Getting started With Excel

Know your Worksheet Formatting Cells In Excel Go To Cells Quickly Select Cells Enter Data Edit a Cell Wrap Text Delete a Cell Entry Save a File Close Excel

Working with Excel worksheet Hide / Unhide a sheet Rename a sheet

Add color to sheet tabs Conditional formatting Move or copy sheets .

Show or hide gridlines on a worksheet Uncheck to hide gridlines Change the color of gridlines .

in the list on the right. For example. it simply formats your cell as text. But. you can select formats like Social Security Number. there is a custom format that is simply an @ symbol. what if you want a format that is not included in Excel's pre-made formats? Well. I recommend you look through the list and try some of them and see how they affect the number 123456789 that you have typed in your cell. if you choose Date formatting. Type the number 123456789 in an empty cell and hit Enter. All of these choices are available when you highlight/select the cell(s) you want to format. following the directions below. Since there are so many. There is also a choice named Special and when you choose that. Click on the Number tab and select Custom from the list. and if you choose Percent formatting. Excel would change 0. it is handled differently depending on what type of formatting you have assigned to the cell. 2009. Now click back onto that cell and go to the Format Menu and select Cells. . see all the different custom formats Excel offers. if you choose Currency formatting. If you choose this.Formatting Cells in Excel When you enter data into a cell in Excel. then go to the Format menu and choose Cells. Phone Number. There are formats in here for most of the styles you would get if you chose one of the options for any of the choices in the list on the left. then click on the Number tab in the Format Cells dialog box. you can make your own custom format. But. For example. In the box on the left.3 to 30%.00. what I do want to do is teach you how to make some of your own. Excel will automatically convert 3 into $3. Excel would convert 3/1 to March 1. etc. I can't possibly go through all of them with you.

Go to -. .Ctrl+G You can also use Ctrl+G to go to a specific cell. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "g" (Ctrl+g). you are prompted for the cell to which you wish to go. The Go To dialog box opens. Press Enter.F5 The F5 function key is the "Go To" key. Enter the cell address.Go To Cells Quickly The following are shortcuts for moving quickly from one cell in a worksheet to a cell in a different part of the worksheet. EXERCISE 2 Go to -. Type B10 in the Name box. The Name Box You can also use the Name box to go to a specific cell. Press Enter. Type C4 in the Reference field. Just type the cell you want to go to in the Name box and then press Enter. Excel moves to cell C4. and the cursor jumps to that cell. If you press the F5 key. Excel moves to cell J3. Excel moves to cell B10. Press F5. Press Enter. The Go To dialog box opens. Type J3 in the Reference field.

Click in cell E7. This anchors the cursor.Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to clear the highlighting. place the cursor in cell D7. 2. Alternative Method: Select Cells by Dragging You can also select an area by holding down the left mouse button and dragging the mouse over the area.  Release the left mouse button. While holding down the left mouse button. You won't release it until step 9. Continue to hold down the Ctrl key. 5. Release the Ctrl key. Cells A1 to C5 and cells D7 to F10 are selected. you must first select those cells by highlighting them. EXERCISE 3 Select Cells To select cells A1 to E1: 1. Hold down the Ctrl key. Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to remove the highlighting. but release the left mouse button. While holding down the left mouse button. use the mouse to move from cell A1 to C5. you can select noncontiguous areas of the worksheet by doing the following: Go to cell A1. The exercises that follow teach you how to select. You are in the Extend mode.Note that "Extend Selection" appears on the Status bar in the lower-left corner of the window.Select Cells If you wish to perform a function on a group of cells. Press the left mouse button. .Go to cell A1. Press the left mouse button. Excel highlights cells A1 to E7. 3. In addition. Holding down the Ctrl key enables you to select noncontiguous areas of the worksheet.Press the F8 key. 4. move to cell F10. Using the mouse.

place the cursor in the cell in which you want to start entering data. Do not press Enter at this time. First. If you need to delete.Place the cursor in cell A1. 1.Press Enter.Type John Jordan. Delete Data The Backspace key erases one character at a time.Enter Data In this section. 2. Type some data. you will learn how to enter data into your worksheet. The name "John" appears in cell A1. and then press Enter.Press the Backspace key until Jordan is erased. . 2. EXERCISE 4 Enter Data 1. press the Backspace key to delete one character at a time.

