Getting started With Excel

Know your Worksheet Formatting Cells In Excel Go To Cells Quickly Select Cells Enter Data Edit a Cell Wrap Text Delete a Cell Entry Save a File Close Excel

Working with Excel worksheet Hide / Unhide a sheet Rename a sheet

Add color to sheet tabs Conditional formatting Move or copy sheets .

Show or hide gridlines on a worksheet Uncheck to hide gridlines Change the color of gridlines .

Excel would change 0. All of these choices are available when you highlight/select the cell(s) you want to format.00. see all the different custom formats Excel offers. For example. But. Click on the Number tab and select Custom from the list. in the list on the right. There are formats in here for most of the styles you would get if you chose one of the options for any of the choices in the list on the left. you can make your own custom format. following the directions below. Now click back onto that cell and go to the Format Menu and select Cells. Type the number 123456789 in an empty cell and hit Enter. there is a custom format that is simply an @ symbol. I can't possibly go through all of them with you. If you choose this. There is also a choice named Special and when you choose that. it simply formats your cell as text. For example. Excel will automatically convert 3 into $3. what I do want to do is teach you how to make some of your own. 2009. . you can select formats like Social Security Number.3 to 30%. what if you want a format that is not included in Excel's pre-made formats? Well. But. Phone Number. then click on the Number tab in the Format Cells dialog box. Excel would convert 3/1 to March 1. if you choose Date formatting. and if you choose Percent formatting. it is handled differently depending on what type of formatting you have assigned to the cell. In the box on the left. Since there are so many.Formatting Cells in Excel When you enter data into a cell in Excel. if you choose Currency formatting. etc. I recommend you look through the list and try some of them and see how they affect the number 123456789 that you have typed in your cell. then go to the Format menu and choose Cells.

Excel moves to cell B10. The Name Box You can also use the Name box to go to a specific cell. The Go To dialog box opens. Type J3 in the Reference field. Press Enter. The Go To dialog box opens. Just type the cell you want to go to in the Name box and then press Enter.F5 The F5 function key is the "Go To" key. EXERCISE 2 Go to -. you are prompted for the cell to which you wish to go. Type C4 in the Reference field. Press F5. Enter the cell address. Press Enter.Ctrl+G You can also use Ctrl+G to go to a specific cell. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press "g" (Ctrl+g). . Go to -. and the cursor jumps to that cell. If you press the F5 key. Excel moves to cell C4. Type B10 in the Name box. Excel moves to cell J3. Press Enter.Go To Cells Quickly The following are shortcuts for moving quickly from one cell in a worksheet to a cell in a different part of the worksheet.

5. Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to remove the highlighting. but release the left mouse button.Note that "Extend Selection" appears on the Status bar in the lower-left corner of the window. Cells A1 to C5 and cells D7 to F10 are selected. Press the left mouse button. While holding down the left mouse button. you can select noncontiguous areas of the worksheet by doing the following: Go to cell A1. move to cell F10.Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to clear the highlighting.  Release the left mouse button. Hold down the Ctrl key. . EXERCISE 3 Select Cells To select cells A1 to E1: 1. 4. While holding down the left mouse button. Excel highlights cells A1 to E7. Continue to hold down the Ctrl key. you must first select those cells by highlighting them. In addition. You are in the Extend mode. 2. use the mouse to move from cell A1 to C5. Using the mouse.Press the F8 key. place the cursor in cell D7. The exercises that follow teach you how to select.Go to cell A1. Alternative Method: Select Cells by Dragging You can also select an area by holding down the left mouse button and dragging the mouse over the area.Click in cell E7. You won't release it until step 9. 3. Press the left mouse button. Release the Ctrl key.Select Cells If you wish to perform a function on a group of cells. Holding down the Ctrl key enables you to select noncontiguous areas of the worksheet. This anchors the cursor.

EXERCISE 4 Enter Data 1.Press the Backspace key until Jordan is erased.Enter Data In this section. Type some data. .Press Enter. Do not press Enter at this time.Type John Jordan. 2. Delete Data The Backspace key erases one character at a time. you will learn how to enter data into your worksheet. and then press Enter. First. 1. If you need to delete. 2. press the Backspace key to delete one character at a time.Place the cursor in cell A1. The name "John" appears in cell A1. place the cursor in the cell in which you want to start entering data.

