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Mine Surveying

Mine Surveying

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11/04/2013

pdf

text

original

First published

1989

Revised from the 1985 Russian edition

Translated from the Russian by V. Afanasyev

Ha allZAUUCKOM!l3blKe

Printed

in the Union

of Soviet Socia/ist Repub/ics

ISBN 5-03-000073-9

@ H3~aTeJIbCTBO «He~pa», 1985 @ English translation, Mir Publishers, 1989

Contents

Preface Chapter One. Subject-Matter of Mine Surveying. I.I. Subject-Matter 1.2. Brief Notes on History of Mine Surveying Historical Notes

9
10 10 12

Chapter Two. General Figure of the Earth, Systems of coordinates, Control and Survey Underground Nets and Surface Surveys 2.1. General Figure of the Earth 2.2. Geographic System of Coordinates 2.3. System of Plane Rectangular Coordinates 2.4. National System of Rectangular Coordinates 2.5. Geodetic Reference Nets 2.6. National Geodetic Nets 2.7. Geodetic Bridging Nets 2.8. Geodetic Survey Nets 2.9. General Data on Surveys Chapter Three. Graphical Documentation in Mine Surveying 3.1. General 3.2. Classification of Drawings and Rules of Mapping 3.3. Drawing Materials. Technology and Rules for Making and Storage of Mining Graphical Documentation 3.4. Mechanization ,of Graphical Work 3.5. Processes and Materials for Reproduction of Mining Graphical Documentation Chapter Four. Connection Surveys 4.1. General 4.2. Orientation of Underground Survey via Horizontal or Inclined Adit 4.3. Geometric Orientation 4.4. Orientation down One Vertical Shaft 4.5. Sequence and Organization of Work for Orientation down One Vertical Shaft 4.6. Plumbing Surface Points onto Oriented Mine Level 4.7. Connection to Plumb Line Points in Orientation down One Vertical Shaft 4.8. Horizontal Connection Survey via Two Vertical Shafts 4.9. Horizontal Connection Survey with Use of Gyrocompasses 4.10. Vertical Connection Surveys

16 16 17 .18 19 22 23 26 28 29 33 33 35 36 36

37 39 39
41 41 42

42 44

46 49 58 7n

6

Contents Chapter 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. 5.6. Five. Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings General on Underground Mining Surveys Horizontal Underground Surveys Underground Reference Nets of Plan Control Construction of Underground Reference Nets Survey Nets Types of Station Points of Reference and Survey Nets. Their Fixation 5.7. Theodolites 5.8. Tests and Adjustments of Theodolites 5.9. Centring of Theodolites and Signals 5.10. Measurements of Horizontal Angles 5.11. Measurements of Inclination Angles 5.12. Measurements of Side Lengths of Theodolite Traverses 5.13. Distance Measurements by Light Range Finders 5.14. Detailed Survey of Underground Workings 5.15. Office Analysis of Results of Underground Theodolite Survey and Calculation of Point Coordinates 5.16. Accumulation of Errors in Underground Theodolite Surveys 74 74 7~

81

82 84 92 93 98 104 107 III III
112 116 121 121 122 133 134 137 137 138 140 142 142 143 148 150 154 155 157

Chapter Six. Vertical Surveys in Underground Workings 6.1. General 6.2. Levels 6.3. Levelling Staffs 6.4. Geometric Levelling in Underground Workings 6.5. Office Analysis of Results of Geometric Levelling 6.6. Errors in Geometric Levelling 6.7. Trigonometric Levelling 6.8. Errors in Trigonometric Levelling Chapter Seven. Surveys of Preparatory and Stope Workings 7.1. General 7.2. Instruments for Surveys of Preparatory and Stope Workings 7.3. Surveys of Stope Workings in Coal Fields 7.4. Surveys of Underground Chambers and Cavities 7.5. Surveys of Preparatory Workings 7.6. Surveys of Blast Holes 7.7. Orientation of Sublevel Workings 7.8. Measurements of Mining Workings and Reserves of Mineral In Stocks Chapter Eight. Special Surveys in Underground Workings 8.1. Assigning Directions to Underground Workings 8.2. Surveying of Workings Driven from Two Ends 8.3. Preliminary Estimation of Accuracy of Face Connection Chapter Nine. Surveying in Mine Construction 9.1. General 9.2. Surveying at Mine Camp 9.3. Surveying in Construction of Mine Hoists 9.4. Survey Work During Sinking of Vertical Shafts 9.5. Survey Work for Arranging of Shaft Equipment

167 167 181 185

188 188 193 195 218 221

Contents 9.6. Survey Work During Driving of Shaft Workings 9.7. Survey Work During Driving of Vertical Shafts by Special Methods 9.8. Survey Work During Deepening of Vertical Shafts Chapter Ten. Surveying in Quarries 10.1. General 10.2. Reference and Survey Nets and Surveying Work 10.3. Mine-Surveying Coverage of Drilling and Blasting Work 10.4. Survey Work for Transport Servicing 10.5. Survey Work in Trenching 10.6. Survey Work in Open-Cast Mining with Conveyer Bridges 10.7. Calculations of Volumes of Extracted Overburden Rock and Mineral in Quarries 10.8. Reclamation of Land 10.9. Survey Work in Open-Cast Mining of Placer Deposits Chapter Eleven. Rock Disturbance and Protection of Structures 11.1. Introductory Notes I 1.2. General Data on Rock Disturbance I 1.3. Rock Displacement Parameters I 1.4. Factors Responsible for Rock Displacement I 1.5. Monitoring Rock Displacement. Observation Stations I 1.6. Calculations of Rock Displacement I 1.7. Measures for Protecting Surface Structures I 1.8. Construction of Safety Pillars Surface 272 272 274 275 280 283 287 290 291 295 295 296
300 303 305 306 309 309 309 311 315 318

7 228 229 234 238 238 238 260 262 263 264 266 269 270

Chapter Twelve. Stability of Quarry Flanks 12.1. Principal Causes and Kinds of Rock Deformation 12.2. Factors Affecting Flank Stability 12.3. Mine-Surveying Observations on Rock Mining Deformations in Open-Cast Mining 12.4. Stability of Working Benches and Flanks of Quarries 12.5. Measures for Controlling Landslides 12.6. Artificial Strengthening of Rock Massif Chapter Thirteen. Mine-Surveying Control of Mining Safety 13.I. Role of Mine-Surveying Service in Mining Safety 13.2. Control of Mining Work near Old Workings 13.3. Examples of Calculation and Construction of Dangerous Zones 13.4. Construction of Zones of Elevated Rock Pressure 13.5. Construction of Dangerous Zones for Mining Work in Seams Liable to Coal, Gas and Rock Bursts Chapter Fourteen. Mine-Surveying Control of Geological ration 14.1. Brief Data on Geological Exploration 14.2. Mine-Surveying Control of Geological Work 14.3. Topographic Basis of Geological Exploration 14.4. Transfer of Plan of Exploratory Workings into Nature 14.5. Layout of Exploratory Ditches 14.6. Geodetic Control of Geophysical Prospecting Methods Explo-

324 324 325 327 328 334 336

8

Contents 14.7. Mine-Surveying Work in Geophysical Prospecting 14.8. Barometric Levelling of Geological Observation Objects Chapter Fifteen. Mine-Surveying Work for Mineral Extraction in Water Areas of Seas and Oceans 15.1. General 15.2. Brief Data on Geomorphology of Ocean Bottom Relief 15.3. Characteristics of Some Solid Minerals 15.4. Mine-Surveying Service of Geological Prospecting and Mining in Water Areas 15.5. Marine Mine-Surveying Reference Nets 15.6. Special Mine-Surveying Work in Water Areas 15.7. Routine Mine-Surveying Work in Water Areas 15.8. Determination of Plan Coordinates of Floating Vessels 15.9. Depth Measurements 15.10. Calculation of Volumes of Extracted Rock Index
340 345

349 349 350 351 351 353 355 356 358 358 360 362

Chapter One Subject-Matter of Historical Mine Surveying. Notes

1.1. Subject-Matter
M odern mine surveying is a branch of the mining science and industry which is concerned with surveys on the land surface and underground during the prospecting and extraction of mineral deposits and the construction of mining plants; the results of surveys are then used for plotting the plans of mining workings and bedding conditions of deposits and also for the solution of various problems of the mining geometry. At the early period of its existence, mine surveying could be characterized simply as underground geodesy. In some countries, it is still called in this way (for instance, 'geodesie souterraine' in France). In the course of its progress, however, mine surveying has become a complex discipline which includes not only the methods and techniques of the survey work (mine surveying proper), but also the estimation of the accuracy of measurements and calculations based on the method of least squares and the theory of probability; geodetic and mine-surveying instrumentation; mining geometry; studies of displacements and pressure of rocks (mining geomechanics),etc. All these aspects of mine surveying have the same objectives: to ensure safe and efficient exploitation of mineral deposits on the bases of the instrumental measurements performed under particular mining and geological conditions of a mining plant. Modern mine surveying has to cope with more diversified and complex problems. The quality and productivity of the survey work

have increased drastically due to the realization of the latest achievements of science and engineering. There is a trend to form specialized mine-surveyor teams for making a particular kind of survey work at a number of mining plants (for instance, mine-surveying groups for the orientation of mines with the use of gyrocompasses or for surveying of open-cast pits by aerial and ground stereophotogrammetry). The prime task of minesurveying service, as earlier, is however the compilation of plans of mining enterprises which are required for the normal exploitation of mineral deposits and represent the current state of deposits and underground or surface workings and structures and buildings on the land surface. Certain progress has been made recently in the methods and techniques of mine surveying. New solutions have been proposed for the orientation and construction of underground reference nets. High-precision theodolites and light range finders have come into use for the construction of reference nets. New instruments and methods have been proposed for the surveys of quarries. Serious investigations have been completed in the field of mine surveying in the construction and reconstruction of mines. In particular, special methods have been suggested for the survey work during mounting of hoisting machines on tower head-frames and the construction of mine shafts. Laser instruments are finding ever wider use for direction assigning and control in vertical and horizontal workings, arrangement of equipment of vertical shafts, track laying in horizontal

special-purpose electronic computers for mine surveying. A division of mining geomechanics is concerned with the studies of the effects of rock bursts. desk calculators. . physics. etc. mounting of conveyers. such as mathematics. As an engineering discipline. etc. determines and transfers into nature the positions of exploring workings (pits. highprecision optico-mechanical systems and electronic devices. assaying points. Mine surveyors have to participate in all stages of the operation of mining plants from the exploration of a mineral deposit and up to the abandonment of a mine after it has been worked out. production management. called mining geometry. Methods have been developed for preliminary calculations of land surface deformations in underground mining of coal fields. Mine surveyors carry out the investigations of rock pressure in permanent. This branch of mine surveying. Among many achievements in this field. Conditions have been formulated for safe extraction of minerals from deposits beneath water basins. Mine surveying also has to solve an important group of problems associated with the investigation of the configurations of lodes and their representation in special graphs and with the determination of the optimal regimes of extraction of minerals for obtaining the final product having the specified concentrations of useful and waste components. seam outcrops. which have made it possible to introduce certain radical measures for the protection of structures against the harmful influence of underground workings. etc. An essential progress has been done in the methods and instruments for plotting the mining graphical documentation and in the materials for making mine-surveying plans and sections. preparatory and stope workings in coal and ore deposits. Measurements and calculations in mine surveying are carried out by the conventional techniques adopted in geodesy. devices for measuring the curvature of boreholes. and philosophy. apparatus for the stereophotogrammetric surveys of open-cast pits and underground workings. The mechanisms of appearance of rock bursts have been investigated thoroughly on the scientific basis and measures for preventing them have been developed. and to perform specific survey work at all these stages. In open-cast mining. methods for the calculation of inclination angles of pit flanks and measures for artificial strengthening of slopes have been suggested. Exploration of mineral deposits. makes the surveys of exploring workings. in particular. geology. it is worth to mention small-sized mine-surveying gyrocompasses. In the exploration of mineral deposits. Another important concern of mine surveying relates to the studies of mechanical processesin rock massifs and in the elements of working systems. Mine surveying is also associated closely with geodetic instrumentation. self-adjusting levels. mechanics. etc.The investigations of rock displacements and rock pressure have been especially fruitful in the last 20-25 years. mine surveying is based on the concepts of fundamental sciences. helps the mine surveyor in controlling measures for the preservation of mineral deposits and efficient extraction of minerals. mining. the mine surveyor makes land surveys. Field measurements and office work in mine surveying are now carried out with the use of diverse and rather intricate instruments and devices.1. which are induced by mineral extraction operations (mining geomechanics).). coded theodolites with direct input of measured results into electronic computers. laying of pipelines. Regulations have been worked out for the protection of surface structures. optical range finders. adits. ditches. bedding elements of mineral deposits and enclosin2 rock: and . collieries and ore mines against rock displacements. Subject-Matter 11 workings.1.

and construction of chains of regular geometrical figures (for instance. development of measures for the protection of structures. planning of the preparatory and stoping mining work. At the stage of mining plant design. These methods included various measurements. When a mine is to be abandoned. the mine surveyor is engaged in a wide circle of problems associated with transferring the design data into nature (levelling of a pay-out area. etc. Subject-Matter of Mine Surveying compiles (together with geologists) the graphical documentation representing the shape and bedding conditions of a deposit. location of roads. to survey underground workings. the mine surveyor has to determine whether the mineral has been extracted completely. and other materials have given evidence that people of the antiquity were quite familiar with the art of construction of fairly intricate mines and other underground objects. layout of the centres and axes of shafts and mining complexes. Brief Notes on History of Mine Surveying Mine surveying actually appeared as soon as Man learned to do the underground mining work. reclamation of land. and to prepare complementary mining plans. More than 100 vertical and inclined shafts were sunk for driving the adit. The first description of methods of underground surveying that has survived to our times belongs to Heron of Alexandria (lst century B. compilation of plans by the results of surveys. Design and construction of mining plants. for instance. compilation of the graphs of work organization and plans of mining work for the periods of construction and exploitation of a mining plant. It may be referred. annual and perspective plans of the mining work. This is a clear evidence that Romans were experienced well in mine surveying. plumbing.). by means of which it was possible to orient underground workings. 1. and dilution of minerals. Minesurveying plans and sections plotted by the results of geological prospecting are used for the calculations of mineral reserves and design of mining plants. losses.12 Ch. the mine surveyor participates in construction surveying: the determination of the boundaries of mine fields according to the current regulations on land allotment. Historical manuscripts. etc. some of them being to a depth more than 100 m. and the calculations of the losses and industrial reserves of minerals. assigning of directions to workings. control of the mining work in accordance with the design specifications and safety regulations. continuous control of the completeness of mineral extraction. Exploitation of deposits. surveys for the connection of surface and underground reference nets.). . sinking and equipment of shafts. It is also known that Romans drove an adit about 6 km long to drain water from a lake. 1. which has been found in Italy. archeological findings. similar triangles) on the surface and underground. observations on rock displacements and rock pressure. development of measures for the protection of surface and underground structures against harmful influence of underground workings. natural objects and mining workings against the harmful effect of mining operations. The role of the mine surveyor at the stage of exploitation is extremely important and includes the following operations: surveying of workings. to a 3500-years old Egyptian parchment showing a mine. driving of permanent workings. and calculations of the balanced and industrial reserves. development of quarterly. At the stage of mining plant construction. design of working systems and surface structures. C. He also arranges the field books of underground surveys and mine orientations and prepares the main plans of the mining work for storage.2. He performs control on the construction of hoisting complexes.

Studies were carried . Weissbach and mine surveyor H. The mining work plans of that period were however oriented by a magnetic meridian. the methods of precise orientation of underground surveys were developed. when the magnetic needle compass came into use. it was easier to construct underground surveying nets.a famous German scientist. Agricola (Georg Bauer.1. in the 17th century. These adits had a large length. mirror compass. In particular. proved the applicability of theodolites and level instruments for mine surveying. With the suspension compass and suspension semicircle. and were driven from many points by meeting faces. New methods of mine surveying and estimation of observed results were developed. Only from the mid of the 18th century when the phenomenon of magnetic declination was discovered (August Beyer. At the end of that century. two kinds of the mining work plans were employed: those plotted in the plane of a seam or vein and those made as projections onto a vertical plane. the method of connection surveys with connection triangles. there were no survey plans. 1494-1555). These instruments (the latter in combination with a suspension semicircle) were for many centuries the most common mine-surveyor's instruments and are sometimes used in modem mine-surveying practice. Borchers. who participated in the work. and the mine surveyor contented himself with making the same survey on the surface as underground (in a mine) and could decide on the development of the mining work relative to the boundaries of allotment by the positions of survey points on the surface. Brief Notes on History of Mine Surveying 13 In the 16th century A. the compass with sight vanes was designed in the 16th century and the suspension compass. Zeiss). theodolites and levelling instruments came into wide use in mine-surveying practice in Germany. In the 19th century. Levelling surveys carried out together with triangulation made it possible to relate all points to a single elevation system. intersected many mines. The plans of the mining work came into common use in Germany at a substantially later time.mine surveyors were obliged to abandon the use of the magnetic meridian and change to the orientation of mine surveys by an astronomic meridian. To perform this work. Fennel. 1749). Roughly at the same time. and large-Iength tapes for measuring the depths of mine shafts.2. Initially. instead of a number of triangles. a detailed triangulation was carried out on the surface. Prof. Von Bergbau Grundlicher Unterricht. method of symmetrical junction. D. in the 17th century. At that time. In Germany. In the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 2Oth century. Mine surveyors of those times still could not calculate the coordinates of the angular points of surveys. projecting plates. and the method of range lines with the use of the Weiss sleigh. which provided a single coordination network for all the mines involved. he described the method of measuring the depth of a mine or the length of an adit by means of an inclined cord and plumb bobs. published the book De re metallica libri XII where Chapter V was devoted to the surveys of mining workings by means of a compass with the circle divided into 12 sectors and by other methods. Practical mine surveying was given a strong impetus in the 1840's when work was undertaken to drive long adits near Freiberg and Harz in Germany. New mine-surveyor's instruments appeared. it was now sufficient to layout a broken line in an underground working by means of a cord. well equipped works for ~aking mine-surveyor's instruments were put into operation in Germany (Hildebrandt. in particular. such as box compass. mine surveying became more efficient and accurate.

but turned out to be inefficient. Programs for solving minesurveying problems in powerful electronic computers have been worked out. etc. dipping angle. In the post-war years. there is a strong trend to increase the observations on rock displacements in underground and open-cast mining.). Donahue determined a number of subsidenceangles. H. In recent years. which resulted in the hypothesis of normals proposed by Toilliez in 1838. storage. processing and transmission. electronic computers. Goldreich discovered certain differences in the subsidence of bed rock and detrital deposits. Hausse (the end of the 19th century). the mine-surveying office work has been largely mechanized by the application of desk calculators. In the second half of the 19th century. In the first quarter of this century. In 1885. the investigations of the laws of rock subsidence and caving were started. H. much attention has been given to the methods of prediction of rock . depth of the mining work. optical and radio range finders. 0. Jicinsky marked in his works that the process of rock displacement should be influenced by the thickness of a seam. the problem of rock displacements was investigated by a number of researchers. Another hypothesis was suggested by Gonot in 1858. but attracted a keen interest of mine surveyors in the 18th century and especially in the 19th century in Belgium where the mining work began to endanger surface buildings and water-supply system in Liege. At the beginning of the 192O's. The first attempts for mine orientation by gyroscopes were undertaken in 1913-14 in Poland and Germany. etc. gyrotheodolites and gyroscopic attachments has been completed in a number of countries. In modern mine surveying. coded theodolites. and properties of overlying rock. Wide application of gyroscopic orientation dates to 1947 (Germany). At the end of the last century. A. self-adjusting levels. Mine surveying is essentially an information science.and accordingly it has started to widely employ various automatic systems for data collection. The movements of the Earth's surface under the effect of underground workings were noticed already in the 15th and 16th centuries. The earlier makes of mine-surveying gyroscopes had certain drawbacks (large mass and dimensions. In recent time. which considered two zones of rock subsidence: the cave-in zone and bend zone. Gyrotheodolites have been employed efficiently for the orientation of underground surveying nets. J. Much work has been done on the development of instruments for stereophotogrammetric surveys which are finding wide use in many countries for underground surveying. Briggs found the correlations between the angles of rupture and the compression and rupture resistance of rocks and established that subsidence angles in hard and brittle rocks are steeper than in those having a lower strength.a mine-surveying gyroscope was designed and manufactured in Germany. and new instruments based on utterly nowel operating principles were developed. many mine-surveying instruments were improved. successful work on the design of gyrocompasses. In recent time. uncertain readings. such as highprecision theodolites. Fayol proposed the hypothesis of cupola based on the idea that the zone of rock subsidence was confined by a cupola (dome-shaped) space. according to which the displacement of a worked-up rock layer proceeded along the normals to the seam. gyroscopic instruments came into use for the orientation of underground surveying nets. Of large significance for understanding properly the process of rock subsidence was the hypothesis suggested by R. and laser instruments. In the first half of the 2Oth century.14 Ch Subject-Matter of Mine Surveyin out on the effect of air currents on the positions of plumb bobs in the orientation of deep shafts (Wilski's hypothesis).

a mining school was founded in St. such as A Course in the Art of Mine Surveying (in three volumes). Bakhurin was concerned with practically all aspects of mine surveying: survey control of workings driven by meeting faces. Tatishchev in 1734. and especially in the last two or three decades of the total scientific and engineering progress. Bakhurin (1880-1940). etc. An exceptionally great contribution to the mine-surveying science was done by I. Another important stage in the development of mine surveying is associated with the name of Prof. The introduction of theodolite surveys into the mine-surveying practice and the preparation of mine plans by point coordinates were of extreme importance for further progress in the methods and techniques of underground surveys. errors of orientation via one or two vertical shafts. etc. Petersburg mining school (1817-1896). Olyshev. Minesurveying problems are solved with wide use of electronic computers and automatic devices. in particular. Lomonosov gave the descriptions of the suspension compass and suspension semi-circle. The scientific and applied aspects of mine surveying are being developed intensively. systems and techniques of field and office work. and solutions of various mine-surveying problems. professor of the St. the first publication in the country which dealt thoroughly with all aspects of mine surveying of that time and was a part of the fundamental work Principles of M etallurgy or Mining. In 1773.2. M. mine-surveying instrumentation. etc. The results of his studies were~ummarized in the book A Course of Mine-Surveying Art (1932). Bauman (1867-1923). A major event in the history of mine surveying in this country was the publication.1. Sobolevsky (1868-1949) who is responsible for a new branch of mine surveying which has later formed into an individual discipline. P. The development of mine surveying in recent time. One of the first methods was proposed by Keinhorst and Bals and based on the assumption that a portion of worked-out area confined by subsidence angles acted by a definite law on each point of the Earth's surface. has been associated with the improvement of existing and design of principally novel instruments. Lomonosov published his book On M easurements of M ines. On the Problem of Evaluation of M ineral and Ore Deposits. It had a mine-surveying class where students obtained profound training in the subject. Brief Notes on History of Mine Surveying 15 deformations. the method of location of the surface of a vertical shaft to be connected to a system of horizontal underground workings. measuring rod. The progress of mine surveying in this country is also associated with the name of Prof. theory of random errors and method of least squares.author of a number of fundamental works. and solved the problem of driving an underground working by meeting faces. mining geometry. . of the book The Art of Mine Surveying written by P. Petersburg (now the Leningrad Mining Institute). rock displacements. The progress of mine surveying owes much to the contributions of Russian and Soviet scientists. The author gave the description of a theodolite with an eccentric telescope and of a geodetic level. On the Problem of Faults. The first in Russia mining regulations were issued by v. in 1847.He worked out a number of issues in the theory of errors and the method of least squares and their applications for the estimation of accuracy and equation of mine surveys. In 1763. instruments for plotting mine-surveying drawings. V. Shifts and Other Types of Displacement of Veins and Seams.theory of cumulative errors in underground polygons. proposed the procedure for the calculation of the coordinates of theodolite traverses. theory of physical (in particular magnetic) and geometric orientation of mines.

The variations in the force of gravity are mainly due to the former reason (smaller radii of the Earth at the poles). that coinciding with the mean level of the Ocean and continued at that level under the continents. the geoid has a complicated structure. expressed as the difference between the lengths of an equatorial and polar diameter.Chapter Two General Figure Control of the Earth. Its principal property consists in that the potential of the force of gravity on that surface is the same in all points. i. and its shape is too complicated for mathematical description. since the Earth's radius diminishes at the poles and since the rocks of the Earth's mantle have different density. the surface is always perpendicular to an upright (vertical) line. though the latter reason may have an essential effect in some cases. i. Some regions of the land reach altitudes up to 7-8 km. Systems of Coordinates. Further. It has been concluded on that basis that the surface of the Earth consists of two sharply distinct morphological elements: continents and oceans. The results of satellite observations have shown that the oblateness. but one of these surfaces. The principal among these factors is that the force of terrestrial attraction is variable. Both the oceanic bottom and the continents have an intricate relief. the local irregularities of the surface relief make the shape of the Earth's surface extremely complicated so that the figure of the Earth can hardly be described mathematically.5 km below the level of the ocean. In the general case. The surface obtained in this way is called the level surface. this point is usually related to the general figure of the Earth which is understood in geodesy and mine surveying as the figure obtained by mental continuation of the still water surface of the Ocean. forms a figure that is taken as the general figure of the Earth and called the geoid. e. and Survey Underground Nets and Surface Surveys 2. General Figure of the Earth The physical surface of the Earth is far from having a simple shape. on the land. especially the former. and therefore. it is possible to draw an infinite number of level surfaces at different distances from the Earth's centre. As has been found by investigations. Of the total area of the Earth's surface equal to 510 mln kIn2. Noting that the surface of water of the Ocean has a rather simple shape and occupies almost 3/4 of the Earth's surface. is horizontal everywhere.1. When determining the position of a point on the physical surface of the Earth. The analysis of the depth of the Ocean and altitudes of the land on the basis of l-kIn height intervals has demonstrated that their distribution has two distinct peaks: one at altitudes of loo m above the level of the Ocean and the other at roughly 4. e. it would be reasonable to assume the figure of the Earth as the body confined by the water surface of the Ocean. attains 42 km . The geoid has flattened portions (oblateness) near the poles. the natural boundary between these elements being at a depth around 1. the Ocean in some places has depths more than 10 kIn.5 kIn below that level. Since the direction of an upright line may depend on a number of factors. 71 per cent fall on the bottom of seas and oceans and 29 per cent.

but elliptical with one of its 'diameters' being larger by 200 m than the other. 2. Measurements have also demonstrated that the Earth has 'recesses'and 'ridges' which are traced clearly against the profile of the complicated figure of the geoid. Geographic System of Coordinates The positions of points on the surface of the Earth or spheroid are determined by means of geographic coordinates. Fig. a and b. The highest ridges are located near New Guinea (57 m) and in France (35 m). a French mathematician). In view of these circumstances. In addition.-B. e. is called a reference ellipsoid (local ellipsoid). Many attempts have been made to determine the dimensions of an ellipsoid to approximate most closely the geoid (the first in 1800 by J.2. An ellipsoid of particular dimensions and oriented uniquely in the Earth's body. Geographic coordinates are reckoned respectively from the equatorial plane and Greenwich meridian (Fig. The largest 'recesses'are located to the south-west of India (depth 59 m) and near the Antarctic continent (30 m). Geographic System of Coordinates 17 by the formula: a=(a-b)/a When plotting the portions of the Earth's surface on maps and plans. The dimensions of the Earth's ellipsoid (Fig.1 Ellipsoid pI of revolution of spheroid 770 m.2. This figure is called the Earth's ellipsoid. the South pole is located 25 m 80 cm below the surface of oblated sphere. the one that can approximate most closely the geoid surface is an ellipsoid of revolution obtained by the rotation of an ellipse on its minor axis. 2. 2. i.2). It has also been established that the Earth's equator is not circular. whereas the North pole protrudes by 18 m 90 cm above that surface.1) can be characterized by the lengths of its major and minor half-axes. 2. the idea of using the geoid as the basis for geodetic calculations has been renounced. Delambre. It has also been established by satellite observations that the Earth has a pyriform (pear-Iike) shape: the South pole has turned out to be nearer by 45 km to the Earth's centre than the North pole. geodetic and mine surveying work are transferred in a country. onto whose surface the results of topographic. Among regular mathematical surfaces. and by the oblateness a which can be deteri:nined 2-1270 Fig.J. 2.2 Geographic system of coordinates . or spheroid. an important matter is to choose the proper dimensions for the ellipsoid which will approximate the geoid and onto whose surface the physical surface of the Earth with all its natural and artificial details will be projected. geographic latitude <pand geographic longitude A.2.

negative or (2) only eastward of the Greenwich meridian. processing of the results of surveys. Latitudes may vary from 0° to 90° and are reckoned north and south of the equator. The former are considered positive and the latter. 2. Noting that the difference of latitudes of 1" on the Earth's surface corresponds to a linear distance of 31 m. The network of meridians and parallels applied on the surface of the Earth ellipsoid represents the coordinate axes of the geographic system of coordinates. Since the surface of the geoid does not coincide with that of the ellipsoid. The magnitude of deviation may be equal to 3-4" on the average. normals drawn to the surface of the latter turn out to deviate from the directions of upright lines. when the deviations of upright lines are neglected. when given in astronomic and geodetic geographic Foordinates. The initial lines in a system of plane rectangular coordinates (Fig. The lines of intersection of the planes of geographic meridians with the Earth's surface are called meridians. System of Coordinates Plane Rectangular Geographic coordinates are expressed in angular values. calculations of coordinates of reference points. The plane system of coordinates also ensures precise coincidence of plans of adjacent areas. 2.ese are termed geodetic geographic coordinates and denoted as B (latitude) and L (longitude). geodetic and astronomic coordinates are replaced by the generalized concept of geographic coordinates. Nets and Surface Surveys The longitude is the dihedral angle between the plane of Greenwich (zero) meridian and the meridional plane of a point p and the latitude is the angle made by a vertical line in a point p to the plane of equator. or simply parallels. from 0° to 360°. may differ by 100 m on the average. In contrast to mathe- . The lines formed by the intersection of planes drawn perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the Earth with the Earth's surface are called parallels of latitudes. from 00 to 180°. 2.3) are two mutually perpendicular lines xx-yy lying in a horizontal plane and called respectively the axis of abscissae (x-axis) and the axis of ordinates (y-axis}. Systems of Coordinates. the linear measurements of angular values turn out to be different in various portions of the Earth's surface. adjustment of reference nets. etc. the positions of points on the Earth's surface. easterly longitudes are considered to be positive and westerly ones.3. longitudes can be reckoned: (I) eastward and westward of the Greenwich meridian. Such a system can largely simplify topographic and mine surveying. Besides. If the geographic coordinates are determined by astronomic observations (independently in any point on the Earth's surface). and are called respectively easterly and westerly longitudes. a system of plane rectangular coordinates seemsto be more convenient for land and mine surveying and solving various engineering problems when their results should be plotted on maps and plans. /I. and are always called easterly longitudes. In the general case. negative. tt.18 Ch. The plane passing through a vertical line and the axis of rotation of the Earth (or parallel to the latter) is the plane of a geographic ( astronomic) meridian. they are conventionally called astronomic geographic coordinates «p. In geographic coordinates.The positions of points on the Earth's surface can also be determined by means of geographic coordinates obtained by geodetic observations and related to a normal to the ellipsoid surface.). They are inconvenient for engineering calculations in geodesy and mine surveying. The plane passing through the centre of the Earth and perpendicular to the axis of rotation is called the equatorial plane. etc. For these reasons.

2. National System of Rectangular Coordinates 19 Fig. to minimize distortions.4.. The intersection of these axes is the origin of coordinates (point 0). the axis of abscissaein land and mine surveying plans is arranged vertically and coincides with the direction of a meridian. In addition. The larger areas of the Earth's surface are depicted. the surface of the reference ellipsoid must be . The abscissax and ordinate y of points are the lengths of the perpendiculars drawn from these points onto the coordinate axes.1"). . The ordinates of the points in the first and second quadrant are positive and of those in the third and fourth quadrant are negative.4. in special projections in which the Earth ellipsoid is conventionally developed on a plane. 2. 2. The abscissae of the points located in the first and fourth quadrant are positive and of those in the second and third quadrant are negative. the projection on a plane is done in such a way as to provide the coincidence of both geographic and rectangular coordinates. not more than 0. 2. National System of Rectangular Coordinates When the territories of a substantial area are to be represented in topographic maps. The signs of coordinates depend on the quadrant in which the points are located. In land and mine surveying.3 System of plane rectangular coordinates matics. the portions of the Earth's surface measuring up to 10 km in radius are considered to be flat (distortions along the length are not more than 1 cm and angular distortions. The coordinate axes divide the plane of a drawing into four quadrants which are numbered clockwise beginning from the guadrant in the north-east section (see Fig.3).

. which makes It possible to obtain almost undistorted images of the terrestrial ellipsoid on a plane. With the use of the Gauss conformal projection. F. For more convenience. In equiangular projections. 2. from the centre of zone. such as a cylinder or cone. 2. geometrically regular surface (cylinder or cone) and this is then developed without folds and cuts. Gauss Conformal Projection Among many requirements set forth to cartographic projections for topographic maps. the auxiliary body is supposed to be tangent to the reference ellipsoid. This procedure cannot however be done without cutting and folding the spherical surface being developed.1. the optimal zone for transferring onto a tangent cylinder is a spheroidal . y is the length of an arc from the central meridian to the given section. lengths will be distorted more and more. Mter the cartographic grid has been transformed onto the auxiliary tangent figure. these relationships can be written as x = f1 «p. By the nature of distortion. In the general form. and their distortions can be determined by the formula: L\l=l . Nets and Surface Surveys developed in a plane. but only moderately. With this arrangement of the cylinder. The essence of the Gauss conformal projection consists in that the terrestrial ellipsoid is enveloped by a tangent cylinder whose axis is perpendicular to the minor axis of the ellipsoid. Systems of Coordinates. y2 2R2 where 1is the length of a section on the Earth ~phere. 2. the surface of the terrestrial ellipsoid is represented on a sheet of paper in the form of individual figures as those shown in Fig. when transferred (projected) onto the cylinder. In derivative projections. 2. Cartographic projections are studied by mathematical cartography where they are considered on a formalized basis as certain analytical relationships between the coordinates of points on tM. Other meridians. modern cartographic projections can be divided into equiangular (equal-angle). and therefore. which are called zones. The method by which the image of the Earth's surface is transferred from the sphere onto the plane is called a cartographic projection.) and y = f2 «p. 1. Cartographic projections involve certain distortions of geographic objects relative to their shape on the reference ellipsoid.4. the latter is cut and developed in a plane. the outlines of figures are distorted too. With moving father from the tangent (central) meridian. but the angles are distorted. will be increased in length. 1. i. both angles and areas are distorted. Gauss of Germany. The problem is solved by using an auxiliary surface which can be easily developed in a plane. As has been established.they correlate the rectan- gular coordinates of points on a plane and the geographical coordinates on the reference ellipsoid.4).esurface of a reference ellipsoid and the coordinates of their projections on a plane. In equivalent projections. The portions of the reference ellipsoid are projected onto an auxiliary. and the network of meridians and parallels of the reference ellipsoid is transferred (projected} onto the surface of the body to form a cartographic grid on the map. angles are not distorted. e.20 Ch. This condition is approached most closely in the conformal projection proposed in 1820 by C. and R is the Earth's radius. the principal one is that projection distortions should not exceed the errors of corresponding geodetic measurements.5.). equivalent (equal-area) and their derivatives. it touches the ellipsoid along a meridian which is a common line of both figures (Fig.. projected figures retain their similarity to the original ones. the areas remain equal. and therefore. It is based on the theory of plane conformal coordinates.

6). 2. The western boundary meridian of the. The x-coordinates of points to the north of the equator are considered positive and of those to the south.00 m. the surface of the Earth is divided into 60 zones. 2. The y-coordinates of points to the east of the central meridian are positive and of those to the west. Ordinates calculated from this new origin are called reduced ordinates. In order to eliminate negative ordinates.2. If. The surface of the spheroid within the limits of a particular zone is projected conformally onto the surface of the cylinder. The longitude of the central meridian is found by the formula: Lo = 6N -3°. and the image of the terrestrial equator perpendicular to the central meridian is the y-axis. Zonal System of Rectangular of a zone (see Fig.4. first zone coincides with the Greenwich meridian.6). it has been agreed to relate the coordinates to a particular zone by Fig. Thus. 2. a tangent cylinder being drawn to the central (axial) meridian of each zone. The central meridian is the x-axis.00 = 523730. negative. the ordinates of two points of the eighth zone relative to the central meridian are Yl = 23730. 2.00 397720.00m = Coordinates The origin of coordinates in each zone is taken at the intersection of the central meridian of that zone with the equator (Fig. the reduced ordinates will be: Yl = 23730.00 + 500000.6 Zonal system of rectangular coordinates .00 + 500000. where N is the zone number. the origin of coordinates is transferred by 500 km to the west from the central meridian Since the same numerical coordinates may exist in all 60 zones. National System of Rectangular Coordinates 21 dihedron included between two meridians with the longitude difference 6°. for instance. negative.00 m and Y2 = -102280.4.2.00 m Y2 = -102280.

though orientation by the astronomic meridian is more preferable in such cases. the ordinates of points located. In exceptional cases when the survey work is carried out in an uninhabited region.5. If the direction of one of these axes is specified. . (b) orientation and . this will uniquely determine the direction of the other axis. In land and mine surveying. Geodetic Reference Nets (c) orientation by the central meridian within each zone of the national system of coordinates. by providing first a general geodetic net on the territory of a country and then reference survey nets for surveying of individual small isolated areas. 2. The measurements on the surface and underground involve errors which are accumulated if surveys are being done on individual areas not associated with one another. orientation of mines via two shafts. for instance.8. In some cases. these areas will then be distorted to such an extent that the results of surveys become useless. whereas the axes Ox and Oy are perpendicular to each other and lie in the horizontal plane. and there are no triangulation points. should be written as follows: Yl = 8523730. a conditional system of coordinates can be adopted. Orientation by (a) and (b) cannot satisfy the requirements given above. the central meridian retains its orientation and position within the limits of a zone.00 m An important problem in mine surveying is how to choose properly the directions of coordinate axes. however. the x-axis can be temporarily oriented relative to the magnetic or astronomic meridian. In the Cartesian rectangular system.00 m and Y2 = 8397720. and the astronomic azimuth is not constant in space. In that connection.22 Ch. along a line fixed by survey points. i. say. in a zone No. In the cases considered above. The orientation of these two axes must not be arbitrary. e. The conditional systems of coordinates are used in the mine survey servicing of construction of shafts and hoisting complexes. and in a number of other cases. Thus. In contrast to magnetic declination. In some kinds of mine surveying work. the Z-axis is always vertical and directed upward. When represented on general mine survey plans or topographic maps. The following cases of orientation of the Ox-axis for mine surveying plans are possible: (a) orientation by a magnetic meridian. Systems of Coordinates. Mine survey plans obtained with this orientation can be used for many years. the x-axis can be oriented by the direction of a magnetic needle. with the Ox-axis directed arbitrarily. meridian convergence remains constant in time. is not large in scope. since the magnetic azimuth is not constant in time and space. Points established on the surface and having precisely fixed coordinates are called reference (control) points. On the contrary. 2. the orientation of the x-axis should be preferably done relative to the central meridian of a zone. or base stations. The mine survey servicing of mining enterprises is unfeasible without a network of reference points whose positions on the land are determined with a high precision. the Ox-direction is usually chosen (oriented in the horizontal plane) so as to satisfy the following conditions: (a) the direction of Ox-axis must be easily and precisely reproducible and (b) the direction of Ox-axis at various mining enterprises must permit the coincidence of plans of individual mines and larger enterprises. Nets and Surface Surveys writing the number of a zone before a coordinate. mine surveying is carried out by the principle 'from the general to particular'. by an astronomic meridian.

survey and levelling during the construction of minIng enterprises and exploitation of deposits in order to reflect current variations on mine survey plans. trilateration. stability of structures. 2. The cylinder serves as the sighting target when making observations from other points. 2. and survey nets. etc. For deter- mining linear dimensions. Mine survey nets on the territory of economic interests of mining enterprises consist of the P9ints of the national geodetic net and geodetic nets of mine surveying and topographic surveying carried out for servicing of mineral prospecting and construction and exploitation of mining enterprises. all three angles are measured. 2.6. National Geodetic Nets Points ensuring the correct horizontal representation of the land surface are called plan (planimetric) control points. bridging (densification) nets.km long (Fig. surveys of rock dumps and stocks of mineral. A metallic or wooden beacon (tower) is constructed above a station marker. surveys for determining the volume of earth-moving work. Some kinds of geodetic work on the land surface are carried out by mine surveyors. Initial sides must be measured with a high accuracy. and their shape should be close to equilateral where possible.2. and the length of the initial side is calculated by the known angles and the known length of the base line. Triangulation rows which consist of triangles with an average side length of 20-25 km form firstclass triangulation chains up to 200. They include: the development of the existing mine survey reference nets as required for the surveys of mines and quarries. surveys of the pay-ore areas of mining enterprises. or horizontal control points. Those which can characterize the vertical relief of the land surface are called elevation (height) control points. for the reconstruction of railway tracks and other structures. e. In the base figure adbe. i. The vertexes of triangles are fixed on the land by special station markers fastened in the ground. 2.6. National Geodetic Nets A national geodetic net may consist of triangulation. the length of one side of a triangle is measured (taped) and the lengths of the other two sides are calculated.7). The side lying at the intersection of several chains (ab in Fig. It carries a cylinder at the top whose axis should be coincident with that of the marker. The territory within polygons of first-class triangulation chains is filled in with a continuous network of second-class triangulation triangles with the lengths of sides ran- .7) is a common of these chains and called the initial side. A system of reference (control) points established on the territory of a country makes up a geodetic net. In each triangle. which is called the triangulation base. In first-class triangulation.7). Triangulation chains are laid off in submeridional and sublateral directions so as to form the closed polygons of a peripheral length up to 1000 km. it is common practice to measure not an initial side. but a transverse side around 6 km long (ed in Fig. polygonometric and levelling nets. which ensures a reliable control of angular field measurements. Geodetic nets can be divided into national nets. all interior angles are measured. The triangles of a net are arranged in a certain order. the latitude and longitude of the points at the ends of the initial side and the astronomic azimuth of that side are additionally determined by astronomic observations. by laying out triangles on the land surface. Since it is practically impossible to measure lines 20-25 km in length on the land surface. A plan (horizontal) geodetic reference net is mainly constructed by the method of triangulation. periodical layout. surveys for observing rock displacements. The triangulation method makes it possible to determine the horizontal (plan) coordinates for the vertexes of triangles.

Nets and Surface Surveys Class 1 chain (i .1.2. the latitudes and longitudes and astronomic azimuth of base lines are determined by astronomic observations. base lines are measured in one of every 20-25 triangles. The characteristics of reference nets constructed by Ist-4th class triangulation are given in Table 2. 4-triangulation second.and fourth-class triangulation. 2. field work consists in measuring the angles in turning (change) points and the lengths of all polygonometric sides. As in the first-class triangulation. ging from 7 km to 20 km depending on the pattern of terrain. 2. 11 /\ : la u ~ b ~1 ~2 C!J3 ~4 Fig. third.~ . Further densification of a plan control geodetic net is carried out by third. . 3. The required accuracy of polygonometric nets can be characterized by the data given in Table 2. 2. 2. a geodetic net consists of polygonometric traverses in the form of broken lines representing closed or open polygons (Fig. Polygonometric nets are usually constructed by laying off the main and diagonal polygons having common change points (5 and 19 in Fig.0= " . and fourth class points of respectively first.7 Development of triangulation network: 1.24 Ch. In that case. 2. In second-class triangulation.8).8). In poorly accessible regions and densely built-up territories. Systems of Coordinates.

the most labour-consuming procedure in land and mine surveying. National Geodetic Nets 25 Table 2. . which have largely facilitated linear measurements. M -triangulation points junco Polygonometry as a method for the construction of geodetic nets has become popular in recent years.6.8 Polygonometry: 5. The latter are calculated from the known lengths of three sides. the lengths of the other sides are calculated. 19-common tion points. The elevation (height) control of various land and mine survey operations is ensured by levelling nets which may be of class I. m Mean ing base ing) measurerror (clossides of Mean measuring error of base 1 2 3 Fig.1 Triangulation class Side length. II. Another popular method for the construction of planimetric geodetic nets is trilateration. 2. with the appearance of high-precision light and ratio range finders. K. after which the coordinates of trilateration points are determined. s Permissible triangular misclosure. km Mean angular error (by triangle misclosures). L. In trilateration. With the known angles and the measured length of one side (which is taken as the base line). lengths are measured by means of range finders which can ensure a high accuracy of linear measurements (up to 1/400000).2. Its essencereduces to the construction of a network of triangles (as in triangulation) and measuring of the lengths of their sides (rather than angles).

The bench marks in the levelling nets of class I.7. In levelling lines run through settlements. the lengths of lines between higher-class levelling points shoud not exceed 15 km and of those between junction points. Nets and Surface Surveys To with be performed highest II III IV precision 500-600 150-200 25 s. 2.05 mm per kilometre of the levelling line. random and systematic errors do not exceed 0.and fourth-class levelling. The height marks of triangulation and polygonometric points of all classes and of points of local plan reference nets are perrnitted to be determined by class IV levelling. Third. the perimeters of polygons and the lengths of level lines should not exceed 40 km and the lengths of lines between junction points.and fourthclass levelling nets are the basis for topographic surveys and for the solution of various problems associated with geodetic and mine survey servicing of civil and industrial construction objects. Wall and ground bench marks are established with intervals not more than 300 ill in built-up areas and not more than 0.5-2 kill in free territories. Fourth-class levelling is done by wall and ground bench marks and polygonometric stations. The main object of second-class levelling is to provide the precise basis for third. Fundamental bench marks of a natural levelling net should be established with a density ensuring that every subdivision map plotted on a scale 1/5000 include at least one bench mark. Second-class levelling is carried out by running polygons connected to the points of first-class levelling and attaining a length of 500-600 km. In levelling nets of class II.such as in mountainous regions. Systems of Coordinates. The levelling lines of all classesare fixed on the land by means of ground and wall bench marks. The permissible misclosure (mm) of traverses in local geodetic reference nets constructed by technical levelling is equal to 50JL ' where L is the length of a traverse line.26 Ch. In modern levelling. 2.and second-class levelling nets are the main basis for establishing the general system of elevations for the entire territory of the country. at least one bench or wall mark should be established in a settlement. it must be carried out with the use of the most precise instruments. Accordingly. Trigonometric levelling is permissible for the determination of the heights of reference net points in exceptional cases. First-class levelling is carried on the land along the directions essential for the national economy and defence of the country and relates to the most precise kinds of geodetic work. 10 km. With topographic surveys on a scale 1/2000. The general characteristics of national levelling reference nets are given in Table 2.3. In third-class levelling lines. the density of fundamental bench marks should be such as to allow one bench mark for one-four map sheets. km. First. Geodetic Bridging Nets Geodetic bridging (densification) nets are developed on the basis of geodetic net points and serve for the surveys of land surface on .JL IO.JL 20JL III and IV. 5 kill. The lines of levels should be connected with one another at every 3 km in built-up territories or at every 5 km in free territories. II and III must be spaced at intervals of 5-7 km.

0 1/500000 ::!:20" ::!:5" 5 0. and the number of triangles in a chain should be not more than 10. Analytical nets can be formed by triangulation as a continuous network or chains of triangles or intersections (bearings). In that case.0 1/10000 20° 3 3 15 0.4.5 km to 5 km long and those of the second order. The angles of triangles should be not smaller than 30°.5-5.12-0.0 1/20000 :1:40" :1:10" 3 0. The polygonometry of the first and second order can be developed in the form of individual traverses or a system of traverses with junction points belonging to the national geodetic referencenet or first-order analytical net. The analytical nets of the first order may have the sides from 0. If the territory to be surveyed has no available points of geodetic plan control (of any class). km Maximum length of traverse from nodal point to highest-class or highest-order point.80-0. those of the second order can be developed on the basis of reference nets of all classes and a firstorder analytical net.60 9 0. km Maximum relative error of side measurement Minimum angle of triangles Maximum length of chain of triangles.25-3. Table 2.5-5. it is permissible to develop the independent survey nets of the first or second order for land and mine surveying. km Maximum relative error for base side Maximum misclosure of triangle Mean measuring error from triangle misclosures Maximum length of chain of triangles.25 km to 3 km long. The ap- .4 Parameter Geodetic Bridging Nets 27 First order Second order Triangulation Side length of triangles. 3 and 4. Their main characteristics are given in Table 2. it is required to measure at least two base sides separated from each other by at least 10 triangles. km Polygonometry Maximum length of traverses. km Maximum perimeter of polygonometric traverses in free networks. Analytical bridging nets of the first order can be developed on the basis of geodetic reference nets of classes I. from 0. Planimetric geodetic bridging nets can be constructed as analytical nets or polygonometric nets of the first or second order.2. Of special significance are approach mine surveying points in reference nets. km Length of side of traverse. km Trilateration Side length of triangles. 2.0 1/20000 20° 5 0.30 2 15 1/5000 :t10" 3 15 110000 :t5" scales 1/5000 to 1/500 and for performing various kinds of mine survey work.25-3. km Maximum number of sides in traverse Maximum relative misclosure of traverse Mean measuring error of traverse 0.7.

In exceptional cases. points determined in interval heights.8. the should be equal. together with the points of a base points of a survey net can be deterniined geodetic reference net. m Level line length in technical levelling. km 0. Approach points should be located at distances not more than 300 m from the collar of a shaft. with greater contour additional points. should be not more than:!: 0. values given in Table 2. or 10 km2.1 mm usually employed in areas with the height of on the scale of the map). 2. Geodetic Survey Nets Table 2. location of survey net points relative to the Elevation survey nets are constructed by nearest points of a geodetic reference net geometric. The misclosures of tritically. trilateration and polygonometric nets of class 1-4 or of first-order analytical nets as approach points. 1/2000. Side lengths should be Planimetric survey nets are developed by not less than 150 m.0 5.0 2. 10 points for a scale 1/2000 or verses in which the points of a geodetic 16 points for a scale 1/1000. as a rule. Geometric levelling is scale (i.made from three points and a resection.5. not smaller than 30°. or by when the area to be surveyed is not more constructing a central system of geodetic than 20 km2 for surveys on a scale of 1/5000 rectangles. by table traverses or can be constructed analy. A direct intersection is running theodolite. angles should be not more than I '. by the geodetic reference net.four initial points.5 Contour interval height. The errors of the reference net serve as junction points. In closed areas. the base points of a Planimetric and elevation survey nets are survey net can be deterniined analytically by constructed on the basis of points of a constructing a chain of triangles. tacheometric or plane. at least two such points for a scale 1/2000 or one point for a scale 1/1000. be points of a survey net only. e. they can be based on the The angles in triangles should. The pay-ore area of a mining enterprise should have at least three elevation bench marks with their heights measured by levelling of a class not worse than four. technical and trigonometric should not exceed the accuracy of a surveying (geodetic) levelling. methods of intersections and resections. 2. Nets and Surface Surveys proach points must ensure the possibility of running a hanging traverse with the number of sides not more than three to a mine shaft. km Levelline length in trigonometric levelling. The lengths of level lines the survey net proper. contour interval of relief up to I m and Survey nets consist of base points and trigonometric levelling. i. In open areas . e.0 3 10 15 2 5 and on territories where linear measurements are complicated.5 1.28 Ch. Systems of Coordinates. The The number of points of a survey net is relative error of initial sides in triangle chains determined by the scale of a survey map and should not exceed 1/2000. It is possible to use the points of triangulation. Each survey sheet supported by the levelling points of class I-IV should include at least three base points fixed and of closed level lines should not exceedthe by fundamental marks for a scale of 1/5000. to at least four points conveniently by running individual theodoper square kilometre of the territory for a lite traverses or a system of theodolite trascale 1/5000.

such as fall-throughs and cones of influence formed owing to mineral extraction. e. for the development of engineering projects.9. etc. General Data on Surveys The results of survey work on the surface are used for plotting maps and plans required for mineral prospecting.2. aerial surveying must be carried out to meet the following requirements: 1. and an on-board computer which controls automatically the photographic process. The mean errors of surveying 0. the aircraft flies forth and back along straight courses (flight lines or strips) so that each next photograph overlaps the preceding one (forward overlap) by 60 per cent and the photographs of adjacent flight lines (side overlap) by 40 per cent. The optical axis of a camera must not . navigation instruments.5 m or 1 m.5 mm or. should show all objects specified by the rules of compilation of topographic maps. The surface of small-sized deposits and of moderate-sized ore bodies of an irregular shape should be surveyed on a scale of 1/1000 or 1/2000 with vertical contour intervals of 0. drawn on a scale 1/5000-1/500. The variations of the terrain relief are detected by a radar system. It is carried out by making large-sized photographs by means of a special aerial photographic camera mounted on board an aircraft. adits and other mining workings should be shown on plans and maps with an error of location not more than 1 m in plan and 0. solution of problems of design and construction of mining enterprises. the recommended scale of surveying is 1/2000. for mountainous regions.3 m in elevation irrespective of the survey scale. Aerial photographs obtained in this way are processed by office analysis for compiling topographic plans and maps. 1/500). For the deposits of small size and for the large deposits of an intricate geological structure. which are equipped with perfect photographic cameras. The land surveys for making construction projects and for the construction of mining enterprises should be carried out on the following scales: (a) 1/5000 with I-m or 2-m vertical contour intervals. and for safe and efficient exploitation of deposits. pits. the surveys of the land surface should be made on a scale of 1/5000 for a simple relief with vertical contour intervals of 1 m or 2 m or 1/2000 for an intricate (mountainous) relief with 2-m contour intervals. as well as the specific objects of a mining enterprise. General Data on Surveys 29 2. (b) 1/1000 with 0. When taking aerial photographs.7 should not exceed 1/4 of the height of contour interval for flat-relief areas (with angles of dip up to 2°) or 1/3 for a rugged relief. for the design and construction of mining enterprises and settlements.5-m vertical contour intervals (or in exceptional cases. the frequency of taking photographs and the exposure. special survey aircraft have been employed for the purpose. Recently. Survey nets serve as the basis for terrestrial surveys which can be carried out by various methods and instruments. To ensure the specified accuracy of topographic plans. and (c) 1/1000 or 1/2000 with vertical contour intervals of 0. For instance. Aerophotogrammetric survey (aerial surveying) is a progressive method for making topographic maps and plans. The mouths of shafts. These plans and maps. The scale of surveying is chosen depending on the kind of mining work to be carried out in the area. i.5 m or 1 m. for detailed prospecting and exploitation of large-sized deposits. :1: mm. Land surveys must be car:ried out with such an accuracy that the mean error of positions of clearcut objects and land contours on maps and plans is not more than :1:0.9. boundaries of miDing allotments. for making working drawings. rock outcrops on the surface.

an elevation picket. and a under intricate relief conditions.9) to measure the spatial polar coor"' dinates of so-called picket points on the terrain: an inclination angle v. A staff is set up on picket points for surveying details. The camera is set up succesA plane table (see Fig.10) is used for the intervals between horizontal sections taken graphical construction of horizontal di- .6 depending on the kind of relief and the purpose of topographic plan. Planemore than 3 per cent from the specified value. sighting device (with tangent Tacheometric surveying is a kind of to. The plane processed for plotting the topographic plan table is levelled (horizontally) by means of of the terrain in which the relief is depicted by foot screws.30 Ch. The results of tacheometric survey are attachment screw 5 (see Fig.during surveying (in the field). It consists in base housing 6. base plate 1.10). table surveying differs from other methods in On-the-ground stereophotogrammetry finds that a topogrgphic plan is plotted directly wide application for surveying a rugged. straight lines. three pographic survey employed on small areas or screws 5 for clamping the plane table. The table is fastened stereo-pair. 2.11) consisting of a stereoscope to construct a topographic plan. The instruments axis by more than 2-3°. graphic camera.10) has a table 1. large-scale surveys of very small areas of tho: combination of a theodolite and phototerrain.7). a clamp 4. 2. and a horizontal angle 13between the initial direction and the direction onto the picket point. In tacheometric surveying.2. Plane-table surveying is made by means of 3. it is called an elevation-contour picket. horizontal lines with the vertical contour The ruler (2 in Fig. The axes of flight lines must be parallel meters. or staff point. for tacheometric surveys are called tacheo2. The distances from the instrument to the staff points and between the staff points depend on the scale of surveying and vertical deviate during exposures from the vertical contour interval (Table 2. sively at two ends of a photographic base line tripod 4. 2. 2. If the picket is used both for detailed and relief surveying. 2. The flight altitude must not deviate by a plane table and ruler (Fig.10). plane-table surveying is used only for perfllrmed by means of a phototheodolite. It is time. three foot screws 3. 2. The stereo-pair is examined in a on a metallic base (Fig. inclined distance S to a picket point. and a base 3 which connects the to make two photographs which constitute a table with a tripod head.screw 2). The tangent screw 2 serves determining the elevation and plan locations for rotating the plane table within small of points of terrain by measuring vertical and limits in the horizontal plane. Systems of Coordinates. the instrument is set up at a fixed point called a station o o (Fig. The table base horizontal angles and distances between the is attached to the tripod head by means of an points. A picket for surveying of details is called a contour picket and that for relief surveying. Nets and Surface Surveys according to Table 2. At present relief terrain and open-cast quarries.

5 200 200 150 150 100 100 300 300 200 200 150 150 350 300 250 200 200 150 120 100 70 50 40 30 . General Data on Surveys 31 Fig.5 0.9.9 Scheme of tacheometric surveying 1/5000 2 0.2. 2.

Systems of Coordinates. 10-clamp. 2. l2-telescope level. basins. 6 -plane-table housing rections on the plane table and measuring distances and inclination angle in particular directions. 4-clamp. etc. 5 -plane-table clamp screws. etc. it is essential to determine the elevations of summits. Nets and Surface Surveys 5 6 4 "--2 Fig. should be indicated rounded-off to 0. In addition to the horizontal lines of the relief.10 Plane table with ruler: I-table. its contour lines should also be copied on tracing paper.11 Plane-table metallic base: 1. each square decimetre of a plan on a scale 1/5000 should also give the elevations of at least five characteristic points of the topography (summits of hills.tripod.). In plane-table surveying.32 Ch. The elevation marks of each plan sheet should be copied on tracing paper. which make it possible to calculate elevations and horizontal distances upon sighting the device (telescope) at a vertical staff. . water sheds. dip pits. road crossings. 14-telescope sighting device. 15-stand 3 Fig. 13-telescope. 3-foot screws. 3. 5.plane-table base. 8cylindrical level.4. etc. nomogram rulers are employed. At present time. and all points where the steepnessof slope changes. rock outcrops. 2.attachment screw. 9-vertical tangent screw. 6-additional ruler. ll-cylindrical level of vertical circle.base plate.1 m. The elevations of the characteristic points of precipices. caverns. 2ruler. 2. if a plan is plotted in the office. 2-tangent screw. 7-circular level.

In mining practice. topographic and mine surveys. They are widely used for the representation of the Earth's surface and mining workings. especially their variety.mining output. mine-surveying drawings must have the required completeness and accuracy. Mine-surveying service plays the major part in the compilation of mining graphical documentation since this is based on the measurements and calculations made by mine surveyors. construction and exploitation of mining and associated enterprises. problems of safety. they are essentially projections with numerical data. and high skill of draftsmen. they are used in the design of geological prospecting and mining operations. General For proper functioning of a mining enterprise. and many other problems of interest in mining. underground and surface structures. the following definitions and concepts associated with mining graphical documentation are in use. If the strike of a deposit varies sharply. solution of problems of protection of structures and natural objects against harmful effect of mining activity. Plans are drawings of orthogonal projections of objects onto a horizontal plane. Projections are graphical representations of particular spatial objects on the plane of drawings. In particular. which is caused by the dynamics of mining production. Mine-survey drawings are used in the design.1. Such documents are often compiled for steeply dipping seems(veins) and similar elements when horizontal projections would involve large distortions. and some other circumstances. power supply. accounting for the motion of mineral reserves. projections with numerical (hypsometric) data.they must be clear and easily readable and measurable. it can be projected onto a number of . Survey plans usually contain the elevation marks (height coordinates) of particular points or are constructed in isohypses. In mine surveying. vertical or inclined planes. orthogonal projections are preferably used. Orthogonal projections may be made on horizontal. compilation of plans of aeration. variations of geological conditions. in the latter case. For more clear representation.Chapter Three Graphical Documentation in Mine Surveying 3. Vertical projections are drawings of objects projected onto a vertical plane. axonometric and affine projections are also employed. In that connection. water drainage and haulage in underground workings and OI) the surface. . A characteristic feature of mining graphical documentation is that the information contained in it varies continuously in time and space. advanced methods of preparation and complementation of graphical documents. mine-survey drawings compiled by the results of geological. it is essential to have a file of graphical documents. in particular. Besides. mineral losses. This is ensured by the application of modern drawing materials and instruments.

the smaller the scale. the accuracy is respectively equal to 0. For instance. 1/5000. for instance. or simply numerical scale. e. only the contour or part of the contour of an object considered. Distances on plans can be measured with an accuracy permitted by the resolving power of man's eye. which are located in a certain section plane. 1/10000. supports. 1/2000. which is usually taken equal to 0. The scale of a plan is chosen according to the dimensions of an object in nature and by considering the accuracy of the scale so that the finest details on the plan can be by a factor of 5-10 larger than 0. where M is the denominator of the numerical scale. Consequently. or roughly 0. etc. 1 ill. for example. 0. Objects are depicted in mine-surveying plans by diminishing the results of natural (field) measurements. if the horizontal distance of a line on the terrain is equal to 174. This is what is called the numerical scale of lengths. Scales. The scale of a plan or map is chosen according to specifications and depending on where the plan will be used. In mine-surveying practice. s/S = I/M. For instance. some details of a working. if a numerical scale 1/1000 has been adopted for a plan. a dimensionless fractional number in which the numerator is unity and the denominator shows how many times a line depicted in the plan Can be laid off along the corresponding horizontal distance in the terrain. Profiles are graphs depicting.1 mm).71 cm.3: 20 = = 8.05 ill. horizontal distances on the terrain can be transformed into lines on a plan and vice versa. the horizontal distance on the terrain corresponding to that line will be 10. the most common types of sections are geological sections and sections of mining workings which depict the enclosing rock. It is distinguished between large and small scales: the larger the denominator. and 1/10000. In sections. For the scales 1/500. the mOSt suitable scale for their depiction will be 1/2000 or 1/1000. in a vertical section. if a line on a plan made on a scale 1/5000 is equal to 10. objects and details may be projected onto vertical. projections onto the plane of a seam are employed.2 ill. etc. Vertical geological sections are most often confined to the lines of exploratory or mining-production workings. Using numerical scales. 0.1 ill. The corresponding horizontal distance in nature (on the terrain) is called the accuracy of scale. without the use of rules and other drawing instruments.1 mill. and 2.073 mm. and other objects.1 mm (with the critical angle of vision 60" and the distance of best vision to an object 250 mm. In plans. measuring the reserves of a mineral in store. Graphical Documentation in Mine Surveying vertical planes each of them being arranged parallel to the strike of individual portions of a deposit. a mine surveyor makes sketches in the field book when carrying out instrumental surveys or taping of mining workings.34 Ch. numerical scales are written as simple fractions. Thus. A plan drawn on a larger scale can depict more details of the locality. For instance. 1/2000. horizontal or inclined planes. 1/500. Sketches are rough drawings of objects which are made by hand. i. rocks in the roof or foot of a working.2 x 50 = 510 ill. the resolution is equal to 0. e. 1/1000.30 ill and the scale of plan is 1/2000. The degree of diminution of a line in a plan is determined by the scale. the length of the corresponding line on the plan will be 174. i. if individual derails of construction objects on the site of a mining enterprise have sizes of an order to 1 ill. this means that horizontal distances on the terrain will be diminished on the plan to onethousandth. etc. Sections are the representation of the details of an object. 1/1000. 3. the terrain relief. haulage tracks. .5 ill. In some cases.2 cm.

the scale 1/25000 is recommended for cartograms and general charts.6 Survey objects are depicted on maps and plans in their actual shape and in a size according to the map scale. and reproductions).2. Original (primary) drawings are the main technical and juridical documents for solving various problems of. 1/20.mines stock and loss of a mineral. plans of mine ventilation. The main requirements to secondary graphical documents are that they should contain all the essential information as required by the purpose and that this information should be drawn clearly. Classification and Rules of of Drawings Mapping As regards their compilation. and scales 1/5. Classification of Drawings and Rules of Mapping 35 3. I/lO. for the compilation of exchange and calendar plans of mining work development. Graphical documentation should preferably be drawn on the scales: 1/500.1.2. Secondary drawings are prepared by reproducing (copying) the original drawings. I/lOO and 1/200. The contours of elements determined on the basis of description information are drawn in dotted lines. Table 3. in dotted lines. 1/2000.2 ::1:0. The contours of the elements of an object. all mine surveying drawings can be divided into primary (originals) and secondary (copies. which are recalculated to a single coordinate system. Conventional signs are used in mining graphical documentation for objects which cannot be drawn in their actual shape on the drawing scale. and lastly the elements of geological characteristic are drawn. Original graphical documentation should have an accuracy characterized by the data of Table 3. 1/5000 or 1/10000. mm Mutual arrangement of intersection points of a rectangular coordinate grid Position of stations of a control or survey net relative to the coordinate grid Mutual arrangement of the nearest stations of a control or survey net Position of conspicuous points relative to the nearest stations of a control or survey net Mutual arrangement of the nearest conspicuous points :to. terrestrial elements are drawn in the flfSt place. etc. If a particular object cannot be surveyed directly (this mainly relates to underground workings). for instance. then the elements of underground workings. an appropriate note should then be made on the drawing. for small objects. Primary drawings are mapped directly by the results of a survey. plans for the prevention of accidents. 1/1000. special plans for accounting the reserves. In cases when a drawing contains the elements of terrestrial surface and underground workings and their geological characteristics. duplicates. which ensures their preservation and non-deformability and provides certain convenience in use.1 Error in: Maximum value. which lie in the plane of a drawing are drawn in solid lines and those which are beyond that plane. 1/50. They must be complemented and corrected when a need arises and can be used for various practical purposes. They are prepared on a special base in a system of plats. it is permissible to map it on an original drawing on the basis of descriptive information or another graphical documentation. . mining geometry.3.

catalogue cards. Reinforced paper is manufactured in various versions with various kinds of paper and different thickness of lavsan film and has a number of applications. e. which makes it possible to mount various templets on it.36 Ch. A templet drawing film possessesthermoadhesive properties. printing. Technology and Rules for Making and Storage of Mining Graphical Documentation Up to a recent time. On the other hand. The first to be named among these means are decalcomania means (decals). and possess a better transparency. diazotype copying. Mechanization of Graphical Work In modern practice.3. At present. Graphical Documentation in Mine Surveying 3.). The glossy drawing surface of the lavsan film requires no matting additives if special inks are used for drawing. 3. General charts made on plastics can in exceptional cases be kept in rolls (rolled together with spacing paper where possible).) and secondary plans. cloth. An offset lavsan film is suitable for making offset plates by electrographical and photomechanical methods or by drawing. all mining graphical documentation was made on a paper base: original plans of mining workings on highquality drawing paper glued on a reinforcing substrate (aluminium plates.4. . digits and conventional signs applied onto a film material. A plate made by the photomechanical method can be used for making up to 10000 copies. Decals are used widely for making inscriptions on drawings. The draftsman chooses the required sign. the paint image is detached from the film and transferred onto the drawing. etc. can withstand multiple corrections. and rubs at the other side of the film with a hard object. The film is highly transparent and ensures a high quality of copies. Mechanically matted lavsan is widely used in drawing. In this way. graphical work is largely facilitated and made less labour-consuming by the use of principally novel engineering means which make it possible to 'mount' drawings from unified standard prefabricated graphical elements. Reinforced paper is a combination of lavsan and conventional paper. engraving.i. schemes of electric circuits. compiling plans from conventional symbols. a lavsan film is sandwiched between two paper layers. Drawing Materials. It combines favourably the drawing properties of paper and high physico-mechanical properties of lavsan. Decals can be restored multiply by repeated rolling with a special paint. i. They have a higher durability and strength. synthetic drawing materials (based on lavsan or therylene) are being used widely for making mining graphical documentation. its white surface ensures a high contrast of drawings. They should be kept in an isolated room at a temperature within + 16° to + 20°C and air humidity 50-80 per cent. multiply repeated paint images of alphabet letters. e. retain stable dimensions under atmospheric influence. places the film on the drawing. double-oriented) is employed for making various copies with the application of silverless light-sensitive layers. Polyethylene terephthalate (1avsan) film (glossy. etc. graphite or synthetic pencil. depending on their application and the method of fixation of the image (by ink. The best method of storage of originals (plats) is to keep them in the suspended state. on light-sensitive paper (copy paper) or tracing paper. Synthetic drawing films are manufactured in a number of varieties with different physico-mechanical properties of the drawing surface. 3. The matter of storage of originals made on plastic materials deserves special attention. etc. for marking of documents.

They can be manufactured in any design institution or enterprise provided with photoprocessing laboratory equipment. which is developed by a powder material whose particles are attracted to the portions of the selenium layer. etc. Electrophotographic process is based on the use of certain semiconductors whose conduction changes under the effect of light. and offset printing. Templets are produced in a number of varieties differing from one another in the type of substrate (paper. thin cardboard. film. it is difficult to move a templet on the substrate in the case of variation design. For temporary fixation of a templet on a drawing. since drawings are compiled from individual standard elements.5. The method of templets has many advantages and largely accelerates the drawing process. etc. The latter must be removed before applying a templet into its place in a drawing. e. Electrophotography is among the most advanced modern processes of reproduction of graphical images. As the fused layer solidifies.). there forms a latent electrostatic image in it. simple technology. the method of application of the image. electrophotography. Offset printing is the most efficient and simple process of the reproduction of docu- . Such templets have however certain drawbacks: they can be used only 4-5 times. the required textual and graphical additions are made in the drawing by using decals. decals can be used both in specialized and nonspecialized production of graphical documents. These drawbacks have been eliminated in a new method of templet mounting which uses templets prepared on a polyethylene terephthalate film base with the working (contact) layer made of a material fusible at 80-120°C. For final fixation of a templet.3. i. which is protected by non-sticking paper. microfilm copies can also be made when needed. The final original drawing is checked and reproduced by diazotype co- pying. Processes and Materials for Reproduction of Mining Graphical Documentation The principal processes for the reproduction of drawings of mining graphical documentation are diazo type copying. Templets. When a layer of photosemiconductive material is exposed to light. etc. it fixes firmly the templet on a substrate (paper or film).5. and the principle of fixation of templets on a substrate. All used templets and substrates can be restored. have also found wide use in modern drawing practice. Mter mounting the templets. 3. conventional signs. they have an adhesive layer on the back side. that carry induced electrostatic charges. Restored materials can be used anew. foil. Templets are detached from the film base and the latter is cleaned from the traces of a pencil and ink. Light-sensitive diazotype materials are manufactured industrially in a wide range and differ from one another in the kind of a light-sensitive layer and base and methods of development. it suffices to touch the templet with the handle in a single point. facsimile reproduction of images. applications of standard elements. The originals are reproduced on diazo-paper and diazo-film. and from decals. Diazotype copying is performed in rotary copying machines and copying frames. templets taken off from the substrate are liable to twisting. Processes and Materials 37 As has been shown by experience. inscriptions. Adhesive templets are the most popular. the handle is applied in four or more points. Diazotype copying is the most popular processfor the reproduction of original drawings made on transparent materials. It is distinguished favourably by high productivity. and possibility of copying of opaque originals. Templets are mounted by means of a thermal handle.

Synthetic drawing materials are finding ever wider use and accordingly. black. thinner films are preferable. in various novel technological schemes and processes. for printing in or eliminating some graphical elements. Offset printing of maps at map-making agencies is carried out from colour-separated originals (separation drawings or simply separations) which are prepared directly at mining enterprises. For instance. marks. folds. In addition. 3. the obsolete fragments of the general chart can be replaced by new ones. scratches. it requires much less labour for manual painting and offers the possibility for making multicolour composite prints. The latter is diazocopied on cartographic paper or diazo-film. without clearances and breaks. etc. The process of preparation of colour-separated originals by illumination drawings consumes much time and labour and is insufficiently accurate. Offset printing ensures a higher quality of printed graphical documentation than is possible in diazotype copying on map paper and is well suitable for making multicolour prints. In a novel process. (b) the films must be without dents. red. etc. since they diminish the parallactic effect during copying onto printing plates. especially inscriptions and shadings. etc. etc. should be well filled with ink. . transparent materials with thermo-adhesive properties have largely simplified the process of preparation of general charts at mining enterprises. Transparent plats of the original documentation are diazo-copied on the film and mounted by the thermotemplet method on a base as fragments of a general chart. etc. colour-separated originals are prepared by diazotype copying of contour images made on tracing paper. (c) line elements. and (d) linear dimensions in colour-separated drawings should not differ from the originals by more than :to.15 mm at sides and :to.20 mm along diagonals.38 Ch. and have no spots. and are used for making corresponding colour-separated printing plates. Colour-separated drawings should meet very high requirements: (a) they are drawn on synthetic transparent materials 70-100 ~m thick. Graphical Documentation in Mine Surveying ments and has been for a long time in use in cartographic engineering. Colour separations. as the name implies. the arrangement of the whole situation in a plan should satisfy the same accuracy standards. describe the graphical situation in a single colour. the shaded elements of a large area should be filled with ink at least three times and checked on an illuminated screen so that their optical density is sufficiently high. synthetic drawing films. pencil lines. Later. for instance..

owing to local magnetic disturbances. Connection survey via horizontal or inclined workings is carried out by running polygonometric traverses or geometric or trigonometric levelling traverses through the workings. it has an essential disadvantage. Connection survey is essential for mining work expansion. The coordinates of plummets and the direction angles of plumb:-connecting lines are determined by'measurements on the Earth's surface. A distinction is made between the horizontal and vertical connection surveys. gyroscopic. For that reason the magnetic method is not popular and employed only in rare cases when its low accuracy is sufficient for orientation of underground workings. e. protection of surface structures. or plumbing.1 General The object of connection survey (orientation) is to ensure underground surveying in the coordinate system adopted on the Earth's surface. and connection of underground workings. determination of the coordinates x and y of the initial points of an underground survey net. Horizontal connection survey has to tackle two problems: (a) orientation of underground . i. correct location of underground workings relative to objects on the surface. The gyroscopic method uses a pendulum gyroscope (gyrocompass) whose axis performs harmonic oscillations about an equilibrium position which coincides with the plane of astronomic meridian on the station point of the instrument. determination of the depth of mining work. Vertical connection survey is carried out for transferring a height mark from the Earth's surface down into the mine. determination of the direction angles of the initial sides of an underground survey net and (b) centring. inclined or vertical workings or shafts. connection surveys can be run via horizontal. for preparation of new mining levels. Though being rather simple. the orientation of the magnetic needle is subject to unpredictable variations in particular places. Connection surveying (orientation) via vertical workings is done by special methods which can be divided into geometric and physical. The geometric methods of orientation of underground survey employ plumb bobs (plummets) sunk into vertical shafts of mines. Connection survey belongs to the most critical kinds of surveying work and must be done with the highest accuracy and under reliable control. Connection surveys are carried out rarely. combined working of adjacent seams. Modern high-precision gyrocompasses are reliable instruments . construction of boundaries for safe mining. i. of an underground survey.Chapter Four Connection Surveys 4. Depending on the method of opening a deposit.surveys. The physical methods include the magnetic. The magnetic method utilizes the ability of a magnetic needle to line up along a line of the magnetic field of the Earth. e. mainly before constructing a new mine and later. and optical method.

4. This formula shows that the effect of an orientation error on the planimetric positions of points increases in proportion to the distance from the initial point.. an error 1-1' of the planimetric position of the initial point which has appeared on centring. p' is the number of angular minutes in a radian (p' = 3438').1b).1) with due consideration of the error of orientation (a) f:. Discrepancies in the results of orientation of one and the same side of a traverse should not exceed the following permissible values: (a) 3' for direction angles in geometric orientation. --0-4 .. y of an initial point 1 are found with errors (Fig. since the available instruments have an insufficient resolving power in deep mines where the atmosphere may often be moist and dust-laden. Therefore. minutes. it is recommended to make gyroscopic orientation of intermediate sides of nets in mines where field wings exceed two metres in length. Errors incurred in connection surveys cause subsequent errors in the determination of points of underground survey nets. If the coordinates x. as calculated by formula (4.40 Ch.1 Effect of centring error (a) and orientation error (b) on positions of points of underground theodolite traverse . 4.1) where m" is the rms error of orientation. because of which the gyroscopic method has found wide use as being the most precise and least labour-consuming. and (c) 5 cm for planimetric position of the initial point in the plumbing of a survey net via vertical workings. 4. orientation must be done twice by the same method or different methods. In order to satisfy these requirements.0 5 Fig. will result in a parallel displacement of points 1-6 into positions 1'-6'. Thus. Connection Surveys for gyroscopic orientation of underground sides of reference survey nets. An angular error of orientation (orientation error) gives a different effect. 4. 5' 6. To minimize the effect of an orientation error on the positions of distant points in underground survey nets. For that reason.. ~ 3 "'0-5 6 5' (b) ~ a=C~~---~ ---. these will be carried over without change into the coordinates of all subsequent points of an underground survey net. If the direction angle of the initial side is found with an error m" (Fig. orientation of underground workings is mainly performed by the gyroscopic or geometric method (via one or two vertical shafts). the root-mean square error m" of a single orientation must not exceed l' in the geometric method and 40" in the gyroscopic method of orientation. and s is the length of the closing side of a traverse. In order to avoid appreciable errors.la). the net 1-5 will be turned into the position 1-5'. An error in the determination of the height mark (z) of an initial point gives a similar effect. and thus fail to ensure the required accuracy of measurements. (b) 2' for direction angles in gyroscopic orientation. orientation is the most critical part of connection survey and must be performed with the highest accuracy. The optical method of orientation of underground survey is not very popular. :-1=::$. In modern mine surveying practice. the maximum rms displacement M of a point of an underground survey net.~' 2' ~2 1 3' 4' 04 . The root-mean square displacement of the last point will be: M = (mJp')s (4. 2' m(X '02 3 ---0 3 4' .

. and the latter is done to transfer the direction angle and plumb-line coordinates + 4sina12 + .2 Orientation via adit ~.3. to the first side of the underground survey net. With all :~ ri ri ~ ""~ ~2~~. The junction procedure includes two steps: connection on the surface and connection in the mine... If only one adit or incline is available... //j .+ IncosanC angle of the line that is projected from the Yc = YB + /1 sin aB1 surface. aB1' . The former determines the coordinates of the plummets and the direction + 12cosa12 + . theodolite traverse. The polygonometric traverse run to a side CD in the figure makes it possible to calculate the direction angle aCD of the side and the coordinates of a point C: aCD= a AB+ 131 132 . which differ from one another in the shape of In are the measured lengths of sides. 4. 132' are n is the number of measured angles.n + + :!: Xc = xB + /1 cos aB1 //I %. and /1. B. junction figures at plumb-bob lines. the underground survey can be oriented by running a polygonometric traverse from the surface into the mine (Fig..4. direction angles must be transferred only by using gyroscopic orientation. temporarily established points.3. Orientation Survey via or Inclined of Underground Horizontal Adit If a mine is entered by two adits. two or more vertical shafts. In any case it has to handle two problems: the problem of projection and that of connection (junction). 13n the measured angles.. say. 4. In mines opened by inclines with the dipping angle of more than 70°. 4. ?:1 D ~ ~ Fig. Geometric Orientation Connection survey with the use of plummets can be performed via one.. There are several methods of junction anCare the direction angles of sides.. A back traverse line is run usually through other.+ 13n 180°.2.. The procedure of projection consists essentially in that a straight-Iine segment is transferred by means of two plumb bobs from the surface onto the mine level to be oriented.(///////////// B ~~---0-. Geometric Orientation 41 (carried out twice). the traverse is run from an approach station on the surface..4 m 4. the theodolite traverse must be run to closure.. The projection procedure should be carried out so that the line segments on the surface and in the mine lie in the same vertical plane.11 1 ' 2 13 3 ---0--~n-~ n In C If a deposit is opened by a horizontal entry (adit) or an inclined entry (incline).2). 4. will be: M= fi x 3438' x 2000 m= 0.+Insinanc to the first (fixed) side of an underground where 131' .

accuracy. starting the work. y and direction angle transferred into the mine can be fixed to shaft and (2) the main stage which covers the ope. are typical for all kinds of geometric This kind of orientation is carried out by orientation. The engaged in it. Approach points are established on the preparatory work. the main fan of the mine is switched connection survey work with the specified off for the time when observations of plum. as 4. nection survey via a vertical shaft. however. so performed before stopping the hoist in the that the coordinates x. hanging polygonometric traverse of the sethe plan is to be approved by the chief cond order to be run immediately to the shaft engineer of the mining enterprise. The survey work of orientation down one points. Before collar between the initial point for direct starting the work. fixtures is prepared for accomplishment of As a rule. This method is the most labour-consuming and requires certain special techniques. but the instruments and appliances employed in it. The procedure requires careful operations. The procedure must be per.surveys via two or more vertical shafts. down One Vertical Shaft 4. the matter of projection is tackled essentially in the same way. The preparatopy stageincludes the following face through the shaft onto the mine level to be oriented. points should be established so that the the required outage time of hoisting means in the shaft and the essential safety measures. I. in particular.42 Ch. Sequence and Organization depending on the depth of the shaft and the of Work for Orientation speed of air in it. Connection Surveys methods of junction. The approach surveying work which specifies. 2.4. and certain special safety measures. A number of (at least four) permanent vertical shaft can be divided into two stages: (I) the preparatory stage which includes station points (marks) are established in the the operations and steps that should be workings of the mine level to be oriented.the largest distance between the plummets . the chief coordinates and direction angles of approach mining surveyor has to work out a detailed points must be determined with an accuracy plan of the organization and methods of corresponding to analytical or polygonometric nets of the first order. Existing stations of a formed in a clearly correlated sequence and geodetic net of class I to 4 in the vicinity of with coordinated actions of all the specialists the shaft can be used as approach points. all members of the survey connection of plumb lines and an approach team are instructed by the chief mining point contains not more than three sides.them. appliances and rations of centring and orientation to be carried out when the shaft hoist is stopped.5. A set of instruments. surveyor in their duties and in details of the This traverse should be run twice or be closed or else be tied to higher-order station plan. Orientation well as some of the operations described down One Vertical Shaft below. long-term outage of hoisurface at a distance not more than 300 m sting vessels in the shaft. 4. The points are chosen for hanging the This section will describe in detail the plumb bob lines in the shaft so as to obtain sequence and organization of work for con. 3. in particular. The survey instruments and appliances must be tested and adjusted before met oscillations are to be carried out.from the shaft collar. For that reason. The mass of plummets and the type and diameter of wire are chosen 4. for connection means of two plummets hung from the sur.

other devices are placed on the platforms on 5. All linear and angular parameters of the carried out roughly in the following sequence. e. within the permissible value. work supervisor. Sequence and Organization of Work 43 and the most favourable figures for solving 3. are fastened on the platforms. a check measurement of the distance between the plummets on the surface and in sing through plummets. the team the shaft will not be interfered. closure of the sump.of cardboard or another available material is lished between the working teams on the 'mailed down' along the wire. It should be checked the entire time of observations. Winches. Building materials are prepared for the the underground level to observe the oscillaclosure of the shaft. along enough place in the underground workings the entire length. plummets. Small plumb bobs (of a mass of 3-5 kg) the connection problem. guide pulleys. the mine is made again. hoist operators) to be engaged in the do not touch the shaft walls.d for the work. the performers and the auxiliary surface and in the mine are compared. Centring plates with scales. If the discrepancy is etc. it is now pos- . etc. near the shaft and the mining operations in 4. This can be connection survey work are instructed in the done by two methods: (a) a light ring cut out job. and a reliable telephone service is estab. Upon sinking the plumb bobs. shaft collar and in the shaft proper. The performers are the free positions of the plummet wires are divided into two teams or groups: one for checked again by comparing the distances work on the surface and the other. slide down to the bottom or (b) the distances At the beginning of the main stage of between the plummets as measured on the survey work. plummet dampers (dash-pots). Wood platforms are constructed on the surface and in the mine. attachment of fixtures in the shaft and hanging plummets are stable (their oscillaon the mine level to be oriented. Upon finishing the cycle of observaholes are provided in the platforms for pas. 2. bends. If there is that the wires have no -knots. arrangement of winches and guide pots. etc. Places are assigned on wires are passed through the holes in the for the construction of platforms for winches.) can be 5. guide pulleys. construction of plattions of plummets. 6. surface and in the mine. Auxiliary workers (shaft fitters. etc. Persons not engaged in survey are carried out to determine the central work are strongly prohibited to be present in positions of the plummets. the centring viscous liquid for plummet damping and plates can be aligned immediately with the other devices are prepare. carpen6. Observations of plummet oscillations the mine. projection and centring oriented so as to avoid large swings. so cally both plumb bobs are sunk simultaneousas to ensure the stability of plummets during ly with a speed of 1 mjs. usually the chief surveyor of 7. centring plates. Vessels with tions do not exceed 0.5. Small 9. the personnel in the shaft and at the hoist are discrepancy between them must not exceed placed under the authority of the survey 2mm.tions. connection triangles are measured on the I. If the strings of freely forms. top platform along the shaft to the level to be scales. It is checked that the plummet strings ters. on the between the plummets as measured on the level to be oriented.4. The operations at the main stage are 8. after which the the underground workings and shaft building plummets are fixed in the centring plates and and on the platforms. pulleys. mirrors and carried out at an earlier stage. is let to surface and in the mine.4 mm). i. Practiplates. some of these underground replaces them by the main procedures (construction of platforms for larger plummets and places these into dashwinches.

it is impossible to form a vertical plane in a shaft that would pass through all four points indicated. the rms linear deviations e should not exceed 0. The principal scheme of arrangement of plummets for orientation via a vertical shaft is shown in Fig. I.3. ~ 42" To ensure this accuracy of projection. and 1. should not exceed the following value: Auperm= J Au. Since the permissible discrepancy between two independent orientations is not more than::!: 3'. The main plummets are replaced by lighter plumb bobs and these are lifted to the surface. the work of all kinds in the shaft and near it and on the platforms is prohibited. 2. 4. the main stage of surveying can be completed in 8-12 hours. + Au.the surveying equipment..///////////////////.8.7. The rootmean square error for this case can be found by the formula: Au" = p'e/c (4. 5-plummet.4.2 mm for the distances between the plumb lines respectively 2.6.4). 4. 4. This accuracy can only be attained by observing the rules listed in Sect. Connection Surveys level being oriented do not usually lie in the same vertical plane with the plumb line points 01. 4. With properly organized work and good coordination between the working teams. Au. 3. O2 on the surface (Fig.!. 4. 4.guard platform.2) where e are the rms linear deviations of the points of both plummets on the level being oriented from the respective points on the surface and c is the distance between the ~ ///////////. 4. 4. plumb line points 0'1. If the rms error of surface connection and connection in the mine is taken to be not more than::!: 30". During lifting the plumb bobs. the rms error of an orientation should be not more than 1'. Plumbing Surface Points onto Oriented Mine Level Owing to the effects of various external forces. For handling successfully the problem of projection. the rms error of projection. of special importance is the observation of mean (central) positions of plummets on the oriented level."J.3 Plummet arrangement for orientation through vertical shaft: 1 -hand winch.guide pulleys.44 Ch. 5. 6~dash-pot plummets. In other words. 3 -centring plates. Fig. 0. o~ on the mine Fig. Observations of sible to start disassembling of .6..4 Determining angular projection error . 4. 0. It is essential to choose the distance between the plumb lines as close as possible to the shaft diameter. and 6 m.

4.).4. 4. M. If the space available is too restricted. Figure 4.6 Observation of pl~mmet oscillations scales by means of two theodolites on . rN. the problem consists essentially in observing the motions of oscillating plummets in two vertical planes and determining their mean positions in each plane.plate-fastening sockets.body. N -scales plummet oscillations can be made by two linear scales. is an extreme left reading on the scale N..I 2 4. The accuracy in the determination of the mean position of a plummet will not be worsened if the angle y ranges between 45° and 135°./n + I. 5.::: -3 5. The plumb line points are fixed according to the calculated data on their mean positions. The extreme points of positions of plummets are fixed by reading off on the scales at the exterior or interior edge of the plummet wire. This method is more intricate and time- Fig. eyepiece scales.6. 2-mirror socket. 4. 3-pyramid. 4-clamp screws. and other devices.6 shows the scheme of observation of a plummet 01 by using two theodolites. 8 -plumb bob. A 7 4 '5 Fig. it is recommended to observe the oscillations of a plummet by means of a mirror and theodolite. a centring plate (Fig. Irrespective of the type of instrument used for the purpose. 7. and n is the number of observations of extreme positions of the plummet 01 on the scale N 1.5 (I. Similar observations and calculations are done on the scale M l' Observations of the mean position of the second plummet O2 are carried out simultaneously by using two other theodolites. 6. ".4 '5 ~ ::.5 Centring plate with scales: 1.slit for plumb bob string. ~" ~ . the distance between them is measured as accurately as possible and compared with the distance between the plumb line points as measured on the surface. 9-plug. The reading on the scale N 1 corresponding to the mean position of the plummet is calculated by the formula: N 1mean 0. These points are then fiXed.IN. The number of readings to fix the extreme position of the wire shou)d be not less than 11-13.rN. is an extreme right reading on the scale N . The observers should try to place the instruments and scales so that the angle y will be close to 90°.pyramid-adjusting screws. Plumbing Surface Points onto Oriented Mine Level 45 N 5./n) = (4. for the first plummet.5.3) I I where IN.

are the left ind fight readings 6fth~ extreme positions of the plummet O Ion the scale N I. .4. Among these methods. and c of a ~ . 4.N + IN )/4 I I 2 N 2 = (IN + 2. 01 and O2.. IN. 4. and 'N ' 'N . IN. Then a reading M I mean corresponding to the mean position of the plummet on the scale M I is taken. " W ~ ~ III Fig..46 o Scale N Ch. say.. 4. and nr and nl is respectively the number of right and left readings. the method of connection triangle is most popular (Fig. ~ plate by means of two mutually perpendicular pairs of screws 5 (see Fig. It is required to measure all the three sides a. etc. m« and m{i1 by the formulae: m« = (a/c)m1" m{i1= (b1/cJm1'1 (4. form two connection triangles: AO1O2 on the surface and CO1O2 in the shaft. b. it is required to determine the expected errors in calculated angles. According to the readings N I mean M I mean' !and the plummet 0 I is fixed rigidly in the centring (4. The connection procedure is started upon finishing the projection. 4..5) It is then permissible to solve the connection problem by the method of connection triangle if the expected errors of angles a and Pi do not exceed :t20".7. The reading on the scale N I corresponding to the mean position of a plummet is calculated by the formula N1mean (N1 + N2 + .7. should not exceed 30" for each of these two procedures. 2 2 3 i = (nr -I) + (n. Before making the connection work. and the observations and measurements on the surface and in the shaft are usually carried out concurrently. 'N.N + IN )/4. In order to observe the oscillations of the plummet on the scale M I' the theodolite is sighted on the mirror which is arranged at an angle of 45° to this scale. Connection Surveys ~ oc ~ ~Ni.+N1)/i = where N1 = (IN + 2. 4. The connection triangles will have a favourable form and ensure the specified accuracy of connection if the angles a and 'Yof the surface triangle and the angles P1 and 'Y1of the underground triangle do not exceed 2-3° and the ratios a/c and. Two points fixed earlier on the surface and in the shaft.8.4) The root-mean square error of transferring the direction angle from the initial side of a traverse to the plumb-connecting line and from the latter to the traverse side of an underground reference net on the mine level being oriented. Considering this requirement and the possibilities of arrangement of plummets in a shaft. Connection to Plumb Line Points in Orientation Down One Vertical Shaft . The principal scheme of determining the mean position of a plummet by means of a mirror and theodolite is shown in Fig. -1) In these formulae.). IN.5). b1/C1 are as small as possible. one chooses the connection method that is most suitable for the purpose. and two points projected by plummets. A and C.7 Observation of plummet oscillations two scales by using mirror and theodolite on consuming.

the linear measurements are checked by colilparing the measured distance between the plummets to its value calculated by the formula: c= Ja2 +b2 sinal =(al/cJsiny Sin~l = (b1/cJsin (4. Connection to Plumb Line Points Fig. The rIllS errors of the measured angles at points A and C must not exceedm = 7".8 Junction by method of connection triangle triangle AO1O2 and the angles 0.(4. The discrepancy between the individual readings must not exceed:!: 2 mm and the root-mean square error of the final length of a side must be not more than :!: 0. Each side of connection triangles is measured at least five times by a steel tape at a constant tension.5 mm. If the acute angles a and ~1 do not exceed 20°. E. The discrepancy (within the permissible value) is distributed evenly between the calculated angles. b1. The solution of connection triangles and the calculations of the direction angle and the coordinates of the points of the initial side CD in the mine are carried out as follows. obtained by the reiteration method. a check is done by. must not exceed :!:20".4.'. ° -(E -Y) and 01 -(El -YJ. Before solving the connection triangles.'.8) aJ] . equally between all the angles. the angles can be calculated by the 2abcos'Y . 4.7. the angles can be found by the formulae of sides: for the surface triangle: tan {a/2) = J(P -b)(P -c)/[jJ(P -a)] -b)] tan (~/2) = J"iii=--a)(P -c)/[jJ(P tan {afl) = J(Pl --bJ(P tan (fil/2) = J(P1 -aJ(p1 CJI[P1 (Pi and for the underground triangle: . The arithmetic mean of these measurements is taken as the final result. and yon the surface at a point A and the sides a1.6) Yl If a or 131 less than 2°and 13 a1 is more is or than 178°. adding the angles for each triangle. El and Yl at a point C in the shaft. The differences of the measured angles1 points A and C (see Fig.8). These angles are adjusted by distributing the discrepancies. sin ~ = (b/c) sin Y approximate a = (a/c)y. and c1 ofa triangle CO1O2 and the angles 01. taking readings with an accuracy of up to a miliimetre. formulae: 13 = (b/c)y at = (a1/C Iyl' Pi = (b1/c If a or ~l exceeds 20°and ~ or al is smaller than 160°. use can be made of the sine fofIllulae: sin a = (a/c) sin Y. 4.CJI[P1 (P1 -hJ] where P = (a + b + c)/2 and P1 ~ (a1 + b1 + cJ/2 Mter the angles have been calculated. The sum of angles must not differ by more than 10" from 180°. The results of these field measurements are then used for calculations in office analysis.

