INTERMEDIATE KOREAN

:
A GRAMMAR AND WORKBOOK
Intermediate Korean: A Grammar and Workbook comprises an
accessible reference grammar and related exercises in a single volume.
This workbook presents twenty-four individual grammar points,
covering the core material which students would expect to encounter
in their second year of learning Korean. Grammar points are followed
by examples and exercises which allow students to reinforce and
consolidate their learning.
Intermediate Korean is suitable for both class use as well as
independent study.
Key features include:
• clear, accessible format
• many useful language examples
• all Korean entries presented in Hangul with English translations
• jargon-free explanations of grammar
• abundant exercises with full answer key
• subject index.
Clearly presented and user-friendly, Intermediate Korean provides
readers with the essential tools to express themselves in a wide variety
of situations, making it an ideal grammar reference and practice
resource for students with some knowledge of the language.
Andrew Sangpil Byon is Associate Professor at the State University of
New York at Albany, where he teaches courses in Korean language
and civilization.
Other titles available in the Grammar Workbooks series are:
Basic Cantonese
Intermediate Cantonese
Basic Chinese
Intermediate Chinese
Basic Dutch
Intermediate Dutch
Basic German
Intermediate German
Basic Irish
Intermediate Irish
Basic Italian
Basic Korean
Intermediate Korean
Basic Polish
Intermediate Polish
Basic Russian
Intermediate Russian
Basic Spanish
Intermediate Spanish
Basic Welsh
Intermediate Welsh
INTERMEDIATE KOREAN:
A GRAMMAR AND
WORKBOOK
Andrew Sangpil Byon
First published 2010
by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN
Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada
by Routledge
270 Madison Ave, New York, NY10016
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
© 2010 Andrew Sangpil Byon
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted
or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic,
mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented,
including photocopying and recording, or in any information
storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing
from the publishers.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
Byon, Andrew Sangpil.
Intermediate Korean : a grammar & workbook / Andrew Sangpil Byon.
p. cm.
Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada.
1. Korean language—Grammar—Problems, exercises, etc. 2. Korean language—
Textbooks for foreign speakers—English. I. Title.
PL913.B965 2009
495.7′82421—dc22
2008053381
ISBN10: 0-415-54714-8 (hbk)
ISBN10: 0-415-77488-8 (pbk)
ISBN10: 0-208-87590-7 (ebk)
ISBN13: 978-0-415-54714-7 (hbk)
ISBN13: 978-0-415-77488-8 (pbk)
ISBN13: 978-0-203-87590-2 (ebk)
For my parents, James Ki Yong and Gloria Hye Ja Pyon
This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2009.
To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s
collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.
ISBN 0-203-87590-7 Master e-book ISBN
v
CONTENTS
Preface ix
1 The intimate speech level and the plain speech level
~㠊/㞚, ~⓪/ච┺, ~┞/(㦒)⌦?, ~㞚/㠊⧒, ~㧦 1
2 Sentence-final endings
~㰖㣪, ~ῆ㣪, ~⍺㣪 11
3 Particles
⽊┺, 㻮⩒, ṯ㧊, Ⱒ䋒, Ⱎ┺, Ⱎ㩖, 㫆㹾, ⹬㠦 19
4 Auxiliary verbs I
~㠊/㞚 㡺┺, ~㠊/㞚 Ṗ┺, ~㠊/㞚 ⽊┺ 27
5 Auxiliary verbs II
~㠊/㞚 ⌊┺, ~㠊/㞚 ⻚Ⰲ┺, ~ἶ Ⱖ┺, ~㠊/㞚 㭒┺,
~㠊/㞚 ✲Ⰲ┺ 33
6 Auxiliary verbs III
~㠊/㞚 ⏩┺, ~㠊/㞚 ⚦┺, ~㠊/㞚 㧞┺, ~㠊/㞚䞮┺,
~㠊/㞚㰖┺ 42
7 Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention)
~(㦒)⩂, ~(㦒)⩺ἶ, ~☚⪳ 51
8 Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause)
~㠊/㞚㍲, ~(㦒)┞₢, ~ⓦ⧒ἶ 61
9 Clausal conjunctives (conditions)
~(㦒)Ⳋ, ~㠊/㞚㟒, ~(㦒)ඥ㑮⪳, ~Ệ✶ 72
10 Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice)
~ἶ, ~(㦒)Ⳇ, ~Ệ⋮, ~✶㰖 85
11 Clausal conjunctives (time)
~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲, ~㧦Ⱎ㧦, ~┺Ṗ 95
Contents
vi
12 Clausal connectives (background)
~⓪◆/(㦒)ච◆ 105
13 Clausal connectives (although)
~㰖Ⱒ, ~(㦒)⋮, ~㠊/㞚☚ 113
14 Permission, prohibition, and obligation
~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺, ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺, 㞞 ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺/~㰖
㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺, ~㠊/㞚㟒 ♮┺/䞮┺ 120
15 Passives and causatives
~㧊, ~䧞, ~Ⰲ, ~₆, ~㤆, ~ῂ, ~㿪, ~Ợ 䞮┺ 129
16 The noun-modifying endings
~⓪, ~(㦒)ච, ~(㦒)ඥ 137
17 Describing the appearance of actions or states of affair
~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ ộ ṯ┺, ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ ⳾㟧㧊┺,
~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ ❅䞮┺, ~⋮/(㦒)චṖ ⽊┺, ~㠊/㞚 ⽊㧊┺ 146
18 Post modifiers I
₎, 㩗, 㧒, ☯㞞, ☚㭧, 㭧, 䘎 157
19 Post modifiers II
╖⪲, 䤚㠦, 㻯, ⹪⧢㠦, ộ, ㄪ, ➢ 166
20 Ability and possibility
~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㧞┺/㠜┺, ~(㦒)ඥ 㭚 㞢┺/⳾⯊┺,
~(㦒)ඥ ⰂṖ 㠜┺ 178
21 Indirect question form
~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ㰖 186
22 The retrospective suffix
~▪ 195
23 Nominalizing endings
~₆ and ~(㦒)ත 205
24 Direct and indirect quotation
~(㧊)⧒ἶ 䞮┺, ~(ⓦ)ච┺ἶ 䞮┺, ~ⓦ⌦ἶ 䞮┺/ⶑ┺,
~(㦒)⧒ἶ 䞮┺, ~㧦ἶ 䞮┺ 219
Key to exercises 228
Index 279
vii
PREFACE
Intermediate Korean: A Grammar and Workbook is a sequel to its sister
volume Basic Korean: A Grammar and Workbook, and it likewise focuses
on providing an accessible reference grammar explanation and related
exercises in a single volume. It is designed for independent English-speaking
adult Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) learners who intend to maintain
and strengthen their knowledge of essential Korean grammar and for
classroom-based learners who are looking for supplemental grammar
explanations and practices. Consequently, this book differs from existing
KFL materials whose primary purpose is to help KFL learners acquire
four language skills, such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing as well
as cultural knowledge.
The layout of this book also differs from those of existing KFL mater-
ials. For instance, a typical KFL textbook chapter may include model dia-
logues, followed by vocabulary lists, grammar explanations, cultural notes,
and exercises. In contrast, following the pattern of Basic Korean and other
Grammar Workbooks of the Routledge series, every unit of Intermediate
Korean focuses on presenting jargon-free and concise grammar explana-
tions, followed by relevant grammar exercises.
This book has 24 units, and it does not take a functional-situational
approach in grouping and/or sequencing target grammatical points. Rather
it sequences and covers grammatical points according to their grammatical
categories (e.g., sentence endings, conjunctives, particles, and so on), so
that learners can use the book as a reference material as well as a practice
material. The exercises at the end of each unit are designed primarily to
reinforce the target grammatical points.
All Korean entries are presented in Hangul (the Korean alphabet) with
English translations to facilitate understanding. Accordingly, it requires
that learners familiarize themselves with Hangul, before going on to the
book. In addition, when translating Korean entries into English, efforts
were made to reflect the Korean meaning as closely as possible. Consequently,
some learners may feel certain English translations do not reflect typical
English usages. However, the direct translation approach was employed
for pedagogical purposes.
viii
Preface In writing this book, I have been fortunate to have the assistance and
support of many people. I would like to thank my colleagues in the Depart-
ment of East Asian Studies at the University at Albany, State University
of New York, who were supportive of this project. I am grateful to anonym-
ous reviewers for their constructive and valuable comments. I would like
to express sincere gratitude to Sophie Oliver for initially encouraging this
project and to the editorial and production teams of Routledge—Andrea
Hartill, and Samantha Vale Noya—for their advice and support through-
out the process. My thanks also go to Neil Dowden for his careful and
thoughtful copy-editing service and to Kathy Auger at Graphicraft for her
kind assistance during the final stage of production. Finally, as always, my
special thanks go to my wife, Isabel, who, with her optimism and encour-
agement, makes it possible for me to do what I really love to do. Of course,
I bear all responsibility for any shortcomings and errors in the text.
UNIT 1
The intimate speech level and
the plain speech level
1
The intimate speech level
The intimate speech level is in general used in the following situations: by
adults when addressing children, by parents when addressing their kids,
by children when addressing their peers, and by adult friends when address-
ing their childhood friends (or friends whose relationships are close enough
to switch to the intimate level from the polite level).
The intimate speech level ending is ~㠊/㞚. The choice of ~㠊 or ~㞚 is
the same with that of the polite speech level ending ~㠊㣪/㞚㣪. ~㞚 is
used after a stem that ends in a bright vowel, 㡺 or 㞚 (e.g., 㺔┺ “find”
=> 㺔㞚), while ~㠊 is used with the stem that ends in any other vowels
(e.g., ⺆㤆┺ “learn” => ⺆㤢). Consider the following examples:
Polite speech level Intimate speecsh level
Ṗ┺ “go” Ṗ㣪 Ṗ
⺆㤆┺ “learn” ⺆㤢㣪 ⺆㤢
Ṗ⯊䂮┺ “teach” Ṗ⯊㼦㣪 Ṗ⯊㼦
ⲏ┺ “eat” ⲏ㠊㣪 ⲏ㠊
䞮┺ “do” 䟊㣪 䟊
㧞┺ “have/exist” 㧞㠊㣪 㧞㠊
㧊┺ “be” 㧊㠦㣪 㧊㟒
㞚┞┺ “not be” 㞚┞㠦㣪 㞚┞㟒
As seen above, one can generate the intimate speech level from the
polite speech level, simply by removing 㣪. One exception is that the
copula 㧊┺/㞚┞┺ takes slightly different forms: 㧊㟒 instead of 㧊㠦,
and 㞚┞㟒 instead of 㞚┞㠦.
Just like the polite speech level ending ~㠊㣪/㞚㣪, the intimate speech
level ending ~㠊/㞚 is used for all sentence types: declarative, interrogative,
imperative, and propositive. For instance, consider the following:
1
The intimate
speech level
and the plain
speech level
2
ⰺ㧒 ⥆㠊 “(I) run everyday.”
ⰺ㧒 ⥆㠊? “(Do you) run everyday?”
ⰺ㧒 ⥆㠊! “Run everyday!”
ⰺ㧒 ⥆㠊 “(Let us) run everyday.”
Koreans use contextual elements as well as intonation (e.g., rising into-
nation for a question) to figure out what intimate speech level ending
~㠊/㞚 is used for a specific sentence type.
The plain speech level
The plain speech level ending sounds more blunt and direct than other
speech levels: deferential, polite, and intimate. The plain speech level is
primarily used in the following three contexts: When one addresses a child,
his/her childhood friends, or younger siblings; when the speaker talks to
himself/herself or wants to draw the listener’s attention to information
that is noteworthy or provoking; when one writes (e.g., personal essay,
prose, newspaper articles, academic papers, diary, and so forth).
Unlike the intimate and the polite speech levels that use the same
endings for different sentence types, the plain speech level has different
endings for different sentence types, as shown below.
Declarative
~⓪/ච┺ (for verb stems)
Ṗ┺ “go” Ṛ┺
ⲏ┺ “eat” ⲏ⓪┺
Ὃ⿖䞮┺ “study” Ὃ⿖䞲┺
~┺ (for adjective and copula stems)
㿻┺ “cold” 㿻┺
₾⊭䞮┺ “clean” ₾⊭䞮┺
㧊┺ “be” 㧊┺
~㠞/㞮┺ (for all predicate stems in the past tense)
㞺✲⮮Ṗ 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṫ┺ “Andrew went to school.”
⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤶┺ “The weather was cold.”
⹿㧊 ₾⊭䟞┺ “The room was clean.”
⁎ ⋾㧦Ṗ 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊㠞┺ “That man was a Korean.”
3
The plain
speech level
Interrogative
~┞/(㦒)⌦? (for all predicate stems)
Ṗ┺ “go” Ṗ┞? (or Ṗ⌦?)
ⲏ┺ “eat” ⲏ┞? (or ⲏ⌦?)
Ὃ⿖䞮┺ “study” Ὃ⿖䞮┞? (or Ὃ⿖䞮⌦?)
㫡┺ “good” 㫡┞? (or 㫡⌦?) / 㫡㦒⌦? (for writing)
㿻┺ “cold” 㿻┞? (or 㿻⌦?) / 㿪㤆⌦? (for writing)
₾⊭䞮┺ “clean” ₾⊭䞮┞? (or ₾⊭䞮⌦?)
㧊┺ “be” 㧊┞? (or 㧊⌦?)
~㠞/㞮┞/(㦒)⌦? (for all predicate stems in the past tense)
㞺✲⮮Ṗ 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṫ┞? “Did Andrew go to school?”
⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤶┞? “Was the weather cold?”
⹿㧊 ₾⊭䟞┞? “Was the room clean?”
⁎ ⋾㧦Ṗ 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊㠞┞? “Was that man a Korean?”
Imperative (only for verb stems)
~㞚⧒ (after a stem that ends in 㡺 or 㞚)
~㠊⧒ (after a stem that ends in any other vowels)
Ṗ┺ “go” Ṗ⧒
ⲏ┺ “eat” ⲏ㠊⧒
Ὃ⿖䞮┺ “study” Ὃ⿖䟊⧒
Propositive (only for verb stems)
~㧦
Ṗ┺ “go” Ṗ㧦
ⲏ┺ “eat” ⲏ㧦
Ὃ⿖䞮┺ “study” Ὃ⿖䞮㧦
Note that the plain speech level imperative ending ~㠊⧒/㞚⧒ and prop-
ositive ending ~㧦 are used only for verb stems, and they are not conjugated
for the tense.
1
The intimate
speech level
and the plain
speech level
4
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 1 exercises
ṖỢ store
Ṗ⹿ bag
Ṗ⯊䂮┺ to teach
ṫ㦮 lecture
Ị⍞┺ to cross over
ἓ㺆ὖ police officer
ὒ㧒 fruits
Ὃ⿖䞮┺ to study
Ὃ㡆 public performance/play
⁎Ⰲ┺ to draw
⁎Ⱂ painting/picture
₆┺Ⰲ┺ to wait
₆⿚ feeling/mood
₾⊭䞮┺ to be clean
⋮㊮┺ to be bad
⋶㝾 weather
⌊⩺Ṗ┺ to go down
⑚⋮ older sister
ⓦ⋢ feeling/mood
ⓦⰂ┺ to be slow/to be sluggish
┺Ⰲ bridge/legs
╁┺ to close/to shut
╂┺ to be sweet
╊⺆ cigarette
▮㰖┺ to throw
➆⦑䞮┺ to be warm
➆⯊┺ to follow
⟶⋮┺ to depart/to take leave of/to leave
⥾ỗ┺ to be hot (water)/to be heated
⪲ⰾ㓺 romance
Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink
Ⱎ䂮┺ to finish
Ⱒ⋮┺ to meet
ⲎⰂ head/hair (of one’s head)
ⲏ┺ to eat
Ⲗ┺ to be far
ⶎ door
⹕┺ to trust/to believe
⹪㊮┺ to be busy
5
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 1
exercises
⹱┺ to receive
⹲ foot
⺆㤆┺ to learn
⻚Ⰲ┺ to throw away
⻚㓺 bus
⻪㧎 criminal
⽊⌊┺ to send
⽊┺ to see/to watch/to read
アⰂ┺ to borrow
㌂ὒ apple
㌂⧢ person
㌂ⶊ㔺 office
㌂㰚 picture
㏢䙂 package
㏦ hand
㔲䠮 test/examination
㔶┺ to wear (shoes/socks)
㔶ⶎ newspapers
㕇㕇䞮┺ to be fresh
㝆⩞₆ trash/garbage
㞑┺ to wash
㞚┞┺ not be
㞚⧮ the base/the lower part
㞚⻚㰖 father
㞚䂾 morning
㞚䝚┺ to be sore/to be painful
㟧Ⱖ socks
㠊⪋┺ to be difficult
㠎㩲 when
㡊┺ to open
㡊㐶 keys
㡗䢪 movie
㣎䂮┺ to shout
㧊⻞ this time
㧒 work/matter/errand
㧒⽎㠊 the Japanese language
㧒㹣 early
㧓┺ to read
㧛┺ to wear (clothes)
㧦┺ to sleep
㧦㩚Ệ bicycle
㧷┺ to catch/to hold
㨂⹎㧞┺ to be interesting
1
The intimate
speech level
and the plain
speech level
6
㩧㔲 dishes/plates
㫆㣿䞮┺ to be quiet
㫡┺ to be good/to be right/to be beneficial
㭒┺ to give
㭒Ⱖ weekend
㭧ῃ㠊 the Chinese language
㰧 house
㹾 car
㺔┺ to look for/to seek for
㺓ⶎ window
㺛 book
䂲ῂ friend
䄺䞒 coffee
䋂Ợ aloud
䌖┺ to ride
䕪┺ to sell
䝚⧧㓺 France
䞒㤆┺ to smoke
䞮⓮ sky
䞮┺ to do
䠺㠊㰖┺ to get scattered/to be separated/to break up
䦦Ⰲ┺ to be cloudy
Exercise 1.1
Conjugate each verb or adjective in parentheses with the intimate speech
level ending. Then translate the sentence, as shown in the example.
Example: 䞯ᾦ㠦 (Ṗ┺) / imperative
= 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ. “Go to school.”
1 ┺Ⰲ⯒ (Ị⍞┺) / imperative
2 ⶎ㦚 (㡊┺) / imperative
3 㹾⯒ (䕪┺) / propositive
4 㝆⩞₆⯒ (⻚Ⰲ┺) / declarative
5 㺓ⶎ㦚 (╁┺) / imperative
6 Ὃ㡆㦚 㧒㹣 (Ⱎ䂮┺) / imperative
7 㩧㔲⯒ (アⰂ┺) / propositive
8 ⹲㦚 (㞑┺) / declarative
9 㧒㹣 (㧦┺) / propositve
10 㧦㩚Ệ⯒ (䌖┺) / interrogative
11 ⓦ⋢㧊 (㫡┺) / declarative
12 ṫ㦮Ṗ (㨂⹎㧞┺) declarative
Exercise 1.2
7
13 䝚⧧㓺 ㌂⧢ (㧊┺) /interrogative
14 㧒㦚 (䞮┺) / imperative
15 ἓ㺆ὖ㧊 (㞚┞┺) /interrogative
16 㰧㧊 (Ⲗ┺) / declarative
17 ㌂ὒṖ (╂┺) / declarative
18 ⲎⰂṖ (㞚䝚┺) / interrogative
19 䞮⓮㧊 (䦦Ⰲ┺) / declarative
20 ὒ㧒㧊 (㕇㕇䞮┺) / interrogative
Exercise 1.2
Conjugate each verb or adjective in parentheses with the declarative plain
speech level ending. Then translate each sentence.
Example: ㍲㤎㠦 (Ṗ┺)
= ㍲㤎㠦 Ṛ┺. “(I) go to Seoul.”
1 㞚䂾㦚 (ⲏ┺)
2 㭧ῃ㠊⯒ (Ṗ⯊䂮┺)
3 ⑚⋮⯒ (₆┺Ⰲ┺)
4 ⶒ㦚 (Ⱎ㔲┺)
5 ㏢䙂⯒ (⹱┺)
6 㧒⽎㠊⯒ (⺆㤆┺)
7 ㌂ⶊ㔺㧊 (₾⊭䞮┺)
8 ⻚㓺Ṗ (ⓦⰂ┺)
9 䄺䞒Ṗ (⥾ỗ┺)
10 㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 (⹪㊮┺)
Exercise 1.3
Conjugate each verb or adjective in parethensis with the interrogative
plain speech level ending. Then translate each sentence.
Example: 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 (Ṗ┺)
= 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 Ṗ┞? “Do (you) go to the supermarket?”
1 㠎㩲 ṖỢ ⶎ㦚 (╁┺)
2 㠊❪㍲ 䂲ῂ⯒ (Ⱒ⋮┺)
3 㠎㩲 (⟶⋮┺)
4 㠊❪㍲ (Ὃ⿖䞮┺)
5 ╊⺆⯒ (䞒㤆┺)
6 㡊㐶⯒ (㺔┺)
1
The intimate
speech level
and the plain
speech level
8
7 ⋶㝾Ṗ (➆⦑䞮┺)
8 㔲䠮㧊 (㠊⪋┺)
9 ₆⿚㧊 (⋮㊮┺)
10 㰧㧊 (㫆㣿䞮┺)
Exercise 1.4
Conjugate each verb or adjective in parethensis with the imperative plain
speech level ending. Then translate each sentence.
Example: 㤆㼊ῃ㠦 (Ṗ┺)
= 㤆㼊ῃ㠦 Ṗ⧒. “Go to the post office.”
1 ┺Ⰲ⯒ (Ị⍞┺)
2 㞚⧮⪲ (⌊⩺Ṗ┺)
3 Ṗ⹿㦚 (▮㰖┺)
4 㺓ⶎ㦚 (㡊┺)
5 㞚⻚㰖⯒ (➆⯊┺)
6 㞺✲⮮⯒ (⹕┺)
7 㟧Ⱖ㦚 (㔶┺)
8 ㎪䁶⯒ (㧛┺)
9 ㏦㦚 (㧷┺)
10 䋂Ợ (㣎䂮┺)
Exercise 1.5
Conjugate each verb or adjective in parenthesis with the propositive plain
speech level ending. Then translate each sentence.
Example: ☚㍲ὖ㠦 (Ṗ┺)
= ☚㍲ὖ㠦 Ṗ㧦. “(Let us) go to the library.”
1 ㌂㰚㦚 (⽊⌊┺)
2 ⁎Ⱂ㦚 (⁎Ⰲ┺)
3 ⻪㧎㦚 (㧷┺)
4 㔶ⶎ㦚 (㧓┺)
5 㧒㦚 (Ⱎ䂮┺)
6 䌳㔲⯒ (䌖┺)
7 䄺䞒㑣㠦㍲ (䠺㠊㰖┺)
8 ⪲ⰾ㓺 㡗䢪⯒ (⽊┺)
9 㺛㦚 (㭒┺)
10 㝆⩞₆⯒ (⻚Ⰲ┺)
9
Exercise 1.6
Exercise 1.6
Underline the correct English translation of the Korean phrase below.
Example: 㧦㩚Ệ⯒ 䌖㧦.
(Let us) ride a bike / Ride a bike.
1 Page 19 ⯒ 㧓㠊⧒.
(Let us) read page 19 / Read page 19.
2 ㏦㦚 㞑㧦.
Wash (your) hands / (Let us) wash (our) hands.
3 ⶎ㦚 ╁㞚⧒.
(Let us) close the door / Close the door.
4 ☞㦚 アⰂ㧦.
(Let us) borrow (his) money / Borrow (his) money.
5 ⹿㠦㍲ ⋮Ṗ⧒.
Go out from the room / (Let us) go out from the room.
6 ⏏㹾⯒ Ⱎ㎪⧒.
Drink green tea / (Let us) drink green tea.
7 㑯㩲⯒ 㭒㧦.
(Let us) give (them) homework / Give (them) homework.
8 㼃⹪㰖⯒ 㧛㧦.
Wear jeans / (Let us) wear jeans.
9 㡗㠊⯒ ⺆㤢⧒.
Learn English / (Let us) learn English.
10 ⩆▮㦒⪲ ⟶⋮㧦.
(Let us) leave for London / Leave for London.
Exercise 1.7
Finish the following translation using the intimate speech level and the
sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “What kind of movie do (you) want to see?” (ⶊ㓾 㡗䢪⯒
⽊ἶ 㕌┺)
= ⶊ㓾 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊ἶ 㕌㠊?
1 The movie begins at 2 p.m. (㡺䤚 z 㔲㠦 㡗䢪Ṗ 㔲㧧䞮┺)
2 Be quiet. (㫆㣿䧞 䞮┺)
1
The intimate
speech level
and the plain
speech level
10
3 (Let us) clean the house. (㰧㦚 㼃㏢䞮┺)
4 Where do (you) meet Tom? (䐆㦚 㠊❪㍲ Ⱒ⋮┺)
5 Where did (you) go? (㠊❪㠦 Ṗ┺)
6 (He) quitted smoking. (╊⺆⯒ ⊠┺)
7 The weather was clear. (⋶㝾Ṗ Ⱗ┺)
8 Buy some wines. (㢖㧎㦚 ㌂┺)
9 How long did (you) wait? (㠒Ⱎ⋮ ₆┺Ⰲ┺)
10 (They) taught English in Korea. (䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㡗㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂮┺)
Exercise 1.8
Finish the following translation using the plain speech level and the sen-
tence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(He) attends the University of Hawaii.” (䞮㢖㧊 ╖䞯ᾦ㠦
┺┞┺)
= 䞮㢖㧊 ╖䞯ᾦ㠦 ┺┢┺.
1 (I) major in economics. (ἓ㩲䞯㦚 㩚Ὃ䞮┺)
2 (He) traveled in Seoul last year. (㧧⎚㠦 ㍲㤎㦚 㡂䟟䞮┺)
3 The coffee is hot. (䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾ỗ┺)
4 Is (he) a Canadian? (䃦⋮┺ ㌂⧢㧊┺)
5 Was the subway convenient? (㰖䞮㻶㧊 䘎䞮┺)
6 Are (you) happy? (䟟⽋䞮┺)
7 Open the window. (㺓ⶎ㦚 㡊┺)
8 Throw the garbage. (㝆⩞₆⯒ ⻚Ⰲ┺)
9 (Let us) have the confidence. (㧦㔶Ṧ㦚 Ṗ㰖┺)
10 (Let us) sing a song. (⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊┺)
UNIT 2
Sentence-final endings
~㰖㣪, ~ῆ㣪, ~⍺㣪
11
Typical sentence-final endings are speech level endings, such as the defer-
ential, polite, intimate, and plain endings. However, sentence-final endings
also include various sentence-final suffixes, such as 㰖, ῆ, and ⍺. These
suffixes, combined with 㣪 “the politeness marker” can serve as sentence-
final endings that convey the speaker’s various psychological states or
attitudes. This unit introduces three sentence-final endings, ~㰖㣪, ~ῆ㣪,
and ~⍺㣪.
The sentence-final ending ~㰖㣪
The sentence-final ending ~㰖㣪 is a one-form ending that indicates one
of the following four mental states or attitudes of the speaker: (i) seeking
agreement, (ii) asking a question with a belief that the hearer has the
answer, (iii) assuring information, and (iv) suggesting. The speaker’s
intonation (e.g., falling or rising) as well as contextual factors involved
(e.g., referential and situational contexts) determine which among the four
moods or attitudes the ending indicates.
(1) Seeking agreement (with a rising intonation)
Consider the following two examples:
䙊㧊 ⰺ㧒 㫆ₛ㦚 䟊㣪? “Does Paul jog everyday?”
䙊㧊 ⰺ㧒 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮㰖㣪? “Paul jogs everyday, right?”
Notice that the ending ~㠊/㞚㣪 in the first sentence simply asks the mes-
sage in a straightforward manner. On the other hand, the ending ~㰖㣪 in
the second sentence indicates that the speaker seeks agreement while
asking the same question. Here are more examples:
㡺⓮ 㩖⎗ o㔲㠦 Ⱒ⋮㰖㣪? “(They) meet at 6 o’clock this evening,
right?”
㠊㩲 䞯ᾦ㠦 㢪㰖㣪? “(You) came to school yesterday, right?”
2
Sentence-
final endings
~㰖㣪,
~ῆ㣪, ~⍺㣪
12
(2) Asking a question, believing that the hearer has the answer
(with a rising intonation)
䞒䎆Ṗ ⳝ 㔲㠦 ☢㞚㢖㣪? “What time does Peter return?”
䞒䎆Ṗ ⳝ 㔲㠦 ☢㞚㡺㰖㣪? “What time does Peter return?”
Again, the ending ~㠊/㞚㣪 in the first sentence simply asks the message
in a direct manner. However, the second sentence with the ending ~㰖㣪
implies that the speaker believes that the hearer has the answer. Here are
more examples:
㩖 ㌂⧢㧊 ⑚ῂ㰖㣪? “Who is that person (over there)?”
㡊㐶Ṗ 㠊❪㠦 㧞㠞㰖㣪? “Where was the key?”
(3) Assuring information (with a falling intonation)
⍺, ⌊㧒 ⟶⋮㣪. “Yes, (they) leave tomorrow.”
⍺, ⌊㧒 ⟶⋮㰖㣪. “Yes, (I assure you that they) leave tomorrow.”
The first sentence with the ending ~㠊/㞚㣪 simply states the message.
On the other hand, the ending ~㰖㣪 in the second sentence indicates that
the speaker assures of the referential message. Here are more examples:
㡗ῃ㦮 㑮☚Ṗ ⩆▮㧊㰖㣪. “(I assure you) that the capital of England
is London.”
⍺, 㠊㩲 㟓㏣㧊 㧞㠞㰖㣪. “Yes, (I assure you) that (we) had an appoint-
ment yesterday.”
(4) Suggesting (with a falling intonation)
㿪㤊◆ 㺓ⶎ ╁㞚㣪. “(It) is cold, so close the window.”
㿪㤊◆ 㺓ⶎ ╁㰖㣪. “(It) is cold, so how about closing the window?”
The first sentence with the ending ~㠊/㞚㣪 is a direct request. However,
the second sentence is a suggestion because of the ending ~㰖㣪. Here are
more examples:
䎢┞㓺⋮ 䂮㰖㣪. “(How about we) play tennis (or something)?”
㩦㕂㧊⋮ ⲏἶ 㡆㔋䞮㰖㣪. “(How about we) practice after eating lunch
(or something)?”
The honorific suffix ~(㦒)㔲 can be optionally used along with ~㰖㣪
to make the suggestion sound more polite, as shown in the following
examples:
13
The
sentence-
final ending
~⍺㣪
㍶㌳┮, Ṗ㔲㰖㣪. “Professor, (how about we) go?”
㺛 㫖 ア⩺ 㭒㔲㰖㣪. “(How about you) please lend (me) the book?”
The sentence-final ending ~⍺㣪
The one-form sentence-final ending ~⍺㣪 is used to indicate the speaker’s
spontaneous and immediate reaction, such as unexpected surprise and/or
realization. The ending ~⍺㣪 is used only for the declarative statement
sentence type, and it may be translated as “Oh, I see/realize that . . .”
Consider the following two examples:
㫊㧊 䞲ῃⰦ㦚 㧮 䟊㣪. “John speaks Korean well.”
㫊㧊 䞲ῃⰦ㦚 㧮 䞮⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) John speaks Korean well.”
Notice that the first sentence simply conveys the message in a straightfor-
ward manner. On the other hand, the second sentence with the ending
~⍺㣪 indicates the speaker’s spontaneous emotive reaction. It denotes
that the information which the speaker hears or observes (e.g., John speak-
ing Korean well) is unanticipated and/or contrary to what was expected.
Here are more examples:
㞚䂾㦚 Ⱔ㧊 㭖゚䟞⍺㣪. “(I realize that you) prepared huge breakfast.”
䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ 㡗㠊 ㍶㌳┮㧊㠞⍺㣪. “(I am surprised that) Thomas was an
English teacher.”
゚Ṗ Ⱔ㧊 㡺⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) it rains a lot.”
㧊 䄺䞒Ṗ 㰚䞮⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) this coffee is strong.”
~Ỷ⍺㣪
The suffix Ỷ is a pre-final ending that comes between the stem of the
predicate and the final-ending. The suffix Ỷ denotes the speaker’s con-
jecture or inference about what did occur, what is occurring, and what will
occur, based on circumstantial evidences.
~Ỷ⍺㣪, the combination of the suffix Ỷ and the ending ~⍺㣪, is used
to indicate the speaker’s realization of what will happen in reaction to the
surprised or unanticipated information the speaker just encountered. It is
best translated in English as “(I guess . . . something) may/will . . . ” Consider
the following examples:
㦢㔳㧊 Ⱔ㧊 ⱋỶ⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) the food may be very spicy.”
⌊㧒 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿻Ỷ⍺㣪. “(Oh, I realize that) tomorrow’s weather may
be cold.”
⁎⩒, 㤆Ⰲ ⌊㧒 Ὃ䟃㠦㍲ Ⱒ⋮Ỷ⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) then, we may
run into each other tomorrow at the airport.”
2
Sentence-
final endings
~㰖㣪,
~ῆ㣪, ~⍺㣪
14
~㠞/㞮Ỷ⍺㣪
~㠞/㞮Ỷ⍺㣪, the combination of the past tense marker 㠞/㞮 and ~Ỷ⍺
㣪, is used to express the speaker’s surprise or realization about what must
have occurred. It can be translated as “I guess that something must have . . . ,”
as shown in the examples below:
Ⱔ㧊 㞚䕶Ỷ⍺㣪. “(I guess that it) must have been painful.”
㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㧞㠞Ỷ⍺㣪. “(I guess that) the movie must have been
interesting.”
⑚⋮ ㌳㧒㧊㠞㦒┞₢ 㰧㠦 Ṫ㠞Ỷ⍺㣪. “Since (it) was (his) older
sister’s birthday, (I guess that he) must have gone home.”
The sentence-final ending ~ῆ㣪
The one-form sentence-final ending ~ῆ㣪 is used as an exclamatory end-
ing. It is used to express the speaker’s immediate realization to what he/she
just perceived. The meaning and usage of ~ῆ㣪 is similar to those of
~⍺㣪 in that both indicate what the speaker just realized. However, there
is one subtle difference. While ~⍺㣪 indicates that what’s been realized
or perceived is contrary to the expectation, ~ῆ㣪 simply expresses the
immediate realization in a straightforward manner.
~ῆ㣪 is used after adjective and copula stems. However, for verb stems,
~⓪ “the noun-modifying ending for verbs” is used along with ~ῆ㣪 (e.g.,
~⓪ῆ㣪). Consider the following examples:
After adjective stems
⋶㝾Ṗ ▻ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) the weather is hot.”
䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㧞ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) the Korean food is delicious.”
After copula stems
㩲㔲䃊Ṗ 㧒⽎ ㌂⧢㧊ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) Jessica is a Japanese
person.”
㡂₆Ṗ 㫊㦮 㰧㧊ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) here is John’s house.”
After verb stems
㧒⽎㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂮⓪ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that they) teach the Japanese
language.”
ⰺ㧒 Ἶ䝚⯒ ⺆㤆⓪ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that he) learns golf everyday.
15
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 2
exercises
For immediate realization about a past event, ~㠞/㞮ῆ㣪 is used for
all predicates.
㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㧞㠞ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) the movie was interesting.”
䞲ῃ㦮 㑮☚Ṗ ㍲㤎㧊㠞ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) the capital of Korea was
Seoul.”
䞲ῃ ⏎⧮⯒ 㫡㞚䟞ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that you) liked Korean songs.”
For immediate realization about a possible or guessed future event,
~Ỷῆ㣪 is used.
㍲㤎㠦㍲ 㠊Ⲏ┞⯒ Ⱒ⋮Ỷῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that he) may meet (his)
mother in Seoul.”
⌊㧒 ṖỢ⯒ 㡊Ỷῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that they) may open the store
tomorrow.”
䞲ῃ ⶎ䞯㦚 㩚Ὃ䞮Ỷῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that she) may major in Korean
literature.”
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 2 exercises
ṖỢ store
ἓ䂮 scenery
ₖ䂮 kimchi
₾⊭䞮┺ to be clean
⋶㝾 weather
╁┺ to close
▻┺ to be hot (the weather)
ⰱ㧞┺ to be delicious
ⲏ┺ to eat
ⶒṖ prices
⹿ room
⼖䢎㌂ lawyer
゚㕎┺ to be expensive
㔲⊚⩓┺ to be noisy
㔶䢒 a new marriage
㞚⯚╋┺ to be beautiful
㠊㩲 yesterday
㠜┺ not have/not exist
㡂䟟 trip/travel
㡺⓮ today
2
Sentence-
final endings
~㰖㣪,
~ῆ㣪, ~⍺㣪
16
㡺䤚 afternoon
㧊㟒₆䞮┺ to talk
㧒䞮┺ to work
㧦┺ to sleep
㫆㣿䞮┺ to be quiet
㰧 house
䡫 older brother
Exercise 2.1
Finish the following translation using ~㰖㣪 (seeking confirmation) and
the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Nick is also coming, right?” (┟☚ 㡺ἶ 㧞┺)
= ┟☚ 㡺ἶ 㧞㰖㣪?
1 Wendy is a Chinese, right? (㢶❪Ṗ 㭧ῃ ㌂⧢㧊┺)
2 (They) meet Edward, right? (㠦✲㤢✲⯒ Ⱒ⋮┺)
3 (You) believe me, right? (⋮⯒ ⹕┺)
4 The price is expensive, right? (Ṗỿ㧊 ゚㕎┺)
5 (You) take the bus over there, right? (㩖₆㍲ ⻚㓺⯒ 䌖┺)
Exercise 2.2
Conjugate the predicate using ~㰖㣪? (seeking confirmation). Then trans-
late the sentence, as shown in the example.
Example: 䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ ㌂ὒ⯒ ⲏἶ 㕌㠊䞮┺
= 䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ ㌂ὒ⯒ ⲏἶ 㕌㠊䞮㰖㣪?
“Thomas wants to eat an apple, right?”
1 㡺⓮ ⋶㝾Ṗ ▻┺
2 ἓ䂮Ṗ 㞚⯚╋┺
3 ⹿㧊 㫆㣿䞮┺
4 㰧㧊 㔲⊚⩓┺
5 䄺䞒Ṗ ⰱ㧞┺
Exercise 2.3
Finish the following translation using ~㰖㣪 (suggestion) and the sentence
cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
17
Exercise 2.4 Example: “(How about we) see an action movie together?”
(ṯ㧊 㞷㎮ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊┺)
= ṯ㧊 㞷㎮ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊㰖㣪.
1 (How about we) go back home? (㰧㦒⪲ ☢㞚Ṗ┺)
2 (How about we) order coffee? (䄺䞒⯒ 㔲䋺┺)
3 (How about we) turn on the air conditioner? (㠦㠊䄾㦚 䅲┺)
4 (How about we) make a phone call to Linda? (Ⰶ┺䞲䎢 㩚䢪⯒
Ỏ┺)
5 (How about we) pay (them) by cash? (䡚⁞㦒⪲ 㰖⿞䞮┺)
6 (How about we) buy a birthday card? (㌳㧒 䃊✲⯒ ㌂┺)
7 (How about we) borrow a Korean movie? (䞲ῃ 㡗䢪⯒ アⰂ┺)
8 (How about we) use the subway? (㰖䞮㻶㦚 㧊㣿䞮┺)
9 (How about we) invite Jodie’s friends as well? (㫆❪㦮 䂲ῂ✺☚
㽞╖䞮┺)
10 (How about we) quit smoking? (╊⺆⯒ ⊠┺)
Exercise 2.4
Finish the following translation using ~⍺㣪 and the sentence cue provided
in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(Oh, I see that) it rains outside.” (⹬㠦 ゚Ṗ 㡺┺)
= ⹬㠦 ゚Ṗ 㡺⍺㣪.
1 (Oh, I see that) Chris snores. (䋂Ⰲ㓺Ṗ 䆪Ἶ┺)
2 (Oh, I see that) Abigail sings well. (㞚゚Ợ㧒㧊 ⏎⧮⯒ 㧮 䞮┺)
3 (Oh, I see that) Ronald is diligent. (⪲⋶✲Ṗ ⿖㰖⩆䞮┺)
4 (Oh, I see that) Diana went home from work. (┺㧊㠦⋮Ṗ 䑊⁒䟞┺)
5 (Oh, I see that) Lidia earned money. (Ⰲ❪㞚Ṗ ☞㦚 ⻢㠞┺)
6 (Oh, I see that) the ring was expensive. (⹮㰖Ṗ ゚㕢┺)
Exercise 2.5
Conjugate the predicate using ~⍺㣪. Then translate the sentence, as shown
in the example.
Example: 䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ 㩲㧎䞮ἶ 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺
= 䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ 㩲㧎䞮ἶ 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲⍺㣪.
“(Oh, I see that) Thomas drinks coffee with Jane.”
2
Sentence-
final endings
~㰖㣪,
~ῆ㣪, ~⍺㣪
18
1 㫆㎟㧊 㰧㠦 㠜┺
2 ⩞㧊㼒㧊 ₖ䂮⯒ ⲏ┺
3 ┞䆲⧒㓺Ṗ ⋮䌞Ⰲ䞮ἶ 㧊㟒₆䞮┺
4 ◆㧊キ㧊 㞢⩟㓺㦮 䡫㧊┺
5 㞂❪Ṗ 㞚㰗 㞞 㧦┺
6 ⹿㧊 ₾⊭䞮┺
Exercise 2.6
Finish the following translation using ~ῆ㣪 and the sentence cue provided
in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(Oh, I see that they) arrived (here) already.”
(⻢㖾 ☚㹿䟞┺)
= ⻢㖾 ☚㹿䟞ῆ㣪.
1 (Oh, I see that) the weather is chilly. (⋶㝾Ṗ 㕎⓮䞮┺)
2 (Oh, I see that it) was very windy yesterday. (㠊㩲 ⹪⧢㧊 Ⱔ㧊
⿞㠞┺)
3 (Oh, I see that) Boston is famous for lobster. (⽊㓺䏺㧊 ⹪╍Ṗ㨂⪲
㥶ⳛ䞮┺)
4 (Oh, I see that) Julia is a nurse. (㯊Ⰲ㞚Ṗ Ṛ䢎㌂㧊┺)
5 (Oh, I see that it) is summer from now on. (㧊㩲⿖䎆 㡂⯚㧊┺)
6 (Oh, I see that) Jim received the bonus. (㰦㧊 ⽊⍞㓺⯒ ⹱㞮┺)
Exercise 2.7
Conjugate the predicate using ~ῆ㣪. Then translate the sentence, as shown
in the example.
Example: 䙊㧊 ☚㍲ὖ㠦 Ṫ┺
= 䙊㧊 ☚㍲ὖ㠦 Ṫῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) Paul went to the
library.”
1 ⋮㡺⹎Ṗ 䕾㎮ ⳾◎㧊┺
2 㥶⩓㦒⪲ 㔶䢒 㡂䟟㦚 Ṗ┺
3 㡺䤚 Û㔲㠦 ṖỢ⯒ ╁㞮┺
4 䟊ⰂṖ ⼖䢎㌂⪲ 㧒䟞┺
5 ⶒṖṖ ゚㕎┺
6 㠊㩲 ⹿㧊 ▪㤶┺
UNIT 3
Particles
⽊┺, 㻮⩒, ṯ㧊, Ⱒ䋒, Ⱎ┺, Ⱎ㩖,
㫆㹾, ⹬㠦
19
⽊┺
The particle ⽊┺ is used to make a comparative sentence. This particle is
attached to a noun that is being compared, and it is translated as “more
than” or “rather than.” Consider the following example:
㩲㧎㦮 ⹿㧊 䐆㦮 ⹿⽊┺ 䄺㣪. “Jane’s room is bigger than Tom’s
room.”
Notice that Tom’s room is the noun that is being compared to Jane’s
room.
Adverbs such as ▪ “more,” ▲ “less,” and 䤾㞂 “by far,” can be used
along with the particle ⽊┺ to put more emphasis on the comparison, as
shown below:
㧊 㢍㧊 ⁎ 㢍⽊┺ ▪ ゚㕎㣪. “This dress is more expensive than that
dress.”
㡺⓮㧊 㠊㩲⽊┺ ▲ 㿪㤢㣪. “Today is less cold than yesterday.”
㩲Ṗ 䡫⽊┺ 䤾㞂 ▪ Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ㠊㣪. “I eat much more than (my) older
brother.”
Here are more examples:
㩖⓪ ⽚⽊┺ Ṗ㦚㦚 ▪ 㫡㞚䟊㣪. “As for me, (I) like autumn more
than spring.”
㞺✲⮮Ṗ ⑚ῂ⽊┺ ▪ ⲡ㧞㠊㣪. “Andrew is handsomer than
anybody.”
⪲⋶✲Ṗ 㩖⽊┺ ⚦ ㌊㧊 ▪ Ⱔ㞚㣪. “Ronald is two years older than I.”
㫆㰖Ṗ 䝚⨃䋂⽊┺ ▪ ⻢㠞㠊㣪. “George earned more than Frank.”
䄺䞒⽊┺ 㭒㓺⯒ ▪ Ⱎ㔲ἶ 㕌㠞㠊㣪. “(I) wanted to drink juice more
than coffee.”
㧊 㡗䢪Ṗ ⁎ 㡗䢪⽊┺ ▲ 㨂⹎㧞㠞㠊㣪. “This movie was less interest-
ing than that movie.”
3
Particles
⽊┺, 㻮⩒,
ṯ㧊, Ⱒ䋒,
Ⱎ┺, Ⱎ㩖,
㫆㹾, ⹬㠦
20
䐆⽊┺ ☞㦚 ▲ 㗒㠊㣪. “(I) spent less money than Tom.”
ぢ⧮✲Ṗ 㫊⽊┺ 䤾㞂 ▪ 㥶ⳛ䟊㣪. “Brad is much more popular than
John.”
䞒䎆Ṗ 㩖⽊┺ 䋺Ṗ ▪ 䅎㠞㠊㣪. “Peter used to be taller than I.”
㻮⩒ and ṯ㧊
The particle 㻮⩒ is used to compare one noun with another. It is translated
as “as if” and “like.” Consider the following examples:
㞾Ⰲ㓺Ṗ 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㻮⩒ 䞲ῃⰦ㦚 㧮 䟊㣪. “Alice speaks Korean well
like a Korean.”
┺㧊㞶⋮Ṗ 㠊⯎㻮⩒ 䟟☯䟊㣪. “Diana behaves like an adult.”
䕆⋮㻮⩒ 㡊㕂䧞 㧒䞮㎎㣪. “Work hard like Tina.”
The meaning of the particle ṯ㧊 is similar to that of 㻮⩒, as shown
below:
㩲㧎㦖 ⳿㏢ⰂṖ ⋾㧦 ⳿㏢Ⰲṯ㧊 䠞㓺䋺䟊㣪. “As for Jane, (her) voice
is husky like a man’s voice.”
㠊㩲⓪ 㡂⯚ṯ㧊 ▪㤶㠊㣪. “As for yesterday, (it) was hot like
summer.”
㡺⓮ ⹺㦖 ⌄ṯ㧊 ⹳㞚㣪. “As for tonight, (it) is bright like the
daytime.”
Ⱒ䋒
The particle Ⱒ䋒 is used to express “as much as” or “to the extent to that.”
Consider the following examples:
㤆Ⰲ 䡫Ⱒ䋒 ⡧⡧䟞㠊㣪. “(I) was as smart as my older brother.”
㡺⓮㦖 㠊㩲Ⱒ䋒 ▻㰖 㞠㞚㣪. “As for today, (it) is not as hot as
yesterday.”
㫆㰖Ṗ 㥢Ⰲ㠚Ⱒ䋒 Ἶ䝚⯒ 㧮 㼦㣪. “George plays golf as good as
William.”
㧊 㹾Ṗ 㩖 㹾Ⱒ䋒 ゚㕎㣪. “This car is as expensive as that car (over
there).”
䧦⩂Ⰲ⓪ ⲪⰂⰢ䋒 㡞ㄦ㣪. “As for Hilary, (she) is as pretty as Mary.”
₆╖Ⱒ䋒 㩦㑮Ṗ ⋮㢪㠊㣪. “The score came out to the extent of (my)
expectation.”
21
Ⱎ┺
Ⱎ┺
The particle Ⱎ┺ means “every” or “each,” as shown in the examples below:
䡫㧊 ╂Ⱎ┺ ☞㦚 ⿖㼦 㭮㣪. “(My) older brother sends (me) money
every month.”
1㔲ṚⰞ┺ 㟓㦚 ⲏ㦒㎎㣪. “Take the medicine every 4 hours.”
⹿Ⱎ┺ 䎪⩞゚㩚㧊 㧞㠊㣪? “Does each room have a TV?”
ᾦ㑮┮Ⱎ┺ 㡆ῂ㔺㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “Each professor has an office.”
Ⱎ㩖 and 㫆㹾
The particles Ⱎ㩖 or 㫆㹾 are used to express “even.” Consider the fol-
lowing examples:
䏶Ⱎ㓺Ⱎ㩖 䕢䕆㠦 㞞 㢪㠊㣪. “Even Thomas did not come to the
party.”
⁎ 䞯㌳㦖 㧦₆ 㧊⯚㫆㹾 ⴑ 㖾㣪. “As for that student, (he) can not
write even his name.”
The meanings of Ⱎ㩖 and 㫆㹾 are similar to that of ₢㰖 “even.”
However, differing from ₢㰖, the particles Ⱎ㩖 and 㫆㹾 are in general
associated with unfavorable or unsought contents. Compare the follow-
ing two sentences:
㫊㦮 㡂㧦䂲ῂ₢㰖 Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪. “(I) even met John’s girlfriend.”
㫊㦮 㡂㧦䂲ῂⰞ㩖 Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪. “(I) even met John’s girlfriend.”
Although the translation of both examples are the same, the second
example with Ⱎ㩖 implies that meeting Thomas’ girlfriend was not a
favorable event, whereas the first example with ₢㰖 simply indicates
“including (even).” Here are more examples:
㹾 ㌂ἶ⪲ ⿖㧎䞮ἶ 㞚✺Ⱎ㩖 㧙㠞㠊㣪. “Due to the car accident, (he)
lost (his) wife and even (his) son.”
╏㔶Ⱎ㩖 ⋮⯒ ⟶⋮Ⳋ 㠊⠑Ợ ㌊㞚Ṗ㣪? “If you also leave me, how
should (I) go on living?”
グ➢ⶎ㠦 㰧㦚 䕪ἶ 㹾Ⱎ㩖 䕪㞮㠊㣪. “Because of the debt, (we) sold
the house and even the car.”
㞚䂾☚ ῌἶ 㩦㕂㫆㹾 ⴑ ⲏ㠞㠊㣪. “(I) skipped breakfast and could
not eat even lunch.”
⁎㦮 㡂㧦䂲ῂ㫆㹾 ⁎㦮 㧊㟒₆⯒ 㞞 ⹕㠞㠊㣪. “Even his girlfriend
did not believe his story.”
3
Particles
⽊┺, 㻮⩒,
ṯ㧊, Ⱒ䋒,
Ⱎ┺, Ⱎ㩖,
㫆㹾, ⹬㠦
22
⹬㠦
The particle ⹬㠦 is used to indicate “only” or “nothing but” in English.
The meaning of ⹬㠦 is similar to that of Ⱒ “only.” However, differing
from Ⱒ, the particle ⹬㠦 always co-occurs with the negative predicate.
For instance, compare the following sentences:
T5 ╂⧒Ⱒ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have only 15 dollars.”
T5 ╂⧒⹬㠦 㠜㠊㣪. “(I) have only 15 dollars (lit. I have nothing but
15 dollars).”
Notice that although the meanings of both sentences are similar, the
second sentence ends in a negative 㠜㠊㣪 “do not have.” Here are more
examples:
5 ⿚⹬㠦 㞞 ₆┺⪎㠊㣪. “(I) waited only 5 minutes.”
ᾦ㔺㧊 ⹮⹬㠦 㞞 㺒㠊㣪. “The classroom is only half full.”
䄺䞒⯒ ⚦ 㧪⹬㠦 㞞 Ⱎ㎾㠊㣪. “(I) drank only two cups of coffee.”
┺㦢 䞯₆⓪ ㎎ ὒ⳿⹬㠦 㞞 ✺㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “As for next semester, (I)
will take only three courses.”
㥶┞㓺⓪ 㧒⽎㠊⯒ 㫆⁞⹬㠦 ⴑ 䟊㣪. “As for Eunice, (she) can speak
only a little Japanese.”
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 3 exercises
₆┺Ⰲ┺ to wait
⌄㧶 nap
Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink
Ⱒ⋮┺ to meet
ⲏ┺ to eat
⿚ minute
㌂ὒ apple
㌦⩂✲ salad
㌳ṗ䞮┺ to think
㏦┮ customer/guest
㔲Ṛ hour
㞚ザ dad
㠊Ⲏ┞ mother
㠊㩲 yesterday
㠎┞ older sister
㠚Ⱎ mom
Exercise 3.1
23
㧦┺ to sleep
㨂㯞 jazz
㫡㞚䞮┺ to like
㭒㓺 juice
Exercise 3.1
Complete the following translation using the particle ⽊┺ and the cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) wanted to drink juice more than coffee.”
(䄺䞒 / 㭒㓺⯒ ▪ Ⱎ㔲ἶ 㕌㠞㠊㣪)
= 䄺䞒⽊┺ 㭒㓺⯒ ▪ Ⱎ㔲ἶ 㕌㠞㠊㣪.
1 Charles is more popular than Lisa (Ⰲ㌂ / 㺆㓺Ṗ 㧎₆Ṗ ▪ Ⱔ㞚
㣪)
2 Philippine is hotter than Korea (䞲ῃ / 䞚Ⰲ䞖㧊 ▪ ▪㤢㣪)
3 (I) liked autumn better than spring (⽚ / Ṗ㦚㦚 ▪ 㫡㞚䟞㠊㣪)
4 (He) wanted to major in literature more than science (ὒ䞯 / ⶎ䞯㦚
▪ 㩚Ὃ䞮ἶ 㕌㠊䟞㠊㣪)
5 Did (you) want to buy a notebook more than a digital camera? (❪㰖
䌞 䃊Ⲫ⧒ / ⏎䔎⿗㦚 ▪ ㌂ἶ 㕌㠞㠊㣪?)
6 An airplane is faster than a car (㹾 / ゚䟟₆Ṗ ▪ ザ⯛┞┺)
7 New York City is bigger than Honolulu (䢎⏖⭆⬾ / Ⓤ㣫㔲Ṗ ▪ 䋓
┞┺)
8 Today is less cold than yesterday (㠊㩲 / 㡺⓮㧊 ▲ 㿻㔋┞┺)
9 Does Sam play tennis better than Harry? (䟊Ⰲ / ㌮㧊 䎢┞㓺⯒ ▪
㧮 䂿┞₢?)
10 Does Jane like meat more than Dave? (◆㧊ぢ / 㩲㧎㧊 ἶ₆⯒ ▪
㫡㞚䞿┞₢?)
Exercise 3.2
Finish the following translation using the particle 㻮⩒ and the cues pro-
vided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “That child drinks water much like a hippo.”
(⁎ 㞚㧊 / 䞮Ⱎ / ⶒ㦚 Ⱔ㧊 Ⱎ㎪㣪)
= ⁎ 㞚㧊Ṗ 䞮Ⱎ㻮⩒ ⶒ㦚 Ⱔ㧊 Ⱎ㎪㣪.
1 Juice is chilly like ice (㭒㓺 / 㠒㦢 / 㹾Ṗ㤢㣪)
2 Lidia acts like a detective (Ⰲ❪㞚 / 䡫㌂ / 䟟☯䟊㣪)
3
Particles
⽊┺, 㻮⩒,
ṯ㧊, Ⱒ䋒,
Ⱎ┺, Ⱎ㩖,
㫆㹾, ⹬㠦
24
3 Does Chris swim well like a seal? (䋂Ⰲ㓺 / ⶒṲ / 㑮㡗㦚 㧮 䟊
㣪?)
4 Jerry was docile like a sheep (㩲Ⰲ / 㟧 / 㑲䟞㠊㣪)
5 Vegetables will be expensive like gold (㟒㺚 / ⁞ / ゚㕖 Ệ㡞㣪)
6 John is tall like a basketball player (㫊 / ⏣ῂ ㍶㑮 / 䋺Ṗ 䄺㣪)
7 Sandy is slim like a model (㌢❪ / ⳾◎ / ⋶㞂䟊㣪)
8 Anthony is smart like Einstein (㞺㍲┞ / 㞚㧎㓞䌖㧎 / ⡧⡧䟊㣪)
9 Sarah sang the song well like an opera singer (㌂⧒ / 㡺䗮⧒ Ṗ㑮 /
⏎⧮⯒ 㧮 䟞㠊㣪)
10 Thomas will run well like a marathoner (䏶Ⱎ㓺 / Ⱎ⧒䏺 ㍶㑮 / 㧮
⥎ Ệ㡞㣪)
Exercise 3.3
Complete the following translation using the particle Ⱒ䋒 and the cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Bill is as rich as Tom.” (ア / 䐆 / ⿖㧦㧛┞┺)
= ア㧊 䐆Ⱒ䋒 ⿖㧦㧛┞┺.
1 Catherine speaks Korean as fluently as Neal (䃦㍲Ⰶ / ┦ / 䞲ῃ㠊⯒
㧮 䞿┞┺)
2 The kitchen is as big as the living room (⿖㠢 / Ệ㔺 / 䋓┞┺)
3 Daniel is as diligent as Philip (◆┞㠮 / 䞚Ⱃ / ⿖㰖⩆䞿┞┺)
4 Did Patrick like wine as much as Erica? (䕾䔎Ⰳ / 㠦Ⰲ䃊 / 㢖㧎㦚
㫡㞚䟞㔋┞₢?)
5 Rebecca was as graceful as Jennifer (⩞⻶䃊 / 㩲┞䗒 / 㟢㩚䟞㔋
┞┺)
6 Seoul is as expensive as New York (㍲㤎 / Ⓤ㣫 / ゚㕎㣪)
7 This car is as good as that car (over there) (㧊 㹾 / 㩖 㹾 / 㫡㞚㣪)
8 Does Philip earns money as much as Adam? (䞚Ⱃ / 㞚╊ / ☞㦚 ⻢
㠊㣪?)
9 The subway was as convenient as taxi (㰖䞮㻶 / 䌳㔲 / 䘎䟞㠊㣪)
10 Edward drank (it) as much as Thomas (㠦✲㤢✲ / 䏶Ⱎ㓺 / Ⱎ㎾
㠊㣪)
25
Exercise 3.4
Exercise 3.4
Complete the following translation using the particle Ⱎ┺ and the cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Does Hugh jog every morning?” (䦊 / 㞚䂾 / 㫆ₛ㦚
䞿┞₢?)
“䦊Ṗ 㞚䂾Ⱎ┺ 㫆ₛ㦚 䞿┞₢?”
1 (I) take a walk every evening (㩖⎗ / ㌆㺛䞿┞┺)
2 Do (you) ski every winter? (Ỿ㤎 / 㓺䋺⯒ 䌧┞₢?)
3 (We) went to the beach every summer (㡂⯚ / ⹪╍Ṗ㠦 Ṫ㔋┞┺)
4 Every store will be busy (ṖỢ / ⹪㊶ Ệ㡞㣪)
5 (Let us) meet every night (⹺ / Ⱒ⋿㔲┺)
6 Every supermarket sells juice (㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩 / 㭒㓺 / 䕪㞚㣪)
7 Each school has alma mater (䞯ᾦ / ᾦṖṖ 㧞㠊㣪)
8 Each room had a window (⹿ / 㺓ⶎ㧊 㧞㠞㠊㣪)
9 Every student is studying for the test (䞯㌳ / 㔲䠮 Ὃ⿖⯒ 䞮ἶ 㧞㠊
㣪)
10 Did (your) friends play golf every Saturday? (䂲ῂ✺ / 䏶㣪㧒 / Ἶ䝚
⯒ 㼺㠊㣪?)
Exercise 3.5
Complete the following translation using the particle Ⱎ㩖 and the cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Even Jane was sick.” (㩲㧎 / 㞚䕶㠊㣪)
= 㩲㧎Ⱎ㩖 㞚䕶㠊㣪.
1 Even Sabrina lied (㌂ぢⰂ⋮ / Ệ㰩Ⱖ㦚 䟞㠊㣪)
2 Even (my) older sister hid the fact (⑚⋮ / ㌂㔺㦚 Ṧ䀚㠊㣪)
3 Even the weather was cold (⋶㝾 / 㿪㤶㠊㣪)
4 Even my room was dark (㩲 ⹿ / 㠊⚦㤶㠊㣪)
5 Even the air conditioner was broken (㠦㠊䄾 / ἶ㧻⌂㠊㣪)
6 Even Matthew did not go to school (ⰺ䓲 / 䞯ᾦ㠦 㞞 Ṫ㠊㣪)
7 Even (his) wife will go back to the States (⿖㧎 / ⹎ῃ㦒⪲ ☢㞚Ṟ
Ệ㡞㣪)
8 Even Monica failed the test (⳾┞䃊 / 㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㪢㠊㣪)
9 Did even the convenient store close? (䘎㦮㩦 / ╁㞮㠊㣪?)
10 Even Paul will sell (his) car (䙊 / 㹾⯒ 䕪 Ệ㡞㣪)
3
Particles
⽊┺, 㻮⩒,
ṯ㧊, Ⱒ䋒,
Ⱎ┺, Ⱎ㩖,
㫆㹾, ⹬㠦
26
Exercise 3.6
Rewrite the following sentence using the [⹬㠦 + negative] pattern, as
shown in the example. Then translate the sentence.
Example: ㌂ὒⰢ 㧞㠊㣪.
= ㌂ὒ⹬㠦 㠜㠊㣪. “(I) have only apples.”
1 ㌂ὒ 㭒㓺Ⱒ Ⱎ㎪㣪.
2 ㌦⩂✲Ⱒ ⲏ㠊㣪.
3 㠚Ⱎ⓪ 㞚ザⰢ 㫡㞚䟊㣪.
4 ㏦┮㧊 7 ⳛⰢ 㧞㠊㣪.
5 ⌄㧶㦚 T 㔲ṚⰢ 㧮 Ệ㡞㣪.
6 㠊Ⲏ┞Ⱒ ㌳ṗ䟞㠊㣪.
7 㨂㯞Ⱒ 㫡㞚䟞㠊㣪.
8 㠊㩲 5 㔲ṚⰢ 㧺㠊㣪.
9 T0 ⿚Ⱒ ₆┺Ⰺ Ệ㡞㣪.
10 㠎┞Ⱒ Ⱒ⋶ Ệ㡞㣪.
UNIT 4
Auxiliary verbs I
27
An auxiliary verb combines with a main verb to express tense, aspect,
mood and/or voice. For instance, English auxiliary verbs include “can,”
“have,” “may,” “shall,” and “will,” since they combine with a main verb, as
in “I can speak Korean.” This unit first discusses some general structural
characteristics of Korean auxiliary verbs. Then, it introduces how the
following three verbs, ⽊┺ “see,” 㡺┺ “come,” and Ṗ┺ “go,” can serve
as auxiliary verbs.
Korean auxiliary verbs
Korean auxiliary verbs are in fact all regular verbs. However, when these
verbs are used as auxiliary verbs, they express different meanings, as shown
below:
Regular verbs Auxiliary verbs
⽊┺ “see” ~㠊/㞚 ⽊┺ “try (doing something)”
㡺┺ “come” ~㠊/㞚 㡺┺ “continue to”
Ṗ┺ “go” ~㠊/㞚 Ṗ┺ “continue to”
㭒┺ “give” ~㠊/㞚 㭒┺ “do for (someone)”
⌊┺ “produce” ~㠊/㞚 ⌊┺ “do all the way completely”
⋮┺ “occur” ~㠊/㞚 ⋮┺ “have finished”
⻚Ⰲ┺ “throw away” ~㠊/㞚 ⻚Ⰲ┺ “finish up/end up with”
⏩┺ “put down” ~㠊/㞚 ⏩┺ “do for later”
䞮┺ “do” ~㠊/㞚䞮┺ “be in the state of”
㰖┺ “become” ~㠊/㞚㰖┺ “become”
Ⱖ┺ “stop” ~ἶ Ⱖ┺ “end up doing”
Korean auxiliary verbs always appear after the main verb (or adjectives
for limited auxiliary verbs). In addition, the main verb is always conjugated
with ~㠊/㞚 (or ~ἶ for limited auxiliary verbs). The compounding process
takes the following pattern: [stem of the main verb ~㠊/㞚 plus an auxili-
ary verb]. ~㞚 is used after the stem that ends in 㞚 or 㡺 (e.g., 㺔┺ “find”
4
Auxiliary
verbs I
28
=> 㺔㞚 ⽊┺ “try looking for something”), while ~㠊 is used after the
stem that ends in all other vowels (e.g., Ⱒ✺┺ “make” => Ⱒ✺㠊 ⽊┺
“try making something”).
~㠊/㞚 ⽊┺
When the verb ⽊┺ “see” is used as an auxiliary verb, it is used to express
“try (doing something)/experience.” It is used when a speaker tries doing
some action just once so that he/she can explore the consequences. For
instance, consider how the auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚 ⽊┺ is used with the
main verb ⺆㤆┺ “learn.”
䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤢 ⽛┞┺. “(I) try learning Korean.”
䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤢 ⽛㔲┺. “(Let us) try learning Korean.”
䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤢 ⽊㔲㰖㣪. “(Why don’t you try) learning Korean?”
䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤢 ⽊㕃㔲㡺. “Try learning Korean.”
䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤢 ⽺㔋┞┺. “(I) tried learning Korean.”
䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤢 ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will try learning Korean.”
Notice in the examples above that ~㠊/㞚 ⽊┺ completes each expres-
sion and carries all grammatical information, such as tense, sentence types,
and honorifics. Here are more examples:
ₖ䂮⯒ ⲏ㠊 ⽺㠊㣪. “(I) tried eating kimchi” (lit. “I ate kimchi and
saw what it was like”).
䝚⧧㓺㠦 Ṗ ⽺㔋┞┺. “(I) have been to France.”
㡺䏶⹪㧊⯒ 䌖 ⽺㔋┞₢? “Have (you) tried riding a motorcycle?”
ₖ䂮⯒ ⲏ㠊 ⽊㎎㣪. “Please try (eating) kimchi.”
㫊㦚 Ⱒ⋮ ⽊㕃㔲㡺. “Try to meet John.”
㩲Ⰲ䞲䎢 㧒㦚 ⰷỾ ⽛㔲┺. “(Let us) try entrusting the task to
Jerry.”
䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㠊 ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will try eating Korean food.”
䞲ῃ ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱎ㎪ ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will try drinking Korean beer.”
~㠊/㞚 㡺┺/Ṗ┺
Korean has two motion verbs 㡺┺ “come” and Ṗ┺ “go.” When these
motion verbs are used as auxiliary verbs, both indicate that an action of
the main verb is carried out continually. Since 㡺┺ “come” signifies the
motion toward the speaker, ~㠊/㞚 㡺┺ is used to express an continuous
action that comes toward the present, as shown below:
29
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 4
exercises
㰖⁞₢㰖 䢒㧦 㧮 ㌊㞚 㢪㠊㣪. “Until now, (I) have lived alone
well.”
ₖ㌂㧻┮㧊 䣢㌂⯒ 㧮 㧊⊢㠊 㢪㠊㣪. “President Kim has led the
company well.”
㩖䧂⓪ ㍶㌳┮ Ⱖ㝖㦚 ⹕㠊 㢪㠊㣪. “As for us, (we) have believed the
teacher’s word.”
On the other hand, Ṗ┺ “go” indicates the motion away from the
speaker. Consequently, ~㠊/㞚 Ṗ┺ is used to express a continuous action
that goes into the future.
✲⧒ⰞṖ ⊳⋮ Ṗ㣪. “The drama is going to end.”
Ṗ㦚㧊 ₠㠊 Ṗ㣪. “Autumn is ripening.”
㌂㠛㧊 㧮 ♮㠊 Ṗ㣪? “Does (your) business continue to do well?”
㞚㧊Ṗ 㠚Ⱎ⯒ ╄㞚 Ṗ㣪. “The child continues to take after (her)
mother.”
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 4 exercises
Ṗ┺ to go
Ṗ⯊䂮┺ to teach
Ṗ㩫 family
Ṧ₆ a cold/flu
ἶ䂮┺ to fix
⊳⋮┺ to end/to finish
⌁┺ to get well/to recover from (illness)
⏒ⶎ thesis
⓯┺ to grow older
┺ all
☚㧦₆ ceramics
Ⱒ✺┺ to make
ⲏ┺ to eat
ⶒ water
⹪∎┺ to change
⼧㤦 hospital
㌆ mountain
㌊┺ to live
㝆┺ to use/to write
㡂㧦 woman
㡗㠊 English
㢂⧒Ṗ┺ to climb/to go up
4
Auxiliary
verbs I
30
㦢㔳 food
㧊㩲 now
㧎☚ India
㧛┺ to wear
㩚䢪䞮┺ to make a phone call
㩞㟓䞮┺ to economize on/to save/to be thrifty
㫆⁞㝿 little by little
䂲ῂ friends
䞲⽋ traditional Korean clothes
䟊 a year/the sun
䟟⽋䞮┺ to be happy
䠺㠊㰖┺ to break up
䢒㧦 alone
Exercise 4.1
Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚 ⽺㔋┞┺ as shown in the example.
Then translate the sentence.
Example: 㰧㠦 Ṗ┺
= 㰧㠦 Ṗ ⽺㔋┞┺. “(I) have been to the house.”
1 㧎☚ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ┺
2 ☚㧦₆⯒ Ⱒ✺┺
3 䞲⽋㦚 㧛┺
4 ⻶㧊㰫㠦 Ṗ┺
5 ⼧㤦㠦 㩚䢪䞮┺
Exercise 4.2
Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚 ⽺㔋┞₢? as shown in the example.
Then translate the sentence.
Example: 㠮゚㓺㦮 ⏎⧮⯒ ✹┺
= 㠮゚㓺㦮 ⏎⧮⯒ ✺㠊 ⽺㔋┞₢?
“Have (you) tried listening to Elvis’ song?”
1 ⶊ㡃 䣢㌂㠦㍲ 㧒䞮┺
2 ⋰㔲⯒ 䞮┺
3 䌖㧊 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ┺
4 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤆┺
5 ᾦ䣢㠦 Ṗ┺
31
Exercise 4.3
Exercise 4.3
Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚 ⽊㕃㔲㡺, as shown in the example.
Then translate the sentence.
Example: 㣪Ṗ⯒ 䞮┺
= 㣪Ṗ⯒ 䟊 ⽊㕃㔲㡺. “Try doing yoga.”
1 㡗㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂮┺
2 ㌆㦚 㢂⧒Ṗ┺
3 㞚䕢䔎㠦㍲ ㌊┺
4 㡂㧦䂲ῂ⧧ 䠺㠊㰖┺
5 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ䂮┺
Exercise 4.4
Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚 ⽛㔲┺, as shown in the example.
Then translate the sentence.
Example: ☚㍲ὖ㠦 Ṗ┺
= ☚㍲ὖ㠦 Ṗ ⽛㔲┺. “(Let us) try going to the library.”
1 ₆☚䞮┺
2 ㍶㌳┮䞲䎢 ⿖䌗䞮┺
3 㹾⯒ ἶ䂮┺
4 ῂⲣ㦚 Ⱏ┺
5 㠦㠊䄾㦚 䅲┺
Exercise 4.5
Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚 ⽊┺ and the sentence cue
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) tried (doing) bungee jumping” (⻞㰖㩦䝚⯒ 䞮┺)
= ⻞㰖㩦䝚⯒ 䟊 ⽺㔋┞┺.
1 (I) have been to Africa (㞚䝚Ⰲ䃊㠦 Ṗ┺)
2 (I) will try to study the Korean language (䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮┺)
3 (I) tried drinking Korean beer (䞲ῃ ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺)
4 Have (you) been to Sweden? (㓺㤾◊㠦 Ṗ┺)
5 Have (you) tried playing a guitar? (₆䌖⯒ 䂮┺)
6 Try to memorize (her) home phone number (㰧 㩚䢪 ⻞䢎⯒ 㣎㤆
┺)
4
Auxiliary
verbs I
32
7 Try (using) the massage machine (Ⱎ㌂㰖 ₆Ἒ⯒ ㌂㣿䞮┺)
8 Try making Korean friends (䞲ῃ ㌂⧢䞮ἶ ㌂‖┺)
9 (Let us) try to learn cooking (㣪Ⰲ⯒ ⺆㤆┺)
10 (Let us) try to repair the computer (䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ䂮┺)
Exercise 4.6
Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚 Ṗ┺ (or ~㠊/㞚 㡺┺) and
the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Ice is melting” (㠒㦢㧊 ⏏┺)
= 㠒㦢㧊 ⏏㞚 Ṗ㣪.
1 (My) older brother brought good news (䡫㧊 㫡㦖 ㏢㔳㦚 㩚䞮┺)
2 The dog has run toward this way (ṲṖ 㧊㴓㦒⪲ ╂Ⰲ┺)
3 William has suffered from a cold (㥢Ⰲ㠚㧊 Ṧ₆⪲ ἶ㌳䞮┺)
4 (They) have been receiving help from Robert (⪲⻚䔎⪲⿖䎆 ☚㤖㦚
⹱┺)
5 Water is getting frozen (ⶒ㧊 㠒┺)
Exercise 4.7
Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚 Ṗ┺, as shown in the example. Then
translate the sentence.
Example: 㡗䢪Ṗ ⊳⋮┺ (declarative)
= 㡗䢪Ṗ ⊳⋮ ṧ┞┺. “The movie is going to end.”
1 㤆Ⰲ 䞶Ⲏ┞⓪ 䟊Ⱎ┺ ⓯┺ (declarative)
2 㧊㩲⿖䎆 䢒㧦 ㌊┺ (interrogative)
3 䟟⽋䞲 Ṗ㩫㦚 Ⱒ✺┺ (imperative)
4 ⶒ㦚 㩞㟓䞮┺ (propositive)
5 㫆⁞㝿 㓺䅖㭚㦚 ⹪∎┺ (propositive)
UNIT 5
Auxiliary verbs II
33
~㠊/㞚 ⌊┺
The verb ⌊┺ means “produce/put forth” as in 㣿₆⯒ ⌊㎎㣪 “Put forth
courage” or ㏣⩻㦚 ⌊㎎㣪 “Speed up” (lit. “Produce speed”). However,
as an auxiliary verb, ~㠊/㞚 ⌊┺ means “do all the way (to the very end).”
It is used to express that although a certain task/action is troublesome or
difficult, he/she completes the action to the very end (or does all the way).
Compare the following two examples:
䞮⬾Ⱒ㠦 㺛㦚 㧓㠞㠊㣪. “(I) read the book within a day.”
䞮⬾Ⱒ㠦 㺛㦚 㧓㠊 ⌞㠊㣪. “(I) read the book (to the very end) within
a day.”
Notice that the first sentence simply indicates that the speaker finished
reading the book in one day. On the other hand, the second sentence with
~㠊/㞚 ⌊┺ implies that although reading the book within a day was a
difficult task, the speaker did it anyway. Here are more examples:
䢒㧦 ἶ㌳㦚 ἂ◢ ⌞㔋┞┺. “(He) endured hardship alone (all the
way).”
ἆῃ 㰖ṧ㦚 㺔㞚 ⌞㠊㣪. “Finally, (I) found the wallet.”
´ ⎚㞞㠦 䞯㥚⯒ ➆ ⌞㠊㣪. “(He) got the degree within three years.”
ἆῃ 㩚ῂ⯒ Ⱒ✺㠊 ⌞㔋┞┺. “Eventually, (he) made an electric
bulb.”
~㠊/㞚 ⻚Ⰲ┺
The verb ⻚Ⰲ┺ means “throw (it) away/dismiss/abandon,” as shown in
the following examples:
㠊㩲 㡱 ㌂㰚✺㦚 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “Yesterday, (I) discarded old pictures.”
⁎⎖Ṗ ⋾䘎㦚 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “She abandoned (her) husband.”
5
Auxiliary
verbs II
34
⌊㧒₢㰖 㝆⩞₆⯒ ⻚Ⰲ㎎㣪. “Throw the garbage away by tomorrow.”
䂲ῂ⯒ 㥚䟊㍲ ⳿㑾㦚 ⻚Ⰺ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will lay down (my) life for
(my) friend.”
However, as an auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚 ⻚Ⰲ┺ means “do completely/
end up doing/get (it) done.” Compare the following sentences:
⌊㧒 䘎㰖⯒ ⿖䂮㎎㣪. “Send the letter tomorrow.”
⌊㧒 䘎㰖⯒ ⿖㼦 ⻚Ⰲ㎎㣪. “Send the letter tomorrow.”
The basic meanings of both sentences are the same. However, the mes-
sage of the second sentence is stronger than the first sentence, since
~㠊/㞚 ⻚Ⰲ┺ adds the meaning of “completeness of the action.”
~㠊/㞚 ⻚Ⰲ┺ is similar to ~㠊/㞚 ⌊┺ in a sense that both are used
to indicate the completeness of an action. However, unlike ~㠊/㞚 ⌊┺,
~㠊/㞚 ⻚Ⰲ┺ does not imply that the completed action was a difficult
task. Instead, depending on the context, ~㠊/㞚 ⻚Ⰲ┺ is used to express
a sense of regret or relief. Consider the following examples:
㰖ṧ㦚 㧙㠞㠊㣪. “(I) lost (my) wallet.”
㰖ṧ㦚 㧙㠊 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) lost (my) wallet.”
Losing a wallet is undesirable. Consequently, ~㠊/㞚 ⻚Ⰲ┺ in the sec-
ond sentence adds the sense of regret, while the first sentence simply states
the past action. It indicates that losing a wallet is not what the speaker
had expected or wished for. Here are more examples that may denote a
sense of regret:
ἆῃ 㤎㠊 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(She) finally cried.”
☞㦚 ┺ 㖾 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) used up all of (my) money.”
⋮㡺⹎Ṗ ἆῃ ⹎ῃ㠦 Ṗ ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “Naomi finally went to America.”
㩲 ⋾☯㌳㧊 ⻢㖾 ┺ ⲏ㠊 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “My younger brother already ate
(them) all.”
⁞⿫㠊Ṗ 㭓㠊 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “The gold fish died.”
~㠊/㞚 ⻚Ⰲ┺ can also signify a sense of relief. Consider the following
two sentences:
㑯㩲⯒ ⊳⌞㠊㣪. “(I) finished (my) homework.”
㑯㩲⯒ ⊳⌊ ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) finished (my) homework.”
Notice that the referential messages of both sentences are the same.
However, ~㠊/㞚 ⻚Ⰲ┺ in the second sentence adds a sense of relief since
the task (e.g., doing homework) has come to an end. Here are more
examples that indicate a sense of relief:
35
~ἶ Ⱖ┺
㞚䝞 ₆㠋㦚 㰖㤢 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) erased the painful memory
(completely).”
㔶㣿 䃊✲ グ㦚 ┺ Ṱ㞚 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) paid all of (my) credit card
debt.”
~ἶ Ⱖ┺
The verb Ⱖ┺ means “stop,” as in ⑞㧊 㡺┺Ṗ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪 “(It) snowed but
then (it) stopped.” However, as an auxiliary verb, ~ἶ Ⱖ┺ means “end
up (doing),” and it implies that the completed action is against the subject’s
intention or wish. It is used when the action is carried out despite the
subject’s previous effort or wishes against the completed action. Compare
the following two sentences:
㹾 ㌂ἶ⪲ 㭓㠞㠊㣪. “(He) died because of the car accident.”
㹾 ㌂ἶ⪲ 㭓ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “(He) ended up dying because of the car
accident.”
Notice that the completed action (dying) is against the subject’s will. Here
are more examples:
⑚⋮⓪ 䞲ῃ㠦 ☢㞚Ṗἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “As for (my) older sister, (she) ended
up returning to Korea.”
㑶㠦 䀾䞮ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “(We) ended up drunk.”
㏢䕢㠦 䄺䞒⯒ 㘵ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “(I) ended up spilling coffee on the
sofa.”
☢⿖Ⰲ㠦 Ỏ⩺ ⍮㠊㰖ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “(I) ended up tripping on the jagged
edge of a stone.”
㹾 㞞㠦㍲ 㧶㧊 ✺ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “(I) ended up falling asleep in the car.”
㩚㨗㧊 ἆῃ 䎆㰖ἶ Ⱖ㞮㔋┞┺. “The war finally broke out.”
⓼Ợ 㧦ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “(I) ended up going to bed late.”
~㠊/㞚 㭒┺
The verb 㭒┺ means “give,” as shown in the following examples:
㫆㰖䞲䎢 㺛㦚 㮂㠊㣪. “(I) gave the book to George.”
ⰺ╂ 㡂☯㌳䞲䎢 㣿☞㦚 㭮㣪. “(I) give pocket money to (my) younger
sister every month.”
㓺䕆て㧊 Ⰲ㌂䞲䎢 ↙㦚 㭚 Ệ㡞㣪. “Steven will give flowers to Lisa.”
However, as an auxiliary verb, ~㠊/㞚 㭒┺ means “do something as a
favor (for someone).”
5
Auxiliary
verbs II
36
䕪┺ “sell” 䕪㞚 㭒┺ “sell (something for someone)”
Ṗ⯊䂮┺ “teach” Ṗ⯊㼦 㭒┺ “teach (something for someone)”
⹕┺ “believe” ⹕㠊 㭒┺ “believe (something for someone)”
Compare the following two sentences:
◆㧊キ㧊 䕢䕆㠦 㢪㠊㣪. “David came to the party.”
◆㧊キ㧊 䕢䕆㠦 㢖 㮂㠊㣪. “David came to the party” (lit. “David did
a favor for somebody by coming to the party”).
Notice that the first sentence simply expresses that David came to the
party. On the other hand, the second sentence signifies that David came
to the party for the benefit of the speaker or somebody. Here are more
examples:
䂲ῂ✺㧊 㦢㔳㦚 ⰱ㧞Ợ ⲏ㠊 㮂㠊㣪. “(My) friends ate the food with
gusto (for me).”
㞺㍲┞Ṗ ㍶ⶒ㦚 ⽊⌊ 㮂㠊㣪. “Anthony sent (her) the present (for
me).”
㩲Ṗ ⶎ㦚 㡊㠊 㭚Ợ㣪. “I will open the door (for you).”
⪲⧒Ṗ 㔲Ἒ⯒ ㌂ 㭚 Ệ㡞㣪. “Laura will buy (me) a bag (for me).”
However, one can optionally use 㥚䟊㍲ “on the behalf of” when wish-
ing to explicitly state who the beneficiary was.
⋾㧦 䂲ῂ⯒ 㥚䟊㍲ ⰱ㧞⓪ 㩦㕂㦚 Ⱒ✺㠊 㮂㠊㣪. “(She) made deli-
cious lunch for (her) boyfriend.”
㤆Ⰲ⯒ 㥚䟊㍲ ⼧㤦㠦 㢖 㭒㎾㠊㣪. “(He) came to the hospital for
us.”
~㠊/㞚 ✲Ⰲ┺ vs. ~㠊/㞚 㭒┺
Meanwhile, if the beneficiary of the action is an esteemed person (e.g., a
higher person in age or social status), ~㠊/㞚 ✲Ⰲ┺ is used instead of
~㠊/㞚 㭒┺. Compare the following two sentences:
(O) 䞶Ⲏ┞℮ 㔲Ἒ⯒ ㌂ ✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) bought a watch for (my) grand-
mother.”
(X) 䞶Ⲏ┞℮ 㔲Ἒ⯒ ㌂ 㮂㠊㣪. “(I) bought a watch for (my) grand-
mother.”
The second sentence with ~㠊/㞚 㭒┺ is inappropriate since the
beneficiary of the action is an esteemed person (e.g., grandmother). Here
are more examples:
37
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 5
exercises
㞚⻚㰖℮ 㞚䂾㦚 Ⱒ✺㠊 ✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) made breakfast for (my)
father.”
㞞Ⱎ 䟊 ✲ⰊỢ㣪. “(I) will massage (your back).”
㢖㧎㦚 ㌂ ✲Ⰲἶ 㕌㠊㣪. “(I) want to buy wine (for him).”
Requesting ~㠊/㞚 㭒㎎㣪
The verb 㭒㔲┺ is the honorific form of 㭒┺. ~㠊/㞚 㭒㎎㣪 is used when
requesting something politely. It is equivalent to “please do (something
for me/someone).” Compare the following two sentences:
㧶₦ ₆┺Ⰲ㎎㣪. “Please wait a moment.”
㧶₦ ₆┺⩺ 㭒㎎㣪. “Please wait a moment (for me).”
Both sentences can be used for requesting. However, the second sentence
with ~㠊/㞚 㭒㎎㣪 is more polite than the first sentence. Here are more
examples:
┺⯎ ㌂㧊㯞⪲ ⹪∪ 㭒㎎㣪. “Please exchange (this) with a different
size (for me).”
㹾⯒ 㞴㦒⪲ 㤖㰗㡂 㭒㎎㣪. “Please move (your) car forward (for
me).”
Ἵ 㧒㦚 ⊳⌊ 㭒㎎㣪. “Please finish (your) work soon (for me).”
㺛㦚 䋂Ợ 㧓㠊 㭒㎎㣪. “Please read the book aloud (for me).”
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 5 exercises
ṖỢ store
Ṗ┺ to go
ἶ₆ meat
ἶ㧻㧊 ⋮┺ to get out of order
ῂ⼚䞮┺ to distinguish
ΐ┺ to roast
⁎Ⰲ┺ to paint/to draw
⁎Ⱂ painting/picture
⁞ gold
₎ road/street
⋮㡺┺ to come out
⋾㧦 man
⏎⧮ song
╁┺ to close
5
Auxiliary
verbs II
38
⡦ again
Ⱒ✺┺ to make
ⶎ door
⹎⊚⩂㰖┺ to slide/to glide
⹪∎┺ to change
⹱┺ to receive
⿖⯊┺ to sing/to call out
゚⹖ secret
㔲䋺┺ to order/to force (a person to do)
㕎㤆┺ to fight/to dispute (with)
㝆┺ to write/to use
㠎┞ older sister
㡊┺ to open
㢍 clothes
㦖 silver
㧓┺ to read
㩚❇ electric lamp
㩚䢪₆ telephone
㩦㕂 lunch
㰖㤆┺ to erase
㹾 car
㺓ⶎ window
㺛 book
䂲ῂ friend
䃦┺ to dig into/to unearth
䅲┺ to light/to switch on
䕢㧒 file
䕪┺ to sell
䘎㰖 letter
䞯ᾦ school
䠺㠊㰖┺ to break up
䡫 older brother
䢪⌊┺ to get angry
39
Exercise 5.1
Exercise 5.1
Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚 ⌊┺ and the sentence cue
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(He) extracted the tooth.” (㧊⯒ ㆧ┺)
= 㧊⯒ ㆧ㞚 ⌞㠊㣪.
1 (She) caught a big fish (䋆 ⶒἶ₆⯒ ⋰┺)
2 (They) dammed up the river (ṫⶒ㦚 Ⱏ┺)
3 (We) got the project (䝚⪲㩳䔎⯒ ➆┺)
4 (He) received the money (☞㦚 ⹱┺)
5 (I) wrote the thesis (⏒ⶎ㦚 㝆┺)
Exercise 5.2
Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚 ⌊┺, as shown in the example. Then
translate the sentence.
Example: 㧒㦚 䞮┺
= 㧒㦚 䟊 ⌞㠊㣪. “(He) did the work.”
1 ゚⹖㦚 䃦┺
2 㩚䢪₆⯒ Ⱒ✺┺
3 ἶ₆⯒ ΐ┺
4 ⁞䞮ἶ 㦖㦚 ῂ⼚䞮┺
5 ⁎Ⱂ㦚 ⁎Ⰲ┺
Exercise 5.3
Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚 ⻚Ⰲ┺ and the sentence cue
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) sold the house yesterday.” (㠊㩲 㰧㦚 䕪┺)
= 㠊㩲 㰧㦚 䕪㞚 ⻚⪎㠊㣪.
1 Andrew took pictures (㞺✲⮮Ṗ ㌂㰚㦚 㹣┺)
2 Sara borrowed the notebook (㌂⧒Ṗ ⏎䔎⿗㦚 アⰂ┺)
3 (We) used all the money (☞㦚 ┺ 㝆┺)
4 Kevin watched the drama till the end (䅖ゞ㧊 ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ⊳₢㰖
⽊┺)
5 Angie moved (her) job (㞺㰖Ṗ 㰗㧻㦚 㢄₆┺)
5
Auxiliary
verbs II
40
Exercise 5.4
Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚 ⻚Ⰲ┺, as shown in the example.
Then translate the sentence.
Example: 㟓㏣㦚 㧠┺
= 㟓㏣㦚 㧠㠊 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) forgot about the appointment.”
1 㹾Ṗ ⡦ ἶ㧻㧊 ⋮┺
2 ṖỢ ⶎ㦚 ╁┺
3 䕢㧒㦚 㰖㤆┺
4 䂲ῂṖ Ⓤ㣫㦒⪲ ⟶⋮┺
5 䞯ᾦ㠦㍲ ⋮㡺┺
Exercise 5.5
Finish the following translation using ~ἶ Ⱖ┺ and the sentence cue pro-
vided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) ended up being late for school.” (䞯ᾦ㠦 㰖ṗ䞮┺)
= 䞯ᾦ㠦 㰖ṗ䞮ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪.
1 (He) ended up getting up late (⓼Ợ 㧒㠊⋮┺)
2 (They) ended up drinking whisky (㥚㓺䋺⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺)
3 (He) ended up confessing (his) love to (his) girlfriend (㡂㧦 䂲ῂ䞲䎢
㌂⧧㦚 ἶ⺇䞮┺)
4 (He) finally ended up quitting (his) job (ἆῃ 㧒㦚 ⁎Ⱒ⚦┺)
5 (My) car ended up being broken down (㹾Ṗ ἶ㧻㧊 ⋮┺)
Exercise 5.6
Conjugate the predicate using ~ἶ Ⱖ┺, as shown in the example. Then
translate the sentence.
Example: 㫆㰖Ṗ 㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㰖┺
= 㫆㰖Ṗ 㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㰖ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪.
“George ended up failing the test.”
1 ⪲⋶✲Ṗ 䡫䞮ἶ 㕎㤆┺
2 ㌦ⰂṖ ⋾㧦 䂲ῂ䞮ἶ 䠺㠊㰖┺
3 䎢⩢㓺Ṗ ⏎䔎⿗㦚 䕪┺
4 㞂❪Ṗ ₎㠦㍲ ⹎⊚⩂㰖┺
5 㫆㞺㧊 㠎┞䞲䎢 䢪⌊┺
41
Exercise 5.7
Exercise 5.7
Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚 㭒┺ and the sentence cue
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Thomas bought an umbrella (for me).”
(䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ 㤆㌆㦚 ㌂┺)
= 䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ 㤆㌆㦚 ㌂ 㮂㠊㣪.
1 Tina helped (my) project (for me) (䕆⋮Ṗ 䝚⪲㩳䔎⯒ ☫┺)
2 (My) older brother bought (me) a bag (㡺ザṖ Ṗ⹿㦚 ㌂┺)
3 John sold the car (for me) (㫊㧊 㹾⯒ 䕪┺)
4 Megan will take pictures (for us) (ⲪỊ㧊 ㌂㰚㦚 㹣┺)
5 (My) older sister will wash dishes (for me) (㠎┞Ṗ ㍺Ệ㰖⯒ 䞮┺)
6 Please lend (me) the book (㺛㦚 アⰂ┺)
7 Please repair the computer (for me) (䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ䂮┺)
8 Please refund the dress (for me) (㢍㦚 䢮⿞䞮┺)
9 Please play the piano (for me) (䞒㞚⏎⯒ 䂮┺)
10 Please turn on the radio (for me) (⧒❪㡺⯒ 䔖┺)
Exercise 5.8
Conjugate the predicates using ~㠊/㞚 ✲⪎㠊㣪, as shown in the example.
Then translate the sentence.
Example: 㠊Ⲏ┞⯒ ☫┺
= 㠊Ⲏ┞⯒ ☚㢖 ✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) helped (my) mother.”
1 㺛㦚 㧓┺
2 䘎㰖⯒ 㝆┺
3 㩚䢪⯒ ⹱┺
4 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁┺
5 㩚❇㦚 䅲┺
6 ⶎ㦚 㡊┺
7 㢍㦚 ⹪∎┺
8 ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊┺
9 㩦㕂㦚 Ⱒ✺┺
10 䄺䞒⯒ 㔲䋺┺
42
UNIT 6
Auxiliary verbs III
~㠊/㞚 ⏩┺ (or ~㠊/㞚 ⚦┺)
The verb ⏩┺ means “release/place/put down,” as in:
ἶ㟧㧊⯒ ⏩㞚 㭒㎎㣪. “Let the cat go/loose.”
㩧㔲⯒ 㔳䌗 㥚㠦 ⏩㞮㠊㣪. “(I) placed the plate on the dining
table.”
㰖ṧ㦚 㠊❪㠦 ⏩㦒㎾㠊㣪? “Where have (you) left the wallet?”
However, as an auxiliary verb, what ~㠊/㞚 ⏩┺ can express is twofold.
First, ~㠊/㞚 ⏩┺ is used to indicate the continuation of a certain action
or state after the completion of the action or state. For instance, compare
the following sentences:
Ệ㔺㠦 㩚❇㦚 䆆㠊㣪. “(I) turned on the electric lamp in the living
room.”
Ệ㔺㠦 㩚❇㦚 䅲 ⏩㞮㠊㣪. “(I) turned on the electric lamp in the
living room (and it is still on).”
The verb 䅲┺ means “turns on (an electric lamp).” Notice that the action
of the main verb 䅲┺ is completed for both sentences, since they are
marked by the past tense. However, while the first sentence simply indicates
the past action (e.g., turned on the electric lamp), the second sentence with
the auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚 ⏩┺ indicates the continuation of the completed
action (e.g., the electric lamp continues to be on). Here are more examples:
䞒䎆Ṗ ⶎ㦚 㡊㠊 ⏩㞮㠊㣪. “Peter opened the door (and it is still
open).”
㹾㠦 㔲☯㦚 Ỏ㠊 ⏩㞮㠊㣪. “(I) started the car (and it is on).”
㍲⧣㦚 㧶Ṗ ⏩㞮㞚㣪. “(I) locked the drawer (and it is still locked).”
Second, ~㠊/㞚 ⏩┺ means “doing something for later (future use).”
Compare the following two sentences:
43
~㠊/㞚 㧞┺ 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮₆ 㩚㠦 ⶒ㦚 Ⱔ㧊 Ⱎ㎾㠊㣪. “(I) drank water a lot, before
jogging.”
㫆ₛ㦚 䞮₆ 㩚㠦 ⶒ㦚 Ⱔ㧊 Ⱎ㎪ ⏩㞮㠊㣪. “(I) drank water a lot for
later, before jogging.”
Notice that the first sentence simply indicates the past action, Ⱎ㎾㠊㣪
“drank.” However, the auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚 ⏩┺ in the second sentence
indicates that the past action (e.g., drinking) was done for later. Here are
more examples:
㡆㔋㦚 Ⱔ㧊 䟊 ⏩㞮㠊㣪. “(We) practiced a lot for later.”
⹎Ⰲ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䟊 ⏩㦒㎎㣪. “Study hard beforehand for later.”
㡂䟟 Ἒ䣣㦚 ㎎㤢 ⏩㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “(We) will make travel plans for later.”
⹿㦚 㼃㏢䟊 ⏩㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “(They) will clean the room for later.”
Alternatively, the verb ⚦┺ can be used instead of ⏩┺. The verb
⚦┺ means “place/keep,” as shown in the following examples:
㡊㐶⯒ 㔳䌗 㥚㠦 ⚦㕃㔲㡺. “Place the key on the dining table.”
☞㦚 ⁞ἶ㠦 ⚦㠞㠊㣪. “(I) kept the money in the safe.”
㌳㍶㦖 ⌟㧻ἶ㠦 ⚮ Ệ㡞㣪. “As for the fish, (I) will keep (it) in the
refrigerator.”
As an auxiliary verb, the meaning of ~㠊/㞚 ⚦┺ is similar to that of
~㠊/㞚 ⏩┺. In fact ~㠊/㞚 ⚦┺ and ~㠊/㞚 ⏩┺ can be used interchange-
ably, as shown below:
⑚⋮Ṗ 㞚䂾㦚 㹾⩺ ⚦㠞㠊㣪/⏩㞮㠊㣪. “(My) older sister prepared
breakfast (and it is still there/for later).”
⁎ 㧒㦖 䙊䞲䎢 ⰷỾ ⚦㎎㣪/⏩㦒㎎㣪. “As for that task, entrust (it) to
Paul (for later).”
㹾⯒ ㍲㩦 㞴㠦 㭒㹾䟊 ⛖㠊㣪/⏩㞮㠊㣪. “(I) parked the car in front
of the bookstore (and it is still there/for later use).
㫢㍳㦚 㡞㟓䟊 ⚮ Ệ㡞㣪/⏩㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “(We) will reserve seats (for
later).”
~㠊/㞚 㧞┺
The verb 㧞┺ means “exist/stay/have,” as shown in the following examples:
⪲⧒Ṗ ㍲㤎㠦 㧞㠊㣪. “Laura is in Seoul.”
䘟㟧㧊 ⿗䞲㠦 㧞㠊㣪. “Pyongyang is in North Korea.”
6
Auxiliary
verbs III
44
㞚㧊㌟㦖 㞶䝢 䅊䜾䎆(Ṗ) 㧞㠊㣪. “As for Isaac, (he) has an Apple
Computer.”
As an auxiliary verb, ~㠊/㞚 㧞┺ is mainly used with intransitive verbs
and is used to indicate that the state brought about by the action of the
main verb persists. Compare the following three sentences:
䏶⹎Ṗ 㦮㧦㠦 㞟㞚㣪. “Tommy sits on the chair.”
䏶⹎Ṗ 㦮㧦㠦 㞟ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “Tommy is sitting on the chair.”
䏶⹎Ṗ 㦮㧦㠦 㞟㞚 㧞㠊㣪. “Tommy is seated on the chair.”
The first sentence simply states what Tommy does. The second sentence
indicates the progressive action of the main verb. On the other hand,
~㠊/㞚 㧞┺ in the third sentence indicates that the state resulting from
the main verb continues to exist. Consider another three sentences:
ⶎ㧊 㡊⩺㣪. “The door opens.”
ⶎ㧊 㡊Ⰲἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “The door is being opened.”
ⶎ㧊 㡊⩺ 㧞㠊㣪. “The door is open.”
The first sentence simply indicates that the door opens. The second sentence
indicates the progressive action. The third sentence, however, indicates the
continuous state, brought about by the main verb 㡊Ⰲ┺ “to be opened.”
Here are more examples of ~㠊/㞚 㧞┺:
㞚㰗 䂾╖㠦 ⑚㤢 㧞㠊㣪. “(He) is still lying down on the bed.”
ᾦ㔺 㞴㠦 ㍲ 㧞㠊㣪. “(They) are standing in front of the classroom.”
ⶎ㧊 ΈỢ ╁䡖 㧞㠊㣪. “The door is closed firmly.”
ぢ⧒㧊㠎㧊 ☚㍲ὖ㠦 㢖 㧞㠊㣪. “Brian is at the library (as a result of
coming here).”
㰖⁞ ⪲Ⱎ㠦 Ṗ 㧞㠊㣪. “(They) are in Rome now (as a result of going
there).”
Ṗ⹿ 㞞㠦 㺛䞮ἶ 㰖ṧ㧊 ✺㠊 㧞㔋┞┺. “(My) book and wallet are
inside of the bag.”
Meanwhile, a limited number of verbs of “wearing” (e.g., 㧛┺, 㝆┺,
⋒┺, and ⰺ┺) do not take the ~㠊/㞚 㧞┺ pattern but the ~ἶ 㧞┺
pattern to indicate the resultant state. For instance, to say “(I) am wearing
socks” is 㟧Ⱖ㦚 㔶ἶ 㧞㠊㣪 not 㟧Ⱖ㦚 㔶㠊 㧞㠊㣪.
⹪㰖⯒ 㧛ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am wearing pants.”
㞞ἓ㦚 㝆ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am wearing glasses.”
⹮㰖⯒ ⋒ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am wearing a ring.”
⍻䌖㧊⯒ ⰺἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am wearing a necktie.”
45
~㠊/㞚䞮┺
~㠊/㞚䞮┺
The aforementioned auxiliary verbs are all mainly used with verbs. However,
Korean has a limited number of auxiliary verbs that are used primarily
with adjectives, such as ~㠊/㞚䞮┺ and ~㠊/㞚㰖┺.
In English, one can state how another person feels, using emotion- or
sense-related adjectives, such as “sad,” “happy,” and “cold.” For instance,
it is grammatically correct to say a sentence like “Lisa is sad” or “Peter is
cold.” However, in Korean, one cannot use adjectives to express how a
third person or people feel or think. Since Korean emotive and/or sensory
adjectives denote unobservable internal feelings, a speaker cannot speak
for how other people feel or think. Consequently, a sentence like Ⰲ㌂Ṗ
㔂䗒㣪 “Lisa is sad” is grammatically incorrect.
In order to speak for a third person’s or people’s feelings or emotions,
one has to change an emotive or sensory adjective into a verb form, using
the auxiliary verb construction ~㠊/㞚䞮┺, as shown below:
Adjective Adjective stem + 㠊/㞚䞮┺
㕁┺ “unpleasant” 㕁㠊䞮┺ “dislike”
㫡┺ “good” 㫡㞚䞮┺ “like”
⹟┺ “detestable” ⹎㤢䞮┺ “hate”
ⶊ㎃┺ “scary” ⶊ㍲㤢䞮┺ “fear”
ᾊ⫃┺ “painful” ᾊ⪲㤢䞮┺ “suffer (from)”
₆㊮┺ “glad” ₆ㄦ䞮┺ “rejoice”
㔂䝚┺ “sad” 㔂䗒䞮┺ “grieve”
⿖⩓┺ “enviable” ⿖⩂㤢䞮┺ “envy”
䞒Ἲ䞮┺ “tired” 䞒Ἲ䟊䞮┺ “feel tired”
‖㡓┺ “cute” ‖㡂㤢䞮┺ “hold (a person) dear”
Ṗ㡓┺ “pitiful” Ṗ㡂㤢䞮┺ “pity”
㕌┺ “desirous” 㕌㠊䞮┺ “want”
㿻┺ “cold” 㿪㤢䞮┺ “feel cold”
▻┺ “hot” ▪㤢䞮┺ “feel hot”
For instance, compare the following three sentences:
㩲Ṗ 䞒Ἲ䟊㣪. “I am tired.”
㑮㧪, 䞒Ἲ䞮㎎㣪? “Susan, are (you) tired?”
䕆⳾䕆Ṗ 䞒Ἲ䟊䟊㣪. “Timothy feels tired.”
Notice that when the subject of the sentence is the third person, a verb
䞒Ἲ䟊䞮┺ “feel tired” is used instead of the adjective 䞒Ἲ䞮┺ “be tired.”
In addition, note that unlike other auxiliary verb compounding structures
that normally require a space between the main verb and the auxiliary
verb, as in 㡊㠊 ⏩┺ “open (for later),” ~㠊/㞚䞮┺ does not leave a space
6
Auxiliary
verbs III
46
between the main adjective and 䞮┺ (e.g., 㔂䗒䞮┺ not 㔂䗒 䞮┺). This
is due to the Korean spelling convention.
Meanwhile, when speaking of another person’s emotion or feeling in
the past tense, one can use an adjective (without using ~㠊/㞚䞮┺). This
is because the speaker could have information about the third person’s
internal feeling. Consider the following examples:
(X) Ⰲ㌂Ṗ 㔂䗒㣪. “Lisa is sad.”
(O) Ⰲ㌂Ṗ 㔂䗒䟊㣪. “Lisa grieves.”
(O) Ⰲ㌂Ṗ 㔂䗦㠊㣪. “Lisa was sad.”
(O) Ⰲ㌂Ṗ 㔂䗒䟞㠊㣪. “Lisa grieved.”
Notice that 㔂䗦㠊㣪 as well as 㔂䗒䟞㠊㣪 are both acceptable, since both
refer to the third person’s feeling in the past tense.
~㠊/㞚㰖┺
The verb 㰖┺ means “bear/owe,” as shown in the following examples:
㩲Ṗ 㺛㧚㦚 㰖Ỷ㔋┞┺. “I will take the responsibility.”
⁎ 䂲ῂ䞲䎢 グ㦚 㪢㠞㠊㣪. “(I) owed (money) to that friend.”
However, as an auxiliary verb, ~㠊/㞚㰖┺ is typically used with an
adjective, and it is used to express a gradually intensified change that occurs
in the meaning of the adjective. It can be translated as “become/begin
to be/get to be” in English. For instance, compare the following two
sentences:
⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤢㣪. “The weather is cold.”
⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤢㪎㣪. “The weather becomes cold.”
Notice in the second sentence that ~㠊/㞚㰖┺ changes the adjective 㿻┺
“cold” into an intransitive verb, 㿪㤢㰖┺ “becomes cold.” In addition, the
auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚㰖┺ adds the meaning of progressive change in the
meaning of the adjective (e.g., “is cold” => “becomes cold”). Moreover,
just like ~㠊/㞚䞮┺, ~㠊/㞚㰖┺ does not leave a space between the main
adjective and 㰖┺. Here are more examples:
Ṗ㦚㠦 ⋶㝾Ṗ ㍲⓮䟊㪎㣪. “In autumn, the weather becomes cool.”
㡂⯚㠦 ⌄㧊 ₎㠊㪎㣪. “In summer, the daytime becomes long.”
⹎㎖㧊 㡞ㄦ㪢㠊㣪. “Michelle became pretty.”
⹿㧊 ₾⊭䟊㰞 Ệ㡞㣪. “The room will become clean.”
47
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 6
exercises
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 6 exercises
Ṩ price/value
ἶⰯ┺ to be thankful
ῗ⁞䞮┺ to be curious
₆㠋䞮┺ to remember/to memorize
₢ⰹ┺ to be black
ℒ㰖┺ to be extinguished/to die out
↙ flowers
⋶㝾 weather
⑫┺ to lie down
▻┺ to be hot (the weather)
Ⱗ┺ to be clear
⻞䢎 number
⿖⩓┺ to be envious
゚㕎┺ to be expensive
㔶ⶎ newspapers
㞑┺ to wash
㞚䝚┺ to be sick
㟒㺚 vegetables
㠒Ὴ face
㡞㊮┺ to be pretty
㡞㟓䞮┺ to reserve
㡺┺ to come
㦢㔳 food
㧋䧞┺ to make oneself familiar with
㧓┺ to read
㫢㍳ seat
㩚❇ electric lamp
㩚䢪 telephone
㩫㤦 garden
㰖Ⰲ geographical features
㰧 house
䂲ῂ friend
䂾╖ bed
䋂┺ to be big
䋺 height
䞒┺ to bloom
䢮㧦 patient
6
Auxiliary
verbs III
48
Exercise 6.1
Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚 ⏩㦒㎎㣪 and the sentence
cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Open the window for later.” (㺓ⶎ㦚 㡊┺)
= 㺓ⶎ㦚 㡊㠊 ⏩㦒㎎㣪.
1 Finish (your) homework for later (㑯㩲⯒ ⊳⌊┺)
2 Draw a map for later (㰖☚⯒ ⁎Ⰲ┺)
3 Make a sauce for later (㏢㓺⯒ Ⱒ✺┺)
4 Boil water for later (ⶒ㦚 ⊩㧊┺)
5 Receive money for later (☞㦚 ⹱┺)
Exercise 6.2
Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚 ⚦㎎㣪, as shown in the example.
Then translate the sentence.
Example: 㩖⁞䞮┺
= 㩖⁞䟊 ⚦㎎㣪. “Save money for later.”
1 㩚䢪 ⻞䢎⯒ ₆㠋䞮┺
2 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓┺
3 㫢㍳㦚 㡞㟓䞮┺
4 㰖Ⰲ⯒ 㧋䧞┺
5 㟒㺚⯒ 㞑┺
Exercise 6.3
Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚 㧞┺ and the sentence cue
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “The dress is wet.” (㢍㧊 㩬┺)
= 㢍㧊 㩬㠊 㧞㠊㣪.
1 The gate is close (ⶎ㧊 ╁䧞┺)
2 The picture is hung on the wall (㌂㰚㧊 ⼓㠦 ỎⰂ┺)
3 The store is open (ṖỢṖ 㡊Ⰲ┺)
4 The customer is seated on the sofa (㏦┮㧊 ㏢䕢㠦 㞟┺)
5 James is standing in front of the door (㩲㧚㓺Ṗ ⶎ 㞴㠦 ㍲┺)
49
Exercise 6.4
Exercise 6.4
Conjugate the predicate with ~㠊/㞚 㧞┺, as shown in the example. Then
translate the sentence.
Example: ⳿㧊 ⿩┺
= ⳿㧊 ⿖㠊 㧞㠊㣪. “(My) throat is swollen.”
1 ⻚㓺Ṗ 㡺┺
2 㩫㤦㠦 ↙㧊 䞒┺
3 䂲ῂṖ 㰧㠦 㡺┺
4 䢮㧦Ṗ 䂾╖㠦 ⑫┺
5 㩚❇㧊 ℒ㰖┺
Exercise 6.5
Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚䞮┺ and the sentence cue
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(He) grieves.” (㔂䝚┺)
= 㔂䗒䟊㣪.
1 (She) feels happy (䟟⽋䞮┺)
2 (He) rejoices (₆㊮┺)
3 (They) will feel bored (㰖⬾䞮┺)
4 (She) felt depressed (㤆㤎䞮┺)
5 (He) felt painful (ᾊ⫃┺)
Exercise 6.6
Change the following adjective into a verb form, using ~㠊/㞚䟊㣪. Then
translate the sentence.
Example: 㣎⫃┺
= 㣎⪲㤢䟊㣪. “(He) feels lonely.”
1 ▻┺
2 㞚䝚┺
3 ἶⰯ┺
4 ῗ⁞䞮┺
5 ⿖⩓┺
6
Auxiliary
verbs III
50
Exercise 6.7
Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚㰖┺ and the sentence cue
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “The house has become quiet.” (㰧㧊 㫆㣿䞮┺)
= 㰧㧊 㫆㣿䟊㪢㠊㣪.
1 (My) head has become dizzy (ⲎⰂṖ 㠊㰖⩓┺)
2 (Her) personality has become calm (㎇ỿ㧊 㹾⿚䞮┺)
3 (Your) voice has become soft (⳿㏢ⰂṖ ⿖✲⩓┺)
4 (His) body has become strong (ⴎ㧊 䔒䔒䞮┺)
5 (Your) car will become dirty (㹾Ṗ ▪⩓┺)
Exercise 6.8
Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚㰖┺, as shown in the example. Then
translate the sentence.
Example: ⹿㧊 ₾⊭䞮┺
= ⹿㧊 ₾⊭䟊㪢㠊㣪. “The room has become clean.”
1 㞚㧊㦮 䋺Ṗ 䋂┺
2 㩲㔲䃊Ṗ 㡞㊮┺
3 㦢㔳 Ṩ㧊 ゚㕎┺
4 ⋶㝾Ṗ Ⱗ┺
5 㠒Ὴ㧊 ₢ⰹ┺
UNIT 7
Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention)
51
This unit discusses some major characteristics of Korean clausal conjunc-
tives, and then introduces three clausal conjunctives, ~(㦒)⩂, ~(㦒)⩺ἶ,
and ~☚⪳, that indicate the purpose or intention of the speaker.
Clausal conjunctives
Clausal conjunctives are used to link two or more clauses and to add
special meanings, such as simultaneous actions, contrastive actions or states,
paralleling actions, and so on. Examples of English clausal conjunctives
include “and,” “whereas,” “while,” and “though.”
Korean has an extensive list of clausal conjunctives that indicate various
meanings, such as “and (e.g., ~ἶ),” “because/and then (e.g., ~㠊/㞚㍲),”
“while (e.g., ~㦒Ⳋ㍲),” “although (e.g., ~㰖Ⱒ),” “in order to (e.g., ~☚⪳),”
and so forth. Korean clausal conjunctives are non-sentence-final endings,
since they attach to the predicate stem of the preceding clause. Consider
how the conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ “while” serves to connect two different
clauses:
[䕳䆮㦚 ⲏ㠊㣪 “(I) eat popcorn”] + [㡗䢪⯒ ⽦㣪 “(I) see a movie”] =
䕳䆮㦚 ⲏ㦒Ⳋ㍲ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽦㣪 “(I) see a movie, while eating popcorn.”
In the example above, the conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ attaches to the verb
stem of the first clause ⲏ “eat” and indicates the new meaning “while”
to the first clause: 䕳䆮㦚 ⲏ㠊㣪 “(I) eat popcorn” changes to 䕳䆮㦚
ⲏ㦒Ⳋ㍲ “while eating popcorn.” Notice that the conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲
is not a sentence-final ending, since it does not end the sentence. Instead,
~㠊/㞚㣪 in the main clause (or the second clause) is the sentence-final
ending since it attaches to the verb stem of the main clause ⽊ “see” and
ends the whole sentence. Consider another example:
⑞㧊 ⌊Ⰲἶ ⹪⧢㧊 ⿧┞┺. “The snow falls and the wind blows.”
7
Clausal
conjunctives
(purpose or
intention)
52
The clausal conjunctive ~ἶ “and” links two clauses: ⑞㧊 ⌊Ⰲ┺ “Snow
falls” and ⹪⧢㧊 ⿞┺ “Wind blows.” Again, the conjunctive ~ἶ ends the
verb stem of the first clause ⌊Ⰲ┺ “fall,” while the deferential speech
level ending ~㔋┞┺/ථ┞┺ ends both the verb stem of the main clause
⿞┺ “blow” as well as the whole sentence.
Restrictions
Some Korean clausal conjunctives may be subject to various restrictions
regarding how they are used in sentences.
Tense agreement
The first restriction concerns the tense agreement. Since a clausal conjunc-
tive connects two different clauses, there are at least two predicates within
a clausal-conjunctive sentence. In English, the tense of each clause em-
bedded within the sentence must be the same. Consider the following
example:
“I eat a pizza and watched TV.”
The above sentence is grammatically incorrect because the tense of the two
predicates is not the same. In contrast to English, the tense of each clause
can be different in Korean. This is possible because some Korean conjunc-
tives are not conjugated for the tense. Consider the following examples:
㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䟞㰖Ⱒ C ⯒ ⹱㞮㠊㣪. “Although (I) studied hard, (I)
received a C.”
㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䟊㍲ À ⯒ ⹱㞮㠊㣪. “Because (I) studied hard, (I) received
an A.”
Notice that both sentences are about past actions. In the first example,
both the conjunctive ~㰖Ⱒ “although” in the first clause as well as the
predicate of the main clause ⹱┺ take the past tense marker. However,
in the second example, the conjunctive ~㠊/㞚㍲ “because” of the first
clause does not take the past tense marker but only the predicate of the
main clause ⹱┺.
Subject agreement
The second restriction concerns the subject agreement. Some conjunctives
can have different subjects, while some cannot. In other words, for some
conjunctives, the subject of the clauses within a sentence must be the same.
Consider the following examples:
53
Restrictions
䂲ῂṖ 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㎾㰖Ⱒ ⋮⓪ 㤆㥶⯒ Ⱎ㎾㠊㣪. “Although (my) friend
drank coffee, as for me (I) drank milk.”
㦮㌂Ṗ ♮⩺ἶ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䟞㠊㣪. “(I) studied hard in order to become
a doctor.”
In the first example, each clause has its own subject. However, in the sec-
ond example, both clauses have the same subject.
Predicate types
The third restriction is about whether the conjunctive may be used with
adjectives, copulas, and/or verbs. Some conjunctives must be used only
with verbs, whereas some conjunctives may be used with verbs, adjectives,
as well as copulas. For instance, the conjunctive ~㰖Ⱒ “although” can be
attached to verb, adjective, and copula stems, as shown below:
㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮㰖Ⱒ 㠊⩺㤢㣪. “Although (I) study hard, (it) is
difficult.”
䞯ᾦṖ Ⲗ㰖Ⱒ ⰺ㧒 Ṗ㣪. “Although the school is far, (I) go (there)
everyday.”
䕖㧊 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊㰖Ⱒ 䞲ῃ 㡃㌂㠦 ╖䟊㍲ Ⱔ㧊 ⴆ⧒㣪. “Although
Tim is a Korean, (he) does not know much about Korean history.”
On the other hand, a certain conjunctive such as ~(㦒)⩺ἶ “in order to”
must be used only with verb stems.
⻫╖㠦 ✺㠊Ṗ⩺ἶ 㭖゚䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am preparing to enter law
school.”
Sentence types
The fourth restriction is that there are conjunctives that can be used for
all sentence types, such as declarative, interrogative, imperative, and pro-
positive, while some conjunctives must be used only for certain sentence
types. For instance, consider the conjunctive ~(㦒)┞₢ and ~㠊/㞚㍲, which
both mean “because/since.”
㿪㤆┞₢ 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㔋┞┺. “(I) close the window because (it) is cold.”
㿪㤆┞₢ 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㔋┞₢? “Do (you) close the window because (it)
is cold?”
㿪㤆┞₢ 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Close the window because (it) is
cold.”
㿪㤆┞₢ 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㦣㔲┺. “(Let us) close the window because (it) is
cold.”
7
Clausal
conjunctives
(purpose or
intention)
54
㿪㤢㍲ 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㔋┞┺. “(I) close the window because (it) is cold.”
㿪㤢㍲ 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㔋┞₢? “Do (you) close the window because (it) is
cold?”
(X) 㿪㤢㍲ 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Close the window because (it) is
cold.”
(X) 㿪㤢㍲ 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㦣㔲┺. “(Let us) close the window because (it)
is cold.”
Notice that ~(㦒)┞₢ can be used for all sentence types, whereas ~㠊/
㞚㍲ must be used only for declarative and interrogative sentences.
~(㦒)⩂
The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)⩂ is used to express the purpose of the
speaker’s action. It is translated as “for the purpose of” or “to” in English.
~(㦒)⩂ is a two-form ending: ~㦒⩂ is used after a verb stem that ends
in a consonant (e.g., ⲏ㦒⩂ “to eat”), while ~⩂ is used after a verb stem
that ends in a vowel (e.g., Ṗ⯊䂮⩂ “to teach”).
~(㦒)⩂ is usually used with a motion verb, such as Ṗ┺ “to go” and
㡺┺ “to come,” to indicate the purpose of going or coming, as shown in
the examples below:
䘎㰖⯒ ⿖䂮⩂ 㤆㼊ῃ㠦 Ṗ㣪. “(I) go to the post office to send a
letter.”
㡂㧦 䂲ῂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮⩂ ㍲㤎⪲ ⟶⋮㎎㣪? “(Do you) leave for Seoul to
meet (your) girlfriend?”
~(㦒)⩂ is subject to some of the aforementioned restrictions. First, the
subjects of both clauses must be the same. Second, it is not conjugated for
the tense, as shown below:
㺛㦚 ㌂⩂ ㍲㩦㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) went to the bookstore to buy books.”
(X) 㺛㦚 ㌖⩂ ㍲㩦㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) went to the bookstore to buy
books.”
Third, it is used only with verbs.
䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮⩂ ㍲㤎㠦 㢪㔋┞┺. “(I) came to Seoul to study the
Korean language.”
(X) 䟟⽋䞮⩂ ἆ䢒䞮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪. “(I) want to marry (her) to be happy.”
However, there is no restriction regarding sentence type. For instance,
it can be used with any of four sentence types as shown below:
55
~(㦒)⩺ἶ
䂲ῂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮⩂ ₆㹾㡃㠦 ṧ┞┺. “(I) go to the train station to meet
(my) friends.”
㠎㩲 㺛㦚 ㌂⩂ ㍲㩦㠦 Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪? “When will (you) go to the book-
store to buy books?”
㩦㕂 ⲏ㦒⩂ 㞚䕢䔎㠦 ✺⯊㎎㣪. “Stop by (my) apartment to have
lunch.”
䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲⩂ 㓺䌖⻛㓺㠦 ṧ㔲┺. “(Let us) go to Starbucks to drink
coffee.”
~(㦒)⩺ἶ
The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)⩺ἶ is used to express the speaker’s intention
or plan. It is a two-form ending: ~㦒⩺ἶ is used after a verb stem that
ends in a consonant (e.g., ⲏ㦒⩺ἶ “intending to eat”), and ~⩺ἶ is used
after a verb stem that ends in a vowel (e.g., Ⱒ⋮⩺ἶ “intending to meet”).
The meaning of ~(㦒)⩺ἶ is similar to that of ~(㦒)⩂. However, in
contrast to ~(㦒)⩂, which is normally collocated with motion verbs such
as Ṗ┺ or 㡺┺, ~(㦒)⩺ἶ can be used with any verb, as shown below:
㡗㠊 ᾦ㌂⪲ 㧒䞮⩺ἶ 䞯㥚⯒ ➚㠊㣪. “(I) earned the degree (intend-
ing) to work as an English teacher.”
㥶⩓㦚 㡂䟟䞮⩺ἶ ☞㦚 ⳾㦒ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am saving money (intend-
ing) to travel in Europe.”
À ⯒ ⹱㦒⩺ἶ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䟞㠊㣪. “(I) studied hard (intending) to
receive an A.”
⌊⎚㠦 ㌞ 㹾⯒ ㌂⩺ἶ 䟊㣪. “(I) intend to buy a new car next year.”
╖㔶 㰧㠦㍲ Ὃ⿖䞮⩺ἶ ☚㍲ὖ㠦 㞞 Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) did not go to the
library, intending to study at home instead.”
㫡㦖 䞯ᾦ㠦 ✺㠊Ṗ⩺ἶ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䟞㔋┞┺. “(I) studied hard (intend-
ing) to enter a good school.”
~(㦒)⩺ἶ is subject to the following restrictions: (1) it is not conjugated
for the tense; (2) the subject of the clauses must be the same; (3) it is
used only with verbs; (4) it is used only for declarative and interrogative
sentences.
㩲㧊㓾㦚 Ⱒ⋮⩺ἶ 䣢㌂㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) went to the company to meet
Jason.”
㠎㩲 㺛㦚 ㌂⩺ἶ ㍲㩦㠦 Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪? “When will (you) go to the
bookstore to buy the book?”
(X) 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㦒⩺ἶ Ṗ㕃㔲㡺. “Go (intending to) have dinner.”
(X) 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲⩺ἶ 㓺䌖⻛㓺㠦 ṧ㔲┺. “(Let us) go to Starbucks to
drink coffee.”
7
Clausal
conjunctives
(purpose or
intention)
56
~☚⪳
The clausal conjunctive ~☚⪳ is used to express “so that” or “to the point
where.”
⋮ⶊṖ 㧮 㧦⧒☚⪳ ☢⽦ 㭒㎾㠊㣪. “(He) took care of (the tree), so
that the tree would grow better.”
⼧㧊 ゾⰂ ⌁☚⪳ ₆☚䟞㠊㣪? “Did (you) pray so that the illness would
be healed soon?”
䐆㧊 㩲┞䗒⯒ 㭓☚⪳ ㌂⧧䟞㠊㣪. “Tom loved Jennifer to death.”
㤆Ⰲ⓪ ⑞ⶒ㧊 ⋮☚⪳ 㤙㠞㠊㣪. “As for us, (we) laughed till tears ran
down our faces.”
~☚⪳ is subject to only one restriction: It is not conjugated for the
tense. However, it can be used with any sentence type; it can be used with
any predicate type; its subject does not have to be the same as that of the
main clause.
Ṧ₆ 㞞 ỎⰂ☚⪳ 㫆㕂䟞㔋┞┺. “(I) was careful so that (I) would not
catch a cold.”
㤆Ⰲ 䕖㧊 Ợ㧚㦚 㧊₆☚⪳ 㡊㕂䧞 㦧㤦䞮ἶ 㧞㔋┞₢? “Are (they)
cheering (for our team) enthusiastically, so that our team may win?”
⳿㧊 㞚䝚☚⪳ ㏢Ⰲ⯒ 㰖⯊㕃㔲㡺. “Shout to the extent (your) throat
hurts.”
㑮㧪㧊 Ⓤ㣫㦒⪲ ⟶⋶ 㑮 㧞☚⪳ 㑮㧪㦚 ☚㤗㔲┺. “(Let us) help Susan
so that Susan can leave for New York.”
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 7 exercises
Ṗ┺ to go
Ṗ㫇 family
ṯ㧊 together
ἶ⯊┺ to select
Ὃ⿖䞮┺ to study
Ὃ䟃 airport
₆┺Ⰲ┺ to wait
₆㹾 train
₎ road/street
⋾㧦 man
⋾䘎 husband
☚㍲ὖ library
57
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 7
exercises
☞ money
⟶⋮┺ to leave/to depart
Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink
Ⱒ⋮┺ to meet
ⰴ㿪┺ to set/to put together
ⲏ┺ to eat
⻢┺ to earn
゚䋺┺ to get out of the way
アⰂ┺ to borrow
ゾⰂ fast/immediately
㌂┺ to buy
㌳㧒 birthday
㍶ⶒ present/gift
㔲䠮㠦 ⿯┺ to pass a test
㔳╏ restaurant
㕎Ợ at a cheap price
㞑┺ to wash
㞚⯊⹪㧊䔎 a side job
㞚䂾 morning/breakfast
㞢⧢ alarm (clock)
㟆な⧖㓺 ambulance
㟒㺚 vegetables
㠒Ὴ face
㡂㧦 woman
㡃 station
㡊㕂䧞 eagerly/enthusiastically/hard
㤙┺ to smile
㧎㌗ impression
㧒㠊⋮┺ to get up
㧒㹣 early
㧮 well/excellently
㩦㕂 lunch
㭒┺ to give
㭧ῃ China
㰖⋮Ṗ┺ to pass by
㹾 car
㺛 book
䂲ῂ friend
䌖┺ to ride
䞯ᾦ school
䢒⌊┺ to teach a lesson/to frighten (a person) out of his wits/to scare
䢪㧻㔺 toilet
䦻㩫 buying and selling/making a deal (with)
7
Clausal
conjunctives
(purpose or
intention)
58
Exercise 7.1
Complete the following translation using ~(㦒)⩂ and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) will go to the office to send the fax.”
(䕿㓺⯒ ⽊⌊┺ / ㌂ⶊ㔺⪲ Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪)
= 䕿㓺⯒ ⽊⌊⩂ ㌂ⶊ㔺⪲ Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪.
1 Come to the post office to get (your) package (㏢䙂⯒ ⹱┺ / 㤆㼊ῃ
㠦 㡺㎎㣪)
2 (They) are going to the service station to repair (their) car (㹾⯒ ἶ䂮
┺ / 㩫゚㏢㠦 Ṗἶ 㧞㠊㣪)
3 (Let us) go to the beach to do fishing (⋰㔲㰞 䞮┺ / ⹪╍Ṗ⪲ ṧ㔲
┺)
4 (I) will go to the airport to catch the flight (゚䟟₆⯒ 䌖┺ / Ὃ䟃㠦 Ṟ
Ệ㡞㣪)
5 Do (you) go to (your) friend’s house often to play computer games?
(䅊䜾䎆 Ợ㧚㦚 䞮┺ / 䂲ῂ 㰧㠦 㧦㭒 Ṗ㎎㣪?)
Exercise 7.2
Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)⩂. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 㟧䕢⯒ ㌂┺ / 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪
= 㟧䕢⯒ ㌂⩂ 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪.
“(I) went to the supermarket to buy onions.”
1 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺ / 㓺䌖⻛㓺㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪
2 㔲䠮 Ὃ⿖䞮┺ / ☚㍲ὖ㠦 Ṗ㕃㔲㡺
3 㠒Ὴ㦚 㞑┺ / 䢪㧻㔺㠦 Ṗἶ 㧞㠊㣪
4 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ┺ / 㭧ῃ 㔳╏㠦 ṧ㔲┺
5 䅖㧊䔎⯒ Ⱒ⋮┺ / Ὃ䟃㠦 ṧ┞₢?
Exercise 7.3
Complete the following translation using ~(㦒)⩺ἶ and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) am studying hard to receive an A.”
(À ⯒ ⹱┺ / 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪)
= À ⯒ ⹱㦒⩺ἶ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪.
59
Exercise 7.4 1 (I) exercise to lose weight (㌊㦚 ヒ┺ / 㤊☯䟊㣪)
2 (She) was waiting in the office to meet the teacher (㍶㌳┮㦚 Ⱒ⋮┺
/ ㌂ⶊ㔺㠦㍲ ₆┺Ⰲἶ 㧞㠞㠊㣪)
3 (He) is studying hard intending to enter medical school (㦮ὒ ╖䞯㠦
✺㠊Ṗ┺ / 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪)
4 (I) reserved an airplane ticket intending to go to Korea this summer
(㧊⻞ 㡂⯚㠦 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṗ┺ / ゚䟟₆䚲⯒ 㡞㟓䟞㠊㣪)
5 (She) was making efforts to get a job (䀾㰗䞮┺ / ⏎⩻䞮ἶ 㧞㠞
㠊㣪)
Exercise 7.4
Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)⩺ἶ. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: ⶊ㡃 䣢㌂㠦 䀾㰗䞮┺ / 㭧ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤆ἶ 㧞㠊㣪
= ⶊ㡃 䣢㌂㠦 䀾㰗䞮⩺ἶ 㭧ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤆ἶ 㧞㠊㣪.
“(I) am learning Chinese intending to get a job at a trading
company.”
1 ⋾䘎䞲䎢 ㌳㧒 ㍶ⶒ⪲ 㭒┺ / ㍶ⶒ㦚 ἶ⯊ἶ 㧞㠊㣪
2 䕢Ⰲ⪲ ⟶⋮┺ / ₆㹾 㡃㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪.
3 ṯ㧊 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ┺ / ⪲゚㠦㍲ 䂲ῂ⯒ ₆┺⩺㣪
4 㕎Ợ 㹾⯒ ㌂┺ / 䦻㩫㦚 䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪
5 ☞㦚 ⻢┺ / 㞚⯊⹪㧊䔎⯒ 䟞㠊㣪
Exercise 7.5
Complete the following dialogue using the sentence cue provided in par-
enthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: A: 㢲 㡂䟟㌂㠦 㩚䢪䞮㎎㣪?
B: ゚䟟₆䚲⯒ ㌂⩺ἶ 㩚䢪䟊㣪.
(゚䟟₆䚲⯒ ㌂┺)
1 A: 㠊❪㠦 Ṗ㎎㣪?
B: _____________________________ ☚㍲ὖ㠦 Ṗ㣪.
(㺛㦚 アⰂ┺)
2 A: 㠊❪ Ṗ㎎㣪?
B: _____________________________ 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 Ṗ㣪.
(㟒㺚⯒ ㌂┺)
3 A: 㢲 㧻⹎⯒ ㌂㎎㣪?
B: _____________________________ ㌂㣪.
(㡂㧦 䂲ῂ䞲䎢 㭒┺)
7
Clausal
conjunctives
(purpose or
intention)
60
4 A: 㢲 㰖䞮㻶㦚 䌪㠊㣪?
B: ____________________________ 䌪㠊㣪.
(䞯ᾦ㠦 ゾⰂ Ṗ┺)
5 A: ㍲㤎㠦⓪ 㢶 㧒㧊㎎㣪?
B: ____________________________ 㢪㠊㣪.
(⋾㧦 䂲ῂ㦮 Ṗ㫇㦚 Ⱒ⋮┺)
Exercise 7.6
Complete the following translation using ~☚⪳ and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Please prepare so that (we) can leave at 7 a.m.”
(㡺㩚 7 㔲㠦 ⟶⋶ 㑮 㧞┺ / 㭖゚䟊 㭒㎎㣪)
= 㡺㩚 7 㔲㠦 ⟶⋶ 㑮 㧞☚⪳ 㭖゚䟊 㭒㎎㣪.
1 Please turn on the radio, so that (we) can listen to the news (Ⓤ㓺⯒ ✺
㦚 㑮 㧞┺ / ⧒❪㡺⯒ 䅲 㭒㎎㣪)
2 Please allow (me) so that (I) can use (your) car (㹾⯒ 㝎 㑮 㧞┺ / 䠞
⧓䟊 㭒㎎㣪)
3 Please help (him) so that (he) can recover (his) health (Ịṫ㦚 䣢⽋䞶
㑮 㧞┺ / ☚㢖 㭒㎎㣪)
4 Please write (her) a recommendation letter so that (she) can get a job
(䀾㰗䞶 㑮 㧞┺ / 㿪㻲㍲⯒ 㖾 㭒㎎㣪)
5 Please turn off the electric lamp so that (she) can sleep (㧮 㑮 㧞┺ /
㩚❇㦚 ℒ 㭒㎎㣪)
Exercise 7.7
Connect the following two sentences using ~☚⪳. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 㫆㣿䧞 Ὃ⿖䞶 㑮 㧞┺ / 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 ℒ 㭒㎎㣪
= 㫆㣿䧞 Ὃ⿖䞶 㑮 㧞☚⪳ 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 ℒ 㭒㎎㣪.
“Please turn off the TV so that (he) can study quietly.”
1 㟆な⧖㓺Ṗ 㰖⋮Ṟ 㑮 㧞┺ / ₎㦚 ゚䅲 㭒㎎㣪
2 㫡㦖 㧎㌗㦚 㭚 㑮 㧞┺ / 㤙㠊 㭒㎎㣪
3 㔲䠮㠦 ⿯┺ / 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮㕃㔲㡺
4 㞚䂾㠦 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋶ 㑮 㧞┺ / 㞢⧢㦚 ⰴ㿪㠊 㭒㎎㣪
5 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞶 㑮 㧞┺ / 䢒⌊ 㭒㎎㣪
UNIT 8
Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause)
61
~㠊/㞚㍲
Functions
The clausal conjunctive ~㠊/㞚㍲ expresses two things. First, it indicates a
cause-and-effect relation between two actions or states, equivalent to “so”
or “because/since” in English. In other words, it is used when the action
and/or state of the first clause provides a cause or reason for the action
and/or state of the main clause. Consider the following example:
⍞ⶊ ₆ㄦ㍲ ⲪⰂ䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am so glad, so (I) am
making a phone call to Mary.”
The state of the first clause ₆㊮┺ “glad” gives a reason for the action
of the main clause 㩚䢪䞮┺ “make a phone call.” Consider another
example:
㣪㯞㦢 ㌞⼓㠦 㫆ₛ㦚 䟊㍲ 㞚䂾㠦 ⹪ザ㣪. “(I) jog at dawn nowadays,
so (I) am busy in the morning.”
Notice that the action of the first clause (e.g., 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮┺ “jog”) is the
reason for the state of the main clause (e.g., ⹪㊮┺ “busy”). Here are
more examples:
Ṗỿ㧊 ⍞ⶊ ゚㕎㍲ ⴑ ㌂㣪. “The price is too expensive, so (I) cannot
buy (it).”
┺㦢 㭒㠦 㔲䠮㧊 㧞㠊㍲ ⹪ザ㣪. “(I) have a test next week, so (I) am
busy.”
Second, ~㠊/㞚㍲ links two chronologically ordered actions or events
without implying any cause-and-effect relation between them. Its English
translation is equivalent to “and then.”
8
Clausal
conjunctives
(reasons and
cause)
62
䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ㍲ ㍶㌳┮㦚 Ⱒ⋶ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will go to school and then
meet the teacher.”
In the example above, ~㠊/㞚㍲ indicates that the action of the first
clause Ṗ┺ “go” occurrs before the action of the main clause Ⱒ⋮┺
“meet.” Here are more examples:
⺇䢪㩦㠦 Ṗ㍲ ㌳㧒 䃊✲⯒ ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪? “Will (you) go to the depart-
ment store and then buy a birthday card?”
㌂ὒ⯒ ₣㞚㍲ ⲏ㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Eat the apple after peeling (it).”
㡺⓮ 䞒䎆 㰧㠦 Ṗ㍲ 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㦣㔲┺. “Today, (let us) go to Peter’s