3." 4. Press Enter. you can edit the data by pressing F2 while you are in the cell you wish to edit." Type nes. 2. Press F2. EXERCISE 5 Edit a Cell Change "John" to "Jones. 5. You change "Jones" to "Joker" in the following exercise. Use the backspace key to erase the "s. Move the cursor to cell A1. Click in the formula area of the Formula bar. Type ker. Press Enter. Use the Backspace key to delete the "n" and the "h." Move to cell A1. Alternate Method: Editing a Cell by Using the Formula Bar You can also edit the cell by using the Formula bar." "e.Edit a Cell After you enter data into a cell. 1." and "n. .

Excel wraps the text in the cell. 2. . EXERCISE 6 Wrap Text 1. the text overlaps the next cell. 2. 3.Press Enter. 3.Move to cell A2. you can wrap the text.Click the Wrap Text button 4.Type Text too long to fit. 1. If you do not want it to overlap the next cell.Return to cell A2.Wrap Text When you type text that is too long to fit in the cell.Choose the Home tab.

Click the Office button.Delete a Cell Entry To delete an entry in a cell or a group of cells. Click Save. Go to the directory in which you want to save your file. Excel saves your file. Type Lesson1 in the File Name field. . To save your file: Click the Office button. Click Save. A menu appears. A menu appears. Excel closes. Save a File This is the end of Lesson1. Click Close. EXERCISE 7 Delete a Cell Entry Select cells A1 to A2. Close Excel Close Microsoft Excel. you place the cursor in the cell or select the group of cells and press Delete. Press the Delete key. The Save As dialog box appears.

Calculating Data with Advanced Formulas .

Name. In the example. it is usual to refer to a "range". Defining Names There are a number of ways to set up names on a spreadsheet. A common way is to use the Insert. B6:B10 is also a range reference. For example.NAMES When entering formulae or referring to any area on the spreadsheet. there is a range of sales figures that could be named ´1st_Qtrµ. Selection of cells for naming . Define menu. B6 is a range reference.

The DEFINE NAME dialog box appears iv. ii. simply type a name in the Name box and choose OK.To name range: i. Click the DEFINE NAME button in the NAMES GROUP in the insert tab iii. . To manage names: The Define Name Dialog box also lets you manage the range names you can add delete or modify the existing range name in the same dialog box. To name the cells. Select the cells you wish to name.

and also for listing all the names on the spreadsheet.Using Names Go To The GOTO feature can be used to go to a specific cell address on the spreadsheet. Press [F5]. Click on the name required. The following dialog box appears. then choose OK. Not only does the cell pointer move to the correct range. It can also be used in conjunction with names. This can be very useful for checking that ranges have been defined correctly. ii. i. but it also selects it. .

Instead of typing cell references or selecting cells. as well as any of Excel's built in functions. simply type the name or paste the name into the formula.Names In Formulae Names can be used in any simple formula. .

NOT And Or Not LOOKUP FUNCTIONS Lookup Hlookup Vlookup OTHER USEFUL FUNCTIONS ISERROR TRIM IFERROR NOW COUNTIF RIGHT AVERAGEIF LEFT SUMIF Find & Replace CONCATENATE .Excel Functions CONDITIONAL & LOGICAL FUNCTIONS If Statements Logical Test Value If True / False Nested If AND. OR.

or copy the reference to another cell.Click cell C10.e. For example. In Excel.Absolute cell references are particularly useful for referencing constant values (i.Type +. 1. 9.. In contrast. 3.Move to cell C12.Type =. 2. 8.Click cell C9.Press F4. Dollar signs appear before the C and the 9.Press F4.Press F4.Absolute Cell Addressing Before learning Excel formula we will study about absolute cell referencing in excel.Click cell C11. Excel records the formula in cell C12.Click the check mark on the formula bar. 7. 6. a reference to a particular cell or group of cells that does not change. 5. but may change if you copy the reference to another cell . Dollar signs appear before the C and the 10. the cell reference "$A$3" is an absolute cell reference that always points to the cell in the first column and third row.Type +. the reference "A3" is a relative cell reference that initially points to the cell in the first column and third row. values that never change). 11. even if you change the shape or size of the spreadsheet. 10. 4. Dollar signs appear before the C and the 11. .

The functions used to produce this type of analysis are found in the Insert.CONDITIONAL & LOGICAL FUNCTIONS Excel has a number of logical functions which allow you to set various "conditions" and have data respond to them. For example. Function menu. under the heading LOGICAL. you may only want a certain calculation performed or piece of text displayed if certain conditions are met. .

