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X-ray CT

X-ray CT

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Published by: Iman Farshchi on May 23, 2011
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INTRODUCTION Nowadays in laboratory experimental tools, non-contact techniques have become more and more popular, these

techniques referred to as full-field methods provide a wide range of field quantity that cannot achieve easily by other techniques such as deformation, density or even temperature. These full-field measurement techniques lead to high resolution displacement, strain and temperature maps which open new and attractive fields of investigation. Full-field methods used to find qualitative and quantitative characterization of heterogeneities in both material properties and processes during a test, and interesting for geomechanics because of the heterogeneity of the materials. These methods are so popular because for these tests it is not important that the situation of a specimen is a perfectly homogeneous or not, or either not concern about the state of the boundary condition. Full-field methods can be functional for soil and rock testing for many reasons such as: Material characterization and specimen inspection, this is to achieve different properties of material. Assessment of actual test boundary conditions. As the materials are never homogeneous and the boundary conditions are never perfect, so these methods have the ability to directly measure the actual condition. Tracking of heterogeneous response during a test such as strain localization. Validation and identification of models, this is related to the constitutive model.

The fields that are measured concern a range of physical variables, which may be scalars (e.g., temperature), vectors (e.g., displacement) or even tensors (e.g., strain). For each of them, different sort of methods are available. Suck as:

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Optical methods for kinematics, Ultrasonic tomography, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Electrical resistivity tomography, Neutron tomography and X-ray tomography

a micro X-ray CT system is used to obtain three-dimensional images with a high resolution. For the destructive methods. The selection of techniques is based on two main reasons: Target of testing and analysis method The performance of techniques such as resolution and sensitivity to material Another basic assumption we can consider such as: What quantities want to measure such as. porosity The range of measurements The sensitivity and resolution The dynamic of the phenomena The intrusively The cost and complexity Currently X-ray computerized tomography (CT) has become a common nondestructive tool in various fields. including geomechanics. displacement.Those methods can be sorted as different ways. . Post-mortem analysis or measurement after tests in contrast to In-situ analysis or measurement during the test. and can provide good detailed insight but only can be used after tests. strains or stress. First developed for medical imaging. GENERAL OUTLINE OF X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY X-ray CT is a non-destructive imaging technique that allows quantification of internal features of an object in 3D imaging. To visualize in detail the manner of deformation in geomaterials under various confining. X-ray CT is now widely used in material sciences and proved its interest in various domains of geosciences. required to damage the test specimen in order to get the desired information. for instance: Destructive versus Non-destructive method. But the non-destructive methods are limited by experimental set-up because it is difficult and expensive.

Roscoe et al.J. For instance. they analyzed the propagation. Other important advantages of the X-ray CT are short scanning time with high resolution. . For example: . The principle of CT measurement consists of recording X-ray radiographs of a specimen at many different angular positions around the object. the fact is that the use of full-field measurements in the laboratory is not completely new. (2006) acquired three-dimensional images of a series of Ottawa sand specimens subjected to a conventional triaxial compression test at very low effective stresses due to microgravity in terrestrial laboratories. . In these experiments.As far as experimental geomechanics is concerned. In the work presented in this paper is one of the first applications of fast micro tomography at ID15A. used noninvasive technique for measuring strain field in soil at 1963 in Cambridge. were carried out at the high energy beamline ID15A at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble.P. A. Desrues (2003) overview of the techniques developed and the results obtained using computerized tomography in the context of strain localization in Geomaterials under loading up to failure.K. Bésuelle et al. The micro X-ray CT apparatus mainly consists of three parts: X-ray radiation source. However. Alshibli et al. thickness. most studies suffered from two major limitations: Lack of quantitative data on the observed density changes and Limitation to 2D images Both limitations are overcome by X-ray computed tomography. and inclination angle of shear bands. (2006) presented results from experimental testing program where synchrotron radiation micro tomography has been used to evaluate the onset and evolution of localized deformation in a Callovo-Oxfordian argillite under deviatoric loading. . CT imaging and CT detector X-ray computerized tomography has nowadays become a common nondestructive tool in various fields.

during loading. the band of localization opens up and it looks like open crack. In this study synchrotron X-ray radiation was used because it has the ability for scanning fast with high spatial resolution that make it possible to consider a deformation of the specimen under the load with a fully details. then the thickness and the length of the band becomes more visible at step 7. Steps 0 and 1 are performed before and exactly after the confining pressure. In the figure 3 that focuses on the X-ray CT scans of the specimen.In that study. 3 and 4 you can see some results from X-ray CT scans and performing a 3D reconstruction. you can see the strain localization becomes visible at step 4 as a very narrow band. Also the specimen moved and rotated in order to get a sequence of digital radiographs at different position. This special set up can use with X-ray beams. but it is much smaller compare to the normal one and also the confining cell made from such kind of the materials that make the X-ray easily pass through the sample. . Steps 2 to 7 show different levels of axial strength and step 8 shows the last scan of the specimen after removal the confining pressure. The form of the instrument is look like the formal triaxial test. (b) experimental setup showing a specimen inside the transparent triaxial cell In figures 2. that include triaxial apparatus. so in this way the sample can be measured under loads. At the end when the confining pressure is removed. Figure 1: (a) scheme of the micro-CT device. special set was used. The specimen was scanned at different steps.

and (c) CT image in a vertical plane at different steps of loading .Figure 2: Deviator stress vs. axial strain Figure 3: A horizontal CT slice of specimen at different steps Figure 4: A natural vein-shaped inclusion in specimen (a) CT image in a vertical plane before loading (step 1). (b) 3D reconstruction after unloading (step 8).

