Software Testing – made easy

Software Testing
- made easy

Prepared By

K. Muthuvel, B.Com.,M.C.A.
E.P.G.D.S.T * (Software Testing)

K. Muthuvel

Page 1 of 127

Software Testing – made easy

History
Version 1.0 Description / Changes Baseline version Author K. Muthuvel Approver Effective Date 10th Aug.'2005

For “Maveric Systems” Internal Use Only No part of this volume may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying and recording or by any information storage or retrieval system except as may be expressly permitted.

K. Muthuvel

Page 2 of 127

Software Testing – made easy

This book is dedicated to

Lord Vignesh

K. Muthuvel

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............................................. 22 5..... 16 4..............................Definition......... 18 5...............................2.......................................................................................... 11 3.....................................................................19 5.......................1.............Testing Standards.... 16 4................2.....................1........2........Waterfall Model......BCS ...................................... Quality Control.........................................Definition.....1....1.......19 5..3...............2..........................1............................1..........4...........................1.3........................17 4.............ISO : International Organisation for Standardisation......................................2......................................Dynamic Testing Techniques..4.........18 4...........1............Models of SDLC & STLC................ 17 4..Quality Assurance....................................23 K......3........2................4...................................................... 19 5...............................................................................3..V-Model...... 9 1.......2....................4..............Level 2: Phase Definition............................. 12 3.............................................................3....................................Testing Techniques............Need to use SW-TMM...............................................15 4..........Level 3: Integration......................................1.......SIGIST...........................................1...............................................Activities performed during review........4..13 3............................................................................ 10 2..............1...............................................SW – TMM.................5..SDLC & STLC..........2...Quality Control........Benefits of Testing........1....1................1......Testing Fundamentals.........................1......... 19 5.........................14 4..................................1......................2.......3.............................2.....5.....Static Testing Techniques.........................................................................................................1...................................SW – CMM:....... 20 5................Technical Review....................................Informal Review................................2......... 9 1..........2............................2..............10 2......................................................... 20 5.......................2.................................Level 1: Initial.................... 10 2.2...............W-Model................2....................... 13 3..SW-TMM Assessment Process................................ 9 2............................................................... 16 4...............................4....2.......Level 5: Optimization / Defect Prevention and Quality Control..........2.........................................................Validation........2..........STLC – Software Testing Life Cycle ......................1....2......Software Testing – made easy Table of Contents 1.......2.................5..................................................................................................................2.................. 21 5............................. 10 2.......1...............1....................................... Muthuvel Page 4 of 127 .......................................................................................................................2..........................5.......................2.....................................................................................3............... 16 4..................................................4...18 4................................................. 11 3.......... 16 4............................1...1...............Walkthrough...............Levels of SW –TMM.......2.....................Level 4: Management and Measurement........................................................... 19 5.................................................Quality Assurance.........................................Extreme Programming Model.2............................................11 3.1...............................17 4.........3.................1.....ANSI / IEEE Standards... 9 1...................................SW-TMM Summary.......................................Objective..Review of the Specification / Planning and Preparing System Test......................................................... Verification & Validation...............16 4....................................2.....................................Roles and Responsibilities.....................................................................................................................Types of Reviews......11 3.............2.......................................Verification.......................Review ..................20 5... 16 4..................................................Inspection.......................................... 19 5...............Spiral Model...15 4..10 3........................

...............Data Flow-Based Testing:.............................................................28 5......................Alpha and Beta testing.. 26 5....................................Comparison Testing...............Performance testing................... 39 7.2..............White-Box Testing:..........Business-Process based Non-Functional Testing...............................System Testing......................................................2........................3.................2...........2...............Condition Coverage:..2......24 5..2........................................1......................Configuration review.2.................................. 34 6...........2........User Acceptance Testing............. Muthuvel Page 5 of 127 .......36 7.................................2..........Bottom up Integration... 33 6.............Difference Tables...................3..........................2.........................................................1.........................7....2........27 5............2..........2..................Pre-requisites...........1.........................2.................................................Boundary Value Analysis..................43 7....................................................2...............................3.................................. 40 7...10...........35 6..............Quality Vs Testing...........................................................................................................................3.....SIT & IST......Black Box Testing: .................................36 7...............2.......Branch Coverage:.........1....................................................2..........2..................45 7....... 33 6..........................8.....3.................36 7....32 5..................Benefits of Unit Testing.............................3............................. Alpha Testing & Beta Testing............3........................1.................IST & UAT. 33 6........ 38 7...................................................................2...............................................2...........Incremental Integration Testing....................................4............................Validation Testing..................... 28 5....................... 46 7...... 43 7.....................2.................................................................................2............................................5............2..........2................2.2..............................................4...... 42 7.................................................................................1........ 23 5..............................Levels of Testing.............. 24 5........1...............1...................... 41 7......44 7.............................2.........................................Quality Assurance Vs Quality Control......................................1.................3...................35 6........2..........................................Statement Coverage:.........................6...............Mutation Testing:............................Top Down Integration.................1.....................................1.................................Verification & Validation.Equivalence Class Partitioning........................................2...............................................Cause and Effect Graphs........ 39 7..........................................2........................Requirement based Testing.......................Grey Box Testing.....................................................1...................................................Software Testing – made easy 5...............2...... 29 5....................1.............................................................Stress testing................... 45 7. 34 6......................... 27 5.......... 32 6.............................................................3.........Unit Testing................31 5....................................................2........Black Box Testing & White Box Testing..............................4...........1..........................................................................................2.4..........Test Bed and Test Environment ......2......... 33 6...........................................1.......1.............................2.....3........... 47 K.......2..............................................................1.................42 7........................................5....................2.................... 42 7...3....Path Coverage:............................6......2....1...........2................................Big Bang Integration.........3......... 42 7.4.................................................3..........................Security testing..... 42 7....................2.25 5...Testing Vs Debugging......................................Recovery testing....2....................................................................................2.......1..................3......................Functional Testing....................................1..................1..46 7........Stub and Drivers.............2........2..................................Re-testing and Regression Testing............................ 34 6...........Integration Testing.....1....35 7.... 35 6....................................................... 36 7.................................2...9......3.Non-Incremental Testing.....................3.................................. 44 7.........3........

.............. 51 8.....Exit Criteria.............................................52 9.............. 54 10........................... 52 9....................48 8................Usability Testing........................................................................4...........4................................................................................................ 54 10.............................Entry Criteria........................................................................ 55 10.56 10...........Error Seeding.......................7..........................FS and Test conditions.................................. 51 8...................53 9..............................................................................................4.............................56 10.............................6......................................................................5.....................................................1...7...............................1.........................................................................2..............................................Test Lead......... 49 8................................................................................................... 56 10... 50 8......................................................55 10...........4............7..Item Pass/Fail Criteria.................54 10...... 49 8............Test Engineer.............. 56 10............Stress and Volume Testing.....................1..................................Configuration Testing..................55 10..............2..........................................................................4...............................................................Tools used in Regression testing .............................1............................. 54 10.5..Ad-hoc Testing.......................7..........................System Specification................5...............................................................50 8.......................Functional Specification...............................Suspension Criteria and Resumption Requirements..............Error Guessing..13..................................................................................47 7..........................................................3............Test Plan.................8......5.............................Roles & Responsibilities............ 50 8..................................................................................................................................................Software Testing – made easy 7............57 K....................................................................................................56 10..............1............... 49 8.2...........................................57 10...................1...........................................12........Gap Analysis...Baseline Documents.57 10.......................7...................... 57 10.......................................................Test Plan Identifier......2............54 10......................................................................Test Preparation & Design Process.......................2..............3............Approach................................................1............Test Associate........7....................................................57 10................ 48 7...........................................2.......................Choosing Testing Techniques......1...........................2.....................................................................................Test Items........................................4.......................................1.......56 10........................Introduction............. 54 10....................52 9......................... 50 8..51 9.....Environmental Testing...............................48 7................7..2.................................................7........Traceability ................................................................................Regression Testing and Re-testing...........................3.......47 7... 49 8......3..........................7..........................53 10.....................................4....................BR and FS..............................6...........Factors favour Automation of Regression Testing...........................Parallel Testing..Compliance Testing...................Database Testing...................................................................Pilot Testing...............................6...................................................10...........................Features Not to Be Tested........1.......Senior Test Engineer........54 10......................7...............5..........Features to be Tested........................................................................................... Muthuvel Page 6 of 127 ...................... 52 9.......................................................5....8...Intersystem Testing / Interface Testing............................50 8........2....Load Testing..................1......................2....................9..Automated Testing.......................................................................49 8................3........................................................1.......................Business Requirement............Types of Testing...Manual support Testing................ 51 8...............Design Specification.............................................................5...............................................54 10..................................................................................................11......................7.............................................Test Manager...........

..9........................Defect Life Cycle...9..............................Interfaces for the application..........................................................1...................................Single Expected Result.................................. 59 10.............Defect – Definition...........1..9........................Defect Analysis: .......................................................2................................TestDirector (TD):.....Comprehensive Testing ............................... 61 10........................................................................Round III................ 66 12...........Types of Defects.......................................61 10..................3.......Sign Off................................................................. 69 13........................................................ 63 11............15..................................................................1....................... 58 10................................................1.............2...67 12........2................................................. 62 10................................... 65 12.... 69 K......Unit testing sign off................... 59 10...................................................Defect Tracker...............................3..........................................1..Defects Publishing.............Version Identification Values..............................................61 10....59 10......................................... 69 13......3...................................64 11.....................................................Defect age: ............................................Responsibilities...............................................................................................................................14....................Stages of Testing: ................3...Defect Reporting ...............Test Execution Process...............4....................Round II.....................................................................9......................................Testing Tasks....Sanity Testing ...Round I................. 66 12..64 12.. 64 11...... 64 11.................................................................Requirements .............9.....Metrics........................................7...........4.............4............................................... 66 12...........2....................................................................... 59 10....Test Closure Process........16..............Environmental Needs................................... 69 13.......Defect Metrics.....7...........................Deliverables...... 67 12................1.................................................................................. 58 10.....................7....Pre-requirements........2......................................11..........ClearQuest (CQ)......................................................................................................................2..........................4........................................ 69 13.....5...............4............Authorities...................................3...............1...... 63 11..........3........................................................................................................................................9.........Approvals.8.........................................69 13..................Risks and Contingencies.................................2.........69 13......................................................................1..........Processing logic.............................................58 10................................Test Case Allocation......2..............63 11.......1...2.......................................... 58 10..............Tools Used.......................................... 57 10.......................................63 11.......................13................Feeds Analysis........1...........................................................7...4....... 60 10..................... 68 13...Expected Results............................................................7...7.............1.4..Software Testing – made easy 10........................1...................Discrepancy Testing ...........2..1............. 63 11.......................................................................................................................................................................67 12...............4..............................................Schedule.............Pre.Data definition..........8........................................................ 62 11..........4....................1..1.......................... 67 12...........................................................8.Defects Meetings............................3.........High Level Test Conditions / Scenario........................Data Definition ............8............... 61 10. Muthuvel Page 7 of 127 ................Staffing and Training Needs....3.................. 64 11....................7..............10..........................................................12...................Test Deliverables..............................Multiple Expected Result.................................................................................9....................................7.1...2..................................................6............................................Defect Management.......Test Case.................................. 66 12...... 58 10..................................................2..........69 13..................................................................2................................ 59 10.7.................... 65 12....