house and then eat dinner (there).”
Forms
~㠊/㞚㍲ is a two-form ending: ~㞚㍲ is used after a predicate stem that
ends in 㞚 or 㡺, whereas ~㠊㍲ is used after a predicate stem that ends
in all other vowels.
Verb ~㠊/㞚㍲
Ṗ┺ “go” Ṗ㍲ (contracted from Ṗ + 㞚㍲)
㺔┺ “find” 㺔㞚㍲
Ṗ⯊䂮┺ “teach” Ṗ⯊㼦㍲ (contracted from Ṗ⯊䂮 + 㠊㍲)
⹕┺ “believe” ⹕㠊㍲
Adjective ~㠊/㞚㍲
㫡┺ “good” 㫡㞚㍲
₆㊮┺ “happy” ₆ㄦ㍲ (₆㊮ + 㠊㍲)
Copula ~㠊/㞚㍲
㧊┺ “to be” 㧊㠊㍲/(㧊)⧒㍲
㞚┞┺ “not be” 㞚┞㠊㍲/㞚┞⧒㍲
Notice that the combination of ~㠊/㞚㍲ with the copula 㧊┺ has two
forms: 㧊㠊㍲ and (㧊)⧒㍲. The negative copula, 㞚┞┺, also has two
forms: 㞚┞㠊㍲ and 㞚┞⧒㍲. The use of (㧊)⧒㍲/㞚┞⧒㍲ is more
common than that of 㧊㠊㍲/㞚┞㠊㍲.
䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊⧒㍲/㧊㠊㍲ “since (I) am a Korean”
㏢ἶ₆⧒㍲/㡂㍲ “since (it) is beef”
䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊 㞚┞⧒㍲/㞚┞㠊㍲ “because (I) am not a Korean”
㏢ἶ₆Ṗ 㞚┞⧒㍲/㞚┞㠊㍲ “because (it) is not beef”
63
~㠊/㞚㍲
Restrictions
~㠊/㞚㍲ is subject to two restrictions. First, it is not conjugated for the
tense. Consider the following example:
㩖⎗㦚 㞞 ⲏ㠊㍲ ⺆ἶ䕶㠊㣪. “(I) did not eat dinner, so (I) was
hungry.”
Notice that the past tense is not marked in the first clause (e.g., 㞞 ⲏ㠊
㍲) but in the main clause (e.g., ⺆ἶ䕶㠊㣪). Here are more examples:
Ὃ⿖⯒ Ⱔ㧊 䟊㍲ À ⯒ ⹱㞮㠊㣪. “(I) studied a lot, so (I) received an
A.”
⹪ザ㍲ 㰧㠦 ⴑ Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) was busy, so (I) could not go home.”
㟓ῃ㠦 ✺⩂㍲ 㞚㓺䞒Ⰶ㦚 ㌖㠊㣪. “(I) bought aspirin after stopping
at the pharmacy.”
⌊㧒㧊 㞚⻚㰖 ㌳㔶㧊⧒㍲ Ἵ 㰧㠦 ☢㞚㢂 Ệ㡞㣪. “Tomorrow is (her)
father’s birthday, so (she) will return home soon.”
☞㧊 㠜㠊㍲ 䕢䕆㠦 㞞 Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) do not have money, so (I) will
not go to the party.”
Second, when ~㠊/㞚㍲ indicates a cause-and-effect relation, it can-
not be used for the imperative and/or propositive sentences, as shown
below:
(O) ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䕢㍲ 㟓㦚 ⲏ㔋┞┺. “(My) head aches, so (I) take
medicines.”
(O) ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䕢㍲ 㟓㦚 ⲏ㔋┞₢? “Do (you) take medicines, since
(your) head aches?”
(X) ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䕢㍲ 㟓㦚 ⲏ㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Take medicines, since (your)
head aches.”
(X) ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䕢㍲ 㟓㦚 ⲏ㦣㔲┺. “(Let us) take medicines, since (our)
heads ache.”
However, when ~㠊/㞚㍲ is used to link two chronological actions or states,
it can be used for any sentence type, as shown below:
ⰾ䞮䎊㠦 Ṗ㍲ ぢ⪲✲㤾㧊 ⷺ㰖䅂㦚 ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪. “(We) will go to
Manhattan and then see Broadway musicals.”
㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 Ṗ㍲ ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪? “Will (you) go to the supermarket and
then buy (it)?”
㡺⩢㰖⯒ 㞑㠊㍲ ⲏ㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Wash the orange and then eat (it).”
㰧㠦 Ṗ㍲ 㧊㟒₆䞿㔲┺. “(Let us) go home and then talk.”
8
Clausal
conjunctives
(reasons and
cause)
64
~(㦒)┞₢
The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)┞₢ is used to specify a reason for the main
clause, and it can be translated as “since,” “so,” and “because” in English.
~(㦒)┞₢ is a two-form ending: ~㦒┞₢ is used after a predicate stem
that ends in a consonant, and ~┞₢ is used after a predicate stem that
ends in a vowel.
Verb ~(㦒)┞₢
⽊┺ “see” ⽊┞₢
⺆㤆┺ “learn” ⺆㤆┞₢
㧷┺ “catch” 㧷㦒┞₢
ⲏ┺ “eat” ⲏ㦒┞₢
Adjective ~(㦒)┞₢
㕎┺ “cheap” 㕎┞₢
㧧┺ “small” 㧧㦒┞₢
Copula ~(㦒)┞₢
㧊┺ “to be” 㧊┞₢
㞚┞┺ “not be” 㞚┞┞₢
The function of ~(㦒)┞₢ is similar to that of ~㠊/㞚㍲ since both
provide a cause or reason for the action and/or state of the main clause.
However, there are three differences between these two conjunctives.
First, the reason and/or cause provided by ~(㦒)┞₢ sounds more
specific than those given by ~㠊/㞚㍲. Second, while ~㠊/㞚㍲ “because/
since/so” must be used only for declarative and interrogative sentences,
~(㦒)┞₢ may be used for any sentence type, as shown below:
(O) 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾Ệ㤢㍲ 㻲㻲䧞 Ⱎ㕃┞┺. “Since the coffee is hot, (I) drink
(it) slowly.”
(O) 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾Ệ㤢㍲ 㻲㻲䧞 Ⱎ㕃┞₢? “Do (you) drink the coffee
slowly because (it) is hot?”
(X) 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾Ệ㤢㍲ 㻲㻲䧞 Ⱎ㔲㕃㔲㡺. “Since the coffee is hot, drink
(it) slowly.”
(X) 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾Ệ㤢㍲ 㻲㻲䧞 Ⱎ㕃㔲┺. “Since the coffee is hot, (let us)
drink (it) slowly.”
(O) 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾Ệ㤆┞₢ 㻲㻲䧞 Ⱎ㕃┞┺. “Since the coffee is hot, (I)
drink (it) slowly.”
(O) 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾Ệ㤆┞₢ 㻲㻲䧞 Ⱎ㕃┞₢? “Do (you) drink the coffee
slowly because (it) is hot?”
(O) 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾Ệ㤆┞₢ 㻲㻲䧞 Ⱎ㔲㕃㔲㡺. “Since the coffee is hot,
drink (it) slowly.”
(O) 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾Ệ㤆┞₢ 㻲㻲䧞 Ⱎ㕃㔲┺. “Since the coffee is hot, (let
us) drink (it) slowly.”
65
~ⓦ⧒ἶ Third, ~(㦒)┞₢ is conjugated for the tense, while ~㠊/㞚㍲ is not, as
shown below:
(O) 㠊㩲 ⌊Ṗ ㍺Ệ㰖 䟞㦒┞₢ 㡺⓮ ⍺Ṗ 䟊. “Since I washed dishes
yesterday, you do (it) today.”
(X) 㠊㩲 ⌊Ṗ ㍺Ệ㰖 䟞㠊㍲ 㡺⓮ ⍺Ṗ 䟊. “Since I washed dishes
yesterday, you do (it) today.”
(O) ⌊㧒 㞚䂾 㧒㹣 ⽊㓺䏺㦒⪲ ⟶⋶ Ệ┞₢ 㧒㹣 㧷㔲┺. “(Let
us) sleep early, since (we) will leave for Boston tomorrow early
morning.”
(X) ⌊㧒 㞚䂾 㧒㹣 ⽊㓺䏺㦒⪲ ⟶⋶ Ệ㠊㍲ 㧒㹣 㧷㔲┺. “(Let us)
sleep early, since (we) will leave for Boston tomorrow early morning.”
~ⓦ⧒ἶ
The clausal conjunctive ~ⓦ⧒ἶ is a one-form ending, and it means “as a
result of/because of.” Similar to ~㠊/㞚㍲ and ~(㦒)┞₢, ~ⓦ⧒ἶ expresses
that the action of the first clause is the reason or cause for the main
clause.
However, there is a subtle meaning difference between ~ⓦ⧒ἶ and
~㠊/㞚㍲ (or ~(㦒)┞₢). The clause with ~ⓦ⧒ἶ generates a negative
implication that the action of the main clause is performed at the expense
of the action of the first clause. In other words, it indicates that the action
of the first clause leads to the undesirable action of the main clause.
Consider the following example:
⹺ ㌞ 䅊䜾䎆 Ợ㧚㦚 䞮ⓦ⧒ἶ 䞯ᾦ㠦 ⴑ Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) could not go to
school because of playing computer games all night.”
Notice that the action of the first clause with ~ⓦ⧒ἶ contributes to the
undesirable action of the main clause (e.g., could not go to school).
~ⓦ⧒ἶ is subject to more restrictions than ~㠊/㞚㍲ and ~(㦒)┞₢.
First ~ⓦ⧒ἶ cannot be used for imperative and/or propositive sentences.
Second, it must be used only with verbs. Third, it is not conjugated for the
tense. Finally, the subject of the ~ⓦ⧒ἶ clause must be the same with
that of the main clause.
⓼Ợ 㧒㠊⋮ⓦ⧒ἶ 㞚䂾㦚 ⴑ ⲏ㠊㣪. “(I) cannot eat breakfast because
of getting up late.”
䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 ⽊ⓦ⧒ἶ 㩚䢪 ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) could not make a phone call,
because of watching TV.”
⍞ⶊ ゾⰂ ọⓦ⧒ἶ 㰖ṧ㦚 ⟾㠊⥾⪎㠊㣪. “(I) dropped (my) wallet
because of walking too fast.”
8
Clausal
conjunctives
(reasons and
cause)
66
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 8 exercises
Ṗ┺ to go
Ṧ₆ ỎⰂ┺ to catch (a cold)
Ἵ soon
₆┺Ⰲ┺ to wait
⋮Ṗ┺ to go out
⌊㧒 tomorrow
⍹┺ to insert/to put (something) in
⏖┺ to play/to enjoy (oneself)
⑞ snow/eyes
⓼┺ to be late
┺㧊㠊䔎 diet
▪ more
▻┺ to be hot/to be warm
☚㍲ὖ library
☚㹿䞮┺ to arrive
☫┺ to help
✹┺ to listen
⥾ỗ┺ to be hot/to be heated
⧒❪㡺 radio
Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink
Ⱔ㧊 a lot/plenty
ⰱ㧞┺ to be delicious
ⲎⰂ head
ⲏ┺ to eat
⳾⧮ the day after tomorrow
ⶒ㠊⽊┺ to ask (a person about something)
ⷺ㰖䅂 musical
⹎㞞䞮┺ to be sorry
⹪㊮┺ to be busy
⹬ outside
⹺ night
⽊┺ to see/to watch/to read
㌂┺ to buy
㌂⧢✺ people
㌞㤆┺ to stay up all night
㌳㧒 birthday
㍶ⶒ present/gift
㏢⁞ salt
67
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 8
exercises
㏢Ⰲ sound
㑯㩲 homework
㔲Ṛ hour/time
㔳╏ restaurant
㕇ỗ┺ to be watery/to be insipid
㞚䂾 morning/breakfast
㞚䝚┺ to be painful/to be sore
㟓 medicine
㟓㏣ appointment
㠊㩲 yesterday
㠦㠊䆮 air conditioner
㡂₆ here
㡺┺ to come
㡺㩚 a.m.
㣪Ⰲ䞮┺ to cook
㤊☯䞮┺ to do (physical) exercise/sports
㦖䟟 bank
㦢㔳 food
㦢㞛 music
㧊㌂ moving (housing)
㧊㟒₆䞮┺ to talk
㧊㩲 now
㧒㠊⋮┺ to get up
㧒㹣 early
㧦㭒 often
㨂⹎㧞Ợ interestingly
㩖⎗ dinner/evening
㩚䢪 telephone
㫆⁞ little
㫡┺ to be good
㭒┺ to give
㰧 house
㺔┺ to look for/to seek for
㻲㻲䧞 slowly
㽞㧎㫛 doorbell
䂲ῂ friend
䋂Ợ greatly/loudly
䔖┺ to switch on
䕢䕆 party
䙂㧻䞮┺ to pack/to wrap
䞯ᾦ school
䦻ἏỢ merrily/pleasantly
8
Clausal
conjunctives
(reasons and
cause)
68
Exercise 8.1
Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚㍲ “and then” and the sentence
cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) went to Hawaii and then met (his) parents.”
(䞮㢖㧊㠦 Ṗ┺ / ⿖⳾┮㦚 Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪)
= 䞮㢖㧊㠦 Ṗ㍲ ⿖⳾┮㦚 Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪.
1 (I) will call the travel agency and then ask about the airfare (㡂䟟㌂㠦
㩚䢪䞮┺ / 䟃Ὃ 㣪⁞㠦 ╖䟊㍲ ⶒ㠊 ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪)
2 (We) went to school and then met the professor (䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ┺ / ᾦ㑮┮
㦚 Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪)
3 Did (she) wash the strawberry and then eat (it)? (➎₆⯒ 㞑┺ / ⲏ㠞
㠊㣪?)
4 Buy that ring and then give (it) to (your) girlfriend (⁎ ⹮㰖⯒ ㌂┺ /
㡂㧦 䂲ῂ䞲䎢 㭒㎎㣪)
5 (Let us) learn the Korean language and then get a job in Seoul (䞲ῃ
㠊⯒ ⺆㤆┺ / ㍲㤎㠦㍲ 䀾㰗䞿㔲┺)
Exercise 8.2
Connect the following two sentences using ~㠊/㞚㍲ “and then.” Then
translate the sentence.
Example: 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 Ṗ┺ / ♒㰖ἶ₆⯒ ㌓㔲┺
= 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 Ṗ㍲ ♒㰖ἶ₆⯒ ㌓㔲┺.
“(Let us) go the supermarket and then buy (some) pork.”
1 㞚䂾㠦 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮┺ / 㤊☯䞶⧮㣪
2 䂲ῂ 㰧㠦 Ṗ┺ / 㣪Ⰲ䞮㕃㔲㡺
3 㠎㩲 Ⓤ㣫㠦 Ṗ┺ / ⷺ㔲䅂㦚 ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪?
4 ㍶ⶒ㦚 䙂㧻䞮┺ / ㌳㧒 䕢䕆 ➢ 㮂㠊㣪.
5 䕢䕆㠦 Ṗ┺ / 䦻ἏỢ ⏟㔲┺
Exercise 8.3
69
Exercise 8.3
Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚㍲ “because/since” and the
sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Since (it) is too expensive, (I) will not buy (it).”
(⍞ⶊ ゚㕎┺ / 㞞 ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪)
= ⍞ⶊ ゚㕎㍲ 㞞 ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪.
1 Since traffic was held up, (I) was late for the class (ᾦ䐋㧊 Ⱏ䧞┺ /
㑮㠛㠦 ⓼㠞㠊㣪)
2 Since (I) ate breakfast late, (I) have not had lunch yet (㞚䂾㦚 ⓼Ợ
ⲏ┺ / 㞚㰗 㩦㕂㦚 㞞 ⲏ㠞㠊㣪)
3 Since (my) stomach hurts, (I) want to go home early (⺆Ṗ 㞚䝚┺ /
㰧㠦 㧒㹣 Ṗἶ 㕌㠊㣪)
4 Since the room is too dirty, (we) will clean (it up) today (⹿㧊 ⍞ⶊ
▪⩓┺ / 㡺⓮ 㼃㏢䞶 Ệ㡞㣪)
5 Since (it) was (her) birthday, (he) went home early (㌳㧒㧊┺ / 㧒㹣
㰧㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪)
Exercise 8.4
Connect the following two sentences using ~㠊/㞚㍲ “because/since.”
Then translate the sentence.
Example: ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡┺ / ㌆㺛䟞㠊㣪
= ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡㞚㍲ ㌆㺛䟞㠊㣪.
“Since the weather was nice, (we) took a walk.”
1 㠊㩲Ṗ 䂲ῂ ㌳㧒㧊┺ / ㌳㧒 䕢䕆㠦 Ṫ㔋┞┺.
2 㧊 㔳╏ 㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㧞┺ / 㧦㭒 㢖㣪.
3 ⑞㧊 Ⱔ㧊 㡺┺ / 䞯ᾦ㠦 ⴑ Ṟ ộ ṯ㞚㣪.
4 Ṧ₆ ỎⰂ┺ / 㟓㦚 ⲏἶ 㧞㠊㣪.
5 㟓㏣ 㔲Ṛ㠦 ⓼┺ / ⹎㞞䞿┞┺.
Exercise 8.5
Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)┞₢ and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Since (it) is late night, (let us) call (him) tomorrow.”
(⓼㦖 ⹺㧊┺ / ⌊㧒 㩚䢪䞿㔲┺)
= ⓼㦖 ⹺㧊┞₢ ⌊㧒 㩚䢪䞿㔲┺.
8
Clausal
conjunctives
(reasons and
cause)
70
1 Since (she) does not drink coffee, (let us) buy green tea instead (䄺䞒
⯒ ⴑ Ⱎ㔲┺ / ╖㔶 ⏏㹾⯒ ㌓㔲┺)
2 Since (it) is the closing hour, traffic is held up (䑊⁒ 㔲Ṛ㧊┺ / ᾦ䐋㧊
Ⱏ䧯┞┺)
3 Since (I) don’t have time, tell (me) only the main points (㔲Ṛ㧊 㠜┺
/ 㣿ỊⰢ Ⱖ䞮㕃㔲㡺)
4 Since (my) back hurts, (I) do not want to meet anyone (䠞ⰂṖ 㞚䝚┺
/ ⑚ῂ☚ Ⱒ⋮ἶ 㕌㰖 㞠㔋┞┺)
5 Since (it) is cold, close the window (㿻┺ / 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㦒㕃㔲㡺)
Exercise 8.6
Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)┞₢. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: ⹿㧊 㠊⚷┺ / 㩚❇㦚 䅲 㭒㎎㣪.
= ⹿㧊 㠊⚦㤆┞₢ 㩚❇㦚 䅲 㭒㎎㣪.
“Since (my) room is dark, turn the light on.”
1 ⌊㧒 ⹪㊮┺ / ⳾⧮ 㩚䢪䞶Ợ㣪.
2 ☚㍲ὖ㧊┺ / 䋂Ợ 㧊㟒₆䞮㰖 Ⱎ㕃㔲㡺.
3 ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䝚┺ / 㟓㦚 ㌂ 㭒㎎㣪.
4 ⌊㧒 㞚䂾㠦 㧊㌂䞮┺ / 㡺㩚 o 㔲₢㰖 㡺㎎㣪.
5 㦢㔳㧊 㕇ỗ┺ / ㏢⁞㦚 ⍹㦒㕃㔲㡺.
6 ▻┺ / 㠦㠊䆮㦚 䔖㠊 㭒㎎㣪.
7 㧊㩲 Ἵ 䞒㧦Ṗ ☚㹿䞮┺ / 㫆⁞ ▪ ₆┺Ⱃ㔲┺.
Exercise 8.7
Finish the following translation using ~ⓦ⧒ἶ and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) could not sleep because of preparing for the interview.”
(㧎䎆う⯒ 㭖゚䞮┺ / ⴑ 㧺㠊㣪)
= 㧎䎆う⯒ 㭖゚䞮ⓦ⧒ἶ ⴑ 㧺㠊㣪.
1 (I) spent all of (my) money because of buying beer (ⰻ㭒⯒ ㌂┺ /
☞㦚 ┺ 㗒㠊㣪)
2 (I) could not leave (my) office yet because of repairing the computer
(䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ䂮┺ / 㞚㰗 䑊⁒㦚 ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪).
3 (I) could not eat dinner together because of talking over the phone for
a long time (㡺⧮ 䐋䢪䞮┺ / 㩖⎗㦚 ṯ㧊 ⴑ ⲏ㠞㠊㣪)
71
Exercise 8.8 4 (I) dropped (my) wallet as a result of inserting coins (☯㩚㦚 ⍹┺ /
㰖ṧ㦚 ⟾㠊⥾⪎㠊㣪)
5 (I) was late because of looking for keys (㡊㐶⯒ 㺔┺ / ⓼㠞㠊㣪)
Exercise 8.8
Connect the following two sentences using ~ⓦ⧒ἶ. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: ¯\ ⯒ ⽊┺ / 㩚䢪⯒ ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪
= ¯\ ⯒ ⽊ⓦ⧒ἶ 㩚䢪⯒ ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪.
“(I) could not make a phone call because of watching TV.”
1 㑯㩲⯒ 䞮┺ / ⹺㦚 ㌞㤶㠊㣪.
2 ⧒❪㡺⯒ ✹┺ / 㽞㧎㫛 ㏢Ⰲ⯒ ⴑ ✺㠞㠊㣪.
3 ㌂⧒⯒ ₆┺Ⰲ┺ / ⓼㠞㠊㣪?
4 ┺㧊㠊䔎⯒ 䞮┺ / 㩖⎗㦚 Ⱔ㧊 㞞 ⲏ㔋┞┺.
5 㦖䟟㦚 㺔┺ / ㌂⧢✺䞲䎢 ⶒ㠊⽊ἶ 㧞㠞㠊㣪.
72
UNIT 9
Clausal conjunctives (conditions)
~(㦒)Ⳋ
The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳋ is used to express that the first clause is
the condition of the main clause. It is equivalent to “if” and/or “when” in
English. It is a two-form ending: ~㦒Ⳋ is used after a stem that ends in a
consonant (e.g., ⲏ㦒Ⳋ “if I eat”); ~Ⳋ is used after a stem that ends in
a vowel (e.g., ⽊Ⳋ “if I see”).
㡺⓮ 㩖⎗㦒⪲ 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㦒Ⳋ 㡆⧓䞮㎎㣪. “If (you) eat Korean
food for dinner tonight, contact (us).”
┺㦢 䞯₆㠦 ⼖ᾦ㑮┮㧊 䞲ῃ㠊 㑮㠛㦚 Ṗ⯊䂮㔲Ⳋ ✺㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If
Professor Byon teaches the Korean language class next semester,
(I) will take (it).”
⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎Ṗ 㰧㠦 ☢㞚㡺Ⳋ ⋮ṞỢ㣪. “When (my) roommate returns
home, (I) will go out.”
The conjugation of ~(㦒)Ⳋ with the copula 㧊┺ has two forms: ~(㧊)
Ⳋ and ~(㧊)⧒Ⳋ. ~Ⳋ/⧒Ⳋ is used after a noun that ends in a vowel (e.g.,
㦮㌂Ⳋ “if he is a doctor”), whereas ~㧊Ⳋ/㧊⧒Ⳋ is used after a noun that
ends in a consonant (e.g., ⹎ῃ ㌂⧢㧊Ⳋ “if (he) is an American”).
䞯㌳㧊Ⳋ/㧊⧒Ⳋ 㩲 ⹿㦒⪲ ⽊⌊㎎㣪. “If (they) are students, send (them)
to my room.”
䄺䞒Ⳋ/⧒Ⳋ Ⱎ㔺 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it) is coffee, (I) will drink (it).”
When ~(㧊)Ⳋ/(㧊)⧒Ⳋ occurs after a time word, it means “in” or “at
the end of,” as shown below:
䞲 䞯₆Ⳋ 㫎㠛䟊㣪. “In one semester, (I will) graduate.”
㎎ 㔲Ⳋ 㡗䢪Ṗ ⊳⋶ Ệ㡞㣪. “By three o’clock, the movie will end” (lit.
“When it is three o’clock, the movie will end”).
73
~(㦒)Ⳋ ~(㦒)Ⳋ is not subject to any restriction. For instance, it is conjugated
for the tense, as shown below:
Ỿ㤎㧊 ♮Ⳋ 㓺䋺 䌖⩂ ṧ㔲┺. “When (it) becomes winter, (let us) go
for skiing.”
㑮㧪㧊 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṫ㦒Ⳋ ⋮䞲䎢 㩚䢪䟞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If Susan went to Korea,
(she) would have given me a call.”
㌳㧒 䕢䕆⯒ 䞶 ỆⳊ 㰧㠦㍲ 䞮㎎㣪. “If (you) will host a birthday party,
do (it) at home.”
Second, it can be used with any predicate type.
㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮Ⳋ À ⯒ ⹱㦚 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “If (you) study hard, (you) can
receive an A.”
⋶㝾Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㿪㤆Ⳋ ⋮Ṗ㰖 Ⱟ㔲┺. “If the weather is too cold, (let us)
not go out.”
┺㦢 ㏦┮☚ 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊(⧒)Ⳋ 㩚䢪䟊 㭒㕃㔲㡺. “If the next customer
is also a Korean, please call (me).”
Third, there is no restriction regarding subject agreement.
╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䞮Ⳋ 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṗἶ 㕌㠊㣪. “When (I) graduate from college,
(I) want to go to Korea.”
䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ 䄺䞒⯒ 㔲䋺Ⳋ 㩲Ṗ 䆲⧒⯒ 㔲䌂Ợ㣪. “If Thomas orders
coffee, I will order cola.”
Finally, ~(㦒)Ⳋ may be used with any sentence type.
Ỿ㤎㧊 ♮Ⳋ ⑞╖㔶 ゚Ṗ 㢖㣪. “When (it) becomes winter, rain falls
instead of snow.”
㌞ 㹾⯒ ㌂Ⳋ Ⲓ㩖 㠊❪㠦 Ṗἶ 㕌㠊㣪? “When (you) buy a new car,
where do (you) want to go first?”
㰧㠦 ☚㹿䞮Ⳋ ⋮䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞮㎎㣪. “When (you) arrive at home, call
me.”
㞞 ⹪㊮Ⳋ ⌊㧒 Ⱒ⋿㔲┺. “If (you) are not busy, (let us) meet
tomorrow.”
~(㦒)Ⳋ 䞮┺/㫡Ỷ┺ “wish/hope”
The combination of ~(㦒)Ⳋ and the verb 䞮┺ “do” or the adjective 㫡Ỷ
┺ “would/will be nice” expresses the speaker’s wish or hope. ~(㦒)Ⳋ
䞮┺ sounds slightly more polite than ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ┺. However, both can
be translated as “wish/hope” in English.
9
Clausal
conjunctives
(conditions)
74
㧊⻞ 䋂Ⰲ㓺Ⱎ㓺㠦 ⑞㧊 Ⱔ㧊 㡺Ⳋ 䟊㣪. “(I) wish that (it) snows a lot
this Christmas.”
ゾⰂ ⽚㧊 ♮Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish spring comes early (lit. It would be
nice, if it would become spring soon).”
⌊⎚㠦 ㌞ 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ㌂Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (I) buy a new com-
puter next year.”
Adding the past tense marker 㠞/㞮 to ~(㦒)Ⳋ 䞮┺/㫡Ỷ┺ makes the
speaker’s desire or wish sound more assertive or emphatic.
㧊㩲⿖䎆 ☞ ệ㩫㦚 㞞 䟞㦒Ⳋ 䟊㣪. “(I) wish that (I) would not worry
about money from now on.”
㑮㣪㧒㠦 㔲䠮㦚 ⽺㦒Ⳋ 䞿┞┺. “(I) wish that (I) would take the test
on Wednesday.”
㍲㤎㠦 Ṟ ➢ ☯ἓ㠦 ✺⩖㦒Ⳋ 䞿┞┺. “(I) wish that (I) would stop by
Tokyo on my way to Seoul.”
㧊⻞ 㡂⯚㠦 㧒⽎㦚 㡂䟟䟞㦒Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (I) would travel
in Japan this summer.”
䞲ῃ㧊 ゾⰂ 䐋㧒㧊 ♦㦒Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that Korea would be
unified immediately.”
~(㦒)⩺Ⳋ
The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)⩺Ⳋ “if one intends to do” is the combina-
tion of ~(㦒)⩺ἶ “intending to” with the conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳋ “if/when.”
It is a two-form ending: ~⩺Ⳋ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel
(e.g., ⺆㤆⩺Ⳋ “if you intend to learn”), and ~㦒⩺Ⳋ is used after a stem
that ends in a consonant (e.g., ⲏ㦒⩺Ⳋ “if you intend to eat”).
䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 㧮 䞮⩺Ⳋ 䞲ῃ㧎 䂲ῂ✺㦚 ㌂‖㠊㟒 䟊㣪. “If (you) intend
to speak Korean well, (you) need to make Korean friends.”
㧊 㟧⽋㦚 㧛㦒⩺Ⳋ ㌊㦚 ヒ㟒 䟊㣪. “If (you) intend to wear this suit,
(you) should lose weight.”
䞯ᾦ㠦 ┺┞⩺Ⳋ Ⲓ㩖 ❇⪳⁞㦚 ⌊㎎㣪. “If (you) intend to attend the
school, pay the tuition first.”
ᾦ㑮┮㦚 Ⱒ⋮⩺Ⳋ ⹎Ⰲ 㩚䢪䟊㟒 ♒㣪. “If (you) intend to meet the
professor, (you) must call in advance.”
䝚⪲ṯ㧊 䞒㞚⏎⯒ 㧮 䂮⩺Ⳋ 㡊㕂䧞 㡆㔋䟊㟒 ♒㣪. “If (you) intend
to play the piano like a professional, (you) need to practice hard.”
㫡ἶ 㕒 ⶒỊ㦚 ㌂⩺Ⳋ 㠊❪⪲ Ṗ㟒 䟊㣪? “If (we) intend to buy good
and cheap items, where should (we) go?”
䑊⁒䞮⩺Ⳋ ´0 ⿚ ▪ ₆┺Ⰲ㎎㣪. “If (you) intend to leave office, wait
30 more minutes.”
75
~(㦒)ඥ㑮⪳
~(㦒)ඥ㑮⪳
The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)ඥ㑮⪳ expresses continuous increase in the
nature of an action or state. It can be translated as “the more . . . the
more” in English. ~(㦒)ඥ㑮⪳ is a two-form ending: ~㦚㑮⪳ is used after
a stem that ends in a consonant (e.g., ⹕㦚㑮⪳ “the more I believe”),
while ~ඥ㑮⪳ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel (e.g., Ⱎ㔺㑮⪳
“the more I drink”).
ₖ䂮Ṗ ⲏ㦚㑮⪳ ⰱ㧞㠊㣪. “The more (I) eat kimchi, the more tasty
(it) is.”
䌲ῢ☚⓪ ⺆㤎㑮⪳ 㨂⹎㧞㠊㣪. “As for Taekwondo, the more (I) learn
(it), the more interesting (it) is.”
In addition, ~(㦒)Ⳋ “if/when” can be optionally used along with ~(㦒)
ඥ㑮⪳, as shown below:
Ἶ䝚⓪ 䂮Ⳋ 䂶㑮⪳ 㠊⩺㤢㣪. “As for golf, the more (you) play (it),
the more difficult (it) is.”
ṫ㞚㰖⯒ ⽊Ⳋ ⽒㑮⪳ ‖㡂㤢㣪. “The more (I) look at the puppy, the
more cute (it) is.”
㌂⧧㦖 㔲Ṛ㧊 㰖⋮Ⳋ 㰖⋶㑮⪳ ㏢㭧䟊㪎㣪. “As for love, the more
time passes, the more precious (it) becomes.”
㧦Ⳋ 㧮㑮⪳ 䞒Ἲ䟊㣪. “The more (you) sleep, the more tired (you)
are.”
⏎䔎⿗㦖 㧧㦒Ⳋ 㧧㦚㑮⪳ ゚㕎㣪. “As for notebook, the smaller (it)
is, the more expensive (it) is.”
~㠊/㞚㟒
The clausal conjunctive ~㠊/㞚㟒 indicates that the ~㠊/㞚㟒 ending clause
is a prerequisite or necessary condition of the main clause. It is correspond-
ing to “only if” in English. Consider the following example:
䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ㟒 ᾦ㑮┮㦚 Ⱒ⋶ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (you) go to school, (you)
can meet the professor.”
Notice that the action of the first clause “going to school” is the necessity
for the action of the main clause “meeting the professor.”
~㠊/㞚㟒 is a two-form ending: ~㞚㟒 is used after a stem that ends in
either 㞚 or 㡺, whereas ~㠊㟒 is used after a stem that ends in all other
vowels.
9
Clausal
conjunctives
(conditions)
76
Verb Verb stem + 㠊/㞚㟒
㡺┺ “see” 㢖㟒 (contracted from 㡺 + 㞚㟒)
㧷┺ “catch” 㧷㞚㟒
⺆㤆┺ “learn” ⺆㤢㟒 (contracted from ⺆㤆 + 㠊㟒)
⹕┺ “believe” ⹕㠊㟒
Adjective Adjective stem + 㠊/㞚㟒
㕎┺ “cheap” 㕎㟒
㧧┺ “small” 㧧㞚㟒
㔂䝚┺ “sad” 㔂䗒㟒 (㔂䝚 + 㠊㟒)
㠊⪋┺ “difficult” 㠊⩺㤢㟒 (㠊⩺㤆 + 㠊㟒)
Copula Copula stem + 㠊/㞚㟒
㧊┺ “to be” 㧊㠊㟒/㧊⧒㟒
㞚┞┺ “not be” 㞚┞㠊㟒/㞚┞⧒㟒
To add an emphatic meaning, one can use the particle Ⱒ “only” along
with ~㠊/㞚㟒, as shown below:
㞺✲⮮⯒ Ⱒ⋮㟒Ⱒ ◆┞㠮㠦╖䟊 ✺㦚 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (you) meet
Andrew, (you) can hear about Daniel.”
㦮ὒ ╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䟊㟒Ⱒ 㦮㌂Ṗ ♶ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (you) graduate
from a medical school, (you) can become a doctor.”
㡊㐶⯒ 㺔㞚㟒Ⱒ 㰧㠦 Ṟ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (we) find the key, (we)
can go home.”
~Ệ✶
The clausal conjunctive ~Ệ✶ is used to indicate that the ~Ệ✶ ending
clause is the condition for the main clause. It is equivalent to “if” in English.
~Ệ✶ is subject to one restriction: It must be used only with imperative
and/or propositive sentences, as shown in the following examples:
䞶 Ⱖ㧊 㧞Ệ✶ 䞮㕃㔲㡺. “If (you) have something to say, say (it).”
⹪㊮㰖 㞠Ệ✶ 㡆⧓䟊㣪. “If (you) are not busy, contact (me).”
䘎㰖Ṗ ☚㹿䞮Ệ✶ ⰺ䓲䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞮㕃㔲㡺. “If the letter arrives, give
Matthew a phone call.”
㞾Ⰲ㓺Ṗ 䞲ῃ㠦 ṖỆ✶ 㤆Ⰲ☚ ṧ㔲┺. “If Alice goes to Korea, (let
us) go (there) as well.”
㔲䠮㧊 ⊳⋮Ệ✶ ṯ㧊 㩖⎗ ⲏ㦣㔲┺. “If the test ends, (let us) have
dinner together.”
Meanwhile, in spoken communication, ~Ệ✶ (or ~Ệ✶㣪) is often used
as a sentence ending. The sentence ending ~Ệ✶㣪 expresses an emphatic
meaning, and it can be translated as “you know,” “you see (because),” and
“indeed” in English. Consider the following dialogue:
77
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 9
exercises
A: 㧒㣪㧒㧎◆ ☚㍲ὖ㠦 㠊⠑Ợ 㡺㎾㠊㣪?
“(It) is Sunday, but what brought you to the library?”
B: ⌊㧒 㔲䠮㧊 㧞Ệ✶㣪.
“(I) have a test tomorrow, you know.”
Notice that B’s response ends with ~Ệ✶㣪. By using ~Ệ✶㣪, B offers a
kind of follow-up explanation (e.g., having a test tomorrow) to what
has been implied (e.g., to be in the library on Sunday). Here are more
examples:
A: ⡦ 䞲 㧪 㔲䋺㎎㣪?
“(You) order a cup again?”
B: 㩲Ṗ 㡂₆ 䄺䞒⯒ 㫡㞚䞮Ệ✶㣪.
“I like the coffee of this place, you know.”
A: 䞒Ἲ䟊 ⽊㡂㣪.
“(You) look tired.”
B: 㠊㩲 ⹺ ⓼Ợ₢㰖 㧒䟞Ệ✶㣪.
“(I) worked late last night, you know.”
A: 㠊㩲 ⲏ㦖 㦢㔳㦚 ⡦ 㔲䌂 Ệ㡞㣪?
“Will (you) order the food (you) ate yesterday, again?”
B: 㞚㭒 ⰱ㧞㠞Ệ✶㣪.
“(It) was really delicious, you know.”
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 9 exercises
Ṗ┺ to go
Ṗ₳┺ to be near
Ṗ⯊䂮┺ to teach
Ịṫ health
ệ㩫ỆⰂ source of anxiety
Ὃ ball
⊠┺ to quit
⊩㧊┺ to boil
⋾㧦 man
⋾䘎 husband
⋶㝾 weather
⌊┺ to pay
⌊㧒 tomorrow
⌚゚ pot
⍞ⶊ too (much)
⏎⧮ song
9
Clausal
conjunctives
(conditions)
78
⏎䔎⿗ notebook
⏖┺ to play
⑚ῂ who
⓼Ợ late
┺㦢 next
╊⺆ cigarette
╖䞯 college
▻┺ to be hot (the weather)
☚㤖 help
✲㔲┺ to eat
✺㠊Ṗ┺ to enter
➆⦑䞮┺ to be warm/to be mild
⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎 roommate
Ⱖ䞮┺ to speak
Ⱒ⋮┺ to meet
Ⱔ㧊 a lot
ⲎⰂ head/hair (of one’s head)
ⲏ┺ to eat
⳾⯊┺ do not know
⳾㧦⧒┺ to be short of
⳿ throat
ⶑ┺ to ask
ⶒ water
⹎ῃ U.S.A.
⹪∎┺ to change
⹪㊮┺ to be busy
⹱┺ to receive
⺆ stomach
⺆㤆┺ to learn
⻫╖ law school
⼧㤦 hospital
⽊┺ to see/to watch/to read
゚㧦 visa
㌂┺ to buy
㌂⧢ person/people
㌂㣿䞮┺ to use
㌂㧊㯞 size
㌊┺ to live
㌳㧒 birthday
㍶ⶒ present/gift
㏢䕢 sofas
㔲䠮㦚 ⽊┺ to take tests/exams
㔳╏ restaurant
79
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 9
exercises
㔳㌂ meal
㕂㕂䞮┺ to be bored
㝆┺ to use
㞚⯊⹪㧊䔎 a side job
㞚䝚┺ to be sore
㠊㩲 yesterday
㟓 medicine
㡂䟟 trip/travel
㡆⧓䞮┺ to contact
㡊┺ to open
㡞㟓䞮┺ to make a reservation
㡺┺ to come
㣪⁞ fee
㥶䞯Ṗ┺ to go abroad for study
㧛ῃ䞮┺ to enter a country
㧒㹣 early
㧦┺ to sleep
㧧┺ to be small
㧮 well/expertly
㩖⁞ saving
㩖⎗ dinner/evening
㩚䢪 telephone
㩲㿲䞮┺ to submit
㫆⁞ little
㫆㕂䞮┺ to be careful/to take care of
㫎㠛㧻 diploma
㭒㧒 week (day)
㰖䞮㻶 subway
㰗㧻 one’s place of work
㰧 house
㺓ⶎ window
㺛 book
㿪㻲㍲ recommendation letter
㿻┺ to be cold
䀾㰗 getting employment
䂮┺ to play/to strike
䂲ῂ friend
䅲┺ to switch on
䌖┺ to ride
䞒Ἲ䞮┺ to be tired
䞚㣪䞮┺ to be in need of
䞯₆ semester
䞲ῃ Korea
9
Clausal
conjunctives
(conditions)
80
䢪㧻㔺 toilet
䣢㌂ company
䧞䎆 heater
Exercise 9.1
Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)Ⳋ and the sentence cues pro-
vided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “If (it) is cold outside, (let us) not go out.” (⹬㧊 㿻┺ / ⋮
Ṗ㰖 Ⱟ㔲┺)
= ⹬㧊 㿪㤆Ⳋ ⋮Ṗ㰖 Ⱟ㔲┺.
1 When (I) have time, (I) will make a phone call to Bill (㔲Ṛ㧊 㧞┺ /
ア䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞶 Ệ㡞㣪)
2 If the road is congested, (let us) take a subway (₎㧊 Ⱏ䧞┺ / 㰖䞮㻶
㦚 䌧㔲┺)
3 If (it) is expensive, will (you) buy (it)? (゚㕎┺ / ㌂Ỷ㠊㣪?)
4 If (you) get up early tomorrow morning, wake (me) up (⌊㧒 㞚䂾 㧒
㹣 㧒㠊⋮┺ / ₾㤢 㭒㎎㣪)
5 If (I) told (him), (he) probably would get angry (㧊㟒₆䟞┺ / 䢪⌞㦚
Ệ㡞㣪)
Exercise 9.2
Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)Ⳋ. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: Ṗỿ㧊 㕎┺ / ㌂㎎㣪
= Ṗỿ㧊 㕎Ⳋ ㌂㎎㣪. “If (its) price is cheap, buy (it).”
1 ⺆Ṗ 㞚䝚┺ / ⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ㎎㣪
2 ⋶㝾Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㿻┺ / 䧞䎆⯒ 䅲Ỷ㠊㣪
3 ⳾⯊┺ / ⶒ㠊 ⽊㎎㣪
4 ▻┺ / 㺓ⶎ㦚 㡓㔲┺
5 ☚㤖㧊 䞚㣪䞮┺ / ⑚ῂ䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞮㎎㣪?
Exercise 9.3
Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ┺ and the sentence cue
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
81
Exercise 9.4 Example: “(I) wish that (it) snows tomorrow.” (⌊㧒 ⑞㧊 㡺┺)
= ⌊㧒 ⑞㧊 㡺Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪.
1 (I) wish that (we) meet at the airport (Ὃ䟃㠦㍲ Ⱒ⋮┺)
2 (I) wish that (I) receive a watch for (my) birthday present (㌳㧒 ㍶ⶒ
⪲ 㔲Ἒ⯒ ⹱┺)
3 (I) wish that (we) order red wine (⩞✲ 㢖㧎㦚 㔲䋺┺)
4 (I) wish that (we) have Korean food for dinner (㩖⎗㦒⪲ 䞲ῃ㦢㔳㦚
ⲏ┺)
5 (I) wish that (I) make a lot of money (☞㦚 Ⱔ㧊 ⻢┺)
Exercise 9.4
Conjugate the following predicate using ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ┺. Then translate
the sentence.
Example: ゾⰂ 㹾⯒ 䕪┺
= ゾⰂ 㹾⯒ 䕪Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪.
“(I) wish that (I) sell (my) car immediately.”
1 ⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎Ṗ 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊┺
2 䃦⋮┺⪲ 㥶䞯Ṗ┺
3 㰗㧻㧊 㰧㠦㍲ Ṗ₳┺
4 ⌊㧒 ⋶㝾Ṗ ➆⦑䞮┺
5 ⋾䘎㧊 㧒㹣 㧦┺
6 ┺㦢 䞯₆㠦 ₖᾦ㑮┮㧊 Ṗ⯊䂮㔲┺
7 ⋾㧦 䂲ῂṖ ╊⺆⯒ ⊠┺
8 ⏎䔎⿗㦚 ㌳㧒 ㍶ⶒ⪲ ⹱┺
Exercise 9.5
Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)⩺Ⳋ. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: ₖ䂮⯒ Ⱒ✺┺ / ⺆㿪Ṗ 䞚㣪䟊㣪
= ₖ䂮⯒ Ⱒ✺⩺Ⳋ ⺆㿪Ṗ 䞚㣪䟊㣪.
“If (you) intend to make kimchi, (you) need Chinese
cabbage.”
1 ⶒ㦚 ⊩㧊┺ / ⌚゚Ṗ 䞚㣪䟊㣪
2 㧊 㔳╏㠦㍲ 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ┺ / 㡞㟓䞮㕃㔲㡺
3 ⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ┺ / 㰖䞮㻶㦚 䌖㎎㣪
9
Clausal
conjunctives
(conditions)
82
4 ⹎ῃ㠦 㧛ῃ䞮┺ / ゚㧦⯒ ⹱㞚㟒 䟊㣪
5 㧊 䣢㌂㠦 䀾㰗䞮┺ / ╖䞯 㫎㠛㧻㦚 㩲㿲䞮㎎㣪
6 ぢ⪲✲㤾㧊 㑒⯒ ⽊┺ / Ⓤ㣫㠦 Ṗ㟒 ♒㣪
7 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂮┺ / Ὃ䞮ἶ ⧒䅩㧊 䞚㣪䟊㣪
8 䢪㧻㔺㦚 ㌂㣿䞮┺ / 㣪⁞㦚 ⌊㎎㣪
Exercise 9.6
Finish the following translation using the ~(㦒)Ⳋ ~(㦒)ඥ㑮⪳ pattern and
the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “The more (I) meet that friend, the more (I) want to meet
(him).”
(⁎ 䂲ῂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮┺ / ▪ Ⱒ⋮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪)
= ⁎ 䂲ῂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮Ⳋ Ⱒ⋶㑮⪳ ▪ Ⱒ⋮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪.
1 The more (I) read the letter, the angrier (I) am (䘎㰖⯒ 㧓┺ / 䢪⋮
㣪)
2 The cloudier the weather is, the colder (it) is (⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦Ⰲ┺ / 㿪㤢
㣪)
3 The more time passes, the more (I) long for old days (㔲Ṛ㧊 㰖⋮┺ /
㡱⋶㧊 ⁎Ⰲ㤢㣪)
4 The bigger (it) was, the more expensive (it) was (䋂┺ / ゚㕢㠊㣪)
5 The more (I) read that book, the more interesting (it) was (⁎ 㺛㦚 㧓
┺ / 㨂⹎㧞㠞㠊㣪)
Exercise 9.7
Connect the following sentences using the ~(㦒)Ⳋ ~(㦒)ඥ㑮⪳ pattern.
Then translate the sentence.
Example: ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤆┺ / 㭧☛♒㣪
= ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤆Ⳋ 䞒㤎㑮⪳ 㭧☛♒㣪.
“The more (you) smoke, the more (you) become addicted
to (it).”
1 䞲ῃ㠦㍲ ㌊┺ / 㫡㞚㣪
2 ㌂⧢✺㦚 Ⱒ⋮┺ / 䞒Ἲ䞿┞┺
3 ☞㦚 㝆┺ / 䞚㣪䞿┞┺
4 㡂䟟㦚 䞮┺ / Ⱔ㧊 ⺆㤎 Ệ㡞㣪
5 ⹪㊮┺ / Ịṫ 㫆㕂䞮㎎㣪
83
Exercise 9.8
Exercise 9.8
Finish the following translation using ~Ệ✶ and the sentence cues provided
in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Do not call (me) if (you) are busy.” (⹪㊮┺ / 㩚䢪 䞮㰖
Ⱎ㎎㣪)
= ⹪㊮Ệ✶ 㩚䢪䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪.
1 Hug the baby if the baby cries (㞚₆Ṗ 㤎┺ / 㞚₆⯒ 㞞㞚 㭒㎎㣪)
2 If (it) is tasty, (let us) order (it) more (ⰱ㧞┺ / ▪ 㔲䌋㔲┺)
3 If (you) make a Christmas tree, take a picture (䋂Ⰲ㓺Ⱎ㓺 䔎Ⰲ⯒
Ⱒ✺┺ / ㌂㰚㦚 㹣㦒㎎㣪)
4 If (you) work this weekend, do not come to the party (㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦
㧒䞮┺ / 䕢䕆㠦 㡺㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪)
5 If (we) meet Mary later, (let us) convey the message (⋮㭧㠦 ⲪⰂ⯒
Ⱒ⋮┺ / Ⲫ㎎㰖⯒ 㩚䟊 㭣㔲┺)
Exercise 9.9
Connect the following two sentences using ~Ệ✶. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 㰧㠦 ☚㹿䞮┺ / 㩚䢪䞮㎎㣪
= 㰧㠦 ☚㹿䞮Ệ✶ 㩚䢪䞮㎎㣪.
“If (you) arrive at home, please call (me).”
1 㿪㻲㍲Ṗ 䞚㣪䞮┺ / 㩖䞲䎢 㡆⧓䞮㎎㣪
2 ⡦ ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䝚┺ / 㟓㦚 ✲㎎㣪
3 ệ㩫ỆⰂṖ 㧞┺ / Ⱖ䞮㎎㣪
4 㕂㕂䞮┺ / ¯\ ⽊㎎㣪
5 ⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ┺ / ⹫㍶㌳┮㦚 Ⱒ⋮㎎㣪
Exercise 9.10
Answer to the following question using ~Ệ✶㣪 and the sentence cue
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Then translate the
answer.
Example: 㢲 䕢䕆㠦 㞞 Ṗ㎎㣪? (㟓㏣㧊 㧞┺)
= 㟓㏣㧊 㧞Ệ✶㣪. “(I) have an appointment, you know.”
9
Clausal
conjunctives
(conditions)
84
1 㢲 㩖⎗ 㔳㌂⯒ 㞞 䞮㎎㣪? (㩦㕂㦚 ⓼Ợ ⲏ㠞┺)
2 㢲 ⏎⧮ 㞞 䞮㎎㣪? (⳿㧊 㞚䝚┺)
3 㢲 㫆⁞ ✲㎎㣪? (┺㧊㠊䔎⯒ 䞮ἶ 㧞┺)
4 㢲 㞞 ㌂㎎㣪? (☞㧊 㠜┺)
5 㢲 㞞 Ⱎ㔲㎎㣪? (㑶㦚 ⴑ Ⱎ㔲┺)
6 㢲 㢍㦚 ⹪∎㎾㠊㣪? (㌂㧊㯞Ṗ 㧧㞮┺)
Exercise 9.11
Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚㟒 and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Only if (we) have money, (we) can go to Hawaii.”
(☞㧊 㧞┺ / 䞮㢖㧊㠦 Ṟ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪)
= ☞㧊 㧞㠊㟒 䞮㢖㧊㠦 Ṟ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
1 Only if (my) girlfriend is happy, (I) am also happy (㡂㧦 䂲ῂṖ 䟟⽋
䞮┺ / 㩖☚ 䟟⽋䟊㣪)
2 Only if (it) is on sale, (I) can buy (it) (㎎㧒㦚 䞮┺ / ㌊ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪)
3 Only if (you) study hard, (you) can become a doctor (㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮┺
/ 㦮㌂Ṗ ♶ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪)
4 Only if (he) quits (his) work, (he) can travel (㧒㦚 ⁎Ⱒ⚦┺ / 㡂䟟㦚
䞶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪)
5 Only if (she) quits smoking, (her) illness can be cured (╊⺆⯒ ⊠┺ /
⼧㧊 ⋮㦚 㑮 㧞㠊㣪)
Exercise 9.12
Connect the following two sentences using ~㠊/㞚㟒. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: ⰺ㧒 㤊☯㦚 䞮┺ / Ịṫ䟊㰞 㑮 㧞㠊㣪
= ⰺ㧒 㤊☯㦚 䟊㟒 Ịṫ䟊㰞 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
“Only if (you) exercise everyday, (you) can become healthy.”
1 㔲䠮㦚 㧮 ⽊┺ / ⻫╖㠦 ✺㠊Ṟ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪
2 㞚⯊⹪㧊䔎⯒ 䞮┺ / 䞯゚⯒ ⌒ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪
3 㩖⁞㦚 䞮┺ / ㌞ ㏢䕢⯒ ㌊ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪
4 䕢Ⰲ㠦 Ṗ┺ / 㠦䗶䌖㤢⯒ ⽒ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪
5 䋂Ⰲ㓺䕊㦚 Ⱒ⋮┺ / 㺛㦚 ⹱㦚 㑮 㧞㠊㣪
UNIT 10
Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice)
85
~ἶ
The function of the clausal conjunctive ~ἶ is twofold. First, it simply con-
nects two different clauses, regardless of their sequence. It corresponds
to “and” in English. Consider the following examples:
㩲┞䗒Ṗ 㼃㏢䞮ἶ ⰺ䓲Ṗ 㣪Ⰲ䟊㣪. “Jennifer cleans up, and Matthew
cooks.”
ⰺ䓲Ṗ 㣪Ⰲ䞮ἶ 㩲┞䗒Ṗ 㼃㏢䟊㣪. “Matthew cooks, and Jennifer
cleans up.”
Notice that the meanings of the sentences above are the same, even if the
sequences of the clauses are different. Here are more examples:
㫊㦖 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓ἶ 㑮㧪㦖 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 ⽦㣪. “As for John, (he) reads
newspaper, and as for Susan, (she) watches TV.”
㞺㧊 㧒⽎㦒⪲ Ṗἶ 䐆㧊 䞲ῃ㦒⪲ Ṗ㣪. “Ann goes to Japan, and Tom
goes to Korea.”
ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䝚ἶ 㫎⩺㣪. “(My) head aches, and (I) am sleepy.”
㞺✲⮮Ṗ 㓺䗮㧎㠊⯒ 㩚Ὃ䞮ἶ 㧊㌂⻾㧊 䝚⧧㓺㠊⯒ 㩚Ὃ䟊㣪. “Andrew
majors in Spanish, and Isabel majors in French.”
Second, ~ἶ links two sequential actions or events, equivalent to “and
then” in English. Consider the following examples:
㑯㩲⯒ 䞮ἶ 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ㠊㣪. “(I) do the homework and then eat
lunch.”
㩦㕂㦚 ⲏἶ 㑯㩲⯒ 䟊㣪. “(I) eat lunch and then do the homework.”
Notice that ~ἶ indicates the order of the action. In other words, the change
in the sequence of the clauses generates a different meaning. Here are
more examples:
10
Clausal
conjunctives
(listing and
choice)
86
㩖⎗㦚 ⲏἶ ㍲㩦㠦 ṧ┞┺. “(I) eat dinner and then go to a bookstore.”
㌺㤢⯒ 䞮ἶ 㧦㣪? “Do (you) take a shower and then go to bed?”
㏦㦚 㞑ἶ 㣪Ⰲ䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Wash (your) hands and then cook.”
䂲ῂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮ἶ 㰧㠦 ṧ㔲┺. “(Let us) meet (our) friends and then go
home.”
~ἶ is subject to one restriction: It is not conjugated for the tense.
Consider the following examples:
㞚䂾㦚 ⲏἶ 㤆㼊ῃ㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) ate breakfast and then went to the
post office.”
㠊㩲⓪ ⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦Ⰲἶ 㿪㤶㠊㣪. “As for yesterday, the weather was
cloudy and cold.”
Notice that both sentences are about the past action and state. However,
the past tense is not marked by the ~ἶ ending clauses but by the main
clauses.
~(㦒)Ⳇ
The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳇ means “and” or “while.” It is a two-form
ending: ~㦒Ⳇ is used when the preceding stem ends in a consonant (e.g.,
ⲏ㦒Ⳇ “eat and”); ~Ⳇ is used when the preceding stem ends in a vowel
(e.g., Ṗ⯊䂮Ⳇ “teach and”).
Verbs/adjectives Stem + (㦒)Ⳇ
ⲏ┺ “eat” ⲏ㦒Ⳇ
⹕┺ “believe” ⹕㦒Ⳇ
㧷┺ “catch” 㧷㦒Ⳇ
㫡┺ “good” 㫡㦒Ⳇ
Ⱔ┺ “many” Ⱔ㦒Ⳇ
Ṗ⯊䂮┺ “teach” Ṗ⯊䂮Ⳇ
Ṗ┺ “go” ṖⳆ
⽊┺ “see” ⽊Ⳇ
₆㊮┺ “glad” ₆㊮Ⳇ
䋂┺ “big” 䋂Ⳇ
The meaning of ~(㦒)Ⳇ is similar to that of ~ἶ since both connect two
actions or states. However, while ~ἶ can indicate both the non-sequential
as well as sequential actions/states (e.g., “and” and “and then”), ~(㦒)Ⳇ
indicates only non-sequential actions/states. In addition, while ~ἶ is widely
used both in spoken and written communication, ~(㦒)Ⳇ tends to be used
only in writing. Consider the following sentences:
87
~Ệ⋮ 䞚Ⱃ㦖 ἓ㩲䞯㦚 㩚Ὃ䞮Ⳇ 㺆㓺⓪ 㕂Ⰲ䞯㦚 㩚Ὃ䞿┞┺. “As for Philip,
(he) majors in economics, and as for Charles, (he) majors in psychology.”
Ⰲ㌂⓪ 㨂㯞⯒ 㫡㞚䞮Ⳇ 㩲㧚㓺⓪ 䋊⧮㔳㦚 㫡㞚䟊㣪. “As for Lisa,
(she) likes jazz, and as for James, (he) likes classic.”
㡺⓮㦖 ⹪⧢㧊 Ⱔ㧊 ⿞Ⳇ 㿻Ỷ㔋┞┺. “As for today, (it) will be very
windy and cold.”
㧊 㢍㦖 㢍Ṧ㧊 㫡㦒Ⳇ ❪㧦㧎㧊 㡞㊿┞┺. “As for this dress, the
fabric is good, and the design is pretty.”
㤆㼊ῃ㧊 㣒㴓㠦 㧞㦒Ⳇ Ὃ㤦㧊 㡺⯎㴓㠦 㧞㠊㣪. “The post office is
on the left side, and the park is on the right side.”
㠦✲㤢✲⓪ 䃦⋮┺ ㌂⧢㧊Ⳇ ⰞⰂ㡺⓪ ⲫ㔲䆪 ㌂⧢㧊㠦㣪. “As for
Edward, (he) is a Canadian, and as for Mario, (he) is a Mexican.”
Notice in the examples above that ~(㦒)Ⳇ simply links two separate
and/or non-sequential actions or states.
When the subjects of both clauses are the same, ~(㦒)Ⳇ indicates that
two or more actions or events occur simultaneously. Consider the follow-
ing examples:
ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱎ㔲Ⳇ 㧊㟒₆䟊㣪. “(We) talk while drinking beer.”
⁎⩞㧊㓺Ṗ 㦢㞛㦚 ✺㦒Ⳇ 㫆ₛ㦚 䟊㣪. “Grace jogs, while listening to
music.”
Note in the above examples that ~(㦒)Ⳇ is translated as “while” rather
than “and” in English.
~(㦒)Ⳇ is subject to one restriction: It is not conjugated for the tense,
as shown below:
ᾦ㑮┮㦮 ṫ㦮⯒ ✺㦒Ⳇ ⏎䔎⯒ 㩗㠞㠊㣪. “While listening to the pro-
fessor’s lecture, (I) took notes.”
㿺㦚 㿪Ⳇ ⏎⧮⯒ ⿞⩖㠊㣪? “Did (you) sing, dancing?”
Notice in the examples that only the main clauses are conjugated for the
past tense.
~Ệ⋮
The clausal conjunctive ~Ệ⋮ is used to list two or more actions/states.
It is equivalent to “or” in English, as shown in the following examples:
䏶㣪㧒㠦⓪ ⽊䐋 䂲ῂ✺䞮ἶ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊Ệ⋮ 㰧㠦㍲ 㓂㠊㣪. “As for
Saturday, (I) normally see a movie with (my) friends or take a rest at
home.”
10
Clausal
conjunctives
(listing and
choice)
88
㞚䝚Ệ⋮ 䞒Ἲ䞶 ➢ 㰧 ㌳ṗ䟊㣪? “When (you) are sick or tired, do
(you) think about (your) home?”
䞒䎆㦮 㞚⻚㰖Ṗ ㍶㌳┮㧊Ệ⋮ Ὃⶊ㤦㧒 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I guess that) Peter’s
father is either a teacher or a government officer.”
㧊Ⲫ㧒㦚 ⽊⌊Ệ⋮ 㩚䢪⯒ 䞮㎎㣪. “Send (him) an e-mail or give (him)
a call.”
☚㍲ὖ㠦 ṖỆ⋮ 䄺䞒㑣㠦 ṧ㔲┺. “(Let us) go to the library or the
coffee shop.”
~Ệ⋮ may imply that the actions or states listed by the conjunctive are
trivial, while the predicate or the content of the main clause is essential.
In such case, ~Ệ⋮ is translated as “whether . . . or” in English. Consider
the following example:
⋶㝾Ṗ 㿻Ệ⋮ ▻Ệ⋮ ⰺ㧒 ⥆㠊㣪. “Whether the weather is cold or
hot, (I) run everyday.”
Notice that the two states denoted by two adjectives, 㿻┺ “cold” and
▻┺ “hot,” are trivial, whereas the predicate of the main clause, ⥆┺ “run”
is important. Here are more examples:
ⰱ㧞Ệ⋮ ⰱ㠜Ệ⋮ ⺆ ἶ䝚Ⳋ 㞚ⶊỆ⋮ ⲏ㠊㣪. “Whether (it) is delicious
or not, (we) eat anything if (we) are hungry.”
㠊⪋Ệ⋮ 㓓Ệ⋮ 㡊㕂䧞 ⺆㤎⧮㣪? “Whether (it) is hard or easy, will
(you) learn (it) enthusiastically?”
¯\⯒ ⽊Ệ⋮ 㧦Ệ⋮ 㡺䤚 7 㔲₢㰖 㰧㠦 㧞㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Stay home until
7 p.m., whether (you) watch TV or sleep.”
㔂䝚Ệ⋮ ₆㊮Ệ⋮ 㠎㩲⋮ 㩚䢪䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Whether (you) are sad or
happy, call (me) anytime.”
゚Ṗ 㡺Ệ⋮ ⑞㧊 㡺Ệ⋮ ⰺ㧒 㤊☯䞿㔲┺. “Whether (it) rains or snows,
(let us) exercise everyday.”
~✶㰖
The clausal conjunctive ~✶㰖 is used to list a series of selections or to
imply an unenthusiastic or indifferent attitude toward the selections. It can
be translated in English as “or,” “no matter,” and/or “regardless.” Consider
the following example:
䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲✶㰖 㞚㧊㓺䋂Ⱂ㦚 ⲏ✶㰖 ⶪṖ 㔲䌋㔲┺. “(Let us) order
something, whether (we) drink coffee or eat ice creams.”
89
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 10
exercises
Notice in the example above that ~✶㰖 enumerates two activities (e.g.,
drinking coffee and eating ice creams). However, it also implies that
the speaker is not enthusiastic about these activities. Here are more
examples:
⌊㧒 ゚Ṗ 㡺✶㰖 ⑞㧊 㡺✶㰖 㡞㩫╖⪲ 㰚䟟䞮Ỷ㔋┞┺. “(We) will
proceed (the event) according to the schedule, regardless (it) rains or
snows tomorrow.”
⁎ 㢍㧊 ⹪㕎✶㰖 㕎✶㰖 Ↄ ㌂ 㭒㎎㣪. “Please buy (me) that dress
whether (it) is expensive or inexpensive.”
⁎ 㞚㧊✺㦖 㡜㠦 ㌂⧢㧊 㧞✶㰖 㠜✶㰖 䟃㌗ 㔲⊚⩂㤢㣪. “As for those
kids, (they) are always noisy, whether people are around or not.”
㠊❪⯒ Ṗ✶㰖 ⶊ㠝㦚 䞮✶㰖 Ịṫ䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Wherever (you) go and
whatever (you) do, be healthy.”
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 10 exercises
Ṗ┺ to go
Ṟ㞚㧛┺ to change (clothes)
₎┺ to be long
↙ flowers
⋶㞂䞮┺ to be slim
⋶㝾 weather
⌊┺ to pay out
♒㰖ἶ₆ pork
➖ sweat
Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink
Ⱒ✺┺ to make
ⰱ㠜┺ to be tasteless
ⲎⰂ head/hair (of the head)
ⲏ┺ to eat
⹪╍Ṗ beach
⹿ room
⽊┺ to see/to watch/to read
⽊䐋 usually
゚ rain
㌂┺ to buy
㌆ mountain
㌊ age
㎇ỿ personality
10
Clausal
conjunctives
(listing and
choice)
90
㎎㑮 face washing
㏢ἶ₆ beef
㏢Ⰲ sound/noise
㑯㩲 homework
㔲㤦䞮┺ to be cool/to be refreshing
㔶ⶎ newspapers
㕎┺ to be cheap
㝆┺ to use
㞚䂾 morning/breakfast
㠎㩲 when
㠒Ὴ face
㡗䢪 movie
㡞㊮┺ to be pretty
㢍 clothes
㣎㔳 dining out
㤎┺ to cry
㦮㌂ doctor
㧎䎆⎍ internet
㧓┺ to read
㧧┺ to be small
㩖⎗ dinner/evening
㫡┺ to be good
㰖⯊┺ to cry out
㰖⿞䞮┺ to pay
㹿䞮┺ to be good/to be kindhearted
㿻┺ to be cold
䂮┺ to play/to strike
䂲㩞䞮┺ to be kind
䋂┺ to be big
䋺 height
䡚⁞ cash
䦦Ⰲ┺ to be cloudy
䦮Ⰲ┺ to spill/to drop
Exercise 10.1
Complete the following translation using ~ἶ and the sentence cues pro-
vided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) will listen to (my) friend’s story and then decide.”
(㩲 䂲ῂ㦮 㧊㟒₆⯒ ✹┺ / ἆ㩫䞮Ỷ㔋┞┺)
= 㩲 䂲ῂ㦮 㧊㟒₆⯒ ✹ἶ ἆ㩫䞮Ỷ㔋┞┺.
91
Exercise
10.2
1 (I) eat breakfast and then exercise (㞚䂾㦚 ⲏ┺ / 㤊☯䞿┞┺)
2 Brush (your) teeth and then go to bed (㧊⯒ ┼┺ / 㧦㣪)
3 Do (you) ask the teacher first and then go to the restroom? (㍶㌳┮
䞲䎢 Ⲓ㩖 ⶒ㠊 ⽊┺ / 䢪㧻㔺㠦 ṧ┞₢?)
4 (Let us) leave after making a reservation (㡞㟓㦚 䞮┺ / ⟶⋿㔲┺)
5 (I) want to get a job after graduating from college (╖䞯ᾦ⯒ 㫎㠛䞮┺
/ 䀾㰗䞮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪)
6 As for Susan, (her) eyes are big and (she) is quiet (㑮㧪㦖 ⑞㧊 䋂┺ /
㫆㣿䟊㣪)
7 As for Tim, (his) voice is good and (he) has humor (䕖㦖 ⳿㏢ⰂṖ 㫡
┺ / 㥶ⲎṖ 㧞㠊㣪)
8 As for Andrew, (he) is humble and diligent (㞺✲⮮⓪ Ἆ㏦䞮┺ / ⿖㰖
⩆䟊㣪)
Exercise 10.2
Connect the following two sentences using ~ἶ. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 㩖⎗㦚 Ⲓ㩖 ⲏ┺ / 㑯㩲⯒ 䞶 Ệ㡞㣪?
= 㩖⎗㦚 Ⲓ㩖 ⲏἶ 㑯㩲⯒ 䞶 Ệ㡞㣪?
“Will (you) eat dinner first and then do (your) homework?”
1 ㎎㑮⯒ 䞮┺ / 㢍㦚 Ṟ㞚 㧛㦒㎎㣪
2 㑯㩲⯒ 䞮┺ / 㧎䎆⎍㦚 㝆Ỷ㠊㣪
3 ㌺㤢⯒ 䞮┺ / 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㦣㔲┺
4 䋺Ṗ 䋂┺ / 㠒Ὴ㧊 㧧㞮㠊㣪
5 㫊㧊 31 ㌊㧊┺ / 㦮㌂㧛┞┺
Exercise 10.3
Complete the following translation using ~(㦒)Ⳇ and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “The subway is convenient and fast.” (㰖䞮㻶㧊 䘎䞮┺ /
ザ⯛┞┺)
= 㰖䞮㻶㧊 䘎䞮Ⳇ ザ⯛┞┺.
1 Paul’s voice is loud and soft (䙊㦮 ⳿㏢ⰂṖ 䋂┺ / ⿖✲⩓㔋┞┺)
2 James is a scientist and an inventor (㩲㧚㓺Ṗ ὒ䞯㧦㧊┺ / ⹲ⳛṖ㧛
┞┺)
3 Wendy is an actress and a singer (㥂❪Ṗ ⺆㤆㧊┺ / Ṗ㑮㧛┞┺)
10
Clausal
conjunctives
(listing and
choice)
92
4 Today’s weather is clear and cool (㡺⓮ ⋶㝾Ṗ Ⱗ┺ / ㍶㍶䞿┞┺)
5 That school is good and famous (⁎ 䞯ᾦṖ 㫡┺ / 㥶ⳛ䞿┞┺)
6 Train is safe and convenient (₆㹾Ṗ 㞞㩚䞮┺ / 䘎䞿┞┺)
Exercise 10.4
Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)Ⳇ. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 䡂⩢㧊 㤙┺ / 㧊㟒₆䟞㠊㣪
= 䠦⩢㧊 㤙㦒Ⳇ 㧊㟒₆䟞㠊㣪. “Helen talked, smiling.”
1 䎢⩢㓺Ṗ 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺ / 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓ἶ 㧞㠊㣪
2 ⁎⩞㧊㓺Ṗ 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 ⽊┺ / 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㠞㠊㣪
3 Ⰲ㻮✲Ṗ 䕳䆮㦚 ⲏ┺ / 㡗䢪⯒ ⽦㣪
4 㠦㓺▪Ṗ ➖㦚 䦮Ⰲ┺ / 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪
5 ⪲⻚䔎Ṗ 㤎┺ / ㏢Ⰲ 㰞⩖㠊㣪
6 ┞䆲㧊 ⋶㞂䞮┺ / 㹿䟊㣪
7 䋊⧒⧒Ṗ 㡞㊮┺ / ㎇ỿ㧊 㫡㞚㣪
8 ⪲⧒⓪ ⲎⰂṖ ₎┺ / 䂲㩞䟞㠊㣪
9 ㍲㤎㦖 ⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦Ⰲ┺ / ゚Ṗ 㡺Ỷ㠊㣪
10 㧊 ⹿㧊 䋂┺ / 㔲㤦䟊㣪
Exercise 10.5
Complete the following translation using ~Ệ⋮ and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) will buy (it) whether (it) is cheap or expensive.”
(㕎┺ / ゚㕎┺ / ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪)
= 㕎Ệ⋮ ゚㕎Ệ⋮ ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪.
1 (He) is (my) older brother whether (he) is a rich man or a beggar
(⿖㧦㧊┺ / Ệ㰖㧊┺ / 㩲 䡫㧊㠦㣪)
2 (I) want to study Korean whether (it) is difficult or easy (㠊⪋┺ /
㓓┺ / 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪)
3 (I) will wait (for her), whether (she) comes or not (㡺┺ / 㞞 㡺┺ /
₆┺Ⰺ Ệ㡞㣪)
4 (I) will try asking (him), whether (he will) lend (it to me) or not (ア⩺
㭒┺ / 㞞 ア⩺㭒┺ / ⶒ㠊 ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪)
5 Watch that drama again whether (it) is interesting or dull (㨂⹎㧞┺ /
㨂⹎㠜┺ / ⁎ ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ┺㔲 ⽊㕃㔲㡺)
93
Exercise
10.6
Exercise 10.6
Connect the following two sentences using ~Ệ⋮. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: ¯\ ⯒ ⽊┺ / 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㝎 Ệ㡞㣪
= ¯\ ⯒ ⽊Ệ⋮ 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㝎 Ệ㡞㣪.
“(I) will watch TV or use the computer.”
1 ⽊䐋 㠎㩲 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊┺ / 㣎㔳㦚 䞿┞₢?
2 ↙㦚 ㌂┺ / 䅖㧊䋂⯒ Ⱒ✲㕃㔲㡺
3 㞚䂾㠦 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮┺ / 㣪Ṗ⯒ 䟊㣪
4 䡚⁞㦒⪲ ⌊┺ / 䃊✲⪲ 㰖⿞䞶 Ệ㡞㣪
5 ㌆㦒⪲ Ṗ┺ / ⹪╍Ṗ⪲ ṧ㔲┺
Exercise 10.7
Complete the following translation using ~✶㰖 and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(Let us) clean the room or do the laundry.”
(⹿㦚 㼃㏢䞮┺ / ゾ⧮⯒ 䞿㔲┺)
= ⹿㦚 㼃㏢䞮✶㰖 ゾ⧮⯒ 䞿㔲┺.
1 (We) will eat lunch or drink coffee (㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ┺ / 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔺 Ệ㡞
㣪)
2 (Let us) go home or a coffee shop (㰧㠦 Ṗ┺ / 䄺䞒㑣㠦 ṧ㔲┺)
3 Drink apple juice or tomato juice (㌂ὒ 㭒㓺⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺ / 䏶Ⱎ䏶 㭒㓺
⯒ Ⱎ㔲㎎㣪)
4 (Let us) see an action movie or a horror movie (㞷㎮ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊┺ /
Ὃ䙂 㡗䢪⯒ ⽛㔲┺)
5 (We) will play tennis whether (it) is cold or hot (㿻┺ / ▻┺ / 䎢┞
㓺⯒ 䂶 Ệ㡞㣪)
Exercise 10.8
Connect the following two sentences using ~✶㰖. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 㦖䟟㠦 Ṗ┺ / 㤆㼊ῃ㠦 Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪.
= 㦖䟟㠦 Ṗ✶㰖 㤆㼊ῃ㠦 Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪.
“(I) will go to the bank or the post office.”
10
Clausal
conjunctives
(listing and
choice)
94
1 䆲⧒⯒ ㌂┺ / 㭒㓺⯒ ㌂Ỷ㠊㣪.
2 ㏢ἶ₆⯒ ⲏ┺ / ♒㰖ἶ₆⯒ ⲏ㦣㔲┺.
3 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺ / 䅖㧊䋂⯒ ⲏ㠊㣪.
4 ⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦Ⰲ┺ / 㿪㤎 Ệ㡞㣪.
5 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓┺ / ¯\ ⯒ ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪.
UNIT 11
Clausal conjunctives (time)
95
~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲
The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ is used when two actions (or states) are
carried out simultaneously by the same subject. It corresponds to “while”
in English. ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ is a two-form ending: ~㦒Ⳋ㍲ is used after a stem
that ends in a consonant (e.g., ⲏ㦒Ⳋ㍲ “while eating”); ~Ⳋ㍲ is used
after a stem that ends in a vowel (e.g., Ⱎ㔲Ⳋ㍲ “while drinking”).
䕳䆮㦚 ⲏ㦒Ⳋ㍲ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(He) is seeing a movie, eating
popcorn.”
㤊㩚䞮Ⳋ㍲ 㩚䢪䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪? “Are (you) calling (someone), while
driving?”
䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲Ⳋ㍲ 㧊㟒₆䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Talk, drinking coffee.”
䞲ῃ ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊Ⳋ㍲ ṯ㧊 Ỏ㦒㕃㔲┺. “(Let us) walk together, singing
Korean songs.”
❪㧦㧎㧊 㡞㊮Ⳋ㍲ Ṩ㧊 㕎㣪. “While the design is pretty, the price is
inexpensive.”
㧊 㰧㧊 䋂Ⳋ㍲ 䞯ᾦ㠦㍲☚ Ṗ₢㤢㣪. “While this house is big, (it) is
also near from school.”
㦢㔳㧊 ゚㕎Ⳋ㍲ ㍲゚㓺☚ ⋮ザ㣪. “While (their) food is expensive,
(their) service is also bad.”
ῆ㧎㧊Ⳋ㍲ 䞯㌳㧊㠦㣪. “While (he) is a military man, (he) is a
student.”
~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ is not conjugated for the tense. Consider the following
examples:
☞㦚 ⻢Ⳋ㍲ ╖䞯㠦 ┺⎪㠊㣪. “(I) attended the college, while earning
money.”
䘎㰖⯒ 㧓㦒Ⳋ㍲ 㤎㠞㠊㣪? “Did (she) cry, while reading the letter?”
⁎ 䂲ῂ⯒ ㌳ṗ䞮Ⳋ㍲ 㧊 ㌂㰚✺㦚 ⽊ἶ 㧞㠞㠊㣪. “(I) was looking at
these pictures, while thinking about that friend.”
11
Clausal
conjunctives
(time)
96
Notice in the examples above that only the predicates of the main clauses
are conjugated for the tense.
~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ is often used for disapproving, criticizing or complaining. This
is when two simultaneous actions or states, connected by ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲, are
disagreeing or inconsonant each other. Consider the following example:
Ὃ⿖⯒ 㞞 䞮Ⳋ㍲ À ⯒ ⹱ἶ 㕌㠊䟊㣪. “While (he) does not study, (he)
wants to receive an A.”
Notice that the action of the first clause (e.g., not studying) and that of
the main clause (want to receive an A) are inconsonant each other. In
addition, the sentence is a speech act of complaining or disapproving.
Here are more examples:
㩲㧒 ⏨㦖 ⽟ 㦚 ⹱㦒Ⳋ㍲ 㔺⩻㧊 㠜㠊㣪. “While (he) receives the
highest salary, (he) does not have any merit.”
㰗㠛☚ 㠜㦒Ⳋ㍲ ゚㕒 㹾Ⱒ 㺔㞚㣪. “While (he) does not even have a
job, (he) only looks for expensive cars.”
~㧦Ⱎ㧦
The clausal conjunctive ~㧦Ⱎ㧦 means “as soon as” or “immediately after.”
~㧦Ⱎ㧦 is subject to the following restrictions. First, it must be used only
with verbs, as shown below:
㧒㦚 Ⱎ䂮㧦Ⱎ㧦 㰧㠦 Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will go home as soon as (I) finish
with (my) work.”
㧒㠊⋮㧦Ⱎ㧦 ㌺㤢䞶 Ệ㡞㣪? “Will (you) take a shower as soon as
(you) get up?”
Ὃ䟃㠦 ☚㹿䞮㧦Ⱎ㧦 㡆⧓䞮㎎㣪. “Contact (them) as soon as (you)
arrive in the airport.”
Second, it is not conjugated for the tense.
㥶┞㓺Ṗ ⹿㠦 ✺㠊㡺㧦Ⱎ㧦 䞒䎆Ṗ 㩚❇㦚 䆆㠊㣪. “Peter turned the
electric lamp on as soon as Eunice entered the room.”
䘎㰖⯒ 㧓㧦Ⱎ㧦 㤎㠞㠊㣪. “(She) cried as soon as (she) read the
letter.”
㏢㔳㦚 ✹㧦Ⱎ㧦 ⹬㦒⪲ ⋮Ṫ㠊㣪. “(He) went outside as soon as (he)
heard the news.”
Notice in the examples above that only the main clauses are conjugated
for the tense.
97
~┺Ṗ
~┺Ṗ
The clausal conjunctive ~┺Ṗ is used to express the shift in action or state.
When it is attached to a verb stem, it indicates that the subject shifts his/
her action to another. Consider the following examples:
㺛㦚 㧓┺Ṗ 㧺㠊㣪. “As (I) read the book, (I) slept.”
䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ┺Ṗ 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 ✺⩖㠊㣪. “On my way to school, (I) stopped
by the supermarket.”
Notice in the examples above that the subjects shifted certain actions (e.g.,
reading, going to school) to another actions (e.g., sleeping, stopping by the
supermarket). Here are more examples:
T0 ⿚ 㩚₢㰖 ⁎ 䂲ῂ⯒ ₆┺Ⰲ┺Ṗ 㰧㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “(He) waited for that
friend until 10 minutes ago and then went home.”
䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺Ṗ 䂲ῂ⯒ Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪. “While drinking coffee, (I) met (my)
friends.”
㤆㼊ῃ㠦 Ṗ┺Ṗ ⶊ㠝㦚 ㌖㠊㣪? “What did (you) buy on (your) way
to the post office?”
⥆┺Ṗ T0 ⿚ 㩫☚ 㓂㎎㣪. “Run and then rest about 10 minutes.”
ⲪⓊ⯒ ⽊┺Ṗ 㦢㔳㦚 㔲䌋㔲┺. “(Let us) look at the menu and then
order food.”
When ~┺Ṗ is attached to an adjective stem, it indicates the shift in
state to another. Consider the following example:
ⰱ㧊 㕇ỗ┺Ṗ 㰲㣪. “The taste was watery and then (it) is salty
(now).”
Notice in the example above that there was a shift in the state (e.g., from
“being watery” to “being salty”). The first state is no longer in effect in
favor of the second state. Here are more examples:
㡺㩚₢㰖 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡┺Ṗ 㰖⁞㦖 䦦Ⱃ┞┺. “The weather was good until
a.m. and then (it) is cloudy now.”
䋂Ⰲ㓺Ⱎ㓺 㩚₢㰖 ゚㕎┺Ṗ Tz 㤪 zo 㧒⿖䎆⓪ 㕎㪢㠊㣪. “(They)
were expensive before Christmas but then (they) became inexpensive
(starting) from December 26.”
The use of the past tense marker 㠞/㞮 is optional for ~┺Ṗ. If the
speaker wishes to highlight the past action rather than the shift in the
action, he/she can optionally use the past tense marker. Compare the fol-
lowing two sentenes:
11
Clausal
conjunctives
(time)
98
䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ┺Ṗ 䂲ῂ✺㦚 Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪. “On (my) way to school, (I) met
(my) friends.”
䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṫ┺Ṗ 䂲ῂ✺㦚 Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪. “(I) went to school and then met
(my) friends.”
Notice that there is a subtle meaning difference between the two sentences:
While the first sentence simply indicates the shift in the action, the second
sentence highlights the completed past action that took place before the
shift of the action took place. Here are more examples:
㟓㏣㦚 䟞┺Ṗ 䀾㏢䟞㠊㣪. “(I) made a promise and then (I) cancelled
(it).”
㠊❪ Ṫ┺Ṗ 㡺㎾㠊㣪? “Where did you go and come back?”
䅊䜾䎆⯒ ㌖┺Ṗ 䕪㞮㠊㣪. “(We) bought the computer and then sold
(it).”
㩚❇㦚 䆆┺Ṗ Ω┺Ṗ ⁎⧮㣪. “(They) do things like turning the elec-
tric lamp on and off.”
㠎㩲 ╖㌂ὖ㠦 Ṫ┺Ṗ 㢪㠊㣪? “When did (you) go to the embassy and
come back?”
~┺Ṗ⓪
The topic particle ⓪ can be optionally attached to the conjunctive ~┺Ṗ.
~┺Ṗ⓪ is used to warn about the action or state of the prior clause.
Consider the following examples:
ⰺ㧒 㑶㦚 Ⱎ㔲┺Ṗ⓪ Ịṫ㦚 䟊䂶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “If (you) drink alcohol
everyday, (you) can harm (your) health.”
㿪㤊 ⋶㝾㠦 ⹬㠦㍲ 㡺⧮ 㤊☯䞮┺Ṗ⓪ Ṧ₆ ỎⰊ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “If (you)
exercise for a long time under the cold weather outside, (you) can catch
a cold.”
Notice in the examples above that ~┺Ṗ⓪ indicates that the continual
action of the first clause may generate an unpleasant or troublesome
consequence.
~(㦒)⩺┺Ṗ
The combination of ~(㦒)⩺ἶ “intending to” with ~┺Ṗ creates a new
clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)⩺┺Ṗ. The conjunctive ~(㦒)⩺┺Ṗ is used when
one tries to do something but comes across another situation. It indicates
that the intentional action of the first clause was never actualized, but the
action of the main clause was realized instead. Consider the following
example:
99
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 11
exercises
㰧㠦 Ṗ⩺┺Ṗ ㍲㩦㠦 Ṫ㔋┞┺. “As (I) intended to go home, (I) went
to a bookstore.”
Notice that the action of the first clause (e.g., going home) was never
actualized. Instead, the action of the main clause was realized. Here are
more examples:
Ṳ⯒ 㧷㦒⩺┺Ṗ ⍮㠊㪢㠊㣪. “As (I) intended to catch the dog, (I) fell
(on the ground).”
☚㍲ὖ㠦 Ṗ⩺┺Ṗ ₎㠦㍲ 㩲㧚㓺⯒ Ⱒ⋮㍲ ṯ㧊 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㠞㠊㣪.
“As (I) intended to go to the library, (I) met James on the street and
had dinner together.”
䝚Ⰶ䎆⯒ ㌂⩺┺Ṗ ╖㔶 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ㌖㠊㣪. “As (we) intended to buy
a printer, (we) bought a computer instead.”
ⶊ㠝㦚 䕪⩺┺Ṗ ⴑ 䕪㞮㠊㣪? “What did (you) intend to sell, but could
not sell?”
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 11 exercises
Ṗ┺ to go
Ệ㰖 beggar
ọ┺ to walk
Ἒ┾ stairs
Ἒ㏣ continually
Ἶ┺ to snore
₎ road
₾┺ to break/to smash
⍮㠊㰖┺ to fall (down over)
⏎⧮ song
⏖┺ to play/to amuse
╖䞯 college
☞ money
♮┺ to become/to get to/to elapse
⟾㠊㰖┺ to fall/to drop
Ⱔ㧊 a lot
ⲏ┺ to eat
Ⲟ㿪┺ to stop
ⶊ㠎Ṗ something
⹪∎┺ to change
⺆䌞⋮┺ to have a stomachache
11
Clausal
conjunctives
(time)
100
⽊┺ to see/to watch/to read
㌂┺ to buy
㌊㹢┺ to gain weight
㎎㑮 face washing
㔲䋺┺ to order
㔲䠮 test/exam
㔶ⶎ newspapers
㝆┺ to use
㟧䂮㰞 brushing teeth
㡊㕂䧞 hard/earnestly/enthusiastically
㡗䢪 movie
㡺⯎㴓 right side
㢂⧒Ṗ┺ to climb/to go up
㣪Ⰲ cooking
㤎┺ to cry
㤙┺ to smile
㧊㌂ (house) moving
㧊㟒₆䞮┺ to talk
㧒䞮┺ to work
㧒㠊⋮┺ to get up
㧓┺ to read
㧦┺ to sleep
㩚㠦 before
㩦㕂 lunch
㩧㔲 dish
㫎┺ to doze off
㫎㠛䞮┺ to graduate
㭒㏢ address
㭧㠒ỆⰂ┺ to mutter/to murmur
㴩Ỿ⋮┺ to be expelled
㹾 car
㺔┺ to look for/to seek for
㺛 book
䢒㧦 alone
䣢㌂ company/firm
Exercise 11.1
Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Exercise
11.2
101
Example: “Do not chew a gum, while working.”
(㧒䞮┺ / ™㦚 㞏㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪)
= 㧒䞮Ⳋ㍲ ™㦚 㞏㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪.
1 (She) is calling (someone), crying (㤎┺ / 㩚䢪⯒ 䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪)
2 Will (you) make friends while traveling? (㡂䟟㦚 䞮┺ / 䂲ῂ⯒ ㌂„ Ệ
㡞㣪?)
3 Do not fall from the bed, while getting up (㧒㠊⋮┺ / 䂾╖㠦㍲ ⟾㠊
㰖㰖 Ⱎ㕃㔲㡺)
4 (Let us) not break dishes while cooking (㣪Ⰲ䞮┺ / 㩧㔲⯒ ₾⥾Ⰲ㰖
Ⱟ㔲┺)
5 Did (you) fall, while riding a bike? (㧦㩚Ệ⯒ 䌖┺ / ⍮㠊㪢㔋┞₢?)
Exercise 11.2
Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ as shown in the
example. Then translate the sentence.
Example: 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺ / 㤊㩚㦚 䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪
= 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲Ⳋ㍲ 㤊㩚㦚 䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪.
“(I) am driving, while drinking coffee.”
1 䐆䞮ἶ 㩲ⰂṖ 㤙┺ / 㧊㟒₆䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪
2 㓺䕆ぢṖ 㺛㦚 㧓┺ / 䢒㧦 㭧㠒Ệ⩺㣪
3 ⬾㧊㓺Ṗ 㧦┺ / 䆪⯒ Ἶ㞮㠊㣪
4 䟊ⰂṖ ⏎⧮⯒ 䞮┺ / ㌺㤢⯒ 䟊㣪
5 㫆❪Ṗ ₎㦚 ọ┺ / ⶊ㠎Ṗ 㺔ἶ 㧞㠞㠊㣪
Exercise 11.3
Finish the following translation using ~㧦Ⱎ㧦 and the sentence cues pro-
vided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(He) danced as soon as (he) wore shoes.”
(㔶⹲㦚 㔶┺ / 㿺㦚 䀚㠊㣪)
= 㔶⹲㦚 㔶㧦Ⱎ㧦 㿺㦚 䀚㠊㣪.
1 (I) want to get married as soon as (I) get a job (䀾㰗䞮┺ / ἆ䢒䞮ἶ
㕌㔋┞┺)
2 (She) cried as soon as (she) met (her) boyfriend (⋾㧦 䂲ῂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮
┺ / 㤎㠞㠊㣪)
11
Clausal
conjunctives
(time)
102
3 (He) will snore as soon as (he) lies down on the bed (䂾╖㠦 ⑫┺ /
䆪⯒ Ἶ Ệ㡞㣪)
4 What do (you) want to do as soon as (you) graduate from college?
(╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䞮┺ / ⶊ㠝㦚 䞮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪?)
5 Call (your) older sister as soon as (you) arrive in London (⩆▮㠦
☚㹿䞮┺ / ⑚⋮䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞮㕃㔲㡺)
6 (Let us) buy (some) popcorn as soon as (we) enter the theatre (㡗䢪
ὖ㠦 ✺㠊Ṗ┺ / 䕳䆮㦚 ㌓㔲┺)
Exercise 11.4
Connect the following two sentences using ~㧦Ⱎ㧦. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺ / ㌂ⶊ㔺⪲ ☢㞚Ṫ㠊㣪
= 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲㧦Ⱎ㧦 ㌂ⶊ㔺⪲ ☢㞚Ṫ㠊㣪.
“(He) returned to the office, as soon as (he) drank coffee.”
1 㧒㠊⋮┺ / ㎎㑮⯒ 䞿┞┺
2 ㌞ 㰧㦒⪲ 㧊㌂⯒ 䞮┺ / 㭒㏢⯒ ⹪∾㠊㣪
3 ╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䞮┺ / 㹾⯒ ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪?
4 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ┺ / 䄺䞒⯒ 㔲䌋㔲┺
5 ㎎㑮⯒ 䞮┺ / 㟧䂮㰞㦚 䞮㕃㔲㡺
Exercise 11.5
Finish the following translation using ~┺Ṗ and the sentence cues provided
in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “As (I) did laundry, (I) answered the phone.”
(ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮┺ / 㩚䢪⯒ ⹱㞮㠊㣪)
= ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮┺Ṗ 㩚䢪⯒ ⹱㞮㠊㣪.
1 (I) watched TV and then slept (䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 ⽊┺ / 㧺㠊㣪)
2 As (he) bought vegetables in the supermarket and (he) ran into (his)
friend (㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦㍲ 㟒㺚⯒ ㌂┺ / 䂲ῂ㢖 Ⱎ㭒㼺㠊㣪)
3 As (she) opened the door, (she) got (her) wrist injured (ⶎ㦚 㡊┺ /
㏦⳿㦚 ┺㼺㠊㣪)
4 As (he) played basketball, (he) sprained (his) ankle (⏣ῂ⯒ 䞮┺ /
⹲⳿㦚 ㋦㠞㠊㣪)
5 (I) wrote a letter and then went to the restroom (䘎㰖⯒ 㝆┺ / 䢪㧻㔺
㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪)
103
Exercise
11.6
Exercise 11.6
Connect the following two sentences using ~┺Ṗ. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ┺ / 㩚䢪⯒ ⹱㞮㠊㣪.
= 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ┺Ṗ 㩚䢪⯒ ⹱㞮㠊㣪.
“As (he) ate lunch, (he) answered the phone.”
1 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓┺ / 㫎㞮㠊㣪
2 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊┺ / 㤎㠞㠊㣪
3 㡺⯎㴓㦒⪲ Ṗ┺ / Ⲟ㿪㎎㣪
4 Ἒ┾㦚 㢂⧒Ṗ┺ / ⍮㠊㪢㠊㣪?
5 ⑚Ṗ 㣪Ⰲ⯒ 䞮┺ / 㩧㔲⯒ ⃒㠊㣪?
Exercise 11.7
Finish the following translation using ~┺Ṗ⓪ and the sentence cues pro-
vided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “If (you) leave late, (you) can miss the bus.”
(⓼Ợ ⟶⋮┺ / ⻚㓺⯒ ⏩䂶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪)
= ⓼Ợ ⟶⋮┺Ṗ⓪ ⻚㓺⯒ ⏩䂶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
1 If (you) do not study hard, (you) cannot enter college (㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖⯒
㞞 䞮┺ / ╖䞯㠦 ⴑ ✺㠊Ṗ㣪)
2 If (you) continue to smoke, (you) can get a cancer (╊⺆⯒ Ἒ㏣ 䞒㤆
┺ / 㞪㠦 ỎⰊ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪)
3 If (you) overspeed, an accident may occur (ὒ㏣㦚 䞮┺ / ㌂ἶṖ ⋶ Ệ
㡞㣪)
4 If (you) do not contact (each other), (you) can end up forgetting each
other (㡆⧓㦚 㞞 䞮┺ / ㍲⪲ 㧠㠊 ⻚Ⰺ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪)
5 If (you) continue to turn down, (you) can miss an opportunity (Ἒ㏣ Ệ
㩞䞮┺ / ₆䣢⯒ ⏩䂶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪)
6 If (he) drinks whisky everyday, (he) may become an alcoholic (ⰺ㧒 㥚
㓺䋺⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺ / 㞢䆲 㭧☛㧦Ṗ ♶ Ệ㡞㣪)
11
Clausal
conjunctives
(time)
104
Exercise 11.8
Connect the following two sentences using ~┺Ṗ⓪. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 㡺⧮ ⽊┺ / 㔲⩻㧊 ⋮ザ㰞 㑮 㧞㠊㣪
= 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 㡺⧮ ⽊┺Ṗ⓪ 㔲⩻㧊 ⋮ザ㰞 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
“If (you) watch TV for a long time, (your) vision can become
worse.”
1 㧦₆ 㩚㠦 Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ┺ / ㌊㹪 Ệ㡞㣪
2 Ἒ㏣ ⏖┺ / 㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㰞 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
3 ☞Ⱒ 㝆┺ / Ệ㰖Ṗ ♶ Ệ㡞㣪.
4 㡊㕂䧞 㧒㦚 㞞 䞮┺ / 䣢㌂㠦㍲ 㴩Ỿ⋶ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
5 Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ┺ / ⺆䌞⋶ Ệ㡞㣪
UNIT 12
Clausal conjunctives (background)
105
~⓪/(㦒)ච◆
Function
The clausal conjunctive ~⓪ /(㦒)ච◆ is used to provide background in-
formation for the main clause. Consider the following example:
䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮⓪◆ 㨂⹎㧞㠊㣪. “(I) study Korean, and (it) is
interesting.”
In this example, the first clause 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮┺ “(I) study Korean” is
the background information for the main clause 㨂⹎㧞┺ “(it) is interest-
ing.” Here are more examples:
㡺⓮ ⹺ ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤊◆ ⹬㠦 ⋮Ṗ㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. “The weather is cold tonight,
so do not go outside.”
㩦㕂 ➢Ṗ ♦⓪◆ 㠊❪ Ṗ㍲ ⶪṖ ⲏ㦣㔲┺. “(It) has become lunchtime,
so (let us) go somewhere and eat something.”
㧊⻞ 㭒㠦 㟓㏣㧊 㧞⓪◆ ┺㦢 㭒Ṗ 㠊➢㣪? “(I) have an appointment
this week, so how about next week?”
⌊㧒₢㰖 㧒㦚 Ⱎ㼦㟒 䞮⓪◆ 䞮⋮☚ 㞞 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) have to finish the
work by tomorrow, but (I) have not done anything.”
㡺⓮㦖 ⹪㊲◆ ⌊㧒 Ⱒ⋿㔲┺. “As for today, (I) am busy, so (let us)
meet tomorrow.”
How it is conjugated
~⓪◆ is used after a verb stem.
Verb Verb stem + ⓪◆
Ṗ┺ “go” Ṗ⓪◆
⺆㤆┺ “learn” ⺆㤆⓪◆
Ṗ⯊䂮┺ “teach” Ṗ⯊䂮⓪◆
㣪Ⰲ䞮┺ “cook” 㣪Ⰲ䞮⓪◆
12
Clausal
conjunctives
(background)
106
Verb Verb stem + ⓪◆
Ὃ⿖䞮┺ “study” Ὃ⿖䞮⓪◆
ⲏ┺ “eat” ⲏ⓪◆
㺔┺ “find” 㺔⓪◆
㧞┺ “have/exist” 㧞⓪◆
㠜┺ “not have/exist” 㠜⓪◆
As for adjectives and copulas, ~㦖◆ is used after a stem that ends
in a consonant, and ~ච◆ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel, as
shown below:
Adjective Adjective stem + (㦒)ච◆
㧧┺ “small” 㧧㦖◆
㫡┺ “good” 㫡㦖◆
Ⱗ┺ “clear” Ⱗ㦖◆
㿻┺ “cold” 㿪㤊◆
㕎┺ “cheap” 㕒◆
䟟⽋䞮┺ “happy” 䟟⽋䞲◆
㧊㌗䞮┺ “strange” 㧊㌗䞲◆
Copula Copula stem + (㦒)ච◆
㧊┺ “be” 㧎◆
㞚┞┺ “be not” 㞚┢◆
As for an adjective that is made of 㧞┺/㠜┺, such as 㨂⹎㧞┺ “inter-
esting” and ⰱ㠜┺ “tasteless,” ~⓪◆ is used.
Adjective Adjective stem + ⓪◆
㨂⹎㠜┺ “uninteresting” 㨂⹎㠜⓪◆
ⰱ㧞┺ “delicious” ⰱ㧞⓪◆
ⲡ㧞┺ “stylish” ⲡ㧞⓪◆
As for the past tense, ~⓪◆ is used after the past tense marker 㠞/㞮,
and this applies to any predicate type, as shown below:
Verb stem + Past tense marker + ⓪◆: 㠊㩲 䞲ῃ 㔳╏㠦 Ṫ⓪◆ ㏦┮
㧊 Ⱔ㞮㠊㣪. “(I) went to the Korean restaurant yesterday, and there
were many customers.”
Adjective stem + Past tense marker + ⓪◆: 㠊㩲 㿪㤶⓪◆ ㌂⧢㧊 Ⱔ
㞮㠊㣪. “(It) was cold yesterday, but there were many people.”
Copula stem + Past tense marker + ⓪◆: 㧧⎚₢㰖 ἶ❇ 䞯㌳㧊㠞⓪◆
㧊㩲 ╖䞯㌳㧊㠦㣪. “Until last year, (she) was a high school student,
but (she) is a college student now.”
107
~⓪/(㦒)
ච◆☚
~⓪/(㦒)ච◆㣪 as a sentence ender
In spoken communication, conjunctives often end a sentence. For instance,
in a delicate or face-threatening communicative situation, such as express-
ing disagreement, requesting, complaining, and refusing, people often opt
out of saying the main clause as a strategy to be indirect and polite (e.g.,
so that they may reduce the degree of imposition when requesting or they
may not hurt the addressee’s feeling when refusing or complaining). For
instance, consider the following dialogue:
A: Can you come to my birthday party tonight?
B: I have a test tomorrow so . . . (I will not be able to make it).
Notice that the speaker B uses the ellipsis, leaving the main clause out.
In a similar manner the English conjunctive “so” ends the first clause
in the example above, ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆ may be used as a sentence ender. The
politeness ending 㣪 is optionally attached to ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆, as in ~⓪/(㦒)
ච◆㣪, to sound more polite. Consider the following dialogue:
A: ⌊㧒 䕢䕆㠦 ṯ㧊 Ṟ⧮㣪?
“Would (you) like to go to the party together tomorrow?”
B: 㧊⻞ 㭒⓪ ⹪㊲◆㣪.
“(I) am busy this week (so).”
Notice that the speaker B just provides background information (e.g., he/
she is busy), and opts out saying the main clause. In this way, the speaker
B makes the speaker A figures out the implicit message (e.g., so I can’t go
to the party tomorrow).
~⓪/(㦒)ච◆☚
The combination of the conjunctive ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆ and the particle ☚ “even/
also” is a new conjunctive ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆☚ “although/despite (the fact that)/
even if.” Consider the following examples:
㧧㦖◆☚ ⹿㎎Ṗ ゚㕎㣪. “Although (it) is small, the room rent is
expensive.”
㭒Ⱖ㧎◆☚ ㏦┮㧊 ⼚⪲ 㠜㠊㣪. “Although (it) is a weekend, there are
not many customers.”
Ⱔ㧊 㧺⓪◆☚ 㞚㰗☚ 䞒Ἲ䟊㣪. “Although (I) slept a lot, (I) am still
tired.”
㟓㦚 ⲏ㠞⓪◆☚ ⺆Ṗ 㡂㩚䧞 㞚䕢㣪. “Although (I) took the medicine,
(my) stomach still aches.”
12
Clausal
conjunctives
(background)
108
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 12 exercises
Ṗ┺ to go
Ṗ⹿ bag/suitcase
ṯ㧊 together
⁞⹿ just now/at once
₆┺Ⰲ┺ to wait
₆䌖 guitar
⊩㧊┺ to boil
⌊㧒 tomorrow
⍞ⶊ too much
┺㦢 next
☚㹿䞮┺ to arrive
☫┺ to help
Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink
Ⱔ┺ to be many/to be much
ⲎⰂ head/hair (of one’s head)
ⲏ┺ to eat
⳿Ⱎ⯊┺ to be thirsty
ⶊỗ┺ to be heavy
ⶊ㻯 very much/extremely
ⶒ water
⹎ῃ U.S.A.
⹎㞞䞮┺ to be sorry
⹪㊮┺ to be busy
⹿ room
⺆㤆┺ to learn
⺇䢪㩦 department store
⿖㠢 kitchen
⿖䂮┺ to send/to mail
゚㕎┺ to be expensive
アⰂ┺ to borrow
㌂┺ to buy
㌂⧢ person/people
㏢Ⰲ sound/noise
㏢䙂 parcel/package
㑮Ⰲ䞮┺ to fix/to repair
㔲⊚⩓┺ to be noisy
㞚䝚┺ to be sore
㟓 medicine
㠜┺ do not have/do not exist
109
Exercise
12.1
㡆⧓ contact
㣪㯞㦢 nowadays
㦢㔳 food
㧞┺ to have/to exist
㫖 a little/please
㭒 week
㭒┺ to give
㭚㧊┺ to reduce
㰖⁞ now
㰖⋲ last
㹾 car/tea
䅲┺ to switch on
㿻┺ to be cold
䂲ῂ friend
䞯ᾦ school
䞲ῃ Korea
䧞䎆 heater
Exercise 12.1
Finish the following translation using ~⓪◆ and the sentence cues provided
in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(We) saw the movie, and (it) was really interesting.”
(㡗䢪⯒ ⽺┺ / 㞚㭒 㨂⹎㧞㠞㠊㣪)
= 㡗䢪⯒ ⽺⓪◆ 㞚㭒 㨂⹎㧞㠞㠊㣪.
1 (I) am chewing a gum, but (my) tooth aches (™㦚 㞏ἶ 㧞┺ / 㧊Ṗ
㞚䕢㣪)
2 (I) am sweeping the street, and will (you) help (me)? (₎㦚 㼃㏢䞮ἶ
㧞┺ / ☚㢖 㭚⧮㣪?)
3 (I) have to buy a gift, and (let us) go to the department store together
(㍶ⶒ㦚 ㌂㟒 䞮┺ / ⺇䢪㩦㠦 ṯ㧊 ṧ㔲┺)
4 (We) met Eric yesterday, but (he) was exactly the same as before
(㠊㩲 㠦Ⰳ㦚 Ⱒ⌂┺ / 㩚䞮ἶ ⡧ṯ㞮㠊㣪)
5 (He) studied hard but (he) failed the exam (Ὃ⿖⯒ 㡊㕂䧞 䟞┺ / 㔲䠮
㠦 ⟾㠊㪢㠊㣪)
Exercise 12.2
Connect the following two sentences using ~⓪◆. Then translate the
sentence.
12
Clausal
conjunctives
(background)
110
Example: 㰖⁞ 㞚䂾㦚 ⲏἶ 㧞┺ / ₆┺⩺ 㭒㎎㣪.
= 㰖⁞ 㞚䂾㦚 ⲏἶ 㧞⓪◆ ₆┺⩺ 㭒㎎㣪.
“(She) is eating breakfast now, so please wait.”
1 ⿖㠢㦚 㑮Ⰲ䞮ἶ 㧞┺ / ゚㕎㣪
2 㰖⁞ 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ┺ / ṯ㧊 ṧ㔲┺
3 ⶒ㦚 ⊩㧊ἶ 㧞┺ / Ⱎ㔺⧮㣪?
4 ⺇䢪㩦㠦 Ṫ┺ / ㌂⧢✺㧊 ⍞ⶊ Ⱔ㞮㠊㣪
5 㰖⋲ 㭒㠦 ㏢䙂⯒ ⿖㼺┺ / ☚㹿䟞㠊㣪?
Exercise 12.3
Finish the following translation using ~㠞/㞮⓪◆ and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) was hungry, but (l) could not eat lunch.”
(⺆Ṗ ἶ䝚┺ / 㩦㕂㦚 ⴑ ⲏ㠞㠊㣪)
= ⺆Ṗ ἶ䕶⓪◆ 㩦㕂㦚 ⴑ ⲏ㠞㠊㣪.
1 (She) was a student last year, but (she) is a teacher now (㧧⎚㠦 䞯㌳
㧊㠞┺ / 㧊㩲 ㍶㌳┮㧊㠦㣪)
2 There were many people before, but there are not many now. (㩚㠦
㌂⧢✺㧊 Ⱔ㞮┺ / 㧊㩲 ⼚⪲ 㠜㠊㣪)
3 As for yesterday, (it) was hot, but as for today, (it) is cool (㠊㩲⓪
▪㤶┺ / 㡺⓮㦖 ㍶㍶䟊㣪)
4 As for the price, (it) was cheap, but the quantity was small (Ṩ㦖
㕢┺ / 㟧㧊 㩗㠞㠊㣪)
5 The weather was bad, but there were many customers (⋶㝾Ṗ ⋮ナ
┺ / ㏦┮㧊 Ⱔ㞮㠊㣪)
Exercise 12.4
Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)ච◆. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡┺ / ㌆㺛䞶₢㣪?
= ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡㦖◆ ㌆㺛䞶₢㣪?
“The weather is good, so shall (we) take a walk?”
1 ₆䌖⯒ ⺆㤆ἶ 㕌┺ / ṯ㧊 ⺆㤗㔲┺
2 ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䝚┺ / 㟓 㧞㠊㣪?
3 Ṗ⹿㧊 ⶊỗ┺ / ☚㢖 㭒㔺⧮㣪?
111
Exercise
12.5
4 㞺✲⮮⓪ ⹎ῃ ㌂⧢㧊┺ / 㓺䗮㧎㠊☚ 㧮 䟊㣪
5 㣪㯞㦢 ⶊ㻯 ⹪㊮┺ / ┺㦢 㭒㠦 㡆⧓㭒㎎㣪
Exercise 12.5
Complete the following dialogue using the sentence cue provided in par-
enthesis and ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆㣪, as shown in the example.
Example: A: 㡺⓮ 㩖⎗ 㔲Ṛ 㧞㦒㎎㣪?
B: __________________ (㩖⎗㠦 㧒䞮┺)
= 㩖⎗㠦 㧒䞮⓪◆㣪
1 A: ⌊㧒 䕢䕆㠦 ṯ㧊 Ṟ₢㣪?
B: ⹎㞞䟊㣪. __________________ (⌊㧒㦖 㫖 ⹪㊮┺)
2 A: ⶦ ⲏ㦚₢㣪?
B: ____________________ (䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㧊 ⲏἶ 㕌┺)
3 A: T0 ╂⧒Ⱒ ア⩺ 㭚⧮㣪?
B: ____________________ (5 ╂⧒⹬㠦 㠜┺)
4 A: _________________ (㞚㰗 㦢㔳㧊 㞞 ⋮㢪┺)
B: 㬚㏷䞿┞┺. ⁞⹿ ⋮㢂 Ệ㡞㣪.
5 A: 㫖 ________________ (㔲⊚⩓┺)
B: ⹎㞞䞿┞┺. ㏢Ⰲ⯒ 㭚㧊Ỷ㔋┞┺.
Exercise 12.6
Finish the following translation using ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆☚ and the sentence
cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Although the house is big, the house rent is inexpensive.”
(㰧㧊 䋂┺ / 㰧㎎Ṗ 㕎㣪)
= 㰧㧊 䋆◆☚ 㰧㎎Ṗ 㕎㣪.
1 Although (he) is an English teacher, (he) can’t speak English well
(㡗㠊 ㍶㌳┮㧊┺ / 㡗㠊⯒ 㧮 ⴑ䟊㣪)
2 Although the quantity is small, (it) is delicious (㟧㧊 㩗┺ / ⰱ㧞㠊㣪)
3 Although the salary is much, (I) will quit (it) (㤪 㧊 Ⱔ┺ / ⁎Ⱒ⚮
Ệ㡞㣪)
4 Although the test was hard, (he) passed (the test) (㔲䠮㧊 㠊⩺㤶┺ /
䞿ỿ䟞㠊㣪)
5 Although (they) were poor, (they) were happy (Ṗ⋲䟞┺ / 䟟⽋䟞
㠊㣪)
12
Clausal
conjunctives
(background)
112
Exercise 12.7
Connect the following two sentences using ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆☚. Then translate
the sentence.
Example: ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡┺ / 㰧㠦 㧞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪?
= ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡㦖◆☚ 㰧㠦 㧞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪?
“Although the weather is nice, will (you) stay home?”
1 㟓㦚 ⲏ㠞┺ / ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䕢㣪
2 ⶒ㦚 ⚦ 䅋㧊⋮ Ⱎ㎾┺ / ⳿Ⱖ⧒㣪?
3 ⁎ 㹾Ṗ ゚㕎┺ / ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪
4 䧞䎆⯒ 䆆┺ / ⹿㧊 㿪㤶㠊㣪
5 ☞㧊 㠜㠞┺ / ㍲㤎㠦 Ṗἶ 㕌㠞㠊㣪
113
UNIT 13
Clausal conjunctives (although)
~㰖Ⱒ
The clausal conjunctive ~㰖Ⱒ is used to acknowledge the action and/or
state of the first clause but to indicate something contrary or opposite
to that of the main clause. It is equivalent to “but” or “although” in
English.
⑞㧊 Ⱔ㧊 㡺㰖Ⱒ 㞞 㿪㤢㣪. “(It) snows a lot, but (it) is not cold.”
㰧㧊 䞯ᾦ㠦㍲ Ⲗ㰖Ⱒ ᾦ䐋㧊 䘎䟊㣪. “Although the house is far from
school, the traffic is convenient.”
~㰖Ⱒ is not subject to any restriction. For instance, it is conjugated for
the tense, as shown below:
䞲ῃ㠦 Ṗἶ 㕌㰖Ⱒ ☞㧊 㠜㠊㣪. “Although (I) want to go to Korea,
(I) do not have money.”
㧒⽎㠊⯒ ⺆㤶㰖Ⱒ 㧮 ⴑ 㧓㠞㠊㣪. “(I) learned Japanese, but (I) could
not read (it) well.”
Second, there is no subject agreement restriction.
㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮㰖Ⱒ 㧮 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) study hard, but (I) do not under-
stand (it) well.”
㠎┞⓪ ⏎⧮⯒ 㧮 䞮㰖Ⱒ, 㩖⓪ 㧮 ⴑ 䟊㣪. “As for my older sister, (she)
sings well, but as for me (I) cannot sing well.”
Third, it may be used with any predicate type.
ₖ䂮⯒ ⲏ㰖Ⱒ 㫡㞚䞮㰖 㞠㞚㣪. “(I) eat Kimchi, but (I) do not like
(it).”
ⴎ㧊 䞒Ἲ䞮㰖Ⱒ 䟟⽋䟊㣪. “Although (my) body is tired, (I) am
happy.”
13
Clausal
conjunctives
(although)
114
䡫㦖 ἓ㺆ὖ㧊㰖Ⱒ 䡫㦮 㡂㧦 䂲ῂ⓪ ㍶㌳┮㧊㠦㣪. “As for my older
brother, (he) is a policeman, but as for his girlfriend, (she) is a
teacher.”
Finally, it can be used for all sentence types, as shown below:
㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䟞㰖Ⱒ À ⯒ ⴑ ⹱㞮㠊㣪. “Although (I) studied hard, (I)
could not receive an A.”
Ἵ ₆㹾Ṗ ☚㹿䞶 Ệ㰖Ⱒ 㞞 ₆┺Ⰺ Ệ㡞㣪? “The train will arrive (here)
soon, but won’t (you) wait?”
Ṩ㦖 ゚㕎㰖Ⱒ ゾⰂ ㌂㎎㣪. “As for the price, (it) is expensive, but buy
(it) immediately.”
⹬㠦 ゚Ṗ 㡺㰖Ⱒ ⋮ṧ㔲┺! “Although (it) rains outside, (let us) go
out!”
~(㦒)⋮
The clausal conjunctive ~(㦒)⋮ is used to indicate that the content of the
first clause does not comply with that of the main clause. It is also equiv-
alent to “but/although” in English. ~(㦒)⋮ is a two-form conjunctive: ~㦒
⋮ is used after a stem that ends in a consonant (e.g., 㧓㦒⋮ “read but”),
and ~⋮ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel (e.g., ⺆㤆⋮ “learn but”).
In addition, just like ~㰖Ⱒ, ~(㦒)⋮ is not subject to any restriction.
Ṗỿ㦖 ゚㕎⋮ ₆⓻㧊 Ⱔ㞚㣪. “As for the price, (it) is expensive, but
(it) has many functions.”
Ἶ䝚⯒ 䂮ἶ 㕌㦒⋮ 㔲Ṛ㧊 㠜㠊㣪. “Although (I) want to play golf,
(I) do not have time.”
㞚䂾㦚 ⲏ㠞㦒⋮ 㡂㩚䧞 ⺆Ṗ ἶ䕶㠊㣪. “Although (I) ate breakfast,
(I) was still hungry.”
~(㦒)⋮ may be used with two or more clauses, before the main clause
(e.g., ~㦒⋮ ~㦒⋮). In such cases ~(㦒)⋮ is used to list selections of actions
or states that have opposite meanings and to indicate that the content of
the main clause happens regardless of the selections indicated by ~(㦒)⋮.
Consider the following example:
㧊₆⋮ 㰖⋮ 㡊㕂䧞 䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “Whether (we) win or lose, (we) will do
(our) best.”
Notice that ~(㦒)⋮ lists two activities that have opposite meanings (e.g.,
winning or losing), while the main clause occurs anyway regardless of the
activities of the previous clauses. Here are more examples:
115
~㠊/㞚☚ 㯦Ệ㤆⋮ 㔂䝚⋮ ⿖㧎㦚 ㌂⧧䞮㔲Ỷ㔋┞₢? “Will (you) love (your)
wife, whether (you) are happy or sad?”
㞟㦒⋮ ㍲⋮ ╏㔶Ⱒ㦚 ㌳ṗ䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “Whether (I) sit or stand, (I) will
think only of you.”
~㠊/㞚☚
The clausal conjunctive ~㠊/㞚☚ is also equivalent to “but/although” in
English. In addition, it is not subject to any restriction. ~㞚☚ is used after
a stem that ends in 㞚 or 㡺, whereas ~㠊☚ is used after a stem that ends
in all other vowels.
ⰺ㧒 㡆㔋䟊☚ 㔺⩻㧊 㞞 ⓮㠊㣪. “Although (I) practice (it) everyday,
(my) skill does not make any progress.”
䄺䞒⯒ Ⱔ㧊 Ⱎ㎪☚ 㫎⩺㣪? “(You) drink coffee a lot, but do (you)
feel drowsy?”
⓼Ợ 㧒㠊⋮☚ Ↄ 㡺㕃㔲㡺. “Come by all means, even if (you) get up
late.”
☞㧊 㧞㠊☚ ㌂㰖 Ⱟ㔲┺. “Although (we) have money, (let us) not buy
(it).”
ⴎ㧊 䞒Ἲ䟊☚ 䟟⽋䟊㣪. “Although my body is exhausted, (I) am
happy.”
䄺䞒⧒☚ 㫡㞚㣪. “Even if (it) be coffee, (it) is fine.”
㞚䂾㦚 Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ㠞㠊☚ 㡂㩚䧞 ⺆ἶ䕶㠊㣪. “Although (I) ate breakfast
a lot, (I) was still hungry.”
㰧㧊 䣢㌂㠦㍲ Ⲗ㠞㠊☚ 㩖⓪ ὲ㺄㞮㠊㣪. “Although the house was far
from the company, (it) was fine with me.”
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 13 exercises
Ṗ₳┺ to be near
Ṗ┺ to go
ệ㩫♮┺ to be anxious/to feel uneasy
Ợ㦒⯊┺ to be lazy
ἶ₆ meat
‖㡓┺ to be cute
₎┺ to be long
⋮㊮┺ to be bad/to be wrong
⌊㎇㩗 introvert
┺Ⰲ legs/bridge
13
Clausal
conjunctives
(although)
116
❇⪳⁞ tuition
⡧⡧䞮┺ to be smart
⤇⤇䞮┺ to be chubby
ⰱ㧞┺ to be delicious
ⱋ┺ to be spicy
ⲏ┺ to eat
Ⲗ┺ to be far
⹎ῃ U.S.A.
⽊⌊┺ to send
⺇䢪㩦 department store
゚㕎┺ to be expensive
㌂┺ to buy
㕎┺ to be cheap
㠊⪋┺ to be difficult
㠊Ⰲ┺ to be young/to be juvenile/to be immature
㡃 station
㡗ⶎ䞯 English literature
㡗㠊 English
㡺┺ to come
㢍 clothes
㥶䞯 studying abroad
㦢㔳 food
㧦㭒 often
㧧┺ to be small
㧮 well
㨂⹎㧞┺ to be interesting
㩚Ὃ䞮┺ to major in
㫡㞚䞮┺ to like
㰖䞮㻶 subway
㽞╖㧻 invitation
䋺Ṗ 䋂┺ to be tall
䘎䞮┺ to be convenient
䞲ῃ㠊 the Korean language
䢲⹲䞮┺ to be active
Exercise 13.1
Finish the following translation using ~㰖Ⱒ and the sentence cues provided
in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Although (it) is expensive, (it) is delicious.” (゚㕎┺ / ⰱ㧞
㠊㣪)
= ゚㕎㰖Ⱒ ⰱ㧞㠊㣪.
117
Exercise
13.2
1 Although Dave is in Seoul, (he) calls Barbara everyday (◆㧊ぢṖ ㍲
㤎㠦 㧞┺ / ⹪⹪⧒䞲䎢 ⰺ㧒 㩚䢪䟊㣪)
2 Although the bag is big, (it) is light (Ṗ⹿㧊 䋂┺ / Ṗ⼒㤢㣪)
3 Although (I) want to go (there) together, (I) have an appointment
(ṯ㧊 Ṗἶ 㕌┺ / 㟓㏣㧊 㧞㠊㣪)
4 Although (I) will take an exam tomorrow, (I) did not study (⌊㧒 㔲䠮
㦚 ⽒ Ệ┺ / Ὃ⿖⯒ 㞞 䟞㠊㣪)
5 Although (it) was hot in summer, (it) was cold in winter (㡂⯚㠦 ▻㤶
┺ / Ỿ㤎㠦 㿪㤶㠊㣪)
Exercise 13.2
Connect the following two sentences using ~㰖Ⱒ. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 㭧ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ┺ / 㫡㞚䞮㰖 㞠㞚㣪
㭧ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㰖Ⱒ 㫡㞚䞮㰖 㞠㞚㣪.
“Although (I) eat Chinese food, (I) do not like (it).”
1 䞲ῃ㠊⓪ 㠊⪋┺ / 㨂⹎㧞㠊㣪
2 ⹎ῃ㦒⪲ 㥶䞯㦚 Ṗἶ 㕌┺ / ❇⪳⁞➢ⶎ㠦 ệ㩫♒㣪
3 ἶ₆⯒ 㫡㞚䞮┺ / 㧦㭒 ⲏ㰖 ⴑ 䟊㣪
4 㡗ⶎ䞯㦚 㩚Ὃ䟞┺ / 㡗㠊⯒ 㧮 ⴑ䟊㣪
5 㽞╖㧻㦚 ⽊⌞┺ / 㞞 㢂 ộ ṯ㞚㣪
Exercise 13.3
Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)⋮ and the sentence cues pro-
vided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) slipped in the bathroom, but (I) was fine.”
(䢪㧻㔺㠦㍲ ⹎⊚⩂㰖┺ / ὲ㺄㞮㠊㣪)
= 䢪㧻㔺㠦㍲ ⹎⊚⩂㪢㦒⋮ ὲ㺄㞮㠊㣪.
1 (I) learned the Korean language for a year, but (it) is still difficult
(䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 㧒⎚ ⺆㤆┺ / 㞚㰗 㠊⩺㤢㣪)
2 (They) waited for one hour, but (she) did not come (䞲 㔲Ṛ ₆┺Ⰲ┺
/ 㞞 㢪㠊㣪)
3 (I) argued with (my) older brother, but (I) reconciled with (him) at
once (㡺ザ䞮ἶ ┺䒂┺ / ⁞⹿ 䢪䟊 䟞㠊㣪)
4 The living room is spacious but the kitchen is small (Ệ㔺㧊 ⍩┺ / ⿖
㠢㧊 㫗㞚㣪)
5 The room is clean but noisy (⹿㧊 ₾⊭䞮┺ / 㔲⊚⩂㤢㣪)
13
Clausal
conjunctives
(although)
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Exercise 13.4
Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)⋮. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 䄺䞒⯒ Ṗ⊪ Ⱎ㔲┺ / 㞞 㫡㞚䟊㣪
= 䄺䞒⯒ Ṗ⊪ Ⱎ㔲⋮ 㞞 㫡㞚䟊㣪.
“Although (I) drink coffee sometimes, (I) do not like (it).”
1 ⩞㧊Ⲓ✲⓪ 䋺Ṗ 䋂┺ / ⤇⤇䟊㣪
2 㫆㰖⓪ 䢲⹲䞮┺ / ◆㧊キ㦖 ⌊㎇㩗㧊㠦㣪
3 ⺇䢪㩦㧊 Ṗ₳┺ / 㰖䞮㻶 㡃㧊 Ⲗ㠊㣪
4 䌳㔲⓪ 䘎䞮┺ / ゚㕎㣪
5 㦢㔳㦖 㕢┺ / ㍲゚㓺Ṗ ⋮ナ㠊㣪
Exercise 13.5
Finish the following translation using the [~(㦒)⋮ . . . ~(㦒)⋮] pattern and
the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Whether (it) is cold or hot, (let us) go outside.”
(㿻┺ / ▻┺ / ⹬㦒⪲ ⋮ṧ㔲┺)
= 㿪㤆⋮ ▪㤆⋮ ⹬㦒⪲ ⋮ṧ㔲┺.
1 Whether the food is delicious or not, (let us) eat (it) all (㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㧞
┺ / ⰱ㠜┺ / ┺ ⲏ㦣㔲┺)
2 Whether the test is easy or difficult, (I) must take (it) (㔲䠮㧊 㓓┺ /
㠊⪋┺ / ⽦㟒 䟊㣪)
3 Whether (you) jog or do yoga, do (it) everyday (㫆ₛ㦚 䞮┺ / 㣪Ṗ⯒
䞮┺ / ⰺ㧒 䞮㕃㔲㡺)
4 Whether (you) go to Korea or Japan, (you) need a visa (䞲ῃ㦒⪲
Ṗ┺ / 㧒⽎㦒⪲ Ṗ┺ / ゚㧦Ṗ 䞚㣪䟊㣪)
5 Whether (it) is pork or beef, (they) are all expensive (♒㰖ἶ₆㧊┺ /
㏢ἶ₆㧊┺ / ┺ ゚㕎㣪)
119
Exercise
13.6
Exercise 13.6
Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚☚ and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Even if (I) drink water, (I) am still thirsty.”
(ⶒ㦚 Ⱎ㔲┺/ ⳿㧊 㡂㩚䧞 Ⱖ⧒㣪)
= ⶒ㦚 Ⱎ㎪☚ ⳿㧊 㡂㩚䧞 Ⱖ⧒㣪.
1 Even if (I) turn the heater on, (it) is still cold (䧞䎆⯒ 䅲┺ / 㡂㩚䧞
㿪㤢㣪)
2 Even if (he) smoked, (he) was healthy (╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤆┺ / Ịṫ䟞㠊㣪)
3 Even if (she) eats a lot, (she) does not gain weight (Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ┺ / ㌊㧊
㞞 㳚㣪)
4 Even if (I) waited two hours, there was no contact (⚦ 㔲Ṛ㦚 ₆┺Ⰲ
┺ / 㡆⧓㧊 㠜㠞㠊㣪)
5 Even if (I) am sick, (I) will go to school (㞚䝚┺ / 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪)
Exercise 13.7
Connect the following two sentences using ~㠊/㞚☚. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 䞒Ἲ䞮┺ / ⰺ㧒 㫆ₛ䟊㣪
= 䞒Ἲ䟊☚ ⰺ㧒 㫆ₛ䟊㣪.
“Even if (I) am tired, (I) jog everyday.”
1 㠦⹖ⰂṖ 㠊Ⰲ┺ / 䋺Ṗ 䄺㣪
2 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㧊 ⱋ┺ / ⰱ㧞㠊㣪
3 ⪲⻚䔎Ṗ Ợ㦒⯊┺ / ⡧⡧䟊㣪
4 㢍㧊 ゚㕎┺ / ㌂ἶ 㕌㠞㠊㣪
5 ㌂㧊㯞Ṗ 㧧┺ / ‖㡂㤶㠊㣪
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UNIT 14
Permission, prohibition, and obligation
Permission
Seeking and/or giving permission in Korean is typically carried out by the
form ~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺. This form is constructed from ~㠊/㞚☚ “even if” and
the verb ♮┺ “become/get/turn into.” Some other adjectives, such as ὲ㺄
┺ “be fine” or 㫡┺ “be good,” can be used instead of ♮┺ to indicate
the similar meaning. Consequently, the construction ~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺ (or ὲ
㺄┺/㫡┺) literally means “it is all right even if . . .”
The selection between ~㠊☚ and ~㞚☚ depends on the same principle
of choosing between ~㠊㣪 and ~㞚㣪, the informal polite speech level
endings. ~㞚☚ is used after a stem that ends in 㞚 or 㡺 (e.g., Ṗ☚ “even
if I go”), whereas ~㠊☚ is used after a stem that ends in all other vowels
(e.g., ⺆㤢☚ “even if I learn”).
~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺ in an interrogative sentence is used to ask for permission.
On the other hand, ~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺ in a declarative sentence is used to give
permission, as shown in the examples below.
Asking for permission
㧊㩲 㰧㠦 Ṗ☚ ♒㣪? “May (I) go home now (lit. Is it all right even if
I go home now)?”
ⶒ㦚 Ⱎ㎪☚ ♒㣪? “May (I) drink water?”
Ⲓ㩖 ⲏ㠊☚ ὲ㺄㞚㣪? “May (I) eat first?”
ⰺ㤢☚ ὲ㺄㞚㣪? “Is (it) okay even if (it) is spicy?”
₊ 㡂䟟㧊⧒☚ 㫡㞚㣪? “Is (it) all right even if (it) is a long trip?”
Giving permission
䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 ⽦☚ ♒㣪. “(You) may watch TV (lit. It is okay even if you
watch TV).”
㧊㩲 㹾⯒ 䕪㞚☚ ♒㣪. “(You) may sell the car now.”
Ⲓ㩖 㔲䅲☚ ὲ㺄㞚㣪. “(You) may order (it) first.”
121
Prohibition 㫖 ▪ ゚㕎☚ ὲ㺄㞚㣪. “(It) is fine even if (it) is a little more expensive.”
ⶒ㧊 㞚┞⧒☚ 㫡㞚㣪. “(It) is fine even if (it) is not water.”
~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺ in a negative sentence means “. . . do not have to . . . ” as
shown in the examples below:
⹪㊮Ⳋ 㞞 Ṗ☚ 㫡㞚㣪. “If (you) are busy, (you) do not have go (lit. If
you are busy, it is all right, even if you do not go).”
⿞䘎䞮Ⳋ 㟧⽋㦚 㧛㰖 㞠㞚☚ ὲ㺄㞚㣪. “If (you) feel uncomfortable,
(you) do not have to put on a suit.”
⍞ⶊ ゚㕎Ⳋ ⁎ 㺛㦚 㞞 ㌂☚ ♒㣪. “If (it) is too expensive, (you) do
not have to buy that book.”
Prohibition
For denying permission, prohibiting some action, or giving a warning, the
form ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ is used. This form is the combination of ~(㦒)Ⳋ
“if,” the negative 㞞 “not,” and the verb ♮┺ “become/get/turn into.” It
can be translated as “(it) would not be all right if . . .” or “you should/must
not” in English.
Ệ㰩Ⱖ 䞮Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(You) should not lie.”
ἆ䢒㔳 ➢ 㤎Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(You) should not cry during the wedding
ceremony.”
Ⲓ㩖 ⟶⋮Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(You) should not leave first.”
㡂₆㍲ ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤆Ⳋ 㞞 ♿┞┺. “(You) should not smoke here.”
㡂₆㠦 㝆⩞₆⯒ ⻚ⰂⳊ 㞞 ♿┞┺. “(You) should not throw garbage
away here.”
㢍㧊 ⍞ⶊ ゚㕎Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(It) would not be all right if the dress is
too expensive.”
⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦ⰂⳊ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(It) would not be all right if the weather is
cloudy.”
㑮㠛㠦 ⓼㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(It) would not be all right if (you) are late for
the class.”
⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎Ṗ ⋾䞯㌳㧊Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(It) would not be all right if the
roommate is a male student.”
Meanwhile, the non-negating form of ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ would be ~(㦒)
Ⳋ ♮┺. Note that ~(㦒)Ⳋ ♮┺ means literally “it would be all right if . . .”
or “it would do if.” ~(㦒)Ⳋ ♮┺ is typically used when one wishes to stress
what is minimally necessary or required. It is equivalent to “all one has to
do is . . .” Consider the following examples:
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Permission,
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and
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122
㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮Ⳋ ♒㣪. “(It) would do if (you) study hard.”
䞲ῃ㠦 ṖⳊ ♒㣪. “All (you) have to do is to go to Korea.”
❪㧦㧎㧊 㡞㊮Ⳋ ♒㣪. “(It) would do if the design is pretty.”
⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡㦒Ⳋ ♒㣪. “(It) would do if the weather is good.”
䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊Ⳋ ♒㣪. “(It) would do if (they) are Koreans.”
⳿㩗㰖Ṗ ⩆▮㧊Ⳋ ♒㣪. “(It) would do if the destination is London.”
Obligation
In English, a sense of obligation or necessity is expressed by various
auxiliary verbs, such as “should,” “must,” “ought to,” “need to,” and “have
to.” In Korean, a sense of obligation can be expressed by the following
two constructions: (1) 㞞 ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺/~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ and (2)
~㠊/㞚㟒 ♮┺.
㞞 ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺/ ~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺
Previously, it was noted that ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ is used to express “prohibi-
tion” or “warning.” Notice that 㞞 ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ or ~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺
are the combinations of ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ and the negative form. Consider
the following examples:
[㞞 ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺]
ⶒ㦚 㞞 Ⱎ㔲Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(You) must drink water.”
[~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺]
ⶒ㦚 Ⱎ㔲㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(You) must drink water.”
Notice that the meanings of both sentences are the same. The difference
between 㞞 ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ and ~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ is that while the first
is the short-form negation, the second is the long-form negation. Here are
more examples:
㞚䂾㠦 㧒㹣 㞞 㧒㠊⋮Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
㞚䂾㠦 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
“(You) must get up early in the morning.”
䏶㣪㧒㠦 㔲䃊ἶ㠦 㞞 ṖⳊ 㞞 ♒㣪.
䏶㣪㧒㠦 㔲䃊ἶ㠦 Ṗ㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
“(We) must go to Chicago on Saturday.”
㔲䠮 Ὃ⿖⯒ 㞞 䞮Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
㔲䠮 Ὃ⿖⯒ 䞮㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
“(I) must study for the test.”
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Key
vocabulary
for Unit 14
exercises
~㠊/㞚㟒 ♮┺
The idea of obligation or necessity can be also expressed by ~㠊/㞚㟒
♮┺ (or ~㠊/㞚㟒 䞮┺ for more formal usage).
⌊㧒 ㍲㤎㠦 Ṗ㟒 ♒㣪. “(I) must go to Seoul tomorrow.”
ⰺ㧒 ⹺ 㟓㦚 ⲏ㠊㟒 ♒㣪. “(I) must take medicines every night.”
䋂Ⰲ㓺Ⱎ㓺 㩚₢㰖 䃊✲⯒ ⽊⌊㟒 䞿┞┺. “(I) must send the card before
Christmas.”
㎇⓻㧊 㫡㞚㟒 ♒㣪. “The function has to be good.”
Ↄ 䟟⽋䟊㟒 ♒㣪. “(You) must be happy by all means.”
㰧㧊 䄺㟒 䞿┞┺. “The house has to be big.”
䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊⧒㟒 ♒㣪. “(He) has to be a Korean.”
㠊⯎㧊⧒㟒 ♒㣪. “(They) must be adults.”
㞚⻚㰖㦮 ㌂㧎㧊⧒㟒 䞿┞┺. “(It) must be (your) father’s signature.”
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 14 exercises
ṖỢ store
Ṗỿ price
Ṗ⹿ bag
ἶ❇䞯㌳ high-school student
Ὃ⿖ study
ῃ soup
₎ road/street
⋶㝾 weather
⌊┺ to pay
⌊㧒 tomorrow
⑞ snow/eyes
╁┺ to close
☚㍲ὖ library
➆┺ to obtain
⥾┺ to open (one’s eyes)
ⲏ┺ to eat
⹮㺂 side dishes
⹿ room
㏦ hands
㔲㧧䞮┺ to begin
㔲䠮 test/examination/experiment
㕇ỗ┺ to be watery
㕎┺ to pack/to be cheap
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124
㝆┺ to use
㞑┺ to wash
㞚㰗 yet/even now
㞚䂾 morning/breakfast
㠒Ὴ face
㡂䟟 traveling
㡗䢪 movie
㤊㩚Ⳋ䠞 driving license
㥚䠮䞮┺ to be dangerous
㧊㩲 now/this time
㧒 work/matter/affair
㧒㠊⋮┺ to get up
㧒㹣 early
㧧┺ to be small
㧷┺ to hold/to capture
㨂⹎㠜┺ to be uninteresting/to be dull
㩚₆㎎ electricity usage bill
㩦㕂 lunch
㫗┺ to be narrow/to be small
㫡┺ to be good
㰧 house
㰲┺ to be salty
㼃㏢ cleaning
䌖┺ to ride
䑊⁒䞮┺ to leave one’s office/to go home
Exercise 14.1
Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺ and the sentence cue
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(You) may leave tomorrow.” (⌊㧒 ⟶⋮┺)
= ⌊㧒 ⟶⋮☚ ♒㣪.
1 (You) may trust Peter’s story (䞒䎆㦮 㧊㟒₆⯒ ⹕┺)
2 (You) may use my computer (⌊ 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㝆┺)
3 (You) may turn on the air conditioner (㠦㠊䆮㦚 䔖┺)
4 (You) may turn off the electric lamp (㩚❇㦚 ⊚┺)
5 (You) may close the door (ⶎ㦚 ╁┺)
125
Exercise
14.2
Exercise 14.2
Conjugate the following using ~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺. Then translate the sentence.
Example: 䞒㞚⏎⯒ 䂮┺
= 䞒㞚⏎⯒ 㼦☚ ♒㣪. “(You) may play the piano.”
1 㧊㩲 䑊⁒䞮┺
2 ⑞㦚 ⥾┺
3 㠒Ὴ㦚 㞑┺
4 ㏦㦚 㧷┺
5 ㌺㤢⯒ 䞮┺
Exercise 14.3
Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ and the sentence
cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(You) should not leave tomorrow.” (⌊㧒 ⟶⋮┺)
= ⌊㧒 ⟶⋮Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
1 (You) should not lose the key (㡊㐶⯒ 㧙㠊 ⻚Ⰲ┺)
2 (You) should not cross the bridge (┺Ⰲ⯒ Ị⍞┺)
3 (You) should not drink beer (ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺)
4 (You) should not dump refuse (㝆⩞₆⯒ ⻚Ⰲ┺)
5 (You) should not smoke here (㡂₆㍲ ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤆┺)
Exercise 14.4
Conjugate the following using ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺. Then translate the sentence.
Example: ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿻┺
= ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤆Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
“It would not be all right if the weather is cold.”
1 ῃ㧊 㕇ỗ┺
2 ⹮㺂㧊 㰲┺
3 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㠜┺
4 ⹿㧊 㧧┺
5 ₎㧊 㫗┺
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Permission,
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126
Exercise 14.5
Finish the following translation using ~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺ and the sentence
cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(You) must hurry.” (㍲⚦⯊┺)
= ㍲⚦⯊㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
1 (You) must study hard (㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮┺)
2 (I) must clean up the office (㌂ⶊ㔺㦚 㼃㏢䞮┺)
3 (He) must do the dishes (㍺Ệ㰖⯒ 䞮┺)
4 (They) must go outside (⹬㠦 ⋮Ṗ┺)
5 (She) must stay home (㰧㠦 㧞┺)
Exercise 14.6
Conjugate the following using ~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 㟓㦚 ⲏ┺
= 㟓㦚 ⲏ㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(You) must take the
medicine.”
1 㔲䠮 Ὃ⿖⯒ 䞮┺
2 㧒㦚 㔲㧧䞮┺
3 ㏦㦚 㞑┺
4 ⌊㧒 㞚䂾 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮┺
5 㤊㩚Ⳋ䠞⯒ ➆┺
Exercise 14.7
Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚㟒 ♮┺ and the sentence cue
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(You) must tie a necktie.” (⍻䌖㧊⯒ ⰺ┺)
= ⍻䌖㧊⯒ ⰺ㟒 ♒㣪.
1 (He) has to be a doctor (㦮㌂㧊┺)
2 (You) must wear a uniform (㥶┞䙒㦚 㧛┺)
3 (We) must make money (☞㦚 ⻢┺)
4 (You) must wash (your) face (㠒Ὴ㦚 㞑┺)
5 (I) must go to the hospital (⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ┺)
127
Exercise
14.8
Exercise 14.8
Conjugate the following using ~㠊/㞚㟒 ♮┺. Then translate the sentence.
Example: Ὃ䟃㠦 Ṗ┺
= Ὃ䟃㠦 Ṗ㟒 ♿┞┺. “(I) must go to the airport.”
1 㡂䟟 Ṗ⹿㦚 㕎┺
2 㩚₆㎎⯒ ⌊┺
3 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡┺
4 Ṗỿ㧊 㕎┺
5 ἶ❇䞯㌳㧊┺
Exercise 14.9
Complete the following dialogue, as shown in the example.
Example: A: 㡺⩢㰖 㭒㓺⯒ Ⱎ㎪☚ ♒㣪? “May (I) drink orange
juice?”
B: 㞚┞㡺, _______________ “No, (you) should not drink
(it).”
= Ⱎ㔲Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
1 A: 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㖾☚ ♒㣪? “May (I) use (your) computer?”
B: 㞚┞㡺, _____________________. “No, (you) should not use (it).”
2 A: 㧊㩲 䑊⁒䟊☚ ♶₢㣪? “May (I) leave the office?”
B: ⍺, __________________________. Yes, (you) may leave the office.”
3 A: 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㞚☚ ♒㣪? “May (I) close the window?”
B: ⍺, _______________________. “Yes, (you) may close the window.”
4 A: 㡺䏶⹪㧊⯒ 䌖☚ ♒㣪? “May (I) ride (your) motorcycle?”
B: 㞚┞㡺, ___________________. No, (you) should not ride (it).”
Exercise 14.10
Finish the following translation using the sentence cues provided in par-
enthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(You) should not do laundry here.”
(㡂₆㍲ ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮┺ / ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺)
= 㡂₆㍲ ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
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128
1 (You) may smoke there (㩖₆㍲ ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤆┺ / ~㠊/㞚☚ ♮┺)
2 (You) may take pictures in the room (⹿㠦㍲ ㌂㰚㦚 㹣┺ / ~㠊/㞚☚
♮┺)
3 (I) must take a Korean language class (䞲ῃ㠊 㑮㠛㦚 ✹┺ / 㞞 ~(㦒)
Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺)
4 (You) must buy a coat (䆪䔎⯒ ㌂┺ / 㞞 ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺)
5 (I) must talk in a loud voice (䋆㏢Ⰲ⪲ Ⱖ䞮┺ / ~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞
♮┺)
6 (You) must wear seat belts (㞞㩚 ⻾䔎⯒ ⰺ┺ / ~㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♮┺)
7 (You) must park (your car) here (㡂₆㠦 㭒㹾䞮┺ / ~㠊/㞚㟒 ♮┺)
8 (I) must leave Paris (䕢Ⰲ⯒ ⟶⋮┺ / ~㠊/㞚㟒 ♮┺)
9 (You) should not open the refrigerator (⌟㧻ἶ⯒ 㡊┺ / ~(㦒)Ⳋ
㞞 ♮┺)
10 (You) should not touch the painting (⁎Ⱂ㦚 Ⱒ㰖┺ / ~(㦒)Ⳋ 㞞
♮┺)