0220 12 II 5 a 13 y 1047'45" 177°07'31" 1°04'00" 22 23 24 tan a tan a/tan y tan a 0. Solution Survey place of Connection Ch.8 -m tany . 14.3 mm 28 ( tanap"~)2 tan ap" -=C ( tan ap"~)2 0.tany (tana ) -m y 2 + tan ap" m --.99 131 32 :1::3.050150 2°52'29" 19 17 m" b mc 0.006229 0.38 6 siny siny 0.44 ma 18 m.0510 3. a sin a ~ -siny c 13 ~ 180000'00" t2.!!.23 mm 29 30 m 0.63 3.4" 25 :to.41 sin 13 20 21 mc c tany 0.000060 27 tanap"~ a 0.29 mm 26 sin 13 = b -siny ( ~m tany tan ap' ): y 14.8" . 4.1. Connection Triangle Surveys with Angles a < 20° and p > 160' m Ot a A 2 = .019 31 m. a 0. b ) 2 {3~ /1 b + 2 3 4 a b c 5.031 1.0313 8.000040 :!: 0.018826 16 mb :!:0.00010 0. m.14 8 9 10 c sinn 0.48 Table 4.031341 0.

0220 0.0140 81. The final result is found 4-127(! as the arithmetic mean of two connection surveys..or single-sided connection schemes. i. A table sheet for a case when the angles a are smaller than 200 and 13 larger than 160° is shown in Table are 4.c = a2 + b2 -2abcosy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 y cosy a b ab 2ab 2ab cos y 1°04'00" 0.11) The coordinates of the initial point C in the shaft are calculated by two polygons (see Fig.8): x'c=xA+hcosaAO 1 +h1cosao 1c (4. which is the principal error in this kind of survey and depends mainly on . Horizontal Connection Survey via Vertical Shafts 49 Table 4. Other methods of connection through a single shaft. 4. If it is impossible to make a check by a different connection survey. the method of connection rectangle with two. as transferred by two polygons. orientation through one vertical shaft is repeated upon placing the plummets into new positions.1. 4.the method of symmetrical connection.8.8. and for these reasons has found wide practical application. The direction angle of an underground side (see Fig.13) Xc = xA + acosaAo 2 + a1cosao 2 c (4. 4.. The method of connection triangle is simpler in measurements and calculations than the other methods available. up to 2 or 3 mm.8186 9. e. will not be discussed here.1326 3.15) The direction angles of the initial underground side CD. since they are substantially more labour-consuming and therefore came out of use a few decades ago.0510 40. The calculations for connection triangles are made in table sheets.5070 81. shows that with the connection through a single vertical shaft the projection error.. plummet O2) using the following formulae: aCD= aBA + I: + (a + aJ + 1:1-3 x 180° aCD= aBA + 0 -(P + PJ + 01 -3 (4.0313 8. including the projection and connection errors. should be fully coincident.1 (Continued) Calculation of length of line c . etc.999827 5. for instance.10) x 180° (4.0000 The permissible discrepancy is not more than 3 mm for the surface triangle and 5 mm for the underground triangle.12) Yc=YA+hsinaAo 1 +hlsinao.0000 II 8 9 10 02 b2 2 Ccalc Ccalc 25.4.8) is calculated by two polygons (one through plummet 01 and the other. and the coordinates of a point C may have discrepancies within the accuracy of side measurement. Horizontal Connection Survey via Two Vertical Shafts The analysis of the total error of connection survey. ensures a high accuracy if the triangles are stretched..14) Yc=YA+asinaAo 2 +a1sinaoc 2 (4.c 1 (4.3140 64.0220 12 13 Cmeas Ccals--Cmeas 3.

Connection survey via two vertical shafts contains the following main stages: (I) projection of plumb line points 01 and O2 from the surface onto the mine level to be oriented. are essentially the same as in the orientation via a single vertical shaft. is substantially smaller than the errors caused by other factors. theodolite traverses with the number of sides not more than three (A-I-01 and A11-02) are run from one and the same point (A) to the plummets. (b) if the shafts are at a large distance from each other. the connection survey via two vertical shafts is the most accurate and reliable among all kinds of geometric orientation. since the distance between the plummets is substantially greater. however. In view of this circumstance. will be: l1a" = p". 4. cannot always be diminished to the permissible value.50 Ch. the angular error.2). it is permissible to perform connection on an underground level to freely hanging plummets. etc.9. as shown in Fig. In the scheme of orientation via two vertical shafts. The connection to the plummets in the . For that reason. the angular error of projection is not as critical. with the distance between the plummets of 50 mm and a linear error of projection of 2 mm. with the distance between the plummets of 50 m or more. 4. For instance. so that theodolite traverses with the number of sides not more than three can be run from these points to the plummets. In the orientation via two vertical shafts.: = 2 x 206265 = 8" c 50000 i. e. the geometric connection between the sui:face and un- derground survey nets is effected by means of the plummets hung in two shafts. The connection on the surface can be performed by one of the two schemes as follows: (a) if the distance between the shafts is not large. the order to plummet hanging in shafts. an approach point is established at each of them. according to formula (4. (2) connection to the plummets on the surface and in the mine.9 Orientation via two vertical shafts the distance between the plummets. Connection Surveys Fig. 4. The main instruments and appliances.

(b) for direction angle of side of underground survey net .8.10 Preliminary estimation of accuracy of survey work: (a) for direction angle of plumb-colJnecting line on surface. i. M~o o = 1 2 v (4. 4. The underground traverse between the plummets should be stretched where possible.1 . and include as few points as possible. The accuracy of theodolite traverses oil the surface must correspond to first.8. the side lengths S2-01' S2-3'and S3-0J.4. so that the rillS error of the underground direction can be within the permissible limit of 1'. c (b) Fig. 4. be of the least feasible length. That is why.<Pi the is angle made by a side i and direction 0102.l0a). Horizontal Connection Survey via Vertical Shafts 51 mine is performed by running a theodolite traverse between the plumb line points (011-2-3-4-5-02). The rootmean square error of the direction angle of a plumb-connecting line can be found by the formula: .16) where mp = 10" is the rms error of angular measurements. it is essential to estimate preliminarily the accuracy of the direction angle of the plumb-connecting line and that of the direction angle of the side of the underground reference net.or secondorder polygonometry and that on the level being oriented. before making the connection survey. e.Estimating the Accuracy of Direction Angle of Plumb-Connecting Line on the Surface Let side 1-1' be the initial side from which a polygonometric traverse with a junction point 2 has been run (Fig. 11 the coefficient of influence is of random errors in length measurements.ts. 4. to the accuracy of underground reference n(. technical instructions on mine surveying specify that the root-mean square error of the direction angle of a plumb-connecting line relative to the nearest side of the reference net on the surface should be not more than 20". Si are the lengths of sides of a polygonometric traverse from the junction point to plumb line points 01 and O2 (in the case considered. In Soviet practice.

2 Ch. R: Sides . Ry . .17). and c=115m.52 Table 4. we obtain: for the first side of connection traverse (I-II): M "pVIl-VIlI 20J23650 115 = 27' 752+ \I -+2 x 102 = 25" 752 2. Ry. Estimating the Accuracy of Connection by Connecting Polygon Suppose that a polygonometric traverse has been run through points I. are taken from the survey plan. IJ-: J-: n.2. p" = = 206265".. It is required to find the error of direction angles of the first.001 m1i2. we have: M~0. Substituting the numerical values into formula (4. II.8.red by errors in linear measurements of side lengths are found by the formula: Ms = (J. I. I Substituting the numerical values into formulae (4. The values of Sisin2 <Pi found by double are graphical projection of individual sides of the . The magnitudes of Ry. Ry is the projection onto the line 0102 of the distances from each plummet to the points of the traverse section which connects the plummet with the side in question (including one point of that side).2 Sism Ipi provided that ~ = 0. and nII (see Fig. last. III.-. and middle side of the traverse where Si are the lengths of traverse sides and <Piare the angles between the sides and the line 0102.4. The calculation is done in the following sequence. The values of Ry are determined on the survey plan (Table 4.p-. mfl = 20". nI. The root-mean square errors Ma fl of 2 2 3 7 82 12 49 6724 144 = 6917 2-01 2-3 3-02 18 1 26 = 45 direction angles of traverse sides incurred by the errors of angular measurements are determined by the formula: Ma fl = (mfl/c)J[Ji"!] (4.J and [Si sin2 <PiJis shown in Table 4.17) [R."Sj.1/c) j. are the projections onto the line 0 102 of 'the distances from the plumb line points 01 and O2 to the points of traverses run from the junction point to these plummets (here: Ry .18) 4. and n is the nfImber ofrJeasured angles between the approach point and junction point (here n = 2). Connection Surveys Vertexes R.2.and Ry ).10b). p" (4. The calculation of [R.. 4.16).J is the distance between the plummets (here c = 75 m).iJ [sisin2<p. the terms s. The root-mean square errors M~ of the direction angles of traverse sides incu.3).. sin2 <Piare determined on the plan by double projection of side lengths.02 -102 x 6917 4 x 1010 x I x 10-6 x 45 where mfl is the rms error of angular measurements.

their points are connected by measuring the angles at the first and last points of the connecting polygon and the distances from these points to the plummets.11 Double projection connecting polygon of side length of . The root-mean square errors of the direction angles of traverse sides relative to the p1umb-connecting line 0102 are calculated by the formula: M« = JM. = 0. Mter hanging the plummets. The entire complex of angular and linear observations on the surface and in the mine is carried out before hanging the plummets into the shafts. and reduction of lengths to the surface of reference ellipsoid and the VIII-O2 0 [sisin2<pJ 137 = 20" M. y of the plummets O 1 and O2 on the surface are determined by the results of measurements of the approach polygons (seeFigs. 4.3 traverse (Fig.9 and 4.. All lengths measured on the surface and in the mine are corrected for calibration. the work superviser (chief surveyor) chooses the techniques and instruments which can ensure the specified accuracy of mine surveying. (4. The coordinates x. .8.001/115 x 2 x 105 Jill 3. angle of dip..19) Fig. + M. tape sag.10a). Horizontal Connection Survey via Vertical Shafts 53 Table 4.11 ): Side 01-1 sisin2<pi 0 V-VI VI-VII 12 60 I-II II-III 52 8 VII-VIII 5 III-IV 0 IV-V 0 for the first side of traverse (I-II): M ~1-II V /362 + 202 = 42" = :Ju T ~v for the last side (VII-VIII): M ~VII-VIII V /272 + 202 = 34" = ~ I T ~v and for the middle side (IV -V): M ~IV-V V /122 + 202 = 23" = l~ T ~v On the basis of these preliminary calculations of errors. 4.4. 4. temperature.

o o = Yo j sm a o o = x .o o 12 (4. Then the coordinates of points of the underground connection polygon are calculated in the conventional system of coordinates. (X X )2 . The calculated coordinates are used for determining the direction angle of a plumbconnecting line. the value of c obtained for the larger increase of coordinates is taken as the final value. The coordinates of a plummet 01 on the surface are taken as the initial coordinates. As a rule. c. c. are the distances from the points of .22) 12 2 12 2 j cos a.25) Then.23) It is now essential to compare the plummet distances as calculated by the coordinates of the unified system on the surface (c) and in It is now possible to calculate the coordinates of all points of the underground connection polygon from the measured lengths of sides.26) c = (XO2 -XOl)/COS = (yO or 2 -Yo )/sin 1 UOlO: Uo O 1 2 (4. Qo 0 and the distance bel 2 tween the plummets. The discrepancy A c = c' -c must not exceed the permissible value A Cperm which can be found by the formula: Acperm = 2 (mi/p2/[R~.27) (4.54 Ch. the underground polygon to the plumbconnecting line 0102. H is the absolute elevation.. and mfJ is the rootmean square error of angular measurements. Connection Surveys plane of Gauss projection. The r. the point 01 is taken as the origin of the conventional coordinate system and the axis of abscissaeis directed. R is the mean radius of the Earth. all lengths of the underground connection polygon are corrected according to the formula: Asi = -(AC/C)Si (4.2 +. Other terms are the same as in the preceding formulae. 4. corrections are determined for the direction angles of the underground connection polygon in order to recalculate this polygon into the coordinate system on the surface.J + ~2(SiCOS2<pJ 1.24) where Rx. and the dis1 2 tance between the plummets ID the mine.o an The direction angles of the sides of an underground connection polygon will be: ai=ai+Aa (4. by the formulae: tanaOlO2 = (Y°2 -YOl)/(XO2 -XOl) (4. Aspr = -(H/R)s where y is the mean ordinate of the connection survey region.along the first side. 01-1. c'. The values of R x. are determined on the surveying plan.20)..oordinates of a plummet O2 obtained by the recalculation of the underground connection polygon and on the connection on the surface .. = 5 x 10-5 is the coefficient of influence of systematic errors of linear measurements. and s is the measured length of the traverse side. These corrections are found by the formula: Aa = ao 1 o 2 -a' o 1 o 2 (4. .21) 1. In that case. The last two corrections are found by the formulae: ASel= (y/2R)s. I.2c2 + (4. are determined in the conventional coordinate system: tana'o o = y'o jx'o 1 2 2 2 .20) the conventinnal system in the mine (c').. .-(y y )2 --'2 02 -01 02 -01 In calculations by formula (4. If the discrepancy is within the permissible value. and corrected direction angles. a' o o . x'o = y'o = 0 d ' 0 1 1 ao1-1= . whereas that calculated for the smaller increase is used as a check value. After that the direction angle of a plumb-connecting line. corrected lengths of sides.

25 26 29 27 28 30 31 32 YO2 YO1 Ay' 2.417 -113.515 0. 02.ix' + .644 -15.549 64 598.868 13325. -X dy' A uX .-.095 -113.000 -114.981898 223°53'15" 42 44 46 43 45 47 48 Ay' sina' c' 2. 0. Calculation of Direction Angle and Length of Plumb-Connecting Line in the Coordinate System Adopted on the Surface and in the Conventional Coordinate System Surface coordinate system tan a = Y02 -Y01 Xo -X 2 01 L\y 0102 =c = sina I1x Ay = L\x cosa a 1 2 5 3 4 6 7 8 13211.515 2.010421 178°53'15" 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 YO2 + XO2 YO1 + XOl dx' + dy' dx' + dy' dx' dy' dx' -dy' XO2 XOl ':\X' tan a' a' -112.549 0.515 0.224 -116.y YO2 +XO2 YOl +XOl dx+dy dx+dy L\x dy L\x-dy tan (a + 45' a+45° -15.522292 262°25'39" coordinate system 9 10 11 12 XOl XOl dx tan a a 13 14 15 16 17 b 77810.291 -112.410 64613.515 0.454 1.224 0.000 2.548 YO2 YO1 A. .515 -114.278 77938.999812 114.644 -128.546 114.000 -112.922 -128.iy'= (Y~2 + X~2) cosa' -(y' 01 + x' 01 ) Ax' + Ay' tan(a' + 45°) = .545 d.x' cosa' c' c'c -114.Y01 x '° .095 0. .291 0.224 -114. .224 0.4.131781 114.739 0.306641 307°25'39" 18 20 22 19 21 23 24 Ay sin a c ~x cosa c Cc c -113.548 Conventional tana' = y' .549 98.019416 114..505 -15.Table 4.991279 114.095 7.537 114.537 tan (a' + 45°) a' +45° da= =a-a' 49 50 51 a a' da 262°25'39" 178°53'15" 83°32'24" .

5 "' .2 > -...J = o ..~ . V 1~ \r) -t 00 N -0 -.. . Q-o= ~ '" . 00 00 00 " -"' '"" .j "U =0= ~ ~ "' "' ~ .... '0 "' 0\ O -0 00 Ir) 0\ N "t' M ~ 'r) 00 00 ~ 0\ v . N O O ~ N 'E o o u ." I ~ M . ~ M "' M >< .5 :p. -.: I ~ .c . t... ~ N '"'"' M -0 ~ 1111- 00 01") ~ '"" \Q \Q N ~ 10 . B 9 "' ~ . ~ 1\Q r'"\ o 0 O M ~ a... .... \0 00 0\ ~ M N O ~ ~ 00 ~oo ~ N ~ "' - a..t I ~ M - \0 V) \0 .Q) U U C\S tri"E...= E- CI1 ID U c~ > - > > . "' 0~... N ~ ~ ~ 0 M O O 00 'r\ ~ 0 00 00 00 N Ir) o O tj = '. . 0 O 0.~ ~ "3 :i. = a.~ .0 =0= -0 "'00 Z. . Ir\ ~ N ~ o O ~ N 00 ""' o O 00 ~ O 00 M ~ 0 1/") 0\ 00 00 00 O ~ 00 (:7\ (:7\ = = C\S C\S ..9"01... + g~ u....: S Q) ~ >.." ~ ~ ~"O/)CQ.. . 0r-0Ir) "! 0 .s = .s ~ -.~ Q)U 2 t.:"' ..C O . .J:: u .. r-. '"'" ::!: r'") 00 ~ N N I Ir) o o . = 00 00 N Q) .=.... .g Ou . . '" c 00 N '-0 on O ~ M -0 ""' 0'\ "'") N '0 """ '0 ~ N N ~ aN t'"I t'"I ~ ""' N M M ~ N ....:. >.r.D ~ Q) ..r 01~ -0 - 00 0.. + ""' 0\ 0.. "' rrV) 0'1 0'1 O .- tj 8 8 "'1' \0 \0 "' \0 ~ 0 = .:= .-'" """.2. "" °uoo.- '<: N I $ ~ + O 1'N 0\ 0\ 0\ O ""' t"'.. r"': Ir) N 00 <=! ""' N 00 00 \0 . ..->....... "' ~ M ~ 01 "' "' .".. . e..' u"o: ... I '-0 rrr-. o o u Q) -5 -0 ".c CI1 = ..c CI1 '-~ 00 "' '...s .. S S ~ "E.. ~ > Q ~ E. 1:1 u ' "' " 0= " . N 0 0 O M tr) tr) ID M M ~ Q) '..".. . ~ . 00 Q "00 .. .8 -...

.~ = ~ O .... 01) .".:: t "' ~ ~ -5 M N ~ ~ + \Q ~ 1"-~ + IC rN 16 I ~ O N + . ......: ""' N ""' - 8 :i o -Co:t' I """'"' -+ 1'0 0 -6 0N "'! a+ 1"-8! o .. bi) .. ° "' ~::.. .::.. N 0 0 00 ci 0 0 ~ N 000 0- "'" 0 ~ 00 00 O 0 00 01 M O "' ~~ ~rNr0""~ -~ 0 r'"\ -0 00 0\ 0 0 ~ "' r-O ~ 0 "" "" ~ ~~ M 0\ O .. ." .-. 'C N 0 > " c "' ~ -0. 00 00 ~ M "1" '0 '0 !"'j M IJ") ~ N N ~ '0 '"'"' o 0 § = 0 ~ 0 0..3 "' ... ~o 00-~ N Ir\ Ir\ O -0 $ N .. v \C 000 00\ \O1r) :76:76 O \Q O ~ Ir) ~ ~ :1... O r'"\ r'"\ 0 II") ~ 00 M ~ '-0 Ir) N M - ""' N ~ N ""' ~ ""' r. 0 .:...0 0.....1Ir\ 0 O ~ M QO N M "' ""' 1- ~ 0\ ""' 00 ~ O N N = > -0 O N "' = 0 (. M ""' N . 1- ~ >.. "tj = "' "' v E E . "' ~ N "i N = . "' ." ~~ Ir)Ir) 1aI ~ 0. NN 00- '0 a0.....) . 0) O)~ u = '2T ~N "' I 0. ~ 5: "' M M ~ ...0 N N N N 00 .... Ir\ + "'" r-r--: Ir\Ir\ 0\0\ 00 00 "' ""' 0 - §." 100 -0 ~ 0 00 8 o ~ 0 ~ ~ 0: ~ rO O -0 ~ N ~ -.." '00 N '00 00 00 C7) 0 ""'- "'" O 0\ 0 00 r~ rr~ 0 oM 00 M 0~ 0 r-aNr~a""\0 ~- C! ~ ~ ~ 0 :!: 00 0 -c -..q.:.) 0\ "'" tr) tr) tr) 1- ~ (..i ~ ~ ~ > ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . O M O "' M -0 t') 1...) '0 "' = ..... oN 00 N -0 Ir) "" ~ 0 "' "' Ir\ Ir\ :!: '"") .1--...5 ~c...t: v :.5 'g = "' '-0 M 000 ~ "'" 0 ~ ~= 00'1") 00'1") 0\0(") 0~ N . '1M ~ 1~ I. 'Ooo r-'O r-oo r-. = :0 ..: MMM """'"' E ~ '0 ~ ~ ::0 :z ""' ""' N r.) ~ "' 'I" M N ..r'"I O O (..." I. 0 o U C ::: > - > > =0 > ~ .. --- -'rl -N 0-. "tj N r'"I . . \C .3 '"5. ~ I . . -1i1i ~O)O) 00 .. 'I" M M N ~.1NOJ") O M 00 ""' N 1"-0 N -\0 N-\0 \ON N...... $ N Ir) I 00 0N - t' "' ~ I r-"...: ""' ..... ~ ""' Ir) 0\ 00 O 0\ I.

5. the problems of centring and projection are tackled separately and in the following sequence.4 and 4. determination of its central positions on scales. The discrepancy between them must be within the accuracy of calculations. IAO' are measured in the shaft. It is recommended to make the connection survey via two vertical shafts in combination with gyroscopic orientation of the sides adjoining the plummets.12). the direction angle of a side A-B (IlAB) is then determined by the gyroscopic method. 4. on the surface and in the mine. by the formulae: . The method and equipment in this case are essentially the same as in orientation via a single shaft by means of two plummets. and direction angles are then measured by the gyroscopic method. the essential disadvantage of geometric orientation via a single shaft by means of two plummets is that the distance between the plummets is too short and a direction angle cannot be transferred underground with a sufficiently high accuracy. It should be noted. and abundant water drip (downpour).28) and the coordinates of the first point (A) of an underground side. These circumstances have predetermined wide popularity of the connection survey method in which the coordinates x. These factors have however become less important with the appearance of gyroscopic instruments which can determine the direction angles of any traverse side in a mine with an accuracy to 10-20". The final result is taken as the arithmetic mean of two procedures. the projection can be carried out in a simplified way without spending time for the stabilization of a plummet.9. that. An example of calculation for orientation via two vertical shafts is given in Tables 4. since the direction angle of the initial traverse side will then be determined by the gyroscopic method. Connection Surveys can be used for checking.58 Ch. If a mine field is opened by three or more vertical shafts connected by underground workings. (the problem of projection). i. geometric methods of orientation now have only a limited application. The projection problem is solved by means of a plummet hung in the vertical shaft. the plummet point ° (Fig. The most important among these factors are air currents in the shaft and underground workings. These factors have been investigated and can be accounted for by special formulae. connection survey via two vertical shafts must be carried out twice. it is recommended to make connection survey through the shafts with the use of redundant measurements. however. The angle ~A at a point A and the distance from that point to the plumb line 0. Further. mainly in the construction of new mines. In that connection. 4. If other methods have not been used for orientation. A practical merit of gyroscopic orientation is that the direction angle of one or several sides of an underground survey net can be determined with a high accuracy in any place of the mine field and at any distance from the shafts. The direction angle of a side O-A is calculated by the formula: IlAO = IlAB -~A :J: 180° (4. y of an initial point of an underground polygon are determined by means of a plummet sunk into the shaft.etc. e. Horizontal Connection Survey with Use of Gyrocompasses The wire of a plummet hanging in a shaft is subject to the action of a number of factors which tend to deviate it from the vertical position. A polygonometric traverse of an accuracy of not less than second-order is run on the surface from the initial side 31-32 to the centring point. 4. Repeated orientations in exploited mines are mostly carried out by means of gyrocompasses. Under production conditions.

A gyroscope is called balanced if its centre of gravity coincides with the suspension point O (the point of intersection of the three axes). 4.4. The rotor is mounted in the inner gimbal 4 and outer gimbal 7 on bearings 1.29) YA = YO+ loAsin aoA This method is used especially widely at mining enterprises with large mine fields and block-type vertical shafts located at a distance of 5-6 km from the main shafts.1. or rotor 2. though slight. Horizontal Connection Survey by Gyrocompasses 59 4. A free gyroscope (Fig. 13). 4.13 Free gyroscope (a) and pendulum gyrocompass (b) . Free gyroscopes can exist only theoretically. the centre of gravity is always displaced somewhat relative to the suspension axis and there always is friction. The connection survey made by this method increases substantially the accuracy and reliability of the survey reference net in the entire wing of a mine.3. Balanced gyroscopes in which there is no friction in the suspension supports are called free. (a) y Fig. in suspension supports. 4. This system allows the rotor to rotate freely on the Level950 m Fig.9. 4.9. The operating principle of a mine-surveying gyrocompass is based on the daily rotation of the Earth and the property of a free gyroscope to rotate freely in three mutually perpendicular planes (Fig.12 Solving projection problem for determining initial point coordinates of underground polygon XA = Xo + loAcosuoA (4. Theoretical Principles of Gyroscopic Orientation Mine surveying has in recent time become less labour-consuming and more accurate due to the appearance of reliable small-sized and explosion-proof gyrocompasses.13a) comprises a massive spinning disc. which is suspended in two gimbals. and 5. Practically.

plane at (1= 00. In all positions. 0)3 = 0. The angular velocity of rotation of the plane. then 0)3 = 0.13b).14 Components of Earth's . determines variations in the attains a maximum. in other words it retains a stable orientation in space. which underlies the operating principle of a ved from the North pole. This force of gravity of the pendulum weight.60 Ch. O>pr' directly is proportional to the moment of external force M ex and inversely proportional to the rotating velocity H of the gyroscope: E Fig. 0>1.variacompass develops a moment of the gravity tions of their azimuthal positions. the gyroscope cannot be = oriented at Earth's pole. 4. 0)3' around the sensitivity axis The daily rotation of the Earth. Connection Surveys principal (spin) axis x. The angular velocity 0)3 also depends on the latitude of the station the local latitude <p: 0>1= o>cos<p and 0>2= o>sin<p (4. 4. is called the useful component of Earth's rotation and can be determined by anticlockwise (Fig. and the x axis acquires stability and do~s not react to rotation of a base 6. As the disc is rotating simultaneously on the three axes. and rotation axis of the outer gimbal z (precession axis).y.31) point which is determined by angle <p. At <P 90°. A weight Q causes the x axis to to turn the axis in the horizontal plane adopt a position parallel to the horizon towards the meridian. .= ex/H M (4. height of the Sun and stars above the horizon the principal axis x of a pendulum gyroline and the vertical component 0>2. this axis turns (precesses)in the plane perpendicular to the force applied. 4. the centre of gravity. the x axis is arranged in the meridional plane. At the equator.the horizon plane the formula: rotates in space with an angular velocity 0>1 0)3 = O)cos<psin(1 (4. The principal axis is acted upon by the moment of the on the sensitivity axis y.x rotation The principal axis x of a gyrocompass set up to a point O at a latitude <Pand at an angle (1 to the meridian will change its O>pr. when obser. e. horizon plane. system is called a pendulum gyrocompass which is applied in a vertical plane and tends (Fig. 4. except for that at (1 = 0. The angular velocity of precession. which develops an additional pendulum load continuously above the horizon.14). 0)3 The horizontal component of Earth's rotation. 0)3 The angular velocities 0>1and 0>2depend on has the maximum value. If the moment of an external force is applied to the x axis of a quickly rotating gyroscope. With quick rotation of the system.32) around the local meridian and at the same If the gyrocompass axis lies in the horizon time the meridional plane rotates with an angular velocity 0>2 around a vertical line. the suspension point O remains immobile. so that its north end will rise gyroscope is restricted. is seen to occur gyrocompass.30) position continuously relative to the horizon If one of the degree of freedom of a plane under the action of Earth's daily rotation. will displace downward along the z axis into a point O 1. As the Earth rotates with an angular velocity 0>. i. At (1 = 90°. rotation axis of the inner gimbal y (sensitivity axis).

This results in a deviation of the gyrocompass axis by an angle E from the meridional plane.JH/MO) cos<p (4. The magnitude of E depends on the moment of an Fig.36) The correction E is introduced with a proper sign when calculating the gyroscopic azimuth of a side being oriented.9. 5 -connecting cable. The gyrocompass axis moves relative to the meridian with the total angular velocity of two oscillations in space: with a constant angular velocity 0)2 in the meridional plane and with a variable angular velocity of precession of the axis under the action of the gravity force. The axis of symmetry of harmonic oscillations relative to the meridional plane is called the axis of the equilibrium of a gyrocompass and the positions in which the velocity of motion of the axis is equal to zero and the motion is reversed are called the points of the gyrocompass axis. 3. Mine Surveying Gyrocompasses There are several types of gyrocompasses which can be divided into three groups by the If the gyromotor is brought into rotational motion.15 General view of gyrocompass type MVT2: l-angle-measuring unit.base. 4. 8gyro attachment. 6-power supply unit. which depends on the pendulum moment M of a gyrocompass and the angle of inclination e of its axis to the horizon (see Fig. 4. O)p. The time during which the gyrocompass axis performs a single elliptic oscillation and returns into the initial position is called the period of continuous oscillations of a gyrocompass which is expressed by the formula: T= 21t.2.. M ex' and the maximum guide moment Mg (at a = 900) and can be found m~x by the formula: E = Mex/ M g max (4.4.foot screws. (M//l) = sine (4. 2-rotatable housing.13): O)p. 4. Horizontal Connection Survey by Gyrocompasses 61 force (guide moment of gyrocompass): Mg = H 0) cos <psin a (4.34) external force.and the pattern of motion of the axis changes from elliptical to that along a twisting helix. 9-endless micrometer screw . the gyrocompass axis will perform continuous harmonic oscillations about an equilibrium position coinciding with the meridional plane..33) In all station points of a gyrocompass. 7-instrument casing. 4. however\ the oscillations of the gyrocompass axis are gradually attenuated.35) Under the action of friction forces. the guide moment M 9 overcomes the forces of inertia and friction in the gimbal supports and tends to turn the principal axis towards the meridian..9. the amplitude of oscillations A i decreases.

20-1ocking device. 34-theodolite ---31 Fig. 39. 32.autocollimator. 33. 37 -connecting ring of gyro unit housing. 6-upper rectangular prism. 40. 30-fixed bisector. 4-illuminating prism.objective. 32-scale.bottom cover of gyro unit housing. 18-locking clamp pin.scale.16 Gyrocompass type MVT2: 1. 12-rhombic prism. 17-lower clamp of torsion suspension.illuminating lamp. 13-SE mirror. 5-eyepiece.worm screw.17 Gyrocompass type MVT4: 1-explosion-proof glass. 10-upper clamp of torsion suspension. 31-lower damper. 17-brushes. 45-SE mirror. 50. 30-balance weights. 26 ~ gyro unit casing. 7-hair cross. 13-protective glass. 31-central hair line. 7. 41. 38 -lower nut of arrester. 44-locking device sleeve. 8 -lower rectangular prism. 12 fixed mirror.objective. 29-battery fastening. 26-lock. 33-movable bisector. 2-illuminating unit. 42.button spring.tripod head.connector assembly. 6-eyepiece. 20-current lead.tripod leg. 4.illuminating mirror. 21-transducer. 11.. 15-torsion suspension. 23-top cover of gyro unit. 35. 8-upper rectangular prism. 24-operating mode switch. 10. 14-protective glass. 4.y I II :~ ~ 454342414039 383736 35 34- /9 c-I0 ! . 25. 16-cable. 14-sensitive element. 28-base.band-type current lead. 34. 3. 47-fixed casing of base.11 ~ --12 ---13 1-14 -15 -18 ---19 -20 -21 -22 -23 24 -25 -26 -27 -28 -29 -30 3332- Fig. 36.2 4 5 ~.gyromotor.fixed bisector . 4 -illuminating prism (upper). 9-lower rectangular prism. 3-illuminating lamp. 21.' -2 4~ 59 ~1 5. 9-rectangular prism. 11. 25-switch cam. 22-damper. 29-base-tuming mechanism.". 24-magnetic screen. 16-locking device.magnetic screen. 15-torsion suspension. 28-storage battery. 19-top of locking device. 23-sensitive element. 22.SE rod. 48-control device and upper clamp of suspension.gyro unit housing. 27-gyro unit. 43. 27~arrester head. 19-cable coupler. 5 -illuminating prism (lower). 49. 18-collector.upper cover of gyro unit.2. 46.gyro attachment fastening.

I. It belongs to the best instruments in the world designed for mine surveying. The design of a gyrocompass type MVT2 may be seen in Fig. 4.18 and 4. 4.18 General view of gyrocompass type MVB4M . 2. Gyrocompasses with liquid suspension and electromagnetic centring on needle. In recent time.17) has been developed on the basis of type MVT2 and has principally the same design. and MVB4M developed in this country. The sensitive element can be fixed in the non-working state by an arrester. which are smallsized.16. Gyrocompasses with liquid suspension and electromagnetic centring. The torsion is made of three strips connected together at flat sides. such as types MVT2.9. and suspension of a sensitive element. The oscillations of the axis with the sensitive element (SE) about the meridional plane are observed by means of a mirror mounted in the top portion of SE and rigidly fixed to the axis. a mine surveying gyrocompass type MVB4M (Figs. 4. The designers have managed to reduce the mass and dimen- Fig. 4.19) has been developed in this country.15) is intended for the orientation of underground sides in connection surveys and especially for measuring the direction angles of traverse sides in the construction of mine survey reference nets. The mass of the instrument together with the power supply unit and tripod is 33 kg. The gyrocompass type MVT2 (Fig. Horizontal Connection Survey by Gyrocompasses 63 design. and at the bottom a gyro attachment 8 in which a sensitive element with gyromotor is suspended from a torsion. MVT4. The rotatable housing carries at the top an angle-measuring unit 1 which is essentially an optical theodolite. The time of start is 30 minutes and the accuracy of measurement of direction angles is 20-30". The gyrocompass is positioned by means of a base 3 having a housing 2 which can be rotated around the vertical axis by means of an endless micrometer screw 9. The gyrocompass MVT 4 (Fig. method of centring. reliable and high-precision instruments relatively simple in manufacture and operation.4. in explosion-proof or common embodiment. The observations of forced oscillations consist essentially in taking readings on the circle in the points of reversion and determining the actual position of equilibrium. Gyrocompasses with torsion suspension. 3. 4. The standards of the theodolite carry an autocollimator to observe the oscillations of the SE mirror. which makes it possible to obtain a low specific torque. The instrument is power supplied from an electric storage battery arranged in an explosion-proof casing.

8 -locking device. 26-illuminating unit. 24-illuminating prism. 4~transducer. 22-eyepiece. 32.fixed mirror scale. 34 -pin with balance weights. 35. is the provision of a goniometer with multi-faced mirror. goniometer with multi-faced mirror. 19-photographic objective. 28. 7. In contrast to MVT2. 20.sensitive element. 4.19 Gyrocompass type MVB4M: 1. fors Fig. 14-rectangular prism. units of at in station the set. of instrument at 10 for Number point. 29-arrester pinion. 36. 25-illuminating lamp.upper clamp of suspension.hinged mirror.gyro unit cover.graticule of scale microscope. Horizontal angles can be measured by the gyrocompass type MVB4M with an accuracy of engineering theodolites. 4. the instrument type MVB4M is a pendulum gyrocompass with torsion suspension and comprises a gyro unit. 23-light filter. set ready Mass recharging. 11-multi-faced mirror. starts min 20 15 without least.arrester. 15-vertical sighting head.SE magnetic screen. this has made it possible to diminish substantially the mass and dimensions of the instrument. 40 15 gyroscopic Number of azimuth. 33 -lower clamp of suspension. operation kg. the new gyrocompass is intended not only for basic geodetic surveying. 37 3 19 2 The principal design feature of the gyrocompass type MVB4M which distinguishes it from type MVT2 and determines the scheme of gyroscopic azimuth of a side. 9. 3-torsion suspension. 27. 17pentaprism. 2-storage battery. . Connection Surveys sions of the instrument and the time for determining a gyroscopic azimuth roughly by 50 per cent compared with the gyrocompass type MVT2. and power supply unit (transducer and storage battery) arranged in a common housing which is mounted on a tripod for operation and replaced into a casing for transportation. Like MVT2. 5-catch. 16-teleobjective. 31 ~ upper sleeve of arrester. but also for everyday (current) mine surveying associated with the construction of underground reference nets and for measuring horizontal angles. 12~measuring unit casing. 6-current lead. 13-mirror for vertical sighting of telescope.magnetic screen on gyro unit housing.protective cap of upper clamp 30 . 18-fixed mirror. Technical characteristics of gyrocompasses MVT2 Error of determination azimuth determination of of a of MVB4M gyroscopic Time side.. 30 -lower sleeve of arrester. 10.gyromotor. .64 Ch. 21. Tests have shown that the gyrocompasses types MVT2 and MVB4M ensure roughly the same accuracy of orientation.

-17711 . In the reconstruction and construction of mine survey reference nets. The difference between the two observations must not exceed 2'. The direction angle of an oriented side must be measured independently twice. Their arithmetic mean is taken as the final result. At least two sides at each mining level must be oriented by the gyroscopic method. at the oriented side in the mine. Gyroscopic Orientation side.37) into (4. The formula for determining a gyroscopic azimuth is as follows: G = (N -N 0) + E (4.37) where no is the direction angle of the initial . The principal diagram of the determination of direction angles by the gyroscopic method is illustrated in Fig.Go + 01' (4.39). 4. and E is the correction for twisting of the torsion suspension. we obtain: a = ao + G. The gyroscopic azimuths of sides on the surface and in the mine must be measured twice. and Yo is the meridian convergence in the station point of the gyrocompass on Earth's surface.9. It is obligatory in opening a deposit by means of inclined shafts with angles of dip more than 70°.Y (4.38) where N is the reading on the gyrocompass circle corresponding to the direction onto a point on the surface or at the underground side being oriented. after completion of observations in the mine.3. which can be This kind of orientation can be carried out either independently or in combination with other methods. 4.9. A start in the mine determines the gyroscopic azimuth G of an underground side DE to be oriented. a side is oriented gyroscopically in each section. N 0 is the circle reading at the equilibrium position of the sensitive element. the first and the fourth being done on the surface at one and the same side with a known direction angle and the second and third. the discrepancy between the two observations being not more than 2'. at the beginning and end of a start and at two different positions of the vertical circle. The final result is found as the arithmetic mean of the two observations. by means of gyrocompasses. i. The junction direction N on the surface or of an underground side is determined twice. Horizontal Connection Survey by Gyrocompasses 65 In the modern mining practice where mine fields and dangerous zones are continuously increasing and it is impossible to ensure permanent planimetric positions of points of a reference net. an efficient method for decreasing the influence of angular errors in nets and increasing the reliability of surveying is the introduction of reference nets with gyroscopic polygons in which the direction angles of all sides are determined by the gyroscopic method. e. The difference between the direction angle ao and gyroscopic azimuth Go of a side BC on the surface constitutes the gyrocompass correction 0. Go is the gyroscopic azimuth of the initial side.40) where 01'is the difference of meridian convergencesfor the gyrocompass station points on the surface and in the mine.20. In the gyroscopic orientation of a side.4. are performed in order to determine the gyrocompass correction (0} which can be calculated by the formula: 8 = no -Go + Yo (4. The first start before sinking into the mine and the fourth. The direction angle of DE is: a = G + 0. The difference between the two measurements should not exceed 30". Substituting from formula (4.39) where Y is the meridian convergence for the underground station point of a gyrocompass. it is recommended to make four starts of the gyrocompass.

r ~. L" and C'-directions of astronomical azimuth in points B and D.66 Ch.I y Fig. no and n-direction angles of initial ~nd oriented sides.. B and D-station points of gyrocompass on surface and in mine. 4. Ao and A -astronomical azimuths of initial and oriented sides. Go and G-gyroscopic azimuths of initial and oriented sides.20 Determination of direction angles of sides by gyroscopic method: BC and DE-respectively initial and oriented sides. Cg and C.. 't-measuring unit constant.0 Ili 1 o -1 1-- c' 'Y c. o-gyrocompass correction. 4.. x and y -rectangular plane coordinates . 'g si c . Connection Surveys c IT "io .:-directions of gyroscopic meridians. Yo and y-meridian convergences in points B and D..

4. 4. Cg-djrection of gyroscopic meridian.42) The equilibrium position N o of the sensitive element (Fig.1 the and are coefficients depending on latitude (to be found in tables). E-twisting angle of suspension found by the formula: 01'= 1.1Y (4. then ~o = ~ and formula (4. G-gyroscopic azimuth of side DE. N 1. No-circle reading at equilibrium position of gyrocompass axis. N 2. 5.10 1. If the ordinates of gyrocompass station points on the surface and in the mine do not exceed 10 km. A2.21 Determination of gyroscopic azimuth of a side: DE-oriented side. N 3' N 4 -circle readings corresponding to reversion points of gyrocompass axis.41) takes the form: 01'= ~o (yo -y) (4. km (to be found graphically on the plan) and 1. Horizontal Connection Survey by Gyrocompasses 67 Fig.10YO -I.4.9.21) is found from the observations of four successive points of . A1.41) where Yo and yare the ordinates of station points B and D of the gyrocompass on the surface and in the mine. A3' A4 -amplitudes of gyroscopic wobbling of sensitive element.

Determination of Equilibrium Position of Oscillating Sensitive Element Reversion points readings mean intermediate values readings mean inter.5 63.8. mediate values divisioru h 10 divisions 30 35 39 44 2 3 4 30 00 30 00 9 II 9 II 22 24 22 24 38 18 42 28 N o = 10 10 23 23 23 28 28 35 19.0 N~ 07 'Vc +0 52" 2'52" Ho 'l'c 10 23 31 D 20.4 63.7 Table 4. Calculation of Error for Twisting of Torsion and Suspension 41.6.2 'I'. Calculation of Junction Direction Junction direction N' 8 10 24 36 N" 8 10 08 57 0.7 N 10 10 24 44 15 "'.68 Ch. Connection Surveys Table 4.9 10 23 31 no = 41. 4.6 41.2 N = 8°10'16' 10 9 8 10 8 10 30 Table 4.4 41.8 20. +0 20 40 +0 00 53 . -0 02 20 52 40 45.7.

Horizontal Connection Survey by Gyrocompasses 69 Table 4.11.12). no is the suspension zero.44) 22 G~ 7 35 l6 17 35 where D is a coefficient determined as the ratio of the specific guide moment to the specific torque of the torsion and '11: the is twisting angle of the torsion: '11 '11 + '11 = t c (4.9. Calculation of Meridian Convergence N No N -N E o 8 10 357 +0 10 23 46 00 16 31 45 53 +99. The correction for twisting of the torsion and suspension is calculated by the formula: E = '11/ D (4.45) Here '11 is the zero of torsion suspension t determined by the formula '11 = t (no -nc).6-4. t t = 52" is the scale value of an autocollimating telescope. i.5 +99.1 -1.3 ~ 0. the term '11 can be found as c the difference of circle readings N c -N o corresponding respectively to the mean value of oriented direction and the equilibrium position of the sensitive element.9. 35 Starts Polyamy-Novy 40. 36. e. Calculation or Gyroscopic Azimuth Table 4.: '11 = N c -N o c (4.3 -1. Go 17 35 23 29 4(j 17 35 35 10 B +0 +0 24 where N l' N 2' N 3' and N 4 are the readings on the gyrocompass circle at reversion .43 points.5 36.0'55" G 357 47 38 -0'50" Table 4. Calculation of Gyrocompass Error Initial sides 12.5 . and nc is the scale reading of an autocoltimating telescope corresponding to the positiQn of a fixed bisector in the determination of the suspension zero.46) In practice the results of observations and calculations of direction angles in gyroscopic orientation are recorded in a record book (Tables 4.4.10.

4.70 Ch. Connection Surveys .

At the pit bottom level. Measurements are made as required by surveyor's levels 6. mm. The height mark transfer should be made independently twice.10. readings are taken from the station point of the surveyor's level on the tape 5 (nm) and on the staff 1 (llm) set on an underground bench mark Rm.4. Level readings are taken on a staff 1 (asur)set on an initial bench mark R. (b) for thermal expansion of the tape . Then.. where H is the depth of a shaft.1. Vertical Connection Surveys km. The height difference for each series of observations is found by the formula: hmeas nsur-nm + asur-am = (4. If the dipping angles of opening workings exceed 5-8°. set up on the surface and in the mine.10. During levelling. 4. 4. which is taken according to the tape certificate.48) The values of hmeas calculated by two as series of measurements must not exceed the permissible deviation L1h = (10 + 0.22).. The procedure requires the use of theodolites with the vertical circle accuracy of not worse than 30". the hand winch 4 with a measuring steel tape 7 wound onto its drum "is placed on a temporary platform 3.r). height marks are transferred by trigonometric levelling. air temperature is measured at the surface (t sur)and at the pit bottom level (tm). The tape with a light weight (3-5 kg) is let to sink onto the pit bottom level.47) where nl' n2 is the number of sides in the first and second trigonometric levelling line. Upon averaging of hmeas' following corrections the are determined: (a) for tape standardization. m. Transferring a Height Mark into a Mine by Means of Steel Tape In this method of height mark transfer (Fig.ur and on a tape 5 (n. the position of the tape is changed by lor 2 m along the height and the horizons of the instruments are changed to make another series of observations. The difference in heights. mm. then the light weight is replaced by a standard weight 2 corresponding to that with which the tape has been standardized. The height mark transfer is performed independently twice. Most coal mines are opened by vertical shafts where height marks can often be transferred by means of a long steel tape or length-measuring winch.2H). in this case must be not more than L\h = :t 10~ (4. Height differences at each side of a traverse line are determined twice: in the forward and back direction. L1/1.

4.49) where H suris the elevation of the initial bench mark on the surface and h meas the measured is height including all corrections.5 x 1011Pa). 4. m. mm2. E = 2. tsuron the thermometer of the measuring disc. a = 1.2. In depth measurements. 4 2 ~I~iilli~ 5 3 4 Fig. The elevation of a bench mark in the mine. Connection Surveys Al2 = al(t -to). Then the check staff is lowered onto the level glass of the levelling instrument and all observations are reneated. P o is the mass of the weight used in the tape standardization.23 Measuring winch the wire is let to slide over a length measure 1 and a guide pulley 2 into the shaft. the check staff is not shown in the figure).2 x 10-5). 4. is determined by the formula: H m = H sur+ hmeas (4. m. m. m. . This scheme of height transfer is much similar to the scheme with the use of steel tape.10. Rm. t = 0. As the handle 5 is turned. aweight-staff 3 with centimetre marks is attached to the end of the wire and the check staff 4 is fastened lor 2 m above the weight-staff (in the top position of the wire. An observer on the top platform takes the following readings: N sur on the counter and measuring disc scale.Winch The measuring hand winch shown in Fig. where y is the density of the tape metal (for steel.72 Ch. y = 7874 kg/m3). where a is the temperature coefficient of linear expansion of the tape (for steel. where P is the mass of the standard weight. (d) for elongation of the tape due to the different mass of the weights used in standardization and measurements Al4 = 100[(P -Po)/EF]. and F is the cross-sectional area of the tape. and readings are taken on the scales at the beginning and end of the procedure (Fig. 4. 1 is the length of the hanging portion of the tape. and 1 = nsur-nm is the interval measured by the tape in the mine. kg.24). and asur on the staff set up on the initial bench mark Rsurby means of the surveyor's level at the station point on the surface. and E is the elastic modulus of the tape metal (for steel. 9 = 9. The number of full turns is indicated by a counter 1.5(tsur + tm) is the average temperature of air in the mine. a system of rollers 4 rotates the drum and a measuring disc 2 which makes one full turn per metre of unwound wire. Asuron the scale of the weight-staff by means of the surveyor's level placed at the station point on the surface. to is the temperature at which the tape has been standardized. kg. m.81 m/s2 is the acceleration due to gravity. 4. Transferring a Height Mark into a Mine by Means of the Measuring . In order to measure the depth of a shaft. whereas incomplete turns are indicated with an accuracy to 1 mm on the scale provided at the rim of the measuring disc. (c) for elongation of the tape under the action of its own mass A13= fyg/2E.23 has a drum 3 with a steel wire wound onto it.

12 = = (k --'-1) I. mm.4 + fj. After that. fj. As on the surface. and (d) for thermal expansion of the measuring disc considering the difference in temperatures during standardization and measurements. where al is the temperature coefficient of linear expansion of wire and t surand t m are the temperatures on the surface and in the mine. the positions of the wire and surveyor's levels are changed and the observations are done in the inverse order. t m on the thermometer in the pit bottom.4. The elevation of the bench mark in the mine (Rm) is calculated by the formula: Hm = Hsur + hmeas fj. and am on the staff placed on the bench mark to be controlled by means of the surveyor's level in the underground station point. (c) for thermal expansion of wire caused by the temperature difference in the shaft fj.10. m.24 Transferring height mark into mine by means of measuring winch The weight-staff is then lowered onto the pit bottom level to take similar readings: N m on the counter and scale of the measuring disc. Vertical Connection Surveys 73 These measurements conclude the first stage of observations. the arithmetic mean of hmeas calculated and the is following corrections are determined: (a) for wire diameter fj.0017tdl.50) If the discrepancy between the observations is within permissible value.14 (4. 4. where k is the actual length of the circumference of the measuring disc as given in the certificate.ll = 0. starting from the pit bottom level. m. e.13 = =0. where d is the wire diameter.12 + + fj. Amon the scale of the weight-staff by means of the surveyor's level set up in the pit bottom. m. (b) for standardization of the disc fj. .14 = a21(tsur-to).5all(tm-tsur)' m.51) Fig.13 + fj. The height difference between the bench marks Rsurand Rm is calculated for each series of observations by the formula: hmeas Nsur-Nm + asur-am -Asur + Am = (4. i. these measurements are repeated on the check staff. where a2 is the temperature coefficient of linear expansion of the disc and to is the temperature of disc standardization.

development. etc. (e) characteristic points of bedding elements of mineral deposits (dipping angles. and caved workings. capacity. explosive stores. etc. centres of underground fires. General on Underground Mining Surveys The mine survey service of mining enterprises has to tackle matters of timely and accurate determination of the spatial position of undergound workings and all other objects essential for the mining production. (f) points for documentation of geological disturbances and other textural and struc- tural characteristics of deposits and enclosing rocks. The principal objects of mine surveying are: (a) underground workings (opening.00005 0. areas and contours dangerous in gas or rock outbursts. (g) points of mineral assaying.. and (h) location of surface and underground artificial structures and stationary equipment in underground workings (hoists. Underground reference nets are the principal geometrical basis for making the surveying work and dealing with particular mine survey problems aimed at ensuring rational and safe exploitation of a deposit. The errors permissible in the measurements of horizontal and inclination angles Table 5.). water inrush.01 . floating earth.Chapter Five Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings 5. characteristics of quality and structure). unwatering. gas blower sites.1. etc. stoping.1 20" 0. (b) boreholes (prospecting. etc. ventilating and pumping plants. locomotive sheds. exploratory. gas-laden.). water-observation. (c) boundaries of safe mining work. Underground survey nets are understood as a combination of geometrically interrelated polygonometric traverst:s and levelling lines which are balanced (adjusted) jointly or separately. (d) contours of inundated. various chambers. rock bump. The spatial coordinates obtained by mine SUfveying are the basis for compiling and supplementing mining work plans and other kinds of graphical documentation. isolating partitions and other ventilation structures. operating. safety and barrier pillars. The mine survey service solves its problems by constructing reference and survey nets at the mining enterprise. as well as for the solution of various problems of rational and safe exploitation of mineral deposits.). sources of underground waters. draining.001 0. medical service. preparatory.

Horizontal Underground Surveys 75 and side lengths in polygonometric traverses can be characterized by the data given in Table 5. theodolite traverses may be divided into free and non-free. tied to the points of an earlier (initial) survey.2.1c) are controlled by comparing the sum of the measured angles and the sum of coordinate increases with their analytical values. (e). Several types of underground theodolite traverses and methods of their connection are employed most often in Soviet mine sur. y of survey points. (d). 5. The line of an open theodolite traverse may be stretched (Fig. Horizontal Surveys Underground The principal kind of horizontal survey in underground workings is theodolite surveying which consists of angular and linear measurements and subsequent calculation of the rectangular coordinates x. They can be run: (a) between the fixed points and fixed direction angles: in that case complete control is ensured in terms of direction angles and coordinates (Fig. (b) between the fixed direction angles with the initial coordinates of one point. 5.le). Such traverses are controlled by a repeated theodolite survey.la) or broken (zig-zag) (Fig. Non-free theodolite traverses have redundant initial data. or theodolite traverses. 5.1 Types of theodolite traverses: (a). 5. 5. e.1d).2. with control in terms of direction angles (Fig. Each theodolite traverse is oriented.1. Closed traverses (Fig. By these features. (el (Xn+1 ~I 'L~ (bl (f) cr- Fig..lb). (b). 5. veying practice. e. (g) non-free traverses . Free theodolite traverses are referenced to only one point with fixed coordinates and one fixed direction angle.5. i. (/). i. The straight lines laid between the mine survey points in underground workings form closed or open polygons. they may be subdivided into open (hanging) and closed. which can be classified by the redundant initial data and the type of (dl control. 5. (c) free traverses.

Horizontal surveys in underground workings may involve certain difficulties which increase labour consumption. The measured lengths can be checked by the discrepancies in coordinate increases and by other methods of control. certain limitations in selecting the most favourable shapes (schemes) of theodolite traverses and the best lengths of traverse sides (some sides may turn out to be too short). angles. and increase the error accumulation. etc. or control. in some cases. An insufficient accuracy can spoil the survey work and require unjustified expenditures on its amendment. control is possible by the length of the closing line of the traverse (Fig. Among the principal factors causing such difficulties are: continuous mobility of the underground objects being surveyed and rock displacement around workings resulting in uncertain spatial position of permanent survey points underground.and (d) between two points with fixed coordinates. 3.1. In cases under (b). when measuring distances. On the other hand. In order to minimize the influence of the factors indicated on the accuracy of surveys and to avoid unproductive labour expenditures. in that case. because of which a repeated traverse is run or the lines and angles are measured repeatedly. with the initial direction angle being unknown. to measure the horizontal angle of an earlier survey in the junction points. i. it is essential to adhere to the following main principles in surveying work: I. it should start from constructing reference nets. all measurements must be done with the optimum accuracy sufficient for the purpose. (c). With a larger difference in the measured control angle. in angular measurements. the surveys of particular mining objects and other details are performed. constricted conditions for surveying in underground workings. poor illumination of working places. 5. The elements of a survey (side lengths. In any kind of surveying work. i. after which survey nets are plotted. . it is essential to make a check. height differences) must be checked in the course of survey measurements so that probable errors can be revealed and corrected in situ. and finally. with control by the coordinates of the fixed points (Fig. First of all.76 Ch. control can be ensured by measuring forward and back. The measured angles of a closed polygon (traverse) can be checked by comparing the sum of angles with their analytical sum. That is why the mine surveyor must be able to select pro~rly the suitable method of surveying and the required accuracy.1g). Mine surveying must be carried out under an appropriate and timely control both in the field (in underground workings) and in the office analysis of the results of surveys. For instance. 5. e. inaccurate survey work can have serious consequences endangering the safety of mining workers. The difference between the initial value (known from the earlier survey) and the measured value of a control angle must not exceed I' for the theodolite traverses of a reference net or 2' for the traverses of a survey net. dust-Iaden atmosphere in mines. e. a complete control of whether a theodolite traverse has been run properly is not ensured. 2.f). etc. and (d). 5. Mine surveying should proceed from the more general and more precise procedures to more particular and less accurate work. before starting a surveyor continuing a theodolite traverse. a check reading on the circle can be taken. Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings (c) between two points with fixed coordinates and with an initial direction angle. e. reduce the accuracy of measurements. an excessive accuracy involves a large loss of labour and time of surveyors on unproductive and uselesswork. i. it should be supposed that the points of the earlier survey have been displaced and the projected theodolite traverse must be tied to other points which are known to be stable.

2. The system of construction of reference nets can be characterized by certain specific features. group and haulage drifts) by running the theodolite traverses of a particular system.2b). and number of fixed direction angles. it can be distinguished between two versions of a reference net depending on the working system employed: (a) with a continuous working system. before starting the work.2g). This version may appear in mining a suite of thick steep seams liable to self-ignition..5. With advancement of mining work in the systems indicated. 3. The scheme of construction of a reference net for working a single horizontal seam is shown in Fig. etc. In mining a suite of gently dipping or inclined seams where the deposit is opened by vertical central doubled shafts with a main crosscut and ventilation shafts are driven at the flanks of the mining field. 5. theodolite traverses are connected to the initial fixed points on the surface. survey traverses form closed polygons adjoining one another (Fig. crosscuts. 5. 5. 4. 5. inclines. fringe. 5. to make preliminary calculation of the accuracy of surveys.2a.2c). Depending on the bedding conditions of deposits and methods of opening./). there are six principal systems of construction of underground reference nets which are employed in Soviet mine surveying practice (Fig. and. Underground Reference Nets of Plan Control For reliable and efficient performance of mine surveying. inclined shafts.2d). (b) a system of polygons with closed traverses and repeated control traverses. such nets can be formed in mining a suite of seams where the fringe or group haulage drifts and auxiliary crosscuts are driven (Fig. This scheme is typical for deposits opened by vertical central doubled shafts and is essentially a system of polygonometric (theodolite) traverses run in the drifts of main directions and other workings parallel and perpendicular to them. provision of additional ties. which requires that fire pillars be left between the workings (Fig. to draft the plan of construction of survey traverses by the results of reconnaissance and consider in it the existing peculiarities. and (b) if a longwall mining system is employed. 5. In working of single gently dipping and inclined seams where the deposit is opened by inclined shafts and ventilation shafts are driven at the flanks of the mining field. 5. Underground Reference of Plan Control Nets Underground reference nets of plan (horizontal) control are the principal geometric basis for all horizontal angle-measuring surveys. when required. lengths of sides. in particular as regards the shape of polygonometric traverses. In mining a suite of steeply dipping seamswhere the deposit is opened by vertical central doubled shafts with a main crosscut. the construction of a net depends on the location of mine workings on the main levels: (a) a system of closed-traverses adjoining one another. 5. the reference net includes theodolite traverses with junction points and closed traverses (Fig. theodolite traverses are run twice in level drifts (Fig. 5.2e). . to test and adjust the instruments. two versions of a reference net are possible: (a) theodolite traverses form a system with junction points (Fig. brake inclines. (b) with the system of longwall retreating on strike. narrow places. I.2).3. to study carefully the conditions of the field work.3. to assign performers for the survey work and acquaint them with the survey work plan. They are created in the principal opening and advance workings (adits. it is essential. to determine the set of surveying instruments and equipment.2.

a reference net is Conned as a system of adjoining closed polygons (Fig.2h).21). the orientation of reference nets is most often carried out in the centre of a mining field. these drawbacks become especially sensible. some sides of theodolite traverses may turn out to be too short. 5. In underground mining of salt deposits opened by vertical central doubled shafts.78 Ch. further. 5. As a rule. These factors lead to substantial error accumulation and non-uniform accuracy of a net. and the more so. then a need arises to run an appreciable number of repeated theodolite traverses. This circumstance has led to the appearance of more advanced systems of construction of underground reference nets with autonomous orientation of a net by . theodolite traverses are run in crosscuts and fringe drifts and connected to the points of plummets hung in vertical workings (Fig. 6. In high-capacity ore deposits where vertical shafts are driven both in the centre and at the flanks. with ever increasing dimensions of mining fields and mining depths. (b) if the reference net points are displaced and the number of additional ties (fixed coordinates and fixed direction angles) is insufficient. sides and coordinates may be limited in number or even absent. In existing systems. The considered systems of construction of reference nets have certain essential drawbacks in view of the specifics of mining conditions: (a) redundant fixed direction angles. 5. Horizontal Surveys (b) of Underground Workings (c) (e) (f) [~I~ 1-L--- ~:= 5.

a repeated survey is done by measuring the direction angles of the sides adjoining the points (plummet points) with fixed coordinates or the sides close to them (Fig.4. In adjoining. additional ties can be included into the theodolite traverses between two fixed sides (Fig.3d). It is also essential to consider the conditions under which permanent station marks will be preserved longer and will be convenient for survey work. 2-traverse. (e) the results of measurements are processed preliminarily and estimated for accuracy.3c). The object of reconnaissance is to investigate the underground workings in which the reference net has to be constructed. i. to specify the system of the net.3e).4. A similar construction of a reference net with additional ties is possible in a version when the net is developed from a junction point to points with fixed coordinates (Fig.. 5. located and fixed. and to choose places for setting up permanent station marks. and (g) the coordinates of permanent station marks are recorded in a list.3a). (a) onstruction of Underground Reference Nets 79 1 2 3 -:§). 5.d side. (c) angular and linear measurements in theodolite traverses are carried out. points for setting up permanent station marks. The work of construction or reconstruction of a reference net is carried out in the following order: (a) reconnaissance is carried out in underground workings and permanent station marks are revised. r§r ~ Fig.3). and the order of net adjustment. with inclusion of redundant (fixed) direction angles (Fig. 5. a polygon is divided into sections (Fig.3b). The mine surveying practice quite often uses free hanging theodolite traverses run twice. The spacings between the points in a group are usually equal to . (d) the net is centred and the theodolite traverses are connected to the points of the mine survey reference net on the surface.3 Examples of arrangement of sides with reduridant direction angles: l-initial 3. In order to avoid the need in running a repeated traverse in autonomous determination of direction angles by a gyrocompass. the distances between the sides with reference direction angles. the reference direction angles are measured in each closed traverse (Fig. . 5. free closed traverses of large extension. (b) the sides of a net are oriented by gyroscopic instruments.5. 5.:::)- ---C](d) @ ~ '0- r~-r-r-I I I @---6-L-1--b-L- (b) (cl I I ~ ---{::J(e) @):::J -J- . e. Permanent station points are set up in groups of three or four. (I) the net is adjusted and the point coordinates are calculated. points and methods of junction of the constructed net to the reference net on the surface. 5.-. 5.side with redundant direction angle gyroscopic instruments. In non-free theodolite traverses controlled by point coordinates. Construction of Underground Reference Nets Underground reference nets are constructed according to an engineering design which should consider the actual positions of the existing mining workings and their expected development and establish the most favourable system of the net.In a similar manner. 5.

5. it is possible to control the errors in the positions of the points of a net within wide limits in accordance with the location of the sides having redundant direction angles. D are the lengths of intervals connecting the points A and T through the centre of gravity O of the net sections. The number of angles in section should be not more than 20. In mine survey reference nets. are the coefficients of random and systematic influence in side length measurements by a tape. divided into sections (of a length of 1 km). y of points in the . L is the distance between the points A and 1. The orientation of underground reference nets is carried out by means of small-sized gyrocompasses. which increases the reliability of the net. ii is the length of a traverse side. m. Calculations have shown that the accuracy of the final point of a theodolite traverse of a length of 5000 m. gyroscopic sides are located roughly in every 20 traverse sides. The coordinates of the centre of gravity of a section are calculated as the arithmetic mean of the coordinates x. k is the number of the last section of a net. These instruments offer the possibility for constructing a reference net as a system with intermediate (redundant) direction angles and a system of local nets. mp and m« are the rms errors of a turning angle 13 and direction angle a. m. r i is the distance from a theodolite traverse point to the centre of gravity O of the given section. The chosen places for setting up permanent and temporary points are fixed in the underground workin~ and on sketches. In order to check 1hat the locations of gyroscopic sides in a projected reference net are chosen properly.80 Ch. the positions of the remotest points of a net can be determined with a higher accuracy. considering the supposed (planned) development of mining work (usually for 5-7 years). increases by a factor of seven. The direction angle of one of the sides is measured by a gyrocompass independently in each section. The direction angles of the sides in the sections determined in this way are taken as fixed angles and their relative weights are considered. The essenceof the system of a reference net with redundant direction angles consists in that a polygonometric net of a length more than 2 km is divided into sections with fixed (gyroscopic) direction angles. and p" = 20~65". Besides. further. ~ and A. Nets with redundant direction angles have an advantage of being more uniform. m. The root-mean square error of location of a point relative to an initial point A of a reference net (Fig. in particular at the mining field flanks. R is the distance from each point of a hanging traverse to the final point 1. Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings 50-100 m and the spacings between the groups must be not more than 500 m. 5. m. and the results of angular measurements are combined and adjusted.4) can be determined by the formula: +(Lrf)n + (Lrf)k where I and II are the numbers of sections. m. calculation is carried out to determine the error of location of the remotest point of the net.

5 in dipping workings 2 2. The rms error of angular measurements must not exceed 20". horizontal angles must be measured only by the method of sets (not less than two) under the observance of the following rules: (a) before each set.5-2 km from the shafts of a mine and the points of a survey reference net are subject to displacements. Survey Nets Underground survey nets are the basis for surveying of mining workings and solution of . In cases when the mining work is carried out at distances more than 1. When polygonometric traverses are run in underground workings with dipping angles up to 30°. The engineering design for mine surveying should specify that the error in the location of the remotest point of the underground net relative to the initial point of the underground reference net or the closest points of that net on the surface should be not more than 0. Survey Nets 81 section. the instrument is centred once more and the vertical axis is set truly vertical. If angles are measured by the method of sets. The side lengths in theodolite traverses can be measured by standardized steel tapes (of a length of 20 m. This requirement is dictated by the specified accuracy of graphical construction of mining work plans.3 1.2 Permissible angular discrepancy between half-sets. the measurement can be limited to a single set. The maximum discrepancy between the measurements at different frequencies must be not more than 8 mm. min at junctions between horizontal and dipping workings 31-45 46-60 61-70 1. 30 m or 50 m). while the positions of the walls are determined by taping directly from the net points with an accuracy to 5 cm. local reference nets are constructed at the flanks of the mining field and oriented by the gyroscopic method.5. 5. R. the difference between a check value and final value of an angle must not exceed 45".8 mm. by the reiteration method. the discrepancy between the half-sets must be not more than 60". If the discrepancy between the readings of a measured length in the first and second phase does not exceed 2-3 mm. linen tapes or light range finders.8 mm on the map or plan. In undergound workings with dipping angles more than 30°. In length measurements by steel tapes. The values of I.8 2. With measurements in underground workings with dipping angles more than 30°. The horizontal angles in polygonometric traverses of reference nets are measured by theodolites reading with an accuracy not worse than 30". and (b) before making a second set. each side must be measured twice (forward Table 5. As is known. The sides of a length more than 50 m are recommended to be measured by light range finders.5. the discrepancies between the angles measured in individual sets must not exceed the values given in Table 5. horizontal angles (forward to the left) must be measured by the method of sets or. In the latter case. the initial reading is shifted by 180°. the permissible error of the position of a contour point of the walls of the main working on a plan relative to the points of a mine survey reference net on the surface is taken to be equal to 0. in extreme cases.5 4 and back) and the discrepancy between the two measurements must not exceed 1/3000 of the side length.2. and D are found on the plan of the projected net. L r.5.

in the method of sets. They are tween the check and final values of an angle must not exceed 1.6. The points of a theodolite traverse serve as the basis for tackling various problems of mining geometry within the limits of a block or panel and for surveys of indicated workings. Types of Station Points surements of left and right forward angles of Reference and Survey Nets.3 Type of traverse mp Ch. 5. The angles in the workings with dip angles more than 300 must be measured in two rounds with resetting of the initial reading roughly by 180° before the second round. the points of theodolite verses run in the workings with dip angles surveys (station marks) are divided into less than 30°. The permissible root-mean square errors in measurements of horizontal angles mp and inclination angles m" are given in Table 5. In goniometer traverses. it is permissible to run free traverses with mea5.osed or are run twice. The angles in theodolite traverses are Depending on the purpose and existence measured by theodolites. Theodolite and goniometer traverses in survey nets are usually c. . shifting the tape after the first measurement. Tape readings are taken to a millimetre. repetition or set. In theodolite tra.5'. Pernlissible discrepancy between two measurements of side closed 1/1500 open: 1/1000.82 Table 5. Tape readings are taken with an accuracy to a centimetre. Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings m. Goniometer traverses are developed on the basis of theodolite traverse points and serve as the basis for surveying of preparatory and stoping workings. It is permissible to make both measurements in the same direction. In goniometer traverses. angles are measured in a single permanent and temporary. The permissible discrepancy between the check and final values of an angle or the discrepancy of angles in half-sets must be not more than 5'. (except for workings approaching pillars or Their Fixation dangerous zones). 1/200 Theodolite Goniometer 40" 10' 60" 10' problems of mine geometry and are constructed in the form of theodolite and goniometer traverses.the development of reference nets. side lengths can also be measured by linen tapes or optical range finders with a relative accuracy not worse than 1/300.3.term of a survey net. The fixed points of a theodolite or goniometer traverse in these workings are used only once in surveying of these workings or for connection of preparatory workings within the limits of a face. a check measurement of the last angle of the previous run is made. the discrepancy be. Before starting a theodolite or goniometer traverse. If angles are measured by Permanent station marks are the basis for the repetition method. Theodolite traverses are run in all preparatory workings except for those in extraction sections and blocks which can be surveyed by goniometers. the discrepancy between two half-sets must be not more than 2'. angles can be measured by goniometers or theodolites in a single repetition or set. The discrepancy between the earlier and current measurements of this angle must be not more than 2' in theodolite traverses or 8' in goniometer traverses. The side lengths of theodolite traverses are measured by standardized steel tapes twice. When theodolite traverses are run in main workings to supplement the plans for further development of reference nets. The deviations of intermediate plumb-bob lines from the traverse line must not exceed 1/200 of the length of the smaller interval.

6. 5. they have a drilled hole around 2 mm in diameter for passing the line of a plumb bob (Fig. a station mark (centre) can be fixed directly in the roof rock (Fig. In view of this. (c) hole for plummet line . 5.7a) or in a wooden plug driven into a cut hole (Fig. top beams of support frames or on steel arcs. (b) in wooden plug. a mark for fastening on metal lining. The top face of the rod is marked by drilling a hole or by punching a circular (up to 2 mm) or cross-wise mark. For this purpose. 5. A permanent station mark usually consists of a metallic rod 25-30 mm in diameter and 200-700 mm long which is concreted in a drill hole (Fig.5. Permanent station marks established in the roof of workings should be convenient for plumbing a theodolite under them. with a punch mark made in it.7d. If a working is driven in a hard rock without supporting. Station Points of Reference and Survey Nets 83 established in the bottom and robf of underground workings so as to ensure their stability and existence for a long time. Fig. 5. 5. They are usually fixed by concreting. 5. Permanent station marks and special bench marks can also be established in the side walls of underground workings.5a) or pit (Fig.5b and c). some types of permanent station mark have a pressed-in copper or lead plug at the top.7c). permanent station marks are established where possible in the areas beyond the zones of influence of support pressure or underworking. Figure 5. Some types of permanent station mark for establishing in the footwall of workings are illustrated in Fig. For longer preservation. 5.6).5.7b shows a station mark to be fixed on wooden supports and Fig. Temporary station marks are fixed in the roof of underground workings.6 Pennanent station marks for setting in roof of underground workings: (a) in concrete. 5. weak enclosing rocks and rocks liable to heaving.

5. Mining theodolites should allow the measurement of inclination angles up to 90°. Upon establishing of permanent and temporary station marks in underground workings. The optical systems should be hermetically sealed to prevent mechanical damage and penetration of dust and moisture inside. It should permit focussing onto objects beginning from a distance of lor 2 m. Each kind of permanent station marks is provided with a certificate. metal plates (markers) with their numbers are fastened on support props or on the opposite side walls of a working.84 (a) (bl Ch. because of which some models are provided with an eccentric telescope in addition to the central one.7. 5. The established permanent station marks are transferred onto the mining working plans. type T2 (USSR). The possibility should be provided for automatic centring and for mounting of a theodolite and signals on tripods and console holders. 5. In underground workings without supporting or with concrete lining. The telescope of a mining theodolite usually has an upper centre (thorn) for centring the instrument under a station point by means of a suspended plumb bob. Theodolite. For quick identification of permanent and temporary station marks. Theodolites Theodolites are the principal type of an instrument for making underground angular surveys. . They should have small dimensions and low mass and be provided with illuminating devices. The principal parts of a mining theodolite should not corrode under the action of chemically aggressive water. is a precise instrument with a rotating limb and two- Station marks in underground workings are fixed so that a plumb bob can be hung quickly and conveniently and the plumb line be always in the same position. their positions are marked on sketches in the surveyor's field book and in coordinate calculation book. the numbers of station marks are marked on the side walls by an oil paint using a template. Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings (c) (dl t++~ ~ Fig.7 Temporary station marks -g~ Mining theodolites differ from those employed for surface survey work in certain design features associated with the specific conditions of surveying in underground workings. All permanent points must be numbered.

and a detachable tribrach which permits surveying by a three-stand scheme. 2-optical sighting device.8a.horizontal tangent numbers are projected in the field of view of screw. the field of view of the reading microscope shows additionally the numbers of tens of minutes.7. eyepiece attachment. Changing of scale micrometer (reads 17o 25' 26.5. (b) field ofvi~w double-channel optical system. 1 ~objective. is a more advanced model and differs from the former in the following: the system of a vertical axis is non-repeating. 7. By the consumer's request.vertical clamp. an optical centring device.5" on from one optical channel to the other is horizontal circle) .horizontal clamp. the reading device takes readings from two diametrically opposite sides of angle-measuring circles. Theodolites 85 sided optical wedge-type micrometer. and other auxiliaries.The telescope is provided with two optical sighting devices for rough aiming at objects. Il-horizontal circle aperture. shown in Fig. The theodolite is designed for class-3 and class-4 triangulation and polygonometry and can measure horizontal angles with an accuracy to :t: 2-3". the instrument can be supplemented with a box compass. range finder attachment. type 2T2 (USSR). and the telescope gives a better image. 6. 4. 3 -micrometer head. The horizontal circle has double Fig.8 Theodolite.vertical tangent single lines. type 2T2: (a) general view. Both pairs of screws are arranged at the same side of the instrument for a quicker change from azimuth-sighting to vertical plane-sighting of the telescope. The images of graduation lines and screw. one of the vertical hairs is doubled. Theodolite. The horizontal and vertical circles of the theodolite have 20'-value graduations and 10 numbering. The tangent screws are set coaxially with winged-knob clamp screws. 8-clamp screw of base (support). The telescope graticule has two horizontal hairs (stadia hairs). 5. The ja) instrument has coaxial sighting devices. which eliminates the effect of eccentricity of these circles: for more convenience. IO-level the reading microscope by means of a tube. (bifilar) graduation lines and the vertical one. 5. two-sided optical centring device. 5. striding level. 9adjusting screw of vertical circle level.

If two numbers of whole degrees are seen in the upper aperture.9 View field of scale microscope of theodolite. Then. Precise aiming of the telescope is effected by means of tangent screws. 5. Readings are taken by means of a scale microscope arranged near the telescope eyepiece. To take a reading. type T5 (reads: 74 o 55. the vertical circle alidade has no spirit level. The field of view of the reading microscope is shown in Fig. The angle-measuring circles have I-degree graduations. The theodolite TSK differs from TS by the provision of a compensator whicb automatically eliminates the error in measured vertical angles. Theodolites T5 and T5K (USSR) are precise instruments with a cylindrical repeating system of vertical axes. The repeating system of vertical axes allows horizontal-angle measurements by the method of reiteration or the method of sets. the true one is that which does not pass beyond the limits of the ten-minute numbered scale. and therefore. a scale of six numbers (from O to 5). which are separated by a halving line. The central aperture shows the images of graduation lines of two diametrically opposite sides of a circle. These instruments are designed for measuring horizontal and vertical angles in underground workings when constructing reference nets and on the surface in analytical Fig. the instrument can also be used as a level.0' on horizontal circle and 12 o 06. caused by the deviation of the vertical axis of the instrument. The high-quality telescope of theodolites TS and TSK has a magnification of 27 and the focussing range from 2 m to infinity. Optical sighting devices for rough aiming of the instrument are provided at the top and bottom of the telescope.86 Ch. c It should be noted that before aligning the vertical circle graduation lines. With the handle set horizontally. The horizontal circle can be locked with or unlocked from the alidade by means of a repeater lock. 5. The number on this scale just below the degree number gives tens of minutes. Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings performed by means of a handle. The working angular range of the compensator is ::t 3'. The upper aperture shows numbered degrees and below them. which indicates tens of minutes. the field of view of the microscope shows the images of the double lines of a horizontal circle and with the vertical position of the handle. 5. whole minutes and seconds are read off respectively on the left-hand and right-hand part of the micrometer scale. The aperture at the right is the micrometer scale with one division corresponding to one second of the arc.8b. In view of this. The scale microscope shows simultaneously the graduation lines of . the micrometer head is operated to align carefully the top and bottom images of the lines of a vertical circle or respectively those of the double lines of a horizontal circle. The compensator also ensures precise levelling of the collimation axis of the theodolite. it is required to align the ends of the level bubble image by an adjusting screw. it shows the lines of the vertical circle.0' on vertical circle) and polygonometric nets of the lst and 2nd order.

For easier calculation of vertical angles. e. the vertical circle is numbered in sectors from 0 to 75° and from 0 to minus 75°. The telescope is provided with two collimation sights for rough pointing to objects. type 2T5K: (a) general view. The reading accuracy is equal to 0. i. the observer's eye should be at a distance of 25-30 cm from it. 5.0' on vertical circle) . the telescope is rotated on the horizontal axis and the theodolite body. both pairs of screws are arranged at the same side of the theodolite. the functioncof the level of the vertical circle alidade is performed by ap optical compensator with a self-adjusting index.9) and its scale is graduated to single minutes. 6. The two extreme horizontal lines of the cross hairs (above and below the cross) are stadia hairs. and focussed by means of a rack-and-pinion gear. i. l-objective.1 of the scale value of the microscope. IO-horizontal circle aperture.7.10 Theodolite. The eyepiece can be adapted to the observer's vision by means of a diopter ring which should be rotated until the cross hairs are seen sharp. 4. These instruments are of the non-repeating type.horizontal tangent screw. Angles are read off at one side of the circles. 5.1" or :t6".horizontal clamp. Precise aiming is made by operating micrometer tangent screws 5 and 7 when winged-khob clamp screws 4 and 6 are locked. 3 -level tube.vertical tangent screw.6' on horizontal circle and 0 o 34. can be transited at both ends. When using a sight.5. The tangent screws of the telescope and vertical circle alidade are coaxial with the corresponding winged-knob clamp screws.10a). Theodolites 87 the vertical and horizontal circle (Fig. 5. The telescope is fully reversible. Angles are measured by reading off the degrees on the limb scale and the minutes on the microscope scale. on the vertical axis. For aiming at an object. :t 0. Theodolites 2TS and 2TSK (2TSKP) (USSR) are further modifications of type T5. e. the seconds are estimated by eye as a fraction of the microscope scale division. A special handle is provided for changing the sections of horizontal circle (in angular measure- Fig. 2-optical sighting device. 8-clamp screw of base (support). type 2T5K (Fig. 7. 5. In the theodolite. 9-foot screw of base.vertical clamp. (b) view field of scale microscope (reads 127 o 05.

The readjng scale of by means of telescope. telescope and reading microscope are proviThe lower row (with the minus sign) is used ded with zenith attachments which permit for reading off when the vertical limb hair the observations of objects at angles above with the same sign is seenin the reading scale 45° to the horizon and theodolite centring aperture. over a point. The reading index is the hair of the Theodolites of these types have a hollow limb. dirt and and that of the horizontal circle. 5. They can be employed for the instrument in both upright and inverted . Fig. or 3-6".lla is a mining theodolite. In order mainly designed for surface surveying. yellowishmoisture. circle finder. The telescope can be plunged green. 5.can also be used for zenith and nadir sighting ment ( :1:5") is ensured in measurements by and centring over a point.05-0. but to eliminate the division error of the horizonare often employed for surveys in undertal circle. The graduareiteration method and are convenient for tion lines and numbers are projected in the assigning directions to mine workings. the construction of plan and elevation survey The setting of the horizontal circle in a nets on the surface and in underground particular section is additionally controlled workings.10b. tangent screws when the corresponding The images of the reading scale and the clamp screw is locked. 2T30. Precise aiming is The field of view of the microscope of done by means of a micrometer screw and theodolite 2T5K is illustrated in Fig. types T30 and 2T30. The illumination of the field of view (transited) at both ends.1 of a is centred by adjusting screws. for the same time pressed down along its axis. Each division of the scope eyepiece. 5. plane of reading scales of the microscope. full set by 180°: n (where n is the number of Theodolite type T30M (USSR) shown in full sets). It has a Theodolites T30. To change from one section to measuring the horizontal and vertical angles another. These theodolites have a repeating system The horizontal and vertical circles have for measuring horizontal angles by the I-degree numbered graduations. The eyepiece of the vertical and horizontal limb are projected microscope for reading off on the horizontal respectively in the upper and lower apertures and vertical circles is located near the teleof the field of view. and for measuring distances (by by indexing in the aperture of horizontal using the stadia hairs of the telescope). reading scale corresponds to one minute of The vertical axis of the theodolite is set the arc. the method of full sets (with the instrument Theodolites. the latter should be reset after each ground workings. The eyepieces of the the vertical circle has two rows of numbers. and T30M (USSR) specially designed vertical axis (spindle) and a are angle-measuring instruments of technical reversible bubble level for the operation of precision ( :1:30"). Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings ments). are positioned 'face left' and 'face right'). It is of the internalcan be controlled by a hinged mirror. Th~ reading error is equal to 0.88 Ch. the handle should be turned and at in theodolite and tacheometric traverses. The fractions of minutes can be truly vertical by means of bubble level which estimated by eye with an accuracy to 0. A diagonal eyepiece (optional) The certified accuracy of angle measure. The focussing type and is focussed by rotating the scales are focussed for distinct vision by eyepiece ring. The principal parts and units of the instruThe image of the vertical circle is tinted blue ments are protected against dust.1 of vertical axis for centring over a station point a scale division. rough aiming at objects. Optical sighting devices arranrotating the diopter ring of the microscope ged at both sides of the telescope serve for eyepiece. division.

5. e. 7.25 of a division.microscope eyepiece. i. The reading microscope arranged near the telescope eyepiece has the field of view in which the images of the vertical and horizontal circles are projected simultaneously (Fig. It has a detachable tribrach and an optical plummet. 1.(b) view field of scale microscope (reads 23 o 54' 30" on horizontal circle and 150 12' 30" on vertical circle) positions. 2. 5. have an opticomechanical compensator of the vertical circle and an erect-image telescope. 6. Theo010A (Fig.theodolite base.diagonal eyepiece. 5. type T30ME (with an eccentric telescope) i\ designed for surveys in steep underground workings and for surface surveys connected with sighting of the telescope in the directions close to the vertical. a lens-and-mirror telescope.l2b).7. which is essential in underground surveys. Theodolites 89 "" Fig. type T30M: (a) general view. 9-telescope clamp screw.horizontal clamp. The sighting devices on the telescope have a centre mark for centring (plumbing) the instrument under a point by means of a plumb bob. 12 -lever for locking of horizontal circle with alidade. 15. with an accuracy to 30" or 15".telescope focussing ring. Theodolite. 14-zenith (prism) attachment.l2a).11 Theodolite. 3. 5. against the lower scale. For ease of operation in underground workings.diopter ring.5.optical sighting device. A reading can be taken by eye estimation to 0. 5. 13-1ock. 10-vertical tangent screw. 8. The field of view of the reading microscope of type .l3a) and TheoOlOB. 4. the reading scales are provided with an illuminating system which can be switched on by a button either for a short time to take a reading or for continuous illumination.horizontal tangent screw.5 or 0. The advanced versions of this instrument. and a two-sided optical wedge micrometer. The graduations of the vertical circle (limb) are projected against the upper reading scale in the field of view and those of the horizontal circle.illuminating attachment. The eccentric telescope has the same optical characteristics as the central telescope and is also provided with optical sights. 5. 11 -level tube.llb). The reading scales have 60 oneminute divisions. an eccentric telescope with a bracket is also obtainable optionally to the type T30M theodolite (Fig. A version of the former instrument is type T30ME theodolite with an auxiliary eccentric telescope (Fig. Theodolite TheoO1O(GDR) is a precision instrument provided with a rotating limb.

optical sighting device. 3.horizontal clamp screw. 8-focussing rack-and-pinion. (b) view field of scale micrometer (reads 112o 27' 35.optical centring device.Fig. 4 -micrometer.13 Theodolite. 4. 5.vertical clamp screw. 8-vertical and horizontal tangent screws. 2. type 2T30M (b) (a) . 2-eccentric telescope. 1 -objective.10 5 . lO-illuminating mirror. /1 4 6"" . l-central telescope. 7.12 Theodolite. (b) eccentric telescope to theodolite.0" on horizontal circle) .3 78- 9- Fig. type Theo010A: (a) general view.base clamp screw. 5. type 2T30ME: (a) general view.horizontal tangent screw. 5 -vertical and horizontal clamps. 3 -level tube. 6. 9-foot screw. 6-circle switch. 5. 7.

9-horizontal tangent screw.7. 6. 8-vertical tangent screw. an optical centring device. (b) view field of scale microscope (reads 235 o 050' on horizontal circle and 256 0 52. 5-vertical and horizontal clamps. Limb graduations have double numbering: one of them being read off when the instrument is mounted in the common upright position and the other when the theodolite is mounted on a console holder in an inverted Dosition. it can also be mounted on console holders.14 Theodolite. and a detachable tribrach which allows the instrument to be used in surveys by a three-stand scheme.0' on vertical circle) TheoO1O theodolite is shown in Fig.l4a) and TheoO20B. 3-optical centring device.5. Theodolite TheoO80 (GDR) is a compact optical repeating theodolite with a detachable base for three-stand scheme surveys. These instruments are intended for triangulation and polygonometry on the land surface. have a new unique system of coaxial tangent and clamp screws for simultaneous locking of the vertical and horizontal axes and a more perfect reading system (Fig. 5. 2-optical sighting device.14b). 5. . type Theo020A: (a) general view. IO-foot screw. 7-illuminating mirror.5. l-objective. TheoO20A (Fig. 4-eyepiece.disconnection of vertical circle. 5. These instruments are intended for the construction of survey nets in mines and on the surface and of reference nets in underground workings. Theodolite TheoO20 (GDR) is a repeating theodolite of technical precision. Theodolites lb) 91 Fig. Improved models.l3b. It has an optico-mechanical compensator on the vertical circle (instead of a bubble level).

is illustrated in Fig.dards by the horizontal tangent screw. and turn the theodolite is mounted on it and the vertical eyepiece so as to horizontalize the horizontal axis of the instrument is set truly vertical. theodolites. Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings is swinged slightly and if the image of the object again deviates from the cross hairs. telescope is set roughly horizontally After the tripod has been made rigid. Upon adjustment. stability. 1. by means of the adjusting screws of the Fig. the bubble level is arranged amid the line of two foot screws of the tribrach and. and sighting devices are tested zontal line of the eyepiece cross hairs is in order to avoid the influence of probable observed when rotating the instrument stanerrors on the results of angular measure. by rotating these screws in opposite directions. The position of the telescope cross hairs intended for supplementary surveys in underis tested and adjusted. The collimation error. ed again and the cap is screwed into place. Tests and Adjustments the tripod. is measured and eliminated. and its vertical axis is arranged of Theodolites truly vertical. The tripod and tribrach are tested for line. 5. The alidade is then turned through 180°. The instrument is 3. The bubble level of the horizontal circle alidade is adjusted (when required) so that the bubble level axis can be truly perpendicular to the vertical rotation axis of the theodolite. legs must be tightened more firmly. The check is repeated until the required conditions are The field of view of a reading-off microscope satisfied. For this test. the and aimed at a remote object. 2. The hair. the vertical axis of rotation of the theodolite. To test the tripod for stability. 5. the wing nuts at the tops of the tripod the telescope. Then a convenient point is chosen.92 Ch. the slacken four fastening screws. and the tripod table is swinged slightly back 4. and its position relative to the horiBefore starting the survey work. which can and forth. the eyepiece is fastentelescope is then sighted on a distinct object. the theodolite is mounted on 5. The horizontal line of eyepiece cross hairs must be perpendicular to ground workings. ffthe image (point) deviates from the horizontal ments. If the bubble deviates from the mid position. 5. For checking. the bubble is moved into the centre. half of its deviation is taken off by operating the foot screws and the other half. type Theo080 (reads 359 o 28' on through 90° and the bubble is centred by horizontal circle and 96 o 04' on vertical circle} means of the third foot screw. it is required to take off the eyepiececap. If the image of the object is then appear if the collimation axis of the telescope noticed to deviate from the telescope cross is not perpendicular to the axis of rotation of hairs.15. For this. tripods. After that the alidade is rotated theodolite.8. The tribrach taken at two positions of the circle: 'face left' . the move of foot screws is made more tight by means of tightening nuts. Readings are stability of the tribrach is tested.15 View field of reading-off microscope of bubble level.