......................................Test Closure Phase.....................................5.........................4.......................................................1..4..................4.....5............1...................................................................4......................... 82 15...1............. 79 15.....................................................4................... 92 15...88 15.. 81 15...... 82 15..................................................................................................................Project Details Form...... 71 14....................................................................13....................... 72 15............................................2.. 94 16...........Clarification Document..................................73 15....................................................................................2..3.................................................. 99 17........ 89 15..................................................................................................................5......................................85 15..................................Final Test Report.........................................................................Test Design Phase.......................... 78 15.....................75 15..........................Test Environment Request.......................Q & A.........Test Deliverables Template......................................................................................................................................................95 16..............................................Glossary.....15...........................4...................G........................16................. 119 K.....72 14.......... 73 15...................1.........Test Management Metrics.....5.................8...........5................70 13..................Test Strategy Document..............79 15..................Defect Management Process............................71 14.....................4..............4..5..Testing Process / Methodology............................4....1.............................. 76 15....................................73 15......................................................Test Script Document..Test condition / Test Case Document...........................3..........................4....84 15...Test Initiation Phase....5...............Configuration Management and Quality Plan...............6....................Weekly Status Report.Overview.........74 15................... 88 15................................5...................................................................5.............................................Execution and Defect Management Phase....5...........14........4..5............................................5..........................2.......................Final Test Checklist........................ 87 15........................9.2............................3..................................................Minutes of Meeting......................................................... 95 16...Defect Report..... 88 15......... 79 15.....7..............................................................................Top Level Project Checklist.........General............................................Test Execution & Defect Management Phase.............................5.......5..94 15..............5...................5.71 14...........Daily Status Report..................Debriefs With Test Team...............2...Software Testing – made easy 13....................................4....................................................5..............................Project De-brief Form.........................2....Quality Policy...............70 14.........................................................................................4......................Maveric Systems Limited.........Risk Analysis Document.........11............................................................... – Interview ....5.........Test Closure Phase............................................5..4....................................17........Test Initiation Phase...... Muthuvel Page 8 of 127 ...................................1..............................Test Design Phase............ 89 15..86 15...................................................................................Leadership Team..12......91 15.....................................................Testing Activities & Deliverables.............................................................. 71 14..........................................................3.....................5..................................................5...............5.....88 15......4.................. 93 15..................................E.86 15.....................Test Execution Process....Test Planning Phase......73 15...........................10..Traceability Matrix....................Test Planning Phase.4................

Testing Fundamentals 1. A successful test is one that uncovers an as-yet-undiscovered error. usability.Benefits of Testing · · · · · · Increase accountability and Control Cost reduction Time reduction Defect reduction Increase productivity of the Software developers Quantitative Management of Software delivery K. Software reliability and software quality based on the data collected during testing 1.Objective · · · · · · · · Testing is a process of executing a program with intent of finding an error. ` 1.2.3. thus adding value to the entire process.Software Testing – made easy 1. We measure how closely we have achieved quality by testing the relevant factors such as correctness. reliability. Testing is the measurement of software quality. Demonstrating that the software application appears to be working as required by the specification Meeting performance requirements. The objective is to design tests that systematically uncover different classes of errors and do so with a minimum amount of time and effort.1. whose removal increases the software quality by increasing the software’s potential reliability. reusability and testability. Muthuvel Page 9 of 127 . maintainability. A good test is one that has a high probability of finding an as-yet-undiscovered error. Testing should also aim at suggesting changes or modifications if required.Definition “The process of exercising software to verify that it satisfies specified requirements and to detect errors “ …BS7925-1 “Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors” …Glen Myers Testing identifies faults.

Verification & Validation 2.Verification “The process of evaluating a system or component to determine whether the products of the given development phase satisfy the conditions imposed at the start of that phase. In order to achieve this purpose.” … [IEEE] 2. processes are monitored and performance problems are solved. and the action taken when nonconformance is detected. Muthuvel Page 10 of 127 .” 2.Validation Determination of the correctness of the products of software development with respect to the user needs and requirements.Quality Control “QC is a process by which product quality is compared with applicable standards.2.3. Quality Assurance. … BS7925-1 Difference Table: Quality Analysis Study on Process followed in Project development Verification Process of determining whether output of one phase of development conforms to its previous phase Verification is concerned containment of errors with phase Quality Control Study on Project for its Function and Specification Validation Process of determining whether a fully developed system conforms to its SRS document Validation is concerned about the final product to be error free K.4.Software Testing – made easy 2.Quality Assurance “A planned and systematic pattern for all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that the item or product conforms to established technical requirements” 2.1.” “Quality Control is defined as a set of activities or techniques whose purpose is to ensure that all quality requirements are being met. Quality Control.

V-Model The figure shows the brief description of the V-Model kind of testing. K. The Requirement Analysis would correspondingly have an acceptance testing activity at the end.1. Muthuvel Page 11 of 127 . This paper outlines some of the more commonly used software development life cycle.: Setting up the Test Environment Executing the Test Scripts (Automated as well as Manual Tests).Software Testing – made easy 3.. Preparation of Testing Bed. software has to be tested.Models of SDLC & STLC There are a number of different models for software development life cycle. The design has Integration Testing (IT) and the System Integration Testing (SIT) and so on. SDLC & STLC 3.2. Preparation of Test Scripts which contains Test Scenarios. i. with particular emphasis on the testing activities in each model. 3. Preparation of Test Completion Report and Test Incident Report.1.2. 3. Every phase of the STLC in this model corresponds to some activity in the SDLC.e. One thing which all models have in common is that at some point in the life cycle. Preparation of Test Metrics for Continuous Process Improvement. Defect Tracking with any bug tracking tools.STLC – Software Testing Life Cycle · · · · · · · Preparation of Testing Project Plan which includes Test Strategy.

all of the models presented previously are deficient in various ways. It is a parallel activity which would give the tester the domain knowledge and perform more value added. It encapsulates the steps in Verification and Validation phases for each step in the SDLC.2. K.Software Testing – made easy · · V model is model in which testing is done parallel with development. The development team will apply "do-procedures" to achieve the goals and the testing team will apply "Check-procedures" to verify that. after that he will verify for system is according to the requirements or not. and at last he will go for business scenarios where he can validate by the customer and he can do the alpha testing and beta testing. the subsequent phase becomes the verification (QA) phase and the corresponding testing phase in the other arm of the V becomes the validating (Testing) phase In the Software Development Life Cycle. it includes testing from the unit level to business level. The test activities first start after the implementation: · The connection between the various test stages and the basis for the test is not clear · The tight link between test.2. high quality testing with greater efficiency. test strategy are prepared during the development stage itself. For each phase. debug and change tasks during the test phase is not clear In the following. · · · 3. Muthuvel Page 12 of 127 . both the Development activity and the testing activities start almost at the same time with the same information in their hands. but it fails to address how to start for all these test levels in parallel to development. That is after completing the coding tester starts testing the code by keeping the design phase documents that all the modules had been integrated or not.W-Model From the view of testing. Also it reduces time since the test plans. And at last he decides to have the complete stable product. Its a parallel process and finally arrives to the product with almost no bugs or errors V-model is one of the SDLC STLC. the W-model is presented. This is based on the general V-model and the disadvantages previously mentioned are removed. V model is the classic software development model. Left side of v model. reflect development input for the corresponding testing activities. The V model shows the Development Cycle Stages and Maps it to Testing Cycles. test cases.

W. A return in the development process was only possible to an immediate previous phase. Preparatory tasks for the testing were not clear.Waterfall Model One of the first models for software development is the so-called waterfall-model by B. A further disadvantage is that testing.Boehm.Extreme Programming Model K. as the last activity before release.Software Testing – made easy 3. 3.2.e. This. In the waterfall-model. is unfortunately all too common. By this model it was suggested that activities for testing could first be started after the implementation. In this it was set out that each of the activities in the software development must be completed before the next phase begins. could be relatively easily shortened or omitted altogether. The individual phases i. In this model.3. the expense of the removal of faults and defects found is only recognizable through a return to the implementation phase. testing directly follows the implementation. in practice.2. Muthuvel Page 13 of 127 . activities that were defined here are to be found in nearly all models proposed since.4.

Software Testing – made easy 3.2. However. integration and acceptance tests. Muthuvel Page 14 of 127 . in this model the testing also follows the coding. validation of requirements and of the development) and the test phase was divided into stages. The exception to this is that the test plan should be constructed after the design of the system. Tests were explicitly mentioned (risk analysis.5.Spiral Model In the spiral-model a cyclical and prototyping view of software development was shown. The spiral model also identifies no activities associated with the removal of defects K. The test activities included module.

IEEE. speak to testing. The same thing pretty much applies with ISO. IEEE will give you ideas for templates for such things as test case specifications. Software Process Maturity Software Process Maturity is the extent to which a specific process is explicitly defined. Maturity implies a potential growth in capability and indicates both the richness of an organization’s software process and the consistency with which it is applied in projects throughout the organization The five levels of SW.Software Testing – made easy 4. these are more there to guide the process and not the testing. and effective. etc. measured.) and some of that will. CMM . test plans.Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination NIST-National institute of Standards and Technology DoD-Department of Defense 4. On the other hand.The software process capability of an organization provides one means of predicting the most likely outcomes to be expected from the next software project the organization undertakes. for example. practices. like ISO. SPICE.Capability Maturity Model Software Process A software process can be defined as a set of activities.CMM Level 1: Initial Level 2: Repeatable Level 3: Managed Level 4: Defined Level 5: Optimum K.International Organization of Standards CMM. etc. So.Software Engineering Institute. ISO is the standard for international projects and yet it. That may help you out. those IEEE templates tell you nothing about actually testing the product itself. Muthuvel Page 15 of 127 . Carnegie Mellon University. You have process standards bodies.1." You also have other process and project oriented concepts out there like the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) Some of the organization that define testing standards are · · · · · · BS – British Standards ISO. controlled. and transformations that people use to develop and maintain software and the associated products Software Process Capability Software Process Capability describes the range of expected results that can be achieved by following a software process. that attempt to impose a process to whatever types of development projects you do (be it hardware. software. However. does not really force or even advocate a certain "testing standard. Testing Standards Testing of software is defined very differently by different people and different corporations. managed. such as it is. etc. embedded systems. methods. by proxy. They basically just show you how to document that you are testing the product. like IEEE.Capability Maturity Model SPICE.SW – CMM: SEI .

Usability and Maintainability.2.1.1.Level 1: Initial · · · A chaotic process Not distinguished from debugging and ill defined The tests are developed ad hoc after coding is complete Usually lack a trained professional testing staff and testing tools The objective of testing is to show that the system and software work · · 4.Level 3: Integration · · · · · · · · Integrate testing into the entire life cycle Establish a formal testing organization establishes formal testing technical trainings controls and monitors the testing process begins to consider using automated test tools The objective of testing is based on system requirements Major milestone reached at this level: management recognizes testing as a professional activity 4.Level 5: Optimization / Defect Prevention and Quality Control · Testing is institutionalized within the organization K.1.1.Level 2: Phase Definition · · · · Identify testing as a separate function from debugging Testing becomes a defined phase following coding Standardize their process to the point where basic testing techniques and methods are in place The objective of testing is to show that the system and software meets specifications 4.2.2.Level 4: Management and Measurement · · · · Testing is a measured and quantified process Development products are now tested for quality attributes such as Reliability. Muthuvel Page 16 of 127 .2.Levels of SW –TMM 4. and assigned a priority for correction 4.5.1.1.2.1. given a severity level.2.SW – TMM SW-TMM is a testing process improvement tool that can be used either in conjunction with the SW-CMM or as a stand-alone tool.4.2.Software Testing – made easy 4. 4. Test cases are collected and recorded in a test database for reuse and regression testing Defects found during testing are now logged.3.2.

SW-TMM Assessment Process · · · · · · · · · · Prepare for the assessment choose team leader and members choose evaluation tools (e.2. questionnaire) training and briefing Conduct the assessment Document the findings Analyze the findings Develop the action plan Write the final report Implement the improvements best to implement the improvements either in a pilot project or in phases track progress and achievements prior to expanding organization wide also good in a limited application easier to fine-tune the new process prior to expanded implementation 4.4. Muthuvel Page 17 of 127 .g.2.2.2.Need to use SW-TMM · · · · · · · easy to understand and use provide a methodology to baseline the current test process maturity designed to guide organization selecting process improvement strategies identifying critical issues to test process maturity provide a road map for continuous test process improvement provide a method for measuring progress allow organizations to perform their own assessment · · Organizations that are using SW-CMM · · SW-TMM fulfills the design objective of being an excellent companion to SW-CMM SW-TMM is just another assessment tool and easily incorporated into the software process assessment Organizations that are not using SW-CMM · · · provide an unbiased assessment of the current testing process provide a road map for incremental improvements save testing cost as the testing process moves up the maturity levels 4.SW-TMM Summary · baseline the current testing process level of maturity K.3.Software Testing – made easy · · · · Testing process is well defined and managed Testing costs and effectiveness are monitored Automated tools are a primary part of the testing process There is an established procedure for selecting and evaluating testing tools 4.

