Getting started With Excel

Know your Worksheet Formatting Cells In Excel Go To Cells Quickly Select Cells Enter Data Edit a Cell Wrap Text Delete a Cell Entry Save a File Close Excel

Working with Excel worksheet Hide / Unhide a sheet Rename a sheet

Add color to sheet tabs Conditional formatting Move or copy sheets .

Show or hide gridlines on a worksheet Uncheck to hide gridlines Change the color of gridlines .

if you choose Date formatting. following the directions below.Formatting Cells in Excel When you enter data into a cell in Excel. For example. Phone Number. in the list on the right. it simply formats your cell as text. But. But. you can select formats like Social Security Number. There are formats in here for most of the styles you would get if you chose one of the options for any of the choices in the list on the left. etc. .00. it is handled differently depending on what type of formatting you have assigned to the cell. Type the number 123456789 in an empty cell and hit Enter. Excel would convert 3/1 to March 1. There is also a choice named Special and when you choose that. For example. there is a custom format that is simply an @ symbol. if you choose Currency formatting. Click on the Number tab and select Custom from the list. All of these choices are available when you highlight/select the cell(s) you want to format. what if you want a format that is not included in Excel's pre-made formats? Well. I can't possibly go through all of them with you. you can make your own custom format. what I do want to do is teach you how to make some of your own. Now click back onto that cell and go to the Format Menu and select Cells. Since there are so many. If you choose this. 2009. and if you choose Percent formatting. I recommend you look through the list and try some of them and see how they affect the number 123456789 that you have typed in your cell. see all the different custom formats Excel offers. then click on the Number tab in the Format Cells dialog box. Excel will automatically convert 3 into $3. then go to the Format menu and choose Cells. Excel would change 0. In the box on the left.3 to 30%.

Excel moves to cell C4. The Name Box You can also use the Name box to go to a specific cell. Enter the cell address. Press Enter.F5 The F5 function key is the "Go To" key. Type J3 in the Reference field. Press Enter. Press F5. Type B10 in the Name box. Go to -. and the cursor jumps to that cell. Excel moves to cell B10. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "g" (Ctrl+g). you are prompted for the cell to which you wish to go.Go To Cells Quickly The following are shortcuts for moving quickly from one cell in a worksheet to a cell in a different part of the worksheet. .Ctrl+G You can also use Ctrl+G to go to a specific cell. Just type the cell you want to go to in the Name box and then press Enter. The Go To dialog box opens. The Go To dialog box opens. If you press the F5 key. Type C4 in the Reference field. Excel moves to cell J3. Press Enter. EXERCISE 2 Go to -.

4. Release the Ctrl key. Excel highlights cells A1 to E7. While holding down the left mouse button. This anchors the cursor. .Press the F8 key. 2. you must first select those cells by highlighting them. Hold down the Ctrl key. Press the left mouse button. 5. Alternative Method: Select Cells by Dragging You can also select an area by holding down the left mouse button and dragging the mouse over the area. move to cell F10. The exercises that follow teach you how to select. In addition.Go to cell A1. Press the left mouse button.Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to clear the highlighting.Select Cells If you wish to perform a function on a group of cells.Note that "Extend Selection" appears on the Status bar in the lower-left corner of the window. Continue to hold down the Ctrl key. You won't release it until step 9. Using the mouse. place the cursor in cell D7.  Release the left mouse button. Cells A1 to C5 and cells D7 to F10 are selected. you can select noncontiguous areas of the worksheet by doing the following: Go to cell A1. 3. You are in the Extend mode. EXERCISE 3 Select Cells To select cells A1 to E1: 1. While holding down the left mouse button. Holding down the Ctrl key enables you to select noncontiguous areas of the worksheet. use the mouse to move from cell A1 to C5.Click in cell E7. but release the left mouse button. Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to remove the highlighting.

EXERCISE 4 Enter Data 1.Enter Data In this section. Delete Data The Backspace key erases one character at a time. Do not press Enter at this time. 1. place the cursor in the cell in which you want to start entering data. 2. If you need to delete.Type John Jordan. The name "John" appears in cell A1.Press Enter. First. Type some data.Press the Backspace key until Jordan is erased. press the Backspace key to delete one character at a time. . you will learn how to enter data into your worksheet.Place the cursor in cell A1. 2. and then press Enter.