The check is repeated until the condition is satisfied. the eyepiececap is taken off to open an accessto the adjusting screws of the cross hairs. e. Otherwise. if the bubble is moved aside. 5. The test is repeated if required.9. The zero point (zero offset) is tested and adjusted. it is essential to observe the position of the level bubble on the horizontal circle alidade. and the reading is taken on the vertical circle. This test is carried out to check whether the vertical circle reads the same when the vertical axis of the instrument deviates within ::t:3'. After that the theodolite is levelled by the other two foot screws. The zero point in the reading on the vertical circle when the collimation axis of the telescope is truly horizontal and the bubble of the bubble level of the vertical circle alidade is in the zero point. the theodolite should be sent to the manufacturer for adjustment. towards the observer. The collimation error can then be calculated by the formula: (FLl c= -FRl :t 1800) + (FL2 -FR2 :t 180°) 4 For correcting the collimation error. it must be centralized by means of the foot screws of tribrach. The compensator is tested. The bubble of the adjusted cylindrical bubble level is brought into the central position so that the main axis of the theodolite is truly vertical. at two different settings of the circle and in the general casecan be calculated by the formula: ZP= FL + FR + 180° 2 by moving the graticule vertically by means of the adjusting screws. towards the selected point by operating the foot screw facing that point. by 4-5 level divisions. For the correction of the zero point. The procedure should be repeated with the instrument tilted by 2-3' in the reverse direction. e. 6. before making angular and linear measurements.5. Centring of Theodolites and Signals 93 (FLJ and 'face right' (FRJ. With a tilted position of the theodolite. The permissible collimation error should not exceed 30". The theodolite is then tilted by 2-3 " i. should be prepared for operation. and the horizontal circle is set at a reading that is determined by the formula: FR = FR2 -c The graticule (cross hairs) is moved horizontally by means of the adjusting screws until the cross is aligned with the image of the object chosen earlier. preferably closer to the horizon. and its If the reading is less than 90°. 5. a distinct point is chosen and the theodolite is mounted on the tripod so thatone of the foot screws is oriented in the direction of that point. the telescope is sighted on the selected point. the instrument is set up successively in the traverse points and. For this test. The difference between the readings taken with the instrument tilted in two opposite directions should be not more than 0. the theodolite is rotated through 180° and locked again by the clamp screw. the vertical circle is set at the reading FL-ZP and the cross of the graticule is aligned with the image of the selected point on the object . Then the clamp screw of the tribrach is loosened. The zero point of the vertical circle must be known and accounted for in surveys or be excluded. add 360°. ioeo it should be centred and levelled. The telescope is aimed at the same object and two new readings are taken at two positions of the circle: FL2 and FR2. i. The zero point value is determined by sighting on one and the same point. When testing and adjusting the zero point.1.9. Centring of Theodolites and Signals When running a theodolite traverse in underground workings.

'. 5. and I. and automatic centring. In that case. Taking. 5. which worsen the accuracy of horizontal angle measurements owing to poor centring of theodolite and signals. The effect of the errors of theodolite and signal centring is inversely proportional to the lengths of the sides making the measured angle and increases with the difference in the side lengths. Then. but not a. 5. the theodolite is mounted on a tripod or console holder. In centring with a mechanical plummet. the total error (a) of measurement of horizontal quite substantial. and the horizontal distance AA1 = I is the linear error of theodolite centring.001 m. the error of angle 11 will be equal to 24". The effect of the signal centring error is independent of the magnitude of the measured angle.2) suggests the following conclusions: I.16 Deternlination of measurement error of horizontal angle caused by inaccurate centring of (a) theodolite and (b) signals where a and b are the horizontal projections of the side lengths of the measured angle and I. The effect of the theodolite centring error depends on the magnitude of the angle and is the highest for angles close to 180°. the measured angle will be a1. If the linear errors of theodolite and signal centring occur simultaneously. The analysis of formula (5. If the theodolite is not centred properly.94 Ch. Suppose now that the signals at sighting points B and C have been centred poorly (Fig.= J. L\a' = a -a2 is the error of the horizontal angle measurement caused by inaccurate centring of the signals.l6a). are typical for the conditions of surveying in underground workings.h and Is are the linear errors of theodolite and signal centring. for instance. and the horizontal distances between points BB1 and CC1 are the linear errors of signal centring. all these factors. In that connection.(a2 + b~) + lfh(a2 + b2 -2abcosa)] (5. b = = 28 m. angles may be The root-mean square error in the measurements of horizontal angles caused by inaccurate centring of the theodolite and signals can be determined by the formula: m. 5. Is = 0. Centring is essentially the placing of a theodolite or signals into a position in which their vertical axis is brought into coincidence with the vertical line passing through the centre of a survey mark.2) A Fig.002 m. its vertical axis may turn out to pass through a point A l' rather than through A. the matter of theodolite and signal centring is of prime importance in mine surveying. that a = 21 m. 2. 3. The difference L\a = a -a1 is called the error of angular measurementcaused by inaccurate centring of the theodolite.' . Three main methods of centring are used in the mine surveying practice: with a mechanical plummet. its vertical axis is set truly vertically . 11= 175°.16b).~2 b 2a 2 [l. The plumb lines are hung or signals (sighting marks.h = = 0. As may be seen. Suppose that we have to measure a horizontal angle a = BAC (Fig. with an optical plummet. Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings telescope should be prepared for observations. or targets) are established in the "points to be sighted.

(c) and (d) controllable plummets with respectively external or internal pulleys on which the string is wound. 5.17): (a) a simple centring plummet which has a massive metal body 3 sharpened at the bottom. In order to raise or lower the plummet. the sighting axis of the telescope is aimed at their strings. (b) a plummet with a retractable point. The other end of the string should be passed through two side holes and one central hole in the sleeve. the string will be either wound onto the reel or unwound from it. After that the instrument is moved on the platform of the tripod or console holder until the point of the freely hanging plummet is exactly over the top centre of the instrument. The string of plummet is passed through the hole of a survey mark and the height of plummet suspension is controlled so that the plummet point is just to touch the top centre of the theodolite.17 Types of centring string plummets and the telescope is set into the horizontal position.9. To fasten the string to the plummet. the sleeve is taken out upon removing a nut 2. At the end of plumbing. The following types of mechanical (string) plummets are used in the modern mine surveying practice (Fig. since its centring point 6 can be quickly set at the desirable height. the operator holds the plummet body 4 by one hand and rotates the sleeve by the other. which is the most convenient type in operation. Depending on the direction of rotation. after which the plummet can be assembled. When plummets are used as signals. and (e) a controllable plummet with an internal reel. Centring of Theodolites and Signals (a) (b) (c) (e) Fig. the sharpened portion ends with a steel point 4. the continuation of the vertical axis of the theodolite will pass through the centre of the survey mark if only the top centre of the instrument (with the telescope arranged strictly horizontally) lies in the vertical axis of rotation of the telescope and the plummet point lies in the same vertical line with the plummet string. . the plummet point should be retracted by turning a sleeve 5. and one end of the string is passed through the slot in the rim of a reel 3 and got made into a knot. Upon making these operations. the plummet is connected with a string 1 by means of a threaded plug 2 at its top. the plummet string can be freely unwound to the required length. 5.5. On pressing the top portion of a sleeve 1.

when pointed to the plummet. modern theodolites and signals are provided with optical plummets or optical centring devices. If the image of the plummet point in at least one telescope is beyond the bisector. the theodolite can also be centred under a surveying mark. restores automatically its geometrical position when the theodolite and signal setups are interchanged. Survey with Automatic Centring of Theodolite and Signals. Illuminating plummets are also employed successfully in the orientation of underground workings and check surveys. 5.18 2-mirror. This can be checked by hanging a plummet and setting up two theodolites at a distance of 5-7 m from it so that the sighting axes of the two instruments. Suppose that a checking theodolite traverse is to be run between two groups of fixed mine survey points: A. C and D. when there is no need to fix the intermediate vertexes of theodolite traverses. Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings The surveys in underground workings are carried out with the use of illuminating plummets whose body incorporates.18. such as that illustrated in Fig. For more accurate centring. it is common practice to employ automatic centring of theodolites and signals on tripods or console holders by using a special set of attachments. 5. To do this. 5. which passes through the centre of a surveying mark.19. R. E. also a power source. The sequence of survey with automatic centring of theodolite and signals is as follows.5 mm.Ch. It is usually warranted by plummet manufacturers that the deviation between the plummet point and the centre of a string hole is not more than 0. 5. make an angle of roughly 90°. In the mine surveying practice. the plummet tested should be repaired or rejected. This interchanging requires no additional centring. The scheme of an optical plummet for centring above a surveying mark is shown in Fig. Signals c are then mounted on the bases in the points A and C and the checking angle ARC is measured by . A one-sided optical plummet permits centring by a vertical collimating ray to be performed either only upwards or only downwards. in ad9ition to the string-winding mechanism. F (Fig. Optical plummet: I-protective glasses. and a conical transparent cap. an electric lamp. 5. 3-objective. supports (bases)(see Fig. 5-eyepiece The essenceof the automatic centring of a theodolite and signals consists in that the attachments mentioned make it possible to set up the theodolite in the points where a signal was set up before. and vice versa. 3 ~ ~- ~ Fig. By pointing the telescope to the zenith. 4-graticule. 5. while the latter are detachable optical plummets and optical centring devices may be either one-sided or two-sided.19) on tripods are set up in points A and C and centred by means of an optical plummet and the theodolite is set up and centred in a point R.20). This ensures that the vertical axis of the instrument. The telescopesof the two instruments are sighted on the plumb line so that the plumb line and plummet point are within the bisector of cross hairs. The former are built in into an instrument.

This method is usually resorted to in steeply dipping workings or where the mine traffic is intensive. or survey by a three-stand scheme. E. the bases are set up by means of an optical plummet or a theodolite. 7-1270 A similar survey with lost points and automatic centring of theodolite and signals can also be performed by using console holders instead of tripod stands. 5. and the survey is done by using three stands. and F where. Then the theodolite and forward signal are interchanged on their bases and the rear signal is set up on a tripod (or console holder) in a point 7 The signal in the point 1 is set into the upright position by means of a level tube on a bracket and. the traverse vertexes between the fixed points are not fixed. 5. For that reason this method is also called the survey with lost points. The set of attachments for this method 4 Fig.5. as in the points A.19 Set of attachments to theodolite T30M for surveying by three-stand scheme the theodolite in the point B. Centring of Theodolites and Signals 97 b A d 9 Fig.20 Scheme of theodolite two groups of reference points traverse between . B and C. This order of survey is characterized by that the theodolite and signals can be interchanged without intermediate centring. then the angle BCl and the length of a side Cl are measured.9. The theodolite and forward signal are then interchanged on their bases and the rear signal on the tripod is reset onto a next point to run the traverse to the second group of fixed points D.

in the first position of a circle (say.1 . The alidade is unlocked and rotated counter-clockwise to sight the telescope on the forward signal and take the reading a3 (a3 = 116°47'. and the check angle is calculated by the formula ~ch= a2 -al.Reiteration Method In view of the wide use of repeating theodolites in the mine surveying practice.3-0. With n full repetitions. I. It consists of the following operations.the angle measurement must be repeated. left-hand angles along a survey traverse are usually measured by the method of repetitions (reiteration method). centring plates with spherical level tube (a).98 Ch.4). a clamp (b) for fastening a console holder to wooden or metallic mine supports. the telescope is sighted on the forward signal in a point C to take the reading a2(a2 = 58°23'. the limb is unlocked and turned together with the alidade to sight the telescope on the rear signal. 5.0 mm in optical centring. Readings are taken only on the first and second sighting. 5. 5. sighting on signals.8-1. As has been found by experiments. 4.8 mm in automatic centring. 5.4) The operation of measuring a horizontal angle includes centring a theodolite under or over a fixed point in an underground working.2). The sequence of signal sighting and the order of reading on the scales depend on the method of angle measurement employed by a surveyor. FL).5) where R is the number of full revolutions of the alidade around the limb. The alidade is unlocked and. The zero division of the alidade of a horizontal circle is roughly aligned with the zero mark of a limb. The left-forward angle ~ and its check value ~chare calculated by the formulae: ~ = (a3 -aJ/2 (5. no reading is taken. the method of repetitions (reiteration method) has become very popular in measurements of angles. the limb is moved n times to sight the telescope on the rear signal and the alidade is also moved n times to sight the telescope on the forward signal. In mining workings. and taking readings on the scales. the measurements of horizontal angles are repeated more than twice. after which the latter is unlocked and the hair cross of a telescope is sighted on the rear signal set up in a point B (Table 5. pin (1). we have: ~ = a4 -a1 + R360° 2n (5. If the discrepancy between the measured and check angle is more than 1.5). 0.7).19) contains console holders with adapters (e). The total value of the angle measured n times will be equal to a3 -al. The telescope is reversed. After that. method of sets or. the errors of centring of theodolites and signal~ by various methods are as follows: 1. the telescope is reversed and sighted n times on the rear and forward signal in a different position of the circle.3) ~ch= a2 -al (5. 3. When running theodolite traverses of higher accuracy. a4' is taken after the last sighting on the forward signal.10. The reading 01 is taken on the scale 01 (01 = 0000'. by rotating the instrument clockwise. and 0. Only one reading. method of rounds.2-1.5 of the instrument accuracy (:!: 1. 5.51). and a level tube (g). In that case.10. Measurements of Horizontal Angles 2. The number of full revolutions of the . prism attachment (h) for an objective. Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings of survey (see Fig. less frequently.5 mm in single centring with string plummets.

the same angles between the given directions are then measured at a different setting of the circle (FR). After that the mean values of the directions obtained by two measurements are calculated.0). CDE. and the reading at is taken and recorded in the book (at = 00003'.80+ 00°02'. The procedure of angle measurement by the method of rounds consists essentially in the following. 2.6) set in the centre of a bench mark. the collimation error is calculated by the formula: 2c = = FR -FL ::!: 180°. but the limb for the second set is turned initially at a reading close to 90°. Table 5.2. 5. point B.10. The limb is locked in a position when it roughly reads 00.85.45). 3. Method of Sets The measurement of an angle (for instance. The measured angle in one position of the circle. 4.10. The second round is performed in the same sequence.6) 5. by the formula: (FL + FR ::!: 180°)/2. 2. The alidade is unlocked and the telescope is sighted on the forward signal (point E) to take the reading 02 (02 = 68°31'. e.5). In order to eliminate the instrument error of the theodolite. . The mean angle = = calculated by the two half-sets 13m (13'+ 1311)/2 = is taken as the final value (13m 58°23'.3.4). . The telescope is reversed and sighted again on the rear signal. The reading a2 is taken and recorded in the book (a2 = 28°08'. 1. is 13'= 02 -01 (13'= = 58°23'. observations are made in the reverse direction and the alidade is rotated counter-clockwise.5. Upon completing the measurements at the second setting of the circle.7).5) by the method of sets is carried out in the following sequence.1). but the limb is initially set at a reading close to 90°.the theodolite is rotated clockwise.90)/2 = 00~02'. Angle Measurements Method of Rounds by 1. The alidade is freed (with the limb being fixed) and the telescope is sighted on the signal set in the centre of a bench mark D. the corrected direction is (00°02'. 3. In this case. In the second half-round. The procedure is finished by calculating the corrected directions.. and the reading a 1 is taken on the horizontal circle and recorded in the field book (01 = 10°07'. and the alidade is locked. With the limb unlocked. the reading 03 is recorded in the book (03 = 190°07'. The observations of the first half-round are finished by sighting the telescope on the signal set in the initial direction B and taking a check reading.9).0). in our case. by calculating the mean initial direction from the mean directions found. i. e. The alidade is rota-ted clockwise in the same sequenceand the telescope is sighted on the signal in a point C to take the reading a3 (a3 = 58°26'. Table 5. 4. in the first half-set.10. the sequence of operations is essentially the same. i. the telescope is sighted on the rear signal (point C). Measurements of Horizontal Angles 99 alidade around the limb can be determined by considering the measured check angle and the number of performed repetitions: R = (2n 13ch a1 -a4)/360° + (5. The limb is turned through 60-90° and locked. and the angle measured in the second position of the circle is calculated: 1311 04 -03 (1311 58°23'. This makes it possible to prove that the limb was fixed during the observation of the point (a4 = 00°03'. = In angle measurements by the method of two sets. the telescope is sighted on the initial signal (for instance. The telescope is sighted again on the forward signal to take the reading 04 (04 = = 248°30'.1). The zero divisions of the limb and alidade are roughly aligned.5).5). its magnitude is indicative of the accuracy of measurements.

.. N 000 --0 ~ 'r\ ~ 01 = ~ ~ = ~ .~ --~ I£) B .: ...8 >. = ~ ~ = ~ ~ ... 1~.. . I ~ = "' 8'..=: ~ 0 ~ s +"' "' = = ""' 0 ""' 0 s ~ ] ::. 000 O\~ -<""1 ~ ""' N 00 Ir) ~ e '-' ~ = -= .. 8 ~ ..-5 '00 00 N on 00 00 o ~ Q.t.1 ~ ~ . 01 e 8 0 "' r-I "..... ... ~ -000 00 ~ . " ~ ~ 0 .< 000 .... e ~ = "' ~ Q.£ ..-Q.c ~ .s = = ~ ..."0 '".: '" ~ \. 'tJ = Q. =' ~ I: ~ ~ -o i' ~ = 1'"10r-.. ." ."]..) -~ ~ Q. ~ ... = ..~8 =' ~ E--r/JZJ!:...... t. Ir\ ..~ ~ .Q . ~ 1:1. Ino r... u .:o 0.~ ".+"' =' "' -rnO >. = ~ = < = ~ = ~ ~ or\ or\ - ~ ~ = < .-~ ~ II") Q.."5 ~ 00 ~ O 00 .~.8 .: 01 8 = Q ..- ~....a ..c o o N ~ O 00 "' I O ~ " 0 0\ O .~ .. IDN OOID ~~ ..s e +"' "' = Ir) r--v '0 -0 Nr'"\ oN r'"\OO Ir) ~ 00 > G) ."' Q ~ Q Q = ~ . -> .. ~ . u ~ ~ .Q.- . ~ .-"' Q. 0 !fJ = 01 8 ~ = "' ~ 01 . .5 o "0 .. .. ~ .d 0 ~ .:. 01 3C.~ ~ o VJVJ "' = ..~ ""'".. 8 0 0 I ~ ~.~ ] "'. 8 o ~ .> "' = 1-.. ..J=" ~ 0) " ~ "E: ~ .: O '... Q.. "0 ~ "..) > ..:. I r-ID ~ .~ o. 1 0 \Q E-. a§ -'" "'. ~ ...i::' Q ~ ~ .... ~ ~ . Q). Q.5 .0 ~ ..0 ~ .. ~ ~ "'J 0: ~ ~ .c ~ E- P. ...

:IQN ooNo 'Q -g .r.M OON Ir\ 8 " ~ = 011 .."' i o-r-'. e .~ " ... = "' " .~~... "' ~ 'X> ..-13 .s .§.!= U"O 00000 ON"' -1o.. "g ~ ~ 0 ~ ..'00 -~~- +1 . OONO = ~ = = -= 000000 ONIr)O "Q) ~ ~ Ir) ..:I . o -" "' = -VJO e . I: ~ O ..g ~~v~ ~ .c ~ . .. ~ = < '..... ~ ~ O M ~ -= = 011 8 " . I:: ~ >-~ I "' c '5 ~ ..00.\r\ 0.. = = N .5 o c ~...0 e u>-o "' .-" Eo-(/J~> ~.....cj'. 0000 0000 I I I I 10 00"' Nr-:IQN OONO ~ ~ 000000 000.-1 "" I ~ "" II " N """'N~ 0000 r-- ~ .c ->-~ .1 N '(ij' -= = = e 000000 ONIr)O 0"'00 ~~\0~ Nr..~ = ci) I:: ~ . = .:I 0 '.

3. 5.11) ~ .Similarly. 5.4. Horizontal III Surveys of Underground Workings (b) III .+ '1 -O 13= 131 -'1 + O we get: (5. 5.10. If a repeating theodolite is employed. The alidade of the theodolite should always be rotated in one direction only. for instance. In that case. In order to measure the angle between the directions II-I and 1I-111. Measurements of Horizontal Angles by Means of Eccentric. "' / / -- / Fig. The scheme of measurement of a horizontal angle I-II-III by the eccentric telescope with the circle at right 13= 13.21b.+'1=13+o <p' = 13!+ 0 = 13+ '1 Hence: (5. in Fig. the horizontal axis of rotation of the telescope moves from position II-I into 1I-2.210 and with the circle at left. the telescope is sighted successively on signals I and III.8) The horizontal angles in steep workings are measured by means of the eccentric telescope of a theodolite.e.21. its limb must be locked for the entire time of measurements.7) (5. the exterior angles <p and <p' are the sums of the two interior angles of the triangles which are not adjacent to them.21 Measurement of horizontal angle by eccentric telescope The measurements of horizontal angles in underground workings with the angles of dip more than 300 are made only by the method of sets under the provision of the following additional conditions: I. 2. the angle 13! will be measured instead of 13. with the circle at right. e. The theodolite for measuring horizontal angles must be provided with a striding level and permit plumbing of its vertical axis of rotation before each set. i. <p=13. As may be seen in Fig.10) Adding these equations. 213= 13. 5. its setting is changed by an angle 13" and therefore. the angle 13.+ 13! (5.102 Ch. 5.will be measured instead of 13. i.Telescope Theodolites is shown in Fig.9) (5. 5. with the circle at left.

12) It follows from formula (5. the magnitude of an error increases proportional to the slope and may attain rather high values (3-5' or even more). poor fixation of plummets in the centres of bench marks. in order to determine the check angle. write them in the theodolite survey field book. the most critical source of errors is non-verticality of the principal axis of theodolite which causes an additional inclination of the rotation axis of telescope and thus worsens substantially the accuracy of angular measurements. The dependence of the error of a measured horizontal angle on the inclination angle of collimating rays and inclination of an instrument axis can be expressed by the formula: mIl = o[cosutanhf -cos(u -~)tanhr] (5. and instruct the workers engaged in the setting and illumination of plummets (signals) and other related jobs. This elirninates the influence of the telescope eccentricity. the surveyor must prepare all the initial data. Systematic errors depend on the environmental conditions and inaccuracies in the manufacture and assembly of instruments. In that case. Accuracy of Horizontal Angle Measurements Sides When running theodolite traverses in steep workings. The vertical axis of the telescope must be adjusted by means of a striding level.10.)/2 (5. In the shaft.5. For that reason. An eccentric telescope can also be used for angular measurements by the reiteration method. To avoid gross errors.12) that the central angle is equal to the half-sum of the angles measured in two half-sets. O is the inclination angle of the rotation axis of an instrument. the instrument must be sighted on the signals of measured directions at two different positions of a circle. systematic and random errors.6.10. improper mutual arrangement of some elements or non-perpendicularity of the geometrical axes of theodolite. for instance. etc. ~ is the horizontal angle being measured. In that case. he must check that all the bench marks are reliably fixed and belong to the traverse line to be run. when establishing the points of a theodolite traverse it is desirable that all sides be roughly of the same length. The accuracy of measurements of horizontal angles by an eccentric-telescope theodolite depends on the difference in the side lengths of the measured directions and on the inclination of the theodolite telescope axis.5. These systematic instrumental errors can be minimized by regular examinations of theodo- . 5. before sinking into the shaft. u is the angle between the direction of inclination of the principal axis of an instrument and the direction of rotational axis of telescope when sighted on the forward signal. 5.13) where mp is the root-mean square error of the measured horizontal angle depending on the inclination of the principal axis of theodo- The accuracy of measurement of horizontal angles is influenced by gross. instability of tripod (console holder).13) shows that the error mfJof angular measurement is at a maximum at ~ = 180° and at a change from a horizontal to an inclined workipg or vice versa.10. The analysis of formula (5. Errors in Measuring Horizontal Angles with Steeply Inclined lite. it should be noted that. Measurements of Horizontal Angles 103 or I:}= (I:}r+ I:}. and h f and h r are the angles of inclination of collimating rays when sighted respectively on the forward and rear signal. Gross errors may appear owing to the inclusion of improper bench marks into the traverse being run.

0' \J. The magnitude of 13 calculated by the formula: is B=a4-a1+R. and dust-laden.19) where t is the accuracy of horizontal circle reading and v is the telescope magnification. the error in establishing each direction 1S: mIl = ~ (5.14) If an angle is measured in n sets. since these factors can influence substantially the accuracy of measured angles.. Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings lites.20) and the error of a horizontal angle measured in a full set is: mIl = 0.-+~ n n 5. incorrect setting of theodolites and signals.360-o 2n As follows from formulae (5. Accuracy of angle measurements by the reiteration method. the inclination angles are measured at the same time with horizontal angles.13). Random errors mainly appear owing to instrumental errors. and also the specifics of fixation of bench marks (in the ground or roof) set forth additional requirements to the instrument setting and techniques of observation in angular measurements. the angle 13 measured by n full repetitions is determined by the readings at and a4.11. In this case.17) n The limb reading and sighting be calculated by the formulae: errors can "' .vJ mi = 2"J2 mf}= 60"/v t (5.!.21) (5. signals and other instruments and by using the appropriate methods of angular measurements. In view of these specific conditions and difficulties in the performance of survey work. restricted space. The specific environmental conditions in underground workings. Accuracy of angular measurements by the method of sets.5J4(mf or mIl = ~ (5. the accuracy of measurements depends mainly on the errors of signal sighting and circle reading. As may be seen from the description of the reiteration method.104 Ch. caused by the limb reading error mi will bJ: m /In = -. Measurements of Inclination Angles In theodolite surveys of underground workings. These are needed for determining the horizontal distances of the sides of theodolite traverses and the elevations between the .12) and (5. Therefore. 5. 2 + I m~. the error of the mean arithmetic value of that angle is determined by the formula: J m2 m2 The error of the measured angle. and incorrect sighting and reading. special care should be given to the centring of theodolites and signals (especially when traverse sides are relatively short) and to making the observations strictly accordipg to the adopted method. n 2 + -(5.22) + m~) (5. v 2 = 2 m. mp . the total error of angular measurement with n repetitions will be: J 2 2 mv m/J = Jm~. water drip. in particular. atmosphere..

and FL and FR are the readings on a vertical circle with the latter at the left ('face left') or at the right ('face right').26) where v is the inclination angle. Measurements of Inclination Angles 105 Fig. they should be increased by 360°. The telescope of theodolite is sighted on a plummet hung at a point 18. Suppose that we have to determine the inclination angle of a collimating ray 1-2 passing through a point 2 fixed on a plumb line {Fig. If the readings FR.22 Measurement of inclination angle of underground working by central-telescope theodolitl traverse points.24) v = FL -ZP v = ZP -FR -180° (5. the theodolite . and the accuracy of sighting is checked.5. The inclination angle of the side of a theodolite traverse is essentially the angle between the collimating ray {sighting line) and its projection onto the horizontal plane. I.11. The clamp screws of the limb and alidade are locked. 4. the following operations should be carried out. The level bubble of a vertical circle level is centred by the micrometer screw of the alidade. The readings are taken from the microscope. ZP is the zero point of a vertical circle. FL and ZP in calculations of inclination angles are less than 90°. The telescope is reversed.25) (5. Upon making angular and linear measurements at a station point 17. the hair cross of the telescope is aligned with the point 2 fixed on the plumb line. 5. Manipulating the tangent screw of the telescope.22). 5. 5. 2. The magnitude of the measured inclination angle is calculated by one of the formulae: v= FL -FR 2 -180° (5. To do this. and the same operations are repeated with a different setting of the circle. 3.

Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings is set up under the centre of a mark 18 to make a check measurement oNhe inclination angle in the reverse direction (onto the PQint 17). 5. An eccentric position of the telescope (with eccentricity e) results however in that the measured angle v' differs somewhat from the actual inclination angle v (Fig. The corrections (in seconds) to the inclination angles as measured by an eccentric-telescope theodolite of an accuracy of 30" are given in Table 5. Dipping angles larger than 50° can be measured by central-telescope theodolites provided with special attachments on the objective and eyepiece or by eccentric-telescope theodolites. In measurements of inclination angles. As may be seen from the table.7. it is required to introduce corrections for telescope eccentricity. it may be written: I sin v = I' sin v' and I' = ji'=-'ii (5. errors of limb reading.7 v Ti (5. it is also required to measure the instrumental height i and the sighting height v which are then used to determine the height difference between the traverse points and the dipping angle of the working. and therefore.Ch. and e.23 have the common' side lIB. mi. The triangles I-11-B and A-11-B in Fig. and errors mt which can Table 5. The procedure of angular measurements in this case is similar to that described above. 5.27) Fig. mv. The accuracy of measurement of inclination angles depends mainly on the errors of signal sighting in a vertical plane. m 10 40° 50 60 70 80 15 20 2" 3 5 8 15 25 1" 2 3 5 9 214" 307 448 710 1455 96" 137 198 315 650 35" 49 72 109 234 9" 12 18 78 58 4" 5 8 12 26 . since the inclination angle of a collimating ray does not always define the dipping angle of a working. 5. Let us demonstrate how an actual inclination angle v can be found from the measured and known values v'.23 Measurement of inclination eccentric telescope angle by 1 sin v = 1 sin v' or sin v = sin vi e~ close to 90° or when the lengths of traverse sides are less than 20 m. I. when measuring the inclination angles Inclination angle Error for telescope eccentricity with inclined length of traverse side.23).28) It is known from the experience that the error of measurement of inclination angles increases with an increase of inclination in the measured direction and a decrease of the length of traverse sides. 5.

the tape is applied so that it does not touch the plumb bobs. theodolites without compensators). Some types of steel tapes are shown in Fig. light range finders and other instruments. 5. Depending on the specifics of survey work and the reqmred accuracy.5. the tape is applied to the horizontal axis of rotation of the telescope. The readings on the tape are taken simultaneously at a plumb line and the horizontal axis of rotation . the error of measurement of an inclination angle in one full set can be determined by the expression: m " = (. 5. Thus. length measurements can be carried out by using measuring tapes. intermediate plumb lines are aligned by means of a theodolite with the collimating ray directed along the measured inclination angle.24 Measuring steel tapes Length measurement is one of the most important and labour-consuming operations of theodolite traversing in underground workings. The most convenient among them are 50-m tapes. aligned visually.18) and (5. The common material for measuring tapes is carbon or stainless steel. 5.Length Tapes Measurement by Steel tapes 20 m. Measurements of Traverses Side Lengths 107 appear due to inaccurate centring of the level bubble of the vertical circle alidade (in. The sides of a traverse are divided into intervals which are somewhat shorter than the length of a measuring tape to be used.12. + m: v 2 (5. Measurements of Side Lengths of Theodolite Traverses Fig.24. For measuring the lengths of sides in dipping workings. Marks in the form of movable knots and the like are provided on the strings of plummets. 30 m and 50 mlong have found wide use for length measurements in theodolite traversing. as a rule. In the extreme interval at the theodolite. the nns errors mi and mv can be determined by fonnulae (5.19).29) where 't is the scale division of the vertical circle level tube.12.) I mf + m. since they make it possible to measure in shorter time and with greater accuracy. The lengths of sides of theodolite traverses are usually measured by a tape held freely in air (catenary taping).12.1 . When chaining the intervals. 5. Plumb lines along a side are.

in centimetres. If this is non-available at the mining enterprise. the corrections per metre and for the whole length of a tape and the temperature conditions and tension in standardization. Measuring tapes are usually standardized on a comparator. it has the 'plus' sign. The temperature correction is determined by the formula: Alt = 11 (tm -tst) a (5. To obtain a greater accuracy of measured lengths. Q is the force of tape tension in measurements.108 Ch. The deviations thus measured and the certificate data for the standard tape . the intermediate plumb lines are shifted by 2 or 3 m. The comparison of measuring tapes can be carried out on a smooth surface where both tapes can be stretched at full length and tensioned by spring balances with a force not less than loo N. the corrected inclined length 4" of a measured interval is determined. When calculating the theodolite traverses of a reference net. Standardization of Measuring Tapes where q is the mass of I m of tape. or check base. poor aligning of plumb lines. The correction for tape sagging can be found by the formula: The standardization error L\lst is taken according to the tape certificate.2). 5. which is of essential importance in the construction of reference nets. Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings of telescope or simultaneously at two plumb lines. tst is the temperature at which the tape is standardized. The zero marks of the two tapes are aligned by means of a millimetre rule. standardization can be carried out by comparing the tape with a new standardized tape provided with a certificate. which ensures the check of measured lengths. The certificate gives. as a rule. the centimetre mark should be aligned with a plumb line. difference of temperatures during measurements and standardization. at the other end. Readings are taken two or three times. after which the deviation of the tape being checked relative to the standard one is measured at least twice. Since in most measuring tapes the first decimetre is graduated in millimetres and the remaining length of the tape. the deviation is thought to have the 'minus' sign. N. For the back measurement. if otherwise. tm is the temperature of measurement.2. then the horizontal distance is found by the formula 1 = 4" cos O which includes the inclination angle O measured earlier. The length of each side in underground theodolite traverses is measured twice. Using these corrections. forward and back. inaccurate standardization of the tape.8. and 11is the measured length of an interval. every time shifting the tape along the side being measured. and some other factors.12. and 11 is the measured length. certain corrections are introduced into the measured results. If the section being checked is shorter than the standard section. 4. kg. i.32) where a is the coefficient of linear expansion of steel. the readings with an accuracy to a millimetre are taken only at the initial end of the tape. The accuracy of length measurements in mines is largely influenced by the errors caused by the sagging of the tape under its own weight. e. Tapes for measuring the side lengths of reference and survey nets must be standardized in order that the relative error may be not more than 1:40000. 5. the additional corrections must be introduced into the horizontal distances in order to reduce these to the sea level (mean level of the surface) and Gauss projection plane (see Para.

The place for a check base should be chosen so that the temperature of air can be constant along its entire length. Two types of comparator. etc. and considering the error of length.5.25a) are attached to it symmetrically in l-m intervals. but the deviations for each metre of the tape being checked are determined by means of the scale plates on the check base. 5. Upon completion of the check work. A field check base can also be constructed in a mine. Two bench marks with centre lines are fixed in the ground at a distance of 100 m or 200 m from each other. One end of the tape is fastened to the check base.12. underground working. In practical measurements by the checked tape. 5. the certificate is filed for the tested tape. which is mounted on steel brackets along the wall of a building. bench marks are . Measurements of Traverses Side Lengths 109 are used to compile the certificate of the checked tape. whereas the other end is passed over a pulley and loaded by a weight that develops the required tension. or check base.5-mm divisions (Fig. A stationary check base (Fig. The standardization is done much in the same way as described earlier. An axial line is drawn on the top surface of the check base and scaleplates with 0. Then the comparator base is measured by the tape to be checked and the mean distance is calculated to determine the standardization correction. In that case. the standardization correction is introduced proportional to the measured length. are employed in the mine surveying practice: stationary check bases for control of metre intervals and the whole length of tapes and field check bases to standardize the whole length of tapes. A field check base can be arranged on a smooth area of ground. The distance between the bench mark centres is measured several times by means of invar or steel wires with a relative accuracy not worse than 1 : 50000.25) is a wooden shelf 3 to 20 m long.

the relative error of length measurement decreases with an increase in the length of a line: mL. The nature of their occurrence in individual measurement is usually unknown. etc.JL/j/ since n = L/I./l = b. it can be determined experimentally. Kinds and Causes of Accumulated Errors in Measurements by Meta!lic Tapes or mL.ja2L+b2L2 (5. a and b. i. Depending on the influence of random errors. uncertain readings on the tape scale. etc. To do this.Therefore. with the magnitude varying from one measurement to another. mL = bL. let us suppose that the interval 1 is measured with a systematic error m. With m. Let us find the expressions for estimating the random and systematic errors which can appear in length measurements. The probable sources of random errors are uneven tension of a tape in various measuremems. e the systematic error increasesproportional to the length of a line. and m. i.33) As may be seen from this formula.3. = a JL = a. systematic and random errors. The coefficient a is called the coefficient of random influence. then mL I' = mr In (5. can be determined by the formula: mL =. =m./ j/ mL . These errors can be revealed by repeated measurements./L= a/JL (5.).L/I . The procedure of standardization is essentially as described earlier. poor alignment of intermediate plumb lines. for instance. An example of permanent systematic errors is. the random error of a measured side length increases proportional to the square root of L. the given length in a mine is .110 Ch. Depending on the influence of systematic errors the relative error of length measurement is constant for particular measuring conditions and independent of L: mL. the omission of whole intervals in long sides. They may be either permanent (when both the sign and magnitude of an error are known) or variable. Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings usually established in the side wall of an underground working.n .35) In order to estimate the systematic error. . can be found experimentally. Systematic errors obey a unique law of accumulation and measurement. If the length being measured contains n such intervals. e.12. the error caused by poor standardization of a measuring tape.36) The coefficients of random and systematic influence. /L= b The total root-mean square error of measurement of a side length depending on m.34) Inaccuracies in the measurements of side lengths in underground traverses can occur due to gross. Denoting m.. or mL = m. 5. we get: (5. 5. can be measured with a systematic error: mL = m. the entire length Lof a line. including n intervals. Gross errors mainly appear owing to the carelessness of persons engaged in survey work (for instance. Random errors may appear irrespective of the instruments and measuring methods employed. Let the total effect of a number of random errors be such that the interval 1 is measured with the total root-mean square error ml'.

Detailed surveys can be carried out by the method of ordinates. The signals from the light source and light detector are fed into a recording device. method of cross bearings. culate a and b: a= J ~ n -[L] and b=0 where di = dj bLi 5. profiles and sections should represent all the elements and details essential for the geological and mine-engineering characteristic of a deposit: the geometrical form and spatial location of underground workings. . the accuracy of linear measurements to 0. etc. If the results of survey will be used for analytical calculations. and the results of more accurate measurements are considered to be faultless (true). polar method. if the scale of a plan is 1/5000. Surveying of these elements. geological structure of a section or deposit. the linear measurements in detailed survey can be made with an accuracy of 0. it is possible to cal- Using this difference.-L .13. Mine survey plans. the clear cross section of the working in each instrument station point is . Detailed survey for compiling a survey plan should be done with an accuracy at which all details can be shown properly on the scale of the survey plan. T 5.1 m is quite sufficient. The angular measurements in detailed surveys do not require an especially high accuracy: angular values can be read off with an accuracy to 5-10'. the reflected light beam enters a light detector. the accuracy of detailed survey must correspond to the accuracy of analytical calculations. For instance. for a plan scale 1/1000. Detailed Survey of Underground Workings . which is called the survey of details. Light range finders have a light source which emits a narrow light beam onto the reflector placed at the other end of the line to be measured. the difference between the common Li and more accurate measurements (LTi) is found: d. After that. etc.. The first of them is however most popular in surveys of permanent and development workings.5 m. The measurement of the length of a theodolite traverse by this method consists essentially in determining the time 't required for a light beam to cover the distance between the two points being measured in the forward and back direction. or detailed survey.5. Since the light source and light detector are combined and arranged in the same point. Detailed Survey of Underground Workings 111 measured with the common and higher accuracy.=L. Detailed survey can be carried out either at the same time when the survey traverses are being run or at a different time. consists in measuring the lines and angles that determine the location of the characteristic points of these details relative to survey traverse lines. Thus: D = v't/2 where v is the velocity of light in air and 't is the time during which the light signal covers twice the distance being measured. the light beam covers twice the distance being measured. The accuracy of location of details depends on the object of surveying and the scale of the survey plan. When running a theodolite traverse in a working.14. Distance by Light Measurements Range Finders Light range finders are employed in mine surveying mainly in the case of the centralized construction of reference mine survey nets when the majority of sides of theodolite traverses exceed 50 m in length. mechanisms and structures in a mine.14.

5.15. and (e) calculation of the corrected increases of coordinates and the coordinates of the points of a theodolite traverse. as the field books have been controlled and it has been established ~ . hi. The distances 01' 02' etc. 5. detailed survey can be performed quite quickly. h2. are measured with an accuracy to 10 cm and recorded in the field book as an increasing total from the starting point. The zero mark of the tape should be aligned with the projection of one of the final points of the traverse. The measured distances from the theodolite centre to the right. 5. Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings / x . O -. determination of the linear discrepancy. Detailed survey should also fix sharp changes of the bedding elements of a deposit. etc. The measured values oi.26 Sketch of detailed measured by a tape. The density of measurements depends on the curvature of workings. probable tectonic disturbances and their main parameters.~~ / .112 Ch. The ordinates h1. and distribution of this discrepancy proportional to side lengths. In detailed surveys by the method of ordinates. For successful office analysis. dipping angles and capacities of seams (veins). The positions of the points of details are determined by measuring the distances from the beginning of a theodolite traverse side to the perpendiculars drawn from these points onto that side and the lengths of the perpendiculars proper (ordinates). top and bottom are recorded in the field book. and its results can be transferred easily onto the plan of a mine working. (d) calculation of the increase of coordinates. etc.0 survey by method of ordinates Fig. (c) determination of the closure error of angles (angular discrepancy) and direction angles upon the distribution of this error. are measured with an accuracy to 2-3 cm.26). 5. (b) calculation of horizontal distances. It should be noted that these mineengineering documents also have juridical validity. the records in the field book and the book of calculated coordinates should be made accurately arid carefully. Office Analysis of Results of Underground Theodolite Survey and Calculation of Point Coordinates The office analysis of the results of an underground theodolite survey includes the following procedures: (a) control of mine (field) books and preliminary analysis of the measured linear and angular values. left. As a rule. the cross-sectional dimensions of the working along the traverse and other details are written on the sketch (outline) of the working. it is recommended to choose two intervisible theodolite points so as to measure the distance between them by a tape (such as points 17 and 18 in Fig. Using the method of ordinates.

the discrepancy f fJ must not exceed the permissible angular error: ffJ = 2m perm Jn fJ For hanging traverses run twice. Office Analysis of Results 13 that the results obtained are within the specified allowances. With the horizontal distances and direction angles of theodolite traverse sides being known. degrees ~x ~y 0-90° r=a 1270 . it is possible to determine the increases of rectangular coordinates by the formulae: dx = scosa = scosr dy = ssina = ssinr } Table 5. and R is an integer or zero. The checked mean values of angles and horizontal distances are written in the book of calculated coordinates. the calculated direction angle of the final side in an open traverse and the initial direction angle in a closed traverse will be true. the controller makes corresponding records in them. The analysis of linear measurements is started from calculating the arithmetic mean of side lengths. the formula is as follows: f fJ= l80°n + !:13-{l1f -l1in) -360° R where n is the number of measured angles. If the angular discrepancy exceeds the specified permissible value f /1 ' the traverse angles must be measured anew. The direction angles of sides of a theodolite traverse with measured left forward angles can be calculated by the formula: an = an-l + /31 180° ::t: and with measured right forward angles. by the formula: an = qn-l -/3r ::t: 180° The horizontal distances of sides are calculated by the formula: s = Scosv where S is the inclined length of a side and v is the angle of inclination of that side. / =2m /1 v ~ -1-n2 nl 1.1perm The discrepancy f /1 obtained in this way. depending on the kind of theodolite traverse. l1in and 11 are the direction angles of the initial I and final side respectively. and the angular error {discrepancy) is then determined by various formulae. For a closed traverse.5.8 Measured parameter Quadrant II ill IV a. After error distribution. degrees r. the angular error is determined as the difference between the actual and theoretical sums of interior angles of a closed polygon: f fJ= !:13"-!:13th In that case. provided that it does not exceed the permissible error. with an opposite sign. is distributed equally for each measured angle. For instance. The preliminary analysis of angular measurements consists in calculating the mean values of measured angles.15. for an open traverse with measured left forward angles. All erroneous records are struck out and the corrected values are written instead and signed by the controller.

127364 4 165 1405 1651356 2622926 -9" 82 2926 26.111952 94 3147 94 31 38 ~s 1780822 149.111257 0.985871 0.002 c Lf3m= 1058 0925 Lf3perm =10580822 IIlPnM 2mp In = 111=+1'03" = 2 x 20" J7 = 1'46" .9.367 0. of points measured corrected Horizontal angles Direction angles a' Tabulated angles a' Horizontal distances s Natural values cosa' sin a' tan (1' or cotan (1' D 20' 177' 00'00" -9" 30'43" 177° 30'34" 17 3034 17° 3D' 34" 23.508 0.167505 0.130689 0.958743 0.131820 177 5209 177 5200 26021 -9" 26 80 2126 29.489 0.296509 82 44 30 20.300863 0.993792 0.991424 0.953667 0.991987 0.315480 2 179 -9" 0031 1790022 16 3056 3 80 -9" 44 43 80 44 34 277 1530 -9" 16 3056 21.284276 0.169905 6 183 1527 1831518 263 36 44 -9" 83 36 44 27. Calculation Sheet: Point Coordinates of Theodolite Traverse Nos.809 0.Table 5.126343 0.361 0.468 0.

620 + 6.940 +2 29.625 + 6.060 + 22.200 34.135 ~/1x 1:L\y 89.446 3.114 +6.033. + 34.233 -89.000 +5 +I 2000.271 1937.Increases of coordinates.190 2034. = ~ < -.440 -26.939 -4. JAy -0. m Coordinates Nos.070 2037.007 = t=s ~ 0.191 -3.233 + 34.011 +5 +I 20.642 2013. 4400 3000 ~=~ ~s 3000 8.061 2 +5 +I + 20.872 +.044 3.641 2045.20.233 1910.061 2022.865 89.386 + 7. .115 2043.034 f.629 +2.034.865 c fAx = -0.=~=0. points of D 2000.629 + 2.176 3 + 2.634 -.535 4 +1 26.386 2007.446 1992.060 + 7.114 +"20.140 2042.271 6 +6 3.395 5 -4.645 +6 3.072 1966.934 -29.205 +6 4.038 -27.000 + 22.141 -3.381 + 7.044 +1 27.

37) and (5. = x. we get: xc=xD+LAx Yc = YD + L Ay whence LAxcalc = Xc -XD LAycalc = yc -YD (5. and the availability of fixed points. the left-hand parts in formulae (5.and right-hand parts of both columns. Since the measurements of angular and linear values in theodolite traverses involve certain errors.116 Ch.+ 0. = L\x.0Axi =&s. . 1 .40) 1 where f &x and f &yare the linear discrepancies of coordinate increases of an open theodolite traverse along the axes of abscissae and ordinates respectively. or by using electronic computers and special standard programs.38) L\ y '. 1= L\ . . 5. of a traverse line is found by the formula: h = ~1y + f1x Permissible linear discrepancies are specified depending on the purpose of theodolite survey.h. If the linear discrepancy is within the perIilissible value.37) (5.16. y . Upon the calculation of coordinate increases Ax and Ay.39) !£\y LAycaIc -(yc -YD) (5. Yc and XD' YD can be done as follows: Xi = XD + + AXD-1 AX1-2 ' Y1 = YD + ' Y2 = Y1 + AyD-1 Ay1-2 The linear discrepancy. -ayi The coordinates of the points of a theodolite traverse are found by the formulae: x.8. 1+ -1 L\x'. 5.9). . with the use of desktop calculators and tables of trigonometric functions (Table 5. [S] Noting the calculated errors °Ay' and °Ax" . 5.-. =&" ~i ayi [S] . X2 = Xi Xc = X7 + Ax7-c YC = Y7 + Ay7-C Adding the left. so that the calculated coordinates of the points of a theodolite survev do not corresDond to . LAxcalc -(Xc -XD) 1 D (5. and therefore -D f/1x Yi=Y~l:!:L\y'i The calculations of coordinates of underground theodolite traverse points are carried out by the formulae given above by one of the following methods: with the use of logarithmic tables.38) are not equal to their righthand parts. .20) with the known coordinates Xc. -aX. kind and length of traverse line. the errors in coordinate increases are distributed with an opposite sign proportional to the lengths of sides: 0. + 0. Accumulation of Errors in Underground Theodolite Surveys The positions of points in an underground survey are determined with certain errors. the corrected increases of coordinates are then determined by the formulae: L\x'. it is recommended to make check calculations by one of the formulae: Ax = Aycotanr or Ay = Ax tan r The calculation of coordinates for an open theodolite traverse run between points C and D (see Fig. . Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings The quadrantal bearings r and the signs at Ax and Ay can be found in Table 5.

.. we have: NN' displacement of the point N along the axes x and y will then be: N'N" = (mp /p) R1 and N'N" = (mp /p) R1 1 y 1 x where R1 and R1 are the projections of the shortest distance R1 from the polygon vertex 1 to the point N onto the coordinate axes and p" = 206265". Root-Mean Square Errors of the Position of Final Point of Free Theodolite Traverse Since angles are measured independently of the side lengths of a traverse. these errors are accumulated. in which the left forward angles 13i and horizontal projections of sides Si are measured. if any angle 13. Let the angle 131be measured with the rms error mp (see Fig. 5.1. e. = Mi + M.27). M /1' and of side lengths. My can be determined sepa&tely.. The displacement of the point N can be found from a rectangular triangle 1N N' : NN' = R1 tan mp1 (5. (5. the coordinate errors depending on Mx . 5. = = mpn= mp. it can then be written that the displacements of the point N . As the number of measured angles and the lengths of sides in traverses are increased. In that case the polygon 1-2. If all horizontal angles are measured with the same accuracy mp1 = mp2 = . = M~s + M.: -".27). The p tan 13= 13"/p". The error of the coordinates of that point is the sum of the errors of measurement of horizontal angles.1.and measured side lengths.p and M. The error in the determination of the final point of a traverse depends substantially on the configuration (shape) of a traverse line and mainly on whether the traverse contains the sides of a short length and angles close to 90°. so that the point N will oc6upy a new position N'.s The errors Mx and M y can be determined p p graphically. It is required to determine the errors of the coordinates of the point N of the free traverse relative to a point 1. Accumulation of Errors 117 the actual positions of these points in space. smce M~ = M~p + M.16.l-R1. e.fJThen it . M p . '. M s. "My=J~~ The total error of the planimetric position of the point N will depend on the errors of measured angles. M s: M2 = M~ + M.16. M~p + M.5. i.s possible to calculate the total errors of the coordinates of the point N by the following formulae: M x -/~. i.My and Mx . -...41) Suppose that a free theodolite traverse is run from the initial fixed point I (Fig.= mp. the points which are more distant from the beginning of a traverse are determined with an ever increasing error. 5. The traverse is run from a side II-I with fixed values of coordinates and a direction angle (l1I -I.27 Detern1ining free polygon errors accumulation in with the same error mp. N will be turned through an angle mp about a point 1. 5.42) Since at small angles it may be taken that m = -!!.is measured Fig....

Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings along the axes Ox and Oy are respectively m.. Then. = M2 + M2 y. we can obtain expressions for the root-mean square error of the position of the final point N of a free polygon in the coordinate axes: sys of + a2 systematic errors in length measurements. 2 The random components M. 5..47) " and -sys M y are the errors of the where s s . s.44) 02 ~ (5. .2 I i= 1 Under the influence of a systematic error of length measurement. (5.45) sys LN x sys the where and LN y are projections of closures LN onto the axes of abscissae and ordinates respectively. we can write: n M2 Xs = a2 ~ L. I 1 j=l (5..48) " s. I I + b2L2 N £. each ith vertex of a m2 " " M2 = --7 L Rf + 02 L Si + b2L~ p i=l i=l .118 Ch. = 02 i=l ~ L. + M2 Y. coordinates of the final point of a free polygon caused by the influence of random errors in length measurements and Mx and M y s s are their errors caused by the sXs Influence Mx Using formulae (5. . Using formulae (5.x.46) Let us now find the errors of the coordinates of the final point of a free theodolite traverse..44) and (5. m.. which are caused by the errors in Sthemeas~rement of side lengths.cos2a .. cos2a.=1 S i. . n ~ £. . s and M y s ..45). = M2 y. . M~ and M. = a2 ~ sj cos2a. can be found by the formulae: n M. R. + I b2L2 N. M y2 = a 2 . =a2 ""' £. s...43) and (5. I Ny i=l The total error of the coordinates of the point N caused by the errors of linear measurements will be: " M2 . s L. the errors along the coordinate axes for the final point N will be: Mx s = b£N x and My s = b£N . ~ p 'y p 'x The total displacement of the point N along the axes x and y under the influence of random errors of measurement of all angles will be: traverse is displaced along a straight line £i connecting that vertex with the initial point 1. and --1:1 R. /=1 (5. The errors Mx and My are the sums of the random and systematicSerrors in the measurement of each polygon side.' r L i=l II S. we have: M~ = M~ + M~ s sr ssys M2 y. n M2 y.sin2a.. + b2L2 N . S t + b2 L 2 N (5.+b2L2 .46).sin2a. Therefore. .sm a.

28b).48). Accumulation of Errors 19 5. i. The terms Ry' and sicos2a'. Root. I I x p 1=1 i=l (5. when a working is being driven towards an abandoned section.5... (b) in working driven .. .49) (b) where R. According to formula (5. ma " the rms error of measured of the direction angle of the nth traverse side.+ where ao side of a measured Let us errors ~" I 180° x n is the direction angle of the initial traverse and ~1' ~2' . when driving a working from both ends. 5. x 2 £. 'y' £.. denote: mIl' m Il ' . = -~ R~ + a2 ~ s. onto the direction relative to which M x' is determined.28a) or is perpendicular to the direction AB of a working being driven from both ends (Fig.2. ~" are the angles of the traverse.. e. a..cos2a' + b2L2. the rms error of the position of a face relative to the known (specified) direction M x' can be expressed by the following formula: mf32 n n M2..28 Driving underground working: from both ends in direction A-B.Mean Square Error of the Position of Free Traverse Point in the Known and Perpendicular Directions In practical surveying. (a) in direction of worked-out sections. For instance.. is the angle between the line Si and the direction relative to which M x' is determined. Suppose that the axis x' of a rectangular system of coordinates coincides with the direction of driving of a working.16. and 4' is the projection of the closing line L onto the axis x'.3. 5.. Fig. and ma the rms error of the direction angle of the rnitial side. CD (Fig. Root. m Il the rms 1 2 " angles.16.Mean Square of Direction Angle of Free Theodolite Error of Side Traverse The direction angle of the nth side of a theodolite traverse can be calculated by the formula: a" = ao + ~1 + ~2 + . is the projection of the distance between the vertex i and the final point of a polygon onto the direction perpendicular to that for which the error M x' is determined.. it is essential to know the error of the position of the face in the direction of the working being driven.. Let the chosen system of coordinates be denoted x'y'. it is often required to determine the errors in the positions of points of a free polygon relative to a critical direction. can be determined graphically.16.. 5. it is essential to know the connection error in the direction perpendicular to the working axis. 5.

nm/i 2 2 .: Considering theO rms error of the direction angle of the initial traverse side. = V / -.2 mao + -r .. then m. = m(J . m~-.51) man . Horizontal Surveys of Underground Workings Then. the rms (5. the fIllS of the direction angle of the nth side of a traverse will be: man= JI-=i (5.50) If the angles are measured with the same accuracy.120 Ch. 5..

km). Vertical surveys are carried out in order to in polygonometric traverses or 80 mm JL determine the height marks of individual in theodolite traverses (where Lis the length points established in underground workings. or direct. 500 m (for survey scale 1/2000) or 300 m (for When transferring the height marks in survey scale 1/1000). in steeper the available station points should be workings. les (up to 5°) and the latter. underground workings. checked for stability. is a survey station marks or polygonometric and theoprocedure in which the height differences dolite traverses can also serve as height (elevations) of some points over others are control points. to determine th~ height more than 10 m. or indirect. The former method is employed in underand ground workings with small inclination ang(e) before starting the levelling procedure. marks of the characteristic points of deposits (c) levelling lines between the initial bench (seams). General . to assign the specified slope (grade) to wor(b) staff spacings should not exceed 200 m kings. should not exceed 10 mm.1. the following accuracy requirements bench marks set in the solid rock in the foot should be observed: wall. The height transfer by geomeasured in a certain sequence.Chapter Six Vertical Surveys in Underground Workings foundations of stationary underground installations and structures.and then the metric levelling should satisfy the following requirements: required heights of points are calculated from (a) the discrepancies of measured heights the heights of initial points and the height of points should not exceed 50 mm Jf differences measured.these measurements are essential for marks should be closed or run forward and the solution of mining geometry and mine back. level instrument. The permanent Vertical survey. as read off on the black and red methods: (a) geometric. or levelling. (d) the discrepancies of height differences Vertical surveys can be made by two at a station. Additional levelling lines are run in polygonometric and theodolite traverupon advancing the main workings through ses. side walls and roof of workings or in the (a) the permissible discrepancy of a zero 6. levelling face of staffs or at two different settings of the and (b) trigonometric. to plot longitudinal and vertical profiin length and differ from one another by les and sections. by trigonometric leThe height control in mines is ensured by veiling. geometrization problems. of a traverse line. Levelling reference nets are extended all The discrepancies between the height diffeover the mining field and are later used as the rence established earlier and the test one basis for vertical surveys in underground should not exceed 10 and 20 mm respectively workings. levelling.

6. difference for each traverse line is determined by levelling forward and back. 6. can be divided into two main types by the The bench marks to be set in the footwall method of levelling of the sighting axis: or roof of workings may be of the same instruments with a level tube on the telescope design as the station marks of underground (dumpy levels) and those with a tilting angle horizontal referencenets. forward and back traverse. or simply and marks can also be used for setting in the automatic levels).lb). .2. m. n is the total Bench marks should be established at each number of sides in the forward and back level of a mine and preferably in places less traverses. in theodolite traversing.rather than the point of a plan control net.5' in polygonometric traverses and 3' in theodolite traverses. As a of traverse sides. The to mine lining.1251. The height on the mine lining or side wall rock. 6. rule. The heights of the points of the survey net 6. -11°1150 J (c) the discrepancy of two measured heights . dance with the specifications for linear mea.1 Special station plugs used in underor 10 mm in theodolite traverses. Side lengths should be measured in accorFor the identification of bench marks.6. Vertical Surveys in Underground Workings offset (horizon point) in the measurements of (.122 Ch. Levels are determined by using polygonometric staAll existing levelling instruments. km. '5 (b) the discrepancy of height differences ~I determined for a line by levelling forward and > back should be not more than 1/2000 of the side length in polygonometric traverses or 1/1000 in theodolite traverses.. bench marks are established in pit this discrepancy should be not more than bottom and main horizontal workings so as 120 mm JL.marker plates are nailed to mine lining surements in polygonometric and theodolite supports.la) and side walls of workings t~aversing should be not more than (Fig. and O is the mean inclination angle probable to be disturbed by stoping. they are replaced by corheights of the instrument and signals are responding inscriptions made in a fast paint measured twice by a metallic tape. The bench marks set in the Ah = [s]/4 v'l/n + siwo/3 footwall are preferable. . since they are less subject to deformations due to rock displacewhere [s] is the total inclined length of the ment during exploitation of deposit. tion marks as the initial points. 1/3000 and 1/1000). limits of the entire mining field. which bear the number of a bench traversing (the discrepancies between two mark and a letter M which indicates that the measurements should not exceed respectively bench mark in question is an elevation point. Special station plugs compensator (automatic-aligning.) "-. where L is the traverse to provide a levelling control net within the length. of a theodolite and signals should be not more than 5 mm in polygonometric traverses Fig. In sured at two different positions of the circle caseswhen marker plates cannot be fastened and in the forward and back direction. or levels. Vertical angles are mea. inclination angles is 1. and ground workings (d) the discrepancy in the height differences of the entire line of levels in polygonometric footwall (Fi"g.

(b) field of view The cylindrical level tube with the scale value of 15" is arranged in a box 1 together with an optical prismatic system which brings the images of the ends of level bubble into the field of view of the telescope (Fig. a telescope support 10 mounted on a vertical axis. 6. For rough sighting on an object. The sighting axis of the telescope can be arranged truly horizontally by manipulating the levelling screw 9 until the images of the bubble halves are perfectly coincident.1.2.6. 6. The image of cross hairs in the view field of the telescope is made sharp by rotating the diopter ring of an eyepiece 12. the telescope can be turned in the horizontal plane manually when the clamp screw 3 is unlocked.2. The instrument has an additional circular level tube 8 with three adjusting screws for rough adjustment of the vertical axis into a truly vertical position.3 Level type N-IOL (USSR) Fig. a triangular plate (tribrach) 7 with foot screws 6. Levels 9 123 6.2b). 6. Tough sighting of the telescope on a staff is made by using a vane 2. precise sighting is done by locking the clamp screw 3 and turning the sighting (azimuth) screw 4.3) is a small-sized . The telescope is focussed onto a staff by means of a focussing wheel 11. 6.2 Level type N-3 (USSR): (a) general view.2a) is an instrument intended for technical levelling. 6. Its main components are a telescope 13 with a cylindrical level tube attached to it. Dumpy Levels Level type N-3 (Fig. Level type N-I0L (Fig. (a) . and a spring plate (trivet stage) 5 having a threaded hole for an attachment screw by means of which the instrument is fastened on a tripod. The cylindrical level tube is provided with four adjusting screws covered with a lid.13 2 Fig.

6. Level MOM Ni-Bl is manufactured in Hungary (Fig. The prismatic optical system brings the image of the ends of level bubble into the field of view of the telescope. 6.5). A sharp image of the cross hairs is obtained by turning the diopter ring 2 of the eyepiece and a sharp image of a staff.5 m. 4 -levelling screw. stadia factor loo :t 1%. The graticule (cross hairs) has a vertical hair and three horizontal hairs of which the two extreme (shorter) ones serve for distance measurements(stadia hairs). The shortest sighting distance is 1.telescope. cylindrical level with a prismatic system. 6. scale value of cylindrical level (at 2 mm) 45*.5 Level type Ni-Bl (Hungary): l-telescope. 6. The instrument is quite convenient for underground applications. Level type NiO60 manufactured by Carl Zeiss. It can transfer height marks with a root-mean square error of :t 6 mm per kilometre of a level line.endless sighting screw . levelling screw 4 for precise horizontalization of the sighting axis. 2-cylindricallevel tube in casing.4 Level type NiO60 (GDR): 3-pivoting mirror. All sensitive parts of the Fig. 6. 1. For setting up on a station point. by turning the focussing knob 1. 4-cylindri- 2-sphericallevel. callevel Fig. circular level 3. The instrument has rotatable portion consisting of a telescope 9. and a stationary portion with a horizontal circle 7.9 kg in mass (Fig. 8. Vertical Surveys in Underground Workings instrument for technical levelling and has the following characteristics: telescope magnification 23. and scale value of the horizontal circle (limb) 10. that of circular level 10'. 3-scale microscope eyepiece. For measuring horizontal angles. The telescopeis of the internal-focussing type with the field of view wider than 2°. The cylindrical level with the scale value 60" is provided witq a pivotable mirror. 5. The limb readings are taken by an index arranged in a window 6. the instrument is mounted on the ball-and-socket head of a tripod 5 so that the bubble of the circular level will be in the centre. these images must be made coincident by means of the levelling screw before taking a staff reading. the tripod is set above the centre of a bench mark by means of a plummet. Jena (GDR) is a small-sized instrument 0.124 Ch.4).

we can find from Fig.and moisture-protected. The test and adjustment procedure is then repeated. by moving the instrument on the ball-and-socket head of tripod). the screws of the mount must be tightened (first the mid screw and then the top and bottom screws). by a sighting device. on the other (A) (Fig. vertical hair coincides fully with the plummet line. 6. Test and Adjustments of Dumpy Levels T he axis of a circular level must be parallel to the rotating axis of an instrument. The upper portion of the instrument is then turned through 180°. then the readings taken on the staff will contain an error x and the true readings will be as follows: a'i = ai + x . The bubble of circular level is brought into the centre by means of foot screws (for level type N-IOL. With the microscope scale value 10'. If otherwise. The level has no clamp screw. but makes an angle i with the latter. Levels 125 instrument are dust. the reading ai is taken on the staff in the point B and the height Vi of the level instrument is measured. B. If otherwise. T he sighting axis of the telescope must be parallel to the axis of cylindrical bubble level. The rotating axis of an instrument is first arranged truly vertical. perpendicular to that axis. When measuring height differences by a Ni-BI level.1) Denoting the height difference of the point B over A as h. by a quarter-turn to shift the cross-hair plate if needed. 6. the rms error does not exceed :!: 3-4 mm per kilometre of a level line. The top and bottom screws must be slackened by a full turn and the mid one. i. 6.6 that: h = Vi -a'i = vi -ai + x (6. With the horizontal position of the bubble level axis. If the sighting axis is not parallel to the bubble level axis. T he vertical hair of the graticule must be parallel to the rotating axis of the instrument and the horizontal hair. The readings are taken by means of a scale microscope whose eyepiece is arranged near the telescope eyepiece. after which the telescope eyepiece is fastened in place. Upon the adjustment of the cross-hairs. a2 = a2 + x } (6. 6. the bubble is moved by adjusting screws towards the zero point through half the deviation arc and then brought into the centre by operating the foot screws (for level type N-IOL. A staff is set up on one of the points. the accuracy of reading is 1'. The horizonta position of the level tube is controlled by the method of prismatic alignment of the ends of level bubble. say. e.3) . Rough sighting is done manually and precise sighting.2) or h = a~ -V2 = a2 + x -v2 (6. Then the telescope eyepiece is set in place to check the position of the vertical hair. the condition is satisfied. If the bubble does not move from the centre.2. and a level instrument. The condition is satisfied if the.6a). The test is carried out by the method of double levelling forward between points A and B arranged at a distance of 50-75 m from each other and fixed by spikes or pegs. the sighting axis is not horizontal. The instrument is provided with a horizontal glass limb of 76 mm in diameter and scale value 1°. The instrument is provided with a levelling screw.6b). The vertical hair is sighted on the line of a plummet hung at a distance of 20-25 m from the level instrument. Then the level and staff are interchanged to take the reading a2 on the staff and measure the height V2 of the instrument in the new position (Fig. This is the principal condition to be satisfied by a level.6.2. the eyepiece of telescope should be taken off to allow access to the graticule mount which is fastened by three screws.2. by moving the instrument on the tripod head).

and their mean value hm is taken as the final result. For better accuracy. The final value is taken as the arithmetic mean of all measurements. The level instrument is set up at equal distance from these points. e. This test can also be made by levelling the same points A and B from the mid forward.7 Check of parallelism of sighting axis and axis of cylindrical bubble level by double levelling from mid forward . The angle i should be measured at least twice. 6. By operating the levelling screw. Vertical Surveys in Underground Workings (al corrected as follows. the non-parallelism of the axes is Fig. the staffs are set up in the points A and B. Inm.126 Ch. 6. h2 = = a2 -b2. h1 = h2 = h. the images of the ends of the level bubble are aligned by means of adjusting screws. i. Then. ~ Fig.6 Check of parallelism of sighting axis and axis of cylindrical bubble level by double levelling forward 2s . If the sighting axis is parallel to the bubble level axis. the horizontal hair is set on the reading a2 + sjp" (6. and the readings a and b are taken on them (Fig.7) on the staff set up in the point B. the true height difference is obtained irrespective of whether the test condition is satisfied. with the discrepancies between the measured values not more than 5". the height difference is measured two or three times changing the instrument horizon. If the angle i has been found to be greater than 10". where p" = 206265" and s is the distance between the points A and B.--.6) on the staff set up in the point A or on the reading at + sjp" (6. then a2a1 = = b2b1. 6. 6. then h1 = at -b1.7a). and therefore. if otherwise. If the instrument is set up at equal distances from the staffs.

these points are levelled forward upon setting up the instrument over one of these points.8. the displacement Zlz'l of its centre can be expressed as ZlZ'l = 1 tan £ or. To take a correct reading with an inclined position of the sighting line. the reading on a staff will be correct. ~' . Otherwise.9) after which the sighting axis of the telescope can be adjusted parallel to the bubble level axis by the method described above. it is required to calculate the true reading on the staff set up in B from the true height difference (hm) obtained by the levelling from the mid and the height of the instrument v. If the discrepancy between the height differences measured by levelling from the mid forward is less than 4 mm (x ~ 4 mm). say.3. £ =='i=i1 s -£I . the centre of cross hairs will be displaced from the horizontal line and occupy a position Z'l' Since the cross hairs are usually arranged in the rear focus plane of the objective. 6.2. Let us consider the schemesof stabilization of the sighting line by compensators in modem automatic levels. 2.8c). 6.8 Optical schemes of level compensator: Level instruments with cylindrical bubble levels require careful levelling before operation and continuous checking of the bubble position when taking readings. z 1 ~ p Z I Id) =40~~ v ~z ~ J~z (e) 6. The compensation 1£ can be introduced by displacing the cross hairs from a point Z'l into Zl by turning the level PZ'l on a point P through an angle £' (Fig.8d) can be displaced so that the true staff reading is aligned with the centre of cross hairs (comnen- .2.6. A (Fig. since the angle £ is small. 6. 1.8) where v is the height of the level instrument and b3 is the reading on the staff set up in the point B. Let the sighting axis of the telescope be now non-horizontal and make an angle E with the horizontal plane (Fig. Levels 127 Mter that. In that case. by using the formula: b~ = v -hm (6. The image of a staff (Fig. optical or optico-mechanical type. the cross-hair centre should be displaced in some or other way from the horizontal line and be in a point z l' This procedure is performed by compensators whose principal schemes will be discussed below. 6.8b). ZlZ'l ~I£. 6. r' ~ r O -=F::: E Zl ZI . In this position of the axis.7b). Automatic Levels Fig. the sighting axis of the telescope can be regarded to be parallel to the axis of the cylindrical level. 6.a). Suppose that the sighting line of the telescope is in a truly horizontal position zz1 (Fig. (a} (bl. This drawback is eliminated in automatic-aligning (or simply automatic) levels in which the sighting line of telescope is automatically horizontalized by means of a special compensator (stabilizer-compensator) of a mechanical. the height difference will be: h2=v-b3 (6. In that case.

Upon passing through the objective 6.The instrument has no azimuth screw and the telescope is sighted onto objects by turning the instrument body by hand. The sighting line is displaced parallel to itself to pass through the centre of cross hairs (Fig. where E' is the angle of deviation of the ray by a compensator.. 6. 6. and enter the sensitive element (rectangular prism) 11 of the compensator.9b). sing. The instrument is provided with a horizontal circle 3 having 1° limb divisions. light rays fall onto the reflecting faces of a larger pentaprism 7. light rays enter a smaller pentaprism 8 where their direction .10. 6. Rough levelling of the instrument is effected by means of a circular bubble level 5 with the scale division 10'. The telescope is focussed by a knob 2.8e. The direct-image telescope (I.n~ support up to::!: 15'.. change their direction by 90°. 6. The deviations of the cross hairs from the true vertical or true horizontal position can be corrected by turning the entire eyepiece unit upon slackening the clamping screws. the required condition is f = ks. and k is the compensation factor (k = E'IE). and for the schemesin Fig. The compensators of modern automatic levels ensure the compensation of the sighting axis within the angles from:!: 6' to :!:40'. The optical scheme of a level is essentially as follows (Fig. 6.8c and d. Vertical (b) Surveys in Underground Workings ~ 7 8 \ " -11 ) --tr 9 10 " Fig.8e). s is the distance from the compensator to the cross hairs or the length of the path of sighting rays from the point of incidence onto the optical system (prism or mirrors) of the compensator to the cross hairs. the lever or optical system placed in a point p for the compensation of an inclination angle must satisfy the condition fE = SE'.128 (a) -I Ch. 6. The prismatic compensator of the instrument ensures the horizontal position of the sighting axis at the inclinations of the instrum. (b) optical scheme of compensator sation with rotation of the sighting ray through an angle EJ.9 Level type N-I0KL (USSR): (a) general view.9a) is intended for technical levelling with a rootmean square error of 8-10 mm per kilometre of a single run. Index readings can be taken with an accuracy to 0. The cross-hair mount is provided with adjustment screws to correct the position of the sighting axis. 6. 4) of the instrument is placed in a heat-insulated ca-. According to the compensation schemes shown in Fig. 3. Automatic level type N-1OKL (Fig. Upon double reflection in the prism 11.

The telescope proper consists of a front lens 1 and focussing lens 3 of the objective. (b) optical scheme of compensator 9-1270 . and an eyepiece 6. Levels 129 is changed again by 90° and finally get into the lens system 9. The axis of suspension of the rectangular prism is chosen so that the distance from the main rear plane of the objective to that prism is equal to the optical distance from that prism to the cross hairs.Fig. The compensator is arranged between the focussing lens 3 and cross hairs 5 and comprises two prisms 4 and 7. The pentaprisms are fixed and the rectangular prism is mounted in a tilting frame suspended on two bearings.6.4".10) is intended for class IV and techJlical levelling. The telescope is focussed by means of a focussing knob 2 which moves the rectangular prism 11 vertically in a slide. Level N-3K.hich makes it possible to employ the horizontal circle for control survey and tacheometric survey on flat terrain. 6.10b. 6. 10 of the eyepiece. the former being Fig. In that case the coefficient of angular magnification of the compensator is k = 13/a= 2. The instrument is provided with an optical (prismatic) compensator having an operating angular range::!: 15'. It can transfer heights with a root-mean square error of ::!:3 mm per kilometre of a level line. The collimation line is horizontalized automatically with an accuracy to ::!:0. 6. The instrument has a horizontal circle with a scale microscope.10 Level type N-3K (USSR): (a) general view. cross hairs 5. height differences can be measured with an rms error within::!: 3 mm. The optical scheme of the instrument is illustrated in Fig.2. where a is the inclination angle of the telescope and 13 the deviation angle of the sighting is ray of the compensator. w. A circular bubble level with 10' scale graduations facilitates rough setting of the instrument axis into the vertical position. With the distances between the level and staffs up to 100 mm.

The pendulum-type compensator of the level NiO07 has an air damper and can compensate tilting angles up to::!: 10'.5". gives a root-mean square error within :t2. This arrangement (a) . 6.5 mm. 2-circular bubble level. (b) optical scheme of compensator . 4-telescope focussing screw. if employed under normal conditions. The steel wires intersect in the centre of gravity 9. If the instrument is inclined by a certain angle E. 6. i. The instrument compensator is insensitive to jolting during transportation. 6. The instrument has a horizontal circle with 10° divisions. A double-action air damper 5 brings the pendulum to the state of rest in less than I s. without the parallel-plate micrometer and with centimetre-graduated staffs.130 Ch. When used for technical levelling. 3-rnirror. Ocular estimation can be made with an accuracy to I '. 3 which are mounted on a pendulum 4 and a fixed roof prism 2 (Fig. Rough levelling of the instrument is effected by Fig.11 Level type NiO25 (GDR): (a) general view.llb). Vertical Surveys in Underground Workings fastened internally in the telescope tube 2 and the latter suspended on crossed steel wires 8. 1-endless sighting screw. Level type NiOO7 (GDR) is intended for technical and precise levelling (Fig. Precise levelling is carried out by using a parallel-plate micrometer provided on the instrument and precision staffs with invar tape. e. 6. in precise levelling. the pendulum will also deviate by the same angle E under the action of the force of gravity.3 ensures automatic horizontalization of the sighting line.5 mm per kilometre of a double run (Fig. The working angular range of the compensator is::!: 10'. The oscillations of the compensator suspension are damped by a piston-type air damper 10. The sighting line is horizontalized automatically by a compensator arranged between the focussing lens and eyepiece of the telescope and consisting of two rectangular prisms 1.1la). Level NiO25 (GDR) is intended for technical levelling and. The mean error of the horizontalization of the sighting axis is not more 0.12). 6. the accuracy is ::!:0. Precise aiming of the level at a target is effected by an endless sighting screw. the instrument gives a mean error of::!: 2 mm per kilometre of a level line.

Level type Ni-B3 (Hungary) can be employed for class III and IV and technical levelling (Fig.12 Level type NiOO7 (GDR): 1. 3. Fig. two of them (1 and 2) being movable and the third (3) being fiXed. The instrument has a glass limb with a scale microscope which reads with an accuracy to::!: 1'.2. . The horizontal-circle microscope is located just under the telescope eyepiece. . The telescope has a large magnification (31. (b) optical scheme of compensator The compensator of Ni-B3level (Fig. 6-circular bubble level.l3b) has three rectangular prisms.13 Level type Ni-B3 (Hungary): (a) general view (l-telescope eyepiece.5 X) and can be aimed with a high accuracy. 3-focussing screw. The glass limb of the horizontal circle has a scale value of 10'.endless sighting screw. The compensator has the working angular range::!: 8' and the mean error of levelling of the collimation line is not more than::!: 0. The level is manufactured in two versions: with and without the horizontal circle. 6. 6. Levels 131 (a) Fig. 7 -micrometer drum means of a circular bubble level. 6. 2-optical microscope eyepiece. 5-sighting screw. 2-telescope. The root-mean square error of levelling is not more than::!: 2 mm per kilometre of a level line. 6. but ocular estimation can be made with an accuracy to tenths of that value.4".telescope window.13). 4.6. 4-clamping handle.focussing screw. The rotation axis of the instrument is set upright by means of a circular bubble level with the bubble image being transferred into the field of view of the telescope.

Mter this procedure. 6. 6. TN-7. The axis of the circular bubble level must be parallel to the vertical axis of rotation of the telescope. ---~'\ ~ K" 50:!:. say A and B (Fig. Level type TN-7 has a wide-range compensator which can stabilize tilting angles up to :t6°. If otherwise. it is moved back through half the deviation arc by means of its adjusting screws. the test and adjustment must be repeated. The optical system of the telescope has a high illumination power and gives an erect image of objects. The levels of these types are provided with a horizontal angle-measuring circle which makes it possible to assign directions. Vertical Surveys in Underground Workings 6. D 50. the instrument upper portion is turned through 90° to check that the bubble does not move from the centre.1 m .2. The working angular range of levels types TN-6 and TN-9 is :t30'. and survey flat areas by the polar method.0. After that the bubble is brought into the centre by operating the foot screws of the instrument. Tests and Adjustments of Automatic Levels Test of the circular bubble level. These small-sized instruments (0.The test and adjustment in this case is essentially the same as for dumpy levels. 6. The upper portion of the instrument (telescope) is then turned through 180°. 6. carry out station fixing. x.132 Ch. The horizontal line of cross hairs must be perpendicular to the vertical axis of rotation of the telescope. The tripod has an extendable top portion to quickly change the instrument horizon.5 kg in mass respectiveIy) are intended for technical levelling.0.15a). The collimation line must remain truly horizontal when the axis of rotation of the instrument is tilted within the range of working angles of the compensator. and TN-9 have been designed specially for underground work. Levelling work in constricted underground workings is facilitated by the provision of a diagonal eyepiece on the instruments. and 2. The bubble of the circular level is brought into the centre by operating two foot screws. If the bubble deviates from the centre. Pegs are driven into the ground at two points.:!:.4.7 kg.8 kg.14). spaced at a distance of 100:!: 0.2 (a) ~ a< I ~ Irb Fig.1.14 Level type TN-6 Levels types TN-6 (Fig.lm . 1.

i. x' = x". p" = 206 265". The level must beset up. Levelling Staffs 133 5~ "\ @ Fig. The instrument is then transferred to a point C (Fig. The systematic error of the compensator per minute of deviation of the instrument axis is then calculated by the formula: -(hv -ho)p" O'c-2sv where h" is the mean height difference measured with the instrument axis tilted at the compensator working angle. The mean height difference calculated by these measurements. To make the adjustment. 6. hl = a -b. At least five measurements are done for each staff distance. Determination of the compensation -error. 50 m.e. If O"c 0. the level axis being perfectly upright and tilted at the maximum working angle of the compensator (v). Levelling Staffs d2 dl -d2 f J where x is the correction to the reading on the farther staff. e. The latter measurements are made with various positions of the circular level bubble (I.6. They may have a different length: 4 m or 3 m for surface work and up to 2 m for underground work. and dl and d2 are the distances from the instrument to these staffs. hl -h2 > 2 mm. with the arms AD and DE equal to each other. 50 m. i. and the level is set up midway between them (in a point D). e. and v is the angle of inclination of the instrument. i. the difference of arms must be not more than I m. Wooden staffs are .3. it is required to adjust the collimation axis upon determining the corrections by the formulae: x= d dl J.5". is free from all instrument errors. The height difference between A and E is measured at least three times without changing the horizontal setting (horizon) of the instrument. 6. The height differences between the staff points are measured successively. the instrument must be adjus> ted at the manufacturing works.16). the level telescope is aimed at the farther staff and the horizontal line of cross hairs is aligned with the true reading on the staff by operating the adjusting screws of cross-hair mount. with the distances between the staffs 10 m. since. which largely facilitates reading-off in underground workings.in the centre Levelling staffs are made of well-seasoned pine or spruce wood. and 200 m. This test is carried out in the field by measuring the height differences with the lengths of instrument arms of 5 m. 6. 2. ho is the mean height difference obtained with the instrument axis in upright position. and 100 m. If the discrepancy between the measured height differences is more than 2 mm. 3. 6.3. 25 m. Some types of staff are made of transparent materials. lOO m. mm. s is the length of the collimation line. 4 and 5 in Fig.15b) to make new measurements of the height difference h2 between the points A and E.16 Positions of bubble in circular level when determining compensation error "-/ 0 m from each other. f 1 -d2 v= of the distances being levelled. y is the correction to the reading on the nearer staff.

4. Levelling under the conditions of underground workings is recommended to be carried out by the method 'from the mid' (two-staff technique). Additional bench marks may be set up by the results of revision. The procedure includes revision and fixation of bench marks. 6. centimetre graduations are grouped so as to form clearly seen decimetres. Geometric levelling in mines does not differ principally from surface levelling. and prove that graduations are applied correctly. A check must determine the mean length of a metre interval. 6. but the schemes of underground levelling are characterized by a greater diversity. graduations are applied on a plastic. In either case (with a bench mark set in the roof or footwall). For easier reading. the use of standardized steel tapes is also possible. errors of decimetre groups. and office analysis of field observations.17 underground Schemes workings of geometric levelling in . 6. Staff readings are taken with an accuracy to 1 mm. Geometric Levelling in Underground Workings Geometric levelling can be employed in underground workings with dipping angles not more than 5-8°. a staff is set up so that its starting end is applied to the bench mark. Staffs are checked by means of a standard metre. In novel makes of mine survey staffs. The discrepancy between the actual lengths of decimetre groups must not exceed ::I: 1 mIn. Staffs for technical levelling have l-cm graduations. The principal aim of revision is to check whether the levelling project in question is chosen correctly. levelling proper. Let us consider some probable schemes of geometric levelling in underground workings.134 Ch. after which patterned graduations are applied by means of a template or special machine. reflecting coating or lavsan film. (a) fb a< ~~ ~ I A . The operation consists in studying the state of the workings and existing points of reference nets. Vertical Surveys in Underground Workings initially impregnated with a drying oil and painted white. Levelling staffs must be checked periodically to establish their accuracy. Fig. This is mainly associated with the fact that the existing bench marks for levelling may be set in the roof and footwall of a working.

in the footwall (Fig. repeated readings are taken on the red faces of both staffs or with a different position of the telescope. the instrument is set up roughly over the centre of a change (turning) point and prepared for observations. 6. In this case the height difference of a point B over a point A will be determined by the difference of readings on the staffs set on the forward and rear points (bench marks): h=o-b where h is the height difference. If the discrepancy between the two height differences thus determined does not exceed the permissible value. The telescope is then reversed and sighted on the forward staff to take the reading on the black face of that staff. the levelling instrument is transferred onto a next station. Levelling is carried out by bench marks set in the footwall of a working (Fig. the rear one being fixed in the footwall and the forward one. 6. In geometric levelling in an underground working by the two-staff method. and b is the reading on the forward staff.l7d). 2.170). The operation of the compensator is . and the reading is taken on the black face of the staff. The telescope of the instrument is first sighted on the staff set on the backside point.4. in the roof of a working (Fig. and the reading is taken on the black face of that staff. 3.17b). For this. Upon completing the survey work on the given station. the staff reading on a bench mark located in the footwall is taken to be positive and that on a bench mark arranged in the roof.6. The height difference of the forward bench mark over the rear one will be determined as the sum of readings on both staffs: h = a + b. and the reading is taken on the staff black face. The telescope is then pointed to the forward staff. At once a check is done whether the readings are taken correctly. If the l~vel instrument employed is of the automatic-aligning type. The work on the new station is repeated as described above. I. The operation of the compensator is checked by turning slowly the foot screw.In this scheme. the field work consists essentially in the following. Geometric Levelling in Underground Workings 135 1. the rear staff is taken off from the common turning point and set up successivelyon intermediate points. a is the reading on the rear staff. The considered particular casesof determination of height differences with various schemes of bench mark arrangement can be covered by a common rule: the height difference between two bench marks in any levelling scheme is equal to the forward staff reading (foresight) minus the rear staff reading (backsight). and the staff on the point of known elevation is transferred onto the fore-side common point of a next levelling interval.6. Mter that. to be negative.l7c). 6. The results of levelling are recorded in a field book of a form like that given in Table 6. while the forward staff remains in place. with one of them (rear) fixed in the roof and the other (forward). The compc:nsator operates properly if the staff reading is not changed on rotation of the screw.1. the height difference is the sum of readings on the two staffs. Levelling is done by two bench marks. it is set up roughly in the mid between two common (change) points so that one of its foot screws is on the sighting line. Levelling is carried out by two bench marks. The instrument is initially sighted on the rear staff. taken with a 'minus' sign: h = -(a + b) 4. If the surveyor's level employed is of the type with the level tube on the telescope. Levelling is carried out by bench marks fixed in the roof of a working (Fig. 2. the height difference between the change points is calculated for the first and second pair of staff readings. The height difference of the point B over the point A is found as the difference of readings on the staffs suspended from the forward and rear point: h = b -a.

136 Table 6.1. Technical Work place Performed by

Ch. 6. Vertical Levelling Book

Surveys

in Underground

Workil

South

entry

Level N-IOL

~tations

P~gs, pOInts

Notes, sketches

21

22 23

1169 5859 1212 5899 1350 6039

242.849
1018 5706 J316 6001 1250 5940 151 153 -104 -102 100 99 2502 2506 354 346 360 364 -2870 -2864
1:h

52 242.697
103 -241.450 100 242.700
L)U4

242.800

4

24

-1252 -5948 -1255 -5935

-1152 -5841 -1606 -6294 -1615 -6299 1314 5996

240.296
350

239.946 362 239.584

26

-1556 -6242

I:R = -22188 21528 Page-to-page control -680

I:F

-22807 21351
-1456

6736 5940
796 Checked by

1;h.. = 3368 -2970

-242.451 dh = 398

Date

checked again. If the compensator operates properly, the staffs are turned by their red faces to the instrument and measurements are repeated, but reading-off on the red faces is now started from the forward staff. Geometric leyelling can be used for vertical survey of haulage tracks in weakly inclined and horizontal workings. Levelling is carried out by change points arranged in intervals of 10 m or 20 m by means of a linen tape. The points are marked by chalk on one of the track rails and fixed by a suitable method on the side walls of the working. Track levelling is done in traverses supported by the points of a levelling reference network. Levelling

from a single point is also feasible, provided that it is carried out forward and back. The level instrument is set up roughly in the mid between two change points, and staff readings are taken with an accuracy to a millimetre. In mine track levelling, the initial bench mark may be the last change point of a preceding levelling line, provided that the last height difference is checked and the discrepancy does not exceed 1 cm. The discrepancy of levelling lines must not exceed 30 mm JL, where L is the length of a line in hundreds of metres.

6.6.

Errors in Geometric

Levelling

137

At the same time with levelling work, the height of the working at each change point is measured. 6.5. Office Analysis of Results of Geometric Levelling The office analysis of mine measurements in geometric levelling includes the control of the field books, calculation of height differences at stations, page-to-page control, adjustment of calculated height differences, and calculation of the heights of reference net points and change points in track levelling. If levelling is carried out by means of dumpy levels or levels with self-adjusting sighting axes, two height differences are measured on the black and red faces of staffs at each station, after which the mean values of height differences are calculated as the arithmetic mean of two readings. The calculations are checked by page-to-page control which in the case of geometric levelling (see Table 6.1) is made by the formula }:;R -}:;F = }:;hi -}:;h2 = 2hm where }:;R is the sum of readings on the staffs set on rear points; }:;F is the sum of readings on the forward staffs; }:;hi is the sum of height differences read off on the black face of a staff; }:;h2is the sum of height differences read off on the red face of a staff; and }:;hmis the sum of mean height differences. The misclosure of a closed line is fh = }:;hi and that of a line run between the bench marks isfh = }:;hi-(HA -HB), where HA and H B are the heights of initial bench marks. The permissible discrepancies are introduced with an opposite sign into the calculated height differences as corrections determined by the formula O = (n/N)fh' where n is the number of stands (tripods) in the line to be corrected and N is the number of stands in the entire levelling line. The sum of corrections should be equal to the actual discrepancy taken with an opposite sign.

The corrected height differences are used for calculating the height marks of the points by the formula H., = H,,where point, point, these The are by the Hi Hi-l and points. height marks by EH of means head), = HB rear the intermediate of which + b, the points instrument where and set with footwall HB is 1

+

h., height height height mark mark on a subsequent on a preceding between

is the

is the

hi is the

difference

calculated (elevation formula mark the height

horizon

is determined

of the on

point staff

b is the on that

black-face point. sign working the roof. The (pegs) head: mark reading staff the 'plus' Upon the of change the if In

reading this the and formula, peg with is

b is taken set in the sign

a 'plus' of a in

-a 'minus'

if it is set

height are Hc of = an on reading EH

marks

of by

intermediate using Hc point on that the is the

points elevation height c is the The sign with if a

calculated

::!: c, where

intermediate the staff set up

and

point.

c is taken up is in set the up of

with

a 'minus' and roof.

staff sign

is set if it

footwall in the the

calculation and

height points, on a

marks a profile horizontal scale

of

intermediate is plotted and scale the

working 1/2000 The large to

scale to

1/500

vertical is usually

1/200 20

1/50. as

vertical as

taken scale.

times

horizontal

6.6.

Errors

in Geometric

Levelling

If the height mark of the initial point is known, -the height mark of the final point of geometric levelling can be found by the formula: H
i = H, In + ~h. I

where Hin is the height mark of the initial point and ~hi is the sum of the height differences of a levelling line, which are usually obtained by levelling from the mid.

138

Ch. 6. Vertical

Surveys

in Underground

Workings

Each height difference is determined as the difference of staff readings, i. e. hi = ai -hi, Let us determine the root-mean square error of the sum of height differences. For this, let the rms errors of height differences be denoted as mi. m2. m3. ., '. mn, Since the distances between the change points of the line of levels are practically equal to one another and the work is done by a single instrument and under roughly identical conditions, the measured height differences can be taken to be equal to one another, i, e. mi = m2 = m3 = , , , = mn = m. Thus, the rms error of the sum of height differences is m; = nm2, The errors of height differences are influenced predominantly by the errors of readings on two staffs and therefore: m2 = m~ + m~ = 2m~ ,:"here mo is the rms error of a staff readmg. The error of a staff reading can be caused by an error of sighting and an error of level tube setting. The reading error caused by a sighting error can be recommended to be found by the formula: 6011 mv = -I Mp" where M is the telescope magnification; 1 is the sighting distance (to the stafI), m; and p" = 206000". The accuracy of level tube setting is taken equal to 0.l5t" (here t is the level tube division). Thus, the reading error caused by inaccurate setting of the level tube can be found by the formula:
m t-

the telescope magnification is M = 20, the sighting distance to the staff 1 = 50 ill, and 't= 20": mo=J~= 1.Omm

Hence the rms error of a height difference in levelling from the mid, with the distance between the instrument and the staff 50 m, will be: m=~=1.4mm The formulae given above make it possible to determine in advance the rms error of levelling with an instrument of specified characteristics and under particular conditions or, on the contrary, to choose an appropriate instrument and method of levelling to ensure the required accuracy.