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UNIT 15
Passives and causatives
Passives
A sentence can be said either in the active voice or the passive voice. In
the active sentence, the subject is the “doer” of the action. For instance,
consider the following two sentences:
“John opens the door.” (active)
“The door is opened by John.” (passive)
In the first sentence, John is the doer, and the situation is depicted from
the doer’s standpoint. However, in the second sentence, the situation is
depicted from the standpoint of the object (e.g., the door) instead. In this
passive sentence, the focus is not on the doer but on the object of the
action.
In English, one can change a verb into a passive form by using the
copula “to be” along with the past particle of the verb (e.g., ~ed), as in
“the door was opened.” In Korean, one can change a verb into a passive
verb by attaching the suffix ~㧊, ~䧞, ~Ⰲ, or ~₆ to the stem of verbs:
Suffix 㧊
⽊┺ “to see” ⽊㧊┺ “to be seen”
㝆┺ “to use” 㝆㧊┺ “to be used”
⏩┺ “to place” ⏩㧊┺ “to be placed”
㍴┺ “to mix” ㍴㧊┺ “to be mixed”
㕩┺ “to pile up” 㕩㧊┺ “to be piled up”
Suffix 䧞
╁┺ “to close” ╁䧞┺ “to be closed”
Ⱏ┺ “to block” Ⱏ䧞┺ “to be blocked”
㧷┺ “to catch” 㧷䧞┺ “to be caught”
ọ┺ “to lift” ọ䧞┺ “to be lifted”
⹵┺ “to step on” ⹵䧞┺ “to be stepped on”
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Suffix Ⰲ
ⶒ┺ “to bite” ⶒⰂ┺ “to be bitten”
㡊┺ “to open” 㡊Ⰲ┺ “to be opened”
✹┺ “to hear” ✺Ⰲ┺ “to be heard”
䕪┺ “to sell” 䕪Ⰲ┺ “to be sold”
⹖┺ “to push” ⹖Ⰲ┺ “to be pushed”
Suffix ₆
ュ┺ “to take away” ュ₆┺ “to be taken away”
㞞┺ “to hold” 㞞₆┺ “to be held”
㴩┺ “to chase” 㴩₆┺ “to be chased”
⦅┺ “to tear out” ⦅₆┺ “to be torn out”
⊠┺ “to disconnect” ⊠₆┺ “to be disconnected”
The use of passives is more common in English than in Korean. For
instance, most English transitive verbs can be changed into passives (e.g.,
“I placed the book on the desk” vs. “The book was placed on the desk by
me”). However, in Korean, there is only a limited set of transitive verbs
that can be made passive (like the verbs listed above). One has to mem-
orize both the verbs that can be changed into a passive verb as well as
the suffix each verb takes.
When an active sentence is changed into a passive sentence, the subject
and object relationship changes. For instance, the object of the active
sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. Consider the fol-
lowing two sentences.
䞲ῃ 䞯㌳✺㧊 㧊 㺛㦚 㧓⓪┺. “Korean students read this book.”
㧊 㺛㧊 䞲ῃ 䞯㌳✺䞲䎢 (or 㠦Ợ) 㧓䧢┺. “This book is read by Korean
students.”
In the first sentence, the subject is 䞲ῃ 䞯㌳✺, whereas the subject is
㺛 in the second sentence. In addition, notice in the second sentence that
䞲ῃ 䞯㌳✺ is marked by 䞲䎢. When the object is an animate noun (e.g.,
human or animals), 䞲䎢 (or 㠦Ợ) marks the object. However, when it is
an inanimate noun (e.g., wind, car), 㠦 marks the object.
㫊㧊 㞶₆⯒ 㞞㞚㣪. “John holds the baby.”
㞶₆Ṗ 㫊䞲䎢 (㠦Ợ) 㞞Ỿ㣪. “The baby is held by John.”
䌲䛣㧊 ₎㦚 Ⱏ㞮㠊㣪. “The storm blocks the road.”
₎㧊 䌲䛣㠦 Ⱏ䡪㠊㣪. “The road was blocked by the storm.”
131
Causatives
Causatives
The function of a causative is to (i) make someone or something to do
something or (ii) to cause a change of state. In Korean, one can change a
verb or adjective into a causative by attaching a causative suffix to the
stem of verbs and/or adjectives. There are seven suffixes: ~㧊, ~䧞, ~Ⰲ,
~₆, ~㤆, ~ῂ, and ~㿪.
Suffix 㧊
ⲏ┺ “to eat” ⲏ㧊┺ “to feed someone”
⽊┺ “to see” ⽊㧊┺ “to show”
㭓┺ “to die” 㭓㧊┺ “to kill someone”
⊩┺ “to boil” ⊩㧊┺ “to boil something”
Suffix 䧞
㧛┺ “to wear” 㧛䧞┺ “to dress someone”
⑫┺ “to lie down” ⑫䧞┺ “to lay someone down”
㞟┺ “to sit” 㞟䧞┺ “to put someone into a seat”
⍩┺ “to be wide” ⍩䧞┺ “to widen”
㫗┺ “to be narrow” 㫗䧞┺ “to narrow”
Suffix Ⰲ
㤎┺ “to cry” 㤎Ⰲ┺ “to make someone cry”
㠒┺ “to freeze” 㠒Ⰲ┺ “to freeze something”
⋶┺ “to fly” ⋶Ⰲ┺ “to let something fly”
㞢┺ “to know” 㞢Ⰲ┺ “to inform”
Suffix ₆
⻭┺ “to take off ” ⻭₆┺ “to undress someone”
㤙┺ “to laugh” 㤙₆┺ “to make someone laugh”
㔶┺ “to wear” 㔶₆┺ “to put shoes on someone”
⋾┺ “to remain” ⋾₆┺ “to leave something behind”
Suffix 㤆
㧦┺ “to sleep” 㨂㤆┺ “to put someone to sleep”
䌖┺ “to burn” 䌲㤆┺ “to burn something”
₾┺ “to wake” ₾㤆┺ “to wake someone up”
⋒┺ “to join in” ⋒㤆┺ “to put in”
Suffix ῂ/㿪
☡┺ “to rise” ☡ῂ┺ “to make higher”
ⰴ┺ “to be suited” ⰴ㿪┺ “to make fit”
⌄┺ “to be low” ⌄㿪┺ “to lower”
There are some similarities between the causatives and passives. First,
you may notice that both passive and causative suffixes contain ~㧊, ~䧞,
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132
~Ⰲ, and ~₆. In fact, some verbs such as ⽊㧊┺, 㠛䧞┺ and 㞞₆┺ can
function both as causatives as well as passives. For example, consider the
following two sentences:
㞚㧊Ṗ Ⰲ㌂䞲䎢 㠛䡪㠊㣪. “The child was put on Lisa’s back.”
㠊Ⲏ┞Ṗ Ⰲ㌂䞲䎢 㞚㧊⯒ 㠛䡪㠊㣪. “The mother put the child on
Lisa’s back.”
In such cases, one can only tell whether 㠛䡪㠊㣪 is a causative or a
passive verb by its context.
In addition, as with passives, only a restricted number of verbs and
adjectives (e.g., like the verbs and adjectives listed above) can take the
suffixes and be changed into causative verbs.
Since there is no rule that specifies which verb/adjective can take
which causative suffix, one has to learn both the verb/adjective that can
be changed into a causative as well as the suffix each verb/adjective takes.
The long-form causative construction ~Ợ 䞮┺
Besides changing verbs/adjectives into causatives by adding the suffixes,
there is one more way to change verbs/adjectives into causative construc-
tions. One can add the causative meaning to the verbs and/or adjectives
by attaching ~Ợ 䞮┺ after their stems.
Ṗ┺ “to go” ṖỢ 䞮┺ “to make someone go”
ⲏ┺ “to eat” ⲏỢ 䞮┺ “to make someone eat”
⺆㤆┺ “to learn” ⺆㤆Ợ 䞮┺ “to make someone learn”
⽊┺ “to watch” ⽊Ợ 䞮┺ “to make someone watch”
➆⦑䞮┺ “to be warm” ➆⦑䞮Ợ 䞮┺ “to make something warm”
ⰱ㧞┺ “to be delicious” ⰱ㧞Ợ 䞮┺ “to make something delicious”
₆㊮┺ “to be happy” ₆㊮Ợ 䞮┺ “to make someone happy”
㓓┺ “to be easy” 㓓Ợ 䞮┺ “to make something easy”
The ~Ợ 䞮┺ construction is a much more productive means to indicate
causative function than the adding the causative suffix, since its usage is
not restricted to the certain verbs and adjectives.
133
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 15
exercises
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 15 exercises
ἶ㟧㧊 cat
὆ bear
₎┺ to be long
™ chewing gum
⑚⋮ older sister
┺䟟䧞 fortunately
▪ more
▻┺ to be hot
⛺ back
Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink
ⰱ㧞┺ to be delicious
ⰺ㧒 everyday
ⲏ┺ to eat
Ⲓ㩖 first
⳾₆ mosquito
ⶒἶ₆ fish
⹲䚲 presentation
⹻ meal
⽊䐋 usually
゚ rain
ゾ⧮ laundry
ゾ⧮㭚 clothes-line
㍲㨂 a study/library
㓺㤾䎆 sweater
㔲䠮 test/exam
㕎┺ to be cheap
㞏┺ to chew
㞚㧊 child
㞞Ṳ fog
㞴㭚 front row
㡺⓮ today
㧦㭒 often
㨂䌍 jacket
㩖⎗ evening/dinner
㩚₆ electricity
㩚䢪 telephone
㺛 book
㼃⹪㰖 jeans
㿻┺ to be cold
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Exercise 15.1
Complete each sentence with an appropriate active or passive form of the
verb indicated.
1 To sell (䕪┺ / 䕪Ⰲ┺)
a ⁎ ṖỢṖ l·!od: ⯒ ___________. “That store sells I-Pods.”
b l·!od: ➢ⶎ㠦 Cl !la·cr ⓪ Ⱔ㧊 㞞 ___________. “Because of
I-Pods, CD players are not sold much.”
2 To listen (✹┺ / ✺Ⰲ┺)
a 㩚䢪 ⻾ ㏢Ⰲ⯒ ⴑ ________. “(I) could not hear the phone ring.”
b 㦢㞛 ㏢ⰂṖ 㞞 __________. “Music is not heard.”
3 To place (⏩┺ / ⏩㧊┺)
a 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㠊❪㠦 _______? “Where should (I) place the computer?”
b 䅊䜾䎆Ṗ 㺛㌗ 㥚㠦 ______. “The computer is placed on the table.”
Exercise 15.2
Finish the following translation using the cues provided in parenthesis.
Example: “The mountain is seen.” (㌆ / ⽊㧊┺)
= ㌆㧊 ⽊㡂㣪.
1 (I) only use olive oil (㢂Ⰲぢ ₆⯚ / 㝆┺)
2 This balloon is used for the birthday party (㧊 䛣㍶ / ㌳㧒 䕢䕆 /
㝆㧊┺)
3 What time do (you) close the store? (ⳝ 㔲 / ṖỢ / ╁┺)
4 The door was closed by the wind (ⶎ / ⹪⧢ / ╁䧞┺)
5 (I) caught a mouse (㮦 / 㧷┺)
6 The thief was caught by the police (☚⚧ / ἓ㺆 / 㧷䧞┺)
7 Mosquitoes bite (⳾₆ / ⶒ┺)
8 John was bitten by mosquitoes a lot (㫊 / ⳾₆ / Ⱔ㧊 ⶒⰂ┺)
9 If the baby cries, please hug (him) (㞚₆ / 㤎┺ / 㞞┺)
10 The baby was held by (her) dad (㞚₆ / 㞚ザ / 㞞₆┺)
Exercise 15.3
Translate the following sentences into English.
Example: ⹿ⶎ㧊 ΈỢ ╁䡖 㧞㠊㣪.
= “The door is firmly closed.”
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Exercise
15.4
1 㺛㌗㠦 㺛㦚 㕩㞚㣪.
2 㔲䠮➢ⶎ㠦 㓺䔎⩞㓺Ṗ 㕩㡂㣪.
3 ゾ⧮⯒ ゾ⧮㭚㠦㍲ ọ㠞㠊㣪.
4 ┺䟟䧞 㞞ṲṖ ọ䡪㠊㣪.
5 ὆㧊 ⶒἶ₆⯒ ⶒ㠞㠊㣪.
6 ⳾₆䞲䎢 ⶒ⪎㠊㣪.
7 㕎Ợ 䕢㎎㣪.
8 㓺㤾䎆Ṗ 㧮 䕪⩺㣪.
9 Ⲓ㩖 㩚䢪 ⊠㦒㎎㣪.
10 ゚➢ⶎ㠦 㩚₆Ṗ ⊠ἒ㠊㣪.
Exercise 15.4
Complete the following sentences, as shown in the example. Pay special
attentions to the causative form.
Example: 㠊Ⲏ┞⓪ 㞚㧊㠦Ợ ⹻㦚 ___________ (to feed)
= 㠊Ⲏ┞⓪ 㞚㧊㠦Ợ ⹻㦚 ⲏ㧛┞┺.
1 㞚䂾 7 㔲㠦 㞚㧊⯒ ______________ (to wake)
2 㞚㧊㠦Ợ 㢍㦚 _______________ (to dress)
3 㞚㧊㠦Ợ ㌞ 㔶⹲㦚 ______________ (to put shoes on)
4 㞚㧊⯒ 㦮㧦㠦 _______________ (to put someone into a seat)
5 㩖⎗ o 㔲㠦 㞚㧊⯒ ______________ (to put someone to sleep)
Exercise 15.5
Finish the following translation using the cues provided in parenthesis.
Example: “(I) lowered the radio volume.” (⧒❪㡺 ⽒⮾ / ⌄㿪┺)
= ⧒❪㡺 ⽒⮾㦚 ⌄䀚㠊㣪.
1 Don’t make the child cry (㞚㧊 / 㤎Ⰲ┺).
2 Did (you) dress (him) the uniform? (㥶┞䙒 / 㧛䧞┺)
3 Please make the students laugh (䞯㌳✺ / 㤙₆┺).
4 Please wake me up at 6 o’clock (㩖 / o 㔲㠦 ₾㤆┺).
5 Please boil the water (for me) (ⶒ / ⊩㧊┺).
6 Please lay the baby on the bed (㞚₆ / ⑫䧞┺).
7 Please do not burn the meat (ἶ₆ / 䌲㤆┺).
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136
Exercise 15.6
Translate the following into English.
Example: 䂾╖㠦 㞚㧊⯒ ⑫䡪㠊㣪.
= “(We) laid the child on the bed.”
1 㡺⓮ ⶮ ⲏ㦚₢㣪?
2 㑮㧪㧊 ἶ㟧㧊㠦Ợ ⹻㦚 ⲏ㡂㣪.
3 䞒䎆Ṗ ⰺ㧒 7 㔲Ṛ 㩫☚ 㧦㣪.
4 ⑚⋮Ṗ ⽊䐋 o 㔲 㸺㠦 㞚㧊⯒ 㨂㤗┞┺.
5 䋂Ⰲ㓺⓪ 㼃⹪㰖⯒ 㧦㭒 㧛㠊㣪.
6 䕆㎪䁶⯒ 㧛䧞㎎㣪.
7 ⛺㠦 㞟㦒㎎㣪.
8 㞺✲⮮⯒ 㞴 㭚㠦 㞟䧞㎎㣪.
9 㓺㤾䎆⯒ ⻭㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪.
10 㨂䌍㦚 ⻭Ỿ 㭒㎎㣪.
Exercise 15.7
Finish the following translation using ~Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪 and the cues provided
in parenthesis.
Example: “Please make the hair short.” (ⲎⰂ / 㰽┺)
= ⲎⰂ⯒ 㰽Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪.
1 Please make the soup spicy (ῃ / ⱋ┺).
2 Please make the room warm (⹿ / ➆⦑䞮┺).
3 Please make the surrounding dark (㭒㥚 / 㠊⚷┺).
4 Please make Lisa happy (Ⰲ㌂ / 䟟⽋䞮┺).
5 Please make (your) wife joyful (⿖㧎 / ₆㊮┺).
Exercise 15.8
Translate the following expressions into English.
Example: 㩲┞䗒⯒ 䟟⽋䞮Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪.
= “Please make Jennifer happy (for me).”
1 ⹲䚲⯒ ▪ ₎Ợ 䞮㎎㣪.
2 ⰱ㧞Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪.
3 㕎Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪.
4 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲Ợ 䞮㎎㣪.
5 ™㦚 㞏Ợ 䞮㎎㣪.
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UNIT 16
The noun-modifying endings
Modifier clauses
The typical examples of English modifiers are adjectives and relative clauses.
The English modifiers can occur before the word they modify (e.g., in case
of adjectives, as in “smart John”) and/or after the word (e.g., in case of
relative clauses, as in “John who is smart” or “John who studies history”).
However, in Korean, modifiers (or modifying clauses) always come
before the word they modify. Moreover, any predicate can be changed
into a modifier by attaching a noun-modifying ending to the predicate
stem. This unit introduces three Korean noun-modifying endings: ~⓪,
~(㦒)ච, and ~(㦒)ඥ.
The noun-modifying ending ~⓪
The noun-modifying ending ~⓪ is used with verbs, and it carries the
present meaning. Consider the following examples:
Verb Verb stem + ⓪
㧦┺ “sleep” 㰧㠦㍲ 㧦⓪ 䞯㌳ “the student who sleeps at home”
Ⱎ㔲┺ “drink” 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲⓪ 䞯㌳ “the student who drinks
coffee”
㡺┺ “come” ⰺ㧒 㡂₆㠦 㡺⓪ ㏦┮ “the customer who comes
here everyday”
Ⱒ⋮┺ “meet” 㫊㦚 Ⱒ⋮⓪ ㌂⧢ “the person who meets John”
㧒䞮┺ “work” 䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㧒䞮⓪ Ⰲ㌂ “Lisa who works in Korea”
㺔┺ “find” ⌊Ṗ 㺔⓪ ㌟ “the color I look for”
ⲏ┺ “eat” 䐆㧊 ⲏ⓪ 㦢㔳 “the food that Tom eats”
Ⱒ⋮┺ “meet” Ⰲ㌂Ṗ Ⱒ⋮⓪ ㌂⧢ “the person whom Lisa meets”
㧓┺ “read” 䡫㧊 㧓⓪ 㺛 “the book that (my) older brother
reads”
┺┞┺ “attend” 㩲㔲䃊Ṗ ┺┞⓪ ╖䞯ᾦ “the college that Jessica
attends”
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The noun-
modifying
endings
138
Notice in the examples above that ~⓪ attaches to the verb stem and
changes the predicate into the present form of a relative clause.
Although ~⓪ is primarily used with verbs, few adjectives that end with
㧞┺/㠜┺ take ~⓪, as shown below:
ⰱ㧞┺ “delicious” ⰱ㧞⓪ 㦢㔳 “delicious food”
ⰱ㠜┺ “tasteless” ⰱ㠜⓪ 㩦㕂 “tasteless lunch”
ⲡ㧞┺ “stylish” ⲡ㧞⓪ ⳾㧦 “fanciful hat”
㨂⹎㧞┺ “interesting” 㨂⹎㧞⓪ 㡗䢪 “interesting movie”
The noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ච
The noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ච is used with adjectives, copulas, as well
as verbs. When ~(㦒)ච is used with adjectives or copulas, it indicates the
present meaning; when it is used with verbs, it carries the past meaning.
~(㦒)ච with adjectives and copulas
One can change an adjective and/or a copula into a noun-modifying unit
by attaching ~(㦒)ච to their stems: ~㦖 is used after a stem that ends in
a consonant; ~ච is used after a stem that ends in a vowel, as shown
below:
Adjective Adjective stem + (㦒)ච
㧧┺ “small” 㧧㦖 㺛㌗ “small desk”
㫡┺ “good” 㫡㦖 ㌂⧢ “good person”
Ⱔ┺ “many” Ⱔ㦖 ☞ “a lot of money”
㡞㊮┺ “pretty” 㡞㊲ ↙ “pretty flower”
⹪㊮┺ “busy” ⹪㊲ 㓺䅖㭚 “busy schedule”
㫆㣿䞮┺ “quiet” 㫆㣿䞲 ⹿ “quiet room”
㥶ⳛ䞮┺ “famous” 㥶ⳛ䞲 ⏎⧮ “famous song”
㠊⪋┺ “difficult” 㠊⩺㤊 㔲䠮 “difficult test”
Copula Copula stem + (㦒)ච
㧊┺ “be” 㦮㌂㧎 ⰺ䓲 “Matthew who is a doctor”
㞚┞┺ “not be” 䞯㌳㧊 㞚┢ ㌂⧢ “the person who is not a
student”
~(㦒)ච with verbs
When ~(㦒)ච is attached to a verb stem, it changes the predicate into the
past form of a relative clause, as shown in the following examples:
139
The noun-
modifying
ending
~(㦒)ඥ
Verb Verb stem + (㦒)ච
ⲏ┺ “eat” 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㦖 ㌂⧢ “the person who ate dinner”
㺔┺ “find” ⌊Ṗ 㺔㦖 㡊㐶 “the key that I found”
㧓┺ “read” 㧊㌂⻾㧊 㧓㦖 㺛 “the book that Isabel read”
⽊┺ “see” ⌊Ṗ ⽎ 㡗䢪 “the movie that I saw”
⺆㤆┺ “learn” Ⱔ㧊 ⺆㤊 䞯㌳ “the students who learned a lot”
⟶⋮┺ “leave” 㠊㩲 ⟶⋲ ⋾㧦 “the man who left yesterday”
Ὃ⿖䞮┺ “study” 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞲 ㌂⧢ “the person who studied
Korean”
Since ~(㦒)ච denotes the past meaning, the use of past tense marker
㠞/㞮 along with ~(㦒)ච is grammatically incorrect. For instance, saying
a phrase like “the food that I ate” in Korean should be “⌊Ṗ ⲏ㦖 㦢㔳”
not “⌊Ṗ ⲏ㠞㦖 㦢㔳.”
The noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ඥ
The noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ඥ indicates that the action or state
denoted by the predicate has not yet been actualized. ~㦚 is attached to
a stem that ends in a consonant (e.g., Ⰲ㻮✲Ṗ ⲏ㦚 㦢㔳 “the food that
Richard will eat”); ~ඥ is attached to a stem that ends in a vowel (e.g.,
Ⰲ㌂Ṗ ⽒ 㡗䢪 “the movie that Lisa will see”).
Ὃ⿖䞮┺ 㡺⓮ Ὃ⿖䞶 ⌊㣿 “the content that (I) will study today”
㧓┺ ⌊㧒 㧓㦚 㺛 “the book (I) will read tomorrow”
Ṗ⯊䂮┺ 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂶 ㍶㌳┮ “the teacher who will teach
Korean”
ⶊỗ┺ ⶊỆ㤎 Ṗ⹿ “the bag that will be heavy”
㫡┺ ㎇ỿ㧊 㫡㦚 ㌂⧢ “the person whose personality will be
nice”
㠊⪋┺ 㠊⩺㤎 㔲䠮 “the test that will be difficult”
As shown above, ~(㦒)ඥ mainly indicates the prospective meaning.
However, since the action or state has not been realized, the ending
can also imply the meaning of intention or conjecture. This is particularly
true when the ending is used with the past tense. Compare the following
examples:
㌦⩂✲⯒ ⲏ㦖 ㌂⧢ “the person who ate salad”
㌦⩂✲⯒ ⲏ⓪ ㌂⧢ “the person who eats salad”
㌦⩂✲⯒ ⲏ㦚 ㌂⧢ “the person who will eat salad”
㌦⩂✲⯒ ⲏ㠞㦚 ㌂⧢ “the person who might have eaten salad”
16
The noun-
modifying
endings
140
The first sentence is the past form of a relative clause as indicated
by ~㦖; the second sentence indicates the present action as indicated
by ~⓪; the third sentence is about a prospective action as indicated by
~㦚. However, notice that the predicate of the fourth sentence has the past
tense marker ~㠞 and ~(㦒)ඥ (e.g., ⲏ + 㠞 + 㦚). The ~(㦒)ඥ ending
in the fourth sentence does not indicate the prospective meaning but
conjecture. Here are more examples:
㠊㩲 ☚㹿䟞㦚 䘎㰖 “the letter that might have arrived (there)
yesterday”
䞲ῃ㦒⪲ ⟶⌂㦚 䐆 “Tom who might have left for Korea”
⌊Ṗ Ⱒ⌂㦚 ㌂⧢ “the person that I might have met”
㰖⋲ 㤪㣪㧒㠦 ☚㍲ὖ㠦 Ṫ㦚 ㌂⧢ “the person who might have gone
to the library last Monday”
Placing a noun-modifying unit in a sentence
When a predicate is changed into a noun-modifying unit, it becomes part
of a new noun phrase, as shown in the following examples:
㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒ ⲏ㠊㣪. “(I) eat spaghetti.”
㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒ ⲏ㦖 ㌂⧢ “the person who ate spaghetti”
㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒ ⲏ⓪ ㌂⧢ “the person who eats spaghetti”
㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒ ⲏ㦚 ㌂⧢ “the person who will eat spaghetti”
㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒ ⲏ㠞㦚 ㌂⧢ “the person who might have eaten spaghetti”
These newly transformed noun phrases (or noun-modifying clauses)
can be used as a subject, object, or indirect object, depending on the
particle that attaches to them, as shown below:
㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒ ⲏ㦖 ㌂⧢㧊 㫊㧊㠦㣪. “The person who ate spaghetti is
John.”
㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒ ⲏ㦖 ㌂⧢㦚 㫡㞚䟊㣪. “(I) like the person who ate
spaghetti.”
㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒ ⲏ㦖 ㌂⧢䞲䎢 㩚䢪䟞㠊㣪. “(I) made a phone call to the
person who ate spaghetti.”
141
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 16
exercises
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 16 exercises
Ṗ┺ to go
Ṟ㞚䌖┺ to change (car/train)/to transfer
ἆ䢒䞮┺ to marry (a person)
ὒ㧒 fruits
₆㹾 train
⌊㧒 tomorrow
⌊ I/my
⍺ you
⏎⧮ song
⏨┺ to be high
⑚⋮ older sister
┺㦢 next
☯⬢ colleague
✹┺ to listen
Ⱒ⋮┺ to meet
Ⱒ✺┺ to make
⹎ῃ U.S.A.
⹱┺ to receive
⹿ room
⻚Ⰲ┺ to throw away
アⰂ┺ to borrow
㌂┺ to buy
㌂⧢ person/people
㌆ mountain
㌊┺ to live
㍶ⶒ gift/present
㎂ island
㕎┺ to be cheap/to wrap up
㝆┺ to use
㝆⩞₆ trash
㞚⯚╋┺ to be beautiful
㞚䂾 morning/breakfast
㞚䕢䔎 apartment
㟧⽋ suit/dress
㠊㩲 yesterday
㢍 clothes
㦢㔳 food
㧊㌂Ṗ┺ to move (into a new address)
16
The noun-
modifying
endings
142
㧒䞮┺ to work
㧛┺ to wear (a dress)
㧧⎚ last year
㩲㧒 the first/most
㫆㣿䞮┺ to be quiet
㭒 week
㰖⋲ last
㰧 house
㺛 book
䂲ῂ friend
䞯ᾦ school
䡫 older brother
䣢㌂ company
Exercise 16.1
Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ච and the cues provided in
parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Yellow cab” (⏎⧭┺ / 䌳㔲)
= ⏎⧖ 䌳㔲
1 Pretty designs (㡞㊮┺ / ❪㧦㧎)
2 The most famous tourist attraction in Korea (䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㩲㧒 㥶ⳛ䞮
┺ / ὖὧ㰖)
3 The most popular actor in Korea (䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㩲㧒 㧎₆㧞┺ / ⺆㤆)
4 The most expensive watch (㩲㧒 ゚㕎┺ / 㔲Ἒ)
5 Long hair (₎┺ / ⲎⰂ)
Exercise 16.2
Change the following into a noun-modifying form using ~(㦒)ච, as shown
in the example. Then translate the phrase.
Example: ⱋ┺ / ₖ䂮
= ⰺ㤊 ₖ䂮 “spicy kimchi”
1 㧊 㰧㠦㍲ 㩲㧒 㫆㣿䞮┺ / ⹿
2 ◆┞㠮㧊 Ṗἶ 㕌┺ / 䞯ᾦ
3 㩲㧒 㞚⯚╋┺ / ㎂
4 ⹎ῃ㠦㍲ 㩲㧒 ⏨┺ / ㌆
5 㩲㧒 㕎┺ / 㢍
143
Exercise
16.3
Exercise 16.3
Finish the following translation using ~⓪ and the cues provided in par-
enthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “The bus that I ride everyday” (⌊Ṗ ⰺ㧒 䌖┺ / ⻚㓺)
= ⌊Ṗ ⰺ㧒 䌖⓪ ⻚㓺
1 The book that Peter reads nowadays (䞒䎆Ṗ 㣪㯞㦢 㧓┺ / 㺛)
2 The sports (we) enjoy during winter (Ỿ㤎㠦 㯦₆┺ / 㓺䙂䁶)
3 The food that Korean people eat everyday (䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊 ⰺ㧒 ⲏ┺ /
㦢㔳)
4 The store where Jessica works (㩲㔲䃊Ṗ 㧒䞮┺ / ṖỢ)
5 The man whom (my) older sister dates with (㠎┞Ṗ ㌂‖┺ / ⋾㧦)
Exercise 16.4
Change the following into a noun-modifying form using ~⓪, as shown in
the example. Then translate the phrase.
Example: ⰺ㧒 ọ┺ / ỆⰂ
= ⰺ㧒 ọ⓪ ỆⰂ “The street that (I) walk everyday”
1 䂲ῂṖ ㌂┺ / ὒ㧒
2 㔲䃊ἶ㠦㍲ Ṟ㞚䌖┺ / ₆㹾
3 䡫㧊 ㌊┺ / 㞚䕢䔎
4 ⑚⋮Ṗ 㝆┺ / 䅊䜾䎆
5 ⌊Ṗ ṯ㧊 㧒䞮┺ / ㌂⧢
Exercise 16.5
Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ච and the cues provided in
parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “The high school that I graduated from” (⌊Ṗ 㫎㠛䞮┺ /
ἶ❇䞯ᾦ)
= ⌊Ṗ 㫎㠛䞲 ἶ❇䞯ᾦ
1 The picture that (we) took together (ṯ㧊 㹣┺ / ㌂㰚)
2 The movie that (I) saw last month (㰖⋲ ╂㠦 ⽊┺ / 㡗䢪)
3 The dress that (she) exchanged yesterday (㠊㩲 ⹪∎┺ / 㢍)
4 The milk that (I) drank in the morning (㞚䂾㠦 Ⱎ㔲┺ / 㤆㥶)
5 The item that (I) sold in the afternoon (㡺䤚㠦 䕪┺ / ⶒỊ)
16
The noun-
modifying
endings
144
Exercise 16.6
Change the following into a noun-modifying form using ~(㦒)ච, as shown
in the example. Then translate the phrase.
Example: ⁎㩖℮ Ⱎ㔲┺ / 䄺䞒
= ⁎㩖℮ Ⱎ㔶 䄺䞒 “The coffee that (I) drank the day before
yesterday”
1 㠊㩲 ⿖⯊┺ / ⏎⧮
2 㧧⎚㠦 Ⱒ⋮┺ / ㌂⧢
3 㰖⋲ 㭒㠦 ⹱┺ / ㍶ⶒ
4 㞚䂾㠦 ⻚Ⰲ┺ / 㝆⩞₆
5 ⌊Ṗ Ⱒ✺┺ / 㦢㔳
Exercise 16.7
Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ඥ and the cues provided in
parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “The tree that we will plant tomorrow” (㤆ⰂṖ ⌊㧒 㕂┺ /
⋮ⶊ)
= 㤆ⰂṖ ⌊㧒 㕂㦚 ⋮ⶊ
1 The food that I will cook tomorrow (⌊Ṗ ⌊㧒 㣪Ⰲ䞮┺ / 㦢㔳)
2 The bottle that (I) will fill with milk (㤆㥶⯒ ╊┺ / ⼧)
3 The water that the patient will drink (䢮㧦Ṗ Ⱎ㔲┺ / ⶒ)
4 The book that (we) will borrow from the library (☚㍲ὖ㠦㍲ アⰂ┺ /
㺛)
5 The package which (you) will mail at the post office (㤆㼊ῃ㠦㍲ ⿖䂮
┺ / ㏢䙂)
Exercise 16.8
Change the following into a noun-modifying form using ~(㦒)ඥ, as shown
in the example. Then translate the phrase.
Example: 㤪㣪㧒㠦 Ⱒ⋮┺ / ㏦┮
= 㤪㣪㧒㠦 Ⱒ⋶ ㏦┮ “The customer that (I) will meet on
Monday”
145
Exercise
16.9
1 㩲㧊㓾㧊 㧛┺ / 㟧⽋
2 ⑚⋮Ṗ ἆ䢒䞮┺ / ㌂⧢
3 㤆ⰂṖ ┺㦢 㭒㠦 㧊㌂Ṗ┺ / 㰧
4 ⍺Ṗ ⌊㧒 アⰂ┺ / 㺛
5 㩲㧚㓺Ṗ 㞟┺ / 㧦Ⰲ
Exercise 16.9
Finish the following translation using the cues provided in parenthesis, as
shown in the example.
Example: “John who studies Korean” (䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮┺ / 㫊)
= 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮⓪ 㫊
1 Maria who plays a guitar (₆䌖⯒ 䂮┺ / ⰞⰂ㞚)
2 The person who will leave for Japan tomorrow (⌊㧒 㧒⽎㦒⪲
⟶⋮┺ / ㌂⧢)
3 The woman who made a cake (䅖㧊䋂⯒ Ⱒ✺┺ / 㡂㧦)
4 The season that I like (⌊Ṗ 㫡㞚䞮┺ / Ἒ㩞)
5 The child who threw the ball (Ὃ㦚 ▮㰖┺ / 㞚㧊)
6 The student who has an Apple computer (㞶䝢 䅊䜾䎆Ṗ 㧞┺ /
䞯㌳)
7 The man who will meet Laura on Tuesday (䢪㣪㧒㠦 ⪲⧒⯒ Ⱒ⋮┺ /
⋾㧦)
8 Tom who has an expensive car (゚㕒 㹾Ṗ 㧞┺ / 䐆)
9 Dave who is a policeman (ἓ㺆ὖ㧊┺ / ◆㧊ぢ)
10 The customer who sent the letter yesterday (㠊㩲 䘎㰖⯒ ⽊⌊┺ /
㏦┮)
146
UNIT 17
Describing the appearance of actions
or states of affair
This unit introduces several expressions that are used to describe the appear-
ance of actions or states of affair and to express the speaker’s conjecture.
~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ ộ ṯ┺
The construction ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ ộ ṯ┺ “(it) seems/looks like” is the
combination of one of three noun-modifying endings (e.g., ~⓪, ~(㦒)ච,
and ~(㦒)ඥ), the dependent noun ộ “the fact/the one/the being” (or Ệ
for colloquial settings), and the adjective ṯ┺ “be the same.” The selection
of ~⓪, ~(㦒)ච, and ~(㦒)ඥ follows the same mechanism of the noun-
modifying patterns: ~⓪ is used after a verb stem for the present meaning;
~(㦒)ච is used after a verb stem for the past meaning or after an adjec-
tive/copula stem for the present meaning; ~(㦒)ඥ is used after a verb or
adjective stem for the prospective meaning.
~⓪ ộ ṯ┺
㣪㯞㦢 ⰺ㧒 㞚䂾 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮⓪ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (she) jogs
every morning nowadays.”
⻚㓺Ṗ Ἵ ☚㹿䞮⓪ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) looks like the bus arrives soon.”
ⰺ䓲Ṗ 㡗㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂮⓪ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that Matthew teaches
English.”
~(㦒)ච ộ ṯ┺
䙊㧊 ⳾⚦㠦Ợ 䂲㩞䞲 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “Paul seems to be nice to everyone.”
㺆㓺Ṗ 㡗ῃ ㌂⧢㧎 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “Charles seems to be British.”
㧊 㹾Ṗ ▪ 㫡㦖 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “This car seems to be better.”
㠊㩲 ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱔ㧊 Ⱎ㔶 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (they) drank beer a
lot yesterday.”
䏶┞Ṗ ☚㍲ὖ㠦 Ṛ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that Tony went to the
library.”
147
~⓪/(㦒)ච/(
㦒)ඥ
⳾㟧㧊┺
㔲䠮 Ὃ⿖⯒ Ⱔ㧊 䞲 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (he) studied a lot for
the test.”
~(㦒)ඥ ộ ṯ┺
⌊⎚㠦 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṟ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (they) will go to Korea
next year.”
⌊㧒㦖 ⑞㧊 㢂 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “As for tomorrow, (it) seems that snow will
fall.”
䂲ῂṖ 䕢䕆㠦 㞞 㢂 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (my) friend will not
come to the party.”
䢪㣪㧒㧊 㿪㤎 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that Tuesday will be cold.”
㔲䠮㧊 㠊⩺㤎 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that the test will be difficult.”
For the past tense, the past tense marker 㠞/㞮 is used after ṯ┺.
Consider the following examples:
⹿㠦㍲ 㧦ἶ 㧞⓪ ộ ṯ㞮㠊㣪. “(It) seemed that (he) was sleeping in
the room.”
㩲㧚㓺Ṗ Ṧ₆㠦 ỎⰆ ộ ṯ㞮㠊㣪. “(It) seemed that James caught a
cold.”
㏢ἶ₆⯒ 㞞 ⲏ㦚 ộ ṯ㞮㠊㣪. “(It) seemed that (he) would not eat
beef.”
㧊 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㧞㦚 ộ ṯ㞮㠊㣪. “(It) seemed that this movie would
be interesting.”
㠊Ⲏ┞Ṗ 㧒⽎ ㌂⧢㧎 ộ ṯ㞮㠊㣪. “(It) seemed that (her) mother
was a Japanese person.”
~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ ⳾㟧㧊┺
~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ ⳾㟧㧊┺ “appears/looks like” consists of one of three
noun-modifying endings, the noun ⳾㟧 “appearance/form/sign,” and the
copula 㧊┺.
~⓪ ⳾㟧㧊┺
䕳䆮㦚 Ⱒ✲⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that (he) makes (some)
popcorn.”
䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤆⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that (she) learns the Korean
language.”
㡊㐶Ṗ 㠜⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that (she) does not have the
key.”
㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㧞⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that the movie is interesting.”
17
Describing
the
appearance
of actions or
states of
affair
148
~(㦒)ච ⳾㟧㧊┺
㞚䂾㦚 ⴑ ⲏ㦖 ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that (they) could not eat
breakfast.”
㧒⽎㠦㍲ ἶ❇䞯ᾦ⯒ ┺┢ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that (he) attended
a high school in Japan.”
䂲ῂṖ ⁎Ⰲ㤊 ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that (he) longs for a friend.”
~(㦒)ඥ ⳾㟧㧊┺
╊⺆⯒ ⊠㦚 ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that (he) will quit smoking.”
❪㩖䔎⯒ 㞞 ⲏ㦚 ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) looks like (they) will not eat
dessert.”
㡺⓮ 㰧㠦 㞞 㢂 ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that (he) will not come home
today.”
~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ ❅䞮┺
~⓪/(㦒)ච/ (㦒)ඥ ❅䞮┺ “seems/appears/looks like” is the combination
of one of the noun-modifying endings, the dependent noun ❅ “seeming
appearance,” and the dependent adjective 䞮┺ “really/indeed.”
㡂⯚㧊 㡾 ❅䟊㣪. “(It) seems that the summer has come.”
㧦ἶ 㧞⓪ ❅䞿┞┺. “(He) seems to be asleep.”
㞚㰗 ㌊㞚 㧞⓪ ❅䞿┞┺. “(He) seems to be alive still.”
㎇㔺䞲 ㌂⧢㧎 ❅䟊㣪. “(He) appears to be a diligent person.”
⁎ ㏢ⶎ㧊 ㌂㔺㧎 ❅䟊㣪. “That rumor seems to be true.”
For the past tense, the past tense marker 㠞/㞮 is used after ❅䞮┺, as
shown in the following examples:
㨂㯞⯒ 㫡㞚䞮⓪ ❅䟞㠊㣪. “(They) seemed to like jazz.”
㭧ῃ 㡃㌂⯒ 㩚Ὃ䞲 ❅䟞㠊㣪. “(It) seemed that (he) majored in Chinese
history.”
㦢㔳㧊 ⰺ㤊 ❅䟞㠊㣪. “The food appeared to be spicy.”
~⋮/(㦒)චṖ ⽊┺
~⋮/(㦒)චṖ ⽊┺ “guess/seem” is used to express the speaker’s inferential
judgment. It is corresponding to English expressions, such as “(I) guess
that,” and “(it) appears that.” For verb stems, ~⋮ ⽊┺ is used, as shown
below:
149
~⋮/(㦒)චṖ
⽊┺
㩲㔲䃊Ṗ 䌲ῢ☚⯒ ⺆㤆⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Jessica learns Taekwondo/
(It) seems that Jessica learns Taekwondo.”
䄺䞒⯒ Ⱔ㧊 Ⱎ㔲⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (she) drinks coffee a lot.”
䞲ῃ 㡃㌂⯒ 㩚Ὃ䞮⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (he) majors in Korean
history.”
㧒㣪㧒Ⱎ┺ ᾦ䣢㠦 Ṗ⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (they) go to church every
Sunday.”
☞㧊 Ⱔ㧊 㧞⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (he) has a lot of money.”
For adjectives and copulas, ~(㦒)චṖ ⽊┺ is used: ~㦖Ṗ ⽊┺ is used
after a stem that ends in a consonant, and ~චṖ ⽊┺ is used after a stem
that ends in a vowel.
㠦✲㤢✲Ṗ ₆⿚㧊 㫡㦖Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Edward is in a good
mood.”
Ṗ⹿㧊 㧧㦖Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (her) bag is small.”
㰧㧊 㞚㭒 ゚㕒Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that the house is very expensive.”
⹬㧊 㿪㤊Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that the outside is cold.”
㔲䠮➢ⶎ㠦 Ⱔ㧊 ⹪㊲Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (they) are very busy
because of the test.”
Ṗ⹿㧊 Ṗ⼒㤊Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that the bag is light.”
䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧎Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (he) is Korean.”
For the past tense, ~⋮ ⽊┺ is used after the past tense marker 㠞/㞮:
with verbs, adjectives, and copulas. Consider the following examples:
㰖⋲ ╂㠦 ☞㦚 Ⱔ㧊 㗒⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (they) spent money a
lot last month.”
㩖⎗㦚 㞚㰗 㞞 ⲏ㠞⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (they) have not eaten
dinner yet.”
㦢㔳㧊 㫖 㱆⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that the food was a bit salty.”
㔲䠮㧊 㓂㤶⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that the test was easy.”
㦢㔳㧊 ⍞ⶊ ╂㞮⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that the food was too sweet.”
㠊㩲 Ⱔ㧊 䞒Ἲ䟞⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (he) was very tired yesterday.”
ⰺ㤆 ⺆Ṗ ἶ䕶⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (they) were very hungry.”
㭧ῃ ㌂⧢㧊㠞⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that (he) was Chinese.”
䞒䎆㦮 ㌳㧒㧊 㠊㩲㡖⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Peter’s birthday was
yesterday.”
Note that the main verb ⽊┺ does not take the tense marker. It is not
grammatically incorrect to add the past tense marker to ⽊┺. However,
adding the past tense to the main verb generates a different meaning, as
shown in the following examples:
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䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Thomas goes to school.”
䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṫ⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Thomas went to school.”
䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ⋮ ⽺㠊㣪. “(I) checked whether Thomas goes to
school.”
䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṫ⋮ ⽺㠊㣪. “(I) checked whether Thomas went to
school.”
~㠊/㞚 ⽊㧊┺
~㠊/㞚 ⽊㧊┺ is used when the speaker expresses his/her opinion regard-
ing the appearance of something. It is only used with adjectives, and it
corresponds to “(it) looks/appears to be” in English.
㢍㧊 ゚㕎 ⽊㡂㣪. “The dress looks expensive.”
䄺䞒Ṗ ⰱ㧞㠊 ⽊㧛┞┺. “The coffee looks delicious.”
⿖㠢㧊 䄺 ⽊㡂㣪. “The kitchen appears to be big.”
For the past tense, the auxiliary verb ⽊㧊┺ takes the tense marker,
while the ~㠊/㞚 ending adjective stem does not, as shown below:
₆⿚㧊 ⋮ザ ⽊㡖㠊㣪. “(Her) mood appeared to be bad.”
㫊㧊 㠊㩲 ⹪ザ ⽊㡖㠊㣪. “John looked busy yesterday.”
㠒Ὴ㧊 ⓯㠊 ⽊㡖㠊㣪. “(His) face looked old.”
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 17 exercises
Ṗỿ price
Ṗ⋲䞮┺ to be poor
Ṗ┺ to go
Ṗ⯊䂮┺ to teach
Ṗ⼣┺ to be light
Ị⍞┺ to cross/to go over
ἆ䢒䞮┺ to marry
Ἆ㏦䞮┺ to be humble
ἶ䂮┺ to fix/to repair
Ὃ䟃 airport
‖Ỏ㧊 earring
₆┺Ⰲ┺ to wait
₆㑯㌂ dormitory
ₖ䂮 kimchi
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exercises
₾⊭䞮┺ to be clean
⊠┺ to quit
⋶㝾 weather
⏎⧮ song
⏎䔎⿗ notebook
⑞ snow/eyes
┺Ⰲ bridge/leg
┺㦢 next
╂ month
╊⺆ cigarette
╖䞯㤦㌳ graduate student
▻┺ to be hot
☚㹿䞮┺ to arrive
☞ money
☢㞚Ṗ┺ to return
☫┺ to help
⡧⡧䞮┺ to be smart
Ⱔ┺ to be many/to be much
ⰱ㠜┺ to be tasteless
ⰱ㧞┺ to be delicious
ⰺ㧒 everyday
ⲎⰂ head/hair (of one’s head)
⹪㊮┺ to be busy
⼚⪲ not in particular
⼧㤦 hospital
⽚ spring
⿖⯊┺ to sing/to call out
⿖㠢 kitchen
⿖㰖⩆䞮┺ to be diligent
⿖䂮┺ to send
゚㕎┺ to be expensive
アⰂ┺ to borrow
㌂┺ to buy
㌂⧢ person/people
㌊┺ to live
㎇㔺䞮┺ to be earnest
㑮㣪㧒 Wednesday
㔂䝚┺ to be sad
㔲䋺┺ to order (something)/to force (a person to do)
㔶䢒㡂䟟 honeymoon
㕇ỗ┺ to be watery
㕎┺ to be cheap/to be inexpensive
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㞚䝚┺ to be sore
㞞 inside
㞞ἓ glasses
㞶䝢䕢㧊 apple pie
㠜┺ not have/not exist
㡗㠊 English
㡞㊮┺ to be pretty
㡺┺ to come/to precipitate/to drop
㡺䤚 afternoon/p.m.
㣪Ⰲ䞮┺ to cook
㦢㔳 food
㧎₆ popularity
㧒⽎ Japan
㧒䞮┺ to work
㧮 well/expertly/nicely
㩠┺ to be young
㫡㞚䞮┺ to like
㰖ṧ wallet
㰧 house
㰲┺ to be salty
㹢Ṳ pot stew
㹾 car
㿲⹲䞮┺ to depart
㿻┺ to be cold
䂲ῂ friends
䘎㰖 letter
䞯₆ semester
䞲ῃ Korea
䡫 older brother
䦦Ⰲ┺ to be cloudy
Exercise 17.1
Conjugate the predicate using ~⓪ ộ ṯ┺ (for verbs) and ~(㦒)ච ộ
ṯ┺ (for adjectives). Then translate the sentence.
Example: ぢ⧒㧊㠎㧊 䌲ῢ☚⯒ ⺆㤆┺
= ぢ⧒㧊㠎㧊 䌲ῢ☚⯒ ⺆㤆⓪ ộ ṯ㞚㣪.
“(It) seems that Brian learns Taekwondo.”
1 㢖㕇䎊㠦㍲ 㿲⹲䞮┺
2 㡺䤚㠦 ☚㹿䞮┺
3 䂲ῂ⯒ ₆┺Ⰲ┺
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Exercise
17.2
4 ☞㧊 ⼚⪲ 㠜┺
5 ㍲㤎㠦 䂲ῂṖ Ⱔ┺
6 㹢ṲṖ 㰲┺
7 㞺✲⮮Ṗ ㎇㔺䞮ἶ ⡧⡧䞮┺
8 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿻ἶ 䦦Ⰲ┺
9 䂲ῂṖ ⿖㰖⩆䞮┺
10 Ṗỿ㧊 㕎┺
Exercise 17.2
Conjugate the predicate using ~(㦒)ඥ ộ ṯ┺. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: ㍲゚㓺Ṗ 㫡┺
= ㍲゚㓺Ṗ 㫡㦚 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that service will be
nice.”
1 㔶䢒 㡂䟟㦖 ⧒㓺⻶Ṗ㓺⪲ Ṗ┺
2 䙊㧊 ╊⺆⯒ ⊠┺
3 ┺㦢 㑮㣪㧒㠦 㰧㠦 ☢㞚Ṗ┺
4 䡫㧊 ☞㦚 ア⩺ 㭒┺
5 ┺㦢 䞯₆⿖䎆 ₆㑯㌂㠦㍲ ㌊┺
6 㩲㧎㧊 ⏎⧮⯒ 㧮 䞮┺
7 㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㠜┺
8 ⰺ㧒 ⹪㊮┺
9 ⋶㝾Ṗ ▻┺
10 㫊㧊 Ἆ㏦䞮┺
Exercise 17.3
Conjugate the predicate using ~⓪ ⳾㟧㧊┺ (for verbs) and ~(㦒)ච ⳾㟧
㧊┺ (for adjectives). Then translate the sentence.
Example: 㠦⹖ⰂṖ 㧒⽎㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮┺
= 㠦⹖ⰂṖ 㧒⽎㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪.
“(It) appears that Emily studies Japanese.”
1 㩲㧚㓺Ṗ 䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㡗㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂮┺
2 䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ ⿖㠢㠦㍲ 㣪Ⰲ䞮┺
3 㫊㧊 ┺Ⰲ⯒ Ị⍞┺
4 ㌢❪Ṗ 䂲ῂ⯒ ₆┺Ⰲ┺
5 㞺㍲┞Ṗ 㹾⯒ ἶ䂮┺
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6 ㌂⧒Ṗ 䘎㰖⯒ ⿖䂮┺
7 㺆㓺Ṗ 䄺䞒⯒ 㔲䋺┺
8 㥂❪Ṗ Ṗ⋲䞮┺
9 䅖㧊䔎Ṗ ⿖㰖⩆䞮┺
10 ㌦ⰂṖ 㧎₆Ṗ Ⱔ┺
Exercise 17.4
Finish the following translation using ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ ❅䞮┺ and the
sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(It) seems that flowers are blooming.” (↙㧊 䞒ἶ 㧞┺)
= ↙㧊 䞒ἶ 㧞⓪ ❅䞿┞┺.
1 (It) seems that (he) is looking for keys (㡊㐶⯒ 㺔ἶ 㧞┺)
2 (It) seems that (she) works on Saturday (䏶㣪㧒㠦 㧒䞮┺)
3 (It) seems that (they) sold the house (㰧㦚 䕪┺)
4 (It) seems that (he) will quit the job (㰗㧻㦚 ⁎Ⱒ⚦┺)
5 (It) seems that the soup is spicy (ῃ㧊 㰲┺)
6 (It) seems that the ring is too expensive (⹮㰖Ṗ ⍞ⶊ ゚㕎┺)
7 (It) seems that the size will be too small (㌂㧊㯞Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㧧┺)
8 (It) seems that the room will be too cold (⹿㧊 ⍞ⶊ 㿻┺)
Exercise 17.5
Conjugate the predicate using ~⓪/(㦒)ච ❅䞮┺. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 㡺ザṖ ⏏㹾⯒ 㔲䋺ἶ 㧞┺
= 㡺ザṖ ⏏㹾⯒ 㔲䋺ἶ 㧞⓪ ❅䟊㣪.
“(It) seems that (my) older brother is ordering green tea.”
1 䂲ῂ⯒ ☫ἶ 㧞┺
2 㧒⽎ ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊ἶ 㧞┺
3 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ䂮ἶ 㧞┺
4 ⑞㧊 㡺┺
5 㦢㔳㧊 㰲┺
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Exercise
17.6
Exercise 17.6
Conjugate the predicate using ~⋮/(㦒)චṖ ⽊┺. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 䅖ゞ㧊 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓┺
= 䅖ゞ㧊 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Kevin reads
newspapers.”
1 ⌎㔲Ṗ ┺㦢 ╂㠦 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṗ┺
2 㪎㓺䕊㧊 ⼧㤦㠦㍲ 㧒䞮┺
3 ⋮㡺⹎Ṗ 㧊⻞ ⽚㠦 ἆ䢒䞮┺
4 ㌮㧊 ⪲⧒⯒ 㫡㞚䞮┺
5 䕆⳾䕆Ṗ 㞚䝚┺
6 ₖ䂮Ṗ 㕇ỗ┺
7 㡺⓮ ⋶㝾Ṗ ▻┺
8 㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㠜┺
9 㼒㔲Ṗ ╖䞯㤦㌳㧊┺
10 ぢ⧮✲Ṗ 㡗ῃ ㌂⧢㧊┺
Exercise 17.7
Finish the following translation using ~㠊/㞚 ⽊㧊┺ and the adjective cue
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(He) looks anxious.” (⿞㞞䞮┺)
= ⿞㞞䟊 ⽊㡂㣪.
1 (She) looks joyful (₆㊮┺)
2 (He) looks scary (ⶊ㎃┺)
3 (You) look lonely (㣎⫃┺)
4 (You) look bored (㕂㕂䞮┺)
5 (They) look happy (䟟⽋䞮┺)
6 (He) looked excited (䦻⿚♮┺)
7 (She) looked nervous (₊㧻♮┺)
8 (They) looked to be in high spirits (㔶⋮┺)
9 (You) looked annoyed (㰲㯳⋮┺)
10 (He) looked angry (䢪⋮┺)
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Exercise 17.8
Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚 ⽊㧊┺. Then translate the sentence.
Example: ぢ⧒㧊㠎㧊 䂲㩞䞮┺
= ぢ⧒㧊㠎㧊 䂲㩞䟊 ⽊㡂㣪. “Brian looks kind.”
1 䅖㧊䔎Ṗ 㩠┺
2 㥢Ⰲ㠚㧊 ⹪㊮┺
3 Ⰶ┺Ṗ 㞚䝚┺
4 ㌂㧊ⴂ㧊 㔂䝚┺
5 㩲㔲Ṗ 㡞㊮┺
6 㞶䝢䕢㧊Ṗ ⰱ㧞┺
7 ‖Ỏ㧊Ṗ ゚㕎┺
8 㞞ἓ㧊 㕎┺
9 㰧㞞㧊 ₾⊭䞮┺
10 ⏎䔎⿗㧊 Ṗ⼣┺
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UNIT 18
Post modifiers I
Korean has a number of idiomatic expressions that consist of one of three
noun-modifying endings (e.g., ~⓪, ~㦖, and ~㦚) and a noun, such as ₎,
㩗, ☯㞞, and so forth. Since these nouns always appear after the noun-
modifying endings (e.g., ~⓪ ₎ or ~㦖 㩗), they are called “post modifiers.”
This unit introduces seven special expressions that are made by combining
one of three noun-modifying endings with one of the following post
modifiers: ₎, 㩗, 㧒, ☯㞞, ☚㭧, 㭧, and 䘎.
~⓪ ₎
~⓪ ₎ “on the way” is the combination of the noun-modifying ending
~⓪ and the noun ₎ “way/road/street.” ~⓪ ₎ is normally used with a
verb of movement, such as Ṗ┺ “go” (e.g., Ṗ⓪ ₎ “on the way to”) and
㡺┺ “come” (e.g., 㡺⓪ ₎ “on the way from”).
⽊㓺䏺㦒⪲ Ṗ⓪ ₎㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am on (my) way to Boston.”
㤆Ⰲ⓪ ₖ ᾦ㑮┮㦚 Ⱒ⋮⩂ Ṗ⓪ ₎㧊㠞㠊㣪. “As for us, (we) were on
(our) way to meet Professor Kim.”
㤆㼊ῃ㦒⪲ Ṗ⓪ ₎㠦 㠊Ⲏ┞⯒ Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪. “(I) met (my) mother on
(my) way to the post office.”
Ὃ䟃㠦㍲ 㡺⓪ ₎㠦 ㍶ⶒ㦚 ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will buy the present on (my)
way from the airport.”
䞯ᾦ㠦㍲ 㡺⓪ ₎㠦 ⺇䢪㩦㠦 ✺⩖㠊㣪 “(I) stopped by the department
store on (my) way from school.”
~(㦒)ච 㩗/㧒
~(㦒)ච 㩗/㧒 is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ච
and the noun 㩗 or 㧒 “experience.” Typically, ~(㦒)ච 㩗 or ~(㦒)ච 㧒 is
followed by 㧞┺ “exist/have” or 㠜┺ “not exist/not have,” and they are
used to indicate whether the subject “has an/no experience (of doing
something).” Consider the following examples:
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㩲┞䗒㦮 㰧㠦 Ṛ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have been to Jennifer’s house.”
Ἶ䝚⯒ ⺆㤊 㩗㧊 㠜㠊㣪. “(I) have never learned golf.”
The auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚 ⽊┺ “try (doing) something” is often used
with the form ~(㦒)ච 㩗/㧒㧊 㧞┺/㠜┺, as shown below:
㍲㤎㠦 Ṗ ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have been to Seoul.”
㍶㌳┮㦚 Ⱒ⋮ ⽎ 㩗㧊 㠜㠊㣪. “(I) have never met the teacher.”
㧒⽎㠦㍲ 㧒䟊 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪? “Have (you) ever worked in Japan?”
䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㠊 ⽎ 㧒㧊 㧞㠊㣪? “Have (you) ever tried Korean
food?”
Notice that ~㠊/㞚 ⽎ 㩗/㧒㧊 㧞┺/㠜┺ highlights whether the subject
has an/no experience of doing something. In addition, when it is used in
an interrogative sentence, the form expresses “Have you ever?”
Various time-related expressions, such as 䞲 ╂ 㩚㠦 “a month ago” and
㧧⎚㠦 “last year,” can be used with ~㠊/㞚 ⽎ 㩗/㧒㧊 㧞┺/㠜┺. However,
since ~㠊/㞚 ⽎ 㧒/㩗㧊 㧞┺/㠜┺ normally refers to a temporarily distant
experience, the use of relatively recent time-related expressions, such as
㰖⋲ 㭒㠦 “last week” and 㠊㩲 “yesterday,” is inappropriate.
(O) 㧧⎚㠦 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤢 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have an experience of
learning Korean last year.”
(X) 㠊㩲 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤢 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have an experience of
learning Korean yesterday.”
~⓪ ☯㞞
The noun ☯㞞 means “a while/an interval,” as in 㡺⨁ ☯㞞 “for a long
time,” ㌒ ⎚ ☯㞞 “for three years,” and Ỿ㤎 ⹿䞯 ☯㞞 “during winter
vacation.” The combination of ☯㞞 and the noun-modifying ending ~⓪,
as in ~⓪ ☯㞞, expresses two situations or activities that overlap in time.
The form ~⓪ ☯㞞 is equivalent to “while” or “during,” as shown below:
䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲⓪ ☯㞞 “while drinking coffee”
☚㍲ὖ㠦㍲ 㺛㦚 㧓⓪ ☯㞞 “while reading the book in the library”
䂲ῂ䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞮⓪ ☯㞞 “while making a phone call to (my) friend”
Since ~⓪ ☯㞞 indicates this temporal relation, the particle 㠦 can be
used optionally after the form, as in ~⓪ ☯㞞㠦.
㑮㧪㧊 ㌂ⶊ㔺㠦㍲ 㧒䞮⓪ ☯㞞㠦 ⌊Ṗ ⪲゚㠦㍲ ₆┺⪎㠊㣪. “While
Susan worked in the office, (I) waited in the lobby.”
159
~⓪ ☚㭧 ⹬㠦㍲ 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮⓪ ☯㞞㠦 㩲 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㝆㎎㣪. “While (I) jog outside,
use my computer.”
⑚⋮Ṗ 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏἶ 㧞⓪ ☯㞞㠦 㧦ἶ 㧞㠞㠊㣪. “While (my) older
sister was eating lunch, (I) was sleeping.”
㞚⌊Ṗ 㧦ἶ 㧞⓪ ☯㞞㠦 㩖⎗㦚 Ⱒ✺㠞㠊㣪. “While (my) wife was
sleeping, (I) made dinner.”
㩲Ṗ 㠜⓪ ☯㞞㠦 ⋾☯㌳㦚 ☢⽦ 㭒㎎㣪. “While I am away, please take
care of (my) younger brother.”
~⓪ ☚㭧
The noun ☚㭧 means “on the road.” The combination of the noun-
modifying ending ~⓪ and the noun ☚㭧, as in ~⓪ ☚㭧, indicates “on the
way to/from” or “in the middle of .”
㔲䠮㦚 䂮⓪ ☚㭧㠦 㰞ⶎ㧊 㧞㦒Ⳋ 㩖䞲䎢 ⶒ㦒㎎㣪. “If (you) have
questions in the middle of taking the test, ask me.”
⺇䢪㩦㠦㍲ 㡺⓪ ☚㭧㠦 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ 㧞㠞㠊㣪. “(I) had a car accident
on (my) way from the department store.”
㰧㠦 Ṗ⓪ ☚㭧㠦 㞚⻚㰖⯒ Ⱒ⋶ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will meet (my) father on
my way home.”
㧊㟒₆䞮⓪ ☚㭧㠦 䢪㧻㔺㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “(He) went to the restroom in the
midst of conversation.”
Ὃ⿖䞮⓪ ☚㭧㠦 㧶✺㠞㠊㣪. “(I) fell asleep in the middle of studying.”
㞚Ⱎ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊⓪ ☚㭧㠦 㧮 Ệ㡞㣪. “Perhaps, (she) will fall asleep in
the middle of (seeing the) movie.”
~⓪ 㭧㧊┺
~⓪ 㭧㧊┺ means “be in the process/middle of (doing something).” This
form is constructed from the noun-modifying ending ~⓪, the noun 㭧
“middle,” and the copula 㧊┺.
㩖䧂 ⳾⚦ 㣪Ⰲ䞮⓪ 㭧㧛┞┺. “We are all in the middle of cooking.”
☚㍲ὖ㠦㍲ ⁎ 㺛㦚 㺔⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am in the middle of looking
for that book in the library.”
䌲ῢ☚⯒ ⺆㤆⓪ 㭧㧊㠞㠊㣪. “(We) were in the middle of learning
Taekwondo.”
㤊㩚䞮⓪ 㭧㧒 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I guess that he) is in the middle of driving.”
The meaning of ~⓪ 㭧㧊┺ is similar to that of the progressive ~ἶ 㧞┺,
since both involve progressive actions. Compare the following examples:
18
Post
modifiers I
160
䂲ῂ䞮ἶ 㧊㟒₆䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am talking to (my) friend.”
䂲ῂ䞮ἶ 㧊㟒₆䞮⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am in the middle (or process) of
talking to (my) friend.”
However, while ~ἶ 㧞┺ simply indicates the progressive meaning, ~⓪
㭧㧊┺ tends to highlight the process.
~⓪/(㦒)ච 䘎㧊┺
~⓪/(㦒)ච 䘎㧊┺ is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~⓪
(for a verb stem) or ~(㦒)ච (for an adjective stem), the noun 䘎 “side/
way/party,” and the copula 㧊┺. ~⓪/(㦒)ච 䘎㧊┺ means “tends to” or
“kind of” in English, as shown in the following examples:
㥶┞㓺Ṗ 㩖⽊┺ 㑮㡗㧻㠦 ▪ 㧦㭒 Ṗ⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “Eunice tends to go
to the swimming pool more often than I do.”
⋾☯㌳㧊 㡗㠊⯒ ▪ 㧮 䞮⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “(My) younger brother kind of
speaks English better (than I).”
㭒Ⱖ㠦 Ἶ䝚⯒ 䂮⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “(I) tend to play golf on the weekend.”
Ⰲ㌂Ṗ 䞲ῃⰦ㦚 㧮 䞮⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “Lisa kind of speaks Korean
well.”
㩲 㹾Ṗ 㧧㦖 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “My car is kind of small.”
☚㍲ὖ㧊 㩲 㰧㠦㍲ Ⲓ 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “The library is kind of far from my
house.”
⋮⽊┺ 䡫㧊 䋺Ṗ ▪ 䋆 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “(My) older brother is kind of taller
than me.”
㧊 ṖỢ ⶒỊ✺㧊 ゚㕒 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “The items in this store are kind of
expensive.”
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 18 exercises
Ṗ┺ to go
⋮Ṗ┺ to go out
⋶㝾 weather
⌊ I/my
┺䒂┺ to quarrel/to argue
♒㰖ἶ₆ pork
ⰻ㭒 beer
⳾㧦 hat
161
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 18
exercises
⹱┺ to receive
⺆㤆┺ to learn
㌂┺ to buy
㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩 supermarket
㓺䋺 ski
㔲䋺┺ to order/to ask (someone to do)
㔲䠮 test/exam
㕎┺ to pack
㗆┺ to cut up/to slice
㝆┺ to use
㞚⌊ wife
㟧⽋ suit/dress
㠊⪋┺ to be difficult
㠊Ⲏ┞ mother
㡺⓮ today
㣪Ⰲ cooking
㦢㔳 food
㧊㟒₆䞮┺ to talk
㧒㣪㧒 Sunday
㧒䞮┺ to work
㧛┺ to wear/to put on
㧦┺ to sleep
㧦Ⰲ seat
㧪㏢Ⰲ useless talk/scolding/preaching
㧮 well/expertly
㧻䞯⁞ scholarship
㫆ₛ jogging
㫡㞚䞮┺ to like/to be fond of/to rejoice
㭧ῃ China
㰦 loads/packages
㺔┺ to look for/to seek for
䂮┺ to play (tennis or piano)/to strike
䂲ῂ friend
䌖┺ to ride
䌲ῢ☚ Taekwondo
䞲ῃ Korea
䡫 older brother
䢪㧻㔺 toilet
䦦Ⰲ┺ to be cloudy
18
Post
modifiers I
162
Exercise 18.1
Finish the following translation using ~⓪ ₎㠦 and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) stopped by the supermarket on (my) way from school.”
(㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 ✺⯊┺ / 䞯ᾦ㠦㍲ 㡺┺)
= 䞯ᾦ㠦㍲ 㡺⓪ ₎㠦 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 ✺⩖㠊㣪.
1 (We) will send the package on (our) way to school (㏢䙂⯒ ⽊⌊┺ /
䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ┺)
2 (They) ran into the teacher on (their) way to the hospital (㍶㌳┮䞮ἶ
Ⱎ㭒䂮┺ / ⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ┺)
3 (She) lost (her) wallet on (her) way from the library (㰖ṧ㦚 㧙㠊
⻚Ⰲ┺ / ☚㍲ὖ㠦㍲ 㡺┺)
4 (He) fell on (his) way from the church (㝆⩂㰖┺ / ᾦ䣢㠦㍲ 㡺┺)
5 (I) met John on (my) way from the store (㫊㦚 Ⱒ⋮┺ / ṖỢ㠦㍲
㡺┺)
Exercise 18.2
Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ච 㩗㧊 㧞┺/㠜┺ and the
sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) have tried Philippine food.” (䞚Ⰲ䞖 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㠊 ⽊
┺)
= 䞚Ⰲ䞖 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㠊 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪.
1 (I) have never failed the test (㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㪎 ⽊┺)
2 (I) have been to Manhattan (ⰾ䞮䎊㠦 Ṗ ⽊┺)
3 (I) have tried kimchi (ₖ䂮⯒ ⲏ㠊 ⽊┺)
4 (I) have never been married (ἆ䢒㦚 䟊 ⽊┺)
5 (I) have an experience of shooting a gun (㽳㦚 㙊 ⽊┺)
Exercise 18.3
Conjugate the predicate using ~(㦒)ච 㩗㧊 㧞┺. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 䏶Ⱎ㓺⯒ Ⱒ⋮ ⽊┺
= 䏶Ⱎ㓺⯒ Ⱒ⋮ ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪.
“(I) have an experience of meeting Thomas.”
163
Exercise
18.4
1 㧻䞯⁞㦚 ⹱㞚 ⽊┺
2 䌲ῢ☚⯒ ⺆㤢 ⽊┺
3 䡫ὒ ┺䒞 ⽊┺
4 䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㓺䋺⯒ 䌖 ⽊┺
5 㧒㣪㧒㠦 㧒䟊 ⽊┺
Exercise 18.4
Finish the following translation using ~⓪ ☯㞞㠦 and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “While (my) older brother was sleeping, (I) used (his)
computer.”
(䡫㧊 㧦ἶ 㧞┺ / 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㗒㠊㣪)
= 䡫㧊 㧦ἶ 㧞⓪ ☯㞞㠦 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㗒㠊㣪.
1 While Harry does the laundry, Kate cooks (䟊ⰂṖ ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮┺ / 䅖㧊
䔎Ṗ 㣪Ⰲ䟊㣪)
2 While I look for keys, Gina will pack loads (⌊Ṗ 㡊㐶⯒ 㺔┺ / 㰖⋮Ṗ
㰦㦚 㕖 Ệ㡞㣪)
3 While John drove (the car), Sally read the map (㫊㧊 㤊㩚㦚 䞮┺ / ㌦
ⰂṖ 㰖☚⯒ ⽺㠊㣪)
4 While Charles worked, Cindy waited (for him) at the coffee shop (㺆
㓺Ṗ 㧒䞮┺ / 㞂❪Ṗ 䄺䞒㑣㠦㍲ ₆┺⪎㠊㣪)
5 While I negotiated with the salesman, (my) wife looked around the
shop (⌊Ṗ ㎎㧒㯞ⰾ䞮ἶ 䦻㩫㦚 䞮┺ / 㞚⌊Ṗ ṖỢ⯒ ῂἓ䟞㠊㣪)
Exercise 18.5
Connect the following two sentences using ~⓪ ☯㞞㠦. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 㑮㧪㧊 㩚䢪⯒ 䞮┺ / 䐆㧊 㰧㠦 ✺㠊㢪㠊㣪
= 㑮㧪㧊 㩚䢪⯒ 䞮⓪ ☯㞞㠦 䐆㧊 㰧㠦 ✺㠊㢪㠊㣪.
“While Susan was on the phone, Tom entered (my) house.”
1 㠦✲㤢✲Ṗ ⳾㧦⯒ ㌂ἶ 㧞┺ / 䞒䎆Ṗ 䢪㧻㔺㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪
2 ⌊Ṗ 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮ἶ 㧞┺ / 㞚⌊Ṗ 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪
3 ⬾㧊㓺Ṗ 䂲ῂ䞮ἶ 㧊㟒₆䞮┺ / 㠦Ⰲ䃊Ṗ 㦢㔳㦚 㔲䆆㠊㣪
4 ⲪỊ㧊 㧦ἶ 㧞┺ / 㫆㧊㓺Ṗ ¯\ ⯒ ⽺㠊㣪
5 㤆ⰂṖ 㧦Ⰲ⯒ 㺔ἶ 㧞┺ / ㌮㧊 䕳䆮㦚 ㌂⩂ ⋮Ṫ㠊㣪
18
Post
modifiers I
164
Exercise 18.6
Finish the following translation using ~⓪ 㭧㧊┺ and the sentence cue
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) am in the middle of shaving.” (Ⳋ☚⯒ 䞮┺)
= Ⳋ☚⯒ 䞮⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪.
1 (She) is in the middle of driving (㤊㩚䞮┺)
2 (We) are in the middle of planting a tree (⋮ⶊ⯒ 㕂┺)
3 (He) is in the middle of fixing the computer (䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ䂮┺)
4 (I) am in the middle of writing a letter (䘎㰖⯒ 㝆┺)
5 (We) are in the middle of crossing the bridge (┺Ⰲ⯒ Ị⍞┺)
Exercise 18.7
Conjugate the predicate using ~⓪ 㭧㧊┺. Then translate the sentence.
Example: 㩖⎗㦚 Ⱒ✺┺
= 㩖⎗㦚 Ⱒ✲⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am in the middle of making
dinner.”
1 㰦㦚 㕎┺
2 㭧ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 㔲䋺┺
3 㠦Ⰳ䞮ἶ 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂮┺
4 ♒㰖ἶ₆⯒ 㗆┺
5 㟧⽋㦚 㧛┺
Exercise 18.8
Finish the following translation using ~⓪/(㦒)ච 䘎㧊┺ and the sentence
cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Kevin kind of eats a lot.” (䅖ゞ㧊 Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ┺)
= 䅖ゞ㧊 Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪.
1 The house is kind of noisy (㰧㧊 㔲⊚⩓┺)
2 The room is kind of dark (⹿㧊 㠊⚷┺)
3 Nancy’s food is kind of salty (⌎㔲㦮 㦢㔳㧊 㰲┺)
4 Naomi tends to skip breakfast (⋮㡺⹎Ṗ 㞚䂾㦚 ῌ┺)
5 (I) tend to exercise everyday (ⰺ㧒 㤊☯䞮┺)
165
Exercise
18.9
Exercise 18.9
Conjugate the predicate using ~⓪/(㦒)ච 䘎㧊┺. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 㞢⹪┞㠦 ⑞㧊 Ⱔ㧊 㡺┺
= 㞢⹪┞㠦 ⑞㧊 Ⱔ㧊 㡺⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪.
“(It) kind of snows a lot in Albany.”
1 㓺䕆ぢṖ ⰻ㭒⯒ 㫡㞚䞮┺
2 䡂⩢㧊 㣪Ⰲ⯒ 㧮 䞮┺
3 㠊Ⲏ┞Ṗ 㧪㏢Ⰲ⯒ 䞮㔲┺
4 㔲䠮㧊 㠊⪋┺
5 㡺⓮ ⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦Ⰲ┺
166
UNIT 19
Post modifiers II
~⓪/(㦒)ච ╖⪲
~⓪/(㦒)ච ╖⪲ means “as soon as” or “in accordance with.” It is the
combination of the noun-modifying ending ~⓪ (for a verb stem) or ~(㦒)
ච (for an adjective stem) and the noun ╖⪲ “according to/the same/just
as.”
㰧㠦 ☚㹿䞮⓪ ╖⪲ 㩚䢪䞮㎎㣪. “Give (me) a call as soon as (you)
arrive home.”
㔲䋺⓪ ╖⪲ 䞮Ỷ㠊㣪? “Will (you) do according to (what I) ask (you
to do)?”
⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡㞚㰖⓪ ╖⪲ 㔲㧧䞿㔲┺. “(Let us) begin as soon as the weather
becomes better.”
㭒⓪ ╖⪲ ⲏ㠞㠊㣪. “(I) ate whatever (she) gave (me).”
⋶㧊 ⹳⓪ ╖⪲ ⟶⋶ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will leave as soon as the dawn
breaks.”
䞮ἶ 㕌㦖 ╖⪲ 䞮㎎㣪. “Do as (you) like to do.”
ⲏἶ 㕌㦖 ╖⪲ ⲏ㦚 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “(You) can eat as much as (you) like
to eat.”
~(㦒)ච 䤚㠦
~(㦒)ච 䤚㠦 means “afterward” or “later.” It is the combination of the
noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ච, the noun 䤚 “after,” and the particle 㠦.
㞚䂾㦚 ⲏ㦖 䤚㠦 ⽊䐋 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㎪㣪. “(I) usually drink coffee after
having breakfast.”
㰧㠦 ☢㞚㡾 䤚㠦 ㌺㤢⯒ 䟞㠊㣪. “(He) took a shower after coming
back home.”
㞚䕢䔎⪲ 㧊㌂⯒ 䞲 䤚㠦 ㌞ ㏢䕢⯒ ㌖㠊㣪. “(We) bought new sofas
after moving in to the apartment.”
167
~⓪/(㦒)ච
㻯/㼊䞮┺
㏦┮㧊 ☢㞚Ṛ 䤚㠦 ㍺Ệ㰖⯒ 䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will do the dishes after
guests return.”
㑯㩲⯒ ┺ 䞲 䤚㠦 㤊☯䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will exercise after doing all (my)
homework.”
The use of noun, such as ┺㦢 “next” or ⛺ “behind” (instead of 䤚),
indicates a similar meaning, as shown below:
´ ὒ⯒ 㧓㦖 ┺㦢㠦 1 ὒ⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮㕃㔲㡺. “After reading chapter 3,
study chapter 4.”
㤊☯㦚 䞲 ┺㦢㠦 ⽊䐋 ㌺㤢⯒ 䟊㣪. “After exercising, (I) usually take
a shower.”
㡗䢪⯒ ⽎ ⛺㠦 Ṧ㌗ⶎ㦚 㝆㎎㣪. “After seeing the movie, write a reac-
tion paper.”
~⓪/(㦒)ච 㻯/㼊䞮┺
~⓪/(㦒)ච 㻯/㼊䞮┺ means “pretend.” It is the combination of the noun-
modifying ending ~⓪ (for verbs in the present meaning) or ~(㦒)ච (for
verbs in the past meaning; for adjectives/copulas in the present meaning),
the noun 㻯(or 㼊) “pretence,” and the verb 䞮┺ “do.”
~⓪ 㻯/㼊䞮┺
⁎⎖Ṗ ⋮⯒ ⳾⯊⓪ 㻯䞿┞┺. “She pretends that (she) does not know
me.”
㠚ⰞṖ ☢㞚㡺Ⳋ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮⓪ 㻯䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “When (my) mom
returns, (I) will pretend that (I) study hard.”
ἶ₆Ⱒ ⲏ⓪ 㻯䞶 Ệ㡞㣪? “Will (you) pretend that (you) eat only
meat?”
㩖⯒ 㞚⓪ 㼊䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. “Do not pretend that (you) know me.”
㏢䕢㠦㍲ 㧦⓪ 㻯䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Pretend that (you) are asleep on the
sofa.”
ⰻ㭒⯒ ⴑ Ⱎ㔲⓪ 㻯䞿㔲┺. “(Let us) pretend that (we) cannot drink
beer.”
~(㦒)ච 㻯/㼊䞮┺
㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞲 㻯䟊㣪. “(He) pretends that (he) studied hard.”
䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔶 㻯䞿㔲┺. “(Let us) pretend that (we) drank coffee.”
㡗䢪⯒ 㞞 ⽎ 㻯䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will pretend that (I) did not see the
movie.”
19
Post
modifiers II
168
⁎ ⿖⿖⓪ ⓮ 䟟⽋䞲 㻯䟊㣪. “As for that couple, (they) always pretend
to be happy.”
䂲ῂ✺㦚 Ⱒ⋮Ⳋ 㔂䝞 㻯䞮㎎㣪. “When (you) meet (your) friends,
pretend that (you) are sad.”
⳿㧊 㞚䝞 㻯䟞㠊㣪. “(I) pretended that (my) throat was sore.”
ἶⰞ㤊 㻯䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “(We) will pretend that (we) are grateful.”
⿖㰖⩆䞲 㻯䞶 Ệ㡞㣪? “Will (you) pretend that (you) are diligent?”
㑮㧪㧊 䃦⋮┺ ㌂⧢㧎 㻯䟊㣪. “Susan pretends that (she) is a
Canadian.”
~⓪ ⹪⧢㠦
~⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~⓪, the noun
⹪⧢ “wind,” and the particle 㠦. It means “as a result of/because of,”
and the effects for which ~⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 is used are generally negative and
incidental. Consider the following example:
⓼Ợ 㧒㠊⋮⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 䞯ᾦ㠦 ⴑ Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) could not go to school
because of getting up late.”
Notice that ~⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 indicates the cause (e.g., getting up late) for the
negative or unpleasant consequence of the main clause (e.g., could not go
to school). Here are more examples:
㰧㦚 ㌂⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 ☞㧊 㠜㠊㣪. “(I) do not have money as a result of
buying the house.”
゚Ṗ Ⱔ㧊 㡺⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 ⼧㤦㠦 ⴑ Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) could not go to the hos-
pital because (it) rained a lot.”
㍲⚦⯊⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ ⌂㠊㣪. “(I) had a car accident because (I)
hurried up.”
㡊㐶⯒ 㧙㠊 ⻚Ⰲ⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 㟓㏣㦚 ⴑ 㰖䆆㠊㣪. “(I) could not keep
the promise because (I) lost the key.”
~⓪/(㦒)ච ộ㧊┺
~⓪/(㦒)ච ộ㧊┺ is used to give an account of events or states of affairs.
It can be translated as “the fact is,” or “what happened is that.” This form
is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~⓪ (for verbs in the
present meaning) or ~(㦒)ච (for verbs in the past meaning or for adjec-
tives/copulas in the present meaning), the dependent noun ộ (or Ệ for
colloquial usage) “fact/thing,” and the copula 㧊┺.
169
~(㦒)ඥ
ㄪ䟞┺
~⓪ ộ㧊┺
㞺✲⮮Ṗ ⻶㧊㓺 ₆䌖⯒ 䂮⓪ Ệ㡞㣪. “The fact is that Andrew plays
the base guitar.”
㧊㩲⿖䎆 ⰺ㧒 ⥆⓪ Ệ㡞㣪. “The fact is that (we will) run everyday
from now on.”
~(㦒)ච ộ㧊┺
㠮Ⰲ㧦⻶㓺Ṗ 䞒㞚⏎⯒ 䂲 Ệ㡞㣪. “The fact is that Elizabeth played
the piano.”
㡺⓮ ⋶㝾Ṗ ➆⦑䞲 Ệ㠦㣪. “The fact is that today’s weather is
warm.”
㧻⹎Ṗ 㞚⯚┺㤊 Ệ㡞㣪. “The fact is that roses are beautiful.”
◆┞㠮㧊 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧎 Ệ㡞㣪. “The fact is that Daniel is a Korean.”
~(㦒)ඥ ㄪ䟞┺
~(㦒)ඥ ㄪ䟞┺ is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)
ඥ, the noun ㄪ “almost/about to,” and the verb 䟞┺ “did.” ~(㦒)ඥ ㄪ䟞
┺ indicates that some events almost happened. It corresponds to “almost”
or “to be nearly” in English.
⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤢㍲ Ṧ₆㠦 ỎⰊ ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost caught a cold, since
the weather was cold.”
Ὃ䟃㠦 ⓼Ợ ☚㹿䟊㍲ ゚䟟₆⯒ ⏩䂶 ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost missed the
flight, since (I) arrived in the airport late.”
㠊㩲 ₎㠦㍲ 㑮㧪䞮ἶ Ⱎ㭒䂶 ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost ran into Susan on
the street yesterday.”
䞒Ἲ䟊㍲ 㞚䂾㠦 ⴑ 㧒㠊⋶ ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost could not get up in
the morning for (I) was tired.”
~(㦒)ඥ ➢
~(㦒)ඥ ➢ means “when.” It is the combination of the noun-modifying
ending ~(㦒)ඥ and the noun ➢ “time/occasion.”
㔲䃊ἶ⪲ ⟶⋶ ➢ 㹾⪲ Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪. “(We) will go by car, when (we) leave
for Chicago.”
⺆Ṗ 㞚䝢 ➢ 㧊 㟓㦚 ⲏ㠊㣪? “Do (you) take this medicine, when (your)
stomach aches?”
⪲㎮㦚 ⹬㠦 ⋮Ṟ ➢ 㠒Ὴ㠦 ⹪⯊㕃㔲㡺. “Apply the lotion on (your)
face, when (you) go outside.”
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170
㔲Ṛ 㧞㦚 ➢ 㡆⧓䞿㔲┺. “(Let us) contact (them) when (we) have
time.”
⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡㦚 ➢ Ὃ㤦㠦 Ṗ㎎㣪. “Go to the park, when the weather is
good.”
⋶㝾Ṗ ➆⦑䞶 ➢ ⹪╍Ṗ㠦㍲ 㑮㡗䞿㔲┺. “When the weather is warm,
(let us) swim at the beach.”
㕇⁖㧒 ➢ 㡂䟟㦚 Ⱔ㧊 䞮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪. “While (I) am a single, (I) want
to travel a lot.”
㞚㰗 䞯㌳㧒 ➢ Ⱔ㧊 ⺆㤆㕃㔲㡺. “Learn a lot when (you) are still a
student.”
There are two things to remember when using ~(㦒)ඥ ➢ with verbs
in the past tense. When only the main clause is conjugated for the past
tense, the action of the ➢ clause co-occurred with that of the main clause.
Consider the following example:
Ⓤ㣫㔲㠦 Ṟ ➢ ⻚㓺⯒ 䌪㠊㣪. “Going to New York City, (I) took a
bus.”
Notice in the example above that the action of the first clause “going”
co-occurred with the action of the main clause “taking the bus,” and the
tense is marked only in the main clause. However, when both clauses are
conjugated for the past tense, the actions of both clauses do not co-occur:
The action of the first clause happened prior to that of the main clause.
Consider the following example:
Ⓤ㣫㔲㠦 Ṫ㦚 ➢ 㑮㧪㦚 㻮㦢 Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪. “When (I) went to New York
City, (I) met Susan for the first time.”
Notice that the first clause “going to New York City” happened prior
to the action of the main clause “meeting Susan.” Here are more
examples:
㧒⽎㧎 䂲ῂ䞮ἶ ╖䢪䞶 ➢ 㧒⽎㠊⯒ 䟞㠊㣪. “Conversing with (my)
Japanese friend, (I) talked in Japanese.”
☚㍲ὖ㠦 Ṟ ➢ 㰖䞮㻶㦚 䌪㠊㣪. “Going to the library, (I) took a
subway.”
㧒㦚 ⊳⌒ ➢ 㩚䢪䟞㠊㣪. “Finishing (my) work, (I) called (her).”
䕢Ⰲ㠦 Ṫ㦚 ➢ ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤶㠊㣪. “When (I) went to Paris, the weather
was cold.”
゚䟟₆Ṗ Ὃ䟃㠦 ☚㹿䟞㦚 ➢ 㧊⹎ ㌞⼓㧊㠞㠊㣪. “When the airplane
arrived in the airport, (it) was already dawn.”
䞮㢖㧊㠦 Ṫ㦚 ➢ 㠊ⓦ 䢎䎪㠦 㧞㠞㠊㣪? “When (you) went to Hawaii,
at which hotel did (you) stay?”
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Key
vocabulary
for Unit 19
exercises
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 19 exercises
Ṗ┺ to go
Ṧ₆ ỎⰂ┺ to catch a cold/flu
ṧ㧦₆ suddenly
Ị⍞┺ to cross/to go over
ἆ䢒㔳 wedding ceremony
ἓ₆ game
ἓ㺆 police
ἶ㧻㧊 ⋮┺ to get out of order/to break down
Ἶ┺ to snore
Ὃ⿖ study/learning
ὖ㕂㧊 㠜┺ to be uninterested
₆⿚ feeling/mood
₎ road/street
⊚┺ to switch off/to extinguish
⊩㧊┺ to boil
⋮㊮┺ to be bad/to be wrong
⋶㝾 weather
⋾㧦 man
⍹┺ to put (something) into/to insert
⏎⧮ song
⓼Ợ late
┺䂮┺ to hurt (oneself)/to be wounded
╁┺ to close
╖䞯 college
▻┺ to be hot
☚㤖 help
☞ money
☢⩺㭒┺ to return (a thing)/to give (a thing) back
☢㞚Ṗ┺ to return/to go back
♮┺ to become
✹┺ to listen/to take (a class)
⧒Ⳋ ramyon/instant noodle
Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink
Ⱎ䂮┺ to finish/to accomplish
Ⱔ┺ to be many/to be much
Ⱔ㧊 a lot
ⰻ㭒 beer
ⲏ┺ to eat
⳾㧦 hat
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172
ⶎ door
ⶒ water
⹎⊚⩂㰖┺ to slide
⹪㰖 pants
⹱┺ to receive
⽊┺ to see/to watch
⿖⯊┺ to sing
゚ rain
ザ㰖┺ to fall into/to be drowned
㌂ἶṖ ⋮┺ to have an accident
㌂ⶊ㔺 office
㌞⼓ dawn
㌳㧒 birthday
㍲⮮ documents
㍲㩦 bookstore
㍶ⶒ gift/present
㏢⁞ salt
㑮㠛 class
㑯㩲 homework
㓺䔎⩞㓺 stress
㔲Ṛ hour/time
㔲㧧䞮┺ to start
㔲䋺┺ to order (something from a person)/to force (a person to do)
㔳㌂ meal
㕁㠊䞮┺ to dislike
㕂㕂䞮┺ to be bored
㕎㤆┺ to quarrel/to fight
㞚㧊✺ children
㟓㏣ promise/appointment
㟧⽋ suit/dress
㠊Ⰲ┺ to be juvenile/to be childish
㡆⧓ contact
㡊㐶 keys
㡗䢪 movie
㡺┺ to come
㢍 clothes
㢖㧎 wine
㤆㌆ umbrella
㤊☯ exercises
㤪  salary
㦢㔳 food
㦢㞛 music
㦮㌂ doctor
㧊₆┺ to win/to overcome
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Exercise
19.1
㧊Ⲫ㧒 e-mail
㧒 work
㧒㠊⋮┺ to get up
㧒䞮┺ to work
㧙┺ to lose
㧛┺ to wear/to put on
㧠┺ to forget
㧦┺ to sleep
㧶 sleeping
㧶⁎┺ to lock
㩚❇ electric lamp
㩚䢪 telephone
㩬┺ to get wet
㫡┺ to be good/to be nice
㭖゚ preparation
㫎㠛䞮┺ to graduate
㰖ṗ䞮┺ to be late/to be tardy
㰖┺ to lose/to get defeated
㰧 house
㰲┺ to be salty
㰽┺ to be short
㹾 car/tea
㺓ⶎ window
㺔┺ to look for/to seek for
䀾㰗 employment
䂲ῂ✺ friends
䆪 nose
䞚㣪䞮┺ to be in need of
䟟⽋䞮┺ to be happy
䢪⌊┺ to get angry
䠞Ⰲ waist
䣢㌂ company
䦦Ⰲ┺ to be cloudy
Exercise 19.1
Finish the following translation using ~⓪/(㦒)ච ╖⪲ and the sentence
cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Comply with whatever (they) request.” (㣪ῂ䞮┺ / ✺㠊㭒
㎎㣪)
= 㣪ῂ䞮⓪ ╖⪲ ✺㠊㭒㎎㣪.
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174
1 (We) will do as Simon orders (us to do) (㌂㧊ⴂ㧊 㰖㔲䞮┺ / 䞶 Ệ
㡞㣪)
2 The mail arrived (here) yesterday as (we) expected (₆╖䞮┺ / 䘎㰖Ṗ
㠊㩲 ☚㹿䟞㠊㣪)
3 Will (you) drink as much as (you) want? (Ⱎ㔲ἶ 㕌┺ / Ⱎ㔺 Ệ㡞
㣪?)
4 Sleep as long as (you) want (㧦ἶ 㕌┺ / 㧦㎎㣪)
5 (Let us) eat as much as (we) want (ⲏἶ 㕌┺ / ⲏ㦣㔲┺)
Exercise 19.2
Connect the following two sentences using ~⓪/(㦒)ච ╖⪲. Then translate
the sentence.
Example: Ὃ䟃㠦 ☚㹿䞮┺ / 㩚䢪䟊 㭒㎎㣪
= Ὃ䟃㠦 ☚㹿䞮⓪ ╖⪲ 㩚䢪䟊 㭒㎎㣪.
“Call (me) as soon as (you) arrive at the airport.”
1 㧒㠊⋮┺ / ㌺㤢⯒ 䞶 Ệ㡞㣪
2 㔳㌂⯒ Ⱎ䂮┺ / ㌂ⶊ㔺⪲ ☢㞚Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪?
3 㡊㐶⯒ 㺔┺ / ⟶⋮㎎㣪
4 ㍲⮮⯒ ⹱┺ / 㧒㦚 㔲㧧䞮㕃㔲㡺
5 㺛㦚 ⹱┺ / ☢⩺㭣㔲┺
Exercise 19.3
Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ච 䤚㠦 and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) will buy (it) after (I) look around the store.”
(ṖỢ⯒ ῂἓ䞮┺ / ㌊⧮㣪)
= ṖỢ⯒ ῂἓ䞲 䤚㠦 ㌊⧮㣪.
1 Usually, (I) shave after brushing (my) teeth (⽊䐋 㧊⯒ ┼┺ / Ⳋ☚⯒
䟊㣪)
2 (He) leaves home for work after having breakfast (㞚䂾 㔳㌂⯒ 䞮┺ /
㿲⁒䟊㣪)
3 (She) returned to school after sending the package (㏢䙂⯒ ⽊⌊┺ / 䞯
ᾦ⪲ ☢㞚㢪㠊㣪)
4 (We) will go to the party after buying a gift (㍶ⶒ㦚 ㌂┺ / 䕢䕆㠦 Ṟ
Ệ㡞㣪)
5 (I) want to rest after finishing (my) work (㧒㦚 ⊳⌊┺ / 㓂ἶ 㕌㠊㣪)
175
Exercise
19.4
Exercise 19.4
Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)ච 䤚㠦. Then translate
the sentence.
Example: 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 䅲┺ / 㩚䢪⯒ Ỏ㠞㠊㣪
= 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 䅶 䤚㠦 㩚䢪⯒ Ỏ㠞㠊㣪.
“(I) made a phone call after turning (my) computer on.”
1 ㌺㤢⯒ 䞮┺ / 㧮 Ệ㡞㣪
2 ⶒ㦚 ⊩㧊┺ / ⧒Ⳋ㦚 ⍹㦒㎎㣪
3 ╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䞮┺ / 䀾㰗 㭖゚⯒ 䞮Ỷ㠊㣪
4 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁┺ / 㩚❇㦚 ⊚㕃㔲㡺
5 㧒㦚 Ⱎ䂮┺ / 㰧㠦 Ṫ㔋┞┺
Exercise 19.5
Finish the following translation using ~⓪/(㦒)ච 㻯䞮┺ and the sentence
cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Do not pretend that (you) are drunk.” (㑶㠦 䀾䞮┺)
= 㑶㠦 䀾䞲 㻯䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪.
1 Do not pretend that (you) are sleeping (㧦ἶ 㧞┺)
2 Do not pretend that (you) are working hard (㡊㕂䧞 㧒䞮ἶ 㧞┺)
3 (She) pretends that (she) likes the present (㍶ⶒ㦚 㫡㞚䞮┺)
4 (He) pretended that (he) could swim (㑮㡗䞶 㑮 㧞┺)
5 Will (you) pretend that (you) are an American? (⹎ῃ ㌂⧢㧊┺)
Exercise 19.6
Conjugate the predicate using ~⓪/(㦒)ච 㻯䞮┺. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 䌊⻢ⰂṖ 㞚䝚┺
= 䌊⻢ⰂṖ 㞚䝞 㻯䟊㣪.
“Kimberly pretends that (she) is sick.”
1 㩲㧚㓺Ṗ ゚⹖ ⻞䢎⯒ 㞢┺
2 㰖⋮䞮ἶ ⪲⋶✲Ṗ 䟟⽋䞮┺
3 䕾䔎Ⰳ㧊 䟃㌗ ☞㧊 㠜┺
4 㩲㧚㓺Ṗ 㩲㔲䃊⯒ 㕁㠊䞮┺
5 㞺㍲┞Ṗ Ὃ⿖㠦 ὖ㕂㧊 㠜┺
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Exercise 19.7
Finish the following translation using ~⓪/(㦒)ච Ệ㡞㣪 and the sentence
cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “The fact is that (we) leave for London tomorrow.”
(⌊㧒 ⩆▮㦒⪲ 㿲⹲䞮┺)
= ⌊㧒 ⩆▮㦒⪲ 㿲⹲䞮⓪ Ệ㡞㣪.
1 The fact is that (we) meet the professor together (ᾦ㑮┮㦚 䞾℮
Ⱒ⋮┺)
2 The fact is that (we) all wear contact lenses (㤆Ⰲ ⳾⚦ 䆮䎣䔎 ⩢㯞
⯒ ⋒┺)
3 The fact is that (we) live together from now on (㧊㩲⿖䎆 ṯ㧊 ㌊┺)
4 The fact is that prices are high (ⶒṖṖ ⏨┺)
5 The fact is that George is honest (㫆㰖Ṗ ㏪㰗䞮┺)
6 The fact is that James is smart (㩲㧚㓺Ṗ ⡧⡧䞮┺)
7 The fact is that (they) bought a new car (㌞ 㹾⯒ ㌂┺)
8 The fact is that (he) lost the wallet (㰖ṧ㦚 㧙㠊⻚Ⰲ┺)
9 The fact is that (she) invited Gina to the party as well (㰖⋮☚ 䕢䕆
㠦 㽞㼃䞮┺)
10 The fact is that (he) majored in the Korean language (䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 㩚Ὃ
䞮┺)
Exercise 19.8
Connect the following two sentences using ~⓪ ⹪⧢㠦. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: ₎㧊 Ⱏ䧞┺ / 㟓㏣ 㔲Ṛ㠦 ⓼㠞㠊㣪
= ₎㧊 Ⱏ䧞⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 㟓㏣ 㔲Ṛ㠦 ⓼㠞㠊㣪.
“(I) was late for the appointment, because the road was
congested.”
1 ⓼Ợ 㧒㠊⋮┺ / 㑮㠛㠦 㰖ṗ䟞㠊㣪
2 ṧ㧦₆ ゚Ṗ 㡺┺ / 㢍㧊 㩬㠞㠊㣪
3 㹾Ṗ ἶ㧻㧊 ⋮┺ / 䣢㌂㠦 ⴑ Ṫ㠊㣪
4 Ṧ₆㠦 ỎⰂ┺ / Ὃ⿖⯒ ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪
5 ⹪⧢㧊 ⿞┺ / ⳾㧦⯒ 㧙㠊 ⻚⪎㠊㣪
6 ㏢⁞㦚 Ⱔ㧊 ⍹┺ / 㦢㔳㧊 ⍞ⶊ 㱆㠊㣪
7 䆪⯒ Ἶ┺ / 㧶㦚 ⴑ 㧺㠊㣪
8 ₎㠦㍲ ⹎⊚⩂㰖┺ / 䠞Ⰲ⯒ ┺㼺㠊㣪
9 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ ⋮┺ / 㩚䢪⯒ ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪
10 ㌞⼓㠦 㧒䞮┺ / Ṧ₆㠦 Ỏ⪎㠊㣪
177
Exercise
19.9
Exercise 19.9
Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)ඥ ➢. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: ₎㧊 Ⱏ䧞┺ / 㰖⯚₎㦚 㧊㣿䞿┞┺
= ₎㧊 Ⱏ䧦➢ 㰖⯚₎㦚 㧊㣿䞿┞┺.
“When the roads are congested, (I) use a short cut.”
1 㤪 㦚 ⹱┺ / ₆⿚㧊 㫡㔋┞┺
2 㡗䢪Ṗ 㔲㧧䞮┺ / 䕳䆮㦚 ⲏ㦣㔲┺
3 㑯㩲⯒ 䞮┺ / 㦢㞛㦚 ✹㔋┞₢?
4 ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺ / ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊㕃㔲㡺
5 㓺䎢㧊䋂⯒ ⲏ┺ / 㢖㧎㦚 Ⱎ㕃┞┺
6 㓺䔎⩞㓺Ṗ Ⱔ┺ / 㤊☯㦚 䞮㕃㔲㡺
7 ☚㤖㧊 䞚㣪䞮┺ / 䂲ῂ✺䞲䎢 㡆⧓䞶 ỗ┞┺
8 ἆ䢒㔳㠦 Ṗ┺ / 㟧⽋㦚 㧛㠞㔋┞┺
9 ゚Ṗ 㡺┺ / 㤆㌆㧊 䞚㣪䞿┞┺
10 㔲Ṛ㧊 㧞┺ / 䆪⹎❪ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊㕃㔲㡺
11 ⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦Ⰲ┺ / ₆⿚㧊 ⋮㊿┞┺
12 㡂㧦䂲ῂ ㌳㧒㧊┺ / ⶊ㓾 ㌳㧒 ㍶ⶒ㦚 㭖゚䞿┞₢?
13 㕂㕂䞮┺ / ㍲㩦㠦 ṧ┞┺
14 㠊⪎┺ / 㦮㌂Ṗ ♮ἶ 㕌㠞㔋┞₢?
15 ⋶㝾Ṗ ▻┺ / 㰽㦖 ⹪㰖⯒ 㧛㦣㔲┺
Exercise 19.10
Conjugate the predicate using ~(㦒)ඥ ㄪ䞮┺. Then translate the sentence.
Example: 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ ⋮┺
= 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ ⋶ ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost had a car accident.”
1 䂲ῂ䞮ἶ 㕎㤆┺
2 ⶒ㠦 ザ㰖┺
3 㟓㏣㦚 㧠┺
4 ⶎ㦚 㧶⁎┺
5 Ợ㧚㦚 㰖┺
6 㤆Ⰲ 䕖㧊 ἓ₆⯒ 㧊₆┺
7 ₎㠦㍲ ⹎⊚⩂㰖┺
8 㞚㧊✺䞲䎢 䢪⌊┺
9 㢖㧎㦚 Ⱎ㔲┺
10 ₎㦚 Ị⍞┺
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UNIT 20
Ability and possibility
~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㧞┺/㠜┺
~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㧞┺/㠜┺ is used to indicate an ability or possibility of doing
something. This form is constructed from the noun-modifying ending
~(㦒)ඥ, the noun 㑮 “means/way,” and the verb 㧞┺ “have/exist.” For
negation, 㠜┺ “not have/not exist” is used instead of 㧞┺.
~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㧞┺ is equivalent to English translation “one can do/be” or
“it is possible to,” as shown in the examples below:
䞒㞚⏎⯒ 䂶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can play a piano” or “(It) is possible to
play a piano.”
㍲㤎㠦 Ṟ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can go to Seoul” or “(It) is possible to go to
Seoul.”
⁎ 㺛㦚 㧓㦚 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can read that book” or “(It) is possible to
read that book.”
On the other hand, ~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㠜┺ is used to express “cannot do/be”
or “it is not possible to.”
㰧㠦㍲ Ὃ⿖䞶 㑮 㠜㠊㣪. “(I) cannot study at home” or “(It) is not
possible to study at home.”
䕢䕆㠦 Ṟ 㑮 㠜㠊㣪. “(I) cannot go to the party” or “(It) is not pos-
sible to go to the party.”
ⰺ㧒 㑮㡗䞶 㑮 㠜㠊㣪. “(I) cannot swim everyday” or “(It) is not
possible to swim everyday.”
The meaning of ~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㠜㠊㣪 is similar to that of the negative
expression with ⴑ “cannot/unable.” For instance, compare the following
two sentences:
ニ㦚 ⴑ ⲏ㠊㣪 (or ニ㦚 ⲏ㰖 ⴑ䟊㣪). “(I) cannot eat bread.”
ニ㦚 ⲏ㦚 㑮 㠜㠊㣪. “(I) cannot eat bread” or “(It) is not possible to
eat bread.”
179
~(㦒)ඥ 㭚
㞢┺/⳾⯊┺
Notice that while the first sentence with the negative ⴑ simply emphasizes
one’s inability (e.g., whether one can eat bread or not), the second sentence
with ~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㠜㠊㣪 indicates one’s ability as well as the possibility of
the action (e.g., whether eating bread is possible or not).
When ~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㧞┺/㠜┺ is used with adjectives, it indicates the
possibility of the state or quality, as shown below:
㤪㣪㧒 㔲䠮㧊 㠊⩺㤎 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “(It) is possible that the test on
Monday can be difficult.”
⌊㧒㦮 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤎 㑮 㧞㔋┞┺. “(It) is possible that the tomorrow’s
weather can be cold.”
Meanwhile, some particles, such as ☚ “also,” Ⱒ “only,” and ⹬㠦 “except/
but,” can appear after the noun 㑮 to indicate additional meanings. Consider
the following examples:
⌊㧒㦮 ⋶㝾Ṗ ▪㤎 㑮☚ 㧞㠊㣪. “(It) is possible that the tomorrow’s
weather can be also hot.”
㍲㤎㠦㍲ ㌊ 㑮Ⱒ 㧞┺Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(It) would be wonderful, only if
(I) can live in Seoul.”
Notice that the particle ☚ adds a special meaning of “also” to the first
sentence, and the particle Ⱒ adds a meaning of “only” to the second
sentence.
When the noun 㑮 is followed by the particle ⹬㠦, which means “except/
but,” as in ~(㦒)ඥ 㑮⹬㠦 㠜㠊㣪, it creates an expression of “have no
other way to/can’t help (doing),” as shown below:
䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔺 㑮⹬㠦 㠜㠊㣪. “(I) cannot help drinking coffee.”
ⰺ㧒 㫆ₛ㦚 䞶 㑮⹬㠦 㠜㠊㣪. “(I) cannot help jogging everyday.”
㩲 㰧㦚 䕪 㑮⹬㠦 㠜㠞㠊㣪. “(I) couldn’t help selling my house.”
~(㦒)ඥ 㭚 㞢┺/⳾⯊┺
~(㦒)ඥ 㭚 㞢┺/⳾⯊┺ is used to express a specific ability of the subject,
equivalent to “know how to” in English. This form is constructed from the
noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ඥ, the noun 㭚 “the way (how to),” and the
verb 㞢┺ “know” or ⳾⯊┺ “do not know.”
㢖㧎㦚 Ⱎ㔺 㭚 㞢㞚㣪. “(I) know how to drink wine.”
⍻䌖㧊⯒ ⱂ 㭚 㞢㞮㠊㣪. “(I) knew how to wear a tie.”
㡗㠊⯒ 䞶 㭚 㞢㞚㣪? “(Do you) know how to speak English?”
䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 䞶 㭚 ⴆ⧒㣪. “(I) do not know how to speak Korean.”
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Ability and
possibility
180
䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 Ⱒ✺ 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not know how to make Korean
food.”
☞㦚 㝎 㭚 ⴆ⧒㣪? “Don’t (you) know how to spend money?”
When the subject of ~(㦒)ඥ 㭚 㞢㞮┺/ⴆ⧦┺ is a third person, it
indicates the speaker’s presumed thought, as shown below:
䐆㧊 㢖㧎㦚 Ⱎ㔺 㭚 㞢㞮㠊㣪. “(I) thought that Tom would drink
wine.”
⋶㝾Ṗ ▪㤎 㭚 㞢㞮㠊㣪. “(I) thought that the weather would be
hot.”
┞䆲⧒㓺Ṗ 㧒㦚 㧒㹣 ⊳⌒ 㭚 㞢㞮㠊㣪. “(I) thought that Nicolas would
finish (his) work early.”
㑮㧪㧊 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 䞶 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not think that Susan would
speak Korean.”
䐆㧊 㡂₆㠦 㝆⩞₆⯒ ⻚Ⰺ 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not expect that Tom
would throw the garbage away here.”
㞚⌊Ṗ ⁎ 㰧㦚 㫡㞚䞶 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not think that (my) wife
would like that house.”
~(㦒)ඥ ⰂṖ 㠜┺
~(㦒)ඥ ⰂṖ 㠜┺ is constructed from the noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)
ඥ, the dependent noun Ⰲ “possibility,” the subject particle Ṗ, and the
verb 㠜┺ “not have/not exist.” ~(㦒)ඥ ⰂṖ 㠜┺ indicates that content
of the ~(㦒)ඥ Ⰲ ending clause is not true or far from the reality. It can
be translated as “it is not possible that . . . ” or “there is no possibility that . . . ”
in English.
㞺㰖Ṗ 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṟ ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. “There is no possibility that Angie goes
to Korea.”
⁎ 䂲ῂ✺㧊 ⋮⯒ 㕁㠊䞶 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. “(It) is not possible that those
friends dislike me.”
㡂⯚㠦 䆪䔎⯒ 㧛㦚 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. “(It) is not possible that (she) wears
a coat in summer.”
㔲䠮㧊 㓂㤎 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. “(It) is not possible that the test is easy.”
⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤎 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. “(It) is not possible that the weather is
cold.”
ア㧊 Ṗ⋲䞶 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. “(It) is not possible that Bill is poor.”
⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎Ṗ 㡂㧦㧒 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. “(It) is not possible that (his) room-
mate is a woman.”
181
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 20
exercises
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 20 exercises
ṖỢ store
Ṗ┺ to go
Ṟ㞚䌖┺ to change (cars/trains)
ṯ㧊 together
Ἶ䝚 golf
ₖ䂮 kimchi
⏎⧮ song
ⓦ⋒┺ to feel
╁┺ to close
╖䞯 college
▪㥚 the heat/sun stroke
❪㧦㧎 design
⟶⋮┺ to depart/to take leave of
Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink
Ⱒ✺┺ to make
⹎ῃ U.S.A.
⿖⯊┺ to sing/to call out
㌂‖┺ to make friends
㌳䢲 living/life
㑮㡗䞮┺ to swim
㓓┺ to be easy
㕎┺ to be cheap
㠊⠑Ợ how
㡞㊮┺ to be pretty
㡺⓮ today
㢖㧎 wine
㣪⁞ fee
㤊☯ exercise/sports
㤊㩚䞮┺ to drive
㤪㣪㧒 Monday
㧒⽎ Japan
㧒㹣 early
㧮 well/expertly
㨂⹎㧞┺ to be interesting
㰖䞮㻶 subway
䂮┺ to play (tennis/golf/piano)
䂲ῂ friend
䏶㣪㧒 Saturday
䔎⩃ truck
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Ability and
possibility
182
䘎䞮┺ to be convenient/to be comfortable
䞲ῃ Korea
䡫 older brother
䣢㌂ company
Exercise 20.1
Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㧞┺/ 㠜┺ and the sen-
tence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(They) can repair the car.” (㹾⯒ ἶ䂮┺)
= 㹾⯒ ἶ䂶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
1 (I) can open the store alone (䢒㧦 ṖỢ⯒ 㡊┺)
2 (We) can give a hope to them (⁎✺㠦Ợ 䧂ⰳ㦚 㭒┺)
3 (They) can dance on the stage (ⶊ╖ 㥚㠦㍲ 㿺㦚 㿪┺)
4 (She) cannot sell the house (㰧㦚 䕪┺)
5 (I) cannot solve this math problem (㧊 㑮䞯 ⶎ㩲⯒ 䛖┺)
Exercise 20.2
Conjugate the predicate using ~(㦒)ඥ 㑮 㧞┺. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: ⁎ 㞚㧊䞲䎢 㡗㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂮┺
= ⁎ 㞚㧊䞲䎢 㡗㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
“(I) can teach English to that child.”
1 䔎⩃㦚 㤊㩚䞮┺
2 ▪㥚⯒ ⓦ⋒┺
3 㢖㧎㦚 Ⱎ㔲┺
4 䞲ῃ ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊┺
5 ⹎ῃ 䂲ῂ⯒ ㌂‖┺
Exercise 20.3
Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ඥ 㭚 㞢┺/~(㦒)ඥ 㭚 㞢㞮┺
and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) know how to speak Spanish.” (㓺䗮㧎㠊⯒ 䞮┺)
= 㓺䗮㧎㠊⯒ 䞶 㭚 㞢㞚㣪.
183
Exercise
20.4
1 (I) know how to sing a Japanese song (㧒⽎ ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊┺)
2 (I) know how to make Chinese food (㭧ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 Ⱒ✺┺)
3 (I) thought that Scarlet would have a key (㓺䃒Ⱅ㧊 㡊㐶⯒ Ṗ㰖ἶ
㧞┺)
4 (I) thought (they) would open the store even on Sunday (㧒㣪㧒㠦☚
ṖỢ⯒ 㡊┺)
5 (I) thought that (he) would be in church today (㡺⓮ ᾦ䣢㠦 㧞┺)
Exercise 20.4
Conjugate the predicate using ~(㦒)ඥ 㭚 㞢┺. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 㧒⽎㠊 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓┺
= 㧒⽎㠊 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓㦚 㭚 㞢㞚㣪.
“(I) know how to read Japanese newspapers.”
1 ₖ䂮⯒ Ⱒ✺┺
2 Ἶ䝚⯒ 䂮┺
3 㧦㩚Ệ⯒ 䌖┺
4 㡂₆㍲ 䣢㌂₢㰖 Ṗ┺
5 㑮㡗䞮┺
Exercise 20.5
Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ඥ 㭚 ⴆ⧦┺ and the sentence
cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) did not think that Lisa would order Chinese food.”
(Ⰲ㌂Ṗ 㭧ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 㔲䋺┺)
= Ⰲ㌂Ṗ 㭧ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 㔲䌂 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪.
1 (I) did not think that Jerry would be popular (㩲ⰂṖ 㥶ⳛ䞮┺)
2 (I) did not think that Professor Chang would be a Korean (㧻 ᾦ㑮
┮㧊 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊┺)
3 (We) did not think that Kate would study well (䅖㧊䔎Ṗ Ὃ⿖⯒ 㧮
䞮┺)
4 (I) did not think that (she) would have a boyfriend (⋾㧦 䂲ῂṖ
㧞┺)
5 (I) did not think that George would be a policeman (㫆㰖Ṗ ἓ㺆ὖ
㧊┺)
20
Ability and
possibility
184
Exercise 20.6
Conjugate the predicate using ~(㦒)ඥ 㭚 ⴆ⧦┺. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: Ⰲ㌂Ṗ ☛㧒 ㌂⧢㧊┺
= Ⰲ㌂Ṗ ☛㧒 ㌂⧢㧒 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪.
“(I) did not think that Lisa would be a German.”
1 䡫㧊 㤪㣪㧒㠦 㧒⽎㦒⪲ Ṗ┺
2 ⰺ䓲Ṗ 䏶㣪㧒㠦 ṖỢ⯒ 㧒㹣 ╁┺
3 㑮㧪㧊 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṗ┺
4 ㌂㧊Ⲓ㧊 㤊☯㦚 㧮 䞮┺
5 㺆㓺Ṗ 㡺⓮ ⩆▮㦒⪲ ⟶⋮┺
Exercise 20.7
Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ඥ ⰂṖ 㠜┺ and the sentence
cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “There is no possibility that Paul is a college student.”
(䙊㧊 ╖䞯㌳㧊┺)
= 䙊㧊 ╖䞯㌳㧒 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪.
1 There is no possibility that the dress size fits (㢍 ㌂㧊㯞Ṗ ⰴ┺)
2 There is no possibility that the weather is nice (⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡┺)
3 There is no possibility that the movie is interesting (⁎ 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎
㧞┺)
4 There is no possibility that Andrew is lazy (㞺✲⮮Ṗ Ợ㦒⯊┺)
5 There is no possibility that William majors in Korean history (㥢Ⰲ㠚
㧊 䞲ῃ 㡃㌂⯒ 㩚Ὃ䞮┺)
Exercise 20.8
Conjugate the predicate using ~(㦒)ඥ ⰂṖ 㠜┺. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 㩲㧊㓾㧊 ☞㧊 Ⱔ┺
= 㩲㧊㓾㧊 ☞㧊 Ⱔ㦚 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪.
“There is no possibility that Jason has a lot of money.”
185
Exercise
20.8
1 ╖䞯 ㌳䢲㧊 㨂⹎㧞┺
2 㰖䞮㻶㧊 䘎䞮┺
3 䎢┞㓺Ṗ 㓓┺
4 䌳㔲 㣪⁞㧊 㕎┺
5 ❪㧦㧎㧊 㡞㊮┺
186
UNIT 21
Indirect question form
Questions can be either direct or indirect.
Direct question: “What does Peter drink?”
Indirect question: “Do you know what Peter drinks?”
In English the indirect question is often marked by the relative clause,
introduced by question words such as “whether,” “what,” “where,” and
“which.” Notice in the second example above that the actual question is
a relative clause (e.g., what Peter drinks), which is marked by the question
word “what.”
This unit introduces the form ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ㰖, which is used to
construct indirect questions in Korean as well as to indicate the speaker’s
uncertain or wondering mindset.
Indirect question
The form ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ㰖 consists of one of three noun-modifying
endings and the special noun 㰖 “whether/given the state of being/since
then/until.”
~⓪㰖 is used after a verb stem for the present meaning (e.g., ⲏ┺ =>
ⲏ⓪㰖); ~(㦒)ච㰖 is used after an adjective/copula stem for the present
meaning (e.g., 㧧┺ => 㧧㦖㰖); ~(㦒)ඥ㰖 is used after a verb or adjective/
copula stem for the unrealized or prospective meaning (e.g., Ṗ⯊䂮┺ =>
Ṗ⯊䂶㰖; ⹪㊮┺ => ⹪㊶㰖). For a verb as well as adjective/copula in
the past meaning, ~㠞/㞮⓪㰖 is used (e.g., ⲏ┺ => ⲏ㠞⓪㰖; 㧧┺ =>
㧧㞮⓪㰖).
~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ㰖 is often used with certain verbs or adjectives, such
as 㞢┺ “know,” ⳾⯊┺ “do not know,” and ῗ⁞䞮┺ “curious.” Consider
the following two sentences:
㧊㌂⻾㧊 ⳝ 㔲㠦 ☢㞚㢖㣪? “What time does Isabel return?”
㧊㌂⻾㧊 ⳝ 㔲㠦 ☢㞚㡺⓪㰖 㞢㞚㣪? “Do (you) know what time Isabel
returns?”
187
Indirect
question
The first sentence is a direct question, and the second sentence is an
indirect question. Notice in the second sentence that ~⓪㰖 is used after
the verb stem (e.g., ☢㞚㡺 + ⓪㰖), and followed by the verb 㞢┺.
The use of the adverb 㠒Ⱎ⋮ “how much/many” with the form ~⓪/
(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ 㰖 may add an exclamatory sense to the content, as shown
below:
◆㧊キ㧊 㣪㯞㦢 㠒Ⱎ⋮ 㡊㕂䧞 㔲䠮 Ὃ⿖⯒ 䞮⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you)
know how hard David studies for tests nowadays?”
⁎ 㹾Ṗ 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ゚㕒㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know how expensive that
car is?”
Here are more examples.
After the verb stem in the present meaning
䙊㧊 㠊❪㠦 Ṗἶ 㧞⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know where Paul is going
to?”
㠦Ⰲ䃊Ṗ 㠊❪㠦 ㌂⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know where Erica lives?”
After the adjective or copula stem in the present meaning
䢎⏖⭆⬾㦮 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㠒Ⱎ⋮ 㫡㦖㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know how nice
Honolulu’s weather is?”
⁎✺㧊 䟟⽋䞲㰖 ῗ⁞䟊㣪? “Are (you) curious whether they are
happy?”
ぢ⧮✲Ṗ ⑚ῂ㧎㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know who Brad is?”
After the verb, adjective and/or copula stem in the past meaning
㞺㰖Ṗ 㠊㩲 ⶊ㠝㦚 䟞⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know what Angie did
yesterday?”
㠊㩲 ⹺ ⳝ 㔲₢㰖 Ὃ⿖䟞⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know what time (he)
studied until last night?”
㰖⋲ 㭒㠦 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ⹪ナ⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know how busy (I) was
last week?”
㔲䠮㧊 㠒Ⱎ⋮ 㠊⩺㤶⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know how hard the test
was?”
After the verb, adjective and/or copula stem in the prospective
meaning
䋂Ⰲ㓺䕊㧊 ⳝ 㔲㠦 㿲⁒䞶㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know at what time
Christine will go to work?”
⁎ 㹾Ṗ 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ゚㕖㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know how expensive that
car will be?”
21
Indirect
question
form
188
Indicating a speculative mindset
When ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ㰖 is used in a non-interrogative sentence, it
indicates the speaker’s speculative or uncertain mindset. Consider the
following sentence:
䃦䕆Ṗ ⳝ 㔲㠦 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ⓪㰖 ⴆ⧒㣪. “(I) do not know what time
Cathy goes to school.”
Notice that ⳝ 㔲㠦 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ⓪㰖 “what time Cathy goes to school”
implies the speaker’s wondering mindset. Here are more examples:
㞶䝢㦚 㝆⓪㰖 !C ⯒ 㝆⓪㰖 ₆㠋㧊 㞞 ⋮㣪. “(I) do not remember
whether (he) uses an Apple or a PC.”
㡺ザṖ 㠊❪㍲ ㌂⓪㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know where (my) older
brother lives.”
㫊䞲䎢 ⁎ 㺛㧊 ゚㕒㰖 ⶒ㠊⽊㎎㣪. “Ask John whether that book is
expensive.”
㔲䠮㧊 㠒Ⱎ⋮ 㠊⩺㤊㰖 ⴆ⧒㣪. “(They) do not know how difficult the
test is.”
㰖⹎ 㓺⹎㓺Ṗ ⑚ῂ㧎㰖 ⴆ⧒㣪. “(I) do not know who Jimmy Smith
is.”
㡺⓮ 㠊ⓦ 䕖㧊 㧊₎㰖 ῗ⁞䟊㣪. “(I) am curious which team will win
today.”
┺㦢 䞯₆㠦 㠊⟺ 㑮㠛㦚 ✺㦚㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) am not sure what
kind of courses (I) will take next semester.”
㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㧞㦚㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㔋┞┺. “(I) am not sure whether the food will
be tasty.”
㡊㐶⯒ 㠊❪㠦 Ṧ㿪㠞⓪㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know where (she)
hid the key.”
⁎ 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㧞㠞⓪㰖 㧊㟒₆䟊 㭒㎎㣪. “Please tell (us) whether
that movie was interesting.”
㧧⎚ Ỿ㤎㧊 㠒Ⱎ⋮ 㿪㤶⓪㰖 ⳾⯒ Ệ㡞㣪. “(They probably) do not
know how cold the last winter was.”
~㠊/㞚㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊┺
The form ~㠊/㞚㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊┺ is used when the speaker is uncertain
about what he/she must do. This form is constructed from ~㠊/㞚㟒 䞮┺
“must/should,” the form ~(㦒)ඥ㰖, and the verb ⳾⯊┺ “do not know/be
unaware of.”
㩲┞䗒㦮 㧊㟒₆⯒ ⹕㠊㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know whether
(I) should believe Jennifer’s story.”
189
~(㦒)ච㰖 . . .
♮┺/㰖⋮┺
⁎ ⋾㧦⯒ Ἒ㏣ Ⱒ⋮㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know whether (I)
should continue to meet with that man.”
~㠊/㞚㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊┺ is often used with a question word, such as ⶊ㠝
“what,” 㠎㩲 “when,” and 㠊❪ “where,” as shown below:
Ⲓ㩖 ⶊ㠝㦚 ㌂㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know what (I) have to
buy first.”
㠎㩲 ⿖䌗㦚 䟊㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know when (I) should
ask for a favor.”
゚Ṗ 㡺⓪◆ 㤆㌆㦚 ㌂⩂ 㠊❪⪲ Ṗ㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(It) rains, but
(I) do not know where (I) should go to buy an umbrella.”
~(㦒)ච㰖 . . . ♮┺/㰖⋮┺
The form ~(㦒)ච㰖 . . . ♮┺/㰖⋮┺ is constructed from ~(㦒)ච㰖, and the
verb ♮┺ “become” (or the verb 㰖⋮┺ “pass/elapse”). The ~(㦒)ච 㰖 . . .
♮┺/㰖⋮┺ is used to express the amount of time that has elapsed since
a certain temporal point, and it can be translated as “since” in English.
ぢ⧒㧊㠎䞲䎢 㩚䢪⯒ 䞲㰖 ㌒ 㭒Ṗ ♦㠊㣪. “(It) has been three weeks
since (I) called Brian.”
Ṗ㦚 䞯₆Ṗ 㔲㧧䞲㰖 ㌒ 㧒㧊 㰖⌂㠊㣪. “(It) has been three days since
the fall semester began.”
㍲㤎㠦 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮⩂ 㡾㰖 㧒 ⎚㧊 㰖⌂㠊㣪. “(It) has been a
year since (I) came to Seoul to study Korean.”
Ἶ䝚⯒ ⺆㤊㰖 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ♦㠊㣪? “How long has (it) been, since (you)
learned golf?”
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 21 exercises
ṖỢ store
Ṗ┺ to go
Ṧ₆ cold/flu
Ὃ⿖ study
₆┺Ⰲ┺ to wait
₎ road
⋶㝾 weather
⑞ snow
⓼┺ to be late
╁┺ to close
21
Indirect
question
form
190
▻┺ to be hot
☚㹿䞮┺ to arrive
⟶⋮┺ to leave/to depart
Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink
Ⱏ䧞┺ to be blocked/to be held up
Ⱔ㧊 a lot
ⲏ┺ to eat
ⶎ㩲 problem
⹿ room
⻞䢎 number
⽊┺ to see/to watch/to read
゚䟟₆ airplane
㌊ age/one’s years
㔲⊚⩓┺ to be noisy
㔲㧧䞮┺ to begin
㔲䠮 test/examination
㕎┺ to be cheap/to be inexpensive
㠊⪋┺ to be difficult
㡂㧦 䂲ῂ girlfriend
㡗䢪 movie
㡺┺ to come
㣪㯞㦢 nowadays
㤊☯ exercise/sports
㦢㔳 food
㧊䔖 two days
㧒䞮┺ to work
㨂⹎㧞Ợ interestingly
㩖⎗ dinner
㩚䢪 telephone
㩦㕂 lunch
㰧 house
㰲┺ to be salty
㹾 car
䀾㰗䞮┺ to get employed
䂋 floor
䌖┺ to ride
䕪┺ to sell
䘎㰖 letter
䛖┺ to solve
䞯ᾦ school
䠺㠊㰖┺ to break up
䢪㧻㔺 toilet
䣢㌂ company
191
Exercise
21.1
Exercise 21.1
Connect the following two sentences using ~⓪/(㦒)ච㰖. Then translate
the sentence.
Example: ⳝ 㔲㠦 ㌂ⶊ㔺⪲ ☢㞚Ṗ㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
= ⳝ 㔲㠦 ㌂ⶊ㔺⪲ ☢㞚Ṗ⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪?
“Do (you) know what time (they) return to the office?”
1 㩲ⰂṖ ⳝ ㌊㧊㠦㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
2 㡗䢪Ṗ ⳝ 㔲㠦 㔲㧧䟊㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
3 㠊❪㠦㍲ 㧒䟊㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
4 㠊❪㠦㍲ ⻚㓺⯒ 䌖㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
5 㩲㧚㓺㦮 ⹿㧊 ⳝ 䂋㠦 㧞㠊㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
6 㭚ⰂṖ 㢲 䕢Ⰲ⪲ ⟶⋮㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
7 㰧㧊 㢲 㔲⊚⩂㤢㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
8 ⹿㧊 㢲 ▪㤢㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
9 㧊 ῃ㧊 㢲 㰲㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
10 㧊 䅊䜾䎆Ṗ 㢲 㕎㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
Exercise 21.2
Connect the following two sentences using ~(㦒)ඥ㰖. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: ⳝ 㔲㠦 㧒㦚 Ⱎ㼦㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
ⳝ 㔲㠦 㧒㦚 Ⱎ䂶㰖 㞚㎎㣪?
“Do (you) know what time (they) will finish (their)
work?”
1 Ⱎ㧊䋊㧊 ⶊ㓾 㧒㦚 䟊㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
2 㠊❪㍲ 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㠊㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
3 㣪㯞㦢 ⪲Ⱎ㦮 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㠊➢㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
4 ゚䟟₆Ṗ Ὃ䟃㠦 ⳝ 㔲㠦 ☚㹿䟊㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
5 ⌊㧒 ⳝ 㔲㠦 ṖỢ⯒ ╁㞚㣪? / 㞚㎎㣪?
Exercise 21.3
Finish the following translation using ~⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪 and
the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
21
Indirect
question
form
192
Example: “(I) do not know why Edward went to Korea.”
(㠦✲㤢✲Ṗ 㢲 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṗ┺)
= 㠦✲㤢✲Ṗ 㢲 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṫ⓪㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪.
1 (I) do not know whether Paul passed the test (䙊㧊 㔲䠮㠦 䞿ỿ䞮
┺)
2 (I) do not know where (they) have a wedding ceremony (㠊❪㍲ ἆ
䢒㔳㦚 䞮┺)
3 (I) do not know what (I) should buy (ⶮ ㌂㟒 䞮┺)
4 (I) do not know what (her) name is (㧊⯚㧊 ⶊ㠝㧊┺)
5 (I) do not know when (I) should marry (㠎㩲 ἆ䢒㦚 䟊㟒 䞮┺)
6 (I) do not know when the package will arrive (㠎㩲 ㏢䙂Ṗ ☚㹿䞮
┺)
7 (I) do not know whether Peter has a car (䙊㧊 㹾Ṗ 㧞┺)
8 (I) do not know whether the test was easy (㔲䠮㧊 㓓┺)
9 (I) do not know whether the price is expensive (Ṗỿ㧊 ゚㕎┺)
10 (I) do not know how heavy the bag will be (Ṗ⹿㧊 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ⶊỗ┺)
Exercise 21.4
Translate the following into English.
Example: 㠒Ⱎ⋮ 㰦㧊 ⶊỆ㤊㰖 ⴑ Ṗ㪎㢪㠊㣪.
= “How heavy the load was, (I) could not bring (it).”
1 㠒Ⱎ⋮ 㰧㧊 㔲⊚⩂㤊㰖 Ὃ⿖⯒ ⴑ 䞮Ỷ㠊㣪
2 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ₎㧊 Ⱏ䡪⓪㰖 䕢䕆㠦 T 㔲Ṛ㧊⋮ ⓼㠞㠊㣪
3 㠒Ⱎ⋮ 㔲䠮㧊 㠊⩺㤶⓪㰖 䞲 ⶎ㩲☚ ⴑ 䛖㠞㠊㣪
4 㠒Ⱎ⋮ 㡗䢪⯒ 㨂⹎㧞Ợ ⽊⓪㰖 䢪㧻㔺☚ 㞞 Ṗ㣪
5 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ⑞㧊 Ⱔ㧊 㡺⓪㰖 䞯ᾦ㠦 ⴑ Ṟ ộ ṯ㞚㣪
Exercise 21.5
Conjugate the predicate using ~㠊/㞚㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊┺. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: 㠎㩲 㰧㦒⪲ ☢㞚Ṗ┺
= 㠎㩲 㰧㦒⪲ ☢㞚Ṗ㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪.
“(I) am not sure when (I) should return home.”
1 ⳝ 㔲₢㰖 ₆┺Ⰲ┺
2 㠊ⓦ 㹾⯒ ㌂┺
3 㠒Ⱎ㠦 㰧㦚 䕪┺
193
Exercise
21.6
4 㢲 㡂㧦 䂲ῂ㢖 䠺㠊㰖┺
5 ⶊ㠝㦚 Ⱎ㔲┺
Exercise 21.6
Finish the following translation using ~(㦒)ච㰖 . . . ♮┺ and the cues pro-
vided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(It) has been three days since my back hurts.” (䠞ⰂṖ 㞚
䝚┺ / ´ 㧒)
= 䠞ⰂṖ 㞚䝞㰖 ´ 㧒㧊 ♦㠊㣪.
1 (It) has been 4 days since snow started falling (⑞㧊 㡺₆ 㔲㧧䞮┺ /
1 㧒)
2 (It) has been a year since (we) moved to Canada (䃦⋮┺⪲ 㧊㌂㡺
┺ / T ⎚)
3 (It) has been 3 weeks since (I) learned Korean (䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤆┺ /
´ 㭒)
4 (It) has been 6 months since (I) quitted smoking (╊⺆⯒ ⊠┺ / o Ṳ
㤪)
5 (It) has been 10 minutes since (I) began cooking (㣪Ⰲ⯒ 㔲㧧䞮┺ /
T0 ⿚)
6 (It) has been 2 days since (I) bought the car (㹾⯒ ㌂┺ / 㧊䔖)
7 (It) has been a week since Jennifer left for London (㩲┞䗒Ṗ ⩆▮㦒
⪲ ⟶⋮┺ / 㧒 㭒㧒)
8 How long has (it) been since (you) had a hair cut? (ⲎⰂ⯒ 㧦⯊┺ /
㠒Ⱎ⋮ ♦㠊㣪?)
9 How long has (it) been since (you) returned home? (㰧㠦 ☢㞚㡺┺ /
㠒Ⱎ⋮ ♦㠊㣪?)
10 How long has (it) been since (you) last saw him? (⁎⯒ Ⱎ㰖Ⱏ㦒⪲
⽊┺ / 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ♦㠊㣪?)
Exercise 21.7
Write a sentence using the cues provided and ~(㦒)ච㰖 . . . ♮┺, as shown
in the example. Then translate the sentence.
Example: ◆┞㠮㧊 䞲ῃ㦒⪲ ⟶⋮┺ / ´ 㧒
= ◆┞㠮㧊 䞲ῃ㦒⪲ ⟶⋲㰖 ´ 㧒㧊 ♦㠊㣪.
“(It) has been three days since Daniel left for Korea.”
21
Indirect
question
form
194
1 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ┺ / z 㔲Ṛ
2 Ṧ₆ ỎⰂ┺ / 㧊䔖
3 䘎㰖⯒ ⹱┺ / T 㭒㧒
4 㤊☯㦚 㔲㧧䞮┺ / 1 㧒
5 䀾㰗䞮┺ / T ⎚
195
UNIT 22
The retrospective suffix
~▪
The retrospective suffix ▪ indicates a speaker’s past observation and/or
experience. This unit introduces several grammatical forms that incorporate
the suffix ▪. These patterns include a sentence-ending, a noun-modifying
ending, and clausal conjunctives.
~▪⧒ῂ㣪
The sentence ending ~▪⧒ῂ㣪 is primarily used in spoken commun-
ication. The ending is constructed from the retrospective suffix ▪, the
statement suffix ⧒, the quotation particle ῂ (the informal counterpart
of ἶ), and the politeness marker 㣪.
~▪⧒ῂ㣪 is used to report what a speaker has experienced or observed.
It also stresses the authenticity of the speaker’s experience and adds
meanings such as “I am telling you” and “you know.” Consider the follow-
ing examples:
ἓ䂮Ṗ 㞚㭒 㞚⯚╋▪⧒ῂ㣪. “(I am telling you that) the scenery was
really beautiful.”
㫊㧊 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 㧮 䞮▪⧒ῂ㣪. “John spoke Korean well (you know).”
Notice in the examples above that the ending ~▪⧒ῂ㣪 emphasizes
the validity of the speaker’s experiences or observation. Here are more
examples:
㰧㧊 㩫Ⱖ 䋂▪⧒ῂ㣪. “The house was really huge (you know).”
⋮⓪ 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㧊 㩲㧒 ⰱ㧞▪⧒ῂ㣪. “As for me, the Korean food was
the most delicious (you know).”
Ịṫ㦚 㥚䟊㍲ ⰺ㧒 㟒㺚Ⱒ ⲏ▪⧒ῂ㣪. “For the sake of health, (they)
ate only vegetables (you know).”
22
The
retrospective
suffix
196
~▮
In Unit 16, three Korean noun-modifying endings, ~⓪, ~(㦒)ච, and ~(㦒)
ඥ were introduced. It was noted that any phrase (whether it be an adjec-
tive or a verb) can be made into a modifier by attaching a noun-modifying
ending to the stem of the predicate. Korean has one more noun-modifying
ending, ~▮. It is the retrospective noun-modifying ending that indicates
a speaker’s past experience and/or observation of the action or state. When
it is used with a verb stem, the ending ~▮ indicates an habitual action in
the past. When it is used with an adjective stem, it implies that the past
state that no longer exists.