5. Type ker. you can edit the data by pressing F2 while you are in the cell you wish to edit. 1. 3. Use the Backspace key to delete the "n" and the "h. Press F2." "e." Type nes. Press Enter." 4." and "n. EXERCISE 5 Edit a Cell Change "John" to "Jones. Alternate Method: Editing a Cell by Using the Formula Bar You can also edit the cell by using the Formula bar." Move to cell A1. You change "Jones" to "Joker" in the following exercise. .Edit a Cell After you enter data into a cell. Move the cursor to cell A1. 2. Click in the formula area of the Formula bar. Press Enter. Use the backspace key to erase the "s.

Return to cell A2. 1. . 2. you can wrap the text.Press Enter. 3. If you do not want it to overlap the next cell.Wrap Text When you type text that is too long to fit in the cell. the text overlaps the next cell.Click the Wrap Text button 4. EXERCISE 6 Wrap Text 1. 3.Choose the Home tab.Type Text too long to fit. 2. Excel wraps the text in the cell.Move to cell A2.

you place the cursor in the cell or select the group of cells and press Delete. Close Excel Close Microsoft Excel. A menu appears.Delete a Cell Entry To delete an entry in a cell or a group of cells. To save your file: Click the Office button. Click Save. Type Lesson1 in the File Name field. Save a File This is the end of Lesson1. Press the Delete key. Excel saves your file. Click the Office button. A menu appears. EXERCISE 7 Delete a Cell Entry Select cells A1 to A2. Excel closes. The Save As dialog box appears. Click Close. . Go to the directory in which you want to save your file. Click Save.

Calculating Data with Advanced Formulas .

B6:B10 is also a range reference. Selection of cells for naming . A common way is to use the Insert. In the example.NAMES When entering formulae or referring to any area on the spreadsheet. B6 is a range reference. Defining Names There are a number of ways to set up names on a spreadsheet. Name. Define menu. it is usual to refer to a "range". For example. there is a range of sales figures that could be named ´1st_Qtrµ.

Select the cells you wish to name. simply type a name in the Name box and choose OK. The DEFINE NAME dialog box appears iv. Click the DEFINE NAME button in the NAMES GROUP in the insert tab iii.To name range: i. ii. . To name the cells. To manage names: The Define Name Dialog box also lets you manage the range names you can add delete or modify the existing range name in the same dialog box.

It can also be used in conjunction with names. ii. Click on the name required. but it also selects it.Using Names Go To The GOTO feature can be used to go to a specific cell address on the spreadsheet. This can be very useful for checking that ranges have been defined correctly. Press [F5]. then choose OK. Not only does the cell pointer move to the correct range. . and also for listing all the names on the spreadsheet. i. The following dialog box appears.

Instead of typing cell references or selecting cells.Names In Formulae Names can be used in any simple formula. as well as any of Excel's built in functions. . simply type the name or paste the name into the formula.

NOT And Or Not LOOKUP FUNCTIONS Lookup Hlookup Vlookup OTHER USEFUL FUNCTIONS ISERROR TRIM IFERROR NOW COUNTIF RIGHT AVERAGEIF LEFT SUMIF Find & Replace CONCATENATE . OR.Excel Functions CONDITIONAL & LOGICAL FUNCTIONS If Statements Logical Test Value If True / False Nested If AND.

Dollar signs appear before the C and the 10.Click cell C10.Press F4. the reference "A3" is a relative cell reference that initially points to the cell in the first column and third row. 4.Click the check mark on the formula bar. 10. or copy the reference to another cell.Type +. the cell reference "$A$3" is an absolute cell reference that always points to the cell in the first column and third row. but may change if you copy the reference to another cell .Type =. In Excel.Press F4.Click cell C9. a reference to a particular cell or group of cells that does not change. 11.. 7. values that never change). 3. 8. For example. 9. 2. 5.Press F4. even if you change the shape or size of the spreadsheet. Dollar signs appear before the C and the 11.Absolute cell references are particularly useful for referencing constant values (i.Type +. . Dollar signs appear before the C and the 9.e. Excel records the formula in cell C12. In contrast.Absolute Cell Addressing Before learning Excel formula we will study about absolute cell referencing in excel.Click cell C11.Move to cell C12. 1. 6.

Function menu. you may only want a certain calculation performed or piece of text displayed if certain conditions are met. .CONDITIONAL & LOGICAL FUNCTIONS Excel has a number of logical functions which allow you to set various "conditions" and have data respond to them. under the heading LOGICAL. The functions used to produce this type of analysis are found in the Insert. For example.