6.7. Trigonometric

Levelling

0.l5t"
--;;--I p.

The
mo -;: -v

total
mv 2 +

reading
mt 2

error

will

be:

By way of an example, let us calculate the root-mean square error of a staff reading if

Trigonometric (indirect) levelling is resorted to in underground workings with a dip angle more than 5-8° where geometric (direct) levelling becomes inefficient. Theodolites employed for indirect levelling should have the accuracy of vertical circle reading not worse than 30". Trigonometric levelling is usually carried out at the same time with establishing the underground horizontal (planimetric) control (polygonometric traversing). Theodolites are mounted on the platforms of console holders. Measurements are made with the use of sighting marks or height compensators; disc-type signals are recommended at dipping angles greater than 30°. If plummets are used, marks should be provided on their strings for easier sighting. Vertical angles are measured in one set luf.'..rd and back. The measurements are checked by observing that the zero point is in a constant position. The permissible difference between zero point positions may be seen in Table 6.1. The instrument height i and the sighting height v are measured twice by a

6.7.

Trigonometric

Levelling

139

measuring tape. Tape readings should be taken with an accuracy to I mm. If trigonometric levelling is to be carried out over polygonometric points, the following conditions should be observed: (a) the difference of zero point positions should not exceed 1.5'; (b) the discrepancy of the height differences measured by levelling forward and back for the same side should be not more than 1/2000 of the length of that side; and (c) the difference between two measurements of the height of a theodolite or signals should be not more than 5 mm. If trigonometric levelling is to be carried out over the points of a theodolite traverse line, the following conditions are essential: (a) the difference of zero point positions should not exceed 3'; (b) the discrepancy of the height differences of a side, determined by two independent measurements, should be not more than 1/1000 of the length of that side; (c) the difference between two measurements of the height of a theodolite or signals should be not more than 10 mm; and (d) the height discrepancy of a traverse should be not more than 120 mm JL. where L is the length of a level line, km. The lengths of trigonometric levelling lines are measured according to the specifications for linear measurements in underground polygonometric traverses. Each height difference is measured twice: by sighting forward and back, and the arithmetic mean of the two measurements is then found. Corrections to the calculated mean height differences are determined by distributing the traverse misclosure between the height differences proportional to the lengths of sides or by considering the relative weights of height differences. Let us consider some probable schemes of trigonometric levelling in underground workings. I. Suppose there are two statiQn marks A

(a)
s --

~

-~--=-

.,

Fig. 6.18 underground

Schemes of trigonometric workings

levelling

in

140

Ch. 6. Vertical

Surveys

in Underground

Workings

and B set in the footwall of an underground working (Fig. 6.180). It is required to measure the height difference of B over A. To measure the inclination angle of a side AB, the theodolite can be set up either in the lower point A or in the upper point B; let it be first set up in A. Then a plummet is hung over the point B and a mark (say, the point of string connection or the plummet point) is chosen so as to sight the theodolite telescope on that point. The height difference for the schemeshown in Fig. 6.180 can be calculated by two formulae, one of which includes a horizontal distance s and slope v and the other, the sine of an inclination angle v and inclined length S. Denoting the sighting height by v and the instrument height by i, we obtain for the first case: h+v=stanv+i and therefore h=stanv+i-v For the second case: h+v=S sinv+i

than B, then according to Fig. 6.l8b we have: h=S sinv+v-i

3. With the point A set in the roof and the point B in the footwall (Fig. 6.l8c), the height difference can be found by the formula: h = -S sin v + v +i

4. If the points A and B of trigonometric levelling are set in the roof of a working (Fig. 6.18d) and the theodolite stands in the upper point (point B), then the height difference will be found by the formula h=S sinv-v+i

6.8.

Errors in Trigonometric Levelling

and therefore h=Ssinv+i-v If the theodolite is set up in the upper point B, the formulae for height differences will be written as follows: h=s tanv+v-i h=Ssinv+v-i As may be seen, the structure of the formulae with sin v and tan vis essentially the same and only the trigonometric function is different. Below, we shall use only the formulae with the sine of an inclination angle. 2. If the points A and B are set in the roof of a working and the theodolite is set up under the point A which is at a lower height

The error of location of the final point in trigonometric levelling is determined by the error of location of the initial point of a traverse and the error in determining the height differences. In this case, the error in determining the location of the initial point will not be considered. We shall only analyse the accumulated errors caused by the errors in determining the height differences. If the root-mean square errors of height differences are denoted as mi' m2' m3, ..., mn,the sum of height differences will be calculated with an error:
M 2-mi 2 + m2 2 + m3 2 + ...+ m" 2

The rms error of a height difference will then be expressed as follows: m2 = m2 sin2v + m2S2/p 2 + m~ + m2

h

.v,

v

where m. is the mean error of measured length of a line, which can be found by the formula m; = ~2S + A2S2 (here ~ is the coefficient of random influence; A is the coefficient of systematic influence in linear measurements; and S is the inclined length of a line); v is the inclination angle of a line; p" = 206

6.8.

Errors

in

Trigonometric

Levelling

141

265"; m" is the error of measured vertical angle; mi is the error of measured height of an instrument; and mv is the error of measured sighting height. The last two errors may be taken to be equal to each other, i. e. mi = mv. In view of what has been said above, the preceding formula can be rewritten as follows:
S2 m2 = ,,2Ssin2v + A.2S2sin2v + m2- 2 + 2m? h , p Let us calculate the root-mean square error of height difference determined by trigonometric levelling for the following data: sighting length S = 30 m; inclination angle

v = 25°; ~ = 0.0015; I.. = 0.0001; mv = mi = =2mm: m~ = 0.00152 x 30000 x 0.422622 + 0.00012 x 300002

+ 2 x 22 = 17.6 mm Thus, m" = 4.2 mm. If the height difference is measured when levelling forward and back, then: , r m" = m,j.J2 = 3 mm

Chapter Surveys of Preparatory

Seven and Stope Workings

7.1. General The progress in mining technology is largely due to the introduction of mining systems with a large number of preparatory and stope workings whose position and state can change substantially both in space and time. Deposits of more intricate shape are worked out by more complex mining systems where the problem of accurate and timely coordination of underground workings becomes of crucial importance. As has been found, the surveyors of modern mining enterprises spend the major part of their time on survey work for servicing preparatory and stope workings in extraction sections and stoping blocks. From the standpoint of mine surveying, underground workings can be divided into the following groups: A. Preparatory workings which can be further subdivided by the conditions of surveying into workings with the angles of dip up to 45°; those with the angle of dip more than 45°; and connecting workings and outlet workings (draw holes, funnels, winzes, etc.). B. Stope workings which are subdivided into: faces in gently dipping and inclined seams;faces in steep seams;faces in layerwise worked-out seams; faces with an open stoping area; shrinkage stopes; and chambers (cavities) of large volume. The latter type of workings is again subdivided into three groups: (a) cavities in which the observer with instrument can be present (chambers left in the chamber-and-pillar systems of working, large-sectioll tunnels, etc.);

(b) cavities into which only instruments (automatic or semiautomatic) can be introduced (usually through vertical holes) that is cavities formed through leaching of salts, underground chambers containing petroleum and gases, deep ore chutes, bins, etc.; and (c) cavities which are accessible neither for observers nor instruments (chambers left in the level-chamber systems of working, caving cones on the surface, voids formed in seams worked out by the caving system, etc.). c. Blasting workings: deep blasting holes, mine chambers, and wells. The list of survey objects includes all preparatory and stope workings, various hoI~s and chambers, fill-in strips, fill-in boundaries, drainage, ventilation and fire-fighting facilities, haulage tracks; elements of the geological structure of deposits, i. e. places of tectonic disturbances, thinning and wash-out of deposits, visible rock-mineral contacts, points of mineral assaying and other elements essential for proper exploitation of deposits; elements of occurrence of rock pressure, i. e. fissures, inrushes, domes, etc. which are important for solving the problems of efficient and safe exploitation of mining workings. The surveys of preparatory and stope workings involve the determination of details of the geological structure of a deposit or. its particular areas (the shape and bedding conditions of deposits, tectonics, distribution of quality of the mineral, etc.); determination of the dimensions and spatial position of mining workings for the construction of mine survey plans and solution of analvtical Droblems

In the latter case. in forward and back direction with simultaneous measurement of the inclination angle of the measured line. In underground workings with the angle of dip more than 30°. Instruments for Surveys 143 associated with driving underground workings of the planned dimensions.7. both measurements can be done in the same direction with measuring the length of intervals if the line is longer than the length of a measuring tape. Goniometer traverses should be connected at both ends to the points of a theodolite traverse.1 Angle of dip of wor. The discrepancy between the angles measured by half-sets should not exceed the values given in Table 7. the coordinates of the points of survey control are determined twice. If theodolite traverses are run in workings with the angle of dip less than 30°.Permissible angular discrepancy bekings. not more than 1/200. it is permissible in taping to stretch the tape without spring balance. The sides of theodolite traverses are measured twice: in inclined workings. horizontal angles can be measured in a single repetition or set. with the circle being reset roughly by 180° before the second round. The accuracy of goniometer traverses can be characterized by the following data: root-mean square error of angular measurements 10'. The difference between the check and final values of an angle should not exceed 1. The surveys of underground workings are based on survey nets which can be formed by running theodolite or goniometer traverses. The discrepancy between the angles obtained in individual sets should not exceed 2'. degrees tween half-sets. ultimate length of a traverse 0. min at junctions between horizontal and inclined workings 31-45 46-60 61-70 in inclined wor. this distance should be not more than 20 m.5' in measurements by the method of repetitions and 2' in those by the method of sets. Instruments for Surveys of Preparatory and Stope Workings 2 3 4 3 4 5 The most popular instruments employed in mine surveying practice for the surveys of . The discrepancy between the two measurements of one and the same side of a theodolite traverse should not exceed 1/1000 of Table 7. Angles in theodolite traverses are measured by theodolites of a root-mean square accuracy not worse than 30". kings the side length and the linear discrepancy should be not more than 1/2000 in closed traverses with gyroscopic sides or 1/1500 in traverses run between two sides of a polygonometric traverse. 7. In places where mining workings approach dangerous zones. The error of centring of the theodolite and signals in theodolite traverses should be not more than 1/2000 of the horizontal length of the smaller side of a measured angle. The initial points for theodolite traverses are the points of polygonometric traverses. Steel tapes for the measurements must be standardized to have the relative error not more than 1/40000 of their total length.2.1. horizontal angles should be measured by two rounds. and ensuring safe conditions of mining.2. The points of a survey net should be located at distances not more than 50 m from a face. discrepancy between two measured lengths of a line 1/100. in horizontal workings.3 km. Stope workings can be surveyed by running goniometer traverses with the use of theodolites or instruments of a lower accuracy. and linear discrepancy in traverses run between two sides of a theodolite traverse.

Since the surveys of stope workings most often are to be carried out in a restricted space. 2. 7. The telescope system has two optical wedges.index. 6.. 7. 5. two images of the stadia pole are (c) Fig. each of which covers half the objective and deviates the collimation ray by the same angle but in different directions.1). Before taking a stadia reading. Surveys of Preparatory and Stope Workings formed in the telescope. and a horizontal scale with five square divisions. The goniometer set includes a ranging (stadia) pole. 7. 4 ~ bracket. The telescope is of the internalfocussing type with the focussing range from 2 m to infinity. each of them corresponding to 1 m in distance measurements. suspension compasses and suspension semicircles are also in use. The magnitude of displacement of the images relative to each other depends on the distance to the stadia pole. instruments for the purpose should have small dimensions and a low mass and ensure the specified accuracy of measurements of the worked-out area.2 Ranging pole for UTG goniometer (a) and field of view of goniometer UTG (b and c) .1 Goniometer type UTa: l-horizontal circle. 3. The ranging pole (Fig. 7 ~ hinge joint preparatory and stope workings are engineering theodolites and goniometers.144 Ch.horizontal axis. The telescope tube is then (a) Fig. two inclined hairs.2a) is made in the form of a rectangular glass plate having four horizontal hairs (to read off tens of metres).vertical circle. Thus. the telescope is sighted on the mid of the stadia pole (along the height).telescope. Goniometer type UTG (Fig. The telescope of this instrument has a double-image range finder with the stadia factor K = 500. 7. 7.

3 Goniometer type UT-3: I-base. Instruments for Surveys 145 Fig. and height mark transfer to subleve~ workings. 7. Mine surveyor's goniometer-tacheometer (Fig.5 = = 28. 7-sighting-and-ranging rod moved by means of the alidade tangent screw until one of the left-hand inclined hairs is made coincident with anyone of the righthand horizontal hairs at which tens of metres are read off. it can also be used for tacheometric surveys on the surface.7.2. Metres and decimetres are read off in a common way. 4-clamp screw. 2limb. . 7.2b is: 30 -5 + 3.5 m. 10-1270 This is a repeating-type instrument provided with stadia hairs. Two of tliem serve for distance measurements by means of a sighting-and-ranging rod and the third pair. for instance.2c is 10 + 1. beginning from the first black square. 7. The range finder of the goniometer type UTG can measure distances with a relative accuracy 1/100 to 1/200. The telescope of the instrument carries a sighting-and-ranging rod. the reading in Fig. The readings on the horizontal and vertical circle are taken by means of a measuring drum with an accuracy to 1'. In all other cases.6 m. If the inclined hair coincides with a figure '5'. orientation of sublevels via inclined or vertical workings.4) is intended for the surveys of preparatory and stope workings and assigning of directions in driving workings. for instance. The limb of horizontal circle has fivedegrees graduations. Goniometer type UT -3 (Fig. 5-sighting screw. The whole metres and decimetres are then read off on the left-hand portion of the horizontal scale.6 = 11. 6-telescope. when the inclined hair does not coincide with '5'. i. The instrument is essentially a repeatingtype goniometer with the telescope having three pairs of stadia hairs. the reading shown in Fig. it is required to subtract 5 m from the read-ofT number of tens of metres. The stadia hairs permit the measurements of distances from 5 to 30 m with an accuracy of 1/200 and from 30 m to 40 m with an accuracy of I/lOO. e. 3-vertical circle.7. 7.3) is designed for the surveys of preparatory and accessible stope workings. the read-ofT number of tens of metres is left unchanged.

The instrument has vertical and horizontal pairs of stadia hairs. A wide-angle finder 2 is provided for quick aiming at objects. The vertical axis. The range of measured distances is from 2 m to 40 m and a relative accuracy of 1/200 for distances up to 30 m and 1/100 for those above 30 m. base 6. The goniometer is aimed at an object by means of 'endless' tangent screws 5 and 9 respectively for horizontal and vertical sighting. as well as in the upright position on a tripod. which ensures that the relative accuracy of measurements is not more than 1/100. The instrument can be centred under and over a point by means of a mechanical or optical plummet. The reading accuracy of the vertical and horizontal circle is 1-2 minutes and the root-mean square error of angular measurements. 7. and reversible level tube 4 are designed so that the goniometer can be mounted in the upright or inverted position on a console holder 7. Suspensioncompassesand suspensionsemicircles can be used for measurements provided that there are no large magnetic masses in the vicinitv. a reading eyepiece 3 is made rotatable. 7. Goniometer-tacheometer type UTO-3 (Fig.146 Ch. The instrument can measure vertical angles between -65° and + 90° and distances in mines between 2 m and 50 m. The goniometer portion of the instrument has worm-and-gear mechanisms instead of reading circles. The telescope of the instrument is mounted eccentrically and permits the measurements of vertical angles within the limits :t 90°. 7. which corresponds to 1 minute of arc. not more than 3 min. Surveys of Preparatory and Stope Workings Fig. The readings are taken on measuring drums with estimation by eye to tenths of a division. The instrument has an erect-image broken-type telescope 1 with a diagonal eyepiece 10. Distances are measured by means of stadia hairs with a stadia factor loo.5 Goniometer-tacheometer type UTO-3 by means of a common levelling staff. The vertical and horizontal circles are arranged in the housing 8 of the goniometer. For convenience of an observer. Measurements underground are made by using a special stadia pole with a transparent scale which can be arranged either horizontally or vertically.5) is designed for the surveys of uilderground workings and can also be used for the tacheometric surveys and surveys of quarries in open-cast mining. The goniometer has an optical reading system in the form of a scale microscope. .

7) is used to measure the vertical angles of the sides of compass traverses and consists of a limb I. 7. the magnetic needle is fixed by an arrester. plumb bob 2 and two hooks 3 to hang the semicircle on a cord 4. For surveying. the needle is tested for sensitivity.6) consists of a round housing 1 and a suspension 2 which can be fastened on a cord 3. its sensitivity should be improved. 7. Limb graduations . The limb 4 of the compass has one-degree graduations increasing anticlockwise from 0 to 360°. In the non-operating state. the readings can be taken at both ends of the needle.6 Suspension compass A suspension compass(Fig. A suspension semicircle (Fig. the suspension compass is suspended from a cord with the zero mark facing forward. The former fault can be eliminated by polishing the point axis and needle pivot or by replacing them and the latter. 10. 7. Instruments for Surveys 147 Fig. by applying one pole of a permanent magnet to the needle and drawing it from the needle centre to the opposite pole end of the needle several times (up to 20). For this. The housing is hinged in the suspension and can be arranged horizontally. The insufficient sensitivity of the magnetic needle may be caused by some defects of the point axis and needle pivot or by the demagnetization of the needle. The needle is considered to be sufficiently sensitive if the difference between the two readings does not exceed the read-off accuracy.2.7. the compass is suspended on a cord and the reading is taken. Before using the compass. The point axis 5 in the centre of the housing carries a sensitive magnetic needle. Then the needle isdisbalanced by a magnetic mass and let to come to rest. Otherwise. after which the second reading is taken.

D ~//////////////////////////////// 'l/ ~/. Inclination angles can be measured with an accuracy to I 15'. and mass 2. o o 0 I 0 0 0 0 O ~ . 7. the line of a face is determined by measuring the distances from the face to the survey traverse points located in cross adits or entries of the upper and lower level. The survey of details is then carried out by the method of ordinates. In steep seams where the mineral is being worked out from the bottom upwards. Referring to Fig.01 m. and a sketch is plotted which gives all dimensions and details essential for the compilation of mining work plan and calculation of the voluII1e of the extracted mineral. Telescopic rod. The tape is then stretched along the bench (on the strike) to obtain a point a'. 7. In this way.1 .increase from 0 in the mid of the semicircle to 90° at its ends. The lower side of the indicator is covered by a reflecting foil which reflects the light of miner's head lamp and makes the point of rock contact readily visible. a point C is first established along the line of points A and B of a first-order survey traverse in the hauling entry.9 Face survey stope system 0--A in stepped-face - overhand 7. ~. The rod consists of three telescopic aluminium tubes 1. the position of a stope face is determined by the tape measurements of bench elements. all benches are measured by the tape up to the ventilation entry. The distance from the point C to the base of the nearest bench (up dip) is then measured by a tape. a support foot 4.3. 3.T--- E F' F --0-- // . 9 o 9 0 ~ ~ ~-(JJ --0 ////////////////////////////////~ C C.9. On deposits which are worked out with mineral extraction on the strike. which gives a point a./ a / a' ~ ...4 m. 2.8) which has the measuring range from 1. and an indicator 7 with a clamp screw 8.6 m to 4. 7. stoppers 5. With the overhand stope system of work- ing.Surveys of Stope Workings in Steep Seams The positions of stope faces in steeply dipping seams of deposits are mainly determined by linear measurements which are made successivelyalong the entire length of a face. the tape traverse is connected to a point F. the .. The thickness of deposits can be measured by means of a telescopic rod (Fig.5 kg. The orientation of the tape traverse is performed by means of triangles constructed on junction sides FF' and CC'.0 ~ ---o b. b . B Fig. After that. root-mean square error Io. . 6.

The survey of details is made by the orthogonal method from the cord sections. which makes it possible to arrange the 'bar' horizontally. and a plumb bob is sunk through the raise to fix the point A at its end.7. The 'bar' is essentially a 2-m wooden rod with decimetre divisions. Surveys of Stope Workings in Coal Fields 149 7. 7. a survey traverse with temporary or lost points is run along the line of a face (Fig. A plumb bob and semicircle are attached in its centre. Horizontal angles in the survey traverse are measured in one set by engineering theodolites or goniometers (such as types UTG and UT -3). filled-in sections.11 Face survey gently dipping seam utilizing survey net on . and the peculiarities of seam structure are sketched.10 Face survey suspension semicircle by means of cord and line of a stope face can be determined by means of a suspension semicircle or special 'bar'. The ends of a straight line are connected to the points of a control survey established in raises. the line of a face is closed onto the theodolite traverse via the second raise (onto a point 16).3. 7.11). after which tape measurements are made from the vertexes (or sides) of the traverse to determine the position of the face and the dimensions of left pillars.10). a fixed point 19 is chosen on the theodolite traverse in a ventilation entry (Fig. The inclined lengths of Fig. 7. by a suspension semicircle. etc. the lengths of cord sections are measured by a tape and the inclination angles of cords. In this survey. 7.2.3. For control. the thickness and angle of dip of the seam are also measured. For the surveys of faces in gently dipping seams. Surveys of Faces in Gently Dipping Seams Fig. Survey is made from a straight line laid out by means of the 'bar' on the side surface of a seam. The traverse points should be located as close as possible to the face front. The cords should be stretched in a plane parallel to the wall of deposit. Survey by using a 'bar' can be carried out in practically vertical seams of a low thickness. The discrepancies between the heights of points at the end of a traverse must not exceed 1/200 of the traverse length. In the former case. Cords are stretched from this point along the line of the stope face.

For controlling the position of the complex. it is essential to ensure survey control of the linearity of a face and the position of a powered complex in it. 7. i. The junction of a goniometer traverse to a theodolite traverse can be effected by means of a connection triangle. the complex should be located perpendicular to the axes of the entries.11) to measure the angle 'Y of the connection triangle and angle 13. its connection to the polygonometric traverse is not needed. For this. gases. In view of a large diversity of mining conditions. petroleum. Underground cavities are regarded to be inaccessible if observers have no access to their walls or if this is forbidden for some or other reason.3. length of face. 7. The position of the complex is controlled by measuring the distances from its ends to the like pickets in the entries. underground cavities are divided into accessible and inaccessible. For dipping seams (with the angle of dip 15-25°). the junction angle <p can be calculated by the formula: <p= 180° -(I + a/c) 'Y where c is the length of the polygonometric traverse side. From the standpoint of mine surveying. pickets are established at intervals of 10 m or 20 m in the main entry and ventilation entry. the inclination angles of survey traverse sides should be measured twice. forward and back. These cavities may be filled with air. If the first point is chosen so that the connection triangle angle 'Y does not exceed 5°. The faces of a large extension (above loo m) are controlled for linearity by means of engineering theodolites or goniometers. whereas the surveys of inaccessible cavities have certain specific features. surveys based on the photogrammetric . e. etc. The actual inclination angle is found as the half-sum of measured values. Surveys of Preparatory and Stope Workings traverse sides are measured by a linen tape or by goniometer stadia hairs. The length of the first side a of the goniometer traverse is measured. Surveys of Underground Chambers and Cavities As the mineral is being extracted underground. it may be distinguished between the following trends in the surveys of underground workings of large volume: surveys based on the tacheometric principle of determination of coordinates of inaccessible spaces. e. Thus. the hauling (conveyer) face must be advanced to some or other extent depending on the type of complex.150 Ch. these distances should be equal.4. Accessible cavities can be surveyed by the methods discussed earlier. The check for the linearity of a face ofa small length (60-100 m) can be done visually or by taping from change points or theodolite traverse points. The lines connecting like points in both entries should be perpendicular to the axes of entries. these distances should not be equal. The linearity of a face with a powered mining complex must be checked at least once a month. salt water. 7. since in that case the angle between the face conveyer and the axis of hauling (conveyer) entry must be equal to 91-93°. the goniometer is set up in a point 1 in the entry (see Fig. and mining and geological conditions. With horizontal and gently dipping seams. If goniometers with eccentric telescope (types UTG and UT -3) are employed.3. If a traverse is run in a face with the sole purpose to check the face linearity. Survey Work in Faces with Powered Mining Complexes For the normal exploitation of faces equipped with powered mining complexes. there are formed voids and cavities of various configuration and size. 7. i.

a2.).12 Tacheometric survey of chambers by Using a light projector set up in one of the two theodolites two points.4.4. and surveys in which coordinates are determined by the conversion of physical quantities into geometrical. Some makes of tacheometers (such as type accuracy to 10 (Fig.2 Section ~ 2 The tacheometric method of surveying is I based on a polar spatial (spherical) system of ~s~!!.1. 7. light marks Conned by a vertical and horizontal angles. are lengths up to 40 m with a satisfactory accura- ~-1 . etc. the contours of chambers can be measured with a relative error of 1/200. Surveys of Underground Chambersand Cavities principles of coordinate determination.1 between the direction I-II drawback of the method of light marks is and the directions onto the points of intersection of profiles with chamber walls (01' that it is impossible to survey the wall in 02' etc..2 (respectively 13'1'13~.has shown that the instrument can measure dolite. The method of angular intersections is tal and vertical circle of the theodolite No. light marks 01' 02' etc. in the stand point of a up to 50 m. e. light spots are formed on the most characteristic portions of walls of the cavity and fIXed with both instruments by Conned on the chamber wall at the specified making intersections.~ -coordinates.1 . With the sighting length surveyed.With each sighting of the theo. After that. 2 Ti .1 can be determined by the method of intersections by two angle-measuring instruments from two points. usually employed in cases when special instruments for surveying of inaccessible spaces These measurements make it possible to determine the positions of the points of are non-available. The readings are taken on the horizonsolution of the problem. A theodolite No. Horizontal angles 131' 132'etc. GDR) are provided with a doublepoint I and oriented onto a point II. by measuring the height. 7. and image (coincidence) range finder.2 are aligned with the light marks a1. The results theodolite No.l.No.) are measured by a protractor with an which a theodolite is set up.7. with intervals of 5-6 m.etc.12).Tacheometric Surveys of Underground Cavities II 151 I I Theodolite No. Theodolites are set up in two points with known coordinates. The practice horizontal angles 131' 132' etc. etc. produced by the theodolite obtained are then used for the analytical No.o!!. 7. the theodolite is set up in a BRT-006. The volume and contours of a chamber Theodolite No. For surveying in the chamber. Fig. This method is rather simple and not very vertical sections of the chamber to be labour-consuming. are set out of application of type BRT-006 tacheometer successively. i. The survey work is started by plotting the specified profiles. and 0'1' o~. The positions of points of an object being surveyed relative to the stand point of the instrument are determined by ~ measuring two angles (horizontal and vertical) and a linear parameter.

gent knobs.. ~ " ~ .frequency switch. A light mark is formed by the projector. 6."' / 1 Fig.eyepiece. lasers have come into use in mine surveying as sources for making light marks in the measurements of inaccessible distances. With measured distances ranging from 4 m to 100 m. since double images of a light mark cannot be brought to coincidence quite precisely. An example is the type TG-4 tacheometer which has a projection-visual range finder with a variable basis and constant parallactic angle at the instrument.Iii 1 1- ~ -IIi /!1 i ~ 7 // 6 Fig. Laser marks are projected on the walls of the chamber by a specified programme.13). their range finders operate on the principle of two known directions formed by a telescope and light projector. which facilitates and speeds up observations. 7.scale illumination switch. .14 Electro-optical tacheometer type MIFT -2: 1. At larger distances. light-projection tacheometers have come into wide use.tan. the accuracy worsens substantially. The horizontal hair of the tacheometer telescope is sighted on the centre of a laser mark. This increases the range of measured distances anrl the accuracy of measurements. With an arbitrary position of a mov-. In recent time. 3. the relative error is 11100 to 11200. ' . The essenceof the method of laser ranging in underground chambers consists in that a tacheometer (such as type BRT-006) and a laser are set up in an approach working near a chamber to be measured. Recently. Surveys of Preparatory and Stope Workings its width is measured by a measuring device (Fig. 7. 8-distance readings . 5 -cancel button.'" ~~. 7. 2.. and 1I 73 -111' .152 Ch. 7. The telescope and projector are focussed synchronously.vertical and horizontal circle readings.. 7. The laser together with collimator serves as a laser light-mark projector. 4 -laser switch.13 Scheme of projecting (I) and measuring (2) systems of tacheometer type TG-4 11 il ll II 11 I !i I 1111 11 11 II I II 11' -2 cy (1/100).

Laser beams emitted by the projector are reflected directly from the rock. rather than from special reflectors. by moving a light source. The base-measuring bar is set by means of a sighting diopter 3 perpendicular to a survey control-net side and the side wall of the working is photographed.The two images are brought to coincidence. In order to eliminate these difficulties. 1. the internal contours of the working in the plane perpendicular to the camera axis are gradually illuminated. metric survey of underground workings The method of short-base stereophotogrammetric survey of underground cavities was proposed at the beginning of the 1950's. which makes it possible to observe a stereomodel of the photographed object diminished in a ratio b'/b. A survey is done by the polar method from an approach working. 7. A method of photogrammetric surveying of sections in horizontal workings by means of a light beam is employed with successin the USSR. An electro-optical tacheometer type MIFT -2 has been developed in this country for tacheometric surveys of inaccessible chambers and cavities (Fig. Measurements on stereoscopic photographs are made jointly by the principle of stereoscopic viewing. 7.14). The rms error of distance measurement in the range from 7 m to 80 m is around 20 cm. which makes it possible to obtain the scaling basis together with a photograph of the cross section of a working. The principal complications of this method are associated with ensuring that the illuminated plane is strictly perpendicular to the camera axis and also with scaling of photographs. 7. . A base-measuring bar 1 (Fig. This method is principally based on direct intersections.7. since the two overlapping photographs make a stereopair. GDR. 7. a photographic camera is set up on a tripod in a working. two images of the mark are initially seen in the eyepiece.4.15) is set up on a tripod in a safe place in the chamber to be measured or in an approach working. Photogrammetric of Underground Surveys Cavities Fig. At its ends the bar carries two wide-angle shortfocus photographic cameras 2 whose axes are parallel to each other.1 designed in this country.the camera shutter is opened and. It consists of an angle-measuring instrument and electro-optical laser range finder. Surveys of Underground Chambers and Cavities 153 able pentaprism. The two photographs (stereopair) are viewed through a stereoscope. In this method. an instrument set FS-6 has beel.5'. and other countries. Experience has shown that this method of surveying with type BRT -006 tacheometer is applicable at distances up to 60 m and gives a relative error around 1/400.15 Scheme of short-base stereophotogram. CSSR. .4. and the readings are taken on the basal scale and vertical and horizontal circles.2.5' and that of horizontal angles. whet"e b' = 65 mm is the eye base (interpupillary distance) and b is the base of photographic cameras. The root-mean square error of measured vertical angles is 0.

in rough surveys. extract the brine-lifting pipe string. The total error in measurements of cross-sectional areas is :t 1. Surveys of Preparatory and Stope Workings The instrument set includes a photographic camera. The received signals are recorded by the receiver. and allow time for natural untwisting of the logging cable (the time of cable untwisting may amount to 1. Sound ranging has found wide application for surveys of underground cavities formed through salt leaching and of vertical workings of large cross-sectional area.5. power supply unit. Surveys Workings of Preparatory The surveys of preparatory workings are carried out for plotting detailed plans and sections within the limits of a stoping block or extraction section and for determining the coordinates of particular points essential for the solution of various analytical problems. reel with synchronizing cable. These surveys should include all details large enough to be visible on compiled plans and profiles. The borehole tool is connected with the on-ground equipment by a logging cable which also serves to hold the tool in a borehole. 7. the velocity of sound propagation at the level of the observation point.cm. Angular measurements in the surveys of preparatory workings can be done by using . and the radii of the horizontal section of a chamber. Before making a survey.5 h in boreholes of a depth of 1000 m). surveying proper can be carried out.5% . The apparatus is mounted on a truck and consists of two portions: a borehole tool and instrument stand. Sound Ranging of Underground Cavities The physical methods of mine surveying of underground cavities are based on the principles of transformation of acoustic. They have a relatively low velocity of propagation in air. ultrasonic ranging can measure relatively short distances with a root-mean square error :!:20 mm. A borehole sonar 'Luch' has been designed in this country for surveying of brine-filled underground cavities. Sound waves (in particular ultrasonic waves) have turned out to be most suitable for measuring of cavities (sound ranging). 7. radio and light waves into values which can characterize the direction and length of a measured section. Ultrasonic waves emitted by the sonar are reflected from the walls of the chamber and enter the receiver of the acoustic system. dismount the rig head. Large vertical workings and other air-filled cavities can be surveyed by means of a sonar profilograph type ZPR-2 developed in this country. 7. because of which the time of their propagation can be measured with a rather high accuracy. which consists in measuring the depth to which the borehole tool has been sunk. After that. to IO. For instance. it is required to depressurize the underground chamber to be measured. amplified in an electronic unit. When surveying details.3. linear measurements should be made at the level of the mid section of a working with an accuracy to 5 cm or.154 Ch. The radii of the chamber are measured by the sonar which automatically turns on the vertical axis in the borehole. sink the borehole tool to the bottom of a chamber. and four telescopic scaling rods. light projector. The velocity of sound propagation at the level of an observation point is determined on brine samples taken beforehand from the borehole. Modern instruments designed on these principles mostly measure the time of passage of acoustic or radio waves from an emitter to an object and back. Surveying of brine-filled cavities is a labour-consuming procedure. and transmitted as electric pulses through the logging cable to the on-ground station.4.

surveyed by theodolites. the angle of inclination of the vertical axis of an instrument can influence substantially the accuracy of horizontal angle measurements. and B. goniometers. a polyamide line (or cord) is hung freely between the survey point A at the lower end of the connection working and the point B where it is connected to a vertical shaft. which is essentially as follows. as a rule. The results of measurements are used for calculating the coordinates of points 1. Then. The surveys of day holes and ore chutes of a small extension can be carried out by simpler methods.16). Plumb bobs (1. 7. 7. especially when these wbrkings have an appreciable length and are intended for primary (mass) blasting. 2. suspension compasses and semicircles. Hanging theodolites are more expedient in workings with the dipping angle up to 65°. The same direction angle is taken for sides 1-2 and 2-B.16 Survey of connection non-free plummet method working by the line in several points so as to form a broken line A-I-2-B lying in a vertical plane. Preparatory workings must be surveyed twice: the first time during driving a working (additional survey) and the second time at the end of driving a complex of workings. When surveying connecting workings and outlet workings (outlets). Surveys of Blast Holes 155 theodolites. the horizontal angle at the point A between the junction side of the earlier theodolite traverse and the side A-l is measured. Preparatory workings in seam deposits are.6. by a suspension semicircle.7. For surveying a connection working (Fig. it is essential to determine the position of their side walls relative to the initial directions or points. by the method of non-free plummet. Surveying of steep preparatory workings involves certain difficulties compared to that of gently dipping workings: it is more difficult to transport and set up instruments. which makes it possible to calculate the direction angle of the side A -1. The use of suspension compasses is possible for surveying preparatory workings in seam and ore deposits. for instance. 1-2 and 2-B are measured by a tape and the inclination angles of these lines. Workings with the angle of dip more than 65° are surveyed by eccentrictelescope theodolites. The lengths of the lines A-l. provided that there are no magnetic masses which might induce magnetic disturbance.2) are suspended from Fig. Central-telescope theodolites can be used for survey work in workings with the dipping angle up to 55°. 7. All details obtained by a survey are sketched in a special field book or on margins of the books of angular and linear measurements of survey net traverses. The correct position of the centres and .6. Surveys of Blast Holes The efficiency of drilling and blasting operations depends substantially on the correct position of blasting workings in the rock massif.

Upon hanging a plumb bob from the wooden bar. they are drilled from chambers constructed so that the point of arrangement of the drilling rig ( C) is at the intersection of block boundaries (in plan). are set out along the line between points A and R in the working.19). 7.2 m and that of their direction in plan and inclination angles. Surveys of Preparatory and Stope Worki ngs axes of blast holes in accordance with the blasting work plan is closely linked with the quality of survey and layout work performed by mine surveyors. points I. 7. these points determine the inclination of the blast hole to be drilled.156 Ch. 7. a control survey is carried out. Surveying of deep blast holes consists in connecting the hole mouth to the points of the survey net (goniometer traverses) and determining the depth of the holes and the directions and inclination angles of their axes. After drilling a fan of blast holes. and the drilling equipment employed. The error in determining the depth of blast holes must not exceed 0. Before drilling. An angle-measuring instrument is Fig. When assigning directions to parallel blast holes (Fig. an angle-measuring instrument is set up in the point C in the chamber at the same height with the rotation axis of the drilling rig.18). The point C is then established in the chamber roof and an angle-measuring instrument is set up under it and oriented relative to the direction CR in order to assign directions to future blast holes. The oriented directions are fixed by means of wooden bars fastened under the chamber roof. and thus fixing the direction in the horizontal plane. In cases when directions should be assigned to inclined blast holes. These results serve for de- termining the horizontal angle ARC and distance RC to set out the point C in the ground. inclined or vertical).17). etc. With a fan-like arrangement of l?last holes (Fig.18 Assigning vertical plane direction to blast hole in . The techniques of surveying of deep blast holes depend on the drilling direction (horizontal. 7. the required inclination angle is set on the vertical circle of the instrument and points m and n are marked on the chamber wall and plumb bob line (Fig. 30'. survey work is carried out to determine the chamber contours and the direction AB and to calculate the coordinates of the point c. 3. 2. plumb bobs are hung from the bars to orient the blast holes in plan. Upon driving a chamber. 7. arrangement of blast holes (parallel or fan-like).

the coordinates of plumb lines on the initial (upper} level are determined by connecting to polygonometric or theodolite traverse points.a tape. and the lengths of the triangle sides 0102 and 0203 are calculated. The depths of horizontal and inclined blast holes are measured by a steel wire 3-4 mm in diameter."--o::j . this discrepancy must not exceed m = = 14'IJ~. The relative discrepancy between the lengths of a plumb-connection line calculated on the oriented and initial level should not exceed 1/1000.19 Assigning zontal blast holes directions to parallel hori number of levels are to be oriented succe'ssively. of Sublevel Workings 157 / c ~~~1( ~ 0' "'. The side 0103 and direction angle set up successively on these points to layoff angles 131'132'133'etc. orientation can be done by the indirect solution of a triangle 010203. or by the gyroscopic method.0 'J~~ B Fig. The depths of vertical blast holes are measured by a tape or wire cable with numbered I-metre marks. the horizontal angles in this traverse are measured with a root-mean square error of 40" and the lengths of sides. Orientation of Sublevel Workings The orientation of survey nets in sublevel workings should be carried .. a theodolite traverse is run on the oriented level between the plumb lines.5 m long which can be joined with one another to form a measuring bar up to 40 m in length. 7. Orientation of Sublevels Through Two Vertical Workings (Raises) Orientation through two vertical workings (raises} is made essentially in the same way as orientation via two vertical shafts: two plumb bobs are hung in the vertical workings. Orientation should be made twice. which is pushed up to the hole bottom and then withdrawn. Orientation ".1 (0)' \ I ~~-~. Connecting polygons 01-1-2-02 and O2-3-4-5-03 are run on the levels to be oriented and a connecting polygon 01-A-BC-D-03 on the main level.. 15. 7.. Looking through the telescope. with a relative error of 1/1000. and the length of the immersed portion of wire is measured by. through one vertical working. It is also possible to make these measurements by means of self-straightening elastic steel tapes 50 m long or light-metal bars 1-1.20}.7. "'I 0. In caseswhen sublevel workings are opened by two vertical workings with one of them being stepped (Fig. a check survey of blast holes is done. At least three station points should be established at the oriented level. 7. 7. Orientation can be effected through two vertical workings connected on the oriented level. 0. If a .7. through one inclined working. where n is the number of levels.7..7.1.out so that the maximum error of orientation in a block of a size not exceeding 120 m relative to the theodolite traverse points of the main level will be not more than 10'. and the discrepancy between two measurements must not exceed 14'.41 15. The connecting traverses on the oriented levels are constructed in a conditional coordinate system. After drilling. the centre and number of a blast hole are marked on the wall of the working (most often with chalk). The coordinates of plumb lines 01 and 03 are determined by connecting them to the theodolite traverse on the main level.

2.c 0 ~ D Fig. the problem of projection and that of junction (connection). The problem of junction in the orientation of sublevel workings is usually solved by means of connection triangles or by the method of plumb-connecting lines. A check of the side lengths of connection triangles can be done by calculating the distance between the plumb bobs. e. i. up to 4-5 kg. The discrepancy in the measured distances between the plumb lines on the oriented and initial level must be not more than 3 mm. for triangles with the angle 'Y not more than 5° by the formula: c = (b -a) + ah(l h-a -cosy) ~-IcF. llr I I. =--!I~- 0-. 7. and 0103 = c.158 Ch.::::-.. 0203 = b.-- ~ Ll! b-A 0-8 o.~. Having found the triangle sides 0102 = a.re or polyamide resin line 0. by the forrnula: . C2= a2 + b2 -2abcosy The difference between the measured and ~ . no o are calculated by the results of survey on1tfie main level. 4).5-0.20 Orientation via two vertical with one of them being stepped workings. To solve the junction problem. 7. The angles of triangles are calculated by the same formulae as in orientation through a vertical shaft (see Ch.:::. The mean positions of plumb bobs are determined by observing the oscillations of plumb lines on the reading scale of a theodolite telescope. The distance between the plumb lines must be not less than 0.:-:::::. the angles of the triangles are calculated by the formulae: b2 + C2-a2 a2 + C2-b2 and for those with the angle greater than 5°.5 m.7. the projection problem can be solved by using for plumbing a brass wi. Plumb bobs should have a relatively low mass. Orientation of Sublevels Through One Vertical Working (Raise) Orientation through one vertical working has to solve essentially the same problems as orientation through one vertical shaft.6 mm in diameter. Since the depth of a vertical working (raise) is usually not large. Surveys of Preparatory and Stope Workings Vertical projection 7. the bisector of cross hairs must be set symmetrically relative to the extreme positions of a plumb line.

in particular. In main level. a theodolite is set up on the under the points A and E on the upper and main level in a point C (roughly at the lower level respectively. The procedure is repeated until the vertical axis of the instrument is precisely on the plumbconnecting line. The telescope is telescope. we Fig. 7. The line or wire is 'broken' in that case. 4.7. To transfer the coordinates onto Both guys should lie in the same vertical the level being oriented. and therefore. the plumb-fastening point B is sighted on the rear (farther) plumb line and is displaced until the direction AB coincides focussed on the closer plumb line. is fixed. it suffices to measure plane. When sighting in the plumb-connecting line). The distance from the point C to the closer plumb line is measured as well. after which the point. techniques disclosed in Ch. the directi()n angle can plumb line. After and alidade being locked. of a line PQ. and the distance QA. 7. The essence of the large. the theodolite is shifted on the be transferred from one level onto the other . Q Orientation p of Sublevel Workings 159 tripod table until coincidence is attained.21 Orientation via vertical working by can calculate the coordinates of a point A on means of two plumb bobs the oriented level. 7. Then the angle !3 between the plumbconnecting line and the first side CD of a traverse is measured by a theodolite.7.22) consists in that a polyamilevel can also be performed without using de resin line or soft wire is attached by one angle-measuring instruments. Connection by the method of plumb-conThe orientation of sublevel workings via necting lines can be used effectively on the inclined raises can be carried out by several lower level when the depth of the sublevel is methods. it is now possible to calculate the direction angle of a plumb-connecting line and the coordinates x. by the popular method not large. Now that we know the direction angle of a plumb-connecting line. For this. Connection to the plumb lines of an oriented method (Fig. Gyroscopic orientation of survey nets in calculated lengths of sides must not exceed sublevel workings is carried out by the 4mm. For the connection of Theodolites or goniometers are set up the plumb lines. the direction angle of a plumbpoints C and D by two guys AC and DE connecting line is equal to the direction angle attached to it at the upper and lower level. the limb with the vertical hair in the telescope. y of one of the plumb lines. that of a line PQ. this method is generally applicable of nonlree plumb line which is resorted to in provided that the distance between the cases when the workings on the main and plumb lines on the upper level is sufficiently oriented level and the inclined working have the same direction. plumb end in a point B on the upper level and a bobs are suspended from a wire drawn weight P is fastened to its lower end on the between the points P and Q tFig.21). distances QA and BP. By the results of measurements on the main level. If the cross hair the plumb line and guys are arranged in the bisector does not coincide with the closer same vertical plane.

It employs two goniometers or two eccentric-telescope theodolites. the horizontal hair line of its cross hairs is roughly aligned with the axis of the staff on the lower instrument. The theodolite set up in the point Cis first sighted on a point D to take the reading on the horizontal circle. In the latter case. by the formulae: xA = XE + (dl + CDcosv -d2)cosaED YA = YE + (dl + CDcosv -dJsinaED The method of mutual orientation is also widely used. 7. By operating the tangent screw of the horizontal-circle alidade of the upper instrument. the horizontal hair A B by measuring junction angles ~ and ~l by instruments set up in points A and E in a single full repetition.160 Ch. after which the instrument telescope together with the staff attached to it is set horizontally. CD and the distances from the points A and E to the horizontal rotation axes of the instruments are measured twice by a tape. d2. The distances dl. y of a point A. The direction angle of the oriented side is calculated by the formula aAI = a37E+ ~l -~ :t 2 x 180° and the coordinates x. and the reading is taken on the vertical circle. By rotating the upper instrument on the vertical axis. one of the theodolites is set up at .23). The second theodolite is set at the lower level and centred under a point C. The inclination angle v of the section CD of a non-free plumb line is measured by asuspension semicircle with an accuracy to 15'. and a special staff is attached to its objective part. The telescope of the upper theodolite is pointed to the top centre mark of the telescope of the lower instrument. Surveys of Preparatory and Stope Workings the upper level (Fig. 7.

angles of dip.8. i. 7. and. the sum of the thicknesses of all coal bands in the seam.). If an inclined raise has an intricate configuration. Upon the completion of the described cycle of observations. and the points are fixed from which the surveys of details are carried out (position and dimensions of left pillars of the mineral. the position of the stoping area is plotted on a large-scale plan of mining workings on which the mean length of a face line can be determined from the expression: Lm = SlAm where Am is the mean advance of a face for a specified period. Measurements of Mining Workings and Reserves of Mineral in Stocks Stope faces are measured to plot a sketch of the stoping area (Fig. the telescopes of both instruments are reversed and a second cycle of observations is made. position and bedding elements of tectonic disturbances.~' Main level A ~. After sighting the lower theodolite on the upper one. seam pinches. 7. A theodolite is set up on the main level under the point C of a survey net (Fig. after which a point D is fixed on the plumb line EB.. F~ ~//////////////////////////////////////. Since lines DE and CK lie in the same vertical plane. Mter that." SUblevel!! Y//////////.24 Orientation via inclined od of plumb-line points raise by meth- line is aimed 4-5 times precisely on the staff. The thickness of mineral seams is measured by a linen tape or telescopic measuring rod perpendicular to the bedding plane. and each time the readings are taken on the horizontal circle.25). m and S is the working area determined by the formula S = Spllcos v where Spl is the working area measured planimetrically on the plan and v is the angle of dip of a seam. With coal seamsof an intricate structure.////////////~ ~. thickness and structure of a seam. Then the inclined distances and inclination angles of line sections are measured to transfer the coordinates x.8 D . By the results of survey. which is the initial angle for the orientation of the survey net on the sublevel. using the instrument. The results of measurements are recorded and sketched in the field book. fill-in strips. it is essential to determine by measurements the total thickness of a seam (from the footwall to the roof) with all interlayers and the total useful thickness. ~ ~ direction angle aEDof a line ED. The data of field books of working measurements are used as the basis " ////////. Measurements of Mining Workings 161 (. 7. two plumb-lines are suspended in points B and K in line with the point C.8. Having measured the horizontal angles ACK and KED and using the direction angle of a line AC. it is now possible to calculate the 11-1270 . 7.7. the observations of points D and A are made by the upper and lower theodolites respectively. after which the mean of these readings is calculated. etc. their direction angles are equal to each other. it is horizontalized and the upper theodolite is aimed 4-5 times at the staff axis. e. it may be recommended to use the method of plumb-line points.24).. y and z from the point C to the point E./~ Fig. A point E on the plumb line KB is fixed on the sublevel to be oriented.

b -Ac where Ar.b c Ar. and km is the moisture coefficient of the useful mineral. and Lm is the loss of the mined mineral. The quantity of useful commercial mineral mined in the specified period. m3. The moisture coefficient can be found by the formula: 100 -Wo k m= loo -W where Wo is the moisture content of useful mineral in the massif and W is that of mined commercial mineral. can be determined by the formula: Qc = Vy -Lm + Q' or Qc = (V'Y -Lm)kckm where Q' is the quantity of barren rock present in the mined mineral. In such cases. t/m3. coal bands and commercial coal. The quantity of mineral mined during the month elapsed is then found by the formula: Q = Ql + Q3 -Q2 . y is the density of the mineral in the rock massif. Surveys of Preparatory and Stope Workings for calculating the volume of mineral extracted from a stope face. The quantity of mineral mined in stope faces in a specified period can be determined by the formula: Q = Vy -Lm where V is the volume of the worked-out space.a reliable check is to measure the amount of mineral in stocks at the end of a month.b -A c.162 Ch. Qc.b' Ac.band Ac is respectively the ash content of barren rock bands. t. 7. kc is the coefficient of contamination of the useful mineral with barren rock. The coefficient of contamination of coals in coal deposits is usually determined by the formula k = A r. the determination of the quantity of mined coal by measurements of mining workings is carried out with insufficient accuracy or sometimes is not done at all. Under particular mining conditions.

it is possible to distinguish between three categories of dumps. and the most characteristic points are fixed by pickets. bins. The quantity Ql is determined by weighing at shipping of the mineral or is taken according to accounts. Theodolite-tacheometers can also be used for profile line surveying. The profile lines are plumbed. t) is found by multiplying the volume Vof dumps (or of the filled-in portion of bins) by the density y of the mineral in dumps (bins). The volume of a dump is found by the formula: S1+S2 V=-/ 2 1 +-/ S2+S3 . the errors of measurements in stocks have practically no effect on the montWy output of the mineral by a mine. length. the shape complexity and dimensions of the dump. /. The remaining mass of mineral in stocks (Q.0+ 8. t. The method of profiles is employed mostly for surveying of elongated dumps. base diameter.l cross section (of the type of road embankments) and some other shapes typical of stockyards with trestles. pyramidal. 2 +. In this respect. The measured results are recorded in a field book. Q2' Q3 is the remainder of useful mineral at the beginning and end of the period considered in stores. width. 7.+8. In order to determine the volume of a dump or pile. with approximation of these dumps to regular geometric bodies when needed. Measurements of Mining Workings 163 where Ql is the quantity of mineral shipped to consumers or spent at the mining enterprise. Using the height difference of the base isolines and the points (pickets) on the dump surface. Category III includes dumps with a complicated shape of the surface typical of binscraper and scraper stores. The volumes of dumps (piles) of category III and partially of category II (with the height more than 5 m) are determined on the basis of tacheometric. whereas Q2 and Q3 are found directly by the results of the survey measurements of the mineral contained in stores.8. which in turn depends on the difficulties of measurements in stocks. pyramidal.26). Substituting the measured values into suitable geometrical formulae (Fig. Surveying by profile lines consists in measuring the distances between the picket (change) points (starting from the initial points) and the height differences between them. etc. Distances are measured by tapes (twice). bodies. bins and other storage places.. are measured by a tape. profile lines are assigned perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a dump. the cross sections of the dump are plotted (Fig. the volume of a dump is calculated with an accqracy to 10% depending on. In such cases.7.t. Since the amount of mineral in stocks at the beginning or end of a month is usually much less than the monthly output by the enterprise. 7. In that case. . plane-table or profile survey. prismatic with trapezoida. and the tape readings are rounded off to decimetres. The height difference is determined by technical levelling. The accuracy of determination of the mass of mineral in stocks depends on the accuracy of the volume and density determination.+1 . Category I includes dumps having an essentially regular geometrical shape: cone-shaped. etc. The volumes of dumps related to the first and second category (except for second-category dump~ of a height more than 5 m) can be recommended to be determined by tape measurements. and railway cars. its height. Category II includes dumps whose shape is a combination of cone-shaped. prismatic. The spacing between the profile lines is taken equal to 5-10 m depending on the shape complexity of the dump. the terrain area allotted for mineral storage is surveyed topographically to plot a large-scale plan of the area with horizontals.27) and their areas are measured by a planimeter (with double contouring).

:) (cJ (e) (f) -v=~[( 20-::~)bb +( 2ot + °b)bt] it (9) 7 v= hb b 6(2Ib+I. (d) truncated circular cone. (f) spherical segment. (g) truncated trihedral prism. 7.26 Shapesof dumps suitable for tape measuring: (a) trapezoidal profile pile. / v=* (SI + S b + 1{S.""". (c) circular cone. 7. (b) truncated pyramid. (e) truncated elliptical cone.) Fig. Surveys of Preparatory and Stope Workings (b) $.f. (h) wedge .164 Ch.

3-fixed points tapes. seam thickness.measured by tapes from fixed survey points ne-table survey is started from the points of a or other reference points located near the survey net. The z coordinate is found by from them to the faces according to the technical or trigonometric levelling. and If the tacheometric or plane-table method bedding elements of the seam.. The measurements of preparatory workII ings are essentially simplified surveys with the Fig. inclinatorium. are the spacings amount of advance during the specified pebetween two adjacent profiles. of profile lines and longitudinal axis etc. with spacings between them not more than 6 m.27 Scheme of measuring volume of dump use of simpler instruments (steel and linen by method of profiles: l-contour of dump. points are determined by theodolite traverses. 40The volume of a dump can be calculated by the method of vertical sections or that of horizontal sections. The coordinates x.5 m or 1. Sketches in the field book should show: the chains of triangles or other figures or of their positions of the initial points and distances intersections. measuring the cross section of the can determine the volume of dumps with an working. 2-cross-sectional profile of dump.25-0. In the latter case. its area within the boundaries of accuracy to ::t 3.and isolines of the dump surface are drawn with height intervals 0. is employed for measuring the volume of The amount of advance in workings is dumps. 3. the mean value of the two measurements being taken as the final 20result. Sn are the areas of profile measuring the length of a working and the sections of the dump and I. 0.previous and current measurements.. suspension semicircle. 1~ 0. y of surveying face.50 m 50--for dumps less than 5 m in height and 1. the 30dump is cut into layers by horizontal planes. The dis. This method riod. Staff worked-out area and volume of extracted 9" ~: a ~ .8. 7. The volume of the dump is the sum of th~ volumes of the layers confined between the horizontal planes drawn in intervals of ~. where Sl' S2' .25 m.. 60The results of survey are plotted on the plan of the dump (store) on a scale 11200(or a larger scale). Measurements of Mining Workings 165 points are established in all characteristic places of the dump surface. the tacheometric or respectively pla.0 m.0 m for those with the mean height more than 5 m. the ditances from the instrument to staff (picket) mensions of workings for calculating the points should be not more than 60 m.5% . The error of volume 3 measurement by tacheometric survey is not 2 more than 4% .7. prospected mineral.). and the areas of the sections are measured twice by a planimeter. The measurements of preparatory workings include the following operations: sketching the working and face in the field book.

28b) as the product of the seam thickness by the mean width of the cross section in the seam: 8 = amm.+ n 8n The quantity of mineral extracted from the working during the specified period can be calculated by the formula: Q = IcSmY where Y is the density of coal. location of geological disturbances and their bedding elements. the working cross section is measured. 19' or that in support (lining). . thicknesses of the seam in measured points .md outlines of structural elements of the seam (deposit). the amount of advance of a working during the specified period will be: in coal Ic = Ic2-Ic1. and some other data that should be reflected in mine survey plan.28a).. 02 mineral and rock. Upon determining the advances of a working.. The mean cross-sectional area in mineral by the results of several (n) measurements will then be: 8 m= 81 + 82 + . 7. Is (Fig. in gangue 19= 192 -/91' and in support Is = Is2-Is1. The amoUnt of advance is found as the difference between the corresponding distances from the initial point at the beginning and end of the specified period. location and measurements of bedding elements of the seam. tlm3. If the working is driven partially in the mineral and partially in barren rock.166 Ch.where am is the mean length of the face line of the working in mineral and m is the seam thickness. 7. An advance of a working may be determined as the advance in coal (Ic)' that in gangue (barren rock). Surveys of Preparatory and Stope Workings 1- a -I Im aav ~-I~! a1 ~/////////////~. it is required to measure the total cross-sectional area and the area in mineral (Fig. 7. Hence.

For workings to be driven on dip of an inclined or steeply deeping seam. such elements are called 'conductors'. to assign. and to control the driving of workings along the assigned direction with due observance of the designed profile and the chart of supports. Figure 8. where the line of dip is a good landmark.Chapter Eight Special Surveys in Underground Workings 8. directions are assigned only in the horizontal plane. The solution of some most typical problems encountered in practice will be demonstrated below. elements of seam bedding. z) of the points to be used in calculations and be capable of solving such problems as the determination of direction angles of the projected direction.1. inclined length (distance) and its projections onto the horizontal or vertical plane. The direction angle of the line AB is found by the formula: tan aAB= YB -Y A XB -xA or SAB = J(YB -y Af + (XB -XA)2 . In that connection.of workings along a specified direction in the horizontal and vertical plane.the work of direction assignment is facilitated by the availability of a natural landmark or element (for instance. the horizontal projection of the line that connects points A and B. the mine surveyor has to deterrnine the places of location (intersections) of workings in accordance with the design or calendar plan of mining work development. the mine surveyor should know the spatial coordinates (x. The most common job of a mine surveyor is to check the driving. and some other factors. etc. angle between directions. In practice. and the length (distance) of a line A-B. Y. inclination angles of lines. fix and transfer the directions. In many cases. directions are assigned both in the horizontal and vertical plane. the inclination angle of a line A-B. It is required to determine: the direction angle of the direction from a point A to a point B. For workings to be driven on the strike of an inclined or steeply dipping seam. the bedding plane of the foot or roof of a seam). Assigning Directions to Underground Workings One of the most important tasks of mine surveying service in the construction and exploitation of mining enterprises is to transfer correctly the designed location of underground workings into nature. only the directions in the vertical plane are assigned. I. For assigning the direction to a working in these planes. The method by which directions are assigned depends on the mining conditions and the kind of working. For crosscuts or lateral drifts which have no 'conductors'.la gives the coordinates of a point A (x A' YA' zA) and a point B (XB' YB' ZB).

1 Schematic diagrams: (a) for solving the inverse problem. In practice. from the expresslon: s = J(YB -YA)2 + (XB-XA)2 + (ZB-ZA)2 2. Tfese angles can be found by the formulae: 13.lc). say. the line CG is given by the coordinates of a point C (Xc. of a point D where lines AE and CG intersect (Fig.E " Fig. 8. The line AE is specified by the coordinates of a point B (XBand YB)and the direction angle a AB.. it is required to find the forward left and forward right angle of crossing.168 (a) YO-YA Ch. 8.xB + Xc tan (1 -tan (1CG AB -Yccotan(1CG cotan(1AB-cotan(1CG The directions to mining workings are assigned by surveying instruments. (c) for determining the coordinates of intersection point of two straight lines . First..: ~ (CG) G/ '. for checking.r B 8~ The inclination angle of the line AB is found by the formula: rany= ZB -ZA The coordinates of the point of intersection (a point D) of these lines can be found by solving the triangle BCD: XD = xB + BDcosaAB' YD = YB + BDsin aAB where BD=CB sin siny a where s is the horizontal projection of the length S between the points A and B (horizontal distance). 8. The inclined length of the line AB can also be determined from the expression S = s/cos v or. aBc -aBA = 13. aBA -aBc = 3. The ~ . The coordinates of the intersection point D can also be determined by the combined solution of the equations of intersecting lines: xD= YD= xB tan(1AB-Xctan YBcotan(1AB (1CG -YB + Yc -'.lb shows two intersecting line sections AB and BC with known direction angles. Special Surveys in Underground Workings (bJ (cl x x y ~ (AB)y PL (BC) ~rC) ~C8) 4: A 7 '~ B B ~. Yc) and the direction angle aCG. we find the direction tan !lCB = YB -Yc XBand the length CB = YB -Yc sin aBc XB -Xc COS aBC angle !lCB The angles O and y can be found as the differences of the corresponding direction angles. Figure 8. (b) for measuring the angle between directions. Similarly. the mine surveyor often has to determine the coordinates of intersection point of two directions.

In caseswhen a working is to be driven from two ends. The direction to a working in the horizontal plane can be assigned by means of a theodolite by one of two methods depending on whether the accuracy of angle assignment is lower or higher than the accuracy of the instrument. and two points P 1 and P2 are marked in the range of the directions obtained by constructing the angle ~ at two different positions of the theodolite tube. the provisional direction will thus be fixed by three points (B. it is required that the geometrical axis of one of its sections be perfectly coincident with the continued geometrical axis of the other section. 611 ~S'I .rs"1 I 6~1 ~ A . a new direction must be assigned in each turning point. the permanent direction is assigned and fixed by three points.2a). type of working. The distance Pl-P2 is then halved and a survey mark is fixed in the mid point (P). This direction i~ fixed by at least two points (Bl. Assigning Direction the Horizontal to a Working The horizontal direction to the straight section of a preparatory working can be assigned by means of a theodolite.2 Schemefor assigning a direction: (a) with an accuracy less than the instrument accuracy. In both cases. compass or gyroscopic instrument by laying out in nature the design or calculated angle or by ranging the direction directly according to the known direction angle by means of a gyrotheodolite or gyrocompass.1.'I ~«' B Fig. and the required check measurements are made. As the face is being advanced. the working is marked out and the theodolite is set up and centred in the initial point B (Fig. B2).1. the angle ABP should be measured again. An assigned direction is fixed by survey marks (clamps) in at least three points at a distance of 1-3 m from one another. Since the distance from the initial point to the wells of the working is smaller than the sighting limit of the telescope. the permanent direction is assigned in the following order. a provisional direction is assigned through the telescope of the instrument according to the calculated angle ~.1. and B2). Upon driving the working by 5-10 m in the provisional direction. Bl. If a working is designed so that its direction varies. 8. 8.8. The angle ABP will correspond to the calculated angle ~. and required accuracy. Upon the fixation of the point P. The theodolite is set up again in the point B. If the required accuracy of laying off a horizontal angle is lower than the instrument accuracy. Assigning Directions to Underground Workings 169 choice of a particular type of instrument depends on the kind of problem to be solved. 8. The discrepancy between the measured and calculated values of the angle ~ must be within (b) CI C r---. the direction is continued. Plumb bobs hung above these points form a ranging line to be used by drivers for the orientation of a face. noting the station point of the instrument. (b) with a higher accuracy .

and a straight line is drawn on the plan from a survey point B at the beginning of the working in the direction of the projected axis. however. which is called a correction (to a point C).elescope (Fig. p" In that case. The theodolite is way. two other points. and the angle ARCl thus obtained is measured with the required accuracy. 8. the "line passing through the points P. the specified line AC which is its axis. and two or three plumb bobs are hung from it. the plan of a working is oriented along the magnetic meridian. The method is. for driving a working from two ends). A cord is fixed at the point Bin the mine and tensioned roughly in the specified direction (Fig. Thus. at a distance of 1-3 ill from each from a point A (Fig. 8. angle ARCl must be corrected. are set up and fixed. Drivers. Points for assigning the direction to a working in the horizontal plane can be located more conveniently at a certain distance (20-30 cm) from the walls of the 111~" 111 = working.4) in the direction of a other. If 11~is higher than the required accuracy. The measured angle ~m= ARC 1 is compared with the specified value ~sP' and the difference 11~= = ~m-~sP is compared with the required accuracy of angle laying. Special Surveys in Underground Workings r--Fig. are set up by a theodolite along the collimating ray RP. 8. Points At and A2 near the walls of the working fix a direction direction will be given by the line RR"B' . plumb bobs hung from the fixed points will not obstruct the motion of mining or workers and will be preserved better.170 Ch. B' and B". must know the distance from these The point C 1 is then displaced by this points to the face walls. 8. rather than along the central axis. The cord is fixed in this position. If so. the procedure is as follows. P'. Thus. and P" will be the beginning of the permanent direction. which gives the 'bracket' and can be found in the following sought-for angle ARC.3).2b). For this purpose. A point Cl is set up in one position of the. The miner's compass is then laid on the plan to measure the magnetic azimuth of a line. To do this. the distance RC 1 = I is measured and a linear correction is calculated by the formulae: horizontal plane can be assigned by means of a suspension compass. A suspension compass is hung from the cord and the free end of the latter is moved laterally until the compass needle points at the specified magnetic azimuth. and two new points. Suppose that a working must be driven sighted on the point C. P' and P". employed only rarely. The width of . 8. L\l = 1sin L\j3 however.3 Assigning a direction by compass the permissible limit. at a distance of 1-3 m from each other. The directions of auxiliary workings in the that is parallel to the axis. In caseswhen the angle must be constructed with a higher accuracy (for instance.

Light plummets are hung along the specified direction so that the line formed by the lamps is the direction axis in the vertical and horizontal plane.70 m on the average. the plumb bobs are transferred closer to the face. we have to calculate the distances dl and d2 by the formulae: dl = AA1 sin 11 and d2 = A1A2 sin 12 or. With the transfer distance up to 15-20 m. 5 -eyelet. 8. In permanent workings.1. 3-electric lamp. 8. by the formulae: dl = AA1. plummet has a cylindrical housing 2 with a cover 1. 6 -light-switching screw . Light plummets are visible at a distance of 60. As may be seenfrom Fig. At the top of the housing.metal housing. Drivers are usually provided with a sketch of the working which gives the positions of plumb bobs and the size of a 'bracket'. As the working is advanced.5). which contains a dry cell. First. p" where 11 = aAA 1 -a AB' 12 p" = aA 1 B -aA 1 A 2 .1~ and d2 = A1A2. and p" = 206265". 4-coloured acrylic plastic cap.4 Scheme for calculating 'brackets' when axial direction is transferred closer to working sides 'brackets' Cl and C2 can be determined from triangles AA1D1 and A1A2D2. there are a switching knob 6 and eyelet 5 for hanging the plummet from a cord.dl and C2= 1. new points can be marked visually (by sighting along the line of the earlier plumb bobs) and with distances up to 50 m.8 Assigning Directions to Underground Workings 171 Fig. 8. Cl = 0.51.cap. 2.5 Light plummet: 1.(Cl + d2). by means of a theodolite. range points are fixed more reliably by drilling holes 20 cm in depth in the roof and driving survey markers with hooks for plumb bobs into them. An electric lamp 3 at the bottom end of the housing is covered with a red or green transparent cap 4. 8. since the angles 11 and 12 are small. A light Fig. where I is the clear width of a working. Directions to workings can also be assigned by using light plummets (Fig.4. Points assigning the direction to a working are usually fixed in support beams or roof.

The light beam directed onto the face or tunnel shield forms a bright red spot up to 80 mm in diameter. The laser beam is directed' roughly ('by hand') onto a plummet that has been hung in advance. The principal element of the instrument is the projector consisting of a light source (laser tube) placed together with a collimating system into an explosion-proof housing. It is recommended to use the focussing ring of the instrument for more accurate sighting.8) of the curvilinear section of a working is used for the graphical determination of radial distances from a chord to the wall of the working. a survey point (initial point).172 Ch. 8. In this method. a largescale (1/20. which forms a narrow directed beam of red light to be used for assigning the directions to underground workings. A theodolite is set up above this point to layoff the calculated direction angle.6 Laser indicator: 1 -projector.7). A circular curve of the curvilinear section of a working on a large-scale plan (1/20. 1/50) drawing (Fig.2. Special Surveys in Underground Workings Fig. 1/50) is replaced by inscribed chords according to the precalculated turning angles and lengths. 8. Upon fastening the . 3. These distances can be Laser instruments are also coming into wide use for direction assignment in underground workings.separate power supply unit 2. a bright screen may be placed behind the plummet. For operation with a laser indicator.6. casing. 8. The laser indicator is mounted on the bracket and connected to the power supply source. The design inclination (slope) of the working is set up on the scale connected . and the direction thus determined is fixed by two temporary marks located at a distance of 10-20 m from the initial point. 8. Assigning Directions to Curvilinear Sections of Workings Directions to curvilinear sections of underground workings can be assigned by the method of perpendiculars or the method of radii. For better visibility. it is required to turn the optical wedges at the exit of the collimating system relative to each other. the sighting micrometer screw of the laser is turned so as to make coincide the light beam with the plummet and fix up the specifi~d direction. It is essentially a light projector with a laser source.base in instrument. after which it is possible to calculate the distances between the axes of adjacent supports by the external (dJ and internal (dl) side of the working. For assigning the direction along the height. Then the lengths of perpendiculars from a chord to the wall of the working in intervals of 1-2 m are measured on the drawing (Fig.1. 8. which is easily seen from a distance up to 500 m. Method of radii. An explosion-proof laser indicator is illustrated in Fig.with the optical wedges. The numerical values of perpendiculars are written on the drawing. 8. above which the instrument will be set up. The bracket of the laser indicator set is fastened below the initial point to the supports of the working wall. Method of perpendiculars. is fixed at a distance not more than 40 cm from the wall of a working.

If required.?. 8. it is easier to check the dimensions of a working at both sides of a chord and to control a correct placing of support frames along curvature radii. a bench mark Rl is fixed in the wall of the working at a height d above the rail head. A point A is then marked on the wall at a distance of 5-6 m from the bench mark. The line connecting the bench marks Rl and R2 gives in nature the specified slope. 'X(( 0 . Assigning the Vertical to a Working Direction The direction to a working in the vertical plane is assigned according to the design slope which is given as the difference of the elevation marks of the extreme points related to the distance between these points. Assigning Directions to Underground Workings . 8.... If a level instrument is used for the purpose. 8. The position of the second bench mark. 1.O~~ . A staff is set up on the bench mark R1.7 Scheme of direction assigning by method of perpendiculars Fig. e.. i.8 ~ 40"15" R=17.80 11.00~i2.~ .. All dimensions essential for checking are indicated on the drawing of the curvilinear section. which is the projection of the collimating ray of the level instrument.6] a 0 ~ " '-i0. and R is the radius of curvature of the curvilinear section. 8. slope.~. 7 Fig. and the reading a is taken. R2. is found by laying off vertically the height a + h.. etc. inclinometer. in a plane parallel to the design. ..~ o 0 .30.1.~ . the directions in vertical planes can be assigned by means of level instruments.. . side bench marks are fixed in the wall at a height of 1-1.35 ~li ~1.~ O 173 ~ ..1)." .. -' . Upon measuring the distance i between the levelling staff and the point A.5m . water level with light instruments.3.. In this method.65 . s is the average width of a working.'J5 R=18.8.05 -1. templates with levels. the height difference h = ii corresponding to the given slope i is calculated. 1 :!0 "' 8 ~' .-..6~0 3. similar .55~ 1.9).5m ~O 1 ~ .!) ~ C? 0:) " 'l "' . The method of radii is more convenient and expedient than that of perpendiculars.. For instance (Fig. Q95 (X=93.. It is marked by axial or side bench marks which are established as the working is being advanced.5 m above the design position of the working foot or rail head.~~ t? ~\:o \:.8 of radii Scheme of direction assigning by method found by the formulae: dl = d + d(s/2R) and dl = d- d(s/2R) where d is the distance between the support frames in the straight section of a working (according to the chart of supports). With inclination angles of workings up to 5-6° (i = :J:0.

A level-inclinometer (Fig. ::t:0..0001 0.0005 use of additional of slope scale. 8.33 4 / 5 \ 2 Fie. in particular. I Division wedges. 3~micrometer screw of inclination scale.rad value Accuracy Mass kg. A laser sight (Fig. rad . rad . 0.048 0.11 Level-inclinometer assembled: l-level.10 Laser sight Fig. of slope assignment. Laser sights of this type can operate properly at temperatures from + 30° to -40° and air humidity up to 80% . 8. 8. 2-wedge-type inclinometer attachment.174 Ch. 4.008 I I 0. Their working range is above 200 m and the diameter of light beam varies depending on distances and reaches 200 mm.9 Scheme of vertical direction assigning to working by a level and wall marks bench marks may be fixed in the opposite wall of the working. A R1 Fig. It has the following operating characteristics: Range main Ditto.inclinationmeasuring microscope. Special Surveys in Underground Workings --a . 8. The desired slope is set up by means of a special ring arranged before the collimator and graduated in thousandths of gradient. 8.11) consisting of a level 1 and wedge-type inclinometer attachment 2 can be employed for assignment and checking of slopes of horizontal workings and for laying rail tracks in mines and on the surface. of inclinometer attachments. 5 -clamp screw of inclinometer attachment .10) has many applicalions. 8. optical-wedge system. of slopes with the assigned by the rad . for direction assignment and control of cutting of heading machines and tunnel shields in workings with inclinalion angles up to 10°. Directions to workings can also be assigned by using laser indicators whose optical system includes a wedge compensator with the working range :t 2°.

whereas the surveys of inaccessible cavities have certain specific features. The junction of a goniometer traverse to a theodolite traverse can be effected by means of a connection triangle. With horizontal and gently dipping seams. Surveys of Preparatory and Stope Workings traverse sides are measured by a linen tape or by goniometer stadia hairs.3. For controlling the position of the complex. surveys based on the photogrammetric . i. forward and back. the goniometer is set up in a point 1 in the entry (see Fig. 7. If the first point is chosen so that the connection triangle angle 'Y does not exceed 5°.150 Ch. The length of the first side a of the goniometer traverse is measured. The actual inclination angle is found as the half-sum of measured values. These cavities may be filled with air. The check for the linearity of a face ofa small length (60-100 m) can be done visually or by taping from change points or theodolite traverse points. these distances should be equal. e. e. The linearity of a face with a powered mining complex must be checked at least once a month. it is essential to ensure survey control of the linearity of a face and the position of a powered complex in it. Surveys of Underground Chambers and Cavities As the mineral is being extracted underground. the complex should be located perpendicular to the axes of the entries. i. The lines connecting like points in both entries should be perpendicular to the axes of entries. it may be distinguished between the following trends in the surveys of underground workings of large volume: surveys based on the tacheometric principle of determination of coordinates of inaccessible spaces. The position of the complex is controlled by measuring the distances from its ends to the like pickets in the entries. gases. For this. If goniometers with eccentric telescope (types UTG and UT -3) are employed. length of face. Survey Work in Faces with Powered Mining Complexes For the normal exploitation of faces equipped with powered mining complexes. If a traverse is run in a face with the sole purpose to check the face linearity. since in that case the angle between the face conveyer and the axis of hauling (conveyer) entry must be equal to 91-93°. underground cavities are divided into accessible and inaccessible. there are formed voids and cavities of various configuration and size. salt water. Thus. these distances should not be equal. Underground cavities are regarded to be inaccessible if observers have no access to their walls or if this is forbidden for some or other reason. The faces of a large extension (above loo m) are controlled for linearity by means of engineering theodolites or goniometers. 7. 7. From the standpoint of mine surveying.3. the junction angle <p can be calculated by the formula: <p= 180° -(I + a/c) 'Y where c is the length of the polygonometric traverse side. pickets are established at intervals of 10 m or 20 m in the main entry and ventilation entry. and mining and geological conditions. its connection to the polygonometric traverse is not needed. the hauling (conveyer) face must be advanced to some or other extent depending on the type of complex.11) to measure the angle 'Y of the connection triangle and angle 13. petroleum. In view of a large diversity of mining conditions. Accessible cavities can be surveyed by the methods discussed earlier. the inclination angles of survey traverse sides should be measured twice. etc.4. For dipping seams (with the angle of dip 15-25°). 7.

176 Ch. A more convenient and perfect instrument for laying railway tracks of a specified gradient and for assigning directions to workings is a mining track gauge (Fig. The specified slope during driving of a working can also be checked by means of a water level with plumb bob (Fig.13 Water level with plumb bob . 8. Special Surveys in Underground Workings coincide with a mark 5 when the longer bar is perfectly horizontal.01 direction of the working in the vertical plane. the slope is: Fig.02 = -= 2. For operation. spring clamp 7.14 Mining track gauge . and wooden blocks 4 and 6 of different height (H I and H 2) which define the specified slope.14).02 m. the slope is correct. with H I = 0. the instrument is set onto a rail or a board placed on the smoothened foot surface of the working so that the smaller block is 'on the rise'. 8. it is then possible to check the gradient of the rail track. If the plumb bob is against the mark 5.HI 1= -H2 1 0. a transporting handle 2. the gauge is placed with Fig. a plumb bob 3 whose point must When checking the profile of a working. quadrant 10 graduated in degrees. 8. H 2 = 0. With the known vertical distance from the top of a plumb bob to the head of a rail (which is equal to Ht -ht for the initial point). 8.04 m. The slope is determined by the ratio (HI -H2)!1 which is constant for a given instrument. For instance.0 0. the foot soil must be cut off or respectively more ground must be added. 8. If otherwise. and a spirit level 1. The instrument consists of two mutually perpendicular wooden bars: a long bar 1 (up to 2 m) and a short one 2.13). two hinged sighting stands 9. which are fastened together. two fixed blocks 6 and 8. It consists of a tubular rod 3. It should be noted that the plumb bobs described can be used for assigning the direction to a working in the horizontal plane. a movable block 5 with an extendable stop 4. and 1 = 2 m.

0005 2.15 Track-measuring complex up to :t 0. the chart strip is taken off from the recorder and processed. The speed of the complex is increased gradually so as to attain the optimum speed (roughly 3-4 km/h) beginning from the first picket.16) is determined in the following way. error error of of mm measured measured Fig.5 . the zero points of all its sensors are adjusted. track section. . 15 and 25 (see curve 2 in Fig. The operator passes on the lever 5 at all specified pickets and track switches. Number of operators 12-1270 Before using the complex for measurements. 8. 8.2 - . Automatic levelling of haulage tracks can be carried out by using a track-measuring complex.2 -10° to 55 2 + 40°C Temperature Travelling gradient. 8. For instance. and discrepancy 1 of the track gauge against the specified value. which will be fixed on the chart by a lever 5. and a box for spare parts 4. an explosion-proof casing 2. limits.16). and the rail is fixed in that position. The day of survey. elevation 3 of one rail above the other. The height difference is found by subtraction: 55. As a rule.. A check of the specified gradient of a working is done by means of geometrical levelling along the rail track laid in the working in accordance with the recommendations on vertical surveying of rail tracks as given in Ch.9-1. The casing contains sensors for measuring the specified parameters and a recorder and has a window 6 where the measured parameters are displayed.1. The complex consists of a carriage 1 with a standard track gauge (900 mm or 1520 mm). Mter that the forward end of the rail is moved vertically until the level bubble is in the centre. speed. and the measured track parameters are thus recorded on the chart strip. and the gradients of the track are calculated. number of run. The complex is placed at a distance of 5-7 m from the initial picket point and is started by switching on the power supply. such as shown in Fig. The required slope of the track is set up on the spirit level.. It measures and records on a chart strip three main parameters of a surveyed rail track: a longitudinal profile 2 (Fig. rad . Root-mean Root-mean relative square rail square elevation. 5.05 0. and the dimensions of picket distances are set up on the scheme. power supply unit 3. and fastened by the spring clamps 7. At the end of a measuring run. 8. All picket and other characteristic points are numbered on the chart. Assigning Directions to Underground Workings 177 blocks 8 and 5 on a rail so that the block 5 is on the rise. Mass of set. kg. a track section is measured twice (when travelling forward and back).5 track Relative trackgauge. Then the elevations of all pickets are determined in a conventional system of coordinates relative to the elevation of the first picket. the chart paper is charged into the recorder.8.mm error of recorded travel Limits length. rad m/s degrees . the gradient of the track section between the picket points Nos. of measurement of rail '200 :f:0.. and record scale are written at the top of the chart. The main operating characteristics of the complex are as follows: Error of recorded longitudinal slope at a travel length of 500 m.15.

say in a point p (curve 1 in Fig. 2x3x5=30mm. 8.:E =- 3 -of 20 ~ . This is especially important for opening and development workings.: 000 'II 5mm 01 11mrr :1@ 0) "0 la I~ 60 !!!!!i ~2 40 I~ ~ \~. 8. in a point H (see curve 3 in Fig.'i'Y t==M.178 ~ Ch.'.~ ~Q) .. it is essentiar to control that underground workings are cut to the design cross-sectional area. the clearance for the rolling stock or conveyer trains will decrease below the permissible limits and may be the cause of accidents and .4 mm on the chart and. 2-curve recorded longitudinal profile.8. The elevation of one rail above the other. air ways. i. In mining practice. the actual height difference will be 120 mm.8 = 2. By the results of these measurements. 5.0: ..C) "Q. it is possible to judge on the condition of the rail track and the necessity of repairs.. and haulage ways.16) is determined by multiplying the number of divisions by the width of one division on a scale 1/1. 3 -curve of recorded discrepancies between the heights of rails -52. Dividing this height difference by the distance between the chosen picket points. 8. or 12.16 Chart strip with recorded data: }-curve of track gauge variation (::t2mrn).0:"' ". 2mmt 80 ooooooo ' : F-. i. The deviation of the track gauge from the standard size.. say.. we obtain the gradient 120/103.. Special Surveys in Underground Workings 100 -ii'".~:c 0 .5 x 2 = II mm.CI: o alo O O O O O O O O O O O O O O Picket15 Picket25 of Fig. e.16) is found by multiplying the distance from the point H to the zero line by the scale base. e.r= . With reduced cross sections of workings. considering that the chart scale is 1/50.

8. etc. The method of direct measurements one of is the simplest and is resorted to when workings have a trapezoidal or rectangular cross section.17 working B Measuring cross section of trapezoidal divisions is applied transversely to them at intervals of 0. Assigning Directions to Underground Workings A 179 injuries.18 Measuring working cross section by two staffs . between the rail head level and the contact wire. one can determine the total cross-sectional area of a working (as formed in the rock) and the clear crosssectional area. and the total width B and clear width b at the foot of the working (Fig. The method of measurement of cross sections by means of two staffs (Fig. the polar method. the method of linear intersections.5 m to measure distances /1 and /2 from the left and right rail to the respective walls of the working. after which Fig.-. and the axis of the working at the foot level is marked at these points. The measured parameters are oriented correspondingly relative to the assigned direction of the working. It is also essential to measure the clearances between the supports and the top of the carriage. 8. and a rod with centimetre 1--- .17). Then the distances from this axis to the rail heaQs.3-0. etc. The results of measurements are marked on the sketches of cross sections in the field book. 8. Surveying practice employs several methods for checking the cross section of workings.a and b. Further. the total width C and clear width c at the level of the top of a carriage. Fig. it is required to measure the total height ho of the working between the roof and foot and the clear height hi (between the top beam and rail head). depending on the cross-sectional shape: the method of measurement by common staffs and plumb bobs moved on a cord along the walls. 8. reduced cross sections can worsen the conditions of ventilation of stopes and be the restricting factor in the extraction of the mineral. I-~. The results of measurements and a sketch of the working are written in a standard field book. Picket points are arranged in a working at intervals of 1-5 m.8. method of direct measurements of the width and height of workings. Staffs with decimetre divisions are set up vertically on the rail heads.18) is mainly employed in workings with temporary railway tracks. the total width A and clear width a at the level of the top beam..1. For this. By this method.P. are measured.v/ ~ .

8. 8. 2extractable rod. 8. 30 2. The procedure consists in measuring the distances from the protractor centre to the contour points of a working and the angles of these distances which are read on the protractor.bar with hole for plummet).21.20) or on a 2. The heads of pins move in a 5-mm wide slot made longitudinally in the tube. Two pins 3 are screwed into the wooden rod at the bottom end and roughly in the mid of its length. 8.extractable rod.19). In the polar method. 3. 3. The tube length at the slot is graduated in (b) 2 .5 m . (b) staff-type (l-graduated staff.19 Measuring working method of linear intersections cross section by template placed onto the head of rails.0 .5 " 3 Fig. The cross sections of workings 2-4 m high can be measured by telescopic (sliding) staffs such as those illustrated in Fig.. The staff shown in Fig. 8. jfJ:4 Fig. The working cross sections having a curvilinear or irregular shape are measured by means of templates.pins. The method of linear intersections consists in measuring distances 11 and 12 from bench marks R1 and R2 to the typical points of the contour of a working (Fig. 8.21 Measuring rods: (a) tubular (l-tube.20 protractor Measuring and rule working cross section by 3. 2.. 4. 2. 8. Special Surveys in Underground Workings Fig.guide cleats) .pins.180 Ch. measurements are done by means of a protractor arranged on an extendable stand (Fig. 3 0 3 I these cross sections are drawn on a suitable scale.0 . 4.2 ~ ~ 3. 8. by the method of linear intersections or by the polar method.210 consists of a metallic (light alloy) tube 1 3-5 cm in diameter and 2110 cm long in which a wooden rod 2 of the same length can slide freely.0.

elevation marks. it is distinguished between critical and less critical (free) directions. Before every measurement. etc. The intervals at which staff measurements are done depend on the complexity of the working contour shape. Depending on the availability of a 'conductor'. perpendicular to that axis. slope. x'.22 Measuring working cross section up to 4 m high by means of telescopic staff.influence the technology of mining work. it also serves to fix the position of the plumb bob.21b consists of a wooden rod 1 with guide cleats 4 for retaining a sliding rod 2 with pins 3. direction of connection axis. Surveying of Workings Driven from Two Ends 181 8. A linen tape is stretched and fixed perpendicular to that line. z.22).5-m intervals. The cross sections of workings are measured with a sliding staff in the following way (Fig. In the preliminary calculations. 8. tape and plummet decimetres with numbering in every 0. The stationary rod has decimetre divisions numbered in 0. it is essential to consider three principal directions: along the connection axis. compilation of the scheme of mining workings which connect the approaching faces. The results of measurements are indicated at sketches in the field book. gradients.2. A plumb bob is hung in the desired cross section onto the direction line given by a surveyor. inclination angles. the principal ones among them being: examination of the engineering purpose of a working and of its design data (cross section. and in the vertical plane.5 m. preliminary calculation of the ultimate error of connection of approaching faces. The sliding staff is applied to the tape at definite intervals to measure the heights of the working contour. etc. determination of the place (point) of connection of faces. For successfulconnection of faces in workings driven from two ends. The cleats and sliding rod are bevelled longitudinally at an angle of 75°. y'. A different length of the staff can be chosen when needed. assignment and fixation of the connection axis in nature. determination of the permissible deviation of faces in the connection point. compilation of the project of mine surveying work and selection of suitable methods and instruments. survey work and calculations for determining the connection parameters (angles.).8. axis length. The choice of surveying methods and their accuracy for developing the planimetric and . and systematic survey control of the driving of a working in the assigned direction and determination of the actual connection error of approaching faces by making horizontal and vertical connection surveys for comparing the actual discrepancies with the permissible and precalculated ones.). Surveying of Workings from Two Ends Driven Fig. The staff illustrated in Fig.2. 8. determination of the expected ultimate error which is found by preliminary calculation for the established ultimate deviation of the faces. it is essential to solve properly and correctly the whole complex of surveying tasks. the staff is checked for verticality by a plumb bob attached to it. The former are those whose errors can . 8. method of driving.

To establish the points A and B in nature. 8. Mter that.2. mine surveyors must be informed on the permissible connection error by the engineering management of the mine. For A this. Accordingly. it is essential to know angles !3 and !3Band a side length sAB.5 m in plan and 0. The measured angles and side lengths are used for calculating direction angles al-l and aIlI-2 and the coordinates of points 1 and 2 (XI' YI. Besides. The matter consists in transferring the points A and B. for electric haulage trains.23). let us consider three examples of face connection. The principal factor that determines the accuracy of connection of mining workings is the kind of mining transport. For instance. Main kinds of face connection. X2' Y2). All these cases of face connection may be divided into three principal types: (a) connections carried out within the limits of a single mine. approach points 1 and 2 are established in the entries by running theodolite traverses from permanent bench marks I. (b) section along the axis of projected crosscut This case may be exemplified by driving a crosscut AB simultaneously from points A and B (Fig. For workings driven simultaneously from two ends.23 Scheme of assigning direction to crosscut driven from two ends: (a) plan view.182 Ch. and III. (b) connections between different mines.3 m vertically. it is required to calculate angles !31 and !32 and side lengths S2Aand SIB. III to the points A and B. which are the initial ones for assigning the direction to a crosscut AB. it may be distinguished between the following kinds of connection: (a) a working is driven from two ends by two approaching faces.2. 8. and (c) connections of vertical workings. and (c) a working is driven from one end (face) towards another face in which no mining work is being done. Connection Within Mine the of a Working Limits of a Driven Single Fig. the direction angles and horizontal distances SIB and S2A are calculated by the formulae of inverse geodetic problem. II. In the crosscut No. We draw on the plan the axis of the projected crosscut No. which has been driven in the rock between the entries of seams 14 and 15' there are three fixed permanent bench marks I.3 and de'termine the coordinates of the. In every particular case. into the seams 14 and 15. the permissible deviation of faces is up to 0.1. 8. it is possible to calculate the angles: . For this purpose. Special Surveys in Underground Workings (a) height control of workings driven from two ends depend on the particular mining production conditions and requirements. 8. points A and B (XA' YA' XB' and YB). (b) faces in a working are advanced in the same direction and follow each other. for assigning the direction to the crosscut. II.

and the height differense of the point A above the point B is measured (L\z). 8. while the other is in the a crosscut.2 by the formula: required deepening of the shaft of a mine z'5 = z. and the design gradient.2. After that the design let us consider the complex of surveying elevation of the pit bottom of the mine No. marks R3 and R4. Surveying of Workings Driven from Two Ends 183 ~l = alB -all. it is required to determine the design sible to determine the elevation of the pit elevations of the inset of pit bottom and the bottom in the mine No.2. four bench marks are estab. I. 8. L. and the design length of has a pit bottom. the design length of the may be performed in the following sequence. . it is posFirst. As may be seen in the vertical section in Fig. crosscut. R3 in the pit bottom of a mine No. and the horizontal direction to the crosscut is assigned by setting the angles ~A and ~B on the limb. is then determined.8. ~l = alA -alIIl. I.2 (near the face). which can be measured by a tape. Connection of Workings in mine the coordinate z of these bench marks Non-Communicating Mines and to transfer this coordinate to bench As an example of this type of connection. For this.2 where a and b are the distances from the points A and B to the corresponding sides of entries. ~A = aAB- Theodolites are then set up under the fixed points A and B. + iL.) is transferred the shafts is sunk to the projected level and onto the pit bottom. and R4 in the wall of a shaft No. which can be found by the formula: L\z sAB -(a + b) where sAB is the horizontal distance between the points A and B. we know the elevation of the pit bottom in The survey work in the case considered the mine No. One of tion of the bench mark R3 (z.vation of the bench mark R4 and the design lished: Rl and R2 on the ground surface at elevation of the pit bottom of the mine No.= smaAB XB -xA cosaAB Fig. 8. the crosscut must be driven in the direction from B to A with a gradient i = tan v (v is the angle of inclination of the crosscut foot). a line of levels is run through the workings between the points A and B.24).2.2 operations for driving a crosscut between two is determined. for which purpose the elevavertical shafts by approaching faces. In order to determine the direction of the crosscut in the vertical plane.2. Now that stage of driving (Fig. Then a closed geometric levelling run is laid off between the bench marks Rl and R2 in order to deter8.23b. -aAl' and ~B = aBA-aBl.24 Scheme of (a) elevation and (b) planimetric control for driving crosscut between two shafts the collars of both shafts. which can be calculated by the foimula: sAB = YB -Y A . The difference between the eleNo.

