International Trade & Foreign Exchange

¾ ‰e‡`wkK evwYR¨? †Kb msNwUZ? cÖ‡qvRbxqZv?3
¾ cv_©K¨t Af¨šÍixY I ˆe‡`wkK evwYR¨? ˆe‡`wkK evwY‡R¨i myweavAmyweav?6 ˆe‡`wkK evwY‡R¨ e¨eüZ `wjjcÎ?9
¾ ‰e‡`wkK evwY‡R¨ e¨eüZ g~j¨ÁvcK kãms‡ÿc?15
¾ evsjv‡`k †_‡K we‡`‡k cY¨ ißvwbi c`‡ÿcmg~n?16
¾ evsjv‡`‡k cY¨ Avg`vwb cÖwµqv?20
¾ I‡qR Avb©vm© w¯‹g c×wZ cÖavb ˆewkó?G w¯‹‡g we‡`k †_‡K cY¨
Avg`vwb c×wZ? Gi Kvh©‡ÿÎ m¤cÖmvi‡Yi cÿcvwZ?22
¾ eZ©gv‡b Kvh©iZ I‡qR Avb©vm© w¯‹‡gi mv‡_ ¯^vaxbZvi c~‡e© ißvwb
†evbvm w¯‹‡gi cv_©K¨? †evbvm w¯‹g cybtcÖeZ©b mg_©b?24
¾ I‡qR Avb©vm w¯‹g we‡`‡k Ae¯’vbiZ evsjv‡`kxi Avq AwaK cwigv‡Y
†`‡k cvVv‡bv DrmvwnZ? Kvh©KvwiZv m¤cÖmviY?25
¾ AcÖPwjZ cY¨vw` ißvwb c×wZ? evsjv‡`k e¨vsK M„wnZ e¨e¯’v?
e¨vsKvi wnmv‡e wK e¨e¯’v mycvwik?26
¾ Avg`vwb evwYR¨ wbqš¿Y? †Kb cÖeZ©b? evsjv‡`k e¨vsK KZ©„K
AbymiYK…Z AvB.Gg.wc c×wZ?KZUzKz Kvh©Ki? weKí c×wZ?29
¾ ißvwb evwYR¨ wbqš¿Y? evsjv‡`k e¨vsK KZ©„K EXP c×wZ wewbgq
duvwKi cÖeYZv †iva? Dbœq‡b cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯’v mycvwik?31
¾ evwYR¨ nvi? evwYR¨ nvi wba©viY?33
¾ evwYR¨ I †jb‡`‡bi fvimvg¨? cv_©K¨?35
¾ ‡jb‡`‡bi fvimv‡g¨i ˆewkó¨? wewfbœ Dcv`vb/LvZ?37
¾ ‡jb‡`‡bi fvimv‡g¨I cÖwZK~jZv/fvimg¨nxbZv? cÖKvi‡f`?40
¾ ‡jb‡`‡bi fvimv‡g¨i cÖwZK~jZvi KviY? `~i Kivi e¨e¯’v?42
¾ evwYR¨ fvimv‡g¨ K`vwPr mgZv wKš‘ †jb‡`b me©`v mgZv?46
¾ ‰e‡`wkK †jb‡`‡b †gŠwjK fvimvg¨nxbZv? KLb? evsjv‡`‡k wK
Av‡Q? cÖwZKv‡ii Dcvq?48
¾ wewbgq evwYR¨? ‰ewkó¨? evsjv‡`‡ki Askx`vi? evrmwiK cwigvY?
evsjv‡`‡ki Rb¨ Kj¨vYRbK? †Kb?49
¾ Aeg~j¨vqb? D‡Ïk¨? GUv wK wewbgq nv‡ii AebwZ †_‡K wfbœ?