You may want to test to see if a cell is a certain value. > Greater than < Less than > = Greater than or equal to < = Less than or equal to = Equal to < > Not equal to . the IF statement is accompanied by three arguments enclosed in one set of parentheses. value_if_true. the action to be performed if that condition is true (value_if_true). as shown. Each of these is separated by a comma. =IF ( logical_test. In these cases. the condition to be met (logical_test).If Statements The IF function is used to analyze data. or to compare two cells. or test. value_if_false) Logical Test This part of the IF statement is the "condition". the action to be performed if false (value_if_false). test whether or not it meets certain conditions and then act upon its decision. symbols called LOGICAL OPERATORS are useful.

This is based on the same principle as a normal IF statement. 2nd true value ."AVERAGE")) To make the above IF statement more flexible. The secondary IF forms the FALSE part of the main statement. care must be taken to ensure that the correct number of parentheses are added. IF(2nd logic test . but involves "nesting" a secondary formula inside the main one. .IF(B2<600."POOR". a NESTED IF is required."AVERAGE")) (If the IF statement is to be copied later. =IF(B2>$E$2. However. =IF(B2>1000. sales staff could now receive one of three possible ratings.Nested If When you need to have more than one condition and more than two possible outcomes. the logical tests could be amended to measure sales against cell references instead of figures.IF(B2<$E$3. this cell reference should be absolute). 1st true value . Notice that there are two sets of parentheses. In the example. as there are two separate IF statements. This process can be enlarged to include more conditions and more eventualities up to seven IF's can be nested within the main statement. In the example."POOR"."GOOD"."GOOD". column E has been used to hold the upper and lower sales thresholds. false value)) Only if both logic tests are found to be false will the false value be returned. =IF(1st logic test . as follows.

AND, OR, NOT

Rather than create large and unwieldy formulae involving multiple IF statements, the AND, OR and NOT functions can be used to group logical tests or "conditions" together. These three functions can be used on their own, but in that case they will only return the values "TRUE" or "FALSE". As these two values are not particularly meaningful on a spreadsheet, it is much more useful to combine the AND, OR and NOT functions within an IF statement. This way, you can ask for calculations to be performed or other text messages to appear as a result.

And
This function is a logical test to see if all conditions are true. If this is the case, the value "TRUE" is returned. If any of the arguments in the AND statement are found to be false, the whole statement produces the value "FALSE". This function is particularly useful as a check to make sure that all conditions you set are met. Arguments are entered in the AND statement in parentheses, separated by commas, and there is a maximum of 30 arguments to one AND statement. The following example checks that two cells, B1 and B2, are both greater than 100. =AND(B1>100,B2>100) If either one of these two cells contains a value less than a hundred, the result of the AND statement is "FALSE.µ This can now be wrapped inside an IF function to produce a more meaningful result. You may want to add the two figures together if they are over 100, or display a message indicating that they are not high enough. =IF(AND(B1>100,B2>100),B1+B2,"Figures not high enough")

Or
This function is a logical test to see if one or more conditions are true. If this is the case, the value "TRUE" is returned. If just one of the arguments in the OR statement is found to be true, the whole statement produces the value "TRUE". Only when all arguments are false will the value "FALSE" be returned. This function is particularly useful as a check to make sure that at least one of the conditions you set is met. =IF(OR(B1>100,B2>100),"at least one is OK","Figures not high enough") In the above formula, only one of the numbers in cells B1 and B2 has to be over 100 in order for them to be added together. The message only appears if neither figure is high enough.

If so.B1.B1) . a check is done against the numbers 13 and 666.B1=666). Suppose."Unlucky!") The NOT function can only contain one argument. the message "Unlucky!" is displayed. for example. =IF(OR(B1=13.Not NOT checks to see if the argument is false."Unlucky!". the cell contents of B1 are returned unless the number 13 is encountered. In the example. so long as the argument is false. the overall statement is true. If B1 is found to contain 13. the OR function should be used and the true and false values of the IF statement reversed. If it is necessary to check that more than one argument is false. =IF(NOT(B1=13). In other words. It is best to use NOT as "provided this is not the case" function. the value "TRUE" is returned.

LOOKUP FUNCTIONS These functions allow you to create formulae which examine large amounts of data and find information which matches or approximates to certain conditions. They are simpler to construct than nested IF·s and can produce many more varied results. .

=LOOKUP( lookup_value . numbers from lowest to highest. lookup_vector . . i.e. text from A to Z. If this is not done. the LOOKUP function may return the wrong result.Lookup The syntax for LOOKUP is as follows. result_vector ) number or text entry to look for area in which to search for the lookup_value adjacent row or column where the corresponding value or text is to be found It is essential that data in the lookup vector is placed in ascending order.