2 to the shaft No. 1 and III. 131 aVII-X -aVII-VI' = 132 = = ax -VII -ax -IX .2 be sunk to the working level + 150 ill. The direction angles 131 and 132 are determined by the difference of the direction angles of initial sides VI-VII and IX-X and the connection axis. y of points V. I. 1 beneath the shaft No.Ch. The theodolite traverse from the shaft No.3. IV of the mine No. where possible.2 to the design level z's and making the inset in the pit bottom. 1 at the level + 150 m. h (z~) permits us to find the required deepening Level +50 m Fig. I. e. in the pit bottom of each mine. For this. Connection Workings of Vertical Let the shaft of the mine No.2.2 are determined. (b) to run a theodolite traverse from the shaft No. which should be deepened froill the bottoill upwards. two approach points are established on the surface near each shaft and three permanent points.2. i.2. 1 at the level + 150 m is run from the points for which the coordinates of the centre and the direction angle of the shaft No. 1 and of points VIII. the orientation is done at least twice for each shaft. (d) to run a theodolite traverse at the level + 50 m from the shaft No. which is given. which lies on the same vertical line with the centre of the shaft No. both mines are oriented. The coordinates of the points VII and X are used to calculate the direction angle of the connection axis avIl.2.2 at the level + 150 m. The coordinates of the centre and the direction angle of the shaft axis are determined by a special technique or according to the recommendations of specifications on mine surveying. and the elevation mark is transferred onto the bench mark Rs. a shape stretched in the direction of a connection axis. and (e) to determine the centre of the shaft No. VI. and three points are fixed at each angle side. For this purpose.2 to the shaft No. (c) to perform the orientation of mine surveying at the level +50 m from the level + 150 m through the shaft No. At the level +50 ill.25 Scheme of connection shafts (axonometric projection) of vertical mine 8.25) open the levels + 150 ill and + 50 ill and the shaft No. A closed theodolite traverse is run between the approach points.x. it is required (a) to determine the coordinates of the centre and the direction angle of the axis of the shaft No.2 at the level + 50 m and arrange the axes. mining operations are advanced under the shaft of the mine No. 8.2. 8. which define the direction of the axis of approaching faces in the crosscut. II of the mine No. The results of orientation are used for determining the coordinates x. 1 (Fig. Special Surveys in Underground Workings ~ . and VII in the mine No.2 at the level + 150 m. Upon deepening the shaft of the mine No. -Z4 -ZS. The angles and side lengths of the traverse are measured. IX and X in the mine No. The orientation of surveying work at the level . The calculated gngles 131 and 132 laid off are in nature in the points VII and X. Surveying work required for this connection consists in finding a point at the level + 50 m. 8. For proper checking.

This measurement should then be done by a more perfect method or more accurate instruments.3. the coordinates of a point 61. For higher accuracy of face connection. it is essential to estimate preliminarily the expected accuracy of face connection in each critical direction. ~ Fig. In the final result. 8. Preliminary Estimation of Face Connection Accuracy 185 + 50 m from the level + 150 m should be done at least twice. Upon compiling the project. For this. If the calculated expected error is greater than the permissible value. it is recommended to make additional measurements of direction angles by gyroscopic instruments. 8. For this purpose. When the coordinates of the shaft centre at the level + 150 m.3. it is required to calculate the expected error in the determination of the point of connection of approaching faces (M exp).equal to the permissible error (M exD M D). When compiling the project. it is needed to calculate the angle 13of the direction from the point 61 onto the point 62 (shaft centre) and the distance d from the point 61 to the point 62. and the direction angle of a side 60-61 at the level + 50 m are found.26 Scheme for preliminal'Y calculation of error of face connection . Preliminary Estimation of Accuracy of Face Connection For driving a working from two ends. the expected error must be smaller than or. which specifies the proposed method of surveying and the list of instruments to be used. the surveyor must consult with the management of the mining enterprise on the permissible discrepancies of workings in the critical directions. in exceptional cases.8. a project of surveying work with explanatory notes is compiled. the centre of the shaft is transferred onto the lower level. it is required to find out which of the measurements associated with the determination of the connection point is most responsible for the error Mexp.

p + m~ . In preliminary calculation of the error of face connection in vertical shafts (see Fig.186 Ch. + mfl + 2m. 8.24) the following errors must be deterrnined: (I) errors of angular measurements in theodolite traverses run at the upper and lower levels of a mine: m" M = --. mz (see Ch. ai is the angle between the side of a polygonometric traverse and the critical direction (to be found graphically on the plan).4) -. rr:iii {1 "V~~i p where m{1is the root-mean square error of angular measurement and Ri is the distance from the centre of connected shafts to the corners of a theodolite traverse. m (the values of Ry are found graphically on the plan. (8. In caseswhen it is needed to determine the mean error of connection of approaching faces along the height considering the error of height transfer through the mine shafts.. is a coefficient of the influence of systematic errors per unit length. 4). . error of trigonometric levelling in the ~ (c) mine.1 a coefficient which accounts for the is influence of random errors per unit of measured length.12~SiCOS2 + A. see Ch. L is the projection of the closing side of a traverse onto the x'-axis (the distance between the initial poirits of a polygonometric traverse in a mine).26. s. mgl.!!. The mean error of face connection due to the errors of angular measurements in hanging polygonometric traverses run twice can be determined by the formula: m Xp = The total mean error of face connection in the horizontal plane in the critical direction x' is found from the formula: Mx = Jm~. + m. We can draw two axes through this point: y' along the axis of a working and x' perpendicular to that axis. 8.2) where 1.L2cas2"'I a. The expected total error of face connection along the height can be found by the formula: M z = ~. The mean error of face connection depending on the accuracy of measurement of side lengths in polygonometric traverses run twice can be determined by the formula: mx = .3) The mean error of face connection along the height can be calculated by the formula: Mz = Jm. (b) erro~ of geometric levelling in the mine. 4). y is the angle between the closing side of a traverse and the critical direction (to be found graphically on the plan). where mgl is the root-mean square error of geometric levelling in the mine and mtl is the mean error of trigonometric levelling in the nune. I. and p" = 206265". Ry.!!!!!-~ p"j2v I~R. it is essential to take into account the following probable sources of errors: (a) error of geometric levelling on the surface mz. Special Surveys in Underground Workings the angles and sides in the polygon A-EIII-II-D-C-B in Fig. Si is the length of the side of a theodolite traverse. are the projections of the distances from the connection point to the corners of a polygon onto the y'-axis. m. ~~ 2 (8. the term SiCOS2 can be found graphically by double ai projection on the plan (see Ch. We are interested in the deviation of the axes of faces in the direction perpendicular to the axis x' and in the direction of the axis z' (vertically). mtl.5) JI.' (8. . 8.1) where mIl is the mean square error of angular measurements. (8.. . and (d) error of height mark transfer through a vertical shaft..l + mll (8. 4). Let a point k be the expected point of face connection.

:.8. and (3) errors of the orientation of surveys at the lower level being connected mar Mar = -Ro p where mar is the mean error of orientation and Ro is the distance between the centres of shafts.3. . where ms is the mean error of length measurement~.. Preliminary Estimation of Face Connection Accuracy 187 ( + 50 m): (2) errors of measurements of side lengths in theodolite traverses run at the upper ( + 150 m) and lower ( + 50 m) levels: M s = ft..

These circumstances make the survey work in mine construction the most complicated and critical part of mine surveying servIce. . For the construction of mine objects. (c) instrumental layout of the axes of a mine hoist on the surface and transferring the geometrical elements of buildings. and (h) revision surveys of construction objects and driven workings for depicting them in maps. sections. etc. the general layout which is of prime importance. and design documentation relating to mine shafts and other mine objects. General Survey work in mine construction is an important part of mine surveying. The layout of buildings and structures and assignment of directions to underground workings are carried out according to the design drawings. since it gives horizontal distances of all permanent and temporary structures. which sets forth especially rigorous requirements to the accuracy of their assembly.Chapter Nine Surveying in Mine Construction 9. It consists specifically in that the angular and linear measurements which determine the design dimensions of underground workings and mine head-gears are transferred into nature and fixed properly. The instrumental layout of construction objects is carried out from the points of a mine survey reference net. into nature. drawings of foundations. etc. etc. gradients and cross-sectional dimensions of driven workings. structures. the following technical and design documentation should be available: an engineering report on the topographic and survey work on the site. Further. plans.1. (g) measurements for determining the deformations of buildings and structures. (I) assigning directions to underground workings and surveying control of the di- rections. modern mines are characterized by intricate underground complexes with hoisting vessels a few tens cubic metres in capacity and high lifting speeds. (d) special measurements and surveys during sinking and equipment of mine shafts. from the axes of a shaft and their elevations. the general plan of permanent and temporary underground service lines. the design plan of arrangement of heading equipment on the mine surface. the topographic plan Qf the territory allotted for construction. the design plans and vertical layout of earth-moving work with distribution of soil masses. The layout work underground is done from the points of underground polygonometric nets and survey nets 'of the first or second order. (b) determination of the scope of the earthmoving work. The principal problems to be solved by mine surveying in mine construction are as follows: (a) construction of reference nets on the surface for making the layout work. and the points of a layout net. (e) control of the relation between the geometrical elements of mine hoists during construction. points located on the axial lines of mine shafts.

--~~h. perpendicular to the main buntons (dividers) of that shaft. such as the axes of mine shafts or the sides of a layout control net. layout control can be reduced to the construction of a layout net consisting of points located on the axes of the main and auxiliary shaft. In modem mine construction. Besides.9. if the objects of a large extension are to be built in the central portion of a mine camp. In cases when the objects of a surface complex are distributed all over the mine camp. At large mines. In such caSes. and check measurements are carried out. [] --1 FI ~ II I ~--I II A0. on lines connecting the main points. (b) the sides of rectangles between the main points should be 80-350 m long. In such cases. (c) the results of measurements are processed for the reduction of the system of polygonometric traverses. structures. The axes of a vertical mine shaft are essentially two horizontal lines one of them being parallel and the other. and office and accommodation block. The principal layout control operations consist in the construction on the terrain of the main axes of a constructed site (mine camp). (d) the points are reduced. 9:I ). and hoist axes..1.1.1 Layout control net layout control net covering all the territory of the mine camp. auxiliary shaft block. most points on the shaft axes will be inevitably lost. a layout control net is formed as a system of rectangles with vertexes in spaces between the surface structures and with sides oriented parallel to the axes of a shaft (Fig. Its construction is based on the results of topographic and mine surveys carried out on the territory of mine construction. 9. machine foundations. A layout control net should be formed along the following recommendations: (a) the main points of a net should be arranged at the vertexes of rectangles and the auxiliary ones.:~. The point of their intersection is called the centre of the shaft. I t! O ~ O H J . Layout Camp Control Net of Mine CIj'I I v' D r-::: ---y -I ~ E ~ I . and (d) the coordinates of points should be determined analytically in a conventional system of coordinates whose axes are directed along the axes of a shaft.+ I. (b) a polygonometric traverse is run through these points. The construction of a layout control net is carried out in the following order: (a) the main points of a net are transferred into nature and fixed by permanent bench marks. Detailed layout work at the construction site of a mine head-gear (mine camp) is facilitated by constructing a layout control net of reference points.the points on the axes of shafts do not form a common net and thus cannot always ensure the required accuracy of layout work.. Detailed layout control is performed by mine surveyors and consists in the construction of the main axes of buildings. O G 2: Fig. is required to construct it preliminarily (before construction) a special . all main buildings of the surface complex are Jlsually combined into three blocks: main shaft block.: +. 9.Main shaft I :11 IAu~iliaryr: ~ .1. il Bf I I i E3J! n +-~--I"---tl-~ I I .. General 189 The layout control work is understood as the work of transferring the project of a structure into nature. (c) the main points should be established in places where their long preservance can be guaranteed.

2 Transfe detic net or densification net) must not exceed 0. the section between these points is layout net must differ from the design value halved.2a). length of lines.2b). and (1) the elevations of these points are determined by levelling. the design value. elevation mark. the design distance is side of that angle on the terrain. 9. If the terrain is flat. A13is the difference between the specified and measured 1/3000. and the length of a line is not more than 50 m. after which the design .For checking. the permissible error of angle measurement.Fig. If the difference between the (d) the root-mean square errors of angular specified and measured angles is greater than measurements must be not more than 10". The the terrain is an even slope and the line specified angle is laid off from the initial direction at two positions of the telescope length does not exceed 50 m. Transfer of a specified horizontal distance 9. by not more than 20". AI = IA13"/p" in that case. and the point C is found in the mid. etc. etc. The accuracy of construction of a layout control net must satisfy the following requirements: (a) an error in the position of the first established point of a layout net relative to )f horizontal angle into nature the points of a reference net (national geo. angle should be transferred (a point Cl in The axes of mine shafts are established Fig. i. there is a collima(b) the direction angle of the first side of a tion error. The point.1 m. FL) do not coincide. design horizontal an. not more than theodolite and the point C. design distance. which determines an angle 13. and this difference is used to calculate the linear (e) linear measurements must be done with correction by which the second side of the a relative error not worse than 1/15000. The method of transferring the specified horizontal distances into nature is Layout control is carried out in horizontal and verti'tal planes and contains a number of chosen depending on the terrain relief. If of the angle (a point B in Fig.2.1 .following main cases may be encountered in gle. 9. the inclination angle Transfer of a horizontal angle into nature. and p" = 206265". (c) the non-perpendicularity of the sides of the angle 13is measured and compared with a layout net must not exceed 20". The Concept of Layouts into nature. 9. the inclination (FR and FL). regeodetic operations. mine surveying practice. This correction can be calculated from the points of a layout control net and by the formula: each semi-axis is fixed by at least two points. angles. 9. If points C' and c" determined angle of the specified direction is first measat the two positions of the telescope (FR and ured by a theodolite.190 Ch. This operation reduces to finding the second does not exceed 3°. into nature. e. such as transferring a quired accuracy. axes. For this purpose. the theodolite is set up at the vertex laid off on the terrain by taping along the specified direction and is fixed by a point. Surveying in Mine Consl (e) auxiliary points are established on lines between the main points. the errors of angular measurements must be not more than 40" and those where 1is the horizontal distance between the of linear measurements.

The horiwhich gives the position of a point C. 9.9.4). After calculating the horizontal Fig. an auxiliary point Eo is first I. 9.3 Transferof specified horizontal distance distances Si' their sum (~sJ is found and compared with the design horizontal disinto nature on terrain of intricate relief tance. The design angle ~ and angle v is measured by a theodolite and the length s are laid off from the direction AB. The zontal distance is calculated by the formula: polar method is the most popular one for Sf = AEocosv transferring points into nature. Polar method. the inclined length S is calculated by the formula: for determining the position of the design point B.1. and at last the point E is fixed. This gives the length of a line section horizontal distance is laid off. the line AB is ranged in that direction and the points where the slope is measured are fixed by stakes. It is essential to have two established on the specified direction near the points with known coordinates on the terrain sought-for point E (Fig. 9. by a tape. 9. the layout work is started by setting up a theodolite in a point A (Fig. intricate relief. The lengths and angles in each inclined section Si are measured. p where ms and mp are the rrns errors of Fig. With the angle L\s = ~s. The This length is laid off by a tape along the transfer of design points during layout can be specified direction. v being known. General On a rough terrain and with a large design distance. The inclination (A and B in Fig. S = s/cos v Transfer of design points into nature. -s .5a). Then. 9.3).4 Transfer of specified horizontal distance into nature on rough terrain . The rootmean square error of the position of a point Then the difference between s' and the can be found by the formula: design horizontal distance s is determined As=S-Sf mp= ~ ms +~ (smpf which is laid off from the point Eo. The point Bo near the future point B is established on the specified direction by means of a range finder. inclined length AHo. On the terrain of an performed by several methods.

The position of a point C can be detennined by the point of intersection of two directions drawn at angles ~A and ~B from points A and B of a known side (Fig.~= Yc -YB J ~ -!.5 Layout of points: (a) polar method. (b) method of angular intersection. Fig. M ethod of linear intersection. .5c). If the angle 13and length s (Fig. The layout work is checked by measuring the distances between the points established on . we can find the angle 13 IlBC-IlBA. and their intersection gives the sought-for point C. they can be found by solving the inverse geodetic problem.01 m. (d) method of rectangular coordinates measurement of lengths and angles respectively and s is the distance from the known point to that to be established. O B O -O B Xc -XB With the known direction angle of a line EA and the calculated direction EC. The length of = the section EC will then be found from the expression: EC = . B. 'l --sin aBC COS aBC 2.. In this method. Thus.2 .5a) are not specified.012 -~22m (~)2 Jr moo~ . R =BC . but only the coordinates of a The method of angular intersection is used in caseswhen the points A and B are at large distances from the point C and linear measurements would involye difficulties. 9. Method of angular intersection.5d). The coordinates x and y of a point C relative to a reference net are determined on the plan and then laid off and fixed on the ground (Fig. the points of layout control and reference nets in the layout work should be located at distances not more than 25 m from the contour being laid out. they can be calculated from the known coordinates of points A.192 Ch. Surveying in Mine Construction c point C (xc. This is employed in cases when the points to be laid out on the ground are essentially close to a reference (layout) net. Yc) are known. the arcs of radii AC and BC are drawn on the ground from the centres in known points A and B (Fig. 9. tan aBC = Yc -YB Xc -XA Xc -XB = I~- 0. Assuming that the accuracy in detailed layout work is up to 1/3000 for linear measurements and up to I' for angular measurements and the error in the determination of the positions of corner and axial points of building foundations is not more than 0. (c) method of linear intersection. 9. 4. M ethod of rectangular coordinates. 9. The direction angle of a line EC can be determined by the formula: tan IlBC= Yc -YB 8 An A (c) (d) 'c -! -. If the angles ~A and ~B are not specified. 9. Oc RI =AC / / / o A // . . the maximum distance from a point of the net to the contour being laid out should be not more than: Imax BA tan aAC = Yc -y A .!!. and C by the fonnulae: ~A=aAB-aAC' ~B=aBC -a ' ..5b). 3. 9.

anchor bolts. 5. The instrument is sighted at the point I. Surveying at Mine Camp 193 the ground. the theodolite is set up. which lie on the line between points 1 and 2 of a layout net. Instead of plumb bobs. and the instrument horizon is calculated by the formula: IH=HA+a Mter that.2.9. in the point 2. The staff is set up onto the bench mark A. and the required distance is laid off from it perpendicularly. structures. In mine construction. with an accuracy not worse than 10mm. between the axes of columns. a version of this method is popular with one of the rectangular (layout) axes being fixed by means of a stretched wire. the points A and B found in this way are t~en fixed.Camp The main axes of all buildings and structures should be laid out in nature and fIXed at a mine camp before starting the earth-moving work. the reading of the staff set up in the point B. 9.6). and the design distances S2Aand S2B laid off by means of a tape are from the point2. Surveying at Mine . at which the staff foot will be at the design elevation. Linear measurements of distances between the layout axes of buildings. embedded parts. whose elevation HB is specified in the project (Fig. other means can also be used for the fixation of points on the wire. the staff set up in the respective point should be lowered or lifted until the reading on it is equal to the design value. Such points can be transferred by geometric levelling with two staffs or by means of an instrument horizon. is calculated by the 13-1270 fomlula: b=IH-HB If the design elevation is transferred onto the well of a working or another object above the ground. The directions onto the points to be established should be assigned with an accuracy not worse than I' and the distances to these points. A and B. M ethod of ranging measurements. the latter should be hammered down until the reading on the staff set up onto it will be equal to b. If the design elevation mark is to be transferred onto the top of a peg.2. the reading a is taken on it. 9. and between the layout axes and the axes of support structures. A line drawn at the staff foot will then give the design elevation mark. the level instrument is set up midway between the bench mark A with the known elevation H A and the point B to be established.In order to transfer into nature design points. The distances from the net being laid out to the points determining the axes of structures should not exceed 25 m. say. For this purpose. A plumb bob is suspended from the wire. foundations and machinery. The main axes of buildings and foundations should be laid out so as to be preserved fully for the entire period of construction. say. In the construction of structures and other construction jobs it is often needed to transfer points with design elevations into nature. axes of precast .

(Fig. The plan position of each structure is determined by the distances from its characteristic points to the axial points of the mine shaft or points of the layout net. and mounting axes of process equipment and mechanisms are made by standardized tapes. and the coordinates of the axial points are calculated. y of the shaft centre and the direction angles of the shaft axes. Surveying in Mine Construction reinforced concrete and steel structures.5 m. the errors should not exceed respectively 0. Wires stretched . At least six points should be established and fixed at each axial line of a shaft. The distances between adjacent points must be not less than 50 m. it is then possible to layout the axes of the walls (mostly by the method of perpendiculars or polar method).1 m and 1'30". The layout of the centre of a shaft can be done by the method of perpendiculars or polar method. The main axes of the building are fixed by axial points and the axes of the foundation are transferred onto and fixed on batter boards fastened on poles. When laying out the foundation of a building. coordinates of initial points.7).7) are established by the predetermined angular and linear elements. and the axes 1-1. the discrepancy between the two measurements should not exceed 0. The axes are laid out and fixed according to the coordinates x.Ch. the main axes of buildings and structures should be transferred into nature and fixed at the mine camp. and the orientation of objects relative to the axes of the site. The batter boards should be arranged at a certain distance (not less than 3 m) from the exterior walls of the building. These points should be arranged so that they can be used for the construction of buildings and structures at the site. 9.11d established beyond the limits of the be mine camp. All measurements are fixed in a layout book together with the date of the layout work. distances and measurements used for layout. 9. a secondorder polygonometric traverse is run through the shaft centre. Upon finishing the layout work. Using these axes. proceeding from survey net points located at a distance not more than 300 m from the shaft. Before starting the earth-moving work. numbers of design drawings. If the centre and main axes are established for a shaft associated with an operating mining complex. The error of the layout of a perpendicular axis relative to the main one should be not more than 45". The centre of the shaft is established independently twice. 9. The angular error of the layout of the main axis of the shaft relative to points of the survey reference net should not exceed 31. The layout work at a mine camp is started from the centre and axes of a shaft. axial points and points of the survey reference net. At least two points shQl. its characteristic points (A and B in Fig. 11-11and 111-111 the building are of marked in nature.

The position of the formwork in plan is checked by means of plumb bobs suspended from the points of foundation axes marked on batter boards. The vertical position of a formwock is checked by a plumb bob. the foundation guide blocks are first laid in place in every 20-25 m. an increase by not more than 5 mm is allowed.om bench marks usually fixed on the piles of batter boards. etc. the permissible error is 2 mm per metre of the foundation height.3. and their intersections define corner points. not more than 1 cm. Plane foundations are the most popular type of foundation for reinforced-concrete columns. and transferring the design elevation marks of the foundation top onto the formwork. plumb bobs 1. . and the contour of the cutting shoe of a caisson ring is established. In the construction of deep foundations. strip. Buildings and structures in mine construction may have cast in-situ. The discrepancy. 9. The deviations of the foundation axes from the design values should be not more than 2 cm and the deviations of the axes of wells. vertically.9. arrangement of a shuttering (formwork). it is controlled by planimetric and height surveying. The deviations of the axes of a foundation from the design values should not exceed 5 mm and those of the support surfaces from the design elevation marks. the foundation plates are checked by a theodolite or level instrument. the axes of the exterior rows of piles or the axes of pits are first marked in the foundation pit. batter boards and wires are also used for the fixation of the axes of exterior walls. Anchor bolts for fastening metal columns must not be displaced from the design position by more than 5 mm in the horizontal plane and by more than 20 mm.3. The mine survey servicing of precast foundations means the fixation of their exterior and interior faces by cords or wires stretched between batter boards.4 are suspended from the points of wire intersection (Fig. 9. The vertical layout of foundations is carried out by means of a level instrument and staff.3. After concreting a foundation. 3 mm. starting fr. between the actual and design elevation marks of the foundation top must be not more than 20 mm. Surveying in Construction of Mine Hoists 195 between the axial points of opposite batter boards determine the directions of the building axes. In the construction of large blocks of industrial buildings (of a length more than 80 m). cords are stretched between them. The design position of a foundation is marked initially. beams and girders. pile foundations.. For this purpose. In laying. 9. after which the foundation is laid in place.2.3. After pile driving.1. and intermediate blocks are then laid. columns. Surveying of Mine in Construction Hoists Brief Data on Hoisting Complexes of Vertical Shafts Modern hoisting complexes employed in mining can be characterized by ever increas- . The layout work for strip foundations consists in checking that the foundation pit has been dug properly. levelling is carried out to check that all pile heads are in the same horizontal plane.8). A decrease of the cross-sectional size of a foundation against the design value is inadmissible.

a jib 2 which serves as a strut for the vertical frame and absorbs the tilting force developed by a hoisting rope.196 Ch. cage rests. and performs control during the hoist operation. for counter-weights. According to the kind of hoisting vessel. They may be of the single. The former have a winding drum 2. the construction of mine complexes is often oriented at industrial methods. There are two main types of head-frame: jib head-frames and tower head-frames. Largesized hoisting machines have drums 4-9 m in diameter and up to 1560 m in coiling length. cage hoists. four-standtype and tent-type. by the method of rope winding. skip-cage hoists. Jib-type head-frames are mostly made of metal and much rarely of wood and may be classified as A-shaped. hoisting (driving) pulleys. hoisting plants can be divided into skip hoists. (2) shaft equipment.9) consists of a vertical frame 1. Hoisting plants of vertical shafts are equipped with medium-sized or large-sized drumtype machines. the equipment of a shaft may be either rigid or consist of ropes.5 m. unloading curves.(3) auxiliary hoisting equipment. plays an essential role in the acceptance of a mine hoist. may be provided with either rope-winding drums or friction type pulleys (Koepe sheaves). The mine surveyor has to take part in all stages of the construction and operation of mine hoists. and hoisting vessels.or multi-rope type. 9.or multi-rope type depending on the number of hoisting ropes. In addition. A tower-type head1rame carries the entire hoisting complex. six or eight ropes. Hoisting pulleys are mounted on the pulley stage of a head-frame. Further. The hoisting speed of these machines attains 16 m/s. including the hoisting machine. and a pulley (landing) stage 3 for guide pulleys. Those with Koepe sheaves may be of the single. 9.1-5 m in diameter. which are the principal part of mine hoists.5 m in diameter and ensure a hoisting speed of 7-10 m/s. Combined equipment is also employed. A jib-type head1rame (Fig. Multi-rope machines manufactured in this country have four. Multi-rope hoisting machines are mainly employed in tower-type head-gears. and . Hoisting machines. A mine hoist has the following main components: (I) hoisting plant. 3 m or 3.10). head-gear (head-frame). The auxiliary equipment of a mine hoist includes load-handling facilities and landing stages. Surveying in Mine Construction ing hoisting depths. The walls of a head-frame form an interior shell of a rectangular cross section which serves as a support. and an exterior shell of a circular or rectangular cross section. These circumstances set forth new complicated problems before mine surveyors. 9. in which rigid conductors are used for hoisting vessels and rope guides. He is directly engaged in the construction and installation work. They hold the ropes . and bucket hoists. etc. conductors. they must ensure the proper accuracy of mounting the process equipment and safe operation of mine hoists. hoisting ropes. Multi-rope hoisting machines have several ropes which are driven from a hoisting pulley owing to the friction between the pulley lining and ropes. it is distinguished between hoisting plants with a constant winding radius and those with a variable radius. a load-carrying capacity from 3 t to 50 t and driving pulleys 2. Tower-type head-frames may have a metal framework or reinforced-concrete (cast-in-situ or precast) carrying walls (Fig. A head-frame is a structure above a shaft which carries guide pulleys. increased speeds of hoisting vessels. Depending on the kind of guides. Each of the ropes is fastened to both hoisting vessels. The hoisting plant of a mine includes a hoisting machine.Druni-type hoisting machines may be with a constant or variable winding radius. and larger mass of cargoes. In particular.

Non-lined pulleys are made of high-strength cast iron (with the diameter up to 3 m) or stamped of steel (with the diameter more than 3 m). etc. a single suspension with lO-fold safety margin. 9. Suspensionsof hoisting vessels. Hoisting pulleys may be without lining or with a lining made of soft metals. Hoisting machines with Koepe sheaves are equipped with flattenedstrand and sheathed ropes.and double-stage non-tilting cages are the most popular types.5-35 m3 in capacity. The shaft equipment may be either rigid or of the rope type. Surveying in Construction of Mine Hoists (b) 197 Fig. Skips 7-15 m3 in capacity are employed in single-rope hoists and those 9. Skips are loaded in a shaft by means of a loading device which includes an underground bunker.Suspensions (bails) are devices by which hoisting vessels are connected to ropes. The equipment of shafts is understood as a complex of elements which ensure the directed motion of hoisting vesselsunder the specified operating conditions of a hoist. Landing dogs are the most popular type of landing chairs. chutes. Equipment of vertical shafts. Hoisting ropes. 1-vertical frame. Only steel-wire ropes are employed in hoisting plants.3. Loading and unloading of hoisting vesselsare the most critical operations of hoisting. skips and combined types (such as skip-cage) are employed as hoisting vessels. With a large hoisting height.Buckets. cage bails have a double independent suspension with l3-fold safety margin and skip bails. II) with four stands. as well as of self-tightening multi-layer ropes. cages. Cages may be of the non-tilting (common) or tilting type and are divided by the type of load into man-cargo and man (passenger) cages. Loading-unloading devices (stations). Hoisting vessels. According to safety regulations. in multirope hoists. they also have arrangements for moving carriages into and from cages and safety devices. rubber.9. Round-strand right. use is preferably made of crosstwisted round-strand ropes and self-tightening sheathed ropes.(c) tent type. Skips and tilting cages are unloaded on the surface by means of unloading curves mounted in the head-frame. 3 -pu1ley (landing) stage and direct them from the hoisting machine into the mine shaft. wood. For tight contact of a rope on a pulley. (a) (I 2-jib. which are provided with landing chairs to support the cages during loading and unloading. The diameter of a pulley depends on the diameter (thickness) of a hoisting rope. the diameter of the latter must be not less than 80 rope diameters.or left-hand twisted ropes and flattenedstrand ropes are used in hoists of a small or moderate hoisting height. A rigid equipment consists of conductors .9 Steeljib-type head-frames: A-shaped. and gates with drive mechanisms. Single. A cage hoist has landing stagesin the shaft and on the surface.

4. rope clips 3. balance ropes 2.foundation and buntons (dividers) which carry the former.10 Reinforced-concrete tower-type headframe: 1 -machine rooms. The ropes are tensioned by means of weights arranged in a sump or by means of a hydraulic device mounted on a headframe. conductors are mounted at the same time with buntons. which are arranged either at the corners or pairwise along the larger side of a cage. and after that. With the parallel scheme. buntons are mounted from a suspended stage. 5. from a cradle that moves behind the platform.11) includes rope guides 1. beginning from the top of a shaft. but the latter are mounted from a sinking platform and the former. a tensioning frame 5. They are made of rectangular wooden bars. The equipment of a shaft can be mounted either after driving the shaft or at the same time. The conductors are fastened to buntons (dividers) which are essentially horizontal beams built in by one or both ends in the shaft lining. In shafts with two hoists. 9. Four rope guides are usually provided for a hoisting vessel.floors.metal stand. Surveying in Mine Construction Fig.all operations can be carried out by a consecutive. The conductors serve to direct the moving hoisting vessels. In the former case. conductors are fastened to them from a cradle. The rope guides are usually made from sheathed ropes. 2 -level of guide pulleys. 7 and 8. With the combined scheme of arrangement of the shaft .With the consecutive scheme. guides for hoisting vessels6. A rope equipment can be employed in shafts where one or two hoists are arranged in parallel and the path of hoisting vesselsis not curved. A rope equipment (Fig. the balance ropes are stretched between the vesselsin order to prevent their collisions. and devices for the fixation of hoisting vessels at the loading and unloading stages. steel rails or rolled U-shaped steel sections in the form of continuous cage structures which are arranged vertically in a shaft. rope-tensionirig weights 4. 3. The buntons are made of wood or various rolled steel sections.198 Ch. parallel or combined scheme. beginning from the bottom. 9. 9.

2. Since the faces of the foundation are represented in the working drawing with distortions of their dimensions. b. these axes are first transferred mounted simultaneously.ed by two methods: (a) the head-frame is me. Jib-Type Head-Frames Metallic jib-type head-framescan be mountDuring mounting a jib-type steel head-fra. a supporting frame is made around the collar of the shaft and foundations for a jib are built. The layout of the foundations of a jib is done according to a working drawing and the plan of arrangement of foundations relative to the shaft axes. 9. the mine surveyor checks the depth of the foundation pit.3. After that. C and D are marked on the foundation shaft. corner points A. and unloading curves. Mounting of Metallic and concreting is finished. Surveying in Construction of Mine Hoists 199 arrangement of metal structures. A shuttered foundation foot is 9. anchor bolts are set up. and cords are stretched mounted simultaneously with shaft driving. and the correct mounting of a shuttering. tering is checked at its top. For the arrangement of the shuttering equipment. it is essential to determine their actual dimensions for the manufacture of shuttering panels. The correct position of the supporting frame is checked relative to the axial points fixed in the permanent lining of the shaft collar. buntons and conductors are along the axes of a head-frame foot (Fig. the horizontality of the foundation pad. and d. the mine surveyor has to layout the axes preassembled on an assembling stage and of the supporting frame and foundations for then lifted and mounted on a supporting the head-frame jib. to make the profile survey of the head-frame structure. The errors in the position of the supporting frame should be not more than 5 mm in the horizontal plane and 30 mm in the vertical plane. a between the piles. and the difference between the elevation marks of the frame corners should be not more than 5 mm. For mounting a jib-type head-frame.12). to check the correct frame or (b) the sectiQfis of a head-frame are .9. and to transfer the layout axes of a pulley stage. Survey Control During concreted partially. Upon the construction of the foundation. after which buntons and conductors pad by means of plumb bobs sunk from the cords.3. In cases when the shaft equipment is onto side piles. section of shaft lining is first fastened in the B. c. by using points a. The correct arrangement of the shutare mounted on it from a sinking platform. guide pulleys.

the pulley must checking that each section has been mounted be readjusted.I~i'!'Y A l\ \ D Fig. the survey work consists essentially in diameter. The axes are fixed finally 10mm. A check of the arrangement of a pulley on relative to conductors should not exceed 10 mm. Surveying in Mine Construction \. it is re. In that guide pulleys is done after the final fixation of case. 9. the planes of the plates to which the a landing stage is done by the mine surveyor unloading curves are fastened should be in the following sequence. In cases when a head-frame is erected by for pulleys up to 6 m in diameter and by mounting individual sections one on top the more than 15 mm for those above 6 m in other.200 Ch.12 Arrangement of shuttering of head-frame jib foundation mounted successively on a supporting frame. " . ~"~ \ \ ~1\\ I \I \ I \ 1\1 . the corresponding design positions of the shaft axes should be points of external and internal curves should not deviate from the same level by more than marked on the pulley stage and the horizontal ties of the jib. An error zontal (the permissible discrepancy between of arrangement of unloading curves in plan the elevations of the shaft ends is 1 mm). A check should then be made correctly. the deviations of the axes of the pulley the jib and head-frame foundation. For mounting unloading curves. the conductors (the permissible deviation is Before lifting an assembled head-frame.0/. For this stage from the design positions must be not purpose.that the axis of the pulley is perfectly horiquired to transfer their layout axes. If it turns out that these distances exceed the specified values. the not more than 10 mm). more than 25 mm in directions perpendicular to the hoisting axis and not more than The distance from the pulley rim to the 50 mm in the direction parallel to the layout axis (hoisting axis) should not differ from the design value by more than 10 mm hoisting axis. A check of the correct arrangement of after they have been transferred onto the pulley stage of the erected head-frame. 9. A cord is stretched along the hoisting axis perpendicular to the plane passing through . the layout axes of the shaft and hoist are transferred onto the landing stage. I 1!11 .

. The permissible deviations of the pulley axis from the horizontal are established by specifications on assembling particular hoists. Before mounting steel structures on the ."~J The horizontality of the shaft of a headframe pulley can be controlled by a frame level with a division value not worse than 20".3. e. must be turned (here D p is the diameter of the pulley). thp n1111p\T r Dp 0-. 9. it is then required to calculate the angle'Y = a 1--a 2 n thrO1lgh whicJ. Survey Control In Construction of Tower Head-Frames The layout work for the construction of steel tower head-frames consists mainly in laying out the axes of columns of the first and upper stages of the frame structure.9. The final results are found as their mean values.3.'~ t'. These measurements are then repeated after turning the pulley through 180°. 9.3.4 and /2).13). from which horizontal distances to the pulley rim are measured (/1' /1. hydrostatic level. or level with a compensator. . Surveying in Construction of Mine Hoists 201 (Fig.. The position of the axis of the pulley shaft is determined by measuring the distances Si and S2from the shaft axis to the plumb bobs hung from wires which fix the shaft axis on the landing stage. which permit the measurements of the elevations of shaft ends with an accuracy up to 1 mm. i.: a1=11+/1 2 a2=- 12+/2 2 If the distances a1 and a2 are not equal to each other.

the shaft axes are laid out on each platform.14). The spacings between adjacent sides of the network should not differ from the design values by more than 5 rnrn. the permissible deviation is up to 15 rnrn for columns up to 15 m high and 0.more than I mm per 100 m of vertical distance. In the first place. however. Upon erecting the walls to a height of 2 m. the shaft axes are fixed by brackets from the external and internal side of the head-frame.16) which are fastened on slip forms. the survey work consists in the following. the position of the slip form is controlled by means of a vertical sighting device. he also makes the levelling of the working floor in the corners of sections. he makes a check by measuring the distances from the shaft axes transferred onto the slip form to the plane of each panel that divides the slip form into sections. As the frame structure is being erected.15). it gives an error not . The instrument is intended for vertical projection of a point from the bottom upwards. the reference points are shifted somewhat aside. The zenith-telescope or another similar instrument is sighted at sighting marks (Fig. preferably by an automatic zenithtelescope (Fig. the schemes of column rows are drawn in the vertical projection in planes parallel to the two axes of the shaft (Fig. shape and position of the slip form which is assembled on the head-frame foundation. 9. Mter mounting each stage of the frame structure. At each theodolite station and with two different positions of a telescope. the upper axial marks of a column are projected onto the column base. Surveying in Mine Construction foundation. upon the construction of reinforced concrete stage floors and arrangement of wall panels. which makes it possible to use them during the entire period of mounting work. For convenience. a mounting network is marked whose points should be principally coincident with the centres of columns.202 Ch. these axes are transferred onto brackets. Each sighting mark is essentially a square network drawn or printed on a transparent material (such as triacetate film). The displacement of the upper centre relative to the lower one is measured by a millimetre-graded staff. . Sighting marks are fastened to wooden bars that support the working floor of the slip forms. 9. In the construction of cast-in-situ concrete tower head-frames in slip forms.001 of the column height (but not more than 35 mm) for higher columns. The upright position of columns is checked by the method of vertical plane with the use of two theodolites which are set up on two mutually perpendicular axes of columns or on axes of the mounting network. The mine surveyor checks the dimensions. 9. Later in the course of the erection of the head-frame. 9.

9. x. In order to determine the height of the working floor of the slip forms. 9. 60.pivoting mirror. 20. PZL (GDR): I-pro3 ~ telescope eyepiece. hoisting compartments. 2.9. and exterior walls. 9-base.17 Principal diagram of arrangement of sighting marks for construction of head-frames of rectangular cross section: I-sighting mark. 5. 25-num. 6.housing. 10. The results of control of the position of slip forms are presented as a scheme of matched L l Fig.15 Zenith-telescope tective glass. bering of smaller scale. Surveying in Construction of Mine Hoists 203 Fig. 7.focussing screw. JO-tripod The zenith-telescope is set up successively under each sighting mark.16 Sighting mark: 5. the staff readings are corrected.sighting screw. Land S -increasing numbers of larger and smaller scale. bering of larger scale Fig.17. The arrangement of sighting marks depends on the shape of slip forms. the mine surveyor measures the height of the working floor relative to a bench mark concreted in the bottom portion of the headframe.3. The principal diagram of the arrangement of sighting marks for the construction of a tower head-frame of rectangular cross section is shown in Fig. 75-num. 9.clamp screw. 4. 55. control staffs are fastened at the corners of the shaft portion and external portion of a tower head-frame. which makes it possible to control the verticality of the tower.reading-olT microscope. y-coordinate axes . If the heights of the working floor determined by the check measurements differ from the readings of the staffs on the slip forms by more than 20 mm. 9. 15. In addition. 8. as the slip forms are advanced through every 20 m. 65. These staffs are extended periodically as the slip forms are lifted. 70.

18 Geometrical elements of single-rope mine hoist 17500 ~ . The height of a head-frame Hhf is the vertical distance between the axis of rotation of the guide pulley and the zero stage: Hhf = ht + hv + hp + hz + O. its individual elements should have the specified geometrical relationships.. ~ 5000 dia ~r~or level ~ ~ + ~ 30000 Fig. ~~ ~ ~ " " .. Geometrical elements of a single-rope hoist. Surveying in Mine Construction sections of the headframe constructed in intervals of 2-4 ill. which makes it possible to check the positions of the headframe walls and thus to take measures for preventing further deformations and deviations of the slip forms.4.75Rp 5000 --- dia 5000 / dia "/'~ ii ... ~Receiving stage level --~ '.. "'. and hb is the maximum sinking of the hoisting vessel below the pit-bottom level during loading.204 Ch. 9. '~ Level . ht is the distance from the zero stage to the lowermost point of the hoisting vessel at the moment of unloading. " \. of discharae curves :" . where h is the depth of the shaft. 9. 9. Geometrical Elements of a Mine Hoist For efficient and safe operation of a mine hoist. The total hoisting height H is the vertical distance from the lowermost point of a hoisting vessel when this is in the lowermost position to the same point of the vessel in the uppermost position at the end of unloading (Fig. > ~. ~ .3. 9.18): H = h + ht + hb. The principal geometrical elements of a single-rope hoist are as follows. " .

The distance between the internal faces of the rims of a drum is called the construction width and denoted Ldr. they can be determined where H p is the height of the pulley axis above the zero stage.and A<pucan be found by the formulae: Rdr tan A(D.0. 9. hp is the elevation of the top pulley axis over the bottom pulley axis. Hdr is the height of the drum axis above that stage.9. 9. and L is the horizontal projection of the line connecting the axes of the pulley and drum. Surveying in Construction of Mine Hoists Rp 11'-" .:oincides with the projection of the rope axis onto the horizontal plane. <Pu <P = + = -A<pu where <PI the inclination angle of the lower is string..and A<pu the inclination angles are of the lower and upper strings relative to the line that connects the rotation axes of the 7' R 1 Rdr p "'-' ~ .19). Lu. and that of a lower one. The axial plane of a guide pulley is the straight line that passesperpendicular to the axis of a pulley shaft midway between the internal faces of pulley rims. It is distinguished between the string of an upper rope. this is the point of intersection of the hoisting axis with the straight line passing through the axes of the two vertical hoisting ropes. The inclination angles of hoisting ropes are the angles <P. those with cylindrical drums are the most popular. that is why the characteristics of rope coiling will be discussed for this type of machine. hi is the height of overlifting.. <Pu the inclination angle of the upper is string. The hoisting centre of a single-rope hoist is the point that <. L (see Fig. 205 by the formulae: <PI <P A<p. The length of a rope string is the distance between the point of run-off of the rope from the drum and the point of run-on of the rope on the guide pulley. The hoisting axis of a vertical shaft is the straight line that passes through the point midway between the two vertical hoisting ropes perpendicular to the axis of the main shaft of a hoisting machine.20).3.0 " ~ Lu ~'a. " !. r Fig. The terms A<p. The centre of the shaft of a hoisting machine is a point on the axis of the main shaft midway between the internal edges of the rims of a drum (for single-drum machines) or midway between the internal edges of the rims of drums (for two-drum machines). 9. for a double-rope hoist. <pis the inclination angle of the straight line connecting the axes of the pulley and drum of the hoisting machine.19).and <Pu made by the rope axes with a horizontal plane when there is no rope sagging (Fig. L~ .-tan + Rp Loc A(D .Rdr -Rp 'I Loc where Rdr and Rp are respectively the radii of the drum and pulley of the hoisting machine and Loc is the distance between the centres of the drum and pulley (0 and C). and Rp is the pulley radius. Among various types of hoisting machines.19 Inclination angles of hoisting ropes L where hv is the height of a hoisting vessel./ ~ ~ drum and pulley." L ~~/&'/~~~ . A<p. .. 9. Various portions of the construction width of a drum serve different purposes and accordingly the following zones are distinguished (Fig. which can be found by the formula: tan <p -p H-H d.

and L is the vertical distance between the centre lines of the drum and pulley of the hoisting machine. hemp. The empty portion of a drum. In cases when the axial plane of a pulley is arranged parallel to the axis of a mine shaft. and e is the spacing between the adjacent coils of a rope.is the difference between the construction width of a drum Ldr and the SUm of the zones indi- where a is the distance from the hoisting axis to the pulley plane at the pulley axis. the fleet angles . In order to make the fleet angles on a pulley equal to each other (131 13u)' axial = the plane of the pulley is oriented onto the centre of the working portion of the hoist drum. The zone of reserve coils. ill. hfr . required for strength tests.206 Ch. = -=--(d + e) 1tl}dr where 30 is the additional length of a rope. e. The zone of friction coils. au = 13u). the axial plane of a pulley is not If parallel to the hoisting axis. which is needed to take on the additional length of a rope. d is the rope diameter. This width is usually determined by three or five rope coils. 9. hfr = n(d + e) where n = 3-5. Surveying in Mine Construction cated: hemp = Ldr ( H+ ~ 30 + n ) (d e) The zone of working coils of a width hw which depends on the total hoisting height and can be determined by the formula: h=cw (d + e) 1tDdr H where H is the total hoisting height. bl and b2 are the distances from the hoisting axis respectively to the farther and closer end of the working portion of a drum. i. which is provided for stronger holding of the rope on the drum. Its width can be found by the formula: 30 b. br. D dr is the drum diameter. the fleet angles of the rope on a pulley and drum ar~ equal to each other (al = 131.

.

208 Ch. and the angles of bending of hoisting and D p is the pulley diameter. ropes by guide pulleys. <I> hoisting compartments of a tower head-frais the angle of inclination of a hoisting rope. which (a) the fleet angles of descending ropes on . the vertical axes of the ends of the horizontal diameter of a pulley.22. me. the mean point of rope run-off from drive pulleys (1). the axis of the non-deflected rope system (8) which is a straight line connecting the mean run-off point and the mean point of a suspended balancing device. Surveying in Mine Construction takes place when a. the axis of the on the pulley can be found by the formulae: deflected rope system (7) -a straight line connecting the mean run-off points and the 13. The scheme of the most popular four-rope hoist with pulleys which deflect one system of ropes is shown in Fig. i. the mean points of suspension devices (4. 2Lcos <p Geometrical elements of a multi-rope hoist. the axes of intermediate rope strings between the drive pulleys and guide pulleys (9). the hoisting axis v-v which is a angle of the turn of a pulley relative to the horizontal line passing perpendicular to the hoisting axis. the fleet angles on a tinguished between the following fleet angles: pulley must be equal to each other.-au 1'= 2 cos q> Substituting the expressions for a.2a D. we obtain the condition that makes it possible to find in each particular case the magnitude a2 -al . 9. which In multi-rope hoisting machines. 13u au + ycos <I> = = mean point of a suspended non-balanced where y = [(at -a2)/Dp] p' is the horizontal device. 5). -ycos <I>. it is disprevents one-sided wear. The main geometrical elements of this hoist are as follows: the axes of hoisting ropes of a non-deflected rope system (2). at and a2 are the distances from main shaft axis through the mean run-off the hoisting axis to the pulley plane at the point on drive pulleys. 9. and au into this formula. For normal operation of pulleys. the axes of hoisting ropes of a deflected rope system (6). e. a. the mean point of rope run-off from guide pulleys (3). the magnitude by which a pulley should be turned so that its axial plane will be oriented onto the centre of the working portion of a drum: +b2 .

2. 5 -level of guide pulleys. 1-drum of drive pulleys. R"p. 9. 8. h3' h4 -elevation of main shaft axis and guide pulley shaft axis above mean points of suspension devices.(c) 10 \ 3 9 I~- -/10 ~ 11 Fig. 6. 7. 9-conductor.23 Geometrical elements and parameters of multi-rope hoisting plant: (a) and (6) vertical projections. l-length of intermediate rope string. (c) plan view.hoisting vessel.hoisting vesselclip. 3-mean run-off points of ropes on drive and guide pulleys.radii of drive and guide pulleys 14-1270 L. 4. Rgp.bunton. 10-mean point of suspension device (clip). hl -elevation of main shaft axis and guide pulley shaft axis above guide pulley stage level. hi.numbers of ropes.u ~- j - J1~ . h-elevation of main shaft axis above guide pulley shaft axis.guide pulleys. 11.

The layout work is started by transferring into nature the point of intersection of the axis of the main shaft and the axis of the hoist shaft. The main causes which may lead to the distortions in the relation between the geometrical elements and deviations of main ropes from the vertical are as follows: (a) inaccurate assembly of a hoisting machine and equipment. and the side displacement of the . (d) the straight line connecting the mean run-off point of a rope and the mean point of a suspension device should lie on the vertical axis of a hoisting compartment. and (c) the fleet angles of intermediate rope strings on drive pulleys (~J and guide pulleys ('1'J. Pi (an angle between the axis of a descending rope and the plane of a guide pulley). In addition to fleet angles.23). (b) the axes of main hoisting ropes should be perfectly vertical.210 Ch.5 m above the ground. 9. The hoisting axis and the machine shaft axis are laid out twice. (b) wear of a pulley lining. (b) the fleet angles of descending ropes on guide pulleys. The control of the relation between the main geometrical elements of hoisting machines of this type consists essentially in observing the following requirements: (a) the axes of the main shaft and guide pulley shaft should be horizontal and parallel to one' another. Upon erecting the walls of the hoisting machine room to a height of 1-1. Survey Work During of Hoisting Plants Mounting Survey work for mounting a hoisting plant consists in transferring the hoisting axis and the main shaft axis into the hoisting plant building and laying out the foundation for the hoisting machine and its elements. and the angle between the two fixed perpendicular axes should differ from a right angle by not more than 1'.5. and (c) displacement of a hoisting machine or equipment due to underworking a tower head-frame or mine shaft. The elevated fleet angles of ropes are the main cause of quick wear of a pulley lining. 9. Mter erecting the building walls to the full height. The fleet angles of ropes on drive and guide pulleys of multi-rope hoisting machines must not exceed 30-40'. while the deviation of a rope system from the vertical may cause increased horizontal loads exerted by hoisting vesselson the shaft equipment. Surveying in Mine Construction drive pulleys. 9. lead to uneven wear of a pulley lining. a second row of brackets (mounting brackets) is built in at a height somewhat below the ceiling floor level. since their deviations may influence substantially the operating conditions of a hoisting ma- chine. The mean direction angle of the main shaft should differ from the design value by not more than 2'. ai. Fig. of essential importance are also the angles of deviation from the vertical axis of symmetry of the system of ropes and the angle of contact (wrapping angle) of a rope on a guide pulley. the axis of the main shaft and the axis of the hoisting machine shaft are transferred by means of a theodolite inside the building and fixed by brackets on the inner walls. The axial points are transferred onto these brackets from the lower ones by a theodolite or plumb bobs.on conductors. (c) the drive and guide pulleys of a rope string should lie in the same vertical plane. The distance from the centre of the mine shaft to the machine shaft should differ from the design value by not more than 100 mm. and cause uneven loads on ropes and elevated forces acting . (e) drive and guide pulleys should have the same diameters corresponding to the design specifications. 11 (see Fig.3.23 (an angle formed by the axis of a rope with the plane of a drive pulley). and (1) the angles of deflection of ropes by guide pulleys should be within the limits of 8-15°. 9. The experience of operation of multi-rope hoists has demonstrated that the design dimensions of these machines should be observed with a high degree of accuracy.

3. Survey Work for Checking the Geometrical Elements of a Single. Surveying in Construction of Mine Hoists 211 point of intersection of the hoisting axis and machine shaft axis. it is checked for horizontality and correct position relative to the hoisting axis and the main shaft axis of the machine. there are measured the distance between the internal faces of drum rims ho. it is required to check the horizontality of the axes of machine shafts and drive pulleys.6. the width of the working portion hw and h.Rope Hoisting Plant traverse A-I-2-3 (Fig. Mter laying the supporting frame of a hoist into its place. a'1' a2 and a~ from the wire I-II to the external edges of pulley rims at the ends of a horizontal diameter are then measured.9. the +x I '~~ ""\ ~ ~.. the positions of the axes of hoisting ropes relative to conductors at the level of the zero stage.. the width of empty portion of the drum h and h'. by means of plumb bobs hung from a cord stretched between the axial brackets of the main shaft of the hoisting machine. 2 After the assembly of a hoisting plant. the position of the drum relative to the hoisting axis is checked by hanging two plumb bobs and measuring the distances from the plumb bob lines to the drum rims. At the pulley stage. For this purpose. This direction is transferred onto the pulley stage and fixed by a wire I-II.24 Theodolite traverse for checking of relation between geometrical elements of hoisting plant . The arrangement of the main shaft bearings is checked along the height by levelling the lower points of their internal surface and in the horizontal plane. In the machine room building. and the fleet angles of hoisting ropes on drums and pulleys. The point 4 of a traverse is fixed approximately on the hoisting axis near the zero stage. The distance 1 between the external faces of the pulley rims is also measured. 9. The deviations of bearings in plan and vertically should not exceed 1-2 mill. / Fig. The actual position of the shaft of the hoisting machine is checked by the same method as the position of bearings. Mter the completion of the machine assembly. the distances a1. 9. The highest difference of elevations of the corner points of the frame should be not more than 15 mm. 9. by not more than 50 mill. The angle 2-3-1 is laid up at a point 3 (from the side 3-2). which is calculated so that the direction 3-1 is perpendicular to the axis of the machine shaft. a theodolite 14.3. The permissible deviation of the machine shaft axis from the horizontal position is established by the specifications for hoisting machine assembly. The deviation of the frame from its design position should not exceed 10 mill in plan and 100 mill vertically. The position of the frame along the height is checked by levelling the corner points of the frame in plan relative to the axes by means of plumb bobs. ~ SItB ~~ /.24) is run from the layout axis of the main shaft which is taken as the initial direction.

212

Ch. 9. Surveying in Mine Construction

total width of the zone of friction coils and reserve coils (bfr + br) and (bfr + b~)for twodrum machines; for single-drum and bicylindrical machines, it is required to measure the total width of the empty portion and of the zones of friction coils and reserve coils (b + bfr + br) and (b' + bfr + b~)and the total width of the drum, B. Taking the system of coordinates with the axis of machine shaft being the y-axis and the axis of symmetry of the machine, the x-axis, it is now possible to calculate the coordinates of theodolite traverse points and of the axes of ropes and conductors. For each rope, there are determined the maximum exterior (a.x) and interior (ain) fleet angles on the drum of the hoisting machine: (a) for a hoisting plant with two cylindrical drums and pulleys: b.x -a, a -bin , a.x= p, ain=-p L L (b) for a hoist with one cylindrical or bicylindrical drum: b.x -a, bin + a , Uin = u"x = .p -:--p 1 L

The distances a and a' for hoisting machines of the first and second type are found by the formulae: a = 0.5(a1 + a2) + 0.5/ :t c a' = 0.5(a'1+ a~) + 0.5/ :t c where c is the distance between the transferred I-II direction and Ox axis, which is equal to the ordinate of point I. For hoisting machines of the third type, the distances a and a' are determined by the formulae: a =10.5(a1+a2)+0.5/-cl a' = 10.5(d1+ a~) + 0.5/cI

The inclined distance L (of a rope string) can be found from the expression

L=~ where Lo = x.. -D J2 (here x.. is the abscissa of a rope in the adopted system of coordinates and D p is the pulley diameter); Ah is the height difference of the pulley axis above that of the machine shaft. Since the axis of a pulley may turn out to be unparallel to the machine shaft axis, the fleet angles on the pulley may respectively differ from those on the drum. For pulleys, where p' = 3440'; hexand hin are the distances we determine the two maximum fleet angles from the axis Ox to the rope on the drum in of ropes: an exterior angle ~ex and interior its extreme (exterior or interior) positions; a is the distance from the axis Ox to the axial angle ~in' by the formulae: <p plane of the pulley; and L is the inclined ~ex= a ex -'Y cos <p, ~in = ain + 'YCOS distance between the axes of the machine where 'Y is the horizontal angle of turning of shaft and pulley, which should be determined the pulley plane relative to the axis Ox with an accuracy to 1 m. (h ... ) a2 -at , The terms hex and hin can be found by the Dp following formulae: angle of inclination of the hoisting rope for two-drum machines (see Fig. 9.21a): string, which can be found, with an accuracy hex = 0.5ho + h + hw + hr to 10, from the formula or hex = B- hfr + 0.5ho, hin = 0.5ho + h
d . olstlng axis , y = ~ p an <p lS t h e

tan <p= L\h/ L

for single-drum and cylindrical machines (see Fig. 9.21h and c) hex= O.5B -hfr h,- = 0.5B -(h' + h: + h'..-)

9.3. Surveying in Construction of Mine Hoists

213

9.3.7.

Survey Work for Checking the Relation Between the Geometrical Elements of a Multi-Rope Hoisting Plant

Surveying a multi-rope hoisting plant is carried out in order to determine the angles of deviation of the axes of rope systems from the vertical in projections onto the axes x and y (ex, ey, mx' and my),fleet angles of the main and intermediate ropes on drive and guide pulleys (a, ~, <p,and 'I'), angle of deflection of the rope by a guide pulley (11), angles of inclination of the axes of the main shaft and guide pulleys (0, 0'), and the angle of turn of the axes of guide pulleys relative to the main shaft axis (I:). The sequence of survey work for checking a four-rope hoisting plant is as follows. Determination of radii of drive pulleys. The radii of drive pulleys should be determined to obtain the abscissae of the rope axes in run-off points, which, with the hoisting vessels in the lowermost position, are considered practically coincident. Because of this the run-off points are ,projected onto the measuring levels.

One of the probable methods for determining the radii of drive pulleys consists in the following. A line parallel to the main shaft axis is fixed in the machine room, after which the distances from that line to hoisting ropes are measured. The point A is fixed on the floor of the machine room (Fig. 9.25). A theodolite is set up on that point and sighted roughly along the rope line (direction AaIl). The readings aI and all are taken on two staffs set up in points I and II horizontally and tangentially to the machine shaft. The distances SI and SII from the point A to staffs I and II are then measured. The shaft is measured circumferentially in the points I and II (CI and CII) and its radii are calculated by the formulae rI = cJ21t and rIl = cIJ21t These radii and the measured values aI and all make it possible to take readings on the staffs with the theodolite telescope sighted parallel to the main shaft axis: sIlaI -sI(aIl + rIl -rJ bI= SII-SI

Fig.

9.25

Determining

radii

of drive

pulleys

214

Ch. 9. Surveying in Mine Construction

SIl(aI + rI -rIJ bll=

-sIall

SII- SI The vertical hair of the telescope is sighted at the reading bll of a staff, provided that the sighting line passesthrough the reading bI.1f it turns out that (bll + rll) -(bI + rJ is less than 0.5 mm, the direction parallel to the main shaft axis is fixed on a bracket or plate (point B) concreted in the wall of the machine room. Mter that, the telescope is sighted at the point B and the readings 15,16,17,and 18 are taken, with an accuracy to 1 mm, on a horizontal staff set successively to ropes 5, 6, 7, and 8 in points of their run-off from pulleys. The radii of drive pulleys are calculated by the formulae: R5 = bll + rll -(b5 + rr) R6 = bll + rll -(b6 + rr) R7 = bll + rll -(b7 + r r) R8 = bll + rll -(b8 + rr) where r r is the radius of the rope. Fixation of auxiliary axes on the measuring level and determination of coordinates of reference points. The points which fix auxiliary axes are called referencepoints. They are laid off on a cross-piece below the machine room where the ropes descending into the mine shaft are easily accessible. The hoisting vessel is sunk into the lowermost position, and a staff is laid on the m~asuring level to the non-deflected ropes (5, 6, 7, 8, see Fig. 9.26). The shortest distances from the staff to plumb bobs 5 and 8 are then measured. Then, using the calculated radii of drive pulleys, the distances from the main shaft axis to the staff axis are calculated. The staff is then placed in a position so that its axis can be parallel to the main shaft axis, and this direction is fixed by points C and D. Using the method of corner sections, points A and B are marked from these points. They determine the direction parallel to the line of deflected ropes (I, 2, 3 4). Non-parallelity between AB and CD should be not more than 10'. The coordinates of points A, B, C, and D are determined by ordinate surveying of non-deflected ropes, with the hoisting vessel in the lowermost position, and by measuring the sides and diagonals of rectangle ABCD. The distances from the rope axes to the staff axis and the staff readings corresponding to the projections of the rope axes onto the staff are determined in the following manner. The staff is fixed on points C and D. After an extreme rope, say 5, has dampened, an angle is placed to it (Fig. 9.27a), and an ordinatometer is placed to the staff and moved to the angle. The reading /51is taken by means of a rule against the edge of the angle and the reading! 51is taken on the staff against the ordinatometer edge. The angle is turned into another position (Fig. 9.27b) and new readings 15II and !5II are taken. Similarly, the readings 151II, 15IV'!51II'and!5lV are taken in a third and fourth position of the angle (Fig. 9.27c and d). The positions of other ropes are determined in a similar way. The readings are reduced to the staff axis

9.3. Surveying in Construction of Mine Hoists

215

and rope axes by the formulae:
liI + '=k+
4

lill

+

2d -lillI

-liIv

1; =

J;I

+ J;II

+J;III

4

+ J;IV

If aCD::!:90° < 10', then Xc = Xr5 and YC= = v -f 5' where v is the staff reading corresponding to the centre of a hole for the fixation of the staff in the point C (see Fig. 9.27). The angles of rectangle ABCD are found by solving the triangles into which the rectangle is divided by diagonals AD and CB. Taking the coordinates of the point C as the initial ones and knowing the direction angle aCD' it is possible to determine the coordinates of points A, B, and D. Determination of the angle of turning of guide pulley shaft axis relative to the main .. shaft axis. In order to determIne the angle &,a staff is fixed on points A and B laid up parallel to the line of deflected ropes (Fig. 9.28). Two plumb bobs 01 and O2 are hung at one end of the shaft in a point IV, and a metal rule is laid below them perpendicular to a staff AB. A series of readings n1, n2' n3' n4' etc., and m1, m2, m3, m4, etc. are taken under the centres of plumb bobs, and their mean values are found (n and m). The distance CIV from the metal rule to the axis of the staff AB is measured, after which the distance from the shaft axis to the staff axis AB is

where i is the number of a rope; k is the distance from the staff axis to the beginning of the ordinatometer scale; and d is the length of the ordinatometer scale. The values of abscissaeon the staff can be found from the expressions: x r5 = -R 5 + 1 5' x r6 = -R 6 + 1 6 --R + 1 --R + 1 Xr7 -7 7' Xr8 -8 8 where R is the radius of a drive pulley. The direction angle ofa side CD (staff axis) can be found by the formula: (x -x) r5 r8 p' aCD = 90° + .
f8 -f5 The coordinates x, y of a point C are

calculated

by the formulae: -90°) -90°)

Xc = Xr5 + (V -f5)tan(aCD Yc = v -f5 + 15tan(acD

216

Ch. 9. Surveying

in Mine

Construction

Staff

Fig. 9.28

Determining

angle of turning

of guide pulley

shaft axis relative

to main shaft axis

AHI-II

+ Arl-ll

°IISI

p'

The rule is displaced through several centimetres, and a new distance d;v is determined, which should differ from the fornler by not more than 2 mill. Similarly, two distances from the end III of the shaft of guide pulleys to the staff axis AB are determined (dIll and d{lI). The turning angle E is calculated by the formula:

where Arl-Il is the difference of radii of the shaft in the measured sections (in points I and II) and SI-II is the distance between points I and II. The angle of inclination of the axis of guide pulley shaft, OIV is determined by a similar -III formula. Determination of the coordinates of rope axes on the measuring level. The coordinates of ropes in two extreme (upper- and lowermost) positions of hoisting vesselsare needed (dIv + d;v) -(dIll + d;lI)0' + (a.D -900) E= for determining the angles of their deviation. 2s The coordinates of plumb bobs are deterwhere s is the distance between points III and mined from reference points CD and AB on IV. the measuring level (see Fig. 9,26) by means Determination of the angles of inclination of of a staff-type coordinatometer. the axes of the main shaft and guide puUey With the hoisting vessel in the lowermost shaft. These angles can be determined with position, we determine the coordinates of the the aid of hydrostatic levels by measuring the axes of non-deflected ropes (Xi' Y;) and those height difference L1Hbetween the end points of of deflected ropes (xr, Yr). Similar measurethe axis of a shaft. The inclination angle of the ments are made with the hoisting vessel in main shaft axis is calculated by the formula: the uppermost position (respectively x;, Y;

9.3. Surveying in Construction of Mine Hoists

217

measurements; Yr and Y~are the ordinates of the axes of deflected ropes respectively in the lowermost and uppermost positions of a hoisting vessel; Xr and X~are the abscissaeof the axes of these ropes; h2 is the elevation of the axis of the guide pulley shaft above the measuring level; h4 is the elevation of the axis of the guide pulley shaft above the adjacent point of a suspension device; and R9,dand Rg is the design radius and actual radius of guide pulleys at measurements. Thefleet angles ofmain ropes can be found by the formulae: on drive pulleys: a = ey + 8 + A. , on guide pulleys: ~ = my + 8' + Ar where 8 and 8' are the inclination angles of the main shaft axis and guide pulley axis and Ai and Ar are the corrections for the position of balancing devices, which can be determined by the formula: s -s. A=---2 h where s is the distance from the system axis to the axis of a rope at the level of balancing devices; Si is the distance from the system axis to the axis of a rope in a run-off point; and h is taken equal to h3 for determining Ai and equal to h4 for determining Ar. Thefleet angles of intermediate rope strings can be found by the formulae: on drive pulleys: t1.y" .

where n is the number of ropes in a system; Yi and Y; are the ordinates of the axes of non-deflected ropes respectively in the lowermost and uppermost positions of a hoisting vessel; hi is the elevation of the main shaft axis above the measuring level; xi and x; are the abscissae of the axes of these ropes; h3 is the elevation of the main shaft axis above the mid point of a suspension device; Rdr,dis the design radius of a drive pulley; Rdr is the actual radius of a drive pulley at

218

Ch. 9. Surveying in Mine Construction

11is the wrapping angle of a rope on a guide pulley; E is the angle of turning of the axis of the guide pulley shaft relative to the main shaft axis; ° and 0' are the angles of inclination of the axes of the main shaft and guide pulley shaft; and 1 is the length of an intermediate rope string: 1 = [h -(Rg + xr) tan 11] where h is the height difference between the axis of the main shaft and that of the guide pulley shaft and Xr is the abscissa of the axis of a deflected rope. The permissible values for the indicated angles are as follows: Ox,Oy,rox and roy not more than 0°15'; angle of inclination of the main shaft axis, 0, not more than 0°05'; angle of inclination of the axis of the guide pulley shaft relative to the direction of the main shaft axis, not more than 0°45'; fleet angles a and ~, not more than 1030' and those for intermediate strings (<p, not more '11), than 0°30'.

dimensions of the shaft, the arrangement of equipment and hoisting vessels, the line of vertical section along which records are being made, and conventional symbols of rocks and lining materials. The second page contains data on the course of shaft sinking. On the third and subsequent pages, a vertical section of the shaft on a scale 1/100 and sketches of shaft elements are drawn. Mine surveying work during the sinking of a shaft can be divided into two periods: (I) initial period during which the shaft is provided with mining (heading) equipment and the shaft collar is constructed and (2) shaft sinking proper. 9.4.1 .Survey Work During the Initial Period of Shaft Sinking

The survey work at this stage consists in transferring the axes of temporary buildings and structures into nature, which is required for arranging a layout network and marking 9.4. Survey Work During Sinking the axes of a shaft according to the dimenof Vertical Shafts sions indicated on the general layout and on The construction of mine shafts include.s the drawings of the arrangement of mining sinking a shaft and the arrangement of a equipment. During the mounting of hoisting lining and equipment. The main object of machines, special attention should be given mine surveying service in the construction of to checking the arrangement of the hoist mine shafts is to ensure the design position of frame relative to the predetermined hoisting the shaft and its elements. To achieve this, the axis and machine shaft (drum) axis, as wen as mine surveyor has to perform the following to correct arrangement of the shaft of the procedures: to transfer the axes of hoisting mine hoist. The deviation of the hoist frame plants into the driven shaft; to assign the from the hoisting axis should not exceed design direction to shaft sinking; to transfer 50 mm; the deviation of the elevation marks and mark the layout net for the assembly of of frame corners from the design level should hoisting machines; to make check measure- be not more than 300 mm, and the elevation ments in the shaft; and to layout shaft marks of corners should differ from one workings and chambers. another by not more than 15 mm. The deAll mine surveying measurements are re- viation of the hoist shaft axis from the axis of corded in a register which is the main docu- a layout network should be not more than 2', ment reflecting the actual state of the const- the height difference on one end of the shaft ruction of a shaft (Fig. 9.29). The first page of above the other being not more than 0.001 of the register gives the design section of the the shaft length. shaft on a scale 1/50 and the principal The sinking frame should be mounted

5 m properly relative to the shaft axis. The layout of the pit for the shaft collar. Survey Work During Sinking of Vertical Shafts 219 Intermediate shoe at -25. The displacement of the zero frame axes relative to the design position should not exceed 5 mm. the deviation of the elevation marks of the frame from the design position should not exceed 50 mm. .4. the displacement of the pulley stage in the horizontal plane from the design position should be not more than 60 mm.9. and the arrangement of a zero frame are carried out relative to the axial lines of the shaft. construction of a cap.

220 Ch.2.ventilation column.concrete pipeline passage.compressed air column.30). and the guide pulley of the central plumb bob is fixed so that the plumb bob line is not displaced from the shaft centre by more than 5 mm. Elevation marks are transferred onto the axial brackets. 4. For the horizontal and vertical control of shaft sinking. Upon the construction of the shaft lining. and the directions of the shaft axes are indicated by marks. permission is given to make the first circular cut for a foundation CUl. Upon sinking the shaft to the first foundation curb. Since the zero frame defines in nature the contour of the shaft cross section. 2. 9. and the distances from the frame to curve pieces.4. the survey work consists in checking the positions of vertical directions. Survey Work During Sinking a M ine Shaft In shaft sinking by the conventional drilling-and-blasting method. the discrepancy between the measurements should be not more than 5mm. the zero frame is replaced by the main heading frame which is placed . there is formed a geometrical basis as a system of plumb bobs. The centre of the shaft is transferred instrumentally from the axial points onto the heading frame. Surveying in Mine Construction and the difference of elevation marks of the support points of the unloading bedframe should not exceed 5 mm. The position of the shuttering for the foundation curb is checked in the vertical and horizontal plane by measuring the radii from a temporary central plumb bob to the exterior surface of the shuttering. The centre of the shaft is fixed on the zero frame. 5. and checking the position of travelling forms and the dimensions of the shaft section and vertical walls of a lining. The survey control of shaft sinking is performed from the central plumb bob and side plumb bobs suspended from the main heading frame. determining the scope of the mining work performed.onto the permanent lining of the shaft mouth and oriented properly relative to the centre and axes of the shaft (Fig.b. Otherwise. 9. locating the places and dimensions of rock inrush and backfilling behind the lining. The displacement of the marks from the axial line should not exceed 2 mm.30 Main heading frame: l-opening for bucket. 3. The positions of the shaft centre and axial marks are determined twice by independent measurements. 9. 9. the position of the shaft along the depth and in the horizontal plane is checked by taping the vertical distances and the distances from the zero frame to the cut floor. the problem should be coordinated with the designer. its dimensions and shape should correspond strictly to the design cross section of the shaft. If upon sinking the shaft mouth to the design level it turns out tpat the actual geological section corresponds well to that designed. light . 6-central plumb bob are not allowed.rescue ladder. The directions of the shaft axes are then transferred from the zero frame into the shaft mouth and fIXed by marks on brackets built in at a distance of 50-100 mm from the walls of the shaft lining. Deviations above 20 mm Fig.

Their number and arrangement depend on the cross-sectional shape of the shaft and the arrangement of mining and hoisting equipment in it. The vertical axis of the forms should not deviate from the mean position of the plumb bob by more than 20 mm. the cables of projection meters should be fixed in every 300 or 400 m. They are placed in the presence of the mine surveyor who checks that the distances from the central plumb bob to the internal faces of tubbings differ by not more than 10 mm from the design value. support tubbings (crib seats) being placed after every 20-24 m. The position of the travelling forms and shaft walls should be checked by the mine surveyor at least after every three or four travel cycles. In order to minimize errors. Plumb bobs are mostly employed for the purpose. two plumb bobs are suspended near the walls at each axis of an ellipse. A concrete-tubbing lining is built from the top downwards. These measurements can be made by using plumb bobs. If it turns out that the deviation of a tubbing column from the vertical is more tban 30 mm. The error in the position of fixation points of light indicators relative to the previous level should not exceed 15 mill. four plumb bobs hung at a distane of 20-30 cm from the shaft walls.5. the lining should be corrected. the deviations of radial distances from the centre should be not more than 50 mm. For cast-in-situ concrete and reinforced-concrete linings.5. The positions of plumb bobs during sinking a shaft should be checked at least once a month. and by 2-5% for those above 40 m2 in area. The permanent lining of vertical shafts is constructed by means of travelling forms which are placed into the working positions relative to the central plumb bob. The vertical position of the forms is checked by hydrostatic level with an accuracy not worse than 10 mm. by 3-8% for those 20-40 m2 in area. the latter are divided into the main and auxiliary ones depending on their position in the shaft. Survey Work for of Shaft Equipment Arranging The main task of the mine surveyor during the arrangement of shaft equipment is to control that buntons and conductors are mounted strictly in their design positions. The plan position of a tubbing ring is controlled by measuring the distances from the central plumb bob to selected points at tubbing joirits. Vertical control is effected upon mounting 6-8 rings. All placed tubbing crib seats and each tenth ordinary tubbing should be controlled by mine surveying. light indicators or projection meters. Survey Work for Arranging of Shaft Equipment 221 indicators or projection meters. The equipment of a mine shaft is a complex of structures and elements which ensure correct motion of hoisting vessels. The state of shaft walls is controlled by measuring the radii from the central plumb bob to walls in vertical intervals of 3-4 m. The main buntons are . For instance. in shafts of a rectangular cross section. The errors of measurement of distances from the central plumb bob to the forms of a shaft lining should not exceed 10 mm. 9. The measured results are used to calculate the actual cross-sectional area of the shaft which should not differ from the design value by more than 4-10% for shafts up to 20 m2 in cross-sectional area. The deviations of vertical directions from the design values are checked by making measurements from the axial points fixed in the shaft mouth or on the main heading frame. The correct position of the travelling forms relative to the central plumb bob is checked at least in eight points around the periphery of the forms.The main elements of equipment are conductors and buntons. In shafts of an oval cross section. a single central plumb bob is employed in shafts of a circular cross section.

Sand -10 +10 25 30 35 Floating earth Clay shale +20 0 0 -10 0 0 0 0 -10 -10 -40 +10 ~ -- +10 40 45 50 55 0 0 ~ ~ Sandstone Shale Coal 60 65 70 Fig. the profiling of the shaft walls (control survey) is carried out in order to determine the minimal gaps between the shaft lining and the most protruding portions of hoisting vessels. In the latter case. In the former case.1 Sandstone . Surveying in Mine Construction built in into the shaft lining at both ends. correspond to the design specifications.31 Profiling of walls of vertical mine shaft: (a) arrangement of plumb bobs. The combination of main and auxiliary buntons located in the same horizontal plane is called a bunton stage. and (3) the final control of the accuracy of mounting the equipment by making the profile survey of conductors and buntons. The (a) (b) from Geological section ~DeptliMouth level +193.i~\. whereas the auxiliary ones are either fastened between the main buntons or attached at one end to a main bunton and built in at the other end into the lining. first all buntons are mounted to the entire depth of the shaft. after which conductors are fastened to them. At the first stage. etc. conductors are suspended upon mounting three or four bunton stages. (b) profiles of walls ~ .222 Ch. The survey work during the arrangement of the equipment of a vertical shaft includes three stages: (I) the control of preparatory work and the arrangement of hoisting and mining equipment.5 m Soil surface.[. 9. m O 5 +30 Sections through shaft walls II 0 mm III IV 10 Clay +10 15 20 ~. The arrangement of equipment in a shaft may be done by a consecutive or combined scheme. the profiles of the shaft and drawings of cross sections at various levels are prepared. 9.~(i~ ~ . Conductors (of the rigid or rope type) are fastened to buntons. The distance between adjacent bunton stages is called the pitch of equipment. Upon sinking the shaft. points of connection of buntons. and it is checked that the dimensions of buntons. (2) the control of the arrangement of buntons and suspension of conductors. The main bunton arranged in the centre of a shaft or near it is called the central bunton.

9.9. work out templates for the arrangement of buntons. The profile is drawn on a vertical scale (along the plumb bob line) of 1/100-1/200 and horizontal scale 1/10-1/20 (Fig. the mine surveyor controls the design dimensions of the first bunton stage and then checks with especial care that the first bunton stage is mounted properly in its place. 9.with the combined scheme.32. The number and arrangement of plumb bobs are determined by the cross-sectional shape of the shaft and the arrangement of hoisting vessels in it (Fig. The correct mounting of the first bunton stage is controlled by measuring the distances from the shaft axes to the ends of each bunton. The results of profiling are used for plotting the vertical profile of the shaft wall. sleepers. With the consecutive scheme of arrangement of equipment. and the points of connection of buntons and by levelling the ends of each bunton by a striding level. the points of junction of buntons in a stage. The distances from the suspension points of plumb bobs tobuntons and side faces of conductors should not exceed 200 mm.32 Schemes of plumb bobs for arrangement of shaft equipment of conductors.5. they are arranged so as not to obstruct the placing Fig. A scheme of suspension of plumb bobs 1-6 for arranging the rigid equipment of a shaft of a unified cross section is shown in Fig.31a). 5 mm. and the positions of . The number and arrangement of plumb bobs in a shaft depend on the scheme of equipment and arrangement of buntons. 9. buckets and other mining and hoisting devices. The measuring interval is usually taken equal to the pitch of equipment. Survey Work for Arranging of Shaft Equipment 223 results of profiling are used for revealing the lining defects and making decisions on changing the scheme of equipment or eliminating the detected curvatures of the shaft. the positions of conductors and buntons relative to the horizontal axes of a shaft. since plumb bobs will be later hung from it to control the positions of subsequent bunton stages. 9. The profiling survey is done by measuring the distances from plumb bobs to shaft walls. At the preparatory stage.31b). and control the correct positioning of winches. The survey work for controlling the placing of buntons and suspension of conductors consists in checking the vertical distances between bunton stages. pulleys. the mine surveyor should also compile the scheme of arrangement and fastening of plumb bobs in the shaft. The displacement of the axes of buntons in the horizontal plane should not exceed 3 mm and the difference of the elevation marks of bunton ends. At the second stage. plumb bobs are arranged against sleepers.

3-spacing templates. 5-vertical templates for marking holes for buntons. (2) templates for placing the buntons at specified vertical distances from one another (spacing templates). 4. The number and design of templates are chosen depending on the arrangement of buntons and plumb bobs and the technology of arrangement of the equipment. Surveying in Mine Construction 3~ p:C9 51 2F D lA 6 A-A ~ 'r==' ~ 88:z.horizontal templates. templates can be divided into the following groups: (1) templates for marking the lengths of buntons and places of location of sleepers or mounting holes. 9.templates for correct placing of buntons relative to plumb bobs plumb bobs proper. 6.9. 2. 7. According to their application. The templates are usually made from steel sheets. it is possible to employ templates for the control of mounting operations.33 Templates for arrangement of shaft equipment: I. 8. Since the positions of the characteristic points of the shaft equipment are repeated from one bunton stage to another. angles or tubes. (3) templates for ~ .224 Ch.tzA Fig.

the range of deviations of conductor spacings from the rated value is :t40 mm. 9. an instrument for measuring the safe spacings in mine shafts. and (5) templates for correct placing of buntons relative to plumb bobs. The instrument for measuring the distances between conductors is essentially a mechanical recorder fastened on one of the sections of the carriage. Two instruments for measuring the vertical deviation angles are arranged at an angle of 90° to each other and mounted on carriages (Fig. The elevations of buntons are also marked on the tape. In this way. 1/500. 5. Some types of templates for these purposes are illustrated in Fig. The complex comprises stations for the profile surveying of conductors. 7. whereas another stylus draws the base line. The horizontal scale of 15~1270 Fig. apparatus for measuring the wear of conductors. The survey of conductors of a single compartment of a shaft 500-800 m deep requires only 0.9. 9. :t20'. In this country.34 Carriage: 1. 6. 3.33.5 mm.box frame.clamp. vertical shafts are surveyed by means of a complex for automatic control of the parameters of the equipment and lining. the measuring accuracy is :to. 9. 8. Records are made on 35-mm perforated photographic film together with the base line and elevations of buntons.springs. 350-3000 mm.telescopic rod.auxiliary safety rollers. The accuracy of measurements is 30" and the measuring range. After mounting the equipment of a vertical shaft. This is done by means of a semiautomatic integra- .supports. Records are made on a paraffin-impregnated tape on which one stylus draws the curve of deviations of the actual distances between conductors from the rated measure.manual winding mechanism. the surveying of conductors is carried out in order to compile the profiles of conductors.8 mls and the largest depth of shafts which can be profiled by this complex is 1700 m. and the range of measured distances. and shaft walls. the angles of deviation of conductors in two mutually perpendicular planes are recorded. The stations are provided with instruments for measuring the angles of deviation of conductors from the vertical and distances between conductors and for checking the mutual arrangement of conductors in the shaft. and straightening instruments for the control of conductors.34) which are run along conductors. 4. The speed of motion of the carriage on conductors is up to 0.5. 10-shackles records of distances is 1I 1 and the vertical scale. (4) templates for coordinated arrangement of buntons in a stage (horizontal templates). apparatus for the surveying of shaft walls. 2 -detachable covers. 9-axles. The photograms of deviation angles obtained in this way are processed in the office to construct the profiles of conductors. buntons.5-1 hour. Survey Work for Arranging of Shaft Equipment 225 marking holes for buntons.

9. 9.Ch.35 Integrator Fig.36 Aligning inclinometer . Surveying in Mine Construction Fig. 9.

9.9. It contains two mechanical recorders which simultaneously register the degree of wear of two conductors separately at each side of each of them and the spacings between the conductors. 9. 3-lock screw. 4.handle. etc. The instrument can be set up for measuring the gaps between the guide paws of a hoisting vessel and equipment elements.1 partment. and the root-mean square error of measured distances is I 5 mm in the range from 0 to 500 mm and I 10 mm in the range from 500 mm to 3000 mm. The instrument for measuring the gaps between the protruding portions of hoisting vessels and elements of shaft equipment is based on the same principle as the instrument for profile surveying.37 Profiling instrument: I-photographic camera cap. the distances to the lining. 2-measuring drum.38 is designed for continuous measurements of the wear of conductors and spacings between conductors.38 Apparatus for continuous measurements of wear of conductors and spacings between conductors . but has substantially smaller dimensions and mass. the scale of recorded distances to the shaft walls is 1/25 or 1/50. The apparatus illustrated in Fig.5. In that case.illuminator marked on 35-mm photographic film. 6. the apparatus is connected to a carriage on which the instruments of the station are mounted. 9. 5. The apparatus can be used for measurements of conductors in combination with a station. The measuring range is from 0 to 500 mill and the accuracy of measurements is I5 mill. Survey Work for Arranging of Shaft Equipment 227 ". Fig. tube stand. It is mounted on the top of a hoisting vessel or in a cage. The distance range of the instrument is from 0 to 3000 mm.wide-angle objective. cables. ladder com15. Fig.

The mounting of hoist clips and jacks on a suspension level is controlled relative to the axes of a shaft or multi-rope hoisting machine which are fixed on that level. The final surveying of rope conductors is carried out after mounting the hoist clips and fastening the guide sleeves and consists in measuring the linear distances from the layout axes. Before constructing the shaft bottom. since such workings often have a rather intricate configuration with many joints. for this purpose. combinations of straight and curvilinear sections. guide and tensioning devices. The layout axes of tower head-frames are transferred onto the mounting levels (headframe ceilings) by using the layout axes of a multi-rope hoisting machine. Survey Work During of Shaft Workings Driving The survey work during driving of underground workings near a shaft may involve certain difficulties. 9. 9. angles of turn of circular curves. The displacements of axes of buntons on a particular level should be not more than 3 mm in the horizontal plane. 1-2 m/s. and the difference of elevations of the ends of buntons should not exceed 5 mm. checking the track gauge of guides for hoisting vessels. an intricate profile of haulage tracks. a design polygon on a scale of 1/200 or 1/500 is drawn (Fig. the axes are transferred onto the mounting level from the axial points by means of a theodolite and plumb bobs hung from a pulley stage. The axes of a shaft are transferred onto the fixation levels of guide ropes by means of plumb bobs at an earlier stage (during sinking a shaft). control of arrangement of suspension clips. The axes of curved sections are replaced by chords whose number is chosen so that the . Rope conductors are fixed in the vertical position by using a projection meter. The discrepancies between the positions of axial marks obtained in two measurements should not exceed 20 mm on a suspension level and 50 mm on a fixation level. etc.Ch. 9. the vertical sensor of the projection meter is fastened on a rope conductor above the tensioning frame.d relative to the layout axes of the fixation level of rope conductors and the axial points set up in the lining near the shaft bottom. The survey work during mounting of a rope equipment consists in transferring the layout axes onto the mounting levels. The results of measurements are processed to compile a scheme of fastening of rope conductors on a head-frame ceiling and tensioning frame. elevations of particular pqints. the scale of recording 1/1. and the working speed of lifting or lowering in a shaft.39) which serves for checking whether the dimensions of underground workings are correct and for obtaining the initial data for the instrumental transfer of the axes of designed workings into nature.control measurements during mounting of auxiliary conductors. The arrangement of a tensioning frame and auxiliary conductors at loading levels is controlle. and final surveying of shaft portions with hoisting and mining equipment. checking the tensioning frame. The design positions of hoist clips and jacks are denoted by axial marks op supporting surfaces. For jib-type head-frames. The actual distances between the axes of ropes (devices) and layout axes should differ from the design values by not more than 7 mm. The measuring accuracy is:!: 1 mm. The axes of these devices are laid out by the method of ordinates. Surveying in Mine Construction When used individually.6. The drawing of such a polygon contains numerical data on the dimensions of straight and curved sections of workings. and contain large-sized stationary equipment units. curvatures and with variable cross sections. the apparatus is fastened to a hoisting vesselor to the hoisting cable of a mine hoist.

If the conditions described by these for. instruadjacent working or onto the head of a track mental surveying is needed to set up new rail. ' which define the axis of the shaft. Check calculations determine the design cies.9. The direction of inset for a conjunction Geological and hydrogeological conditions between the mine shaft and a working is of mineral deposits are not always quite . With a larger distance.not more than 5-12% for a cross-sectional area up to 8 m2. from two plumb bobs sunk from the surface. 9. 5-10% for an area up to lations are done by the formulae: 15 m2.means of a theodolite and fixed by at least ring the elevation mark from the ground three plumb bobs hung at a distance not less surface onto the bench marks concreted in than 3-5 m from one another. effects on the shaft lining. and determines the actual discrepanworkings.39 Design polygon of shaft workings mensions of the working on a survey plate chords do not touch the lines of the walls of and compares them with the design dimensions. The voids left in the rock redesigned. The mining work for insetting a working is permitted at a distance not more than 40 m from a plumb bob sunk into the shaft. As the face is advanced in a working. Mter the plan adjustment of the massif due to inrushes and cavings should be polygon. whose supported reliably and backfilled with noncharacteristic points are those where the combustible rocks in order to prevent further workings intersect one another or the angles rock displacement and the possible harmful of their inclination change. marks the actual diFig. The working can then be driven further only after the points and bench marks of an ~ underground survey reference net have been fixed on its level. and 3-7% for an area above 15 m2. The discrepancies of the cross-sectional angles of a closed polygon and the coordinate area of a roughly driven working should be increases at all its vertexes. Survey Work by Special Methods 229 assigned from two side plumb bobs sunk into the shaft. This axis is 9. These bench marks are in the driving work can use the direction line usually set up somewhat above a conjunction defined by the plumb bobs on advancing to a so as to enable a convenient transfer of the distance not more than 40 m from the last elevation mark onto the roof (bottom) of an plumb bob. a design profile is drawn. The check calcu. Conjunction axes are usually transferred plumb bobs in the face. Survey Work During Driving fixed by means of two or three brackets of Vertical Shafts driven into the shaft walls somewhat above by Special Methods the level of the projected conjunction.7. ~Ax = ~Ay = ° All cases of rock inrush and caving that where n is the number of vertexes of a took place during driving of a working are recorded in the mine surveyor's documents polygon.where their locations and main dimensions mulae are not fulfilled. The insets of conjunctions of workings and Directions are assigned to workings by vertical shafts are determined after transfer. the mine surveyor checks all parameters of the working being driven. Miners engaged the walls of the shaft. the polygon should be are indicated.7. ~13-180° (n -2) = 0.

ground water lowering. a geometrical check is made (for verticality. centring above the hole mouth.counterweight . vertical shafts can also be driven by drilling. Surveying in Mine Construction suitable for the construction of vertical shafts by conventional methods. checking the construction of a drilling site. The most popular method of layout of holes in the terrain consists in the following. after which the required angle is laid off and distances to each drill hole are measured by a tape according to the design data. Before drilling the holes. 4. The mouth of each hole is marked by pegs. special methods are resorted to.) in accordance with the direction assigned by the mine surveyor. plugging and soil freezing. The centre and axes of a shaft are transferred into nature by the method described in Sec. and the compilation of level plans of ice-rock enclosure. The length of the latter . The accuracy of laying out of holes should be not worse than :J:50 mm.230 Ch. 2. and the hole mouth is drilled for the surface casing.40 lnclinometric station: 1. A theodolite is set up at the centre of the shaft and oriented along one of the shaft axes. etc. Under complicated conditions. and the verticality of surface casings.automobile block with logging hoist. linearity of the kelly.inclinometer. 9.2. surveying drill holes during drilling.striding level.Jf ~ 5' 3 Fig. the mine surv~yor has to solve certain specific survey problems. 3. 9. the mine surveyors perform the following operations: the layout of the centre of a shaft and the mouths of freezing and monitor holes. assembly and position of drilling equipment. in which measures are taken for strengthening the rock massif.1 Survey Work During Driving of Vertical Shafts with Artificial Rock Freezing During driving of a mine shaft with artificial freezing of the rock. In mine shafts driven by these special methods.tripod.7. 5. 9. which can facilitate the driving of mine shafts. 9. In such cases.

with an accuracy of 3-6°. and the deviation of the kelly in a rotary table from the vertical is not more than 0.9. the error of centring of a rotary table above the hole mouth is not more than 10 mm.7. The measuring portion of the inclinometer consists of an azimuthal gyrostabilizer unit and zenith angle measuring unit. difference of height marks should not exceed 10 mm. Fig. The station is mounted on a truck chassis. The measured values of zenith angles are transmitted onto the surface. The. Deep vertical freezing and monitor holes can be surveyed by means of gyroscopic inclinometers which measure zenith angles in the range from 0° to 4-6° with an accuracy of 1. The main instrument of the station is an inclinometer (Fig.41) with a gyroscopic direction stabilizer and zenith attachment for the orientation of the inclinometer from the surface.41 stabilizer Inclinometer with gyroscopic direction . 9.40 shows an inclinometric station for measuring drill holes up to 1000 m in depth with a casing string and drill string of 96-127 mm in diameter.001 of the kelly length.5-2' and direction angles. Survey Work by Special Methods 231 depends on the thickness of alluvium and upper caving rock and is usually of an order of 20 m. Before mounting a drilling rig. A drilling rig is regarded to be ready for operation provided that the difference of elevations of the corner points of a platform does not exceed 5 mm. Figure 9. The interval for measuring zenith and direction angles is not more than 30 m. the difference between the height marks of the axial points of a rotary table is not more than 2 mm. 9. The latter has two penduli which make it possible to determine the zenith angle of the axis of a drill hole. the rings of a drilling site are checked for horizontality by geometrical levelling at the top edge of the rings with an interval of 1 m.

