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Credit Scoring & Its Application

Credit Scoring & Its Application

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Published by: henrique_oliv on May 22, 2011
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In principle, prescreening is where we make some or all of the lending and associated
decisions before the applicant is aware of what is happening. In some cases the applicant
will never be aware of what has happened. For example, before sending out a mailing, we
may be able to match the name and address against a file of previous bad debtors and remove
those who have a poor credit history. Clearly, in such a case, those who receive the mailing
are not explicitly aware that they have passed through some form of initial test. Of course,
those who are excluded from the mailing are certainly not aware that they were initially
considered and then filtered out. In this example, the file of previous bad debtors may be an
internally held file of the institution's previous borrowing customers. Alternatively, it could
be a list from a credit bureau. (However, the reader should be aware that different restrictions
exist in different countries regarding exactly how this information is used.)
Before approaching the customer with an offer, we can carry out a wide range of
prescreens. Perhaps we merely wish to match or confirm the address. On the other hand, we
can carry out several prescreen tests and, if we have enough information, we can even carry
out a full assessment and maybe make a firm offer (preapproval). Another option open to


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Chapter 10. Applications of Scoring in Other Areas of Lending

us is that, on the basis of the results of the prescreen, we may elect to make the customer a
different offer.

When considering using prescreening, one needs to carefully consider the cost and
benefits. Using third-party information comes at a cost. Also, if using previous serious
arrears as a prescreen rule, it may be that the population one is about to approach has few
members who would be removed from the list. Therefore, the information is useful in theory
but not on the particular target population. It may also be that the credit-assessment process
would identify those higher-risk cases that respond. Therefore, one needs to consider the
trade-off between removing a large number of high-risk cases from the mailing list and trying
to identify the smaller number of high-risk cases among those who respond.
One other point may need to be borne in mind. In building a traditional scorecard,
we carry out reject inference on those who applied but either were not approved or chose
not to take out a loan or credit card. When we do some prescreening of a mailing list, for
example, we now have two other sets of potential applicants whose performance we may
need to infer—those who were excluded from the mailing and those who were mailed but
did not respond. This is particularly important when we try to build response models; see
(Bennett, Platts, and Crossley 1996) and (Crook, Hamilton, and Thomas 1992b).
In many countries, there are regulatory and self-regulatory rules concerning the use
of information for prescreening. In the U.K., for example, the credit bureaus adhere to the
principles of reciprocity regarding the sharing of credit information among lenders. Within
this, there are rules about what levels of information a lender can use, and these vary, for
example, depending on whether the person being considered is an existing customer. The
rules also vary depending on whether the credit facility being considered is a product they
already hold or is a new product. All of this varies also depending on the level of information
the institution is supplying.

In the U.S., credit reference information is more readily available and reveals more
about a potential borrower. On the other hand, restrictions are placed on a lender to the
effect that, if they carry out a prescreen, an offer to a potential customer must then be an
unconditional offer.

Another example of where we might use prescreening is if we have a response model
and we can exclude from a mailing those who are unlikely to respond, thereby reducing the
cost but not the effectiveness of the mailing. Indeed, it will generate a higher response rate.
Another factor to bear in mind with a response model or response scorecard is that it
often works counter to a credit scorecard. At its simplest, those who are credit hungry are
those who are most likely to respond, while those who are more creditworthy are less likely
to respond. For example, we may find that younger people are more likely to respond to
a loan offer or mailing, while older people are more likely to be deemed acceptable risks.
The same might be true of other attributes. Therefore, we often have to reach a compromise
so that we can attract sufficient volumes of applicants with a reasonable chance of being
accepted and turning out to be good performers.
In a traditional scoring approach, our binary outcomes are that the customer will
perform and not perform. With the first example of prescreening, this is also the case. We
also discussed the binary outcomes of respond and not respond. Ultimately, when trying to
maximize profit, the binary outcomes are composite ones of "will respond and will perform"
and "will not respond or will respond but will not perform." (There are other occasions
when we might use a prescreening approach. In one of these, we put applicants through an
initial scorecard, and on the basis of the results, we could decline the application or approve
it or carry out further assessment. Another is where the applications have to pass through
a scorecard using only application data and a scorecard using credit reference data. In
section 12.3, we discuss how we might combine two scorecards operated in such a fashion.)

10.3. Preapproval


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