LOOKUP will search through the lookup_vector to find the matching salary. For instance. a £35000 salary gets a Scorpio.D3:D11. so the corresponding car is returned. the formula could be simplified and cell references avoided by using Formula. . anyone in the salary "band" between 20030 and 25000 gets a Golf. D3:D11 Salaries and E3:E11 Cars. A LOOKUP formula can be used to return whatever car is appropriate to a salary figure that is entered. the lookup_value is the cell where the salary is entered (B13). if a user enters a Salary of 23000. against which there is a company car in column E which corresponds to each salary. The LOOKUP formula could then be simplified to. Hence the formula. In this case. There may be occasions where the lookup_value is below the lowest value in the vector.Cars) One of the advantages of the LOOKUP function is that if the exact lookup_value is not found. =LOOKUP(B13. and the result_vector is the car column (E3:E11).In the diagram. Only when their salary meets or exceeds 25000 do they get a Sierra.E3:E11) Typing 40000 in cell B13 will set the lookup_value. Define Name to give appropriate range names. the nearest salary below 23000 is 20030. However. column D contains varying salaries. which in this case is Mercedes. a £20030 salary gets a Golf.µ In this case. which is a Golf. there is no figure in the Salaries range which matches this. it will approximate to the nearest figure below the requested value. This technique is very useful when the lookup_vector indicates grades or "bands.Salaries. and return the appropriate car from the result_vector. Alternatively. For example. the lookup_vector is the salary column (D3:D11). In this case the #N/A message is displayed. Call B13 Salary. =LOOKUP(Salary.

e. data in the first row must be in ascending order.e. HLOOKUP will return the wrong value. . =HLOOKUP( lookup_value . row from which the result is required as HLOOKUP searches horizontally (i. i. As with LOOKUP. text from A to Z. row_index_number) number or text entry to look for cell references (or range name) of the entire table of data. across the array). The syntax for HLOOKUP is.Hlookup The horizontal LOOKUP function (HLOOKUP) can be used not just on a "vector" (single column or row of data). table_array . if this rule is ignored. but on an "array" (multiple rows and columns). numbers from lowest to highest.

As before. It then moves down to row 3 and returns the value 15. the row_index_number will be 2 if a customer wants the loan over 10 years. cells C43:H48 are the table_array. the lookup_value. Excel has looked for the value in the array closest to. Cell B51 holds this formula.Whatever the amount a customer wants to borrow. and so on. i. . which is the correct interest rate for a £30000 loan over 15 years. As with the LOOKUP function. the figure 28000 can be entered in the lookup_value cell (A51) and the rate 14.00%.3) The above formula looks along the top row of the array for the value in cell A51 (30000). you wanted to find out what interest rate is applicable to a £28000 loan. 3 if he wants the loan over 15 years. for example. 15 or more years. then move down the array to find the appropriate interest rate for the required time period. he may pay up to five different rates of interest depending on whether the loan is over 10. the advantage of HLOOOKUP is that it does not necessarily have to find the exact lookup_value. the lookup_value.e. The HLOOKUP function will find a specific amount. (Range names could be used here to simplify the formula). Designate cell A51 as the cell to hold the amount. but lower than.C43:H48. If. =HLOOKUP(A51.30% appears.

but instead of searching horizontally. =VLOOKUP( lookup_value . =VLOOKUP(A54.5) . VLOOKUP searches vertically. you would specify a column index number to instruct VLOOKUP to move across to a specific column in the array where the required value is to be found. In the same spreadsheet as before.Vlookup The VLOOKUP function works on the same principle as HLOOKUP. Cell B54 holds this formula. The syntax for the VLOOKUP function follows the same pattern as HLOOKUP. a VLOOKUP formula could be used to search for a specific time period. as VLOOKUP searches down this column for the lookup_value. col_index_number ) In the case of VLOOKUP. except that instead of specifying a row index number. In the following example.C43:H48. then return the appropriate rate for a fixed amount. data in the first column of the array should be in ascending order. a time period is entered in cell A54 and in B54 the VLOOKUP formula is contained. table_array .

the appropriate rate for that time period is returned. hence the column_index_number 5. So. VLOOKUP works in the same way as HLOOKUP.00%. . By changing the value of cell A54. and for this example rates are looked up for a loan of £40000. Where the specific lookup_value is not found. the table_array is as before. a £40000 loan over 17 years would return an interest rate of 16.The cell A54 is the lookup_value (time period). the nearest value in the array that is less than the lookup_value will be returned. In other words.

OTHER USEFUL FUNCTIONS .