The motor develops (through the reducer) a compensating moment which retains the measuring portion of the instrument in the given direction.'83900 M 110 01 ~ 1230 Or.3 ~ ~ JuneI5.5 Shaft No. measuring portion 8. The measuring portion includes the unit of azimuthal gyrostabilizer and unit for determining the zenith angle.1 Hole No. For this purpose. and guide rollers 1. 9. The gyrostabilizer has a sensitive element 5.232 Ch.1 Fig. 9.2 02 g2S0r. there appears an external moment which rotates the housing 2 on the longitudinal axis of the instrument.42 Plate with inclinometer records ~ . Surveying in Mine Construction The inclinometer consists of a housing 2. and the sensor pulse is transmitted to the actuating motor 3. so that its orientation is not changed. Each element has a flat pendulum 9 contained in a h()rmetically closed cylinder which is filled with a viscous liquid. This moment is transferred onto the measuring portion 8 and tends to turn the latter.1 HI "I 1 0. actuating motor with a reducer 3. Each pendulum carries the frame of an induction sensor. Under this action.42). The unit for zenith angle measurements has two measuring elements which determine the zenith angles in two mutually pocpendicular planes. 9. a distinct object is chosen on the terrain at a distance not less than 30 m from the inclinometer. semiconductor amplifier 4. When the inclinometer moves in a hole. The incli- Field sheet No. and the direction angle of this object relative to a line OlHl is measured (Fig. Surveying a drill hole is started from centring the inclinometer on a tripod above the hole mouth. and a m9tor with a rocker 7. a gyromotor together with an angle sensor frame 6 deviates from the neutral position. after which the first orientation is carried out by means of an orientation attachment fastened on the inclinometer housing.

and the direction angle of a line H2O2 is measured.~. 9.6 m. water-bearing sands. Survey Work During of Vertical Shafts Drilling The drilling method is used widely for driving of mine shafts. it is taken equal to 0. (21( I . in coarse-grained sands. " 6'r ~ 16 '-14 ~ ~ -. in all cases. the maximum deviation of freezing holes from the vertical to the shaft centre should not exceed 0. The angle 'Y formed by these lines (and called the angular correction) is determined graphically. The method is mainly employed for shaft driving in soft water-bearing rocks (drift sand. 9. 9. 0292. a is the deviation of a hole from the vertical. As the instrument is being sunk.--J e 24/ 5 26.f~ I s / Fig. The radii of ice-rock cylinders can be calculated by the formula: r = J(I/2 + af + k .43). the method is not quite efficient in view of large losses of a clay drilling mud. The lines 0 1H 1 and H 20 2 are shifted parallel to themselves until points 0 1 and H 2 coincide. which gives two positions of the inclinogram. The angular correction is then introduced into the two orientation directions obtained during sinking and lifting of the inclinometer. It allows one to mechanize completely the operations of rock disintegration and rock lifting onto the surface and eliminates the dangerous and hard work of underground miners.201 --r19 \ ~ 18 " 17 . the lines HlOl and 02H2.7.If .2. 23/ / . which make it possible to estimate the thickness of the enclosure and determine the boundaries of frozen rock (to the centre and to the rock massif). \ \ 3 4 \ \ I--. Mine shafts are drilled by drilling rigs . m.43 Level plan of ice-rock enclosure nometer is then unclamped and sunk into the drill hole. The corrected directions are brought to coincidence in the points of the hole mouth. and the gyrostabilizer is turned through 180° to record a new orientation of the inclinometer axis. clays. Upon reaching the face of the drill hole.1 . k is a coefficient depending on the thickness of an ice-rock enclosure.). chalk. The permissible deviation of freezing holes from the vertical is 0. /' " ~.7. As the inclinometer appears on the surface.5 + 0. 18' \ .. etc. the orientation (inclination) of the inclinometer axis 0191 is recorded..4L for the outer one (L is the thickness of the ice-rock enclosure as specified in the project).9. Mter that.002 H. N Survey Work by Special Methods 233 . The results of surveying of freezing holes are used for plotting the level plans of an ice-rock enclosure (Fig.6L for the inner boundary and 0. )~ . it is again oriented. the planigraph records an inclinogram with elevation marks of depth intervals. A similar procedure is done for where 1 is the spacing between freezing holes. ~ 3 . . where H is the depth of a shaft. the inclinometer is lifted in the hole to make measurements from the bottom upwards.

Survey Work During Deepening of Vertical Shafts Deepening vertical shafts can be performed from the top downwards or vice versa. Surveying in Mine Construction permitting the drilling out of the rock allover the face. In the former method. The error in the position of the cable relative to the drill string axis does not exceed 20 mm. The control of verticality of a shaft axis is complicated by the fact that the shaft is filled by clay drilling liquid during drilling. After placing a ring section on the cylinder. it is fixed by a cement mortar poured into the space behind the lining. With the float-on method. In deepening by the first scheme. the lining sections 15-20 m high are placed successively onto the fixing section and secured by pluggmg. In the former case.2 m. Shaft walls are surveyed during drilling by means of ultrasonic locators which make it possible to take measurements in mud-filled shafts with an error up to 2% along the radius and 3%. the shaft lining is constructed by the float-on or sectional method. as it were. Upon checking whether the section is placed correctly. ballast fluid is pumped in to ensure sinking the cylinder to a certain depth.5-1. though some specifics relate to the restoration and fixation of the centre and axes of the shaft in the deepened portion. which is done by the optical or geometrical method. in the orientation of a measured radius. a number of lining rings are mounted on one another on a reinforced concrete bottom plate. Deepening a shaft from the top downwards can be done by one of three probable schemes: (I) under a platform constructed below the floor level of the working connected to the shaft bottom. 9. Upon drilling. (2) by means of a special passageway driven in the shaft portion to be deepened. In shaft drilling without lifting the drilling tool onto the surface. The deviations of the shaft axis from the design (vertical) position should not exceed the spacing between the outer surface of the lining and the surface of the rock. the surveyor observes a light signal projected through a drill string. use is made of instruments of the type of direction projectors. a cable is stretched through the drill string from the shaft mouth to the drilling tool. Mine survey servicing during drilling of min shafts consists in checking the verticality of the shaft axis and observing that the lining is errected properly. Mter that.234 Ch. With the optical method. After building the lining to the entire height of the shaft. In the latter method. which is applicable at depths up to 200-250 m. which is taken equal to 200350 mm. The pilot hole serves for guiding the drilling tool in subsequent widening of the shaft. in the latter. the verticality is controlled by the position of the centre of the drilling tool. 9. With the sectional method. The cylinder thus formed is sunk into the fore shaft filled with washing fluid and floats. New ring sections 4-6 m high are then put on top of the floating cylinder. with the geometrical method. the space between the lining and rock is plugged with a cement mortar. the survey work consists in determining the centre and axes of the shaft in its section adjacent to the conjunction between the shaft . a fixing section of the lining is first sunk onto a concrete pad prepared on the shaft bottom. Drilling a shaft is started from drilling a pilot hole of a depth exceeding by 5-10 m the design depth of the shaft and of a diameter of 0.8.the survey work is essentially the same as that during sinking of a shaft from the surface. and its deviation is measured.and (3) through auxiliary workings driven sideways of the shaft. the deviations of the cable from the vertical can be measured at any desired depth with an accuracy to 20" by means of a projection meter.

9. The centre and axes are transferred under a pillar by means of plumb bobs 01 and O2 (see Fig. we can now calculate an angle ~ and lay it off from the direction CA by means of a theodolite set up in the shaft centre point. 9. 9. The transfer of the centre and axes of the shaft under the safety pillar is performed twice. The discrepancies between the two results should be not more than 5' in axial directions and not more than 20 mm for the position of the shaft centre.v 0 I" I:o'~ A-A -r-- AL -= b~ ~n 2l 11A t. which is then transferred and fixed in the safety pillar. With the known direction angles of the shaft axis and of direction CA.44). the centre and axes of the shaft are laid out by means of plumb bobs 01 and O2.8. The coordinates of the shaft centre determined at the level of shaft workings and the coordinates of the point A just found are used for solving the inverse geodetic problem of determining the layout angle aAC and the distance AC. by using the points of an underground survey reference net. If a shaft is to be deepened through auxiliary workings driven beyond its limits (winzes.). inclined workings. 9. The theodolite is sighted at points 01 and O2. it is then possible to determine the coordinates of the point A and the direction angles of lines A01 (Aa) and A02 (Ab). The direction of the shaft axis determined in this way is fixed by brackets on the shaft walls. In that case. the centre of the shaft is determined by the point of intersection of wires stretched between the brackets that fix the shaft axes. we then determine the position of a point C. Survey Work During Deepening of Vertical Shafts 235 / l.45). after which the restored axes are fixed by brackets below the future platform. blind pits. Solving the connection triangle A01O2.44) whose coordinates are determined from the points of the reference net of the workings near the shaft bottom. For this pu~ose.9.44 Restoration of centre and axes in deepenedportion of shaft through sinking passageway meansof plumb bobs and theodolite by and pit bottom. Mter cutting a chamber under the pillar.k~~ W//////& Fig. A polygonometric . the survey work is started from determining the centre and axes of the shaft in the bottom portion. and points a and b are marked on the shaft walls. With the second scheme of shaft deepening (Fig. By constructing the angle aAC and distance AC in nature.. the coordinates of the shaft centre and the direction angle of one of the shaft axes are determined on the desired level from the points of an underground reference net (H and D in Fig. the theodolite is set up in a point A which is chosen so that the shape of a connection triangle A01O2 can be convenient for solving the junction problem. the centre of the shaft. etc.

which are laid off in nature and determine the position of the shaft centre. For a shaft to be deepened from the bottom upwards. In the case illustrated in Fig. y of these points are also determined. it is possible to solve an inverse geodetic problem and calculate the layout angle ARC = 13and layout length RC = I. 9. With the known coordinates of the shaft centre and the coordinates of the point B of the polygonometric traverse on the lower level. as in the previous case. 9. This orientation makes it possible to find the direction angle of a certain direction fixed by points A and B on the level to which deepening should be done. The coordinates x. the auxiliary working is oriented by means of plumb bobs 01 and O2. Then. Surveying in Mine Construction A-A p Fig.45.the direction of one of the shaft axes is assigned and fixed by points F and G. The survey work in the workings on . 9.45 Transferring centre and axes in deepened portion of shaft through winze traverse is then run from these points to the auxiliary working. the coordinates of the shaft centre and the direction angle of the shaft axis are determined before starting the layout work.236 Ch.

and the shaft axes are fiXed by brackets in the walls or roof of the working. The shaft should be checked for verticality in every 3 m of face advance.9. The centre of the shaft in the face is found by means of templates or measurements from temporary plumb bobs which are centred above the permanent plumb bobs. The verticality and cross-sectional area of the shaft are checked by means of plumb bobs hung under the sinking platform from brackets in the temporary lining. The positions of the plumb bobs are checked by measuring the distance between them and the centre of the shaft. . Survey Work During Deepening of Vertical Shafts 237 the level of deepening is also carried out.8. The centre of a shaft on the lower level is usually fixed in the foot of a working. and the shaft axes should be transferred onto the brackets of permanent plumb bobs after every 10 m of shaft advancement. All measurements essential for laying out the centre and axes of the shaft on the level of deepening are carried out.

(b) tectonic disturbances. The objects of surveying in quarries include the following main groups: (a) exploratory. compilation of graphical documents for the normal operation of a mining enterprise. calculation of the output of a mineral.Chapter Ten Surveying in Quarries 10.1 Mine-Surveying Nets Reference Mine-surveying reference nets on deposits extracted by open-cast methods are developed in accordance with the requirements set forth to reference nets on the land surface for the territories of economic interest of mining enterprises. 10. and sometimes inside a quarry. volume of burden rock. etc. etc. and polygonometric points. dynamics of losses and the dilution of a mineral. boundaries of sections with different grades of ore or different ash content of coal. reference points are set up in these places. The results of mine surveying are used for compiling calendar plans of mining work development. participation in the planning of drilling and blasting. Levelling bench marks can be used as the reference basis for surveying nets in quarries.. control of the specified parameters of working systems and the dimensions of structures. hoists. crests. trestles.1. assaying points. etc. fire zones.2. observations on the motions of quarry flanks and development of measures for their prevention.2. power transmission lines. contacts of the lying and hanging wall with the mineral. solution of various problems associated with the activity of production sections. pulp pipelines. with measurements at each stage of the work being made with the specified accuracy. a reference net beyond the limit of the design contour of a quarry is formed initially. working trenches. Modem organization of mine surveying in open-cast mining of deposits is characterized by that the work proceeds successively 'from the general to particular'. (d) flooded workings. Reference and Surveying and Survey Work Nets 10. They may include triangulation points. surveying of mining workings and land surface. boundaries of landslides. trilateration points. pay-ore area structures. . On the land surface of a mining enterprise. etc. General The principal aims of the mine-surveying service in open-cast mining are as follows: the provision of the geometric basis for the surveying work in the form of a reference net. (c) haulage lines in a quarry. catchwater ditches. cavities left after underground mining work.. investigations of the geological structure of deposits. which are called approach points and serve for the formation of a surveying net.. as the mining work is developed on the quarry flanks. draining and drillingblasting workings. accesstracks. etc. After that.

or 16 points per km2 on a scale 1/1000. . 10.2.~B 6 \ 6 -.2. 10. but the land surface is quite convenient for linear measurements to determine the approach points. gonometry Depending on the configuration of a quarry. 10.1 Insertion of point into development of reference net rigid ~ c angle for Fig. -Fig.2) or the construction of a geodetic quadrangle. the number of figures should be not more than five. 10.1)or several points into a rigid angle. The polygonometry can also be used with successon a rough terrain if it is possible to employ light or radio range finders.2 Construction of chain of triangles between two reference points Surveying nets are constructed on the basis of points of a reference net. 10 points per km2 on a scale 1/2000. In triangle chains.3). 10. Surveying Nets 2 """ '/134 M N ~L~ 3 4 Fig. each surveying plate made on a scale 1/5000 should have at least three main points fixed by permanent centres. 10. In surveying the land surface.use is most often made of the insertion of one (Fig." . the approach points can be determined by the methods of triangulation or polygonometry. The method of triangulation is employed in cases when approach points are readily visible from reference points.3 Construction of reference net by poly. waste dumps and quarries. Reference A and Survey Nets and Surveying Work 239 . B. methods of stripping and provision of technical facilities. surveying nets are constructed according to the following requirements: the main points of a surveying net should cover evenly the survey surface area. points A.10. their density is determined so as to have four points per km2 in surveyings on a scale 1/5000.2.J 2 /-~ 3 '>f' "1' ~ I \ B ) . construction of a chain pf triangles between two fixed points (Fig.I ~2' ~. Polygonometric traverses are commonly run between the points of a mine-surveying reference net (for instance. 10. The angles of triangles should 1 /"7 JA 13 \ fi5y I 1'10 R 1"12 be not less than 30° in chains or 20° in geodetic quadrangles. two such points are sufficient on plates on a scale ~ . local conditiQns. and C in Fig. In such cases. The method of polygonometry is resorted to in cases when there is no visibility between the reference points and the points to be determined (approach points).

method of analytical nets. Surveying in Quarries of 1/2000 and one such point. Analytical nets are constructed as chains of triangles or other figures (geodetic quadrangles. surveying nets can be constructed by the following methods: method of geodetic intersections. An angular discrepancy should not exceed f fJ= 30"J~ . it can be fixed by permanent or temporary points in the form of wooden page or metal rods driven into the soil. method of range lines.) which are supported by sides and points of a reference net. The latter are employed for constructing a surveying net on the lower levels of quarries of a small area or of some portions of a quarry. The number of points detennined by an individual triangle chain or figure should be not more than seven. The distances between the points of theodolite trayerses should not exceed 400 m and. Method of theodolite traverses is employed in quarries having a large extention of the front of mining and stripping work and benches of a form convenient for linear measurements. Triangle chains and central figures are used most often. where n is the number of measured angles. 10. A resection is drawn from four points. shape of a quarry in plan.240 Ch. Method of geodetic intersections is em-' ployed in cases when the points of a surveying net are located at appreciable distances from those of a reference net. polar method. Triangles should have a shape close to equilateral. The length of a traverse should be not more than 2. The angles at the points being determined should be not larger than 120° or smaller than 30° and the side lengths. The angles in theodolite traverses are measured by theodolites. The maximum discrepancy should not exceed 0. Survey points are usually located on the lower platform of each working bench at distances not more than 400 m from one another. etc. they are found from two versions. not smaller than 300 m or greater than 1000 m. temporary points are usually fixed by cross marks made on the protruding portions of the rock. The three-stand scheme can be recommended for angular measurements. Right and side intersections are drawn from at least three initial points. on those on a scale 1/1000. in the method of resections. a central system. should be less than loo m. provided that the point to be determined lies near the circle passing through three of the four initial points. Since a survey control net has to exist only for a relatively short time. The length measurements in theodolite .5 km. there are measured the angles between the junction side of a theodolite traverse and two directions onto the points of a reference net (Fig. 40". In all cases. Angular measurements are commonly made by means of theodolites. 10. method of theodolite traverses. The permissible angular discrepancy in triangles with the side length up to 1000 m is l' and in those with the side length more than 1000 m.4). At junctions of theodolite traverses to the initial points.ight or side intersections are calculated from two triangles.the final coordinates are taken as the arithmetic means from two measurements. Theodolite traverses are run between two known points A and B (points of a reference net) or between closed polygons. The theodolites should be centred with an accuracy not worse than 2-3 mm. Depending on the terrain relief.8 m. whereas triangle chains are preferred in the quarries of an elongated shape and appreciable depth. mining technology and some other factors. Method of analytical nets is employed in quarries where both flanks are working (moving). as a rule. In hard rocks. Right and side intersections and reverse intersections (resections) are usually employed. The coordinates of the points determined by r. and method of a rectangular network.

Fig.10. it is possible to measure the lines of a theodolite traverse by the indirect method of geodetic intersections which is essentially as follows. C from that at which the tapes have been standardized. B. which is the connecting side for solving the triangles constructed from the point B. In some cases when the form of benches is inconvenient for length measurements on the ground and optical range finders are not 16-1270 available..5). and the relative difference between two independent measurements should be not more than 1/1000. The linear discrepancies in theodolite traverses should be not more than 1/3000 of the traverse length. are measured by a tape. the side 2-3 is calculated. and C are chosen at certain distances away from the theodolite traverse line. A correction for horizontalization is introduced when the inclination angle is larger than 10.4 Providing survey control by means of theodolite traverses traverses can be made by means of steel or cloth tapes or range finders.. 10. but in all casesall measurements should be done in the forward and reverse direction. The calculations of the next series of triangles give . Linear measurements can also be carried out by the optical method with the use of optical range finders and range finder attachments and a base-measuring (subtense) bar.Auxiliary points A. 10. In some cases. The side l-A of a triangle IAl is calculated by the sine theorem: A-l 1-2= sin P4 sma2 In a similar way. A temperature correction is introduced in cases when the temperature at measurements differs by more than 5 deg. which are the refere~ bases. A theodolite traverse is run on the working platform of a bench and connected at the ends to the points of a reference net (I. ~17 are measured from the points of the theodolite traverse line and lines I-I and 6-1I. II. Reference and Survey Nets and Surveying Work 241 Fig.2. tape standardization. the lengths of traverse sides can be determined by indirect methods. The corrections for temperature. Angles ~1' ~2' ~3' .. and horizontalization of lines should be introduced into the measured lengths.

~ P2 .6). a point p 2 and sighting at points B and F). Method of range lines is employed in quarries where the working front is advanced in one direction only. Surveying in Quarries ~ I B A C I'~ \ ): ~17 ~ ! I /~. A check is done in this method by comparing the calculated length of the last line of a theodolite traverse. The points of profile lines are laid off as follows. G).:J by method of Fig. 10.5 Indirect measuring of sides of theodolite traverse a side 4-5 which is the basis for solving the last series of triangles constructed from the point C. This method is especially convenient in cases when the platforms of working benches have a certain elevation above the ground surface of the opposite flank of a quarry (Fig. B-2. If however these angles are smaller than 30°. it is essential that the angles a and 13 be not smaller than 30°.--I ~ -:::. 10. it is possible to sight the instrument at reference points located on adjacent range lines (for instance. 6-11.. G-7... For laying out a range line. 10.'l: 8 m \ \ {. p J is first fixed on a range line. With these angles being measured and the angles 'I' and <pand distances CD and DE being known. . Polar method of providing survey control has become popular with the appearance of 123 y III I A ~~~ ~ ~ I B ~ 111 I C 456 ~ IV I D I v ~ VI I F 7 ~ VII I G -7 Oj:l=. so that the reference points fixed on the non-mining flank can be easily observed from the working benches. two side intersections are calculated and the coordi- nates of the point p 1 are found.. . l~n i ~ (15 6 \ " a-. I I Pel " Fig. a secondorder . with its length measured in the field. The theodolite is set up on that point and angles a and 13 are measured. \\ ~. C. it is possible to calculate the angles 'I' and <p according to which the direction of a range line is assigned and fixed by points A-l.242 Ch.6 Providing range lines survey control .::. In order to have an optimal shape of triangles..: 1-- JJI. B.polygonometric traverse is first run (A.. 10. A point (say. . With the known direction angles of range lines. C-2.

2. and light reflectors are set (Fig. the densification network is transferred into nature and fixed on the ground. [3 Aa< . the rectangular network is laid out. and the coordinates of its corners are calculated on the plan. a greater portion of a quarry must be readily visible from a few number of points ofa reference net..8).2. loo m or 200 m and the densifying network of rectangles with the side length dl equal to 5-40 m. a plan of the surface is compiled.It is a common practice to layout two systems of rectangles: the main network with the side length d equal to 50 m. which gives the technical boundary of a quarry and a number of reference net points (1.which are to be determined. 10. and survey points are fixed in their corners (Fig. Upon measuring the distances. a light range finder i. which is used directly for surveying. .8 Providing rectangular network survey control ~c by method of geodetic light range finders. A network of rectangles is laid out on the territory of deposit.4. 10. For the transfer of surveying net points onto the lower levels of a quarry or the restoration of annihilated points. use is most ~ .2 ( e I 4 oB I \{5 l5 \ I b\ ~ ~ ~ 2 ~ DO .8). the light range finder is replaced by a theodolite to measure polar angles ~l' ~2' ~3' etc. Method of a rectangular network for the construction of surveying nets is applicable in quarries of a shallow depth and with a flat relief of the surrounding land. Reference and Survey Nets and Surveying Work 243 A< . For laying out a rectangular network. 10. 10. a project of the densification of the reference net is designed so that its points can be as close as possible to the corners of the rectangular network. j Fig. After that. For the construction of a surveying net.3. Then the directions of the axes of a rectangular survey net are chosen. 2. The orientation of the sides of a network is chosen parallel (perpendicular) to the main mining front or coincident with the orientation of a coordinate network.s set up on a point (A) of the reference net.7) up on surveying net points 1. 3. The corners of the network can be fixed by laying off the distance and direction angle from the closest reference point or by the method of angular intersections with the use of one or two theodolites (see Fig.10. For successful application of this method.. 5) near it.

10. 10. The difference of elevations determined on the black and red face of staffs should not exceed 10 mm.9a). The deviations of the zero point should be not greater than thrice the reading-off error on the vertical circle. --1 ! of Fig. ~ . provided that they are run in the forward and reverse direction. 10. 10. r--r- :J=' --r-! . In that case the position of a point of the reference net is determined on the ground by laying off two horizontal angles ~1 and ~2 by means of two theodolites (Fig. Surveying in Quarries (b) L--L. (b) by method often made of the method of range lines in which two theodolites are set up on two closest existing points (Fig. cm. Elevation Control of Quarries Elevation control is required for determining the heights of the points in a quarry.5 km. . hanging lines are permitted. 10. and n is the number of levelling lines.04[1]/J~ where [I] is the length of the levelling line. where Lis the length of the level line. The discrepancy of a levelling line.3. Technical levelling between the points of a reference net may be done in one direction only. should be not more than mh = 0. the sought-for point is then found at the intersection of the collimation lines of the two instruments. Trigonometric levelling has found use in quarries with railless transport and in cases when a surveying net is formed by the method of geodetic intersections. It is also possible to use the method of direct angular intersection.ermining the elevations of points by trigonometric levelling. The measurements of vertical angles can be controlled by the constant place of the zero point of the vertical circle. The permissible discrepancy between a forward and reverse elevation is not more than 0.and a new point is fixed at the intersection of their collimation lines.041cm where I is the length of a line. m. The readings in levelling are taken only relative to a single line. vertical angles are measured by means of theodolites at the same time with measuring the horizontal angles. The permissible discrepancy of level lines is 50JL mm. m. Technical levels and levelling staffs of any type are suitable for the purpose. The heights of an instrument and sighting target should be measured with an accuracy to 1 cm.(. Their length should not exceed 2. Trigonometric levelling lines should be connected to the points whose elevations have been determined by geometric levelling.9b).2.+-~ . The heights of the points of a surveying net are measured by geometric or trigonometric technical levelling. ~-+ L 1 ' . the accuracy of reading-off devices of the vertical circle of the instruments should be not worse than 30".9 Transfer angular intersection (restoration) of surveying net points: (a) by method of range lines.244 (a) Ch. When det. Geometric levelling is usually employed in quarries with railway transport. km.

The altimeter is essentially an opticomechanical goniometer provided with a direct-image telescope and self-adjusting verti- . but from at least two points.10.2. The instrument is intended for the remote measurements of vertical thickness and dip angles of visible seams.10a).4. Surveying in Quarries The surveys of quarries and complementary surveys of benches can be carried out by the following methods: tacheometry. The periodicity and sequence of surveys in quarries are as follows: surveys of contours of bench crests and blast holes are made only in places where blasting work is to be performed. Surveys in quarries are made from the points of a survey net. If a side in one-sided levelling exceeds 700 m. Tacheometric survey is employed for: (a) surveying of quarries where the mining technology is such that the volume of extracted burden rock and that of the mineral in the pillar can be determined directly from the results of bench surveying. It can also determine the relative elevations of the position of geological elements and other objects. The staff is set up on all characteristic points of the contours and surfaces being surveyed. Mineral stores are surveyed every ten days or once a month depending on the method adopted for calculating the amount of the extracted mineral. (b) for surveying of quarries of a relatively low capacity. In such cases. where possible.2.11) has been developed in this country for the geological documentation of quarry benches. a correction for the Earth curvature and refraction should be introduced into the measured elevation. It is permissible when needed to determine the additional points of a surveying net by running a single-sided hanging theodolite traverse. The distances between these points on a bench should not exceed 300 m for a scale 1/1000 or 400 m for a scale 1/2000. stereophotogrammetry. the elevations between the points are found by trigonometric levelling in the forward and back direction or in a single direction only. 10. All other objects except for mineral stores are surveyed only when a need arises. m). A sketch of bench contours is drawn at each survey station (Fig. A sma[[-sized geo[ogica[ a[timeter (Fig. In surveys on a scale 1/1000. (c) for surveying of'dead' spaces obtained in ground stereophotogrammetry. Reference and Survey Nets and Surveying Work 245 If the points of a surveying net are determined by the polar method or method of geodetic intersections. 10. For the compilation and complementation of mining working plans. it is advisable.031for distances up to 1 km or 0. plane-table survey.021for distances above 1 km (where 1 is the length of the lines. method of perpendiculars.elevation discrepancies (in centimetres) should be not more than 0. 10. It is mainly used for single surveys of small quarries or their portions when a general plan of mining workings is to be compiled. and their combinations. In surveys on a scale 1/2000 the respective distances are 30 m and 40 m. Plane-table survey has found no wide application. for a scale 1/2000. the distances between the staff points should not exceed 20 m for the bench crests of intricate shape or 30 m for the extended crests. to perform aerial and ground stereophotogrammetric surveys. and (d) for check surveying of mining workings in the selective control of their plan positions and for surveys in cases where stereophotogrammetric methods are inefficient or inapplicable. The length of sides should be not more than 300 m in surveys on a scale 1/1000 or 400 m on a scale 1/2000. In the surveys of the surface of blasted rock the distances between the staff points should not exceed 10 m for a scale 1/1000 or 20 m.

12-focussing device .-~ -13 -~ : 10 --:~-("I cpi ("II . 4-reading-otT magnifying glass.~5~~ 3 :~ "' ("I. For a length more than 15 m. In recent time.. as a rule. 1°. Stereophotogrammetric surveying of quarries. (b) eliminates the need in staffmen and thus increases the safety of work. Lengths are measured by tapes and rounded off to decimetres.base. which offers the following advantages: (a) increases the labour productivity of the field work.5 kg. The length of ordinates. The mass of the instrument is 1.710: ~ \ ~I-ir::::njt1r~ Fig. The distances between the staff points are chosen according to the recommendations given for tacheometric surveys. 10.horizontal circle. 10-vertical sighting screw. The surveying net for the method of perpendiculars is constructed in the form of theodolite traverses or as a rectangular network. 9-horizontal sighting screw. The range of measured visible dip angles is :t 90°.8-handle. Fig. Method of perpendiculars can be employed efficiently for the surveys of bench crests with simple contours when the required number of staff points is not large (Fig.:.10 Sketch of bench contours: (a) by tacheometric method. 5. ll-telescope. 3-adjusting level. 39.10b). they should be set up by means of a right-angle mirror. (b) by method --'0 of perpendiculars cal circle with scales of elevations and vertical angles. 10. 2-housing. 10.I.15 ~ -:. Surveying in Quarries (b) ~ ~~-.246 (a) Ch. 10. 6. should not exceed 30 m.:Lg--~ o-~~ v. and (d) involves all visible objects including those which are inaccessible for tacheometry..~. The working portions of measuring scales are visible directly in the telescope. stereophotogrammetry has come into use in many quarries in place of tacheometric surveying. The range of measured elevations is :t 10 m for a sighting length up to 10 m or :t 20 m for a sighting length of 20-40 m.11 Geological altimeter: l-eye-piece. (c) provides a large choice of points in compiling plans by photographs and thus better characterizes the section surveyed. 7-levelling wedges. LO (I) ~ ~ c. c-. The error in the measurements of the vertical thickness of seamsis not more than 5 cm and that of the visible dip angles of seams.

10. When made from two ends of a base line they represent a stereoscopic pair whose principal elements are as follows: (1) the left-pand (PJ and right-hand photograph (P 2). 10.11\ 2 ~ ~ C1 a I J a. Ground stereophotogrammetry can be used either independently or in combination with tacheometric surveying. 10. ~ISIC. i. It is especially efficient in large quarries. (8) the images of the same point on the land on the photographs of a stereoscopic paIr. In stereophotogrammetry. this section is photographed stereoscopically from two points at the ends of a base S1S2 (Fig. The stereophotogrammetry of quarries can be performed from a fixed base on the .12)can be determined if the directions of projecting beams c181C and c282C are known.2.12). A photographic camera can also be combined with a theodolite. C2S2C. The two photographs of the same portion of land. the points of intersection of the main beams with the planes of photographs.. (9) corresponding beams Slal' S2a2' etc. the'position of a point on the land is determined by a direct spatial intersection which is formed by the projecting beams passing through tq~ leftand right-hand point of the base. the combination of projecting beams which form images on the photographs. (6) the main points 01 and O2.12 Elements of stereoscopic pair (10) the focal distances of photographs !1 = 8101 and!2 = 8202. i. To compile a plan of a quarry section. when viewed through a stereoscopic device. e. e. Reference and Survey Nets and Surveying Work 247 A Ground and aerial stereophotogrammetry can be employed. a2S2A. and spatial positions of objects and relief of the Earth's surface. produce a three-dimensional effect. Photographic cameras for making stereophotographs are provided with devices which ensure their definite and fixed position during exposure. t2) the centres of projection of the left-hand and right-hand photograph. Stereophotogrammetry can determine and represent graphically the shape. the position of a point C (see Fig. etc. (3) the photographic base Bph = S1S2 which is also equal to the distance between the centres of projection of the photographs. The surface formed by the plurality of the points of intersection of corresponding projecting beams is called the geometrical model. (5) the main beams S101 and S202 which are perpendicular to the planes of photographs..10. (4) beam bundles alSlA. For instance. C2 Fig. SI and S2' or the rear optical centres of the two objectives of stereophotogrammetric camera. or simply model. and the combination is called a photo theodolite. and c I 'I f!i!f: 1 / ~ s -1J / 'y- B~h ~S .. dimensions.. (7) identical points a1 and a2' c1 and C2' etc.

the angle of turn of the left-hand photograph in its plane. The coordinates of points on the land are determined in the coordinate system adopted for a quarry. are equal to zero. In that case.14).13). 10. Za). ys and Zs . since the latter requires more intricate techniques of photoreading. It is distinguished between two principal cases of ground photogrammetry: with a horizontal position of the optical axis of a photographic camera (horizontal stereophotogrammetry) and with the optical axis inclined substantially relative to the horizontal (oblique. (J)1. 10. The coordinates of points on photographs are determined in a rectangular system of coordinates (x'x' and z'z' in Fig. The elements of internal orientation include the focal distance (focal length) of a camera and the coordinates of the main point Xo.The point of intersection of coordinate axes. Among the elements of external orientation (Fig.ular point a.14 Coordinate system of photograph . stereophotogrammetry). The characteristics that determine the positions of beam bundles are called the elements of the orientation of a photograph (which are subdivided into external and internal). are perfectly coincident. is the origin of coordinates. Zo.13 Horizontal survey stereopho togrammetri c Fig. Xo and Zo. Coordinate marks are fixed so that the point 0' which is the origin of coordinates.248 Ch. Horizontal stereophotogrammetry is usually done as a combination of three cases: with the optical axis of a photographic camera directed perpendicular to the base and deviated by 30-35° to the left and right from this position (Fig. the coor- dinates of the main point. The coordinates of a parti<. Horizontal stereophotogrammetry is easier to make and has an essential advantage over the oblique method. Xs . the oblique angle of the left-hand photograph <Pl which is equal to the angle between the projection of the main beam of that photograph onto a horizontal plane and the perpendicular to the projection of the photographic base onto the same plane. 10. The coordinates of points on the land are determined on photographs according to the positions of the bundles of projecting beams at the instant of exposure. 10.15)are the coordinates of the left-hand end of a photographic base. "1. the direction angle of the photographic Fig. 10. 10. or perspective. are commonly called the photocoordinates (xa. as measured on a photograph. and the main point 0 of a photograph. 0'. Surveying in auarries ground or from a flying object (aeroplane). In contradistinction to photocoordinates. the angle of inclination of thelmaih beam 6f the left-hand photograph. they are designated by capital letters xYZ.

With a positive angle y. the angle 'of inclination of the main beam on the right-hand photograph. ys .15 Element of external orientation of stereoscopic pair base QB. 10. the main beams are convergent. Let us analyse a case of normal stereophotogrammetric survey (see Fig. / ys x . are reduced to nearly zero values by means of spirit levels mounted on the camera.. The coordinates Xs . 10.' / / // // (111 1112 ~ x ~ 190 8 ~ .11 z x / I':/ / / Xs1 . the photographic base Bp~. B .axis yph coincides with the direction of the optical axis of the photographic camera set up in the point SI (the left-hand end point of the base). ./ S1 i 01 z X ---1 xI I .ls. the main beams are divergent. The mine-surveying plans of land surface and mining workings art: usually constructed in a left-hand system of coordinates. Az. whereas stereophotogrammetry employs a right-hand coordinate system. "2. the projection of the photographic base onto a horizontal plane. and the angle made by the main beam projections of the photographs onto a horizontal plane. the angle of the turn of the right-hand photograph in its plane. The inclinatio~ angles of the main beams of photographs.10.16) in which the optical axes of the photographic cameras set up in points SI and S2 are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the photographic base Bph. The oblique angles of photographs are set up by the orientation device of a phototheodolite. arid its dirbction angle QBare determined by geodetic methods. m2. ". the z-axis is arranged vertically. and the angles of the turn of photographs. I Base 2 / / Horizontal . (b). y (Figc 10. however. and (c) axis Zphhas a direction perpendicular to the plane formed by the two other axes.. and Zs .16). c / --\-"' / ff 2 / . m. and the angle y formed by them is caned the angle of convergence. Reference and Survey Nets and Surveying Work xph 249 Yph ZPh / /~ / <p :. with a negative y.2. In both cases.I ~ 02 1 X X2 Fig. and y is called the angle of divergence./ Xph / / HoLta.... It is assumed in this example that: (a) axis Xphcoincides with the direction of the photographic base. the height difference of the right-hand.end of the photographic base above the left-hand end.

1) From the similarity of triangles SlOK and Slojkj.2) (10. on the left-hand photograph.jc (10.16 and 10. Xr is the abscissa of the point kr on the right-hand photograph.and the maximum permissible distance mln .250 Ch. in order to determine the photogrammetric coordinates Yph' Xph' Zphof points. 10. we can write the formula in the form: BpJc Yph=-=Bp.3) Substituting for Yph' we get: Xph= BphX.k~Sl (see Fig. Let the image of the point K on the left-hand photograph be denoted by k. Noting the similarity of triangles KK'Sl and k. it may be written: Xph/Yph Xj/!c = or Xph= (Xj/!c)Yph (10.16 Normal stereophotogrammetric survey . on the left-hand photograph. -Xr = p (which is called the horizontal parallax. kr (see Figs. 10.17). we can write: Yphlfc= Bphl(XI -Xr) Denoting X. The length of a photographic base. 10. or x-parallax). All objects of a stereophotogrammetric survey should always lie within a range between the minimum permissible distance Yph . and fc is the focal length of the photographic camera of a phototheodolite. and that on the right-hand one. the distance from the photo theodolite to the objects being photographed. Surveying in Quarries -:4 < "- Fig. ZI is the ordinate of the point k. and the focal length of a photographic camera are considered the principal parameters of a stereophotogrammetric survey. Bph is the photograI'hic base. one has to know the photographic base in nature and the focal length of the photographic camera of a phototheodolite and to find on the photographs the values of X" Z" and p./P Similarly: Zph= BphZj/ P xi -Xr p As follows from these formulae.A' ~ We have to determine the photogrammetric coordinates of a point K on the land. The designations adopted in the figures are as follows: Yph'Xph'and Zphare the photogrammetric coordinates of the point K on the land (Yphis also called the distance to the point K). 10..17). XI is the abscissa of the point k.

4) pho-tographic Yph The maximum permissible distance is found by the formula: Mfc ~ Yph max = 1.25-tmin loo (10. It can be determined by the formula: . the base can be calculated by the formula: 2 B=Q~ (10.2. 10.8 Mfcdmvtmin ( 10. The coordinates for- of point on terrain max mer IS needed " the appearance of a stereolor scopic effect and the latter ensures the specified accuracy of measurements. the base length is found by the formula: y} . The minimum permissible distance depends on the technical characteristics of stereoscopic devices and the specifics of the stereoscopic vision of an observer.10. and possibilities of photoreading.6) Mfctmin where y f is the distance to the farther boundary of the working portion of a given stereoscopic pair and Q is a coefficient which is taken equal to 15 for a single survey of a quarry and to 20 for mapping of the land surface. (2) in monthly complementary surveys for calculating the volumes of excavator cuts.17 Y ph from Determining the photogrammetric base. accuracy requirements. Reference and Survey Nets and Surveying Work 251 Fig. M is the denominator of the scale of the plan to be compiled.= mln (3-4)Bph (10.7) .5) where fc is the focal length of a phototheodolite. the length of the photographic base can be determined by one of the following methods: (I) if a quarry or land portion is surveyed for mapping. tmin = COS = ~ = (x2/fc)sin~ (here ~ is the oblique angle of a photograph and X2 is t~e largest coordinate x on the right-hand photograph within the limits of the stereoscopic pair working stage). Bph = 1. Depending on the length of the photographic base.

the like points will be displaced relative to each other (vertical f)a- . in the farther plan of the area being photographed.9) Lmax = 2tan- (Yph max Bph --cotan2 (10. number and dire:c!tion of photographic bases can influence substantially the productivity of the survey work.5Bph-Tcotan a 2 ( 2 a 2 a ) ) (10.8) where D is the depth of a survey. tmin and M as in formulae (10.252 Ch. The trapezium bases can be found by the formulae: a Bph Lmin = 2tan 2 3.5) and (10.18 Determining useful area of stereogram where d is the width of a cut. Lmin is the closer base of a trapezium. and Lmax is the farther base of a trapezium. and fiducial (correcting) points. The useful area F us' confined by points abcd. Reconnaissance is done for selecting the locations of the points of a referenee net.17: Fus= (D/t)(Lmin + Lmax) (10. Three correcting points are usually established for each photographed stereoscopic pair at each station. 10. it is possible to compare the coordinates obtained by two independent methods and to check the ste~eophotogrammetric survey. Surveying in Quarries Fig. and land photography. and YI'fc. Since the length. Consider. 10.10) Noting these expressions. One of these points should be located in the closer plan and the other two. geodetic measurements. is depicted on each photograph of the stereo pair and later processed in a stereocomparator. 10. %.18).19). photographic bases. 10.6). it is essential to establish a number of fiducial (correcting) points whose coordinates are determined by the photogrammetric or geodetic method. some of them are usually made common for adjacent stereoscopic pairs. In stereoscopic photographs of a quarry taken from an inclined base. In order to obtain the required accuracy in the determinations of the coordinates of points on the photographs of stereoscopic pairs and the horizontal parallax at each station. for example. It is also essential to know the overlapping area in a stereoscopic pair taken from a particular photographic base. it is advisable to have a minimum number of bases that is sufficient to cover the entire survey area without leaving 'dead' spaces (Fig. We construct the horizontal vision angles (working angles) a of a phototheodolite on the land from the ends of the base. 10.11) Ground stereophotogrammetric surveying includes reconnaissance. Places for establishing the photographic bases are chosen so that the bases can be ~llel to the working front and at the same level with the objects to be photographed (or somewhat above them). In order to decreasethe number of correcting points. Thus. m. the formula for the useful survey area will be as follows: (10. the photographic base SlS2 (Fig. It is also essential that the height difference of the ends of the photographic basesbe as small as possible. mv is the specified root-mean square error of the volume measurement. It can be written by reference to Fig.

The 1 Base 5 (100 m) upper benches are photographed from the ~I "'1 . Depending on the size of quarries. Adjacent bases should be chosen so as tape. 'x::i . After that.I. The length of places where they can be preserved for a long a photographic base can be measured by a time.1 ~' I ~// \ .. from the bases on internal waste \ Fiducial' ) points I dumps. \ ---"t. found by measuring in the left-hand base Base (200 m) 3 Base (BOm) ~ 3a J . 10. A theodolite is arranged on the left-hand end of a base (relative to the direction onto the objects to be photographed) in order to measure the length of the base line. method of analytic network.) photographic bases are located directly on ~ --' . by intersections stereoscopic pairs. ~ i 1/ . provided that to ensure the specified overlap in adjacent the discrepancy between the forward and stereoscopic pairs. \dumps and in those with conveyer bridges. tripods are set up at ~ the ends of a base.base points should be established in measurements of base lengths...:-.3Bph.-~ (2) in working systems with internal waste I ~. Determination of a direction angle. ordinates of the left-hand points of basesand Besides.. Reference and Survey Nets and Surveying Work 253 photographic bases can be located on the flanks of a quarry if the quarry depth is not large. Determination of the planimetric cophotographic base is not more than O. and the orientation of the mining traverses.2.. \ ( \~ / the dumps. ment of bases in quarries are possible: 2. working and resections./1 \ are arranged on bench berms.10. The (1) in working systems with overburden direction angle (aB) of a photographic base is transportation to external waste dumps. photographic bases Base (170m) 2 . I . and photographs are taken from the left-hand Fig. least minimized to a tolerable level in a Geodetic work in ground stereophotostereocomparator only in cases when the grammetry includes the following operations: height difference between the ends of the I.'." zee""7-:7'\ -.~ / /-r.. . . the upper and lower t.metry.\ baseslocated on a non-working flank and the \ . in deep quarries. wire or other instruments. Places for the location of back measurements is not more than photographic bases should be chosen so that 1/5000-1/2000 of the base length. The plaa porti~~ of quarry or land can be photonimetric coordinates of the left-hand base graphed With the least possible number of points can be determined by triangulation. lower ones.i" <.of stereophotogrammetric and right-hand end of the base. the following versions of the arrange. and photogramfront. This effect can be fully avoided or at the direction of the base line.\'. the photographic 100 0 100 200m camera is oriented relative to the base.') \ I I H8 ~ benches are photographed separately. Base (60 m) 2a .Z:A'. The optical survey of quarry axis of the camera is arranged normally to rallax).19 Example . polygonometric or theodolite systems. polar method. To take photographs.\ (3) in combined working systems where Basel(80m) ..\ Base4(100m: \ rocks are transported to external and \ internal waste dumps.~:7 ./ .

On cloudy days. (3) the phototheodolite is oriented onto the right-hand point of the base. During exposure. Photographs are made on high-contrast repro-c duction films or plates. and (12) the photo theodolite is set up on the right-hand base point to take new photographs as described. (7) the correct exposure time is determined.or left-hand deviation) is recorded. (9) the holder shutter is closed. (2) the phototheodolite is then arranged on the left-hand point. and the kind of photograph (normal or with right. with the camera axis shifted first to the left and then to the right. p max a = O. The correcting points are fixed by placing marks on them. and it is checked that the camera lens is closed. The preparatory work includes the following procedures: (a) calculation of the geodetic coordinates . which are made as screensof plywood or another material. (II) the phototheodolite is taken off. The best results are obtained on sunny cloudless days. and the positions of spirit bubbles and phototheodolite orientation are checked again. A lifting apparatus with a sighting mark is established on the other base point. Stereophotogrammetric office work includes the processing of exposed plates (films) in a laboratory. ~\ When making the photographic field work. (B) the plate is exposed. and the sighting mark. and the plate-holder is taken off from the camera. and a sighting mark is set up in its place. the phototheodolite is set up on one of the base points so that two of its foot screws are arranged along the direction of a base line. (4) a plate-holder (film-holder) is set in place. Determination of the elevation marks of bases and correcting points by technical geometric levelling. (5) the plate-holder is pressed against the focal frame of the camera by means of a screw on the back cover. 3. and its shutter is withdrawn. The error in the measured direction angle of a base should be not more than: ma = me 2yphmax D (101?) . 10.254 Ch. the foot screws of this apparatus should also be oriented along the direction of a base line. preparatory work. Photographs are taken by the techniques including the following procedures: (I) tripods with lifting devices are set up on both points of a base line.12y h /j~. on the right-hand point. where p" = 206265" and meis the permissible root-mean square error in determining the positions of contour points. . These angles are measured with an accuracy not worse than 5".13) Photography proper is a critical procedure in stereophotogrammetric surveys of quarries. the serial number of the photograph to be taken and the number of a station are set up on the numerator. (6) the positions of spirit levels and the orientation of the phototheodolite are checked.O6y Ph max /fc (10. Surveying in Quarries point of horizontal angles between the direction from that point onto the righthand point of the base and the direction formed by two certain points of a geodetic reference net. since the quality of negatives produced is decisive for the accuracy with which the point coordinates and parallax will be detemlined. the Sun should be behind or sideways of a surveyor. and the elevation of the left-hand base point is measured. it should be observed that the objects being photographed are not shaded by clouds at the instant of exposure. (10) new photographs are taken irl this way. and the compilation of the plans of mining workings. The vertical and horizontal sizes (b and a) of screens are calculated by the formulae: b = O.

h. in millimetres.. rph ordinates of points of bench crests. This can be done by using the measured photogrammetric co- Zphi al. plotting horizontals is started from the highest points.=a. The operating principle of a stereocomparator reduces to the reconstruction of the land portion photographed at a particular instant by constructing a geometrical model. .u + ai. a -" .. on the scale of a model.I-Yph.. .u' . in metres.I-Yphi. .5 (a. The planimetric coordinates of points.1 a.u -Z... The elevations of points are read off. . Plotting a plan is started from drawing the elements of hydrography.10.u-Yph. are found graphically in the stereoautograph and fixed by counters. h ". The coordinates of the points of a terrain are determined on stereophotographs by means of stereocomparators. The most popular one is the graphometric method with the use of stereoautographs and other devices operating by the principle of photogrammetric intersections.. The results of the stereophotogrammetric survey of a quarry can be used for calculating the volume of mined rock. = 0.) h 'i = Zi.5 (h~+h'~ . horizontals are plotted.u -Z. Reference and Survey Nets and Surveying Work and elevations of base points and reference points..20). . . ). If vertical sections are used (Fig. After that. 10. from the altitude counter of the stereoautograph. Volumes are calculated by means of digital models or tables of positions of benches with their characteristic cross-sectional areas.I " " h=0. In the plans of mountainous regions. = Zi. The results of the planimetric and elevation surveying of bases and correcting points are processed in the office by common geodetic methods.I' .. the areas are calculated by the following formulae: a -" . By combining the stereoautograph with a plotting table (coordinatograph).. S.u-Yph. Each point of the model is obtained by making intersections from the ends of the projection base. (b) preparation of the processing apparatus.2. and (c) preparation to the correction of a model. These devices can solve mechanically the formulae for the normal and equi-deviated cases of photogrammetric survey. . x and y. it is possible to construct plans and profiles and deliver the planimetric and height coordinates of points onto a perforated tape or printer.

The computer also calculates the paths of turns and takes into account descending and ascending air currents and the velocity and direction of wind. Aerial photographs with the angle of inclination to the horizontal up to 3° are termed planimetric.called the main focal distance (length) of an ~rial photographic camera. For quarries with the rate of face advancement not more than 30 m. focussed at the infinity. aerial photographs are obtained. 10. As may be seen from Fig. i. an aerial photograph is the central projection of the terrain with the projection centre in a point S. and the point where this line intersects the plane of a photograph is called the photographic nadir. The point of intersection of that perpendicular with the plane of a photograph (point 0) is the main point of an aerial photograph. The size of photographs can be 18 cm x 18 cm or 30 cm x 30 cm. a photograph is called horizontal. The selected values of l/Ms are then compared with its value calculated by the formula: --1. it is advisable to use the scale l/Ms = 1/15000. The brightness of the land surface is measured continuously by exposure meters. This ensures automatically that the aircraft will follow very accurately the given survey route at the specified altitude. where m~ = 0.14) D Ms-(~). With the inclination angles more than 3°.02 mm is the root-mean . Photographs are made mostly on a photographic film. A large number of photographs (up to 200-300) can be taken without recharging the camera. The distance fc along the perpendicular drawn from the projection centre S onto the plane of an aerial photograph is . The scale of a horizontal photograph is equal to the main scale. aerophotogrammetric cameras are of the fixed-focus type. The angle OSN (a) is conventionally called the angle of inclination Fig.4m~ (10. i. The equipment of an air-survey aircraft can control automatically the frequency of exposures.21 which shows the scheme of taking an aerial photograph of a terrain. Before making an aerial photogrammetric survey. or perspective. Surveying in 01 oblique stereophotogrammetry. the optical axis of a camera is held at a specified angle to the vertical. oblique. The vertical line SN is called the photographic altitude (or clearance) (H). e.256 Ch. If this angle is equal to zero. A horizontal photograph of a flat horizontal terrain is virtually the plan of that terrain. and the variations of the terrain relief are traced by locators.21 Taking aerial photograph of terrain of a photograph. 10. The planimetric aerial stereophotogrammetry of quarries is carried out from specially equipped aeroplanes and helicopters controlled by an on-board electronic computer. Since aerial photographs are taken from an appreciable altitude. it is required to make calculations for selecting the survey parameters. e. 1 : m = fc : H. if the rate of face advancement exceeds 30 m. the recommended scale of an aerial photogrammetric survey is l/Ms = 1/10000. 10.

10.15) where 1 is the size of a photograph and m is its scale.22 Making two courses of flight for aerial photography of quarry of intricate configuration should have a longitudinal (forward) lap (Fig. In this way there is formed a spatial model of the surveyed terrain on a reduced scale. the aerial survey should be carried out on a larger scale. 10.2. For planimetric aerial photographs.23)which is denoted by p and expressedas percentage of the side I of a photograph.14) is larger than that adopted initially. mm 100 100 140 200 15000 18000 up to 300 up to 200 200-300 300-500 '10000 up to 300 100 300-400 140 400-500 200 square displacement of contour in plan expressed on the scale of a photograph. The longitudinal lap can be calculated by the formula: h p = 62 + 50 ~ 2Hph If parallel courses are plotted. Aerial photographs taken along a course 17-1?70 . the photographs of adjacent courses should have a lateral (side} lap q which is e~pressed as percentage of the photograph side length and calculated by the formula: (10. The photographed materials are processed in stereophotogrammetric apparatus with projector cameras similar to those used for taking photographs. ""' Maximum depth of quarry.22). For those of an intricate configuration and large dimensions. For aerial surveys of quarries. a flight course for a photoairC!:alt should be plotted.1 The photographic altitude H ph above the medium plane of the quarry is calculated by the formula: Hph = fcM.5% is the specified accuracy in determining the volume of extracted rock. 10. Reference and Survey Nets and Surveying Work 257 Table 10. m fc.1 Maximum depth of quarry.x v Fig. mv/v = 2. If it turns out that the survey scale calculated by formula (10. and the depth of the quarry by reference to Table 10. a number of courses are plotted (Fig. 10. m J. For most quarries. a single course is usually sufficient. it can be .. rnrn 'M. An inclination angle of a photograph causes the displacements of points on it. The projector cameras and negatives are arranged mutually in the same positions they had at the instant of exposure. and D is the width of a face. The focal length fc of the aerial photographic camera for quarry surveying is chosen depending on the selected scale M. which is analysed by means of a binocular microscope and spatial marks.

Since the points of the physical surface of the Earth are located at different heights relative to a level surface. aO = r is the distance on an aerial photograph from a point a to the main point of a photograph 0. Surveying in Quarries Fig. The maximum displacement of a point in planimetric photographs under the effect of the inclination angle can be determined by the approximate formula (see Fig.3!1. 10.24). r = 50 mm. 10.21): 8" = (r2/fc) (a/p) (10. 10. 10. and aao = L\r is the displacement of a point on a photograph due -q-Qo Q ~s ~ It then follows that the displacements of points on aerial photographs under the effect of the inclination angle are mostly insignificant and in some cases can be neglected.4 mm displacements on aerial photographs (Fig. and p = 57.Ch.23 Longitudinal and lateral ~ laps of photographs in courses taken approximately that the displacements take place in the direction of a line connecting a particular point with the main point of the photograph. this displacement can be directed towards the main point or away from it. 10. Introducing the designations: AAo = h is the height difference of a point A above a point N. a is the inclination angle of a photograph. For instance. SN = H is the photographic altitude.24?Determining on aerial photographs relief AO . Depending on the location of a point and the inclination angle of the photograph. Fig. and a = 2° will be: 8" = (502/200) (2/57.3) = 0. the maximum displacement of a point on a photograph withfc = 200 mm. this oauses their different " N displacements of points owing to the effect of land .18) where r is the distance from the given point to the main point of a photograph.

Reference and Survey Nets and Surveying Work 259 S1S2Ml' we have: H1 = Bphfc/P1 (10. on the right-hand on~)The difference xI -x. each stereoscopic pair should be provided with four points of planimetric and . Photographs obtained by aerial stereophotogrammetry have a longitudinal lap more than 50%. Practically.20) and (10. then: h=H2-H1 Noting expressions (10. = = PI is called the lon-gitudinal parallax. Let the point M I of the terrain (Fig. M 2: H2 = Bp/c/P2 (10. it is advisable to utilize only the central portion of photographs. we can finally write: to the terrain relief.22) On aerial photographs with an inclination angle or non-horizontal base. h=~ Pi+ ~p (10. Thus. Pi and ~P turn out to be distorted.25) be represented by a point mI on the left-hand photograph and by a point m~ on the right-hand photograph. e.10. i. a direct stereoscopic effect is produced. Thus. The observations and measurements on aerial photographs are made by a stereoscopic method. 10. in operation with aerial photographs. say.25 to distance base MO Longitudinal parallax and its relation from point on land to photographic Denoting (Pi -Pi+ J by Lip. In this method. Before the aerial surveys of a quarry..21). the values of Pi and ~P are corrected for the effect of the inclination angle and inclined base line.21) Since the elevation difference of two points can be regarded as the difference of their distances. it is required to carry out field preparations. 10.19) Experience shows that the distortions in aerial photographs increase with increasing distance of points from the main point of a photograph. The simplest stereoscopic device is a stereoscope in which a left-hand photograph is mounted at the left and viewed by the left eye and the right-hand one is mounted at the right and viewed by the right eye. each portion of a terrain is depicted on two photographs. which is called the useful (working) area. In particular. before calculating the elevation differences. rather than the entire area.2. Considering similar triangles m~m~S2 and 17. This problem can be solved analytically or with the use of photogrammetric devices. points which are closer to an observer in nature will be seen closer in a stereomodel. it may be written that: Ar = rh/H (10.20) This expression can also be written for any other point on the terrain. the useful area of a photograph is limited by the lines drawn in the mid of the longitudinal and lateral lap. The distances from the photographic centres to these points are mI OI = xi on the left-hand photograph and m~O2 = -x.. For that reason. we obtain: h= ~ P2 -~ P1 = Bp/c(P1 -P2) PtP2 Fig.

. or beacons). calculation of model scale. Mine-Surveying of Drilling and Blasting Coverage Work Mine-surveying servicing (coverage) of drilling and blasting work consists in the following: (a) preparation of the initial materials for making a plan of blasting operations. The scaling consists in determining the ratio of like line sections s and S taken respectively on the restored and photographed surfaces. and the plate is turned until the centre of the microscope will be on the line connecting these points. The microscope is then sighted onto another reference point. For instance. manufacture of transparencies. This procedure can be performed by various motions depending on the design of a particular device. boundaries of the slope fully cleared up by excavation. it is required to have at least three control points.3. 10. The preparatory work includes the preparation of plates (application of kilometre network and control points). A plan of blasting operations is compiled on a scale of 1/1000 or 1/500. the plate is also oriented. Surveys are carried out for the purpose. In geodetic orientation. Though the problem is solved by the method of successive approximations. focal lengths of cameras. Surveying in Quarries elevation control (control points. The elevation marks of control points are determined with the accuracy of technical levelling. (c) determination of the actual positions of blasting holes after drilling. the measuring mark of the device is matched with one of reference points. e. The horizontalization of the model reduces to determining the angles of turn of the model on the corresponding axes x and y of the geodetic system of coordinates. 10. Thus. which are usually arranged in places where they can be preserved for a long time and used in subsequent aerial surveys. This is done in all-purpose stereophotogrammetric devices. The mutual orientation in a stereophotogrammetric device is carried out by observing successively a number of points on photographs and eliminating their lateral parallax. all the coordinates being known for two of them and the elevation mark. Aerial photographs are processed for the purpose of compilation and complementation of mining work plans. at least two control points should be available. mutual orientation of aerial photographs in the device. The mutual orientation of aerial photographs is essentially the determination of the position of one photograph in a stereo pair relative to the other.260 Ch. (b) transfer of the blasting plan into nature. the resulting solution is quite accurate (to the accuracy offered by the apparatus for the elimination of lateral parallax). for solving the problem of geodetic orientation of the model. The geodetic orientation of a geometrical model includes its scaling and horizontalization. processing includes the preparatory work. preparation of aerial photographs. and (d) determination of the volume of blasted rock and the location of worked-out area after rock excavation. l/m = s/S. The planimetric coordinates of the control points should be determined with an accuracy specified for the coordinates of survey net points. i. In order to determine the scale of a model. checking of the device. and the centre of a focussing microscope is set up above the corresponding point on the plate. For this purpose. which have to determine the following characteristics: the position of the upper bench crest. etc. Irrespective of the type of device. for the third point. one of the cameras may be considered to be fixed and forms a stationary basis relative to which the position of the other camera is measured. and geodetic orientation.

According to the plan of blasting operations. and the soil resistance. positions of tectonic disturbances and characteristics of cleavage cracks. " .i~. positions of contact-line supports and railway tracks (in quarries with railway transport). transfers instrumentally into nature only the boundaries of the block to be blasted and marks them on the upper crest of a bench. 10. staffmen are prohibited to stand on the slopes of benches. For making a profile survey by an inclinometer (Fig. according to safety regulations. the design positions of the mouths of blasting holes are transferred into nature and fixed by pegs with marks indicating the number of a hole. the number of a drilling rig. a telescopic rod with a tape. The main methods for transferring blasting holes into nature are the polar method and method of perpendiculars with the use of points of a surveying net. boundaries of rocks in the massif with different characteristics of drillability and explosibility. these should be surveyed properly. If a quarry has high benches of an irregular shape.3.10. II " " " / . the design depth of a hole. Distances up to 50 m can be measured by means of range finders. The mouths of blasting holes in a block are marked by a blaster foreman.26a). Mine-Surveying Coverage of Work 261 boundaries of the muck pile left after earlier blasting work. In the method of perpendiculars. elevations of the characteristic points of the upper and lower berms of a bench (in intervals not more than 20 m). In laying out the hole mouths. Angles are laid off with an accuracy not worse than 5'. Since. tacheometers. ~ ~I I ~ (b) 't-: Fig. such slopes should be surveyed by (a\ / / / ~ 4 / / QJ 0.26 Surveying means of inclinometer... the instrument is set up on the upper crest of a bench to measure the inclination angle onto a characteristic point. The instrumental layout of the mouths of blasting holes is carried out only in cases when the portions to be blasted are located at the design boundary of a quarry and per" manent access roads are being built. the mine surveyor. as a rule. for instance. measured distances are rounded off to a decimetre. lO. etc. boundaries of a dangerous zone as determined by the rules of blasting work and positions of buildings and structures near that zone. rod of bench profile: (a) by (b) by means of telescopic instruments which can determine the positions of staff points without the presence of men on them. inclinometers (or theodolites) with an attachment for measuring inclined distances. after which the distance to the sighting point .

and geometric or trigonometric levelling is carried out. the block to be blasted should be surveyed. These surveys have to determine: the axis of a track. It is also required to draw a plan of the blasting block which should give the block boundaries. and the tracks should not occupy the zone of the muck pile of a next blast. blasting holes. Mter blasting. rock contacts. As the design axis of the railway track is transferred into nature. If the excavator work or clear-up work is carried out on the bench after compiling the plan of blasting operations. it is decided to correct the track profile in accordance with the permissible ruling gradient. it is required to measure the distances from the holes to the upper crest and the soil resistance. and drillability and explosibility characteristics of the rocks. Two circumstances should be considered in this case: the axis should be laid out so that two bands of an excavator cut can be charged into cars without relaying the railway track. standing on the bench foot in a safe place. By the results of levelling. blasting holes. the positions of the upper and lower bench crests. which are needed for making a corrected plan of blasting work. 10. One of the workers stands on the upper crest and lowers the tape end with the weight. This survey determines the recessed places which should be filled with soil and the protruding ones which should be cut off for evening the berm. the mine survey6r compiles cross sections through blasting holes on a scale of 1/500. etc. an additional survey of the bench should be carried out.4. the design and actual level of the bench foot. The positions of intermediate holes are determined by measuring the distances between the holes. the vertical distance from the rod end to the surface of the slope. includes the laying out of routes of face railway tracks. contacts of various rocks and mineral.26b). the blasted rock is surveyed in order to determine the boundaries of the muck pile. The height marks of the mouths of blasting holes are determined by geometrical levelling. 10. Besides. The positions of the holes at the flanks of the block are fixed from the points of a surveying. the railway track axis is transferred onto the working berm of the bench. After drilling the blasting holes. the break line. The telescopic rod with a roller at its end is applied horizontally to the crest and a measuring tape with a weight is passed over the roller to the point of interest on the slope. Surveying in Quarries is measured by a special tape. In order to measure a length. After that. Measurements with a telescopic rod are made in the following manner (Fig. 10. periodic profiling of tracks. a levelling survey of the bench surface is done after the removal of the first strip of the rock from the muck pile. a cord with a weight is tied to the end of the tape and is let to slide along the slope of the bench. centres . These sections should show the profile of the bench slope. Having surveyed a prepared blasting block. which occupies an essential place in the daily activity of mine surveyors in quarries with railway transport. and several characteristic points along the profile lines on the surface of the muck pile. 1/1000 or 1/2000. Two coordinates are measured: the horizontal distance from the upper crest to the rod end and (on the tape). picket points are established along it. whereas another worker. stretches the cord and the tape so that the tape beginning is matched with the point to be measured. In order to obtain initial data for laying out railway tracks. and the situation on the bench berms. Survey Work Servicing for Transport This work. The surveys of permanent railway tracks in a quarry and beyond its boundaries are made by the method of perpendiculars or polar method from the sides of a theodolite traverse run along the track axis.262 Ch.

direction angles of junctions. With the known points of the trench bottom. Finally. A theodolite traverse is then run according to the preliminary direction of the trench axis. the corrected trench axis is laid out (points 1. curvature radii. A trench is dug in a slope and the extracted rock is dumped downhill 8 8 Fig.-A . the sequence. This direction is fixed by temporary picket points in intervals of 50-100 m. places for kilometre poles. The positions of upper crests (for trenches to be cut in loose rocks) or the positions of blasting holes (for those to be made in hard rocks) are transferred into nature from the sides of that traverse. 10. In making trenches by power shovels without blasting work. cross sections and axes of cuts. the plan of blasting holes with the coordinates of their mouths. Survey Work in Trenching 30 !':- -3~=--3'{. points 10' 20. Initially. instrumental survey should be carried out in order to check that the actual characteristics of the road correspond properly to the design values. ~2 . the junction point 1 of the trench axis is transferred onto the ground according to the design coordinates.5. 2".5. longitudinal and transverse sections of a trench which should show the profiles of the Earth's surface and the design profile of the trench bottom. etc. etc. the width of filling and grooves at the top and bottom. these points form the line along which the plane of the trench bottom intersects the slope.27 Trench digging in slope (Fig. width of roadbed. and railway and drainage ditches.A ~ " " This work is carried out on the basis of design materials which should include: the plan of a trench with the coordinates of junction points. 10. The layout work for the construction of automobile roads is carried out by mine surveyors according to the design materials which give the gradients. the following cases of mine-surveying servicing are possible: 1. Survey Work in Trenching 263 of switches. 4) by using the intersection line and the design width of the trench. 40 are determined in nature. direction angles of hole axes. 4") and of the lower crest (points 2' and 3') are marked . At the end of road construction. ~o 93 ~/'lc ~ ~ J~ " 1?0 ~2 I . The main task of the mine surveyor in this caseis to observe that the trench axis has a specified gradient. angles of turn. 2. a theodolite traverse is run. distances between the vertexes of turning angles and radii of connecting curves. After that. the top gauge width. 10.. the lines of the upper crest (points 1".1- O 40 64 O 4' cT 1~~ . and hole cross sections. Track curves are surveyed by the method of perpendiculars: chords are drawn between the ends of a curve and distances to the axis of the curve are measured along perpendiculars to these chords. 3.3". For laying out a trench on the ground.27). 30.10.

10. they are surveyed for the correction of the plan of explosions... 2. A trench is made by excavating explosions (Fig.1-0 0 1 0°°' 0 0 072 0001 '/\I'fi~~r# III \ I I c I/ I' I. In this case.29 Trenching by excavating explosions Fig.6. 10. -0-0- ~-0-o-0-'-.....t. the design positions 2 of the blasting holes are transferred into nature by means of theodolite traverses or geodetic intersections. R3. 10..28)or the rock is extracted by drag line and discharged onto the trench sides. the axis of the railway track is laid out on the trench flank (or the axis of the waste rock dump if the trench is dug by a drag line). During the cutting of the trench.30). Surveying in Quarries c-c 1°°° i 0 0 1000 C -.t.. and bench marks are established to control the trench foot gradient. that is why high dynamic loads that may cause overstressing the bridge el- ..1 B : . 3..264 Ch.28 Trench cutting with continuous and rock loading into railway cars face on the ground by measuring from the trench axls. -+ ! .R2.. another survey is done to determine the volume of blasted rock: then the axis and side crests of the trench are transferred into nature. bench marks are established in intervals of 20-30 m (R1. 10.I ~. The trench axis AB is transferred and fixed in straight portions at distances up to 50 m and in curved portions at intervals up to 10 m. 10. At the same time. etc. A theodolite traverse is run as described in the previous example.) which give the elevations of the trench foot..~-81- IB A-A y A >---r ~ iJ7 Fig. 10. The bench marks should be displaced from the trench axis so as to be on the line of one of excavator tracks.. After drilling 'the blasting holes 1. A trench is cut in a continuous face and the extracted rock is loaded into transport vehicles on the trench flank (Fig. Mter blasting.. 10. Survey Work in Open-Cast with Conveyer Mining Bridges The specifics of survey work in this case are associated with the fact that conveyer bridges have a rather intricate design and a very larg~ mass (sometimes more than 7000 t) (Fig.29).~1 1.1 \JrLI-~1 1..

The control of vertical mobility of conveyer bridges is done to check that the height difference between the supports of a bridge does not exceed the specified safety licnit. The detailed surveys of coQveyer bridges are carried out for determining their deformations in order to prevent the appearance of dangerous deformation. The mine surveyor has to control periodically the spacings between the axes of the facing and dumping supports. 10. Survey Work in Open-Cast Mining 265 Fig.31) is fixed at the upper and lower horizontal belts of the bridge. the ordinates from the axial lines to the centres of units of metal structures are measured by a millimetregraduated rule or ordinatometer arranged perpendicular to the collimation axis of the .dumping console truss console truss. The minesurvey servicing of conveyer bridges consists in checking the plan position and gradients of the railway tracks of bridges and controlling the horizontal. 4-dumping ements are inadmissible. 3-middle truss. The theodolite traverses should always be connected to the points of a reference net.lements of conveyer bridges in order to preserve their strength. theodolite traverses are run along or near the track axes on the working berms of benches on which the bridge supports are moving. In each profile. A series of profile lines roughly perpendicular to the mining front are also laid out in a quarry. the track gradient is controlled by geometric levelling.10.An increase or decrease of this spacing beyond the specified limits is however inadmissible. 5. For this purpose. 10. A theodolite is then set up at the edge of the upper belt above a point 19-b'. By the results of field measurements. The axial line bb' (Fig. In order to determine the lateral deformations of the bridge truss. 2-facing support. This work requires the stoppage of a bridge for a long time. The plan position of tracks is controlled by theodolite surveying with measuring the spacings between the rail lines by a steel tape. In these surveys. This necessitates additional survey observations on the trusses and other e. points are marked at the intersections of beam axes in each unit of the metal structure of a bridge.6. the distances from the sides of the theodolite traverse to the nearest rail are measured by the method of perpendiculars and recalculated into the distances to the support axes.30 Conveyer bridge: I-facing support. The control of horizontal mobility is carried out in view of the fact that the distance between the facing and dumping supports of a conveyer bridge can be increased or decreased depending on the varying geometry of faces. vertical and angular mobility of a bridge. the positions of support axes are marked on the mine-surveying plan which serves as the basis for correcting the positions of tracks and supports of a conveyer bridge. and the directions onto a point lI-b (longitudinal axis of the belt) and points 19-a' and 19-c' are determined.

and the actual positions of structures are marked on it. the calculations of volumes should be carried out by the results of ground stereophotogrammetric surveys or by weighing the mined rock and considering its density. 10. The horizontal surveying of the lower belt of the main truss is carried out by the method of ordinates from the sides of a theodolite traverse run on side ladders along the truss. the calculations of volumes can only be done by the results of weighing of the mined rock (of the known density). 2.c c ~~~=a ---b bridge for detailed surveys Fig. excavators. Calculations of Volumes of Extracted Overburden Rock and Mineral in Quarries In mine surveying.31 Fixation of axial lines of conveyer theodolite. etc.7. The choice of the best calculation method depends on the mining technology and the surveying method employed. Surveying Top cho a' ***~~1918171615141312 in Ouarries ~ A --c 1110 9 876 54 3210111a Axis b' -b c' Bottom a. 10. 12All 10 chord 9876543210111111 ~. the distances in cross sections to the extreme points of the belt are determined. 10. If rocks are loosened by multirow blasting and the loosened rock is later loaded by several excavators. 3.19181716151413 . On some kinds of loose deposits. The results thus obtained are used for plotting the actual state of the bridge on the design plan and listing the deformations of all units of the upper belt of the main truss. I. . Similarly. In such casesit is recommended to employ the ground stereophotogrammetric surveymg. A plan of the lower belt is plotted by the results of a survey.266 Ch. the worked-out area has an irregular shape. the volumes of extracted mineral and overburden rock are calculated by the main plans of mining work levels. In open-cast mining of loose rocks by conveyer bridges. so that tacheometry cannot ensure the specified accuracy. In the extraction of igneous and hard ro9ks with preliminary loosening to the width of one excavator cut. ~ . The distances between the points along the collimation axis of the theodolite are measured by a controlled-tension steel tape. Measurements are made by controlled-tension steel tapes with an accuracy to a millimetre. and the required accuracy in calculations of the volumes of excavator cuts can be ensured by any method of surveying. since other methods are insufficiently accurate. including tacheometry. The determination of volumes by the results of weighing of the mined rock (operative accounting) has a number of essential advantages: (a) the method offers the highest accuracy and can be used with all technological schemes of mining. 4. the work- ed-out area has a more or less regular shape.

it may be taken that cry = 1%. m3. following the contours of sections clockwise and counterclockwise. Planimetry is carried out twice. etc. The volumes of extracted and blasted overburden rock and mineral can be calculated by the method of arithmetic mean. The ~thod of arithmetic mean is recommended for cases when the mining technology permits the determination of the volumes of the mined rock (recalculated to the undisturbed rock) directly by the results of bench surveying.10. and hm is the mean depth of a cut.23) are established by an instruction so that the error ay is not greater than IO%. %. The mean depth of a cut can be found by the formula: hm= 1: 2u/nu-1: 2l/nl where 1: 2uand 1: 21are the sums of elevations respectively at the upper and lower bench crests and nu and nl are the numbers of staff points on these crests. horizontal and vertical sections.23) is applicable for volumes from 20000 m3 to 2000000 m3. 1. and hm is the mean depth of a cut. can be calculated by the formula: p cry p = 1500/JV (10. Calculations of Volumes of Rock and Mineral 267 (b) it provides timely information on the volumes of mining and stripping work even for individual mining teams and for any time interval. the method of surveying and calculatiO.24) is applicable for volumes ranging from 45000 m3 to 2200000 m3. p %. The volume of a block is calculated in that case by the formula: v= Shm where S is the area of the base of a figure or section. or by the formula: V=~S!h2 m where V is the volume of the extracted rock (recalculated to the undisturbed rock). the method of surveying and volume calculation and the determination of the loosening factor . m3. Formula (10. volumetric measuring grid. The discrepancy between the two measurements should not exceed 3% for areas up to 15 cm2 or 2% for larger ones. The method of horizontal sections is advisable in cases when bench crests and intermediate sections are indicated on the plan of mining workings.24) where V is the volume of the extracted (blasted) rock recalculated to that of the undisturbed rock. m. provided that the 'errors in their determination do not exceed the following permissible values. for smaller volumes. can be found by the formula: where Su and SI are the cross-sectional areas at the upper and lower bench crests. the permissible error cry. For larger volumes. For greater volumes.5% p and for volumes smaller than 45000 m3. it is taken that cry = 1.. 2. In this method. m. and (c) it is possible to control efficiently how fully the transport vehicles are loaded. Formula (10. m2. If the volumes of the extracted (blasted) overburden rock and mineral are determined in the loosened state and recalculated to the volume of the undisturbed rock (using the loosening factor). This is usually done by stereophotogrammetric surveying. If the volume of the extracted overburden (mineral) is found directly by surveying of benches. The areas of horizontal sections are measured by a planimeter or measuring grid or determined analytically. Large areas and sections of a regular shape cry p = 2200/JV (10.7. the permissible error cry. The final result is taken as the arithmetic mean of the two measurements.n of volumes is established by an instruction so that the error cry is not p greater than 10%. m2. the total volume is calculated as the sum of volumes of individual horizontal layers.

n is the number of baseswithin the boundaries of the contour being measured.. m. \ volumes of blasted rock if this is shown on a plan in projections with numerical marks or in cases when a cut has intricate contours and surface... In the method of vertical sections. Recalculation from the volume of loosened rock to that of undisturbed rock is done by dividing the measured volume by a loosening factor.-1 are the areas of intermediate sections. and h is the thickness of the layer of extracted (blasted) rock in the centre of each grid base. 10.1/1000. various methods can be used for the calculations of volumes. the a muck can be calculated by the method of vertical sections..1.-1 l2 + -.32) is usually employed for calculating the volumes of blasted rock surveyed by tacheometric methods. m2. m2. m. m2.!:. S are the areas of intermediate sections.. The following formulae are used in calculations: (I) in cases when spacings between the section planes are different: SI + S2l v. S2' S3' . and n is the number of sections. (2) "in case of equal spacings between the ) \ .L:» where s 1 and S. S. 10. In surveying of undisturbed rock. 1 S2 + S3 2 S. The method of vertical sections (Fig. are the cross-sectional areas at the boundaries of an extracted cut (block).12. plans on a scale 1/2000 can be used. The method of volumetric measuring grid is recommended for the calculations of the where S is the area of the grid base.. Analytical determination of areas is also possible. If surveying is done by ground stereophotogrammetry.on +Sn. byIn the surveys of mined rock involumes pile a tacheometric method. Surveying in Quarries . area measurements should be done plans plotted on a scale not smaller than .268 2 Ch.. With a tacheometric survey which determines the positions of bench crests. 13' . The choice of a method for volume calculation depends on the shape of the worked-out area and muck pile. as well as on the method of surveying. 2 where I is the spacing between the sections.32 Determining mineral reserves by vertical sections can be divided into simple geometrical figures whose elements are measured by a rnillimetre-graduated rule.-1 are the spacings between the sections. m 2. if the muck pile is surveyed by stereophotogrammetry. . areas can be determined by analytical or graphoanalytical methods. and 11. areas are measured by a planimeter. the method of horizontal sections is preferable. With tacheometric surveys carried out once a month.-2 I + sLh. The volume of the rock in this method is found by the formula: n v Fig. ~: ~\ s n . The spacings between the sections should be not greater than the distances between the staff points. 10.Q. the method of vertical and that of horizontal sections are applicable. rock volumes can be calculated by the method of horizontal or that of vertical sections. In the former case..\ '\. If calculations are done once a quarter of a year. -/\\\1:. ~ln-l tlU.I.

.7h)L + where h is the mean height of a slope and L is the length of a block. A complex of measures aimed at the restoration of land on the territories abandoned on opell-cast mining is called land reclamalion. the mean loosening factor is calculated by the formula: k. 10./k. for blocks exploded onto a cleared-up slope. freed after . If blasting is done onto an uncleared slope. The loosening factors for the subsequent cuts are determined by considering the factor for the first cut.n where ~ is the volume of a block in the loosened state and ~n is the volume of undisturbed rock in a block. k. / k" 1 k'1 -kl (P' + pI') + k. V~. = V. the volume of undisturbed rock in the blasted block should be summed with the volume of the blasted rock left on the slope from the previous blasting. Reclamation of Land The problem of the restoration of land areas spoiled by opell-cast mining of mineral deposits is of crucial importance. is the mean loosening factor of the rock. it is possible to calculate the volume of that cut and the mass of rock in it and in the remaining portion of the blasted rock. the mean loosening factor can be found by the formula: k. is the loosening factor of the rock in the fJ. since the loosening factor of rock may vary within rather wide limits (its average variation may attain 8% or even more). = v. By the resl. the mean loosening factor of the block. which are taken equal numerically to the mean areas of vertical sections in the first and subsequent cuts. + V~. biological and construction techmques. Reclamation of Land 269 The calculations of the volume of a muck pile produced by multirow blasting can involve certain difficulties. a correction (with a plus sign) for the generalization of the slope shape is introduced: AV= (O. = ~/V' where J-. Land reclamation can be carried out by engineering. and p' and p" are the weights of the loosening factors. is the volume of the undisturbed rock in the block and V~l is the volume of the blasted rock remained from the previous blasting. In such cases. The volumes of subsequent cuts are calculated without this correction.llts of surveying before and after the extraction of the first excavator cut. the loosening factor of this rock is taken such as adopted for the calculations of the volumes of the last extracted cuts. which should be determined experimentally.. -11 p where k7 is the loosening factor of the second and subsequent cuts in a block. In the calculation of the volume of the first cut of a block. The volume of the undisturbed rock in the first cut can be found by the formula: V~.P' . k.8. Thus. recalculated to the volume of the undisturbed rock). = ~/V. and the areas of corresponding vertical sections of the first cut and the remaining portion of the block: V" un = V" . is the mean loosening factor for the first cut. A mining enterprise should carry ellgin" eering reclamation which consists in the preparation of land territories.the calculations of blasted rock and the determination of a loosening factor should be carried out separately for each block before and after blasting. (here v. is the volume of rock of the first cut in the loosened state and k.O3h3 O.8. where V.fstcut.10.is the volume of the loosened rock.

and these points should lie at distan:. . determine the reserves. control of the Mining of Placer Deposits mining work and of the completeness of sand Placer deposits with the bedding depth up extraction. before the beginning of the mining work and open-castmining. Sur. The elements of layout work are determined graphically on plans plotted on a scale 1/1000 or 1/2000. access roads. for instance. The minesurveying service of a mining enterprise participates in the engineering reclamation of land.270 Ch. In open-cast mining of placer deposits. chalking of acid soils (when required).5ces not more than 150-200 m from exploring 1. hydraulic sections. The main objects of mine-survey servicing in open-cast mining of placer deposits are as follows: the determination of the volumes of 10. by dredges. The surface of polygons is levelled and mining workings. At least Surface levelling by a rectangular network three or four permanent points should be is used for surveying of polygons on perprovided per kilometre of the length of a mafrost placers which are worked out layerdeposit.mainly employed in open-cast mining of veying nets are developed according to the placer deposits: surface levelling by a rectanrequirements for land surveys.berms.3 m in valleys with a weakly expressed thalweg (valley floor) or to 0. 10.losses and diluperiod of detailed prospecting so as to pro. chemical melioration of the soil composition. as a rule. Open-cast workings for.9. for biological or construction cultivation. Valley placers are often mined rock. and working platforms scraper complexes or excavators) are called for excavating machines. The positions of workings relative to the surveying net points should be determined on the plan with an accuracy not worse than 1. waste dumps.5 of the vertical contour interval in those with a pronounced thalweg. ground stereophotogrammea surveying net should be established beyond try.polygons. Survey Work in Open-Cast the mining work performed. make the surveys of polygons if their depth is substantially smaller pqlygons or pits and determine the volumes than the width.5 m. and surveys by profile lines. net. construction of drainage networks. by ors fix on the ground the design contours of open-cast mining.6 m. and covering the levelled surface with a layer of fertile soil. control the thickness of stripped and undisturbed turfs and the depth of mining. In the volumes of stripped and transferred sands regions not covered by a national reference and of mined and washed sands.tion of sands. and compile the documents on vide basis for surveys on a scale 1/2000. The points of gular network. Elevation marks should be determined with an accuracy to 0. For these purposes. Surveying in Quarries The design position of workings on the terrain is usually determined by the polar method from control points or by tape measurements from the nearest exploring workings whose mouths are shown on the plans of mining workings. mine surveyto 15 m are worked out.wise with an average thickness of layers 0. Mine surveyors have to observe that the upper soil layer is removed properly from the territory of future quarries and dumps. the contours of a placer deposit. to control the levelling of worked-out areas and dumps and the covering of prepared areas with fertile soil. deep and narrow workings of stripped turfs and washed sands and mined are called pits. complement mine-surveying plans and secreference nets are usually developed at the tions. tacheometry. levelling of dumps. Engineering reclamation includes the following operations: preservation of the upper (vegetable) soil layer. individual reference nets can be estabThe following methods of surveying are lished by triangulation or trigonometry. med by mechanization means (bulldozer.

echo Surveying of dredge pits can be performed sounder or asdic (sonar). This of each section are measured. e. the line of a lower crest is have found use for surveying of pits and also fixed upon determining the combination of of polygons which are deepened by more points of the largest depths at the foot of a than 1. and the dilution of the mineral.rocks quite resistant to caving. determined by the position of the of bedding of loose deposits. the posit is being mined by excavators or hyd. position of the upper crest of a facing slope. roughly after every 10 m of The depth of digging can be measured by a dredge advancement. so that the sentially in surveying of dredge faces and pits. after which transverse vertical slope angle. measurements should not exceed 0. surveyed.by averaging the measured face depths (depth ned by the accuracy of measurement of the of digging plus the height of freeboard) or by geometric parameters of dredge pits (poly. area of at least 25 000 m2 can be photoTacheometric surveying has found appligraphed from a single photographic base. lead-and-line. mechanical depth gauge. the upper The position of the lower crest is drawn on and lower crests of the side slopes of a pit are the plans of the mining work relative to that first surveyed and plotted on the plan of the of the upper crest considering the specified mining work. In the method of profile lines. The mean depth of a dredge face is found and losses.9. and a sketch of method is applicable only in rare caseswhen measurements . when a placer de. as raulic machines actually to the entire depth a rule. i. Tacheometry and method of profile lines In this method. cation in all main regions of dredging work.1 m. The error in depth by one of the following methods. Survey Work in Open-Cast Mining of Placer Deposits 271 at the end of each planned period. face retains its initial configuration during the determination of the volume of mined rock entire period between measurements. i. e. each third or fifth face should be contour and the bottom of the dredge pit. For instance. are the same as elsewhere.is drawn.10. surveying is done .pickets or control points are measured by ed for surveying of large polygons when an tapes. tacheometric are parallel to one another are laid out across surveying is used only for determining the the strike of a pit. With the linear method.averaging the differences of elevation marks gons). the flanks of a dredge pit are composed of The survey work in dredging consists es. Range lines which On some placer deposits. The control. With depths more than 2 m.positions of the crests of the facing slope is. for dredges of moderate of the polygon surface in the upper crest capacity. The periodicity of face surveying is determi. distances between the surveyed points and Ground stereophotogrammetry is employ. the depths in the equidistant points racteristics of loose placer deposits. The by the points of the upper unflooded crests of contours of polygons and sections at the slopes in a polygon with a smooth surface upper and lower crest are usually surveyed by relief where there is the required number of the polar method from the points of survey surveying net points and control points.facing slope. which is determined experimensections are marked with intervals of tally for different depths and lithologic cha20-25 m. The techniques centre of the lower bucket drum as it moves of tacheometric surveying on placer deposits over the facing platform.5 m monthly.

The same reasoning is true of the overlying layers C2' C3' etc. 11. J. The mass of a portion C 1 of the roof above the worked-out space (Fig. already in the lSth century.Chapter Rock Disturbance of Surface Eleven and Protection Structures 11. Thus. Introductory Notes Underground voids and cavities left on mineral extraction can impair the stability of enclosing rock and result in the disturbance (displacements) of the rock massif and the subsidence of the Earth's surface. the motion of the same portion (layer) C 1 above the worked-out space (i. displacement of the roof) will take place only under the effect of the normal component. Toilliez expressed an idea that rock layers above a stopiIig space destroyed along the planes perpendicular to the bedding plane. where a is the = angle of dip of a seam. denoted by Q. The scientific studies of the process of rock disturbance under the effect of underground workings were started in the first half of the 19th century when hypotheses were proposed to explain the laws of rock displacement. Later.1. e. these ideas were generalized into a hypothesis which was called the 'rule of normals' and reduced to the following. In 1838.1 Scheme explaining the 'rule nonnal . colliery owners were obliged by the local law to mine coal at depths not less than 100 m in order to minimize the harmful effect of rock disturbance on municipal buildings. Examples of destruction of underground and surface structures under the effect of rock disturbance are quite numerous. 11. Rock displacements attracted miners' attention from the earliest times. but he supposed that displacement took place due to the fracture in dangerous sections where the Fig. In Liege (Belgium). This idea was utilized by Gonot of Belgium for explaining the destruction of buildings in Liege. Assuming that the force T is counterbalanced by the reaction of the rock under the worked-out space. von Sparre developed further the hypothesis of normals.1). In 1867. It then follows that the fracture of the roof rock layers above the worked-out space should occur at the upper and lower boundary of the stoping working and propagate along the normals to the bedding plane. has two pressure components: N which is normal to the bedding plane and T which is directed along that plane. the displacement angles in this case are 13 90° -a and y = 90° + a.