Draft 1.Software Testing – made easy · · · · identify areas that can be improved identify testing processes that can be adopted organization-wide provide a road map for implementing the improvements provide a method for measuring the improvement results provide a companion tool to be used in conjunction with the SW-TMM · 4. 828-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Configuration Management 4. A few members of the subgroup trialed this draft of the standard within their own organisations.SIGIST A meeting of the Specialist Interest Group on Software Testing was held in January 1989 (this group was later to affiliate with the British Computer Society). This meeting agreed that existing testing standards are generally good standards within the scope which they cover.3 was circulated in July 1992 (it contained only the main clauses) to about 20 reviewers outside of the subgroup. 1044-1993 IEEE Standard Classification for Software Anomalies 12. Much of the feedback from this review suggested that the approach to the standard needed re-consideration.5. 1058.3.12-1990 IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology 2. Muthuvel Page 18 of 127 . 1045-1992 IEEE Standard for Software Productivity metrics 13. 730-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance plans 3. 1016-1998. 610.IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Design description 10. 1008-1987(R1993) IEEE Standard for Software Unit Testing 7. K.‘American National Standards Institute’ IEEE Standards: Institute of Electrical and electronics Engineers (Founded in 1884) Have an entire set of standards devoted to software. 829-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation 5. Draft 1. but they describe the importance of good test case selection. 1028-1997 IEEE Standard for Software Reviews 11.4.BCS .1 IEEE Standard for Software Quality Metrics Methodology. 1061-1998. 1012-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Verification and validation 8. The SIG formed a subgroup to develop a standard which addresses the quality of testing performed. Testers should be familiar with all the standards mentioned in IEEE. 6. without being specific about how to choose and develop test cases. 4.1-1987 IEEE Standard for Software Management 15.ANSI / IEEE Standards ANSI .2 was completed by November 1990 and this was made a semi-public release for comment. 1058-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Project Management Plans 14. 1. 830-1998 IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirement Specifications. 1012a-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Verification and validation – Supplement to 1012-1998 Content 9.ISO : International Organisation for Standardisation · · · Q9001 – 2000 – Quality Management System : Requirements Q9000 – 2000 – Quality Management System : Fundamentals and Vocabulary Q9004 – 2000 – Quality Management System : Guidelines for performance improvements 4.

managers.2. Muthuvel Page 19 of 127 .1.2.Walkthrough “A review of requirements.2. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. reader.1. and are educational in nature. 5.Static Testing Techniques “Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program.1. Testing Techniques 5. not to fix anything. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. Typically they entail dry runs of designs. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. but is one of the most cost effective methods of ensuring quality.1.Definition Review is a process or meeting during which a work product or set of work products.1.” … BS 7925-1 5. most problems will be found during this preparation. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements specification or a test plan. is presented to project personnel. customers.2.Inspection A group review quality improvement process for written material. Communication is therefore predominately one-way in nature.1. K. It consists of two aspects.Review .1. 5. code and scenarios/ test cases.Software Testing – made easy 5. [IEEE] 5. “ [BS 7925-1] A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. Little or no preparation is usually required. painstaking work. or other interested parties for comment or approval. designs or code characterized by the author of the material under review guiding the progression of the review. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. Thorough preparation for inspections is difficult. These are led by the author of the document. [BS 7925-1] An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. and a recorder to take notes. product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection).Types of Reviews There are three general classes of reviews: · · · Informal / peer reviews Semiformal / walk-through Formal / inspections. users.

1. technical Formal fault experts detection process 5. Inspector Not defined Degree of formality Presentational Formal defined Inspection process Largely Unplanned and Undocumented Finding faults and process Moderator improvement Find problems quickly and cheaply Finding faults Not defined Chairperson Peers. rather than including managers.1.Software Testing – made easy Led by trained moderator (not author). and includes metrics and formal process based on rules and checklists with entry and exit criteria.Informal Review · · · Unplanned and Undocumented Useful.2. overview meeting. Review meeting and follow-up. Recorder. has defined roles. Factors for pitfall of review: Lack of training.Technical Review Technical reviews are also known as peer review as it is vital that participants are made up from the 'peer group'. Cheap and widely used Contrast with walkthroughs is that communication is very much two-way in nature 5.3.1.If necessary · Establish monitoring and reporting K.3. Muthuvel Page 20 of 127 . Review of the Requirements / Planning and Preparing Acceptance Test At the beginning of the project the test activities must start. Author. Deliverables in Review: Product changes. documentation and management support. 5. These first activities are: · Fixing of test strategy and test concept · risk analysis · determine criticality · expense of testing · test intensity · Draw up the test plan · Organize the test team · Training of the test team .4.Activities performed during review Activities in Review: Planning. · Documented · Defined fault detection process · Includes peers and technical experts · No management participant Comparison of review types Review type Walkthrough Inspection Informal review Technical review Primary purpose Education Led by Author Participants Peers Reader. source document changes and improvements.2.

Software Testing – made easy · · Provide required hardware resources (PC. A test strategy is determined after a risk evaluation. a cost estimate and test plan are developed and progress monitoring and reporting are established. Tasks in planning and preparing for system testing include: · · · Establishing priorities of the tests depending on criticality Specifying (functional / non-functional) system test cases Defining and establishing the required infra-structure As with the acceptance test preparation. But just as important is a look forward. It is a look back to fix problems before going on in development. K.Review of the Specification / Planning and Preparing System Test In the review meeting of the specification documents ask questions like: Is the specification testable? Are they testable with defensible expenditure? Only these kinds of specifications can be realistically implemented and be used for the next steps in the development process.4. All preparation. All accordingly activities of the review of the architectural design and the integration tests can be done here at the level of unit tests. all of the system test preparation is finished at this early development stage.1. Ask questions like: Are the requirements testable? Are they testable with defensible expenditure? If the answer is no. can be achieved. So this is the best place for doing all the planning and preparing for acceptance testing. then there will be problems to implement these requirements. test tools. For example one can · Establish priorities of the tests depending on criticality · Specify (functional and non-functional) test cases · Specify and . Also at this stage all the knowledge for integration testing is available. Here all the knowledge for the system tests is available and to hand.if possible . …) Provide required software resources (software version. At this stage of the development process all the knowledge for the acceptance tests is available and to hand. · · · Review of the Architectural Design Detailed Design Planning and Preparing Integration/Unit Test During the review of the architectural design one can look forward and ask questions like: What is about the testability of the design? Are the components and interfaces testable? Are they testable with defensible expenditure? If the components are too expensive to test a re-work of the architectural design has to be done before going further in the development process. The review of the requirement document answers questions like: Are all customers’ requirements fulfilled? Are the requirements complete and consistent? And so on. like specifying control flow and data flow integration test cases. 5.provide the required infra-structure · At this stage all of the acceptance test preparation is finished and can be achieved. …) The activities include the foundations for a manageable and high-quality test process. If you have no idea how to test some requirements then it is likely that you have no idea how to implement these requirements. In a mature development process reviews and inspections are carried out through the whole process. There must be a re-work of the specifications if the answers to the questions are no. During the development process all plans must be updated and completed and all decisions must be checked for validity. data base. Muthuvel Page 21 of 127 .

Keeping track of what was discussed and documenting actions to be taken is a full-time task.the focus should be on the artifact. Focus on results.1. It is the moderator’s role to make sure that participants (including the presenter) keep this in mind. there are certain roles that must be played. Assigning this task to one of the reviewers essentially keeps them out of the discussion. Reviewer: Reviewers raise issues. Worse yet. The moderator ensures that side-discussions do not derail the review. everyone has a role to play. It’s important that reviews not become “trials” . failing to document what was decided will likely lead to the issue coming up again in the future. and reviewers cannot switch roles easily. not the means. The presenter explains the artifact and any background information needed to understand it (although if the artifact was not selfexplanatory. to answer questions and to offer clarification. The basic roles in a review are: · The moderator · The recorder · The presenter · Reviewers Moderator: The moderator makes sure that the review follows its agenda and stays focused on the topic at hand. Muthuvel Page 22 of 127 .Roles and Responsibilities In order to conduct an effective review.5. It’s important to keep focused on this. More specifically. Presenter: The presenter is often the author of the artifact under review. Make sure to have a recorder and make sure that this is the only role the person plays. Recorder: The recorder is an often overlooked. but essential part of the review team. The presenter is there to kick-off the discussion. and that all reviewers participate equally. not on the presenter. it probably needs some work). K. and not get drawn into side discussions of how to address the issue.Software Testing – made easy 5.

1.2. Muthuvel Page 23 of 127 .Dynamic Testing Techniques “The process of evaluating a system or component based upon its behaviour during execution.Software Testing – made easy 5. Black box testing focuses on testing the function of the program or application against its specifications. In comparison. Test Case design Techniques under Black Box Testing: · · · · · · Equivalence class partitioning Boundary value analysis Comparison testing Orthogonal array testing Decision Table based testing Cause Effect Graph K. Specifically.Black Box Testing: “Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the specification of the component without reference to its internal workings. so it does not explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. “ … [IEEE] 5. this technique determines whether combinations of inputs and operations produce expected results.2. The goal is to test how well the component conforms to the published requirements for the component It attempts to find: · · · · · Incorrect or missing functions Interface errors Errors in data structures or external database access Performance errors Initialization and termination errors Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. White-box testing allows one to peek inside the "box".” …BS7925-1 Testing based on an analysis of the specification of a piece of software without reference to its internal workings. Black box testing is based solely on the knowledge of the system requirements.

500. 5000.2. Muthuvel Page 24 of 127 . · · 5. and 5001}. o Integers larger than 5000.c} o one equivalence class for valid input values Another equivalence class for invalid input values should be defined.g.Software Testing – made easy 5. …BS7925-1 Boundary value analysis: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed which include representatives of boundary values. …BS7925-1 Determination of equivalence classes · Examine the input data. If input is an enumerated set of values: o e. or an incremental distance either side of the boundary. numbers between 1 to 5000.1. …BS7925-1 Example · · For a function that computes the square root of an integer in the range of 1 and 5000: Test cases must include the values: {0. …BS7925-1 Equivalence partition testing: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes.b.2. 1. o The test suite must include: o representatives from each of the three equivalence classes: o A possible test suite can be: {-5. K. 6000}. o Example o A program reads an input value in the range of 1 and 5000: o computes the square root of the input number o There are three equivalence classes: o the set of negative integers.2. o One valid and two invalid equivalence classes are defined. o set of integers in the range of 1 and 5000.Equivalence Class Partitioning Equivalence class: A portion of the component's input or output domains for which the component's behaviour is assumed to be the same from the component's specification. · · Few general guidelines for determining the equivalence classes can be given If the input data to the program is specified by a range of values: o e.1.1.g.Boundary Value Analysis Boundary value: An input value or output value which is on the boundary between equivalence classes. {a.

sort. A cause-effect graph developed.3. which can be used to design test cases” …BS7925-1 Cause-effect graphing attempts to provide a concise representation of logical combinations and corresponding actions. with the main causal categories drawn as "bones" attached to the spine of the fish.1. Decision table rules are converted to test cases. Muthuvel Page 25 of 127 .Cause and Effect Graphs “A graphical representation of inputs or stimuli (causes) with their associated outputs (effects).2. Causes (input conditions) and effects (actions) are listed for a module and an identifier is assigned to each. and display possible causes of a specific problem or quality characteristic (Viewgraph 1).Software Testing – made easy 5. The C&E diagram is also known as the Fishbone/Ishikawa diagram because it was drawn to resemble the skeleton of a fish. It graphically illustrates the relationship between a given outcome and all the factors that influence the outcome. A Cause-and-Effect Diagram is a tool that helps identify. · · Graph converted to a decision table. as shown below Example C&E diagram for a Server crash issue: K.

