9)( x + 9) = x 2 + 18 x + 81 d. Process the activity by going over the answers to the questions.

G. _____1. 42 . Test if the students would be able to identify perfect square trinomials by asking them to answer the exercises on page _____. Write PST or NOT PST. Let the students observe the product in each case. (The products are all binomials. 4 x 2 − 12 x + 9 _____5. (3 x + 4 )(3 x − 4 ) 4. Introduce the next special product by asking the students to find the following products using the FOIL method. the terms are both perfect squares. ( x + 2 )( x − 2 ) 2. For the development of the idea of a sum of two cubes or difference of two cubes. Summarize the characteristics of a difference of two squares and describe what factors result to DOTS. (7 + x )(7 − x ) F. Assign the exercises on page ____.) Present the special product called Difference of Two squares (DOTS). the operation in each one is subtraction. x 2 + 10 x + 25 _____3. use the same strategy used to develop the idea of a difference of two squares. Let the students find the products of pairs of factors which result to a sum of two cubes and factors which result to a difference of two cubes. H. (5 x + 2 )(5 x − 2 ) 5. 25 x 2 − 10 x + 1 E.D. 1. (Note: The teacher may give exercises of the suggested form below: Practice Exercise: Identify whether the given trinomial is a PST or NOT. x 2 − 14 x − 49 _____4. Ask the students to observe the products and what are common to these products. ( x − 5)( x + 5) 3.) Ask them to describe what are the products of the outer terms and inner terms when they apply FOIL. (They are additive inverses of each other. Explain that these are special products because they can be easily obtained by inspecting the factors without having to do the multiplication process. x 2 + 3x + 9 _____2.

including squares of binomials and factors of DOTS. Math I : Special Products and Factoring Competency F4. difference of two squares . State that it is a trinomial but of 3rd degree so it is not the same as the trinomials we studied which are products of two binomials.Suggested Teaching Strategies: 1. Development of the Lesson: A. state the technique used to determine the factors. B. and common factor. product. factor. 43 . factor completely a given polynomial. factor completely Time Frame: 3 Sessions Objective: At the end of the sessions. Provision for Cooperative Learning - Prepare a group puzzle on finding the products of binomials. perfect square trinomials. Provision for Integration of Content Areas in Language Teaching - Go over the meaning of the following terms: polynomial. Review factoring by giving 3 examples for each of the following cases: polynomials whose terms have a common monomial factor. 2. the students must be able to: 1. Ask for volunteers to give the factors orally. Ask the students to examine the polynomial and find out what case it is. “What is the area of a square whose side has a length of (x+6) meters?” 3. Let the students do the puzzle in groups of 5 or 6. you may use a problem like. Present the following case: Factor x 3 + 5 x 2 + 6 x . After each case. Provision for Life Skills or Higher Order Thinking Skills - In introducing the special product PST. trinomials which are products of two binomials. and sum and difference of two cubes. Lead the students to see the common monomial factor. given a polynomial.

x 3 + 5 x 2 + 6 x = x x 2 + 5 x + 6 Factor the trinomial x 2 + 5 x + 6 . = a ( x + y ) + b( x + y ) Get the common factor between the two terms. 1. 9a 3b − 15a 2b 2 + 6ab3 = 3ab(3a 2 − 5ab + 2b 2 ) = 3ab(3a − 2b)(a − b) Let the students do the exercises on page _____. Let them investigate and discuss with a seatmate. = x(x + 3)(x + 2 ) ( ) ( ) Present now the idea of a completely factored polynomial. Guide the students in factoring by asking them to examine each of the factors in every step of the solution. They should realize that it is still factorable. Present a polynomial of the form ax+ay+bx+by Challenge the students to factor completely. Consider other examples. using the given polynomial. ax + ay + bx + by = (ax + ay ) + (bx + by ) Find the common monomial factor for each group. D.x 3 + 5x 2 + 6x = x x 2 + 5x + 6 ( ) Call the students’ attention to the trinomial factor. 4xy+4x+3y+3 = (4xy+4x)+(3y+3) = 4x(y+1)+3(y+1) = (y+1)(4x+3) 2. = ( x + y )(a + b) Ask the students to work on the following exercises. Consider other examples which involve factoring polynomials with more than two factors. Ask them to examine it. 44 . Discuss the technique of grouping the terms before factoring. C. 1. 12 x 2 − 12 x + 3 = 3(4 x 2 − 4 x + 1) = 3(2 x − 1)(2 x − 1) 2. ax+2a-bx-2b+cx+2c = (ax-bx+cx)+(2a-2b+2c) = x(a-b+c)+2(a-b+c) = (a-b+c)+(x+2) Stress that in each case. the terms are grouped in such a way that a common factor appears in each group.