Iserror (Value) Value refers to any error value (#N/A. #VALUE!. or #NULL!) To use ISERROR function In the example below the average functions in the column G is trying to divide empty cells and giving the error message #DIV/0! The error function checking that cell gives the value true there is an error this could be nested in an IF function with an AVERAGE function so that the error message does not show in column G . #DIV/0!. #REF!. #NUM!. #NAME?.ISERROR ISERROR is a very useful function that tells you if the formula you look at with it gives any error value.

´Value not foundµ) . " Value not found". This has a number of problems. E. SalesTable. enabling customers to easily trap and handle formula errors. VLOOKUP("Dave". it is hard to read and hard to maintain ² if you want to change a formula. false). users need to repeat the VLOOKUP formula twice. SECOND. you have to do it twice. FIRST. 3. it can affect performance. value_if_error) A common request in the area of functions is something to simplify error checking. FALSE)) As you can see. because formulas are quite often run twice. 3. they have to do something like this using the IF and ISERROR functions: =IF(ISERROR(VLOOKUP("Dave".IFERROR IFERROR(Value. 3. The IFERROR function solves these problems. Here is an example of how a user could use it in the same situation: =IFERROR(VLOOKUP(´Bobµ. SalesTable. SalesTable. If a user wants to catch errors in a VLOOKUP and use their own error text opposed to Excel·s error. FALSE)).G.

or text that defines which cells will be counted. expression. . cell reference.criteria) RANGE is one or more cells to count. For example. "32". arrays. Blank and text values are ignored. or B4.COUNTIF COUNTIF counts the number of cells in a range based on given criteria. CRITERIA is the criteria in the form of a number. "apples". or references that contain numbers. COUNTIF(range. including numbers or names. ">32". criteria can be expressed as 32.

allows users to easily average a range based on a specific criteria. arrays. ´>250000µ. AVERAGEIF. RANGE is used. cell reference. AVERAGE range is the actual set of cells to average. or references that contain numbers. CRITERIA is the criteria in the form of a number. Criteria. B2:B5) . For example. "apples". Here is an example that returns the average of B2:B5 where the corresponding value in column A is greater than 250. including numbers or names. or text that defines which cells are averaged. [Average Range]) RANGE is one or more cells to average. criteria can be expressed as 32. ">32". AVERAGEIF(Range. expression.AVERAGEIF A very common request is for a single function to conditionally average a range of numbers ² a complement to SUMIF and COUNTIF.000: =AVERAGEIF(A2:A5. If omitted. or B4. "32".

based on a given criteria.Sumif the SumIf function adds all numbers in a range of cells. C2:C6) =SumIf(A:A. 2003. C2:C6) =SumIf(A2:A6. sum_range are the cells to sum.6 would return 218. criteria.2 would return 12. C2:C6) would return 218. The syntax for the SumIf function is: SumIf( range. ">=2001". sum_range ) range is the range of cells that you want to apply the criteria against.6 would return 7. D2. criteria is used to determine which cells to add. C:C) =SumIf(A2:A6. Based on the given example =SumIf(A2:A6.6 . D2.

Concatenate the Concatenate function allows you to join 2 or more strings together. A2) =Concatenate (A2.. "bet soup") would return "Alphabet" would return ³bet ter´ would return "Alphabet soup" . .´ter´) =Concatenate(A1. text2. text_n ) There can be up to 30 strings that are joined together. The syntax for the Concatenate function is: Concatenate( text1. Based on the given example =Concatenate(A1..´ ³ .

The syntax for the Trim function is: =Trim( text ) text is the text value to remove the leading and trailing spaces from. The syntax for the Now function is: =Now() . Based on the given example =Trim(A1) =Trim(A2) =Trim(A3) =Trim(" apples ") would return "Tech on the Net" would return "1234" would return "alphabet soup" would return "apples" Now Function the Now function returns the current system date and time.Trim Function the Trim function returns a text value with the leading and trailing spaces removed.

The syntax for the Right function is: =Right( text. Based on the given example =Right(A1.Right Function the Right function extracts a substring from a string starting from the right-most character. 4) =Right(A2. 6) =Right ("Excel". number_of_characters ) text is the string that you wish to extract from. 3) would return "soup" would return "thenet" would return "cel" Left Function . number_of_characters indicates the number of characters that you wish to extract starting from the right-most character.

Data Presentation-Charting Ability Presentation- .

titles and various other extras as desired.Data Presentation One of the most impressive aspects of Excel is its charting ability. We will learn to :‡ Create embedded charts ‡ Create separate page charts ‡ Change chart types and formats ‡ Add and remove chart data ‡ Add trend lines to charts ‡ Create picture charts . There are endless variations available. edit and format it. arrows. include notes. allowing you to produce a chart.