1. For redundant s/w. Test each version with same test data to ensure all provide identical output. Even if will on run one version in final system. Exercise on Live Application K.4. for some critical applications can develop independent versions and use comparison testing or back-to-back testing. each is investigated to determine if there is a defect.Software Testing – made easy Advantages · · · · · Helps determine root causes Encourages group participation Indicates possible causes of variation Increases process knowledge Identifies areas for collecting data 5. Method does not catch errors in the specification.Comparison Testing · · · · · · · · · In some applications. When outputs of versions differ. use separate teams to develop independent versions of the software.2. the reliability is critical. Run all versions in parallel with a real-time comparison of results. Muthuvel Page 26 of 127 . Redundant hardware and software may be used.

(x=4. implementation and code Test Case design techniques under White Box Testing: · · · · · · Statement coverage Branch coverage Condition coverage Path coverage Data flow-based testing Mutation testing 5.Statement Coverage: “A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute statements. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. int y){ while (x != y){ if (x>y) then x=x-y.2.” … BS7925-1 Design test cases so that every statement in a program is executed at least once. y=3). else y=y-x. y=4)} all statements are executed at least once. conditions . • • Aims to establish that the code works as designedExamines the internal structure and implementation of the program Target specific paths through the programNeeds accurate knowledge of the design.” …BS7925-1 Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software.1. Also known as Structural Testing / Glass Box Testing / Clear Box Testing.White-Box Testing: “Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component. branches. y=3). (x=3. paths. Unless a statement is executed. Muthuvel Page 27 of 127 .2. } return x. we have no way of knowing if an error exists in that statement Example: Euclid's GCD computation algorithm: int f1(int x. } By choosing the test set {(x=3.2. K.Software Testing – made easy 5.2.

Branch Testing: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute branch outcomes.c2). … BS7925-1 Branch testing guarantees statement coverage Example Test cases for branch coverage can be: {(x=3.3.2. c2 and c3 are exercised at least once i. · Branch testing stronger than statement coverage testing. y=3). (x=4. a transfer of control to an entry point of the component. given true and false values. (x=3. or when a component has more than one entry point.2. Muthuvel Page 28 of 127 . y=4)} 5. Example Consider the conditional expression ((c1.2. K.” … BS7925-1 Test cases are designed such that: Each component of a composite conditional expression given both true and false values.2.or. or an unconditional transfer of control from any statement to any other statement in the component except the next statement.and.e.c3): Each of c1.Branch Coverage: Branch : A conditional transfer of control from any statement to any other statement in a component. For instance.Condition Coverage: Condition: “A Boolean expression containing no Boolean operators.2.Software Testing – made easy 5. · Condition testing stronger than branch testing. A<B is a condition but A and B is not. y=3).

… BS7925-1 A testing mechanism proposed by McCabe. and an upper bound for the number of tests to ensure that each statement is executed at least once. This measure provides a single ordinal number that can be compared to the complexity of other programs. Flow Graph Notation Notation for representing control flow Sequence If While Until Case On a flow graph: · Arrows called edges represent flow of control · Circles called nodes represent one or more actions · Areas bounded by edges and regions called regions · A predicate node is a node containing a condition Any procedural design can be translated into a flow graph.Software Testing – made easy 5. Introduced by Thomas McCabe in 1976. Muthuvel Page 29 of 127 . Test cases which exercise basic set will execute every statement at least once. Note that compound Boolean expressions at tests generate at least two predicate nodes and additional arcs. a new edge) K. or as McCabe's complexity. Cyclomatic complexity is often referred to simply as program complexity. This value gives the number of independent paths in the Basis set.4. it measures the number of linearly-independent paths through a program module.. An independent path is any path through a program that introduces at least one new set of processing statements or a new condition (i. Cyclomatic Complexity: The Cyclomatic complexity gives a quantitative measure of the logical complexity.Path Coverage: Path: A sequence of executable statements of a component.2. from an entry point to an exit point. Aim is to derive a logical complexity measure of a procedural design and use this as a guide for defining a basic set of execution paths. Path testing: A test case design technique in which test cases are designed to execute paths of a component.e.2.

As one of the more widely-accepted software metrics.N + p Where E = the number of edges of the graph N = the number of nodes of the graph p = the number of connected components Example has: 1 2 4 3 6 5 7a 7b 8 Cyclomatic complexity of 4. 2.Software Testing – made easy Cyclomatic complexity (CC) = E . 7b. Prepare test cases that will force execution of each path in the basis set. 7b. Independent paths: 1. Determine the Cyclomatic complexity of the flow graph. 3. 7a. 1. Note: Some paths may only be able to be executed as part of another test. 1. 8 Cyclomatic complexity provides upper bound for number of tests required to guarantee coverage of all program statements. Determine a basis set of independent paths. 1. Using the design or code. 4. 6. 2. 1. it is intended to be independent of language and language format. 3. 4. Muthuvel Page 30 of 127 . 8 4. 1. Deriving Test Cases 1. 2. 7b. 8 3. 1. 1. 4. 8 2. draw the corresponding flow graph. 7a. K. 5. 2.

B2. It is very useful for selecting test paths of a program containing nested if and loop statements 1X(){ 2 B1. DEF(1)={a}. /* Defines variable a */ 3 While(C1) { 4 if (C2) 5 if(C4) B4. 8 else B3.S.” Selects test paths of a program: According to the locations of definitions and uses of different variables in a program.2. DEF(S) = {X/statement S contains a definition of X} USES(S) = {X/statement S contains a use of X} Example: 1: a=b. B5.b}.Data Flow-Based Testing: “Testing in which test cases are designed based on variable usage within the code. USES (1) = {b}.Software Testing – made easy 5. } 9 B6 } [a. DEF (1) = {a}. B5} USED(X) = {B2. X in DEF(S) X in USES(S1). B3. S and S1 are statement numbers. B3. USES(1)={a. However only 5 paths are needed to cover these chains. /* Defines variable a */ 3 While(C1) { 4 if (C2) 5 b=a*a. /*Uses variable a */ 6 else B5. Muthuvel Page 31 of 127 . B6} There are 25 DU chains.2. Every DU chain in a program is covered at least once. /*Uses variable a */ 6 a=a-1.1. …BS7925-1 K.5]: a DU chain. Example: 2: a=a+b. if X is defined at a statement S: there exists a path from S to S1 not containing any definition of X. Assume: DEF(X) = {B1. A variable X is said to be live at statement S1. B4.5. B4. and the definition of X in the statement S is live at statement S1. } /*Uses variable a */ Definition-use chain (DU chain) [X. DU Chain Example 1 X(){ 2 a=5. 7 else if (C3) B2. /* Defines variable a */ 7 } 8 print(a).S1]. For a statement numbered S.

The process of generation and killing of mutants can be automated by predefining a set of primitive changes that can be applied to the program. because the Internet is built around loosely integrated components that connect via relatively welldefined interfaces K. which evolved due to the different architectural usage of the system. then the mutant is said to be dead. If there at least one test case in the test suite for which a mutant gives an incorrect result.3.2. This is just a combination of both Black box & White box testing. Tester should have good knowledge of White Box Testing and complete knowledge of Black Box Testing.2. Grey box testing is especially important with Web and Internet applications. each time the program is changed it is called a mutated program. If a mutant remains alive even after all test cases have been exhausted. A large number of possible mutants can be generated. 5. A mutated program tested against the full test suite of the program. Tester should have the knowledge of both the internals and externals of the function. Changing a data type. The idea behind mutation testing is to make a few arbitrary small changes to a program at a time. etc.Grey Box Testing · · · Grey box Testing is the new term. Muthuvel Page 32 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy 5. mutation testing is taken up.2. the test suite is enhanced to kill the mutant.Mutation Testing: The software is first tested using an initial testing method based on white-box strategies we already discussed. the change is called a mutant. Changing the value of a constant. The primitive changes can be: · · · Altering an arithmetic operator. After the initial testing is complete. A major disadvantage of mutation testing: · · computationally very expensive.6.

Software Testing – made easy 6. 6. 6. · help establish processes. Muthuvel Page 33 of 127 . · Sets up measurements programs to evaluate processes. QA improves the processes that are applied to multiple products that will ever be produced by a process. Qc is a demonstration of consistency. training. It is an activity that establishes and evaluates the processes to produce the products by preventing the introduction of issues or defects. It is an activity. mentor feedback.Testing Vs Debugging Testing Testing is done to find bugs Debugging Debugging is an art of fixing bugs.3.1. Difference Tables 6. Qc improves the development of a specific product or service by identifying the defects. like walkthroughs. which verifies if the product meets pre-defined standards. and correctness of the software at each stage and between each stage of the development life cycle and the responsibility of the tester. K. and the action taken when nonconformance is detected. QA is the determination of correctness of the final software product by a development project with respect to the user needs and requirements and the responsibility of the entire team Quality Control Study on Project for its Function and Specification QC is a process by which product quality is compared with applicable standards. checklists and standards. · Identifies weaknesses in processes and improves them. reporting them and correcting the defects It is performed after a work product is produced against established criteria ensuring that the product integrates correctly into the environment.Quality Assurance Vs Quality Control Quality Analysis Study on Process followed in Project development QA is a planned and systematic set of activities necessary to provide adequate confidence that requirements are properly established and products or services conform to specified requirements. It is performed during development on key artifacts. completeness. reviews and inspections. characteristics” It is usually said as Journey towards Excellence.Quality Vs Testing Quality Testing “Quality is giving more cushions for user to Testing is an activity done to achieve the use system with all its expected quality.2.

It is based on how the system is built It applied to individual components and interfaces. Muthuvel Page 34 of 127 . And we can reuse such test data for other kinds of tests No matter who does the structural testing.4. and so forth It attempts to find errors in the external behavior of the code in the following categories: .initialization and termination errors.5.behavior or performance errors .Black Box Testing & White Box Testing Black Box / Functional Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the specification of the component without reference to its internal workings It focuses on global issues of workflows.6.errors in data structures used by interfaces . It involves insightful test planning. being particularly effective at discovering localized errors in control and data flows It involves the creation of custom test data. 6. A good manual tester also applies on the spot judgment to observed results that an automated tool can’t White Box / Structural Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component. performance. they will need to understand some fundamental test design techniques to do a good job.Software Testing – made easy 6.IST & UAT Particulars Base line document Data Environment Orientation Tester composition Purpose IST Functional Specification Simulated Controlled Component Testing Firm Verification UAT Business Requirement Live Data Simulated Live Business Testing Firm / users Validation K.Verification & Validation Verification Process of determining whether output of one phase of development conforms to its previous phase Verification is concerned containment of errors with phase Validation Process of determining whether a fully developed system conforms to its SRS document Validation is concerned about the final product to be error free 6. configuration. . and meticulous result checking Skilled manual tester know how to follow a trail of bugs. careful design.incorrect or missing functionality .interface errors.

Test Bed and Test Environment Test Bed Test Environment Test bed holds only testing documents which supports testing which includes Test data.10.7. Browsers. Data guidelines etc. Servers. 6. Test environment includes all supportive elements namely hardware.SIT & IST SIT SIT can be done when system is on the process of integration IST IST need integrated System of various Unit levels of independent functionality and checks its workability after integration and compares it before integration. Alpha Testing & Beta Testing Component Test data Test Environment To Achieve Tested by Supporting Document Used Alpha testing Simulated Controlled Functionality Only testers Functional Specification Beta testing Live Uncontrolled User needs Testers and End-Users Customer Requirement Specification 6.8. software. To check for the added or new functionality's effect on the existing system K.Software Testing – made easy 6. Muthuvel Page 35 of 127 .Re-testing and Regression Testing Re-testing Regression Testing To check for a particular bug and its dependencies after it is said to be fixed.9. 6. etc. tools.

c) the test cases are designed by a person(s) from a different section. Write many short tests (in code) that span the extents of the requirements for the module you wish to test. K. You are done coding once your code can pass all the tests. These test completion criteria should be test coverage levels whose measurement shall be achieved by using the test measurement techniques defined in clause 4. The component test strategy shall document the degree of independence required of personnel designing test cases from the design process. b) the test cases are designed by another person(s).1.2.2) shall be specified. If measures not described explicitly in this clause are used they shall comply with the 'Other Test Measurement Techniques' clause (4.Benefits of Unit Testing · · · · Assurance of working components before integration Tests are repeatable .1. 7.13).methods and classes. or some mixture of these. Write tests before you write the code. The component test strategy shall document whether the component testing is carried out using isolation. Component test strategy The component test strategy shall specify the techniques to be employed in the design of test cases and the rationale for their choice.1. If techniques not described explicitly in this clause are used they shall comply with the 'Other Testing Techniques' clause (3. The component test strategy shall specify criteria for test completion and the rationale for their choice.Unit Testing “The testing of individual software components. Levels of Testing 7.Every time you change something you can rerun your suite of tests to verify that the unit still works. bottom-up or top-down approaches.1. Selection of techniques shall be according to clause 3.Pre-requisites Before component testing may begin the component test strategy (2. Tests can be designed to ensure that the code fulfills the requirements. d) the test cases are designed by a person(s) from a different organisation. 7. The component test strategy shall document the environment in which component tests will be executed.13). Muthuvel Page 36 of 127 .” · · · … BS795-1 Individual testing of separate units .Software Testing – made easy 7.1. such as: a) the test cases are designed by the person(s) who writes the component under test. e) the test cases are not chosen by a person. This shall include a description of the hardware and software environment in which all component tests will be run. All debugging is separated from the code.1) and project component test plan (2.1.