Edit a Cell After you enter data into a cell. 2. Move the cursor to cell A1. 1. Press F2. Press Enter. 5. You change "Jones" to "Joker" in the following exercise. 3." 4." and "n. Use the Backspace key to delete the "n" and the "h. Type ker. Press Enter. Click in the formula area of the Formula bar. . EXERCISE 5 Edit a Cell Change "John" to "Jones." Move to cell A1. Use the backspace key to erase the "s. Alternate Method: Editing a Cell by Using the Formula Bar You can also edit the cell by using the Formula bar." "e." Type nes. you can edit the data by pressing F2 while you are in the cell you wish to edit.

2. Excel wraps the text in the cell.Type Text too long to fit. 3.Return to cell A2.Choose the Home tab. 1. the text overlaps the next cell. EXERCISE 6 Wrap Text 1.Wrap Text When you type text that is too long to fit in the cell. 2.Move to cell A2.Click the Wrap Text button 4.Press Enter. . you can wrap the text. If you do not want it to overlap the next cell. 3.

you place the cursor in the cell or select the group of cells and press Delete. Save a File This is the end of Lesson1. Click the Office button. Go to the directory in which you want to save your file. The Save As dialog box appears. . Type Lesson1 in the File Name field. Click Close.Delete a Cell Entry To delete an entry in a cell or a group of cells. To save your file: Click the Office button. Click Save. A menu appears. A menu appears. Click Save. Excel saves your file. Close Excel Close Microsoft Excel. EXERCISE 7 Delete a Cell Entry Select cells A1 to A2. Excel closes. Press the Delete key.

Calculating Data with Advanced Formulas .

B6:B10 is also a range reference. Define menu. it is usual to refer to a "range".NAMES When entering formulae or referring to any area on the spreadsheet. there is a range of sales figures that could be named ´1st_Qtrµ. Name. Defining Names There are a number of ways to set up names on a spreadsheet. Selection of cells for naming . B6 is a range reference. For example. In the example. A common way is to use the Insert.

Select the cells you wish to name. The DEFINE NAME dialog box appears iv. ii. Click the DEFINE NAME button in the NAMES GROUP in the insert tab iii. To name the cells. simply type a name in the Name box and choose OK.To name range: i. . To manage names: The Define Name Dialog box also lets you manage the range names you can add delete or modify the existing range name in the same dialog box.

It can also be used in conjunction with names. but it also selects it. Click on the name required.Using Names Go To The GOTO feature can be used to go to a specific cell address on the spreadsheet. and also for listing all the names on the spreadsheet. The following dialog box appears. ii. . then choose OK. Not only does the cell pointer move to the correct range. This can be very useful for checking that ranges have been defined correctly. i. Press [F5].

Instead of typing cell references or selecting cells. simply type the name or paste the name into the formula. .Names In Formulae Names can be used in any simple formula. as well as any of Excel's built in functions.

OR.Excel Functions CONDITIONAL & LOGICAL FUNCTIONS If Statements Logical Test Value If True / False Nested If AND. NOT And Or Not LOOKUP FUNCTIONS Lookup Hlookup Vlookup OTHER USEFUL FUNCTIONS ISERROR TRIM IFERROR NOW COUNTIF RIGHT AVERAGEIF LEFT SUMIF Find & Replace CONCATENATE .

. 3. or copy the reference to another cell. Dollar signs appear before the C and the 10. 1. 4. Dollar signs appear before the C and the 11.Click cell C9.Move to cell C12. but may change if you copy the reference to another cell .Click cell C10. In Excel. 8. 6. In contrast. 2. 10.Press F4. values that never change). the reference "A3" is a relative cell reference that initially points to the cell in the first column and third row. 9.Click cell C11. Excel records the formula in cell C12. a reference to a particular cell or group of cells that does not change. For example.Type +. 11.Type =.Type +.Press F4. even if you change the shape or size of the spreadsheet. .Press F4. 5.Absolute cell references are particularly useful for referencing constant values (i. Dollar signs appear before the C and the 9. 7. the cell reference "$A$3" is an absolute cell reference that always points to the cell in the first column and third row.Absolute Cell Addressing Before learning Excel formula we will study about absolute cell referencing in excel.Click the check mark on the formula bar.e.

CONDITIONAL & LOGICAL FUNCTIONS Excel has a number of logical functions which allow you to set various "conditions" and have data respond to them. . The functions used to produce this type of analysis are found in the Insert. you may only want a certain calculation performed or piece of text displayed if certain conditions are met. For example. Function menu. under the heading LOGICAL.

