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SSRC 2011 Elastic Local Buckling of Web Tapered Bridge Girders

SSRC 2011 Elastic Local Buckling of Web Tapered Bridge Girders

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1

Iman Abu-Hamd
Research Assistant
Housing & Building Research Center
Egypt
Metwally Abu-Hamd
Professor of Steel Structures
Cairo University, Egypt
Outline
1- INTRODUCTION
2
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
2- FINITE ELEMENT BUCKLING ANALYSIS
3- WEB BEND BUCKLING
4- WEB SHEAR BUCKLING
5- CONCLUSIONS
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
3
Applications: Short\Medium Span Bridges
Design Considerations
4
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
Design Limit States:
1- Flexural Strength:
1-1) Compression Flange Local Buckling
1-2) Compression Flange Lateral Torsional Buckling
1-4) Tension Flange Yield
1-3) Web Bend Bulking
2- Shear Strength:
2-2) Web yield in Shear
2-1) Web Shear Bulking
Local Buckling Modes
5
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
Local Buckling Consideration
Depending on the width-to-thickness ratio λ of the plate
girder components, AISC and AASHTO LRFD Design
Specifications classify structural steel elements into:
6
Section\Element Classification (AISC\AASHTO):
1- Compact: λ < λp
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
2- Non-compact: λp > λ > λr
3- Slender: λ > λr
Local Buckling Resistance
7
F
n
or M
n
Inelastic Buckling
(non-compact)
Elastic Buckling
(Slender)
Inelastic Buckling
(Compact)
ì
p
ì
r
ì
F
yr
or M
r
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
Plate Buckling :
Where k
σ
is the plate buckling factor, which depends on
the stress distribution and the edge support conditions.
8
2
2
2
) 1 ( 12
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
b
t E
k F
cr
v
t
o
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
The Elastic Buckling stress,
F
cr
, is:
Eigen-value Problem: K
E
= λ K
G
 Finite Element Model  Buckling Mode Shapes
9
Element Buckling Analysis Finite
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
Where K
E
= Elastic Stiffness Matrix, K
G
= Geometric
Stiffness Matrix, and λ = Eigen-values which
correspond to buckling load factors
10
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
Model Effect, Shear
Plate
λ= 0.416
Girder Panel
λ= 0.554
Complete Girder
λ= 0.659
11
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
Plate
λ= 0.634
Girder Panel
λ= 1.064
Complete Girder
λ= 1.192
Model Effect, Bending
GIRDER MODEL
12
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
Study Panel
DESIGN PARAMETERS
13
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
Web Slenderness: λ
w
= 100 to 200 at 20
Flange Slenderness: λ
f
= 8 (Compact) , 13 (Non-Compact), 18 (Slender)
Tapering Angle: φ = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, 0.5
Aspect Ratio: α =a/D
2
= 1, 2, 3
φ
Web Bend Buckling Stress
14
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
Web Bend Buckling Stress
15
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
100 120 140 160 180 200
Web Slenderness λw
B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s
F
c
r
/
F
y
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
100 120 140 160 180 200
Web Slenderness λw
B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s
F
c
r
/
F
y
α=1
φ=0.125
α=1
φ=0.25
Web Bend Buckling Stress
16
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
100 120 140 160 180 200
Web Slenderness λw
B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s
F
c
r
/
F
y
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
100 120 140 160 180 200
Web Slenderness λw
B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s
F
c
r
/
F
y
α=1
φ=0.375
α=1
φ=0.5
Web Bend Buckling Stress
17
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
100 120 140 160 180 200
B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s
F
c
r
/
F
y
Web Slenderness λw
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
100 120 140 160 180 200
B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s
F
c
r
/
F
y
Web Slenderness λw
α=2
φ=0.125
α=2
φ=0.25
Effect of Aspect Ratio α and Tapering Ratio φ
18
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
φ=0.25
φ=0.125
φ=0
φ=0.5
φ=0.375
B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s
F
a
c
t
o
r