The test process documentation shall define the testing activities to be performed and the inputs and outputs of each activity. be carried out for a subset of the test cases associated with a component. Later activities for one test case may occur before earlier activities for another. b) Component Test Specification.Software Testing – made easy The component test strategy shall document the test process that shall be used for component testing. SIGIST. Component Test Planning shall begin the test process and Checking for Component Test Completion shall end it. the affected activities shall be repeated. and Component Test Recording may however. K.1.1. 2001 For any given test case. This Figure illustrates the generic test process described in clause 2. on any one iteration.4 (27-Apr-01) © British Computer Society. e) Checking for Component Test Completion.8. Whenever an error is corrected by making a change or changes to test materials or the component under test. the test process documentation shall require that the following activities occur in the following sequence: a) Component Test Planning. d) Component Test Recording. these activities are carried out for the whole component. Component Test Execution. c) Component Test Execution. Muthuvel Page 37 of 127 . Standard for Software Component Testing 6 Working Draft 3. Component Test Specification.

Successful execution of the integration test plan No open severity 1 or 2 defects Component stability Guidelines: · · · The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that software integration testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. o Been ported to the integration environment.e. Exit criteria: · · · · · A test suite of test cases exists for each interface between software components. K.Integration Testing “Testing performed to expose faults in the interfaces and in the interaction between integrated components” … BS7925-1 Testing of combined parts of an application to determine they function together correctly. The 'parts' can be code modules. Objective: The typical objectives of software integration testing are to: · Cause failures involving the interactions of the integrated software components when running on a single platform. The first two software components have: o Passed unit testing. o Been integrated. Adequate program or component documentation is available Verification that the correct version of the unit has been turned over for integration. · Report these failures to the software development team so that the underlying defects can be identified and fixed. All software integration test suites successfully execute (i. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.. individual applications. Documented Evidence that component has successfully completed unit test.2. the tests completely execute and the actual test results match the expected test results). · Minimize the number of low-level defects that will prevent effective system and launch testing. Software integration testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur. The integration environment is ready.Software Testing – made easy 7. Software integration testing can elicit failures produced by defects that are difficult to detect during system or launch testing once the system has been completely integrated. Entry criteria: · · · · · · The integration team is adequately staffed and trained in software integration testing. Muthuvel Page 38 of 127 . · Help the software development team to stabilize the software so that it can be successfully distributed prior to system testing. client and server applications on a network etc.

Software Testing – made easy 7.Incremental Integration Testing “Integration testing where system components are integrated into the system one at a time until the entire system is integrated” … BS795-1 Continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added.2.2. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. Integration testing where system components are integrated into the system one at a time until the entire system is integrated. or that test drivers be developed as needed. Replace stubs either depth first or breadth first Replace stubs one at a time.1. Test after each module integrated Use regression testing (conducting all or some of the previous tests) to ensure new errors are not introduced.1. Verifies major control and decision points early in design process.. Level 2 Level 2 stubs Level 2 Level 2 Level 2 Level 3 stubs Steps: · · · · · · Main control module used as the test driver. with stubs for all subordinate modules. . K. Muthuvel Page 39 of 127 . requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. Level 1 Testing sequence Level 1 .” … BS795-1 · · Modules integrated by moving down the program design hierarchy. done by programmers or by testers.Top Down Integration “An approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first. with lower level components being simulated by stubs. Can use depth first or breadth first top down integration. The process is repeated until the lowest level components has been tested.1. 7.

Top-down The control program is tested first Modules are integrated one at a time Major emphasis is on interface testing · Major emphasis is on module functionality and performance.Bottom up Integration “An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first. Use driver program to test. Muthuvel Page 40 of 127 . Cluster is tested.” …BS7925-1 · · Begin construction and testing with atomic modules (lowest level modules). · · · Modules can be integrated in various clusters as desired.2. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.Software Testing – made easy 7. Test drivers Level N Level N Level N Level N Level N Testing sequence Test drivers Level N–1 Level N–1 Level N–1 Steps: · · · Low level modules combined in clusters (builds) that perform specific software subfunctions. Bottom-up Major Features · · Allows early testing aimed t proving feasibility and practicality of particular modules. moving upwards in program structure.2. then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. Driver programs removed and clusters combined.1. Driver program developed to test. K.

more code has been An early working program raises morale written and tested that with top down and helps convince management progress testing. constants. Muthuvel Page 41 of 127 . It is hard to maintain a is a more intuitive test philosophy.1. · · 7.1.2. declaring. or other items needed in the testing of the unit. any variables. Some people feel that bottom-up is being made.2.1 Stubs: Stubs are program units that are stand-ins² for the other (more complex) program units that are directly referenced by the unit being tested. K.3. Stubs are usually expected to provide the following: An interface that is identical to the interface that will be provided by the actual program unit.3.1.2. pure top-down strategy in practice.Software Testing – made easy Advantages · · · No test stubs are needed It is easier to adjust manpower needs Errors in critical modules are found early · · · · · · No test drivers are needed The control program plus a few modules forms a basic early prototype Interface errors are discovered early Modular features aid debugging Test stubs are needed The extended early phases dictate a slow manpower buildup Errors in critical modules at low levels are found late Disadvantages Comments Test drivers are needed Many modules must be integrated before a working program is available · · Interface errors are discovered late At any given point.2 Drivers: Drivers are programs or tools that allow a tester to exercise/examine in a controlling manner the unit of software being tested. A driver is usually expected to provide the following: A means of defining.Stub and Drivers 5. or otherwise creating. (This can be as simple as a return statement) 5. and a means of monitoring the states of these items. and the minimum acceptable behavior expected of the actual program unit. any input and output mechanisms needed in the testing of the unit Sandwich Testing: Combines bottom-up and top-down testing using testing layer.3.

2. · 7.Configuration review An audit to ensure that all elements of the software configuration are properly developed.2. compatibility. maintainability).Big Bang Integration “Integration testing where no incremental testing takes place prior to all the system's components being combined to form the system. Muthuvel . and other requirements are met (e.” … BS7925-1 7.2. 7.2.1. When validation tests fail it may be too late to correct the error prior to scheduled delivery.Software Testing – made easy 7.2.3. This should contain a section “Validation criteria” which is used to develop the validation tests. all performance requirements achieved.3. and has necessary detail to support maintenance. error recovery.2. Tests conformance of the software to the Software Requirements Specification. To check that: all functional requirements satisfied.2.2. … BS7925-1 It is further sub-divided into · · Functional system testing Non-Functional system testing System test Entrance Criteria: · · · · Successful execution of the Integration test cases No open severity 1 or 2 defects 75-80% of total system functionality and 90% of major functionality delivered System stability for 48-72 hours to start test Page 42 of 127 K. documentation is correct and 'human-engineered'. Need to negotiate a method of resolving deficiencies with the customer.System Testing “System testing is the process of testing an integrated system to verify that it meets specified requirements".g. Validation test criteria · · A set of black box tests to demonstrate conformance with requirements. catalogued.2.Non-Incremental Testing 7.Validation Testing Validation testing aims to demonstrate that the software functions in a manner that can be reasonably expected by the customer..

When to use Requirements Testing: Every application should be requirements tested.Software Testing – made easy System Test Exit Criteria: · · · Successful execution of the system test cases . The process should begin in the requirements phase. Muthuvel Page 43 of 127 .and documentation that shows coverage of requirements and high-risk system components System meets pre-defined quality goals 100% of total system functionality delivered 7.1.Requirement based Testing “Designing tests based on objectives derived from requirements for the software component (e. Unless the system can function correctly over an extended period of time management will not be able to rely upon the system. K. and continue through every phase of the life cycle into operations and maintenance..3. The responsible user is normally only one of many groups having an interest in the application system. Application processing complies with the organization’s policies and procedures. but it is difficult to test the reliability until the program becomes operational.g. It is not a question as to whether requirements must be tested but.1.3. tests that exercise specific functions or probe the non-functional constraints such as performance or security)” … BS7925-1 Requirements testing must verify that the system can perform its function correctly and that the correctness can be sustained over a continuous period of time. Objectives: Successfully implementing user requirements is only one aspect of requirements testing. the extent and methods used in requirements testing.Functional Testing 7. The system can be tested for correctness throughout the lifecycle. The objectives that need to be addressed in requirements testing are: · · · User requirements are implemented Correctness is maintained over extended processing periods. rather.1.

Muthuvel Page 44 of 127 .3. Specific objectives of recovery testing include: · · · · · Adequate backup data is preserved Backup data is stored in a secure location Recovery procedure are documented Recovery personnel have been assigned and trained Recovery tools have been developed and are available When to use Recovery Testing: Recovery testing should be performed whenever the user of the application states that the continuity of operation of the application is essential to the proper functioning of the user area. Maintainability Portability Performance Procedure Reliability Recovery Stress Security Usability 7. I.Recovery testing “Testing aimed at verifying the system's ability to recover from varying degrees of failure. Objectives: Recovery testing is used to ensure that operations can be continued after a disaster. and then reprocessing transactions up until the point of failure.Business-Process based Non-Functional Testing Testing of those requirements that do not relate to functionality. The user should estimate the potential loss associated with inability to recover operations over various time spans. The importance of recovery will vary from application to application. K.1. recovery testing not only verifies the recovery process. “ …BS7925-1 Non-Functional testing types: Configuration Compatibility Conversion Disaster Recovery Interoperability Installability Memory Management.2.Software Testing – made easy 7. The amount of the potential loss should both determine the amount of resource to be put into disaster planning as well as recovery testing..2. The process normally involves reverting to a point where the integrity of the system is known.e. usability..” .3. BS7925-1 Recovery is the ability to restart operations after the integrity of the application has been lost. etc. performance. but also the effectiveness of the component parts of that process.

· · · · · Higher rates of interrupts.” … BS7925-1 Stress testing is designed to test the software with abnormal situations.3.2. Stress testing attempts to find the limits at which the system will fail through abnormal quantity or frequency of inputs. Muthuvel Page 45 of 127 .3.2.” … BS7925-1 Security is a protection system that is needed for both secure confidential information and for competitive purposes to assure third parties their data will be protected. Protecting the confidentiality of the information is designed to protect the resources of the organization. The testing should be performed both prior to the system going into an operational status and after the system is placed into an operational status. Security testing is designed to evaluate the adequacy of the protective procedures and countermeasures. the objectives of security testing are to identify defects that are very difficult to identify. Therefore. Objectives: Security defects do not become as obvious as other types of defects. Data rates an order of magnitude above 'normal'. Test cases that require maximum memory or other resources. 7.Stress testing “Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements. K. resulting in a loss or compromise of information without the knowledge of that loss. Test cases that cause 'thrashing' in a virtual operating system. Test cases that cause excessive 'hunting' for data on disk systems.Security testing “Testing whether the system meets its specified security objectives. For example. The extent of testing should depend on the security risks.2. The security testing objectives include: · · · · Determine that adequate attention has been devoted to identifying security risks Determining that a realistic definition and enforcement of access to the system has been implemented Determining that sufficient expertise exists to perform adequate security testing Conducting reasonable tests to ensure that the implemented security measures function properly When to Use security Testing: Security testing should be used when the information and/or assets protected by the application system are of significant value to the organization.3. and the individual assigned to conduct the test should be selected based on the estimated sophistication that might be used to penetrate security.Software Testing – made easy 7. Even failures in the security system operation may not be detected.