then in an abrupt manner. or in dyads. Provision for Cooperative Learning - Prepare a group puzzle on factoring polynomials of different types. Is x 2 y 2 equal to (x+y) 2 ? c. these are possible solutions for the said trials. x 6 y 2 − x 2 y 6 = x 2 y 2 ( x 4 − y 4 ) = x 2 y 2 ( x 2 + y 2 )( x 2 − y 2 ) = x 2 y 2 ( x 2 + y 2 )( x + y )( x − y ) Note: Ask the students to justify the following when the need comes up in the discussion. Is x 3 y 3 equal to (x+y) 3 ? E. Suggested Teaching Strategies: 1. 2. distinguish a quadratic equation from a linear equation Time Frame : 1 session Objectives : 45 . Math II : Quadratic Equations Competency B1 : define a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 . Provision for Values Education and the Valuing Process - Try to bring out individual trials in life.1. 2 x 3 − 18 xy 2 = 2 x( x 2 − 9 y 2 ) = 2 x( x + 3 y )( x − 3 y ) Is ( x 2 − 9 y 2 ) still factorable? Do you see any common factor? 2. Ask the students to work on the puzzle in groups of 5 or 6. b. Give a practice set covering all cases of factoring polynomials. then enumerate possible solutions on how to overcome these trials in a gradual manner. Whichever way.

when a = 0. b = 0 b.At the end of the session. Ask the students why the value of a should not be 0. challenge them by asking for examples of quadratic equations where a. To check whether the students understood the lesson well.Prepare a group puzzle on distinguishing linear equations from quadratic equations. c = 0 c. Provision for Cooperative Learning . define. the equation is linear and not quadratic. Clearly. Define a quadratic equation as an equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 where a. Lead the students to distinguish between a linear equation and a quadratic equation by asking them to identify the linear equations and the quadratic equations from a given set of equations. Then ask the students to work in groups of 4 or 5.b and c are constants and a ≠ 0. identify and give an example of a quadratic equation 2. the students must be able to : 1. 46 . b and c are both 0 Suggested Teaching Strategies: 1. distinguish a quadratic equation from a linear equation Development of the Lesson: A. ask them to give examples of quadratic equations. C. After the first few examples. Cite some examples of quadratic equations like the following: 3x2 + 5x – 3 = 0 -9x2 = 10 (3x-7)(5+2x) = 0 B.

B.Math II : Quadratic Equations Competency B2. define “root of an equation” Time Frame : 1 session Objectives : At the end of the session. define “root of an equation” Development of the Lesson: A. -2 is the root of the equation in Example 1.49 = 0 and (-7) 2 . Below are examples : Example 1 : The solution set of x+2= 0 is {-2} because –2 + 2 = 0.1 review the definition of solution set of an equation. 3 3 Example 3 : The solution set of x 2 . Hence. recall the definition of the solution set of an equation 2. Then state that each element in the solution set of an equation is a root of the equation. the students must be able to : 1. 1 is the root of the equation in Example 2.49 = 0 is {7. -7} because (7) 2 . 3 7 and –7 are the roots of the equation in Example 3.49 = 0. Ask the student to recall what the “solution set of an equation” means. 47 . Example 2 : The solution set of 3x = 1 is { 1 1 } because 3( ) = 0. Define the solution set of an equation as the set of all values for the variable which will make the equation true.

Math II : Quadratic Equations Competency B2.Give the student a puzzle which will allow them to practice how to find the solution set of simple linear and quadratic equations.4ac 48 . 1. Add to both sides of the equation a term which makes the left side 1.Ask the student to give the roots of some equations. Multiply both sides of the equation by 4a 3. ) 4a 2 x 2 + 4abx = . C. Provision for Cooperative Learning . Development of the Lesson : A. ) ax 2 + bx + c = 0 2. It may help to guide them using the steps on the left side below so that they can come up with the derivation as outlined on the right side. Subtract 4ac from both sides of the equation 4. Write the general form of a quadratic equation 2. Make sure that some equations and some are quadratic. proceed to lead the students to draw a conclusion about the number of roots a linear equation has and the number of roots a quadratic equation has. the students must be able to derive the quadratic formula. To derive the quadratic formula ask the students to “solve” the general quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 by competing the square. Make sure that the quadratic equations you will give at this point can be solved by inspection. Through the other examples in part B.3 derive the quadratic formula Time Frame : 3 sessions Objective : At the end of the sessions. ) 4a 2 x 2 + 4abx + 4ac = 0 3. Suggested Teaching Strategies: 1.

Tell the students that b 2 . real or imaginary roots c. Show how they may use the discriminant to determine whether a given quadratic equation has: a.a perfect square trinomial 5. to a partner.) x = − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a B. Ask the students to rewrite the quadratic formula as x= − b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a and to memorize this. Draw a conclusion about the term which may be used to multiply the equation with. C. Divide both sides by 2a 4. equal or unequal roots b. Ask the student to multiply both sides of the equation by a or 9a instead of 4a in the second step and carry out the derivation process. Find out if they are getting the same results.) 2ax + b = ± b 2 − 4ac 7. ask them to explain at the end of the lesson.4ac 5. Express the left side as a square of a binomial 6. 49 .) (2ax + b) 2 = b 2 .) 2ax = . the process of deriving the quadratic formula. Provision for Multiple Intelligence To tap the interpersonal intelligence of the students. Extract the left side as a square of a binomial 7. rational or irrational roots Suggested Teaching Strategies : 1. Add -b to both sides of the equation 8.b = ± b 2 − 4ac 8. ) 4a 2 x 2 + 4abx + b 2 = b 2 . in the second step to carry out the derivation of the quadratic formula.4ac is called the “discriminant”.4ac 6.