The terms defined below relate to the example car sales worksheet and column chart which appear beneath the table: Data Point : An individual figure on the spreadsheet which is reflected in the chart e. all of Fred's figures. e. which will appear on a chart as markers (bars. column. Points within the different data series are grouped by category . Category: The category axis appears across the bottom of a graph (pie charts excepted) and the categories are listed here. or slice of pie for example. there are some terms used in charting which should be understood by you.g.Terminology As a starting point. for example) of the same colour. Fred's Orion sales figure Data Series : A collection of related data points. Legend: The "key" to the chart. identifying which patterns/colours relate to which data series Marker A bar.g. representing a data point.

and has no separate existence apart from the worksheet. which does not normally appear in its own window.Embedded Charts An embedded chart appears on the worksheet where it was created. All charts whether embedded or separate are created from the INSERT ribbon in the CHARTS group. It is an embedded object. .

The F11 key is very useful for creating a default chart from selected data as a new sheet within the workbook Some Chart Elements The Data Table ribbon will display a grid underneath the chart that will show the information that is being plotted. The Data Labels ribbon allows you to display the amount each point represents or display the label Use this ribbon to switch the legend on and off or reposition it area where you can specify the titles to have on the chart The gridline ribbon allows you to switch on and off horizontal and vertical gridlines Here you specify whether you want a Y/Z axis and whether you are using timescales to plot your data . exists as a separate page in a workbook.Separate Chart Pages A chart sheet. although linked to the worksheet whose figures it represents.

When you have chosen click once to select a chart type vi. Press the F11 Key iii. ii. OR Keyboard i. Go to the CHARTS group on the INSERT ribbon.Methods To Create Charts To create a chart Mouse i. The menu on the left appears. Hovering your mouse over a chart type will bring up an explanation of that chart type v. Select data for chart. iv. The chart is now created based on the selected data as an embedded chart. Select Data for chart ii. Select a chart type and click iii. Default chart will created as chart on a separate sheet. .

Bar Bar charts can be 2 or 3Dimensional. Pie Pie charts can be 2 or 3Dimensional. They are used to show individual figures at a specific time or to compare different items. Only one data series can be plotted. They are used to compare the change in volume of a data series over time. Column Column charts can be 2 or 3 Dimensional. making up 100%. Line charts are used to compare trends over time. They are frequently used to show variation of different items over a period of time. Line Line charts can be 2 or 3 Dimensional. . They are used to compare the size of the parts with the whole. The type to choose will vary depending on the data involved and what information the chart is intended to convey or highlight. Area Area charts can be 2 or 3dimensional. emphasising the amount of change rather than the rate of change.Chart Types There are several different types of chart available within Excel.

and data points belonging to the same series are connected by lines.Radar Each category in a radar chart has its own axis radiating from the centre point. 3D Surface 3 D Surface charts present information in an almost topographical layout. Data points are plotted along each spoke. . and can be useful in determining whether one set of figures might be dependent on the other. Xy Scatter Charts XY charts are used to compare two different numeric data series. They can be used to pinpoint the high and low points resulting from two changing variables. They are also useful if the data on the X axis represents uneven intervals of time or increments of measurement. It can be helpful to think of a 3D surface chart as a 3D Column chart which has had a rubber sheet stretched over the tops of the columns.

axes.labelsand data table .lege nd. such as adding a legend can be applied to a chart using the following sections To make it embedded or separate chart type To change the background of the chart To change the type of chart To change the data point Add or delete title. Some formats.Formatting Chart There are several different ways of formatting the various elements in a chart.

Introduction To Pivot Tables .

PIVOT TABLES To Create A PivotChart Report From An Existing PivotTable Report Delete A PivotTable Or PivotChart Report Create Layout For PivotTables Modifying A PivotTable MANAGING PIVOT TABLES Automatically Refresh Data When A Workbook Is Opened Automatically Refresh Data At Regular Time Intervals Formatting A PivotTable .

A simple Pivot Table .PIVOTTABLES A PivotTable can summarize large amounts of data using specified calculations and formats. It is called a PivotTable because the headings can be rotated around the data to view or summarize it in different ways.

You now have a Pivot Table that summarizes your data. then click Finish.Click Ok. .

Automatically Refresh Data When A Workbook Is Opened You can refresh an external data range automatically when you open the workbook. and optionally save the workbook without saving the external data. . so that the workbook file size is reduced.