That is.” … IEEE Performance testing is designed to test run time performance of software within the context of an integrated system. Performance tests are often coupled with stress testing and often require both hardware and software infrastructure. and who will use the product in the same way as the final version once it is released.3. Alpha testing conducted in a controlled environment. Muthuvel Page 46 of 127 .Alpha and Beta testing “Alpha testing: Simulated or actual operational testing at an in-house site not otherwise involved with the software developers.” … BS7925-1 “Beta testing: Operational testing at a site not otherwise involved with the software developers.3. By instrument the system. It is not until all systems elements are fully integrated and certified as free of defects the true performance of a system can be ascertained. log events. it is necessary to measure resource utilization in an exacting fashion.3. 7.” … BS7925-1 This is testing of an operational nature once the software seems stable.2. the tester can uncover situations that lead to degradation and possible system failure. Alpha testing is conducted at the developer's site by a customer. The benefit of this type of acceptance testing is that it will bring out operational issues from potential customers prepared to comment on the software before it is officially released. Beta testing is conducted at one or more customer sites by end users.Software Testing – made easy 7. The customer records and reports difficulties and errors at regular intervals. It should be conducted by people who represent the software vendor's market. The customer uses the software with the developer 'looking over the shoulder' and recording errors and usage problems.4. K.Performance testing “Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. External instrumentation can monitor intervals. It is 'live' testing in an environment not controlled by the developer.

or other authorized entity to determine whether to accept a system or component” … BS7925-1 User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is performed by Users or on behalf of the users to ensure that the Software functions in accordance with the Business Requirement Document.2.4.Software Testing – made easy 7.4. · K. UAT focuses on the following aspects: · · · · All functional requirements are satisfied All performance requirements are achieved Other requirements like transportability. customer.1. Availability of stable Test Environment with the latest version of the Application.Exit Criteria · · · All Test Scenarios/conditions would be executed and reasons will be provided for untested conditions arising out of the following situations Non -Availability of the Functionality Deferred to the Future Release All Defects Reported are in the ‘Closed’ or ‘Deferred’ status. error recovery etc.4. All User IDs requested by the testing team to be created and made available to the testing team one week prior to start of testing.Entry Criteria · · · · SIT must be completed.User Acceptance Testing “Acceptance testing: Formal testing conducted to enable a user. compatibility. Muthuvel Page 47 of 127 . are satisfied. Test Cases prepared by the testing team to be reviewed and signed-off by the Project coordinator (AGM-Male). Acceptance criteria specified by the user is met. The client team should sign off the ‘Deferred’ defects. 7. 7.

There are three main groups of test selection approaches in use: · Minimization approaches seek to satisfy structural coverage criteria by identifying a minimal set of tests that must be rerun.5.1. Three of these things are bad. A regression test selection technique chooses. Four things can happen when a developer attempts to fix a bug.Factors favour Automation of Regression Testing · · · · · · Ensure consistency Speed up testing to accelerate releases Allow testing to happen more frequently Reduce costs of testing by reducing manual labor Improve the reliability of testing Define the testing process and reduce dependence on the few who know it 7. they seek to select all tests that exercise changed or affected program components. 7.Software Testing – made easy 7. the tests that are deemed necessary to validate modified software.” … BS7925-1 “Regression Testing is the process of testing the changes to computer programs to make sure that the older programs still work with the new changes.” Regression testing is an expensive but necessary activity performed on modified software to provide confidence that changes are correct and do not adversely affects other system components.Tools used in Regression testing · · · · · · WinRunner from Mercury e-tester from Empirix WebFT from Radview Silktest from Radview Rational Robot from Rational QA Run from Compuware K. Muthuvel Page 48 of 127 . retesting previously tested functions to make sure adding new features has not introduced new problems.” “When making improvements on software. and one is good: New Bug No New Bug Bad Good Successful Change Bad Unsuccessful Change Bad Because of the high probability that one of the bad outcomes will result from a change to the system. · Coverage approaches are also based on coverage criteria.2. · Safe attempt instead to select every test that will cause the modified program to produce different output than original program. but do not require minimization of the test set.5. from an existing test set.5. it is necessary to do regression testing. Instead.Regression Testing and Re-testing “Retesting of a previously tested program following modification to ensure that faults have not been introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes made.

The interconnection may be data coming into the system from another application. Process in which both the old and new modules run at the same time so that performance and outcomes can be compared and corrected prior to deployment. The other system is considered as the standard of comparison. database APIs. 8.3. properly handling special data boundaries and other business requirements. · 8. database triggers.Database Testing The database component is a critical piece of any data-enabled application. Database testing includes the process of validation of database stored procedures. recovery. K. Today’s intricate mix of client-server and Web-enabled database applications is extremely difficult to Test productively. Muthuvel Page 49 of 127 . Testing at the data access layer is the point at which your application communicates with the database.Compliance Testing Involves test cases designed to verify that an application meets specific criteria. Tests at this level are vital to improve not only your overall Test strategy.Software Testing – made easy 8.2. 8. Types of Testing 8. but also your product’s quality. such as processing four-digit year dates. security and database conversion.4.1. where multiple systems are integrated in cycles. commonly done with modules like Payroll. The basic need of intersystem test arises whenever there is a change in parameters between application systems. Testing a new or an alternate data processing system with the same source data that is used in another system.Parallel Testing · · The process of comparing test results of processing production data concurrently in both the old and new systems.Intersystem Testing / Interface Testing “Integration testing where the interfaces between system components are tested” … BS7925-1 The intersystem testing is designed to check and verify the interconnection between application function correctly Applications are frequently interconnected to other systems. backup. leaving for another application frequently in multiple cycles The intersystem testing involves the operations of multiple systems in test.

Automated Testing Software testing that utilizes a variety of tools to automate the testing process and when the importance of having a person manually testing is diminished.5. this will be the only kind of testing that can be performed. Often is considered a Move-to-Production activity for ERP releases or a beta test for commercial products. Muthuvel Page 50 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy 8. is conducted over a short period of time and is tightly controlled.Configuration Testing Testing to determine how well the product works with a broad range of hardware/peripheral equipment configurations as well as on different operating systems and software. 8.Pilot Testing Testing that involves the users just before actual release to ensure that users become familiar with the release contents and ultimately accept it. K.Ad-hoc Testing “Testing carried out using no recognised test case design technique. it can often find problems that are not caught in regular testing. If carried out by a skilled tester. 8.8. 8. if testing occurs very late in the development cycle. Automated testing still requires a skilled quality assurance professional with knowledge of the automation tool and the software being tested to set up the tests. Sometimes.Manual support Testing Manual support testing involves all functions performed by the people in preparing data for and using data from automated system. With some projects this type of testing is carried out as an adjunct to formal testing. Manual support testing involves first the evaluation of the adequacy of the process and seconds the execution of the process. The method of testing may be testing is same but the objective remains the same. Sometimes ad hoc testing is referred to as exploratory testing.” … BS7925-1 Testing without a formal test plan or outside of a test plan. The objective of manual support testing is · · · Verify the manual – support procedures are documented and complete Determine the manual-support responsibilities has been assigned Determine manual support people are adequately trained. Typically involves many users.9.6. 8.7.

8.10.” …. BS7925-1 “Volume Testing: Testing where the system is subjected to large volumes of data. Requirements might include tolerance for · heat · humidity · chemical presence · portability · electrical or magnetic fields · Disruption of power. is testing that purposely subjects a system (both hardware and software) to a series of tests where the volume of data being processed is the subject of the test. as its name implies.12. Muthuvel Page 51 of 127 . 8.Software Testing – made easy 8.Load Testing Load Testing involves stress testing applications under real-world conditions to predict system behavior and performance and to identify and isolate problems. BS7925-1 Testing with the intent of determining how well a product performs when a load is placed on the system resources that nears and then exceeds capacity. Volume Testing. BS7925-1 8. K.” All aspects of user interfaces are tested: · Display screens · messages · report formats · navigation and selection problems …. etc.Stress and Volume Testing “Stress Testing: Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements. Load testing applications can emulate the workload of hundreds or even thousands of users. so that you can predict how an application will work under different user loads and determine the maximum number of concurrent users accessing the site at the same time. “ ….Environmental Testing These tests check the system’s ability to perform at the installation site.13.Usability Testing “Testing the ease with which users can learn and use a product.11. Such systems can be transactions processing systems capturing real time sales or could be database updates and or data retrieval.

) with the test data generated Reviews test ware.Software Testing – made easy 9. Cases.Test Engineer Reporting To: Team Lead of a project Responsibilities: · · · · · Design and develop test conditions and cases with associated test data based upon requirements Design test scripts Executes the test ware (Conditions. Test scripts etc.1. retest and close defects Preparation of reports on Test progress 9. record defects. supervision of test cases preparation based on the business scenarios Maintaining the run details of the test execution.) with the test data generated Reviews test ware. test scripts Defect Management Preparation of test deliverable documents and defect metrics analysis report K. Review of test condition/cases. Roles & Responsibilities 9. retest and close defects Preparation of reports on Test progress 9. Muthuvel Page 52 of 127 . Test scripts etc.Test Associate Reporting To: Team Lead of a project Responsibilities: · · · · · Design and develop test conditions and cases with associated test data based upon requirements Design test scripts Executes the test ware (Conditions.Senior Test Engineer Reporting To: Team Lead of a project Responsibilities: · · · · · · · Responsible for collection of requirements from the users and evaluating the same and send out for team discussion Preparation of the High level design document incorporating the feedback received on the high level design document and initiate on the low level design document Assist in the preparation of test strategy document drawing up the test plan Preparation of business scenarios. record defects. Cases.3.2.

Test budgeting and scheduling. training and continual improvement. including test-effort estimations. Test process definition. Test environment and test product configuration management. and staff training. Nomination of training Cohesive integration of test and development activities. and transferring this knowledge to test team Ensure test project documentation 9. scripts) Preparation of test scenarios and configuration management and quality plan Manage test cycles Assist in recruitment Supervise test team Resolve team queries/problems Report and follow-up test systems outrages/problems Client interface Project progress reporting Defect Management Staying current on latest test approaches and tools. Muthuvel Page 53 of 127 . if required Review of the proposal K. Test planning including development of testing goals and strategy.Software Testing – made easy 9. Coordinating pre and post test meetings. conditions. Use of metrics to support continual test process improvement. Test tool selection and introduction.5.Test Manager Reporting To: Management Responsibilities: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Liaison for interdepartmental interactions: Representative of the testing team Client interaction Recruiting.Test Lead Reporting To: Test Manager Responsibilities: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Technical leadership of the test project including test approach and tools to be used Preparation of test strategy Ensure entrance criteria prior to test start-off Ensure exit criteria prior to completion sign-off Test planning including automation decisions Review of design documents (test cases.4. Mail Training Process for training needs. Test program oversight and progress tracking. staff supervision.

Design Specification The Design Specification document is prepared based on the functional specification. This is used in case of small application or an enhancement to an application. validation and verification of the software.2. This should also portray functionalities that are technically feasible within the stipulated time frames for delivery of the application. The test team should also have a detailed understanding of the design specification in order to understand the system architecture.System Specification The System Specification document is a combination of Functional specification and design specification. 10.BR and FS The requirements specified by the users in the business requirement document may not be exactly translated into a functional specification.1. Muthuvel Page 54 of 127 .1.3. This is ideally prepared and used by the construction team.1. It contains the system architecture.Software Testing – made easy 10. This is done over a period of time and going through various levels of requirements.2. design of the flow and user maintained parameters. This is used henceforth to develop further documents for software construction.1. It is primarily derived from Business requirement document. User acceptance test is based on this document.” … BS7925-1 The Functional Specification document describes the functional needs.Traceability 10. 10. which specifies the client's business needs. Case Study on each document and reverse presentation 10. each of it derived from the previous document. 10.Functional Specification “The document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended capability. As this contains user perspective requirements. table structures and program specifications. a trace on specifications between K.2.1.1. Therefore.4. 10.1. Test Preparation & Design Process 10. These documents are written in sequence.Business Requirement It describes user’s needs for the application. The proposed application should adhere to the specifications specified in the document.Baseline Documents Construction of an application and testing are done using certain documents.