wKfv‡e †jb‡`b fvimv‡g¨I cÖwZK~jZv `~i Ki‡Z cv‡i?51
¾ gy`vª i AwZg~j¨vqb? UvKv AwZg~j¨vwqZ? UvKvi gvb ev¯Íe ¯Í‡I Avbvi
Rb¨ wK e¨e¯’v? Avg`vwb‡Z wgZe¨wqZv UvKvi gvb e„w×?54
¾ gy³ evwYR¨ GjvKv? wewbgq wbqš¿Y I ïé cÖ‡qvR‡b †Kvb GjvKv?56
¾ we‡`kx mvnvh¨? evsjv‡`‡k ˆe‡`wkK wewb‡qvM ¸iæZ¡?57
¾ we‡`kx wewb‡qvM AvKl©Y Drmvng~jK e¨e¯’v I my‡hvM-myweav?59
¾ we‡`kx wewb‡qv‡M cÖwZeÜKZv? `~ixKi‡Y `vZv‡Mvôxi mycvwik?61
¾ ißvwb‡Z AbMÖmiZvi KviY? e„w×i Rb¨ c`‡ÿc?62
¾ Avg`vwb I ißvwb bxwZ wewfbœ w`K? ißvwb Dbœqb c`‡ÿc?65
¾ AvšÍR©vwZK A_© Dbœqb(IMF) Znwe‡ji D‡Ïk¨ I Kvh©vewj? mvdj¨ I
e¨_©Zv? m`m¨ †`k wK cwigvY FY MÖnY?69
¾ AvšÍR©vwZK A_© Znwej m`m¨ †`k¸‡jv‡K †Kvb ai‡bi mvnvh¨?
¯^‡ívbœZ †`k AvšÍR©vwZK †jb‡`b wb®úwË Znwej KZUzKz mvnvh¨?72
¾ IMF Kvh©µg ch©v‡jvPbv? mg‡qi cwim‡i m`m¨ †`k¸‡jvi gy`ªv
wewbgq nvi IMF `„wófw½i cwieZ©b?75
¾ ‡¯úkvj WªBs ivBUm (SDR)? D‡Ïk¨ I Kvh©µg?78
¾ wek¦ e¨vsK? D‡Ïk¨, Kvh©vewj? FY`vb bxwZ I mvdj¨?80
¾ wek¦ e¨vsK kvLv cÖwZôvb¸‡jvi Kvh©vewj?83
¾ Gwkqvb wK¬qvwis Dbœqb? D‡Ïk¨ I Kv‡Ri cwiwa? Avg`vwb I ißvwb
†jb‡`b wK ch©v‡q wK¬qvwis gva¨‡g m¤úbœ? mvdj¨ ch©v‡jvPbv?86
¾ Gwkqvb †W‡fjc‡g›U e¨vsK? D‡Ïk¨ I FY`vb bxwZ?89
¾ Bmjvgx Dbœqb e¨vs‡Ki D‡Ïk¨ I Kvh©vewj?91
¾ e¨vsK FY? cv_©K¨t e¨w³MZ I evwYwR¨K FYcÎ?93
¾ evwYwR¨K cÖZ¨qcÎ? ¸iæZ¡?94
¾ ALÛbxq/w¯’i I LÛbxq/†Lvjv cÖZ¨qcÎ? ˆewkó¨ I cv_©K¨?96
¾ cÖZ¨qcÎ msµvšÍ BDwbdig Kv÷gm A¨vÛ cÖvKwUm? ˆewkó¨?98
¾ AvMvg cÖZ¨qcÎ? AvMvg cÖZ¨qc‡Îi jvj I meyR `dv?100
¾ ‡b‡Mvwk‡qwUs e¨vs‡Ki `vwqZ¡t hw` `wjj Rvj, gvj¸‡jv †µZvi
Pzw³gZ bv nq, `wj‡ji mv‡_ cÖZ¨qc‡Îi Miwgj?101
¾ ‡Kvb ißvwb wej evsjv‡`‡k cybtevÆvKi‡Yi †hvM¨? evsjv‡`k e¨vs‡K
ißvwb wej cybtevÆvKi‡Yi c×wZ eY©bv?103
¾ `wjjhy³ FYcÎ? ga¨¯’ZvKvix e¨vs‡Ki `vwqZ¡? 60 w`‡bi mvBU
WªvdUhy³ `wjwj F‡Y wK wb‡`©k-wewbgq wej, Pvjvb, cÖZ¨qcÎ?104
¾ F‡Yi †bvwUwd‡Kkb I `wjjc‡Îi Dc¯’vc‡b mg`k©x cÖPwjZ wbqg