Introductory Notes 273 bending moment was at the maximum.5 70 68 67 64 In his experiments. with the depth of the mining work equal to 200 m (where m is the thickness of a seam) the extraction of a seam should have no effect on the surface.3 Scheme to Rziha's hypothesis .73 ° 10 15 20 24 27 31 40 71 70. Goodwin. F. Rziha suggested the hypothesis of rock displacement according to which the caving surface of a roof could be likened to a paraboloid (Fig. D is the mass of the rock layer. As caving proceeds. In 1885. Hausse proposed another hypothesis of rock displacement according to which the mechanical properties of rocks and their alternation played an essential part in the process. In 1882.2).. as it were. 11. Thus. 0 Displacement angle13.3). this is due to filling of the dome space by caved-in rock. Thus.11. but along the lines somewhere between the normals and verticals. Considering rock layers as beams built in into the rock massif at both ends. the loosening factor of the caved-in rock is equal to 1/200. R. In 1864. and a is the angle of dip of a seam. the displacement angle 'Y was always equal to 83-85°. Fayol published a work which confirmed Rziha's hypothesis. In 1895-97. 11. J. from the rock and that in the upper section should pass through the roof rock (Fig. Sparre derived the formula for the length of a span along which the displacement (fracture) of a rock layer should occur: 1= J2kd/D cos a where 1 is the length of a span. the dangerous section in the lower portion of the roof should protrude. H. the volume of the rock involved into displacement increases. Sparre supposed also that rock displacement should occur not along the normals to a seam. Caving (displacement) comes to an end when the angle a of the lines 18-1270 confining the subsidence zone relative to the horizontal becomes equal to the angle of repose of 1he rock.1. the dome retains its stability even when its end supports have collapsed. By Fayol's reckoning. According to Fayol. d is the thickness of the rock layer. By Fayol's assumption. 11. carried out instrumental observations of SUfface subsidence on coal fields and determined the displacement angles ~ depending on the angle of dip a: Angle of dip a. . k is the bending strength of rock. He also emphasized the effect of Fig. rock displacement occurs by the caving mode and involves a zone having the shape of a cupola (dome). a British scientist.

e. the studies of rock sub- sidence have been carried out extensively and on a wider scope and have included the problems of the pressure of rocks and filling materials. Further.in which rock is displaced by caving and bending. dcef. At the initial period when a stope working still has not been advanced far from the rock massif. the continuity of rock layers is disturbed.4).4 Scheme depicting b Hausse's hypothesis Fig. upon driving a working) is determined by initial stress fields. The thickness of the cave-in zone was found to be equal to (30-60) m. laws of rock pressure in ore deposits. the displacement boundary is a line coincident with the bisector of an angle between the normal to a seam and the vertical. the process of rock displacement can be represented as follows (Fig.274 Ch Rock Disturbance and Protection of Structures a Fig. Goldreich was one of the first to refer to the horizontal displacements of rocks. 11. and its bending is insignificant. where m is the thickness of the mined seam. In recent time. A zone abdc forms immediately above the worked-out space.5). 11.5 Scheme of bisector rule working systems on the pattern of rock displacement. A large contribution to the advancement of the theory of rock displacement was made by A. where only the bending of rock layers is observed. it was proposed to determine the angles of displacement by considering the angle of repose e = 45° + p/2 where p is the angle of repose. 11. As however the worked-out space is widened. fissures form in the rock. the amount and rate of roof bending increase. roof layers cave in into the worked-out space. 11. For tertiary rocks. and finally. the roof of a deposit is in a relatively stable state. He came to a conclusion that the fault fissures in rocks of the coal age should have directions governed by the bisector rule (Fig. there is another zone.2. Recent investigations of the mechanism of such dangerous effects as rock. With an increase of the dimensions of the . coal and gas bursts carried out in a number of countries have provided the basis for developing effective measures to prevent the dynamic effects of rock pressure. Goldreich in 1913 when he published a monograph based on his instrumental observations of rock subsidence. i. specific effects of rock pressure in mines with powered supports. According to Hausse. 11. General on Rock Data Disturbance The stressed state that appears after the formation of a cavity in the rock massif (say. The magnitude and distribution of stressesdepend substantially on the shape of workings. Above that zone. they are stratified.

hangs up. (a) . and the angle of usually appears as a plate. of a stope working. the strength of the roof rock.above seam outcrops. .or trough-like dip of the seam.. At a certain ratio of the dimensions of form both at the surface and in the rock the worked-out space and the depth of the mass. \ form in the rock massif near the boundaries . and rock worked-out space.through bending takes place without fissuring of the rock. It is assumed conventionally that the mining work. The zone of bearing pressure III which can --~~-~1-~=~7 . or basin. though the bonds between the individual blocks remain undisturbed. . the zone of rock defor. gravitational state. It working system employed. the following zones of In working of thick steeply dipping coal rock deformation around a stope working seams. the rock at the )ying wall often slides can be distinguished (Fig.11. . the called a displacement trough. (b) with steep dipping of seam the overburden rock depend on the extent of rock hanging at the boundaries of workings. The bend zone II which can be observed both in the overlying roof and underlying bedrock.3. Rock Displacement tegrate into blocks. The thickness of the cave-in zone depends mainly on the ratio of thicknesses of An area of the ground surface affected by rock layers in the roof and seam of extracted the displacement from the mining work is mineral. and its weight is redistributed onto the enclosing rock of the working. In the general case. 11.3.or four-fold thickness of the seam. Rock deformations in this zone occur by the separation of the bent layer into strata. disin11. the depth of the mining work. the displacement zone reaches stressed state in this zone is close to the the Earth's surface. rock layers separate from the massif.6 Pattern of rock displacement around and pattern of the bearing pressure zone in stope working: (a) with gently dipping bedding. and fall into the workedParameters out space. the thickness of the cave-in zone along the normal to a seam in most coal basins does not exceed three.properties. The size Fig. mations. 11. Two portions are distinguished in the bend zone: a fissured portion just above the zone of complete caving and the portion above it where (b) Fall. overlying rock massif becomes unsupported. becomes larThe zone of total displacementIV which can ger. Bearing pressure appears in places near a driven working where the ~('. mediately at the worked-out space. Rock Displacement Parameters 275 According to natural observations. (seldom cup-shaped) depression of the IS. Here.6): down and forms fall-throughs on the surface The cave-in zone I which is formed im. or displacement zone.

Displacement angles are determined from the conditions of complete underworking. by y (Fig. The displacements and deformations of the Earth's surface within a trough are distributed non-uniformly. The highest deformations of the Earth's surface which still cause no damage to surface structures are called the critical.7 Displacement angles in section across strike: (a) with gently dipping bedding. Of particular interest are the vertical sections through a displacement trough in which the trough ends are at the farthest distance from the boundaries of a working. It is distinguished between the displacement angles in bedrocks and sedimentary rocks.8 strike Displacement angles in section on .Ch. This is understood as the state of the trough bottom in which further expansion of the area being worked out does not increase the displacement in this portion of the trough.2 x 10-3 for curvature. 11. or ultimate safe. experience shows however that for the majority of structures the following levels of critical deformations can be taken: 4 x 10-3 for inclination. 11. In sections on the strike. Their values for coal basins and principal ore deposits are determined by instrumental observations. Displacement angles depend on the structure of deposits and the physico-mechanical properties of rocks and are different for various deposits. A portion of the displa. (b) with steeply dipping seam angles in the hanging wall at the lower boundary of the worked-out space are denoted by ~ and at the upper boundary. 0.For sedimentary rocks. Rock Disturbance and Protection (a) of Structures Earth's surface.For steeply dipping bedding. Not all deformations appearing on surface subsidence are dangerous for the objects being underworked. and 2 x 10-3 for expansion. Though the critical deformations for various structures are different. cement trough where the deformations of the ground are such that can cause damage to surface structures is called the hazardous displacement zone. 11. and ~01) are the angles which are exterior with respect to the worked-out space and formed on complete underworking in the main vertical sections of a displacement trough by a horizontal line and by lines connecting the boundaries of the worked-out space with the Fig.8). in sections across the strike. Hazardous displacement zones are defined on the Earth's surface by using displacement angles which are meant as the exterior angles relative to the worked-out space. the displacement angles are taken to be the same at both sides of the worked-out space and denoted by O (Fig. 11.. For bedrocks.7b).formed in the main vertical sections of the displacement trough on and across the strike by horizontal lines and by lines connecting the boundaries of the worked-out space with the boundaries of critical surface deformations. 11. 11.7a). the displacement Fig. deformations of surface. the dangerous zone is determined from the lower boundary of the worked-out space by the displacement angle ~ in the hanging wall and by the angle ~1 in the lying wall (Fig. These sections usually pass through the centre of a trough on and across the strike and are called the main sections of a displacement trough. the displacement angles are the same in all three ~irections and denoted by <p. Boundary angles (~O' Yo' 00.

In practice.9 Boundary angles for seams: (a) gently dipping ((J-angle of maximum subsidence). dipping angle of seams. The area of complete underworking is determined by means of angles of total displacement.9) and those in sections on the strike (00). Boundary angles depend substantially on the depth of the mining work.3. and the latter is then considered to be under the conditions of complete underworking. Boundary angles are used in preliminary calculations of displacements and deformations of the Earth's surface.9a) which is called the angle of maximum subsidence. (a) Rock Displacement ibt Parameters 277 Fig. 11. ~I ~I 0/1 \1 Fig. and. i.5 x 10-3. which are formed in the vertical main sections of a displacement trough by the seam lines and the lines connecting the boundaries of the worked-out space with the boundaries of the flat bottom of the trough. Otherwise. e. It is distinguished between the boundary angles in sections across the strike ([30' [301' and y ° in Fig. Further expansion of the working will not increase the subsidence area.11. 11. "' 3 at both sides of the worked-out space. the Earth's surface may subside to the same depth (maximum for the given conditions) over a large area.1. If the dimensions of the worked-out space are large relative to the bedding depth. With the horizontal bedding of a seam. 11. the boundaries of a displacement trough are defined by points with a subsidence of 15 mm or relative horizontal tensile deformations 0. (b) steep boundary points.10) and those in sections on the strike. underworking is incomplete. i. the interior angles relative to the worked-out space. the points on the Earth's surface in which subsidence does not exceedthe mean error of levelling.10 Complete underworking angles . the centre of a displacement trough lies above the middle of the worked-out space. It is distinguished between the angles of complete underworking in sections across the strike: "' 1 at the dipping end and". 11. rock density.it is shifted from the middle by an angle e (Fig. 11. This angle is measured at the dipping end of a seam in the vertical main section of the displacement trough across the strike and is formed by a horizontal line and the line connecting the middle of the working with the point on the surface having the maximum subsidence or with the middle of a plate-shaped displacement trough. 2 at the rising end of the worked-out space (Fig. e. With dipping seams. .

that are formed in the vertical main sections of the displacement trough by a horizontal line and the lines connecting the boundaries of the worked-out space with the nearest surface fissures at the trough edges (Fig. (b) and and tensile horizontal Fig. Vertical deformations may arise due to non-uniform subsidence and are characterized by inclination. I. An important characteristic of underworking is the ratio of the length of a longwall D to the depth of a mine H at which complete underworking occurs.:?. 11. respectively.12a. It is taken that complete underworking takes place at nl :. 11. e. The portion of the displacement trough in which fissures are observed is delineated by rupture angles (caving angles). e.278 Ch.:?. 110' and that in incomplete underworking. and radius of curvature.11 Rupture angles the strike (13" and y") and those in sections on the strike (0"). the exterior angles relative to the worked-out space. i. Surface subsidence (11). In many cases. 2. 11. Rock Disturbance and Protection of Structures The process of rock displacement is often characterized by the coefficient of underworking which is understood as the ratio of the length of a stope working to the minimal length required for complete underworking of the Earth's surface in the given direction. Denoting. 11m. points I. the coefficient of underworking on the dip will be nl = Dl/Dol and that on the strike. n2 = D2/Do2. 3 are bench marks on the surface before under- . i. the actual dimensions of a working on the dip and on the strike by Dl and D2 and the minimal dimensions for complete underworking by DOl and Do2. 11.ll. curvature. and 1 n2:. rock displacement causes fissures in the trough.12 Deformations: (c) r~spectively compressive deformations (a) vertical.ll). It is distinguished between the maximum subsidence in complete underworking. Referring to Fig. The coefficients of underworking can be determined along the dipping line and on the strike of a seam. the vertical component of the displacement vector. has been studied much more thoroughly than other parameters. It is distinguished between the rupture angles in sections across (a) 1 Ib) \=::7 A 8 82 ' \ \ AI jc) ~ 81 --~C 8 \ " A "\\ c A ~~ 81 Fig.

3. usually continues to the moment when a mine is advanced under a particular observation point and can be characterized by the subsidence rate from tenths of a millimetre to 1-1. the point A will be shifted to A1 and the point B. that during which deformation initiates. The active stage is the period in which the rate of subsidence exceeds 50 mm/month on gently dipping seams or 30 mm/month on steep ones. It is also clear that AlBl is the length of the section AB after surface deformation. 3' are the same points after underworking. Let us analyse the combined motion of two surface points. As a mine face approaches. A and B (Fig. vectors AA 1 and BB 1 will be directed as in Fig. The duration of the subsidence process mainly depends on the depth of the mining work.12b). The duration of the displacement process may be of interest mainly when deciding on the possibilities of the construction of buildings on an underworked area. Finally. and attenuating. active. the paths of points deviate from the vertical towards the face. The relative horizontal deformation will be: E --AB-AB AB- AlBl CB2 -AB Thus. The inclination of an interval on the surface is determined relative to the initial position of that interval. This non-uniform subsidence gives rise to another kind of vertical deformation. It is agreed to distinguish three stages of surface subsidence: the initial. the inclination of a section 2-3 after underworking is expressed by an angle i2-3. As a result of displacement. The path of the motion of surface points and the distribution of displacements and deformations within a displacement trough obey definite regularities. 11. and the physicomechanical properties of rocks. curvature is the ratio of the difference of inclinations of two adjacent sections to the half-sum of the lengths of these sections. In practice. and ~1' ~2' ~3 are the horizontal displacements of respective bench marks. inclination is measured as the difference of subsidences of extreme points of a section related to the initial length of the section: -112 '2-3 = 113 4-3 The inclinations of adjacent sections in a displacement trough are in most cases different. 111'112'113are the subsidencesof respective bench marks. In the case of the compression of a section AB. curvature. their paths deviate towards the advancing face. The displacement process is considered to be finished at that day of observations after which the total subsidence during six months does not exceed 30 mm. Let a line parallel and equal to the vector AA 1 be drawn through the point B.12b and in the case of tension. 2'. Non-uniform subsidence of the surface can be characterized by the difference of inclination angles of two adjacent sections: k2 = i2-3 -il-2 11-2/2 + 12-3/2 i. it is essential . The radius of curvature is the inverse of curvature: R = l/k Horizontal deformation is one of the most important characteristics of surface subsidence. After the face has passed beneath the points. ll. i. Rock Displacement Parameters 279 working and J'. 11-2' 12-3 are the distances between the points before underworking. as the face has been moved sufficiently far. The initial stage. horizontal deformation (tensile or compressive) is the elongation or contraction of the initial length of a section related to this length.12c. e. as in Fig. For instance. 11.5 mm per day. When solving problems associatedwith the protection of surface structures. the paths of points become perfectly vertical. thickness of seams. e.11. to B1.

Physico-mechanical properties of rocks and bedding conditions. £1. The points E and El are the inflection points of a subsidence curve. and zero horizontal deformation are confined. such as clay shales. With an increase in the angle of dip of seams. With horizontal (flat) seams. appears sharply on the surface. promote plastic deformations. and maxifuum elongation and contraction. with the mining work carried out at a depth of 40-50 m.13a. Rock Disturbance and Protection of Structures ~ Fig. 11. The curves of curvature are similar to the curves of horizontal deformations. maximum curvature. so that rock displacement occurs uniformly and smoothly following the advancement of a mine face. the patterns of these curves are different. in addition to boundary points A and B. For instance. A typical example is the Moscow district coal basin where. Plastic rocks. the surface subsides slowly and does not cause large damage to surface structures. 2horizontal displacements. They are the points to which the maximum inclination. The maximum tension is observed roughly amid between the inflection points and trough boundary.horizontal deformations The last point is the point of the maximum subsidence. and 0. With horizontal and gently dipping seams. with loose-grained rocks having a low cohesion. 11. the points of essential importance. the curves of inclinations usually follow the pattern of the curves of horizontal displacements. maximum inclination. 11. With alternating hard and soft rock strata in . 3. The curves of the distribution of surface deformations on a gently dipping seam in a section across the strike are illustrated in Fig.280 Ch. whereas the points E and El become asymmetrical relative to O and O 1.13b). The asymmetry of curves increases further with an increasing angle of dip of seams. It is usually sufficient to analyse the distribution of the following elements in a trough: the maximum values of the horizontal and vertical components of motion. subsidence proceeds rapidly. and often leads to the formation of ledge-shaped fissures. maximum deformations in the main sections of the trough on and across the strike. The state of rocks is largely responsible for the pattern of displacement. are also points E.13 Distribution of surface displacements and deformations: 1-vertical displacements. and maximum contraction. Factors Responsible for Rock Displacement to know the distribution of displacements and deformations within a displacement trough. The structure of a deposit can influence substantially the pattern of displacement. maximum displacement. 11.4. With an inclined bedding of seams (Fig. ll. the roof subsidence becomes noticeable on the surface already in 2 or 3 hours. minimum horizontal displacement.a curve 1 becomes more asymmetrical on the rise: the point of zero horizontal displacement does not coincide with the maximum subsidence point.

and the presence of moderate and large tectonic disturbances can lead to the appearance of concentrated deformations. can lead to the appearance of large rupture cracks on the surface.4. in the Donetsk coal basin. The sites for the construction of new objects should. reinforced joints. secondary subsidence can appear in the mine roof. as a rule. especially when quickly caving soft rocks lie immediately on the roof. Quicksands can complicate substantially the process of rock displacement. i. An increase in the angle of dip of a deposit involves a change in the position of a displacement trough relative to the worked-out space. which can result in surface subsidence far ahead of the working face. cast-insitu concrete foundations. Underworking of quicksands can involve large water losses. The construction of new objects on areas above old stope workings at depths of 20-80 m can only be started after preliminary geological examination to reveal empty cavities in the worked-out space. Poorly predictable cavings of these bands can develop an elevated rock pressure in stope workings and adjacent preparatory workings and sometimes are the cause of emergencies and rock bursts in mmes. The angle of dip of a deposit is among the critical factors governing the rock displacement process qualitatively and quantitatively. Cases have been recorded when quicksands occurring in the rock massif being underworked caused sharp flattening of displacement angles. substantial shear deformations in displaced rock are quite typical. sharp changes in the angle of dip. Depending on the thickness of seams and bedding depth. whereas the vertical component prevails in the rock displacement on flat seams. The pattern of displacement of the overlying rock is closely associated with the angle of dip. mining in gently dipping seams at a depth of 200-250 m causes no fissuring on the surface. With steep angles of dip. In all cases. The construction of residential buildings above the zones of preparatory mining workings at depths less than 10 m (where m is the height of a working) is possible only after geological examination for determining the non-caved portions of workings (voids). The depth of the mining work can influence substantially the magnitude of rock displa- . With steep bedding. It is found by observations that. folded bedding. For instance. be located on non-underworked territories or on those with favourable geological conditions. A steeply dipping structure of a deposit. the trough is shifted towards the strike. division of buildings into sections. continuous horizontal reinforced-concrete belts at the level of floor ceilings and partitions. these deformations may vary from a few millimetres to tens of centimetres and are quite dangerous for surface structures. structures above workings in seams with steeper angles of dip suffer from greater deformations. etc. whereas the mining work in steep seams. e. the main kind of deformation is bending of rock strata. since structures located on ledges then suffer from substantial deformations or even break down if these deformations exceed 20-30 cm. belts in the underground portions of buildings. whereas the layers (bands) of hard rock are overlying and hang up periodically over a large area.11. If a need arises to erect new objects in underworked zones which can cause the appearance of large deformations and ledges. protective measures should be taken to increase the strength and spatial rigidity of buildings and structures (reinforced-concrete. under similar conditions. provision of horizontal sliding joints.). detected voids should be filled in. the horizontal component of a displacement vector is predominant. With horizontal or gently dipping seams. even at a depth of 600 m. fissures and ledges in the surface. The distribution of hazardous zones in a trough is also associated with the angle of dip. Factors Responsible for Rock Displacement 281 a bed.

since directions from the edges to the centre of a they determine the shape of a displacement displacement trough.compaction of the disturbed rock massif. 11. which in turn leads to a loss of nifestation. The thickness of an extracted seam. The disturbance of the rock massif by old depth. Repeated underworking can largely eliminate hang-ups and produce better pronounced and involves higher horizontal and vertical deformations. (2) primary underworking decreases the ciable thickness of a seam.The activization of rock displacement may be pared with the depth of the mining work. creases the time of the displacement process. forms. In the contacts on the trough. of face advance. supports the overlying rock. the rock ceedsat a high rate. method of roof control. though this have demonstrated that the mining work in a is true only to a certain depth. the process of displacement is more derworking. and non-uniformity of surface subsidence. the zone of smooth sagging can disappear fully. Com.placement by increasing deformations. the rock displacement occurs in of a mining field are equally important. Numerous field observations dangerous for surface structures.rock displacement occurs so that points . and slopes often triggers landslides. which often causes the separation of sedi. The effect of the surface relief on rock the surface subsidence is backfilling of the displacement is appreciable only in moun. a cup-shaped trough changes to a mentary layers from the bed rock and the plate-like form. the due to the following factors: (I) voids formed due to hanging up of thickness of a seam has an inverse effect on overlying rock layers during primary unthe rock displacement: with a larger thickness. and the strength of a rock massif by opening old and rock then subsides by caving and with the forming new fissures. The filling decreases the tainous regions where underworking of steep size of voids. length rocks and the surface relief In bed rocks. and the completeness of move almost along the normals to the bedding mineral extraction. The effect of filling depends on the filling friction and the cohesion at slip planes.mensions. An increase in disturbed rock massif can activate rock disthe depth of the mining work always in. rates. With an appre.282 Ch. the amount of displacement decreases and the process becomes smoother and less stope workings. ly and only in the direct vicinity of the Working systems. rate . The rock displacement then results in loosening of material used. For that reason.ties. On seams of a small thickness. Continuous dry filling decreasthe rock massif and associated reduction of es the volume of voids only insufficiently the strength properties of rock (mainly of (sometimes only by 40 per cent). With an increase in the space di. Rock stability decelerates and decreasesto a certain extent depends substantially on the angle of internal the process of rock displacement. The best method of roof control to prevent destruction of underground objects. In sedimentary rocks of an appreciable capacity. The presence and thickness of sedimentary displacement are the height of levels. Hydraulic . since it takes place in the displacement occurs mostly by bending of rock massif with impaired strength properstrata. rock displacement on repeated underworking proformation of terraces.The principal parameters of working systems which can influence rock worked-out space. a cup-shaped trough usually rocKs are displaced in opposite directions. the of a mining field. Rock Disturbance and Protection of Structures cement and the time and rate of its ma.worked-out space. The height of a mining level and the length plane. With small dimensions of the workrise of a seam. The cave-in zone develops only weak. With an increase in the mining stability of slopes and landslide phenomena. sedimentary rocks and bed ed-out space.cohesion).

it should give the boundaries of the mining field. The graphical material of the design plan should contain: (a) a joint plan of the land surface and underground workings with profile lines of an observation station (on a scale 1/500. and the scheme of junction of control points. When working deposits with varying geological and mining conditions. 11. Observation Stations 283 filling and hardening filling produce the most favourable effect on surface subsidence. The profile line across the strike which is the closest to undisturbed (intact) rock is located at a distance not less than 0.85 Hm from a breakthrough or the point where the face is stopped (Hm is the mean depth of a working). If the longwall face has already moved from the breakthrough. the supposed position of the displacement zone.85Hm The next profile line is laid out at a distance of 50 m from the previous one. The place for establishing the observation station is chosen by considering the positions of mining workings and according to the particular object of observations. 1/1000 or 1/2000).5. two profile lines across the strike and one on the strike are laid out. the current state of the mining work and its further development. stations may be established as a network. Observation Stations An observation station on the surface is a system of fixed points (bench marks) placed in the ground or surface structures (Fig. Monitoring Rock Displacement. surface displacement occurs smoothly and uniformly. etc. tectonic disturbances. the surface subsidence may be as low as only 3 per cent of the seam thickness. With pillar and room-pillar working systems having roof caving where safety pillars are left at short intervals in the worked-out space. broken profile lines are permissible. The distance from the first control bench mark to the end of the working portion of the profile line should be not less than 50 m. wooded and densely built-up areas. so that even large structures settle down slowly and without large damage. In mountainous. Usually. the profile lines may be arranged diagonally to the strike.::?. say. and (c) the designs of control and working bench marks.11. With carefully packed hardening filling. In some cases. for monitoring underground gas pipelines. the distance from the latter to the profile line is found by the formula: d = Hm cotalloo :. (b) geological cross sections along the profile lines with indication of the workings.the overlying rock massif may be broken by the pillars into individual blocks. 0. An observation station is set up according to the design plan which includes an explanatory note and graphical appendices.5.l5a) is determined on vertical sections by the boundary displacement angles. working system. and . ll. especially with a large-Iength longwall and complete roof caving. Monitoring Rock Displacement. With continuous working systems. surface displacements are uniform and smooth. with fissures propagating up to the surface and causing largely uneven subsidence. In this case. When examining the underworking conditions for railroads.14). Two control bench marks are established on the continuations of the profile lines beyond the expected displacement zone. thickness of a seam. pipelines and other stretched objects. The length of profile lines drawn across the strike (Fig. An area on a flat country with few structures and away from haulage tracks and roads is a convenient place for an observation station. Bench marks are usually set up along the profile lines on and across the strike of a deposit. 11. the profile lines are laid out separately on the sections which differ from one another in the bedding elements.

they should be inexpensive and convenient for establishing and observations. A distance B = Hmcotan 00 is the~ laid off towards the undisturbed rock massif. The length of the profile line on the strike is found in the following way (Fig. ll. Working bench marks are set up along the profile lines at intervals decided by the depth of the mining work.75Hm. Bench marks for long-term . Bench marks should be designed so as to ensure their stability and preservation for a long period. towards the worked-out space. To find this point on the vertical section across the strike. The profile line on the strike passes through the point of the maximum subsidence of a displacement trough. 11. The point where the face will be supposedly stopped is projected onto the surface (point k). and a distance 1. Control bench marks are established by the same rules as for the profile lines across the strike. 50-100 m depending on local conditions. a line is drawn at an angle 9 from the middle of the worked-out space up to its intersection with the surface. in addition. Rock Disturbance and Protection of Structures the spacing between the control bench marks.Ch.15b).

5. For better preservation. mm (where L is the length of a level line. and secondary observations. Monitoring Rock Displacement. Observations at stations on the surface include tying (connecting) control bench marks to an existing reference net. Observations. The horizontal connection of control bench marks is carried out by triangulation or by closed theodolite traverses. It is permissible to run a hanging theodolite traverse. Observation Stations 285 (b) Fig.15 strike Determination of length of profile lines: (a) in section across the strike. The first observation at a station is recommended to be carried out in 7-10 days after setting up of bench marks (if these have been concreted) or in 2-3 days for bench marks driven into the ground.11. bench marks are often buried in the ground to a depth of 30-40 cm. 11. m). Upon connecting a station. primary observations on the bench marks in horizontal and vertical planes. provided that the angles and sides are measured in the forward and back direction. they can be made from wooden stakes or pegs driven into the soil. Primary observations are carried out twice. (b) in section on the and ordinary stations are made from metal tube sections. The vertical connection of control bench marks is done from the points and bench marks of a levelling net by means of geometric levelling with a discrepancy not more than 15 JL. If it is essential to obtain detailed information on rock displacement. studs or rail pieces which are set up below the freezing line and concreted. surveys of surface fissures with records of the time of their appearance. the measurements of bench spacings along profile lines. it is possible to start primary and secondary observations. determination of the deviations of working bench marks from a profile line. The time intervals between the observations depend on their task. For temporary stations. at least four intermediate observations between the initial and final observa- . and the measurements of the deformations of structures. A complete set of instrumental observations contains: the levelling of all bench marks. and the final result is obtained as the arithmetic mean of the two observations. The permissible relative discrepancy of a theodolite traverse should not exceed 1/2000.

1) inclination: i = (11n -11n. Calculations are made by the formulae: subsidence: 11= Hn -Hn-l (11. in time intervals determined by the formula: t = H/6c where H is the depth of the mining work at the lower boundary of a working and c is the rate of the face advance. observations are carried out at least three times a month and during the attenuation stage. at least once a month. :E . k is the curvature of that curve. m/day.J/lm horizontal displacement: ~ = D2 -Dl and horizontal deformation: E=(ln-In-J/I (11. and curves are plotted. i is the inclination of a subsidence curve.2) (11.5) where 11is the subsidence of a bench mark. in and in -1 are the inclinations of the current and previous interval. Dl.J/I curvature: k = (in -in. Rock Disturbance and Protection of Structures tion should be made.3) (11. . the displacements and deformations are calculated. Hn is the absolute elevation of the bench mark in the current"observation.. After checking field measurements.4) ..286 Ch.~ . ~ is the horizontal displacement. E is the horizontal deformation. Hn. and Im is the half-sum of the lengths of intervals in the previous and current observation.. 11. During the initial and active stage of rock displacement. In' In.1 is the absolute elevation of the bench mark in the previous observation.1 are the length of intervals in the current and previous observation. D2 are the distances from a control bench mark to the given bench mark in the previous and current observation. The calculated deformations and displace(11.

with an increase in the mining depth. the calculation method considers rock motion at the lying wall. more objects on the surface will be subjected to these effects and require protection. the lying wall can displacements of rock at . Empirical methods are the most preferable since they use the results of direct observations on subsidence. In densely inhabited areas with multistorey residential and public buildings and extended networks of gas and water supply and seweragesystems. Among the empirical methods.11. Depending on the completeness of initial data. The calculation of displacements and defonnations is started from constructing the geological sections on and across the strike. (b) methods based on distribution function. The underworking ratio is here the ratio of the mean mining depth H to the extracted or effective thickness of a seam. a" is the angle at which dangerousappear. The existing methods of calculation of rock subsidence can be divided into the following groups: (a) empirical methods. Calculations of Rock Displacement 287 ments of the Earth's surface are tabulated as given in Tables 11. the following characteristics are detennined: subsidence 11. when there are no such plans. and the dimensions of workings and pillars. and displacements and defonnations caused by rock motion along the bedding.1 and 11. the calculation of displacements and defonnations is carried out by considering the effective thickness of the seam: mer=(hc+hin)(I-BJ+Blm (11.underworking requires complicated engineering calculations for determining the expected deformations and degree of damage to structures. The extracted thickness m of a seam is detennined as the total sum of the thicknesses of layers of coal and enclosing rock extracted from the stope workings. On the other hand. Calculations of Rock Displacement An increase in the depth of the mining work leads to an increase of the zones of harmful effects on the surface. The limiting angle of dip of a seam. horizontal defonnations E. inclinations i. 11.6) where hc is the convergence of the roof and . the depth of the mining work. m. With back-filling of the worked-out space. it is possible to detennine the expected or probable displacements and defonnations of the Earth's surface. and (c) methods based on theoretical models.horizontal displacements ~. the method developed in this country is quite accurate.2. surface deformations decrease. In the calculations of the expected displacements and defonnations of the Earth's surface.6. in which sedimentary and bed rocks should be indicated.so that it becomes possible to underwork even critical structures which could not be underworked when mining was done at higher mining levels. It is also needed to carry out observations on the surface subsidence and the state of structures and control the protective measures and the repairs of damilged buildings. If the angle of dip a is smaller than the limiting value a" the expected displacements and defonnations are detennined by the calculation method for the conditions when there is no rock motion at the lying wall. These sections should also show the driven and projected workings (with the dates of driving). It is used in cases when the roof control is effectedby complete caving of the back-filling of the worked-out space and is applicable when the underworking ratio is Him > 20 for the angles of dip between 0° and 55° or Him > 15 for the angles larger than 55°. If the angle of dip is equal to or greater than the limiting value.6. The expected displacements and defonnations can be calculated when the calendar plans of the mining work development are available and the probable ones. curvature k and curvature radius R. and therefore.

5 + 0.00 +0.04 +33. 0.01 0.03 -0.05-0.1 + 0.1 + 0.2 Bench mark No. 11.1 + 0. and B 1 is the shrinkage factor of filling whose values are given below: Hydraulic filling: B1 sand.1 0.03 -0.8 + 0.35-0. = TlmS(z) y) (11. mm 156.3 -100 +100 +100 +33. a is the angle of dip of a seam.943 9. hin is the incompleteness of filling (mean distance from the top of a filling massif to the roof of a seam).262 9. mm O 0 0 +1 O +1 +1 +2 +2 +2 +5 +1 ° 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 + 0.0 +0.4 0.5 + 0.00 +0. .40 Gravity-f1owfilling: crushed rock. and N 1 and N 2 are the factors depending on the ratio of the design length of a longwall Dd to the mean mining depth H.00 0. which depends on coefficient N 1 and N 2' The inclinations in the main sections of a displacement trough are determined by the following formulae: for a half-trough on the strike: ~ L3 for a half-trough on the dip: F( 1 zx.0 +3 +4 +8 +8 +4 +23 +45 +73 +136 + 0. .25-0. l/m interval ends. .1 +0. The maximum subsidence of the Earth's surface is found by the formula: llm = qomcosaNllN2 (11. which is determined experimentally.062 9.8 + 0. m interval ends. T he subsidenceof the Earth's surface in the pdints of the main sections of a displacement trough is determined by the formula: Tl(x.051 Radius of Subsidence Inclination curvature difference of i R.288 Table 11.50 In the calculations of displacements and deformations.002 10. .73 +1 3.3 -0.0 0.30 Pneumaticfilling 0.15 crushed rock. which can activate the displacement process in the given section. it is essential to consider the influence of all projected stope workings and of those driven earlier.4 + 2. Rock Disturbance and Protection of Structures length.8) where S(Z)is the function of a typical subsidence curve.01 0.3 + 0.1 -0.4 + 0.45 ordinary rock.2 + 0.031 10.3 -25.5 floor before back-filling (if there are no observation data and the face is advanced by 8-20 m ahead of the filling.972 10.951 9. Interval Ch.893 10.134 10. hc is taken equal to 0.15 m).1 0.0.15-0.0 +0.1 ° + 0.3 + 4.2 + 0.2 + 0.01 +0.0.0. m Subsidence Inclination Inclination Curvature difference of i difference k.25-0.7) where qo is the relative maximum subsidence.1 +0. m is the extracted thickness of a seam. m is the extracted thickness of a seam.

4 0.yl = O.04 +0.3 +2.16) on the rise: (11.03 +0.9 +2.4 +1.5 40.0 -0. 0 +0.4 +1.5 +0.0 25.1 -0.02 +0.7 +19.5aoTlmF'(zyJ on the dip: (11. and F'(zyJ are the same as in formulae (11.4 +0.52 + 100.0 +0.5 +47.28 +0. difference of m interval ends.0 67.01 +0.0 33.19 +0.5 38.01 -0.1 +0.04 +0.18) .25 +0. F'(zyJ.3 +0.6. mm 0 Inclination i Inclination difference Curvature k.5 +3.5ao1lmF'(zx) for a half-trough f.21 +0.0 11.6 +0.5aoTlmF'(Zy2) (11.5 +35.1 +2.8 T he horizontal displacements of the points in the main sections of a displacement trough are found as follows: for a half-trough on the strike: fox = O.6 +0.01 +0. Radius of curSubsidence I/m vature R.8 +5.9 +16.3 +0.0 -25.4 +7.2 +0.85 +I -I + + + + + 50.0 +25.0 +52.15 +0.28 +9.9 +1. I/m Radius curvature m of R.04 0.3 00.12)-(11.6 +2.14).17) where the factor ao is the relative maximum horizontal displacement and functions F'(zx).1 +0. Calculations of Rock Displacement 289 lst-4th observations Inclination difference Curvature k.5 +2.11.15) and for a half-trough ~y2 = O.01 +0.2 +6 +9 +10 +9 +13 +27 +57 +79 +163 +0.0 -0. The horizontal deformations (tensile and compressive) in the main sections of a displacement trough are determined by the formulae: for a half-trough on the strike: "x = O.0 00.5ao 3 L 1lmF'(zx) 19-1270 (11.9 +1.8 +5.0 + 100.

structure. sMe. which are left between the The conditions of safe mining are determi.breakthrough which is located under the dings and structures against harmful effects centre of a surface structure. and floors. it is worth to mention the following: (a) extraction sections are planned so that the surface structures turn out to be on the portions of a displacement trough where earth subsidence is the most uniform.t ur ace for tProtectIng .290 for a half-trough Eyl = O. the. The essenceof the method the protection of buildings) or to large losses consists in the following: ~s the intermediate of coal in safety pillars. fissures in walls. At mining levels below the thickness should be such that the building safe depth. the caving proned by using the concepts of permissible cessis localized in the space confined between deformations and ultimate deformations. Construction measuresdecreasethe stressurface are understood as the ultimate limit ses and deformations in structures and builfor deformations. Settlement joints are in structures the deformations exceeding the arranged near internal partition walls.20) Among these methods. 11. stope working on surface of influenand (c) mineral is extracted at both sides of a where functions F'(zx).1 Rock Disturbance and Protection of Structures on the dip: and for a half-trough on the rise E = 0. F'(Zyl)' and F'(Zy2) are the same as in formulae (11. chamber pillars. the overlying Permissible deformations are taken as the rock will cave in only within the equilibrium deformations of the Earth's surface which dome. barrier pillars. Ultimate deformations of the Earth's 2.19) protection of structures by back-filling of the worked-out space and (b) the application of special methods of mineral extraction. especially in large coal fields structure protection is the provision of strip where underworking of buildings leads either pillars having a large strength margin and to a substantial increase of the cost of mining spaced at intervals which ensure proper sta(owing to expensive additional measures for bility of the roof. In that case. the effect of underworking. whereas the rock massif above it cause only repairable damage to surface remains undisturbed. which ensure proper safety of surface structures. (b) a stope face is advanced continuously and ce of theso as to minimize the time structures. Their permissible ones. this limit"Will be dangerous for the stability of but do not exclude the appearance of fine buildings and structures and the life of people.sure. of underground mining have become crucial One of the most efficient methods of in recent time.5ao ~ F'(zyJ Ll Ch. any deformations above dings and increase the load-carrying capacity. Mining measures may consist in (a) the (11. etc.7. I.17). are destroyed.5a ~ F'(z ) y2 O L2 y2 of surface structures will be discussed below.12)-(11. It is recommenThe principal measures for the protection ded to divide a building by settlement joints .quickly ruc ures The problems of the protection of buil. it has been follows: proposed to use the concept of safe mining (a) settlement joints by which long buildepth which is understood as the depth dings are divided into sections of a suitable below which mining operations cannot cause size and closed contour. (11. The For determining the conditions of safe principal construction measures for minimiunderworking of objects above a single seam zing the deformations of structure are as or the first seam of a suite.barrier pillars. the mining work can be carried sections can settle down independently under out without taking protective measures. foundations.

and the corner points of the berm.1. after which lines at the inclination angle O are drawn through these points. lies under the seam mentioned. 3. of a thickness m = 0. The bottom of a ditch is made somewhat lower (around 50 cm) than the foundation foot. Lines are drawn in the bed rock through points K 1 and K 2 thus obtained. Construction of Safety Pillars Safety pillars can be constructed by the method of vertical sections or method of perpendiculars. The boundaries of the pillar on the dip side are points a and b which are the points of the intersection of the seam with the line drawn at the angle y.9 m and an angle of dip a = 30°. and Oin bed rock. Effective protection of buildings against the effect of underworking is provided by compensating ditches dug in the ground along a building. The construction of the pillar is started by drawing lines parallel and perpendicular to the seam strike through the corner points 1. ABCD. The displacement angles are: <p in sedimentary rock and 13. The plate is cut through by diagonal joints filled with an elastic material. Upon the construction of the vertical sec- . which depends on the type of building to be protected. 11. (b) yieldable foundations which absorb the horizontal stressesin buildings.8. 2. Method of Vertical Sections Let us consider two examples of the application of this method: construction of safety pillars for a building and for an extended object. This is achieved by providing a horizontal joint to separate the underground portion of a building from the foundation. the boundary points are c and d obtained by the intersection of the "line drawn at the angle 13to the seam line. they diminish horizontal deformations by 33-50 per cent. building of a rectangular form 28 x 45 m in plan (Fig. 4 of the building. 11. Compensation ditches are filled with corrugated steel. 11 . Example 1. The width of y. Lines are drawn through points A (B) and D (C) in the sedimentary rock at the displacement angle <pup to the contact with the bed rock.8.16) and arranged diagonally (at 45°) to the strike of a seam. fine coke or a mixture of soil and sawdust. the joint is filled with a material having a low coefficient of friction. It is required to construct a safety pillar for a four-storey brickwork 19. at the angle yon the dip and the angle 13. This method is resorted to when other protective measures are inefficient or too expensive. (c) foundation plates. Another seam. and the corner points of the building and berm are projected onto it. A vertical section across the strike is plotted. A vertical section on the strike is then constructed. The thickness of sedimentary rock is 25 m. 11. which gives points K3 and K4. a safety berm. Lines are drawn in the sedimentary rock through these points at the angle <pup to the intersection with the bed rock. The intersections of these lines with the lines of the upper and lower boundary of the pillar determine the pillar dimensions in the section on the strike. B (C) and A (D) are projected onto it. The idea consists in that a reinforced-concrete plate is laid onto the levelled and compacted soil surface. Construction of Safety Pillars 291 to its entire height (except for the foundation). A berm 15 m wide is plotted around the rectangle thus obtained. is taken equal to 15 m in the case considered. Safety (protective) pillars are left in the worked-out area of mines. A layer of wet sand up to 5 cm thick is laid on the plate and above it another plate (without joints) is placed on which the building will be erected. 3.on the rise.8. This gives another rectangle.11. on the rise side.

In these sections. It is required to construct a y.3 m and the angle of dip. 25°. and O are the displacement angles field (Fig. The seam for the given seam and e is the acute angle thickness is 1. 7-8. 11. O = 65°. Rock Disturbance and Protection of Structures 2004080m I I I I I I I a Fig. 11. 3-4. the characteristic points of the protected area For objects extended diagonally to the (1-2. safety pillar for a railway bed in a brown coal where 13. Example 2. The thickness of sediments is 20 m. y = 65°. The displacement determined by plotting a number of vertical angles are: ~ = 47°. argillites. the plan contours of the the bed rock on the dip. The two latter angles can be found from the formulae: pillar are determined (abcd). 11. safety pillars are constructed by the the traces of protected planes are drawn from displacement angles: <p in the sedimentary the berms in the sedimentary rock at the rock. between the strike line of the seam and the The overlying bed rock is represented by clay contour of the object to be protected. The boundaries of the safety pillar are shales. strike.cotanf3' = Jcotan2f3 cos2e + cotan2o sin2e ted by multiplying the seam thickness by the cotany' = Jcotan2y cos2e + cotan2o sin2e total area of the pillar. and 9-10).The railway bed is arranged in the main sections of a displacement trough diagonally to the seam strike. and aleurolites. and y' in displacement angle <p and then in the bed . ~' in the bed rock on the rise. The reserve of coal in the pillar is calcula. and sections perpendicular to the railway line in <p= 45°.292 Ch.5-6.17).16 Construction of safety pillar for building by method of vertical sections tions of the pillar.

in the section plane is determined graphically.-I 65°I I --~~~. 11. The bedding deptb of the seam under the railway bed is determined as the difference of elevations between the Earth's surface and the seam foot. " 2 "~--~'2' 280~ 150- -"" 100 Fig.18 Construction of safety pillar by method of perpendiculars ~ . and the line of the seam is drawn at an angle ai through the points thus obtained. This depth is laid off in the sections.rI W ~~ !1 SectionNo.8.'.6 I 1-2 2 45° -45" . -. 11. The angle of dip of the seam . Seam outcrop overburden to <)6 250~ 278~ 200 - 1~ / .--- " .11. 4 ° 5 50 I I 4 45° -45° 3 400 -375 -~ 350 -325 300 --- ~6O I I.1 6113'11'1 1-2 '~1561651 / 225 - 3-4 Fig. Construction of Safety Pillars 7-8 9 ~ 293 9-10 10 ~o / --8 ? -- / ~o-- 47~ ~5° 5-6 3-4 ~ -I 45O 0° .17 Construction of safety pillar for extended object by method of vertical sections rock at displacement angles J3iand yi. The points obtained by the intersection of seam traces with protection planes are transferred onto the plan where straight lines or smooth curves are drawn to determine the contours of the pillar.

2'. the construction of a safety pillar for a railway bed passing diagonally to the strike (Fig. 3. without plotting vertical sections.2. J'. 11. Points are chosen in the characteristic places of the protected area and perpendiculars are drawn in these points to the contour of a safety berm. Points 1.18). and 13' and y' are the displacement angles. M is the thickness of the sedimentary rock. Rock Disturbance and Protection of Structures 11. and 3' are connected by lines which define the boundaries of the safety pillar. 11. Consider.8. i. Method of Perpendiculars In this method. The corresponding lengths q and 1 are laid off along the perpendiculars. H is the depth from the Earth's surface to the seam foot. 2.Ch. as an example. a is the angle of dip "of the seam. The coal reserve in the pillar is then calculated. . I is the length of perpendiculars to the dip. The lengths of perpendiculars are determined by the formulae: (H -M) q= I= cotan [3' 1 + cotan [3' tan 11cos e (H -M) 1 -cotan cotan y' y' tan 11cos e where q is the length of perpendiculars to the rise. e. the boundaries of a pillar are obtained directly on a plan.

Chapter Twelve Stability of Quarry Flanks in quarry flanks can be divided into five principal kinds: taluses. the destruction of rock surfaces weakened by geological disturbances mainly occurs under the action of tangential or fissures. in the latter case.which are located at in a landslide is subjected to plastic deformadifferent heights of the flank. and mud-streams {mud-flows). The moving rock massif maximum shear stresses. corresponds to a homogeneous (isotropic) which occurs without forming a continuous rock massif. subsidences. and 111-111). 12. on saturation of slip plane changes and in some casesmay be high-porous sediments with water. This can occur when the The loss of stability (displacement) of angle of a slope is steeper than the angle of flanks and benches in quarries is mainly internal friction of loose rock. 11-11. 12. landslides. A slip plane of this kind mainly of loose rock masses at the edges of flanks. etc. Rock displacements in open-cast mining of A talus takes place when small volumes of minerals determine to a large extent the loose rock roll gradually from the top of a mining economics and labour safety. ultimate stresses. mostly circular-cycan induce irreversible shear deformations in lindrical. jointing systems. Both bed rocks and rocks of waste tion of the weakest plane abcde. The studies of the patterns of stressed state ring the specific characteristics of the rock in quarry flanks demonstrate that in the massif or by providing artificial measures for general case the distribution of shear stresses increasing the rock stability. or in cases coincident with the planes of anisotropy. . the process diagrams like those shown in Fig.In the case of dumps may be involved into the process. when there are soft plastic layers in the base The whole diversity of rock deformations of waste dumps. which are tectonic disturbances. downfalls. Landslides can occur on compacplanes (bedding planes. tion of loose rocks in waste dumps. The points of the large massesof rock. the rock massif along the surfaces called slip In order to prevent downfalls.1 Principal Causes and Kinds of Rock Deformation . such as In this process. These surfaces may be plane or stresses which under particular conditions curved.tions. form the direc.1 (lines may continue for a long time and entrains 1-1.). of the undisturbed rock massif. and the latter associated with changes in the stressed state has practically no internal cohesion. in a rock massif weakened by a side cut (such Landslides are characterized by that the as a flank) may be represented by stress motion of rocks occurs slowly. of rock masses along slip surfaces. If the massif has anisotropic slip surface. this plane becomes a slip A subsidenceis essentially a vertical sinking plane. which can be A downfall is essentially quick movement caused by open-cast mining.quarry flanks and benches are designed by consideplanes. the position of a strengthened on wetting. slope to its bottom.

2b)has the form: 't = an tanp + k (12. The angle of inclination of a straight section mn to the an axis is called the angle of internal friction and the tangent of that angle is the coefficient of internal friction. an is the normal stress in that plane. A real rock is essentially a complex medium possessing a certain non-uniformity (anisotropy) of properties. etc. MPa. various planes of weakness (bedding and stratification planes. cycloid or a straight line depending on the kind of rock. p is the angle of internal friction of the rock. l2. A section OA describes the ultimate tensile strength of the rock. Mud-streams can be prevented by drainage. The curves of ultimate equilibrium are plotted by the results of shear tests of rock specimens.296 Ch. at' and a section OD is numerically equal to the ultimate compressive strength ac. Mud-streams are observed most often upon saturation of loose and high-porous sedimentary rocks (loesses. loess-like loams. MPa. Stability of Ouarry Flanks Mud-streams (mud-flows) can occur in some rocks whose state changes from solid to fluid on water saturation.) or when sands are carried off from sediments by filtering water flows.see Fig. A section OB' cut off by the curve on the t axis determines the cohesion. The main factor responsible for anisotropy is the structure of a rock massif. Factors Affecting Flank Stability The stability of quarry flanks depends on the correlation between the forces that tend to retain a slope and those which displace it. O"n (shear and normal stress). 12.and k is the coefficient of cohesion of the rock.2a. Because of anisotropy. These forGes can be influenced by many factors. The determination of the stable angles of inclination of quarry flanks (slopes) is essentially a problem of the theory of ultimate equilibrium according to which the strength of a rock can be characterized by a certain curve plotted in coordinates t. A linear equation of equilibrium (Fig.2.1) where 't is the tangential stress in a shear plane. etc. fissures. A curve ARC in the figure determines the ultimate state of the rock in a specimen. in particular. degrees.). 12. In the general form the equation of the curve of ultimate equilibrium is 't = f(an) and can be described by a parabola. the laws . MPa. 12.

cohesion is subject to larger variations. plastics. 12. Factors Affecting Flank Stability 297 Fig. For that reason. and the strength of rock in specImens. the angle of internal friction can be taken equal to the angle determined in shear tests of rock specimens. rock massifs were subjected to T Fig. During their formation and especially after the formation.3 Diagram of natural shear tests of priSJ .2 Strength certificate: (a) with curvilinear envelope of Mohr's circles. The knowledge of the position of this plane makes it possible to determine the strength characteristics of a rock massif. The angles of internal friction at contacts of layers are taken equal to the angle of friction obtained by the results of laboratory tests for friction on these surfaces. it is possible to determine the cohesion in the rock massif by considering that the resultant force of external pressure p can be resolved into a normal component N and a tangential component 1: If slip surfaces do not coincide with the planes of contact between rock layers in a massif. The angles of internal friction for selected rocks are given in Table 12. taking a particular value of friction by the results of laboratory tests of rock specimens. Experiments have shown that among the two parameters characterizing the shear strength (cohesion and angle of internal friction).2.but are variable and depend substantially on the size ratio of the object being deformed.2.powerful jacks (Fig. The mechanical properties of rocks in a massif (especially cohesion) not only differ from those in specimens.12. 12.3). Forces p applied to a prism are developed by . 12. A prism usually breaks along a certain surface ab.1. Therefore.The angles of friction obtained in tests at contacts of layers and fissures are given in Table 12. The properties of rocks in a massif are determined by special tests of rock prisms delineated in their natural bedding and oriented in a definite way relative to the planes of anisotropy. (b) with straight envelope of geometrical similarity which are true for isotropic solids (metals. dimensions of structural blocks. the mechanical properties of a rock massif may differ from those obtained by testing rock specimens. etc.) are inapplicable to rock massifs.

Thus. granodiorite porphyries. granodiorites. it is essential to proceed from considering individual structural blocks.1 Rock Ch. In deformations involving large massesof rock (such as landslides) a slip zone is formed. make an angle <p= 45° -p/2 to the main active force. quartz-porphyries. etc. jaspilites. skarnated rocks.2 Porphyries. in the case of an isotropic medium.i. Plastic deformations of rocks are characterized by the appearance of two conjugate systems of fissures which. cleavages. degrees lumps. however. diorites. rather than a slip surface. its structural blocks are also destroyed to some or other extent depending on the size of blocks (smaller blocks are less subject to destruction) and their strength (weaker blocks are more probable to be destroyed). talcochlorite and sericitic schists 28-31 25-28 24-28 22-27 20-23 20-26 17-20 24-27 23-26 23-25 23-25 21-23 20-22 20-22 18-20 13-15 16-19 15-18 9-12 . In deformations of large rock massifs. The displacements of these blocks in the zone can occur both by slip and by rotation. In the case of fissured rocks. 12. strong sandstones Secondary quartzites.Angle of renal friction in pose. In the destruction of a rock massif. metamorphic schists. syenites. e. and involves a number of structural blocks. These surfaces divide rock massifs into individual polyhedrons or structural blocks which are essentially the elementary structural particles from which a rock massif is composed. The cohesion of a rock massif in a direction not coincident with the planes of weakness can be determined by the Table 12. Stability of Quarry Flanks Angle of inter. magnetites Clay shales. structural blocks can be likened to mineral grains in small specimens subjected to deformations. stratification planes. aleurolites Limestones. degrees 36 33 27-30 34 29 36 35 34-36 34-36 34-36 33-35 33-35 33-35 35 Sandstones Aleurolites Argillites Limestones Metamorphic schists Quartz-porphyries and granodiorite porphyries Syenites and porphyries various changes and transformations which were associated with the appearance of rupture cracks. Various coefficients of structural weakening have been proposed to account for the effect of structural blocks on the strength properties of rock massifs. for the estimation of the strength properties of rock massifs. argillites Phyllites. hornfelses.298 Table 12. slip surfaces can partially propagate along the existing planes of weakness. the massif breaks through at the existing surfaces.

patterns of distribution area depends on the number of jointing of fissures in the quarry field. the number of crops and in exploring and drainage wor. it is essential to sures. contribution of each The bedding elements of fissures are measystem to the total quantity of fissures.0-30. cance of each jointing system in the structure As a general rule. of joints Uoint sets). In each measuring section.9 Coefficient a III Weakly compacted and weakly fissured sand-clay sediments. Factors Affecting Flank Stability 299 Table 12. ting systems.0-8. fully kaolinized igneous rocks. MPa. a is coefficient which can be ced at distances of 150-200 m from one found in Table 12.0 3 3 4 5 6 7 10 following fornlula suggested by G. The elements of structure of a deposit or quarry field. measuring sections can be spaspecimen. the primary and secondary system the shape and size of structural blocks.0 10. distances between the fissures in each know the specific features of their jointing. where km and ksp are the coefficients of With a simple structure of a deposit or cohesion of the rock in a massif and a quarry field.0 17.measurements should be increased up to 30.0-15. of measurements of bedding elements on an intensity of jointing. 15-20 measurements of of a deposit and the stability of slopes. Fisenko) Rocks and type of jointing Cohesion in lumps.2. With a large discrepancy ried out on natural and artificial rock out.fissure orientation in space can be measured suring sections should be located so that the most conveniently by means of stereographic . In rock massifs divided into blocks by m 1 + a In(H//) geological disturbances.3 (after Rock group G. The total number spatial angles between the systems of joints. each block should have one or two measuring sections. for estimating the mechanical pro.5 3. compacted sandclay rocks with developed diagonal jointing. and particular. kings. sured by an inclinatorium.typical orientations of fissures and the intenrangement are deternlined by the geological sity {density) of jointing.foliation. linear dimensions of individual fisperties of rocks in massifs.0 30.0-20.3. bedding elements should be made for each The field observations of jointing are car. there are the flank height to the mean size of structural determined the bedding elements of all joinblocks delinea~ed by fissures.0-17. moderatestrength laminated rocks mostly with normal jointing Hard rocks mostly with normal jointing Hard igneous rocks with developed diagonal jointing 0.systems and the pattern of surface of fissures. MPa 0. strongly weathered.0 15.12. in jointing system.between the measured results. elements of stratification and Thus. pattern of fissure surface. and the signifi. Fisenko: entire complex of rocks and all structural elements of a deposit is involved into examiksp k = (12. Mea. compacted sand-clay sediments with normal jointing Strongly kaolinized igneous sand-clay rocks.0 20.0 20. The density of sections for the measOffice work consists in determining the urements of jointing and their mutual ar.4-0.jointing system. and H/l is the ratio of another.2) nation.

The number of fissures. etc. or the ratio of a unit area to the area confined between two pairs of fissures forming a structural block. In some cases. profile of working. underworking of flanks. though sometimes at the expense of the mining productivity. Some kinds of microrelief can be the cause of swamping. in particular the shear strength. In view of the continuous technological mobility of slopes in quarries. and (3) a volume coefficient. Observations on landslides include two stages: (a) exploration and detection of seats of landslides and (b) observations on landslide seats and development of particular measures to prevent landslide phenomena. (2) an area coefficient. local temperature conditions. leaching. degradation of rocks on the Earth's surface caused by natural agents (temperature. for instance. It is also essential to consider other engineering factors which can influence the stability of. flanks.). these factors can decrease substantially the strength characteristics of rock. Acting separately or in combination. etc. Temperature changes and winds often accelerate weathering and thus diminish rock stability. Mine-Surveying Observations on Rock Mining Deformations in Open-Cast Mining Observations on rock disturbance in open-cast mining and processing of the results of observations are an important object of mine-surveying service in quarries. carbon dioxide. i. water. 2. An important factor affecting rock stability is weathering. The density of jointing can be characterized by several coefficients: (I) a linear coefficient which gives the ratio of a unit length to the mean spacing between the fissures. it is also essential to take into consider- ation the climatic factors: atmospheric precipitation. oxygen. the stability of slopes.e. e. the strength of rock in some portions of the massif can drop to 20-25 per cent of the initial (natural) strength. Stability of Quarry Flanks grids. hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure. atmospheric precipitation can cause the inundation of sand-clay rocks to a state when capillary water changes to gravitational water. suffosion. i.3. the ratio of a unit volume to the volume of an averaged block. When estimating the stability of quarry flanks. Rock stability can be influenced substantially by hydrogeological factors: inflow of ground waters.. e. ~sually. and therefore. etc. and wind velocity. and mud-flows. Weathering effect is especially noticeable in the flanks of old quarries. the results are then corrected by the data of statistical processing of a small number of selective measurements in systems. the unit length may be taken as the length of the object being studied.300 Ch. By statistical processing of a fairly large number of measurements of bedding elements of fissures. microrelief. heights and angles of slopes and benches. the density of jointing. by recording all detected fissures in each system. especially on the method of blasting work. the organi- . e. etc. Without proper drainage. In order to prevent landslides and downfalls. platforms. it is then required to change properly the elements of working systems (width of berms and platforms. can be determined by two methods: I. thus reducing sharply the shear strength.). living organisms. After blasting. such as the width of stoping and transport berms. 12. i. sudden water outbursts. Statistical processing of stereographic grids makes it possible to divide the entire totality of fissures in the rock massif into particular systems. the height of a quarry flank. 12. i . Rock stability can depend substantially on engineering factors.

12. Spacings between the bench marks of a profile line depend on the quarry depth and dimensions of benches. The length of profile lines should be such that one or both ends of the line is beyond the zone of expected displacements. I/lO or 1/20. mining workings. The results of measurements are presented in the following graphical documents: the plan of an observation station (Fig. the difference between two measurements of the same elevation should be not more than 5 mm for lengths up to 10 m or 8 mm for lengths above 10 m. including control bench marks. Observation points established in slopes cannot be preserved for a long time (especially those on the benches of working flanks). it is essential to organize observations so as to complete them in relatively short terms. muck piles. at least three initial bench marks are established so as to guarantee their preservation. and the degree of hazard of rock displacements for mining operations and for surface structures. Control bench marks are provided at the ends of profile lines. An observation station is essentially a system of bench marks set up along the lines perpendicular to the length of a quarry flank. the discrepancy of two measurements should be not more t:han 2 mm. (3) in trigonometric levelling. and attenuating). and the diagrams of the rates of bench mark movement in the directions of these vectors. observation stations are established on the flank of a quarry. For observations on rock displacements. In that connection. it is also . the difference of two measured elevations should be not more than 3 mm.3. and instrumental observations are made at them in specified time intervals. 1/1000 or 1/2000 which should show profile lines. 12. Mine-surveying observations at stations include the following procedures: levelling of all bench marks. instrumental surveying of particular benches. Bench marks should be located on benches so as to ensure safety for an observer. profile lines can be drawn through the entire quarry. Mine-Surveying Observations 301 zation of observations has certain specific features. vertical sections for each profile with the positions of a flank at the moment of laying out a profile line and during a given series of observations. The accuracy of measurements should satisfy the following conditions: (I) in geometric levelling. existing displacements. measurements of spacings between the bench marks by controlled tension steel tapes (with recording the temperature during measurements). All measurements should be made with checking. dimensions of a sliding massif. vector diagrams of bench mark displacements in the vertical plane on a scale 1/1. The results of observations should establish the displacements of particular points of a rock massif in space and time. In quarries of a small depth. stages of the displacement process (initial. In order to take into consideration the effects of various factors on flank stability. 1/5. (2) in measuring the spacings between the bench marks. slip surfaces. In observations on landslides. etc. the situation and relief of the land surface. the profile lines of an observation station are usually located in sections of rocks having different geological conditions. active.4)on a scale 1/500. bedding elements. During the construction of an observation station. There are two principal kinds of observations: (1) observations on visible deformations of flanks and benches in order to predict the shape of a landslide and the pattern of its development in space and time and (2) observations on sections where deformations are invisible but can appear and cause serious damage to the mining plant. jointing. Control bench marks of all lines are connected to the initial bench marks.At least two bench marks should be established on each bench: one near the bench crest and the other at the foot of the overlying bench.

12. and all bench marks and fissures that appeared during the landslide are marked on it.302 Ch.4 Plan of observation station required to determine the position of a slip surface in the body of a slope and establish the cause of its appearance. 12. having determined the displacement vectors from the results of mine-surveying observations. it is assumed that all displacement vectors of individual points on the slip surface coincide with the movements of the points of the slope surface which are located on normals to the slip surface. and a perpendicular from the mid of each vector is drawn towards the rock massif. Stability of Quarry Flanks Fig. The position of a slip surface is found in the following manner (Fig. When the results of observations are analysed on profile lines. (3) line sections parallel to the displacement vectors of bench marks are laid off on corresponding perpendiculars from the upper Fig. (2) the displacement vectors of bench marks are plotted on a profile. 12. Then.5 Determining position of slip line by results of observations on displacements of bench marks .5): (I) the profile of a slope is constructed by the results of observations on the movement of a landslide. it is possible to determine the position of a slip line. fissures in the top portion and at the foot of the slope should be documented especially carefully. 12.

l".Ni and the slope produce vertical rupture cracks.. it is essential to choose a suitable method for calculating the inclination angles of quarry flanks so as to ensure proper stability of flanks and benches. we find the angle of internal fric~ion of surface. the moving y mass of rock stops in a new state of equiliwhere k is the coefficient of cohesion.12.-+-+--~~ I I . where ~F fr = j"i:. ~F c = kL is the sum of cohesion can be used for determining the angle of forces. The into Eq.-J. k is the coefficient of cohesion deterinverse calculation.4. The broken line thus ~Fthr + B constructed is essentially the slip line of the landslide. beforce of cohesion kL (Fig. it is rather difficult to find the centre the rock massif.j" I I .3) decreases.3).JJ After a certain displacement.. the system of thrust forces ~ and retaining Tensile forces acting in the top portion of a forces: the force of friction tan p1.4. p is the brium in which the thrust forces are counterangle of internal friction. mined by the force acting on a unit surface A rock massif at the moment when it loses area. This is understood as the ratio of the sum of all retaining forces to the sum of thrust forces acting on a landslide wedge: ~ . and A and B are some additional balance is assumed to be under the action of retaining and thrust forces. density of the rock.. There are a number of methods for calculating the flank stability which is estimated in terms qf a stability coefficient. ~F thr = ~ ~ is the sum of thrust forces. 12. I" t. \ v . \ II' ) /i ~ Fig.N i is the sum of friction The results of observations on landslides forces. 1TT1nI -J. Because In the design.' Stability Benches Quarries of Working and Flanks of .it is then possible to determine analysis of equilibrium of a landslide wedge the coefficient of cohesion k of rock in the gives us only one equation. provide place for berms and roads.. construction and operation of quarries. so that the massif. internal friction p and the coefficient of f is the coefficient of internal friction of the cohesion k of the rock by the method of rock.The length of such a crack is found by the formula: where L is the length of the landslide surface 2k cotan (45° -p/2) in the section considered.6 Determinationof angleof internal friction and cohesion by results of surveying of landslide and lower boundary of a landslide (from the break fissure at the top and from the support n = ~F fr + ~F c + A (12. and y is the mean balanced by the forces of friction.~ = tan p1. I. / . Solving the above equation for this state of In the calculations of the stable position of equilibrium under the action of friction for.. If-= I"'C\ ~1~. Stability of Benches and Flanks of Quarries 12. Substituting the value of p of the most dangerous arc of slip.Ni + kL (12.d quarry flank on a circular-cylindrical slip ces. (12. problem cannot be solved uniquely.6): cause of which the length of the slip surface 1.'. .4) line at the bottom). and achieve a high economic efficiency of mining. 12.

P'. (6) a straight line parallel to DC is drawn from a point a up to the intersection with the line ED (a point E). The vertical lines. 12. Stability of Quarry Flanks of this. and C"Co. The area of each block Si is measured. = Qi sin 9. (2) an arbitrary point D is taken on a line BD and a line at an angle 45° + p/2 to the line BD is drawn from that point (a line DC). C'C".7). (5) lines parallel to the slope line MA are drawn from points P. a line BC is drawn from a point B at the same angle.8). between Qi and N i is measured. on a line DC from a point C. (7) two perpendiculars are raised to the lines aE and MK respectively in points N and M (Rl and R2 in Fig. 12. the intersections of these lines are points E . are found by the formulae: N i = Qi cos 9. the landslide wedge is plotted on a larger scale and divided by vertical lines into a number of prisms (Fig. Fig. (3) a line M K is constructed from the lowermost point of a slope (a point M) at an angle 45~ -p/2. N i and 1. which are the boundaries of prisms. are continued downwards to a distance corresponding to the mass of a prism on the given scale.8 Scheme of landslide wedge for calculat ing slope stability . PP'. Perpendiculars are raised from the points of the intersection of these lines with the slip surface. from points C'. 12. C". and 1. a straight line EO is drawn through these points up to the intersection with the line MK.4).7): (I) a horizontal line BD at a distance H9o from the slope surface and a vertical line AB are drawn on the vertical section of a slope. and P'P" are laid off on the line MK from the point M and equal sections CC'. and the mass of the rock in each prism per metre of the quarry front is calculated by the formula Qi = sir. It is however possible to use a method which immediately determines the position of the slip surface when the landslide wedge has the least reserve of stability. the intersection of these perpendiculars determines the centre of the circle passing through the points M and E. After that. (values of N i and 1. and Co. For this purpose.Ch. and P" and lines parallel to BC. After these geometrical constructions. a check of the slope stability is made. the centre of this arc is found by the trial-and-error method which involves laborious calculations. are given in Table 12. The method is essentially as follows (Fig. (4) equal sections MP. 12. and the angle 9. E l' E 2' and E 3. 12.

that local landslide centres will which the angle a corresponding to the appear in certain sections. it should be distinguished The length L of the slip surface is then between the cases when the slip surface is found.5. often lead to of inclination of a slope or bench to a certain large losses of stripped and prepared reserves safe value at which the landslide is imposof minerals.4) are not contacts of inundated rocks.represented graphically as a curve 11= .48 In undertaking measures for the prevention of landslides. after which the stability coefficient is distinctly pronounced in nature (along cleacalculated by the formula: vage planes. however.91 39 2.6) is a merely imaginary line. among which the following ones are more Mter that.4 . n= the slip surface can be represented by weak 1:1.12. but flatten out the slope or employ artificial even an approximate determination of its measures for increasing the rock stability. it is unstable. position makes it possible to predict the kind of expected landslide and take suitable protective measures. 12. It is not exclu.97 20 0. This method damage to mining plants. The results of quarry are designed correctly.9. working.93 5. and strengthening V 0. 12. their total stability calculations for these angles are stability will be guaranteed.85 bable centres of landslides. Slip surfaces can also pass along the degrees. and it is then required to surface cannot be determined precisely.26 1. removing the rock from proIV 1. Measures for Controlling Landslides 305 popular: flattening out the inclination angles of benches and flanks. 12. layer contacts.65 decreasing the load on a slope in order to II 2. sively for a number of different values of an If the working flanks and benches of a inclination angle (Fig. determined only by survey observations on the flank is considered to be stable. leaving safety pillars of Block No..74 0.k is the coefficient of cohesion of the interlayers of clays and loams in a homogerock.MN 1. In the latter case. It is economically specified stability coefficient is found..72 27 1. landslides can be prevented Landslides by one of the methods described below. contacts in a rock bed dipping towards a where p is the angle of internal friction..33 45 1.MN overburden rock or mineral it.) and when it tan pI:N i + kL (12.43 pressure prism.9). etc. In the former case. and L is the length of the slip surface.75 7 0. Qi.l zones where landslide centres are probable to appear. the taking appropriate anti-landslide measures inclination angle of the flank should be 41°. Landslides in quarries cause enormous Flattening out the slope angle. In the efficient to prevent these local events by example shown in Fig.09 artificially the rocks in the massif. I 2.65 1. The calculation is carried out succesor even haulage of sliding rock masses. if otherslope deformations or analytically.5.5. disturb the normal consists essentially in diminishing the angle course of mining operations. and necessitate multiple transfer sible. neous bed of rock in a slope or along the The forces A and B (see Eq. Such a wise. N.24 2. the position of the slip If the calculated stability coefficient is surface cannot be detected visually and is greater than or equal to the specified value. 8. Measures for Controlling the slip surface.with 11= 1.83 diminish the forces developed by the active III 2.67 1. MN e" deg. With a known position of 12. considered here.f(a) on ded. the mine surveyor calculates the 20-1270 Table 12.

can be strengthened reliably by .. In the second group. (12. etc. and Oi is the incli35 40 45 a. In the third group. etc.6.~~ ' Q. slopes with distinct cleavage planes: tectonic fissures. . / 12. the stability of slopes can be slopes are strengthened by bolting. = 410 on the top platform of the flank. laminations. Artificial Strengthening of Rock Massif Artificial strengthening of slopes in quarries is principally effective in cases when the specified inclination angle a = arctan > T2 AI:h.. Unloading the active pressure prism.9 Flattening out of slope angle The existing methods of slope strengthening can be divided into the following groups: position of the point corresponding to 11 = (1) those based on mechanical principles. 12.gthening materials. This (2) those which increase the mechanical point is marked on the ground by a peg and characteristics of rock by the injection of determines the line to which the slope must stren. disturbance the bed strata are dipping towards the worked-out space and the inclination angle is not zones.. When (mainly for rocks liable to quick degradathe mining work is being carried out in zones tion). (In the formula above: hi is the height of a bench.. Fig. Removing the centre (locus) of a landslide. I 1/ y 'ix ~~\~'.' I:a. it is good plan to remove part of the rock mass in advance and thus to increase stability. To preclude a landslide. The efficiency of this The injections of liquid polymer resins are method can be explained by the circumstance efficient in some cases. degrees nation angle of a bench slope). so tumen and epoxy-resin coatings are used that there is enough time to transfer a large more often. on the contrary. ai is the. Underworking of the strata inevitably leads to rock sliding along bedding planes.306 Ch. by increamethod is the injection of cement slurry. width of a berm. cables. Each of these methods may be preferable zone of a passive prism (support prism). gunned-concrete.4 \:\~k. and (3) those employing durable coatings of slope sections be flattened. the most popular pressure prism or. 12. An artificial coating is often mass of rock from the active prism into the applied onto a metal net or bolting. bithat landslides on flank slopes with low inclination angles develop only slowly. Stability of Quarry Flanks less than 18-20°. For This method gives good results in caseswhen instance. sing the mass of the support prism at the foot of the waste dump. I . controlled efficiently by unloading the active retaining walls. + I:h. over others under particular conditions.7) turns out to be flatter than the angle found from the conditions of slope stability. The first group includes methods in which where deep landslides occur or are probable to occur.cotano.

( j --" ( . strengthening methods based on the use of direct-current electric fields are promising. c. As a d. and therefore. Flexible cables are especially efficient under the conditions when strengthening elements are subjected to bending as well as to tensile stresses.6. It is advantageous to form electric fields in which the lines of force are thickened towards the cathode. Artificial Strengthening of Rock Massif 307 as a variety of bolting. In practice. c. l2. The clusters of holes are drilled in the slope to be strengthened. with the anode holes being arranged around a single cathode hole./ J. the method of rock strengthening by d. Casesare known when flexible cables were arranged in boreholes up to 30 m long.V.12. . The associated electrokinetic and electrochernical processesgive rise to coagulation and crystallization phenomena which decrease the moisture content of the rock and increase its density. ~ . it causes certain phenomena of electric transfer (movement of electrically charged particles between the field poles). The depth of holes should be 10-15 per cent (b) y ¥" k. In that case. the strengthened zone in a rock massif acquires the shape of a cylinder with the radius equal to the distance between the unlike poles. For slopes composed of sand and sand-clay rocks. electric field is realized as follows. ~ Fig. electric field is applied to a rock massif.11 Slope strengthening: (b) by flexible cables (a) by bolting. This is achieved by arranging the anodes around the cathode. strength.&/~/~//i ii.

40 per cent of Portland cement grade 300 or 350.12. 12. In clays with disturbed or undisturbed structure and a high concentration of finedispersed particles and rather low coefficient of filtration. and the associated chemital and adsorption processes lead to the formation of water-resistant and strong calcium hydrosilicates which bind disperse clay particles. and 50-55 per cent of Neogene clay). The composition binder interacts with the rock. quicklime. With the hole diameter 23 cm. strengthening rock piles can be formed efficiently by using composition binders. Spacings between the hole clusters are chosen so as to ensure the stability of the entire slope. and clay (for instance.12 Slope strengthening in quarry flank by do c. 12. 10 per cerit of quicklime with an activity 85-92 per cent. so that clays in a certain volume around the hole are dried due to the hydration of the binder.308 Ch. . electric field greater than the thickness of the zone of unstable rock. The scheme of slope strengthening by this method is illustrated in Fig. 12. A hole is drilled in the rock massif and filled with a composition binder consisting of cement. Stability of Quarry Flanks Fig. the stre~gthened zone has a diameter up to 50 cm.

the cases of sudden seams. to calculate the width of barrier observe that these measures are fulfilled pillars (boundaries of safe mining). Under such con. Role of Mine-Surveying Service in Mining Safety .Chapter Mine-Surveying Control Thirteen of Mining Safety ent seams. special methods and means are required for carrying out the stoping and prepara. dangerous conditions.in the overburden. In that case. mine surveyors determine the boundaries of hazard. cially important part and has certain specitics.surveying obtained upon complete stopping 13. which should be kings approaching flooded or gassy old worstrictly observed and controlled properly to kings. minesurveying service takes the prime role and is 13. etc. and (e) zones in deeply bedded seams. In many aspects of mining safety. rock pressure increases near flooded or gassy workings in adjacent intensively. Control of Mining Work responsible for making decisions which are near Old Workings obligatory for all other mining specialists and When the mining work is carried out near workers. more complicated geological and hyd.(c) zones near flooded workings driven rock.workings can in turn be divided into the dingly.flooded or gassy abandoned old workings. are more probable to occur or poorly plugged boreholes. mine-surveying service plays an espe. (d) those near unplugged tion of coal. participate mine-surveying service has to determine how in the development of safety measures.2. Moreover. gas and water outbursts. and reliable are the contours of old workings on survey plans.1.the pillars on a survey plan. Methods for the construction of safe boundaries and special safety measures of the ensure the safety and efficiency of mining. and (3) foffi1ation of unprotected zones and zones of elevated rock pressure in seams liable to outbursts. self-igni.type of hazardous zone. ous zones and represent them on the plans of special engineering measures should be taken the mining work. (b) those the mining depth.ditions are encountered most often in wortory mining operations. To effect safety control. (2) formation of sidered reliable if there are the results of mine zones of elevated rock pressure between adjac. Hazardous zones associated with flooded Modem mining can be characterized by ever increasing depths of mines and accor. With an increase in gassy workings in a single seam. Under the conditions of elevated hazard of mining work have been developed for each mining. and plot properly.near tectonic disturbances (dislocations). are approaching hazardous zones. coal. In mine-surveying practice. inform mine managers and to prevent sudden outbursts of water or gas foremen beforehand when mining workings into the existing workings. There are three principal groups of hazard.following types: (a) zones near flooded or rogeological conditions. The contour of an old working is conous zones which may be associated with (I) flooded mining workings.

a contour is considered reliable if the old plan of the mining work and field books with the coordinates of theodolite surveys and measurements of workings carried out after the working has been abandoned are on hand. with the angles of dip between 45° and 90°.002 L+ Lln (13.3) where H is the depth of a shaft to the mining level on which the barrier pillar will be left. the dimensions of that zone may vary from the width of two barrier pillars up to 200 m or sometimes 300 m.5 m thick and with angles of dip more than 30°. Mine-sur\cying service is responsible for the reliability of the contours of flooded workings. the width of a barrier pillar..4) where Q is the expected water inflow to the hole.002 L (13. If the contour is unreliable. geological parties. The number.05 H + 0.1).2) where H and L are as in formula (13. and other information. b is the hole diameter. and Lis the same as in formula (13. the calculations and graphical documentation of the period when the working was in operation.1) where m is the extracted thickness of a seam. Mine-Surveying Control of Mining Safety of mining in the working. Lln = 10 m. d for seams up to 3. Lln is equal to zero for barrier pillars extended on the strike with the angles of dip of the rock between 0 and 30°. In caseswhen the contour of an old working is not confirmed by mine-surveying documents. it is possible to determine approximately the error of the contours of flooded workings and to establish the boundary of the zone safemining work. and with the angles of dip between 30° and 45°. Instead. 13. As a rule. In seams more than 3. Lln = 0. it is regardcd as unreliable.5 m thick and angles of dip up to 30° can be found by the formula: d = 5 m + 0. pits. A typical example of such measures is an optimal scheme of the arrangement of unwatering and advancing boreholes. m. length and direction of advancing boreholes should be such as to preclude the breakthrough of a new working into an old one. Measures for ensuring safe mining work in hazardous zones should solve the principal problems of organization and give engineering solutions and terms for effecting of these measures and their control. the boundary of a barrier pillar is established.1). His the height of a water column above the hole . and L is the length of underground theodolite traverses run from the initial survey points to the contour of flooded workings and the boundary of a barrier pillar. m. Lln is found by interpolation. stored in the mine-surveying department of a mining plant. The boundaries of safe mining work should be determined by considering the materials of the geological structure of the flooded portion of a mine field. Depending on the available materials. The calculation of the expected water inflow for an unwatering borehole can be done by the formula: (13. and large-diameter boreholes is taken not less than 20 m in all directions and can be determined by the formula: d = 0. m.05 H + 0.002 L+ 5 (13. the mine surveyor determines the boundary of safe mining work. m. m. For flooded workings driven in the overburden rok. etc. The width of barrier pillars near flooded vertical shafts. as a working approaches an old working. water from the latter is pumped off in due time. H is the mining depth. In coal fields. With a reliable contour.05 H + 0. For barrier pillars extended to the dip. As a rule. archives. m3/h. barrier pillars are not usually left. The width of a barrier pillar should however be not less than 20 m. the width of a barrier pillar is determined by the formula: d = 0.310 Ch.

The resulting points 311 and 4" determine the boundaiy of a barrier Vertical section across the strike pillar on the dip. and 1is the length of a hole.4 cos 20° = 34. e.6m than 40 times the seam thickness.4m 5 2 tected area is represented by a contour 1'-2'3' 5-6 which confines the flooded workings of Fig. the sections of length dl = 28.2 ill is laid off from the points 3 and 4. the width of a barrier pillar on the airway level is: dl = 5 x 1.3.8 m/s2 is the acceleration due to gravity.3. 13. m.= 36. Sup.4m The seam 14is expected to be worked out in ~ "'1" one or two years.1). Since it is bedded along the "' " normal under the seam 16 in which the workings are flooded. 9 = 9.pillar is constructed at a distance not less =28. tI\. 13.a safety 3. At the Calculation and construction of a barrier level 450 ill. The contour of the barrier Level 350 m pillar at flooded workings in the inclined I. contour of flooded workings is 1800 ill on the airway level 350 ill and 3200 ill on the haulage level 450 ill.002 x 1800 = 28. \v=20' It is depicted on the plan of the mining work. Examples of Calculation from points 1 and 2.2).5 + 0.6 m distance of 25 ill under a seam 16(Fig.002 x 3200 = 36. In accordance with formula (13.13.4 ill On the horizontal projection (Fig. dl of mine survey lines for determining the cos v = 36.~11' £.\. Earth's surface (Fig. Let a seam 14 Plan 2 ill thick be bedded along a normal at a 6 ~dl=2B.1 Graphical construction of barrier pillar the inclined field together with a barrier at flooded workings pillar.e"311' 6 seam field 16passes through points 1'-2'-5-6. The construction of the safety pillar is l .05 x 350 + 0. Calculation and construction of a safety Level 450 m pillar under flooded workings. the pose that a worked-out field in a seam 16 resulting points 3' and 4' give the boundary 1. i.5 + 0.6 ill are laid off 13. 4li~ E. the points l' and 2' thus and Construction obtained define the boundaries of a barrier of Dangerous Zones pillar on the strike on the airway level. 13.. 13. and the whole system is tested for strength and tightness by pumping in water into the hole at a pressure exce~ding 1.05 x 450 + 0. A gate valve is mounted on the tube. the sections of length dl = pillar in a seam with flooded workings.6 ill and that on the haulage level is: dl = 5 x 1.1).. The proI Jd2=36. a guide tube is inserted into a hole drilled to a depth of 10-15 m and fixed in place by a cement slurry.Id2=36. in order to prevent water inrush from the seam 16into 14.5 times that in flooded workings. the horizontal projection of dl.5 m thick and an angle of dip of 20° is of a barrier pillar on the strike on the haulage flooded at a depth of 350-450 m from the level. 'to 3" i.4 ill are laid off from points 3 and 4. The length a seam. m. By the most popular method of packing. The mouths of unwatering and advancing boreholes should be packed hermetically. Calculation and Construction of Dangerous Zones 311 mouth.1).The contour of the To find the pillar boundaries on the dip of mining work (1-2-3-4) is reliable.

This gives the general contour of the safety pillar (hazardous zone) in the seam 14' which is confined in the plan by the contour with corner points 7-8-9-10. A seam [4 is bedded at 40 mbelow the normal.2.91. 13.9 m. The resulting points 11. In the section across the strike. 13. and 101 in the seam 14define the pillar boundary in that section. Mter that angles 0' = 70° are laid off from the points 1'. A prospecting borehole is drilled through a seam [6 at a depth of 320 m and stopped in 7 m after passing out from the seam (Fig. and 0' = 70°. the rupture angles are: ~' = 64°.2 Graphical construction of safety pillar under flooded workings of overlying seam carried out by using rupture angles. The position of the borehole in the seam [6 is determined by the measurements of the hole curvature. The points 71.5 km in the seam 14. For the conditions considered. Calculation and construction of a barrier pillar near an unplugged prospecting borehole. . The points I' (2') and 5 (6) are projected from the plan onto the vertical section across the strike. lines are drawn from the points 11 (21) and 51 (6J at angles ~' = 64° and y' = 70° respectively up to the intersection with the seam 14.312 Ch. 91 and 101 are projected from the sections across and on the strike onto the plan. 13. 61 on the level 450 ill.: on the level 350 ill and points 51. 81. Mine-Surveying Control of Mining Safety Fig. which gives points 1'. The total extension of mine-surveying theodolite traverses is 4 km in the seam [6 and 5.Points 71 (8J and 91 (IOJ found in this way determine the boundaries 9f a safety pillar on the rise and on the dip. 81. which gives points 11 (21) and 51 (6J and onto that on the strike.3). and 51 on the levels 350 ill and 450 ill on the vertical section on the strike. 61.2'. The seam thickness is: [6 = 1 m and [4 = 0. y' = 70°.

II arrlerplar actual distance between the borehole bottom d h 1 . e 14. Similarly..75 m are then laid off from that point on the rise and on the dip.0 + 0. seali\14 I 1 ~' "5' O . points I'. .. which gives points 7 and 8. w ' I dt4=31. which gives points 5 and 6. e.1). 3. 40 x 0.5 ill In the vertical section across the strike. the actual distance from the seam 14 is 33 m. e. Since. the distance from advancing boreholes to the flooded old working in the section considered should not exceed the width of the crushed edge zone of a barrier pillar in stope workings.13. Since the borehole has been stopped in the underlying rock at a depth of 7 m below the seam foot. the sections of length dl/2 = 15. a noffilal is drawn iI-J . i. These points define the pillar boundary on the strike. Vertical section Calculation and Construction of Dangerous Zones 313 across the strike Hole No. the points 5 and 6 are projected onto the plan to obtain points 5' and 6'. 7. the safe distance between the seamsis 40 times the thickness of the seam 14. After that. it lS reqwre d to leave a barrier pillar in the seam 14.9 + 0. Arrangement of advancing boreholes when approaching flooded old workings.. The resulting points 1 and 2 fix the barrier pillar boundary.5m I Barrierpillar an t e seam 4 lS sma er. however. 5 m. i...100 //$/ ~/""')Y /~/AW/~ / ~ /~ d16=29m '1'*'--sea((\\& 5 ~ 7m :. the points 5'. the mine surveyor develops the scheme of the arrangement of advancing (unwatering) boreholes and determines the number of holes from the following considerations: the probability of the breakthrough of a new working into the old working should be completely precluded. the pitch of the advancement of the working should be chosen so as to ensure a constant (not reducing) advance of the prospected portion of the boundary of safe mining work. These points are then projected onto the plan (points I' and 2').5 ill are laid off from a point 01 in the seam 16 on the rise and on the dip.which gives points 3 and 4.. 6'. the hole bottom to the mtersectlon with seam.05 x 360 + 0. The sections of a length dl /2 = 15. i.: 6 deteffilines in plan the contour of the barrier pillar in the seam 16. The sections of the half-width of a barrier pillar are again laid off from the point 01 along the strike line passing through the intersection of a borehole with the seam 16.3 Construction of barrier pillar near unpluggedcurved borehole By fofl1lula (13. Finally. II . Mter that.002 4 x 5500 = 31. 2'. llne sections equal to half the pillar width. I -the I '1B' + I ~ ~ Inseam [4 -from ~ 4 B Fig.75 m are laid off from the point o24in the direction perpendicular to a line 5'-6'. the width of a barfler pillar will be: for the seam 16: dl = 5 x 1. and the B ~ ¥ I ~ in seamJ6 . but not less than the width of the barrier pillar. For constructing this pillar.3.05 x 320 + 0. and 8 are connected by a smooth curve which defines the contour of the barrier pillar in the seam 14. 13. When a working is approaching flooded old workings. and 4 are connected by a smooth curve which .002 6 x 4000 = 29 ill and for the seam 14: dl = 5 x 0.9 = 36 m. which gives a point O2.

2) is directed into a point which ensures the control of a band of width 12= 5 ill. noting that a distance of 5 m at both sides is controlled by each borehole and that the entire zone controlled by a borehole should be not wider than 12 m. The first borehole (No.. Thus. '~ of Mining Safety -..4).{' ~ F:==:=entry in seam m4 =3 I' 87. are plotted on the plan of the mining work.. a fan of diverging advancing boreholes is drilled. An arc of radius 5 ill is drawn by compasses from the point A.1 1"'"- ~T "j. Lines 1-2 and 3-4 are drawn at a distance d = 20 ill frOm the axis 9f the projected working. ~O\e le ~0. Consider a case of the arrangement of advancing boreholes when driving a single working in the hazardous zone with the width d of a barrier pillar 20 ill (Fig. 13.1 tangent to this arc. Arrangement of advancing boreholes at distortions intersecting flooded workings. and the bore- hole is directed along .4 Arrangement of advancing boreholes across barrier pillar m=l..0-- 1=50m d= 20 m u " Seam m4 iL d=20~ ~ E o "' II .. When mining workings are approaching the distortions which intersect flooded old workings. exploratory drilling should be . 1) is directed along the axis of the projected working (ventilation adit in a seam m4)' and its optimal length is 50 ill. In a similar way.1 and No... The zone of the crushed edge portion of a barrier pillar 5 ill wide is constructed from the point A.2. where water inrush is probable and which should be proved by advancing holes. r d= 20m 11=2m ~rr'- 2=5m -~ij~~~r~~~d iui! ~1 Reserve ventilating B . 13.d"ge 2 . which gives a point A. 13. The number of advancing boreholes in the second and subsequent groups diminishes by one both on the rise and on the dip of a seam. In the example considered. 4 Fig. five holes are drilled from the point of the first setting of a drilling rig (a point Bl).314 Ch. . the shortest possible distance to the flooded working (11= 2 ill) is laid ofTfrom a point 1.3). the number of additional advancing holes is determined. The planned ventilation adit in a seam m4' boundary of the hazardous zone (I-II). For this.--- Jl -1~ When driving a single working in the hazardous zone in a seam with flooded workings.omTIO° -.'3 - I ~ ---Hole ~! -- \". The place for drilling another group of boreholes is determined from the condition that the working face should be stopped in a point B2 which is spaced from the point Bl at a distance d = 20 m. it is required to drill an additional borehole (No. the directions and number of boreholes for controlling the hazardous zone on the dip are determined. Considering the distance between the bottoms of boreholes No.. Mine-Surveying Control I. and the boundary of a pillar (1-2-3-4). . The second borehole (No..

the width of the hazardous zone can b~ calculated by formula (13. The width of the hazardous zone in this case can be determined by the formula: 40 m cos v (cotan d= v cotan O + cos ro) sin A Fig. With a working approaching a discontinuous distortion which intersects a flooded working 1 (Fig. v is the angle of dip of a seam. the width of the hazardous zone is increased so that the distance along a normal from the seam to the dislodger is not less than 40 m. 13. If the distance along a normal between the adjacent working seams is less than 40 m.4. Construction of Zones of Elevated Rock Pressure 315 made. The width of the hazardous zone at a discontinuous geological disturbance (distortion) is determined in each particular case depending on the accuracy with which the disturbance is represented on the plans of rocks. In all cases. two Operations in stope workings can cause the deformations and displacements of rocks. 13. where m is the seam thickness.4. when establishing the boundaries of a hazardous zone. and A is the plan angle between the line of dip of a seam and the intersection line. but it should be not less than 20 m. L is found by considering the total extension of theodolite traverses from the adjacent shafts to the barrier pillar. The displacement process can influence the state of the rock massif and coal seams. The protected area is taken as the boundary of the barrier pillar in the overlying seam.1). In such cases.5 Arrangement of advancing boreholes for a working approaching geological distortion cotan v cos (I) -cotan O advancing boreholes 2 are usually drilled. since the disturbed rocks in the distortion zone are considered to be flooded and. and geological sections. O is the angle of dip of a dislodger. the barrier pillar in the underlying seam is constructed as a safety pillar under flooded workings. (I) is the plan angle between the lines of dip of a dislodger and seam. If the intersection of distortion and flooded workings gets into the zone of rock displacement by the future stope working. are equated to flooded old workings. 13.1 3. the boundary of the hazardous zone should be at a distance not less than 30 m along a normal to a dislodger. Construction of Elevated of Zones Rock Pressure where d is the distance in a plan along a normal from the line of the intersection of a seam and dislodger to the boundary of a hazardous zone.1).5). gypsometric plans. If the dislodger of a discontinuous geological disturbance has been opened and intersected by preparatory workings and it has been established that the inundation of the rock in the disturbed zone is insignificant. One of them is arranged normally to the plane of a dislodger and the other is drilled horizontally along the axis of a working. Barrier pillars in mines in an upper seam being worked or in underlying seams located at a distance along a normal not less than 40 m from overlying seams (where m is the extracted thickness of an underlying seam) can be calculated by formula (13. This is done for determining the degree of inundation of a dislodger zone and for preventing the probable water inrush.The seam being extracted is bedded in a suite in which one or more seams have already been worked out earlier and coal pillars have been .however. Places for the arrangement of advancing boreholes are determined by the boundary of a hazardous zone.