Verb Verb stem + ▮
Ⱒ⋮┺ “meet” Ⱒ⋮▮ 㡂㧦 “the woman that (I) used to meet”
ⲏ┺ “eat” ⲏ▮ 㦢㔳 “the food that (I) used to eat”
㺔┺ “find” 㺔▮ ㌂⧢ “the person that (I) used to look for”
㧓┺ “read” 㧓▮ 㺛 “the book that (I) used to read”
Adjective Adjective stem + ▮
㡞㊮┺ “pretty” 㡞㊮▮ ↙ “the flower that used to be pretty”
㫆㣿䞮┺ “quiet” 㫆㣿䞮▮ ⹿ “the room that used to be quiet”
㥶ⳛ䞮┺ “famous” 㥶ⳛ䞮▮ ⏎⧮ “the song that used to be
popular”
㠊⪋┺ “difficult” 㠊⪋▮ 㔲䠮 “the test that used to be difficult”
One can make the past action or state even more temporarily remote
by using it with the past tense marker 㠞/㞮 as in 㠞/㞮▮. Compare the
following two sentences:
䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮▮ 䞯㌳ “the student who used to study the Korean
language.”
䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䟞▮ 䞯㌳ “the student who used to study the Korean
language (a long time ago).”
Here are more examples:
㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓▮ ㌂⧢ “the person who used to read the newspaper.”
㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓㠞▮ ㌂⧢ “the person who used to read the newspaper (a
long time ago).”
㠊⚷▮ ⹿ “the room that used to be dark.”
㠊⚦㤶▮ ⹿ “the room that used to be dark (a long time ago).”
197
~▪┞
~▪┞
The clausal conjunctive ~▪┞, consisting of the retrospective suffix ▪ and
the suffix ┞, means “but (now)/as/since/and as a result.” The conjunctive
~▪┞ is used when the speaker recollects what he/she has directly observed
or experienced. Consider the following examples:
㠊㩲⓪ ⋶㝾Ṗ ▻▪┞ 㡺⓮㦖 㿻⍺㣪. “As for yesterday, the weather
was hot, but as for today, (it) is cold.”
㞚䂾㠦 ⑞㧊 㡺▪┞ 㧊㩲 ゚Ṗ 㢖㣪. “(It) snowed in the morning, but
(it) rains now.”
Notice in the first example that the ~▪┞ ending clause (e.g., the weather
was hot) is based on the speaker’s direct experience. In the second ex-
ample, the first clause with ▪┞ (e.g., snow in the morning) is based on
the speaker’s direct observation.
Since ~▪┞ involves the speaker’s past observation/experience, it
implies the past connotation. Consequently, the use of the past tense marker
㠞/㞮 would be optional for the past action or state. Consider the follow-
ing examples:
䘎㰖⯒ 㧓▪┞ 㤙₆ 㔲㧧䟞㠊㣪. “As (she) read the letter, (she) began
to laugh.”
ⰺ㧒 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮▪┞ Ịṫ䟊㪢⍺㣪. “Since (you) have jogged everyday,
(now I see that you) became healthy.”
㠊Ⲏ┞㢖 㩚䢪䞮▪┞, 㤎₆ 㔲㧧䟞㠊㣪. “As (he) talked to (his) mother
over the phone, (he) began to cry.”
Notice in the examples above that only the main clauses are conjugated
for the past tense.
When ~▪┞ is used with the past tense marker 㠞/㞮, as in ~㠞/㞮
▪┞, the speaker’s past observation/experience sounds even more tem-
porarily distant.
㞚䂾㦚 Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ㠞▪┞ ⺆Ṗ 㞚䕢㣪. “Since (I) ate a lot of breakfast,
(my) stomach aches.”
㰧㠦 Ṫ▪┞ 㞚ⶊ☚ 㠜㠞㠊㣪. “(I) went home, but nobody was
there.”
⹺ ⓼Ợ₢㰖 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 ⽺▪┞ 䞒Ἲ䟊㣪. “Since (I) watched TV until
late at night, (I) feel tired.”
22
The
retrospective
suffix
198
~㠞/㞮▪⧒Ⳋ
The clausal conjunctive ~㠞/㞮▪⧒Ⳋ means “if (something had/had not
been the case).” This conjunctive is constructed from the past tense marker
㠞/㞮, the retrospective suffix ▪, the statement suffix ⧒, and the conjunc-
tive ~(㦒)Ⳋ “if.” The conjunctive ~㠞/㞮▪⧒Ⳋ is used when the speaker
wishes to express a sense of regret or supposition. Consider the following
examples:
╊⺆⯒ 㞞 䞒㤶▪⧒Ⳋ ▪ Ịṫ䟞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that he)
did not smoke, (he) would have been healthier.”
⁎ ➢ ╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䟞▪⧒Ⳋ ▪ 㫡㦖 㰗㧻㦚 Ṗ㰞 㑮 㧞㠞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If
(it was the case that I) graduated from college at that time, (I) could
have had a better job.”
Notice that the main clauses of both examples indicate the sense of
disappointment or assumption. Here are more examples:
⁎ ⋶ 䞯ᾦ㠦 㞞 Ṫ▪⧒Ⳋ 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ 㞞 ⌂㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case
that I) didn’t go to school on that day, the car accident might not have
occurred.”
㩲㧎㦚 ▪ 㧒㹣 Ⱒ⌂▪⧒Ⳋ Ⰲ㌂䞮ἶ ἆ䢒 㞞 䟞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was
the case that he) met Jane earlier, (he) might not have married Lisa.”
ᾦ㑮┮㦮 㫆㠎㧊 㠜㠞▪⧒Ⳋ 䢪ṖṖ 㞞 ♦㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case
that) there was not the professor’s advice, (he) might not have become
a painter.”
~▪⧒☚
The clausal conjunctive ~▪⧒☚ means “even though (it may be the case).”
It is constructed from the retrospective suffix ▪, and the clausal con-
junctive ~㠊/㞚☚ “although.” This conjunctive is used when the speaker
acknowledges the content of the ~▪⧒☚ ending clause but stresses that
the following clause must be the case. Consider the following example:
゚Ṗ 㡺▪⧒☚ Ↄ ṖỢ㠦 ✺⯊㎎㣪. “Even though (it) may rain, stop
by the store for sure.”
Notice that the content of the first clause is acknowledged but the content
of the main clause is highlighted (e.g., stopping by the store). Here are
more examples:
199
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 22
exercises
₎㧊 Ⱏ䧞▪⧒☚ ệ㩫䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. “Even though the road may get
congested, do not worry (about it).”
㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㰖▪⧒☚ 㫢㩞䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. “Even though (you) may fail
the test, do not be discouraged.”
䂲ῂ⯒ ⴑ Ⱒ⋮▪⧒☚ 㡂₆㍲ ₆┺Ⰺ Ệ㡞㣪. “Even though (I) may not
be able to meet (my) friend, (I) will wait (for her) here.”
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 22 exercises
Ṗ┺ to go
Ṗ㪎㡺┺ to bring
ṯ㧊 together
ἶ₆ meat
ᾦ⽋ school uniform
₆┺Ⰲ┺ to wait
₆⿚ feeling/mood
Ↄ surely
⋮㊮┺ to be bad/to be wrong
⋮㡺┺ to come out
╖䞯ᾦ college
☞ money
☯⬢ colleague
✲⧒Ⱎ drama
⟶⋮┺ to depart/to take leave of/to leave
Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink
Ⱒ⋮┺ to meet
ⰻ㭒 beer
ⲎⰂ head
ⲏ┺ to eat
ⶊỗ┺ to be heavy
⹮㰖 (a finger) ring
⺆㤆┺ to learn
⼧㤦 hospital
⽊┺ to see/to watch/to read
⿖㰖⩆䞮┺ to be diligent
㌂‖┺ to make friends/to go out with
㌂┺ to buy
㌂⧢ person/people
㌂㧻 president (of company)/CEO
㌊┺ to live
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The
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200
㏢㍺㺛 novel
㔂䝚┺ to be sad
㔲⊚⩓┺ to be noisy
㞚䂾 morning/breakfast
㞚䕢䔎 apartment
㞚䝚┺ to be sore
㟓 medicine
㠊㩲 yesterday
㡂㧦 woman
㡗䢪 movie
㡺ザ older brother
㡺䤚 afternoon
㣪Ⰲ䞮┺ to cook
㤎┺ to cry
㤙┺ to smile
㦢㔳 food
㧊⻞ 㭒 this week
㨂⹎㠜┺ to be uninteresting
㩚㠦 before
㫆㣿䞮┺ to be quiet
㫎┺ to doze off
㭧䞯ᾦ middle school
㯦Ỿ willingly/frequently
㰖⋲ 㭒 last week
㰧 house
㹾 car
㺛 book
䂲ῂ friend
䏶㣪㧒 Saturday
䞒Ἲ䞮┺ to be tired
䞲ῃ㠊 the Korean language
䣢㌂ company/firm
Exercise 22.1
Finish the following translation using ~▪⧒ῂ㣪 and the sentence cue
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(They) served various side dishes (you know)”
(㡂⩂Ṗ㰖 ⹮㺂㦚 㭒┺)
= 㡂⩂Ṗ㰖 ⹮㺂㦚 㭒▪⧒ῂ㣪.
Exercise
22.2
201
1 There were many customers (you know) (㏦┮㧊 Ⱔ┺)
2 The service was great (you know) (㍲゚㓺Ṗ 㫡┺)
3 The apartment rent was expensive (you know) (㞚䕢䔎㎎Ṗ ゚㕎┺)
4 (It) took five hours (you know) (┺㎅ 㔲Ṛ ỎⰂ┺)
5 The house was huge (you know) (㰧㧊 䋂┺)
Exercise 22.2
Conjugate the predicate using ~▪⧒ῂ㣪. Then translate the sentence.
Example: ⳾⚦ ⹪㊮┺
= ⳾⚦ ⹪㊮▪⧒ῂ㣪. “Everyone was busy (you know).”
1 㥢Ⰲ㠚㧊 ⿖㰖⩆䞮┺
2 㑮㧪㦮 㡺ザṖ 䣢㌂ ㌂㧻㧊┺
3 䐆㧊 䌳㔲⯒ ₆┺Ⰲ┺
4 㩲㧎㦮 ㌳㧒㧊 㠊㩲㧊┺
5 䃦㍲Ⰶ㧊 ⹮㰖⯒ ㌂ἶ 㧞┺
Exercise 22.3
Finish the following translation using ~▮ and the cues provided in par-
enthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “The friend that (I) used to study with.”
(ṯ㧊 Ὃ⿖䞮┺ / 䂲ῂ)
= ṯ㧊 Ὃ⿖䞮▮ 䂲ῂ
1 The song that (I) used to listen to (✹┺ / ⏎⧮)
2 The bicycle that (I) used to ride (䌖┺ / 㧦㩚Ệ)
3 The company that (we) used to work for (㧒䞮┺ / 䣢㌂)
4 The food that (we) used to like (㫡㞚䞮┺ / 㦢㔳)
5 The toothbrush that (you) used to use (㝆┺ / 䃁㏪)
6 The man who used to be brave (㝿㝿䞮┺ / ⋾㧦)
7 The skin that used to be soft (⿖✲⩓┺ / 䞒⿖)
8 The room that used to be dark (㠊⚷┺ / ⹿)
9 The weather that used to be warm (➆⦑䞮┺ / ⋶㝾)
10 The store that used to be crowded with customers (㏦┮㦒⪲ ⿦゚┺ /
ṖỢ)
22
The
retrospective
suffix
202
Exercise 22.4
Respond to each question using ~▮ and the cues provided in parenthesis,
as shown in the example. Then translate the response.
Example: 㡂₆Ṗ 㠊❪㡞㣪? (⌊Ṗ ┺┞┺ / ἶ❇䞯ᾦ)
= ⌊Ṗ ┺┞▮ ἶ❇䞯ᾦ㡞㣪.
“(It) is the high school that I used to attend.”
1 㧊 㺛㦖 ⶦ㡞㣪? (╖䞯ᾦ ➢ 㧓┺ / ㏢㍺㺛)
2 㩖 ㌂⧢㦖 ⑚ῂ㡞㣪? (㌂‖┺ / 㡂㧦 䂲ῂ)
3 㧊 ✲⧒Ⱎ⓪ ⶊ㓾 ✲⧒Ⱎ㡞㣪? (䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㯦Ỿ ⽊┺ / ¯\ ✲⧒Ⱎ)
4 㡂₆Ṗ 㠊❪㡞㣪? (T0 ⎚㩚㠦 ㌊┺/ 㞚䕢䔎)
5 ⁎ ộ㦖 ⶦ㡞㣪? (㭧䞯ᾦ ➢ 㧛┺ / ᾦ⽋)
6 㩖 ㌂⧢㦖 ⑚ῂ㡞㣪? (ṯ㧊 㧒䞮┺ / ☯⬢)
Exercise 22.5
Connect the following two sentences using ~▪┞. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: ⋾㧦 䂲ῂ⯒ ㌂‖┺ / ㎇ỿ㧊 Ⱔ㧊 ⼖䟞㠊㣪
= ⋾㧦 䂲ῂ⯒ ㌂‖▪┞ ㎇ỿ㧊 Ⱔ㧊 ⼖䟞㠊㣪.
“As (she) made a boyfriend, (her) personality changed a
lot.”
1 㞚䂾㠦⓪ 㰧㧊 㫆㣿䞮┺ / 㡺䤚㠦⓪ 㔲⊚⩂㤢㣪
2 㰖⋲ 㭒₢㰖 㧒⽎ ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ⽊┺ / 㧊⻞ 㭒⓪ 䞲ῃ ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ⽦㣪
3 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤆┺ / 䞲ῃ 㡗䢪Ⱒ ⽦㣪
4 㕃 ⿚ ₆┺⪎┺ / 㦢㔳㧊 ⋮㢪㠊㣪
5 㠊㩲 ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱔ㧊 Ⱎ㎾┺ / ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䕢㣪
Exercise 22.6
Finish the following translation using ~㠞/㞮▪⧒Ⳋ and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “If (it was the case that I) studied harder, (I) might have
entered medical school.”
(▪ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮┺ / 㦮ὒ ╖䞯㠦 ✺㠊Ṫ㦚 Ệ㡞㣪)
= ▪ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䟞▪⧒Ⳋ 㦮ὒ ╖䞯㠦 ✺㠊Ṫ㦚 Ệ㡞㣪.
203
Exercise
22.7
1 If (it was the case that I) had time, (I) might have met (her) (㔲Ṛ㧊
㧞┺ / Ⱒ⌂㦚 Ệ㡞㣪)
2 If (it was the case that I) was not busy, (I) might have stopped by home
(⹪㊮㰖 㞠┺ / 㰧㠦 ✺⩖㦚 Ệ㡞㣪)
3 If (it was the case that they) were happy, (they) might not have divorced
(䟟⽋䞮┺ / 㧊䢒䞮㰖 㞠㞮㦚 Ệ㡞㣪)
4 If (it was the case that he) knew the secret, (he) might have succeeded
(゚⹖㦚 㞢┺ / ㎇Ὃ䟞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪)
5 If (it was the case that they) practiced harder, (they) might have won
the game (㡆㔋㦚 ▪ 㡊㕂䧞 䞮┺ / ἓ₆⯒ 㧊ἒ㦚 Ệ㡞㣪)
Exercise 22.7
Connect the following two sentences using ~㠞/㞮▪⧒Ⳋ. Then translate
the sentence.
Example: 㰧㠦 㧞┺ / ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ⽺㦚 Ệ㡞㣪.
= 㰧㠦 㧞㠞▪⧒Ⳋ ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ⽺㦚 Ệ㡞㣪.
“If (it was the case that I) stayed home, (I) might have
watched the drama.”
1 ⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ┺ / ㌊㞮㦚 Ệ㡞㣪
2 㟓㦚 ⲏ┺ / 㞞 㞚䕶㦚 Ệ㡞㣪
3 ☞㧊 㧞┺ / ⟶⌂㦚 Ệ㡞㣪
4 ἶ₆Ṗ 㧞┺ / ㌖㦚 Ệ㡞㣪
5 㹾Ṗ 㧞┺ / Ⱒ⌂㦚 Ệ㡞㣪
Exercise 22.8
Finish the following translation using ~▪⧒☚ and the sentence cues
provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “Even if (it) may be cold, do not put on a coat.”
(㿻┺ / 䆪䔎⯒ 㧛㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪)
= 㿻▪⧒☚ 䆪䔎⯒ 㧛㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪.
1 Even if (you) may be curious, do not ask (ῗ⁞䞮┺ / ⶑ㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪)
2 Even if (you) may be itchy, do not scratch (Ṗ⪋┺ / ⁗㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪)
3 Even if (you) may be angry, control (yourself) (䢪⋮┺ / 㺎㦒㎎㣪)
4 Even if (you) may feel bored, stay home (㕂㕂䞮┺ / 㰧㠦 㧞㦒㎎㣪)
5 Even if (he) may come late, do not nag at (him) (⓼Ợ 㡺┺ / 㧪㏢Ⰲ
䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪)
22
The
retrospective
suffix
204
Exercise 22.9
Connect the following two clauses using ~▪⧒☚. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: ▻┺ / ⹬㠦 ⋮Ṗ㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪
= ▻▪⧒☚ ⹬㠦 ⋮Ṗ㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪.
“Even if (it) may be hot, do not go outside.”
1 䞒Ἲ䞮┺ / 㫎㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪
2 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㠜┺ / Ↄ ⽊㎎㣪
3 ₆⿚㧊 ⋮㊮┺ / 㤙㦒㎎㣪
4 ⶊỗ┺ / Ṗ㪎㡺㎎㣪
5 㔂䝚┺ / 㤎㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪
205
UNIT 23
Nominalizing endings
Nominalizing endings change a verb or an adjective into a noun form.
Examples of English nominalzing endings include the gerund “~ing” (e.g.,
studying), “~ment” (e.g., accomplishment), and “~ation” (e.g., legalization).
This unit introduces two Korean nominalizing endings, ~₆ and ~(㦒)ත,
as well as some useful expressions that incorporate one of these two nom-
inalizing endings.
The nominalizing ending ~₆
When the nominalizing ending ~₆ is attached to a verb stem, it modifies
the meaning of the verb as “the act of ~ing” (e.g., ✹┺ “listen” => ✹₆
“listening”). When it appears after an adjective stem, it changes the mean-
ing of the adjective to “state of being~” (e.g., ⹮ṧ┺ “glad” => ⹮ṧ₆
“state of being glad”). Consider the following examples:
䢒㧦㍲ 㡗䢪 ⽊₆⯒ 㫡㞚䟊㣪. “(I) like seeing a movie alone.”
㭒⪲ Ⱖ䞮₆⯒ ⺆㤢㣪. “(We) mainly learn speaking.”
㣎ῃ㠦 ⋮Ṗ₆Ṗ 㓂㤢㪢㠊㣪. “Going abroad became easier.”
⋶㝾Ṗ ▻₆➢ⶎ㠦 㰧㠦 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) stay home because the weather
is hot.”
㧊 䃊䗮Ṗ 䄺䞒Ṗ ⰱ㧞₆⪲ 㥶ⳛ䟊㣪. “This cafe is famous for (its)
delicious coffee.”
What follows are some major expressions that contain the nominalizing
ending ~₆.
~₆⓪ 䄺⎫
~₆⓪ 䄺⎫ means “far from ~ing.” It is constructed from the nominalizing
ending ~₆, the topic particle ⓪, and the particle 䄺⎫ “not at all.” ~₆⓪
䄺⎫ is used to negate the content of the ~₆ ending predicate emphat-
ically, as shown below:
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Nominalizing
endings
206
㯦ỗ₆⓪ 䄺⎫ 㞚㭒 ⿞䇢䟊㣪. “Far from being joyful, (I) feel very
unpleasant.”
㭒Ⱖ㠦 㓂₆⓪ 䄺⎫ ⹪㊮Ợ 㧒䟞㠊㣪. “Far from resting over the week-
end, (I) worked busily.”
䃃㺂㦚 ✹₆⓪ 䄺⎫ ∎㰖⧢Ⱒ ✺㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “In place of hearing praise,
(he) will (probably) hear only reproach.”
~₆ 㩚㠦
~₆ 㩚㠦 means “before verb~ing.” It is constructed from the nominalizing
ending ~₆, the noun 㩚 “before,” and the particle ~㠦.
ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮₆ 㩚㠦 ⹿ 㼃㏢⯒ 䞿┞┺. “(I) clean the room before doing
the laundry.”
⩆▮㦒⪲ ⟶⋮₆ 㩚㠦 䢎䎪㠦 㩚䢪 䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will make a phone
call to the hotel before (I) leave for London.”
㧦₆ 㩚㠦 ㌺㤢䟊㣪? “Do (you) take a shower before going to bed?”
㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ₆ 㩚㠦 ㏦㦚 㞑㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Wash (your) hands before having
a lunch.”
ṫ㦮⯒ ✹₆ 㩚㠦 㺛㦚 㧓㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Read the book before listening
to (his) lecture.”
䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ₆ 㩚㠦 ニ㰧㠦 ✺⯛㔲┺. “(Let us) stop by the bakery, before
going to school.”
~₆⓪㣪
~₆⓪㣪 is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~₆, the topic par-
ticle ⓪, and the politeness marker 㣪. This form is used to mildly contend
another speaker’s comment. It is corresponding to English expres-
sions, like “What do you mean . . . ?” or “No way!” Consider the following
dialogue:
A: ㍲㤎㦮 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿪㤶㰖㣪? “The weather of Seoul was cold, right?”
B: 㿻₆⓪㣪, ㌳ṗ⽊┺ ➆⦑䟞㠊㣪. “No way, (it) was much warmer than
(my) thought.”
Frequently, ~₆⓪㣪 is used to express humility, when receiving a com-
plimentary remark or praise.
A: 㹾Ṗ 㺎 㫡㞚㣪. “(Your) car is really nice.”
B: 㫡₆⓪㣪. 㕎Ợ ㌖㠊㣪. “Good? (no way). (I) bought (it) at a bargain
price.”
207
The
nominalizing
ending ~₆
~₆㠦⓪
~₆㠦⓪ is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~₆, the particle 㠦, and
the topic particle ⓪. It means “as for (doing something),” as shown below:
㧊 㰧㦖 䢒㧦 ㌊₆㠦⓪ 㧧㞚㣪. “As for this house, (it) is small for living
alone.”
㧊 ⹿㧊 㫆㣿䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮₆㠦⓪ 㔲⊚⩂㤢㣪. “This room is noisy for study-
ing quietly.”
㰧㠦 䞮⬾㫛㧒 㧞₆㠦⓪ ⋶㝾Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㫡㞮㠊㣪. “As for staying home
whole day, the weather was too nice.”
~₆ ➢ⶎ㠦
~₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 means “because of ~ing.” It is constructed from the nominal-
izing ending ~₆, the dependent noun ➢ⶎ “cause,” and the particle 㠦.
ⰺ㧒 㞚䂾 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮㟒 䟊㣪. “(I) must get up
early since (I) jog every morning.”
ἶ₆⯒ Ⱔ㧊 㞞 ⲏ₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 Ịṫ䟊㣪. “(I) am healthy since (I) don’t
eat meat much.”
⋶㝾Ṗ ▻₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 ㍶䛣₆⯒ ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪. “Since the weather is hot, (we)
will buy a fan.”
ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䝚₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 Ὃ⿖䞮ἶ 㕌㰖 㞠㞚㣪. “Because (my) head aches,
(I) don’t want to study.”
~₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 can take the past tense marker, when it refers to the past
activity or state, as shown below:
⁎ ➢ 㡂ῢ㧊 㠜㠞₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 䃦⋮┺㠦 ⴑ Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) could not go to
Canada because (I) did not have the passport at that time.”
㢖㧎㦚 Ⱔ㧊 Ⱎ㎾₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 Ἶ䂮Ṗ 㕂䟞㠊㣪. “(My) headache was
terrible because of excessive wine drinking.”
㧊Ṗ 㞚䕶₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 䂮ὒ㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) went to the dentist office because
of the toothache.”
⍞ⶊ ゚㕢₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 ⴑ ㌖㠊㣪. “(We) could not buy (it) because (it)
was too expensive.”
~₆ 㥚䟊㍲
~₆ 㥚䟊㍲ means “in order to.” This form is constructed from the nom-
inalizing ending ~₆ and 㥚䟊㍲ “for the sake of.”
23
Nominalizing
endings
208
㫊㦚 Ⱒ⋮₆ 㥚䟊㍲ z0 ⿚㧊⋮ ₆┺⪎㠊㣪. “(I) waited as long as 20
minutes in order to meet John.”
䢎䎪㠦 ☢㞚Ṗ₆ 㥚䟊㍲ 䌳㔲⯒ ⿞⩖㠊㣪. “(I) called a taxi in order
to return to the hotel.”
㥶䞯㦚 Ṗ₆ 㥚䟊㍲ 㡗㠊⯒ ⺆㤆ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am learning English in
order to study abroad.”
⼖䢎㌂Ṗ ♮₆ 㥚䟊㍲ ▪ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will study harder
in order to become a lawyer.”
~₆⪲ 䞮┺
~₆⪲ 䞮┺ means “plans to” or “decides to.” This form is constructed
from the nominalizing ending ~₆, the particle ⪲, and the verb 䞮┺ “do.”
It is used when one wishes to express a decision or determination.
⌊㧒 㰧㦒⪲ ☢㞚Ṗ₆⪲ 䟞㠊㣪. “(We) decided to return home
tomorrow.”
㭧ῃ 㔳╏㠦㍲ 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ₆⪲ 䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “(We) will decide to eat din-
ner at Chinese restaurant.”
㠊❪㠦㍲ Ⱒ⋮₆⪲ 䟞㔋┞₢' “Where did (you) decide to meet?”
㡺䤚 10 㔲㠦 ⟶⋮₆⪲ 䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Plan to leave at 10 p.m.”
㔶䢒㡂䟟㦖 䞮㢖㧊⪲ Ṗ₆⪲ 䞿㔲┺. “As for (our) honeymoon, (let us)
decide to go to Hawaii.”
Instead of 䞮┺, other verbs such as ἆ㩫䞮┺ “make a decision,” ἆ㕂
䞮┺ “make up one’s mind,” and 㩫䞮┺ “fix up” can be used as well.
㽞㼃 㡆㌂⪲ 㾲 ⹫㌂┮㦚 ⳾㔲₆⪲ ἆ㩫䟞㔋┞┺. “(We) made a deci-
sion to invite Dr. Choi as a guest speaker.”
㠎㩲 ╊⺆⯒ ⊠₆⪲ ἆ㕂䟞㠊㣪' “When did (you) make up (your)
mind to quit smoking?”
㿪㤆┞₢ ṖỢ 㞞㠦㍲ Ⱒ⋮₆⪲ 㩫䞿㔲┺. “Since it is cold, (let us)
decide on meeting inside the store.”
~₆ 㔲㧧䞮┺
~₆ 㔲㧧䞮┺ means “begins to.” It is constructed from the nominalizing
ending ~₆ and the verb 㔲㧧䞮┺ “begin.”
㠊㩲⿖䎆 㧓₆ 㔲㧧䟞㠊㣪. “(I) started reading (it) since yesterday.”
㰖⁞ 㝆₆ 㔲㧧䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Start writing now.”
㡺䤚 Û 㔲⿖䎆 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊₆ 㔲㧧䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “(We) will start seeing the
movie from 9 p.m.”
209
The
nominalizing
ending ~₆
~₆Ṗ 㠊⪋┺
~₆Ṗ 㠊⪋┺ is used to express how difficult a certain action is. It can be
translated as “(it) is difficult to” in English. This form is constructed from
the nominalizing ending ~₆, the subject particle Ṗ, and the adjective
㠊⪋┺ “difficult.”
⁖㧦Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㧧㞚㍲ 㧓₆Ṗ 㠊⩺㤢㣪. “Since the letters are too small,
(it) is difficult to read (them).”
⳿㧊 ⿖㠊㍲ 䂾☚ ㌒䋺₆Ṗ 㠊⩺㤶㠊㣪. “Since (my) throat was swollen,
even swallowing (my) saliva was difficult.”
Instead of 㠊⪋┺, other adjectives, as shown below, can be used to
convey different messages:
~₆Ṗ 㓓┺ “(it) is easy to”
⁎ 㑮㠛㦖 À ⯒ ⹱₆Ṗ 㓂㤢㣪. “As for that class, receiving an A is easy.”
㧊 㩧㔲Ṗ ₾㰖₆Ṗ 㓂㤆┞₢ 㫆㕂䞮㎎㣪. “Since this dish is easy to be
broken, be careful.”
~₆Ṗ 䧮✺┺ “(it) is laborious to”
㌂ⶊ㔺 㞞㧊 ⍞ⶊ ▪㤢㍲ 㧒䞮₆Ṗ 䧮✺㠊㣪. “Since the inside of the
office is too hot, working is toilsome.”
~₆Ṗ 㫡┺ “(it) is good to”
㡺⓮ ⋶㝾⓪ 㧦㩚Ệ 䌖₆Ṗ 㫡㞚㣪. “As for today’s weather, (it) is good
to ride a bicycle.”
~₆Ṗ 䘎䞮┺ “(it) is convenient to”
☚㍲ὖ㧊 Ṗ₢㤢㍲ 㺛㦚 アⰂ₆Ṗ 䘎䟊㣪. “Since the library is close,
borrowing books is convenient.”
~₆Ṗ 㕁┺ “(it) is unwilling/unpleasant to”
䞒䎆⯒ ☚㢖㭒₆Ṗ 㕁㠊㣪. “(I) am unwilling to help Peter / Helping
Peter is unpleasant.”
~₆Ṗ 㨂⹎㧞┺ “(it) is fun to”
䞲ῃ㠊⪲ Ⱖ䞮₆Ṗ 㨂⹎㧞㠊㣪. “(It) is fun to talk in Korean / Talking
in Korean is fun.”
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210
~₆Ṗ ‖㺄┺ “(it) is bothersome to”
㑯㩲⯒ 䞮₆Ṗ ‖㺄㞚㣪. “Doing homework is bothersome.”
~₆☚ 䞮┺
~₆☚ 䞮┺ is used to indicate that a nominalized activity is a less common
activity. It is translated as “also does (something).” This form is constructed
from the nominalizing ending ~₆, the particle ☚ “also,” and the verb
䞮┺ “do.” Consider the following example:
䄺䞒⯒ 㭒⪲ Ⱎ㔲㰖Ⱒ ⏏㹾⯒ Ⱎ㔲₆☚ 䟊㣪. “(I) normally drink coffee,
but (I) also drink green tea.”
Notice in the example above that ~₆☚ 䟊㣪 adds a less common activity
(e.g., drinking green tea) to the main activity (e.g., drinking coffee). Here
are more examples:
Ṗ⊪ 䂲ῂ✺䞮ἶ ⏣ῂ⯒ 䞮₆☚ 䟊㣪. “(I) also play basketball with
(my) friends once in a while.”
㭒⪲ 㰖䞮㻶㦚 㧊㣿䟞㰖Ⱒ ゚Ṗ 㢂 ➢⓪ Ṗ⊪ 䌳㔲⯒ 䌖₆☚ 䟞㠊㣪.
“Normally, (we) used the subway, but when (it) rained, (we) sometimes
took a taxi.”
㩚Ὃ㦖 㧒⽎䞯㧊㰖Ⱒ 䞲ῃ㠊 㑮㠛☚ Ṗ⊪ ✹₆☚ 䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “Although
(my) major is Japanese Studies, (I) will also take the Korean language
class occasionally.”
The nominalizing ending ~(㦒)ත
The use of the nominalizing ending ~(㦒)ත is much more restricted and
less frequent than that of ~₆. For instance, the ending ~(㦒)ත is used
only when the activity or state of the predicate has already occurred, and
has been actualized and /or confirmed. Consider the following examples:
㫊㧊 ㍲㤎㠦 Ṫ㦢㦚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(We) did not know that John went to
Seoul.”
䞮㢖㧊 ⶒ㦖 ₾⊭䞾ὒ Ⱗ㦢㦒⪲ 㥶ⳛ䞿┞┺. “As for Hawaii’s water,
(it) is well known for its purity and clarity.”
Notice that the ~(㦒)ත ending phrases imply that the activity or state
has already been ensured, or determined. Here are more examples:
䐆㦖 㧦㔶㧊 㬚㧎㧚㦚 ₾╁㰖 ⴑ䟞㔋┞┺. “As for Tom, (he) could not
realize that he was a sinner.”
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Key
vocabulary
for Unit 23
exercises
㤆Ⰲ ⳾⚦ 㧊⼚㦮 㞚䝪㦚 ἓ䠮䟞㠊㣪. “We all experienced the pain of
separation.”
Meanwhile, a number of Korean nouns are made of ~(㦒)ත. The ~(㦒)
ත ending nouns include:
㌊┺ “to live” ㌌ “life”
㭓┺ “to die” 㭓㦢 “death”
㤙┺ “to smile” 㤙㦢 “smile/laughter”
㤎┺ “to cry” 㤎㦢 “weeping”
㧦┺ “to sleep” 㧶 “sleep”
㞚䝚┺ “to be sore” 㞚䝪 “pain”
₆㊮┺ “to be joyous” ₆㊾ “joy”
㯦ỗ┺ “to be glad” 㯦Ệ㤖 “gladness”
㠊⪋┺ “to be hard” 㠊⩺㤖 “hardship/distress”
In limited contexts, such as when one wishes to state, inform, and/or
record a certain fact in a concise manner, the nominalizing ending ~(㦒)
ත can be used as a sentence ending. Consider the following examples:
㩖⎗ 㞞 ⲏ㠞㦢 “Did not eat dinner.”
㡺⓮ 㑮㠛 㠜㦢 “No class today.”
㰧㠦 㡺Ⳋ 㡆⧓ ⹪⧢ “Let us know when you come home.”
䂲ῂ 㺔㞮㦢 “Found a friend.”
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 23 exercises
Ṗ⊪ sometimes
Ṗ┺ to go
Ṧ₆ ỎⰂ┺ to catch a cold
ṯ㧊 together
Ṳ dog
ἆ䢒䞮┺ to marry
ἓ₆ game/competitive sport
ἶ䂮┺ to fix/to repair
ᾦ㑮┮ professor
ῂἓ sightseeing/looking around
ῂ䞮┺ to seek
₆Ṛ period
₆㑯㌂ dormitory
₆㹾 train
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212
₢ⰹ┺ to be black/dark
⊠┺ to quit
⋮Ṗ┺ to go out
⋶㝾 weather
⌊⎚ next year
⌊㧒 tomorrow
⍞ⶊ too (much)/ever so much
⏎⧮ song
⏣ῂ basketball
ⓦⰂ┺ to be slow
⓼Ợ late
⓼┺ to be late
┺㤊⪲✲ download
┺㦢 next
╂ month
╊⺆ cigarette
☚㍲ὖ library
☞ money
☢㞚㡺┺ to return/to come back
✹┺ to take (a class)/to listen
✺⯊┺ to stop by
❇㌆ mountaineering
Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink
Ⱒ⋮┺ to meet
Ⱒ✺┺ to make
Ⱔ┺ to be many/to be much
Ⱔ㧊 a lot
ⰺ┺ to wear (a tie)
ⰺ㧒 everyday
ⲎⰂ hair (from a head)/head
ⲏ┺ to eat
Ⲗ┺ to be far
⳾㧦⧒┺ to be short of
⹱┺ to receive
⺆㤆┺ to learn
⽊ὖ䞮┺ to keep/to take custody of
⽊┺ to see/to read/to watch
⽚ spring
⿖⯊┺ to sing/to call out
⿞䘎䞮┺ to be inconvenient/to be uncomfortable
゚ rain
゚㕎┺ to be expensive
ゾ⧮ laundry/washing (clothes)
213
Key
vocabulary
for Unit 23
exercises
㌂┺ to buy
㌂⧢ person/people
㌊㦚 ヒ┺ to lose weight
㌊┺ to live
㌗╊䞮┺ to consult
㌞ new
㌳㧒 birthday
㍶ⶒ gift/present
㍶㌳┮ teacher
㏦ hand
㑮㠛 class/course
㑮㡗 swimming
㔲Ṛ time/hour
㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㰖┺ to fail a test
㔲䠮㦚 ⽊┺ to take a test
㔶ⶎ newspaper
㕂㕂䞮┺ to be bored
㞑┺ to wash
㞚⻚㰖 father
㞚䂾 morning/breakfast
㠊Ⰲ┺ to be juvenile/to be childish
㡆㔋䞮┺ to practice
㡊㕂䧞 earnestly
㡗䢪 movie
㡞㟓䞮┺ to reserve
㡺㩚 a.m.
㢍 clothes
㣪Ṗ yoga
㣪Ⰲ䞮┺ to cook
㤊☯䞮┺ to exercise
㤊㩚䞮┺ to drive
㦢㔳 food
㦮ὒ ╖䞯 medical college
㦮⏒䞮┺ to consult
㧊₆┺ to win
㧊㌂䞮┺ to move into/to change one’s residence
㧊㣿䞮┺ to use
㧒䞮┺ to work
㧙┺ to lose
㧦⯊┺ to cut off
㧦┺ to sleep
㧧┺ to be small
㧶 sleeping
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214
㨂⹎㠜┺ to be uninteresting
㩖⎗ dinner/evening
㩚Ὃ major
㩚䢪䞮┺ to make a phone call
㩦㕂 lunch
㩫゚㏢ repair shop
㩫䞮┺ to decide
㫆⁞ little
㭒┺ to give
㭒Ⱖ weekend
㭖゚䞮┺ to prepare
㰖ṧ wallet
㰖䞮㻶 subway
㰚䞯䞮┺ to go on to next stage of education
㰧 house
㹾 car
㺔┺ to look for/to seek for
㿲⁒䞮┺ to leave home for work
㿻┺ to be cold
㿿⿚䧞 sufficiently
䀾㏢♮┺ to be canceled
䂮┺ to play (tennis/golf/piano)/to hit
䂲ῂ friend
䂾╖ bed
䋺 height
䌖┺ to ride
䏶㣪㧒 Saturday
䕪┺ to sell
䚲 ticket
䞲ῃ㠊 the Korean language
䞯₆ semester
䞯ᾦ school
䢒㧦 alone
䢪㧻 makeup
Exercise 23.1
Construct a sentence using the sentence cues provided and ~₆ 㩚㠦. Then
translate the sentence, as shown in the example.
Example: 㧦┺ / ㌺㤢⯒ 䟞㠊㣪.
= 㧦₆ 㩚㠦 ㌺㤢⯒ 䟞㠊㣪.
“(I) took a shower before going to bed.”
215
Exercise
23.2
1 㞚䂾㦚 ⲏ┺ / ㏦㦚 㞑㦒㎎㣪
2 㔲䠮㦚 ⽊┺ / 㧶㦚 㿿⿚䧞 㧦㎎㣪
3 ₆㹾⯒ 䌖┺ / ₆㹾 䚲⯒ 㡞㟓䟊㟒 ♒㣪
4 ⩞㓺䏶⧧㠦 Ṗ┺ / 㰧㠦 ✺⯛㔲┺
5 㿲⁒䞮┺ / 㔶ⶎ㦚 ⽊㎎㣪?
6 䢪㧻㦚 䞮┺ / ㌺㤢⯒ 䟊㣪
7 ㌞ 㰧㦒⪲ 㧊㌂䞮┺ / 㞚䕢䔎㠦㍲ ㌊㞮㠊㣪?
8 㩚Ὃ㦚 㩫䞮┺ / ᾦ㑮┮䞮ἶ ㌗╊䟊㟒 䞿┞┺
9 䞒䎆⯒ Ⱒ⋮⩂ ⋮Ṗ┺ / 㩚䢪䞿㔲┺
10 㹾⯒ 䕪┺ / 㞚⻚㰖䞮ἶ 㦮⏒䞮㎎㣪
Exercise 23.2
Construct a sentence using the sentence cues provided and ~₆⓪ 䄺⎫, as
shown below. Then translate the sentence.
Example: ㌺㤢⯒ 䞮┺ / 㠒Ὴ☚ ⴑ 㞑㠞㠊㣪
= ㌺㤢⯒ 䞮₆⓪ 䄺⎫ 㠒Ὴ☚ ⴑ 㞑㠞㠊㣪.
“Far from taking a shower, (I) could not even wash (my)
face.”
1 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ┺ / 㞚䂾☚ 㞞 ⲏ㠞㠊㣪
2 ❇㌆㦚 䞮┺ / 㰧 ⹬㠦☚ 㞞 ⋮Ṫ㠊㣪
3 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ┺ / 䄺䞒☚ ⴑ Ⱎ㎾㠊㣪
4 ㌞ 㹾⯒ ㌂┺ / ῂἓ☚ ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪
5 ㌳㧒 䕢䕆⯒ 䞮┺ / ㍶ⶒ☚ ⴑ ⹱㞮㠊㣪
Exercise 23.3
Construct a sentence using the sentence cues provided and ~₆㠦⓪. Then
translate the sentence.
Example: 䢒㧦 ⹺㠦 Ỏ㠊┺┞┺ / 㥚䠮䟊㣪.
= 䢒㧦 ⹺㠦 Ỏ㠊┺┞₆㠦⓪ 㥚䠮䟊㣪.
“(It) is dangerous for walking around alone at night.”
1 ⚦ ㌂⧢㧊 㧦┺ / 䂾╖Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㧧㞚㣪
2 㡗䢪⯒ ┺㤊⪲✲ ⹱┺ / 㩲 䅊䜾䎆Ṗ ⍞ⶊ ⓦ⩺㣪
3 㑮㡗㦚 䞮┺ / ⋶㝾Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㿪㤢㣪
4 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊┺ / 㔲Ṛ㧊 㠜㠊㣪
5 㩚䢪⯒ 䞮┺ / ⍞ⶊ ⓼㠞㠊㣪
6 ⏣ῂ⯒ 䞮┺ / 䋺Ṗ 㧧㞮㠊㣪
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Nominalizing
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216
7 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺ / ⍞ⶊ 㠊⪎㠊㣪
8 䢒㧦 㤊㩚䞮┺ / ⍞ⶊ Ⲗ㠞㠊㣪
9 ⏎䔎⿗㦚 ㌂┺ / ☞㧊 ⳾㧦⧦㠊㣪
10 ㍶ⶒ⪲ 㭒┺ / ⍞ⶊ ゚㕢㠊㣪
Exercise 23.4
Construct a sentence using the sentence cues provided and ~₆ ➢ⶎ㠦.
Then translate the sentence, as shown in the example.
Example: 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ ⌂┺ / ⓼㠞㠊㣪
= 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ ⌂₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 ⓼㠞㠊㣪.
“Because there was a car accident, (I) was late.”
1 Ṧ₆ Ỏ⪎┺ / 䞯ᾦ㠦 ⴑ Ṗ㣪
2 㞚䂾㦚 ⓼Ợ ⲏ㠞┺ / 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏἶ 㕌㰖 㞠㞚㣪
3 ゚Ṗ 㡺┺ / ἓ₆Ṗ 䀾㏢♶ Ệ㡞㣪
4 ⻚㓺Ṗ ⿞䘎䞮┺ / 㰖䞮㻶㦚 㧊㣿䟊㣪
5 㔲䠮 ₆Ṛ㧊┺ / ☚㍲ὖ㠦 ㌂⧢㧊 Ⱔ㞚㣪
Exercise 23.5
Construct a sentence using the sentence cues provided and ~₆ 㥚䟊㍲.
Then translate the sentence, as shown in the example.
Example: 㣿☞㦚 ⻢┺ / 㭒ⰦⰞ┺ 㧒䟞㠊㣪
= 㣿☞㦚 ⻢₆ 㥚䟊㍲ 㭒ⰦⰞ┺ 㧒䟞㠊㣪.
“(I) worked every weekend to earn extra money.”
1 ㌊㦚 ヒ┺ / 㩖⎗㦚 㫆⁞ ⲏ㦚 Ệ㡞㣪
2 㦮ὒ ╖䞯㠦 㰚䞯䞮┺ / 㭖゚䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪
3 㹾⯒ ἶ䂮┺ / 㩫゚㏢㠦 Ṗἶ 㧞㠊㣪
4 ┺㦢 ἓ₆⯒ 㧊₆┺ / ⰺ㧒 㡊㕂䧞 㡆㔋䟊㣪
5 䞲ῃ㠦 㧞⓪ 䂲ῂ䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞮┺ / 㩚䢪 䃊✲⯒ ㌖㠊㣪
Exercise 23.6
Conjugate the predicate using ~₆⪲ 䞮┺. Then translate the sentence.
Example: ⰺ㧒 㤊☯䞮┺
= ⰺ㧒 㤊☯䞮₆⪲ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) decided to exercise everyday.”
217
Exercise
23.7
1 ⌊⎚ ⽚㠦 ἆ䢒䞮┺
2 䞯ᾦ ₆㑯㌂㠦㍲ ㌊┺
3 ┺㦢 䞯₆㠦 䞲ῃ㠊 㑮㠛㦚 ✹┺
4 ⌊㧒⿖䎆 ╊⺆⯒ ⊠┺
5 ┺㦢 ╂⿖䎆 䌲ῢ☚⯒ ⺆㤆┺
Exercise 23.7
Conjugate the predicate using ~₆☚ 䞮┺. Then translate the sentence.
Example: 㭒Ⱖ㠦 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊┺
= 㭒Ⱖ㠦 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊₆☚ 䟊㣪.
“(We) also see a movie on the weekend.”
1 䏶㣪㧒Ⱎ┺ 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂮┺
2 Ṗ⊪ ₢Ⱒ ⍻䌖㧊⯒ ⰺ┺
3 㭒Ⱖ㠦 䂲ῂ✺䞮ἶ ⏣ῂ⯒ 䞮┺
4 㕂㕂䞮Ⳋ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊┺
5 䏶㣪㧒 㞚䂾㠦 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮┺
Exercise 23.8
Construct a sentence using the cues provided, as shown in the example.
Then translate the sentence.
Example: ╖䞯㠦 ✺㠊Ṗ┺ / ~₆Ṗ 㠊⪋┺
= ╖䞯㠦 ✺㠊Ṗ₆Ṗ 㠊⩺㤢㣪. “Entering a college is
difficult.”
1 ⰺ㧒 㣪Ṗ⯒ 䞮┺ / ~₆Ṗ 㠊⪋┺
2 䝚⧧㓺 㦢㔳㦚 Ⱒ✺┺ / ~₆Ṗ 㠊⪋┺
3 㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㰖┺ / ~₆Ṗ 㓓┺
4 㧊㌂䞮┺ / ~₆Ṗ 䧮✺┺
5 ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊┺ / ~₆Ṗ 㫡┺
6 㹾⯒ 䌖┺ / ~₆Ṗ 䘎䞮┺
7 㧒䞮┺ / ~₆Ṗ 㕁┺
8 㣪Ⰲ䞮┺ / ~₆Ṗ 㨂⹎㧞┺
9 ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮┺ / ~₆Ṗ ‖㺄┺
10 ⰺ㧒 㤊☯䞮┺ / ~₆Ṗ 䧮✺┺
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Nominalizing
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218
Exercise 23.9
Complete the dialogue using ~₆⓪㣪, as shown in the example.
Example: A: ⰺ㧒 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂮㎎㣪?
B: ⰺ㧒 䂮₆⓪㣪, T 㭒㧒㠦 z ⻞㩫☚ 㼦㣪.
1 A: 㹾Ṗ 㫡⍺㣪.
B: __________________. 㧦㭒 ἶ㧻㧊 ⋮㣪.
2 A: 㡺⓮ 㡗䢪 ⽦㣪?
B: ___________________ 㤪㣪㧒㠦 㔲䠮㧊 㧞㠊㍲ Ὃ⿖䟊㟒 䟊㣪.
3 A: ⋾㧦 䂲ῂ⧧ 㧦㭒 Ⱒ⋮㎎㣪?
B: _________________ 㣪㯞㦢 ⹪ザ㍲ 㧦㭒 ⴑ ⽦㣪.
4 A: ⹿㧊 ➆⦑䞮⍺㣪.
B: _________________ ⰺ㧒 䧞䎆⯒ 䅲ἶ 㧦㣪.
5 A: ⿖㰖⩆䞮㔲⍺㣪.
B: _________________ 㡺⓮Ⱒ 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⌂㠊㣪.
Exercise 23.10
Conjugate the predicate using ~(㦒)ත, as shown in the example. Then
translate the sentence.
Example: 㩖⎗ 㞞 ⲏ㠞㠊㣪
= 㩖⎗ 㞞 ⲏ㠞㦢. “Did not eat dinner.”
1 ⌊㧒 㡺㩚 T0 㔲㠦 ☢㞚㢖㣪
2 㡺⓮ 㩖⎗㦖 㓺䎢㧊䋂㡞㣪
3 㹾 ἶ㼺㠊㣪
4 㰧㠦 㞞 Ṫ㠊㣪
5 㢍 ㌖㠊㣪
6 㠊㩲 ⲎⰂ 㧮⧦㠊㣪
7 㤆ⰂṖ 㰖ṧ㦚 ⽊ὖ䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪
8 㧙㠊⻚Ⰶ Ṳ⯒ 㺔㞮㔋┞┺
9 ⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎⯒ ῂ䞿┞┺
10 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㠜㠊㣪
219
UNIT 24
Direct and indirect quotation
A direct quotation conveys the exact spoken or written message. Consider
the following sentence:
“Jane said that ‘I will come to the party no matter what happens!’”
This sentence is a direct quotation. It reports what has been said or written
verbatim, using quotation marks. On the other hand, an indirect quotation
delivers only the main message. In an indirect quotation, the speaker
delivers what somebody said or wrote without using the original speaker’s
exact words. Consequently, an indirect quotation involves the modifica-
tion of the original utterance. Consider the following example:
“Jane said that she would come to the party no matter what happens.”
Notice that the personal pronoun and the tense are modified so that they
represent the speaker’s voice and perspective. This unit introduces direct
and indirect quotations in Korean.
Direct quotation
Direct quotation in Korean is constructed from the original utterance, a
quotation particle (㧊)⧒ἶ, and a quoting verb, such as Ⱖ䞮┺ “speak,”
╖╋䞮┺ “answer,” ⶑ┺ “ask,” ⿖䌗䞮┺ “request,” and 㩲㠎䞮┺ “sug-
gest.” Consider the following examples:
㑮㧪㧊 “㤆Ⰲ 㧊㩲 㩦㕂 ⲏ㦣㔲┺” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Susan said ‘Let us
have lunch now.’”
䞒䎆Ṗ ㍶㌳┮䞲䎢 “Ἵ ṞỢ㣪” ⧒ἶ ╖╋䟞㠊㣪. “Peter replied to the
teacher, ‘(I) promise to go (there) soon.’”
㌂㧊ⴂ㧊 “㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ ⌊ ㌳㧒 䕢䕆㠦 㢂 Ệ㡞㣪?” ⧒ἶ ⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “Simon
asked (me) ‘Will (you) come to my birthday party this weekend?’”
24
Direct and
indirect
quotation
220
ⶎ 㞴㠦 “⁞㡆!” 㧊⧒ἶ 㖾 㧞㠞㠊㣪. “(It) was written ‘No Smoking!’
in front of the door.”
㥢Ⰲ㠚㧊 “㩲 ἶ䟻㦖 ㍲㤎㧛┞┺” ⧒ἶ ╖╋䟞㠊㣪. “William answered
‘As for my hometown, (it) is Seoul.’”
When quoting mimetic expressions and/or when quoting the exact forms
involved along with the tone and intonation of the quoted utterance, the
particle 䞮ἶ is used instead of (㧊)⧒ἶ. Consider the following examples:
䞯ᾦ 㫛㧊 “➷➷” 䞮ἶ 㤎⪎㔋┞┺. “The school bell rang ‘ttang
ttang.’”
㺆㓺⓪ “⡧⡧” 䞮ἶ ⶎ㦚 ⚦✲⪎㠊㣪. “Charles knocked on the door
‘knock knock.’”
㌂⧢✺㧊 “⿞㧊㟒!” 䞮ἶ ㏢Ⰲ⯒ 㰞⩖㠊㣪. “People shouted ‘It’s
fire!’”
㞺✲⮮Ṗ “㢖, Ṗ㦚㧊┺!” 䞮ἶ ㏢Ⰲ㼺㔋┞┺. “Andrew shouted ‘Wow,
it’s Autumn!’”
㫊㧊 㩲┞䗒㠦Ợ 㹾⿚䞲 ⳿㏢Ⰲ⪲ “㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 㡗䢪 ⽊⩂ Ṗ㧦” 䞮ἶ
ⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “John asked Jennifer in a calm tone of voice, saying ‘Let us
go see a movie this weekend.’”
㩲㔲䃊Ṗ “㍶㌳┮!” 䞮ἶ ⿞⩖㔋┞┺. “Jessica called out, ‘Professor!’”
Indirect quotation
Generally speaking in Korean, the use of indirect quotation is more fre-
quent than that of direct quotation. The function of indirect quotation
in Korean is twofold: (1) to convey what somebody has said or written
without using the original speaker’s or writer’s exact words, and (2) to
report one’s own thoughts or feelings (e.g., internal speech).
Reporting without using the speaker’s or writer’s exact words
Indirect quotation in Korean is constructed from the following: the quoted
utterance, the indirect quotation particle ἶ, and a verb, such as Ⱖ䞮┺
(or 䞮┺) “say,” ⶑ┺ “ask,” ╖╋䞮┺ “answer,” and the adjective ⁎⩝┺
“be that way.”
When a direct quoted utterance is converted to an indirect reported
utterance, part of the original utterance (e.g., tense, personal pronouns,
and honorifics) is modified to fit the perspective of the speaker. Compare
the following two sentences:
Ⰲ㌂Ṗ “㩲Ṗ 㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 㧒䞮Ỷ㠊㣪” ⧒ἶ Ⱖ䟞㠊㣪. “Lisa said ‘I will
work this weekend.’”
221
Indirect
quotation
Ⰲ㌂Ṗ 㧦₆Ṗ 㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 㧒䞮Ỷ┺ἶ Ⱖ䟞㠊㣪. “Lisa said that (her-
self/she) would work this weekend.”
The first sentence is a direct quotation, whereas the second is an indirect
quotation. Notice that the first person pronoun 㩖 in the first sentence was
replaced by the noun 㧦₆ “herself” in the second sentence. In addition,
the polite speech level ending in the first sentence is replaced by the plain
speech level ending in the second (e.g., 㧒䞮Ỷ㠊㣪 vs. 㧒䞮Ỷ┺).
Note that the plain speech level has different endings depending on the
sentence type:
Declarative Interrogative Imperative Propositive
~(ⓦ)ච┺ ~(㦒)┞/⌦ ~㠊⧒/㞚⧒ ~㧦
Consequently, depending on the sentence type of the quoted utterance,
one of the four plain speech level endings is used accordingly before the
quotation particle ἶ.
Declarative
~(ⓦ)ච┺ἶ 䞮┺ (for verbs)
ⰺ㧒 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ⓪┺ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “(They) said that (they) would eat
Korean food everyday.”
㡺⓮ ⹺ 㭧ῃ㦒⪲ ⟶⋲┺ἶ Ⱖ䟞㠊㣪. “(He) said that (he) would leave
for China tonight.”
㧒⽎ ⶎ䞯㦚 㩚Ὃ䞲┺ἶ 䟊㣪. “(She) says that (she) majors in Japanese
literature.”
~┺ἶ 䞮┺ (for adjectives)
㔲䠮㧊 㓓┺ἶ 䟊㣪. “(He) said that the test is easy.”
㠊㩲 㦢㔳㧊 ⰺ㤶┺ἶ Ⱖ䟞㠊㣪. “(She) said that yesterday’s food was
spicy.”
~⧒ἶ 䞮┺ (for copulas)
⌊㧒⿖䎆 ⽚ ⹿䞯㧊⧒ἶ 䟊㣪. “(They) say that (it) is the spring break
from tomorrow.”
⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎Ṗ 㡺⓮ ⹺ ⓼Ợ 㧮 Ệ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “(My) roommate said that
(he) would go to bed late tonight.”
㞚⻚㰖Ṗ 㦮㌂⧒ἶ 䟊㣪. “(She) says the (her) father is a doctor.”
24
Direct and
indirect
quotation
222
Interrogative
~ⓦ⌦ἶ 䞮┺/ⶑ┺ (for verbs)
㧊㌂⻾㧊 㠦Ⰳ㠦Ợ 㠊ⓦ 㦖䟟㠦 Ṗ⌦ἶ ⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “Isabel asked Eric
which bank (he) goes to.”
┺㦢 ⁞㣪㧒㠦 㠊❪㠦 Ṟ Ệ⌦ἶ ⶒ㠞㔋┞┺. “(I) asked (her) where
(she) would go next Friday.”
㡺⓮ 㩖⎗ ⲪⓊṖ ⶦ⌦ἶ 䟊㣪. “(He) asks (her) what the dinner menu
for today is.”
~⌦ἶ 䞮┺/ⶑ┺ (for adjectives and copulas)
㍲㤎㦮 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿻⌦ἶ ⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “(I) asked (them) whether Seoul’s
weather is cold.”
㑮㧪㧊 ⑚Ṗ 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊⌦ἶ ⶒ㠞㔋┞┺. “Susan asked (me) who is
a Korean.”
Imperative
~(㦒)⧒ἶ 䞮┺ (for verbs only)
㧦₆ 㩚㠦 㟓㦚 ⲏ㦒⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) told (him) to take the medicine
before going to bed.”
㡂☯㌳䞲䎢 㫆㕂䟊㍲ 㤊㩚䞮⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) told (my) younger sister
to drive safely.”
Note that ~(㦒)⧒ is used instead of the plain speech level ending ~㠊
⧒/㞚⧒.
Propositive
~㧦ἶ 䞮┺ (for verbs only)
◆┞㠮㧊 㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 Ⱒ⋮㧦ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Daniel suggested that (we)
meet this weekend.”
⌊㧒⿖䎆 ṯ㧊 䎢┞㓺 䂮㧦ἶ 䟊㣪. “(They) suggest that (we) play
tennis together from tomorrow (onward).”
ⰞⰂ㡺Ṗ ṯ㧊 㩖⎗ ⲏ㧦ἶ 䞿┞┺. “Mario suggests that (we) eat din-
ner together.”
Abbreviation of the indirect quotation endings in
colloquial usages
In conversational settings, some of the aforementioned indirect quotation
endings can be abbreviated, as shown below:
223
Reporting
one’s
thoughts
or feelings
~(ⓦ)ච┺ἶ 䞮┺ is shortened to ~(ⓦ)ච╖㣪.
ⰺ䓲Ṗ 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 㫡㞚䞲╖㣪. “(They) say that Matthew likes Korean
food.”
~⧒ἶ 䞮┺ is shortened to ~⧮㣪.
䡫㧊 ⼖䢎㌂⧮㣪. “(He) says that (his) older brother is a lawyer.”
~(㦒)⧒ἶ 䞮┺ is shortened to ~(㦒)⧮㣪.
䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ₆㩚㠦 㞚䂾㦚 ⲏ㦒⧮㣪. “(She) tells (us) to eat breakfast
before going to school.”
~㧦ἶ 䞮┺ is shortened to ~㨂㣪.
⌊㧒 ṯ㧊 Ἶ䝚 䂮㨂㣪. “(They) suggest that (we) play golf tomorrow
together.”
Reporting one’s thoughts or feelings
Beside reporting the speech or writing of a third person, indirect quotation
is also used to report one’s own thoughts or feelings. It is constructed from
the following: the quoted utterance, the indirect quotation particle ἶ, and
a verb, such as ㌳ṗ䞮┺ “think” or ⓦ⋒┺ “feel.” Consider the following
example:
㠊㩲 㔲䠮㧊 㠊⩺㤶┺ἶ ㌳ṗ䟞┺. “(I) thought that yesterday’s test
was difficult.”
Notice that the form reports one’s thought rather than quotes someone
else’s idea. Here are more examples:
㩲㧎㦮 ㎇ỿ㧊 㺎 㫡┺ἶ ㌳ṗ䞲┺. “(I) think that Jane’s personality
is really nice.”
㫊㦮 䟟☯㧊 㢉㞮┺ἶ ㌳ṗ䟞┺. “(I) thought that John’s action was
right.”
㰗㤦✺㦮 䌲☚Ṗ 㞞 㫡㞮┺ἶ ⓦ⅞┺. “(I) felt that the employees’
attitudes were not good.”
Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 24 exercises
Ṗ┺ to go
ṯ㧊 together
Ἒ㩞 season
Ὃ⿖䞮┺ to study
24
Direct and
indirect
quotation
224
⁎Ⱒ⚦┺ to quit/to stop (doing)
⁞㣪㧒 Friday
⊳ an end/the tip
⋮㭧 next time
⌊⩺㡺┺ to come down
⌊Ⰲ┺ to get off/to come down
⌊㧒 tomorrow
⏖┺ to play
┺㔲 again
☢㞚Ṗ┺ to go back
☫┺ to help
✺⯊┺ to stop by
➆⧒㡺┺ to follow
Ⱎ㔲┺ to drink
Ⱒ⋮┺ to meet
Ⱒ✺┺ to make
ⱋ┺ to be spicy
ⲏ┺ to eat
⹺ night
⽊┺ to see/to watch/to read
ゾ⧮ laundry
ゾⰂ fast/immediately
㏢⋮₆ a passing rain/shower
㑮㠛 class
㔲Ṛ time/hour
㔲㧧䞮┺ to begin
㡊㐶 keys
㡊㕂䧞 earnestly/enthusiastically/hard
㡗䢪 movie
㡺⓮ today
㡺⯊┺ to climb/to go up
㡺䤚 p.m.
㤆㥶 milk
㧊➆ after a while
㧒㠊⋮┺ to get up
㧒㹣 early
㧮 well/expertly
㩖⎗ dinner/evening
㩚䢪䞮┺ to make a phone call
㩫Ⱖ really
㩲⹲ please/for heaven’s sake
㭒Ⱖ weekend
㰖⌊┺ to spend (time)/to get along
225
Exercise
24.1
㰗㧻 one’s place of work
㰧 house
㰧㎎ house rent
㹢Ṳ pot stew
㺔┺ to look for/to seek for
䂲ῂ friends
䌖┺ to ride (a train/car/bus/airplane)
䞲ῃ㠊 the Korean language
䢪⌊┺ to get angry
Exercise 24.1
Quote the following directly, as shown in the example. Then translate the
sentence.
Example: The speaker: 㩲㧎 / The original utterance: “㰧㠦 ṧ㔲┺”
= 㩲㧎㧊 “㰧㠦 ṧ㔲┺”⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Jane said ‘Let us go
home.’”
1 The speaker: ⑚⋮ / The original utterance: “㩲⹲ 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮⧒”
2 The speaker: 㞺✲⮮ / The original utterance: “ゾⰂ ➆⧒㡺㎎㣪”
3 The speaker: 㧊㌂⻾ / The original utterance: “㩫Ⱖ 㤆㥶⯒ 㧮 Ⱎ㔲
⍺㣪”
4 The speaker: Ⰲ㌂ / The original utterance: “㩖⎗㠦 㩖䧂 㰧㠦 ✺⯊
㎎㣪”
5 The speaker: ㍶㌳┮ / The original utterance: “㡺⓮ 㑮㠛 ⊳”
6 The speaker: 䙊 / The original utterance: “䞒㧦 ⲏ㧦”
7 The speaker: ⰞⰂ㞚 / The original utterance: “㹢ṲṖ ⱋ┺”
8 The speaker: ぢ⧮✲ / The original utterance: “㤆Ⰲ ⁞㣪㧒㠦 Ⱒ⋮㧦”
9 The speaker: ┞䆲 / The original utterance: “㧊➆ 㔲Ṛ 㧞㦒Ⳋ 㩚䢪
䟊”
10 The speaker: 㰖⋮ / The original utterance: “㰧㠦 㞞 Ṗ㎎㣪?”
Exercise 24.2
Quote the following indirectly as shown in the example. Then translate
the sentence.
Example: The speaker: 䙊 / The original utterance: 㡺䤚㠦 㰧㠦 ṧ┞