K
σ
Relative Slenderness λw/λf
α=1
Slender
Flange
Non-compact
Flange
Compact
Flange
Effect of Aspect Ratio α and Tapering Ratio φ
19
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
φ=0.25
φ=0.125
φ=0
Relative Slenderness λw/λf
B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g

S
t
r
e
s
s
F
a
c
t
o
r

K
σ
α=2
Slender
Flange
Non-
compact
Flange
Compact
Flange
Web Shear Buckling Stress
20
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
Web Shear Buckling Stress
21
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Web Slenderness λw
B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g


S
t
r
e
s
s
q
c
r
/
0
.
5
8
F
y
α=1
φ=0.125
α=1
φ=0.25
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Web Slenderness λw
B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g


S
t
r
e
s
s
q
c
r
/
0
.
5
8
F
y
Web Shear Buckling Stress
22
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
α=1
φ=0.375
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Web Slenderness λw
B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g


S
t
r
e
s
s
q
c
r
/
0
.
5
8
F
y
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Web Slenderness λw
B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g


S
t
r
e
s
s
q
c
r
/
0
.
5
8
F
y
α=1
φ=0.5
Web Shear Buckling Stress
23
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Web Slenderness λw
B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g


S
t
r
e
s
s
q
c
r
/
0
.
5
8
F
y
AASHTO
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Web Slenderness λw
B
u
c
k
l
i
n
g


S
t
r
e
s
s
q
c
r
/
0
.
5
8
F
y
AASHTO
α=2
φ=0.125
α=2
φ=0.25
Effect of Aspect Ratio α and Tapering Ratio φ
24
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
25
CONCLUSIONS
Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference
26
Cairo University

Outline
1- INTRODUCTION 2- FINITE ELEMENT BUCKLING ANALYSIS 3- WEB BEND BUCKLING 4- WEB SHEAR BUCKLING
5- CONCLUSIONS

Abu-Hamd - 2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference

2

2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 3 .Applications: Short\Medium Span Bridges Abu-Hamd .

Flexural Strength: 1-1) Compression Flange Local Buckling 1-2) Compression Flange Lateral Torsional Buckling 1-3) Web Bend Bulking 1-4) Tension Flange Yield 2.Shear Strength: 2-1) Web Shear Bulking 2-2) Web yield in Shear Abu-Hamd .Design Considerations Design Limit States: 1.2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 4 .

Local Buckling Modes Abu-Hamd .2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 5 .

Compact: λ < λp 2.Slender: λ > λr Abu-Hamd . AISC and AASHTO LRFD Design Specifications classify structural steel elements into: 1.Local Buckling Consideration Section\Element Classification (AISC\AASHTO): Depending on the width-to-thickness ratio λ of the plate girder components.2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 6 .Non-compact: λp > λ > λr 3.

Local Buckling Resistance Fn or Mn Inelastic Buckling (Compact) Inelastic Buckling (non-compact) Fyr or Mr Elastic Buckling (Slender) lp Abu-Hamd .2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference lr l 7 .

Abu-Hamd . is:  E t Fcr  k 2   12(1  )  b  2 2 Where kσ is the plate buckling factor. which depends on the stress distribution and the edge support conditions.2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 8 . Fcr.Plate Buckling : The Elastic Buckling stress.

and λ = Eigen-values which correspond to buckling load factors  Finite Element Model  Buckling Mode Shapes Abu-Hamd .2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 9 .Finite Element Buckling Analysis Eigen-value Problem: KE = λ KG Where KE = Elastic Stiffness Matrix. KG = Geometric Stiffness Matrix.

Shear Plate λ= 0.554 Complete Girder λ= 0.659 Abu-Hamd .416 Girder Panel λ= 0.2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 10 .Model Effect.

192 Abu-Hamd . Bending Plate λ= 0.2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 11 .064 Complete Girder λ= 1.634 Girder Panel λ= 1.Model Effect.

2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 12 .GIRDER MODEL Study Panel Abu-Hamd .

3 Abu-Hamd . 0. 18 (Slender) Tapering Angle: φ = 0.DESIGN PARAMETERS φ Web Slenderness: λw = 100 to 200 at 20 Flange Slenderness: λf = 8 (Compact) . 0.125. 0.25.375.2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 13 . 13 (Non-Compact).5 Aspect Ratio: α =a/D2 = 1. 0. 2.