Each of these is separated by a comma. the action to be performed if false (value_if_false). or test. > Greater than < Less than > = Greater than or equal to < = Less than or equal to = Equal to < > Not equal to . or to compare two cells. You may want to test to see if a cell is a certain value. =IF ( logical_test. value_if_true. the action to be performed if that condition is true (value_if_true). test whether or not it meets certain conditions and then act upon its decision. the condition to be met (logical_test). value_if_false) Logical Test This part of the IF statement is the "condition". symbols called LOGICAL OPERATORS are useful. the IF statement is accompanied by three arguments enclosed in one set of parentheses. as shown. In these cases.If Statements The IF function is used to analyze data.

false value)) Only if both logic tests are found to be false will the false value be returned. This is based on the same principle as a normal IF statement."POOR". a NESTED IF is required. care must be taken to ensure that the correct number of parentheses are added. =IF(B2>1000. . this cell reference should be absolute).IF(B2<$E$3. 2nd true value . the logical tests could be amended to measure sales against cell references instead of figures. Notice that there are two sets of parentheses.IF(B2<600.Nested If When you need to have more than one condition and more than two possible outcomes."GOOD". The secondary IF forms the FALSE part of the main statement. as follows. 1st true value . =IF(1st logic test . This process can be enlarged to include more conditions and more eventualities up to seven IF's can be nested within the main statement. sales staff could now receive one of three possible ratings. but involves "nesting" a secondary formula inside the main one. In the example. as there are two separate IF statements."POOR". In the example. column E has been used to hold the upper and lower sales thresholds."AVERAGE")) (If the IF statement is to be copied later."AVERAGE")) To make the above IF statement more flexible. However. =IF(B2>$E$2."GOOD". IF(2nd logic test .

AND, OR, NOT

Rather than create large and unwieldy formulae involving multiple IF statements, the AND, OR and NOT functions can be used to group logical tests or "conditions" together. These three functions can be used on their own, but in that case they will only return the values "TRUE" or "FALSE". As these two values are not particularly meaningful on a spreadsheet, it is much more useful to combine the AND, OR and NOT functions within an IF statement. This way, you can ask for calculations to be performed or other text messages to appear as a result.

And
This function is a logical test to see if all conditions are true. If this is the case, the value "TRUE" is returned. If any of the arguments in the AND statement are found to be false, the whole statement produces the value "FALSE". This function is particularly useful as a check to make sure that all conditions you set are met. Arguments are entered in the AND statement in parentheses, separated by commas, and there is a maximum of 30 arguments to one AND statement. The following example checks that two cells, B1 and B2, are both greater than 100. =AND(B1>100,B2>100) If either one of these two cells contains a value less than a hundred, the result of the AND statement is "FALSE.µ This can now be wrapped inside an IF function to produce a more meaningful result. You may want to add the two figures together if they are over 100, or display a message indicating that they are not high enough. =IF(AND(B1>100,B2>100),B1+B2,"Figures not high enough")

Or
This function is a logical test to see if one or more conditions are true. If this is the case, the value "TRUE" is returned. If just one of the arguments in the OR statement is found to be true, the whole statement produces the value "TRUE". Only when all arguments are false will the value "FALSE" be returned. This function is particularly useful as a check to make sure that at least one of the conditions you set is met. =IF(OR(B1>100,B2>100),"at least one is OK","Figures not high enough") In the above formula, only one of the numbers in cells B1 and B2 has to be over 100 in order for them to be added together. The message only appears if neither figure is high enough.

a check is done against the numbers 13 and 666.B1=666). If so.B1) .B1. If it is necessary to check that more than one argument is false. the OR function should be used and the true and false values of the IF statement reversed. If B1 is found to contain 13.Not NOT checks to see if the argument is false. =IF(NOT(B1=13). the cell contents of B1 are returned unless the number 13 is encountered. the overall statement is true. In other words."Unlucky!". Suppose. the value "TRUE" is returned."Unlucky!") The NOT function can only contain one argument. so long as the argument is false. In the example. =IF(OR(B1=13. It is best to use NOT as "provided this is not the case" function. the message "Unlucky!" is displayed. for example.

LOOKUP FUNCTIONS These functions allow you to create formulae which examine large amounts of data and find information which matches or approximates to certain conditions. . They are simpler to construct than nested IF·s and can produce many more varied results.