If Statements The IF function is used to analyze data. =IF ( logical_test. Each of these is separated by a comma. > Greater than < Less than > = Greater than or equal to < = Less than or equal to = Equal to < > Not equal to . value_if_false) Logical Test This part of the IF statement is the "condition". the action to be performed if that condition is true (value_if_true). test whether or not it meets certain conditions and then act upon its decision. or to compare two cells. symbols called LOGICAL OPERATORS are useful. In these cases. value_if_true. or test. You may want to test to see if a cell is a certain value. the condition to be met (logical_test). the action to be performed if false (value_if_false). as shown. the IF statement is accompanied by three arguments enclosed in one set of parentheses.

"AVERAGE")) To make the above IF statement more flexible. this cell reference should be absolute). This is based on the same principle as a normal IF statement. In the example. as follows."AVERAGE")) (If the IF statement is to be copied later. sales staff could now receive one of three possible ratings. =IF(B2>$E$2."GOOD". . Notice that there are two sets of parentheses. =IF(1st logic test . This process can be enlarged to include more conditions and more eventualities up to seven IF's can be nested within the main statement. the logical tests could be amended to measure sales against cell references instead of figures. =IF(B2>1000. 2nd true value ."POOR". In the example."POOR". The secondary IF forms the FALSE part of the main statement."GOOD".Nested If When you need to have more than one condition and more than two possible outcomes.IF(B2<600. column E has been used to hold the upper and lower sales thresholds. However. as there are two separate IF statements. 1st true value . care must be taken to ensure that the correct number of parentheses are added.IF(B2<$E$3. false value)) Only if both logic tests are found to be false will the false value be returned. IF(2nd logic test . but involves "nesting" a secondary formula inside the main one. a NESTED IF is required.

AND, OR, NOT

Rather than create large and unwieldy formulae involving multiple IF statements, the AND, OR and NOT functions can be used to group logical tests or "conditions" together. These three functions can be used on their own, but in that case they will only return the values "TRUE" or "FALSE". As these two values are not particularly meaningful on a spreadsheet, it is much more useful to combine the AND, OR and NOT functions within an IF statement. This way, you can ask for calculations to be performed or other text messages to appear as a result.

And
This function is a logical test to see if all conditions are true. If this is the case, the value "TRUE" is returned. If any of the arguments in the AND statement are found to be false, the whole statement produces the value "FALSE". This function is particularly useful as a check to make sure that all conditions you set are met. Arguments are entered in the AND statement in parentheses, separated by commas, and there is a maximum of 30 arguments to one AND statement. The following example checks that two cells, B1 and B2, are both greater than 100. =AND(B1>100,B2>100) If either one of these two cells contains a value less than a hundred, the result of the AND statement is "FALSE.µ This can now be wrapped inside an IF function to produce a more meaningful result. You may want to add the two figures together if they are over 100, or display a message indicating that they are not high enough. =IF(AND(B1>100,B2>100),B1+B2,"Figures not high enough")

Or
This function is a logical test to see if one or more conditions are true. If this is the case, the value "TRUE" is returned. If just one of the arguments in the OR statement is found to be true, the whole statement produces the value "TRUE". Only when all arguments are false will the value "FALSE" be returned. This function is particularly useful as a check to make sure that at least one of the conditions you set is met. =IF(OR(B1>100,B2>100),"at least one is OK","Figures not high enough") In the above formula, only one of the numbers in cells B1 and B2 has to be over 100 in order for them to be added together. The message only appears if neither figure is high enough.

the value "TRUE" is returned. In other words.B1) . the cell contents of B1 are returned unless the number 13 is encountered. the overall statement is true. If so. It is best to use NOT as "provided this is not the case" function."Unlucky!") The NOT function can only contain one argument. a check is done against the numbers 13 and 666."Unlucky!". In the example.B1. the message "Unlucky!" is displayed. If B1 is found to contain 13. =IF(NOT(B1=13).Not NOT checks to see if the argument is false. the OR function should be used and the true and false values of the IF statement reversed.B1=666). If it is necessary to check that more than one argument is false. =IF(OR(B1=13. for example. so long as the argument is false. Suppose.

LOOKUP FUNCTIONS These functions allow you to create formulae which examine large amounts of data and find information which matches or approximates to certain conditions. They are simpler to construct than nested IF·s and can produce many more varied results. .

text from A to Z. numbers from lowest to highest. If this is not done. result_vector ) number or text entry to look for area in which to search for the lookup_value adjacent row or column where the corresponding value or text is to be found It is essential that data in the lookup vector is placed in ascending order. lookup_vector . the LOOKUP function may return the wrong result.Lookup The syntax for LOOKUP is as follows. =LOOKUP( lookup_value .e. i. .