cÖavb aviv? evsjv‡`k e¨vsK Gme aviv wK Avek¨K?106
¾ ißvwb wej †b‡Mvwk‡qU e¨vsK wK `wjj? RvnvRx iwm‡`i h_v_©Zv
hvPvB †b‡Mvwk‡qwUs e¨vsK wK wel‡q jÿ¨ iv‡L?108
¾ `wjj msMÖ‡n mg`k©x wbqg-Kvbyb? AvšÍRv© wZK †P¤^vi Ae Kgvm© cÖYxZ
`wjj Av`v‡q mg`k©x wbqg e¨vsKv‡ii `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨?112
¾ e¨vK Uz e¨vK †jUvi Ae †µwWU? myweav I Amyweav? mZK©Zv?113
¾ Standby Letter Credit‡Kb e¨eüZ?mvaviY †µwWU mv‡_ cv_©K¨?115
¾ `wjwj FYc‡Îi A_© cwi‡kv‡a ga¨¯’ZvKvix e¨vsK †Kvb wel‡qi cÖwZ
AwaK bRi? †Kb?116
¾ ißvwb `wj‡j wK ai‡bi Miwgj? e¨vsKvi mZK©Zv?119

¾ `wjjhy³ FYc‡Îi AvIZvq †`bv-cvIbv wb®úwË? myweav?121
¾ ‰e‡`wkK evwY‡R¨ wewfbœ cÖKvi Pvjvbx/RvnvRx iwm`? åvg¨gvb I
AveZ©gvb cÖZ¨qc‡Îi cv_©K¨?128
¾ ißwb FY exgv cÖKí? wewfbœ w`K? ißvwb evwYR¨ Drmvn mvnvh¨?131
¾ wewbgq SzuwK? iÿvi Dcvq? ˆe‡`wkK gy`ªvi ‡jb‡`b wewbgq Ae¯’vq
‡`Lv‡bv c×wZ?135
¾ e¨vsK †Kvb cÖwµqvq cÖvK-ißvwb FY gÄyi? SzuwK? mZK©Zv?136
¾ ißvwb Dbœqb Znwej? D‡Ïk¨ I e¨envi? e¨vs‡Ki SzuwK?139
¾ ißvwb DËi FY? wK Dcv‡q gÄyi? mZK©Zv I SzuwK?141
¾ ißvwb evwY‡R¨ wKfv‡e FY cÖ`vb? ißvwbc~e© F‡Yi ˆewkó,SzuwK?144
¾ G·‡cvU© wi¯‹ cwjwm? ‡Kvb ai‡bi SzuwK? ißvwbKvix KZ©„K M¨vivw›U
MÖn‡Yi c×wZ I exgv `vwe wb®úwËi c×wZ?146
¾ ‰e‡`wkK gy`ªv wbqš¿Y? D‡Ïk¨? evsjv‡`‡ki AR©b? mycvwik?149
¾ ‰e‡`wkK gy`ªv wbqš¿‡Yi c×wZ? myweav I Amyweav?152
¾ ‰e‡`wkK gy`ª wbqš¿Y wK †Kvb †`‡ki Rb¨ AKj¨vYKi? GwU evwZj
n‡j evsjv‡`‡ki †Kvb Kj¨vY?155
¾ evsjv‡`‡k ˆe‡`wkK gy`ªv wbqš¿‡Yi c×wZ?156 ‰ewkó¨?157
¾ ‰e‡`wkK wewbgq evwYR¨? Dcv`vb? †K›`ªxq e¨vsK n¯Í‡ÿc?161
¾ ‡iwg‡UÝ cvVv‡bvq wewbgq wbqš¿Y c×wZt Av`v‡qi wfwˇZ M„nxZ
Avg`vwb we‡ji g~j¨, ißvwb Pvjv‡bi wecix‡Z I‡qU k‡U©R `vwe,
we‡`kx bvMwi‡Ki cvwievwiK †iwg‡UÝ, e¨emv‡qi D‡Ï‡k¨ ågY?162
¾ ‡`‡ki Af¨šÍ‡i ¯^‡Y©i †PvivPvjvb djvdj? †emiKvwi ¯^‡Yi e¨envi
wbiærmvwnZ e¨e¯’v?164
¾ g~jab cvPvi? Drmvn? cvPvi †iva e¨e¯’v?165