Show illustrations of different kinds of polygons. identify.1 illustrate. Number of Sides 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 n-sides Polygons triangle quadrilateral pentagon hexagon heptagon octagon nonagon decagon dodecagon n-gon 50 . exterior angle) Time Frame: 1 session Objectives: At the end of the session. Development of the Lesson: A. 2. 3. Let the students study the figures then ask them how these were formed. the students must be able to: 1. Clarify that polygons are named according to the number of sides. central angl. sides and angles. B.Math III : Polygons Competency 3. Supply a name for each example. Ask the students to count the number of vertices. Lead them to the concept that polygons are made of segments intersecting at its endpoints. define and identify different kinds of polygons. identify the parts of a regular polygon. no two of its segments with common endpoint are collinear. Also. illustrate and identify convex and non-convex polygon. and define different kinds of polygons according to the number of sides • • illustrate and identify convex and non-convex polygons identify the parts of a regular polygon (vertex angle.

What happens to the polygon when the line was formed? . Be sure that the students will be able to distinguish that a polygon is a convex if no two points of a polygon lie on the opposite sides of a line containing any side of the polygon. B B A C A C E F F D E D Ask students to extend the sides. Focus on lines FE and ED. D 51 .Are all the other vertices of the polygon located on one side of the halfplane? Answers will lead to the definition of convex and non-convex polygons. Below will be the result B B A C A C E F F D E Ask students like .C. Show illustrations of two kinds of polygons like the ones below.

discuss and identify the parts of the regular polygon Central angle Interior angle Exterior angle Attempt to define these parts with students. Help the students define what a regular polygon is. Sides can be extended to name the exterior angles. Tell the students that such kind of polygon is regular. F.D. E. Provide practice exercises. After defining a regular polygon. G. let them formalize the definition. Show to the students the following figures in order to come up with the definition of a regular polygon. H. 52 . Let the students identify the parts of regular polygon.

A B C Ask students the following questions: • What have you noticed about the sides of triangle A? • How will you distinguish triangle A from triangle B and C? • What is the difference between triangle B and C? 53 .Suggested Teaching Strategies: 1.. Let them measure the sides of the triangle. Math III: Polygons Competency 3. Development of the Lesson: A. name. 2. and identify different kinds of triangles and their parts (e. encourage them to cite their observations in the discussion in Part D. hypotenuse) Time Frame: 2 sessions Objectives: At the end of the sessions. Distribute 3 pieces of cut out triangles to the students. legs. allow them to discuss their observations with the discussion in Part D with a seat mate. the students must be able to: 1. Provision for Multiple Intelligence - to tap the verbal/linguistic intelligence of the students. name and identify parts of a right triangle. classify triangles according to sides and according to angles.g. to tap the interpersonal intelligence. 3.3 illustrate. base. name and identify different kinds of triangle.

(Prepare 3 triangles : acute. • What is your basis of classification of the triangles? State the following Triangles can be classified according to the measure of their angles? 1. let them answer the exercises on __________________. An obtuse triangle is a triangle with an obtuse angle. Ask the student the following questions: • What have you noticed about the measure of the angles of the triangle? • If you will group the triangles.• What are the properties of triangle A? triangle B? triangle C? State the following An equilateral triangle is a triangle with all sides congruent. An isosceles triangle is a triangle with exactly two sides congruent. right and obtuse triangles) Let them measure the angles of the triangles. B. What kind of triangle is triangle A? triangle B? triangle C? What is the basis of classification for these triangles? To see whether the student understand the classification of triangles according to sides. 3. A scalene triangle is a triangle with no sides congruent Further ask the student the following questions. acute. Let the student observe the figures on the chart. To see whether the student understand the classification of triangles according to sides. 2. 54 . let them answer the exercises on __________________. C. how will you do it? Explain your answer. Let the student identify the kinds of triangles in the chart and describe the characteristics of the two triangles. right and obtuse. An acute triangle is a triangle with all three angles acute. Let them identify the kinds of angles from the chart. A right triangle is a triangle with one right angle. Distribute cut out triangles to the students. Review the kinds of angles.

Provision for Cooperative Learning Prepare cut out triangles which students can classify as well as discuss their basis for classification. Provision for Higher Order Thinking Skills - In classifying triangles. the angles on the base are called BASE ANGLES. leg leg leg hypotenuse base angle base base angle leg Give some more figures then ask the students to identify the legs.Explain to the students that in an isosceles triangle: The two congruent sides are called LEGS. Suggested Teaching Strategies: 1. base and the base angles. 55 . This can be done in groups. 2. hypotenuse. Explain further that in a Right Triangle the sides that are perpendicular are the legs and the side opposite the right angle is the hypotenuse. conduct an activity where the students can compare and identify the different kinds of triangles. the third side is called the BASE. Show the illustration to help the students visualize these parts.

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