If this is not done. numbers from lowest to highest.e. the LOOKUP function may return the wrong result. text from A to Z. i.Lookup The syntax for LOOKUP is as follows. result_vector ) number or text entry to look for area in which to search for the lookup_value adjacent row or column where the corresponding value or text is to be found It is essential that data in the lookup vector is placed in ascending order. . lookup_vector . =LOOKUP( lookup_value .

column D contains varying salaries. . the nearest salary below 23000 is 20030. Hence the formula. Alternatively. Call B13 Salary.Salaries. For instance. it will approximate to the nearest figure below the requested value.In the diagram.D3:D11.µ In this case. LOOKUP will search through the lookup_vector to find the matching salary. a £35000 salary gets a Scorpio. The LOOKUP formula could then be simplified to. a £20030 salary gets a Golf. In this case. which in this case is Mercedes. against which there is a company car in column E which corresponds to each salary. Only when their salary meets or exceeds 25000 do they get a Sierra. Define Name to give appropriate range names. there is no figure in the Salaries range which matches this. which is a Golf. the lookup_vector is the salary column (D3:D11). However. There may be occasions where the lookup_value is below the lowest value in the vector.E3:E11) Typing 40000 in cell B13 will set the lookup_value. For example. the formula could be simplified and cell references avoided by using Formula. D3:D11 Salaries and E3:E11 Cars. =LOOKUP(Salary. A LOOKUP formula can be used to return whatever car is appropriate to a salary figure that is entered. In this case the #N/A message is displayed. =LOOKUP(B13.Cars) One of the advantages of the LOOKUP function is that if the exact lookup_value is not found. so the corresponding car is returned. if a user enters a Salary of 23000. This technique is very useful when the lookup_vector indicates grades or "bands. and return the appropriate car from the result_vector. anyone in the salary "band" between 20030 and 25000 gets a Golf. the lookup_value is the cell where the salary is entered (B13). and the result_vector is the car column (E3:E11).

HLOOKUP will return the wrong value. text from A to Z. across the array). .Hlookup The horizontal LOOKUP function (HLOOKUP) can be used not just on a "vector" (single column or row of data). row from which the result is required as HLOOKUP searches horizontally (i. The syntax for HLOOKUP is.e. data in the first row must be in ascending order. if this rule is ignored. =HLOOKUP( lookup_value . but on an "array" (multiple rows and columns). row_index_number) number or text entry to look for cell references (or range name) of the entire table of data. i. numbers from lowest to highest. As with LOOKUP.e. table_array .

Designate cell A51 as the cell to hold the amount. 15 or more years.Whatever the amount a customer wants to borrow. the lookup_value. then move down the array to find the appropriate interest rate for the required time period.00%. As with the LOOKUP function. The HLOOKUP function will find a specific amount. It then moves down to row 3 and returns the value 15.3) The above formula looks along the top row of the array for the value in cell A51 (30000). =HLOOKUP(A51. cells C43:H48 are the table_array. 3 if he wants the loan over 15 years. which is the correct interest rate for a £30000 loan over 15 years. i. If. Excel has looked for the value in the array closest to.C43:H48.e. but lower than. he may pay up to five different rates of interest depending on whether the loan is over 10. the advantage of HLOOOKUP is that it does not necessarily have to find the exact lookup_value.30% appears. As before. Cell B51 holds this formula. (Range names could be used here to simplify the formula). for example. and so on. the row_index_number will be 2 if a customer wants the loan over 10 years. you wanted to find out what interest rate is applicable to a £28000 loan. . the lookup_value. the figure 28000 can be entered in the lookup_value cell (A51) and the rate 14.

as VLOOKUP searches down this column for the lookup_value. except that instead of specifying a row index number. VLOOKUP searches vertically. =VLOOKUP( lookup_value . a time period is entered in cell A54 and in B54 the VLOOKUP formula is contained.C43:H48. but instead of searching horizontally. =VLOOKUP(A54.5) . you would specify a column index number to instruct VLOOKUP to move across to a specific column in the array where the required value is to be found. The syntax for the VLOOKUP function follows the same pattern as HLOOKUP. col_index_number ) In the case of VLOOKUP. Cell B54 holds this formula. a VLOOKUP formula could be used to search for a specific time period.Vlookup The VLOOKUP function works on the same principle as HLOOKUP. table_array . then return the appropriate rate for a fixed amount. In the same spreadsheet as before. In the following example. data in the first column of the array should be in ascending order.

the appropriate rate for that time period is returned. and for this example rates are looked up for a loan of £40000. In other words. By changing the value of cell A54.The cell A54 is the lookup_value (time period). a £40000 loan over 17 years would return an interest rate of 16. the table_array is as before.00%. So. Where the specific lookup_value is not found. VLOOKUP works in the same way as HLOOKUP. hence the column_index_number 5. the nearest value in the array that is less than the lookup_value will be returned. .

OTHER USEFUL FUNCTIONS .