= 䙊㧊 㡺䤚㠦 㰧㠦 Ṛ┺ἶ 䟞㠊㣪.
“Paul said that (he) would go home in the afternoon.”
24
Direct and
indirect
quotation
226
1 The speaker: ⳾┞䃊 / The original utterance: Ⓤ㣫㠦 1 Ἒ㩞㧊 㧞㔋
┞┺
2 The speaker: 㞺㍲┞ / The original utterance: ⌊㧒 ㏢⋮₆Ṗ ⌊ⰂỶ㔋
┞┺
3 The speaker: ㌂ぢⰂ⋮ / The original utterance: 㰧㎎Ṗ 㢂⧦㔋┞┺
4 The speaker: 㩲㧊㓾 / The original utterance: 㡺⓮ 㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒ Ⱒ✺
㠊㣪
5 The speaker: 㫆❪ / The original utterance: ⌊㧒 ┺㔲 㩚䢪䞮Ỷ㔋┞┺
6 The speaker: 㓺䕆ぢ / The original utterance: 㠎㩲 㰗㧻㦚 ⁎Ⱒ⛖
㠊㣪?
7 The speaker: 㯊Ⰲ㞚 / The original utterance: 㠎㩲 㰧㠦 㢖㣪?
8 The speaker: 㠦㓺▪ / The original utterance: 㧊 㹾Ṗ ⑚ῂ Ệ㡞㣪?
9 The speaker: 㩲Ⰲ / The original utterance: 㧮 㰖⌊ἶ 㧞㠊㣪?
10 The speaker: ◆㧊㰖 / The original utterance: ⳝ 㔲㡞㣪?
Exercise 24.3
Quote the following indirectly as shown in the example. Then translate
the sentence.
Example: The speaker: 䎢⩢㓺 / The original utterance: 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖
䞿㔲┺.
= 䎢⩢㓺Ṗ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮㧦ἶ 䟞㠊㣪.
“Terrence suggested that (we) study hard.”
1 The speaker: 㠦Ⰳ / The original utterance: ⻚㓺⯒ 䌧㔲┺
2 The speaker: ⋮㡺⹎ / The original utterance: 㡺䤚 z 㔲㠦 Ⱒ⋿㔲┺
3 The speaker: 䋊⧒⧒ / The original utterance: ṯ㧊 㣪Ṗ⯒ 㔲㧧䞿㔲┺
4 The speaker: 㫆㰖 / The original utterance: 㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 ṯ㧊 㡗䢪⯒
⽛㔲┺
5 The speaker: ⋮䌞Ⰲ / The original utterance: ⁎ 䂲ῂ⯒ ☚㢖 㭣㔲┺
6 The speaker: 㞚゚Ṗ㧒 / The original utterance: ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮㕃㔲㡺
7 The speaker: 䅖ゞ / The original utterance: 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮㕃㔲㡺
8 The speaker: ┺㧊㠦⋮ / The original utterance: z0 ⿚㞞㠦 ⌊⩺㡺㕃
㔲㡺
9 The speaker: 㪎㓺䕊 / The original utterance: 䢪⌊㰖 Ⱎ㕃㔲㡺
10 The speaker: 㧒⩞㧎 / The original utterance: 㡊㐶⯒ 㺔㦒㕃㔲㡺
Exercise 24.4
Finish the following translation using the cues provided in parenthesis, as
shown in the example.
227
Exercise
24.5
Example: “Luis suggested that (we) buy a wine.” (⬾㧊㓺 / 㢖㧎㦚
㌓㔲┺)
= ⬾㧊㓺Ṗ 㢖㧎㦚 ㌂㧦ἶ 䟞㠊㣪.
1 Sam said that (he) leaves tonight (㌮ / 㡺⓮ ⹺ ⟶⋮㣪)
2 Lisa asked (me) what time (I) go to bed (Ⰲ㌂ / ⳝ 㔲㠦 㧦㣪?)
3 Paul suggested that (we) eat Korean food (䙊 / 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㦣㔲┺)
4 Teacher told (us) to be quiet (㍶㌳┮ / 㫆㣿䧞 䞮㕃㔲㡺)
5 Susan said that (she) would call (me) tonight (㑮㧪 / 㡺⓮ ⹺ 㩚䢪䞶 Ệ
㡞㣪)
Exercise 24.5
Finish the following translation using the sentence cue provided in par-
enthesis, as shown in the example.
Example: “(I) think that the room was too noisy.” (⹿㧊 ⍞ⶊ 㔲⊚⩂
㤶┺)
= ⹿㧊 ⍞ⶊ 㔲⊚⩂㤶┺ἶ ㌳ṗ䞲┺.
1 (I) think that (their) food is delicious (㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㧞┺)
2 (I) think that (their) service is great (㍲゚㓺Ṗ 㫡┺)
3 (I) think that the coffee was too strong (䄺䞒Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㰚䟞┺)
4 (I) thought that (I) would start exercising from tomorrow (⌊㧒⿖䎆
㤊☯㦚 㔲㧧䟊㟒Ỷ㠊㣪)
5 (I) thought that (I) would write an e-mail to John (㫊䞲䎢 㧊Ⲫ㧒㦚
㖾㟒Ỷ┺)
228
KEY TO EXERCISES
Unit 1
Exercise 1.1
1 ┺Ⰲ⯒ Ị⍞. “Cross a bridge.”
2 ⶎ㦚 㡊㠊. “Open the door.”
3 㹾⯒ 䕪㞚. “(Let us) sell the car.”
4 㝆⩞₆⯒ ⻚⩺. “(I) throw away the trash.”
5 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㞚. “Close the window.”
6 Ὃ㡆㦚 㧒㹣 Ⱎ㼦. “End the concert early.”
7 㩧㔲⯒ ア⩺. “(Let us) borrow dishes.”
8 ⹲㦚 㞑㠊. “(I) wash (my) feet.”
9 㧒㹣 㧦. “(Let us) go to bed early.”
10 㧦㩚Ệ⯒ 䌖? “Do (you) ride a bicycle?”
11 ⓦ⋢㧊 㫡㞚. “The feeling is good.”
12 ṫ㦮Ṗ 㨂⹎㧞㠊. “The lecture is interesting.”
13 䝚⧧㓺 ㌂⧢㧊㟒? “Is (she) a Frenchman?”
14 㧒㦚 䟊 “Work.”
15 ἓ㺆ὖ㧊 㞚┞㟒? “Isn’t (he) a policeman?”
16 㰧㧊 Ⲗ㠊. “The house is far.”
17 ㌂ὒṖ ╂㞚. “The apple is sweet.”
18 ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䕢? “Does (your) head ache?”
19 䞮⓮㧊 䦦⩺. “The sky is cloudy.”
20 ὒ㧒㧊 㕇㕇䟊? “Is the fruit fresh?”
Exercise 1.2
1 㞚䂾㦚 ⲏ⓪┺. “(I) eat breakfast.”
2 㭧ῃ㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂲┺. “(I) teach Chinese.”
3 ⑚⋮⯒ ₆┺Ⰶ┺. “(I) wait for (my) older sister.”
4 ⶒ㦚 Ⱎ㔶┺. “(I) drink water.”
5 ㏢䙂⯒ ⹱⓪┺. “(I) receive a package.”
6 㧒⽎㠊⯒ ⺆㤊┺. “(I) learn Japanese.”
Key to
exercises
229
7 ㌂ⶊ㔺㧊 ₾⊭䞮┺ “The office is clean.”
8 ⻚㓺Ṗ ⓦⰂ┺. “The bus is slow.”
9 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾ỗ┺. “The coffee is hot.”
10 㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 ⹪㊮┺. “(I) am busy this weekend.”
Exercise 1.3
1 㠎㩲 ṖỢ ⶎ㦚 ╁┞? “When do (you) shut the store door?”
2 㠊❪㍲ 䂲ῂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮┞? “Where do (you) meet (your) friend?”
3 㠎㩲 ⟶⋮┞? “When do (you) depart?”
4 㠊❪㍲ Ὃ⿖䞮┞? “Where do (you) study?”
5 ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤆┞? “Do (you) smoke?”
6 㡊㐶⯒ 㺔┞? “Do (you) look for keys?”
7 ⋶㝾Ṗ ➆⦑䞮┞? “Is the weather warm?”
8 㔲䠮㧊 㠊⪋┞? “Is the test difficult?”
9 ₆⿚㧊 ⋮㊮┞? “Is (your) mood bad?”
10 㰧㧊 㫆㣿䞮┞? “Is the house quiet?”
Exercise 1.4
1 ┺Ⰲ⯒ Ị⍞⧒. “Cross the bridge.”
2 㞚⧮⪲ ⌊⩺Ṗ⧒. “Go down to the bottom.”
3 Ṗ⹿㦚 ▮㪎⧒. “Throw the bag.”
4 㺓ⶎ㦚 㡊㠊⧒. “Open the window.”
5 㞚⻚㰖⯒ ➆⧒⧒. “Follow (your) father.”
6 㞺✲⮮⯒ ⹕㠊⧒. “Trust Andrew.”
7 㟧Ⱖ㦚 㔶㠊⧒. “Put on (your) socks.”
8 ㎪䁶⯒ 㧛㠊⧒. “Wear the shirt.”
9 ㏦㦚 㧷㞚⧒. “Take (my) hand.”
10 䋂Ợ 㣎㼦⧒. “Shout aloud.”
Exercise 1.5
1 ㌂㰚㦚 ⽊⌊㧦. “(Let us) send (him) the picture.”
2 ⁎Ⱂ㦚 ⁎Ⰲ㧦. “(Let us) draw a picture.”
3 ⻪㧎㦚 㧷㧦. “(Let us) catch the criminal.”
4 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓㧦. “(Let us) read the newspaper.”
5 㧒㦚 Ⱎ䂮㧦. “(Let us) finish the work.”
6 䌳㔲⯒ 䌖㧦. “(Let us) take a taxi.”
7 䄺䞒㑣㠦㍲ 䠺㠊㰖㧦. “(Let us) get scattered at the coffee shop.”
8 ⪲ⰾ㓺 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊㧦. “(Let us) see a romance movie.”
9 㺛㦚 㭒㧦. “(Let us) give (them) a book.”
10 㝆⩞₆⯒ ⻚Ⰲ㧦. “(Let us) throw garbage away.”
Key to
exercises
230
Exercise 1.6
1 Read page 19.
2 (Let us) wash (our) hands.
3 Close the door.
4 (Let us) borrow (his) money.
5 Go out from the room.
6 Drink green tea.
7 (Let us) give (them) homework.
8 (Let us) wear jeans.
9 Learn English.
10 (Let us) leave for London.
Exercise 1.7
1 㡺䤚 z 㔲㠦 㡗䢪Ṗ 㔲㧧䟊.
2 㫆㣿䧞 䟊.
3 㰧㦚 㼃㏢䟊.
4 䐆㦚 㠊❪㍲ Ⱒ⋮?
5 㠊❪㠦 Ṫ㠊?
6 ╊⺆⯒ ⊠㠞㠊.
7 ⋶㝾Ṗ Ⱗ㞮㠊.
8 㢖㧎㦚 ㌂.
9 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ₆┺⪎㠊?
10 䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㡗㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊㼺㠊.
Exercise 1.8
1 ἓ㩲䞯㦚 㩚Ὃ䞲┺.
2 㧧⎚㠦 ㍲㤎㦚 㡂䟟䟞┺.
3 䄺䞒Ṗ ⥾ỗ┺.
4 䃦⋮┺ ㌂⧢㧊┞?
5 㰖䞮㻶㧊 䘎䟞┞?
6 䟟⽋䞮┞?
7 㺓ⶎ㦚 㡊㠊⧒.
8 㝆⩞₆⯒ ⻚⩺⧒.
9 㧦㔶Ṧ㦚 Ṗ㰖㧦.
10 ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊㧦.
Unit 2
Exercise 2.1
1 㢶❪Ṗ 㭧ῃ ㌂⧢㧊㰖㣪?
2 㠦✲㤢✲⯒ Ⱒ⋮㰖㣪?
Key to
exercises
231
3 ⋮⯒ ⹕㰖㣪?
4 Ṗỿ㧊 ゚㕎㰖㣪?
5 㩖₆㍲ ⻚㓺⯒ 䌖㰖㣪?
Exercise 2.2
1 㡺⓮ ⋶㝾Ṗ ▻㰖㣪? “Today’s weather is hot, right?”
2 ἓ䂮Ṗ 㞚⯚╋㰖㣪? “The scenery is beautiful, right?”
3 ⹿㧊 㫆㣿䞮㰖㣪? “The room is quiet, right?”
4 㰧㧊 㔲⊚⩓㰖㣪? “The house is noisy, right?”
5 䄺䞒Ṗ ⰱ㧞㰖㣪? “The coffee is delicious, right?”
Exercise 2.3
1 㰧㦒⪲ ☢㞚Ṗ㰖㣪.
2 䄺䞒⯒ 㔲䋺㰖㣪.
3 㠦㠊䄾㦚 䅲㰖㣪.
4 Ⰶ┺䞲䎢 㩚䢪⯒ Ỏ㰖㣪.
5 䡚⁞㦒⪲ 㰖⿞䞮㰖㣪.
6 ㌳㧒 䃊✲⯒ ㌂㰖㣪.
7 䞲ῃ 㡗䢪⯒ アⰂ㰖㣪.
8 㰖䞮㻶㦚 㧊㣿䞮㰖㣪.
9 㫆❪㦮 䂲ῂ✺☚ 㽞╖䞮㰖㣪.
10 ╊⺆⯒ ⊠㰖㣪.
Exercise 2.4
1 䋂Ⰲ㓺Ṗ 䆪ἶ⍺㣪.
2 㞚゚Ợ㧒㧊 ⏎⧮⯒ 㧮 䞮⍺㣪.
3 ⪲⋶✲Ṗ ⿖㰖⩆䞮⍺㣪.
4 ┺㧊㠦⋮Ṗ 䑊⁒䟞⍺㣪.
5 Ⰲ❪㞚Ṗ ☞㦚 ⻢㠞⍺㣪.
6 ⹮㰖Ṗ ゚㕢⍺㣪.
Exercise 2.5
1 㫆㎟㧊 㰧㠦 㠜⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) Joseph is not home.”
2 ⩞㧊㼒㧊 ₖ䂮⯒ ⲏ⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) Rachel eats kimchi.”
3 ┞䆲⧒㓺Ṗ ⋮䌞Ⰲ䞮ἶ 㧊㟒₆䞮⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) Nicolas talks
to Natalie.”
4 ◆㧊キ㧊 㞢⩟㓺㦮 䡫㧊⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) David is Alex’s older
brother.”
5 㞂❪Ṗ 㞚㰗 㞞 㧦⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) Cindy does not sleep yet.”
6 ⹿㧊 ₾⊭䞮⍺㣪. “(Oh, I see that) the room is clean.”
Key to
exercises
232
Exercise 2.6
1 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㕎⓮䞮ῆ㣪.
2 㠊㩲 ⹪⧢㧊 Ⱔ㧊 ⿞㠞ῆ㣪.
3 ⽊㓺䏺㧊 ⹪╍Ṗ㨂⪲ 㥶ⳛ䞮ῆ㣪.
4 㯊Ⰲ㞚Ṗ Ṛ䢎㌂㧊ῆ㣪.
5 㧊㩲⿖䎆 㡂⯚㧊ῆ㣪.
6 㰦㧊 ⽊⍞㓺⯒ ⹱㞮ῆ㣪.
Exercise 2.7
1 ⋮㡺⹎Ṗ 䕾㎮ ⳾◎㧊ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) Naomi is a fashion
model.”
2 㥶⩓㦒⪲ 㔶䢒 㡂䟟㦚 Ṗ⓪ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that they) go to Europe
for (their) honeymoon.”
3 㡺䤚 Û 㔲㠦 ṖỢ⯒ ╁㞮ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that they) closed (their) store
at 9 p.m.”
4 䟊ⰂṖ ⼖䢎㌂⪲ 㧒䟞ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) Harry worked as a
lawyer.”
5 ⶒṖṖ ゚㕎ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) prices are expensive.”
6 㠊㩲 ⹿㧊 ▪㤶ῆ㣪. “(Oh, I see that) the room was hot yesterday.”
Unit 3
Exercise 3.1
1 Ⰲ㌂⽊┺ 㺆㓺Ṗ 㧎₆Ṗ ▪ Ⱔ㞚㣪.
2 䞲ῃ⽊┺ 䞚Ⰲ䞖㧊 ▪ ▪㤢㣪.
3 ⽚⽊┺ Ṗ㦚㦚 ▪ 㫡㞚䟞㠊㣪.
4 ὒ䞯⽊┺ ⶎ䞯㦚 ▪ 㩚Ὃ䞮ἶ 㕌㠊䟞㠊㣪.
5 ❪㰖䌞 䃊Ⲫ⧒⽊┺ ⏎䔎⿗㦚 ▪ ㌂ἶ 㕌㠞㠊㣪?
6 㹾⽊┺ ゚䟟₆Ṗ ▪ ザ⯛┞┺.
7 䢎⏖⭆⬾⽊┺ Ⓤ㣫㔲Ṗ ▪ 䋓┞┺.
8 㠊㩲⽊┺ 㡺⓮㧊 ▲ 㿻㔋┞┺.
9 䟊Ⰲ⽊┺ ㌮㧊 䎢┞㓺⯒ ▪ 㧮 䂿┞₢?
10 ◆㧊ぢ⽊┺ 㩲㧎㧊 ἶ₆⯒ ▪ 㫡㞚䞿┞₢?
Exercise 3.2
1 㭒㓺Ṗ 㠒㦢㻮⩒ 㹾Ṗ㤢㣪.
2 Ⰲ❪㞚Ṗ 䡫㌂㻮⩒ 䟟☯䟊㣪.
3 䋂Ⰲ㓺Ṗ ⶒṲ㻮⩒ 㑮㡗㦚 㧮 䟊㣪?
4 㩲ⰂṖ 㟧㻮⩒ 㑲䟞㠊㣪.
5 㟒㺚Ṗ ⁞㻮⩒ ゚㕖 Ệ㡞㣪.
Key to
exercises
233
6 㫊㧊 ⏣ῂ ㍶㑮㻮⩒ 䋺Ṗ 䄺㣪.
7 ㌢❪Ṗ ⳾◎㻮⩒ ⋶㞂䟊㣪.
8 㞺㍲┞Ṗ 㞚㧎㓞䌖㧎㻮⩒ ⡧⡧䟊㣪.
9 ㌂⧒Ṗ 㡺䗮⧒ Ṗ㑮㻮⩒ ⏎⧮⯒ 㧮 䟞㠊㣪.
10 䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ Ⱎ⧒䏺 ㍶㑮㻮⩒ 㧮 ⥎ Ệ㡞㣪.
Exercise 3.3
1 䃦㍲Ⰶ㧊 ┦Ⱒ䋒 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 㧮 䞿┞┺.
2 ⿖㠢㧊 Ệ㔺Ⱒ䋒 䋓┞┺.
3 ◆┞㠮㧊 䞚ⰓⰢ䋒 ⿖㰖⩆䞿┞┺.
4 䕾䔎Ⰳ㧊 㠦Ⰲ䃊Ⱒ䋒 㢖㧎㦚 㫡㞚䟞㔋┞₢?
5 ⩞⻶䃊Ṗ 㩲┞䗒Ⱒ䋒 㟢㩚䟞㔋┞┺.
6 ㍲㤎㧊 Ⓤ㣫Ⱒ䋒 ゚㕎㣪.
7 㧊 㹾Ṗ 㩖 㹾Ⱒ䋒 㫡㞚㣪.
8 䞚Ⱃ㧊 㞚╊Ⱒ䋒 ☞㦚 ⻢㠊㣪?
9 㰖䞮㻶㧊 䌳㔲Ⱒ䋒 䘎䟞㠊㣪.
10 㠦✲㤢✲Ṗ 䏶Ⱎ㓺Ⱒ䋒 Ⱎ㎾㠊㣪.
Exercise 3.4
1 㩖⎗Ⱎ┺ ㌆㺛䞿┞┺.
2 Ỿ㤎Ⱎ┺ 㓺䋺⯒ 䌧┞₢?
3 㡂⯚Ⱎ┺ ⹪╍Ṗ㠦 Ṫ㔋┞┺.
4 ṖỢⰞ┺ ⹪㊶ Ệ㡞㣪.
5 ⹺Ⱎ┺ Ⱒ⋿㔲┺.
6 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩Ⱎ┺ 㭒㓺⯒ 䕪㞚㣪.
7 䞯ᾦⰞ┺ ᾦṖṖ 㧞㠊㣪.
8 ⹿Ⱎ┺ 㺓ⶎ㧊 㧞㠞㠊㣪.
9 䞯㌳Ⱎ┺ 㔲䠮 Ὃ⿖⯒ 䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪.
10 䂲ῂ✺㧊 䏶㣪㧒Ⱎ┺ Ἶ䝚⯒ 㼺㠊㣪?
Exercise 3.5
1 ㌂ぢⰂ⋮Ⱎ㩖 Ệ㰩Ⱖ㦚 䟞㠊㣪.
2 ⑚⋮Ⱎ㩖 ㌂㔺㦚 Ṧ䀚㠊㣪.
3 ⋶㝾Ⱎ㩖 㿪㤶㠊㣪.
4 㩲 ⹿Ⱎ㩖 㠊⚦㤶㠊㣪.
5 㠦㠊䄾Ⱎ㩖 ἶ㧻⌂㠊㣪.
6 ⰺ䓲Ⱎ㩖 䞯ᾦ㠦 㞞 Ṫ㠊㣪.
7 ⿖㧎Ⱎ㩖 ⹎ῃ㦒⪲ ☢㞚Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪.
8 ⳾┞䃊Ⱎ㩖 㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㪢㠊㣪.
9 䘎㦮㩦Ⱎ㩖 ⶎ㦚 ╁㞮㠊㣪?
10 䙊Ⱎ㩖 㹾⯒ 䕪 Ệ㡞㣪.
Key to
exercises
234
Exercise 3.6
1 ㌂ὒ 㭒㓺⹬㠦 㞞 Ⱎ㎪㣪. “(I) drink only apple juice.”
2 ㌦⩂✲⹬㠦 㞞 ⲏ㠊㣪. “(I) eat only salad.”
3 㠚Ⱎ⓪ 㞚ザ⹬㠦 㞞 㫡㞚䟊㣪. “As for Mom, (she) likes only Dad.”
4 ㏦┮㧊 7 ⳛ⹬㠦 㠜㠊㣪. “There are only seven customers.”
5 ⌄㧶㦚 T 㔲Ṛ⹬㠦 㞞 㧮 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will take a nap only one hour.”
6 㠊Ⲏ┞⹬㠦 ㌳ṗ 㞞 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) thought of only (my) mother.”
7 㨂㯞⹬㠦 㞞 㫡㞚䟞㠊㣪. “(I) liked only jazz.”
8 㠊㩲 5 㔲Ṛ⹬㠦 㞞 㧺㠊㣪. “(I) slept only 5 hours yesterday.”
9 T0 ⿚⹬㠦 㞞 ₆┺Ⰺ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will wait only 10 minutes.”
10 㠎┞⹬㠦 㞞 Ⱒ⋶ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will meet only (my) older sister.”
Unit 4
Exercise 4.1
1 㧎☚ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㠊 ⽺㔋┞┺. “(I) tried Indian food.”
2 ☚㧦₆⯒ Ⱒ✺㠊 ⽺㔋┞┺. “(I) tried making ceramics.”
3 䞲⽋㦚 㧛㠊 ⽺㔋┞┺. “(I) tried wearing Hanbok.”
4 ⻶㧊㰫㠦 Ṗ ⽺㔋┞┺. “(I) have been to Beijing.”
5 ⼧㤦㠦 㩚䢪䟊 ⽺㔋┞┺. “(I) tried calling the hospital.”
Exercise 4.2
1 ⶊ㡃 䣢㌂㠦㍲ 㧒䟊 ⽺㔋┞₢? “Have (you) tried working for a trading
company?”
2 ⋰㔲⯒ 䟊 ⽺㔋┞₢? “Have (you) tried fishing?”
3 䌖㧊 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㠊 ⽺㔋┞₢? “Have (you) tried (eating) Thai food?”
4 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤢 ⽺㔋┞₢? “Have (you) tried learning the Korean
language?”
5 ᾦ䣢㠦 Ṗ ⽺㔋┞₢? “Have (you) been to church?”
Exercise 4.3
1 㡗㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊㼦 ⽊㕃㔲㡺. “Try teaching English.”
2 ㌆㦚 㢂⧒Ṗ ⽊㕃㔲㡺. “Try climbing the mountain.”
3 㞚䕢䔎㠦㍲ ㌊㞚 ⽊㕃㔲㡺. “Try living in an apartment.”
4 㡂㧦䂲ῂ⧧ 䠺㠊㪎 ⽊㕃㔲㡺. “Try breaking up with (your) girlfriend.”
5 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ㼦 ⽊㕃㔲㡺. “Try fixing the computer.”
Key to
exercises
235
Exercise 4.4
1 ₆☚䟊 ⽛㔲┺. “(Let us) try praying.”
2 ㍶㌳┮䞲䎢 ⿖䌗䟊 ⽛㔲┺. “(Let us) try asking a favor to the
teacher.”
3 㹾⯒ ἶ㼦 ⽛㔲┺. “(Let us) try fixing the car.”
4 ῂⲣ㦚 Ⱏ㞚 ⽛㔲┺. “(Let us) try filling up a hole.”
5 㠦㠊䄾㦚 䅲 ⽛㔲┺. “(Let us) try turning on the air conditioner.”
Exercise 4.5
1 㞚䝚Ⰲ䃊㠦 Ṗ ⽺㔋┞┺.
2 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䟊 ⽒ ỗ┞┺.
3 䞲ῃ ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱎ㎪ ⽺㔋┞┺.
4 㓺㤾◊㠦 Ṗ ⽺㔋┞₢?
5 ₆䌖⯒ 㼦 ⽺㔋┞₢?
6 㰧 㩚䢪 ⻞䢎⯒ 㣎㤢 ⽊㕃㔲㡺.
7 Ⱎ㌂㰖 ₆Ἒ⯒ ㌂㣿䟊 ⽊㕃㔲㡺.
8 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢䞮ἶ ㌂‖㠊 ⽊㕃㔲㡺.
9 㣪Ⰲ⯒ ⺆㤢 ⽛㔲┺.
10 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ㼦 ⽛㔲┺.
Exercise 4.6
1 䡫㧊 㫡㦖 ㏢㔳㦚 㩚䟊 㢪㠊㣪.
2 ṲṖ 㧊㴓㦒⪲ ╂⩺ 㢖㣪.
3 㥢Ⰲ㠚㧊 Ṧ₆⪲ ἶ㌳䟊 㢪㠊㣪.
4 ⪲⻚䔎⪲⿖䎆 ☚㤖㦚 ⹱㞚 㡺ἶ 㧞㠊㣪.
5 ⶒ㧊 㠒㠊 Ṗἶ 㧞㠊㣪.
Exercise 4.7
1 㤆Ⰲ 䞶Ⲏ┞⓪ 䟊Ⱎ┺ ⓯㠊 Ṗ㕃┞┺. “As for my grandmother, (she)
continues to get old.”
2 㧊㩲⿖䎆 䢒㧦 ㌊㞚ṧ┞₢? “Do (you) go on living alone from now
on?”
3 䟟⽋䞲 Ṗ㩫㦚 Ⱒ✺㠊 Ṗ㕃㔲㡺. “Continue to make a happy family.”
4 ⶒ㦚 㩞㟓䟊 ṧ㔲┺. “(Let us) continue to save water.”
5 㫆⁞㝿 㓺䅖㭚㦚 ⹪∪ ṧ㔲┺. “(Let us) continue to change the sch-
edule gradually.”
Key to
exercises
236
Unit 5
Exercise 5.1
1 䋆 ⶒἶ₆⯒ ⋰㞚 ⌞㠊㣪.
2 ṫⶒ㦚 Ⱏ㞚 ⌞㠊㣪.
3 䝚⪲㩳䔎⯒ ➆ ⌞㠊㣪.
4 ☞㦚 ⹱㞚 ⌞㠊㣪.
5 ⏒ⶎ㦚 㖾 ⌞㠊㣪.
Exercise 5.2
1 ゚⹖㦚 䃦 ⌞㠊㣪. “(I) ferreted out a secret.”
2 㩚䢪₆⯒ Ⱒ✺㠊 ⌞㠊㣪. “(He) made a telephone.”
3 ἶ₆⯒ ῂ㤢 ⌞㠊㣪. “(I) roasted meat.”
4 ⁞䞮ἶ 㦖㦚 ῂ⼚䟊 ⌞㠊㣪. “(I) made a distinction between gold and
silver.”
5 ⁎Ⱂ㦚 ⁎⩺ ⌞㠊㣪. “(I) drew a picture.”
Exercise 5.3
1 㞺✲⮮Ṗ ㌂㰚㦚 㹣㠊 ⻚⪎㠊㣪.
2 ㌂⧒Ṗ ⏎䔎⿗㦚 ア⩺ ⻚⪎㠊㣪.
3 ☞㦚 ┺ 㖾 ⻚⪎㠊㣪.
4 䅖ゞ㧊 ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ⊳₢㰖 ⽦ ⻚⪎㠊㣪.
5 㞺㰖Ṗ 㰗㧻㦚 㢄Ỿ ⻚⪎㠊㣪.
Exercise 5.4
1 㹾Ṗ ⡦ ἶ㧻㧊 ⋮ ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “The car broke down again.”
2 ṖỢ ⶎ㦚 ╁㞚 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) shut the store door.”
3 䕢㧒㦚 㰖㤢 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) erased the file.”
4 䂲ῂṖ Ⓤ㣫㦒⪲ ⟶⋮ ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(My) friend left for New York.”
5 䞯ᾦ㠦㍲ ⋮㢖 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) came out from school.”
Exercise 5.5
1 ⓼Ợ 㧒㠊⋮ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪.
2 㥚㓺䋺⯒ Ⱎ㔲ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪.
3 㡂㧦 䂲ῂ䞲䎢 ㌂⧧㦚 ἶ⺇䞮ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪.
4 ἆῃ 㧒㦚 ⁎Ⱒ⚦ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪.
5 㹾Ṗ ἶ㧻㧊 ⋮ἶ Ⱖ㞮㞚㣪.
Key to
exercises
237
Exercise 5.6
1 ⪲⋶✲Ṗ 䡫䞮ἶ 㕎㤆ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “Ronald ended up disputing with
(his) older brother.”
2 ㌦ⰂṖ ⋾㧦 䂲ῂ䞮ἶ 䠺㠊㰖ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “Sally ended up breaking
up with (her) boyfriend.”
3 䎢⩢㓺Ṗ ⏎䔎⿗㦚 䕪ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “Terrence ended up selling (his)
notebook.”
4 㞂❪Ṗ ₎㠦㍲ ⹎⊚⩂㰖ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “Cindy ended up sliding down
on the road.”
5 㫆㞺㧊 㠎┞䞲䎢 䢪⌊ἶ Ⱖ㞮㠊㣪. “Joan ended up getting mad at (her)
older sister.”
Exercise 5.7
1 䕆⋮Ṗ 䝚⪲㩳䔎⯒ ☚㢖 㮂㠊㣪.
2 㡺ザṖ Ṗ⹿㦚 ㌂ 㮂㠊㣪.
3 㫊㧊 㹾⯒ 䕪㞚 㮂㠊㣪.
4 ⲪỊ㧊 ㌂㰚㦚 㹣㠊 㭚 Ệ㡞㣪.
5 㠎┞Ṗ ㍺Ệ㰖⯒ 䟊 㭚 Ệ㡞㣪.
6 㺛㦚 ア⩺ 㭒㎎㣪.
7 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ㼦 㭒㎎㣪.
8 㢍㦚 䢮⿞䟊 㭒㎎㣪.
9 䞒㞚⏎⯒ 㼦 㭒㎎㣪.
10 ⧒❪㡺⯒ 䔖㠊 㭒㎎㣪.
Exercise 5.8
1 㺛㦚 㧓㠊 ✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) read a book (for her).”
2 䘎㰖⯒ 㖾 ✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) wrote a letter (for her).”
3 㩚䢪⯒ ⹱㞚 ✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) received the phone call (for her).”
4 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㞚 ✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) shut the window (for him).”
5 㩚❇㦚 䅲 ✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) switched on the electric lamp (for her).”
6 ⶎ㦚 㡊㠊 ✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) opened the door (for him).”
7 㢍㦚 ⹪∪ ✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) changed the dress (for him).”
8 ⏎⧮⯒ ⿞⩂ ✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) sang the song (for her).”
9 㩦㕂㦚 Ⱒ✺㠊 ✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) made lunch (for him).”
10 䄺䞒⯒ 㔲䅲 ✲⪎㠊㣪. “(I) ordered coffee (for him).”
Key to
exercises
238
Unit 6
Exercise 6.1
1 㑯㩲⯒ ⊳⌊ ⏩㦒㎎㣪.
2 㰖☚⯒ ⁎⩺ ⏩㦒㎎㣪.
3 ㏢㓺⯒ Ⱒ✺㠊 ⏩㦒㎎㣪.
4 ⶒ㦚 ⊩㡂 ⏩㦒㎎㣪.
5 ☞㦚 ⹱㞚 ⏩㦒㎎㣪.
Exercise 6.2
1 㩚䢪 ⻞䢎⯒ ₆㠋䟊 ⚦㎎㣪. “Remember the telephone number for
later.”
2 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓㠊 ⚦㎎㣪. “Read newspapers for later.”
3 㫢㍳㦚 㡞㟓䟊 ⚦㎎㣪. “Reserve a seat for later.”
4 㰖Ⰲ⯒ 㧋䡖 ⚦㎎㣪. “Make (yourself) familiar with the geographical
features for later.”
5 㟒㺚⯒ 㞑㠊 ⚦㎎㣪. “Wash vegetables for later.”
Exercise 6.3
1 ⶎ㧊 ╁䡖 㧞㠊㣪.
2 ㌂㰚㧊 ⼓㠦 Ỏ⩺ 㧞㠊㣪.
3 ṖỢṖ 㡊⩺ 㧞㠊㣪.
4 ㏦┮㧊 ㏢䕢㠦 㞟㞚 㧞㠊㣪.
5 㩲㧚㓺Ṗ ⶎ 㞴㠦 ㍲ 㧞㠊㣪.
Exercise 6.4
1 ⻚㓺Ṗ 㢖 㧞㠊㣪. “Bus is here.”
2 㩫㤦㠦 ↙㧊 䞒㠊 㧞㠊㣪. “Flowers are in bloom in the garden.”
3 䂲ῂṖ 㰧㠦 㢖 㧞㠊㣪. “The friends are (here) home.”
4 䢮㧦Ṗ 䂾╖㠦 ⑚㤢 㧞㠊㣪. “The patient is lying on the bed.”
5 㩚❇㧊 ℒ㪎 㧞㠊㣪. “The electric lamp is off.”
Exercise 6.5
1 䟟⽋䟊䟊㣪.
2 ₆ㄦ䟊㣪.
3 㰖⬾䟊䞶 Ệ㡞㣪.
4 㤆㤎䟊䟞㠊㣪.
5 ᾊ⪲㤢䟞㠊㣪.
Key to
exercises
239
Exercise 6.6
1 ▪㤢䟊㣪. “(He) feels hot.”
2 㞚䕢䟊㣪. “(He) feels sore.”
3 ἶⰞ㤢䟊㣪. “(He) feels thankful.”
4 ῗ⁞䟊䟊㣪. “(He) feels curious.”
5 ⿖⩂㤢䟊㣪. “(He) envies.”
Exercise 6.7
1 ⲎⰂṖ 㠊㰖⩂㤢㪢㠊㣪.
2 ㎇ỿ㧊 㹾⿚䟊㪢㠊㣪.
3 ⳿㏢ⰂṖ ⿖✲⩂㤢㪢㠊㣪.
4 ⴎ㧊 䔒䔒䟊㪢㠊㣪.
5 㹾Ṗ ▪⩂㤢㰞 Ệ㡞㣪.
Exercise 6.8
1 㞚㧊㦮 䋺Ṗ 䄺㪢㠊㣪. “The child’s height has become tall.”
2 㩲㔲䃊Ṗ 㡞ㄦ㪢㠊㣪. “Jessica has become pretty.”
3 㦢㔳 Ṩ㧊 ゚㕎㪢㠊㣪. “Food price has become expensive.”
4 ⋶㝾Ṗ Ⱗ㞚㪢㠊㣪. “The weather has become clear.”
5 㠒Ὴ㧊 ₢ⰺ㪢㠊㣪. “(My) face has become dark.”
Unit 7
Exercise 7.1
1 ㏢䙂⯒ ⹱㦒⩂ 㤆㼊ῃ㠦 㡺㎎㣪.
2 㹾⯒ ἶ䂮⩂ 㩫゚㏢㠦 Ṗἶ 㧞㠊㣪.
3 ⋰㔲㰞 䞮⩂ ⹪╍Ṗ⪲ ṧ㔲┺.
4 ゚䟟₆⯒ 䌖⩂ Ὃ䟃㠦 Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪.
5 䅊䜾䎆 Ợ㧚㦚 䞮⩂ 䂲ῂ 㰧㠦 㧦㭒 Ṗ㎎㣪?
Exercise 7.2
1 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲⩂ 㓺䌖⻛㓺㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) went to Starbucks to drink
coffee.”
2 㔲䠮 Ὃ⿖䞮⩂ ☚㍲ὖ㠦 Ṗ㕃㔲㡺. “Go to the library to study for the
test.”
3 㠒Ὴ㦚 㞑㦒⩂ 䢪㧻㔺㠦 Ṗἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am going to toilet to wash
(my) face.”
4 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ㦒⩂ 㭧ῃ 㔳╏㠦 ṧ㔲┺. “(Let us) go to the Chinese restau-
rant to have lunch.”
Key to
exercises
240
5 䅖㧊䔎⯒ Ⱒ⋮⩂ Ὃ䟃㠦 ṧ┞₢? “Do (you) go to the airport to meet
Kate?”
Exercise 7.3
1 ㌊㦚 ヒ⩺ἶ 㤊☯䟊㣪.
2 ㍶㌳┮㦚 Ⱒ⋮⩺ἶ ㌂ⶊ㔺㠦㍲ ₆┺Ⰲἶ 㧞㠞㠊㣪.
3 㦮ὒ ╖䞯㠦 ✺㠊Ṗ⩺ἶ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪.
4 㧊⻞ 㡂⯚㠦 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṗ⩺ἶ ゚䟟₆䚲⯒ 㡞㟓䟞㠊㣪.
5 䀾㰗䞮⩺ἶ ⏎⩻䞮ἶ 㧞㠞㠊㣪.
Exercise 7.4
1 ⋾䘎䞲䎢 ㌳㧒 ㍶ⶒ⪲ 㭒⩺ἶ ㍶ⶒ㦚 ἶ⯊ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am choosing
a gift intending to give (it) to (my) husband for (his) birthday present.”
2 䕢Ⰲ⪲ ⟶⋮⩺ἶ ₆㹾 㡃㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) went to the train station intend-
ing to leave for Paris.”
3 ṯ㧊 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ㦒⩺ἶ ⪲゚㠦㍲ 䂲ῂ⯒ ₆┺⩺㣪. “(I) wait for (my)
friend at lobby intending to have lunch together.”
4 㕎Ợ 㹾⯒ ㌂⩺ἶ 䦻㩫㦚 䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am negotiating intending to
buy the car at a cheap price.”
5 ☞㦚 ⻢⩺ἶ 㞚⯊⹪㧊䔎⯒ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) had a side job intending to earn
(some) money.”
Exercise 7.5
1 㺛㦚 アⰂ⩺ἶ
2 㟒㺚⯒ ㌂⩺ἶ
3 㡂㧦 䂲ῂ䞲䎢 㭒⩺ἶ
4 䞯ᾦ㠦 ゾⰂ Ṗ⩺ἶ
5 ⋾㧦 䂲ῂ㦮 Ṗ㫇㦚 Ⱒ⋮⩺ἶ
Exercise 7.6
1 Ⓤ㓺⯒ ✺㦚 㑮 㧞☚⪳ ⧒❪㡺⯒ 䅲 㭒㎎㣪.
2 㹾⯒ 㝎 㑮 㧞☚⪳ 䠞⧓䟊 㭒㎎㣪.
3 Ịṫ㦚 䣢⽋䞶 㑮 㧞☚⪳ ☚㢖 㭒㎎㣪.
4 䀾㰗䞶 㑮 㧞☚⪳ 㿪㻲㍲⯒ 㖾 㭒㎎㣪.
5 㧮 㑮 㧞☚⪳ 㩚❇㦚 ℒ 㭒㎎㣪.
Exercise 7.7
1 㟆な⧖㓺Ṗ 㰖⋮Ṟ 㑮 㧞☚⪳ ₎㦚 ゚䅲 㭒㎎㣪. “Please get out of the
way so that the ambulance can pass by.”
Key to
exercises
241
2 㫡㦖 㧎㌗㦚 㭚 㑮 㧞☚⪳ 㤙㠊 㭒㎎㣪. “Please smile so that (you) can
give (them) a good impression.”
3 㔲䠮㠦 ⿯㦚 㑮 㧞☚⪳ 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Study hard so that (you)
can pass the test.”
4 㞚䂾㠦 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋶ 㑮 㧞☚⪳ 㞢⧢㦚 ⰴ㿪㠊 㭒㎎㣪. “Please set the
alarm, so that (he) can get up early in the morning.”
5 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞶 㑮 㧞☚⪳ 䢒⌊ 㭒㎎㣪. “Please teach (him) a lesson, so
that (he) can study hard.”
Unit 8
Exercise 8.1
1 㡂䟟㌂㠦 㩚䢪䟊㍲ 䟃Ὃ 㣪⁞㠦 ╖䟊㍲ ⶒ㠊 ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪.
2 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ㍲ ᾦ㑮┮㦚 Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪.
3 ➎₆⯒ 㞑㠊㍲ ⲏ㠞㠊㣪?
4 ⁎ ⹮㰖⯒ ㌂㍲ 㡂㧦 䂲ῂ䞲䎢 㭒㎎㣪.
5 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤢㍲ ㍲㤎㠦㍲ 䀾㰗䞿㔲┺.
Exercise 8.2
1 㞚䂾㠦 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮㍲ 㤊☯䞶⧮㣪. “(I) will get up early in the morning
and then exercise.”
2 䂲ῂ 㰧㠦 Ṗ㍲ 㣪Ⰲ䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Go to (your) friend’s house and then
cook.”
3 㠎㩲 Ⓤ㣫㠦 Ṗ㍲ ⷺ㔲䅂㦚 ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪? “When will (you) go to New
York and then see a musical?”
4 ㍶ⶒ㦚 䙂㧻䟊㍲ ㌳㧒 䕢䕆 ➢ 㮂㠊㣪. “(I) wrapped up the gift and
then gave (it to her) at (her) birthday party.”
5 䕢䕆㠦 Ṗ㍲ 䦻ἏỢ ⏟㔲┺. “(Let us) go to the party and then play
merrily.”
Exercise 8.3
1 ᾦ䐋㧊 Ⱏ䡖㍲ 㑮㠛㠦 ⓼㠞㠊㣪.
2 㞚䂾㦚 ⓼Ợ ⲏ㠊㍲ 㞚㰗 㩦㕂㦚 㞞 ⲏ㠞㠊㣪.
3 ⺆Ṗ 㞚䕢㍲ 㰧㠦 㧒㹣 Ṗἶ 㕌㠊㣪.
4 ⹿㧊 ⍞ⶊ ▪⩂㤢㍲ 㡺⓮ 㼃㏢䞶 Ệ㡞㣪.
5 ㌳㧒㧊㠊㍲ 㧒㹣 㰧㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪.
Key to
exercises
242
Exercise 8.4
1 㠊㩲Ṗ 䂲ῂ ㌳㧒㧊㠊㍲ ㌳㧒 䕢䕆㠦 Ṫ㔋┞┺. “Since yesterday was
(my) friend’s birthday, (I) went to (his) birthday party.”
2 㧊 㔳╏ 㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㧞㠊㍲ 㧦㭒 㢖㣪. “Since this restaurant’s food is
delicious, (we) come (here) often.”
3 ⑞㧊 Ⱔ㧊 㢖㍲ 䞯ᾦ㠦 ⴑ Ṟ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “Since (it) snows much, (I)
guess that (I) will not be able to go to school.”
4 Ṧ₆ Ỏ⩺㍲ 㟓㦚 ⲏἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “Since (I) caught a cold, (I) am taking
medicines.”
5 㟓㏣ 㔲Ṛ㠦 ⓼㠊㍲ ⹎㞞䞿┞┺. “(I) am sorry in that (I) am late for
the appointment.”
Exercise 8.5
1 䄺䞒⯒ ⴑ Ⱎ㔲┞₢ ╖㔶 ⏏㹾⯒ ㌓㔲┺.
2 䑊⁒ 㔲Ṛ㧊┞₢ ᾦ䐋㧊 Ⱏ䧯┞┺.
3 㔲Ṛ㧊 㠜㦒┞₢ 㣿ỊⰢ Ⱖ䞮㕃㔲㡺.
4 䠞ⰂṖ 㞚䝚┞₢ ⑚ῂ☚ Ⱒ⋮ἶ 㕌㰖 㞠㔋┞┺.
5 㿪㤆┞₢ 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㦒㕃㔲㡺.
Exercise 8.6
1 ⌊㧒 ⹪㊮┞₢ ⳾⧮ 㩚䢪䞶Ợ㣪. “Since (I) am busy tomorrow, (I) will
call (you) the day after tomorrow.”
2 ☚㍲ὖ㧊┞₢ 䋂Ợ 㧊㟒₆䞮㰖 Ⱎ㕃㔲㡺. “Since (here) is the library,
do not talk aloud.”
3 ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䝚┞₢ 㟓㦚 ㌂ 㭒㎎㣪. “Since (my) head aches, please buy
medicines (for me).”
4 ⌊㧒 㞚䂾㠦 㧊㌂䞮┞₢ 㡺㩚 o 㔲₢㰖 㡺㎎㣪. “Since (we) move (into
the new residence) tomorrow morning, come by 8 a.m.”
5 㦢㔳㧊 㕇Ệ㤆┞₢ ㏢⁞㦚 ⍹㦒㕃㔲㡺. “Since the food is watery, put
(some) salt in (it).”
6 ▪㤆┞₢ 㠦㠊䆮㦚 䔖㠊 㭒㎎㣪. “Since (it) is hot, please turn on the
air conditioner.”
7 㧊㩲 Ἵ 䞒㧦Ṗ ☚㹿䞮┞₢ 㫆⁞ ▪ ₆┺Ⱃ㔲┺. “Since the pizza will
arrive (here) soon, (let us) wait a little more.”
Exercise 8.7
1 ⰻ㭒⯒ ㌂ⓦ⧒ἶ ☞㦚 ┺ 㗒㠊㣪.
2 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ䂮ⓦ⧒ἶ 㞚㰗 䑊⁒㦚 ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪.
3 㡺⧮ 䐋䢪䞮ⓦ⧒ἶ 㩖⎗㦚 ṯ㧊 ⴑ ⲏ㠞㠊㣪.
4 ☯㩚㦚 ⍹ⓦ⧒ἶ 㰖ṧ㦚 ⟾㠊⥾⪎㠊㣪.
5 㡊㐶⯒ 㺔ⓦ⧒ἶ ⓼㠞㠊㣪.
Key to
exercises
243
Exercise 8.8
1 㑯㩲⯒ 䞮ⓦ⧒ἶ ⹺㦚 ㌞㤶㠊㣪. “(I) stayed up all night because of
doing (my) homework.”
2 ⧒❪㡺⯒ ✹ⓦ⧒ἶ 㽞㧎㫛 ㏢Ⰲ⯒ ⴑ ✺㠞㠊㣪. “(I) could not hear the
doorbell sound because of listening to the radio.”
3 ㌂⧒⯒ ₆┺Ⰲⓦ⧒ἶ ⓼㠞㠊㣪? “Were (you) late waiting for Sarah?”
4 ┺㧊㠊䔎⯒ 䞮ⓦ⧒ἶ 㩖⎗㦚 Ⱔ㧊 㞞 ⲏ㔋┞┺. “(I) do not eat dinner
much because (I) am on diet.”
5 㦖䟟㦚 㺔ⓦ⧒ἶ ㌂⧢✺䞲䎢 ⶒ㠊⽊ἶ 㧞㠞㠊㣪. “(I) was asking people
because (I) was looking for a bank.”
Unit 9
Exercise 9.1
1 㔲Ṛ㧊 㧞㦒Ⳋ ア䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞶 Ệ㡞㣪.
2 ₎㧊 Ⱏ䧞Ⳋ 㰖䞮㻶㦚 䌧㔲┺.
3 ゚㕎Ⳋ ㌂Ỷ㠊㣪?
4 ⌊㧒 㞚䂾 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮Ⳋ ₾㤢 㭒㎎㣪.
5 㧊㟒₆䟞㦒Ⳋ 䢪⌞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪.
Exercise 9.2
1 ⺆Ṗ 㞚䝚Ⳋ ⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ㎎㣪. “If (your) stomach hurts, go to hospital.”
2 ⋶㝾Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㿪㤆Ⳋ 䧞䎆⯒ 䅲Ỷ㠊㣪. “If the weather is too cold, (I)
will turn on the heater.”
3 ⳾⯊Ⳋ ⶒ㠊 ⽊㎎㣪. “If (you) do not know, try asking (someone).”
4 ▪㤆Ⳋ 㺓ⶎ㦚 㡓㔲┺. “If (it) is hot, (let us) open the window.”
5 ☚㤖㧊 䞚㣪䞮Ⳋ ⑚ῂ䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞮㎎㣪? “When (you) need help, who
do (you) call?”
Exercise 9.3
1 Ὃ䟃㠦㍲ Ⱒ⋮Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪.
2 ㌳㧒 ㍶ⶒ⪲ 㔲Ἒ⯒ ⹱㦒Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪.
3 ⩞✲ 㢖㧎㦚 㔲䋺Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪.
4 㩖⎗㦒⪲ 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㦒Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪.
5 ☞㦚 Ⱔ㧊 ⻢Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪.
Key to
exercises
244
Exercise 9.4
1 ⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎Ṗ 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (my) roommate is
a Korean.”
2 䃦⋮┺⪲ 㥶䞯ṖⳊ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (I) go abroad for study to
Canada.”
3 㰗㧻㧊 㰧㠦㍲ Ṗ₢㤆Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (my) place of work is
near from home.”
4 ⌊㧒 ⋶㝾Ṗ ➆⦑䞮Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that tomorrow’s weather is
warm.”
5 ⋾䘎㧊 㧒㹣 㧦Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (my) husband goes to bed
early.”
6 ┺㦢 䞯₆㠦 ₖᾦ㑮┮㧊 Ṗ⯊䂮㔲Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that Professor
Kim teaches next semester.”
7 ⋾㧦 䂲ῂṖ ╊⺆⯒ ⊠㦒Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (my) boyfriend
quits smoking.”
8 ⏎䔎⿗㦚 ㌳㧒 ㍶ⶒ⪲ ⹱㦒Ⳋ 㫡Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) wish that (I) receive a
notebook for (my) birthday present.”
Exercise 9.5
1 ⶒ㦚 ⊩㧊⩺Ⳋ ⌚゚Ṗ 䞚㣪䟊㣪. “If (you) intend to boil water, (you)
need a pot.”
2 㧊 㔳╏㠦㍲ 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㦒⩺Ⳋ 㡞㟓䞮㕃㔲㡺. “If (you) intend to have
dinner in this restaurant, make a reservation.”
3 ⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ⩺Ⳋ 㰖䞮㻶㦚 䌖㎎㣪. “If (you) intend to go to hospital, take
a subway.”
4 ⹎ῃ㠦 㧛ῃ䞮⩺Ⳋ ゚㧦⯒ ⹱㞚㟒 䟊㣪. “If (you) intend to enter the
States, (you) have to receive a visa.”
5 㧊 䣢㌂㠦 䀾㰗䞮⩺Ⳋ ╖䞯 㫎㠛㧻㦚 㩲㿲䞮㎎㣪. “If (you) intend to
get employed in this company, submit (your) college diploma.”
6 ぢ⪲✲㤾㧊 㑒⯒ ⽊⩺Ⳋ Ⓤ㣫㠦 Ṗ㟒 ♒㣪. “If (you) intend to see a
Broadway show, (you) must go to New York.”
7 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂮⩺Ⳋ Ὃ䞮ἶ ⧒䅩㧊 䞚㣪䟊㣪. “If (you) intend to play
tennis, (you) need a ball and a racket.”
8 䢪㧻㔺㦚 ㌂㣿䞮⩺Ⳋ 㣪⁞㦚 ⌊㎎㣪. “If (you) intend to use a toilet,
pay the fee.”
Exercise 9.6
1 䘎㰖⯒ 㧓㦒Ⳋ 㧓㦚㑮⪳ 䢪Ṗ ⋮㣪.
2 ⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦ⰂⳊ 䦦Ⰺ㑮⪳ 㿪㤢㣪.
3 㔲Ṛ㧊 㰖⋮Ⳋ 㰖⋶㑮⪳ 㡱⋶㧊 ⁎Ⰲ㤢㣪.
4 䋂Ⳋ 䋊㑮⪳ ゚㕢㠊㣪.
5 ⁎ 㺛㦚 㧓㦒Ⳋ 㧓㦚㑮⪳ 㨂⹎㧞㠞㠊㣪.
Key to
exercises
245
Exercise 9.7
1 䞲ῃ㠦 ㌊Ⳋ ㌊㑮⪳ 㫡㞚㣪. “The more (I) live in Korea, the better
(it) is.”
2 ㌂⧢✺㦚 Ⱒ⋮Ⳋ Ⱒ⋶㑮⪳ 䞒Ἲ䞿┞┺. “The more (I) meet people,
the more tired (I) am.”
3 ☞㦚 㝆Ⳋ 㝎㑮⪳ 䞚㣪䞿┞┺. “The more (I) spend money, the more
(I) need (it).”
4 㡂䟟㦚 䞮Ⳋ 䞶㑮⪳ Ⱔ㧊 ⺆㤎 Ệ㡞㣪. “The more (you) travel, the
more (you) will learn.”
5 ⹪㊮Ⳋ ⹪㊶㑮⪳ Ịṫ 㫆㕂䞮㎎㣪. “The busier (you) are, take more
care of (your) health.”
Exercise 9.8
1 㞚₆Ṗ 㤎Ệ✶ 㞚₆⯒ 㞞㞚 㭒㎎㣪.
2 ⰱ㧞Ệ✶ ▪ 㔲䌋㔲┺.
3 䋂Ⰲ㓺Ⱎ㓺 䔎Ⰲ⯒ Ⱒ✺Ệ✶ ㌂㰚㦚 㹣㦒㎎㣪.
4 㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 㧒䞮Ệ✶ 䕢䕆㠦 㡺㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪.
5 ⋮㭧㠦 ⲪⰂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮Ệ✶ Ⲫ㎎㰖⯒ 㩚䟊 㭣㔲┺.
Exercise 9.9
1 㿪㻲㍲Ṗ 䞚㣪䞮Ệ✶ 㩖䞲䎢 㡆⧓䞮㎎㣪. “If (you) need a recommen-
dation letter, contact me.”
2 ⡦ ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䝚Ệ✶ 㟓㦚 ✲㎎㣪. “If (your) head aches again, take
medicines.”
3 ệ㩫ỆⰂṖ 㧞Ệ✶ Ⱖ䞮㎎㣪. “If (you) have a source of anxiety, talk
(to me).”
4 㕂㕂䞮Ệ✶ ¯\ ⽊㎎㣪. “If (you) feel bored, watch TV.”
5 ⼧㤦㠦 ṖỆ✶ ⹫㍶㌳┮㦚 Ⱒ⋮㎎㣪. “If (you) go to the hospital, meet
Dr. Park.”
Exercise 9.10
1 㩦㕂㦚 ⓼Ợ ⲏ㠞Ệ✶㣪. “(I) ate lunch late, you know.”
2 ⳿㧊 㞚䝚Ệ✶㣪. “(My) throat hurts, you know.”
3 ┺㧊㠊䔎⯒ 䞮ἶ 㧞Ệ✶㣪. “(I) am on diet, you know.”
4 ☞㧊 㠜Ệ✶㣪. “(I) do not have money, you know.”
5 㑶㦚 ⴑ Ⱎ㔲Ệ✶㣪. “(I) cannot drink alcohol, you know.”
6 ㌂㧊㯞Ṗ 㧧㞮Ệ✶㣪. “The size was small, you know.”
Key to
exercises
246
Exercise 9.11
1 㡂㧦 䂲ῂṖ 䟟⽋䟊㟒 㩖☚ 䟟⽋䟊㣪.
2 ㎎㧒㦚 䟊㟒 ㌊ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
3 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䟊㟒 㦮㌂Ṗ ♶ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
4 㧒㦚 ⁎Ⱒ⛂㟒 㡂䟟㦚 䞶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
5 ╊⺆⯒ ⊠㠊㟒 ⼧㧊 ⋮㦚 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
Exercise 9.12
1 㔲䠮㦚 㧮 ⽦㟒 ⻫╖㠦 ✺㠊Ṟ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (you) do well on the
test, (you) can enter law school.”
2 㞚⯊⹪㧊䔎⯒ 䟊㟒 䞯゚⯒ ⌒ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (I) do a side job, (I)
can pay (my) tuition.”
3 㩖⁞㦚 䟊㟒 ㌞ ㏢䕢⯒ ㌊ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (we) save money, (we)
can buy a new sofa.”
4 䕢Ⰲ㠦 Ṗ㟒 㠦䗶䌖㤢⯒ ⽒ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (you) go to Paris, (you)
can see Eiffel Tower.”
5 䋂Ⰲ㓺䕊㦚 Ⱒ⋮㟒 㺛㦚 ⹱㦚 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “Only if (you) meet Christine,
(you) can receive the book.”
Unit 10
Exercise 10.1
1 㞚䂾㦚 ⲏἶ 㤊☯䞿┞┺.
2 㧊⯒ ┼ἶ 㧦㣪.
3 ㍶㌳┮䞲䎢 Ⲓ㩖 ⶒ㠊 ⽊ἶ 䢪㧻㔺㠦 ṧ┞₢?
4 㡞㟓㦚 䞮ἶ ⟶⋿㔲┺.
5 ╖䞯ᾦ⯒ 㫎㠛䞮ἶ 䀾㰗䞮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪.
6 㑮㧪㦖 ⑞㧊 䋂ἶ 㫆㣿䟊㣪.
7 䕖㦖 ⳿㏢ⰂṖ 㫡ἶ 㥶ⲎṖ 㧞㠊㣪.
8 㞺✲⮮⓪ Ἆ㏦䞮ἶ ⿖㰖⩆䟊㣪.
Exercise 10.2
1 ㎎㑮⯒ 䞮ἶ 㢍㦚 Ṟ㞚 㧛㦒㎎㣪. “Wash (your) face and then change
(your) clothes.”
2 㑯㩲⯒ 䞮ἶ 㧎䎆⎍㦚 㝆Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) will do (my) homework and then
use the internet.”
3 ㌺㤢⯒ 䞮ἶ 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㦣㔲┺. “(Let us) take a shower and then eat
dinner.”
4 䋺Ṗ 䋂ἶ 㠒Ὴ㧊 㧧㞮㠊㣪 “(His) height was tall and (his) face was
small.”
5 㫊㧊 ´T ㌊㧊ἶ 㦮㌂㧛┞┺. “John is 31 years old and (he) is a doctor.”
Key to
exercises
247
Exercise 10.3
1 䙊㦮 ⳿㏢ⰂṖ 䋂Ⳇ ⿖✲⩓㔋┞┺.
2 㩲㧚㓺Ṗ ὒ䞯㧦㧊Ⳇ ⹲ⳛṖ㧛┞┺.
3 㥂❪Ṗ ⺆㤆㧊Ⳇ Ṗ㑮㧛┞┺.
4 㡺⓮ ⋶㝾Ṗ Ⱗ㦒Ⳇ ㍶㍶䞿┞┺.
5 ⁎ 䞯ᾦṖ 㫡㦒Ⳇ 㥶ⳛ䞿┞┺.
6 ₆㹾Ṗ 㞞㩚䞮Ⳇ 䘎䞿┞┺.
Exercise 10.4
1 䎢⩢㓺Ṗ 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲Ⳇ 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “Terrence is reading
newspapers, drinking coffee.”
2 ⁎⩞㧊㓺Ṗ 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 ⽊Ⳇ 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㠞㠊㣪. “Grace ate dinner,
watching TV.”
3 Ⰲ㻮✲Ṗ 䕳䆮㦚 ⲏ㦒Ⳇ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽦㣪. “Richard sees a movie, eating
popcorn.”
4 㠦㓺▪Ṗ ➖㦚 䦮ⰂⳆ 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “Esther is playing tennis,
sweating.”
5 ⪲⻚䔎Ṗ 㤎Ⳇ ㏢Ⰲ 㰞⩖㠊㣪. “Robert shouted crying.”
6 ┞䆲㧊 ⋶㞂䞮Ⳇ 㹿䟊㣪. “Nicole is slender and tenderhearted.”
7 䋊⧒⧒Ṗ 㡞㊮Ⳇ ㎇ỿ㧊 㫡㞚㣪. “Clara is pretty and (her) personality
is good.”
8 ⪲⧒⓪ ⲎⰂṖ ₎Ⳇ 䂲㩞䟞㠊㣪. “As for Laura, (her) hair was long,
and (she) was nice.”
9 ㍲㤎㦖 ⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦ⰂⳆ ゚Ṗ 㡺Ỷ㠊㣪. “As for Seoul, the weather will
be cloudy and rain may fall.”
10 㧊 ⹿㧊 䋂Ⳇ 㔲㤦䟊㣪. “This room is big and cool.”
Exercise 10.5
1 ⿖㧦㧊Ệ⋮ Ệ㰖㧊Ệ⋮ 㩲 䡫㧊㠦㣪.
2 㠊⪋Ệ⋮ 㓓Ệ⋮ 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ Ὃ⿖䞮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪.
3 㡺Ệ⋮ 㞞 㡺Ệ⋮ ₆┺Ⰺ Ệ㡞㣪.
4 ア⩺㭒Ệ⋮ 㞞 ア⩺㭒Ệ⋮ ⶒ㠊 ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪.
5 㨂⹎㧞Ệ⋮ 㨂⹎㠜Ệ⋮ ⁎ ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ┺㔲 ⽊㕃㔲㡺.
Exercise 10.6
1 ⽊䐋 㠎㩲 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊Ệ⋮ 㣎㔳㦚 䞿┞₢? “When (do) you usually see
movies or dine out?”
2 ↙㦚 ㌂Ệ⋮ 䅖㧊䋂⯒ Ⱒ✲㕃㔲㡺. “Buy flowers or make cakes.”
3 㞚䂾㠦 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮Ệ⋮ 㣪Ṗ⯒ 䟊㣪. “In the morning, (I) jog or do
yoga.”
Key to
exercises
248
4 䡚⁞㦒⪲ ⌊Ệ⋮ 䃊✲⪲ 㰖⿞䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will pay by cash or defray
by a card.”
5 ㌆㦒⪲ ṖỆ⋮ ⹪╍Ṗ⪲ ṧ㔲┺. “(Let us) go to mountains or beach.”
Exercise 10.7
1 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ✶㰖 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔺 Ệ㡞㣪.
2 㰧㠦 Ṗ✶㰖 䄺䞒㑣㠦 ṧ㔲┺.
3 ㌂ὒ 㭒㓺⯒ Ⱎ㔲✶㰖 䏶Ⱎ䏶 㭒㓺⯒ Ⱎ㔲㎎㣪.
4 㞷㎮ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊✶㰖 Ὃ䙂 㡗䢪⯒ ⽛㔲┺.
5 㿻✶㰖 ▻✶㰖 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂶 Ệ㡞㣪.
Exercise 10.8
1 䆲⧒⯒ ㌂✶㰖 㭒㓺⯒ ㌂Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) will buy cola or juice.”
2 ㏢ἶ₆⯒ ⲏ✶㰖 ♒㰖ἶ₆⯒ ⲏ㦣㔲┺. “(Let us) eat beef or pork.”
3 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲✶㰖 䅖㧊䋂⯒ ⲏ㠊㣪. “Drink coffee or eat cake.”
4 ⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦Ⰲ✶㰖 㿪㤎 Ệ㡞㣪. “The weather will be cloudy or cold.”
5 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓✶㰖 ¯\ ⯒ ⽒ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will read newspapers or watch
TV.”
Unit 11
Exercise 11.1
1 㤎Ⳋ㍲ 㩚䢪⯒ 䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪.
2 㡂䟟㦚 䞮Ⳋ㍲ 䂲ῂ⯒ ㌂„ Ệ㡞㣪?
3 㧒㠊⋮Ⳋ㍲ 䂾╖㠦㍲ ⟾㠊㰖㰖 Ⱎ㕃㔲㡺.
4 㣪Ⰲ䞮Ⳋ㍲ 㩧㔲⯒ ₾⥾Ⰲ㰖 Ⱟ㔲┺.
5 㧦㩚Ệ⯒ 䌖Ⳋ㍲ ⍮㠊㪢㔋┞₢?
Exercise 11.2
1 䐆䞮ἶ 㩲ⰂṖ 㤙㦒Ⳋ㍲ 㧊㟒₆䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “Tom and Jerry are talking,
smiling.”
2 㓺䕆ぢṖ 㺛㦚 㧓㦒Ⳋ㍲ 䢒㧦 㭧㠒Ệ⩺㣪. “Steve murmurs alone, while
reading a book.”
3 ⬾㧊㓺Ṗ 㧦Ⳋ㍲ 䆪⯒ Ἶ㞮㠊㣪. “Lewis snored, while sleeping.”
4 䟊ⰂṖ ⏎⧮⯒ 䞮Ⳋ㍲ ㌺㤢⯒ 䟊㣪. “Harry takes a shower, singing.”
5 㫆❪Ṗ ₎㦚 Ỏ㦒Ⳋ㍲ ⶊ㠎Ṗ 㺔ἶ 㧞㠞㠊㣪. “Jodie was looking for
something, while walking on the road.”
Key to
exercises
249
Exercise 11.3
1 䀾㰗䞮㧦Ⱎ㧦 ἆ䢒䞮ἶ 㕌㔋┞┺.
2 ⋾㧦 䂲ῂ⯒ Ⱒ⋮㧦Ⱎ㧦 㤎㠞㠊㣪.
3 䂾╖㠦 ⑫㧦Ⱎ㧦 䆪⯒ Ἶ Ệ㡞㣪.
4 ╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䞮㧦Ⱎ㧦 ⶊ㠝㦚 䞮ἶ 㕌㠊㣪?
5 ⩆▮㠦 ☚㹿䞮㧦Ⱎ㧦 ⑚⋮䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞮㕃㔲㡺.
6 㡗䢪ὖ㠦 ✺㠊Ṗ㧦Ⱎ㧦 䕳䆮㦚 ㌓㔲┺.
Exercise 11.4
1 㧒㠊⋮㧦Ⱎ㧦 ㎎㑮⯒ 䞿┞┺. “(I) wash (my) face as soon as (I) get
up.”
2 ㌞ 㰧㦒⪲ 㧊㌂⯒ 䞮㧦Ⱎ㧦 㭒㏢⯒ ⹪∾㠊㣪. “(I) changed (my) address
as soon as (I) moved to the new house.”
3 ╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䞮㧦Ⱎ㧦 㹾⯒ ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪? “Will (you) buy a car as soon
as (you) graduate from college?”
4 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ㧦Ⱎ㧦 䄺䞒⯒ 㔲䌋㔲┺. “(Let us) order coffee as soon as
(we) eat lunch.”
5 ㎎㑮⯒ 䞮㧦Ⱎ㧦 㟧䂮㰞㦚 䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Brush (your) teeth as soon as
(you) wash (your) face.”
Exercise 11.5
1 䎪⩞゚㩚㦚 ⽊┺Ṗ 㧺㠊㣪.
2 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦㍲ 㟒㺚⯒ ㌂┺Ṗ 䂲ῂ㢖 Ⱎ㭒㼺㠊㣪.
3 ⶎ㦚 㡊┺Ṗ ㏦⳿㦚 ┺㼺㠊㣪.
4 ⏣ῂ⯒ 䞮┺Ṗ ⹲⳿㦚 ㋦㠞㠊㣪.
5 䘎㰖⯒ 㝆┺Ṗ 䢪㧻㔺㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪.
Exercise 11.6
1 㔶ⶎ㦚 㧓┺Ṗ 㫎㞮㠊㣪. “As (I) read newspapers, (I) dozed off.”
2 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊┺Ṗ 㤎㠞㠊㣪. “As (I) saw the movie, (I) cried.”
3 㡺⯎㴓㦒⪲ Ṗ┺Ṗ Ⲟ㿪㎎㣪. “Go to the right side and then stop.”
4 Ἒ┾㦚 㢂⧒Ṗ┺Ṗ ⍮㠊㪢㠊㣪? “Did (you) fall as (you) went up the
stairs?”
5 ⑚Ṗ 㣪Ⰲ⯒ 䞮┺Ṗ 㩧㔲⯒ ⃒㠊㣪? “Who broke dishes while
cooking?”
Key to
exercises
250
Exercise 11.7
1 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖⯒ 㞞 䞮┺Ṗ⓪ ╖䞯㠦 ⴑ ✺㠊Ṗ㣪.
2 ╊⺆⯒ Ἒ㏣ 䞒㤆┺Ṗ⓪ 㞪㠦 ỎⰊ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
3 ὒ㏣㦚 䞮┺Ṗ⓪ ㌂ἶṖ ⋶ Ệ㡞㣪.
4 㡆⧓㦚 㞞 䞮┺Ṗ⓪ ㍲⪲ 㧠㠊 ⻚Ⰺ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
5 Ἒ㏣ Ệ㩞䞮┺Ṗ⓪ ₆䣢⯒ ⏩䂶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
6 ⰺ㧒 㥚㓺䋺⯒ Ⱎ㔲┺Ṗ⓪ 㞢䆲 㭧☛㧦Ṗ ♶ Ệ㡞㣪.
Exercise 11.8
1 㧦₆ 㩚㠦 Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ┺Ṗ⓪ ㌊㹪 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (she) eats a lot before going
to bed, (she) may gain weight.”
2 Ἒ㏣ ⏖┺Ṗ⓪ 㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㰞 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “If (you) continue to play,
(you) can fail the test.”
3 ☞Ⱒ 㝆┺Ṗ⓪ Ệ㰖Ṗ ♶ Ệ㡞㣪. “If (he) only spends money, (he may)
become a beggar.”
4 㡊㕂䧞 㧒㦚 㞞 䞮┺Ṗ⓪ 䣢㌂㠦㍲ 㴩Ỿ⋶ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “If (you) do not
work hard, (you) can be expelled out from the company.”
5 Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ┺Ṗ⓪ ⺆䌞⋶ Ệ㡞㣪. “If (he) eats a lot, (he) may have a
stomachache.”
Unit 12
Exercise 12.1
1 ™㦚 㞏ἶ 㧞⓪◆ 㧊Ṗ 㞚䕢㣪.
2 ₎㦚 㼃㏢䞮ἶ 㧞⓪◆ ☚㢖 㭚⧮㣪?
3 ㍶ⶒ㦚 ㌂㟒 䞮⓪◆ ⺇䢪㩦㠦 ṯ㧊 ṧ㔲┺.
4 㠊㩲 㠦Ⰳ㦚 Ⱒ⌂⓪◆ 㩚䞮ἶ ⡧ṯ㞮㠊㣪.
5 Ὃ⿖⯒ 㡊㕂䧞 䟞⓪◆ 㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㪢㠊㣪.
Exercise 12.2
1 ⿖㠢㦚 㑮Ⰲ䞮ἶ 㧞⓪◆ ゚㕎㣪. “(They) are repairing the kitchen, but
(it) is expensive.”
2 㰖⁞ 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ⓪◆ ṯ㧊 ṧ㔲┺. “(I) am going to school now, and (let
us) go together.”
3 ⶒ㦚 ⊩㧊ἶ 㧞⓪◆ Ⱎ㔺⧮㣪? “(I) am boiling water, and will (you)
drink (it)?”
4 ⺇䢪㩦㠦 Ṫ⓪◆ ㌂⧢✺㧊 ⍞ⶊ Ⱔ㞮㠊㣪. “(I) went to the department
store, and there were too many people.”
5 㰖⋲ 㭒㠦 ㏢䙂⯒ ⿖㼺⓪◆ ☚㹿䟞㠊㣪? “(I) mailed the package last
week, and did (it) arrive (there)?”
Key to
exercises
251
Exercise 12.3
1 㧧⎚㠦 䞯㌳㧊㠞⓪◆ 㧊㩲 ㍶㌳┮㧊㠦㣪.
2 㩚㠦 ㌂⧢✺㧊 Ⱔ㞮⓪◆ 㧊㩲 ⼚⪲ 㠜㠊㣪.
3 㠊㩲⓪ ▪㤶⓪◆ 㡺⓮㦖 ㍶㍶䟊㣪.
4 Ṩ㦖 㕢⓪◆ 㟧㧊 㩗㠞㠊㣪.
5 ⋶㝾Ṗ ⋮ナ⓪◆ ㏦┮㧊 Ⱔ㞮㠊㣪.
Exercise 12.4
1 ₆䌖⯒ ⺆㤆ἶ 㕌㦖◆ ṯ㧊 ⺆㤗㔲┺. “(I) want to learn (how to play)
a guitar, and (let us) learn (it) together.”
2 ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䝞◆ 㟓 㧞㠊㣪? “(My) head aches, and do (you) have
medicines?”
3 Ṗ⹿㧊 ⶊỆ㤊◆ ☚㢖 㭒㔺⧮㣪? “The bag is heavy, and will (you) help
(me)?”
4 㞺✲⮮⓪ ⹎ῃ ㌂⧢㧎◆ 㓺䗮㧎㠊☚ 㧮 䟊㣪. “As for Andrew, (he) is
an American, but (he) also speaks Spanish well.”
5 㣪㯞㦢 ⶊ㻯 ⹪㊲◆ ┺㦢 㭒㠦 㡆⧓㭒㎎㣪. “(I) am very busy nowadays,
so contact (me) next week.”
Exercise 12.5
1 ⌊㧒㦖 㫖 ⹪㊲◆㣪.
2 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㧊 ⲏἶ 㕌㦖◆㣪.
3 5 ╂⧒⹬㠦 㠜⓪◆㣪.
4 㞚㰗 㦢㔳㧊 㞞 ⋮㢪⓪◆㣪.
5 㔲⊚⩂㤊◆㣪.
Exercise 12.6
1 㡗㠊 ㍶㌳┮㧎◆☚ 㡗㠊⯒ 㧮 ⴑ䟊㣪.
2 㟧㧊 㩗㦖◆☚ ⰱ㧞㠊㣪.
3 㤪 㧊 Ⱔ㦖◆☚ ⁎Ⱒ⚮ Ệ㡞㣪.
4 㔲䠮㧊 㠊⩺㤶⓪◆☚ 䞿ỿ䟞㠊㣪.
5 Ṗ⋲䟞⓪◆☚ 䟟⽋䟞㠊㣪.
Exercise 12.7
1 㟓㦚 ⲏ㠞⓪◆☚ ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䕢㣪. “Although (I) took medicines, (my)
head aches.”
2 ⶒ㦚 ⚦ 䅋㧊⋮ Ⱎ㎾⓪◆☚ ⳿Ⱖ⧒㣪? “(You) drank as many as two
cups of water, but are (you) thirsty?”
3 ⁎ 㹾Ṗ ゚㕒◆☚ ㌊ Ệ㡞㣪. “Although that car is expensive, (I) will
buy (it).”
Key to
exercises
252
4 䧞䎆⯒ 䆆⓪◆☚ ⹿㧊 㿪㤶㠊㣪. “Although (I) turned on the heater,
the room was cold.”
5 ☞㧊 㠜㠞⓪◆☚ ㍲㤎㠦 Ṗἶ 㕌㠞㠊㣪. “Although (I) did not have
money, (I) wanted to go to Seoul.”
Unit 13
Exercise 13.1
1 ◆㧊ぢṖ ㍲㤎㠦 㧞㰖Ⱒ ⹪⹪⧒䞲䎢 ⰺ㧒 㩚䢪䟊㣪.
2 Ṗ⹿㧊 䋂㰖Ⱒ Ṗ⼒㤢㣪.
3 ṯ㧊 Ṗἶ 㕌㰖Ⱒ 㟓㏣㧊 㧞㠊㣪.
4 ⌊㧒 㔲䠮㦚 ⽒ Ệ㰖Ⱒ Ὃ⿖⯒ 㞞 䟞㠊㣪.
5 㡂⯚㠦 ▻㤶㰖Ⱒ Ỿ㤎㠦 㿪㤶㠊㣪.
Exercise 13.2
1 䞲ῃ㠊⓪ 㠊⪋㰖Ⱒ 㨂⹎㧞㠊㣪. “Although Korean is difficult, (it) is
interesting.”
2 ⹎ῃ㦒⪲ 㥶䞯㦚 Ṗἶ 㕌㰖Ⱒ ❇⪳⁞➢ⶎ㠦 ệ㩫♒㣪. “Although (I)
want to study abroad in America, (I) feel uneasy because of tuition.”
3 ἶ₆⯒ 㫡㞚䞮㰖Ⱒ 㧦㭒 ⲏ㰖 ⴑ 䟊㣪. “Although (I) like meat, (I) can-
not eat (it) often.”
4 㡗ⶎ䞯㦚 㩚Ὃ䟞㰖Ⱒ 㡗㠊⯒ 㧮 ⴑ䟊㣪. “Although (I) majored in English
literature, (I) cannot speak English well.”
5 㽞╖㧻㦚 ⽊⌞㰖Ⱒ 㞞 㢂 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “Although (I) sent an invitation,
(it) seems that (he) will not come.”
Exercise 13.3
1 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 㧒⎚ ⺆㤶㦒⋮ 㞚㰗 㠊⩺㤢㣪.
2 䞲 㔲Ṛ ₆┺⪎㦒⋮ 㞞 㢪㠊㣪.
3 㡺ザ䞮ἶ ┺䒲㦒⋮ ⁞⹿ 䢪䟊 䟞㠊㣪.
4 Ệ㔺㧊 ⍩㦒⋮ ⿖㠢㧊 㫗㞚㣪.
5 ⹿㧊 ₾⊭䞮⋮ 㔲⊚⩂㤢㣪.
Exercise 13.4
1 ⩞㧊Ⲓ✲⓪ 䋺Ṗ 䋂⋮ ⤇⤇䟊㣪. “As for Raymond, (his) height is tall,
but (he) is chubby.”
2 㫆㰖⓪ 䢲⹲䞮⋮ ◆㧊キ㦖 ⌊㎇㩗㧊㠦㣪. “As for George, (he) is active,
but as for David, (he) is introverted.”
Key to
exercises
253
3 ⺇䢪㩦㧊 Ṗ₢㤆⋮ 㰖䞮㻶 㡃㧊 Ⲗ㠊㣪. “The department store is near,
but the subway station is far.”
4 䌳㔲Ṗ 䘎䞮⋮ ゚㕎㣪. “Taxi is convenient, but (it) is expensive.”
5 㦢㔳㦖 㕢㦒⋮ ㍲゚㓺Ṗ ⋮ナ㠊㣪. “As for food, (it) was cheap, but the
service was bad.”
Exercise 13.5
1 㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㧞㦒⋮ ⰱ㠜㦒⋮ ┺ ⲏ㦣㔲┺.
2 㔲䠮㧊 㓂㤆⋮ 㠊⩺㤆⋮ ⽦㟒 䟊㣪.
3 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮⋮ 㣪Ṗ⯒ 䞮⋮ ⰺ㧒 䞮㕃㔲㡺.
4 䞲ῃ㦒⪲ Ṗ⋮ 㧒⽎㦒⪲ Ṗ⋮ ゚㧦Ṗ 䞚㣪䟊㣪.
5 ♒㰖ἶ₆⋮ ㏢ἶ₆⋮ ┺ ゚㕎㣪.
Exercise 13.6
1 䧞䎆⯒ 䅲☚ 㡂㩚䧞 㿪㤢㣪.
2 ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤶㠊☚ Ịṫ䟞㠊㣪.
3 Ⱔ㧊 ⲏ㠊☚ ㌊㧊 㞞 㳚㣪.
4 ⚦ 㔲Ṛ㦚 ₆┺⪎㠊☚ 㡆⧓㧊 㠜㠞㠊㣪.
5 㞚䕢☚ 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪.
Exercise 13.7
1 㠦⹖ⰂṖ 㠊⩺☚ 䋺Ṗ 䄺㣪. “Even if Emily is young, (she) is tall.”
2 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㧊 ⰺ㤢☚ ⰱ㧞㠊㣪. “Even if Korean food is spicy, (it) is
delicious.”
3 ⪲⻚䔎Ṗ Ợ㦚⩂☚ ⡧⡧䟊㣪. “Even if Robert is lazy, (he) is smart.”
4 㢍㧊 ゚㕎☚ ㌂ἶ 㕌㠞㠊㣪. “Even if the dress was expensive, (I) wanted
to buy (it).”
5 ㌂㧊㯞Ṗ 㧧㞚☚ ‖㡂㤶㠊㣪. “Even if the size was small, (it) was
cute.”
Unit 14
Exercise 14.1
1 䞒䎆㦮 㧊㟒₆⯒ ⹕㠊☚ ♒㣪.
2 ⌊ 䅊䜾䎆⯒ 㖾☚ ♒㣪.
3 㠦㠊䆮㦚 䔖㠊☚ ♒㣪.
4 㩚❇㦚 ℒ☚ ♒㣪.
5 ⶎ㦚 ╁㞚☚ ♒㣪.
Key to
exercises
254
Exercise 14.2
1 㧊㩲 䑊⁒䟊☚ ♒㣪. “(You) may go home now.”
2 ⑞㦚 ⟶☚ ♒㣪. “(You) may open (your) eyes.”
3 㠒Ὴ㦚 㞑㠊☚ ♒㣪. “(You) may wash (your) face.”
4 ㏦㦚 㧷㞚☚ ♒㣪. “(You) may hold (her) hand.”
5 ㌺㤢⯒ 䟊☚ ♒㣪. “(You) may take a shower.”
Exercise 14.3
1 㡊㐶⯒ 㧙㠊 ⻚ⰂⳊ 㞞 ♒㣪.
2 ┺Ⰲ⯒ Ị⍞Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
3 ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱎ㔲Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
4 㝆⩞₆⯒ ⻚ⰂⳊ 㞞 ♒㣪.
5 㡂₆㍲ ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤆Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
Exercise 14.4
1 ῃ㧊 㕇Ệ㤆Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “It would not be all right if the soup is
watery.”
2 ⹮㺂㧊 㰲Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “It would not be all right if side dishes are
salty.”
3 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㠜㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “It would not be all right if the movie is
uninteresting.”
4 ⹿㧊 㧧㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “It would not be all right if the room is small.”
5 ₎㧊 㫗㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “It would not be all right if the road is narrow.”
Exercise 14.5
1 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
2 ㌂ⶊ㔺㦚 㼃㏢䞮㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
3 ㍺Ệ㰖⯒ 䞮㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
4 ⹬㠦 ⋮Ṗ㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
5 㰧㠦 㧞㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
Exercise 14.6
1 㔲䠮 Ὃ⿖⯒ 䞮㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(I) must study for the test.”
2 㧒㦚 㔲㧧䞮㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(I) must begin (my) work.”
3 ㏦㦚 㞑㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(You) must wash (your) hands.”
4 ⌊㧒 㞚䂾 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(You) must get up early
tomorrow morning.”
5 㤊㩚Ⳋ䠞⯒ ➆㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪. “(I) must obtain a driver’s license.”
Key to
exercises
255
Exercise 14.7
1 㦮㌂㧊㠊㟒 ♒㣪.
2 㥶┞䙒㦚 㧛㠊㟒 ♒㣪.
3 ☞㦚 ⻢㠊㟒 ♒㣪.
4 㠒Ὴ㦚 㞑㠊㟒 ♒㣪.
5 ⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ㟒 ♒㣪.
Exercise 14.8
1 㡂䟟 Ṗ⹿㦚 㕎㟒 ♿┞┺. “(I) must pack a travel bag.”
2 㩚₆㎎⯒ ⌊㟒 ♿┞┺. “(I) must pay for electricity bill.”
3 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡㞚㟒 ♿┞┺. “The weather has to be good.”
4 Ṗỿ㧊 㕎㟒 ♿┞┺. “The price has to be cheap.”
5 ἶ❇䞯㌳㧊⧒㟒 ♿┞┺. “(He) has to be a high-school student.”
Exercise 14.9
1 㝆Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
2 䑊⁒䟊☚ ♒㣪.
3 ╁㞚☚ ♒㣪.
4 䌖Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
Exercise 14.10
1 㩖₆㍲ ╊⺆⯒ 䞒㤢☚ ♒㣪.
2 ⹿㠦㍲ ㌂㰚㦚 㹣㠊☚ ♒㣪.
3 䞲ῃ㠊 㑮㠛㦚 㞞 ✺㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
4 䆪䔎⯒ 㞞 ㌂Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
5 䋆㏢Ⰲ⪲ Ⱖ䞮㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
6 㞞㩚 ⻾䔎⯒ ⰺ㰖 㞠㦒Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
7 㡂₆㠦 㭒㹾䟊㟒 ♒㣪.
8 䕢Ⰲ⯒ ⟶⋮㟒 ♒㣪.
9 ⌟㧻ἶ⯒ 㡊Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
10 ⁎Ⱂ㦚 Ⱒ㰖Ⳋ 㞞 ♒㣪.
Unit 15
Exercise 15.1
1 a 䕪㞚㣪. b 䕪⩺㣪.
2 a ✺㠞㠊㣪. b ✺⩺㣪.
3 a ⏩㦚₢㣪? b ⏩㡂 㧞㠊㣪.
Key to
exercises
256
Exercise 15.2
1 㢂Ⰲぢ ₆⯚Ⱒ 㝗┞┺.
2 㧊 䛣㍶㧊 ㌳㧒 䕢䕆㠦 㝆㡂㣪.
3 ⳝ 㔲㠦 ṖỢ⯒ ╁㞚㣪?
4 ⶎ㧊 ⹪⧢㠦 ╁䡪㠊㣪.
5 㮦⯒ 㧷㞮㠊㣪.
6 ☚⚧㧊 ἓ㺆䞲䎢 㧷䡪㠊㣪.
7 ⳾₆Ṗ ⶒ㠊㣪.
8 㫊㧊 ⳾₆䞲䎢 Ⱔ㧊 ⶒ⪎㠊㣪.
9 㞚₆Ṗ 㤎Ⳋ 㞞㦒㎎㣪 (or 㞞㞚 㭒㎎㣪).
10 㞚₆Ṗ 㞚ザ䞲䎢 㞞ἒ㠊㣪.
Exercise 15.3
1 (I) heap a desk with books.
2 Because of the stress, stress is piled up.
3 (I) removed the laundry from a clothes-line.
4 Fortunately, fog was lifted up.
5 The bear bit a fish.
6 (I) was bitten by mosquitoes.
7 Please sell (it) at a cheap price.
8 Sweaters are sold well.
9 Please hang up the phone first.
10 The electricity is disconnected due to rain.
Exercise 15.4
1 ₾㤗┞┺.
2 㧛䧯┞┺.
3 㔶ₗ┞┺.
4 㞟䧯┞┺.
5 㨂㤗┞┺.
Exercise 15.5
1 㞚㧊⯒ 㤎Ⰲ㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪.
2 㥶┞䙒㦚 㧛䡪㠊㣪?
3 䞯㌳✺㦚 㤙Ỿ 㭒㎎㣪
4 㩖⯒ o 㔲㠦 ₾㤢 㭒㎎㣪.
5 ⶒ㦚 ⊩㡂 㭒㎎㣪.
6 㞚₆⯒ 䂾╖㠦 ⑫䧞㎎㣪.
7 ἶ₆⯒ 䌲㤆㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪.
Key to
exercises
257
Exercise 15.6
1 What shall (we) eat today?
2 Susan feeds a cat.
3 Peter sleeps about 7 hours everyday.
4 Usually (my) older sister put the child to sleep around 8 o’clock.
5 Chris often wears jeans.
6 Please dress (him) a T-shirt.
7 Please sit in the back.
8 Please make Andrew sit in the front row.
9 Don’t take off (your) sweater.
10 Please undress (his) jacket.
Exercise 15.7
1 ῃ㦚 ⱋỢ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪.
2 ⹿㦚 ➆⦑䞮Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪.
3 㭒㥚⯒ 㠊⚷Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪.
4 Ⰲ㌂⯒ 䟟⽋䞮Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪.
5 ⿖㧎㦚 ₆㊮Ợ 䟊 㭒㎎㣪.
Exercise 15.8
1 Please make (your) presentation longer.
2 Please make (it) delicious (for me).
3 Please make (it) cheap (for me).
4 Please make (him/her) drink coffee.
5 Please make (him/her) chew a gum.
Unit 16
Exercise 16.1
1 㡞㊲ ❪㧦㧎
2 䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㩲㧒 㥶ⳛ䞲 ὖὧ㰖
3 䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㩲㧒 㧎₆㧞⓪ ⺆㤆
4 㩲㧒 ゚㕒 㔲Ἒ
5 ₊ ⲎⰂ
Exercise 16.2
1 㧊 㰧㠦㍲ 㩲㧒 㫆㣿䞲 ⹿ “the quietest room in this house”
2 ◆┞㠮㧊 Ṗἶ 㕌㦖 䞯ᾦ “the school Daniel wants to go to”
3 㩲㧒 㞚⯚┺㤊 ㎂ “the most beautiful island”
Key to
exercises
258
4 ⹎ῃ㠦㍲ 㩲㧒 ⏨㦖 ㌆ “the highest mountain in the U.S.A.”
5 㩲㧒 㕒 㢍 “the cheapest clothes”
Exercise 16.3
1 䞒䎆Ṗ 㣪㯞㦢 㧓⓪ 㺛
2 Ỿ㤎㠦 㯦₆⓪ 㓺䙂䁶
3 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧊 ⰺ㧒 ⲏ⓪ 㦢㔳
4 㩲㔲䃊Ṗ 㧒䞮⓪ ṖỢ
5 㠎┞Ṗ ㌂‖⓪ ⋾㧦
Exercise 16.4
1 䂲ῂṖ ㌂⓪ ὒ㧒 “the fruit which (my) friend buys”
2 㔲䃊ἶ㠦㍲ Ṟ㞚䌖⓪ ₆㹾 “the train that (I) change at Chicago”
3 䡫㧊 ㌂⓪ 㞚䕢䔎 “the apartment where (my) older brother lives”
4 ⑚⋮Ṗ 㝆⓪ 䅊䜾䎆 “the computer which (my) older sister uses”
5 ⌊Ṗ ṯ㧊 㧒䞮⓪ ㌂⧢ “the person that I work with”
Exercise 16.5
1 ṯ㧊 㹣㦖 ㌂㰚
2 㰖⋲ ╂㠦 ⽎ 㡗䢪
3 㠊㩲 ⹪− 㢍
4 㞚䂾㠦 Ⱎ㔶 㤆㥶
5 㡺䤚㠦 䕦 ⶒỊ
Exercise 16.6
1 㠊㩲 ⿖⯎ ⏎⧮ “the song that (I) sang yesterday”
2 㧧⎚㠦 Ⱒ⋲ ㌂⧢ “the person that (I) met last year”
3 㰖⋲ 㭒㠦 ⹱㦖 ㍶ⶒ “the present that (I) received last week”
4 㞚䂾㠦 ⻚Ⰶ 㝆⩞₆ “the garbage that (I) threw away in the morning”
5 ⌊Ṗ Ⱒ✶ 㦢㔳 “the food that (I) made”
Exercise 16.7
1 ⌊Ṗ ⌊㧒 㣪Ⰲ䞶 㦢㔳
2 㤆㥶⯒ ╊㦚 ⼧
3 䢮㧦Ṗ Ⱎ㔺 ⶒ
4 ☚㍲ὖ㠦㍲ アⰊ 㺛
5 㤆㼊ῃ㠦㍲ ⿖䂶 ㏢䙂
Key to
exercises
259
Exercise 16.8
1 㩲㧊㓾㧊 㧛㦚 㟧⽋ “the suit which Jason will wear”
2 ⑚⋮Ṗ ἆ䢒䞶 ㌂⧢ “the person whom (my) older sister will marry”
3 㤆ⰂṖ ┺㦢 㭒㠦 㧊㌂Ṟ 㰧 “the house where we will move into next
week”
4 ⍺Ṗ ⌊㧒 アⰊ 㺛 “the book which you will borrow tomorrow”
5 㩲㧚㓺Ṗ 㞟㦚 㧦Ⰲ “the seat where James will sit”
Exercise 16.9
1 ₆䌖⯒ 䂮⓪ ⰞⰂ㞚
2 ⌊㧒 㧒⽎㦒⪲ ⟶⋶ ㌂⧢
3 䅖㧊䋂⯒ Ⱒ✶ 㡂㧦
4 ⌊Ṗ 㫡㞚䞮⓪ Ἒ㩞
5 Ὃ㦚 ▮㰚 㞚㧊
6 㞶䝢 䅊䜾䎆Ṗ 㧞⓪ 䞯㌳
7 䢪㣪㧒㠦 ⪲⧒⯒ Ⱒ⋶ ⋾㧦
8 ゚㕒 㹾Ṗ 㧞⓪ 䐆
9 ἓ㺆ὖ㧎 ◆㧊ぢ
10 㠊㩲 䘎㰖⯒ ⽊⌎ ㏦┮
Unit 17
Exercise 17.1
1 㢖㕇䎊㠦㍲ 㿲⹲䞮⓪ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (they) depart from
Washington.”
2 㡺䤚㠦 ☚㹿䞮⓪ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (they) arrive (here) in
the afternoon.”
3 䂲ῂ⯒ ₆┺Ⰲ⓪ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (he) waits for (his)
friend.”
4 ☞㧊 ⼚⪲ 㠜⓪ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (he) does not have much
money.”
5 ㍲㤎㠦 䂲ῂṖ Ⱔ㦖 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (she) has many friends
in Seoul.”
6 㹢ṲṖ 㰶 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that the stew is salty.”
7 㞺✲⮮Ṗ ㎇㔺䞮ἶ ⡧⡧䞲 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that Andrew is ear-
nest and smart.”
8 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㿻ἶ 䦦Ⰶ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that the weather is cold and
cloudy.”
9 䂲ῂṖ ⿖㰖⩆䞲 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (your) friend is diligent.”
10 Ṗỿ㧊 㕒 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that the price is cheap.”
Key to
exercises
260
Exercise 17.2
1 㔶䢒 㡂䟟㦖 ⧒㓺⻶Ṗ㓺⪲ Ṟ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “As for (their) honeymoon,
(it) seems that (they) will go to Las Vegas.”
2 䙊㧊 ╊⺆⯒ ⊠㦚 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that Paul will quit smoking.”
3 ┺㦢 㑮㣪㧒㠦 㰧㠦 ☢㞚Ṟ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (they) will
return home next Wednesday.”
4 䡫㧊 ☞㦚 ア⩺ 㭚 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (my) older brother will
lend (me) money.”
5 ┺㦢 䞯₆⿖䎆 ₆㑯㌂㠦㍲ ㌊ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that (they) will
live in the dormitory from next semester.”
6 㩲㧎㧊 ⏎⧮⯒ 㧮 䞶 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that Jane will sing well.”
7 㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㠜㦚 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that the food will be tasteless.”
8 ⰺ㧒 ⹪㊶ ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) looks like (I) will be busy everyday.”
9 ⋶㝾Ṗ ▪㤎 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) looks like the weather will be hot.”
10 㫊㧊 Ἆ㏦䞶 ộ ṯ㞚㣪. “(It) seems that John will be humble.”
Exercise 17.3
1 㩲㧚㓺Ṗ 䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㡗㠊⯒ Ṗ⯊䂮⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that
James teaches English in Korea.”
2 䏶Ⱎ㓺Ṗ ⿖㠢㠦㍲ 㣪Ⰲ䞮⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Thomas
cooks in the kitchen.”
3 㫊㧊 ┺Ⰲ⯒ Ị⍞⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that John crosses the
bridge.”
4 ㌢❪Ṗ 䂲ῂ⯒ ₆┺Ⰲ⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Sandy waits
for (her) friends.”
5 㞺㍲┞Ṗ 㹾⯒ ἶ䂮⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Anthony repairs
(his) car.”
6 ㌂⧒Ṗ 䘎㰖⯒ ⿖䂮⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Sarah sends the
letter.”
7 㺆㓺Ṗ 䄺䞒⯒ 㔲䋺⓪ ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Charles orders
coffee.”
8 㥂❪Ṗ Ṗ⋲䞲 ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Wendy is poor.”
9 䅖㧊䔎Ṗ ⿖㰖⩆䞲 ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Kate is diligent.”
10 ㌦ⰂṖ 㧎₆Ṗ Ⱔ㦖 ⳾㟧㧊㠦㣪. “(It) appears that Sally is popular.”
Exercise 17.4
1 㡊㐶⯒ 㺔ἶ 㧞⓪ ❅䞿┞┺.
2 䏶㣪㧒㠦 㧒䞮⓪ ❅䞿┞┺.
3 㰧㦚 䕦 ❅䞿┞┺.
4 㰗㧻㦚 ⁎Ⱒ⚮ ❅䞿┞┺.
5 ῃ㧊 㰶 ❅䞿┞┺.
Key to
exercises
261
6 ⹮㰖Ṗ ⍞ⶊ ゚㕒 ❅䞿┞┺.
7 ㌂㧊㯞Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㧧㦚 ❅䞿┞┺.
8 ⹿㧊 ⍞ⶊ 㿪㤎 ❅䞿┞┺.
Exercise 17.5
1 䂲ῂ⯒ ☫ἶ 㧞⓪ ❅䟊㣪. “(It) seems that (he) is helping (his)
friends.”
2 㧒⽎ ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊ἶ 㧞⓪ ❅䟊㣪. “(It) seems that (they) are singing a
Japanese song.”
3 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ䂮ἶ 㧞⓪ ❅䟊㣪. “(It) seems that (he) is repairing (his)
computer.”
4 ⑞㧊 㡺⓪ ❅䟊㣪. “(It) seems that (it) snows.”
5 㦢㔳㧊 㰶 ❅䟊㣪. “(It) seems that the food is salty.”
Exercise 17.6
1 ⌎㔲Ṗ ┺㦢 ╂㠦 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṗ⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Nancy goes to
Korea next month.”
2 㪎㓺䕊㧊 ⼧㤦㠦㍲ 㧒䞮⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Justin works at the
hospital.”
3 ⋮㡺⹎Ṗ 㧊⻞ ⽚㠦 ἆ䢒䞮⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Naomi marries this
spring.”
4 ㌮㧊 ⪲⧒⯒ 㫡㞚䞮⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Sam likes Laura.”
5 䕆⳾䕆Ṗ 㞚䝞Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Timothy is sick.”
6 ₖ䂮Ṗ 㕇Ệ㤊Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that kimchi is watery.”
7 㡺⓮ ⋶㝾Ṗ ▪㤊Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that today’s weather is hot.”
8 㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㠜⋮ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that the food is tasteless.”
9 㼒㔲Ṗ ╖䞯㤦㌳㧎Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Chelsea is a graduate
student.”
10 ぢ⧮✲Ṗ 䃦⋮┺ ㌂⧢㧎Ṗ ⽦㣪. “(I) guess that Brad is a Canadian.”
Exercise 17.7
1 ₆ㄦ ⽊㡂㣪.
2 ⶊ㍲㤢 ⽊㡂㣪.
3 㣎⪲㤢 ⽊㡂㣪.
4 㕂㕂䟊 ⽊㡂㣪.
5 䟟⽋䟊 ⽊㡂㣪.
6 䦻⿚♒ ⽊㡖㠊㣪.
7 ₊㧻♒ ⽊㡖㠊㣪.
8 㔶⋮ ⽊㡖㠊㣪.
9 㰲㯳⋮ ⽊㡖㠊㣪.
10 䢪⋮ ⽊㡖㠊㣪.
Key to
exercises
262
Exercise 17.8
1 䅖㧊䔎Ṗ 㩠㠊 ⽊㡂㣪. “Kate looks young.”
2 㥢Ⰲ㠚㧊 ⹪ザ ⽊㡂㣪. “William looks busy.”
3 Ⰶ┺Ṗ 㞚䕢 ⽊㡂㣪. “Linda looks sick.”
4 ㌂㧊ⴂ㧊 㔂䗒 ⽊㡂㣪. “Simon looks sad.”
5 㩲㔲Ṗ 㡞ㄦ ⽊㡂㣪. “Jessie looks pretty.”
6 㞶䝢䕢㧊Ṗ ⰱ㧞㠊 ⽊㡂㣪. “The apple pie looks delicious.”
7 ‖Ỏ㧊Ṗ ゚㕎 ⽊㡂㣪. “The earring looks expensive.”
8 㞞ἓ㧊 㕎 ⽊㡂㣪. “(His) glasses look inexpensive.”
9 㰧㞞㧊 ₾⊭䟊 ⽊㡂㣪. “The inside of the house looks clean.”
10 ⏎䔎⿗㧊 Ṗ⼒㤢 ⽊㡂㣪. “The notebook looks light.”
Unit 18
Exercise 18.1
1 䞯ᾦ㠦 Ṗ⓪ ₎㠦 ㏢䙂⯒ ⽊⌒ Ệ㡞㣪.
2 ⼧㤦㠦 Ṗ⓪ ₎㠦 ㍶㌳┮䞮ἶ Ⱎ㭒㼺㠊㣪.
3 ☚㍲ὖ㠦㍲ 㡺⓪ ₎㠦 㰖ṧ㦚 㧙㠊 ⻚⪎㠊㣪.
4 ᾦ䣢㠦㍲ 㡺⓪ ₎㠦 㝆⩂㪢㠊㣪.
5 ṖỢ㠦㍲ 㡺⓪ ₎㠦 㫊㦚 Ⱒ⌂㠊㣪.
Exercise 18.2
1 㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㪎 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㠜㠊㣪.
2 ⰾ䞮䎊㠦 Ṗ ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪.
3 ₖ䂮⯒ ⲏ㠊 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪.
4 ἆ䢒㦚 䟊 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㠜㠊㣪.
5 㽳㦚 㙊 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪.
Exercise 18.3
1 㧻䞯⁞㦚 ⹱㞚 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have an experience of receiving a
scholarship.”
2 䌲ῢ☚⯒ ⺆㤢 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have an experience of learning
Taekwondo.”
3 䡫ὒ ┺䒞 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have an experience of quarrelling with
(my) older brother.”
4 䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㓺䋺⯒ 䌖 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have an experience of skiing
in Korea.”
5 㧒㣪㧒㠦 㧒䟊 ⽎ 㩗㧊 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) have an experience of working on
Sunday.”
Key to
exercises
263
Exercise 18.4
1 䟊ⰂṖ ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮⓪ ☯㞞㠦 䅖㧊䔎Ṗ 㣪Ⰲ䟊㣪.
2 ⌊Ṗ 㡊㐶⯒ 㺔⓪ ☯㞞㠦 㰖⋮Ṗ 㰦㦚 㕖 Ệ㡞㣪.
3 㫊㧊 㤊㩚㦚 䞮⓪ ☯㞞㠦 ㌦ⰂṖ 㰖☚⯒ ⽺㠊㣪.
4 㺆㓺Ṗ 㧒䞮⓪ ☯㞞㠦 㞂❪Ṗ 䄺䞒㑣㠦㍲ ₆┺⪎㠊㣪.
5 ⌊Ṗ ㎎㧒㯞ⰾ䞮ἶ 䦻㩫㦚 䞮⓪ ☯㞞㠦 㞚⌊Ṗ ṖỢ⯒ ῂἓ䟞㠊㣪.
Exercise 18.5
1 㠦✲㤢✲Ṗ ⳾㧦⯒ ㌂ἶ 㧞⓪ ☯㞞㠦 䞒䎆Ṗ 䢪㧻㔺㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “While
Edward was buying a hat, Peter went to the restroom.”
2 ⌊Ṗ 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮ἶ 㧞⓪ ☯㞞㠦 㞚⌊Ṗ 㓞䗒Ⱎ䅩㠦 Ṫ㠊㣪. “While I was
jogging, (my) wife went to the supermarket.”
3 ⬾㧊㓺Ṗ 䂲ῂ䞮ἶ 㧊㟒₆䞮ἶ 㧞⓪ ☯㞞㠦 㠦Ⰲ䃊Ṗ 㦢㔳㦚 㔲䆆㠊
㣪. “While Luis was talking to (his) friend, Erica ordered food.”
4 ⲪỊ㧊 㧦ἶ 㧞⓪ ☯㞞㠦 㫆㧊㓺Ṗ ¯\ ⯒ ⽺㠊㣪. “While Megan was
sleeping, Joyce watched TV.”
5 㤆ⰂṖ 㧦Ⰲ⯒ 㺔ἶ 㧞⓪ ☯㞞㠦 ㌮㧊 䕳䆮㦚 ㌂⩂ ⋮Ṫ㠊㣪. “While
we were looking for seats, Sam went out to buy popcorn.”
Exercise 18.6
1 㤊㩚䞮⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪.
2 ⋮ⶊ⯒ 㕂⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪.
3 䅊䜾䎆⯒ ἶ䂮⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪.
4 䘎㰖⯒ 㝆⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪.
5 ┺Ⰲ⯒ Ị⍞⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪.
Exercise 18.7
1 㰦㦚 㕎⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am in the middle of packing loads.”
2 㭧ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 㔲䋺⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am in the middle of ordering Chinese
food.”
3 㠦Ⰳ䞮ἶ 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂮⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am in the middle of playing
tennis with Eric.”
4 ♒㰖ἶ₆⯒ 㖾⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am in the middle of cutting pork (into
piecies).”
5 㟧⽋㦚 㧛⓪ 㭧㧊㠦㣪. “(I) am in the middle of wearing a suit.”
Exercise 18.8
1 㰧㧊 㔲⊚⩂㤊 䘎㧊㠦㣪.
2 ⹿㧊 㠊⚦㤊 䘎㧊㠦㣪.
Key to
exercises
264
3 ⌎㔲㦮 㦢㔳㧊 㰶 䘎㧊㠦㣪.
4 ⋮㡺⹎Ṗ 㞚䂾㦚 ῌ⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪.
5 ⰺ㧒 㤊☯䞮⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪.
Exercise 18.9
1 㓺䕆ぢṖ ⰻ㭒⯒ 㫡㞚䞮⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “Steve kind of likes beer.”
2 䡂⩢㧊 㣪Ⰲ⯒ 㧮 䞮⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “Helen kind of cooks well.”
3 㠊Ⲏ┞Ṗ 㧪㏢Ⰲ⯒ 䞮㔲⓪ 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “(My) mother tends to do useless
talk.”
4 㔲䠮㧊 㠊⩺㤊 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “The test is kind of hard.”
5 㡺⓮ ⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦Ⰶ 䘎㧊㠦㣪. “Today’s weather is kind of cloudy.”
Unit 19
Exercise 19.1
1 ㌂㧊ⴂ㧊 㰖㔲䞮⓪ ╖⪲ 䞶 Ệ㡞㣪.
2 ₆╖䞲 ╖⪲ 䘎㰖Ṗ 㠊㩲 ☚㹿䟞㠊㣪.
3 Ⱎ㔲ἶ 㕌㦖 ╖⪲ Ⱎ㔺 Ệ㡞㣪?
4 㧦ἶ 㕌㦖 ╖⪲ 㧦㎎㣪.
5 ⲏἶ 㕌㦖 ╖⪲ ⲏ㦣㔲┺.
Exercise 19.2
1 㧒㠊⋮⓪ ╖⪲ ㌺㤢䞶 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will take a shower as soon as (I) get
up.”
2 㔳㌂⯒ Ⱎ䂮⓪ ╖⪲ ㌂ⶊ㔺⪲ ☢㞚Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪? “Will (you) return to the
office as soon as (you) finish (your) meal?”
3 㡊㐶⯒ 㺔⓪ ╖⪲ ⟶⋮㎎㣪. “Leave as soon as (you) find the key.”
4 ㍲⮮⯒ ⹱⓪ ╖⪲ 㧒㦚 㔲㧧䞮㕃㔲㡺. “Start working as soon as (you)
receive the document.”
5 㺛㦚 ⹱⓪ ╖⪲ ☢⩺㭣㔲┺. “(Let us) return the book (to them) as
soon as (we) receive (it).”
Exercise 19.3
1 ⽊䐋 㧊⯒ ┼㦖 䤚㠦 Ⳋ☚⯒ 䟊㣪.
2 㞚䂾 㔳㌂⯒ 䞲 䤚㠦 㿲⁒䟊㣪.
3 ㏢䙂⯒ ⽊⌎ 䤚㠦 䞯ᾦ⪲ ☢㞚㢪㠊㣪.
4 ㍶ⶒ㦚 ㌆ 䤚㠦 䕢䕆㠦 Ṟ Ệ㡞㣪.
5 㧒㦚 ⊳⌎ 䤚㠦 㓂ἶ 㕌㠊㣪.
Key to
exercises
265
Exercise 19.4
1 ㌺㤢⯒ 䞲 䤚㠦 㧮 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will go to bed after taking a shower.”
2 ⶒ㦚 ⊩㧎 䤚㠦 ⧒Ⳋ㦚 ⍹㦒㎎㣪. “Put ramyon after boiling water.”
3 ╖䞯㦚 㫎㠛䞲 䤚㠦 䀾㰗 㭖゚⯒ 䞮Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) will prepare for employ-
ment after graduating from college.”
4 㺓ⶎ㦚 ╁㦖 䤚㠦 㩚❇㦚 ⊚㕃㔲㡺. “Turn off the electric lamp after
closing the window.”
5 㧒㦚 Ⱎ䂲 䤚㠦 㰧㠦 Ṫ㔋┞┺. “(They) went home after finishing (their)
work.”
Exercise 19.5
1 㧦ἶ 㧞⓪ 㻯䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪.
2 㡊㕂䧞 㧒䞮ἶ 㧞⓪ 㻯䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪.
3 ㍶ⶒ㦚 㫡㞚䞮⓪ 㻯䟊㣪.
4 㑮㡗䞶 㑮 㧞⓪ 㻯䟞㠊㣪.
5 ⹎ῃ ㌂⧢㧎 㻯䞶 Ệ㡞㣪?
Exercise 19.6
1 㩲㧚㓺Ṗ ゚⹖ ⻞䢎⯒ 㞚⓪ 㻯䟊㣪. “James pretends that (he) knows
the secret code.”
2 㰖⋮䞮ἶ ⪲⋶✲Ṗ 䟟⽋䞲 㻯䟊㣪. “Gina and Ronald pretend that
(they) are happy.”
3 䕾䔎Ⰳ㧊 䟃㌗ ☞㧊 㠜⓪ 㻯䟊㣪. “Patrick always pretends that (he)
has no money.”
4 㩲㧚㓺Ṗ 㩲㔲䃊⯒ 㕁㠊䞮⓪ 㻯䟊㣪. “James pretends that (he) dislikes
Jessica.”
5 㞺㍲┞Ṗ Ὃ⿖㠦 ὖ㕂㧊 㠜⓪ 㻯䟊㣪. “Anthony pretends that (he) is
uninterested in studying.”
Exercise 19.7
1 ᾦ㑮┮㦚 䞾℮ Ⱒ⋮⓪ Ệ㡞㣪.
2 㤆Ⰲ ⳾⚦ 䆮䎣䔎 ⩢㯞⯒ ⋒⓪ Ệ㡞㣪.
3 㧊㩲⿖䎆 ṯ㧊 ㌂⓪ Ệ㡞㣪.
4 ⶒṖṖ ⏨㦖 Ệ㡞㣪.
5 㫆㰖Ṗ ㏪㰗䞲 Ệ㡞㣪.
6 㩲㧚㓺Ṗ ⡧⡧䞲 Ệ㡞㣪.
7 ㌞ 㹾⯒ ㌆ Ệ㡞㣪.
8 㰖ṧ㦚 㧙㠊⻚Ⰶ Ệ㡞㣪.
9 㰖⋮☚ 䕢䕆㠦 㽞㼃䞲 Ệ㡞㣪.
10 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ 㩚Ὃ䞲 Ệ㡞㣪.
Key to
exercises
266
Exercise 19.8
1 ⓼Ợ 㧒㠊⋮⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 㑮㠛㠦 㰖ṗ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) was late for the class
because (I) got up late.”
2 ṧ㧦₆ ゚Ṗ 㡺⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 㢍㧊 㩬㠞㠊㣪. “(My) dress got wet because
(it) rained suddenly.”
3 㹾Ṗ ἶ㧻㧊 ⋮⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 䣢㌂㠦 ⴑ Ṫ㠊㣪. “(I) could not go to the
company because (my) car broke down.”
4 Ṧ₆㠦 ỎⰂ⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 Ὃ⿖⯒ ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) could not study because
(I) caught a cold.”
5 ⹪⧢㧊 ⿖⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 ⳾㧦⯒ 㧙㠊 ⻚⪎㠊㣪. “(I) lost (my) hat because
the wind blew.”
6 ㏢⁞㦚 Ⱔ㧊 ⍹⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 㦢㔳㧊 ⍞ⶊ 㱆㠊㣪. “The food was too
salty because (I) put too much salt (into it).”
7 䆪⯒ ἶ⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 㧶㦚 ⴑ 㧺㠊㣪. “(I) could not sleep because (he)
snored.”
8 ₎㠦㍲ ⹎⊚⩂㰖⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 䠞Ⰲ⯒ ┺㼺㠊㣪. “(I) hurt (my) waist
because (I) slid on the road.”
9 㹾 ㌂ἶṖ ⋮⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 㩚䢪⯒ ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) could not make a phone
call because there was a car accident.”
10 ㌞⼓㠦 㧒䞮⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 Ṧ₆㠦 Ỏ⪎㠊㣪. “(I) caught a cold because
(I) worked at dawn.”
Exercise 19.9
1 㤪 㦚 ⹱㦚 ➢ ₆⿚㧊 㫡㔋┞┺. “When (I) receive (my) salary,
(I) feel good.”
2 㡗䢪Ṗ 㔲㧧䞶 ➢ 䕳䆮㦚 ⲏ㦣㔲┺. “When the movie begins, (let us)
eat popcorn.”
3 㑯㩲⯒ 䞶 ➢ 㦢㞛㦚 ✹㔋┞₢? “Do (you) listen to music when (you)
do (your) homework?”
4 ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱎ㔺 ➢ ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊㕃㔲㡺. “Sing a song, when (you) drink
beer.”
5 㓺䎢㧊䋂⯒ ⲏ㦚 ➢ 㢖㧎㦚 Ⱎ㕃┞┺. “When (I) eat steak, (I) drink
wine.”
6 㓺䔎⩞㓺Ṗ Ⱔ㦚 ➢ 㤊☯㦚 䞮㕃㔲㡺. “When there is a lot of stress,
do exercise.”
7 ☚㤖㧊 䞚㣪䞶 ➢ 䂲ῂ✺䞲䎢 㡆⧓䞶 ỗ┞┺. “When (I) need help,
(I) will contact (my) friends.”
8 ἆ䢒㔳㠦 Ṟ ➢ 㟧⽋㦚 㧛㠞㔋┞┺. “When (I) went to the wedding
ceremony, (I) wore a suit.”
9 ゚Ṗ 㢂 ➢ 㤆㌆㧊 䞚㣪䞿┞┺. “When (it) rains, (you) need an
umbrella.”
Key to
exercises
267
10 㔲Ṛ㧊 㧞㦚 ➢ 䆪⹎❪ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊㕃㔲㡺. “When (you) have (some)
time, see a comedy movie.”
11 ⋶㝾Ṗ 䦦Ⰺ ➢ ₆⿚㧊 ⋮㊿┞┺. “When the weather is cloudy, (I)
feel bad.”
12 㡂㧦䂲ῂ ㌳㧒㧒 ➢ ⶊ㓾 ㌳㧒 ㍶ⶒ㦚 㭖゚䞿┞₢? “When it is (your)
girl friend’s birthday, what kind of birthday gift do (you) prepare?”
13 㕂㕂䞶 ➢ ㍲㩦㠦 ṧ┞┺. “When (I) feel bored, (I) go to a book-
store.”
14 㠊⪎㦚 ➢ 㦮㌂Ṗ ♮ἶ 㕌㠞㔋┞₢? “When (you) were young, did
(you) want to become a doctor?”
15 ⋶㝾Ṗ ▪㤎 ➢ 㰽㦖 ⹪㰖⯒ 㧛㦣㔲┺. “When the weather is hot, (let
us) wear short pants.”
Exercise 19.10
1 䂲ῂ䞮ἶ 㕎㤎 ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost quarrelled with (my) friend.”
2 ⶒ㠦 ザ㰞 ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost fell into the water.”
3 㟓㏣㦚 㧠㦚 ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost forgot about the appointment.”
4 ⶎ㦚 㧶⁖ ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost locked the door.”
5 Ợ㧚㦚 㰞 ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost lost the game.”
6 㤆Ⰲ 䕖㧊 ἓ₆⯒ 㧊₎ ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “Our team almost won the game.”
7 ₎㠦㍲ ⹎⊚⩂㰞 ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost slid on the road.”
8 㞚㧊✺䞲䎢 䢪⌒ ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost got angry at (my) children.”
9 㢖㧎㦚 Ⱎ㔺 ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost drank wine.”
10 ₎㦚 Ị⍦ ㄪ䟞㠊㣪. “(I) almost crossed the road.”
Unit 20
Exercise 20.1
1 䢒㧦 ṖỢ⯒ 㡊 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
2 ⁎✺㠦Ợ 䧂ⰳ㦚 㭚 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
3 ⶊ╖ 㥚㠦㍲ 㿺㦚 㿲 㑮 㧞㠊㣪.
4 㰧㦚 䕪 㑮 㠜㠊㣪.
5 㧊 㑮䞯 ⶎ㩲⯒ 䛖 㑮 㠜㠊㣪.
Exercise 20.2
1 䔎⩃㦚 㤊㩚䞶 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can drive a truck.”
2 ▪㥚⯒ ⓦ⋚ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can feel the heat.”
3 㢖㧎㦚 Ⱎ㔺 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can drink wine.”
4 䞲ῃ ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯒ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can sing Korea songs.”
5 ⹎ῃ 䂲ῂ⯒ ㌂„ 㑮 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) can make American friends.”
Key to
exercises
268
Exercise 20.3
1 㧒⽎ ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯒ 㭚 㞢㞚㣪.
2 㭧ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 Ⱒ✺ 㭚 㞢㞚㣪.
3 㓺䃒Ⱅ㧊 㡊㐶⯒ Ṗ㰖ἶ 㧞㦚 㭚 㞢㞮㠊㣪.
4 㧒㣪㧒㠦☚ ṖỢ⯒ 㡊 㭚 㞢㞮㞚㣪.
5 㡺⓮ ᾦ䣢㠦 㧞㦚 㭚 㞢㞮㠊㣪.
Exercise 20.4
1 ₖ䂮⯒ Ⱒ✺ 㭚 㞢㞚㣪. “(I) know how to make kimchi.”
2 Ἶ䝚⯒ 䂶 㭚 㞢㞚㣪. “(I) know how to play golf.”
3 㧦㩚Ệ⯒ 䌞 㭚 㞢㞚㣪. “(I) know how to ride a bicycle.”
4 㡂₆㍲ 䣢㌂₢㰖 Ṟ 㭚 㞢㞚㣪. “(I) know how to get to the company
from here.”
5 㑮㡗䞶 㭚 㞢㞚㣪. “(I) know how to swim.”
Exercise 20.5
1 㩲ⰂṖ 㥶ⳛ䞶 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪.
2 㧻 ᾦ㑮┮㧊 䞲ῃ ㌂⧢㧒 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪.
3 䅖㧊䔎Ṗ Ὃ⿖⯒ 㧮 䞶 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪.
4 ⋾㧦 䂲ῂṖ 㧞㦚 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪.
5 㫆㰖Ṗ ἓ㺆ὖ㧒 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪.
Exercise 20.6
1 䡫㧊 㤪㣪㧒㠦 㧒⽎㦒⪲ Ṟ 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not think that (my)
older brother would go to Japan on Monday.”
2 ⰺ䓲Ṗ 䏶㣪㧒㠦 ṖỢ⯒ 㧒㹣 ╁㦚 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not think that
Matthew would close the store early on Saturday.”
3 㑮㧪㧊 䞲ῃ㠦 Ṟ 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not think that Susan would go
to Korea.”
4 ㌂㧊Ⲓ㧊 㤊☯㦚 㧮 䞶 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not think that Simon would
be good at sports.”
5 㺆㓺Ṗ 㡺⓮ ⩆▮㦒⪲ ⟶⋶ 㭚 ⴆ⧦㠊㣪. “(I) did not think that Charles
would leave for London today.”
Exercise 20.7
1 㢍 ㌂㧊㯞Ṗ ⰴ㦚 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪.
2 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㫡㦚 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪.
3 ⁎ 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㧞㦚 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪.
4 㞺✲⮮Ṗ Ợ㦒⯒ ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪.
5 㥢Ⰲ㠚㧊 䞲ῃ 㡃㌂⯒ 㩚Ὃ䞶 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪.
Key to
exercises
269
Exercise 20.8
1 ╖䞯 ㌳䢲㧊 㨂⹎㧞㦚 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. “There is no possibility that college
life is fun.”
2 㰖䞮㻶㧊 䘎䞶 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. “There is no possibility that a subway is
convenient.”
3 䎢┞㓺Ṗ 㓂㤎 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. “There is no possibility that (playing)
tennis is easy.”
4 䌳㔲 㣪⁞㧊 㕖 ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. “There is no possibility that taxi fee is
cheap.”
5 ❪㧦㧎㧊 㡞㊶ ⰂṖ 㠜㠊㣪. “There is no possibility that the design is
pretty.”
Unit 21
Exercise 21.1
1 㩲ⰂṖ ⳝ ㌊㧎㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know how old Jerry is?”
2 㡗䢪Ṗ ⳝ 㔲㠦 㔲㧧䞮⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know what time the
movie starts?”
3 㠊❪㠦㍲ 㧒䞮⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know where (he) works?”
4 㠊❪㠦㍲ ⻚㓺⯒ 䌖⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know where (he) rides
the bus?”
5 㩲㧚㓺㦮 ⹿㧊 ⳝ 䂋㠦 㧞⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know on what floor
James’ room is?”
6 㭚ⰂṖ 㢲 䕢Ⰲ⪲ ⟶⋮⓪㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know why Julie leaves
for Paris?”
7 㰧㧊 㢲 㔲⊚⩂㤊㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know why the house is noisy?”
8 ⹿㧊 㢲 ▪㤊㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know why the room is hot?”
9 㧊 ῃ㧊 㢲 㰶㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know why this soup is salty?”
10 㧊 䅊䜾䎆Ṗ 㢲 㕒㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know why this computer is
inexpensive?”
Exercise 21.2
1 Ⱎ㧊䋊㧊 ⶊ㓾 㧒㦚 䞶㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know what kind of work
Michael will do?”
2 㠊❪㍲ 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ㦚㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know where (they) will have
dinner?”
3 㣪㯞㦢 ⪲Ⱎ㦮 ⋶㝾Ṗ 㠊⟾㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know how Rome’s
weather will be like nowadays?”
4 ゚䟟₆Ṗ Ὃ䟃㠦 ⳝ 㔲㠦 ☚㹿䞶㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know what time
the airplane will arrive at the airport?”
5 ⌊㧒 ⳝ 㔲㠦 ṖỢ⯒ ╁㦚㰖 㞚㎎㣪? “Do (you) know what time (they)
will close the store tomorrow?”
Key to
exercises
270
Exercise 21.3
1 䙊㧊 㔲䠮㠦 䞿ỿ䟞⓪㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪.
2 㠊❪㍲ ἆ䢒㔳㦚 䞮⓪㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪.
3 ⶮ ㌂㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪.
4 㧊⯚㧊 ⶊ㠝㧎㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪.
5 㠎㩲 ἆ䢒㦚 䟊㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪.
6 㠎㩲 ㏢䙂Ṗ ☚㹿䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪.
7 䙊㧊 㹾Ṗ 㧞⓪㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪.
8 㔲䠮㧊 㓂㤶⓪㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪.
9 Ṗỿ㧊 ゚㕒㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪.
10 Ṗ⹿㧊 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ⶊỆ㤎㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪.
Exercise 21.4
1 “How noisy the house is, (I) cannot study.”
2 “How congested the road was, (I) was late for the party as long as one
hour.”
3 “How difficulty the test was, (I) could not solve even one problem.”
4 “How interestingly (they) see a movie, (they) do not even go to a
toilet.”
5 “How heavily (it) snows, (it) seems that (we) may not be able to go to
school.”
Exercise 21.5
1 ⳝ 㔲₢㰖 ₆┺⩺㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know what time (we)
should wait until.”
2 㠊ⓦ 㹾⯒ ㌂㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know which car (I) should
buy.”
3 㠒Ⱎ㠦 㰧㦚 䕪㞚㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know at what price
(I) should sell the house.”
4 㢲 㡂㧦 䂲ῂ㢖 䠺㠊㪎㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know why (I)
should break up with (my) girlfriend.”
5 ⶊ㠝㦚 Ⱎ㎪㟒 䞶㰖 ⳾⯊Ỷ㠊㣪. “(I) do not know what (I) should
drink.”
Exercise 21.6
1 ⑞㧊 㡺₆ 㔲㧧䞲㰖 1 㧒㧊 ♦㠊㣪.
2 䃦⋮┺⪲ 㧊㌂㡾㰖 T ⎚㧊 ♦㠊㣪.
3 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤊㰖 ´ 㭒Ṗ ♦㠊㣪.
4 ╊⺆⯒ ⊠㦖㰖 o Ṳ㤪㧊 ♦㠊㣪.
5 㣪Ⰲ⯒ 㔲㧧䞲㰖 T0 ⿚㧊 ♦㠊㣪.
6 㹾⯒ ㌆㰖 㧊䔖㧊 ♦㠊㣪.
Key to
exercises
271
7 㩲┞䗒Ṗ ⩆▮㦒⪲ ⟶⋲㰖 㧒 㭒㧒㧊 ♦㠊㣪.
8 ⲎⰂ⯒ 㧦⯎㰖 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ♦㠊㣪?
9 㰧㠦 ☢㞚㡾㰖 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ♦㠊㣪?
10 ⁎⯒ Ⱎ㰖Ⱏ㦒⪲ ⽎㰖 㠒Ⱎ⋮ ♦㠊㣪?
Exercise 21.7
1 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ㦖㰖 z 㔲Ṛ㧊 ♦㠊㣪. “(It) has been two hours since (I) ate
(my) lunch.”
2 Ṧ₆ ỎⰆ㰖 㧊䔖㧊 ♦㠊㣪. “(It) has been two days since (I) caught a
cold.”
3 䘎㰖⯒ ⹱㦖㰖 T 㭒㧒㧊 ♦㠊㣪. “(It) has been one week since (I)
received the letter.”
4 㤊☯㦚 㔲㧧䞲㰖 1 㧒㧊 ♦㠊㣪. “(It) has been four days since (I) started
exercising.”
5 䀾㰗䞲㰖 T ⎚㧊 ♦㠊㣪. “(It) has been one year since (I) got
employed.”
Unit 22
Exercise 22.1
1 ㏦┮㧊 Ⱔ▪⧒ῂ㣪.
2 ㍲゚㓺Ṗ 㫡▪⧒ῂ㣪.
3 㞚䕢䔎㎎Ṗ ゚㕎▪⧒ῂ㣪.
4 ┺㎅ 㔲Ṛ ỎⰂ▪⧒ῂ㣪.
5 㰧㧊 䋂▪⧒ῂ㣪.
Exercise 22.2
1 㥢Ⰲ㠚㧊 ⿖㰖⩆䞮▪⧒ῂ㣪. “William was diligent (you know).”
2 㑮㧪㦮 㡺ザṖ 䣢㌂ ㌂㧻㧊▪⧒ῂ㣪. “Susan’s older brother was the
company president (you know).”
3 䐆㧊 䌳㔲⯒ ₆┺Ⰲ▪⧒ῂ㣪. “Tom waited for a taxi (you know).”
4 㩲㧎㦮 ㌳㧒㧊 㠊㩲㧊▪⧒ῂ㣪. “Jane’s birthday was yesterday (you
know).”
5 䃦㍲Ⰶ㧊 ⹮㰖⯒ ㌂ἶ 㧞▪⧒ῂ㣪. “Catherine was buying a ring (you
know).”
Exercise 22.3
1 ✹▮ ⏎⧮
2 䌖▮ 㧦㩚Ệ
3 㧒䞮▮ 䣢㌂
Key to
exercises
272
4 㫡㞚䞮▮ 㦢㔳
5 㝆▮ 䃁㏪
6 㝿㝿䞮▮ ⋾㧦
7 ⿖✲⩓▮ 䞒⿖
8 㠊⚷▮ ⹿
9 ➆⦑䞮▮ ⋶㝾
10 ㏦┮㦒⪲ ⿦゚▮ ṖỢ
Exercise 22.4
1 ╖䞯ᾦ ➢ 㧓▮ ㏢㍺㺛㧊㠦㣪. “(It) is the novel that (I) used read dur-
ing (my) college days.”
2 ㌂‖▮ 㡂㧦 䂲ῂ㡞㣪. “(she) is (my ex) girlfriend that (I) used to go
out with.”
3 䞲ῃ㠦㍲ 㯦Ỿ ⽊▮ TV ✲⧒Ⱎ㡞㣪. “(It) is the TV drama that (I) used
to enjoy watching in Korea.”
4 T0 ⎚㩚㠦 ㌊▮ 㞚䕢䔎㡞㣪. “(It) is the apartment where (I) used to
live ten years ago.”
5 㭧䞯ᾦ ➢ 㧛▮ ᾦ⽋㧊㠦㣪. “(It) is the school uniform that (I) used to
wear during (my) intermediate school days.”
6 ṯ㧊 㧒䞮▮ ☯⬢㡞㣪. “(He) is (my) colleague whom (I) used to work
with.”
Exercise 22.5
1 㞚䂾㠦⓪ 㰧㧊 㫆㣿䞮▪┞ 㡺䤚㠦⓪ 㔲⊚⩂㤢㣪. “In the morning, the
house was quiet, but in the afternoon, (it) is noisy.”
2 㰖⋲ 㭒₢㰖 㧒⽎ ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ⽊▪┞ 㧊⻞ 㭒⓪ 䞲ῃ ✲⧒Ⱎ⯒ ⽦㣪. “(She)
watched Japanese dramas until last week, but (she) watches Korean
dramas this week.”
3 䞲ῃ㠊⯒ ⺆㤆▪┞ 䞲ῃ 㡗䢪Ⱒ ⽦㣪. “(He) has learned Korean, and
as a result (he) only sees Korean movies.”
4 㕃 ⿚ ₆┺⪎▪┞ 㦢㔳㧊 ⋮㢪㠊㣪. “As (I) waited for ten minutes, the
food was served.”
5 㠊㩲 ⰻ㭒⯒ Ⱔ㧊 Ⱎ㎾▪┞ ⲎⰂṖ 㞚䕢㣪. “Since (I) drank beer a lot
yesterday, (my) head aches.”
Exercise 22.6
1 㔲Ṛ㧊 㧞㠞▪⧒Ⳋ Ⱒ⌂㦚 Ệ㡞㣪.
2 ⹪㊮㰖 㞠㞮▪⧒Ⳋ 㰧㠦 ✺⩖㦚 Ệ㡞㣪.
3 䟟⽋䟞▪⧒Ⳋ 㧊䢒䞮㰖 㞠㞮㦚 Ệ㡞㣪.
4 ゚⹖㦚 㞢㞮▪⧒Ⳋ ㎇Ὃ䟞㦚 Ệ㡞㣪.
5 㡆㔋㦚 ▪ 㡊㕂䧞 䟞▪⧒Ⳋ ἓ₆⯒ 㧊ἒ㦚 Ệ㡞㣪.
Key to
exercises
273
Exercise 22.7
1 ⼧㤦㠦 Ṫ▪⧒Ⳋ ㌊㞮㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that he) went to
the hospital, (he) might have lived.”
2 㟓㦚 ⲏ㠞▪⧒Ⳋ 㞞 㞚䕶㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that she) took
the medicine, (she) might not feel painful.”
3 ☞㧊 㧞㠞▪⧒Ⳋ ⟶⌂㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that I) had money,
(I) might have left.”
4 ἶ₆Ṗ 㧞㠞▪⧒Ⳋ ㌖㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that they) had meat,
(she) might have bought (it).”
5 㹾Ṗ 㧞㠞▪⧒Ⳋ Ⱒ⌂㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “If (it was the case that he) had a car,
(he) might have met (her).”
Exercise 22.8
1 ῗ⁞䞮▪⧒☚ ⶑ㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪.
2 Ṗ⪋▪⧒☚ ⁗㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪.
3 䢪⋮▪⧒☚ 㺎㦒㎎㣪.
4 㕂㕂䞮▪⧒☚ 㰧㠦 㧞㦒㎎㣪.
5 ⓼Ợ 㡺▪⧒☚ 㧪㏢Ⰲ 䞮㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪.
Exercise 22.9
1 䞒Ἲ䞮▪⧒☚ 㫎㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. “Even if (you) may be tired, do not doze
off.”
2 㡗䢪Ṗ 㨂⹎㠜▪⧒☚ Ↄ ⽊㎎㣪. “Even if the movie may be uninterest-
ing, see (it) for sure.”
3 ₆⿚㧊 ⋮㊮▪⧒☚ 㤙㦒㎎㣪. “Even if (your) mood may be bad,
smile.”
4 ⶊỗ▪⧒☚ Ṗ㪎㡺㎎㣪. “Even if (it) may be heavy, bring (it).”
5 㔂䝚▪⧒☚ 㤎㰖 Ⱎ㎎㣪. “Even if (you) may be sad, do not cry.”
Unit 23
Exercise 23.1
1 㞚䂾㦚 ⲏ₆ 㩚㠦 ㏦㦚 㞑㦒㎎㣪. “Wash (your) hands before eating
breakfast.”
2 㔲䠮㦚 ⽊₆ 㩚㠦 㧶㦚 㿿⿚䧞 㧦㎎㣪. “Sleep sufficiently before tak-
ing a test.”
3 ₆㹾⯒ 䌖₆ 㩚㠦 ₆㹾 䚲⯒ 㡞㟓䟊㟒 ♒㣪. “(You) must reserve a
train ticket before riding the train.”
4 ⩞㓺䏶⧧㠦 Ṗ₆ 㩚㠦 㰧㠦 ✺⯛㔲┺. “(Let us) stop by home before
going to the restaurant.”
Key to
exercises
274
5 㿲⁒䞮₆ 㩚㠦 㔶ⶎ㦚 ⽊㎎㣪? “Do (you) read newspapers before
leaving home for work?”
6 䢪㧻㦚 䞮₆ 㩚㠦 ㌺㤢⯒ 䟊㣪. “(I) take a shower before doing
makeup.”
7 ㌞ 㰧㦒⪲ 㧊㌂䞮₆ 㩚㠦 㞚䕢䔎㠦㍲ ㌊㞮㠊㣪? “Did (you) live in an
apartment before moving into the new house?”
8 㩚Ὃ㦚 㩫䞮₆ 㩚㠦 ᾦ㑮┮䞮ἶ ㌗╊䟊㟒 䞿┞┺. “(You) must consult
with (your) professor before deciding (your) major.”
9 䞒䎆⯒ Ⱒ⋮⩂ ⋮Ṗ₆ 㩚㠦 㩚䢪䞿㔲┺. “(Let us) make a phone call
before going out to meet Peter.”
10 㹾⯒ 䕪₆ 㩚㠦 㞚⻚㰖䞮ἶ 㦮⏒䞮㎎㣪. “Consult with (your) father
before selling (your) car.”
Exercise 23.2
1 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏ₆⓪ 䄺⎫ 㞚䂾☚ 㞞 ⲏ㠞㠊㣪. “Far from eating lunch, (she)
did not even eat breakfast.”
2 ❇㌆㦚 䞮₆⓪ 䄺⎫ 㰧 ⹬㠦☚ 㞞 ⋮Ṫ㠊㣪. “Far from climbing the
mountain, (they) did not even go outside of the house.”
3 㩖⎗㦚 ⲏ₆⓪ 䄺⎫ 䄺䞒☚ ⴑ Ⱎ㎾㠊㣪. “Far from eating dinner,
(I) could not even drink coffee.”
4 ㌞ 㹾⯒ ㌂₆⓪ 䄺⎫ ῂἓ☚ ⴑ 䟞㠊㣪. “Far from buying a new car,
(I) could not even look around.”
5 ㌳㧒 䕢䕆⯒ 䞮₆⓪ 䄺⎫ ㍶ⶒ☚ ⴑ ⹱㞮㠊㣪. “Far from having a birth-
day party, (I) could not even receive a present.”
Exercise 23.3
1 ⚦ ㌂⧢㧊 㧦₆㠦⓪ 䂾╖Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㧧㞚㣪. “The bed is too small for two
people to sleep.”
2 㡗䢪⯒ ┺㤊⪲✲ ⹱₆㠦⓪ 㩲 䅊䜾䎆Ṗ ⍞ⶊ ⓦ⩺㣪. “My computer is
too slow for downloading a movie (file).”
3 㑮㡗㦚 䞮₆㠦⓪ ⋶㝾Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㿪㤢㣪. “The weather is too cold for
swimming.”
4 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊₆㠦⓪ 㔲Ṛ㧊 㠜㠊㣪. “(We) do not have time for seeing
a movie.”
5 㩚䢪⯒ 䞮₆㠦⓪ ⍞ⶊ ⓼㠞㠊㣪. “(It) is too late for making a phone
call.”
6 ⏣ῂ⯒ 䞮₆㠦⓪ 䋺Ṗ 㧧㞮㠊㣪. “(My) height was small for playing
basketball.”
7 䄺䞒⯒ Ⱎ㔲₆㠦⓪ ⍞ⶊ 㠊⪎㠊㣪. “(I) was too young to drink
coffee.”
8 䢒㧦 㤊㩚䞮₆㠦⓪ ⍞ⶊ Ⲗ㠞㠊㣪. “(It) was too far (for me) to drive
alone.”
Key to
exercises
275
9 ⏎䔎⿗㦚 ㌂₆㠦⓪ ☞㧊 ⳾㧦⧦㠊㣪. “The money was short for buy-
ing a notebook.”
10 ㍶ⶒ⪲ 㭒₆㠦⓪ ⍞ⶊ ゚㕢㠊㣪. “(It) was too expensive (for me to)
give (it) away as a gift.”
Exercise 23.4
1 Ṧ₆ Ỏ⪎₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 䞯ᾦ㠦 ⴑ Ṗ㣪. “(I) cannot go to school because
(I) caught a cold.”
2 㞚䂾㦚 ⓼Ợ ⲏ㠞₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 㩦㕂㦚 ⲏἶ 㕌㰖 㞠㞚㣪. “(I) do not want
to eat lunch because (I) ate breakfast late.”
3 ゚Ṗ 㡺₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 ἓ₆Ṗ 䀾㏢♶ Ệ㡞㣪. “(I guess that) the game will
be cancelled because (it) rains.”
4 ⻚㓺Ṗ ⿞䘎䞮₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 㰖䞮㻶㦚 㧊㣿䟊㣪. “(I) use a subway because
a bus is inconvenient.”
5 㔲䠮 ₆Ṛ㧊₆ ➢ⶎ㠦 ☚㍲ὖ㠦 ㌂⧢㧊 Ⱔ㞚㣪. “There are many people
in the library because (it) is an examination period.”
Exercise 23.5
1 ㌊㦚 ヒ₆ 㥚䟊㍲ 㩖⎗㦚 㫆⁞ ⲏ㦚 Ệ㡞㣪. “(I) will eat dinner a little
to lose weight.”
2 㦮ὒ ╖䞯㠦 㰚䞯䞮₆ 㥚䟊㍲ 㭖゚䞮ἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am preparing to
enter medical school.”
3 㹾⯒ ἶ䂮₆ 㥚䟊㍲ 㩫゚㏢㠦 Ṗἶ 㧞㠊㣪. “(I) am going to the repair
shop to repair (my) car.”
4 ┺㦢 ἓ₆⯒ 㧊₆₆ 㥚䟊㍲ ⰺ㧒 㡆㔋䟊㣪. “(I) practice everyday to
win the next game.”
5 䞲ῃ㠦 㧞⓪ 䂲ῂ䞲䎢 㩚䢪䞮₆ 㥚䟊㍲ 㩚䢪 䃊✲⯒ ㌖㠊㣪. “(I) bought
a telephone card to make a phone call to (my) friend in Korea.”
Exercise 23.6
1 ⌊⎚ ⽚㠦 ἆ䢒䞮₆⪲ 䟞㠊㣪. “(We) decided to get married next year’s
spring.”
2 䞯ᾦ ₆㑯㌂㠦㍲ ㌊₆⪲ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) decided to live in school
dormitory.”
3 ┺㦢 䞯₆㠦 䞲ῃ㠊 㑮㠛㦚 ✹₆⪲ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) decided to take the
Korean language class next semester.”
4 ⌊㧒⿖䎆 ╊⺆⯒ ⊠₆⪲ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) decided to quit smoking from
tomorrow.”
5 ┺㦢 ╂⿖䎆 䌲ῢ☚⯒ ⺆㤆₆⪲ 䟞㠊㣪. “(I) decided to learn Taekwondo
from next month.”
Key to
exercises
276
Exercise 23.7
1 䏶㣪㧒Ⱎ┺ 䎢┞㓺⯒ 䂮₆☚ 䟊㣪. “(We) also play tennis every
Saturday.”
2 Ṗ⊪ ₢Ⱒ ⍻䌖㧊⯒ ⰺ₆☚ 䟊㣪. “(I) also wear a black tie occasionally.”
3 㭒Ⱖ㠦 䂲ῂ✺䞮ἶ ⏣ῂ⯒ 䞮₆☚ 䟊㣪. “(I) also play basketball with
(my) friends on the weekend.”
4 㕂㕂䞮Ⳋ 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊₆☚ 䟊㣪. “When feeling bored, (we) also see
movies.”
5 䏶㣪㧒 㞚䂾㠦 㫆ₛ㦚 䞮₆☚ 䟊㣪. “(I) also jog on Saturday morning.”
Exercise 23.8
1 ⰺ㧒 㣪Ṗ⯒ 䞮₆Ṗ 㠊⩺㤢㣪. “Doing yoga everyday is difficult.”
2 䝚⧧㓺 㦢㔳㦚 Ⱒ✺₆Ṗ 㠊⩺㤢㣪. “Making French food is difficult.”
3 㔲䠮㠦 ⟾㠊㰖₆Ṗ 㓂㤢㣪. “(It) is easy to fail a test.”
4 㧊㌂䞮₆Ṗ 䧮✺㠊㣪. “Changing one’s residence is laborious.”
5 ⏎⧮⯒ ⿖⯊₆Ṗ 㫡㞚㣪. “(It) is nice to sing songs.”
6 㹾⯒ 䌖₆Ṗ 䘎䟊㣪. “Riding a car is convenient.”
7 㧒䞮₆Ṗ 㕁㠊㣪. “(It) is unpleasant to work.”
8 㣪Ⰲ䞮₆Ṗ 㨂⹎㧞㠊㣪. “Cooking is interesting.”
9 ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮₆Ṗ ‖㺄㞚㣪. “Doing the laundry is bothersome.”
10 ⰺ㧒 㤊☯䞮₆Ṗ 䧮✺㠊㣪. “Exercising everyday is laborious.”
Exercise 23.9
1 㫡₆⓪㣪.
2 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊₆⓪㣪.
3 㧦㭒 Ⱒ⋮₆⓪㣪.
4 ➆⦑䞮₆⓪㣪.
5 ⿖㰖⩆䞮₆⓪㣪.
Exercise 23.10
1 ⌊㧒 㡺㩚 T0 㔲㠦 ☢㞚㢊. “Will be back at 10 a.m. tomorrow.”
2 㡺⓮ 㩖⎗ 㓺䎢㧊䋂㧚. “Tonight’s dinner is steak.”
3 㹾 ἶ㼺㦢. “Repaired (your) car.”
4 㰧㠦 㞞 Ṫ㦢. “Did not go home.”
5 㢍 ㌖㦢. “Bought the dress.”
6 㠊㩲 ⲎⰂ 㧮⧦㦢. “Had a hair cut yesterday.”
7 㤆ⰂṖ 㰖ṧ ⽊ὖ䞮ἶ 㧞㦢. “We are keeping (your) wallet.”
8 㧙㠊⻚Ⰶ Ṳ 㺔㞮㦢. “Found the lost dog.”
9 ⭎Ⲫ㧊䔎 ῂ䞾. “Seeking a roommate.”
10 㡗䢪 㨂⹎㠜㦢. “The movie is uninteresting.”
Key to
exercises
277
Unit 24
Exercise 24.1
1 ⑚⋮Ṗ “㩲⹲ 㧒㹣 㧒㠊⋮⧒” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “(My) older sister said ‘For
heaven’s sake, get up early.’”
2 㞺✲⮮Ṗ “ゾⰂ ➆⧒㡺㎎㣪” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Andrew said ‘Follow (me)
immediately.’”
3 㧊㌂⻾㧊 “㩫Ⱖ 㤆㥶⯒ 㧮 Ⱎ㔲⍺㣪” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Isabel said ‘(You)
really drink milk well.’”
4 Ⰲ㌂Ṗ “㩖⎗㠦 㩖䧂 㰧㠦 ✺⯊㎎㣪” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Lisa said ‘Stop by
our house in the evening.’”
5 ㍶㌳┮㧊 “㡺⓮ 㑮㠛 ⊳” 㧊⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Teacher said ‘The end of
class for today.’”
6 䙊㧊 “䞒㧦 ⲏ㧦” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Paul said ‘Let us eat pizza.’”
7 ⰞⰂ㞚Ṗ “㹢ṲṖ ⱋ┺” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Maria said ‘Pot stew is spicy.’”
8 ぢ⧮✲Ṗ “㤆Ⰲ ⁞㣪㧒㠦 Ⱒ⋮㧦” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Brad said ‘Let us meet
on Friday.’”
9 ┞䆲㧊 “㧊➆ 㔲Ṛ 㧞㦒Ⳋ 㩚䢪䟊” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Nicole said ‘Call (me)
if (you) have time later.’”
10 㰖⋮Ṗ “㰧㠦 㞞 Ṗ㎎㣪?” ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. ‘Gina said ‘Don’t you go
home?’”
Exercise 24.2
1 ⳾┞䃊Ṗ Ⓤ㣫㠦 1 Ἒ㩞㧊 㧞┺ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Monica said that there are
four seasons in New York.”
2 㞺㍲┞Ṗ ⌊㧒 ㏢⋮₆Ṗ ⌊ⰂỶ┺ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Anthony said that (it)
would shower tomorrow.”
3 ㌂ぢⰂ⋮Ṗ 㰧㎎Ṗ 㢂⧦┺ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Sabrina said that house rent
went up.”
4 㩲㧊㓾㧊 㡺⓮ 㓺䕢Ợ䕆⯒ Ⱒ✶┺ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Jason said that (he) would
make spaghetti today.”
5 㫆❪Ṗ ⌊㧒 ┺㔲 㩚䢪䞮Ỷ┺ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Jodie said that (she) would
call again tomorrow.”
6 㓺䕆ぢṖ 㠎㩲 㰗㧻㦚 ⁎Ⱒ⛖⌦ἶ ⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “Steve asked (me) when
(I) quitted (my) job.”
7 㯊Ⰲ㞚Ṗ 㠎㩲 㰧㠦 㡺⌦ἶ ⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “Julia asked (them) when (he)
would come home.”
8 㠦㓺▪Ṗ 㧊 㹾Ṗ ⑚ῂ Ệ⌦ἶ ⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “Esther asked (me) whose
car this is.”
9 㩲ⰂṖ 㧮 㰖⌊ἶ 㧞⌦ἶ ⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “Jerry asked (me) how (I) am
getting along.”
10 ◆㧊㰖Ṗ ⳝ 㔲⌦ἶ ⶒ㠞㠊㣪. “Daisy asked (her) what time it is.”
Key to
exercises
278
Exercise 24.3
1 㠦Ⰳ㧊 ⻚㓺⯒ 䌖㧦ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Eric suggested that (we) take a bus.”
2 ⋮㡺⹎Ṗ 㡺䤚 z 㔲㠦 Ⱒ⋮㧦ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Naomi suggested that (we)
meet at 2 p.m.”
3 䋊⧒⧒Ṗ ṯ㧊 㣪Ṗ⯒ 㔲㧧䞮㧦ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Clara suggested that (we)
start yoga together.”
4 㫆㰖Ṗ 㧊⻞ 㭒Ⱖ㠦 ṯ㧊 㡗䢪⯒ ⽊㧦ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “George suggested
that (we) see a movie together this weekend.”
5 ⋮䌞ⰂṖ ⁎ 䂲ῂ⯒ ☚㢖 㭒㧦ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Natalie suggested that (we)
help that friend.”
6 㞚゚Ṗ㧒㧊 ゾ⧮⯒ 䞮⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Abigail told (me) to do laundry.”
7 䅖ゞ㧊 㡊㕂䧞 Ὃ⿖䞮⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Kevin told (her) to study hard.”
8 ┺㧊㠦⋮Ṗ z0 ⿚㞞㠦 ⌊⩺㡺⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Diana told (us) to come
down within 20 minutes.”
9 㪎㓺䕊㧊 䢪⌊㰖 Ⱖ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Justin told (him) not to be angry.”
10 㧒⩞㧎㧊 㡊㐶⯒ 㺔㦒⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪. “Elaine told (them) to find keys.”
Exercise 24.4
1 ㌮㧊 㡺⓮ ⹺ ⟶⋲┺ἶ 䟞㠊㣪.
2 Ⰲ㌂Ṗ ⳝ 㔲㠦 㧦⌦ἶ ⶒ㠞㠊㣪.
3 䙊㧊 䞲ῃ 㦢㔳㦚 ⲏ㧦ἶ 䟞㠊㣪.
4 ㍶㌳┮㧊 㫆㣿䧞 䞮⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪.
5 㑮㧪㧊 㡺⓮ ⹺ 㩚䢪䞶 Ệ⧒ἶ 䟞㠊㣪.
Exercise 24.5
1 㦢㔳㧊 ⰱ㧞┺ἶ ㌳ṗ䞲┺.
2 ㍲゚㓺Ṗ 㫡┺ἶ ㌳ṗ䞲┺.
3 䄺䞒Ṗ ⍞ⶊ 㰚䟞┺ἶ ㌳ṗ䞲┺.
4 ⌊㧒⿖䎆 㤊☯㦚 㔲㧧䟊㟒Ỷ┺ἶ ㌳ṗ䟞┺.
5 㫊䞲䎢 㧊Ⲫ㧒㦚 㖾㟒Ỷ┺ἶ ㌳ṗ䟞┺.
279
INDEX
auxiliary verbs 27–8, 122
auxiliary verb ~ἶ Ⱖ┺ 27, 35
auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚 Ṗ┺ 27, 28 – 9
auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚 ⋮┺ 27
auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚 ⌊┺ 27, 33–4
auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚 ⏩┺ 27, 42 – 3
auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚 ⚦┺ 43
auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚 ⻚Ⰲ┺ 27, 33 – 5
auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚 ⽊┺ 27, 28, 158
auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚 㡺┺ 27, 28 – 9
auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚 㧞┺ 43–4
auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚 㭒┺ 27, 35 – 7
auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚㰖┺ 27, 46
auxiliary verb ~㠊/㞚䞮┺ 27, 45 – 6
causatives 131 – 2
suffix ~ῂ 131
suffix ~₆ 131 – 2
suffix ~㤆 131
suffix ~㧊 131 – 2
suffix ~Ⰲ 131 – 2
suffix ~䧞 131 – 2
suffix ~㿪 131
clausal conjunctives 51 – 4
conjunctive ~Ệ⋮ 87 – 8
conjunctive ~Ệ✶ 76 – 7
conjunctive ~ἶ 51 – 2, 85 – 6
conjunctive ~ⓦ⧒ἶ 65
conjunctive ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆ 105 – 7
conjunctive ~⓪/(㦖)ච◆☚ 107
conjunctive ~┺Ṗ 97 – 9
conjunctive ~▪┞ 197
conjunctive ~▪⧒☚ 198 – 9
conjunctive ~☚⪳ 51, 56
conjunctive ~✶㰖 88 – 9
conjunctive ~㠊/㞚☚ 115, 120, 198
conjunctive ~㠊/㞚㍲ 51–4, 61 – 3, 64 – 5
conjunctive ~㠊/㞚㟒 75 – 6, 123
conjunctive ~㠞/㞮▪⧒Ⳋ 198
conjunctive ~(㦒)⋮ 114 – 5
conjunctive ~(㦒)┞₢ 53 – 4, 64 – 5
conjunctive ~(㦒)ඥ㑮⪳ 75
conjunctive ~(㦒)⩂ 51, 54 – 5
conjunctive ~(㦒)⩺ἶ 51, 53, 55, 74,
98
conjunctive ~(㦒)⩺┺Ṗ 98 – 9
conjunctive ~(㦒)⩺Ⳋ 74
conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳇ 86 – 7
conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳋ 72 – 3, 74 – 5, 121 – 2,
198
conjunctive ~(㦒)Ⳋ㍲ 51, 95 – 6
conjunctive ~㧦Ⱎ㧦 96
conjunctive ~㰖Ⱒ 51 – 3, 113–4
ellipsis 107
honorific suffix ~(㦒)㔲 12 – 13
modality
ability 178 – 80
evidentiality 146 – 50
obligation 122 – 3
permission 120 – 1
possibility 178 – 80
prohibition 121 – 2
modifiers 137 –40
noun-modifying ending ~⓪
137 –8, 146 – 8, 157 – 60, 166 – 9, 186 – 8
noun-modifying ending ~▮ 196
noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ච
138 – 9, 146 – 8, 157 – 8, 160,
166 – 9, 186 – 9
noun-modifying ending ~(㦒)ඥ
139–40, 146 – 8, 169 – 70, 178 – 80,
186 – 9
relative clause 137 – 40, 186
Page numbers in bold refer to those pages in the book where the relevant grammar
point is discussed in detail.
Index
280
negation 122
negative ⴑ 178 – 9
negative 㞞 121 – 2
nominalization 205 – 11
nominalizing ending ~₆ 205 – 10
nominalizing ending ~(㦒)ත 210 – 11
particles
particle ṯ㧊 20
particle ₢㰖 21
particle ☚ 107, 179, 210
particle ⪲ 208
particle Ⱎ┺ 21
particle Ⱎ㩖 21
particle Ⱒ 22, 76, 179
particle Ⱒ䋒 20
particle ⹬㠦 22, 179
particle ⽊┺ 19 – 20
particle 㠦 158 – 9, 166, 168, 206 – 7
particle 㠦Ợ 130
particle 㦖/⓪ 98, 205 – 7
particle 㧊/Ṗ 180, 209 – 10
particle 㫆㹾 21
particle 㻮⩒ 20
particle 䞲䎢 130
passives 129 – 30, 131 – 2
suffix ~₆ 129, 130, 132
suffix ~㧊 129, 131 – 2
suffix ~Ⰲ 129, 130, 132
suffix ~䧞 129, 131 – 2
post modifiers 157
~⓪ ₎ 157
~⓪ ☚㭧 159
~⓪ ☯㞞 158 – 9
~⓪ ⹪⧢㠦 168
~⓪ 㭧㧊┺ 159 – 60
~⓪/(㦒)ච ộ㧊┺ 168 – 9
~⓪/(㦒)ච ╖⪲ 166
~⓪/(㦒)ච 㻯/㼊䞮┺ 167 – 8
~⓪/(㦒)ච 䘎㧊┺ 160
~(㦒)ච 㩗/㧒 157 – 8
~(㦒)ච 䤚㠦 166 – 7
~(㦒)ඥ ➢ 169 – 70
~(㦒)ඥ ㄪ䟞┺ 169
predicate type restriction 53, 56, 73, 113
progressive 44, 159 – 60
question
direct question 186 – 7
indirect question 186 – 7
quotation
abbreviated indirect quotation endings
222 – 3
direct quotation 219 – 20
indirect quotation 219 – 23
indirect quotation particle ἶ 195,
220 – 3
quotation particle (㧊)⧒ἶ 219
quotation particle 䞮ἶ 220
retrospective suffix ~▪ 195–8
sentence-final endings
ending ~Ệ✶㣪 76 – 7
ending ~ῆ㣪 14– 15
ending ~⍺㣪 13– 14
ending ~⓪/(㦒)ච◆㣪 107
ending ~▪⧒ῂ㣪 195
ending ~㰖㣪 11 – 13
sentence types 1 – 3, 28, 53–4, 56, 63 – 4,
73, 114, 221
declarative 1 – 3, 53 – 5, 64, 120, 221
imperative 1 – 3, 53 – 4, 63, 65, 76, 222
interrogative 1 – 3, 53 – 5, 64, 120, 158,
222
propositive 1 – 3, 53 – 4, 63, 65, 76, 222
speech levels 11
deferential speech level 2, 11, 52
intimate speech level 1 – 2, 11
plain speech level 2 – 3, 11, 221 – 2
polite speech level 1 – 2, 11, 120, 221
subject agreement restriction 52 – 3, 54 – 6,
65, 73, 113
suffixes
suffix ~Ỷ 13 – 15
suffix ~ῆ 11
suffix ~⍺ 11
suffix ~㰖 11
tense 27 – 8, 52, 219
past 14 – 15, 46, 52, 74, 97 – 8, 106,
138 – 40, 146 – 50, 170, 186 – 7,
196 – 8, 207
present 137 – 8, 146, 186 – 7
prospective 139 – 40, 146, 186 – 7
tense agreement restriction 52, 54 – 6, 63,
65, 73, 86 – 7, 95 – 6, 113
voice 27, 129