You can manually format a cell or cell range in PivotTable report by right clicking the cell or cell range. Pivot Chart You can represent the pivot table in chart form by simply clicking on pivot chart option that come after you right click on pivot table . and by using the FORMAT CELLS dialog box.Formatting A PivotTable you often want to enhance the layout and format of the report to improve readability and to make it more attractive. by clicking FORMAT CELLS. There are a number of ways to change the layout and format of a PivotTable report as described in the following sections.

OTHER EXCEL FEATURES .

INSERTING. FORMATTING AND DELETING OBJECTS Inserting A Drawing Object Smart Art WordArt Formatting Shapes REVIEWING Protecting Use A Shared Workbook To Collaborate Share A Workbook .

text boxes. callouts.Inserting A Drawing Object Inserting pictures. a brief rundown of some items you may insert and how to deal with them To insert a shape onto worksheet . scanned images etc onto a worksheet can greatly enhance your overall spreadsheet appearance.

HIERARCHY. and each type contains several different layouts. A type is similar to a category of SmartArt graphic.SmartArt A SmartArt graphic is a visual representation of your information and ideas. you are prompted to choose a type such as PROCESS. CYCLE. You can create SmartArt graphics by choosing from among many different layouts to quickly. When you create a SmartArt graphic. On the INSERT ribbon in the ILLUSTRATIONS group. easily and effectively communicate your message. or RELATIONSHIP. click on the drop down arrow to the right of SMARTART the SMARTART dialog above will appear .

in the TEXT group. click WORDART. as you can change any other text in a shape. causes a new ribbon to appear called the FORMAT ribbon seen below. it offers the options of inserting further shapes . On the INSERT ribbon. Formatting Shapes Any shape inserted on the spreadsheet. when selected. Enter your text. such as shadowed or mirrored (reflected) text. deleted and moved like any other shape. and then click the WordArt style that you want. You can change WordArt text.# A WordArt graphic can be resized.WordArt WordArt is a gallery of text styles that you can add to your 2007 Microsoft Office system documents to create decorative effects. rotated.

You may also want to restrict what they are allowed to do to your work so they do not inadvertently damage formulae and functions that make the workbook produce valid figures. Hidden sheets will not be able to be unhidden if valuable tables or data is stored on them. Workbook structure is now protected. For these reasons we may have to protect the workbook in various ways. For security (not essential) enter a password and click on ok. move or otherwise tamper with the sheets in your work book. Click on PROTECT WORKBOOK in the Tools group Select PROTECT STRUCTURE AND WINDOWS above dialog will appear. . To protect a workbook Protecting a workbook ensures individuals cannot.REVIEWING Protecting When sending your work to someone else to check. delete. insert. make corrections or comments it is necessary to track the changes that others may make to your work to see what changes they have made as they review your work.

On the Format ribbon. Untick LOCK CELLS. Select all cells you would like individuals to be allowed to change. ii. ix. and then click FORMAT CELLS. vi. Tick what you wish users to be allowed to do in the locked cells. v. iii. in the CELLS group. Click on OK. Click on PROTECT WORKSHEET in the Protection group on the Tools ribbon. Sheet is now protected any cell that was locked is now uneditable by anyone. Click on the protection tab iv. vii. .Protect worksheet data i. click FORMAT. Enter a password if you wish viii.

Tick the TRACK CHANGES WHILE EDITING option Click on OK. when and what the change is. You may not be happy with some of the changes and wish to reject them for what was previously within a cell.To protect for tracked changes Click on TRACK CHANGES and then HIGHLIGHT CHANGES in the CHANGES group on the REVIEW ribbon The HIGHLIGHT CHANGES dialog will appear. . Any changes made to the workbook by anyone now will leave a mark in the cell to show it has been changed by who. To Accept/reject changes When changes have been made to your workbook you may wish to check those changes and see what has been altered.

As you accept or reject each change the dialog will automatically move on to the next change. iii. . The ACCEPT OR REJECT CHANGES dialog will appear iv. Click OK.i. ii. Click on TRACK CHANGES and then ACCEPT/REJECT CHANGES in the CHANGES group on the REVIEW ribbon. The SELECT CHANGES TO ACCEPT OR REJECT dialog will appear. When you have finished click close to close the dialog and finish reviewing.

For example.Use A Shared Workbook To Collaborate You can create a shared workbook and place it on a network location where several people can edit the contents simultaneously. Share A Workbook Not all features are supported in a shared workbook. you can manage it by removing users from the shared workbook and resolving conflicting changes. outlines subtotals. you should add them before you save the workbook as a shared workbook: merged conditional formats data validation. charts. You cannot make changes to these features after you share the workbook. the group can use a shared workbook to track the status of the projects. if the people in your work group each handle several projects and need to know the status of each other's projects. pictures. All persons involved can then enter the information for their projects in the same workbook. and macros. As the owner of the shared workbook. data tables PivotTable reports workbook and worksheet protection. you can stop sharing the workbook. When all changes have been incorporated. If you want to include any of the following features. objects including drawing objects. hyperlinks scenarios. .

you can enter and change data as you do in a regular workbook .To share a workbook To Edit a shared workbook After you open a shared workbook.