ISERROR ISERROR is a very useful function that tells you if the formula you look at with it gives any error value. #DIV/0!. #NAME?. #VALUE!. #REF!. or #NULL!) To use ISERROR function In the example below the average functions in the column G is trying to divide empty cells and giving the error message #DIV/0! The error function checking that cell gives the value true there is an error this could be nested in an IF function with an AVERAGE function so that the error message does not show in column G . #NUM!. Iserror (Value) Value refers to any error value (#N/A.

users need to repeat the VLOOKUP formula twice. " Value not found". false). it is hard to read and hard to maintain ² if you want to change a formula. SalesTable. The IFERROR function solves these problems. SalesTable. value_if_error) A common request in the area of functions is something to simplify error checking. This has a number of problems. If a user wants to catch errors in a VLOOKUP and use their own error text opposed to Excel·s error. it can affect performance. Here is an example of how a user could use it in the same situation: =IFERROR(VLOOKUP(´Bobµ. they have to do something like this using the IF and ISERROR functions: =IF(ISERROR(VLOOKUP("Dave". ´Value not foundµ) . 3. because formulas are quite often run twice. FIRST. enabling customers to easily trap and handle formula errors.IFERROR IFERROR(Value. FALSE)). E. SalesTable. VLOOKUP("Dave". 3.G. SECOND. FALSE)) As you can see. you have to do it twice. 3.

including numbers or names. expression. "apples".COUNTIF COUNTIF counts the number of cells in a range based on given criteria. criteria can be expressed as 32. CRITERIA is the criteria in the form of a number.criteria) RANGE is one or more cells to count. or references that contain numbers. cell reference. ">32". COUNTIF(range. Blank and text values are ignored. . or B4. arrays. For example. "32". or text that defines which cells will be counted.

AVERAGEIF A very common request is for a single function to conditionally average a range of numbers ² a complement to SUMIF and COUNTIF. B2:B5) . "apples". Criteria. cell reference. ´>250000µ. criteria can be expressed as 32. allows users to easily average a range based on a specific criteria. expression. CRITERIA is the criteria in the form of a number. or references that contain numbers. AVERAGEIF. AVERAGEIF(Range. "32". including numbers or names. RANGE is used. or B4. For example. or text that defines which cells are averaged.000: =AVERAGEIF(A2:A5. arrays. ">32". If omitted. Here is an example that returns the average of B2:B5 where the corresponding value in column A is greater than 250. [Average Range]) RANGE is one or more cells to average. AVERAGE range is the actual set of cells to average.

criteria. sum_range ) range is the range of cells that you want to apply the criteria against. 2003.2 would return 12.6 . Based on the given example =SumIf(A2:A6. D2. C2:C6) =SumIf(A2:A6. sum_range are the cells to sum. ">=2001". C:C) =SumIf(A2:A6. D2. The syntax for the SumIf function is: SumIf( range. based on a given criteria.Sumif the SumIf function adds all numbers in a range of cells.6 would return 7.6 would return 218. C2:C6) =SumIf(A:A. C2:C6) would return 218. criteria is used to determine which cells to add.

"bet soup") would return "Alphabet" would return ³bet ter´ would return "Alphabet soup" ..´ter´) =Concatenate(A1.Concatenate the Concatenate function allows you to join 2 or more strings together.´ ³ . . text_n ) There can be up to 30 strings that are joined together.. Based on the given example =Concatenate(A1. A2) =Concatenate (A2. text2. The syntax for the Concatenate function is: Concatenate( text1.

The syntax for the Now function is: =Now() . The syntax for the Trim function is: =Trim( text ) text is the text value to remove the leading and trailing spaces from.Trim Function the Trim function returns a text value with the leading and trailing spaces removed. Based on the given example =Trim(A1) =Trim(A2) =Trim(A3) =Trim(" apples ") would return "Tech on the Net" would return "1234" would return "alphabet soup" would return "apples" Now Function the Now function returns the current system date and time.

Right Function the Right function extracts a substring from a string starting from the right-most character. Based on the given example =Right(A1. 3) would return "soup" would return "thenet" would return "cel" Left Function . 6) =Right ("Excel". The syntax for the Right function is: =Right( text. 4) =Right(A2. number_of_characters indicates the number of characters that you wish to extract starting from the right-most character. number_of_characters ) text is the string that you wish to extract from.

Data Presentation-Charting Ability Presentation- .

titles and various other extras as desired. arrows. allowing you to produce a chart.Data Presentation One of the most impressive aspects of Excel is its charting ability. There are endless variations available. We will learn to :‡ Create embedded charts ‡ Create separate page charts ‡ Change chart types and formats ‡ Add and remove chart data ‡ Add trend lines to charts ‡ Create picture charts . edit and format it. include notes.