. Call B13 Salary. For example. the nearest salary below 23000 is 20030. a £20030 salary gets a Golf.D3:D11.E3:E11) Typing 40000 in cell B13 will set the lookup_value. Alternatively. the formula could be simplified and cell references avoided by using Formula. Only when their salary meets or exceeds 25000 do they get a Sierra. Hence the formula. The LOOKUP formula could then be simplified to. Define Name to give appropriate range names. and the result_vector is the car column (E3:E11). There may be occasions where the lookup_value is below the lowest value in the vector. In this case the #N/A message is displayed.Salaries. if a user enters a Salary of 23000. LOOKUP will search through the lookup_vector to find the matching salary.µ In this case. it will approximate to the nearest figure below the requested value. However. which in this case is Mercedes. a £35000 salary gets a Scorpio. column D contains varying salaries. there is no figure in the Salaries range which matches this. so the corresponding car is returned. =LOOKUP(B13. the lookup_vector is the salary column (D3:D11). In this case. A LOOKUP formula can be used to return whatever car is appropriate to a salary figure that is entered. anyone in the salary "band" between 20030 and 25000 gets a Golf. This technique is very useful when the lookup_vector indicates grades or "bands. against which there is a company car in column E which corresponds to each salary. which is a Golf. and return the appropriate car from the result_vector.In the diagram. For instance. D3:D11 Salaries and E3:E11 Cars. the lookup_value is the cell where the salary is entered (B13).Cars) One of the advantages of the LOOKUP function is that if the exact lookup_value is not found. =LOOKUP(Salary.

if this rule is ignored.Hlookup The horizontal LOOKUP function (HLOOKUP) can be used not just on a "vector" (single column or row of data). As with LOOKUP.e. text from A to Z. numbers from lowest to highest. i. but on an "array" (multiple rows and columns). across the array).e. data in the first row must be in ascending order. =HLOOKUP( lookup_value . row from which the result is required as HLOOKUP searches horizontally (i. . table_array . row_index_number) number or text entry to look for cell references (or range name) of the entire table of data. The syntax for HLOOKUP is. HLOOKUP will return the wrong value.

but lower than. 15 or more years. cells C43:H48 are the table_array. .Whatever the amount a customer wants to borrow. the figure 28000 can be entered in the lookup_value cell (A51) and the rate 14. the advantage of HLOOOKUP is that it does not necessarily have to find the exact lookup_value. Excel has looked for the value in the array closest to. As before.3) The above formula looks along the top row of the array for the value in cell A51 (30000). and so on. i. you wanted to find out what interest rate is applicable to a £28000 loan. Cell B51 holds this formula.00%. he may pay up to five different rates of interest depending on whether the loan is over 10. which is the correct interest rate for a £30000 loan over 15 years. As with the LOOKUP function. (Range names could be used here to simplify the formula). =HLOOKUP(A51.e. the lookup_value. If. 3 if he wants the loan over 15 years.C43:H48.30% appears. the row_index_number will be 2 if a customer wants the loan over 10 years. The HLOOKUP function will find a specific amount. then move down the array to find the appropriate interest rate for the required time period. the lookup_value. for example. It then moves down to row 3 and returns the value 15. Designate cell A51 as the cell to hold the amount.

but instead of searching horizontally. data in the first column of the array should be in ascending order.5) . except that instead of specifying a row index number. In the following example. =VLOOKUP(A54. table_array . The syntax for the VLOOKUP function follows the same pattern as HLOOKUP. Cell B54 holds this formula. then return the appropriate rate for a fixed amount. =VLOOKUP( lookup_value . col_index_number ) In the case of VLOOKUP.C43:H48. In the same spreadsheet as before. as VLOOKUP searches down this column for the lookup_value. you would specify a column index number to instruct VLOOKUP to move across to a specific column in the array where the required value is to be found.Vlookup The VLOOKUP function works on the same principle as HLOOKUP. a time period is entered in cell A54 and in B54 the VLOOKUP formula is contained. VLOOKUP searches vertically. a VLOOKUP formula could be used to search for a specific time period.

.The cell A54 is the lookup_value (time period). By changing the value of cell A54. the nearest value in the array that is less than the lookup_value will be returned. VLOOKUP works in the same way as HLOOKUP. Where the specific lookup_value is not found.00%. the appropriate rate for that time period is returned. a £40000 loan over 17 years would return an interest rate of 16. and for this example rates are looked up for a loan of £40000. So. In other words. the table_array is as before. hence the column_index_number 5.

OTHER USEFUL FUNCTIONS .