To Remove a user from a shared workbook .

When the second user saves the workbook. under CONFLICTING CHANGES BETWEEN USERS. On the ADVANCED tab. To override resolve conflicts dialog To have your changes override all other changes without displaying the RESOLVE CONFLICTS dialog box again. In the RESOLVE CONFLICTS dialog box.Resolve conflicting changes in a shared workbook A conflict happens when two users are both editing the same shared workbook and try to save changes that affect the same cell. and then click OK. ii. Excel can keep only one of the changes in that cell. i. you may want to start by printing the History worksheet or by copying it to another workbook. To Stop sharing a workbook Before you stop sharing the workbook. Excel displays the RESOLVE CONFLICTS dialog box.: click SHARE WORKBOOK. Because the change history will also be deleted. click THE CHANGES BEING SAVED WIN. Any unsaved changes will be lost. . click ACCEPT ALL MINE or ACCEPT ALL OTHERS. To keep your change or the other person's change and to advance to the next conflicting change. read the information about each change and the conflicting changes made by the other user. click ACCEPT MINE or ACCEPT OTHER. To keep all of your remaining changes or all of the other user's changes. make sure that all other users have completed their work.

Microsoft Excel Shortcuts .

E. Relative A1.$A$1. Insert the current time. Absolute . Insert the current date. Save a spreadsheet. . Mixed $A1 or A$1. Fill several cells with what you type. Create a new blank spreadsheet. relative and mixed references. Ctrl Enter Ctrl . Cut Copy Paste Print Enter edit mode for a cell.g. Ctrl Shift . Change formula references between absolute.Shortcut Ctrl O Ctrl S Ctrl N Ctrl X Ctrl C Ctrl V Ctrl P F2 F4 Description Open a spreadsheet.

^ (E. Addition & Subtraction.Editing a cell·s contents Select the cell you want to edit and then click in the Excel formula bar. Click the format painter icon. 2^4 the same as 24) Multiplication & Division. Drag over the cells you want to format. Format Painter The format painter can be used to copy formatting from one part of your spreadsheet to another. Drag over all the other cells you want to format. Rules for formulas Start with a ´ = µ sign. To copy formatting more than once . Drag over the first cells you want to format.click in the cell that has the formatting you want to copy. */ +Order of operations: Brackets. . ( ) Exponentials. Double click the cell you want to edit.g. Double-click the format painter icon. Select the cell you want to edit and press F2. To copy formatting once ² click in the cell that has the formatting you want to copy. Click the format painter icon to turn it off.

Select the current column [Ctrl] + [Space] Select the current row [Shift] + [Space] Edit the active cell [F2] Move to the beginning of the worksheet [Ctrl] + [Home] Move to the last cell on the worksheet [Ctrl] + [End] Paste a name into a formula [F3] Paste a function into a formula [Shift] + [F3] Alternate value/formula view [Ctrl] + [`] (on key [1]) Calculate all sheets in all open workbooks [F9] Display the Go To dialog box [F5] Display the Find dialog box [Shift] + [F5] Display the Format Cells dialog box [Ctrl] + [1] Create a chart [F11] Insert a new sheet [Alt] + [Shift] + [F1] Repeat the last action [F4] Repeat Find [Shift] + [F4] Open [Ctrl] + [F12] Exit [Ctrl] + [F4] Check spelling of current cell [F7] Activate the menu bar [F10] Display the Macro dialog box [Alt] + [F8] Apply outline to active cell [Ctrl] + [Shift] + [&] Convert to a percentage [Ctrl] + [Shift] + [%] Select all filled cells around active cell [Ctrl] + [Shift] + [*] Move to next sheet [Ctrl] + [Page Down] Move to previous sheet [Ctrl] + [Page Up] Complete a cell entry and move up [Shift] + [Enter] Complete a cell entry and move right [Tab] Complete a cell entry and move left [Shift] + [Tab] Edit a cell comment [Shift] + [F2] . 13. 9. 29. 25. 30. 10. 8. 6. 7. 19. 1. 2. 28. 3. 18. 17. 16. 4. 27. 15. 12. 14. 24. 26. 23. 11. 20.30 shortcuts to speed up your calculations. 22. 5. 21.

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