¾ ‰e‡`wkK wewbgq? evsjv‡`‡ki g‡Zv Dbœqbkxj †`‡k ¸iæZ¡?167
¾ ‰e‡`wkK wewbgq nvi? wKfv‡e wba©viY?168
¾ cv_©K¨tˆe‡`wkK gy`ªvI wewbgq?wewbgq nvi wK Dcv`vb cÖfvweZ?173
¾ evsjv‡`kx UvKvi wewbgq nvi †Kb cwieZ©b? w¯’i ivLvi Dcvq?
wewbgq nvi cwieZ©‡bi ‡Kvb mxgv Av‡Q wK?175
¾ wewbgq nvi wba©viY msµvšÍ µqÿgZv mgZv ZË¡? G Z‡Ë¡ wewbgq nvi
AvaywbKKv‡j fvmgvb wewbg‡q cv_©K¨ Av‡Q wK?178
¾ w¯’i I cwieZ©bkxj wewbgq nvi? Av‡cwÿK myweav?180
¾ eû wewbgq nvi? evsjv‡`k mg_©b? cÖK…wZ wKiƒc n‡e?183
¾ evsjv‡`‡k †Kvb wewbgq nvi Pvjy? Avg`vwb-ißvwb wbqš¿‡Y myweav I
Amyweav?186
¾ AwMÖg wewbgq Pzw³? e¨emvqxiv †Kb? evsjv‡`‡k Avg`vwbKvix,
ißwbKvix I Aby‡gvw`Z wWjvi wK ai‡bi AwMÖg myweav?188
¾ AwMÖg wewbgq nvi wKfv‡e wba©viY? e¨vsK wKfv‡e MÖvnK I wb‡Ri
AwMÖg wewbgq Kfvi cÖ`vb?190
¾ wewfbœ ai‡bi AwMÖg wewbgq kZ© Av‡jvPbv?192
¾ wewbgq nv‡ii AebwZ? †iv‡a mycvwik? Wjv‡ii wewbgq Avq n«vm
†c‡j evsjv‡`‡ki ißvwb evwY‡R¨ cÖfve?195
¾ AvšÍR©vwZK evRv‡i Wjv‡ii wewbgq n«v‡mi KviY? †iv‡a hy³ivóª
AZx‡Z wK e¨e¯’v? G e¨e¯’v w¯’wZkx‡j h‡_ó?197
¾ ‡eUªb DW w¯’i wewbgq nvi c×wZ AK…ZKvh©Zv? cwieZ©bkxj wewbgq
nv‡ii myweav I Amyweav?200
¾ wewbgq evRv‡i mc? †Kvb Ae¯’vq mc †jb‡`‡b m¤§Z?202
¾ ‰e‡`wkK wewbg‡qi Aby‡gvw`Z wWjvi? Kvh©vewj I `vwqZ¡?203
¾ ‰e‡`wkK wewbgq e¨e¯’v cwiPvjbvi ixwZbxwZ?205
¾ wewfbœ †`k wbR gy`vª wewbgq nvi w¯’i e¨vcv‡i wK ai‡bi †cwMs? †Kvb
gy`vª i mv‡_ UvKv †cwMs? cwieZ©b mg_©b? †Kb?208
¾ AvšÍRv© wZK †jb‡`b m¤úbœ wK †jb‡`b cwi‡kva c×wZ eY©bv?210
¾ Ad‡kvi e¨vswKs? wKfv‡e KvR? cwiPvjbvi m¤¢vebv?212
¾ ‰e‡`wkK wewbgq evRvi? ˆewkó¨ I BwZnvm? evsjv‡`k?215
¾ ‰e‡`wkK wewbgq evRvi? evsjv‡`‡k AvšÍte¨vsK gy`ªv evRv‡i ˆe‡`wkK
wewbgq ‡jb‡`b cÖK…wZ I MwZaviv?218
¾ ‰e‡`wkK wewbgq evRv‡i MwZ mÂv‡i wK e¨e¯’v? †Kvb e¨vs‡Ki
ˆe‡`wkK wewbgq Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvq wWwjs iæ‡gi f~wgKv?220