#VALUE!. or #NULL!) To use ISERROR function In the example below the average functions in the column G is trying to divide empty cells and giving the error message #DIV/0! The error function checking that cell gives the value true there is an error this could be nested in an IF function with an AVERAGE function so that the error message does not show in column G . Iserror (Value) Value refers to any error value (#N/A. #REF!.ISERROR ISERROR is a very useful function that tells you if the formula you look at with it gives any error value. #DIV/0!. #NAME?. #NUM!.

3. it is hard to read and hard to maintain ² if you want to change a formula. If a user wants to catch errors in a VLOOKUP and use their own error text opposed to Excel·s error. SalesTable. because formulas are quite often run twice. they have to do something like this using the IF and ISERROR functions: =IF(ISERROR(VLOOKUP("Dave".G. SECOND. FALSE)). enabling customers to easily trap and handle formula errors. you have to do it twice. value_if_error) A common request in the area of functions is something to simplify error checking. 3. This has a number of problems. users need to repeat the VLOOKUP formula twice. SalesTable. Here is an example of how a user could use it in the same situation: =IFERROR(VLOOKUP(´Bobµ. ´Value not foundµ) . The IFERROR function solves these problems. " Value not found". FIRST. SalesTable. false). it can affect performance. VLOOKUP("Dave".IFERROR IFERROR(Value. E. FALSE)) As you can see. 3.

COUNTIF(range. Blank and text values are ignored. CRITERIA is the criteria in the form of a number. or B4. or references that contain numbers. "32". . "apples".COUNTIF COUNTIF counts the number of cells in a range based on given criteria. For example. expression. including numbers or names. or text that defines which cells will be counted.criteria) RANGE is one or more cells to count. ">32". cell reference. arrays. criteria can be expressed as 32.

For example. allows users to easily average a range based on a specific criteria. criteria can be expressed as 32. AVERAGEIF. ´>250000µ. If omitted. B2:B5) . "apples". Here is an example that returns the average of B2:B5 where the corresponding value in column A is greater than 250.000: =AVERAGEIF(A2:A5. ">32".AVERAGEIF A very common request is for a single function to conditionally average a range of numbers ² a complement to SUMIF and COUNTIF. [Average Range]) RANGE is one or more cells to average. AVERAGE range is the actual set of cells to average. AVERAGEIF(Range. cell reference. or references that contain numbers. RANGE is used. CRITERIA is the criteria in the form of a number. Criteria. expression. arrays. "32". including numbers or names. or text that defines which cells are averaged. or B4.

6 would return 7. Based on the given example =SumIf(A2:A6.6 would return 218. criteria. C:C) =SumIf(A2:A6. sum_range ) range is the range of cells that you want to apply the criteria against. D2. C2:C6) =SumIf(A:A. criteria is used to determine which cells to add. The syntax for the SumIf function is: SumIf( range. based on a given criteria. C2:C6) =SumIf(A2:A6.2 would return 12. C2:C6) would return 218. D2.Sumif the SumIf function adds all numbers in a range of cells. 2003. ">=2001". sum_range are the cells to sum.6 .

A2) =Concatenate (A2. text_n ) There can be up to 30 strings that are joined together.Concatenate the Concatenate function allows you to join 2 or more strings together. The syntax for the Concatenate function is: Concatenate( text1.´ter´) =Concatenate(A1.´ ³ .. text2. "bet soup") would return "Alphabet" would return ³bet ter´ would return "Alphabet soup" . Based on the given example =Concatenate(A1.. .

Trim Function the Trim function returns a text value with the leading and trailing spaces removed. The syntax for the Trim function is: =Trim( text ) text is the text value to remove the leading and trailing spaces from. Based on the given example =Trim(A1) =Trim(A2) =Trim(A3) =Trim(" apples ") would return "Tech on the Net" would return "1234" would return "alphabet soup" would return "apples" Now Function the Now function returns the current system date and time. The syntax for the Now function is: =Now() .

4) =Right(A2. 3) would return "soup" would return "thenet" would return "cel" Left Function . Based on the given example =Right(A1. number_of_characters ) text is the string that you wish to extract from. 6) =Right ("Excel".Right Function the Right function extracts a substring from a string starting from the right-most character. The syntax for the Right function is: =Right( text. number_of_characters indicates the number of characters that you wish to extract starting from the right-most character.

Data Presentation-Charting Ability Presentation- .