Terminology As a starting point. e. there are some terms used in charting which should be understood by you. Points within the different data series are grouped by category .g. Fred's Orion sales figure Data Series : A collection of related data points. Legend: The "key" to the chart. all of Fred's figures. column. for example) of the same colour. Category: The category axis appears across the bottom of a graph (pie charts excepted) and the categories are listed here. or slice of pie for example. The terms defined below relate to the example car sales worksheet and column chart which appear beneath the table: Data Point : An individual figure on the spreadsheet which is reflected in the chart e. representing a data point. which will appear on a chart as markers (bars.g. identifying which patterns/colours relate to which data series Marker A bar.

All charts whether embedded or separate are created from the INSERT ribbon in the CHARTS group. which does not normally appear in its own window. .Embedded Charts An embedded chart appears on the worksheet where it was created. and has no separate existence apart from the worksheet. It is an embedded object.

Separate Chart Pages A chart sheet. The Data Labels ribbon allows you to display the amount each point represents or display the label Use this ribbon to switch the legend on and off or reposition it area where you can specify the titles to have on the chart The gridline ribbon allows you to switch on and off horizontal and vertical gridlines Here you specify whether you want a Y/Z axis and whether you are using timescales to plot your data . The F11 key is very useful for creating a default chart from selected data as a new sheet within the workbook Some Chart Elements The Data Table ribbon will display a grid underneath the chart that will show the information that is being plotted. exists as a separate page in a workbook. although linked to the worksheet whose figures it represents.

. When you have chosen click once to select a chart type vi. Select a chart type and click iii. The menu on the left appears. iv. Default chart will created as chart on a separate sheet. Go to the CHARTS group on the INSERT ribbon. Select Data for chart ii. Press the F11 Key iii. Select data for chart. Hovering your mouse over a chart type will bring up an explanation of that chart type v. OR Keyboard i.Methods To Create Charts To create a chart Mouse i. The chart is now created based on the selected data as an embedded chart. ii.

They are used to show individual figures at a specific time or to compare different items. Bar Bar charts can be 2 or 3Dimensional. Line Line charts can be 2 or 3 Dimensional. . Pie Pie charts can be 2 or 3Dimensional. They are used to compare the size of the parts with the whole. They are frequently used to show variation of different items over a period of time. Area Area charts can be 2 or 3dimensional. Only one data series can be plotted.Chart Types There are several different types of chart available within Excel. Column Column charts can be 2 or 3 Dimensional. emphasising the amount of change rather than the rate of change. They are used to compare the change in volume of a data series over time. Line charts are used to compare trends over time. The type to choose will vary depending on the data involved and what information the chart is intended to convey or highlight. making up 100%.

It can be helpful to think of a 3D surface chart as a 3D Column chart which has had a rubber sheet stretched over the tops of the columns. and can be useful in determining whether one set of figures might be dependent on the other. and data points belonging to the same series are connected by lines. Data points are plotted along each spoke.Radar Each category in a radar chart has its own axis radiating from the centre point. Xy Scatter Charts XY charts are used to compare two different numeric data series. 3D Surface 3 D Surface charts present information in an almost topographical layout. They are also useful if the data on the X axis represents uneven intervals of time or increments of measurement. They can be used to pinpoint the high and low points resulting from two changing variables. .

labelsand data table .lege nd. such as adding a legend can be applied to a chart using the following sections To make it embedded or separate chart type To change the background of the chart To change the type of chart To change the data point Add or delete title.axes. Some formats.Formatting Chart There are several different ways of formatting the various elements in a chart.

Introduction To Pivot Tables .

PIVOT TABLES To Create A PivotChart Report From An Existing PivotTable Report Delete A PivotTable Or PivotChart Report Create Layout For PivotTables Modifying A PivotTable MANAGING PIVOT TABLES Automatically Refresh Data When A Workbook Is Opened Automatically Refresh Data At Regular Time Intervals Formatting A PivotTable .

PIVOTTABLES A PivotTable can summarize large amounts of data using specified calculations and formats. It is called a PivotTable because the headings can be rotated around the data to view or summarize it in different ways. A simple Pivot Table .

. You now have a Pivot Table that summarizes your data.Click Ok. then click Finish.

. and optionally save the workbook without saving the external data.Automatically Refresh Data When A Workbook Is Opened You can refresh an external data range automatically when you open the workbook. so that the workbook file size is reduced.