¾ ‡c‡Uªv I BD‡iv Wjvi? Av‡gwiKv I BD‡iv‡c wewbgq evRv‡i †c‡Uªv
Wjvi f~wgKv? `wÿY Gwkqv mvaviY cwi‡kva c×wZ cÖeZ©b?222
¾ evsjv‡`k e¨vsK †Kvb c×wZ‡Z wewbgq evRvi wbqš¿Y? †Kb?224
¾ ‡K›`ªxq e¨vs‡Ki Kvh©vewj wK bxwZ Øviv cÖfvweZt gy`vª i wewbgq nvi
msKxY© cwiwai g‡a¨ mxgve× ivL‡Z cÖwZkÖæwZ× I bq?225
¾ ‰e‡`wkK wewbgq evwYR¨? wewbgq evRv‡ii Dcv`vb? †K›`ªxq e¨vsK
wKfv‡e n¯Í‡ÿc?226
¾ BD‡iv Wjvi? D™¢‡ei KviY? e¨envi? evsjv‡`‡ki Ae¯’vb?228
¾ E.M.S Kvh©µg I g~jbxwZ? w¯’wZkxjZv AR©‡b mnvqK?230
¾ ‰e‡`wkK gy`vª i mgvšÍivj/Kv‡jvevRvi? wKfv‡e ‡jb‡`b? mvgjv‡bvi
Dcvq?232 ˆewkó¨? evsjv‡`‡k ˆe‡`wkK gy`ªvi Kv‡jvevRvix?233
¾ wewbgq nvi e¨e¯’vcbvi nvwZqvi wn‡m‡e wewbgq wbqš¿Y e¨e¯’v KZUzKz
Kvh©Ki? †Kvb ¯Í‡i ivLv DwPZ? mgZv weav‡bi Dcvq? evsjv‡`‡k
KZUv djcÖm~?237
¾ AvšÍRv© wZK †jb‡`b m¤ú‡bœ wK †jb‡`b cwi‡kva c×wZi eY©bv?241

¾ Ad‡kvi e¨vswKs? wKfv‡e KvR? evsjv‡`‡k m¤¢vebv?243
¾ AvšÍR©vwZK evwY‡R¨ Under & Over Invoicing? Kzdj? cÖwZ‡iv‡ai
e¨e¯’v?247
¾ AvšÍR©vwZK evwY‡R¨ e¨eüZ weµq kZ©? ¸iæZ¡ I cÖ‡qvRbxqZv? †Kvb
ai‡bi weµq kZ© e¨eüZ? Avg`vwb evwY‡R¨ e¨vsK FY cÖ`vb?249
¾ AvšÍR©vwZK evwY‡R¨ wewfbœ weµq kZ©? †Kvb †ÿ‡Î †Kvb kZ©?251
¾ G.P.S ¯‹xg? myweavi Rb¨ wK c`‡ÿc? wK `wjjcÎ?¯^í‡bœvZ?258
¾ EPZ? ˆewkó¨, D‡Ïk¨? evsjv‡`k miKvi †h Drmvn?261
¾ evsjv‡`k ißvwb evRvi? ißvwb evRvi m¤cÖmvi‡Y wK e¨e¯’v?265
¾ evsjv‡`‡k Abym„Z ißvwb evwYR¨ wbqš¿‡Yi c×wZ? evsjv‡`k e¨vsK
cÖewZ©ZExpc×wZ wewbgq duvwKi Rb¨ h‡_ó? Dbœq‡b mycvwik?267
¾ ißvwb Avq †`‡k Avbqb c×wZ? ißvwbKvi‡Ki mZK©Zv?270
¾ Avg`vwb evwYR¨ wbqš¿‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv? weavb Av‡jvPbv?273
¾ Avg`vwb DËi A_©vqb? c×wZ? wK SzuwKi m¤¢vebv?275
¾ b‡÷ªv I f‡÷ªv GKvD›U?276
WvB‡i±/cÖZ¨ÿ †Kv‡Ukb?
278
c‡ivÿ †Kv‡Ukb?278
µq I weµq nvi?280
wUwU I PvwnevgvÎ nvi?280
js †iU?282 ‡Uj
Kz‡qj nvi?283
we.wm. weµq nvi?283
¯úU
nvi?284
AwMÖg nvi?285
wcÖwgqvg