We will learn to :‡ Create embedded charts ‡ Create separate page charts ‡ Change chart types and formats ‡ Add and remove chart data ‡ Add trend lines to charts ‡ Create picture charts .Data Presentation One of the most impressive aspects of Excel is its charting ability. arrows. include notes. There are endless variations available. titles and various other extras as desired. allowing you to produce a chart. edit and format it.

or slice of pie for example. identifying which patterns/colours relate to which data series Marker A bar. The terms defined below relate to the example car sales worksheet and column chart which appear beneath the table: Data Point : An individual figure on the spreadsheet which is reflected in the chart e. representing a data point. Category: The category axis appears across the bottom of a graph (pie charts excepted) and the categories are listed here. Fred's Orion sales figure Data Series : A collection of related data points. there are some terms used in charting which should be understood by you. which will appear on a chart as markers (bars. all of Fred's figures.g. Points within the different data series are grouped by category . column.g.Terminology As a starting point. e. Legend: The "key" to the chart. for example) of the same colour.

Embedded Charts An embedded chart appears on the worksheet where it was created. It is an embedded object. All charts whether embedded or separate are created from the INSERT ribbon in the CHARTS group. and has no separate existence apart from the worksheet. . which does not normally appear in its own window.

although linked to the worksheet whose figures it represents. The Data Labels ribbon allows you to display the amount each point represents or display the label Use this ribbon to switch the legend on and off or reposition it area where you can specify the titles to have on the chart The gridline ribbon allows you to switch on and off horizontal and vertical gridlines Here you specify whether you want a Y/Z axis and whether you are using timescales to plot your data .Separate Chart Pages A chart sheet. exists as a separate page in a workbook. The F11 key is very useful for creating a default chart from selected data as a new sheet within the workbook Some Chart Elements The Data Table ribbon will display a grid underneath the chart that will show the information that is being plotted.

ii. Select data for chart. The chart is now created based on the selected data as an embedded chart.Methods To Create Charts To create a chart Mouse i. Default chart will created as chart on a separate sheet. Go to the CHARTS group on the INSERT ribbon. When you have chosen click once to select a chart type vi. OR Keyboard i. Hovering your mouse over a chart type will bring up an explanation of that chart type v. The menu on the left appears. Press the F11 Key iii. iv. Select Data for chart ii. Select a chart type and click iii. .

Line charts are used to compare trends over time. Bar Bar charts can be 2 or 3Dimensional. They are used to compare the change in volume of a data series over time. They are frequently used to show variation of different items over a period of time. Area Area charts can be 2 or 3dimensional. making up 100%.Chart Types There are several different types of chart available within Excel. Column Column charts can be 2 or 3 Dimensional. Pie Pie charts can be 2 or 3Dimensional. Only one data series can be plotted. They are used to compare the size of the parts with the whole. The type to choose will vary depending on the data involved and what information the chart is intended to convey or highlight. Line Line charts can be 2 or 3 Dimensional. . They are used to show individual figures at a specific time or to compare different items. emphasising the amount of change rather than the rate of change.

They can be used to pinpoint the high and low points resulting from two changing variables. . 3D Surface 3 D Surface charts present information in an almost topographical layout.Radar Each category in a radar chart has its own axis radiating from the centre point. Data points are plotted along each spoke. and data points belonging to the same series are connected by lines. They are also useful if the data on the X axis represents uneven intervals of time or increments of measurement. and can be useful in determining whether one set of figures might be dependent on the other. It can be helpful to think of a 3D surface chart as a 3D Column chart which has had a rubber sheet stretched over the tops of the columns. Xy Scatter Charts XY charts are used to compare two different numeric data series.

such as adding a legend can be applied to a chart using the following sections To make it embedded or separate chart type To change the background of the chart To change the type of chart To change the data point Add or delete title.labelsand data table .axes.lege nd. Some formats.Formatting Chart There are several different ways of formatting the various elements in a chart.

Introduction To Pivot Tables .

PIVOT TABLES To Create A PivotChart Report From An Existing PivotTable Report Delete A PivotTable Or PivotChart Report Create Layout For PivotTables Modifying A PivotTable MANAGING PIVOT TABLES Automatically Refresh Data When A Workbook Is Opened Automatically Refresh Data At Regular Time Intervals Formatting A PivotTable .

It is called a PivotTable because the headings can be rotated around the data to view or summarize it in different ways.PIVOTTABLES A PivotTable can summarize large amounts of data using specified calculations and formats. A simple Pivot Table .

Click Ok. . You now have a Pivot Table that summarizes your data. then click Finish.

Automatically Refresh Data When A Workbook Is Opened You can refresh an external data range automatically when you open the workbook. . so that the workbook file size is reduced. and optionally save the workbook without saving the external data.