Simplifying the above. The final FS form may vary from the original. after getting this signed off from the author of the FS. This helps finding the gap between the documents. Therefore A=C Another way of looking at this process is to eliminate as many mismatches at every stage of the process. · And also depends onetime and money spend on testing.2. these ripple effects may not be reflected in the FS. Mathematically. Sometimes. as Business requirement and Test conditions are matched. These gaps are then closed by the author of the FS. there is a direct translation of specification from the Business Requirement to Test conditions leaving lesser amount of understandability loss. If gaps between the same are obtained. there by giving the customer an application.3. 10. testers must keep in mind the rules specified in Test condition writing. It is determined by the criticality and risks involved with the Application under Test (AUT). or deferred after discussions.Gap Analysis This is the terminology used on finding the difference between "what it should be" and "what it is". it becomes evident that Business requirements that are user’s needs are tested. The technique used for testing will be chosen based on the organizational need of the end user and based on the caracal risk factor or test factors that do impacts the systems The technique adopted will also depend on the phases of testing The two factors that determine the test technique are · Test factors: the risks that need to be address in testing · Test Phases: the phase of the systems development life cycle in which testing will occur. K. A=Business requirement B=Functional Specification C=Test conditions A=B. tester must then build conditions for the gaps. Testers should understand these gaps and use them as an addendum to the FS. as deferring or taking in a gap may have ripple effect on the application. In the case of UAT. it is done on the Business requirement to FS and FS to test conditions. As explained. In this process.Software Testing – made easy functional specification and business requirements is done a one to one basis. 10.FS and Test conditions Test conditions built by the tester are traced with the FS to ensure full coverage of the baseline document.Choosing Testing Techniques · · · · · The testing technique varies based on the projects and risks involved in the project.2. 10. B=C. which will satisfy their needs. Muthuvel Page 55 of 127 .4. Addendum’s may sometime affect the entire system and the test case development.

“ … BS7925-1 10.5.7. It identifies test items.3.7. operations guide. project plan. and to design tests specifically to expose them.Test Items § § § § § Test items and their version Characteristics of their transmittal media References to related documents such as requirements specification. and schedule of intended testing activities.Error Guessing “A test case design technique where the experience of the tester is used to postulate what faults might occur.Test Plan Identifier § A unique identifier 10.6.Error Seeding “The process of intentionally adding known faults to those already in a computer program for the purpose of monitoring the rate of detection and removal. approach.” … (ANSI/IEEE Standard 829-1983) This standard specifies the following test plan outline: 10. users guide.7. resources. QA plan.Test Plan This is a summary of the ANSI/IEEE Standard 829-1983.Introduction § § § § Summary of the items and features to be tested Need for and history of each item (optional) References to related documents such as project authorization. configuration management plan. relevant standards References to lower level test plans 10. It describes a test plan as: “A document describing the scope. who will do each task. the features to be tested.” … [IEEE] 10.7. the testing tasks. installation guide References to bug reports related to test items Items which are specifically not going to be tested (optional) K.Software Testing – made easy 10. and any risks requiring contingency planning. and estimating the number of faults remaining in the program. design specification.2. Muthuvel Page 56 of 127 .1. relevant policies.

test logs. test case specifications.8.Software Testing – made easy 10. and tools which are to be used to test the groups Specify a minimum degree of comprehensiveness required Identify which techniques will be used to judge comprehensiveness Specify any additional completion criteria Specify techniques which are to be used to trace requirements Identify significant constraints on testing. such as test-item availability.5.Test Deliverables § Identify the deliverable documents: test plan. testingresource availability.4. test item transmittal reports.Features to be Tested § § All software features and combinations of features to be tested References to test-design specifications associated with each feature and combination of features 10. techniques. Muthuvel Page 57 of 127 .7.7. test design specifications. specify the approach Specify major activities.7. test incident reports.7.7.7. test summary reports Identify test input and output data Identify test tools (optional) § § K.Approach § § § § § § § § Overall approach to testing For each major group of features of combinations of featres.7.6.9.Features Not to Be Tested § § All features and significant combinations of features which will not be tested The reasons these features won’t be tested 10. test procedure specifications. and deadline 10.Suspension Criteria and Resumption Requirements § § Specify criteria to be used to suspend the testing activity Specify testing activities which must be redone when testing is resumed 10.Item Pass/Fail Criteria § Specify the criteria to be used to determine whether each test item has passed or failed testing 10.

Environmental Needs § § § Specify the level of security required Identify special test tools needed Specify necessary and desired properties of the test environment: physical characteristics of the facilities including hardware. witnessing. communications and system software. Muthuvel Page 58 of 127 .7.Schedule § § § § § Specify test milestones Specify all item transmittal events Estimate time required to do each testing task Schedule all testing tasks and test milestones For each testing resource.7.7. the mode of usage (i.7.Staffing and Training Needs § § Specify staffing needs by skill level Identify training options for providing necessary skills 10.10..11.13.14.12. preparing.7.Testing Tasks § § § Identify tasks necessary to prepare for and perform testing Identify all task interdependencies Identify any special skills required 10. checking and resolving Identify groups responsible for providing the test items identified in the Test Items section Identify groups responsible for providing the environmental needs identified in the Environmental Needs section 10.e. designing. specify its periods of use K. stand-alone).Responsibilities § § § Identify groups responsible for managing.Software Testing – made easy 10. and any other software or supplies needed Identify any other testing needs Identify the source for all needs which are not currently available § § 10. executing.

10.Data Definition K.Polarity of the value given for test is to analyze the practical usage of the condition.High Level Test Conditions / Scenario It represents the possible values that can be attributed to a particular specification.Approvals § § Specify the names and titles of all persons who must approve the plan Provide space for signatures and dates 10.7.1. It is left to the test team to decide on the application segmentation. The functionality can be broken into · Field level rules · Module level rules · Business rules · Integration rules 10.Processing logic It may not be possible to segment the specifications into the above categories in all applications.Software Testing – made easy 10. Negative condition .15. Muthuvel Page 59 of 127 .16.8.Polarity of the value given for test is not to comply with the condition existence.Polarity of the value given for test is to assess the extreme values of the condition. the possible condition types that can be built are · · · · Positive condition .Polarity of the value given for test is to comply with the condition existence.7. User perspective condition . The importance of determining the conditions are: · Deciding the architecture of testing approach · Evolving design of the test scripts · Ensuring coverage · Understanding the maximum conditions for a specification At this point the tester will have a fair understanding of the application and his module.2.8. For the segments identified by the test team.8. Boundary condition .Risks and Contingencies § § Identify the high-risk assumptions of the test plan Specify contingency plans for each 10.

Some applications may be stand alone i. to find a suitable record with interest exceeding 8 % and the Tenor being more than two months is difficult. we can give 9.8. Usually.Feeds Analysis Most applications are fed with inputs at periodic intervals. It is therefore.e. Translation of the high level data designed previously should be converted into the feed formats. all processes will happen within its database and no external inputs of processed data are required. they are sent in a format. These will aid in triggering certain action by the application.. a document is published in this regard. Application may have its own hierarchy of data structure which is interconnected. few data records will suffice the testing process. received from other machines. which are redesigned. like end of day or every hour etc. In the case of applications having feeds. · Unintelligent: Data is populated in mass. at the application end. in order to populate the application database. 10. There are two ways of populating the data into tables of the application. Muthuvel Page 60 of 127 . if the interest to be paid is more than 8 % and the tenor of the deposit exceeds one month. It will be difficult for the tester to identify his requirements from the mass data. Example: Business rule. · · · Data Sheet format (ISO template) Exercise with the live application Test Case K. the application should be populated with data.3. This will trigger the warning in the application. Example: Using the above example. Having now understood the difference between intelligent and unintelligent data and also at this point having a good idea of the application. then the system should give a warning. the tester should be able to design intelligent data for his test conditions. This type of population can be used for testing the performance of the application and its behavior to random data. · Intelligent: Data is tailor-made for every condition and value. To populate an interest to be paid field of a deposit. will be processed by local programs and populated in respective tables.Software Testing – made easy In order to test the conditions and values that are to be tested. Its values are chosen at random and not with reference to the conditions derived. having reference to its condition. essential for testers to understand the data mapping between the feeds and the database tables of the application. By constructing such intelligent data. These feeds. corresponding to the table structures.5478 and make the tenor as two months for a particular deposit.

to make the test cases explicit.9. It is advisable to use the term "Should" in the expected results. it should reflect in detail the result of the test execution.9.1. the tester should include the following: · · · Reference to the rules and specifications under test in words with minimal technical jargons. Language used in the expected results should not have ambiguity. 10. Expected result: New time deposit screen should be displayed. K.9.1. and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective.2. There are three headings under which a test case is written. which becomes readable and understandable by all.1. Expected results: The expected result on the execution of the instruction in the description is mentioned. The results expressed should be clear and have only one interpretation possible. Data and Pre-requirements: Here either the data for the test or the specification is mentioned.9. The resultant behavior of the application after execution is the expected result.Single Expected Result It has a single impact on the instruction executed. · While writing a test case. Namely. Check on data shown by the application should refer to the table names if possible Names of the fields and screens should also be explicit.1. 10. such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement.Software Testing – made easy 10. Example: Test Case Description: Click on the hyperlink "New deposit" at the top left hand corner of the main menu screen. 10. In general. Example: Test Case Description: Click on the hyperlink "New deposit" at the top left hand corner of the main menu screen. Pre-requirements for the test to be executed should also be clearly mentioned.Expected Results The outcome of executing an instruction would have a single or multiple impacts on the application.Test Case “A set of inputs. execution preconditions.” … BS7925-1 Test cases are written based on the test conditions. Muthuvel Page 61 of 127 . It is the phrased form of Test conditions. · · Description: Here the details of the test on a specification or a condition are written.Multiple Expected Result It has multiple impacts on executing the instructions.

Pre-requirements Test cases cannot normally be executed with normal state of the application. So.Software Testing – made easy Expected result: New time deposit screen should be displayed & Customer contact date should be pre-filled with the system date. Below is the list of possible pre-requirements that could be attached to the test case: · Enable or Disable external interfaces o Example: Reuters. so as to trigger a warning from the application. Time at which the test case is to be executed o Example: Test to be executed after 2. it is difficult to give the value of the maturity date while data designing or preparing test cases. Deletion of certain records to trigger an action by the application o Example: A document availability indicator field to be made null. in order to trigger a warning. K.30 p. They should indicate the values that will be entered into the fields and also indicate default values of the field. Change values if required to trigger an action by the application o Example: Change the value of the interest for a deposit so as to trigger a warning by the application. 10.3.m. · · · · 10. Example: Description: Enter Client's name Data: John Smith (OR) Description: Check the default value of the interest for the deposit Data: $ 400 In the case of calculations involved.and populate certain date fields when they are to trigger certain actions in the application.Data definition Data for executing the test cases should be clearly defined in the test cases.as its sometimes not possible to predict the dates of testing . o Example: Maturity date of a deposit should be the date of test.9. the test cases should indicate the calculated value in the expected results of the test case. Foreign exchange rate information service organization server to be connected to the application. Muthuvel Page 62 of 127 . Date's that are to be maintained (Pre-date or Post date) in the database before testing .9.2. Example: Description: Check the default value of the interest for the deposit Data: $ 400 This value ($400) should be calculated using the formula specified well in advance while data design.

development team should have completed tests on the software at Unit levels. K. The number attributed to each program file is unique and if any change is made to the program file between the time it is transferred to the test environment and the time when it is transferred back to the development for correction.1. 11. 11.3.1.1. Muthuvel Page 63 of 127 . The version of these files and a unique checksum number for these files is a must for change management.Interfaces for the application In some applications external interfaces may have to connected or disconnected. 11.1. Actual navigation to and from an interface may not be covered in black box testing.Pre. comparing and tracking before and after soft base transfer lie with the test team.Software Testing – made easy 11. The responsibilities of acquiring.Unit testing sign off · · · To begin an integrated test on the application. Clients and the development team must sign off this stage. Using the Design specification as a guide. Unit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of software design. Sequencing can also be done on the modules of the application.Version Identification Values The application would contain several program files for it to function. The test team should next plan the execution of the test on the application. Some applications have concepts that would require sequencing of the test cases before actual execution. These values have to be obtained from the development team by the test team. The details of the execution are documented in the test plan. it can be detected by using these numbers. In both cases the development team should certify that the application would function in an integrated fashion. These identification methods vary from one client to another. and hand over the signed off application with the defect report to the testing team. o Test Plan – Internal o Test Execution Sequence Test cases can either be executed in a random format or in a sequential fashion. These numbers will be generated for every program file on transfer from the development machine to the test environment. important control paths and filed validations are tested.1. This helps in identifying unauthorized transfers or usage of application files by both parties involved.2.Requirements 11. as one module would populate or formulate information required for another. Test Execution Process The preparation to test the application is now over.