INTERMEDIATE KOREAN: A GRAMMAR AND WORKBOOK

Intermediate Korean: A Grammar and Workbook comprises an accessible reference grammar and related exercises in a single volume. This workbook presents twenty-four individual grammar points, covering the core material which students would expect to encounter in their second year of learning Korean. Grammar points are followed by examples and exercises which allow students to reinforce and consolidate their learning. Intermediate Korean is suitable for both class use as well as independent study. Key features include:
• • • • • •

clear, accessible format many useful language examples all Korean entries presented in Hangul with English translations jargon-free explanations of grammar abundant exercises with full answer key subject index.

Clearly presented and user-friendly, Intermediate Korean provides readers with the essential tools to express themselves in a wide variety of situations, making it an ideal grammar reference and practice resource for students with some knowledge of the language. Andrew Sangpil Byon is Associate Professor at the State University of New York at Albany, where he teaches courses in Korean language and civilization.

Other titles available in the Grammar Workbooks series are: Basic Cantonese Intermediate Cantonese Basic Chinese Intermediate Chinese Basic Dutch Intermediate Dutch Basic German Intermediate German Basic Irish Intermediate Irish Basic Italian Basic Korean Intermediate Korean Basic Polish Intermediate Polish Basic Russian Intermediate Russian Basic Spanish Intermediate Spanish Basic Welsh Intermediate Welsh

INTERMEDIATE KOREAN: A GRAMMAR AND WORKBOOK
Andrew Sangpil Byon

For my parents, James Ki Yong and Gloria Hye Ja Pyon

First published 2010 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY10016 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2009. To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk. © 2010 Andrew Sangpil Byon All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Byon, Andrew Sangpil. Intermediate Korean : a grammar & workbook / Andrew Sangpil Byon. p. cm. Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada. 1. Korean language—Grammar—Problems, exercises, etc. 2. Korean language— Textbooks for foreign speakers—English. I. Title. PL913.B965 2009 495.7′82421—dc22 2008053381 ISBN 0-203-87590-7 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN10: 0-415-54714-8 (hbk) ISBN10: 0-415-77488-8 (pbk) ISBN10: 0-208-87590-7 (ebk) ISBN13: 978-0-415-54714-7 (hbk) ISBN13: 978-0-415-77488-8 (pbk) ISBN13: 978-0-203-87590-2 (ebk)

~ /( ) ?.~ Clausal conjunctives (conditions) ~( ) . ~ / .~ / .~ . ~( ) . .~ . 42 51 61 72 85 95 v 6 7 8 9 10 11 Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention) ~( ) .~ / . .~ Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice) ~ .~ Clausal conjunctives (time) ~( ) .CONTENTS Preface ix 1 2 3 4 5 The intimate speech level and the plain speech level ~ / . . .~ / ~ / Auxiliary verbs III ~ / . ~ / .~ Sentence-final endings ~ .~ . ~( ) . ~( ) . . 1 11 19 27 Auxiliary verbs I ~ / .~ Particles .~ Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause) ~ / . ~ .~ / ~ / .~ / .~ / Auxiliary verbs II ~ / . . ~( ) .~ / .~ / . .~ 33 .

~( ) . ~( ) ~( ) . / . prohibition.~ . ~( ) . ~( ) Describing the appearance of actions or states of affair ~ /( ) /( ) . . .~ .~ / / Passives and causatives ~ . ~ /( ) /( ) . ~( ) ~( ) Indirect question form ~ /( ) /( ) The retrospective suffix ~ Nominalizing endings ~ and ~( ) Direct and indirect quotation ~( ) . . . ~ /( ) .~ / Post modifiers I . ~ / Permission.~ . ~( ) . ~ /( ) /( ) .~ .~ 178 186 195 205 / . Post modifiers II . .~ . 146 157 166 18 19 20 Ability and possibility ~( ) / . 219 21 22 23 24 Key to exercises Index 228 279 vi . .~ . and obligation ~ / .~ /~ 105 113 120 129 137 15 16 17 The noun-modifying endings ~ .~ . . . . .Contents 12 13 14 Clausal connectives (background) ~ /( ) Clausal connectives (although) ~ . ~( ) .

this book differs from existing KFL materials whose primary purpose is to help KFL learners acquire four language skills. the direct translation approach was employed for pedagogical purposes. following the pattern of Basic Korean and other Grammar Workbooks of the Routledge series. such as listening. before going on to the book. and exercises.. a typical KFL textbook chapter may include model dialogues. followed by relevant grammar exercises. it requires that learners familiarize themselves with Hangul. The layout of this book also differs from those of existing KFL materials. and it does not take a functional-situational approach in grouping and/or sequencing target grammatical points.PREFACE Intermediate Korean: A Grammar and Workbook is a sequel to its sister volume Basic Korean: A Grammar and Workbook. Rather it sequences and covers grammatical points according to their grammatical categories (e. It is designed for independent English-speaking adult Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) learners who intend to maintain and strengthen their knowledge of essential Korean grammar and for classroom-based learners who are looking for supplemental grammar explanations and practices. grammar explanations. Accordingly. and so on). This book has 24 units. some learners may feel certain English translations do not reflect typical English usages. reading. conjunctives. Consequently. For instance. In contrast. particles. vii . so that learners can use the book as a reference material as well as a practice material. In addition. when translating Korean entries into English. sentence endings. Consequently. efforts were made to reflect the Korean meaning as closely as possible. However. and it likewise focuses on providing an accessible reference grammar explanation and related exercises in a single volume. speaking. All Korean entries are presented in Hangul (the Korean alphabet) with English translations to facilitate understanding. and writing as well as cultural knowledge.g. The exercises at the end of each unit are designed primarily to reinforce the target grammatical points. cultural notes. followed by vocabulary lists. every unit of Intermediate Korean focuses on presenting jargon-free and concise grammar explanations.

Isabel. I would like to express sincere gratitude to Sophie Oliver for initially encouraging this project and to the editorial and production teams of Routledge—Andrea Hartill. State University of New York. makes it possible for me to do what I really love to do.Preface In writing this book. I am grateful to anonymous reviewers for their constructive and valuable comments. who were supportive of this project. viii . who. as always. and Samantha Vale Noya—for their advice and support throughout the process. Of course. with her optimism and encouragement. Finally. I would like to thank my colleagues in the Department of East Asian Studies at the University at Albany. my special thanks go to my wife. I bear all responsibility for any shortcomings and errors in the text. I have been fortunate to have the assistance and support of many people. My thanks also go to Neil Dowden for his careful and thoughtful copy-editing service and to Kathy Auger at Graphicraft for her kind assistance during the final stage of production.

UNIT 1
The intimate speech level and the plain speech level

The intimate speech level
The intimate speech level is in general used in the following situations: by adults when addressing children, by parents when addressing their kids, by children when addressing their peers, and by adult friends when addressing their childhood friends (or friends whose relationships are close enough to switch to the intimate level from the polite level). The intimate speech level ending is ~ / . The choice of ~ or ~ is the same with that of the polite speech level ending ~ / . ~ is used after a stem that ends in a bright vowel, or (e.g., “find” => ), while ~ is used with the stem that ends in any other vowels (e.g., “learn” => ). Consider the following examples: Polite speech level “go” “learn” “teach” “eat” “do” “have/exist” “be” “not be” As seen above, one can generate the intimate speech level from the polite speech level, simply by removing . One exception is that the copula / takes slightly different forms: instead of , instead of . and Just like the polite speech level ending ~ / , the intimate speech level ending ~ / is used for all sentence types: declarative, interrogative, imperative, and propositive. For instance, consider the following: Intimate speecsh level

1

1
The intimate speech level and the plain speech level

“(I) run everyday.” ? “(Do you) run everyday?” ! “Run everyday!” “(Let us) run everyday.” Koreans use contextual elements as well as intonation (e.g., rising intonation for a question) to figure out what intimate speech level ending ~ / is used for a specific sentence type.

The plain speech level
The plain speech level ending sounds more blunt and direct than other speech levels: deferential, polite, and intimate. The plain speech level is primarily used in the following three contexts: When one addresses a child, his/her childhood friends, or younger siblings; when the speaker talks to himself/herself or wants to draw the listener’s attention to information that is noteworthy or provoking; when one writes (e.g., personal essay, prose, newspaper articles, academic papers, diary, and so forth). Unlike the intimate and the polite speech levels that use the same endings for different sentence types, the plain speech level has different endings for different sentence types, as shown below.

Declarative
~ / (for verb stems) “go” “eat” “study” ~ (for adjective and copula stems) “cold” “clean” “be” ~ / (for all predicate stems in the past tense) “Andrew went to school.” “The weather was cold.” “The room was clean.” “That man was a Korean.”
2

Interrogative
~ /( ) ? (for all predicate stems) ? (or ?) ? (or ?) ? (or ? (or ?) / ? (or ?) / ? (or ? (or ?)

The plain speech level

“go” “eat” “study” “good” “cold” “clean” “be” ~ / /( )

?) ? (for writing) ? (for writing) ?)

? (for all predicate stems in the past tense) ? “Did Andrew go to school?” ? “Was the weather cold?” ? “Was the room clean?” ? “Was that man a Korean?”

Imperative (only for verb stems)
~ ~ (after a stem that ends in or ) (after a stem that ends in any other vowels) “go” “eat” “study”

Propositive (only for verb stems)
~ “go” “eat” “study” Note that the plain speech level imperative ending ~ / and propositive ending ~ are used only for verb stems, and they are not conjugated for the tense.

3

1
The intimate speech level and the plain speech level

Exercises
Key vocabulary for Unit 1 exercises
store bag to teach lecture to cross over police officer fruits to study public performance/play to draw painting/picture to wait feeling/mood to be clean to be bad weather to go down older sister feeling/mood to be slow/to be sluggish bridge/legs to close/to shut to be sweet cigarette to throw to be warm to follow to depart/to take leave of/to leave to be hot (water)/to be heated romance to drink to finish to meet head/hair (of one’s head) to eat to be far door to trust/to believe to be busy

4

to receive foot to learn to throw away bus criminal to send to see/to watch/to read to borrow apple person office picture package hand test/examination to wear (shoes/socks) newspapers to be fresh trash/garbage to wash not be the base/the lower part father morning to be sore/to be painful socks to be difficult when to open keys movie to shout this time work/matter/errand the Japanese language early to read to wear (clothes) to sleep bicycle to catch/to hold to be interesting

Key vocabulary for Unit 1 exercises

5

1 Conjugate each verb or adjective in parentheses with the intimate speech level ending. “Go to school. Example: = ( ) / imperative .” 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) / imperative ) / imperative ) / propositive ( ) / declarative ) / imperative ( ) / imperative ) / propositive ) / declarative ) / propositve ( ) / interrogative ) / declarative ) declarative . Then translate the sentence.1 The intimate speech level and the plain speech level dishes/plates to be quiet to be good/to be right/to be beneficial to give weekend the Chinese language house car to look for/to seek for window book friend coffee aloud to ride to sell France to smoke sky to do to get scattered/to be separated/to break up to be cloudy Exercise 1. as shown in the example.

“(I) go to Seoul.2 Conjugate each verb or adjective in parentheses with the declarative plain speech level ending.2 Exercise 1.13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) /interrogative ) / imperative ( ) /interrogative ) / declarative ) / declarative ) / interrogative ) / declarative ) / interrogative Exercise 1.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ( Exercise 1. Then translate each sentence. Then translate each sentence. Example: = ) ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ( ) . Example: = ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) 7 ( ) ? “Do (you) go to the supermarket?” 1 2 3 4 5 6 ) ) .3 Conjugate each verb or adjective in parethensis with the interrogative plain speech level ending.

5 Conjugate each verb or adjective in parenthesis with the propositive plain speech level ending. “Go to the post office.” 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ( ( ( ( ( ( . Example: = ) ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ( ) . “(Let us) go to the library. Example: = ) ) ) ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ( ) .” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ( ( ( ( Exercise 1.1 The intimate speech level and the plain speech level 7 8 9 10 ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) Exercise 1.4 Conjugate each verb or adjective in parethensis with the imperative plain speech level ending. Then translate each sentence. Then translate each sentence.

(Let us) leave for London / Leave for London. (Let us) give (them) homework / Give (them) homework. Exercise 1. .6 1 Page 19 (Let us) read page 19 / Read page 19. Wash (your) hands / (Let us) wash (our) hands. ( ) ) 9 . (Let us) close the door / Close the door. (Let us) borrow (his) money / Borrow (his) money. . Example: “What kind of movie do (you) want to see?” ( ) = ? 1 The movie begins at 2 p. as shown in the example.6 Underline the correct English translation of the Korean phrase below. (Let us) ride a bike / Ride a bike. Exercise 1.7 Finish the following translation using the intimate speech level and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis. Go out from the room / (Let us) go out from the room. . . . Example: . Learn English / (Let us) learn English. . 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .m. ( 2 Be quiet. . Drink green tea / (Let us) drink green tea.Exercise 1. Wear jeans / (Let us) wear jeans. .

1 The intimate speech level and the plain speech level 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (Let us) clean the house. ( ) Buy some wines. ( ) Throw the garbage. ( (Let us) sing a song. ( ) ) ) ) Exercise 1. ( ) ) ) ) ) 10 . ( Where do (you) meet Tom? ( Where did (you) go? ( ) (He) quitted smoking. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (I) major in economics. Example: “(He) attends the University of Hawaii. ( ) Is (he) a Canadian? ( ) Was the subway convenient? ( Are (you) happy? ( ) Open the window. ( ) (Let us) have the confidence. as shown in the example.” ( ) = . ( (He) traveled in Seoul last year. ( ) How long did (you) wait? ( (They) taught English in Korea. ( ) The weather was clear.8 Finish the following translation using the plain speech level and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis. ( The coffee is hot.

the ending ~ in the second sentence indicates that the speaker seeks agreement while asking the same question.g.UNIT 2 Sentence-final endings ~ . and ~ . However. polite. combined with “the politeness marker” can serve as sentencefinal endings that convey the speaker’s various psychological states or attitudes.. . and plain endings. right?” 11 . The speaker’s intonation (e. such as the deferential.~ Typical sentence-final endings are speech level endings. such as . and (iv) suggesting.~ . right?” Notice that the ending ~ / in the first sentence simply asks the message in a straightforward manner. and .g. On the other hand. right?” ? “(You) came to school yesterday. falling or rising) as well as contextual factors involved (e. The sentence-final ending ~ The sentence-final ending ~ is a one-form ending that indicates one of the following four mental states or attitudes of the speaker: (i) seeking agreement. (ii) asking a question with a belief that the hearer has the answer. (1) Seeking agreement (with a rising intonation) Consider the following two examples: ? “Does Paul jog everyday?” ? “Paul jogs everyday..~ . These suffixes. (iii) assuring information. sentence-final endings also include various sentence-final suffixes. Here are more examples: ? “(They) meet at 6 o’clock this evening. This unit introduces three sentence-final endings. referential and situational contexts) determine which among the four moods or attitudes the ending indicates. ~ . intimate.

the second sentence with the ending ~ implies that the speaker believes that the hearer has the answer. (I assure you) that (we) had an appoint- (4) Suggesting (with a falling intonation) . . ~ . “(How about we) practice after eating lunch (or something)?” The honorific suffix ~( ) can be optionally used along with ~ to make the suggestion sound more polite.~ (2) Asking a question. “Yes. as shown in the following examples: 12 . However. believing that the hearer has the answer (with a rising intonation) ? “What time does Peter return?” ? “What time does Peter return?” Again. On the other hand. the ending ~ in the second sentence indicates that the speaker assures of the referential message. ment yesterday.” The first sentence with the ending ~ / simply states the message. However.” . “Yes. the second sentence is a suggestion because of the ending ~ .” . the ending ~ / in the first sentence simply asks the message in a direct manner. “(How about we) play tennis (or something)?” . Here are more examples: ? “Who is that person (over there)?” ? “Where was the key?” (3) Assuring information (with a falling intonation) . “(It) is cold. “(I assure you) that the capital of England is London. so how about closing the window?” The first sentence with the ending ~ / is a direct request. Here are more examples: . Here are more examples: .” . (I assure you that they) leave tomorrow. “Yes. “(It) is cold. so close the window. . (they) leave tomorrow.2 Sentencefinal endings ~ .” .

. and what will occur.” . I see that) the food may be very spicy. “(Oh.. . “(I realize that you) prepared huge breakfast.” . . “Professor. “(I am surprised that) Thomas was an English teacher. John speaking Korean well) is unanticipated and/or contrary to what was expected. Here are more examples: . “(Oh. ~ . “(Oh. something) may/will . “John speaks Korean well. I see that) it rains a lot. based on circumstantial evidences. I see/realize that . . It denotes that the information which the speaker hears or observes (e. (how about we) go?” . I see that) this coffee is strong.” Consider the following two examples: . The ending ~ is used only for the declarative statement sentence type.” . It is best translated in English as “(I guess . I see that) then. is used to indicate the speaker’s realization of what will happen in reaction to the surprised or unanticipated information the speaker just encountered. . . “(Oh. . On the other hand.” Notice that the first sentence simply conveys the message in a straightforward manner. “(Oh. the second sentence with the ending ~ indicates the speaker’s spontaneous emotive reaction.” .. what is occurring.” . I realize that) tomorrow’s weather may be cold. ” Consider the following examples: . I see that) John speaks Korean well.g. “(Oh. The suffix denotes the speaker’s conjecture or inference about what did occur. and it may be translated as “Oh. .” 13 . “(How about you) please lend (me) the book?” The sentencefinal ending ~ The sentence-final ending ~ The one-form sentence-final ending ~ is used to indicate the speaker’s spontaneous and immediate reaction. the combination of the suffix and the ending ~ . we may run into each other tomorrow at the airport.” ~ The suffix is a pre-final ending that comes between the stem of the predicate and the final-ending. such as unexpected surprise and/or realization.” .

for verb stems. there is one subtle difference.g. However.” After verb stems . (I guess that he) must have gone home. “Since (it) was (his) older sister’s birthday. 14 . It is used to express the speaker’s immediate realization to what he/she just perceived. ~ is used after adjective and copula stems.. I see that) the Korean food is delicious. I see that he) learns golf everyday. “(Oh.” .” as shown in the examples below: . “(Oh. ~ . . While ~ indicates that what’s been realized or perceived is contrary to the expectation. “(Oh.2 Sentencefinal endings ~ .” .” . Consider the following examples: After adjective stems .~ ~ ~ / . It can be translated as “I guess that something must have . is used to express the speaker’s surprise or realization about what must have occurred. ~ ). “(I guess that) the movie must have been interesting. I see that) Jessica is a Japanese person. . “(Oh. .” After copula stems . I see that they) teach the Japanese language.” . the combination of the past tense marker / and ~ . I see that) the weather is hot. “(Oh.” The sentence-final ending ~ The one-form sentence-final ending ~ is used as an exclamatory ending. “(Oh. ~ “the noun-modifying ending for verbs” is used along with ~ (e. ~ simply expresses the immediate realization in a straightforward manner.” . However. I see that) here is John’s house. The meaning and usage of ~ is similar to those of ~ in that both indicate what the speaker just realized. “(I guess that it) must have been painful.

” .” .” For immediate realization about a possible or guessed future event. I see that) the capital of Korea was Seoul. “(Oh.For immediate realization about a past event. “(Oh.” ~ Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 2 exercises store scenery kimchi to be clean weather to close to be hot (the weather) to be delicious to eat prices room lawyer to be expensive to be noisy a new marriage to be beautiful yesterday not have/not exist trip/travel today 15 . ~ all predicates. I see that he) may meet (his) mother in Seoul. I see that she) may major in Korean literature. “(Oh. “(Oh. “(Oh. is used. / is used for Key vocabulary for Unit 2 exercises . . “(Oh. I see that) the movie was interesting.” . I see that you) liked Korean songs. I see that they) may open the store tomorrow.” .

right? ( ) The price is expensive.2 Sentencefinal endings ~ .~ afternoon to talk to work to sleep to be quiet house older brother Exercise 2. right? ( (They) meet Edward.2 Conjugate the predicate using ~ ? (seeking confirmation). ~ . . as shown in the example. right?” 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 2. as shown in the example. right? ( (You) take the bus over there.3 16 Finish the following translation using ~ (suggestion) and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis. right? ( (You) believe me.1 Finish the following translation using ~ (seeking confirmation) and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis. Example: = ? “Thomas wants to eat an apple. as shown in the example. Example: “Nick is also coming. Then translate the sentence. right?” ( = ? 1 2 3 4 5 Wendy is a Chinese. right? ( ) ) ) ) ) Exercise 2.

I (Oh. and the sentence cue provided Example: “(Oh. 1 2 3 4 5 6 (Oh. I (Oh. as shown = “(Oh. I see that) it rains outside. Then translate the sentence. I see see see see see see that) Chris snores.Example: “(How about we) see an action movie together?” ( ) = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (How (How (How (How ) (How (How (How (How (How about we) go back home? ( ) about we) order coffee? ( ) about we) turn on the air conditioner? ( about we) make a phone call to Linda? ( ) ) ) ) Exercise 2.4 Finish the following translation using ~ in parenthesis. I (Oh. as shown in the example.4 ) about we) pay (them) by cash? ( about we) buy a birthday card? ( about we) borrow a Korean movie? ( about we) use the subway? ( about we) invite Jodie’s friends as well? ( ) 10 (How about we) quit smoking? ( ) Exercise 2. ( that) Ronald is diligent.” 17 .5 Conjugate the predicate using ~ in the example. Example: . I (Oh. ( that) Diana went home from work. I (Oh. I see that) Thomas drinks coffee with Jane. ( that) the ring was expensive. ( ) that) Abigail sings well. ( ) ) ) ) ) ) Exercise 2. ( that) Lidia earned money.” ( = .

Example: = library. ~ . I see that) the weather is chilly. I see that it) was very windy yesterday. and the sentence cue provided Example: “(Oh. ( 2 (Oh. ( 6 (Oh. ( ) 3 (Oh.2 Sentencefinal endings ~ . ( 5 (Oh. as shown . ( ) 4 (Oh.~ 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exercise 2.” .6 Finish the following translation using ~ in parenthesis. I see that they) arrived (here) already. I see that) Boston is famous for lobster. Then translate the sentence. ( ) ) ) ) Exercise 2. 1 (Oh.” ( ) = . as shown in the example. I see that) Jim received the bonus.7 Conjugate the predicate using ~ in the example. “(Oh. I see that) Paul went to the 1 2 3 4 5 6 18 . I see that it) is summer from now on. I see that) Julia is a nurse.

” .” . . The particle is used to make a comparative sentence.” 19 .” . as shown below: . This particle is attached to a noun that is being compared.” . “Today is less cold than yesterday. . “Jane’s room is bigger than Tom’s room. and it is translated as “more than” or “rather than. “As for me. “I eat much more than (my) older brother. “This dress is more expensive than that dress.” can be used along with the particle to put more emphasis on the comparison.” .UNIT 3 Particles .” Consider the following example: . “(I) wanted to drink juice more than coffee. Adverbs such as “more.” . “This movie was less interesting than that movie. “Ronald is two years older than I. . . .” “less. “Andrew is handsomer than anybody. “George earned more than Frank. (I) like autumn more than spring.” Here are more examples: .” .” Notice that Tom’s room is the noun that is being compared to Jane’s room.” and “by far. .

” . “As for yesterday. (it) is not as hot as yesterday.” and The particle is used to compare one noun with another. (she) is as pretty as Mary. . “As for Hilary. .” . (it) is bright like the daytime. “As for Jane.” . It is translated as “as if” and “like.” .” Consider the following examples: . “Diana behaves like an adult.” . “(I) was as smart as my older brother. “Work hard like Tina.” . “Alice speaks Korean well like a Korean.” . (it) was hot like summer. “Brad is much more popular than John. “As for tonight. .” . . “(I) spent less money than Tom.” . “George plays golf as good as William.” The particle is used to express “as much as” or “to the extent to that. . “Peter used to be taller than I. “As for today. as shown . (her) voice is husky like a man’s voice.” Consider the following examples: . .” .” 20 . “The score came out to the extent of (my) expectation.” The meaning of the particle below: is similar to that of .3 Particles .” . . “This car is as expensive as that car (over there).

“Each professor has an office. “Even Thomas did not come to the party.The particle means “every” or “each.” 21 .” However.” . (he) can not write even his name. “Because of the debt.” Here are more examples: . “(I) skipped breakfast and could not eat even lunch. “(I) even met John’s girlfriend. Compare the following two sentences: . whereas the first example with simply indicates “including (even). (he) lost (his) wife and even (his) son.” Although the translation of both examples are the same.” and The particles or lowing examples: are used to express “even. “(My) older brother sends (me) money every month.” .” ? “If you also leave me. “Even his girlfriend did not believe his story. the particles and are in general associated with unfavorable or unsought contents. “Due to the car accident.” Consider the fol- . (we) sold the house and even the car. “As for that student. “Take the medicine every 4 hours. the second example with implies that meeting Thomas’ girlfriend was not a favorable event.” .” .” as shown in the examples below: . how should (I) go on living?” .” . differing from .” ? “Does each room have a TV?” .” The meanings of and are similar to that of “even. “(I) even met John’s girlfriend.

compare the following sentences: . The particle is used to indicate “only” or “nothing but” in English. (she) can speak only a little Japanese.” . the second sentence ends in a negative “do not have. I have nothing but 15 dollars).” . .3 Particles . “As for next semester.” “The classroom is only half full. “As for Eunice. the particle always co-occurs with the negative predicate.” “(I) drank only two cups of coffee. differing from .” Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 3 exercises to wait nap to drink to meet to eat minute apple salad to think customer/guest hour dad mother yesterday older sister mom 22 .” . (I) will take only three courses. For instance. “(I) have only 15 dollars (lit. .” However. . . The meaning of is similar to that of “only.” Notice that although the meanings of both sentences are similar.” Here are more examples: “(I) waited only 5 minutes. . “(I) have only 15 dollars. .

2 Finish the following translation using the particle vided in parenthesis.to sleep jazz to like juice Exercise 3.1 Complete the following translation using the particle provided in parenthesis. 1 Juice is chilly like ice ( / 2 Lidia acts like a detective ( / / ) / ) 23 . and the cues pro- Example: “That child drinks water much like a hippo. as shown in the example.” ( / ) = . 1 Charles is more popular than Lisa ( / ) 2 Philippine is hotter than Korea ( / ) 3 (I) liked autumn better than spring ( / ) 4 (He) wanted to major in literature more than science ( / ) 5 Did (you) want to buy a notebook more than a digital camera? ( / ?) 6 An airplane is faster than a car ( / ) 7 New York City is bigger than Honolulu ( / ) 8 Today is less cold than yesterday ( / ) 9 Does Sam play tennis better than Harry? ( / ?) 10 Does Jane like meat more than Dave? ( / ?) Exercise 3.” ( / / ) = .1 Exercise 3. as shown in the example. and the cues Example: “(I) wanted to drink juice more than coffee.