You can manually format a cell or cell range in PivotTable report by right clicking the cell or cell range.Formatting A PivotTable you often want to enhance the layout and format of the report to improve readability and to make it more attractive. and by using the FORMAT CELLS dialog box. There are a number of ways to change the layout and format of a PivotTable report as described in the following sections. Pivot Chart You can represent the pivot table in chart form by simply clicking on pivot chart option that come after you right click on pivot table . by clicking FORMAT CELLS.

OTHER EXCEL FEATURES .

INSERTING. FORMATTING AND DELETING OBJECTS Inserting A Drawing Object Smart Art WordArt Formatting Shapes REVIEWING Protecting Use A Shared Workbook To Collaborate Share A Workbook .

Inserting A Drawing Object Inserting pictures. scanned images etc onto a worksheet can greatly enhance your overall spreadsheet appearance. a brief rundown of some items you may insert and how to deal with them To insert a shape onto worksheet . text boxes. callouts.

you are prompted to choose a type such as PROCESS. You can create SmartArt graphics by choosing from among many different layouts to quickly. When you create a SmartArt graphic. HIERARCHY.SmartArt A SmartArt graphic is a visual representation of your information and ideas. easily and effectively communicate your message. or RELATIONSHIP. and each type contains several different layouts. On the INSERT ribbon in the ILLUSTRATIONS group. CYCLE. A type is similar to a category of SmartArt graphic. click on the drop down arrow to the right of SMARTART the SMARTART dialog above will appear .

# A WordArt graphic can be resized. On the INSERT ribbon. rotated. Enter your text. deleted and moved like any other shape. as you can change any other text in a shape. click WORDART. when selected. Formatting Shapes Any shape inserted on the spreadsheet. in the TEXT group.WordArt WordArt is a gallery of text styles that you can add to your 2007 Microsoft Office system documents to create decorative effects. it offers the options of inserting further shapes . You can change WordArt text. and then click the WordArt style that you want. causes a new ribbon to appear called the FORMAT ribbon seen below. such as shadowed or mirrored (reflected) text.

insert. delete. . You may also want to restrict what they are allowed to do to your work so they do not inadvertently damage formulae and functions that make the workbook produce valid figures.REVIEWING Protecting When sending your work to someone else to check. Click on PROTECT WORKBOOK in the Tools group Select PROTECT STRUCTURE AND WINDOWS above dialog will appear. To protect a workbook Protecting a workbook ensures individuals cannot. Workbook structure is now protected. move or otherwise tamper with the sheets in your work book. Hidden sheets will not be able to be unhidden if valuable tables or data is stored on them. For security (not essential) enter a password and click on ok. For these reasons we may have to protect the workbook in various ways. make corrections or comments it is necessary to track the changes that others may make to your work to see what changes they have made as they review your work.

vi. Sheet is now protected any cell that was locked is now uneditable by anyone. Untick LOCK CELLS. ii. Tick what you wish users to be allowed to do in the locked cells. and then click FORMAT CELLS. Click on OK. Click on PROTECT WORKSHEET in the Protection group on the Tools ribbon.Protect worksheet data i. Select all cells you would like individuals to be allowed to change. iii. Click on the protection tab iv. On the Format ribbon. ix. v. vii. click FORMAT. in the CELLS group. Enter a password if you wish viii. .

To protect for tracked changes Click on TRACK CHANGES and then HIGHLIGHT CHANGES in the CHANGES group on the REVIEW ribbon The HIGHLIGHT CHANGES dialog will appear. when and what the change is. To Accept/reject changes When changes have been made to your workbook you may wish to check those changes and see what has been altered. . Tick the TRACK CHANGES WHILE EDITING option Click on OK. Any changes made to the workbook by anyone now will leave a mark in the cell to show it has been changed by who. You may not be happy with some of the changes and wish to reject them for what was previously within a cell.

Click on TRACK CHANGES and then ACCEPT/REJECT CHANGES in the CHANGES group on the REVIEW ribbon. The ACCEPT OR REJECT CHANGES dialog will appear iv. The SELECT CHANGES TO ACCEPT OR REJECT dialog will appear. . As you accept or reject each change the dialog will automatically move on to the next change. When you have finished click close to close the dialog and finish reviewing. Click OK.i. ii. iii.

If you want to include any of the following features. You cannot make changes to these features after you share the workbook. the group can use a shared workbook to track the status of the projects. When all changes have been incorporated. you can manage it by removing users from the shared workbook and resolving conflicting changes. hyperlinks scenarios. if the people in your work group each handle several projects and need to know the status of each other's projects. charts. Share A Workbook Not all features are supported in a shared workbook. All persons involved can then enter the information for their projects in the same workbook. For example. outlines subtotals. . you can stop sharing the workbook. data tables PivotTable reports workbook and worksheet protection. pictures. As the owner of the shared workbook.Use A Shared Workbook To Collaborate You can create a shared workbook and place it on a network location where several people can edit the contents simultaneously. and macros. you should add them before you save the workbook as a shared workbook: merged conditional formats data validation. objects including drawing objects.

you can enter and change data as you do in a regular workbook .To share a workbook To Edit a shared workbook After you open a shared workbook.