Pivot Chart You can represent the pivot table in chart form by simply clicking on pivot chart option that come after you right click on pivot table . There are a number of ways to change the layout and format of a PivotTable report as described in the following sections. You can manually format a cell or cell range in PivotTable report by right clicking the cell or cell range. and by using the FORMAT CELLS dialog box.Formatting A PivotTable you often want to enhance the layout and format of the report to improve readability and to make it more attractive. by clicking FORMAT CELLS.

OTHER EXCEL FEATURES .

INSERTING. FORMATTING AND DELETING OBJECTS Inserting A Drawing Object Smart Art WordArt Formatting Shapes REVIEWING Protecting Use A Shared Workbook To Collaborate Share A Workbook .

Inserting A Drawing Object Inserting pictures. text boxes. a brief rundown of some items you may insert and how to deal with them To insert a shape onto worksheet . scanned images etc onto a worksheet can greatly enhance your overall spreadsheet appearance. callouts.

click on the drop down arrow to the right of SMARTART the SMARTART dialog above will appear . You can create SmartArt graphics by choosing from among many different layouts to quickly. easily and effectively communicate your message. When you create a SmartArt graphic. you are prompted to choose a type such as PROCESS. A type is similar to a category of SmartArt graphic.SmartArt A SmartArt graphic is a visual representation of your information and ideas. HIERARCHY. CYCLE. or RELATIONSHIP. On the INSERT ribbon in the ILLUSTRATIONS group. and each type contains several different layouts.

WordArt WordArt is a gallery of text styles that you can add to your 2007 Microsoft Office system documents to create decorative effects. as you can change any other text in a shape. Enter your text. You can change WordArt text.# A WordArt graphic can be resized. deleted and moved like any other shape. such as shadowed or mirrored (reflected) text. Formatting Shapes Any shape inserted on the spreadsheet. rotated. On the INSERT ribbon. click WORDART. when selected. causes a new ribbon to appear called the FORMAT ribbon seen below. in the TEXT group. and then click the WordArt style that you want. it offers the options of inserting further shapes .

To protect a workbook Protecting a workbook ensures individuals cannot. . Workbook structure is now protected. move or otherwise tamper with the sheets in your work book. You may also want to restrict what they are allowed to do to your work so they do not inadvertently damage formulae and functions that make the workbook produce valid figures. delete. make corrections or comments it is necessary to track the changes that others may make to your work to see what changes they have made as they review your work. Click on PROTECT WORKBOOK in the Tools group Select PROTECT STRUCTURE AND WINDOWS above dialog will appear. For security (not essential) enter a password and click on ok.REVIEWING Protecting When sending your work to someone else to check. insert. For these reasons we may have to protect the workbook in various ways. Hidden sheets will not be able to be unhidden if valuable tables or data is stored on them.

click FORMAT. Sheet is now protected any cell that was locked is now uneditable by anyone. vii. iii. ix. . Enter a password if you wish viii. On the Format ribbon. Untick LOCK CELLS. v. in the CELLS group. Click on OK.Protect worksheet data i. Click on the protection tab iv. ii. Click on PROTECT WORKSHEET in the Protection group on the Tools ribbon. and then click FORMAT CELLS. Tick what you wish users to be allowed to do in the locked cells. Select all cells you would like individuals to be allowed to change. vi.

. when and what the change is. Any changes made to the workbook by anyone now will leave a mark in the cell to show it has been changed by who. Tick the TRACK CHANGES WHILE EDITING option Click on OK. To Accept/reject changes When changes have been made to your workbook you may wish to check those changes and see what has been altered.To protect for tracked changes Click on TRACK CHANGES and then HIGHLIGHT CHANGES in the CHANGES group on the REVIEW ribbon The HIGHLIGHT CHANGES dialog will appear. You may not be happy with some of the changes and wish to reject them for what was previously within a cell.

Click on TRACK CHANGES and then ACCEPT/REJECT CHANGES in the CHANGES group on the REVIEW ribbon. . As you accept or reject each change the dialog will automatically move on to the next change. ii. When you have finished click close to close the dialog and finish reviewing. The SELECT CHANGES TO ACCEPT OR REJECT dialog will appear. Click OK. iii.i. The ACCEPT OR REJECT CHANGES dialog will appear iv.

Use A Shared Workbook To Collaborate You can create a shared workbook and place it on a network location where several people can edit the contents simultaneously. charts. For example. objects including drawing objects. data tables PivotTable reports workbook and worksheet protection. pictures. You cannot make changes to these features after you share the workbook. hyperlinks scenarios. . you can manage it by removing users from the shared workbook and resolving conflicting changes. the group can use a shared workbook to track the status of the projects. outlines subtotals. All persons involved can then enter the information for their projects in the same workbook. you should add them before you save the workbook as a shared workbook: merged conditional formats data validation. and macros. Share A Workbook Not all features are supported in a shared workbook. As the owner of the shared workbook. you can stop sharing the workbook. When all changes have been incorporated. If you want to include any of the following features. if the people in your work group each handle several projects and need to know the status of each other's projects.

you can enter and change data as you do in a regular workbook .To share a workbook To Edit a shared workbook After you open a shared workbook.