This usually leads to roof rock inrush and sometimes to rock bursts in stoping faces. pillars are understood as non-extracted portions in adjacent coal seams.fJ ~I (b) O NILr 5 0.. the width I of the zone of bearing pressure in the seam with the left ~ . such as instantaneous destruction of the rock massif around a stoping face. 13. but the local changes of the stability of the lower roof layer and phenomena of secondary subsidence of the main roof are possible. ~ ~ 1. The dangerouszone can be characterized by a reduced stability of the lower layers of a roof in the worked-out seam owing to increased fissuring and stratification. For the pillars of a width less than 2 I. in the first place.prediction zone (solid lines for perpendicular pillars and dotted lines for parallel ones) I is the width of the zone of bearing pressure). It is distinguished between three types of zones of dangerous effect of pillars and edge portions of adjacent seams. 3. the thickness h of the interlayer between the worked-out seam and the seam in which a pillar or edge portion is left. Pillars and edge portions of seams may be in a different position relative to the line of a stoping face.which have a width up to 2 1.6 all 3 0 04 08 12 t6 all Fig. The dimensions of influence zones under various conditions of seam underworking (or overworking) are determined by the distance of influen~ of pillars and edge portions and by the influence angles.316 Ch.6b).4 08 1. In this case. (b) above pillars or edge portions.2 1. The dimensions of zones of elevated rock pressure in stoping faces driven under pillars (edge portions) can be determined in the nomogram 2 in Fig. For constructing the boundaries of the zone of elevated rock pressure. immediately above a working. l3.. Strong swelling of ground and squeezing of coal can often occur in the zones of elevated hazard. 1 -zone of elevated hazard. These effects can raise catastrophically the load on the supports and often lead to rock bursts in stoping faces. the extracted thickness m of that seam.whereas the portions of a width more than 2 1 are regarded as the edge portions of a seam (here 3 -4 I '1 ~ 1 'I~. the following characteristics should be known: the bedding depth H of the seam in which a pil)ar or edge portion is left. the width a of a pillar. The zone of elevated hazard is characterized by a sharp loss of stability of rocks in the roof. The boundaries of zones of elevated rock pressure are constructed graphically on vertical geological sections perpendicular to the boundaries of pillars or edge portions of a seam.. Mine-Surveying Control la) of Mining Safety left. the boundaries of dangerous zones are not constructed. The prediction zone has no noticeabe effect on the lining of stoping faces. 13.6a and of those driven above pillars. l3. This gives rise to an additional effect which is called the bearing pressure and forms a zone of elevated rock pressure.6 Nomograms to determine distance of influence of zones of elevated rock pressure in faces: (a) under pillars or edge portions.. in the nomogram 3 (Fig. . Dynamic effects of rock pressure can be observed. so that the projections of these pillars get into the displacement zone on the seam being worked out.dangerous zone. 2.

which gives the dimensionless ratio all according to which the dimensionless ratio E HZ . 5'-6'.4. For this purpose. Construction of Zones of Elevated Rock Pressure 317 50 40 30 20 10 N Ii is found in the nomogram (here N is the distance of influence. 5-6.ograms to determine width 1 of bearing pressure zone: (a) for depths 200-1200 m. m). On the nomogram of Fig. and curves 3 to prediction zones.7. The zones of elevated rock pressure are constructed in the following way.7. this ratio should be multiplied by I.13. 13. I. In the nomograms of Fig. the width of a pillar. and the position or a stoping face in the worked-out seam are shown. (b) for depths 20-280 m ~ Seam '8 " \ DZ pillar or edge portion. Then.8 Construction pressure from pillar of zones of elevated rock ~ .6. the pillar (or the edge portion of a seam).7 Norn. a. 13.8) on which the seam of influence and the worked-out seam. 13. curves 1 correspond to the boundary of influence of zones of elevated hazard. 13. 13. the distance of influence of the zones of elevated rock pressure is then determined. For instance. dangerous zones and prediction zones are laid off in the roof and foot of the seam of the pillar perpendicular to the bedding plane.6. 13.1 !I ~ I A Seam I \ po ll I B 10 ! ar 10'1 Seam I '~ Fig. 3'-4'. is divided by the width of the bearing pressure zone. 40 80 120 160 200 240 Hm 7 8 Fig. lines parallel to the influence seam are drawn through the points obtained (3-4. The calculated distances of influence of the zones of elevated hazard. curves 2 to the distance of influence of dangerous zones. For the known mining depth H and seam thickness m. the width I of the zone of bearing pressure is found in the nomogram of Fig. 13. a vertical section through the given pillar is plotted (Fig. Mter that. the width of the bearing pressure zone. To change from the dimensionless ratio N Ii to dimensional N. The last characteristic can be found in the nomograms of Fig. 7-8. with H = 750 m and m = 2 m. and 7'-8'). the width of the bearing pressure zone is I = 65 m.

4 = 221 m. One of the main methods for preventing sudden outbursts is working out of protective seams. they are considered in the first place by the degree of hazard. Construction of Dangerous Zones for Mining Work in Seams Liable to Coal. Perpendiculars to the bedding plane are then drawn from these points up to the intersection with the lines of distance of influence of dangerous zone and prediction zone in points 5 and 6 (5' and 6') and 7 and 8 (7' and 8'). may be associated with dynamic phenomena: sudden bursts of coal. Points 9 (9') and 10 (10') are connected with points 3 and 4 (3' and 4') by lines which define the side boundaries of the elevated hazard zone.5. A protective seam is a seam (or interlayer.5. Mine-Surveying Control of Mining Safety As an example. a non-dangerous protective seam is extracted in the first place. sections 1-9 (1'-9') and 2-10 (2'-10').5 = 227. determined the parameters for the construction of dangerous zones.9). ensures complete safety from outbursts in another seam of a suite that is to be protected. 13. and developed the measures for preventing outbursts.77. are laid off in the bedding plane from points 1 and 2 (I' and 2'). and for the prediction zone: N~ = = 65 x 5. and for the prediction zone: N 3 = 65 x 5 = 325 m.5 m. For the construction of zones of elevated rock pressure from a pillar (see Fig. when being worked out. each 20 m long. Using this ratio.4. . In mining of a suite of seams which are dangerous in outbursts. The ratio of the pillar width to the width of the bearing pressure zone is a/[= 0. 13. the boundaries of the zones of elevated rock pressure are constructed for each seam. gas and rock. let us determine the zones of influence of elevated rock pressure in the roof and foot if the width of the zone of bearing pressure is 1 = 65 m and the width of the pillar is a = 50 m. The construction of the boundaries of the zones of elevated rock pressure from the edge portions at the side of the worked-out space is done in the same way as for the pillar. being mined. For a seam [8' the width of the elevated hazard zone is equal to (AB) and for a seam [4' to (CD). The boundary of the zone of elevated rock pressure is a straight line drawn perpendicular to the bedding plane at a distance corresponding to the width of the zone of bearing pressure. Gas and Rock Bursts The mining work in deeply bedded coal seams increases the risk of harmful and dangerous effects of rock and gas pressure which. If the zones of elevated rock pressure from a number of adjacent seams overlap on the seam being mined. For overlying faces we have: for the zone of elevated hazard: N'l = 65 x 3. and N 3/[ = 5) and for those passing above pillars (N'1/1= 3. To determine the side boundaries of the elevated hazard zone. The distance of influence of a pillar for underlying faces will be as follows: for the zone of elevated hazard: N = 1 = 65 x 2 = 130 m. or relieves partially the rock pressure. we find N /I for faces passipg under pillars (N 1// = 2.5 m. but at the side of the rock massif. If a number of coal seams are being mined under (above) pillars. or rock layer) which. established the relationships between the effects of gas and rock pressure. N~/l = 4.5 m. N fl = 3.8). for the dangerous zone: N~ = 65 x 4. the boundaries of the zones of elevated rock pressure are constructed for each pillar. lines are drawn from points 1 and 2 at an angle of 60 o to the bedding plane up to the intersection with the line of distance of influence of elevated hazard zone in points 3 and 4 (3' and 4').9 and N~/l = 5.318 Ch. Soviet scientists have studied the nature of the principal engineering and geological factors causing gas-dynamic phenomena and rock bursts.9 = 318.9 = 383. for the dangerous zone: N 2 = 65 x 3. 13. If pillars have been left in a number of seams under (above) the seam.

the rock pressure in the massif decreases due to the displacement of underworked rock volumes.9 Construction of protected zone in working of protective seam on dip: (a) section on strike with b < 2~. l-protective seam. The duty of mine-surveying service in this case is to construct the protected zones and zones of elevated rock pressure. the protected zones and zones of elevated rock pressure are constructed on the basis of the following initial data: mining depth H in the protective seam. (c) section across strike.zone of dangerous loads .seams to be protected. For seams liable to coal and gas outbursts. 13.5. concentration 11.13. (b) section on strike with b > 2~.2 and 3. and inform miners and foremen when workings approach to dangerous zones by 20 m. per cent. 4. extracted thickness m of the protected seam.protected zone. Protective seams should be worked out without leaving coal pillars. of sand (cl I' I [i r 2 I~ ~ 'Q1 Fig. depict them on the plans of the mining work. angle of dip v of the Ream. 5. Dangerous Zones in Seams Liable to Bursts 319 Upon the extraction of this seam.

It is required to take into consideration only pillars whose dimensions exceed the following values: 4 m for the seam thickness up to 1 m.11a. ~2 is a coefficient considering the and 13. 13.11b). 13.7) where L. If hI < SI in underworking or h2 < S2 in space on the strike is 650 m. The protecconcentration 11. controlled by complete pneumatic back-filmef ~ .9 and 13.7 m.1. m ~ 1. mo is the values of advancement of the stoping face in critical thickness of a protective seam which the protective seam relative to the mining can be found in the nomogram of work in the seam being protected (Figs 13.7 m. The values of ~.7 m. the interlayer: the extracted thickness is m = 0. Mine-Surveying Control of Mining Safety Values of S:' m Values of S~. (13. and 4 can be calculated by the formula: Li = [31L.9)can be determined by the formulae: SI = ~1~2S'1and S2 = ~1~2S~ (13. The inclined height of a level is 150 m and the size of the worked-out and S'I and S~ are taken from Table 13. In cases when h ~ 25 m.3. m (refer to Figs. and 8 m for the seam thickness above 2. of working in plan. m Smallest dimension.10).4(11/100) angle of dip v = 50°. is to be found on a nomogram (Fig. 3 m for the seam thickness from 1 m to 2. m (refer to Figs. Construction of protected zone.9 and 13.320 Table 13.10) are given in Table 13. 13. and the roof control is effected by complete caving. v ~ 30°.1 Depth of work m H. ma The permissible maximum and minimum but should not be less than unity. it is required to separate sec. The values of these angles are given in Table 13.3 m.2.10) 50 300 400 500 600 800 1000 1200 75 100 Smallest dimension. Ch. The zone of the restoration of dangerous loads can only form when a ~ ~ + ~ and b ~ 24 simultaneously. per cent. 13.9 Fig. A pillar 15 m overworking. of sandstones in tive seam is worked out at a depth of 1000 m. 13. SI' and in the foot.10) 50 75 125 148 134 120 109 90 71 63 150 175 200 205 182 164 146 127 114 104 250 220 194 174 155 135 122 113 100 76 58 49 43 36 32 30 125 83 66 56 50 41 36 32 150 87 71 62 55 45 41 37 200 90 74 66 59 49 44 40 250 92 76 68 61 50 45 41 70 58 50 45 33 27 24 100 85 75 67 54 41 37 125 112 100 90 80 57 50 172 170 154 138 117 100 92 190 155 142 126 103 88 80 56 40 29 24 21 18 16 67 50 39 34 29 25 23 on the strike. 13.wide is left on the airway level. a or b. The dimensions of the protected zone in the roof. ~.9 and 13. S2 (Fig. The roof is tions where dangerous loads can appear again.6) where ~I is a coefficient depending on the method of roof control: ~1 = this is done by using protection angles O and pressure angles <p (Figs 13. the angles O are taken equal to 90°. a or b. and the ~2 = 1 -0. of working in plan.

and therefore: me! = km = 0. L3 b. 13. I-protective seam.:..5. 1 /i .21/0.3 x 0. with a = 150 m and H = 1000 m. k = 0. Dangerous Zones in Seams Liable to Bursts 321 (a) (b) "'" . (c) section on strike.68 m. For the roof control by pneumatic back-filling. we find: S~ = 45 m. a = 150 m.11a).21 m ~1 = me!lmo = 0.4(11/lOO) From Table = 1 -0.1. A seam dangerous in rock bursts is bedded in the ground at a distance h2 = = 10 m.10 Construction of protected zone in working of protective seam on strike: (a) section across strike with a < 4 + ~.3. The interlayer contains 50 per cent of sandstones. then a is taken as the inclined height of a level.4(50/lOO) = 0. Since the size of the pillar between the levels is greater than 4 m.zone of restoration of dangerous loads ling.31 ~2 = 1 -0.seams to be protected. The size of the protected zone towards the foot of a protective seam is: S2 = f31f32S~ 21-1270 According to the nomogram (Fig. 13. i. --if .7 = 0.80 13. 4.13.protected zone.1 4 ? H . "{45~: "' ~\ 2 t ~ b2~!~ Fig. 5.. . 2 and 3. e. (b) section across strike with a >4 + ~. the critical thickness is mo = 0.62 = 0.

322

Ch. 13. Mine-Surveying

Control of Mining Safety whence the size of the protected zone along a normal to the bedding plane is: S 2 = 0.31 x 0.80 x 45 = 11 m From find ~ v = 50°; and 230 the nomogram of Fig. 13.11b, we and 1; for jhe inclination angle they are equal respectively to 180 m m. Thus, we have:

Table 13.2
Angle of Protection angles 0, deg Pressure angles <p, dip v, deg deg
01

B,

03

04

<PI 64 62 60 59 58 56 54 54 54 54

!P2

<1>3

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

80 77 73 69 65 74 72 74 70 75

80 83 87 90 90 90 90 90 90 80

75 75 75 77 80 80 80 80 78 75

75 75 75 70 70 70 70 72 75 80

64 63 60 59 56 54 52 48 46 43

64 63 61 59 57 55 53 52 50 48

Ll = L'l13l = 180 x 0.31 = 56 m

£2 = £~J32= 230 x 0.8 = 184 m Since a < 4 + ~, the zone of the restoration of dangerous loads cannot form and, according to Table 13.3, the permissible advancement b2 is not limited, and the minimal advancement b~ can be taken equal to 20 m. We find from Table 13.2 that 01 = 70° and 03 = 80°. The construction of zones of elevated rock pressure is illustrated in Fig. 13.12. For the zone of elevated rock

N ole: If the direction of stoping work coincides with neither the line of strike nor the line of dip, angle v is taken as the angle of inclination of the seam in a section perpendicular to the face direction.

Table 13.3

Mining conditions

Pernlissible advancement to prevent rock bursts, m

Permissible prevent

advancement outbursts, m

Minimal advancement: b; in underworking b; in oveI;;Working Maximal advancement** b1 in underworking b2 in overworking: if a < Ll + L2 if a > Ll + L2

khl h2

h1, but not less than 20 m* h2, but not less than 20 m

Not limited
b1 < L3 + h1 cotan b2 < L3 -0.3 h2 ~3

Not limited Not limited

* Coefficient k depends on the rate of advance of a stoping face in the protected seam: v, m/day k up to 2 I 2 to 5 1.2 over 5 1.4

** Permissible advancements are given for the stoping work on the strike. If the stoping work is carried out on the dip, LJ and <PJare replaced by L, and <PI;if on the rise, they are replaced by 4 and <P2. Permissible advancement is determined on the departure of a stoping face from breakthrough by a distance more than 2LJ (or LJ + L2 if the stoping work is carried out on the dip or on the rise).

13.5.
(a) ron

Dangerous

Zones

in Seams

Liable

to Bursts

323

200 0.8
1150 III

/.I\

100 0.4

IIII

\ \

=50m

\

0
(b)

400

800

H,m

\
, La L~
~

I~~

300 250

t(J&, II
\.,,\

200

0

30

60

IXo

y
y

Fig. 13.12 Zones of influence , of seam edge portion: I -protected zone; 11- unprotected zone; 111- zone of elevated rock pressure

21.

Chapter M ine-Surveying of Geological

Fourteen Control Exploration

the geological structure of the region in view of the collected geophysical and geochemical data and (2) to use the established regularities Geological exploration is essentially a of mineral location in order to find out the cycle of investigations which are carried out most perspective geological structures, evaluin a definite sequence and can be character- ate their prognostic resources, and determine ized by the following stages: further directions of geophysical and geo1. The stage of regional geological recon- logical survey and search. naissance which is aimed at determining the 2. The stage of geological survey and genprincipal bedding characteristics of various eral search is the main stage when large-scale minerals in a particular region so as to make investigations of geological structures are prognostic valuations of the perspectives of carried out in order to distinguish local areas their extraction and outline areas for more and structures which are promising for the detailed geological prospecting. This stage detection of mineral deposits. Geological surcan be divided into two substages: (a) re- veys at this stage should be made primarily gional geological and geophysical reconnais- within the limits of mining areas. The results sance and (b) regional geophysical and geo- of surveys and prospecting at this stage are logical surveys and hydrogeological and represented in the form of geological maps, engineering-geological work. register maps of minerals, and prognostic Geological and geophysical reconnaissance maps of mineral location. (the Ist substage) is effected for the formation 3. The stage of geological search is carried of a new or renovation of the existing geo- out in order to detect mineral deposits within logical and geophysical basis which is needed the limits of known and potential ore fields for establishing the principal characteristics and basins of sedimentary minerals where the of the geological structure of large regions previous exploration work has revealed the and the regularities of the location of probability of the detection of deposits. The minerals within their boundaries. search work at this. stage takes place in The results of geological and geophysical boreholes and pits with the use of georeconnaissance are used for plotting geo- physical and geochemical methods, rock logical, prognostic and other general and sampling, panning, etc. sheet maps, geological and geophysical key Investigated areas are represented on geosections, and schemesof the geological struc- logical maps which show the regularities of ture of deep levels. the localization of mineral bodies. The main purpose of prospecting opera4. The search-valuation stage is an intertions at the second substage is (I) to analyse mediate stage between the reconnaissance 14.1. Brief Data Exploration on Geological

14.2.

Mine-Surveying

Control

of Geological

Work

325

and the exploration of mineral deposits. The main object of this stage is to evaluate the commercial significance of detected deposits, reject. those which are of no interest for the mining industry, and select objects for preliminary prospecting. The results of the search-valuation work are represented in the form of preliminary geological maps and geological sections of a detected deposit. 5. The stage of preliminary prospecting is done in order to obtain trustworthy information for reliable geological, technological and economic evaluation of commercial significance of deposits. Most deposits are explored by prospecting boreholes. The results of preliminary prospecting are represented in the form of approved temporary specifications and technico-economical report on the expediency of the detailed exploration of a deposit. 6. The stage of detailed prospecting (exploration) is carried out only for deposits which are evaluated positively by preliminary prospecting and recommended for commercial exploitation. 7. The stage of complementary prospecting can be fulfilled both on explored deposits which are not still mined commercially and on those which are being mined. 8. The stage of exploitation prospecting is continued during the whole period of mining of a deposit and is carried out for collecting systematic reliable information required for current (annual) and operative (quarterly, monthly, and daily) planning of mineral extraction and the control of the completeness and quality of extraction. The main objects of exploitation prospecting consist in determining more accurately the contours of mineral bodies and their internal structure and bedding conditions, quantity and quality of mineral resources, geometrization of technological types and grades of a mineral, etc. All stages of geological reconnaissance and prospecting are associated with geodetic, to-

pographic and mine-surveying operations which are done to attain the following objectives: I. The formation of the geodetic basis for the layout, connection and geological survey work required for geological prospecting; provision of a control network for topographic surveys when these are needed; and the solution of various engineering problems when driving mining and exploring workings or making the geophysical and drilling work. 2. The formation of the topographic basis for geological prospecting; this is meant as a topographic plan or map with the points of field observations, which is plotted in a simpler form, i. e. without showing some elements of the topographic situation and relief that are inessential for the construction of geological boundaries. The topographic and geodetic materials collected at the stage of geological prospecting are latt;r used in the design and exploitation of mining plants. 14.2. Mine-Surveying of Geological Control Work

The mine-surveying control of geological work includes the following procedures: the transfer of the design positions of objects of geological observation (boreholes, mining workings, etc.) into nature; determination of the planimetric and height coordinates of these objects; and the formation of the topographic basis for geological and other special maps. The geodetic control for the mine-surveying work can be provided by: (a) geodetic nets; (b) elements of survey control, such as planimetric, elevation and combined planimetric-elevation surveying nets and individual points, and geodetic reference nets; (c) distinct contour points of deposits whose coordinates can be found on topo-

326

Ch. 14. Mine-Surveying

Control of Geological Exploration

Table 14.1
Stages of geological prospecting Root-mean square errors of positions of geological observation objects relative to initial points, m
in plan

in elevation

I. Regional geological investigations, geological survey work, and geperal search with compilation of maps on a scale: 1/100000 and smaller 1/50000 1/25000 2. Search work, search-valuation work and preliminary prospecting with compilation of maps on a scale 1/10000 3. Search-valuation work, preliminary and detailed prospecting with compilation of maps on a scale 1/5000 and larger
N ole: Numbers desertous, woody, in brackets and mountainous are rms errors regions. for determining

90(100) 40(50) 20 (25)

10(20) 5 (10) 2(3) (2) 0.5

the positions

of geological

observation

objects

graphic maps (plans) or aerophotogrammetric plans with the required accuracy; and (d) objects of geological observations whose coordinates are determined with the required accuracy. The mine-surveying control for transferring the design positions of objects of geological observations into nature includes the following steps: (a) the preparation of initial data and the compilation of schemesand the plan of work; (b) measurements for determining the positions of observation objects on the ground; and (c) the fixation of the positions of transferred objects. The accuracy of the determination of planimetric and height coordinates of geological observation objects can be taken by reference to Table 14.1 for deposits of solid minerals and to Table 14.2, for oil and gas

the accuracy recommended in Table 14.1. The elevations of these objects should be determined with errors not exceeding the following data: (a) in hydrogeological surveys, 0.5 of the adopted interval of hydroisohypses on hydrogeological maps, but not more than twice the error given in Table 14.1; (b) for individual hydro geological surveys for determining the gradients of underground flows, inundations of sections and mining workings (mines, shafts, etc.), within t!!e accuracy for technical levelling, i. e. 50 J L, mm, where L is the length of a geometric level line, km. The coordinates of the mouths of stationary hydraulic boreholes should be determined from the closest bench marks and points of a national levelling net with an rms accuracy not worse than I 10 cm. In geological work, deep geological mapping and general search with the compilation deposits. For the objects of hydrogeological obser- of maps on a scale 1125000 and smaller, the vations, the survey work for determining the objects of geological observations are transplanimetric coordinates should be done with ferred into nature and connected, as a rule,

14.3. Topographic Table 14.2
Kind (category) of borehole

Basis of Geological Exploration

327

Ultimate
transfer into nature

errors, m

preliminary determination of elevations of borehole mouths
150
10 5 5

determination of planimetric position of borehole mouths 100
30 12 4 10

detennination of elevations of borehole mouths

Single reference and parametric boreholes Structural and search boreholes Exploratory boreholes Boreholes on exploited areas Boreholes in water areas

150

5.0
1.0 0.5 0.3 0.5

50 25 10 20

Notes: I. Errors are given relative to the points of a national geodetic net and geodetic densification nets. 2. As initial points of connection, it is possible to use any points including those by which the structural maps are plotted, provided that this ensures the accuracy indicated in the table.

according to the topographic maps and materials of aerophotogrammetric surveys, Instrumental field measurements at these stages of geological work are only possible in exceptional caseswhen topographic maps are unavailable or cannot ensure the specified accuracy of the connecting work. The points of a geodetic net or surveying nets fixed on the ground by permanent bench marks can be used for the layout, connection and geological survey work, planimetric and elevation control of topographic surveys, and for solving certain engineering-geological problems. The points of geodetic survey control fixed by temporary bench marks, points of geodetic reference nets, and distinct contour points on the terrain whose coordinates are taken from a topographic map can be used only for the layout, connection and geological survey work. The coordinates of geological observation objects can be used: for marking the positions of these points on maps and sections with an accuracy that can ensure reliable representation of the results of observations and accurate calculation of mineral resources;for deter-

mining the boundaries of mineral deposits, revealing geophysical anomalies, etc; and for compiling special maps, sections, prospecting profiles, and other graphical documentation. 14.3. Topographic of Geological Basis Exploration

The topographic basis for the geological exploration work can be provided by: (a) topographic maps (plans); (b) large-scale plans; or (c) special topographic plans. . In the geological, search and exploration work, the scale of the topographic basis should correspond to that of the map to be plotted. The recommended scales of the topographic basis for preliminary and detailed geological prospecting are given in Table 14.3. In the maps and plans of the topographi(; basis on a scale 1/10000 and smaller, the errors in the positions of contours, orientation marks and horizontals should be not more than 2.5 times the errors permissible in national topographic maps. In special topographic plans used as the

328
Table 14.3

Ch. 14. Mine-Surveying

Control of Geological Exploration

Stage of geological prospec- Scale for topographic sur. ting veying

Preliminary prospecting 1/10000 to 1/5000 Exploration of: (a) metal ores 1/10000 to 1/1000 (b) carbonate rocks, phosphorites, sands, and gravels 1/25000 to 1/5000 (c) salts 1/25000 to 1/10000 (d) coals and oil shales 1/1000 to 1/2000 (e) underground water 1/1000 to 1/5000 (I) other non-metallic minerals 1/10000 to 1/5000

topographic basis, the errors in the positions of land contours and objects relative to the nearest points of a surveying net should. not exceedthe pef111issible errors of corresponding topographic maps by more than 1.5 times for a scale 1/5000 or 2 times for larger scales. The errors of relief surveys relative to the nearest points of elevation control on the topographic basis should not exceed 0.5 m for contour intervals of 1 m or 1/3 of the contour interval in other cases. For better clarity, the amount of topographic details on geological maps on a scale 1/10000 and larger is diminished. Coordinate grids are shown as ticks of kilometre lines in intervals of 10 cm. The points on geodetic nets and on the schemesof geological observations are.taken selectively, i.e. only those points which are essential for the compilation of geological and geophysical maps are used. The points of a national geodetic basis are shown only in caseswhen this is specified by the design. Land relief is indicated by horizontals and numerical marks of individual heights. For the topographic basis on a scale 1/10000, land relief is shown in the same vertical contour intervals as on national topographic maps. For larger scales, the following contour intervals may be recommended: 2.0 m for a scale 1/5000; 2.0 m or

1.0 m for a scale 1/2000, and 1.0 m for a scale 1/1000. For mountainous regions and foothills, the recommended contour intervals are respectively 5.0 m, 5.0-2.0 m, and 1.0 m. Hydrographic objects are indicated on the topographic basis only as the coastal lines of seas,lakes, rivers, etc. without detailed characteristics. Vegetation is not shown. Woods are marked by contours. Swamps and marshes are shown by conventional symbols without detailed characteristics. Other typical features of the terrain and ground are not indicated on the topographic basis. The topographic basis of geophysical maps should give only the situation associated with the text of the report; land relief is shown only in rare cases. 14.4. Transfer of Plan of Exploratory Workings into Nature

Exploratory workings are transferred into nature according to the plan of the minesurveying work. Depending on local conditions and the specifics of geological prospectiDg, this plan may involve various kinds and volumes of the topographic and minesurveying work. For instance, Fig. 14.1 shows the plan of the topographic and mine-surveying work for detailed prospecting of a deposit by drilling exploratory boreholes along profile lines. The plan envisages triangulation surveys (points I, II, III and IV); running of base lines (main theodolite traverses) for the layout of profile lines; the connection of base lines (by closed theodolite traverses) to triangulation points III and IV; plane;.table surveying of the territory of a deposit on 10 plates; and the transfer and connection of points for borehole drilling. Exploratory workings and objects of geological observations are transferred into nature and connected relative to the points of reference nets which can include main theodolite traverses (base lines), profile lines. and

If an object is transferred into nature with an accuracy insufficient for connection. l4. l4.2b). . base lines may have a curvilinear shape (Fig. The layout work is carried out with an accuracy which can ensure the required accuracy of connection.14. the plans of exploration nets are transferred into nature by instrumental methods. As a rule.). In many cases. some base lines can be matched conveniently with extended objects on the terrain (roads.2a). Networks for detailed geological prospecting usually have a relatively regular geomet- ric shape and consist of a system of parallel base lines intersected by a system of parallel profiles (Fig. river banks. open watersheds. etc. additional connection to the closest control points should be carried out.4. Transfer of Exploratory Workings Plan into Nature 329 the points of a surveying net and national geodetic net. In such cases.

For transferring the initial points into nature and assigning direction to the initial portions of base lines. and the survey area is delineated by laying out base lines. Fig. base lines delineating the survey area are connected to the points of a geodetic net. so that the points of a geodetic reference net are invisible from it. (b) the. (c) the region of geological prospecting is located in an inhabited area. the mine-surveying and geodetic work is practically organized on the following principles: (a) the initial points and directions are transferred into nature. (b) base lines pass far from the points of a geodetic reference net. the angle between the direction of the base line and the direction onto another point of the reference net (for instance. Then a point of the reference net near the base lines is selected. and a theodolite traverse is run between the selected reference point and the base line (Fig. and (c) profiles are laid out and picked points are established. In that case. which provides a 'framework' for subsequent layout operations. 14. from which two or three adjacent reference points are visible. the base lines can be connected to the existing local system of coordinates. i. In that case. the directions of base lines can be assigned by means of a magnetic azimuth. l4.. angle 13. the following methods can be employed: (a) one of the base lines passes through a point of the geodetic reference net existing in the region being explored. . l4.Profile Fig. If the prospected region is located in . the 'framework' is connected to the existing system of coordinates. e. This angle is then laid off on the ground by an angle-measuring instrument set up in the initial point.330 (a) Ch. By means of this traverse..3b). 14.3a) is measured on a topographic map. Mine-Surveying Control of Geological Exploration (b) .-~::.2 Construction Main traverse with observation points profiles of base lines and prospecting In laying out geological exploration nets.

14. in such cases a length laid off between the pickets is corrected for the inclination angle. geological observation objects are transferred into nature and connected by reading off their positions on topographic maps or aerophotographic maps and plans. . base lines can be' connected by a geographic azimuth.A / ~ (b) --c.1.) and where there is a magnetic anomaly. For observation points and exploratory workings not coincident with the points of a reference net. length measurements or intersections.14. connection can be done by tacheometric or plane-table surveys. the plane coordinates and elevations of geological observation objects are transferred into nature and connected according to the materials of the aerophotogrammetric surveys of the latest years. The intervals between the pickets (observation points) on profile lines are measured in one direction by means of range finders or tapes. Objects can be transferred from aerophotographs onto a topographic map by visual. Connection and Transfer of Geological Observation Objects from Topographic Map into Nature In the geological survey and search work made on a scale 1/25000 or smaller.3 Scheme of base lines a closed area with poor visibility (woods. Inclination angles wider than 5° are measured by theodolites or inclinometers. (32 == ~ B.4. The coordinates of the final pickets of profiles are determined by running theodolite traverses between the ends of profiles..4. 14. graphical or instrumental methods. Transfer of Exploratory Workings Plan into Nature 331 (a) . etc. """6 Fig. For regions with a small quantity of contours and for which renovated maps are not available.

5 1. b.4. 14. transferred by the method of intersections graphs onto topographic map by intersections can be estimated by reference to Table 14. for mean difference of elevations between Fig. The transparent paper sheet is then shown that.4) and points to be transferred (say.0 1.3 0. In that case. c.4 topographic basis and oriented so that the 1100000 0. The accuracy of the position of points Fig. and D on the map.3 0. After that.paper onto the map. the distance x-a. the directions onto 15000 1. and I mm for moun. the topographic map (aerial photograph) by one central points of aerophotographs are first of the following methods.4 and punched on two adjacent aerial photo~ graphs.4 0. 1'. 2. points. a point is transferred least four reference points are chosen on an by linear intersections from two or three aerial photograph and a topographic map reference points on a map. 14. Mine-Surveying Control of Geological Exploration map. Mter that. b. mm.3 0.4 2. for transferring of points with the laid on the map so that the drawn directions root-mean square error of I mill. and directions are visually. 3 mm for foothills.5 1. Then.4 the central points and points to be transfer110000 0.Ch.0 2.8 2J sheets of transparent paper are laid onto the 150000 0. C.7 central point of each sheet is coincident with 1200 000 0.3 0. transferred onto the map by the method of photo triangulation. x-c. x-b. A sheet of transparent paper is laid on the aerial photograph. the 125000 0.3 0.3 the corresponding point on the topographic ~ I 430 431 ' 432 . m points I.3 0. B. only slightly dissected relief. central points of aerophotographs and resecGeological observation objects can be tions. and x-d pass through the points from reference points to the given object on A. The visual method is employed in cases drawn from the point to be transferred (say. when the terrain has distinct contours and x) onto the selected reference points a.3 0.7 red are drawn on the sheets. 14.3 0.3 0. the maps should be not more than 5 mill for flat point x is punched from the transparent land.3 0.4 Transfer of points from aerial photo. The points to be transferred onto the topographic basis are read off Table 14. The central points (431 and 432 in Map scale Accuracy of positions of points. c.7 6. and 2' in Fig. Experience has and d. connected or transferred into nature from a In the method of direct intersections. 14. points a. B. the (for instance.3 0. The instrumental method of point transfer tainous regions. the directions connecting the central points on the transparent paper sheets are matched with the corresponding line of the topographic map. C.3 0.7 5.4 2. The graphical methods of transfer most is the most accurate and least labour-consuoften employ direct intersections from the ming. The method of resections consists in that at In the visual method. The intersections of like directions determine the positions of the 2' point being transferred on the map.6 1. and D on a aerophotographs and map are compared map).4) are punched from each aerial photograph onto 50 150 200 500 transparent paper. and d on an aerial lengths of corresponding sections on the photograph and points A.

8 0.0 1.0 20. If the point to be determined is visible from contour points.0 8.2 mm on the map being used. and (c) the planimetric coordinates and elevations of observation objects are read off on a map. The determination of the planimetric coordinates and elevations of geological observation objects on topographic maps (aerial photographs) includes the following steps: (a) contours and orientation marks depicTable 14. The errors in elevations of observation Root-mean square errors (m) of elevations determined by interpolation between marked points (numerators) and between horizontals (denominators) map scale Flat terrain (inclination angles up to 2°) Flat woody terrain (inclination angles up to 2-4°) Flat densely inhabited terrain (inclination angles up to 2°) Hilly rugged (open) terrain with prevailing inclination angles up to 6° Hilly rugged (closed) terrain with prevailing inclination angles up to 6° Foothill and mountainous terrain with prevailing inclination angles up to 15° High-mountainous terrain 0.5 1.5 17. 3.5 5.4-0.0 Error not more than 1.0 0.6-1.0 14.0 11.0 7.0 . its position can be found by direct intersections. 4.0 1. The measurements of planimetric coordinates and elevations on maps are made twice. and the objects are indicated on the map.5 Pattern of terrain and relief ted on a topographic map are found on the terrain.5 of contour interval 10.5 of contour interval 33.0 Error not more than 2.2-2. measurements are carried out.5 3.0 5.0 20.0-2.4-0.4.5 2. If three typical points are visible from the point to be determined and these points are indicated on the map.5 2. By reading off a point if this point coincides with a contour point on the map.8-2.0 6.8-1.14. the position of that point can be found by resection.0 10. Transfer of Exploratory Workings Plan into Nature 333 1.8 0.0 3.0 40.6 1.0 12. by measurements on the range line of these points from one of the points to the point to be connected (or transferred). Measurements on maps and terrain should be carried out by methods which can determine the plan positions of objects relative to a known contour with a root-mean square error not exceeding 0.8 0.8-1. 2.6 0. on the terrain between the objects being determined and the orientation marks. when needed.6 0. If the given point is located between two contour points on the map. (b) observation objects are transferred from aerial photographs onto a map.2 1.0 1.5-0.2 4.9-1.

= smaKN XN-XK cosaKN 13K = aKB -aKN 13B= aBA -aBK' where x K' Y K' X N' and Y N are the coordinates of the points K and N determined graphically .5.5. Transfer of Geological Observation Objects from Reference Net into Nature of the oriented directions from the rotor centre in order to establish deviations and (b) the layout and fixation on the ground of the design direction of boreholes and the determination of the plan position of faces. The positions of points near profile lines can be determined by the method of perpendiculars with the distances measured by measuring tapes or range finders. surveying nets or base lines. their positions can be determined by a polar method (by a theodolite 01 a plane table). These methods have been discussed earlier. If workings are located at distances not more than 300 m from a reference net. The determination of the planimetric coordinates and elevations of geological objects on topographic maps should be made with a check of at least 20 per cent of the points being measured. The layout procedure is started by transferring the ends of the axis onto the ground. XK -xB SBK --- YK-YB sin IlBK YN -YK XK-XB COS IlBK tanaKN XN XK SKN= YN-YK . the following additional operations are made: (a) the layout and fixation on the ground The layout of open exploratory workings (ditches. points K and N are the ends of the design axis of a ditch and A and B are the points of a geodetic basis. 14. On a closed (woody or hilly) terrain it is however more preferable to use the method of a design theodolite traverse. In order to transfer the points K and N onto the ground by the method of a design theodolite traverse.2. which can be done by various methods or their combinations depending on the conditions of measurements and the provision of a geodetic basis.5.4. exploratory workings and geological observation objects are transferred into nature and connected by instrumental methods to the points of a national geodetic net. the distances being measured by a range finder. or reference nets. densification nets. With directional drilling of boreholes. In the plan shown in Fig. Mine-Surveying Control of Geological Exploration objects on topographic maps should correspond to the data given in Table 14. The positions of fixed boreholes and mining workings can be determined by analytical methods relative to the points of a national geodetic net. 14. 14.334 Ch. trenches. and (c) the compilation of the list of planimetric coordinates and elevations of geological observation objects. densification nets. etc. (b) measurements for determining the planimetric coordinates and elevations of geological observation objects.) consists in transferring the design position of an axis and side crests of a working into nature. it is essential to know angles /3B and /3K and horizontal distances BK = SBK and KN = SKN which can be obtained by solving inverse geodetic problems by the formulae: tanaBK = YK -YB . Layout Ditches of Exploratory In the geological search and exploration work made on a scale 1/10000 or larger. The work for the connection of geological observation objects includes: (a) the compilation of a connection scheme. 14. surveying nets.

Layout of Exploratory Ditches (a) 335 v ~ ~o ~o 0 0( 7 PK .The width 1 of the ditch bottom .inewood 0 v v v VI Fig.14. 11200). 14. and the point K thus obtained is fixed.5 Layout of exploratory ditch on the plan.. : 6 .5. The upper crests of a ditch are laid out by using a number of profiles which are plotted on millimetre-squared paper on a large scale (say. the design length SKN of a ditch is laid off. The angle ~K is constructed in the point K relative to a direction KN. x B' y B are the coordinates of the point E taken from the list of calculated coordinates of the points of a geodetic net. A theodolite is set up in the point E and the junction angle 13B constructed from a is direction EA at two different positions of a circle. and the point N is fixed. after which the length of a line SBK is laid off in that direction. and aBA is the initial direction angle taken from the list of the calculated coordinates of the points of a geodetic net.

in air. geophysical prospecting can be divided into regional. 8. 9 and 10 in Fig. and 6). variations in the physical properties of rocks. from the plan.. The points 1. either existing in nature or formed artificially.where it is shown by a dotted line). The construction of profiles gives the points of intersection of ditch crests with the Earth's surface (1.and underground. 14. a gravitational field can be represented by the acceleration due to gravity or second derivatives of the gravity force potential. 3.1 . Geodetic Control of Geophysical Prospecting Methods 14.5c). the former four perpendicularly to the ditch axis and the latter two. This is the direct problem to be solved in geophysics. search and prospecting for minerals. underground. Geophysics has to solve two types of problems: a direct problem and an inverse one. and the inclination angle of ditch sides are taken from the design and the elevations of the points of the Earth's surface. 2. 4. a magnetic field is characterized by the total intensity vector and its components (vertical. and in the Ocean is determined by the general structure of the Earth and the near space. outer space. as a rule. 5. 14. Any kind of these fields can be characterized by its specific parameters. 14. . According to the problems and objects of investigation. Geophysical prospecting methods can be employed in outer space. horizontal. Inclined distances K-l. which. etc. 3. For instance. Mine-Surveying Control of Geological Exploration (Fig.Ch. If the terrain is flat. on a longitudinal profile. and engineering geological studies which are based on the analysis of various physical fields. an electromagnetic field is characterized by the vectors of magnetic and electric components. prospecting for ores. and 6 are fixed on the ground.5b) and two transverse profiles through the points K and N (Fig.<p 14. structural. bedding depth and other characteristics of geological objects by the measured parameters of a physical field. In the case considered. These distances are laid off on the ground from the points K and N. The angles of the upper crests of the ditch (points 7. 2.5. cross-sectional profiles are not constructed. 14. the depth h. The inverse problem consists in determining the dimensions. 4. K-2. The inverse problem can be solved uniquely by studying a complex of fields. The principal possibility of geophysical methods of prospecting with the use of various physical fields is based on the fact that the distribution of field parameters on the Earth's surface. the parameters of a field can be uniquely determined when one knows the properties and dimensions of geological objects. 14. on the Earth's surface. Since the parameters of physical fields depend uniquely on the properties and dimensions of the geological objects being prospected.6. and the distance from the ditch axis to its crest is determined by the formula: N-4 = N-3 = 112+ d where d is calculated by the formula: d = hltan. N-3. and N-4 are then found on transverse profiles and K-6 and N-5. an elastic field is described by the time of the propagation of various elastic waves.5) are obtained at the intersections to the continued lines 1-4 and 2-3 and perpendiculars raised to the ditch axis in the points 5 and 6.6. along the axis. in seas. 5.General Data on Geophysical Prospecting Methods Geophysical prospecting includes the methods of the investigation of the Earth's crust. etc). three profiles are plotted: a longitudinal profile along the axis KN (Fig. and the dimensions and bedding depths of geological objects. cannot be determined uniquely.

seismic. Ag2 = 0. m. The normal field of the gravity force can be analysed by the formula: Yo =Ye(l~sinB~lsin22B) where ~ = (Yp-Ye)/Y. The relief correction takes into account the deviations of the physical surface of the Earth from the horizontal plane passing through the given point. ~1 = (1/8)a2 + (1/4)a~ a is the contraction of the Earth's ellipsoid. Geodetic Control of Geophysical Prospecting 337 petroleum and gas. Thus. In gravitational prospecting. and Ye is the normal gravity field at the equator.14.2.308 H (H is the altitude above sea level. the unit of acceleration is 1 cm s. The effect of the terrain on the topographic correction decreases proportionally with an increase in the distance from the observation point. A 9 1 = 0. Agl is the correction for altitude which reduces the measured value to the sea level (Faye's correction). the portion of the Earth's surface around the point of observation is divided in a particular manner into a number of areas so as to approximate the relief by simple geometric bodies whose gravitational effects can be determined analytically. on the density variations of rocks in the lithosphere (anomalous field). The correction for the surrounding relief is calculated for particular annular zones arranged concentrically around a gravimetric point.is the mean density of rocks in that layer and H is the altitude of an observation point). i. In gravitational prospecting. For calculating the relief correction. Yp is the normal gravity field at a pole. the most popular formula for describing the inhomogeneous density of the Earth's crust is based on Bouguer's anomaly (Bouguer's effect): AgB = gm -'Yo + Agl + Ag2 + Ag3 where gm is the measured gravity force. because of which the entire region for which the correction is taken into account is divided into three zones: the closer (up to Gravitational prospecting is based on measuring the acceleration due to gravity and its variations (gradients) in different directions. 14. on the other. its deviations from normal values. Ag2 is the correction for the attraction of an intermediate layer. which is equal to the attraction of the masses located between the sea level and a real surface. and engineering geophysics. the gravitational. magnetometric. the anomaly of the gravity force is essentially the difference between the gravity force observed and its theoretical value which can be calculated by one of the formulae for 22-1270 . on the one hand. and A g3 is the correction for relief. The gravitational (normal) field of the Earth is the field of the gravity force which is the resultant of two forces: the force of attraction of the Earth and the centrifugal force caused by the rotation of the Earth on its axis. electric. B is the geodetic latitude.6.6. e. these zones are divided further into curvilinear prisms. Principles of Gravitational Prospecting the normal gravity force with the introduction of corrections (reductions). nuclear and geothermal methods are more popular. The actual (physical) surface of the Earth within each prism is replaced by a horizontal plane whose altitude is equal to the mean altitude of the prism relative to the observation point. Since the shape of the relief in each zone may be variable. on some factors associated with the shape and rotation of the Earth (normal field) and. Among the various methods used for geophysical prospecting. The force of gravity can be measured in terms of the acceleration 9 acquired by a freely falling body.0419 o-H (0.2 which is called the gal. Gravitational prospecting is based on measuring the anomalies of the gravity force. The parameters of the field of gravity force depend.

In electric prospecting. Transient electric and electromagnetic is used for the examination of inhomogeneous geoelectric sections represented by fields excited by quick switching of rectanclosely folded strata and electromagnetically gular d. voltage source. e. Local natural electric fields. For this. Regional natural electromagnetic fields anomalous fields are studied. magnetic per. Earth. An anomalous field may appear due the influence of flows of charged particles to an inhomogeneous structure of the geo. Electric Prospecting by oxidation-reduction reactions at boundaThe electric methods of geological prospec. including those of electrochemical and electrokinetic origin.underground waters through porous rocks and the associated processesof diffusion and tionally called electric fields and the latter. the relief corrections in the mid and closer zone are determined by instrumental methods. and po. The principal electric properties monically in time. and the farther (from 2000 to 13000 m).emitted by the Sun on the ionosphere of the electric section of an area being prospected. c. Electric prospecting deals with the following kinds of field: I. The highest effect is produced by the relief elements in the closer zone. In high-precision gravimetric surveys. Electrocrust. a loop of a number of wire coils.field can be excited by an inductive (contactmeability. 14. Depending on the problems to be solved. electromagnetic. In any method of electric prospecting. (2) probing. (parameters) of rocks are the specific electric With the use of an alternating current.erators producing a voltage that varies harnetic fiel~. Natural fields may be either permanent kinetic fields exist due to the filtration of or variable in time. each of which has particular 3: Artificial permanent electric fields prodimensions and specific electromagnetic duced in the Earth by means of earthed cables connected to a d. and (3) underground electric prospecting used for the detection of geoelectric inhomogeneities between the boreholes or underground workings and the Earth's surface. usually of a square shape with the larizability. and seams. Their origin is attributed to having homogeneous electromagnetic properties. sections composed of horizontally bedded or gently dipping structures. divided into three groups: (I) profiling. adsorption of ions on solid particles. a resistance. Electrochemical fields can be caused 14. dielectric constant. 5. they depend on the i.3.338 Ch. In some cases. c. which generator. of the combination of geological bodies solar activity.less) method. the inhomogeneous inclusions.6. both normal and 2. the mid (from 200 m to 2000 m). size from 10 m to 1000 m. is laid on the all methods of electric prospecting can be Earth's surface and connected to an a.ries between the electronic conductors (ore or ting are based on studying natural and mineral bodies) and ionic ones (underground artificial electromagnetic fields in the Earth's water surrounding an ore body). c. Normal fields (called magneto-telluric fields) which appear are those which exist above a semispace in the Earth's crust in the regions of an appreciable area. Mine-Surveying Control of Geological Exploration 200 m). electrochemical activity. and therefore.a central zone of a radius of 10-50 m is separated in the closer zone. the measured field 4. Artificial variable harmonic electromagparameters are the amplitudes and phase netic fields formed by various electric genshifts of the intensities of electric and mag. pulses into the feed line. parameters. The former are conven. In electric prospecting. which is employed for the investigation of set of instruments contains electric generators .

Magnetic Prospecting Magnetic prospecting is a geophysical method based on studying the spatial distribution of variations of the geomagnetic field which can appear due to different magnetization of rocks. it is often possible to establish the geological nature of detected boundaries of geological bodies. these pulses are amplified and recorded on seismograms and magnetograms. In practice.6. e. in particular for the dissection of sedimentary beds. regional (T2).6. the reflected wave method is used most often. their dipping.methods of prospecting consist essentially in the excitation of elastic waves and detection of the induced soil oscillations which are transformed into electric pulses. 14. transmitted wave method. hydromagnetic and ground magnetic surveys. The records of these waves provide information on the structure of the region being studied. and other minerals. In the practice of . etc. measuring and recording instruments. the magnetic field of the Earth can be likened to the field of a uniformly magnetized sphere or dipole (To). to construct a seismogeological section. The principal methods of magnetic prospecting are the aeromagnetic. refracted wave method. bedding depths of seismogeological boundaries. Seismic prospecting is based on the analysis of the kinematics and dynamics of waves. The refracted wave method can provide information on the elastic wave velocities and the depth of beds composed of rocks with high elastic moduli and on the bedding depths of these rocks. Using additional geological characteristics. method of vertical seismic profiling.4. and auxiliary equipment. The principal methods of seismic prospecting are as follows: reflected wave method.5. besides. the magnetic field of the Earth also has the components of anomalous geomagnetic fields which are associated with continental (TJ. and the measurements of the magnetic properties of rock specimens. sometimes called refracted wave correlation method. there exists a magnetic field which can be described by the total magnetic intensity vector T or its vertical (2) and horizontal (H) components. Since rocks have different density and are characterized by different velocities of the propagation of elastic waves in them. and local (T3) anomalies. reflected and refracted waves can appear at the boundaries between the rock strata and. 14.6. These are processed in order to separate various kinds of seismic waves and determine the time of their propagation to a point with the known coordinates. In any point on the Earth's surface. In addition to this unifQrm field of the magnetized sphere. Geodetic Control of Geophysical Prospecting 339 and other supply sources. elastic waves of a different kind can form in inhomogeneous media. gas. extension. earthing electrodes or non-earthed contours for the galvanic or inductive field excitation. As a first approximation. variations of their propagation along the depth and over an area. however. method of common reflection point. The seismic. earthing electrodes and antenna rods for measuring the electric field components or frames and loops for measuring the magnetic components. Quantitative interpretation of the results of seismic prospecting gives the velocities of wave propagation. underground and borehole observations. 22. i.14. The transmitted wave method is employed for detecting various inhomogeneities in rock beds. It is the leading method for structural investigations and prospecting for petroleum. Seismic Prospecting Seismic prospecting for minerals is a geophysical method based on studying the propagation of elastic waves excited by explosions or other sources. etc.

A particular method of geodetic control in geophysical surveys is chosen mainly depending on the scale of geophysical work. 1/25000 and 1/10000. 14. A Z. provision of the geodetic basis. shape and location of ore bodies. as a rule. and in seismic and electric prospecting. Ground magnetic surveys are carried out. geological magnetic surveys are carried out for mapping the territory being studied. 1/5000 and 1/2000 are fulfilled for more detailed analysis of magnetic anomalies. e. relative values of the total vector. the measurements of the magnetic field may be either absolute or relative. The normal geomagnetic field can be characterized by a normal gradient.' i. in gravimetric and magnetometric prospecting. however. relative vertical components of the geomagnetic field. In geophysical field surveys on scales 1/50000 to 1/10000. Mine-Surveying Control of Geological Exploration magnetic prospecting.7. Magnetic surveys on scales 1/10000. however. Theodolite traverses and level lines are then run along base lines and sometimes along profile lines.. are measured most often and. In the latter case. increments of these characteristics relative to an initial (reference) point. and physico-geographic conditions in the prospected region. the plan positions of points in regional geophysical surveys can be determined on aerial photographs. the positions of profiles and individual points should be transferred onto the ground with . 14. the starts and ends of profiles and the centres of anomalies are connected instrumentally. Mine-Surveying in Geophysical Work Prospecting The principal object of the mine-surveying work in geophysical prospecting is to layout the set-up points for instruments and to determine their planimetric and height coordinates. detection of ore bodies and tectonic distortions. In ground magnetic prospecting. With scales 1/50000. Ground magnetic surveys can be done on scales from 1/50000 to 1/2000 and larger. A 1. less frequently. In magnetic prospecting. all observation points should be transferred into nature. Spacings between the profiles depend on the scale of surveys and can range from 500 m (1/50000) to 50 m (1/5000). point coordinates are most often determined by running main traverses (base lines) and laying out profiles between them.340 Ch. and for the estimation of the dimensions. The elevations of these points are usually determined by barometric levelling. The elevations and plan coordinates of points for geophysical measurements can be determined easily and efficiently by reference to topographic maps. as well as directly for searching iron-containing ores. The connection of observation points can be done by instrumental (in prospecting work) or semi-instrumental methods. If reliable maps are unavailable. The topographic and geodetic control of geophysical prospecting includes the following steps: (a) the design positions of prospecting profiles or individual observation points are transferred into nature and fixed on the ground. e. Observation profiles are assigned across the strike of anomalies on aeromagnetic maps. on areas which are recognized prospective by the results of aeromagnetic surveys. i. The deviations of the observed values of magnetic vectors from the normal field are regional or local anomalies depending on the area of their appearance. Distances between the observation points on profiles should be 50-60 per cent smaller than the profile spacings. this involves all centres of excitation and reception of signals. the normal magnetic field is usually taken as the field of a uniformly magnetized sphere (To) plus the continental anomaly (TJ. a change in field intensity per kilometre.

this should be done for all points of geodetic observations. instrumental geodetic methods.70 :!: 0.0 :t 100 :t 100 :t 50 :t 50 :t 25 :t 25 :t5 :t5 :t2 :!: 2. The planimetric connection of gravimetric prospecting points can be carried out by using topographic maps on scales corresponding to or larger than the scale of a gravimetric survey. etc.25 0.25 1/25000 0.20 0.50 0.).0 0.5 :!: 1.35 :!: 0. geometric and trigonometric levelling. the plan connection of aerogeophysical routes is usually done by aerial photogrammetry.20 :!: 0.14.7. and (d) height differences around the gravimetric points are determined in order to take into account the effect of a terrain relief on the measured values of a gravity force.45 :I: 0.25 0.5 0.25 :!: 0. milligal Root-mean square erros (m) of point position relal initial points in plan in elevation flat terrain flat terrain mountainous terrain flat terrain mountainous terrain mountainous terrain '1000000 '200000 '100000 150000 0.7.6 :I: 0. aerophotogrammetric materials.1.20 0. In aerogeophysical prospecting.50 0.50 0.35 :!: 0.05 1. (e) provision of the geodetic basis for gravimetric maps. and (f) the technical control and estimation of the accuracy of the work performed.1 . their plan coordinates and elevations are determined. For determining the elevations of gravimetric points. i. materials of stereophotogrammetric surveys. Mine-Surveying in Gravitational Work Prospecting The mine-surveying work in gravitational prospecting consists of the following operations: (a) the transfer of the design position of reference and ordinary gravimetric points into nature (laying-out of base lines. In cases when the surface of observations Interval. The permissible errors for determining the positions of the points of gravimetric observations are given in Table 14.8 :I: 1. etc. e. 14. it is possible to use topographic maps on scales which ensure the required accuracy. (b) observation points located on profiles and beyond them are connected.9 :I: 0.25 :to.20 0.0 :I: 1.2 :!: 0.6. barometric levelling. (c) the topographic basis for geophysical maps is formed.6 Scale of gravimetric map (c) determination of the plan and elevation coordinates of observation points. (b) fixation of the points by suitable marks.10 ::t200 ::t100 ::t80 ::t40 ::t40 ::t20 ::t20 ::t4 ::t4 ::t2 :!: 5. (d) determination of relative height differencesaround observation points in order to take into account the effect of a terrain relief. autometric topoconnectors. profiles.10 :!: 0.10 0.9 :I: 0.05 :I: 3. Mine-Surveying Work in Geophysical Prospecting 341 the accuracy of planimetric connection. and hydrostatic levelling. Table 14.

7. 15 m. i. Corrections for the surrounding relief are calculated for individual annular concentric zones around a gravimetric point. The radial distances from a gravimetric point to staffing points are usually taken equal to 1.2. which are not always available. 2 m.7. The mine-surveying work in various kinds force has certain specifics. 75 m or 150 m. e. these zones are further subdivided into curvilinear prisms which are called elementary separations (Fig. 14. With either positive or negative relief.Ch. Mine-Surveying Control of Geological Exploration cartographic materials of an appropriate accuracy.7 Electric prospecting by probing --( "Z ~ . In such cases. 14. 14. 35 m. The real surface of each elementary separation is replaced by a horizontal plane whose elevation is equal to the mean elevation of the elementary separation relative to an observation point.6). because of which the relief correction is always introduced with a positive sign. 14. 14. B For determining the relief corrections with the required accuracy. The correction for the surrounding relief can be determined directly on a topographic map or by instrumental measurements. the gravity force of electric prospecting has certain specifics. decreases.2 m. ~ Mine-Surveying Work in Electric Prospecting The mine-surveying work in all kinds of electric prospecting is carried out mainly for the preparation and connection of obser~ vation points and detected anomalies on the Fig.6 Terrain relief represented combinaas terrain and for laying-out and surveying of tion of elementaryseparations base lines and profiles. it is essential to have Fig. the portion of the Earth's surface in the direct vicinity of a gravimetric point. The principal requirements to the accudiffers substantially from a planar one deterracy of the mine-surveying work in electric mining the relief corrections which are introduced into the observed values of the gravity prospecting are given in Table 14. 6 m. levelling of the surrounding terrain is carried out along radial rays (eight or sixteen). especially for what is called the closer zone. Since the terrain relief in an annular zone may be variable.

by measurements on a preliminarily laid-out square or rectangular network. and 01 is usually done by means of topographic maps or aerophotogrammetric materials. The connection of points A.7). dipole probing. and magnetotelluric probing Vertical electroprobing. than Specified but 15 m not Natural field. transient.14. the area of a receiving loop q. 14. The points of the same potential are found on the terrain by means of what is called a search circuit. Mine-Surveying Table 14. the points for setting up instruments in regional prospecting are determined by reference to aerophotogrammetric materials and topographic maps and in detailed work. seismic profiles are laid out on the ground and connected in plan and vertically by instrumental methods. etc. natural direct current and the like methods. it is required to determine the distances between the logged and explosion boreholes. electroprofiling.3. isolines. and the explosion points located beyond the profiles are connected in plan. Mine-Surveying Work in Seismic Prospecting In seismic prospecting by the reflected wave method. 1/5000 1/10000 1/25000 1/50000 4 8 20 40 40 160 Telluric currents. and the direction angle from the logged boreholes onto explosion points. magnetotelluric profiling. In seismic logging.7. In spatial mass probing. The minesurveyor's task in this caseis to determine the positions of these points. In regional prospecting. In the refracted wave correlation method. induced polarization. B. In induction. seismic profiles are connected instrumentally. by instrumental methods. the coordinates of these points are mainly determined by the materials of aerophotogrammetry and in detailed work. The length of the feeding dipole can be calculated by the coordinates of the feeding dipole AB centre 0 and the centre of a receiving circuit 01. linear electrodes are laid on the ground at distances of 500-1500 m from one another and connected by insulated wires to the poles of a current source. height differences between them. an active distance 001 and an angle 6 (Fig. partial electromagnetic probing Formation of electromagnetic field 1/50000 1/200000 Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto 1/50 of reference level depth For instance. the plan and elevation positions of probes and explo- . in the method of isolines. 0. 14. which is required for the construction of a geoelectric section. In electric prospecting by probing methods. the length of a feeding dipole AB.7. the object of mine-surveying is to determine the plan and elevation coordinates of a record point Q.7 Method of electric prospecting Work in Geophysical Prospecting 343 Map scale Root-mean square errors of point position relative to initial points in plan in elevation flat terrain mountainous terrain 5 10 25 50 50 200 1/50 level more 5 5 10 10 of reference depth.

and distances along a profile can be measured by striding. and the figure for the arrangement of seismographs is constructed. . rivers.. in that case. observation points are connected mainly by radiogeodetic methods. Magnetic surveys are carried out.8.4. etc. In seismic prospecting in seas at a small distance from the coast. Mine-Surveying Work in Magnetic Prospecting In ground magnetic surveys. (b) profile methods with the simultaneous semi-instrumental layout of an observation network. along roads. but not more than 250 m in any case. The errors of the planimetric positions of points on a survey line should not exceed 1/4 of the spacing between the points. connection and fixation of observation points. In cases when the seismic work is being carried out far from the coastal line. and the connection and fixation of detected anomalous zones. structures. forest cuttings. the minesurveying work includes the transfer of the contours of a survey area. 1/25000 or 1/10000 in woody territories. and the surveying net is connected visually to the orientation marks which are present both on the ground and on the map. In magnetic prospecting with a preliminarily laid-out observation network. observation points can be connected by means of a reflecting circle (index) by the method of resections onto the initial points on the coast. etc. survey profiles can be ranged out by a magnetic azimuth.7.9 Scale of magnetic Root-mean square Relative error of surveying error of connection measured distance of initial point of between profile profile or base line points relative to initial points in plan in elevation 1/50000 1/25000 1/10000 1/5000 1/2000 1/1000 15 15 8 1/100 of interval between points on profile 8 sion points are determined.8 Ch. footpaths. profiles are ranged out by poles or buoys set up at intervals not more than 2-3 km in detailed surveys or 5-6 km in regional surveys.9. layout. the accuracy of the mine-surveying work should be as given in Table 14. 14. and (c) route methods with the observation points being read off from a topographic map or aerophotogram. the methods of the preparation of observation points can be divided into three main types: (a) profile methods with a preliminarily laid-out observation network. Profile methods with the simultaneous semi-instrumental layout of an observation network are usually employed in the search work on a scale of 1/50000. Mine-Surveying Control of Geological Exploration Table 14. as a rule. The accuracy requirements for the minesurveying work in seismic prospecting are given in Table 14.344 Table 14. In ground magnetic prospecting. In such cases. 14.

available instruments. An essential advantage of barometric levelling is that it is applicable even when the points to be levelled are mutually invisible.03 :t 0. m Root-mean square error of measured atmospheric pressure.0 ::!: 0.with correction for sys.rection tematic error of air temperature measurement )U-IU 80-20 110-10 210-30 station. and the techniques of levelling.015 ::!: 0. As has been demonstrated by the practice of levelling. mb Time intervals between measurements of pressure and temperature of atmospheric air at barometric stations. and required Table 14.010 :t 0..020 ::!:0. Barometric levelling is based on a certain correlation between the elevation of a terrain and atmospheric pressure.8.35 0. m at observation -~:-. however.TBS -temporary L. It is mainly resorted to in caseswhen other levelling methods are insufficiently accurate or less efficient economically.5 m. Barometric stations should be located on open places with smooth shapes of the relief. the choice of a particular method being dependent on the scope of work. number of observations.5 5. The accuracy of barometric levelling depends on the instruments employed. Barometric levelling in geophysical surveys can be carried out by various methods.14. the recommended accuracy in the measurements of atmospheric pressure is given in Table 14.70 0. kind of a terrain relief.90 2. Barometric Levelling of Geological Observation Objects Table 14. kIn Mean height difference of observed points relative to TBS *. m TBS *.05 ::!: 0. the measurements of air temperature at particular points and initial barometric stations are done at the same time with measuring the atmospheric pressure. Depending on the accuracy of measurement of the elevations of geological observation points.35 :I: 0.10 Root-mean square error of measured heights.points from ference. and (in summer time) near large water basins. Instruments for atmospheric pressure measurements should be placed at baromet- Table 14.30 :t 0.5 :I: 5.05 :t 0. In all methods.0 :I: 2.5 :I: 1. m Barometric levelling has found rather wide use for the elevation control of geological surveys. It is not advisable to locate stations on sharp summits. 14U-4j 245-55 320-45 680-180 :I: 0.0 .12 Root-mean Mean distance square error of observed of height dif. on the crests of cliffs. The method is especially popular in gravitational prospecting.4:> 0. with properly organized work it is possible to measure elevations with an error less than 0.11 Root-mean square error of measured heights. at barometric 0.015 :t 0.10 barometric .0 2.-() 2-9 2-13 10-25 without cor.15 ::!: 0. min in flatland regions in mountainregions ous 0.8. Barometric Levelling of Observation Objects 345 14.5 1.10.0 10 10 15 20 30 10 10 10 15 20 accuracy. in deep and narrow valleys.

6 2-4 5-15 5-14 5-9 5-40 5-25 5-15 5-50 5-40 5-20 5-13 5-12 10-50 10-30 10-15 10-15 20-5 20-5 20-5 50-10 40-10 40-5 85-35 85-35 75-10 110-50 110-10 100-25 100-10 95-5 240-200 240-200 230-210 220-200 70-25 70-10 60-5 140-25 130-20 120-10 240-70 240-90 235-65 320-130 320-40 310-40 290-50 280-5 700-550 700-540 700-590 700-570 Table 14.5 Permissible fInS error of comparison of mercury barometers at reference stations.25 0. verse.10 50 50-130 150 barometric 180-50 250 90 500-135 700 * RBS -reference station. m Time of traverse run.0 2.07 0.70 0.0 8. km Mean height difference of observed points relative to TBS. .0 1.0 6. h Mean length of tra.45 0.0 2.0 4.13 Ch.0 1.03 0.5 Table 14.14 Root-mean Mean distMean height difference of square error ance between points relative to RBS * in of height dif.15 Root-mean square error of measured heights of points. up to I to up 2.2 2.0 1.with correcrection for systion tematic error of air temperature measurement 1.0 3.346 Table 14. m without cor. km calculation.0 6.RBS *. m without correction for systematic error of air temperature measurement with correction 0.0 8. m ference.0 1.7 2.90 2. mb 0.0 4. Mine-Surveying Control of Geological Exploration Root-mean square error of height difference.0 4.0 2.0 2.0 2. 14.0 4.0 2.5 above 2.0 4.

:s " ~ ... O N ~ ~ 00 ~ + "' r:=: ~ r-i -0 + N tO - ~ A ~ 11~ N . .. .. Air temperatures are measured at barometric stations and measuring points by means of aspiration (sling) thermometers set up at a height roughly 2 m above the Earth's surface..0 - 347 >< ~ ~ ~ "' - ""' ai Ir) V) ~ ""' .14.. in any point of the line.. with an accuracy to 0.. ~ - Fig. "1:) . 14. . 0- ~ ~ .: ~o ".~ """" ~.(closed level lines) or to two points (open lines).. Barometric levelling by the method of closed level lines should"be done according to the requirements given in Table 14..q1- .... < ~ u "' . Barometric levelling by the methods of level lines can be performed with reference to one initial point. b Q.. Barometric levelling by the method of open level lines is carried out with the use of two sets of barometers.() ~. one temporary station is placed at the initial point and another.. In this method. In the method of closed level lines.: ~ N oci . \I') r-- ~ " ~ & 9 '" < ""' ~ .9 ~ ~ ~ :=.5 degree C... ~ N '0 ~ >.8 Z"" .. N r..11. Barometric levelling can be carried out by one of the following methods. < 0- 0 ~ ~ ci + . .& ~ ~ .E: "' "'" "1 -I/") I/") 1 "! ~ r~ ~ . B Barometric Levelling of Observation Objects 00 .. the deviations of observed points from the range <=! + 0It"i + c '0 "" ~ ~ .I. A temporary barometric station is arranged at the initial point of a closed level line.0 -0 .12. ~ ..g. it is possible to work with one or two barometers. ~ + ~ 0 ~ 0 + o 0 N O -0 8 "' 0 8 N O !1 ~.. With an open level line...8." o~ '" ~ ..e...) o 'O~ . Time intervals between the measurements at barometric stations and points depend on the error in elevation measurements at the points and can be determined according to Table 14...: 0..8 Calculation of elevation of observed point by method with severalbarometricreference stations ric stations permanently for the entire period of station operation.9 ~ ~ ~ c .:8 .. e :I:.

The elevations of observed points are determined by the results of the measurements of air temperature and pressure at these points. and 10 contain data from the field books. k2. The values given in columns 11 and 12 are then multiplied to give the height difference between the barometric station and the point observed (column 13). . The preliminary values of elevations found by algebraic summation of the elevations of barometric stations and elevation differences are written in column 14. I. from the observed point to the side connecting two other barometric stations are written as numerators in column 5 and the distances. 8. The elevation of the observed point is calculated by a scheme given in Table 14. Mine-Surveying Control of Geological Exploration line of initial points should be not more than 0. 9.15. barometric reference stations can be located on the range line. H. In a particular case. L2 = Bb. The distances. and k3 are the weight coefficients which depend on the position of the point and can be found by the formulae: k1 = 11/Ll. The difference in atmospheric pressure. H~. The elevations. l\P .13. column 15 gives the elevation of the 'point observed.2 of the distance between these points.8). which is obtained by summing the products of preliminary elevations and the c9rresponding coefficients. and L3 = Cc. 12= Ob. as denominators in the same column. from a barometric station to the same side through the point being observed. All barometers used at the stations are standardized by determining their corrections relative to one of them which is taken as the standard instrument. Columns 7. k3 = 13/L3 where 11= Oa. by considering the following circumstances. The permissible distances between the barometric reference stations should be as recommended in Table 14. 14. and H~ are the preliminary elevations of the point observed and k1. these stations are located so that all points of observation can be inside the figure formed by the stations (in most casesa triangle). The elevation of the point O can be calculated by the formula: H = H~k1 + H~k2 + H~k3 where H~.16. The standardization of barometers should be carried out with an accuracy as specified in Table 14. it is possible to use meteorological stations or special temporary reference stations. between the barometric station and the point observed is calculated in column 11. In barometric levelling by the method with several barometric reference stations. L1 = Aa.348 Ch. Let an observed point O be inside a reference .triangle ARC (Fig. of reference stations are recorded in column 4. which are done at the same time with air temperature and pressure measurements at the stations. 14. Finally. L. The point elevations are calculated as weighted mean values. Column 12 contains the values of barometric stages. In this method. 13= Oc.14. k2 = 12/L2. The principal requirements to the field work by this method are given in Table 14.

the wave profile becomes asymmetrical. wave front is a line perpendicular to the direction of wave motion. velocity v is the distance covered by a wave crest in unit time. In addition. 42 x 109t of manganese. since prospecting and mining work in seasare carried out now and will be done in the nearest future only in the shelf zone where the effect of wind waves is quite strong. and the shape of a coastal line. Non-periodic variations may be of geodyllamic or geothermal origin. For estimating the dynamic conditions of the level surface of the Ocean. the lowest level at ebbs is low water.The level surface of the Ocean is subject to periodic. its profile changes substantially. As a wave approaches the coastal line.1. wave period Tis the time interval during which two wave crests pass successivelythrough a given point. i. they may be caused by earthquakes. Our knowledge of the Ocean is still insufficient for large-scale mining of its minerals. 100 x 109t of cobalt. tectonic disturbances in the Earth's crust. occasional sharp changes of atmospheric precipitation. etc. and steepnessis the height-to-length ratio of a wave. The surface of seas and oceans to a depth up to 60 m can be disturbed substantially by winds which often create waves up to 12-13 m high. Periodic variations mainly include tidal oscillations. and the medium level is what is called mean water. i. near coasts. The length A of waves is the horizontal distance between the crests (or troughs) of adjacent waves. e. and steepness. General One of the novel trends in mining industry is the exploitation of mineral resources of the Ocean bottom. The top portion of the wave slope facing the coast becomes steeper. especially at the head of narrow bays. changes of atmospheric pressure.Chapter Fifteen Mine-Surveying in Water Work for Mineral Extraction Areas of Seas and Oceans 15. The sea medium has certain specific features which can influence the organization and accuracy of the mine-surveying work. the difference between high and low water may attain a few tens of metres. The asymmetry of waves is notice- . 80 x 106t of molybdenum. the tidal variations of the water level are equal to roughly 1 m. height h is the vertical distance from the trough to the crest of a wave. velocity. 350 x 109t of copper. almost all elements of the Periodic Table are present in the Ocean in the dissolved state. non-periodic and secular variations. but it can be already stated quite definitely that the mineral reserves in the shelf and deep-sea zones of the Ocean are enormous and can be estimated approximately by the following figures: 4 x 1015t of aluminium. period. height. etc. The highest water level at tides is called high water. The principal among them is the dynamics of water masses. 120 x 106t of zirconium. 300 x 109t of nickel. water surges. of prime importance are the tidal phenomena which may depend substantially on the geographic latitude. In open sea. depth of sea. underwater volcanic eruptions. The effect of wind disturbance is especially detrimental for the accuracy of minesurveying observations. front. Water waves can be characterized by the length. e.

lla-pits of marginal seas. llb-island arcs.350 Ch. 15. usually at a depth of 130-140 m. 15. a slightly inclined undulating plain at depths of 2-4 km. This zone has the basin of marginal sea at the side of the continental base and island arcs lIb and deep-sea troughs IIc. Its width is rather small and usually measures from 15 km to 30 km.water waves attenuate slowly. ll-transition zone.1 ). at the side of the ocean. The continental slope changes to what is called the continental base. 15. and continental base Ic. As the wind velocity decreases. At the coast. or aftertossing. la-shelf. I. Submarine canyons may have a length from a few tens to a few hundreds of kilometres and penetrate to depths of 3-4 km. The part of a shelf to a depth of 30-50 m is called shoal. ranging from lO to around 45°. The shelf is essentially a shallow-water portion of the submerged margin. wave crests tip over and form feathers. The submerged margin is regarded geologically as the flooded portion of the continental plateau which is characterized by relatively calm tectonic conditions and markedly prevailing slow vertical deformations of the surface. so that one of their slopes is represented by the continental crust and the other by the oceanic crust. The transition zone II is an intermediate zone between the submerged margin I of the continent and the ocean bottom (floor) III. lb-continental slope.1 Profile of ocean bottom: l-submerged margin. 3. The continental slope is a relatively steep portion of the bottom at the external edge of the shelf. IIc-deep-sea troughs. lV -mid-ocean ridges . The first is the submerged margin I. 15. which extends from the coastal line to a sharp bend of the bottom surface. continental slope Ib. Fig. The deep-sea troughs form the boundary between the continent and ocean. III -ocean bottolD. Brief Data on Geomorphology of Ocean Bottom Relief By modern concepts. The surface of the continental slope is often furrowed by U-shaped valleys called submarine canyons. The waviness of the sea surface that remains after winds have ceased to blow is called swell. Mine-Surveying Work in Water Areas of Oceans able at depths roughly twice the wave height. which includes the shelf la. or breakers. Inclination angles are equal to 3-6° on the average. the rate of attenuation being proportional to the wave length. the ocean bottom has four structural zones (Fig. The ocean floor III is represented by the oceanic type of the Earth's crust and lies at depths of 2500-6000 m. It mostly has a hilly relief of the accumulative type with large oceanic troughs and uplifts. lc-contin~ntal base. 2.2.

(b) the provision of the planimetric and chemical processes occurring in sea water. hydrographic and meteorological interest. Buried placers formed on overlapping of ancient tom relief and prospecting workings. Placers in the continental slope are usually located at distances from 500 m to 15 km from the coastal line and have a length of a few tens of kilometres and width. 15. (g) the calculation of the mineral reserves. plan and variable characteristics. Continental buried deposits area upon their transfer into nature.4. primary deposits. shelf deposits attract the main detic. . objects: (a) the collection and examination of geoAt present. the shape. there are rift crests with individual summits 7000-8000 m high above the foot of a mid-ocean ridge. Present-day placers are more easily characteristics of a deposit.3. As a rule. since they are not covered by sediments. and the characaccessible for exploitation than other types.a few hundreds of metres. Shelf plaIn the construction of underwater worcers can be characterized by a very thin bed of sands and a high concentration of useful components in them (up to 90% of non-native ones). dimensions and geological to hydrodynamic actions and lithodynamic changes. usually runs along the axial line of a ridge. and enormous reserves of minerals have already been discovered (Fig. . A depression. All buried submarine placers. Earthquake centres (foci) are confined to rift crests. At both sides of the rift valley. surface of land below the sea level.2). Mid-ocean ridges are essentially mountainous formations of a width of 500-2000 kID. teristics of enclosing rocks. (f) surveying of underwater workings.4. (e) the compilation of the graphical are formed due to sinking of the coastal documentation of the alloted water area. Present-day placers mostly have the shape of and bands extended along the coastal line. or rift valley. 15. are not subject which should reflect the bottom relief of a basin.of land and alloted water area. and submarine sedimentaIn prospecting for submarine deposits. in particular. as a rule. placer deposits formed due to the dynamic activity of seas and the documents available for a given water area. band-shaped shelf placers have discontinuities at capes and in river estuaries. (c) the complementary surveys of the bottinental. (h) the analysis of the lithodynamic chanDelta placers have an irregular shape in ges of the bottom relief. 15. Mine-Surveying Service Submarine deposits of minerals are conof Geological Prospecting ventionally classified by the following groups: and Mining in Water Areas metal-bearing concretions and red clays. con. the ry deposits. By the time of origin. mainly shelf placers and mine-surveying service has the following metal-bearing silts. Geological Prospecting and Mining 351 4. over loo countries are carrying out geological prospecting in the water area of seasand oceans. (d) the control of the positions of prosplacer deposits by younger sediments at changes of the sea level and displacement of pecting and mining workings in the water the coastal line. submarine placers elevation survey control for the coastal part can be classed into buried (concealed). The mechanism of transfer of heavier minerals forming a submarine placer is determined by the same processes as the transfer of the mass of sediments forming the bottom topography. Characteristics of Some Solid Minerals At present.15. and young (present-day).

352
Ch. 15. Mine-Surveying
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15.5.

Marine

Mine-Surveying

Reference

Nets

353

kings and the exploitation of deposits, the tasks of the mine-surveying service are as follows: (a) survey work for the construction of engineering structures in the water area (wharfs, pulp pipelines, hydro-engineering objects, etc.); (b) the development of measures for the protection of structures and environment against harmful effects of underwater workings; (c) the transfer of the geometrical elements of designed structures and objects into nature., (d) the control of assembling of plants, hydro-engineering objects, etc.; (e) the assignment of directions to stripping and preparatory mining workings; (1) servicing and control of the dynamics of stripping and mining work; (g) the complementation of mine-surveying plans, sections and graphical documentation with the results of the surveys of mining workings and waste dumps; (h) the compilation of mining-geometricaf graphs for more accurate determination of the shape of a deposit, quality of a mineral, properties of enclosing rocks, and the distribution of useful components; (i) the control of the variations in lithodynamic processesduring the exploitation of deposits and the prediction of changes in the depth and contours of underwater workings; and 0) the calculation of the dynamics of mineral reserves, output, losses and dilution of minerals. Mine-surveying measurements in the water area should provide data on the dimensions, shape and structure of submarine deposits, which are then represented in graphical documents. The mine-surveying work in water areas consists mainly in profiling of the sea bottom and underwate:r workings.

15.5.

Marine Mine-Surveying Reference Nets

Marine mine-surveying reference nets are developed for making various surveys associated with prospecting and mining of the bottom of seas and oceans (Fig. 15.3). Depending on the distance from the coast, they can be divided into off-shore nets which are formed in the zone of geometric visibility from the coastal line and open-sea nets, i. e. those beyond the geometric visibility. Off-shore surveying nets are developed from geodetic nets on the shore land and

23-1270

354

Ch. 15. Mine-Surveying

Work

in Water

Areas of Oceans

1a)

Ibl

(c)

12

(d)

(e)

Fig. 15.4 Benchmarks for marine mine-surveying nets:(a) pole-type;(b) pile-type;(c) wooden frame; (d) metallicframe;(e)buoyant; 1- bottom of seaor basin;2 ~ water line; 3 ~ earth embankment; tube or 4rod; 5- benchmark centre;6- end fastening (plug);7~ concrete filling; 8- instrumentalplatform enclosure; 9-navigation signal; 10-bench mark platform or pontoon; 11-boundary of compacted layer; 12-concrete filling; 13-concrete base; 14-counterweights; 15-buoy rope; 16-anchors; 17-bottom centre those in the open sea, from the points of a polygonometric method is mostly employed marine mine-surveying net, in particular for deposits extended along the coastal line. from a local net connected to the geodetic The root-mean square error of determireference net on the land. nation of the direction angles of sides in Marine mine-surveying nets can be const- marine mine-surveying nets should not exructed by the methods of triangulation, trilaceed I'. For the plan positions of the points of teration and polygonometry. Reference nets a net, the rms error should be not more than for deposits located near the shore can be 0.2 mm on the scale of a plan. constructed by the methods of intersections, The elevation control for the surveying combined intersections or resections. The work in the near-shore water area is provided

15.6.

Special

Mine-Surveying

Work

in Water

Areas

355

by levelling points. The absolute elevation marks of survey points on the shore are determined by geometric or trigonometric levelling and of those in the water area, mostly by trigonometric levelling. The rms error in the determination of heights of the points of marine (off-shore) nets relative to initial (control) bench marks should not exceed 0.02 m and the rms error of height difference between two adjacent points, should be not more than 0.05 m. When the water area is covered by firm ice, it is more preferable to use geometric levelling. The points of marine reference nets are fixed by means of special bench marks (beacons) which may be of the pole-type (Fig. l5.4a), pile-type (Fig. l5.4b), with a wooden or metallic frame (Fig. l5.4c and d), or buoyant (Fig. 15.4e) with automatic correction or recording of their deviations from the centre. Marine bench marks should be set up before the beginning of stormy seasons, and each should be provided with a navigation signal. If a marine mine-surveying net is developed on ice, its points can be marked by metal rods qr wooden poles frozen into the ice. Polygonometric traverses should be run so that the mean arithmetic error of the final point of a traverse line of any shape is not higher than the value calculated by the formula:

nometric traverse; L is the length of the closing line of a traverse; mp is the rms error of angle measurement; n is the number of sides in a traverse; and D is the distance from the centre of gravity of a traverse to each turning point. The best time for observations and measurements is when the temperature of water surface is close to that of air, since this minimizes the effect of refraction on measured results. 15.6. Special Mine-Surveying Work in Water Areas

In the general case, all kinds of the minesurveying work carried out on submarine deposits can be divided into special and routine. In special mine-surveying work, mine surVeyors together with geologists determine the geological and hydrogeological characteristics of deposits, geomorphological and lithodynamic specifics, hydraulic conditions in the water area, etc. The main object of special work is, however, to analyse the lithodynamic processes responsible for the variability of a given relief and to determine the principal parameters of the deposit and underwater workings. Surveys for mapping of a deposit should be carried out both in the period of detailed prospecting and during exploitation. It is principally important to decide on the frequency of repeated observations which should be such that the variations of relief that may occur between the surveys can be commensurable with the accuracy of surveying. The frequency of observations is usually determined experimentally. Special mine-surveying work also includes the formation and development of planimetric and elevation control (for off-shore and open-sea mine-surveying nets), establishment of level-gauging stations, navigation marks, etc.

356

Ch. 15. Mine-Surveying

Work

in Water

Areas of Oceans

15.7.

Routine Mine-Surveying Work in Water Areas

The main objects of the routine mine-surveying work are to provide the basis and control for geological prospecting and the basis for the mining work. The basis for geological prospecting in water areas is done by preliminary investigations which consist in observations on the hydrologic conditions of the sea and the lithodynamic processesin loose sediments on the bottom. These observations include large-scale surveys of the bottom relief and the determination of the planimetric and height coordinates of prospecting boreholes, contours of ditches and trenches, points of geological sampling, and the corner (final) points of traverses in mine-surveying and geophysical profiling. In the period of underwater mining work, mine-surveying service makes the surveys of underwater workings and represents them on the plans of the mining work and compiles profiles and sections. The results of surveys make it possible to calculate the volumes of extracted rock and determine the places of mineral losses and sources of mineral dilution. The set of mining graphical documentation includes the plans of the submarine mining work on scales 1/1000 or 1/2000, lithological sections along prospecting lines, and the profiles of ~arlier exploring and mining workings in the most typical directions. The contours of a deposit and design boundaries of underwater workings are transferred into nature and marked by means of stakes, beacons or buoys (Fig. 15.5) set up in the sea at intervals of 100-200 m. During prospecting and mining of a deposit, surveys are carried out in order to obtain the plan coordinates and depths of the points of the bottom relief and underwater workings. In practice, these measurements are usually made simultaneously. In the general case, the surveys of planimetric coor-

dinates and depth measurements are planned so as to attain the required accuracy and minimize the number of traverses which may have different directions depending on the pattern of the bottom relief and the purpose of surveying (Fig. 15.6). The survey method with parallel traverses is used most often (Fig. 15.6a). Traverses should be directed in the sense of the highest ruggedness of the bottom relief; for workings, they should be oriented perpendicular to their axis. Depth measurements can be made by zig-zag (Fig. 15.6b and c) or radial traverses (Fig. 15.6d). Zig-zag traverses are used when it is essential to reveal sharp bends of the relief, such as in hollows, valleys, ranges, etc. Radial traverses are run in cases when they can represent a relief without noticeable distortions (which is possible since radial traverses diverge from the coast or control points, i. e. distances between them increase with moving farther into the sea). Radial traverses are used, for instance, for surveying of capes, off-shore bars, islands, and extended and weakly dissected surfaces of the bottom relief. The root-mean square error of locating the bottom relief points in mine surveys should be not more than 1.5 mm on the scale of a

15.7.

Routine

Mine-Surveying

Work

in Water

Areas

(a:

(c)

Id)

,~~
-I

,

\--

~

~ Fig. 15.6 Typical schemes of traversing in bottom relief surveying: (a) with parallel traverses; (b) with zig-zag extension traverses; (c) zig-zag traversing with control extension traverses; (d) radial traversing with additional transverse extension traverses

358

Ch. 15. Mine-Surveying

Work

in Water

Areas of Oceans

base line and the line of sight on a vessel);Dl and D2 are the distances from the base points to a vessel; and mp is the instrumental rms error of angle measurement. The plan position of a moving target is determined by the method of linear intersection with the use of optical or radio range finders and with reference to two or three initial points. Optical range finders are employed in cases when linear intersections are made to relatively shortJ distances (up to 2 km and less frequently, up to 4-5 km). When the objects of marine surveys are removed from the coast to distances more than 3 km, use is made of high-precision radiogeodetic and radionavigation systems which can determine the positions of points in the sea with the rms error around 1 m. 15.9. Depth Measurements

where v is the vessel velocity, m/s; D is the distance from an observer to the measured point, m; <pis the angle between the sighting line and the traverse line; p" = 206265"; and mIl is the rms error of angle measurement of an instrument. Noting the accuracy of angular measurements with a moving target, the rms error of the plan position of a moving target determined by the method of intersections can be expressed by the formula:
mmt =

2

2 .4 p Sill

b2
'1

[

.2 mIl Sill

(

A .2 1'1 + Sill

A 1'2

)

+~)J D~
where b is the length of a base; 'Y is the angle at the measured point; 1:11and 1:12are the angles at the base points (angles between the

The measurements of the depths of bottom points relative to the sea level can be made by sounding poles, sounding leads,echo sounders, photometric and stereophotogrammetric methods. At present, echo sweeps and bottom-scanning sonars (asdics) are being employed widely. A sounding pole is a metal or wooden round pole up to 5 cm in diameter and up to 8 m long, which has 5-cm or 10-cm graduations. Depths can be measured by sounding poles with an accuracy to 2-3 cm. A hand sounding lead consists of a hemp or metal rope with a lead or cast-iron weight around 5 kg in mass tied to its end. The rope is graduated in metres and decimetres by the marks of different colour. Hand leads can measure depths up to 50 m with a relative accuracy of I/lOO to 1/200. A mechanical lead (sounding machine) has a winch with a counting mechanism, rope, and weight up to loo kg in mass. The accuracy of depth measurements by sounding machines depends on the degree of rope sagging which is determined by the size and shape of the weight,

5 m). The latter produces an electric pulse to excite the acoustic system which transfonns electric pulses into acoustic signals. Upon reflection from the sea bottom. amplifier. -depth of measured ho-reading of nth stageof photodetector. vertical staff 3 with a photodetector.7) is a combination of a laser and echo sounder and consists of a laser sight 1 with a scanning attachment 2. This effect is largely eliminated in laser-acoustic systems which have come into use in recent time. 15. The measured values of depths are reduced to a particular level of sea surface which is called the hydrographic datum.15. the lowest level surface of the sea is taken as the datum level. In surveys in water areas.. The received pulse is transmitted to a pulse delay generator which fonns a delayed pulse and then sends a starting pulse to the generator. electric pulse generator. 15. acoustic signals are transfonned back into electric pulses. depth measurements are most often made by using echo sounders whose operating principle is based on the propagation of ultrasonic pulses emitted by an ultrasonic source and reception of pulses reflected from the sea bottom. These are sent to the recorder which makes a record of the sea bottom depths and the elevation marks of the sea level. mark. For seas with substantial level oscillations. The oscillations of floating vesselsin rough sea reduce substantially the accuracy of depth measurements by echo sounders. Depth Measurements 359 Fig. The laser sight sends a beam 0-01 which defines a reference plane and enters the photo-detector on the staff. R. A laser-acoustic system (Fig.-elevation of point (benchmark) in adoptel system. and the length of a rope. For seaswith small amplitudes of level oscillations (height of tide up to 0. variations of water velocity along the depth.7 Operation oflaser-acoustic systemin bottom profiling: Ah3-height of lasersight abovebench d h point on echogram. acoustic system 4. or datum level.9.hi -readil Ig of laser beam on vertical staff water flow velocity. the mean water level of many-years observations is taken as the datum level. and a recorder. depths are measured relative to a conventional (phantom) horizon which is called the datum and is . At present.

Depth measurements are also carried out for studying the lithodynamic processes. .I/ n where ~hi is the sum of measured depths within the boundaries of a working floor. A level-gauge station. Staff readings can be done instrumentally from the on-shore or off-shore points of a reference net. m and 8m is the mean area of a working. Level-gauge poles are mostly made of cast iron and have inserted porcelain pieces forming 2-cm graduations.)/2 and the mean depth: hm = ~h. is made in the form of a level-measuring pole which is fastened to a pile. m and n is the number of measurements. on the contrary. The volume of a working is determined by the formula: v = hm8m where hm is the mean depth of a working. In this method. 15. The calculation of the volume of the extracted mineral on the basis of the results of surveys can be made most easily by the method of horizontal sections. The thickness of an active layer of sediments is established by measuring the maximum depth in fixed points in the periods of rough sea. Volume calculation by results of surveys. rine mining can be calculated by the follow. but is less laborious. the accumulation of drifted sediments on the bottom and in underwater workings. the disc sinks deeper and this is detected by the changed position of the staff. which can be done by the method of a 'movable disc' or by successive measurements between the periods of rough sea. The mean area is found as the half-sum of the upper and lower areas: 8m = (8u + 8. Calculation of Extracted of Volumes Rock ing methods: (I) by the results of surveying. (c) calculating the volumes of loose rock in The volumes of rock extracted in subma. the mean extractive capacity of a mineral is usually determined as the difference of the mean elevation marks of the surface of a submarine deposit (within the boundaries of the upper crests of slopes) and of the bottom or as the difference of the mean depths of a working floor and the mean depths of the initial surface of the sea bottom. after which the depth of disc sinking is determined on the staff that is connected with the disc and protrudes from water. This is done in order that calculated levels may be always positive. Enamel-painted metal poles are also in use. the intensity and amount of wash-out (erosion) or.360 Ch. . (3) by the readings of flow meters and consistometers mounted on pulp pipelines. The former method is employed at depths up to 3 m and consists essentially in that the disc is let to slide down a metal rod fixed in the bottom. 15. (2) by measuring the volumes of extracted rock shipped in ore carriers or contained in on-shore stores. wharf or another stationary structure. If the bottom ground is washed out. Mine-Surveying Work in Water Areas of Oceans somewhat lower than the horizon of the lowest level.10. The method of successivemeasurements is not as accurate as the former. This method can be recommended for cases when the contours of mining workings are not changed substantially during the period of measurements. Calculation of volumes in vessels and onshore stores. In practice. the mine surveyor has to make the following operations: (a) measuring the geometrical parameters of a vessel or store. in particular. (b) determining the coefficient of filling of a capacity with loose rock mass. and the thickness of an active layer is determined by differences between successivemeasurements. Measurements are carried out strictly on the same profiles. m2. or simply gauge.

The density of a volumes of regular geometrical bodies (a pulp is determined by the pressure gradient appearing in the pulp in a vertical pipeline cone. ping station and dredge. (d) determining the loosening factor of the owing to the settlement of heavier fractions. Coarse.65 Determination of volumes of rock mass mediumtransported through pulp pipelines. but this can be taken Gravel 1. -The most difficult step is the determination Sand 1.2 Calculation of Volumes of Extracted Rock 361 (I) making an additional survey of submarine workings in order to determine the Rock Rock Loosening Loosening mineral reserves left in the ground and the factor factor amount of losses and dilution. and (e) recalculating the volume of loose rock actual time of operation.45-1.30 river valby means of flow-meters and consistometers.20-1. cylinder. granu.measure the flow rate of hydraulic mixture a waste dump or vesselby the formula for the (pulp) sucked in by a dredge.15.). data on the throughput capacity of a pumand the amount of settling. time of storage.45 of a loosening factor.18 leys and Hydraulic-type flow-meters are used to estuaries 1. pulp density.28 Frozen flood case.02 Loam 1.).01-1. Table 15.40-1.30-1. In this grain sand I. cube.1 07-1.07-1.03-1. ned in terms of the flow rates of pulp crushed posits in transported through pipelines and measured stone I.which record instantaneous and summarized lometric composition. extracted rock by considering the physical Automatic recorders have been developed state and quality (moisture content.30 River gravel 1. pyramid. using the measurements by flow-meters is not more than 3 per cent. The error of volume to that of rock in the rock massif.and Hard rocks 1.60 from Table 15.10.15-1. loosening factor. the volumes of rock mass are determiplain dePebbles. 14-1.18 Shingle 1.2.17 . 23-1. etc. Sandv ]nam 1. . etc.04 Clays 1.

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