” ( / = . / and the cues ) 1 Catherine speaks Korean as fluently as Neal ( / ) 2 The kitchen is as big as the living room ( / / / / 3 Daniel is as diligent as Philip ( 4 Did Patrick like wine as much as Erica? ( / ?) 5 Rebecca was as graceful as Jennifer ( / ) 6 Seoul is as expensive as New York ( / / 7 This car is as good as that car (over there) ( / 8 Does Philip earns money as much as Adam? ( / ?) 9 The subway was as convenient as taxi ( / / / 10 Edward drank (it) as much as Thomas ( ) / ) ) / / ) / / ) / ) 24 . Example: “Bill is as rich as Tom. . . . . 3 Does Chris swim well like a seal? ( / / ?) 4 Jerry was docile like a sheep ( / / ) 5 Vegetables will be expensive like gold ( / / 6 John is tall like a basketball player ( / / 7 Sandy is slim like a model ( / / ) 8 Anthony is smart like Einstein ( / / 9 Sarah sang the song well like an opera singer ( / ) 10 Thomas will run well like a marathoner ( / ) ) ) ) / / Exercise 3. . as shown in the example.3 Particles . .3 Complete the following translation using the particle provided in parenthesis.

Example: “Even Jane was sick.” ( = .4 Complete the following translation using the particle provided in parenthesis. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Even Even Even Even Even Even Even / ) and the cues Sabrina lied ( / ) (my) older sister hid the fact ( / the weather was cold ( / ) my room was dark ( / ) the air conditioner was broken ( / / Matthew did not go to school ( (his) wife will go back to the States ( / ) 8 Even Monica failed the test ( / 9 Did even the convenient store close? ( / 10 Even Paul will sell (his) car ( / ) ) ) ) ) ?) 25 .5 Complete the following translation using the particle provided in parenthesis.Exercise 3. Example: “Does Hugh jog every morning?” ( ?) “ ?” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 / and the cues Exercise 3.4 / (I) take a walk every evening ( / ) Do (you) ski every winter? ( / ?) (We) went to the beach every summer ( / Every store will be busy ( / ) (Let us) meet every night ( / ) / / Every supermarket sells juice ( Each school has alma mater ( / ) Each room had a window ( / ) Every student is studying for the test ( / ) 10 Did (your) friends play golf every Saturday? ( / ?) ) ) / Exercise 3. as shown in the example. as shown in the example.

. . Exercise 3. .3 Particles . . . Example: = . “(I) have only apples. Then translate the sentence.6 Rewrite the following sentence using the [ + negative] pattern. as shown in the example. . .” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 26 .

“find” 27 .” can serve as auxiliary verbs. Then.” and “go. However. “see..” This unit first discusses some general structural characteristics of Korean auxiliary verbs.” “may. the main verb is always conjugated with ~ / (or ~ for limited auxiliary verbs).UNIT 4 Auxiliary verbs I An auxiliary verb combines with a main verb to express tense. when these verbs are used as auxiliary verbs. mood and/or voice. In addition. For instance.” since they combine with a main verb. The compounding process takes the following pattern: [stem of the main verb ~ / plus an auxiliary verb]. it introduces how the following three verbs. as shown below: Regular verbs “see” “come” “go” “give” “produce” “occur” “throw away” “put down” “do” “become” “stop” Auxiliary verbs ~ / “try (doing something)” ~ / “continue to” ~ / “continue to” ~ / “do for (someone)” ~ / “do all the way completely” ~ / “have finished” ~ / “finish up/end up with” ~ / “do for later” ~ / “be in the state of” ~ / “become” ~ “end up doing” Korean auxiliary verbs always appear after the main verb (or adjectives for limited auxiliary verbs). English auxiliary verbs include “can. Korean auxiliary verbs Korean auxiliary verbs are in fact all regular verbs. as in “I can speak Korean. aspect.” “come. they express different meanings.” “shall.” and “will.” “have.g. ~ is used after the stem that ends in or (e.

it is used to express “try (doing something)/experience. . “make” => “try making something”). while ~ is used after the stem that ends in all other vowels (e. sentence types. “Please try (eating) kimchi. “I ate kimchi and saw what it was like”). ~ / is used to express an continuous action that comes toward the present.” Notice in the examples above that ~ / completes each expression and carries all grammatical information. such as tense. “(I) will try eating Korean food. For instance. Here are more examples: . “(Let us) try entrusting the task to Jerry.” “(I) tried learning Korean. as shown below: 28 .” It is used when a speaker tries doing some action just once so that he/she can explore the consequences.” . ~ When the verb “see” is used as an auxiliary verb.” “(Why don’t you try) learning Korean?” “Try learning Korean.g. “(Let us) try learning Korean. “(I) try learning Korean.” . consider how the auxiliary verb ~ / is used with the main verb “learn. “(I) will try drinking Korean beer. “(I) have been to France.” . and honorifics.” . “(I) will try learning Korean.4 Auxiliary verbs I => “try looking for something”).” .” ~ Korean has two motion verbs “come” and “go. Since “come” signifies the motion toward the speaker. “Try to meet John.” ? “Have (you) tried riding a motorcycle?” .” .” . both indicate that an action of the main verb is carried out continually.” When these motion verbs are used as auxiliary verbs.. “(I) tried eating kimchi” (lit.

“Autumn is ripening. “As for us. “Until now. Consequently.” . “The drama is going to end. .” . (we) have believed the teacher’s word.” On the other hand.” Key vocabulary for Unit 4 exercises Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 4 exercises to go to teach family a cold/flu to fix to end/to finish to get well/to recover from (illness) thesis to grow older all ceramics to make to eat water to change hospital mountain to live to use/to write woman English to climb/to go up 29 . (I) have lived alone well..” ? “Does (your) business continue to do well?” . “go” indicates the motion away from the speaker. “President Kim has led the company well. ~ / is used to express a continuous action that goes into the future.” . “The child continues to take after (her) mother.

4
Auxiliary verbs I

food now India to wear to make a phone call to economize on/to save/to be thrifty little by little friends traditional Korean clothes a year/the sun to be happy to break up alone

Exercise 4.1
Conjugate the predicate using ~ Then translate the sentence. Example: = / as shown in the example.

. “(I) have been to the house.”

1 2 3 4 5

Exercise 4.2
Conjugate the predicate using ~ Then translate the sentence. Example: / ? as shown in the example.

= ? “Have (you) tried listening to Elvis’ song?”

30

1 2 3 4 5

Exercise 4.3
Conjugate the predicate using ~ Then translate the sentence. Example: 1 2 3 4 5 = / , as shown in the example.

Exercise 4.3

. “Try doing yoga.”

Exercise 4.4
Conjugate the predicate using ~ Then translate the sentence. Example: 1 2 3 4 5 = / , as shown in the example.

. “(Let us) try going to the library.”

Exercise 4.5
Finish the following translation using ~ / and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) tried (doing) bungee jumping” ( = . 1 2 3 4 5 6 (I) have been to Africa ( ) (I) will try to study the Korean language ( (I) tried drinking Korean beer ( Have (you) been to Sweden? ( ) Have (you) tried playing a guitar? ( ) Try to memorize (her) home phone number ( ) ) ) )

31

4
Auxiliary verbs I

7 8 9 10

Try (using) the massage machine ( Try making Korean friends ( (Let us) try to learn cooking ( (Let us) try to repair the computer (

) ) ) )

Exercise 4.6
Finish the following translation using ~ / (or ~ / ) and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Ice is melting” ( = 1 2 3 4 ) . ) ) )

(My) older brother brought good news ( The dog has run toward this way ( William has suffered from a cold ( (They) have been receiving help from Robert ( ) 5 Water is getting frozen ( )

Exercise 4.7
Conjugate the predicate using ~ translate the sentence. Example: = / , as shown in the example. Then

(declarative) . “The movie is going to end.” (declarative) (interrogative) (imperative) (propositive) (propositive)

1 2 3 4 5

32

UNIT 5
Auxiliary verbs II

~
The verb means “produce/put forth” as in “Put forth courage” or “Speed up” (lit. “Produce speed”). However, as an auxiliary verb, ~ / means “do all the way (to the very end).” It is used to express that although a certain task/action is troublesome or difficult, he/she completes the action to the very end (or does all the way). Compare the following two examples: . “(I) read the book within a day.” . “(I) read the book (to the very end) within a day.” Notice that the first sentence simply indicates that the speaker finished reading the book in one day. On the other hand, the second sentence with ~ / implies that although reading the book within a day was a difficult task, the speaker did it anyway. Here are more examples: . “(He) endured hardship alone (all the way).” . “Finally, (I) found the wallet.” . “(He) got the degree within three years.” . “Eventually, (he) made an electric bulb.”

~
The verb means “throw (it) away/dismiss/abandon,” as shown in the following examples: . “Yesterday, (I) discarded old pictures.” . “She abandoned (her) husband.”

33

5
Auxiliary verbs II

. “Throw the garbage away by tomorrow.” . “(I) will lay down (my) life for (my) friend.” However, as an auxiliary verb ~ / means “do completely/ end up doing/get (it) done.” Compare the following sentences: . “Send the letter tomorrow.” . “Send the letter tomorrow.” The basic meanings of both sentences are the same. However, the message of the second sentence is stronger than the first sentence, since ~ / adds the meaning of “completeness of the action.” ~ / is similar to ~ / in a sense that both are used to indicate the completeness of an action. However, unlike ~ / , ~ / does not imply that the completed action was a difficult task. Instead, depending on the context, ~ / is used to express a sense of regret or relief. Consider the following examples: . “(I) lost (my) wallet.” . “(I) lost (my) wallet.” Losing a wallet is undesirable. Consequently, ~ / in the second sentence adds the sense of regret, while the first sentence simply states the past action. It indicates that losing a wallet is not what the speaker had expected or wished for. Here are more examples that may denote a sense of regret: “(She) finally cried.” . “(I) used up all of (my) money.” . “Naomi finally went to America.” . “My younger brother already ate (them) all.” . “The gold fish died.” ~ / two sentences: can also signify a sense of relief. Consider the following

. “(I) finished (my) homework.” . “(I) finished (my) homework.” Notice that the referential messages of both sentences are the same. However, ~ / in the second sentence adds a sense of relief since the task (e.g., doing homework) has come to an end. Here are more examples that indicate a sense of relief:

34

” . as an auxiliary verb. “(I) ended up going to bed late. Here are more examples: . Compare the following two sentences: .. “(I) paid all of (my) credit card debt. ~ means “end up (doing).” . “(I) erased the painful memory (completely).” . “(I) gave the book to George. “(I) ended up tripping on the jagged edge of a stone.” as in “(It) snowed but then (it) stopped.” . “(I) ended up spilling coffee on the sofa. (she) ended up returning to Korea. “(I) ended up falling asleep in the car. “(I) give pocket money to (my) younger sister every month.” .” ~ ~ The verb means “stop. “The war finally broke out.” . ~ favor (for someone).” .” .” .” / means “do something as a 35 .” Notice that the completed action (dying) is against the subject’s will.” .” ~ The verb means “give. It is used when the action is carried out despite the subject’s previous effort or wishes against the completed action.” However. “As for (my) older sister.” as shown in the following examples: . as an auxiliary verb. “(He) ended up dying because of the car accident. “(He) died because of the car accident.” However. “(We) ended up drunk. “Steven will give flowers to Lisa.” and it implies that the completed action is against the subject’s intention or wish.

.” ~ vs.” . Compare the following two sentences: (O) mother. “Anthony sent (her) the present (for me).” However. Here are more examples: .” . Notice that the first sentence simply expresses that David came to the party. “David did a favor for somebody by coming to the party”). one can optionally use “on the behalf of” when wishing to explicitly state who the beneficiary was. Here are more examples: . the second sentence signifies that David came to the party for the benefit of the speaker or somebody. “(She) made delicious lunch for (her) boyfriend. ~ Meanwhile.” .g. if the beneficiary of the action is an esteemed person (e. “(He) came to the hospital for us. a higher person in age or social status).” . . “David came to the party.. ~ / is used instead of ~ / . “(My) friends ate the food with gusto (for me).5 Auxiliary verbs II “sell” “teach” “believe” “sell (something for someone)” “teach (something for someone)” “believe (something for someone)” Compare the following two sentences: .” (X) mother. “Laura will buy (me) a bag (for me). “I will open the door (for you). “(I) bought a watch for (my) grand. grandmother).” . “(I) bought a watch for (my) grand- 36 The second sentence with ~ / is inappropriate since the beneficiary of the action is an esteemed person (e.” . “David came to the party” (lit. On the other hand.g.

“Please move (your) car forward (for me). “(I) will massage (your back). However. “Please read the book aloud (for me).” ..” . “(I) want to buy wine (for him).~ / is used when requesting something politely. It is equivalent to “please do (something for me/someone).” . “Please wait a moment. the second sentence with ~ / is more polite than the first sentence. “Please exchange (this) with a different size (for me). “Please finish (your) work soon (for me).” Compare the following two sentences: .” Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 5 exercises store to go meat to get out of order to distinguish to roast to paint/to draw painting/picture gold road/street to come out man song to close 37 . “(I) made breakfast for (my) father.” Key vocabulary for Unit 5 exercises Requesting ~ The verb is the honorific form of . “Please wait a moment (for me).” .” .” Both sentences can be used for requesting. Here are more examples: .” .

5 Auxiliary verbs II again to make door to slide/to glide to change to receive to sing/to call out secret to order/to force (a person to do) to fight/to dispute (with) to write/to use older sister to open clothes silver to read electric lamp telephone lunch to erase car window book friend to dig into/to unearth to light/to switch on file to sell letter school to break up older brother to get angry 38 .

as shown in the example.” 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 5. 1 2 3 4 5 (She) caught a big fish ( (They) dammed up the river ( (We) got the project ( (He) received the money ( (I) wrote the thesis ( ) ) ) ) ) ) Exercise 5. “(He) did the work. Example: = / .” ( = .” ( = . 1 2 3 4 Andrew took pictures ( Sara borrowed the notebook ( (We) used all the money ( ) Kevin watched the drama till the end ( ) 5 Angie moved (her) job ( ) ) and the sentence cue ) ) 39 . Example: “(He) extracted the tooth. as shown in the example.3 Finish the following translation using ~ / provided in parenthesis. Example: “(I) sold the house yesterday.Exercise 5.1 Exercise 5. as shown in the example.1 Finish the following translation using ~ / and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis.2 Conjugate the predicate using ~ translate the sentence. Then .

” ( = . as shown in the example. Then = . Example: “(I) ended up being late for school.6 Conjugate the predicate using ~ translate the sentence. as shown in the example. as shown in the example.” Exercise 5. Example: . 1 (He) ended up getting up late ( ) 2 (They) ended up drinking whisky ( ) 3 (He) ended up confessing (his) love to (his) girlfriend ( ) 4 (He) finally ended up quitting (his) job ( 5 (My) car ended up being broken down ( ) ) ) Exercise 5.5 Auxiliary verbs II Exercise 5. Example: 1 2 3 4 5 = / . “George ended up failing the test. “(I) forgot about the appointment. .” 40 1 2 3 4 5 .5 Finish the following translation using ~ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis.4 Conjugate the predicate using ~ Then translate the sentence.

.7 Exercise 5. “(I) helped (my) mother. Example: = / .7 Finish the following translation using ~ / and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis. as shown in the example. as shown in the example.8 Conjugate the predicates using ~ Then translate the sentence.Exercise 5. Example: “Thomas bought an umbrella (for me).” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 41 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tina helped (my) project (for me) ( (My) older brother bought (me) a bag ( John sold the car (for me) ( ) Megan will take pictures (for us) ( (My) older sister will wash dishes (for me) ( Please lend (me) the book ( ) Please repair the computer (for me) ( Please refund the dress (for me) ( Please play the piano (for me) ( Please turn on the radio (for me) ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Exercise 5.” ( ) = .

” Notice that the action of the main verb is completed for both sentences. “(I) turned on the electric lamp in the living room (and it is still on). Here are more examples: . turned on the electric lamp). “(I) started the car (and it is on).” as in: .” . “(I) turned on the electric lamp in the living room.. since they are marked by the past tense. For instance. First.” The verb means “turns on (an electric lamp). as an auxiliary verb. what ~ / can express is twofold.” ? “Where have (you) left the wallet?” However. “(I) locked the drawer (and it is still locked). However. “(I) placed the plate on the dining table. compare the following sentences: .” Compare the following two sentences: 42 .” . “Peter opened the door (and it is still open).” Second.g.. the electric lamp continues to be on).” .g. ~ / means “doing something for later (future use).” . while the first sentence simply indicates the past action (e. “Let the cat go/loose. ~ / is used to indicate the continuation of a certain action or state after the completion of the action or state.UNIT 6 Auxiliary verbs III ~ The verb (or ~ ) means “release/place/put down. the second sentence with the auxiliary verb ~ / indicates the continuation of the completed action (e.

entrust (it) to Paul (for later). before jogging.g. “Study hard beforehand for later.” However.” .” . “As for the fish. “(I) drank water a lot for later. (I) will keep (it) in the refrigerator. before jogging. “Pyongyang is in North Korea. “Place the key on the dining table. the meaning of ~ ~ / . ..” . “Laura is in Seoul. as shown below: / is similar to that of can be used interchange- ~ . the verb can be used instead of . Here are more examples: . “(My) older sister prepared breakfast (and it is still there/for later).” As an auxiliary verb. drinking) was done for later. “As for that task.” . “(I) drank water a lot. “(We) will make travel plans for later.” . In fact ~ / and ~ / ably. “(I) kept the money in the safe.” Alternatively.” . “(We) will reserve seats (for later).” as shown in the following examples: . “drank. “(I) parked the car in front of the bookstore (and it is still there/for later use). the auxiliary verb ~ / in the second sentence indicates that the past action (e.” . The verb means “place/keep.” ~ The verb means “exist/stay/have.” as shown in the following examples: .” .. “(They) will clean the room for later.” Notice that the first sentence simply indicates the past action. “(We) practiced a lot for later.” 43 .” .

The second sentence indicates the progressive action of the main verb. . Meanwhile. “(I) am wearing a ring.” . ~ / is mainly used with intransitive verbs and is used to indicate that the state brought about by the action of the main verb persists.” ) . a limited number of verbs of “wearing” (e.” Here are more examples of ~ / : . “(They) are in Rome now (as a result of going there).” .” 44 . however. On the other hand. “(He) is still lying down on the bed. “Tommy sits on the chair. “(I) am wearing pants. “The door opens.” The first sentence simply states what Tommy does. “Brian is at the library (as a result of coming here). “Tommy is sitting on the chair. “The door is open. (he) has an Apple As an auxiliary verb. .6 Auxiliary verbs III ( Computer. The second sentence indicates the progressive action. Compare the following three sentences: .” .” . .” .” . indicates the continuous state. “The door is closed firmly. ~ / in the third sentence indicates that the state resulting from the main verb continues to exist. and ) do not take the ~ / pattern but the ~ pattern to indicate the resultant state. to say “(I) am wearing socks” is not ..” . “Tommy is seated on the chair. brought about by the main verb “to be opened.” . Consider another three sentences: . The third sentence. “(They) are standing in front of the classroom. “(I) am wearing glasses.” . “(I) am wearing a necktie.” . “The door is being opened.g.” .” .” . For instance.” The first sentence simply indicates that the door opens. “(My) book and wallet are inside of the bag. “As for Isaac.

a speaker cannot speak for how other people feel or think. using emotion.” However. “Timothy feels tired. “I am tired. compare the following three sentences: .~ The aforementioned auxiliary verbs are all mainly used with verbs.” ? “Susan. a verb “feel tired” is used instead of the adjective “be tired. as in “open (for later). Korean has a limited number of auxiliary verbs that are used primarily with adjectives. one can state how another person feels.” ~ / does not leave a space 45 . it is grammatically correct to say a sentence like “Lisa is sad” or “Peter is cold. using the auxiliary verb construction ~ / . Notice that when the subject of the sentence is the third person. a sentence like “Lisa is sad” is grammatically incorrect.” For instance. are (you) tired?” . one cannot use adjectives to express how a third person or people feel or think. In English. However. In order to speak for a third person’s or people’s feelings or emotions. Consequently.” . one has to change an emotive or sensory adjective into a verb form.or sense-related adjectives. note that unlike other auxiliary verb compounding structures that normally require a space between the main verb and the auxiliary verb.” In addition. in Korean. Since Korean emotive and/or sensory adjectives denote unobservable internal feelings. as shown below: Adjective “unpleasant” “good” “detestable” “scary” “painful” “glad” “sad” “enviable” “tired” “cute” “pitiful” “desirous” “cold” “hot” Adjective stem + “dislike” “like” “hate” “fear” “suffer (from)” “rejoice” “grieve” “envy” “feel tired” “hold (a person) dear” “pity” “want” “feel cold” “feel hot” ~ For instance. such as ~ / and ~ / .” and “cold. such as “sad.” “happy.

“The weather becomes cold. This is due to the Korean spelling convention. For instance.” Notice in the second sentence that ~ / changes the adjective “cold” into an intransitive verb. when speaking of another person’s emotion or feeling in the past tense.” . “(I) owed (money) to that friend. the daytime becomes long. “Lisa grieved.” However. “Lisa is sad. not ). just like ~ / . “is cold” => “becomes cold”).. compare the following two sentences: .” Notice that as well as are both acceptable.” as shown in the following examples: .” . “Lisa grieves. the auxiliary verb ~ / adds the meaning of progressive change in the meaning of the adjective (e.” . Meanwhile. one can use an adjective (without using ~ / ).” .g. It can be translated as “become/begin to be/get to be” in English. “becomes cold. “I will take the responsibility. “Michelle became pretty. “Lisa was sad. ~ / is typically used with an adjective. This is because the speaker could have information about the third person’s internal feeling. “The room will become clean.” . ~ The verb means “bear/owe.6 Auxiliary verbs III between the main adjective and (e. since both refer to the third person’s feeling in the past tense.” . the weather becomes cool. Here are more examples: . “The weather is cold. Consider the following examples: (X) (O) (O) (O) . and it is used to express a gradually intensified change that occurs in the meaning of the adjective.” 46 . “In summer.~ / does not leave a space between the main adjective and . Moreover.” . as an auxiliary verb. “In autumn.” In addition..g.” .

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 6 exercises price/value to be thankful to be curious to remember/to memorize to be black to be extinguished/to die out flowers weather to lie down to be hot (the weather) to be clear number to be envious to be expensive newspapers to wash to be sick vegetables face to be pretty to reserve to come food to make oneself familiar with to read seat electric lamp telephone garden geographical features house friend bed to be big height to bloom patient Key vocabulary for Unit 6 exercises 47 .

as shown in the example. Example: = / . as shown in the example. . Example: “The dress is wet. as shown in the example.” ( = .1 Finish the following translation using ~ / and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis.6 Auxiliary verbs III Exercise 6.” ( = .” 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 6. 1 2 3 4 5 Finish (your) homework for later ( Draw a map for later ( ) Make a sauce for later ( ) Boil water for later ( ) Receive money for later ( ) ) ) Exercise 6.3 Finish the following translation using ~ / and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis. Example: “Open the window for later. 1 2 3 4 5 48 ) The gate is close ( ) The picture is hung on the wall ( The store is open ( ) The customer is seated on the sofa ( James is standing in front of the door ( ) ) ) . “Save money for later.2 Conjugate the predicate using ~ Then translate the sentence.

“(He) feels lonely.Exercise 6. as shown in the example. as shown in the example.” 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 6. “(My) throat is swollen. using ~ translate the sentence.” 1 2 3 4 5 49 . Example: = / .5 Finish the following translation using ~ / and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis. Example: “(He) grieves. Then .4 Conjugate the predicate with ~ translate the sentence.6 Change the following adjective into a verb form. Then Exercise 6. Example: = / .” ( = .4 . 1 2 3 4 5 (She) feels happy ( (He) rejoices ( ) (They) will feel bored ( (She) felt depressed ( (He) felt painful ( ) ) ) ) ) Exercise 6.

“The room has become clean.7 Finish the following translation using ~ / and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis. as shown in the example. as shown in the example. Example: = / .” 1 2 3 4 5 50 . 1 2 3 4 5 (My) head has become dizzy ( (Her) personality has become calm ( (Your) voice has become soft ( (His) body has become strong ( (Your) car will become dirty ( ) ) ) ) ) ) Exercise 6. Example: “The house has become quiet.8 Conjugate the predicate using ~ translate the sentence. Then .” ( = .6 Auxiliary verbs III Exercise 6.

~( ) .g. ~( ) . ~ ).. while eating popcorn. ~ ).” and “though..” “because/and then (e. paralleling actions. and then introduces three clausal conjunctives.. that indicate the purpose or intention of the speaker.g. Clausal conjunctives Clausal conjunctives are used to link two or more clauses and to add special meanings.” “whereas.. such as “and (e.” In the example above.. the conjunctive ~( ) attaches to the verb stem of the first clause “eat” and indicates the new meaning “while” to the first clause: “(I) eat popcorn” changes to “while eating popcorn. “The snow falls and the wind blows. Consider another example: . contrastive actions or states. Instead.” “although (e. such as simultaneous actions.” “while (e.UNIT 7 Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention) This unit discusses some major characteristics of Korean clausal conjunctives. ~ / in the main clause (or the second clause) is the sentence-final ending since it attaches to the verb stem of the main clause “see” and ends the whole sentence. and so on. ~ ). Korean clausal conjunctives are non-sentence-final endings.” “in order to (e.” “while.” Notice that the conjunctive ~( ) is not a sentence-final ending.” and so forth. and ~ .” 51 . since they attach to the predicate stem of the preceding clause.g. Examples of English clausal conjunctives include “and.g. since it does not end the sentence.g. Consider how the conjunctive ~( ) “while” serves to connect two different clauses: [ “(I) eat popcorn”] + [ “(I) see a movie”] = “(I) see a movie. ~ ).” Korean has an extensive list of clausal conjunctives that indicate various meanings. ~ / ).

the subject of the clauses within a sentence must be the same. In the first example. Consider the following example: “I eat a pizza and watched TV.7 Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention) The clausal conjunctive ~ “and” links two clauses: “Snow falls” and “Wind blows. (I) received a C. Some conjunctives can have different subjects.” The above sentence is grammatically incorrect because the tense of the two predicates is not the same. This is possible because some Korean conjunctives are not conjugated for the tense. the tense of each clause can be different in Korean. Tense agreement The first restriction concerns the tense agreement. “Although (I) studied hard. both the conjunctive ~ “although” in the first clause as well as the predicate of the main clause take the past tense marker. the conjunctive ~ / “because” of the first clause does not take the past tense marker but only the predicate of the main clause .” while the deferential speech level ending ~ / ends both the verb stem of the main clause “blow” as well as the whole sentence. for some conjunctives. Subject agreement The second restriction concerns the subject agreement. Since a clausal conjunctive connects two different clauses.” . In contrast to English. In English. In other words. “Because (I) studied hard.” Notice that both sentences are about past actions.” Again. However. Consider the following examples: . in the second example. there are at least two predicates within a clausal-conjunctive sentence. the tense of each clause embedded within the sentence must be the same. while some cannot. Consider the following examples: 52 . (I) received an A. Restrictions Some Korean clausal conjunctives may be subject to various restrictions regarding how they are used in sentences. the conjunctive ~ ends the verb stem of the first clause “fall.

which both mean “because/since.” . copulas.. a certain conjunctive such as ~( must be used only with verb stems. For instance. ) “in order to” . imperative. consider the conjunctive ~( ) and ~ / . “(I) studied hard in order to become a doctor.” . Some conjunctives must be used only with verbs.” Sentence types The fourth restriction is that there are conjunctives that can be used for all sentence types.” 53 . while some conjunctives must be used only for certain sentence types. “Although Tim is a Korean.” . and/or verbs. However.” In the first example. interrogative. “Although (I) study hard. (it) is difficult. the conjunctive ~ “although” can be attached to verb. whereas some conjunctives may be used with verbs. (he) does not know much about Korean history. and propositive. “Although the school is far. adjectives. “(Let us) close the window because (it) is cold. “Close the window because (it) is cold. as shown below: . adjective. “(I) am preparing to enter law school. as well as copulas. each clause has its own subject. “Although (my) friend drank coffee.” .” ? “Do (you) close the window because (it) is cold?” . as for me (I) drank milk. For instance. in the second example. both clauses have the same subject. Restrictions Predicate types The third restriction is about whether the conjunctive may be used with adjectives. and copula stems. “(I) close the window because (it) is cold.” On the other hand.” . (I) go (there) everyday. such as declarative.

.” ? “(Do you) leave for Seoul to meet (your) girlfriend?” ~( ) is subject to some of the aforementioned restrictions. First. “Close the window because (it) is cold.” . “(I) want to marry (her) to be happy. while ~ is used after a verb stem that ends in a vowel (e.. “(Let us) close the window because (it) is cold.” However. Second. as shown below: .” Third. “(I) went to the bookstore to buy books. “(I) close the window because (it) is cold. “(I) went to the bookstore to buy books.” .” ? “Do (you) close the window because (it) is cold?” . “to eat”). such as “to go” and “to come. “(I) came to Seoul to study the Korean language.g. it can be used with any of four sentence types as shown below: 54 . “to teach”). “(I) go to the post office to send a letter. ~( ) is usually used with a motion verb. ~( ) is a two-form ending: ~ is used after a verb stem that ends in a consonant (e. the subjects of both clauses must be the same.” .” to indicate the purpose of going or coming. It is translated as “for the purpose of” or “to” in English.7 Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention) . there is no restriction regarding sentence type. For instance. / ~( ) The clausal conjunctive ~( ) is used to express the purpose of the speaker’s action. whereas ~ must be used only for declarative and interrogative sentences. as shown in the examples below: .” Notice that ~( ) can be used for all sentence types. it is not conjugated for the tense.g. it is used only with verbs..

. “(Let us) go to Starbucks to drink coffee. “(I) studied hard (intending) to enter a good school.” .” . “Go (intending to) have dinner. “(I) did not go to the library. “intending to eat”).” 55 . in contrast to ~( ) .g. “intending to meet”).. (3) it is used only with verbs.” . “Stop by (my) apartment to have lunch.” ~( ) is subject to the following restrictions: (1) it is not conjugated for the tense. which is normally collocated with motion verbs such as or .. (2) the subject of the clauses must be the same. “(I) earned the degree (intending) to work as an English teacher. The meaning of ~( ) is similar to that of ~( ) .” ~ ~( ) The clausal conjunctive ~( ) is used to express the speaker’s intention or plan. (4) it is used only for declarative and interrogative sentences. “(I) am saving money (intending) to travel in Europe.” . “(I) go to the train station to meet (my) friends.” . However. .” ? “When will (you) go to the bookstore to buy books?” . “(I) studied hard (intending) to receive an A.” ? “When will (you) go to the bookstore to buy the book?” . “(I) went to the company to meet Jason. ~( ) can be used with any verb. intending to study at home instead.g. and ~ is used after a verb stem that ends in a vowel (e.” . It is a two-form ending: ~ is used after a verb stem that ends in a consonant (e. “(I) intend to buy a new car next year. “(Let us) go to Starbucks to drink coffee.” . as shown below: .

.” Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 7 exercises to go family together to select to study airport to wait train road/street man husband library 56 . its subject does not have to be the same as that of the main clause. (we) laughed till tears ran down our faces.” ? “Did (you) pray so that the illness would be healed soon?” . it can be used with any sentence type. “As for us. “Tom loved Jennifer to death. “(Let us) help Susan so that Susan can leave for New York. “Shout to the extent (your) throat hurts. However. so that our team may win?” . “(I) was careful so that (I) would not catch a cold. “(He) took care of (the tree). it can be used with any predicate type.” ? “Are (they) cheering (for our team) enthusiastically.” is used to express “so that” or “to the point .” .” ~ is subject to only one restriction: It is not conjugated for the tense. so that the tree would grow better.7 Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention) ~ The clausal conjunctive ~ where.” .

money to leave/to depart to drink to meet to set/to put together to eat to earn to get out of the way to borrow fast/immediately to buy birthday present/gift to pass a test restaurant at a cheap price to wash a side job morning/breakfast alarm (clock) ambulance vegetables face woman station eagerly/enthusiastically/hard to smile impression to get up early well/excellently lunch to give China to pass by car book friend to ride school to teach a lesson/to frighten (a person) out of his wits/to scare toilet buying and selling/making a deal (with) Key vocabulary for Unit 7 exercises 57 .

“(I) went to the supermarket to buy onions. 58 Example: “(I) am studying hard to receive an A. .” / / / / / ? 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 7.7 Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention) Exercise 7. 1 Come to the post office to get (your) package ( / ) 2 (They) are going to the service station to repair (their) car ( / ) 3 (Let us) go to the beach to do fishing ( / ) 4 (I) will go to the airport to catch the flight ( / ) 5 Do (you) go to (your) friend’s house often to play computer games? ( / ?) Exercise 7. Example: ) .” ( / ) = . as shown in the example. as shown in the example. Then translate the / = . Example: “(I) will go to the office to send the fax.1 Complete the following translation using ~( ) and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis.” ( / ) = .3 Complete the following translation using ~( ) and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis.2 Connect the following two sentences using ~( sentence.

4 Exercise 7. 1 A: ? B: _____________________________ ( ) 2 A: ? B: _____________________________ ( ) 3 A: ? B: _____________________________ ( ) ? .1 (I) exercise to lose weight ( / ) 2 (She) was waiting in the office to meet the teacher ( / ) 3 (He) is studying hard intending to enter medical school ( / ) 4 (I) reserved an airplane ticket intending to go to Korea this summer ( / ) 5 (She) was making efforts to get a job ( / ) Exercise 7.” / / / / / 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 7. Example: ) . 59 . as shown in the example. “(I) am learning Chinese intending to get a job at a trading company.4 Connect the following two sentences using ~( sentence. Example: A: B: ( ) . .5 Complete the following dialogue using the sentence cue provided in parenthesis. Then translate the / = .

7 Connect the following two sentences using ~ sentence. Example: “Please prepare so that (we) can leave at 7 a. Example: .6 Complete the following translation using ~ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis. “Please turn off the TV so that (he) can study quietly. . as shown in the example. Then translate the / = . so that (we) can listen to the news ( / ) 2 Please allow (me) so that (I) can use (your) car ( / ) 3 Please help (him) so that (he) can recover (his) health ( / ) 4 Please write (her) a recommendation letter so that (she) can get a job ( / ) 5 Please turn off the electric lamp so that (she) can sleep ( / ) Exercise 7.” / / / / / 1 2 3 4 5 60 . Exercise 7.” ( / ) = .7 Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention) 4 A: ? B: ____________________________ ( ) 5 A: ? B: ____________________________ ( ) .m. 1 Please turn on the radio.

so (I) am busy in the morning.g. it is used when the action and/or state of the first clause provides a cause or reason for the action and/or state of the main clause. Here are . In other words.g.” Second.UNIT 8 Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause) ~ Functions The clausal conjunctive ~ / expresses two things.” The state of the first clause of the main clause example: “glad” gives a reason for the action “make a phone call. more examples: “jog”) is the “busy”). First.” Consider another . Consider the following example: . Its English translation is equivalent to “and then. so (I) cannot buy (it). “(I) am so glad. reason for the state of the main clause (e. so (I) am making a phone call to Mary.” 61 . equivalent to “so” or “because/since” in English.. “(I) have a test next week. ~ / links two chronologically ordered actions or events without implying any cause-and-effect relation between them. so (I) am busy. “(I) jog at dawn nowadays. it indicates a cause-and-effect relation between two actions or states..” .” Notice that the action of the first clause (e. “The price is too expensive.

“Eat the apple after peeling (it). ~ / indicates that the action of the first clause “go” occurrs before the action of the main clause “meet. The negative copula.” In the example above. “Today.” .” Here are more examples: ? “Will (you) go to the department store and then buy a birthday card?” . / / / / 62 “since (I) am a Korean” “since (it) is beef” “because (I) am not a Korean” “because (it) is not beef” . “(I) will go to school and then meet the teacher. The use of ( ) / is more common than that of / . Verb “go” “find” “teach” “believe” Adjective “good” “happy” Copula “to be” “not be” ~ ( ~ ( ) + ) ~ (contracted from + ) + ) (contracted from Notice that the combination of ~ / with the copula has two forms: and ( ) .” Forms ~ / is a two-form ending: ~ is used after a predicate stem that ends in or . . (let us) go to Peter’s house and then eat dinner (there).8 Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause) . whereas ~ is used after a predicate stem that ends in all other vowels. also has two forms: and .

“(I) studied a lot. “(Let us) take medicines. since (our) heads ache. so (I) take medicines. First. so (she) will return home soon.” . since (your) head aches?” .” . “(I) did not eat dinner. so (I) was hungry.Restrictions ~ / is subject to two restrictions.” . “Tomorrow is (her) father’s birthday. so (I) could not go home. “(My) head aches.” . it can be used for any sentence type.” Second. “(We) will go to Manhattan and then see Broadway musicals. Consider the following example: . “(I) bought aspirin after stopping at the pharmacy.” ? “Will (you) go to the supermarket and then buy (it)?” .” . it is not conjugated for the tense. as shown below: .” ? “Do (you) take medicines.. when ~ / is used to link two chronological actions or states. so (I) received an A. Here are more examples: . so (I) will not go to the party.g..” However.g. ) but in the main clause (e.” Notice that the past tense is not marked in the first clause (e. “Wash the orange and then eat (it). “(Let us) go home and then talk. “(I) do not have money. ). since (your) head aches.” ~ 63 . “(I) was busy. as shown below: . when ~ / indicates a cause-and-effect relation. “Take medicines.” . it cannot be used for the imperative and/or propositive sentences.

“Since the coffee is hot. (let us) drink (it) slowly. drink (it) slowly. First. “Since the coffee is hot. “Since the coffee is hot.” and “because” in English.” . “Since the coffee is hot.” “so. and ~ is used after a predicate stem that ends in a vowel. ~( ) may be used for any sentence type. there are three differences between these two conjunctives. drink (it) slowly. (I) drink (it) slowly. as shown below: .” . while ~ / “because/ since/so” must be used only for declarative and interrogative sentences. (let 64 us) drink (it) slowly. However. “Since the coffee is hot. ~( ) is a two-form ending: ~ is used after a predicate stem that ends in a consonant.” ? “Do (you) drink the coffee slowly because (it) is hot?” .” . Second. (I) drink (it) slowly. “Since the coffee is hot. and it can be translated as “since.8 Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause) ~( ) The clausal conjunctive ~( ) is used to specify a reason for the main clause.” . the reason and/or cause provided by ~( ) sounds more specific than those given by ~ / . Verb “see” “learn” “catch” “eat” Adjective “cheap” “small” Copula “to be” “not be” ~( ) ~( ) ~( ) The function of ~( ) is similar to that of ~ / since both provide a cause or reason for the action and/or state of the main clause.” ? “Do (you) drink the coffee slowly because (it) is hot?” .

g. ~ is subject to more restrictions than ~ / and ~( ) . and it means “as a result of/because of. “Since I washed dishes yesterday.” . you do (it) today. Consider the following example: . “(I) could not go to school because of playing computer games all night. as ~ .” Notice that the action of the first clause with ~ contributes to the undesirable action of the main clause (e.” . while ~ / is not. it must be used only with verbs. The clause with ~ generates a negative implication that the action of the main clause is performed at the expense of the action of the first clause. First ~ cannot be used for imperative and/or propositive sentences.Third.” Similar to ~ / and ~( ) . “Since I washed dishes yesterday.” .” ~ The clausal conjunctive ~ is a one-form ending. “(Let us) sleep early. “(I) cannot eat breakfast because of getting up late.” . it indicates that the action of the first clause leads to the undesirable action of the main clause. . the subject of the ~ clause must be the same with that of the main clause. “(Let us) sleep early. since (we) will leave for Boston tomorrow early morning. Finally. there is a subtle meaning difference between ~ and ~ / (or ~( ) ). However.. you do (it) today. since (we) will leave for Boston tomorrow early morning. In other words. because of watching TV. “(I) dropped (my) wallet because of walking too fast. it is not conjugated for the tense. Second. ~( ) shown below: is conjugated for the tense. could not go to school). “(I) could not make a phone call.” . Third.” 65 .~ expresses that the action of the first clause is the reason or cause for the main clause.

8 Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause) Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 8 exercises to go to catch (a cold) soon to wait to go out tomorrow to insert/to put (something) in to play/to enjoy (oneself) snow/eyes to be late diet more to be hot/to be warm library to arrive to help to listen to be hot/to be heated radio to drink a lot/plenty to be delicious head to eat the day after tomorrow to ask (a person about something) musical to be sorry to be busy outside night to see/to watch/to read to buy people to stay up all night birthday present/gift salt 66 .

sound homework hour/time restaurant to be watery/to be insipid morning/breakfast to be painful/to be sore medicine appointment yesterday air conditioner here to come a.m. to cook to do (physical) exercise/sports bank food music moving (housing) to talk now to get up early often interestingly dinner/evening telephone little to be good to give house to look for/to seek for slowly doorbell friend greatly/loudly to switch on party to pack/to wrap school merrily/pleasantly Key vocabulary for Unit 8 exercises 67 .

1 Finish the following translation using ~ / “and then” and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis.8 Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause) Exercise 8.” Then / = .” ( / ) = . 1 (I) will call the travel agency and then ask about the airfare ( / ) 2 (We) went to school and then met the professor ( / ) 3 Did (she) wash the strawberry and then eat (it)? ( / ?) 4 Buy that ring and then give (it) to (your) girlfriend ( ) 5 (Let us) learn the Korean language and then get a job in Seoul ( / ) / Exercise 8. 1 2 3 4 5 68 .2 Connect the following two sentences using ~ translate the sentence. as shown in the example. “(Let us) go the supermarket and then buy (some) pork. Example: “(I) went to Hawaii and then met (his) parents. Example: / “and then.” / / / / / ? .

” ( / ) = .5 Finish the following translation using ~( ) and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis. Example: “Since (it) is late night. 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 8. (we) will clean (it up) today ( / ) 5 Since (it) was (her) birthday. (I) have not had lunch yet ( / ) 3 Since (my) stomach hurts.3 Finish the following translation using ~ / “because/since” and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis. (let us) call (him) tomorrow. Example: “because/since. as shown in the example.Exercise 8.3 / / Exercise 8. . Example: “Since (it) is too expensive. . (he) went home early ( ) / Exercise 8. . “Since the weather was nice.” / = . (I) will not buy (it).4 Connect the following two sentences using ~ / Then translate the sentence. . (I) want to go home early ( ) 4 Since the room is too dirty. 69 . as shown in the example.” ( / ) = . (we) took a walk. (I) was late for the class ( ) 2 Since (I) ate breakfast late.” / / / / / . 1 Since traffic was held up.

. traffic is held up ( / ) 3 Since (I) don’t have time. as shown in the example. tell (me) only the main points ( / ) 4 Since (my) back hurts. .” / / / / / . Example: “(I) could not sleep because of preparing for the interview. 3 (I) could not eat dinner together because of talking over the phone for a long time ( / ) 70 .7 Finish the following translation using ~ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis. “Since (my) room is dark. (let us) buy green tea instead ( / ) 2 Since (it) is the closing hour. 1 (I) spent all of (my) money because of buying beer ( / ) 2 (I) could not leave (my) office yet because of repairing the computer ( / ).6 Connect the following two sentences using ~( sentence. .” ( / ) = . Example: ) .8 Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause) 1 Since (she) does not drink coffee. close the window ( / ) Exercise 8. = . Then translate the / . . / . (I) do not want to meet anyone ( / ) 5 Since (it) is cold. turn the light on. . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 / Exercise 8.

.” / / / / / ? .4 (I) dropped (my) wallet as a result of inserting coins ( ) 5 (I) was late because of looking for keys ( / / ) Exercise 8. “(I) could not make a phone call because of watching TV.8 Connect the following two sentences using ~ sentence. Then translate the / = . Example: .8 Exercise 8. 1 2 3 4 5 71 . . .

“if (he) is an American”). (I) will take (it). (I) will go out.” . “If (they) are students. It is a two-form ending: ~ is used after a stem that ends in a consonant (e. “When it is three o’clock.” The conjugation of ~( ) with the copula has two forms: ~( ) and ~( ) .” . “if I see”). whereas ~ / is used after a noun that ends in a consonant (e.” . “If (it) is coffee..” When ~( ) /( ) occurs after a time word. send (them) to my room. “If (you) eat Korean food for dinner tonight. “When (my) roommate returns home. (I) will drink (it).. it means “in” or “at the end of.. 72 .g. “if I eat”). the movie will end”). . ~ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel (e. It is equivalent to “if” and/or “when” in English.UNIT 9 Clausal conjunctives (conditions) ~( ) The clausal conjunctive ~( ) is used to express that the first clause is the condition of the main clause.g.” as shown below: . .. contact (us).g.~ / is used after a noun that ends in a vowel (e.g.” . “If Professor Byon teaches the Korean language class next semester. (I will) graduate. the movie will end” (lit. “By three o’clock. “if he is a doctor”). “In one semester.

“If (you) study hard. rain falls instead of snow. (you) can receive an A.” . it can be used with any predicate type. “If (you) are not busy.” ~ ~( ) “wish/hope” The combination of ~( ) and the verb “do” or the adjective “would/will be nice” expresses the speaker’s wish or hope. as shown below: . “If (you) will host a birthday party. there is no restriction regarding subject agreement. please call (me). “When (you) arrive at home. both can be translated as “wish/hope” in English. (I) want to go to Korea.” .” Finally. “If Susan went to Korea. “When (it) becomes winter.~( ) is not subject to any restriction. “If the next customer is also a Korean. . I will order cola. (let us) not go out. it is conjugated for the tense.” . (let us) meet tomorrow. . ~( ) sounds slightly more polite than ~( ) . For instance. call me. “If Thomas orders coffee. . where do (you) want to go first?” .” . do (it) at home. 73 . “If the weather is too cold. ~( ) may be used with any sentence type. However. (she) would have given me a call. “When (I) graduate from college.” Third.” . (let us) go for skiing.” Second.” . “When (it) becomes winter.” ? “When (you) buy a new car.

” ? “If (we) intend to buy good and cheap items.” .” . (you) must call in advance. makes the . if it would become spring soon).9 Clausal conjunctives (conditions) .” . (you) should lose weight.g. It would be nice.g. pay the tuition first. “(I) wish spring comes early (lit.. (you) need to practice hard. “(I) wish that (I) would not worry about money from now on.” .” . where should (we) go?” . “(I) wish that (I) buy a new computer next year. “(I) wish that (I) would take the test on Wednesday. wait 30 more minutes. “If (you) intend to play the piano like a professional.” ~( ) The clausal conjunctive ~( ) “if one intends to do” is the combination of ~( ) “intending to” with the conjunctive ~( ) “if/when. . (you) need to make Korean friends. “If (you) intend to speak Korean well.” .” 74 . “if you intend to learn”).. “If (you) intend to attend the school. “(I) wish that (it) snows a lot this Christmas. “If (you) intend to meet the professor. “If (you) intend to leave office.” It is a two-form ending: ~ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel (e. “(I) wish that (I) would travel in Japan this summer.” . “if you intend to eat”).” . “(I) wish that Korea would be unified immediately.” . “(I) wish that (I) would stop by Tokyo on my way to Seoul. “If (you) intend to wear this suit. and ~ is used after a stem that ends in a consonant (e.” .” Adding the past tense marker / to ~( ) / speaker’s desire or wish sound more assertive or emphatic.

the more tired (you) are. It is corresponding to “only if” in English. the more (you) play (it). ~( ) is a two-form ending: ~ is used after a stem that ends in a consonant (e. “the more I believe”).” . while ~ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel (e.~( ) The clausal conjunctive ~( ) expresses continuous increase in the nature of an action or state. “As for love. “The more (you) sleep.g.. .” . the more interesting (it) is. the more expensive (it) is. Consider the following example: . . the more time passes. 75 . the more cute (it) is. “As for Taekwondo.” ~ / is a two-form ending: ~ is used after a stem that ends in either or . the more precious (it) becomes.” Notice that the action of the first clause “going to school” is the necessity for the action of the main clause “meeting the professor.” ~ The clausal conjunctive ~ / indicates that the ~ / ending clause is a prerequisite or necessary condition of the main clause.” . (you) can meet the professor.g.” . as shown below: ) ~ . the more difficult (it) is. the more (I) learn (it). “The more (I) eat kimchi. the smaller (it) is. “As for golf..” . “As for notebook. “the more I drink”). whereas ~ is used after a stem that ends in all other vowels. the more tasty (it) is. “Only if (you) go to school. It can be translated as “the more . ~( ) “if/when” can be optionally used along with ~( . . the more” in English.” In addition. “The more (I) look at the puppy.

” .” Meanwhile. (we) can go home. “Only if (we) find the key.” ~ The clausal conjunctive ~ is used to indicate that the ~ ending clause is the condition for the main clause. The sentence ending ~ expresses an emphatic meaning. “Only if (you) meet .” . (you) can become a doctor. “If Alice goes to Korea.” “you see (because). “If the letter arrives. one can use the particle with ~ / .” and “indeed” in English. Consider the following dialogue: 76 .” . “If (you) are not busy. contact (me). It is equivalent to “if” in English. “If (you) have something to say. and it can be translated as “you know.9 Clausal conjunctives (conditions) Verb “see” “catch” “learn” “believe” Adjective “cheap” “small” “sad” “difficult” Copula “to be” “not be” Verb stem + (contracted from (contracted from Adjective stem + + ( Copula stem + / / + + ) ) ( + ) ) To add an emphatic meaning. “If the test ends. “Only if (you) graduate from a medical school.” “only” along . say (it). ~ is subject to one restriction: It must be used only with imperative and/or propositive sentences. (let us) have dinner together. give Matthew a phone call.” .” . (let us) go (there) as well. as shown below: Andrew. ~ (or ~ ) is often used as a sentence ending. as shown in the following examples: . in spoken communication. (you) can hear about Daniel.

” A: ? “Will (you) order the food (you) ate yesterday. “(I) worked late last night.” Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 9 exercises to go to be near to teach health source of anxiety ball to quit to boil man husband weather to pay tomorrow pot too (much) song 77 .” B: . again?” B: .g.. B offers a kind of follow-up explanation (e. “(It) was really delicious.A: B: ? “(It) is Sunday. By using ~ . you know.g. you know. “(I) have a test tomorrow. to be in the library on Sunday). “(You) look tired.. “I like the coffee of this place.” A: . but what brought you to the library?” .” Key vocabulary for Unit 9 exercises Notice that B’s response ends with ~ . you know. you know. having a test tomorrow) to what has been implied (e. Here are more examples: A: B: ? “(You) order a cup again?” .

9 Clausal conjunctives (conditions) notebook to play who late next cigarette college to be hot (the weather) help to eat to enter to be warm/to be mild roommate to speak to meet a lot head/hair (of one’s head) to eat do not know to be short of throat to ask water U. to change to be busy to receive stomach to learn law school hospital to see/to watch/to read visa to buy person/people to use size to live birthday present/gift sofas to take tests/exams restaurant 78 .A.S.

meal to be bored to use a side job to be sore yesterday medicine trip/travel to contact to open to make a reservation to come fee to go abroad for study to enter a country early to sleep to be small well/expertly saving dinner/evening telephone to submit little to be careful/to take care of diploma week (day) subway one’s place of work house window book recommendation letter to be cold getting employment to play/to strike friend to switch on to ride to be tired to be in need of semester Korea Key vocabulary for Unit 9 exercises 79 .

2 Connect the following two sentences using ~( sentence. as shown in the example. will (you) buy (it)? ( / ?) 4 If (you) get up early tomorrow morning. “If (its) price is cheap. buy (it).9 Clausal conjunctives (conditions) toilet company heater Exercise 9. Example: “If (it) is cold outside.” ) . as shown in the example. (let us) not go out. Example: = / / / / / ? / . wake (me) up ( / ) 5 If (I) told (him).3 80 Finish the following translation using ~( ) provided in parenthesis. (he) probably would get angry ( / ) / / Exercise 9.” ( ) = . 1 When (I) have time. (I) will make a phone call to Bill ( ) 2 If the road is congested. (let us) take a subway ( / ) 3 If (it) is expensive. Then translate the 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 9.1 Finish the following translation using ~( ) and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis. and the sentence cue .

(you) need Chinese cabbage. Then translate = . Then translate the / = .4 Exercise 9.” ( = . “(I) wish that (I) sell (my) car immediately.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Exercise 9.4 Conjugate the following predicate using ~( the sentence.Example: “(I) wish that (it) snows tomorrow. Example: ) . 1 (I) wish that (we) meet at the airport ( ) 2 (I) wish that (I) receive a watch for (my) birthday present ( ) 3 (I) wish that (we) order red wine ( ) 4 (I) wish that (we) have Korean food for dinner ( ) 5 (I) wish that (I) make a lot of money ( ) ) Exercise 9.5 Connect the following two sentences using ~( sentence.” / / / 81 1 2 3 . “If (you) intend to make kimchi. Example: ) .

the colder (it) is ( ) 3 The more time passes. / = . the more (I) long for old days ( ) 4 The bigger (it) was.” / / / / 1 2 3 4 5 82 / .9 Clausal conjunctives (conditions) 4 5 6 7 8 / / / / / Exercise 9. the more interesting (it) was ( / ) / / / ) Exercise 9.” ( / ) = . Example: ) ~( ) pattern. 1 The more (I) read the letter. the more expensive (it) was ( / 5 The more (I) read that book. “The more (you) smoke. as shown in the example. Example: “The more (I) meet that friend. the more (I) want to meet (him). the more (you) become addicted to (it).7 Connect the following sentences using the ~( Then translate the sentence.6 Finish the following translation using the ~( ) ~( ) pattern and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis. the angrier (I) am ( ) 2 The cloudier the weather is.

Then translate the / = . (let us) order (it) more ( / ) 3 If (you) make a Christmas tree.” ( ) = . and the sentence cues provided Exercise 9.” 83 . as shown in the example. Then translate the answer.9 Connect the following two sentences using ~ sentence.8 Example: “Do not call (me) if (you) are busy. (let us) convey the message ( / ) ) Exercise 9. as shown in the example. do not come to the party ( ) / 5 If (we) meet Mary later. please call (me). Example: .Exercise 9. take a picture ( / ) 4 If (you) work this weekend.8 Finish the following translation using ~ in parenthesis.” / / / / / 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 9.10 Answer to the following question using ~ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis. Example: = ?( ) . “If (you) arrive at home. / 1 Hug the baby if the baby cries ( / 2 If (it) is tasty. “(I) have an appointment. you know.

(you) can become a doctor ( / ) 4 Only if (he) quits (his) work.12 Connect the following two sentences using ~ sentence.11 Finish the following translation using ~ / and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis.” ( / ) = . Example: / . (he) can travel ( ) 5 Only if (she) quits smoking.” / / / / / 1 2 3 4 5 84 .9 Clausal conjunctives (conditions) 1 2 3 4 5 6 ?( ?( ?( ?( ?( ?( ) ) ) ) ) ) Exercise 9. (we) can go to Hawaii. Example: “Only if (we) have money. (I) am also happy ( / ) 2 Only if (it) is on sale. “Only if (you) exercise everyday. as shown in the example. (you) can become healthy. Then translate the / = . 1 Only if (my) girlfriend is happy. (I) can buy (it) ( / 3 Only if (you) study hard. (her) illness can be cured ( ) ) / / Exercise 9.

” Notice that the meanings of the sentences above are the same. ~ links two sequential actions or events. “(I) eat lunch and then do the homework. First. “Matthew cooks. “Andrew majors in Spanish. It corresponds to “and” in English.” . (she) watches TV. (he) reads newspaper. and Jennifer cleans up.” . “Jennifer cleans up. “(My) head aches.” . Consider the following examples: .” . it simply connects two different clauses.” . Here are more examples: 85 . the change in the sequence of the clauses generates a different meaning.” Second. and Isabel majors in French. regardless of their sequence.UNIT 10 Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice) ~ The function of the clausal conjunctive ~ is twofold. and Matthew cooks. “(I) do the homework and then eat lunch. “Ann goes to Japan.” Notice that ~ indicates the order of the action. even if the sequences of the clauses are different. and Tom goes to Korea. Consider the following examples: . Here are more examples: . “As for John. and (I) am sleepy. In other words. and as for Susan. equivalent to “and then” in English.

“eat and”). In addition. “teach and”). “(Let us) meet (our) friends and then go home..” ~ is subject to one restriction: It is not conjugated for the tense. the weather was cloudy and cold. ~( ) The clausal conjunctive ~( ) means “and” or “while.” .” . the past tense is not marked by the ~ ending clauses but by the main clauses. “and” and “and then”). “(I) eat dinner and then go to a bookstore.10 Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice) . ~ is used when the preceding stem ends in a vowel (e..g.. Verbs/adjectives “eat” “believe” “catch” “good” “many” “teach” “go” “see” “glad” “big” Stem + ( ) 86 The meaning of ~( ) is similar to that of ~ since both connect two actions or states. “(I) ate breakfast and then went to the post office. However. “Wash (your) hands and then cook. ~( ) indicates only non-sequential actions/states. Consider the following examples: . ~( ) tends to be used only in writing. Consider the following sentences: .g. “As for yesterday.” Notice that both sentences are about the past action and state. However. while ~ can indicate both the non-sequential as well as sequential actions/states (e.” It is a two-form ending: ~ is used when the preceding stem ends in a consonant (e.” ? “Do (you) take a shower and then go to bed?” .g. while ~ is widely used both in spoken and written communication.

(he) majors in economics. “The post office is on the left side. dancing?” Notice in the examples that only the main clauses are conjugated for the past tense.” .” . “As for today. “As for this dress. the fabric is good.” . (I) normally see a movie with (my) friends or take a rest at home. and as for Charles.” .” Notice in the examples above that ~( ) simply links two separate and/or non-sequential actions or states. and as for Mario.” .” .” 87 . “(We) talk while drinking beer. and the design is pretty. while listening to music. “As for Saturday. as shown in the following examples: . (she) likes jazz. and the park is on the right side. “As for Lisa. “Grace jogs. ~( ) indicates that two or more actions or events occur simultaneously. ~( ) is subject to one restriction: It is not conjugated for the tense. (he) is a Mexican. (I) took notes. ~ ~ The clausal conjunctive ~ is used to list two or more actions/states. and as for James. When the subjects of both clauses are the same. (he) majors in psychology.” ? “Did (you) sing. (it) will be very windy and cold. Consider the following examples: . “As for Edward. It is equivalent to “or” in English. “As for Philip.. (he) is a Canadian. as shown below: . “While listening to the professor’s lecture.” Note in the above examples that ~( ) is translated as “while” rather than “and” in English. (he) likes classic.

Here are more examples: . “Whether (it) is delicious or not.10 Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice) ? “When (you) are sick or tired.” ? “Whether (it) is hard or easy. “(I guess that) Peter’s father is either a teacher or a government officer.” . It can be translated in English as “or.” . while the predicate or the content of the main clause is essential. “run” is important. “(Let us) go to the library or the coffee shop. whether (we) drink coffee or eat ice creams. will (you) learn (it) enthusiastically?” . do (you) think about (your) home?” .” are trivial. In such case.” . “cold” and “hot. “Whether the weather is cold or hot.” . whether (you) watch TV or sleep.m.” Consider the following example: .” and/or “regardless. “Send (him) an e-mail or give (him) a call. “Whether (you) are sad or happy..” 88 . call (me) anytime.” Notice that the two states denoted by two adjectives. whereas the predicate of the main clause. or” in English. (I) run everyday. (let us) exercise everyday. ~ is translated as “whether . (we) eat anything if (we) are hungry. “Stay home until 7 p.” ~ The clausal conjunctive ~ is used to list a series of selections or to imply an unenthusiastic or indifferent attitude toward the selections. . Consider the following example: .” “no matter. “Whether (it) rains or snows.” ~ may imply that the actions or states listed by the conjunctive are trivial. “(Let us) order something. .

“As for those kids.” Key vocabulary for Unit 10 exercises Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 10 exercises to go to change (clothes) to be long flowers to be slim weather to pay out pork sweat to drink to make to be tasteless head/hair (of the head) to eat beach room to see/to watch/to read usually rain to buy mountain age personality 89 . “(We) will proceed (the event) according to the schedule.” .Notice in the example above that ~ enumerates two activities (e.” . it also implies that the speaker is not enthusiastic about these activities. However. Here are more examples: . whether people are around or not.. be healthy.” .g. “Wherever (you) go and whatever (you) do. “Please buy (me) that dress whether (it) is expensive or inexpensive. drinking coffee and eating ice creams). (they) are always noisy. regardless (it) rains or snows tomorrow.

” ( / ) = .10 Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice) face washing beef sound/noise homework to be cool/to be refreshing newspapers to be cheap to use morning/breakfast when face movie to be pretty clothes dining out to cry doctor internet to read to be small dinner/evening to be good to cry out to pay to be good/to be kindhearted to be cold to play/to strike to be kind to be big height cash to be cloudy to spill/to drop Exercise 10. 90 . Example: “(I) will listen to (my) friend’s story and then decide. as shown in the example.1 Complete the following translation using ~ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis.

Example: “The subway is convenient and fast. Example: .3 Complete the following translation using ~( ) and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis.” ( ) = . (he) is humble and diligent ( / ) Exercise 10. (his) voice is good and (he) has humor ( / ) 8 As for Andrew. as shown in the example. 1 Paul’s voice is loud and soft ( 2 James is a scientist and an inventor ( ) 3 Wendy is an actress and a singer ( / / / ) 91 / ) .2 / Exercise 10.2 Connect the following two sentences using ~ sentence.1 (I) eat breakfast and then exercise ( / ) 2 Brush (your) teeth and then go to bed ( / ) 3 Do (you) ask the teacher first and then go to the restroom? ( / ?) 4 (Let us) leave after making a reservation ( / ) 5 (I) want to get a job after graduating from college ( / ) 6 As for Susan. (her) eyes are big and (she) is quiet ( ) 7 As for Tim. Then translate the / ? = ? “Will (you) eat dinner first and then do (your) homework?” / / / / 1 2 3 4 5 31 / Exercise 10.

10 Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice) 4 Today’s weather is clear and cool ( 5 That school is good and famous ( 6 Train is safe and convenient ( / / / ) ) ) Exercise 10.” ( / / ) = .4 Connect the following two sentences using ~( sentence. whether (she) comes or not ( / / ) 4 (I) will try asking (him). “Helen talked. Example: “(I) will buy (it) whether (it) is cheap or expensive.” / / / / / / / / / / ) . smiling. 1 (He) is (my) older brother whether (he) is a rich man or a beggar ( / / ) 2 (I) want to study Korean whether (it) is difficult or easy ( / ) / 3 (I) will wait (for her).5 Complete the following translation using ~ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis. Example: = / . whether (he will) lend (it to me) or not ( / / ) 5 Watch that drama again whether (it) is interesting or dull ( / / ) 92 . as shown in the example. Then translate the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Exercise 10.

6 / = . Then translate the / .” ( / ) = . “(I) will watch TV or use the computer.” / / / / / ? 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 10.6 Connect the following two sentences using ~ sentence. Example: .Exercise 10. Example: . = . as shown in the example.” 93 .8 Connect the following two sentences using ~ sentence. 1 (We) will eat lunch or drink coffee ( / ) 2 (Let us) go home or a coffee shop ( / 3 Drink apple juice or tomato juice ( ) 4 (Let us) see an action movie or a horror movie ( ) 5 (We) will play tennis whether (it) is cold or hot ( ) ) / / / / Exercise 10. Example: “(Let us) clean the room or do the laundry. “(I) will go to the bank or the post office. Then translate the Exercise 10.7 Complete the following translation using ~ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis.

10 Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice) 1 2 3 4 5 / / / / / 94 .

“while drinking”). It corresponds to “while” in English. “(I) was looking at these pictures. “(He) is seeing a movie. (their) service is also bad.” . “while eating”).” ? “Did (she) cry. “Talk. while thinking about that friend. “(I) attended the college.” . ~( ) is a two-form ending: ~ is used after a stem that ends in a consonant (e. Consider the following .UNIT 11 Clausal conjunctives (time) ~( ) The clausal conjunctive ~( ) is used when two actions (or states) are carried out simultaneously by the same subject. “While (their) food is expensive. eating popcorn.” . (he) is a student. singing Korean songs.” .. while driving?” . the price is inexpensive. “While the design is pretty.” ~( ) examples: is not conjugated for the tense. drinking coffee..” ? “Are (you) calling (someone).g. while earning money. “While (he) is a military man. while reading the letter?” . “(Let us) walk together. “While this house is big.” 95 . ~ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel (e. .g. (it) is also near from school.” .

” ~ The clausal conjunctive ~ means “as soon as” or “immediately after. ~( ) is often used for disapproving.” .” ? “Will (you) take a shower as soon as (you) get up?” . (he) wants to receive an A. 96 . “(I) will go home as soon as (I) finish with (my) work. criticizing or complaining. “While (he) receives the highest salary. are disagreeing or inconsonant each other.. “Peter turned the electric lamp on as soon as Eunice entered the room. connected by ~( ) . “(She) cried as soon as (she) read the letter. as shown below: .” . In addition.” . This is when two simultaneous actions or states. Here are more examples: . (he) only looks for expensive cars. “Contact (them) as soon as (you) arrive in the airport.” Notice in the examples above that only the main clauses are conjugated for the tense.11 Clausal conjunctives (time) Notice in the examples above that only the predicates of the main clauses are conjugated for the tense. not studying) and that of the main clause (want to receive an A) are inconsonant each other. “While (he) does not even have a job. “While (he) does not study. First. it is not conjugated for the tense.g. .” Second. it must be used only with verbs. the sentence is a speech act of complaining or disapproving. “(He) went outside as soon as (he) heard the news.” ~ is subject to the following restrictions.” Notice that the action of the first clause (e. (he) does not have any merit. Consider the following example: .

Here are more examples: . from “being watery” to “being salty”). “The weather was good until a. “(He) waited for that friend until 10 minutes ago and then went home.. The first state is no longer in effect in favor of the second state. (I) met (my) friends.m. sleeping. “As (I) read the book. “(They) were expensive before Christmas but then (they) became inexpensive (starting) from December 26. going to school) to another actions (e.g. stopping by the supermarket). he/she can optionally use the past tense marker. it indicates that the subject shifts his/ her action to another. Consider the following examples: . (I) stopped by the supermarket. “Run and then rest about 10 minutes. (I) slept. and then (it) is cloudy now. Consider the following example: .” Notice in the examples above that the subjects shifted certain actions (e. Here are more examples: . Compare the following two sentenes: ~ 97 .” The use of the past tense marker / is optional for ~ . “While drinking coffee.~ The clausal conjunctive ~ is used to express the shift in action or state. If the speaker wishes to highlight the past action rather than the shift in the action.” . it indicates the shift in state to another..” When ~ is attached to an adjective stem.g.” . “(Let us) look at the menu and then order food.” Notice in the example above that there was a shift in the state (e.” .” .. When it is attached to a verb stem.g.” ? “What did (you) buy on (your) way to the post office?” . reading. “On my way to school. “The taste was watery and then (it) is salty (now).

(I) met (my) friends.” . “(They) do things like turning the electric lamp on and off. ~( ) 98 The combination of ~( ) “intending to” with ~ creates a new clausal conjunctive ~( ) . “(I) made a promise and then (I) cancelled (it). (you) can harm (your) health. ~ is used to warn about the action or state of the prior clause. (you) can catch a cold. “(I) went to school and then met (my) friends. “If (you) drink alcohol everyday.” ? “Where did you go and come back?” .” . Here are more examples: . “(We) bought the computer and then sold (it). “On (my) way to school.” Notice in the examples above that ~ indicates that the continual action of the first clause may generate an unpleasant or troublesome consequence. but the action of the main clause was realized instead.” Notice that there is a subtle meaning difference between the two sentences: While the first sentence simply indicates the shift in the action. It indicates that the intentional action of the first clause was never actualized. The conjunctive ~( ) is used when one tries to do something but comes across another situation. Consider the following examples: .” ? “When did (you) go to the embassy and come back?” ~ The topic particle can be optionally attached to the conjunctive ~ .” . “If (you) exercise for a long time under the cold weather outside. the second sentence highlights the completed past action that took place before the shift of the action took place. Consider the following example: .11 Clausal conjunctives (time) .

(I) met James on the street and had dinner together.g. “As (we) intended to buy a printer. Here are more examples: . (I) went to a bookstore. “As (I) intended to go to the library.” . “As (I) intended to go home.” ..” Notice that the action of the first clause (e. going home) was never actualized.” ? “What did (you) intend to sell. Instead. but could not sell?” Key vocabulary for Unit 11 exercises Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 11 exercises to go beggar to walk stairs continually to snore road to break/to smash to fall (down over) song to play/to amuse college money to become/to get to/to elapse to fall/to drop a lot to eat to stop something to change to have a stomachache 99 . (we) bought a computer instead. the action of the main clause was realized.. (I) fell (on the ground). “As (I) intended to catch the dog.

100 .11 Clausal conjunctives (time) to see/to watch/to read to buy to gain weight face washing to order test/exam newspapers to use brushing teeth hard/earnestly/enthusiastically movie right side to climb/to go up cooking to cry to smile (house) moving to talk to work to get up to read to sleep before lunch dish to doze off to graduate address to mutter/to murmur to be expelled car to look for/to seek for book alone company/firm Exercise 11. as shown in the example.1 Finish the following translation using ~( ) and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis.

while working. while getting up ( ) 4 (Let us) not break dishes while cooking ( ) 5 Did (you) fall. 1 (I) want to get married as soon as (I) get a job ( ) 2 (She) cried as soon as (she) met (her) boyfriend ( / ) / 101 .” ( / ) = . Then translate the sentence. while riding a bike? ( ) / / / / ?) Exercise 11.2 Connect the following two sentences using ~( ) example.Example: “Do not chew a gum. Example: / = .3 Finish the following translation using ~ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis.” ( / ) = .2 Exercise 11. while drinking coffee. Example: “(He) danced as soon as (he) wore shoes. crying ( / 2 Will (you) make friends while traveling? ( ?) 3 Do not fall from the bed.” / / / / / as shown in the 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 11. “(I) am driving. as shown in the example. 1 (She) is calling (someone).

“(He) returned to the office.11 Clausal conjunctives (time) 3 (He) will snore as soon as (he) lies down on the bed ( / ) 4 What do (you) want to do as soon as (you) graduate from college? ( / ?) 5 Call (your) older sister as soon as (you) arrive in London ( / ) 6 (Let us) buy (some) popcorn as soon as (we) enter the theatre ( / ) Exercise 11.4 Connect the following two sentences using ~ sentence. Example: . Then translate the / = . and the sentence cues provided Example: “As (I) did laundry. as soon as (he) drank coffee. (he) sprained (his) ankle ( / ) 5 (I) wrote a letter and then went to the restroom ( / ) 102 . as shown in the example.” ( / ) = . (I) answered the phone. (she) got (her) wrist injured ( / ) 4 As (he) played basketball.5 Finish the following translation using ~ in parenthesis. 1 (I) watched TV and then slept ( / ) 2 As (he) bought vegetables in the supermarket and (he) ran into (his) friend ( / ) 3 As (she) opened the door.” / / / / / ? 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 11.

7 Finish the following translation using ~ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis. (you) cannot enter college ( / ) 2 If (you) continue to smoke.Exercise 11.6 Connect the following two sentences using ~ sentence.” / / / / / ? ? 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 11.” ( / ) = . (he) may become an alcoholic ( / ) 103 . (you) can miss the bus.6 / . (you) can end up forgetting each other ( / ) 5 If (you) continue to turn down. an accident may occur ( / ) 4 If (you) do not contact (each other). 1 If (you) do not study hard. “As (he) ate lunch. = . Example: “If (you) leave late. (he) answered the phone. (you) can get a cancer ( / ) 3 If (you) overspeed. Then translate the Exercise 11. Example: . as shown in the example. (you) can miss an opportunity ( ) / 6 If (he) drinks whisky everyday.

Then translate the / = . “If (you) watch TV for a long time. Example: .11 Clausal conjunctives (time) Exercise 11.” / / / / / 1 2 3 4 5 104 .8 Connect the following two sentences using ~ sentence. (your) vision can become worse.

so do not go outside. “The weather is cold tonight. Verb “go” “learn” “teach” “cook” Verb stem + 105 . so (let us) meet tomorrow. so how about next week?” .UNIT 12 Clausal conjunctives (background) ~ ( ) Function The clausal conjunctive ~ /( ) is used to provide background information for the main clause. but (I) have not done anything.” ? “(I) have an appointment this week.” In this example. “(I) have to finish the work by tomorrow. so (let us) go somewhere and eat something.” .” Here are more examples: “(I) study Korean” is “(it) is interest- . the first clause the background information for the main clause ing. “As for today. “(It) has become lunchtime.” . “(I) study Korean.” How it is conjugated ~ is used after a verb stem. (I) am busy. and (it) is interesting. Consider the following example: .

Verb stem + Past tense marker + : .12 Clausal conjunctives (background) Verb “study” “eat” “find” “have/exist” “not have/exist” Verb stem + As for adjectives and copulas. (she) was a high school student. but there were many people.” Adjective stem + Past tense marker + : . such as “inter- Adjective stem + As for the past tense. Adjective “uninteresting” “delicious” “stylish” . “Until last year. “(I) went to the Korean restaurant yesterday. “(It) was cold yesterday. as shown below: Adjective “small” “good” “clear” “cold” “cheap” “happy” “strange” Copula “be” “be not” Adjective stem + ( ) Copula stem + ( ) As for an adjective that is made of / esting” and “tasteless. ~ is used after a stem that ends in a consonant. and ~ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel. and there were many customers.” 106 . as shown below: / . ~ is used after the past tense marker and this applies to any predicate type.” ~ is used.” Copula stem + Past tense marker + : . but (she) is a college student now.

and opts out saying the main clause. The politeness ending is optionally attached to ~ /( ) . such as expressing disagreement.” . “Although (I) slept a lot. For instance.” 107 . he/ she is busy). . the room rent is expensive. people often opt out of saying the main clause as a strategy to be indirect and polite (e. the speaker B makes the speaker A figures out the implicit message (e.g. ~ /( ) may be used as a sentence ender. “Although (it) is small.. there are not many customers.” Notice that the speaker B just provides background information (e. requesting.. “Although (it) is a weekend. complaining. conjunctives often end a sentence.” . “(I) am busy this week (so).g. In this way. “Although (I) took the medicine. Notice that the speaker B uses the ellipsis. so that they may reduce the degree of imposition when requesting or they may not hurt the addressee’s feeling when refusing or complaining).” .g. For instance. . (I will not be able to make it). as in ~ /( ) ..~ /( ) as a sentence ender ~ In spoken communication. in a delicate or face-threatening communicative situation. Consider the following dialogue: ? “Would (you) like to go to the party together tomorrow?” B: . leaving the main clause out. (I) am still tired.” Consider the following examples: . so I can’t go to the party tomorrow). (my) stomach still aches. A: ~ ( ) The combination of the conjunctive ~ /( ) and the particle “even/ also” is a new conjunctive ~ /( ) “although/despite (the fact that)/ even if. In a similar manner the English conjunctive “so” ends the first clause in the example above. consider the following dialogue: A: Can you come to my birthday party tonight? B: I have a test tomorrow so . to sound more polite. and refusing.

S. to be sorry to be busy room to learn department store kitchen to send/to mail to be expensive to borrow to buy person/people sound/noise parcel/package to fix/to repair to be noisy to be sore medicine do not have/do not exist 108 .A.12 Clausal conjunctives (background) Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 12 exercises to go bag/suitcase together just now/at once to wait guitar to boil tomorrow too much next to arrive to help to drink to be many/to be much head/hair (of one’s head) to eat to be thirsty to be heavy very much/extremely water U.

1 (I) am chewing a gum. but (he) was exactly the same as before ( / ) 5 (He) studied hard but (he) failed the exam ( / ) Exercise 12.contact nowadays food to have/to exist a little/please week to give to reduce now last car/tea to switch on to be cold friend school Korea heater Exercise 12. and will (you) help (me)? ( / ?) 3 (I) have to buy a gift. and (let us) go to the department store together / ) ( 4 (We) met Eric yesterday.” ( / ) = . and (it) was really interesting.2 Connect the following two sentences using ~ sentence.1 Exercise 12.1 Finish the following translation using ~ in parenthesis. . but (my) tooth aches ( / ) 2 (I) am sweeping the street. and the sentence cues provided Example: “(We) saw the movie. as shown in the example. Then translate the 109 .

3 Finish the following translation using ~ / and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis. (it) was hot.4 Connect the following two sentences using ~( sentence.” / / / / / ? ? 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 12. (it) is cool ( ) / 4 As for the price. but there are not many now. but the quantity was small ( / ) 5 The weather was bad. so please wait.12 Clausal conjunctives (background) Example: / . Example: “(I) was hungry. (it) was cheap. but as for today. Example: ) . “(She) is eating breakfast now. but there were many customers ( / ) Exercise 12.” ( / ) = . = . Then translate the / ? = ? “The weather is good. 1 (She) was a student last year. as shown in the example. but (she) is a teacher now ( / ) 2 There were many people before. so shall (we) take a walk?” / / / ? ? 110 1 2 3 . ( / ) 3 As for yesterday. but (l) could not eat lunch.

__________________ ( ) ) ) .6 Finish the following translation using ~ /( ) and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis. (it) is delicious ( / ) the salary is much.4 5 / / Exercise 12. the house rent is inexpensive.5 Complete the following dialogue using the sentence cue provided in parenthesis and ~ /( ) . Example: A: B: __________________ ( = 1 A: B: ? .5 Exercise 12.” ( / ) = . 1 Although ( 2 Although 3 Although ) 4 Although (he) is an English teacher. as shown in the example. (they) were happy ( ) . Exercise 12. ? ) ) 2 A: ? B: ____________________ ( 3 A: ? B: ____________________ ( 4 A: _________________ ( B: . (he) passed (the test) ( ) 5 Although (they) were poor. Example: “Although the house is big. (he) can’t speak English well / ) the quantity is small. (I) will quit (it) ( / / / 111 the test was hard. 5 A: B: ________________ ( . as shown in the example. ) .

Example: /( ) .12 Clausal conjunctives (background) Exercise 12.7 Connect the following two sentences using ~ the sentence. Then translate / ? = ? “Although the weather is nice. will (you) stay home?” / / / / / ? 1 2 3 4 5 112 .

(she) sings well. .” .UNIT 13 Clausal conjunctives (although) ~ The clausal conjunctive ~ is used to acknowledge the action and/or state of the first clause but to indicate something contrary or opposite to that of the main clause. it may be used with any predicate type. but as for me (I) cannot sing well. as shown below: . “(I) learned Japanese. (I) do not have money. but (it) is not cold. “Although the house is far from school. (I) am happy. it is conjugated for the tense. “(It) snows a lot.” . but (I) do not like (it).” 113 . the traffic is convenient.” Third. “(I) eat Kimchi. . “Although (my) body is tired. “Although (I) want to go to Korea. but (I) could not read (it) well.” . “As for my older sister. It is equivalent to “but” or “although” in English. “(I) study hard. but (I) do not understand (it) well. there is no subject agreement restriction.” . .” Second. For instance. .” ~ is not subject to any restriction.

while the main clause occurs anyway regardless of the activities of the previous clauses. . “As for my older brother.. “As for the price.. winning or losing). It is also equivalent to “but/although” in English.. (I) was still hungry. In such cases ~( ) is used to list selections of actions or states that have opposite meanings and to indicate that the content of the main clause happens regardless of the selections indicated by ~( ) .” ? “The train will arrive (here) soon. (it) is expensive. (I) could not receive an A. “Whether (we) win or lose. In addition.” . but buy (it) immediately. “learn but”).g. (I) do not have time. Consider the following example: .” ! “Although (it) rains outside. as shown below: . “Although (I) ate breakfast. Here are more examples: 114 . just like ~ . (she) is a teacher. (let us) go out!” ~( ) The clausal conjunctive ~( ) is used to indicate that the content of the first clause does not comply with that of the main clause.” Finally. (it) is expensive. “Although (I) want to play golf. ~( ) is a two-form conjunctive: ~ is used after a stem that ends in a consonant (e. but as for his girlfriend. and ~ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel (e.g.13 Clausal conjunctives (although) .g. ~ ~ ). it can be used for all sentence types.” ~( ) may be used with two or more clauses. “Although (I) studied hard.” . before the main clause (e. but (it) has many functions. “As for the price.. but won’t (you) wait?” .g. “read but”).” Notice that ~( ) lists two activities that have opposite meanings (e. ~( ) is not subject to any restriction. (we) will do (our) best. (he) is a policeman.

whether (you) are happy or sad?” .? “Will (you) love (your) wife. “Although (we) have money. .” . but do (you) feel drowsy?” . “Although (I) practice (it) everyday. In addition. (it) is fine. (I) will think only of you.” . “Even if (it) be coffee. whereas ~ is used after a stem that ends in all other vowels. (I) was still hungry.” . “Although the house was far from the company.” . (it) was fine with me. “Come by all means. (I) am happy.” Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 13 exercises to be near to go to be anxious/to feel uneasy to be lazy meat to be cute to be long to be bad/to be wrong introvert legs/bridge 115 .” ~ ~ The clausal conjunctive ~ / is also equivalent to “but/although” in English. “Although (I) ate breakfast a lot. (my) skill does not make any progress. ~ is used after a stem that ends in or . “Whether (I) sit or stand. even if (you) get up late. (let us) not buy (it). it is not subject to any restriction.” ? “(You) drink coffee a lot. “Although my body is exhausted.” .

13
Clausal conjunctives (although)

tuition to be smart to be chubby to be delicious to be spicy to eat to be far U.S.A. to send department store to be expensive to buy to be cheap to be difficult to be young/to be juvenile/to be immature station English literature English to come clothes studying abroad food often to be small well to be interesting to major in to like subway invitation to be tall to be convenient the Korean language to be active

Exercise 13.1
Finish the following translation using ~ in parenthesis, as shown in the example. and the sentence cues provided /

116

Example: “Although (it) is expensive, (it) is delicious.” ( ) = .

1 Although Dave is in Seoul, (he) calls Barbara everyday ( / ) 2 Although the bag is big, (it) is light ( / ) 3 Although (I) want to go (there) together, (I) have an appointment ( / ) 4 Although (I) will take an exam tomorrow, (I) did not study ( / ) 5 Although (it) was hot in summer, (it) was cold in winter ( / )

Exercise 13.2

Exercise 13.2
Connect the following two sentences using ~ sentence. Example: / . “Although (I) eat Chinese food, (I) do not like (it).” 1 2 3 4 5 / / / / / . Then translate the

Exercise 13.3
Finish the following translation using ~( ) and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) slipped in the bathroom, but (I) was fine.” ( / ) = . 1 (I) learned the Korean language for a year, but (it) is still difficult ( / ) 2 (They) waited for one hour, but (she) did not come ( / ) 3 (I) argued with (my) older brother, but (I) reconciled with (him) at once ( / ) 4 The living room is spacious but the kitchen is small ( / ) 5 The room is clean but noisy ( / )

117

13
Clausal conjunctives (although)

Exercise 13.4
Connect the following two sentences using ~( sentence. Example: ) . Then translate the

/ = . “Although (I) drink coffee sometimes, (I) do not like (it).” / / / / /

1 2 3 4 5

Exercise 13.5
Finish the following translation using the [~( ) . . . ~( ) ] pattern and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Whether (it) is cold or hot, (let us) go outside.” ( / / ) = . 1 Whether / 2 Whether / 3 Whether / 4 Whether / 5 Whether the food is delicious or not, (let us) eat (it) all ( / ) the test is easy or difficult, (I) must take (it) ( ) (you) jog or do yoga, do (it) everyday ( / ) (you) go to Korea or Japan, (you) need a visa ( / ) (it) is pork or beef, (they) are all expensive ( ) /

/

/

118

Exercise 13.6
Finish the following translation using ~ / and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Even if (I) drink water, (I) am still thirsty.” ( / ) = . 1 Even if (I) turn the heater on, (it) is still cold ( ) 2 Even if (he) smoked, (he) was healthy ( / 3 Even if (she) eats a lot, (she) does not gain weight ( ) 4 Even if (I) waited two hours, there was no contact ( / ) 5 Even if (I) am sick, (I) will go to school ( / / ) /

Exercise 13.6

)

Exercise 13.7
Connect the following two sentences using ~ sentence. Example: / . Then translate the

/ = . “Even if (I) am tired, (I) jog everyday.” / / / / /

1 2 3 4 5

119

UNIT 14
Permission, prohibition, and obligation

Permission
Seeking and/or giving permission in Korean is typically carried out by the form ~ / . This form is constructed from ~ / “even if” and the verb “become/get/turn into.” Some other adjectives, such as “be fine” or “be good,” can be used instead of to indicate the similar meaning. Consequently, the construction ~ / (or / ) literally means “it is all right even if . . .” The selection between ~ and ~ depends on the same principle of choosing between ~ and ~ , the informal polite speech level endings. ~ is used after a stem that ends in or (e.g., “even if I go”), whereas ~ is used after a stem that ends in all other vowels (e.g., “even if I learn”). ~ / in an interrogative sentence is used to ask for permission. in a declarative sentence is used to give On the other hand, ~ / permission, as shown in the examples below.

Asking for permission
? “May (I) go home now (lit. Is it all right even if I go home now)?” ? “May (I) drink water?” ? “May (I) eat first?” ? “Is (it) okay even if (it) is spicy?” ? “Is (it) all right even if (it) is a long trip?”

Giving permission
. “(You) may watch TV (lit. It is okay even if you watch TV).” . “(You) may sell the car now.” . “(You) may order (it) first.”
120

. do not have to . . ” as shown in the examples below: .” the negative “not.” ~( ) is typically used when one wishes to stress what is minimally necessary or required.. “If (you) feel uncomfortable. .” Consider the following examples: 121 . “(You) should not leave first. It is equivalent to “all one has to do is . . . This form is the combination of ~( ) “if.” . . “If (it) is too expensive. it is all right.” . or giving a warning. the non-negating form of ~( ) would be ~( ) .” . “(You) should not lie. even if you do not go). (you) do not have go (lit. “(It) would not be all right if the dress is too expensive. . .” It can be translated as “(it) would not be all right if .” . “(It) would not be all right if (you) are late for the class. “If (you) are busy.” .” and the verb “become/get/turn into.” ~ / in a negative sentence means “. . . “(You) should not cry during the wedding ceremony. If you are busy. (you) do not have to put on a suit. Note that ~( ) means literally “it would be all right if .” . (you) do not have to buy that book. .” or “you should/must not” in English.” Meanwhile. “(It) is fine even if (it) is a little more expensive.” “(It) is fine even if (it) is not water.” . “(You) should not throw garbage away here.” .” or “it would do if. “(It) would not be all right if the weather is cloudy. the form ~( ) is used. “(You) should not smoke here. prohibiting some action. “(It) would not be all right if the roommate is a male student.” .” .” Prohibition Prohibition For denying permission.

“(We) must go to Chicago on Saturday.” ] . it was noted that ~( tion” or “warning.” . “(It) would do if (they) are Koreans. “(It) would do if the destination is London.” .” “ought to. . and obligation . prohibition.” .” Obligation In English.” Notice that the meanings of both sentences are the same. “(It) would do if (you) study hard. “(It) would do if the weather is good.” and “have to. such as “should. 122 “(I) must study for the test.” .” .” .” .14 Permission. “(You) must get up early in the morning. ~ ~ ) ~( ) is used to express “prohibior ~ and the negative form. Here are more examples: . The difference between ~( ) and ~ is that while the first is the short-form negation.” “must. “All (you) have to do is to go to Korea.” Notice that are the combinations of ~( ) the following examples: [ [~ ~( ) ] “(You) must drink water. Consider Previously. a sense of obligation can be expressed by the following two constructions: (1) ~( ) /~ and (2) ~ / . “(It) would do if the design is pretty. “(You) must drink water. the second is the long-form negation.” In Korean. . a sense of obligation or necessity is expressed by various auxiliary verbs.” . .” “need to.

“(I) must take medicines every night.~ The idea of obligation or necessity can be also expressed by ~ (or ~ / for more formal usage).” .” . “(He) has to be a Korean.” . “The function has to be good.” .” .” .” . “(I) must send the card before Christmas. “(You) must be happy by all means. / Key vocabulary for Unit 14 exercises “(I) must go to Seoul tomorrow. “The house has to be big.” Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 14 exercises store price bag high-school student study soup road/street weather to pay tomorrow snow/eyes to close library to obtain to open (one’s eyes) to eat side dishes room hands to begin test/examination/experiment to be watery to pack/to be cheap 123 . “(They) must be adults.” . “(It) must be (your) father’s signature.

14 Permission. and obligation to use to wash yet/even now morning/breakfast face traveling movie driving license to be dangerous now/this time work/matter/affair to get up early to be small to hold/to capture to be uninteresting/to be dull electricity usage bill lunch to be narrow/to be small to be good house to be salty cleaning to ride to leave one’s office/to go home Exercise 14.1 Finish the following translation using ~ / provided in parenthesis. 1 2 3 4 5 (You) (You) (You) (You) (You) may may may may may trust Peter’s story ( use my computer ( turn on the air conditioner ( turn off the electric lamp ( close the door ( ) ) ) ) ) and the sentence cue ) 124 . as shown in the example.” ( = . Example: “(You) may leave tomorrow. prohibition.

” 1 2 3 4 5 125 .” ( = . Exercise 14. “It would not be all right if the weather is cold.2 . Example: “(You) should not leave tomorrow. Then translate the sentence.Exercise 14.2 Conjugate the following using ~ / Example: = . Then translate the sentence. as shown in the example. 1 2 3 4 5 (You) (You) (You) (You) (You) should should should should should not not not not not lose the key ( cross the bridge ( drink beer ( dump refuse ( smoke here ( ) ) ) ) ) ) Exercise 14.3 Finish the following translation using ~( ) and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis.4 Conjugate the following using ~( ) Example: . “(You) may play the piano.” 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 14. = .

” ( = .” . “(You) must take the 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 14. as shown in the example.5 Finish the following translation using ~ cue provided in parenthesis. Example: “(You) must tie a necktie. Example: = medicine.6 Conjugate the following using ~ sentence. as shown in the example. prohibition.14 Permission.7 Finish the following translation using ~ / provided in parenthesis. and obligation Exercise 14. 1 2 3 4 5 (He) has to be a doctor ( (You) must wear a uniform ( (We) must make money ( (You) must wash (your) face ( (I) must go to the hospital ( ) ) ) ) ) and the sentence cue ) 126 . ) ) ) ) ) and the sentence Exercise 14. Example: “(You) must hurry. Then translate the .” ( = 1 2 3 4 5 (You) must study hard ( (I) must clean up the office ( (He) must do the dishes ( (They) must go outside ( (She) must stay home ( ) .

_______________________. 127 . “No. (you) may leave the office.” ? “May (I) ride (your) motorcycle?” . Then translate the sentence. _____________________. (you) should not ride (it).9 Complete the following dialogue. No.10 Finish the following translation using the sentence cues provided in parenthesis.8 .” Exercise 14.” 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 14. as shown in the example. Example: “(You) should not do laundry here. “(I) must go to the airport.” ( / ~( ) ) = . Example: A: ? “May (I) drink orange juice?” B: .” ? “May (I) close the window?” . (you) should not drink (it). (you) may close the window. __________________________.” = .8 Conjugate the following using ~ / Example: = . 1 A: B: 2 A: B: 3 A: B: 4 A: B: ? “May (I) use (your) computer?” . as shown in the example. Yes.” ? “May (I) leave the office?” . Exercise 14. _______________ “No. “Yes. (you) should not use (it).Exercise 14. ___________________.

prohibition.14 Permission. and obligation 1 (You) may smoke there ( 2 (You) may take pictures in the room ( ) 3 (I) must take a Korean language class ( ) 4 (You) must buy a coat ( / ~( 5 (I) must talk in a loud voice ( ) 6 (You) must wear seat belts ( 7 (You) must park (your car) here ( 8 (I) must leave Paris ( /~ / 9 (You) should not open the refrigerator ( ) 10 (You) should not touch the painting ( ) /~ / /~ / ) / ~( ) ) / ~ /~ /~ ) / ) ) ) / ~( ) / ~( ) 128 .

” (passive) In the first sentence.. one can change a verb into a passive form by using the copula “to be” along with the past particle of the verb (e.UNIT 15 Passives and causatives Passives A sentence can be said either in the active voice or the passive voice. the focus is not on the doer but on the object of the action. consider the following two sentences: “John opens the door. the door) instead.” (active) “The door is opened by John. However. John is the doer. one can change a verb into a passive verb by attaching the suffix ~ . ~ . and the situation is depicted from the doer’s standpoint.g.” In Korean. ~ed). in the second sentence. the situation is depicted from the standpoint of the object (e.. or ~ to the stem of verbs: Suffix “to “to “to “to “to Suffix “to “to “to “to “to see” use” place” mix” pile up” close” block” catch” lift” step on” “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to be be be be be be be be be be seen” used” placed” mixed” piled up” closed” blocked” caught” lifted” stepped on” 129 .g. In English. In the active sentence. the subject is the “doer” of the action. For instance. as in “the door was opened. In this passive sentence. ~ .

. However. In addition. in Korean.” .15 Passives and causatives Suffix “to “to “to “to “to Suffix “to “to “to “to “to bite” open” hear” sell” push” take away” hold” chase” tear out” disconnect” “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to be be be be be be be be be be bitten” opened” heard” sold” pushed” taken away” held” chased” torn out” disconnected” The use of passives is more common in English than in Korean.g.” ) . most English transitive verbs can be changed into passives (e. “The storm blocks the road.” . “This book is read by Korean (or students. notice in the second sentence that is marked by . whereas the subject is in the second sentence. the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence.g.” In the first sentence. . “The road was blocked by the storm. “The book was placed on the desk by me”). car). “Korean students read this book. Consider the following two sentences.” ( 130 . One has to memorize both the verbs that can be changed into a passive verb as well as the suffix each verb takes. “The baby is held by John. “I placed the book on the desk” vs. When the object is an animate noun (e. “John holds the baby..” ) . For instance. human or animals). (or ) marks the object. wind. . For instance. marks the object. When an active sentence is changed into a passive sentence.. However. there is only a limited set of transitive verbs that can be made passive (like the verbs listed above). the subject and object relationship changes.g. the subject is . when it is an inanimate noun (e.

~ . In Korean. ~ . 131 . and ~ . ~ . First. ~ .Causatives The function of a causative is to (i) make someone or something to do something or (ii) to cause a change of state. you may notice that both passive and causative suffixes contain ~ . Suffix “to “to “to “to Suffix “to “to “to “to “to Suffix “to “to “to “to Suffix “to “to “to “to Suffix “to “to “to “to Causatives eat” see” die” boil” wear” lie down” sit” be wide” be narrow” cry” freeze” fly” know” take off ” laugh” wear” remain” sleep” burn” wake” join in” “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to “to feed someone” show” kill someone” boil something” dress someone” lay someone down” put someone into a seat” widen” narrow” make someone cry” freeze something” let something fly” inform” undress someone” make someone laugh” put shoes on someone” leave something behind” put someone to sleep” burn something” wake someone up” put in” Suffix “to rise” “to be suited” “to be low” “to make higher” “to make fit” “to lower” There are some similarities between the causatives and passives. one can change a verb or adjective into a causative by attaching a causative suffix to the stem of verbs and/or adjectives. ~ . ~ . There are seven suffixes: ~ .

“to go” “to eat” “to learn” “to watch” “to be warm” “to be delicious” “to be happy” “to be easy” “to make someone go” “to make someone eat” “to make someone learn” “to make someone watch” “to make something warm” “to make something delicious” “to make someone happy” “to make something easy” The ~ construction is a much more productive means to indicate causative function than the adding the causative suffix. For example. “The child was put on Lisa’s back. One can add the causative meaning to the verbs and/or adjectives by attaching ~ after their stems. one has to learn both the verb/adjective that can be changed into a causative as well as the suffix each verb/adjective takes. In addition. In fact. and ~ . 132 . only a restricted number of verbs and adjectives (e. like the verbs and adjectives listed above) can take the suffixes and be changed into causative verbs.. consider the following two sentences: . there is one more way to change verbs/adjectives into causative constructions.15 Passives and causatives ~ . one can only tell whether is a causative or a passive verb by its context. The long-form causative construction ~ Besides changing verbs/adjectives into causatives by adding the suffixes. some verbs such as .” . and can function both as causatives as well as passives. since its usage is not restricted to the certain verbs and adjectives. Since there is no rule that specifies which verb/adjective can take which causative suffix.g. “The mother put the child on Lisa’s back. as with passives.” In such cases.

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 15 exercises cat bear to be long chewing gum older sister fortunately more to be hot back to drink to be delicious everyday to eat first mosquito fish presentation meal usually rain laundry clothes-line a study/library sweater test/exam to be cheap to chew child fog front row today often jacket evening/dinner electricity telephone book jeans to be cold Key vocabulary for Unit 15 exercises 133 .

15 Passives and causatives Exercise 15. / ) 1 (I) only use olive oil ( / ) 2 This balloon is used for the birthday party ( / ) 3 What time do (you) close the store? ( / / ) 4 The door was closed by the wind ( / / ) 5 (I) caught a mouse ( / ) 6 The thief was caught by the police ( / / ) 7 Mosquitoes bite ( / ) 8 John was bitten by mosquitoes a lot ( / / 9 If the baby cries. “That store sells I-Pods. Example: “The mountain is seen.” ) _______? “Where should (I) place the computer?” ______. Example: 134 .” / Exercise 15. “(I) could not hear the phone ring. “Music is not heard. = “The door is firmly closed.2 Finish the following translation using the cues provided in parenthesis.1 Complete each sentence with an appropriate active or passive form of the verb indicated.” . “Because of I-Pods.” __________. please hug (him) ( / / ) 10 The baby was held by (her) dad ( / / ) / ) Exercise 15.” ( = . CD players are not sold much.” 2 To listen ( a b 3 To place ( a b / ) ________. “The computer is placed on the table.” b ___________.3 Translate the following sentences into English. 1 To sell ( / ) a ___________.

. Example: “(I) lowered the radio volume. Please boil the water (for me) ( / ). . Did (you) dress (him) the uniform? ( / ) Please make the students laugh ( / ). / ) 135 . Example: = ___________ (to feed) . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Don’t make the child cry ( / ).4 Exercise 15.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .” ( = . . Please lay the baby on the bed ( / ). Please do not burn the meat ( / ). . Exercise 15. . . Please wake me up at 6 o’clock ( / ).4 Complete the following sentences. Pay special attentions to the causative form. . . as shown in the example.5 Finish the following translation using the cues provided in parenthesis. . ______________ (to wake) _______________ (to dress) ______________ (to put shoes on) _______________ (to put someone into a seat) ______________ (to put someone to sleep) 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 15.

1 2 3 4 5 Please Please Please Please Please make make make make make / and the cues provided ) the soup spicy ( / ).” . . Example: “Please make the hair short. . . . Lisa happy ( / ).7 Finish the following translation using ~ in parenthesis. . 136 . .” ( = . Exercise 15. Example: 1 2 3 4 5 .” ? .15 Passives and causatives Exercise 15. the surrounding dark ( / ).8 Translate the following expressions into English. (your) wife joyful ( / ). . Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . . = “(We) laid the child on the bed.6 Translate the following into English. . = “Please make Jennifer happy (for me). the room warm ( / ). . . . Exercise 15.

However. in case of relative clauses.g. and it carries the present meaning. This unit introduces three Korean noun-modifying endings: ~ . as in “John who is smart” or “John who studies history”). Moreover. in Korean. in case of adjectives.. The English modifiers can occur before the word they modify (e. any predicate can be changed into a modifier by attaching a noun-modifying ending to the predicate stem.UNIT 16 The noun-modifying endings Modifier clauses The typical examples of English modifiers are adjectives and relative clauses. Consider the following examples: Verb “sleep” “drink” coffee” “come” here everyday” “meet” “work” “find” “eat” “meet” “read” reads” “attend” attends” “the college that Jessica 137 Verb stem + “the student who sleeps at home” “the student who drinks “the customer who comes “the person who meets John” “Lisa who works in Korea” “the color I look for” “the food that Tom eats” “the person whom Lisa meets” “the book that (my) older brother . as in “smart John”) and/or after the word (e.g. modifiers (or modifying clauses) always come before the word they modify. The noun-modifying ending ~ The noun-modifying ending ~ is used with verbs. and ~( ) . ~( ) ..

as shown below: Adjective “small” “good” “many” “pretty” “busy” “quiet” “famous” “difficult” Copula “be” “not be” Adjective stem + ( ) “small desk” “good person” “a lot of money” “pretty flower” “busy schedule” “quiet room” “famous song” “difficult test” Copula stem + ( ) “Matthew who is a doctor” “the person who is not a student” ~ with verbs When ~( ) is attached to a verb stem. ~ is used after a stem that ends in a vowel. it indicates the present meaning. copulas. few adjectives that end with / take ~ .16 The nounmodifying endings Notice in the examples above that ~ attaches to the verb stem and changes the predicate into the present form of a relative clause. as shown in the following examples: 138 . as shown below: “delicious” “tasteless” “stylish” “interesting” “delicious food” “tasteless lunch” “fanciful hat” “interesting movie” The noun-modifying ending ~( ) The noun-modifying ending ~( ) is used with adjectives. Although ~ is primarily used with verbs. When ~( ) is used with adjectives or copulas. it changes the predicate into the past form of a relative clause. it carries the past meaning. ~ with adjectives and copulas One can change an adjective and/or a copula into a noun-modifying unit by attaching ~( ) to their stems: ~ is used after a stem that ends in a consonant. when it is used with verbs. as well as verbs.

For instance. This is particularly true when the ending is used with the past tense.g. saying a phrase like “the food that I ate” in Korean should be “ ” not “ . ~ is attached to a stem that ends in a vowel (e. since the action or state has not been realized.” The noun-modifying ending ~( ) The noun-modifying ending ~( ) indicates that the action or state denoted by the predicate has not yet been actualized... Compare the following examples: “the person who ate salad” “the person who eats salad” “the person who will eat salad” “the person who might have eaten salad” 139 . the ending can also imply the meaning of intention or conjecture.g. “the food that Richard will eat”). ~( ) mainly indicates the prospective meaning.Verb “eat” “find” “read” “see” “learn” “leave” “study” Verb stem + ( ) “the person who ate dinner” “the key that I found” “the book that Isabel read” “the movie that I saw” “the students who learned a lot” “the man who left yesterday” “the person who studied Korean” The nounmodifying ending ~ Since ~( ) denotes the past meaning. ~ is attached to a stem that ends in a consonant (e. “the movie that Lisa will see”). However. “the content that (I) will study today” “the book (I) will read tomorrow” “the teacher who will teach Korean” “the bag that will be heavy” “the person whose personality will be nice” “the test that will be difficult” As shown above. the use of past tense marker / along with ~( ) is grammatically incorrect.

” “the person who ate spaghetti” “the person who eats spaghetti” “the person who will eat spaghetti” “the person who might have eaten spaghetti” These newly transformed noun phrases (or noun-modifying clauses) can be used as a subject.” . or indirect object. notice that the predicate of the fourth sentence has the past tense marker ~ and ~( ) (e. depending on the particle that attaches to them. + + ). “The person who ate spaghetti is John. “(I) eat spaghetti. it becomes part of a new noun phrase. Here are more examples: “the letter that might have arrived (there) yesterday” “Tom who might have left for Korea” “the person that I might have met” “the person who might have gone to the library last Monday” Placing a noun-modifying unit in a sentence When a predicate is changed into a noun-modifying unit.16 The nounmodifying endings The first sentence is the past form of a relative clause as indicated by ~ . as shown in the following examples: .” . “(I) made a phone call to the person who ate spaghetti. the second sentence indicates the present action as indicated by ~ . “(I) like the person who ate spaghetti. However.g. as shown below: . the third sentence is about a prospective action as indicated by ~ . The ~( ) ending in the fourth sentence does not indicate the prospective meaning but conjecture. object..” 140 .

S. to receive room to throw away to borrow to buy person/people mountain to live gift/present island to be cheap/to wrap up to use trash to be beautiful morning/breakfast apartment suit/dress yesterday clothes food to move (into a new address) Key vocabulary for Unit 16 exercises 141 .Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 16 exercises to go to change (car/train)/to transfer to marry (a person) fruits train tomorrow I/my you song to be high older sister next colleague to listen to meet to make U.A.

2 Change the following into a noun-modifying form using ~( ) . as shown in the example.1 Finish the following translation using ~( ) parenthesis.16 The nounmodifying endings to work to wear (a dress) last year the first/most to be quiet week last house book friend school older brother company Exercise 16. Then translate the phrase. Example: = / “spicy kimchi” / / / / / 142 1 2 3 4 5 . as shown in the example. Example: “Yellow cab” ( = / ) and the cues provided in 1 Pretty designs ( / ) 2 The most famous tourist attraction in Korea ( / ) 3 The most popular actor in Korea ( 4 The most expensive watch ( / ) 5 Long hair ( / ) / ) Exercise 16.

4 Change the following into a noun-modifying form using ~ the example.Exercise 16. and the cues provided in par/ / / ) / / ) / ) ) ) Exercise 16. as shown in the example.5 Finish the following translation using ~( parenthesis. Example: 1 2 3 4 5 = / / / / / / “The street that (I) walk everyday” .3 Finish the following translation using ~ enthesis.3 Example: “The bus that I ride everyday” ( = 1 The book that Peter reads nowadays ( 2 The sports (we) enjoy during winter ( 3 The food that Korean people eat everyday ( ) 4 The store where Jessica works ( 5 The man whom (my) older sister dates with ( Exercise 16. Then translate the phrase. ) and the cues provided in / Example: “The high school that I graduated from” ( ) = 1 2 3 4 5 The The The The The picture that (we) took together ( movie that (I) saw last month ( dress that (she) exchanged yesterday ( milk that (I) drank in the morning ( item that (I) sold in the afternoon ( / / / / / ) ) ) ) ) 143 . as shown in the example. as shown in Exercise 16.

Example: = Monday” / “The customer that (I) will meet on 144 . as shown in the example. and the cues provided in Example: “The tree that we will plant tomorrow” ( ) = 1 2 3 4 The The The The ) 5 The / food that I will cook tomorrow ( / bottle that (I) will fill with milk ( / ) water that the patient will drink ( / ) book that (we) will borrow from the library ( package which (you) will mail at the post office ( ) ) / / Exercise 16. Then translate the phrase. as shown in the example. Then translate the phrase. as shown in the example.7 Finish the following translation using ~( ) parenthesis.6 Change the following into a noun-modifying form using ~( ) . Example: = yesterday” / / / / / / “The coffee that (I) drank the day before 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 16.16 The nounmodifying endings Exercise 16.8 Change the following into a noun-modifying form using ~( ) .

9 Exercise 16.1 2 3 4 5 / / / / / Exercise 16. Example: “John who studies Korean” ( = 1 Maria who plays a guitar ( / ) 2 The person who will leave for Japan tomorrow ( / ) / ) 3 The woman who made a cake ( 4 The season that I like ( / ) 5 The child who threw the ball ( / ) 6 The student who has an Apple computer ( ) 7 The man who will meet Laura on Tuesday ( ) 8 Tom who has an expensive car ( / ) 9 Dave who is a policeman ( / ) 10 The customer who sent the letter yesterday ( ) / ) / / / 145 .9 Finish the following translation using the cues provided in parenthesis. as shown in the example.

~ . ~( ) is used after a verb stem for the past meaning or after an adjective/copula stem for the present meaning.” . “This car seems to be better. and ~( ) ). “(It) seems that (she) jogs every morning nowadays. “Charles seems to be British. the dependent noun “the fact/the one/the being” (or for colloquial settings). “(It) seems that Tony went to the 146 library.” The selection of ~ .” . ~ . and ~( ) follows the same mechanism of the nounmodifying patterns: ~ is used after a verb stem for the present meaning.” . ~( ) .UNIT 17 Describing the appearance of actions or states of affair This unit introduces several expressions that are used to describe the appearance of actions or states of affair and to express the speaker’s conjecture.” ~ .” . ~ ( ) ( ) The construction ~ /( ) /( ) “(it) seems/looks like” is the combination of one of three noun-modifying endings (e.” .” .. “(It) looks like the bus arrives soon.” . ~( ) . ~( ) is used after a verb or adjective stem for the prospective meaning. “(It) seems that (they) drank beer a lot yesterday. and the adjective “be the same. “(It) seems that Matthew teaches English.g. “Paul seems to be nice to everyone.

” ~ ~ .” . “As for tomorrow. “(It) seemed that (he) was sleeping in the room.” .” . the noun “appearance/form/sign.” ~ ( ) ( ) ~ /( ) /( ) “appears/looks like” consists of one of three noun-modifying endings. . “(It) seems that (they) will go to Korea next year. “(It) seems that (my) friend will not come to the party. “(It) seemed that (he) would not eat beef.” 147 . “(It) seems that the test will be difficult. the past tense marker Consider the following examples: / is used after . “(It) appears that (she) learns the Korean language.” and the copula .” .” . “(It) seems that (he) studied a lot for the test. “(It) seemed that (her) mother was a Japanese person. “(It) appears that (he) makes (some) popcorn.” . “(It) appears that (she) does not have the key.” .” . “(It) appears that the movie is interesting. “(It) seemed that James caught a cold.” . “(It) seemed that this movie would be interesting. ~ ..” .” . “(It) seems that Tuesday will be cold.” For the past tense. (it) seems that snow will fall.

“(It) appears that (he) will not come home today.” and “(it) appears that. “(It) appears that (he) longs for a friend. “(It) looks like (they) will not eat dessert.” .” ~ ( ) 148 ~ /( ) “guess/seem” is used to express the speaker’s inferential judgment.” . such as “(I) guess that.” . It is corresponding to English expressions. the dependent noun “seeming appearance. “(They) seemed to like jazz. “(It) appears that (he) attended a high school in Japan.” .” ~ ( ) ( ) ~ /( ) / ( ) “seems/appears/looks like” is the combination of one of the noun-modifying endings.” ~ . “(He) seems to be asleep.” .” For the past tense. the past tense marker shown in the following examples: / is used after .” .” . as shown below: . “(It) seems that the summer has come. “(It) appears that (he) will quit smoking.” .” . “(It) appears that (they) could not eat breakfast. “(He) appears to be a diligent person. “The food appeared to be spicy. “That rumor seems to be true.17 Describing the appearance of actions or states of affair ~ . “(It) seemed that (he) majored in Chinese history.” .” and the dependent adjective “really/indeed. ~ is used. as .” . “(He) seems to be alive still.” For verb stems.