To Remove a user from a shared workbook .

. ii. you may want to start by printing the History worksheet or by copying it to another workbook. To Stop sharing a workbook Before you stop sharing the workbook. When the second user saves the workbook. i. and then click OK. click ACCEPT ALL MINE or ACCEPT ALL OTHERS. In the RESOLVE CONFLICTS dialog box. make sure that all other users have completed their work. click THE CHANGES BEING SAVED WIN. Excel displays the RESOLVE CONFLICTS dialog box. Because the change history will also be deleted. click ACCEPT MINE or ACCEPT OTHER. Any unsaved changes will be lost.: click SHARE WORKBOOK. To keep your change or the other person's change and to advance to the next conflicting change. To override resolve conflicts dialog To have your changes override all other changes without displaying the RESOLVE CONFLICTS dialog box again.Resolve conflicting changes in a shared workbook A conflict happens when two users are both editing the same shared workbook and try to save changes that affect the same cell. To keep all of your remaining changes or all of the other user's changes. Excel can keep only one of the changes in that cell. read the information about each change and the conflicting changes made by the other user. On the ADVANCED tab. under CONFLICTING CHANGES BETWEEN USERS.

Microsoft Excel Shortcuts .

Insert the current date. Save a spreadsheet. Fill several cells with what you type. Ctrl Shift .$A$1. Relative A1. relative and mixed references. Cut Copy Paste Print Enter edit mode for a cell. Insert the current time. Create a new blank spreadsheet. . E. Absolute . Mixed $A1 or A$1. Change formula references between absolute.g. Ctrl Enter Ctrl .Shortcut Ctrl O Ctrl S Ctrl N Ctrl X Ctrl C Ctrl V Ctrl P F2 F4 Description Open a spreadsheet.

Select the cell you want to edit and press F2. To copy formatting more than once .click in the cell that has the formatting you want to copy. Drag over the first cells you want to format. Click the format painter icon. ( ) Exponentials. . Rules for formulas Start with a ´ = µ sign. */ +Order of operations: Brackets. To copy formatting once ² click in the cell that has the formatting you want to copy.g.Editing a cell·s contents Select the cell you want to edit and then click in the Excel formula bar. Drag over all the other cells you want to format. ^ (E. Double-click the format painter icon. Double click the cell you want to edit. 2^4 the same as 24) Multiplication & Division. Click the format painter icon to turn it off. Drag over the cells you want to format. Addition & Subtraction. Format Painter The format painter can be used to copy formatting from one part of your spreadsheet to another.

1. 17. 27. 3. 18. 26. Select the current column [Ctrl] + [Space] Select the current row [Shift] + [Space] Edit the active cell [F2] Move to the beginning of the worksheet [Ctrl] + [Home] Move to the last cell on the worksheet [Ctrl] + [End] Paste a name into a formula [F3] Paste a function into a formula [Shift] + [F3] Alternate value/formula view [Ctrl] + [`] (on key [1]) Calculate all sheets in all open workbooks [F9] Display the Go To dialog box [F5] Display the Find dialog box [Shift] + [F5] Display the Format Cells dialog box [Ctrl] + [1] Create a chart [F11] Insert a new sheet [Alt] + [Shift] + [F1] Repeat the last action [F4] Repeat Find [Shift] + [F4] Open [Ctrl] + [F12] Exit [Ctrl] + [F4] Check spelling of current cell [F7] Activate the menu bar [F10] Display the Macro dialog box [Alt] + [F8] Apply outline to active cell [Ctrl] + [Shift] + [&] Convert to a percentage [Ctrl] + [Shift] + [%] Select all filled cells around active cell [Ctrl] + [Shift] + [*] Move to next sheet [Ctrl] + [Page Down] Move to previous sheet [Ctrl] + [Page Up] Complete a cell entry and move up [Shift] + [Enter] Complete a cell entry and move right [Tab] Complete a cell entry and move left [Shift] + [Tab] Edit a cell comment [Shift] + [F2] . 15. 14. 23. 12.30 shortcuts to speed up your calculations. 21. 16. 20. 6. 30. 29. 8. 25. 4. 9. 7. 13. 19. 11. 24. 28. 10. 2. 5. 22.