I. (a) Berea sandstone (b) Noto diatomaceous mudstone Figure 5: Diameter changes at every 15°under various combinations of confining pressure and pore water pressure . (2002) used a micro CT scanner to develop 3D images of the porosity in sandstone. . . Verhelst et al. It is confirmed that both kinds of rocks show clear anisotropy corresponding to the changes in confining pressure and pore water pressure as you can see in the figure below.M. He measured the diameter of Berea sandstone and Noto diatomaceous mudstone of 10 mm diameter while changing the confining pressure and pore water pressure. such as: . O. (1995) was applied the X-ray Computerized Tomography method for the characterization of heterogeneities at small scale in intact rock samples. . Karacan et al. (1996) had been employed medical computed tomography scanners to determine porosity and pore size distribution in sandstone for the calculation of hydraulic conductivity. Determine the real width of a fracture from the CT-data. (2008) used micro X-ray CT system obtain three-dimensional images with a high resolution to visualize in detail the manner of deformation in rocks under various confining and pore water pressures. In that study absolute permeability during the deformation was also measured and revealed that X-ray CT is enabling to evaluate how the inner structure of the rock changes during different modes of deformation. Takahashi et al. Hidajat et al.In addition using X-ray CT in rock material fields have been reviewed by some authors. . (2003) demonstrated the use of X-ray computed tomography to investigate the porosity and permeability changes of Cordova Limestone samples during deformation in a triaxial cel.Coles et al. He shows the power of X-ray CT over other instruments such as strain gauge and displacement gauge by estimating the deformation of a small specimen with irregular shape.F. the diameters are measured at intervals of 15 °.C.

we can conjunct different methods and get a comprehensive results. Halleck P M. in X-ray CT for Geomaterials. Bornert.12. pp.cnrs. 3. 43. (2004). (Editors). Special Publications 2003. (2008). Viggiani G.. G.. ³Comportement mécanique et rupture dans les roches argileuses étudiés par micro tomographie à rayons X´. 177-189 (4) Lenoir N. Evaluation of local porosity changes in limestone samples under triaxial stress field by using X-ray computed tomography. Sture S.CONCLUSION Full-field measurement techniques have opened up new avenues for research in geomechanics.. 2006. Viggiani.. J. Strain.v.. Vol. Bésuelle P.Singh M. No. Advances in X-ray Tomography for Geomaterials. Rastogi A. Especially with a method like X-ray tomography. GeoX2003. REFRENCES (1) Alshibli K A. J. Ph. ISTE Ltd. and Di Michiel M.. 2002 pp 40±48. (6) Lenoir. Batiste N.. ³Microscopic visualization of rocks by micro X-ray CT under confining and pore water pressures´.. Micro-characterization of shearing in granular materials using computerized tomography. Grenoble (http://tel. and Urushimatsu Y.D. pp. (5) Lenoir. that it is such a fast and accurate way to study about geomaterials in in-situ conditions and with a different pressure on a specimen.. Great Britain. (2007). Transport properties of porous media reconstructed from thin-sections. Desrues. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering.. (2006). Lin W.. Geological Society. Desrues. N.. pp. 16-34. pp. M. SPE Journal. pp. Vol... (3) Karacan C O. and Viggiani. Desrues J. 215. 147±155. et al. London. ³Volumetric digital image correlation applied to X-ray micro tomography images from triaxial compression tests on argillaceous rocks´. P.. Balkema..2455-2462 . Bésuelle P.. Marello S.193±205. Takemura T. and Besuelle. N. et al. (2) Hidajat I.27. International Journal for Experimental Mechanics. No.fr/tel. For further and more complete study. (7) Takahashi M. thesis.00011996). ³X-ray micro tomography characterization of strain localization upon deviatoric loading of saturated fine-grained stiff soils´.ccsd. G.. Grader A S.

819±826. S. ³X-ray micro tomography for studying localized deformation in finegrained geomaterials under triaxial compression´. Vol.W. Santamarina Eds.. Bésuelle. M. P.A.   . Lenoir. ³Full-field measurements. Burns. IOS Press. Comptes rendus Mécanique. J. G. Hall S.C. Vol. (2008). (2004).. Di Michiel. Marello.. N. 332. Desrues. S. pp.(8) Viggiani.. P. pp.. Mayne and J.E.3-26. 1. and Kretzschmer. a new tool for laboratory experimental geomechanics´ Keynote paper. M. in : Deformation Characteristics of Geomaterials.. (9) Viggiani G.

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