I wWmKvD›U cÖ‡qvM?285 ‡PBb iæj?285
¾ AsK t286
¾ Authorized dealer?359
Advice note?359
Advising Bank?359
Asian Monetary
Unit?360
Asian dollar?360
Acceptance credit?360
ADB?361
Asian Clearing Union?361
Asian
Dollar
Market?362
Authorized
Money Changer?362
Balance Trade?362
Balance of payment?363 Back to back L/C?363
Bill for Collection?363
Bill of Exchange?364
Bill of Lading?364
Bid or Offer Rate?365
Bill of Entry?365
Barter Trade?365
Black Money?365
Blocked Account?366
Bretton Woods Conference?366
Buying &
Selling Rate?367 Clean Letter of Credit?367
Confirmed letter of credit?367 Credit note?367
Certificate of origin?368
Charter party?368
Convertibility of currency?368
Circular letter
of credit?369
Consular Invoice?369
Consortium?369
Confirming Bank?369
Circular note?370
Cross
rate?370
Currency rate/Indirect quotation?370 Cost &
Freight (C&F)371
Cost, Insurance & Freight
(CIF)371
Clean bill of lading?371
Comprehensive gurantee?371 Trade dispute?371
D/A bill?372
D/P
bill?372
Documentary credit?373
Devaluation?373
Draft?373
Exchange rate?374
Exchange position?374 Exchange marging?374
Exchange pegging?375
Exchange risk?375
Direct & Indirect rate?375
Export credit
guarantee scheme?376
Exchange fluctuation
acquisition scheme-EFAS?376 Euro dollar?377
Euro currency?377
Exchange control?378
EPZ?378
Export promotion bureau?379
Export development fund?379
European
clearing Union-ECU?379
Exchange rate
depreciation?379 Export performance benefitXPB?380
European economic
community?380
Embargo?380
Foreign exchange market?380
Forward
market?381
Forward exchange rate?381
Fixed rate of exchange?381
Floating rate
of exchage?381
Foreign correspondent?382
Fre Alongside Ship-FAS?382
Free on BoardFOB?382 Fixed letter of credit?383

¾ UxKvt 355

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