To Remove a user from a shared workbook .

: click SHARE WORKBOOK. ii. To Stop sharing a workbook Before you stop sharing the workbook. . Excel can keep only one of the changes in that cell.Resolve conflicting changes in a shared workbook A conflict happens when two users are both editing the same shared workbook and try to save changes that affect the same cell. click THE CHANGES BEING SAVED WIN. click ACCEPT ALL MINE or ACCEPT ALL OTHERS. under CONFLICTING CHANGES BETWEEN USERS. In the RESOLVE CONFLICTS dialog box. To override resolve conflicts dialog To have your changes override all other changes without displaying the RESOLVE CONFLICTS dialog box again. To keep your change or the other person's change and to advance to the next conflicting change. On the ADVANCED tab. When the second user saves the workbook. Any unsaved changes will be lost. To keep all of your remaining changes or all of the other user's changes. Because the change history will also be deleted. you may want to start by printing the History worksheet or by copying it to another workbook. i. click ACCEPT MINE or ACCEPT OTHER. Excel displays the RESOLVE CONFLICTS dialog box. make sure that all other users have completed their work. and then click OK. read the information about each change and the conflicting changes made by the other user.

Microsoft Excel Shortcuts .

Save a spreadsheet. Ctrl Enter Ctrl . Insert the current time. Mixed $A1 or A$1.g.Shortcut Ctrl O Ctrl S Ctrl N Ctrl X Ctrl C Ctrl V Ctrl P F2 F4 Description Open a spreadsheet. E. Insert the current date. Ctrl Shift . Cut Copy Paste Print Enter edit mode for a cell. Fill several cells with what you type. relative and mixed references. Absolute . . Change formula references between absolute. Create a new blank spreadsheet.$A$1. Relative A1.

Select the cell you want to edit and press F2. */ +Order of operations: Brackets. . Format Painter The format painter can be used to copy formatting from one part of your spreadsheet to another. Click the format painter icon to turn it off. ( ) Exponentials. To copy formatting once ² click in the cell that has the formatting you want to copy.click in the cell that has the formatting you want to copy. Addition & Subtraction. Rules for formulas Start with a ´ = µ sign. Drag over all the other cells you want to format. Double click the cell you want to edit.g. ^ (E. Drag over the first cells you want to format. Double-click the format painter icon.Editing a cell·s contents Select the cell you want to edit and then click in the Excel formula bar. To copy formatting more than once . Drag over the cells you want to format. 2^4 the same as 24) Multiplication & Division. Click the format painter icon.

7. 18. 5. 6. 11. 23. 15. 9. 22. 30. 24. 12. 25. 19. 20. 13. Select the current column [Ctrl] + [Space] Select the current row [Shift] + [Space] Edit the active cell [F2] Move to the beginning of the worksheet [Ctrl] + [Home] Move to the last cell on the worksheet [Ctrl] + [End] Paste a name into a formula [F3] Paste a function into a formula [Shift] + [F3] Alternate value/formula view [Ctrl] + [`] (on key [1]) Calculate all sheets in all open workbooks [F9] Display the Go To dialog box [F5] Display the Find dialog box [Shift] + [F5] Display the Format Cells dialog box [Ctrl] + [1] Create a chart [F11] Insert a new sheet [Alt] + [Shift] + [F1] Repeat the last action [F4] Repeat Find [Shift] + [F4] Open [Ctrl] + [F12] Exit [Ctrl] + [F4] Check spelling of current cell [F7] Activate the menu bar [F10] Display the Macro dialog box [Alt] + [F8] Apply outline to active cell [Ctrl] + [Shift] + [&] Convert to a percentage [Ctrl] + [Shift] + [%] Select all filled cells around active cell [Ctrl] + [Shift] + [*] Move to next sheet [Ctrl] + [Page Down] Move to previous sheet [Ctrl] + [Page Up] Complete a cell entry and move up [Shift] + [Enter] Complete a cell entry and move right [Tab] Complete a cell entry and move left [Shift] + [Tab] Edit a cell comment [Shift] + [F2] . 8. 3. 17. 26. 29. 4. 21. 16. 14. 28. 27. 10.30 shortcuts to speed up your calculations. 1. 2.

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