Web Bend Buckling Stress Abu-Hamd .2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 14 .

9 0.6 0.5 0.8 α=1 φ=0.2 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.1 Buckling Stress Fcr/Fy 100 120 140 160 180 200 0.1 0.9 0.6 0.2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 15 .8 1.4 0.25 Buckling Stress Fcr/Fy 0.Web Bend Buckling Stress α=1 φ=0.0 0.0 0.125 1.7 0.0 Web Slenderness λw Web Slenderness λw Abu-Hamd .0 100 120 140 160 180 200 0.7 0.2 0.

3 0.5 Buckling Stress Fcr/Fy 0.0 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.2 0.7 0.8 0.Web Bend Buckling Stress α=1 φ=0.8 α=1 φ=0.0 100 120 140 160 180 200 Web Slenderness λw Web Slenderness λw Abu-Hamd .5 0.2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 16 .0 100 120 140 160 180 200 Buckling Stress Fcr/Fy 0.7 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.1 0.9 1.5 0.375 1.

7 0.2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 17 .125 1.9 0.9 Buckling Stress Fcr/Fy 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.0 100 120 140 160 180 200 Buckling Stress Fcr/Fy 0.0 1.2 0.8 0.8 α=2 φ=0.5 0.5 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.25 0.Web Bend Buckling Stress α=2 φ=0.0 Web Slenderness λw 100 120 140 160 180 200 Web Slenderness λw Abu-Hamd .1 0.

125 50 φ=0 40 Compact Flange 30 Slender Flange 20 0 5 10 15 Relative Slenderness λw/λf 20 25 30 Non-compact Flange Abu-Hamd .5 φ=0.375 Buckling Stress Factor Kσ 60 φ=0.25 φ=0.2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 18 .Effect of Aspect Ratio α and Tapering Ratio φ 80 α=1 70 φ=0.

Effect of Aspect Ratio α and Tapering Ratio φ 65 α=2 60 55 φ=0.25 φ=0.125 Buckling Stress Factor Kσ 50 45 40 35 30 Compact Flange Noncompact Flange Slender Flange φ=0 25 20 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Relative Slenderness λw/λf Abu-Hamd .2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 19 .

2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 20 .Web Shear Buckling Stress Abu-Hamd .

7 0.0 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.125 1.0 0.1 0.Web Shear Buckling Stress α=1 φ=0.8 Buckling Stress qcr/0.0 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Web Slenderness λw Web Slenderness λw Abu-Hamd .6 0.1 0.0 0.58Fy 0.5 0.5 0.9 1.8 0.3 0.2 0.7 0.25 Buckling Stress qcr/0.9 α=1 φ=0.58Fy 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0.2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 21 .4 0.

1 0.Web Shear Buckling Stress α=1 φ=0.0 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Buckling Stress qcr/0.6 0.9 0.0 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.9 0.0 0.5 0.3 0.0 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Web Slenderness λw Web Slenderness λw Abu-Hamd .2 0.2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 22 .4 0.5 Buckling Stress qcr/0.8 α=1 φ=0.8 1.2 0.7 0.58Fy 0.6 0.1 0.375 1.58Fy 0.

1 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.58Fy Buckling Stress qcr/0.5 0.125 1.58Fy 0.4 0.6 0.2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 23 .4 0.0 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0.9 1.8 0.0 0.2 AASHTO AASHTO 0.0 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Web Slenderness λw Web Slenderness λw Abu-Hamd .7 0.5 0.25 Buckling Stress qcr/0.2 0.Web Shear Buckling Stress α=2 φ=0.1 0.9 α=2 φ=0.6 0.0 0.7 0.

2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 24 .Effect of Aspect Ratio α and Tapering Ratio φ Abu-Hamd .

CONCLUSIONS Abu-Hamd .2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 25 .

Cairo University Abu-Hamd .2011 SSRC Annual Stability Conference 26 .

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