Consider the following examples: : . “(I) guess that the bag is light.” .” . “(I) guess that (he) majors in Korean history. “(I) guess that Jessica learns Taekwondo/ (It) seems that Jessica learns Taekwondo. “(I) guess that Peter’s birthday was yesterday. and ~ that ends in a vowel. “(I) guess that Edward is in a good mood. “(I) guess that the house is very expensive. ~( ) after a stem that ends in a consonant. “(I) guess that (they) spent money a lot last month..” . “(I) guess that the test was easy. “(I) guess that (he) was Chinese. “(I) guess that (he) has a lot of money. adjectives. It is not grammatically incorrect to add the past tense marker to .” Note that the main verb does not take the tense marker.” .” . “(I) guess that the food was a bit salty.” For the past tense. “(I) guess that (her) bag is small.” . adding the past tense to the main verb generates a different meaning.” . ~ is used after the past tense marker / with verbs. However.” .” .” . “(I) guess that (she) drinks coffee a lot.” . “(I) guess that (they) go to church every Sunday. “(I) guess that (he) was very tired yesterday. “(I) guess that (they) are very busy because of the test.” . is used: ~ is used is used after a stem ~ .” .” For adjectives and copulas.” . “(I) guess that (they) were very hungry. and copulas.” . “(I) guess that the food was too sweet. “(I) guess that the outside is cold. “(I) guess that (he) is Korean. “(I) guess that (they) have not eaten dinner yet.” .” .” . as shown in the following examples: 149 .

“(Her) mood appeared to be bad.” For the past tense.” .” . “(I) guess that Thomas went to school.” . while the ~ / ending adjective stem does not.17 Describing the appearance of actions or states of affair . “(I) checked whether Thomas goes to school. “The kitchen appears to be big. the auxiliary verb takes the tense marker. “(I) checked whether Thomas went to school.” ~ ~ / is used when the speaker expresses his/her opinion regarding the appearance of something. “(His) face looked old. “The coffee looks delicious.” .” Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 17 exercises price to be poor to go to teach to be light to cross/to go over to marry to be humble to fix/to repair airport earring to wait dormitory kimchi 150 . and it corresponds to “(it) looks/appears to be” in English. as shown below: . It is only used with adjectives.” .” . “The dress looks expensive.” . “(I) guess that Thomas goes to school. . “John looked busy yesterday.

to be clean to quit weather song notebook snow/eyes bridge/leg next month cigarette graduate student to be hot to arrive money to return to help to be smart to be many/to be much to be tasteless to be delicious everyday head/hair (of one’s head) to be busy not in particular hospital spring to sing/to call out kitchen to be diligent to send to be expensive to borrow to buy person/people to live to be earnest Wednesday to be sad to order (something)/to force (a person to do) honeymoon to be watery to be cheap/to be inexpensive Key vocabulary for Unit 17 exercises 151 .

to cook food popularity Japan to work well/expertly/nicely to be young to like wallet house to be salty pot stew car to depart to be cold friends letter semester Korea older brother to be cloudy Exercise 17.17 Describing the appearance of actions or states of affair to be sore inside glasses apple pie not have/not exist English to be pretty to come/to precipitate/to drop afternoon/p.1 Conjugate the predicate using ~ (for verbs) and ~( (for adjectives). “(It) seems that Brian learns Taekwondo. Then translate the sentence.” ) 152 1 2 3 . Example: = .m.

Then translate the sentence.4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Exercise 17. “(It) seems that service will be 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Exercise 17. Then translate the .2 Exercise 17. Example: = .” ) .3 Conjugate the predicate using ~ (for verbs) and ~( (for adjectives). Example: = nice. “(It) appears that Emily studies Japanese.2 Conjugate the predicate using ~( sentence.” ) 1 2 3 4 5 153 .

as shown in the example.” 1 2 3 4 5 154 . “(It) seems that (my) older brother is ordering green tea.4 Finish the following translation using ~ /( ) /( ) and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis. Then translate the = . Example: “(It) seems that flowers are blooming.5 Conjugate the predicate using ~ sentence. Example: /( ) .” ( = . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (It) (It) (It) (It) (It) (It) (It) (It) seems seems seems seems seems seems seems seems that that that that that that that that (he) is looking for keys ( (she) works on Saturday ( (they) sold the house ( (he) will quit the job ( the soup is spicy ( ) the ring is too expensive ( the size will be too small ( the room will be too cold ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Exercise 17.17 Describing the appearance of actions or states of affair 6 7 8 9 10 Exercise 17.

” ( = . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (She) looks joyful ( ) (He) looks scary ( ) (You) look lonely ( ) (You) look bored ( ) (They) look happy ( ) (He) looked excited ( ) (She) looked nervous ( ) (They) looked to be in high spirits ( (You) looked annoyed ( ) (He) looked angry ( ) ) ) 155 . Then translate the Exercise 17. Example: = newspapers.6 Conjugate the predicate using ~ sentence.Exercise 17. as shown in the example. Example: “(He) looks anxious.7 Finish the following translation using ~ / and the adjective cue provided in parenthesis. “(I) guess that Kevin reads 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Exercise 17.6 .” /( ) .

” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 156 .17 Describing the appearance of actions or states of affair Exercise 17.8 Conjugate the predicate using ~ / Example: = . “Brian looks kind. . Then translate the sentence.

. . (we) were on (our) way to meet Professor Kim.” This unit introduces seven special expressions that are made by combining one of three noun-modifying endings with one of the following post modifiers: .” .” ~( ) ~( ) / is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~( ) and the noun or “experience. and so forth.” .” Typically.” ~ is normally used with a verb of movement. ..” and they are used to indicate whether the subject “has an/no experience (of doing something). . ~ .” “(I) stopped by the department store on (my) way from school. “(I) will buy the present on (my) way from the airport. and . such as “go” (e. such as . . ~ ~ “on the way” is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~ and the noun “way/road/street. “(I) am on (my) way to Boston.g.” Consider the following examples: 157 . ~( ) or ~( ) is followed by “exist/have” or “not exist/not have.g. “on the way to”) and “come” (e. . and ~ ) and a noun. . “on the way from”). . ~ or ~ ).g.” .g. ~ ..UNIT 18 Post modifiers I Korean has a number of idiomatic expressions that consist of one of three noun-modifying endings (e. “As for us. they are called “post modifiers. .. “(I) met (my) mother on (my) way to the post office. Since these nouns always appear after the nounmodifying endings (e.

” as shown below: “while drinking coffee” “while reading the book in the library” “while making a phone call to (my) friend” Since ~ indicates this temporal relation.” The combination of and the noun-modifying ending ~ . such as “last week” and “yesterday. “(I) have an experience of learning Korean yesterday.” The auxiliary verb ~ / with the form ~( ) / “try (doing) something” is often used / .” as in “for a long time. as in ~ .” . “(I) have never learned golf. “(I) have been to Jennifer’s house. “While 158 Susan worked in the office. the use of relatively recent time-related expressions.18 Post modifiers I . since ~ / / / normally refers to a temporarily distant experience. as shown below: . such as “a month ago” and “last year.” and “during winter vacation. The form ~ is equivalent to “while” or “during.” is inappropriate.” “for three years.” . the form expresses “Have you ever?” Various time-related expressions. However.” . can be . In addition. expresses two situations or activities that overlap in time.” ? “Have (you) ever worked in Japan?” ? “Have (you) ever tried Korean food?” Notice that ~ / / / highlights whether the subject has an/no experience of doing something. .” . as in ~ . “(I) have never met the teacher. (I) waited in the lobby. “(I) have an experience of learning Korean last year.” ~ The noun means “a while/an interval. the particle used optionally after the form. when it is used in an interrogative sentence.” can be used with ~ / / / . “(I) have been to Seoul.

(I) made dinner.” .” The meaning of ~ is similar to that of the progressive ~ . ask me.” The combination of the nounmodifying ending ~ and the noun . the noun “middle.” . since both involve progressive actions.” ~ ~ The noun means “on the road. as in ~ .” . please take care of (my) younger brother. (she) will fall asleep in the middle of (seeing the) movie. “While I am away. . “(I) had a car accident on (my) way from the department store. “We are all in the middle of cooking. “(I guess that he) is in the middle of driving.” . “While (I) jog outside. “(I) fell asleep in the middle of studying. “(I) will meet (my) father on my way home.” . Compare the following examples: 159 ..” . (I) was sleeping. “(We) were in the middle of learning Taekwondo.” This form is constructed from the noun-modifying ending ~ .” ~ ~ means “be in the process/middle of (doing something). “If (you) have questions in the middle of taking the test.” . “(I) am in the middle of looking for that book in the library. indicates “on the way to/from” or “in the middle of .” . “While (my) older sister was eating lunch. “(He) went to the restroom in the midst of conversation.” .” and the copula .” . use my computer.” .” . “Perhaps. “While (my) wife was sleeping.

” However. “(I) am in the middle (or process) of talking to (my) friend.” Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 18 exercises to go to go out weather I/my to quarrel/to argue pork beer hat 160 . “(I) am talking to (my) friend.” .” . ~ /( ) means “tends to” or “kind of” in English. “The items in this store are kind of expensive. while ~ simply indicates the progressive meaning.18 Post modifiers I .” .” . as shown in the following examples: .” .” . “(I) tend to play golf on the weekend.” .” . ~ ( ) ~ /( ) is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~ (for a verb stem) or ~( ) (for an adjective stem). “The library is kind of far from my house.” and the copula . “Eunice tends to go to the swimming pool more often than I do. “(My) older brother is kind of taller than me. the noun “side/ way/party. “My car is kind of small. ~ tends to highlight the process. “(My) younger brother kind of speaks English better (than I). “Lisa kind of speaks Korean well.

to receive to learn to buy supermarket ski to order/to ask (someone to do) test/exam to pack to cut up/to slice to use wife suit/dress to be difficult mother today cooking food to talk Sunday to work to wear/to put on to sleep seat useless talk/scolding/preaching well/expertly scholarship jogging to like/to be fond of/to rejoice China loads/packages to look for/to seek for to play (tennis or piano)/to strike friend to ride Taekwondo Korea older brother toilet to be cloudy Key vocabulary for Unit 18 exercises 161 .

18 Post modifiers I Exercise 18.3 Conjugate the predicate using ~( sentence. 1 2 3 4 5 (I) (I) (I) (I) (I) have have have have have never failed the test ( been to Manhattan ( tried kimchi ( ) never been married ( an experience of shooting a gun ( ) ) ) ) Exercise 18.” ( / ) = . “(I) have an experience of meeting Thomas. 1 (We) will send the package on (our) way to school ( ) 2 (They) ran into the teacher on (their) way to the hospital ( / ) 3 (She) lost (her) wallet on (her) way from the library ( ) / 4 (He) fell on (his) way from the church ( / 5 (I) met John on (my) way from the store ( / ) / ) Exercise 18. Example: “(I) have tried Philippine food.2 Finish the following translation using ~( ) / and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis.1 Finish the following translation using ~ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis.” . Example: “(I) stopped by the supermarket on (my) way from school.” ( ) = . Then translate the = . Example: 162 ) . as shown in the example. as shown in the example.

4 Finish the following translation using ~ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis. (I) used (his) computer. (my) wife looked around the shop ( / ) Exercise 18. as shown in the example. Tom entered (my) house. 1 While Harry does the laundry. Sally read the map ( ) 4 While Charles worked. Example: “While (my) older brother was sleeping.1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 18. Cindy waited (for him) at the coffee shop ( / ) 5 While I negotiated with the salesman. Then translate the / = .4 Exercise 18.5 Connect the following two sentences using ~ sentence. Gina will pack loads ( / ) / 3 While John drove (the car). Kate cooks ( / ) 2 While I look for keys. Example: .” ( / ) = . “While Susan was on the phone.” / / / / / 163 1 2 3 4 5 .

18 Post modifiers I Exercise 18. Example: “Kevin kind of eats a lot.” ( = . “(I) am in the middle of making 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 18. as shown in the example.7 Conjugate the predicate using ~ Example: = dinner.6 Finish the following translation using ~ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis. 1 2 3 4 5 (She) is in the middle of driving ( ) (We) are in the middle of planting a tree ( (He) is in the middle of fixing the computer ( (I) am in the middle of writing a letter ( (We) are in the middle of crossing the bridge ( ) ) ) ) ) Exercise 18. .” ( = . Then translate the sentence. as shown in the example. 1 2 3 4 5 164 and the sentence ) The house is kind of noisy ( The room is kind of dark ( Nancy’s food is kind of salty ( Naomi tends to skip breakfast ( (I) tend to exercise everyday ( ) ) ) ) ) .8 Finish the following translation using ~ /( ) cue provided in parenthesis.” . Example: “(I) am in the middle of shaving.

“(It) kind of snows a lot in Albany.9 Conjugate the predicate using ~ sentence.9 = . Then translate the Exercise 18.Exercise 18.” 1 2 3 4 5 165 . Example: /( ) .

“Give (me) a call as soon as (you) arrive home. the noun “after.” . “Do as (you) like to do. “(You) can eat as much as (you) like to eat. “(I) usually drink coffee after having breakfast.” and the particle .UNIT 19 Post modifiers II ~ ( ) ~ /( ) means “as soon as” or “in accordance with. .” . “(I) will leave as soon as the dawn breaks. “(I) ate whatever (she) gave (me).” .” .” 166 .” It is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~( ) .” ? “Will (you) do according to (what I) ask (you to do)?” . “(He) took a shower after coming back home.” . “(Let us) begin as soon as the weather becomes better.” .” It is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~ (for a verb stem) or ~( ) (for an adjective stem) and the noun “according to/the same/just as.” . “(We) bought new sofas after moving in to the apartment.” ~( ) ~( ) means “afterward” or “later.

” ~ . “(Let us) pretend that (we) cannot drink beer. “(I) will do the dishes after guests return. “(He) pretends that (he) studied hard. “When (my) mom returns. such as “next” or indicates a similar meaning. (I) will pretend that (I) study hard.” .” ~ .” ~ ( ) ~ /( ) / means “pretend.” The use of noun. “(Let us) pretend that (we) drank coffee. “(I) will pretend that (I) did not see the movie. “After exercising. ~ .” . as shown below: “behind” (instead of ). “After seeing the movie. (I) usually take a shower.” ? “Will (you) pretend that (you) eat only meat?” .” It is the combination of the nounmodifying ending ~ (for verbs in the present meaning) or ~( ) (for verbs in the past meaning.” . “After reading chapter 3.” .” . for adjectives/copulas in the present meaning).” .” . study chapter 4. “(I) will exercise after doing all (my) homework..” 167 . “Do not pretend that (you) know me.” and the verb “do. write a reaction paper.” . “She pretends that (she) does not know me. “Pretend that (you) are asleep on the sofa. the noun (or ) “pretence.

It can be translated as “the fact is.. “(We) will pretend that (we) are grateful. getting up late) for the negative or unpleasant consequence of the main clause (e.” ~ ( ) 168 ~ /( ) is used to give an account of events or states of affairs. “(I) could not go to the hospital because (it) rained a lot. “As for that couple. “(I) could not go to school because of getting up late. “Susan pretends that (she) is a Canadian. could not go to school)..” Notice that ~ indicates the cause (e.” and the copula .” .” or “what happened is that. “(I) pretended that (my) throat was sore. (they) always pretend to be happy. “When (you) meet (your) friends.” .” . pretend that (you) are sad.” and the effects for which ~ is used are generally negative and incidental.” .” This form is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~ (for verbs in the present meaning) or ~( ) (for verbs in the past meaning or for adjectives/copulas in the present meaning). It means “as a result of/because of.” ? “Will (you) pretend that (you) are diligent?” . the noun “wind. . Here are more examples: .” ~ ~ is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~ .” .19 Post modifiers II .” and the particle .g. “(I) had a car accident because (I) hurried up.g. Consider the following example: . “(I) could not keep the promise because (I) lost the key. “(I) do not have money as a result of buying the house. the dependent noun (or for colloquial usage) “fact/thing.” .

the noun “almost/about to.” .” 169 .” “The fact is that roses are beautiful. when (your) stomach aches?” .” .” .” .” ~( ) indicates that some events almost happened. “The fact is that Elizabeth played the piano. It corresponds to “almost” or “to be nearly” in English.” ~( ~( ) ~( ) means “when.” . “The fact is that today’s weather is warm. “Apply the lotion on (your) face. “(We) will go by car. “(I) almost missed the flight.~ . since (I) arrived in the airport late.” ? “Do (you) take this medicine. “(I) almost could not get up in the morning for (I) was tired. “The fact is that (we will) run everyday from now on.” . since the weather was cold. when (we) leave for Chicago.” and the verb “did. “The fact is that Daniel is a Korean.” . when (you) go outside.” It is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~( ) and the noun “time/occasion.” ~( ) ) is the combination of the noun-modifying ending ~( ) .” ~ ~ . “The fact is that Andrew plays the base guitar. “(I) almost caught a cold. . “(I) almost ran into Susan on the street yesterday.

(I) want to travel a lot. When only the main clause is conjugated for the past tense. “When (I) went to Paris. when both clauses are conjugated for the past tense. “(Let us) contact (them) when (we) have time.” . “Learn a lot when (you) are still a student. (I) talked in Japanese. “Going to New York City.” and the tense is marked only in the main clause. the action of the clause co-occurred with that of the main clause. (I) met Susan for the first time.” . (I) took a bus.” .” .” .” . when the weather is good.” Notice that the first clause “going to New York City” happened prior to the action of the main clause “meeting Susan. “When (I) went to New York City.” .” ? “When (you) went to Hawaii.” . “Going to the library. “Go to the park. “Conversing with (my) Japanese friend. “When the airplane arrived in the airport. “While (I) am a single. (I) called (her).” Notice in the example above that the action of the first clause “going” co-occurred with the action of the main clause “taking the bus. Consider the following example: . (it) was already dawn. at which hotel did (you) stay?” 170 .19 Post modifiers II . “Finishing (my) work.” There are two things to remember when using ~( ) with verbs in the past tense. Consider the following example: . However. the weather was cold. “When the weather is warm.” Here are more examples: . the actions of both clauses do not co-occur: The action of the first clause happened prior to that of the main clause. (let us) swim at the beach. (I) took a subway.

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 19 exercises to go to catch a cold/flu suddenly to cross/to go over wedding ceremony game police to get out of order/to break down to snore study/learning to be uninterested feeling/mood road/street to switch off/to extinguish to boil to be bad/to be wrong weather man to put (something) into/to insert song late to hurt (oneself)/to be wounded to close college to be hot help money to return (a thing)/to give (a thing) back to return/to go back to become to listen/to take (a class) ramyon/instant noodle to drink to finish/to accomplish to be many/to be much a lot beer to eat hat Key vocabulary for Unit 19 exercises 171 .

19
Post modifiers II

door water to slide pants to receive to see/to watch to sing rain to fall into/to be drowned to have an accident office dawn birthday documents bookstore gift/present salt class homework stress hour/time to start to order (something from a person)/to force (a person to do) meal to dislike to be bored to quarrel/to fight children promise/appointment suit/dress to be juvenile/to be childish contact keys movie to come clothes wine umbrella exercises salary food music doctor to win/to overcome

172

e-mail work to get up to work to lose to wear/to put on to forget to sleep sleeping to lock electric lamp telephone to get wet to be good/to be nice preparation to graduate to be late/to be tardy to lose/to get defeated house to be salty to be short car/tea window to look for/to seek for employment friends nose to be in need of to be happy to get angry waist company to be cloudy

Exercise 19.1

Exercise 19.1
Finish the following translation using ~ /( ) and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Comply with whatever (they) request.” ( ) = . /
173

19
Post modifiers II

1 (We) will do as Simon orders (us to do) ( ) 2 The mail arrived (here) yesterday as (we) expected ( ) 3 Will (you) drink as much as (you) want? ( ?) 4 Sleep as long as (you) want ( / ) 5 (Let us) eat as much as (we) want ( /

/ / /

)

Exercise 19.2
Connect the following two sentences using ~ the sentence. Example: /( ) . Then translate

/ = . “Call (me) as soon as (you) arrive at the airport.” / / / / / ?

1 2 3 4 5

Exercise 19.3
Finish the following translation using ~( ) and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “(I) will buy (it) after (I) look around the store.” ( / ) = . 1 Usually, (I) shave after brushing (my) teeth ( ) 2 (He) leaves home for work after having breakfast ( ) 3 (She) returned to school after sending the package ( ) 4 (We) will go to the party after buying a gift ( ) 5 (I) want to rest after finishing (my) work ( / / / / / )

174

Exercise 19.4
Connect the following two sentences using ~( the sentence. Example: ) . Then translate

Exercise 19.4

/ = . “(I) made a phone call after turning (my) computer on.” / / / / /

1 2 3 4 5

Exercise 19.5
Finish the following translation using ~ /( ) cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. Example: “Do not pretend that (you) are drunk.” ( = . 1 2 3 4 5 Do not pretend that (you) are sleeping ( ) Do not pretend that (you) are working hard ( (She) pretends that (she) likes the present ( (He) pretended that (he) could swim ( Will (you) pretend that (you) are an American? ( and the sentence )

) ) ) )

Exercise 19.6
Conjugate the predicate using ~ sentence. Example: /( ) . Then translate the

= . “Kimberly pretends that (she) is sick.”

1 2 3 4 5

175

19
Post modifiers II

Exercise 19.7
Finish the following translation using ~ /( ) cue provided in parenthesis, as shown in the example. and the sentence

Example: “The fact is that (we) leave for London tomorrow.” ( ) = . 1 The fact is that (we) meet the professor together ( ) 2 The fact is that (we) all wear contact lenses ( ) 3 The fact is that (we) live together from now on ( 4 The fact is that prices are high ( ) 5 The fact is that George is honest ( ) 6 The fact is that James is smart ( ) 7 The fact is that (they) bought a new car ( ) 8 The fact is that (he) lost the wallet ( ) 9 The fact is that (she) invited Gina to the party as well ( ) 10 The fact is that (he) majored in the Korean language ( )

)

Exercise 19.8
Connect the following two sentences using ~ sentence. Example: . Then translate the

/ = . “(I) was late for the appointment, because the road was congested.” / / / / / / / / / /

176

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

10 Conjugate the predicate using ~( ) Example: = . “(I) almost had a car accident.” / / / / / / / / / / / / / ? ? / ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 / Exercise 19.Exercise 19. Then translate the Exercise 19. Example: ) . . “When the roads are congested.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 177 .9 Connect the following two sentences using ~( sentence. (I) use a short cut.9 / = . Then translate the sentence.

“not have/not exist” is used instead of . “(I) cannot go to the party” or “(It) is not possible to go to the party. compare the following two sentences: (or 178 ). ~( or “it is not possible to.” . “(I) can play a piano” or “(It) is possible to play a piano.” For negation. “(I) can read that book” or “(It) is possible to read that book. “(I) cannot eat bread” or “(It) is not possible to eat bread. “(I) cannot study at home” or “(It) is not possible to study at home. ~( ) is equivalent to English translation “one can do/be” or “it is possible to. “(I) can go to Seoul” or “(It) is possible to go to Seoul.” . the noun “means/way. “(I) cannot eat bread.” On the other hand.” ) is used to express “cannot do/be” . “(I) cannot swim everyday” or “(It) is not possible to swim everyday.” . This form is constructed from the noun-modifying ending ~( ) .UNIT 20 Ability and possibility ~( ) ~( ) / is used to indicate an ability or possibility of doing something.” .” For instance.” and the verb “have/exist.” .” is similar to that of the negative The meaning of ~( ) expression with “cannot/unable.” as shown in the examples below: .” .

“(It) would be wonderful.” Notice that the particle adds a special meaning of “also” to the first sentence.” ~ ~( ) ~( ) / is used to express a specific ability of the subject. Consider the following examples: .Notice that while the first sentence with the negative simply emphasizes one’s inability (e.” .” as in ~( ) . the noun “the way (how to). “(I) do not know how to speak Korean. When the noun is followed by the particle . equivalent to “know how to” in English. “(I) cannot help drinking coffee.” ? “(Do you) know how to speak English?” . some particles.” .” 179 . the second sentence with ~( ) indicates one’s ability as well as the possibility of the action (e. “(I) cannot help jogging everyday.. such as “also.g.” . “(I) couldn’t help selling my house.” as shown below: . whether one can eat bread or not). “(It) is possible that the tomorrow’s weather can be cold.” . This form is constructed from the noun-modifying ending ~( ) .g.” .” can appear after the noun to indicate additional meanings. it indicates the possibility of the state or quality. When ~( ) / is used with adjectives. only if (I) can live in Seoul.” and the verb “know” or “do not know. which means “except/ but.” Meanwhile.” “only. “(I) know how to drink wine. it creates an expression of “have no other way to/can’t help (doing). and the particle adds a meaning of “only” to the second sentence.. “(It) is possible that the tomorrow’s weather can be also hot. “(I) knew how to wear a tie.” and “except/ but.” . “(It) is possible that the test on Monday can be difficult. as shown below: . whether eating bread is possible or not).

the dependent noun “possibility. “(It) is not possible that Bill is poor. . “(I) did not think that Susan would speak Korean. “(I) thought that the weather would be hot.” . .” . “(I) thought that Tom would drink wine. “(I) did not think that (my) wife would like that house.20 Ability and possibility .” . and the verb “not have/not exist.” ? “Don’t (you) know how to spend money?” When the subject of ~( ) / is a third person.” .” . “(I) thought that Nicolas would finish (his) work early.” ~( ~( ) ) is constructed from the noun-modifying ending ~( ) . . “There is no possibility that Angie goes to Korea. “(I) did not expect that Tom would throw the garbage away here. “(It) is not possible that (his) roommate is a woman. “(It) is not possible that the weather is cold.” . ” or “there is no possibility that . “(It) is not possible that the test is easy. It can be translated as “it is not possible that . “(It) is not possible that (she) wears a coat in summer.” .” . as shown below: . .” . “(I) did not know how to make Korean food. .” .” ~( ) indicates that content of the ~( ) ending clause is not true or far from the reality. it indicates the speaker’s presumed thought.” 180 .” . ” in English.” the subject particle . “(It) is not possible that those friends dislike me.

Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 20 exercises store to go to change (cars/trains) together golf kimchi song to feel to close college the heat/sun stroke design to depart/to take leave of to drink to make U. to sing/to call out to make friends living/life to swim to be easy to be cheap how to be pretty today wine fee exercise/sports to drive Monday Japan early well/expertly to be interesting subway to play (tennis/golf/piano) friend Saturday truck Key vocabulary for Unit 20 exercises 181 .S.A.

Then translate the = “(I) can teach English to that child. Example: “(I) know how to speak Spanish. 1 2 3 4 5 (I) can open the store alone ( (We) can give a hope to them ( (They) can dance on the stage ( (She) cannot sell the house ( ) (I) cannot solve this math problem ( ) ) ) ) ) Exercise 20. as shown in the example.3 Finish the following translation using ~( ) /~( ) and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis.” .” ( = . Example: ) . 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 20.20 Ability and possibility to be convenient/to be comfortable Korea older brother company Exercise 20. Example: “(They) can repair the car.” ( = . as shown in the example.2 Conjugate the predicate using ~( sentence.1 Finish the following translation using ~( ) / and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis. ) 182 .

Then translate the = .” 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 20. “(I) know how to read Japanese newspapers.5 Finish the following translation using ~( ) cue provided in parenthesis.1 (I) know how to sing a Japanese song ( ) 2 (I) know how to make Chinese food ( ) 3 (I) thought that Scarlet would have a key ( ) 4 (I) thought (they) would open the store even on Sunday ( ) 5 (I) thought that (he) would be in church today ( Exercise 20. and the sentence Example: “(I) did not think that Lisa would order Chinese food.4 Conjugate the predicate using ~( sentence.4 ) Exercise 20. Example: ) .” ( ) = . 1 (I) did not think that Jerry would be popular ( ) 2 (I) did not think that Professor Chang would be a Korean ( ) 3 (We) did not think that Kate would study well ( ) 4 (I) did not think that (she) would have a boyfriend ( ) 5 (I) did not think that George would be a policeman ( ) 183 . as shown in the example.

“There is no possibility that Jason has a lot of money. Then translate the = . Example: ) . Then translate the = . 1 There is no possibility that the dress size fits ( ) 2 There is no possibility that the weather is nice ( ) 3 There is no possibility that the movie is interesting ( ) 4 There is no possibility that Andrew is lazy ( ) 5 There is no possibility that William majors in Korean history ( ) Exercise 20. and the sentence Example: “There is no possibility that Paul is a college student.” 184 . as shown in the example. “(I) did not think that Lisa would be a German.8 Conjugate the predicate using ~( sentence.” ( ) = .20 Ability and possibility Exercise 20.7 Finish the following translation using ~( ) cue provided in parenthesis. Example: ) .6 Conjugate the predicate using ~( sentence.” 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 20.

1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 20.8 185 .

g.” This unit introduces the form ~ /( ) /( ) .g. Indirect question The form ~ /( ) /( ) consists of one of three noun-modifying endings and the special noun “whether/given the state of being/since then/until. which is marked by the question word “what.” and “which. For a verb as well as adjective/copula in the past meaning.” Consider the following two sentences: ? “What time does Isabel return?” ? “Do (you) know what time Isabel 186 returns?” .. => ).. introduced by question words such as “whether.” Notice in the second example above that the actual question is a relative clause (e. ~( ) is used after a verb or adjective/ copula stem for the unrealized or prospective meaning (e.” “where.g. Direct question: “What does Peter drink?” Indirect question: “Do you know what Peter drinks?” In English the indirect question is often marked by the relative clause.” and “curious.UNIT 21 Indirect question form Questions can be either direct or indirect. ~( ) is used after an adjective/copula stem for the present meaning (e. ~ / is used (e.” ~ is used after a verb stem for the present meaning (e... which is used to construct indirect questions in Korean as well as to indicate the speaker’s uncertain or wondering mindset. => ). => ). what Peter drinks).” “do not know. => . such as “know. => ).g. ~ /( ) /( ) is often used with certain verbs or adjectives.” “what.g.. => .

and followed by the verb . as shown below: ? “Do (you) know how hard David studies for tests nowadays?” ? “Do (you) know how expensive that car is?” Here are more examples. adjective and/or copula stem in the prospective meaning ? “Do (you) know at what time Christine will go to work?” ? “Do (you) know how expensive that car will be?” 187 . adjective and/or copula stem in the past meaning ? “Do (you) know what Angie did yesterday?” ? “Do (you) know what time (he) studied until last night?” ? “Do (you) know how busy (I) was last week?” ? “Do (you) know how hard the test was?” After the verb.g.. The use of the adverb “how much/many” with the form ~ / ( ) /( ) may add an exclamatory sense to the content. Indirect question After the verb stem in the present meaning ? “Do (you) know where Paul is going to?” ? “Do (you) know where Erica lives?” After the adjective or copula stem in the present meaning ? “Do (you) know how nice Honolulu’s weather is?” ? “Are (you) curious whether they are happy?” ? “Do (you) know who Brad is?” After the verb.The first sentence is a direct question. Notice in the second sentence that ~ is used after the verb stem (e. and the second sentence is an indirect question. + ).

” .” ~ The form ~ / is used when the speaker is uncertain about what he/she must do. “(I) do not know who Jimmy Smith is.” . Consider the following sentence: .” . “(They probably) do not know how cold the last winter was.21 Indirect question form Indicating a speculative mindset When ~ /( ) /( ) is used in a non-interrogative sentence.” . and the verb “do not know/be unaware of. “Ask John whether that book is expensive.” . “(I) do not remember whether (he) uses an Apple or a PC. “(I) do not know what time Cathy goes to school.” . “(I) do not know where (my) older brother lives.” . “(I) do not know whether 188 (I) should believe Jennifer’s story.” . Here are more examples: .” . “(They) do not know how difficult the test is.” . “Please tell (us) whether that movie was interesting. it indicates the speaker’s speculative or uncertain mindset. “(I) do not know where (she) hid the key.” . “(I) am curious which team will win today.” Notice that “what time Cathy goes to school” implies the speaker’s wondering mindset. “(I) am not sure what kind of courses (I) will take next semester. This form is constructed from ~ / “must/should. “(I) am not sure whether the food will be tasty.” the form ~( ) .” .

” .. The ~( ) .” buy first. / is constructed from ~( ) .” ..” ? “How long has (it) been..” . “(It) rains. and it can be translated as “since” in English.” is often used with a question word. “(I) do not know what (I) have to ~ ~( ) .. such as “when. since (you) learned golf?” Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 21 exercises store to go cold/flu study to wait road weather snow to be late to close 189 . The form ~( ) . / is used to express the amount of time that has elapsed since a certain temporal point..” ~ / “what. “(It) has been three weeks since (I) called Brian. but (I) do not know where (I) should go to buy an umbrella. and the verb “become” (or the verb “pass/elapse”). “(It) has been a year since (I) came to Seoul to study Korean. “(I) do not know whether (I) should continue to meet with that man... “(I) do not know when (I) should ask for a favor. . “(It) has been three days since the fall semester began.” and “where.” .” as shown below: .

21 Indirect question form to be hot to arrive to leave/to depart to drink to be blocked/to be held up a lot to eat problem room number to see/to watch/to read airplane age/one’s years to be noisy to begin test/examination to be cheap/to be inexpensive to be difficult girlfriend movie to come nowadays exercise/sports food two days to work interestingly dinner telephone lunch house to be salty car to get employed floor to ride to sell letter to solve school to break up toilet company 190 .

Exercise 21. as shown in the example. Then translate Exercise 21. Example: ?/ ) .1 Connect the following two sentences using ~ the sentence.1 ?/ ? = ? “Do (you) know what time (they) return to the office?” ?/ ?/ ?/ ?/ ?/ ?/ ?/ ?/ ? ? ? ? ?/ ? ? ?/ ? ? ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ? Exercise 21.2 Connect the following two sentences using ~( sentence. Then translate the ? ? “Do (you) know what time (they) will finish (their) work?” ?/ ?/ ?/ ?/ ?/ ? ? ? ? ? 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 21. Example: /( ) .3 Finish the following translation using ~ /( ) /( ) and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis. 191 .

” 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 21. (I) could not bring (it).21 Indirect question form 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Example: “(I) do not know why Edward went to Korea.” 192 1 2 3 . Example: / . = “How heavy the load was.4 Translate the following into English. Example: .” ( ) = . (I) do not know whether Paul passed the test ( ) (I) do not know where (they) have a wedding ceremony ( ) (I) do not know what (I) should buy ( ) (I) do not know what (her) name is ( ) (I) do not know when (I) should marry ( (I) do not know when the package will arrive ( ) ) (I) do not know whether Peter has a car ( (I) do not know whether the test was easy ( ) (I) do not know whether the price is expensive ( (I) do not know how heavy the bag will be ( ) ) ) Exercise 21. Then translate the = . “(I) am not sure when (I) should return home.5 Conjugate the predicate using ~ sentence.

vided in parenthesis. 1 (It) has been 4 days since snow started falling ( ) 2 (It) has been a year since (we) moved to Canada ( / ) 3 (It) has been 3 weeks since (I) learned Korean ( ) 4 (It) has been 6 months since (I) quitted smoking ( ) 5 (It) has been 10 minutes since (I) began cooking ( ) 6 (It) has been 2 days since (I) bought the car ( 7 (It) has been a week since Jennifer left for London ( / ) 8 How long has (it) been since (you) had a hair cut? ( ?) 9 How long has (it) been since (you) returned home? ( ?) 10 How long has (it) been since (you) last saw him? ( / ?) / / / / / ) / / Exercise 21.” ( / ) = . as shown / = .6 Exercise 21.4 5 Exercise 21. and the cues pro- Example: “(It) has been three days since my back hurts. Example: .6 Finish the following translation using ~( ) ..” 193 . Then translate the sentence. as shown in the example.7 Write a sentence using the cues provided and ~( ) in the example.. “(It) has been three days since Daniel left for Korea.

21 Indirect question form 1 2 3 4 5 / / / / / 194 .

These patterns include a sentence-ending. It also stresses the authenticity of the speaker’s experience and adds meanings such as “I am telling you” and “you know.” Consider the following examples: . the Korean food was the most delicious (you know). This unit introduces several grammatical forms that incorporate the suffix . ~ is used to report what a speaker has experienced or observed. and clausal conjunctives. ~ The sentence ending ~ is primarily used in spoken communication. “The house was really huge (you know). and the politeness marker . the statement suffix . “John spoke Korean well (you know). a noun-modifying ending. The ending is constructed from the retrospective suffix .” .UNIT 22 The retrospective suffix ~ The retrospective suffix indicates a speaker’s past observation and/or experience. “For the sake of health.” . “(I am telling you that) the scenery was really beautiful. the quotation particle (the informal counterpart of ). Here are more examples: .” .” 195 . (they) ate only vegetables (you know).” Notice in the examples above that the ending ~ emphasizes the validity of the speaker’s experiences or observation. “As for me.

” 196 .” “the room that used to be dark. ~( ) . It is the retrospective noun-modifying ending that indicates a speaker’s past experience and/or observation of the action or state.22 The retrospective suffix ~ In Unit 16. the ending ~ indicates an habitual action in the past.” “the room that used to be dark (a long time ago). When it is used with an adjective stem. Korean has one more noun-modifying ending. ~ . ~ . Compare the following two sentences: “the student who used to study the Korean language. It was noted that any phrase (whether it be an adjective or a verb) can be made into a modifier by attaching a noun-modifying ending to the stem of the predicate.” “the person who used to read the newspaper (a long time ago). When it is used with a verb stem. and ~( ) were introduced.” “the student who used to study the Korean language (a long time ago). it implies that the past state that no longer exists.” Here are more examples: “the person who used to read the newspaper. Verb “meet” “eat” “find” “read” Adjective “pretty” “quiet” “famous” “difficult” Verb stem + “the woman that (I) used to meet” “the food that (I) used to eat” “the person that (I) used to look for” “the book that (I) used to read” Adjective stem + “the flower that used to be pretty” “the room that used to be quiet” “the song that used to be popular” “the test that used to be difficult” One can make the past action or state even more temporarily remote by using it with the past tense marker / as in / . three Korean noun-modifying endings.

In the second example. the weather was hot) is based on the speaker’s direct experience. (he) began to cry. but (it) rains now. (she) began to laugh. (now I see that you) became healthy.” ~ 197 . “Since (you) have jogged everyday. . Consequently. (I) feel tired.” . as in ~ / . Since ~ involves the speaker’s past observation/experience. consisting of the retrospective suffix and the suffix . the speaker’s past observation/experience sounds even more temporarily distant. “(It) snowed in the morning.” . “Since (I) ate a lot of breakfast.. Consider the following examples: . “As (he) talked to (his) mother over the phone.g.” . snow in the morning) is based on the speaker’s direct observation. When ~ is used with the past tense marker / .” Notice in the examples above that only the main clauses are conjugated for the past tense. but nobody was there. it implies the past connotation.” . (my) stomach aches. “As for yesterday. “Since (I) watched TV until late at night.” .” Notice in the first example that the ~ ending clause (e. “As (she) read the letter. .” The conjunctive ~ is used when the speaker recollects what he/she has directly observed or experienced. (it) is cold. means “but (now)/as/since/and as a result.g. “(I) went home.. the first clause with (e. Consider the following examples: . but as for today.~ The clausal conjunctive ~ . the weather was hot. the use of the past tense marker / would be optional for the past action or state.

(he) might not have become a painter. “If (it was the case that he) did not smoke. “If (it was the case that he) met Jane earlier. and the conjunctive ~( ) “if. the statement suffix . “If (it was the case that) there was not the professor’s advice. (he) might not have married Lisa. Consider the following example: .” ~ The clausal conjunctive ~ means “even though (it may be the case).. “Even though (it) may rain.” The conjunctive ~ / is used when the speaker wishes to express a sense of regret or supposition. Consider the following examples: . the car accident might not have occurred.” This conjunctive is constructed from the past tense marker / .” . (he) would have been healthier. “If (it was the case that I) didn’t go to school on that day. (I) could have had a better job.” This conjunctive is used when the speaker acknowledges the content of the ~ ending clause but stresses that the following clause must be the case. Here are more examples: .” It is constructed from the retrospective suffix .” .g. and the clausal conjunctive ~ / “although.” Notice that the content of the first clause is acknowledged but the content of the main clause is highlighted (e.” . stop by the store for sure. stopping by the store).” Notice that the main clauses of both examples indicate the sense of disappointment or assumption.22 The retrospective suffix ~ The clausal conjunctive ~ / means “if (something had/had not been the case). the retrospective suffix . Here are more examples: 198 . “If (it was the case that I) graduated from college at that time.

“Even though (you) may fail the test. (I) will wait (for her) here. “Even though (I) may not be able to meet (my) friend.” . do not be discouraged. do not worry (about it).” Key vocabulary for Unit 22 exercises Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 22 exercises to go to bring together meat school uniform to wait feeling/mood surely to be bad/to be wrong to come out college money colleague drama to depart/to take leave of/to leave to drink to meet beer head to eat to be heavy (a finger) ring to learn hospital to see/to watch/to read to be diligent to make friends/to go out with to buy person/people president (of company)/CEO to live 199 .” .. “Even though the road may get congested.

22 The retrospective suffix novel to be sad to be noisy morning/breakfast apartment to be sore medicine yesterday woman movie older brother afternoon to cook to cry to smile food this week to be uninteresting before to be quiet to doze off middle school willingly/frequently last week house car book friend Saturday to be tired the Korean language company/firm Exercise 22.1 Finish the following translation using ~ and the sentence cue provided in parenthesis. 200 . Example: “(They) served various side dishes (you know)” ( ) = . as shown in the example.

1 2 3 4 5 There were many customers (you know) ( The service was great (you know) ( ) The apartment rent was expensive (you know) ( (It) took five hours (you know) ( ) The house was huge (you know) ( ) ) ) Exercise 22. Then translate the sentence. and the cues provided in par- Example: “The friend that (I) used to study with. “Everyone was busy (you know). .2 Exercise 22. as shown in the example.” 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 22.2 Conjugate the predicate using ~ Example: = .” ( / ) = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 The song that (I) used to listen to ( / ) The bicycle that (I) used to ride ( / ) The company that (we) used to work for ( / The food that (we) used to like ( / ) The toothbrush that (you) used to use ( / ) The man who used to be brave ( / ) The skin that used to be soft ( / ) The room that used to be dark ( / ) The weather that used to be warm ( / ) The store that used to be crowded with customers ( ) ) / 201 .3 Finish the following translation using ~ enthesis.

” ( / ) = .” / / / / / 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 22. “As (she) made a boyfriend. Example: . 202 . Example: ?( / ) = . Then translate the / = . Then translate the response. as shown in the example. Example: “If (it was the case that I) studied harder.” ?( ?( ?( ?( ?( / ?( / / / ) ) / ) ) / ) ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exercise 22.5 Connect the following two sentences using ~ sentence. “(It) is the high school that I used to attend.22 The retrospective suffix Exercise 22. (I) might have entered medical school.4 Respond to each question using ~ and the cues provided in parenthesis. (her) personality changed a lot.6 Finish the following translation using ~ / and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis. as shown in the example.

1 2 3 4 5 Even Even Even Even Even if (you) may be curious. stay home ( / if (he) may come late.7 Exercise 22.1 If (it was the case that I) had time. (they) might not have divorced ( / ) 4 If (it was the case that he) knew the secret. (I) might have watched the drama.” / / / / / 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 22. do not nag at (him) ( ) ) ) / / 203 ) ) . Then translate / .7 Connect the following two sentences using ~ the sentence. (they) might have won the game ( / ) Exercise 22. “If (it was the case that I) stayed home. (I) might have stopped by home ( / ) 3 If (it was the case that they) were happy. Example: “Even if (it) may be cold. do not ask ( / if (you) may be itchy. (he) might have succeeded ( / ) 5 If (it was the case that they) practiced harder. = . control (yourself) ( if (you) may feel bored. do not scratch ( / if (you) may be angry. (I) might have met (her) ( / ) 2 If (it was the case that I) was not busy. as shown in the example. do not put on a coat.” ( / ) = . Example: / .8 Finish the following translation using ~ and the sentence cues provided in parenthesis.

Then translate the / = . do not go outside. Example: .22 The retrospective suffix Exercise 22. “Even if (it) may be hot.9 Connect the following two clauses using ~ sentence.” / / / 1 2 3 4 5 / / 204 .

“This cafe is famous for (its) delicious coffee. Examples of English nominalzing endings include the gerund “~ing” (e.g. “~ment” (e.g. accomplishment). “(We) mainly learn speaking. and “~ation” (e.” . “listen” => “listening”). as well as some useful expressions that incorporate one of these two nominalizing endings. studying). “(I) stay home because the weather is hot..” .. ~ ~ means “far from ~ing.” ~ is used to negate the content of the ~ ending predicate emphatically.” It is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~ .UNIT 23 Nominalizing endings Nominalizing endings change a verb or an adjective into a noun form. “(I) like seeing a movie alone. This unit introduces two Korean nominalizing endings.g. the topic particle . The nominalizing ending ~ When the nominalizing ending ~ is attached to a verb stem.. as shown below: 205 .. When it appears after an adjective stem. Consider the following examples: . it changes the meaning of the adjective to “state of being~” (e.g.” . “Going abroad became easier.” What follows are some major expressions that contain the nominalizing ending ~ . it modifies the meaning of the verb as “the act of ~ing” (e. legalization).” . and the particle “not at all. “glad” => “state of being glad”).g.. ~ and ~( ) .

“In place of hearing praise. . “(I) will make a phone call to the hotel before (I) leave for London. “Far from resting over the weekend.23 Nominalizing endings . right?” . .” .” .” ~ ~ is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~ .” . (my) thought. (he) will (probably) hear only reproach. This form is used to mildly contend another speaker’s comment. “Far from being joyful. ?” or “No way!” Consider the following dialogue: A: B: ? “The weather of Seoul was cold. (I) bought (it) at a bargain . like “What do you mean . ~ is used to express humility. (I) feel very unpleasant.” . when receiving a complimentary remark or praise. “(I) clean the room before doing the laundry.” ? “Do (you) take a shower before going to bed?” . “No way.” ~ ~ means “before verb~ing. the topic particle .” . “(Your) car is really nice. “(Let us) stop by the bakery. (I) worked busily. “Read the book before listening to (his) lecture.” Frequently. and the politeness marker .” . .” and the particle ~ . A: B: price. the noun “before. “Wash (your) hands before having a lunch. .” It is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~ . It is corresponding to English expressions.” 206 . before going to school. (it) was much warmer than . “Good? (no way).

” ~ ~ means “in order to. the particle . It means “as for (doing something).” . and the topic particle .” . “(We) could not buy (it) because (it) was too expensive.” It is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~ . . the weather was too nice. “As for this house. “Because (my) head aches. “(I) went to the dentist office because of the toothache. (I) don’t want to study.” . when it refers to the past activity or state.” .” 207 . “Since the weather is hot. “This room is noisy for studying quietly. “(I) could not go to Canada because (I) did not have the passport at that time. the dependent noun “cause.” . “As for staying home whole day.” and the particle . (it) is small for living alone. “(My) headache was terrible because of excessive wine drinking.” This form is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~ and “for the sake of.” . as shown below: .” ~ can take the past tense marker. “(I) am healthy since (I) don’t eat meat much.” .” .” The nominalizing ending ~ ~ ~ means “because of ~ing.~ ~ is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~ .” as shown below: . (we) will buy a fan. “(I) must get up early since (I) jog every morning.

“(We) will start seeing the movie from 9 p. (let us) decide on meeting inside the store.” .” This form is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~ . “(We) will decide to eat dinner at Chinese restaurant. .m.” .” . “As for (our) honeymoon.” “Where did (you) decide to meet?” . (let us) ~ ~ ending ~ means “begins to. “Plan to leave at 10 p.” “make up one’s mind. Choi as a guest speaker.” “When did (you) make up (your) mind to quit smoking?” .” 10 decide to go to Hawaii.23 Nominalizing endings .m.” .” It is used when one wishes to express a decision or determination. and the verb “do. “Since it is cold. .” . “(I) waited as long as 20 minutes in order to meet John. the particle .” Instead of . “(I) am learning English in order to study abroad.” .” .” ~ ~ means “plans to” or “decides to. “(I) will study harder in order to become a lawyer.” .” and “fix up” can be used as well.” It is constructed from the nominalizing and the verb “begin. “(We) decided to return home tomorrow. “(We) made a decision to invite Dr.” 208 . “(I) called a taxi in order to return to the hotel. other verbs such as “make a decision. “Start writing now. “(I) started reading (it) since yesterday.

” . “Since the library is close.” ~ “(it) is laborious to” . It can be translated as “(it) is difficult to” in English.” ~ “(it) is unwilling/unpleasant to” . (it) is difficult to read (them). working is toilsome. other adjectives.” 209 . “Since this dish is easy to be broken. This form is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~ .” .” Instead of . the subject particle . “Since (my) throat was swollen. can be used to convey different messages: The nominalizing ending ~ ~ “(it) is easy to” . “Since the inside of the office is too hot. “(I) am unwilling to help Peter / Helping Peter is unpleasant. be careful.” ~ “(it) is convenient to” . “As for today’s weather. (it) is good to ride a bicycle. receiving an A is easy. as shown below.” ~ “(it) is good to” . even swallowing (my) saliva was difficult. and the adjective “difficult. “As for that class. “(It) is fun to talk in Korean / Talking in Korean is fun.” ~ “(it) is fun to” . borrowing books is convenient.~ ~ is used to express how difficult a certain action is.” . “Since the letters are too small.

Here are more examples: . drinking green tea) to the main activity (e. the ending ~( ) is used only when the activity or state of the predicate has already occurred.23 Nominalizing endings ~ “(it) is bothersome to” . (it) is well known for its purity and clarity.. “(We) did not know that John went to Seoul. (we) sometimes took a taxi.” This form is constructed from the nominalizing ending ~ . “(I) also play basketball with (my) friends once in a while.g.g.” .” Consider the following example: . “Normally. For instance. (we) used the subway.” Notice in the example above that ~ adds a less common activity (e. and has been actualized and /or confirmed. “(I) normally drink coffee. but when (it) rained. (I) will also take the Korean language class occasionally.” .” ~ ~ is used to indicate that a nominalized activity is a less common activity. It is translated as “also does (something).. Here are more examples: . (he) could not 210 realize that he was a sinner. but (I) also drink green tea. or determined. “Although (my) major is Japanese Studies.” and the verb “do.” The nominalizing ending ~( ) The use of the nominalizing ending ~( ) is much more restricted and less frequent than that of ~ . Consider the following examples: . the particle “also.” Notice that the ~( ) ending phrases imply that the activity or state has already been ensured. drinking coffee). “As for Hawaii’s water.” . “Doing homework is bothersome. “As for Tom.” .

” “No class today. Consider the following examples: “Did not eat dinner. such as when one wishes to state.” “Found a friend. the nominalizing ending ~( ) can be used as a sentence ending.” Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 23 exercises sometimes to go to catch a cold together dog to marry game/competitive sport to fix/to repair professor sightseeing/looking around to seek period dormitory train 211 . The ~( ) Key vocabulary for Unit 23 exercises In limited contexts. a number of Korean nouns are made of ~( ending nouns include: “to live” “to die” “to smile” “to cry” “to sleep” “to be sore” “to be joyous” “to be glad” “to be hard” “life” “death” “smile/laughter” “weeping” “sleep” “pain” “joy” “gladness” “hardship/distress” ) . and/or record a certain fact in a concise manner. inform.. “We all experienced the pain of separation.” Meanwhile.” “Let us know when you come home.

23 Nominalizing endings to be black/dark to quit to go out weather next year tomorrow too (much)/ever so much song basketball to be slow late to be late download next month cigarette library money to return/to come back to take (a class)/to listen to stop by mountaineering to drink to meet to make to be many/to be much a lot to wear (a tie) everyday hair (from a head)/head to eat to be far to be short of to receive to learn to keep/to take custody of to see/to read/to watch spring to sing/to call out to be inconvenient/to be uncomfortable rain to be expensive laundry/washing (clothes) 212 .

m. clothes yoga to cook to exercise to drive food medical college to consult to win to move into/to change one’s residence to use to work to lose to cut off to sleep to be small sleeping Key vocabulary for Unit 23 exercises 213 .to buy person/people to lose weight to live to consult new birthday gift/present teacher hand class/course swimming time/hour to fail a test to take a test newspaper to be bored to wash father morning/breakfast to be juvenile/to be childish to practice earnestly movie to reserve a.

“(I) took a shower before going to bed. Example: 214 . as shown in the example.” . Then / .23 Nominalizing endings to be uninteresting dinner/evening major to make a phone call lunch repair shop to decide little to give weekend to prepare wallet subway to go on to next stage of education house car to look for/to seek for to leave home for work to be cold sufficiently to be canceled to play (tennis/golf/piano)/to hit friend bed height to ride Saturday to sell ticket the Korean language semester school alone makeup Exercise 23.1 Construct a sentence using the sentence cues provided and ~ translate the sentence. = .

Then translate the sentence.” / / / / / / 1 2 3 4 5 6 215 .2 Exercise 23. “(It) is dangerous for walking around alone at night. (I) could not even wash (my) face.2 Construct a sentence using the sentence cues provided and ~ shown below. Then / .3 Construct a sentence using the sentence cues provided and ~ translate the sentence.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 / / / / / / / / / / ? ? Exercise 23. = . “Far from taking a shower. as / = .” / / / / / 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 23. Example: . Example: .

1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 23. (I) was late. “Because there was a car accident.” / / / / / .23 Nominalizing endings 7 8 9 10 / / / / Exercise 23.6 Conjugate the predicate using ~ Example: 216 . as shown in the example. “(I) worked every weekend to earn extra money. as shown in the example.4 Construct a sentence using the sentence cues provided and ~ Then translate the sentence. 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 23. “(I) decided to exercise everyday. = . Example: / = .” .5 Construct a sentence using the sentence cues provided and ~ Then translate the sentence.” / / / / / . Example: / = . Then translate the sentence.

8 Construct a sentence using the cues provided.1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 23. as shown in the example. “Entering a college is 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 217 . = . Example: = difficult. Then translate the sentence.7 Exercise 23.” / ~ / ~ / ~ / ~ / ~ / ~ / ~ / ~ / ~ / ~ /~ . “(We) also see a movie on the weekend. Then translate the sentence.” 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 23.7 Conjugate the predicate using ~ Example: .

as shown in the example. as shown in the example. B: _________________ 5 A: . . 2 A: ? B: ___________________ 3 A: B: _________________ 4 A: . . “Did not eat dinner. Exercise 23.9 Complete the dialogue using ~ Example: A: B: 1 A: . . Then . .10 Conjugate the predicate using ~( translate the sentence. ? .” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 218 .23 Nominalizing endings Exercise 23. . B: _________________ ? . . Example: = ) . B: __________________.

Consider the following sentence: “Jane said that ‘I will come to the party no matter what happens!’” This sentence is a direct quotation.” Consider the following examples: “ have lunch now. such as “speak. This unit introduces direct and indirect quotations in Korean.UNIT 24 Direct and indirect quotation A direct quotation conveys the exact spoken or written message. On the other hand. Direct quotation Direct quotation in Korean is constructed from the original utterance. In an indirect quotation.” “request. an indirect quotation involves the modification of the original utterance. an indirect quotation delivers only the main message. Consider the following example: “Jane said that she would come to the party no matter what happens.’” “ ?” .” “ask. the speaker delivers what somebody said or wrote without using the original speaker’s exact words. “Peter replied to the teacher. using quotation marks.” and “suggest.” Notice that the personal pronoun and the tense are modified so that they represent the speaker’s voice and perspective. a quotation particle ( ) . “Simon asked (me) ‘Will (you) come to my birthday party this weekend?’” 219 .” “answer. and a quoting verb. Consequently. “Susan said ‘Let us “ ” . It reports what has been said or written verbatim.’” ” . ‘(I) promise to go (there) soon.

“Charles knocked on the door !” !” . saying ‘Let us go see a movie this weekend. ” .’” “ fire!’” “ . personal pronouns. “People shouted ‘It’s .. Consider the following examples: “ ttang. such as (or ) “say. and honorifics) is modified to fit the perspective of the speaker.’” ” . “Lisa said ‘I will 220 . “(It) was written ‘No Smoking!’ in front of the door. ‘Professor!’” Indirect quotation Generally speaking in Korean.’” When quoting mimetic expressions and/or when quoting the exact forms involved along with the tone and intonation of the quoted utterance. The function of indirect quotation in Korean is twofold: (1) to convey what somebody has said or written without using the original speaker’s or writer’s exact words.” “ask. and a verb. “John asked Jennifer in a calm tone of voice. “Jessica called out.’” “ ” ‘knock knock. “William answered ‘As for my hometown.” and the adjective “be that way.24 Direct and indirect quotation “ !” . “The school bell rang ‘ttang “ ” . the particle is used instead of ( ) . the use of indirect quotation is more frequent than that of direct quotation. and (2) to report one’s own thoughts or feelings (e.’” “ !” . Compare the following two sentences: “ work this weekend. Reporting without using the speaker’s or writer’s exact words Indirect quotation in Korean is constructed from the following: the quoted utterance.” “answer. “Andrew shouted ‘Wow. internal speech). tense.g. part of the original utterance (e.” When a direct quoted utterance is converted to an indirect reported utterance. it’s Autumn!’” . (it) is Seoul..g. the indirect quotation particle .” “ ” .

” . “(He) said that (he) would leave for China tonight.” ~ (for adjectives) . depending on the sentence type of the quoted utterance. Note that the plain speech level has different endings depending on the sentence type: Declarative ~( ) Interrogative ~( ) / Imperative ~ / Propositive ~ Indirect quotation Consequently. “(She) said that yesterday’s food was spicy. the polite speech level ending in the first sentence is replaced by the plain speech level ending in the second (e. “(My) roommate said that (he) would go to bed late tonight. whereas the second is an indirect quotation.. “(She) says the (her) father is a doctor.g.. “(They) say that (it) is the spring break from tomorrow. “Lisa said that (herself/she) would work this weekend.” .” The first sentence is a direct quotation.” . Notice that the first person pronoun in the first sentence was replaced by the noun “herself” in the second sentence. “(They) said that (they) would eat Korean food everyday. one of the four plain speech level endings is used accordingly before the quotation particle . “(He) said that the test is easy.” . In addition. ).” 221 . “(She) says that (she) majors in Japanese literature. Declarative ~( ) (for verbs) . vs.” .” ~ (for copulas) .

“(I) told (him) to take the medicine before going to bed.” . “Isabel asked Eric which bank (he) goes to.24 Direct and indirect quotation Interrogative ~ (for verbs) . “(I) told (my) younger sister to drive safely. “(I) asked (her) where (she) would go next Friday. “(They) suggest that (we) play tennis together from tomorrow (onward). some of the aforementioned indirect quotation endings can be abbreviated. “(He) asks (her) what the dinner menu for today is. “Daniel suggested that (we) meet this weekend.” Imperative ~( ) (for verbs only) . “(I) asked (them) whether Seoul’s weather is cold.” .” .” . as shown below: .” .” ~ (for adjectives and copulas) .” .” Note that ~( ) / . “Mario suggests that (we) eat dinner together. Propositive is used instead of the plain speech level ending ~ ~ (for verbs only) .” Abbreviation of the indirect quotation endings in colloquial usages 222 In conversational settings. “Susan asked (me) who is a Korean.

Here are more examples: . “(She) tells (us) to eat breakfast before going to school.~( ) is shortened to ~( ) . “(I) thought that yesterday’s test was difficult. the indirect quotation particle . and a verb.” . “(I) thought that John’s action was right. indirect quotation is also used to report one’s own thoughts or feelings. .” . . “(They) suggest that (we) play golf tomorrow Reporting one’s thoughts or feelings Beside reporting the speech or writing of a third person. such as “think” or “feel.” Notice that the form reports one’s thought rather than quotes someone else’s idea. “(I) think that Jane’s personality is really nice.” Exercises Key vocabulary for Unit 24 exercises to go together season to study 223 . “(I) felt that the employees’ attitudes were not good. “(They) say that Matthew likes Korean is shortened to ~ .” ~ ~( ) Reporting one’s thoughts or feelings is shortened to ~( ) . “(He) says that (his) older brother is a lawyer.” food.” ~ together.” is shortened to ~ .” Consider the following example: . . It is constructed from the following: the quoted utterance. .

m.24 Direct and indirect quotation to quit/to stop (doing) Friday an end/the tip next time to come down to get off/to come down tomorrow to play again to go back to help to stop by to follow to drink to meet to make to be spicy to eat night to see/to watch/to read laundry fast/immediately a passing rain/shower class time/hour to begin keys earnestly/enthusiastically/hard movie today to climb/to go up p. milk after a while to get up early well/expertly dinner/evening to make a phone call really please/for heaven’s sake weekend to spend (time)/to get along 224 .

2 Quote the following indirectly as shown in the example.1 Quote the following directly. as shown in the example. Example: The speaker: / The original utterance: = .one’s place of work house house rent pot stew to look for/to seek for friends to ride (a train/car/bus/airplane) the Korean language to get angry Exercise 24. Example: The speaker: = “ home.” 225 . Then translate the sentence. Then translate the sentence. “Paul said that (he) would go home in the afternoon. “Jane said ‘Let us go / The original utterance: “ / The original utterance: “ / The original utterance: “ / The original utterance: “ / The original utterance: “ / The original utterance: “ / The original utterance: “ / The original utterance: “ / The original utterance: “ / The original utterance: “ ” ” ” ” ” ” ?” Exercise 24.’” 1 The speaker: 2 The speaker: 3 The speaker: ” 4 The speaker: ” 5 The speaker: 6 The speaker: 7 The speaker: 8 The speaker: 9 The speaker: ” 10 The speaker: / The original utterance: “ ” ” .1 Exercise 24.

24 Direct and indirect quotation 1 The speaker: 2 The speaker: 3 The speaker: 4 The speaker: 5 The speaker: 6 The speaker: ? 7 The speaker: 8 The speaker: 9 The speaker: 10 The speaker: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: ? ? ? ? Exercise 24. Example: The speaker: / The original utterance: . as shown in the example.3 Quote the following indirectly as shown in the example. “Terrence suggested that (we) study hard. = . . Then translate the sentence.4 226 Finish the following translation using the cues provided in parenthesis.” 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The speaker: The speaker: The speaker: The speaker: The The The The speaker: speaker: speaker: speaker: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: / The original utterance: 9 The speaker: 10 The speaker: Exercise 24.

5 Finish the following translation using the sentence cue provided in parenthesis.” ( ) = . 1 2 3 4 think that (their) food is delicious ( ) think that (their) service is great ( ) think that the coffee was too strong ( ) thought that (I) would start exercising from tomorrow ( ) 5 (I) thought that (I) would write an e-mail to John ( ) (I) (I) (I) (I) 227 . Example: “(I) think that the room was too noisy.” ( ) = .Example: “Luis suggested that (we) buy a wine. as shown in the example. 1 2 3 4 5 Sam said that (he) leaves tonight ( / Lisa asked (me) what time (I) go to bed ( / Paul suggested that (we) eat Korean food ( / Teacher told (us) to be quiet ( / Susan said that (she) would call (me) tonight ( ) ) / Exercise 24.5 ?) ) ) / Exercise 24.

“The house is far.” .” ? “Is the fruit fresh?” Exercise 1. “(Let us) go to bed early.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 .” . “(I) teach Chinese.” . “(I) learn Japanese. “The sky is cloudy. “The lecture is interesting.” .” .” ? “Does (your) head ache?” .” .” .” ? “Isn’t (he) a policeman?” .” .” .” .” .” . “The feeling is good.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 .” 228 .” . “(I) eat breakfast. “Close the window.” .” ? “Is (she) a Frenchman?” “Work. “(I) drink water. “Open the door. “(I) throw away the trash.” . “(Let us) borrow dishes. “End the concert early. “(I) wait for (my) older sister.KEY TO EXERCISES Unit 1 Exercise 1.” ? “Do (you) ride a bicycle?” . “(Let us) sell the car. “(I) receive a package. “Cross a bridge. “The apple is sweet. “(I) wash (my) feet.

” . “Shout aloud. “(Let us) draw a picture. “(Let us) see a romance movie. “Put on (your) socks. “Wear the shirt.4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . “The bus is slow.” .” .” . “(Let us) take a taxi.” 229 .3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ? “When do (you) shut the store door?” ? “Where do (you) meet (your) friend?” ? “When do (you) depart?” ? “Where do (you) study?” ? “Do (you) smoke?” ? “Do (you) look for keys?” ? “Is the weather warm?” ? “Is the test difficult?” ? “Is (your) mood bad?” ? “Is the house quiet?” Exercise 1. “Trust Andrew. “Open the window.” . “(Let us) throw garbage away. “Cross the bridge. “(Let us) finish the work.” .” .” Key to exercises Exercise 1.” .” .” .” . “(Let us) get scattered at the coffee shop. “(I) am busy this weekend. “Take (my) hand. “Follow (your) father. “(Let us) give (them) a book.” .” .” Exercise 1.” . “(Let us) send (him) the picture. “Throw the bag. “The coffee is hot.” . “Go down to the bottom.” . “(Let us) read the newspaper.7 8 9 10 “The office is clean.” .” .” .” . “(Let us) catch the criminal.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .” .

.Key to exercises Exercise 1. . Exercise 1. (Let us) wear jeans. (Let us) borrow (his) money. ? ? ? . (Let us) leave for London. Close the door. ? ? ? .7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Read page 19. .1 230 1 2 ? ? .8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . Unit 2 Exercise 2. . (Let us) give (them) homework. Exercise 1. Go out from the room. Drink green tea. Learn English. . (Let us) wash (our) hands.

I see that) Nicolas talks . “(Oh. . “(Oh. I see that) Rachel eats kimchi.3 4 5 ? ? ? Key to exercises Exercise 2. “(Oh. . . I see that) David is Alex’s older .3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . right?” ? “The house is noisy. .” . I see that) Cindy does not sleep yet. . . “(Oh.” 5 6 . . .” 231 . . . right?” ? “The room is quiet.4 1 2 3 4 5 6 . . “(Oh. right?” ? “The scenery is beautiful. .” . . right?” Exercise 2. .2 1 2 3 4 5 ? “Today’s weather is hot.5 1 2 3 to Natalie. I see that) Joseph is not home.” . “(Oh. I see that) the room is clean. Exercise 2. Exercise 2.” 4 brother. right?” ? “The coffee is delicious.

“(Oh.” . I see that they) closed (their) store .2 1 2 3 4 5 . .” . . .” 2 for (their) honeymoon. . .6 1 2 3 4 5 6 . “(Oh.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . “(Oh. I see that) Naomi is a fashion Unit 3 Exercise 3. I see that) Harry worked as a . I see that they) go to Europe .” 5 6 .m. . . “(Oh.Key to exercises Exercise 2. ? . I see that) the room was hot yesterday. . . “(Oh. ? .” 4 lawyer. . I see that) prices are expensive. “(Oh. . . 232 . ? ? Exercise 3.7 1 model.” 3 at 9 p. Exercise 2.

. . . . ? . . ? . . . .6 7 8 9 10 . . Key to exercises Exercise 3. . Exercise 3. . ? . . 233 .5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . ? . . . . .3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . . . . . . . ? Exercise 3.

“(I) tried Indian food.” 234 . “Try teaching English. “(I) will meet only (my) older sister.” . “(I) drink only apple juice.” .1 1 2 3 4 5 .” .6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .” . “(I) tried wearing Hanbok.2 1 company?” 2 3 4 language?” 5 ? “Have (you) been to church?” ? “Have (you) tried fishing?” ? “Have (you) tried (eating) Thai food?” ? “Have (you) tried learning the Korean ? “Have (you) tried working for a trading Exercise 4. “Try living in an apartment. “(I) thought of only (my) mother. “Try climbing the mountain. “(I) eat only salad.” . (she) likes only Dad. “(I) will take a nap only one hour.” . “(I) will wait only 10 minutes.” . “(I) liked only jazz.” . “Try fixing the computer. “(I) have been to Beijing. “(I) tried calling the hospital. “Try breaking up with (your) girlfriend.” .” Unit 4 Exercise 4.” .” .” . “(I) tried making ceramics.Key to exercises Exercise 3. “As for Mom. “(I) slept only 5 hours yesterday.” .” .” .3 1 2 3 4 5 .” .” .” Exercise 4. “There are only seven customers.

Exercise 4. .5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . “(Let us) try filling up a hole. .” 3 4 5 . “(Let us) try fixing the car.” .7 1 continues to get old. .” . “(Let us) continue to change the sch? “Do (you) go on living alone from now .” . .6 1 2 3 4 5 . “Continue to make a happy family.” . .” 2 on?” 3 4 5 edule gradually. “(Let us) continue to save water. “(Let us) try asking a favor to the Key to exercises Exercise 4. “As for my grandmother. (she) 235 . ? ? . . “(Let us) try turning on the air conditioner.Exercise 4. .4 1 2 teacher. . “(Let us) try praying.” . . . Exercise 4.” .” .

. . .2 1 2 3 4 silver. . . .” .4 1 2 3 4 5 . . . “(I) made a distinction between gold and Exercise 5. “(I) roasted meat.” 5 . “(I) erased the file. . “(I) shut the store door. . Exercise 5.” . “(I) came out from school. .” .1 1 2 3 4 5 .Key to exercises Unit 5 Exercise 5.” .” . “(My) friend left for New York.” .5 1 2 3 4 5 236 .3 1 2 3 4 5 . “(I) drew a picture. .” . “(I) ferreted out a secret.” Exercise 5. “The car broke down again. . Exercise 5.” . “(He) made a telephone.

“(I) ordered coffee (for him). “Terrence ended up selling (his) .” . “(I) changed the dress (for him). . . “(I) wrote a letter (for her).” .7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . “(I) switched on the electric lamp (for her).” . “Joan ended up getting mad at (her) .” .” . “Cindy ended up sliding down . .” 2 up with (her) boyfriend.” 4 on the road.” 237 . “(I) made lunch (for him).6 1 (his) older brother. “(I) sang the song (for her). .” .Exercise 5.” . .” .” . “(I) received the phone call (for her). . .” 5 older sister. “(I) read a book (for her). “(I) shut the window (for him).8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .” 3 notebook. .” . “(I) opened the door (for him). “Sally ended up breaking . . “Ronald ended up disputing with Key to exercises Exercise 5. Exercise 5.

“Wash vegetables for later. .” . . .2 1 later.5 1 2 3 4 5 238 .Key to exercises Unit 6 Exercise 6. . . “Read newspapers for later.” . . . . “Bus is here. .” .” 5 . “The electric lamp is off. . “The friends are (here) home. Exercise 6. . “Remember the telephone number for Exercise 6. “The patient is lying on the bed.1 1 2 3 4 5 .3 1 2 3 4 5 .” .” 2 3 4 features for later. .” .” .” . Exercise 6. “Flowers are in bloom in the garden. “Make (yourself) familiar with the geographical .4 1 2 3 4 5 .” Exercise 6. . “Reserve a seat for later.

“(He) feels thankful. . “The child’s height has become tall. “(He) envies. “Food price has become expensive. “(He) feels curious. “(Let us) go to the Chinese restau239 . “(My) face has become dark. .1 1 2 3 4 5 .8 1 2 3 4 5 . ? Exercise 7.” .” .2 1 coffee.” 2 test. “(I) am going to toilet to wash . “(I) went to Starbucks to drink .” 4 rant to have lunch.6 1 2 3 4 5 .7 1 2 3 4 5 . “(He) feels hot.” . .Exercise 6.” 3 (my) face.” .” . .” . Exercise 6. “Jessica has become pretty. “Go to the library to study for the . “(He) feels sore. . . “The weather has become clear.” Unit 7 Exercise 7.” .” .” Key to exercises Exercise 6. .” .

“(I) wait for (my) friend at lobby intending to have lunch together.6 1 2 3 4 5 .” . .5 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 7. . “Please get out of the way so that the ambulance can pass by. . . . Exercise 7. .” .7 1 240 .” . . “(I) had a side job intending to earn (some) money.” . . “(I) am choosing a gift intending to give (it) to (my) husband for (his) birthday present.” Exercise 7. “(I) went to the train station intending to leave for Paris.” .3 1 2 3 4 5 . Exercise 7.Key to exercises 5 Kate?” ? “Do (you) go to the airport to meet Exercise 7.4 1 2 3 4 5 . “(I) am negotiating intending to buy the car at a cheap price.

.” Unit 8 Exercise 8. so that (he) can get up early in the morning. “Please smile so that (you) can . ? .” 5 . . “(Let us) go to the party and then play merrily.” 2 cook. “Please set the alarm.” 3 York and then see a musical?” 4 .3 1 2 3 4 5 . “(I) will get up early in the morning Exercise 8. . “Study hard so that (you) Key to exercises . .” 3 can pass the test. . “Please teach (him) a lesson.2 1 and then exercise.” 4 . Exercise 8.2 give (them) a good impression.1 1 2 3 4 5 . “(I) wrapped up the gift and then gave (it to her) at (her) birthday party. 241 .” 5 . .” ? “When will (you) go to New . “Go to (your) friend’s house and then . so that (he) can study hard.

” . .” . “Since yesterday was (my) friend’s birthday.7 1 2 3 4 5 . . 242 . “Since (we) move (into the new residence) tomorrow morning. “Since (it) snows much. Exercise 8. come by 8 a.” . put (some) salt in (it). “Since this restaurant’s food is delicious.Key to exercises Exercise 8. .” . please turn on the air conditioner. “Since the pizza will arrive (here) soon. “Since the food is watery.” . please buy medicines (for me).” . . . “Since (I) caught a cold. (I) guess that (I) will not be able to go to school. . “Since (it) is hot. “(I) am sorry in that (I) am late for the appointment. (let us) wait a little more.” . “Since (here) is the library.” Exercise 8.4 1 2 3 4 5 . . (I) am taking medicines. “Since (my) head aches. (I) will call (you) the day after tomorrow. “Since (I) am busy tomorrow.” . do not talk aloud.6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . (we) come (here) often.5 1 2 3 4 5 .” .” . . (I) went to (his) birthday party.” Exercise 8.m.

. “If the weather is too cold.” ? “When (you) need help.1 1 2 3 4 5 . “(I) was asking people because (I) was looking for a bank. “(I) stayed up all night because of Key to exercises Unit 9 Exercise 9. “If (it) is hot. Exercise 9. . ? . “(I) could not hear the doorbell sound because of listening to the radio.” . (I) will turn on the heater. . . “If (your) stomach hurts.” 2 .” . (let us) open the window. . try asking (someone). go to hospital.” 3 ? “Were (you) late waiting for Sarah?” 4 . 243 .Exercise 8. who do (you) call?” Exercise 9. .” 5 .2 1 2 3 4 5 . “If (you) do not know.” .” .8 1 doing (my) homework. “(I) do not eat dinner much because (I) am on diet.3 1 2 3 4 5 .

” 5 early. “(I) wish that (I) receive a .” 4 warm. “(I) wish that (my) place of work is . “If (you) intend to get employed in this company. 244 . “(I) wish that (I) go abroad for study to .” .5 1 need a pot. “If (you) intend to enter the States. “(I) wish that (my) boyfriend . .” 8 notebook for (my) birthday present. (you) must go to New York.” .” . “If (you) intend to have dinner in this restaurant. “(I) wish that (my) husband goes to bed . make a reservation. “If (you) intend to see a Broadway show. (you) need a ball and a racket. . “(I) wish that Professor .” 7 quits smoking.” 3 near from home.6 1 2 3 4 5 . take a subway. “If (you) intend to play tennis. pay the fee. submit (your) college diploma. “(I) wish that tomorrow’s weather is . (you) have to receive a visa.” .Key to exercises Exercise 9.” .4 1 a Korean. . “If (you) intend to go to hospital.” .” 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . (you) Exercise 9. .” 2 Canada.” . “(I) wish that (my) roommate is Exercise 9. “If (you) intend to boil water.” 6 Kim teaches next semester.” . “If (you) intend to use a toilet.

you know. Exercise 9.” .” 5 care of (your) health. .” 3 (I) need (it). . meet . “If (you) have a source of anxiety.” 2 medicines. “(My) throat hurts. “(I) ate lunch late. the more . talk .” .” 4 5 Dr.” .” 245 . you know. “If (you) feel bored. “(I) am on diet. “The more (you) travel. .Exercise 9. you know. “The more (I) spend money. you know.” 2 the more tired (I) am. “(I) cannot drink alcohol.” 4 more (you) will learn. .” 3 (to me). Park. “If (your) head aches again. contact me. “The more (I) meet people. . “The busier (you) are. “(I) do not have money.8 1 2 3 4 5 . you know. “The size was small.” .” . “If (you) need a recommen- Exercise 9.” . you know.7 1 (it) is.” .” .10 1 2 3 4 5 6 . take more . the better Key to exercises Exercise 9. take . “If (you) go to the hospital.9 1 dation letter. the . “The more (I) live in Korea. watch TV.

“Only if (you) go to Paris.2 1 (your) clothes. .” 4 small.” .” 2 use the internet. “Only if (you) meet Christine.” 3 dinner. (we) . . “Only if (we) save money. “Only if (you) do well on the Unit 10 Exercise 10.” 246 . “Only if (I) do a side job. .” 4 can see Eiffel Tower.Key to exercises Exercise 9.” 3 can buy a new sofa. .11 1 2 3 4 5 . “(Let us) take a shower and then eat “(His) height was tall and (his) face was . ? . . (I) .12 1 test. Exercise 9. . (you) can enter law school. “(I) will do (my) homework and then .” 5 . “John is 31 years old and (he) is a doctor. Exercise 10. (you) . . “Wash (your) face and then change .” 2 can pay (my) tuition.” 5 (you) can receive the book. . . .1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 .

Key to exercises Exercise 10.” .” 8 and (she) was nice.” 4 sweating. drinking coffee.” 5 6 7 is good. . “As for Laura. .4 1 newspapers. .5 1 2 3 4 5 . “Robert shouted crying. .” 2 watching TV.6 1 movies or dine out?” 2 3 yoga. “This room is big and cool. “As for Seoul.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 . .” 3 popcorn.” . .” .Exercise 10. eating .” . “Nicole is slender and tenderhearted. “Buy flowers or make cakes. “Grace ate dinner. “Esther is playing tennis. . .” 9 . . the weather will be cloudy and rain may fall.” . . . (I) jog or do 247 ? “When (do) you usually see . “Richard sees a movie. “Terrence is reading Exercise 10.” 10 . Exercise 10. . “Clara is pretty and (her) personality . (her) hair was long. “In the morning.

248 .Key to exercises 4 by a card. Exercise 10. while . “(Let us) go to mountains or beach.” . “(I) will pay by cash or defray . “(I) will buy cola or juice.” . “Jodie was looking for something.” 2 reading a book. .1 1 2 3 4 5 .7 1 2 3 4 5 .” 3 4 5 . “Tom and Jerry are talking.” . “The weather will be cloudy or cold.2 1 smiling.” Exercise 10. “Steve murmurs alone.8 1 2 3 4 5 TV.” . . “Drink coffee or eat cake. . “Harry takes a shower. “(I) will read newspapers or watch Unit 11 Exercise 11.” .” .” 5 . ? Exercise 11. “Lewis snored. . “(Let us) eat beef or pork. singing. while walking on the road. . ? . while sleeping.” .” .

? . .” 2 .” 3 ? “Will (you) buy a car as soon as (you) graduate from college?” 4 . “As (I) saw the movie.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 .” . Exercise 11.” ? “Did (you) fall as (you) went up the 249 . “As (I) read newspapers. “Go to the right side and then stop. (I) cried. “Brush (your) teeth as soon as (you) wash (your) face.” 5 .6 1 2 3 4 stairs?” 5 cooking?” ? “Who broke dishes while . “(I) changed (my) address as soon as (I) moved to the new house.4 1 up. “(Let us) order coffee as soon as (we) eat lunch. .Exercise 11.” . Key to exercises Exercise 11. . . . “(I) wash (my) face as soon as (I) get Exercise 11.5 1 2 3 4 5 . (I) dozed off. . .” .

“If (he) eats a lot.” 4 . “If (you) do not work hard. “(They) are repairing the kitchen. (he) may have a stomachache. . “If (he) only spends money. “(I) am going to school now. . “(I) went to the department ? “(I) mailed the package last week. .” 5 250 . (you) can be expelled out from the company. and (let ? “(I) am boiling water. and did (it) arrive (there)?” . (she) may gain weight.8 1 to bed.Key to exercises Exercise 11.” .” 5 . .1 1 2 3 4 5 . “If (she) eats a lot before going Unit 12 Exercise 12. (he may) . “If (you) continue to play.” 2 (you) can fail the test. Exercise 12. ? . and will (you) . but . . and there were too many people. .7 1 2 3 4 5 6 .” 2 us) go together. Exercise 11. .” 3 drink (it)?” 4 store. .2 1 (it) is expensive.” 3 become a beggar.

” ? “(My) head aches. . “Although that car is expensive. . (I) will buy (it). . but (he) also speaks Spanish well. . “(I) want to learn (how to play) a guitar. (he) is an American.4 1 2 3 4 5 .” 2 ? “(You) drank as many as two cups of water. Exercise 12. . Key to exercises Exercise 12. and do (you) have medicines?” ? “The bag is heavy.” . . “As for Andrew. . “Although (I) took medicines.” Exercise 12. . .7 1 head aches. . but are (you) thirsty?” 3 . and (let us) learn (it) together. . and will (you) help (me)?” . “(I) am very busy nowadays. . Exercise 12.” .5 1 2 3 4 5 .Exercise 12.3 1 2 3 4 5 . so contact (me) next week. (my) 251 .6 1 2 3 4 5 .

” Unit 13 Exercise 13. “Although (I) did not have money.” 5 .” 2 but as for David. (I) wanted to go to Seoul.” 3 . .” .” 4 .2 1 interesting. (I) cannot eat (it) often. . “As for Raymond.Key to exercises 4 the room was cold. “Although (I) like meat. (I) feel uneasy because of tuition. . (it) seems that (he) will not come.” 2 . . . (he) is active. .” 5 . “Although (I) majored in English literature. (his) height is tall. “Although (I) want to study abroad in America. “Although (I) sent an invitation.1 1 2 3 4 5 .3 1 2 3 4 5 . (it) is Exercise 13. (I) cannot speak English well. “Although Korean is difficult. . Exercise 13. (he) is introverted. “Although (I) turned on the heater. “As for George. . .” 252 . Exercise 13. . .4 1 but (he) is chubby.

“Taxi is convenient.” .” 3 Key to exercises Exercise 13.” 5 . . “The department store is near.5 1 2 3 4 5 .” 3 4 to buy (it). (I) wanted . (it) is Unit 14 Exercise 14.” 5 cute. 253 . (she) is tall. . . but (it) is expensive. (he) is smart.1 1 2 3 4 5 .” 4 . but the subway station is far. . . (it) was . “Even if Korean food is spicy.” . (it) was cheap. .7 1 2 delicious.6 1 2 3 4 5 . Exercise 13. “Even if Emily is young. Exercise 13. . “As for food. . “Even if the size was small.. .” . “Even if the dress was expensive. . but the service was bad. “Even if Robert is lazy. . .

4 1 watery.” Exercise 14. “(You) may take a shower. “(You) may open (your) eyes.” .Key to exercises Exercise 14.” 3 uninteresting.” . “(I) must begin (my) work.” . “It would not be all right if side dishes are . “It would not be all right if the road is narrow.” .” 5 254 .5 1 2 3 4 5 .” . . “(You) may hold (her) hand.2 1 2 3 4 5 . Exercise 14. . “It would not be all right if the room is small. “(You) must wash (your) hands. . “(You) must get up early .” . Exercise 14.” .” . .6 1 2 3 4 tomorrow morning.3 1 2 3 4 5 . “(I) must study for the test.” . “(You) may wash (your) face. .” 2 salty.” 4 5 . . “It would not be all right if the soup is Exercise 14.” . . “(I) must obtain a driver’s license. “It would not be all right if the movie is . . “(You) may go home now.

? b b b . . . “(I) must pack a travel bag.7 1 2 3 4 5 . . . Unit 15 Exercise 15.10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .” Exercise 14.” . “(I) must pay for electricity bill. . .” . . . Exercise 14. 255 . “The price has to be cheap. . . “The weather has to be good. . .9 1 2 3 4 .” .8 1 2 3 4 5 .” . . “(He) has to be a high-school student. . . . Key to exercises Exercise 14. .Exercise 14. . .1 1 a 2 a 3 a .

(I) was bitten by mosquitoes. Exercise 15. ? . . . . . Please hang up the phone first. . Sweaters are sold well. ? . . (or . fog was lifted up.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . .4 1 2 3 4 5 . . Exercise 15.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 256 . . Fortunately.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (I) heap a desk with books.Key to exercises Exercise 15. Because of the stress. . (I) removed the laundry from a clothes-line. Please sell (it) at a cheap price. ). . The bear bit a fish. The electricity is disconnected due to rain. Exercise 15. . . stress is piled up.

Chris often wears jeans.8 1 2 3 4 5 Please Please Please Please Please make make make make make (your) presentation longer. Please sit in the back. .6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 What shall (we) eat today? Susan feeds a cat. Exercise 15. Usually (my) older sister put the child to sleep around 8 o’clock.Exercise 15. (him/her) chew a gum. (it) cheap (for me).1 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 16. . Key to exercises Exercise 15.7 1 2 3 4 5 . Please dress (him) a T-shirt. (him/her) drink coffee. (it) delicious (for me). . Please undress (his) jacket. Don’t take off (your) sweater. Peter sleeps about 7 hours everyday. . Unit 16 Exercise 16.2 1 2 3 “the quietest room in this house” “the school Daniel wants to go to” “the most beautiful island” 257 . Please make Andrew sit in the front row.

3 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 16.” “the cheapest clothes” Exercise 16.4 1 2 3 4 5 “the fruit which (my) friend buys” “the train that (I) change at Chicago” “the apartment where (my) older brother lives” “the computer which (my) older sister uses” “the person that I work with” Exercise 16.Key to exercises 4 5 “the highest mountain in the U.A.5 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise 16.S.7 1 2 3 4 5 258 .6 1 2 3 4 5 “the song that (I) sang yesterday” “the person that (I) met last year” “the present that (I) received last week” “the garbage that (I) threw away in the morning” “the food that (I) made” Exercise 16.

” 3 friend. “(It) seems that (he) waits for (his) . “(It) seems that (your) friend is diligent. “(It) seems that the stew is salty.” 4 money.” 2 the afternoon.Exercise 16.8 1 2 3 week” 4 5 “the book which you will borrow tomorrow” “the seat where James will sit” “the suit which Jason will wear” “the person whom (my) older sister will marry” “the house where we will move into next Key to exercises Exercise 16.” 6 7 nest and smart.” .” .” 9 10 . “(It) seems that Andrew is ear.” 8 cloudy.1 1 Washington. “(It) seems that (she) has many friends . “(It) seems that the weather is cold and .” 5 in Seoul. “(It) seems that the price is cheap. “(It) seems that (he) does not have much .” 259 . “(It) seems that (they) arrive (here) in . “(It) seems that (they) depart from .9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Unit 17 Exercise 17.

. . “(It) seems that (my) older brother will lend (me) money.” 4 for (her) friends.” . “(It) seems that the food will be tasteless. “(It) looks like (I) will be busy everyday.” . “(It) seems that (they) will live in the dormitory from next semester.” .3 1 James teaches English in Korea. “(It) appears that Wendy is poor.” 3 bridge. . “(It) looks like the weather will be hot. “As for (their) honeymoon.” 6 letter.” . 260 . “(It) appears that Sally is popular.” Exercise 17.” 5 (his) car.” 8 9 10 . “(It) appears that Kate is diligent. (it) seems that (they) will go to Las Vegas. “(It) appears that John crosses the . .” .” . “(It) seems that Jane will sing well.Key to exercises Exercise 17.” .4 1 2 3 4 5 . “(It) seems that (they) will return home next Wednesday.” 2 cooks in the kitchen.” . “(It) appears that Thomas . “(It) appears that Charles orders . “(It) appears that Sandy waits . “(It) seems that Paul will quit smoking.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . “(It) seems that John will be humble. “(It) appears that Exercise 17.” . “(It) appears that Anthony repairs .” .” 7 coffee.” . “(It) appears that Sarah sends the .” .

” . . “(I) guess that Timothy is sick.6 7 8 . “(I) guess that the food is tasteless.” . . “(It) seems that (he) is repairing (his) . “(It) seems that the food is salty.” 4 5 . “(I) guess that Nancy goes to Exercise 17. . “(I) guess that today’s weather is hot. “(I) guess that Justin works at the . “(I) guess that Sam likes Laura.” .” 4 5 6 7 8 9 student. “(It) seems that (they) are singing a .” .” . “(It) seems that (it) snows. “(I) guess that Brad is a Canadian. “(I) guess that Naomi marries this . .” .” . “(I) guess that kimchi is watery. . Key to exercises Exercise 17. .7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . . .” 2 hospital.” 3 spring. 261 . “(It) seems that (he) is helping (his) Exercise 17. “(I) guess that Chelsea is a graduate .” 10 .6 1 Korea next month. . .5 1 friends. .” .” 3 computer.” 2 Japanese song.

. “Simon looks sad. . “The earring looks expensive.” 3 (my) older brother.” . .3 1 scholarship. “(I) have an experience of quarrelling with . “(I) have an experience of skiing . “William looks busy. “The inside of the house looks clean.” Unit 18 Exercise 18.” .1 1 2 3 4 5 .” 4 in Korea.” . Exercise 18. Exercise 18.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . “Kate looks young.Key to exercises Exercise 17.” . “(I) have an experience of receiving a .” . .” 5 Sunday. “(His) glasses look inexpensive. “The apple pie looks delicious.” 2 Taekwondo.” . . “The notebook looks light. .” 262 . . “Jessie looks pretty. “(I) have an experience of learning . .” . “(I) have an experience of working on .” .” . “Linda looks sick.2 1 2 3 4 5 .

. “(I) am in the middle of ordering Chinese Exercise 18. “While I was . Key to exercises Exercise 18. . “While Exercise 18. .” 4 piecies).” 4 .” .7 1 2 food. .5 1 Edward was buying a hat.” 3 . “(I) am in the middle of wearing a suit. Exercise 18. “While Luis was talking to (his) friend. Peter went to the restroom. Erica ordered food.” 2 jogging.Exercise 18. “(I) am in the middle of packing loads.” 3 tennis with Eric. . “(I) am in the middle of playing .8 1 2 . . . Sam went out to buy popcorn.” . “While Megan was sleeping. . Joyce watched TV.” .” 5 . “While we were looking for seats. “(I) am in the middle of cutting pork (into .” 5 .4 1 2 3 4 5 .6 1 2 3 4 5 . 263 . . (my) wife went to the supermarket.

1 1 2 3 4 5 . “(I) will take a shower as soon as (I) get Exercise 19.” 2 . “Helen kind of cooks well. .” 5 . “(My) mother tends to do useless Unit 19 Exercise 19.2 1 up.” 4 . Exercise 19.” .” 4 5 . Exercise 18.” .” . “Today’s weather is kind of cloudy. . . “(Let us) return the book (to them) as soon as (we) receive (it). ? . . . “Start working as soon as (you) receive the document.9 1 2 3 talk. .” .Key to exercises 3 4 5 .” ? “Will (you) return to the office as soon as (you) finish (your) meal?” 3 . “Steve kind of likes beer. . . “The test is kind of hard.3 1 2 3 4 5 264 . . “Leave as soon as (you) find the key.

“James pretends that (he) dislikes . . . “Gina and Ronald pretend that . “(I) will go to bed after taking a shower. . . “(I) will prepare for employment after graduating from college.” 4 . . “Anthony pretends that (he) is . .Exercise 19.” .4 . “James pretends that (he) knows Exercise 19. 265 . “Turn off the electric lamp after closing the window. “(They) went home after finishing (their) work.5 1 2 3 4 5 .” .” 3 has no money.” 4 Jessica. “Put ramyon after boiling water. “Patrick always pretends that (he) . .” 2 (they) are happy.” .” 5 . .7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .6 1 the secret code.” 5 uninterested in studying. . .” 1 2 3 Key to exercises Exercise 19. . ? Exercise 19. .

“(I) could not go to the company because (my) car broke down. “When there is a lot of stress. “(I) could not sleep because (he) snored. “When (it) rains.” 2 eat popcorn. .” .” 8 ceremony.8 1 because (I) got up late. (you) need an .” . (let us) ? “Do (you) listen to music when (you) . “When the movie begins.” 2 (it) rained suddenly. “When (I) eat steak. .” .” 5 wine. “(I) could not study because (I) caught a cold.” 3 do (your) homework?” 4 beer.” . “(I) caught a cold because (I) worked at dawn. “When (I) went to the wedding . “(I) hurt (my) waist because (I) slid on the road.” . “Sing a song.9 1 (I) feel good. “(I) lost (my) hat because the wind blew. “When (I) receive (my) salary. .” 266 . “(I) could not make a phone call because there was a car accident.” .” .Key to exercises Exercise 19. “(My) dress got wet because . (I) drink .” . when (you) drink . “When (I) need help.” 7 (I) will contact (my) friends.” 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . (I) wore a suit. “(I) was late for the class Exercise 19.” 6 do exercise.” 9 umbrella. “The food was too salty because (I) put too much salt (into it).

” 11 feel bad. “(I) almost crossed the road.” Unit 20 Exercise 20. (I) Key to exercises ? “When it is (your) girl friend’s birthday.10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . “Our team almost won the game. “When the weather is hot.” 267 . “(I) almost slid on the road. did (you) want to become a doctor?” 15 . “When (I) feel bored.” .” . “(I) can drink wine. .1 1 2 3 4 5 . what kind of birthday gift do (you) prepare?” 13 .” 12 .” . (let us) wear short pants.” .” . (I) go to a bookstore.” . “When the weather is cloudy.” 14 ? “When (you) were young. “(I) almost locked the door. “(I) can feel the heat. see a comedy movie. “(I) almost lost the game. “(I) can make American friends. . “(I) almost got angry at (my) children.” .” Exercise 19. .” . “When (you) have (some) .” .10 time. “(I) can drive a truck. Exercise 20.” . “(I) almost forgot about the appointment. “(I) can sing Korea songs.” .” .2 1 2 3 4 5 .” . “(I) almost quarrelled with (my) friend. “(I) almost fell into the water. . “(I) almost drank wine.

” . .” .6 1 2 3 4 5 . “(I) know how to get to the company Exercise 20. .7 1 2 3 4 5 . .3 1 2 3 4 5 . .” .” Exercise 20. “(I) did not think that (my) older brother would go to Japan on Monday. . “(I) know how to ride a bicycle.4 1 2 3 4 from here. “(I) did not think that Simon would be good at sports. “(I) did not think that Charles would leave for London today.” 5 . Exercise 20. . “(I) did not think that Susan would go to Korea. . “(I) know how to play golf. .” . 268 .5 1 2 3 4 5 . “(I) know how to swim.” . “(I) did not think that Matthew would close the store early on Saturday. . .” . Exercise 20.Key to exercises Exercise 20. . . “(I) know how to make kimchi.” .” .

” . “There is no possibility that taxi fee is . “There is no possibility that college Key to exercises Unit 21 Exercise 21.” 2 convenient. “There is no possibility that a subway is .8 1 life is fun. “There is no possibility that the design is .Exercise 20.2 1 Michael will do?” 2 dinner?” 3 weather will be like nowadays?” 4 ? “Do (you) know what time the airplane will arrive at the airport?” 5 ? “Do (you) know what time (they) will close the store tomorrow?” ? “Do (you) know how Rome’s ? “Do (you) know where (they) will have ? “Do (you) know what kind of work 269 .1 1 2 movie starts?” 3 4 the bus?” 5 James’ room is?” 6 for Paris?” 7 8 9 10 inexpensive?” ? “Do (you) know why the house is noisy?” ? “Do (you) know why the room is hot?” ? “Do (you) know why this soup is salty?” ? “Do (you) know why this computer is ? “Do (you) know why Julie leaves ? “Do (you) know on what floor ? “Do (you) know where (he) works?” ? “Do (you) know where (he) rides ? “Do (you) know how old Jerry is?” ? “Do (you) know what time the Exercise 21. “There is no possibility that (playing) .” 5 pretty.” 3 tennis is easy.” 4 cheap.

4 1 “How noisy the house is. “(I) do not know why (I) should break up with (my) girlfriend. .3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . 270 . .” 4 . . “(I) do not know what time (we) Exercise 21.” 5 . . . . . . (I) could not solve even one problem.” Exercise 21. . (they) do not even go to a toilet. (I) was late for the party as long as one hour.5 1 should wait until.” 4 “How interestingly (they) see a movie.” 3 “How difficulty the test was. . . “(I) do not know what (I) should drink. “(I) do not know at what price .” 5 “How heavily (it) snows.6 1 2 3 4 5 6 . . Exercise 21.” 2 buy. (it) seems that (we) may not be able to go to school. .Key to exercises Exercise 21.” 2 “How congested the road was.” . (I) cannot study.” 3 (I) should sell the house. “(I) do not know which car (I) should . .

” 3 .” 3 received the letter. “Susan’s older brother was the company president (you know). “(It) has been one year since (I) got .” 5 employed. “(It) has been two days since (I) caught a .” 4 .3 1 2 3 271 . “Tom waited for a taxi (you know).” 2 cold.2 . .” .” 1 2 Exercise 22. “Jane’s birthday was yesterday (you know). .” .” 4 exercising.7 1 (my) lunch. ? ? ? Key to exercises Exercise 21. “William was diligent (you know). “(It) has been one week since (I) . “(It) has been two hours since (I) ate Unit 22 Exercise 22. “(It) has been four days since (I) started .” 5 .1 1 2 3 4 5 . .7 8 9 10 . . Exercise 22. “Catherine was buying a ring (you know).

” . “(It) is the school uniform that (I) used to wear during (my) intermediate school days. the house was quiet.Key to exercises 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Exercise 22. (it) is noisy. .” . . 272 .” Exercise 22.” 3 4 5 Exercise 22. “(It) is the TV drama that (I) used to enjoy watching in Korea.” .5 1 2 .” TV .” . and as a result (he) only sees Korean movies.6 1 2 3 4 5 . (my) head aches. “(It) is the apartment where (I) used to live ten years ago. “(It) is the novel that (I) used read during (my) college days. “(she) is (my ex) girlfriend that (I) used to go out with.” .” .4 1 2 3 4 5 6 .” . “(He) is (my) colleague whom (I) used to work with. . “Since (I) drank beer a lot yesterday. . “(He) has learned Korean. but in the afternoon. the food was served. “(She) watched Japanese dramas until last week. but (she) watches Korean dramas this week.” . “As (I) waited for ten minutes. “In the morning.

“Wash (your) hands before eating . do not cry.7 1 2 3 4 5 .” 4 going to the restaurant. . “If (it was the case that she) took the medicine.” 3 smile.9 1 off. “If (it was the case that they) had meat.” 3 train ticket before riding the train. “(Let us) stop by home before 273 . “Even if (it) may be heavy. (he) might have lived. .” 2 ing a test. “If (it was the case that he) went to the hospital.” .” . .” 2 ing.” . do not doze Unit 23 Exercise 23. . bring (it). “(You) must reserve a . “Even if (you) may be sad.” 4 5 .” .1 1 breakfast. “Sleep sufficiently before tak. see (it) for sure.” .” . “If (it was the case that he) had a car.Exercise 22. “If (it was the case that I) had money. (he) might have met (her). .8 1 2 3 4 5 .” Key to exercises Exercise 22. Exercise 22. “Even if (your) mood may be bad. (she) might not feel painful. “Even if the movie may be uninterest.” . (she) might have bought (it). “Even if (you) may be tired. (I) might have left.

” . (I) could not even look around. “(I) take a shower before doing ? “Did (you) live in an apartment before moving into the new house?” 8 . “The bed is too small for two . “Far from eating lunch.” .” 3 .” 5 . “Far from climbing the mountain.” 2 . “Far from having a birthday party.” 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 274 .” 10 . “(You) must consult with (your) professor before deciding (your) major. “(I) was too young to drink coffee.” 4 .” .” .” Exercise 23.” 7 ? “Do (you) read newspapers before . “My computer is too slow for downloading a movie (file).2 1 did not even eat breakfast. “The weather is too cold for swimming. (they) did not even go outside of the house.” 9 . “(It) is too late for making a phone call. (she) Exercise 23.Key to exercises 5 leaving home for work?” 6 makeup.” . “Far from buying a new car. (I) could not even drink coffee. “Far from eating dinner.” . “Consult with (your) father before selling (your) car. “(My) height was small for playing basketball. “(Let us) make a phone call before going out to meet Peter.” . (I) could not even receive a present. “(It) was too far (for me) to drive alone.” .3 1 people to sleep. “(We) do not have time for seeing a movie.

“(I) cannot go to school because Exercise 23. “(It) was too expensive (for me to) Key to exercises Exercise 23. “(I) will eat dinner a little Exercise 23.” 3 . “(We) decided to get married next year’s . “(I guess that) the game will be cancelled because (it) rains. “(I) decided to take the Korean language class next semester.5 1 to lose weight.” 5 .” . “(I) bought a telephone card to make a phone call to (my) friend in Korea.9 ing a notebook. “There are many people in the library because (it) is an examination period.” 3 shop to repair (my) car.” .” 2 .” . “The money was short for buy.” 4 .4 1 (I) caught a cold. “(I) am preparing to . “(I) use a subway because a bus is inconvenient.” 5 .” 4 .” 275 . “(I) practice everyday to .6 1 spring. “(I) am going to the repair .” 10 give (it) away as a gift.” 2 enter medical school. “(I) decided to learn Taekwondo from next month. “(I) decided to quit smoking from tomorrow. “(I) decided to live in school .” 3 .” 2 dormitory.” 4 win the next game.” 5 . “(I) do not want to eat lunch because (I) ate breakfast late.

” . “(We) also play tennis every Exercise 23. .” . “Doing yoga everyday is difficult. “Making French food is difficult.m.” 5 .” .” . “Did not go home. .” .” 4 movies.” .” . “Will be back at 10 a.” .” .” . “(It) is unpleasant to work.” . “(It) is easy to fail a test. “(I) also wear a black tie occasionally. “(I) also play basketball with . “Repaired (your) car.” .7 1 Saturday.” . (we) also see . “Had a hair cut yesterday. “Doing the laundry is bothersome.” 276 .” . “(I) also jog on Saturday morning. “Exercising everyday is laborious. Exercise 23. “Found the lost dog.” . “Riding a car is convenient.” .Key to exercises Exercise 23.” Exercise 23. . “When feeling bored. “Cooking is interesting.” .10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .” .” 2 3 (my) friends on the weekend.9 1 2 3 4 5 . “Seeking a roommate.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . “We are keeping (your) wallet.” . “Tonight’s dinner is steak. tomorrow. “Bought the dress.” . “(It) is nice to sing songs. “Changing one’s residence is laborious. . “The movie is uninteresting.

” 9 getting along.” 3 went up.” 2 would shower tomorrow.” 6 (I) quitted (my) job.” 277 .’” “ ” . “Monica said that there are .’” “ ” . “Jerry asked (me) how (I) am . “Nicole said ‘Call (me) if (you) have time later. “Lisa said ‘Stop by our house in the evening.’” “ ” . get up early. “Steve asked (me) when .1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 “ ” .” 4 make spaghetti today. “Brad said ‘Let us meet on Friday.Unit 24 Exercise 24.” 8 car this is. “Isabel said ‘(You) really drink milk well. “(My) older sister said ‘For heaven’s sake. “Julia asked (them) when (he) . “Teacher said ‘The end of class for today. “Jodie said that (she) would . “Sabrina said that house rent .2 1 four seasons in New York. “Andrew said ‘Follow (me) immediately. “Anthony said that (it) . “Paul said ‘Let us eat pizza.’” “ ” . “Esther asked (me) whose . “Jason said that (he) would . ‘Gina said ‘Don’t you go home?’” Key to exercises Exercise 24. “Daisy asked (her) what time it is.” 7 would come home. “Maria said ‘Pot stew is spicy.’” “ ” .” 10 .” 5 call again tomorrow.’” “ ?” .’” “ ” .’” “ ” .’” “ ” .

278 .” .m. .” 3 start yoga together. “Justin told (him) not to be angry.Key to exercises Exercise 24. .” .4 1 2 3 4 5 . “Eric suggested that (we) take a bus.” . . .” 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .” .3 1 2 meet at 2 p.” . “Elaine told (them) to find keys.” .” . “Abigail told (me) to do laundry. “George suggested that (we) see a movie together this weekend.” . “Naomi suggested that (we) Exercise 24. “Kevin told (her) to study hard. . Exercise 24. . “Natalie suggested that (we) help that friend. “Diana told (us) to come down within 20 minutes.5 1 2 3 4 5 . . . “Clara suggested that (we) .

28. 178 – 80. 157 – 60. 51. 33–4 auxiliary verb ~ / 27. 121 – 2. 53. 56 conjunctive ~ 88 – 9 conjunctive ~ / 115. 28 – 9 auxiliary verb ~ / 27 auxiliary verb ~ / 27. 166 – 9. 186 – 9 noun-modifying ending ~( ) 139–40. 146 – 8. 74 – 5. 95 – 6 96 51 – 3. 157 – 8. 186 – 8 noun-modifying ending ~ 196 noun-modifying ending ~( ) 138 – 9. 113–4 ~( ) ~( ) ~( ) ~( ) ~( ~ ~ ) modality ability 178 – 80 evidentiality 146 – 50 obligation 122 – 3 permission 120 – 1 possibility 178 – 80 prohibition 121 – 2 modifiers 137 –40 noun-modifying ending ~ 137 –8. auxiliary verbs 27–8. 35 – 7 auxiliary verb ~ / 27.INDEX Page numbers in bold refer to those pages in the book where the relevant grammar point is discussed in detail. 169 – 70. 160. 166 – 9. 122 auxiliary verb ~ 27. 45 – 6 causatives 131 – 2 suffix ~ 131 suffix ~ 131 – 2 suffix ~ 131 suffix ~ 131 – 2 suffix ~ 131 – 2 suffix ~ 131 – 2 suffix ~ 131 clausal conjunctives 51 – 4 87 – 8 conjunctive ~ conjunctive ~ 76 – 7 conjunctive ~ 51 – 2. 123 conjunctive conjunctive conjunctive conjunctive conjunctive conjunctive 98 conjunctive conjunctive conjunctive conjunctive 198 conjunctive conjunctive conjunctive ellipsis 107 honorific suffix ~( ) 12 – 13 ~ ~( ~( ~( ~( ~( / ) ) ) ) ) 198 114 – 5 53 – 4. 33 – 5 auxiliary verb ~ / 27. 55. 64 – 5 75 51. 61 – 3. 28 – 9 auxiliary verb ~ / 43–4 auxiliary verb ~ / 27. 64 – 5 conjunctive ~ / 75 – 6. 158 auxiliary verb ~ / 27. 46 auxiliary verb ~ / 27. 35 auxiliary verb ~ / 27. 85 – 6 conjunctive ~ 65 105 – 7 conjunctive ~ /( ) conjunctive ~ /( ) 107 conjunctive ~ 97 – 9 conjunctive ~ 197 conjunctive ~ 198 – 9 conjunctive ~ 51. 98 – 9 74 86 – 7 72 – 3. 146 – 8. 186 – 9 relative clause 137 – 40. 74. 186 279 . 146 – 8. 120. 54 – 5 51. 198 conjunctive ~ / 51–4. 42 – 3 auxiliary verb ~ / 43 auxiliary verb ~ / 27.

74. 129 280 . 28. 221 imperative 1 – 3. 132 suffix ~ 129. 138 – 40. 76. 131 – 2 post modifiers 157 ~ 157 ~ 159 158 – 9 ~ 168 ~ ~ 159 – 60 ~ /( ) 168 – 9 ~ /( ) 166 ~ /( ) / 167 – 8 ~ /( ) 160 ~( ) / 157 – 8 ~( ) 166 – 7 ~( ) 169 – 70 ~( ) 169 predicate type restriction 53. 76. 146. 120. 63. 146. 113 suffixes suffix ~ 13 – 15 suffix ~ 11 suffix ~ 11 suffix ~ 11 tense 27 – 8. 206 – 7 particle 130 particle / 98. 11. 209 – 10 particle 21 20 particle particle 130 passives 129 – 30. 56. 46. 207 present 137 – 8. 114. 53 – 5. 130. 54 – 6. 186 – 7. 63 – 4. 220 – 3 quotation particle ( ) 219 quotation particle 220 retrospective suffix ~ 195–8 sentence-final endings ending ~ 76 – 7 14– 15 ending ~ ending ~ 13– 14 ending ~ /( ) 107 ending ~ 195 ending ~ 11 – 13 sentence types 1 – 3. 222 speech levels 11 deferential speech level 2. 179 particle 20 particle 22. 131 – 2 suffix ~ 129. 63. 52. 56. 73. 11 plain speech level 2 – 3. 11. 53–4. 63. 53 – 5. 76. 168. 186 – 7 prospective 139 – 40. 95 – 6. 113 voice 27. 11. 65. 219 past 14 – 15. 166. 65. 52. 132 suffix ~ 129. 146 – 50. 52 intimate speech level 1 – 2. 65. 222 propositive 1 – 3. 53 – 4. 222 interrogative 1 – 3. 65. 158. 73. 159 – 60 question direct question 186 – 7 indirect question 186 – 7 quotation abbreviated indirect quotation endings 222 – 3 direct quotation 219 – 20 indirect quotation 219 – 23 indirect quotation particle 195. 106. 179 particle 19 – 20 particle 158 – 9. 221 – 2 polite speech level 1 – 2. 170. 196 – 8. 113 progressive 44. 186 – 7 tense agreement restriction 52. 120. 97 – 8. 73. 73. 221 subject agreement restriction 52 – 3. 86 – 7. 210 particle 208 particle 21 particle 21 particle 22. 131 – 2 suffix ~ 129. 130. 54 – 6. 64.Index negation 122 negative 178 – 9 negative 121 – 2 nominalization 205 – 11 nominalizing ending ~ 205 – 10 nominalizing ending ~( ) 210 – 11 particles particle 20 particle 21 particle 107. 53 – 4. 120. 205 – 7 particle / 180. 179. 64. 221 declarative 1 – 3.

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