Software Testing – made easy 11.1.4.Test Case Allocation
The test team should decide on the resources that would execute the test cases. Ideally, the tester who designed the test cases for the module executes the test. In some cases, due to time or resource constraint additional test cases might have to be executed by other members of the team. Clear documentation of responsibilities should be mentioned in the test plan. Test cases are allocated among the team and on different phases. All test cases may not be possibly executed in the first passes. Some of the reasons for this could be: · Functionality may some-times be introduced at a later stage and application may not support it, or the test team may not be ready with the preparation · External interfaces to the application may not be ready · The client might choose to deliver some part of the application for testing and rest may be delivered during other passes Targets for completion of Phases Time frames for the passes have to be decided and committed to the clients well in advance to the start of test. Some of the factors consider for doing so are · Number of cases/scripts: Depending on the number of test scripts and the resource available, completion dates are prepared. · Complexity of testing: In some cases the number of test cases may be less but the complexity of the test may be a factor. The testing may involve time consuming calculations or responses form external interfaces etc. · Number of errors: This is done very exceptionally. Pre-IST testing is done to check the health of the application soon after the preparations are done. The number of errors that were reported should be taken as a benchmark. The preparation to test the application is now over. The test team should next plan the execution of the test on the application. In this section, we will see how test execution is performed.

11.2.Stages of Testing: 11.2.1.Comprehensive Testing - Round I
All the test scripts developed for testing are executed. Some cases the application may not have certain module(s) ready for test; hence they will be covered comprehensively in the next pass. The testing here should not only cover all the test cases but also business cycles as defined in the application.

11.2.2.Discrepancy Testing - Round II
All the test cases that have resulted in a defect during the comprehensive pass should be executed. In other words, all defects that have been fixed should be retested. Function points that may be affected by the defect should also be taken up for testing. This type of testing is called as Regression testing. Defects that are not fixed will be executed only after they are fixed.

11.2.3.Sanity Testing - Round III
This is final round in the test process. This is done either at the client's site or at Maveric depending on the strategy adopted. This is done in order to check if the system is sane enough for the next stage i.e. UAT or production as the case may be under an isolated environment. Ideally the defects that are fixed from the previous phases are checked and freedom testing done to ensure integrity is conducted.

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Software Testing – made easy

12.

Defect Management

12.1.Defect – Definition
“Error: A human action that produces an incorrect result. “

… [IEEE]

“Fault: A manifestation of an error in software. A fault, if encountered may cause a failure. “ … BS7925-1 “Failure: Deviation of the software from its expected delivery or service. “ … BS7925-1

“A deviation from expectation that is to be tracked and resolved is termed as a defect. “ An evaluation of defects discovered during testing provides the best indication of software quality. Quality is the indication of how well the system meets the requirements. So in the context defects are identified as any failure to meet the system requirements. Error:

“Is an undesirable deviation from requirements?” Any problem or cause for many problems which stops the system to perform its functionality is referred as Error

Bug: Any Missing functionality or any action that is performed by the system which is not supposed to be performed is a Bug. “Is an error found BEFORE the application goes into production?” Any of the following may be the reason for birth of Bug 1. Wrong functionality 2. Missing functionality 3. Extra or unwanted functionality Defect: A defect is a variance from the desired attribute of a system or application. “Is an error found AFTER the application goes into production?” Defect will be commonly categorized into two types: 1. Defect from product Specification 2. Variance from customer/user expectation. Failure: Any Expected action that is supposed to happen if not can be referred as failure or we can say absence of expected response for any request. Fault: This generally referred in hardware terminologies. A Problem, which cause the system not to perform its task or objective.

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Software Testing – made easy 12.2.Types of Defects
Defects that are detected by the tester are classified into categories by the nature of the defect. The following are the classification · Showstopper: A Defect which may be very critical in terms of affecting the schedule, or it may be a show stopper – that is, it stops the user from using the system further · Major: A Defect where a functionality/data is affected significantly but not cause a showstopping condition or a block in the test process cycles. · Minor: A Defect which is isolated or does not stop the user from proceeding, but causes inconvenience. Cosmetic Errors would also feature in this category

12.3.Defect Reporting
Defects or Bugs when detected in the application by the tester must be duly reported through an automated tool. Particulars that have to be filled by a tester are · Defect Id: Number associated with a particular defect, and henceforth referred by its ID · Date of execution: The date on which the test case which resulted in a defect was executed · Defect Category: These are explained in the next section, ideally decided by the test leader · Severity: As explained, it can be Major, Minor and Show-stopper · Module ID: Module in which the defect occurred · Status: Raised, Authorized, Deferred, Fixed, Re-raised, And Closed. · Defect description: Description as to how the defect was found, the exact steps that should be taken to simulate the defect, other notes and attachments if any. · Test Case Reference No: The number of the test case and script in combination which resulted in the defect. · Owner: The name of the tester who executed the test cases · Test case description: The instructions in the test cases for the step in which the error occurred · Expected Result: The expected result after the execution of the instructions in the test case descriptions · Attachments: The screen shot showing the defect should be captured and attached · Responsibility: Identified team member of the development team for fixing the defect.

12.4.Tools Used
Tools that are used to track and report defects are,

12.4.1.ClearQuest (CQ)
It belongs to the Rational Test Suite and it is an effective tool in Defect Management. CQ functions on a native access database and it maintains a common database of defects. With CQ the entire Defect Process can be customized. For e.g., a process can be designed in such a manner that a defect once raised needs to be definitely authorized and then fixed for it to attain the status of retesting. Such a systematic defect flow process can be established and the history for the same can be maintained. Graphs and reports can be customized and metrics can be derived out of the maintained defect repository.

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Software Testing – made easy 12. creating tests. Possible causes for the problems are o Main server on which the application may have problems with number of instances on it slowly down the system o Networking to the main server or internal network may get down K. including planning. · Server problems o Test team may come across problems with the server. runs the tests.TestDirector (TD): TestDirector is an Automated Test Management Tool developed by Mercury Interactive for Test Management to help to organize and manage all phases of the software testing process. on which the application is planted. Apart form the above. defect categorizations are done. TestDirector activates WinRunner.6. Time lost due to these should be recorded duly by the test team. track the defect and report the defect effectively by the testing team. · To monitor defects closely from initial detection until resolution. Muthuvel Page 67 of 127 . The process ensures that all defects are accurate and authentic to the best knowledge of the test team. 12. 12. 12. · To analyze our Testing Process by means of various graphs and reports. Apart from Manual Test Execution. and tracking defects. an Independent Software Testing Company in Chennai for defect management.Defects Meetings Meetings are conducted at the end of everyday between the test team and development team to discuss test execution and defects. test team should have internal discussions with the test lead on the defects reported to the test lead.4.Defects Publishing Defects that are authorized are published in a mutually accepted media like Internet or sending the issue by email etc. Here. This tool is used to manage the defect. · As a sophisticated system for tracking software defects.5.2. · Reports that are published are · Daily status report · Summarized defect report for the individual domain / product if any · Final defect reported Test down Times: During the execution of the test. the WinRunner automated test scripts of the project can also be executed directly from TestDirector.3.4. schedules prepared earlier may slip based on certain factors. Before meetings with the development team. executing tests.Defect Tracker Defect Tracker is a tool developed by Maveric Systems Ltd. and displays the results. it is used for · To report defects detected in the software. TestDirector enables us to manage user access to a project by creating a list of authorized users and assigning each user a password and a user group such that a perfect control can be exercised on the kinds of additions and modifications and user can make to the project.

Defect Life Cycle K.7. Muthuvel Page 68 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy · · · · · · · · · Software compatibility with application and middleware if any may cause concerns delaying the test start New version of databases or middleware may not be fully compatible with the applications Improper installation of system applications may cause delays Interfaces with applications may not be compatible with the existing hardware setup Problems on Testing side / Development side Delays can also be from the test or development teams likely Data designed may not be sufficient or compatible with the application (missing some parameters of the data) Maintenance of the parameters may not be sufficient for the application to function Version transferred for testing may not be the right one 12.

This would give a fair idea on the defect set to be included for smoke test during regression.1. 13.1. These are categorized as 13. Muthuvel Page 69 of 127 . 13. Further analysis and derivation of metrics can be done based on the various components of the defect management.4.2.2.Software Testing – made easy 13. K.Defect Analysis: The analysis of the defects can be done based on the severity.Defect Metrics Analysis on the defect report is done for management and client information.Metrics 13.3. Test Closure Process 13.Deliverables The following are the deliverables to the Clients · · · · · · Test Strategy High Level Test Conditions or Scenarios and Test Conditions document Consolidated defect report Weekly Status report Traceability Matrix Test Acceptance/Summary Report.Sign Off Sign off Criteria: In order to acknowledge the completion of the test process and certify the application. occurrence and category of the defects. As an example Defect density is a metric which gives the ratio of defects in specific modules to the total defects in the application. the following has to be completed.4. · · · All passes have been completed All test cases should have been executed All defects raised during the test execution have either been closed or deferred 13.Authorities The following personnel have the authority to sign off the test execution process · · · Client: The owners of the application under test Project manager: Maveric Personnel who managed the project Project Lead: Maveric Personnel who managed the test process 13.3.Defect age: Defect age is the time duration between the points of introduction of defect to the point of closure of the defect.4.4.

Polarity of the knowledge i. Effort: Effort variance is a metric determined by the ratio of the planned effort to the actual effort exercised for the project. These are categorized as · · Schedule: Schedule variance is a metric determined by the ratio of the planned duration to the actual duration of the project.4.Debriefs With Test Team Completion of a project gives knowledge enrichment to the team members. K.e.Test Management Metrics Analysis on the test management is done for management and client information. 13.5..Software Testing – made easy 13. Muthuvel Page 70 of 127 .4.4. positive and negative should be shared commonly with the management and peer groups.

Test Planning Phase The various activities happening during Test Planning phase are: · · · · · · · · Team formation and Task allocation Application understanding Preparation of Clarification document Internal Presentation Client Presentation Assess and Prioritize risk Preparation of Test Schedule(Effort estimation) Preparation of Test strategy document. 14.Test Design Phase The various activities happening during Test design phase are: · · · · Environment set up for Testing by the IT department Preparation of Test condition. Muthuvel Page 71 of 127 . It plays a significant role in · · · · · · Identify and prioritize improvement areas Analyze the results and about the variability and current strengths and weakness and indicate improvement areas List improvement areas Analyze effectiveness measurements Exercise on Test strategy preparation using Maveric template Identification of test phases.2. The testing deliverables of different phases are significant for monitoring the testing process and for process improvement. test activities and dependencies 14. Discussion with Client Contract sign-off 14. Test script and Test data Preparation of Traceability matrix Preparation of Daily status and Weekly status report K.3. Risk Analysis Effort Estimation Proposal preparation and submission.Test Initiation Phase The various activities happening during Test Initiation phase are: · · · · · · Functional Point Analysis.1. Each phase of testing has various documents to be maintained that tracks the progress of testing activities and helps for future references.Software Testing – made easy 14. Testing Activities & Deliverables The process of testing involves sequence of phases with several activities involved in each phase.

Muthuvel Page 72 of 127 .Test Execution & Defect Management Phase The various activities happening during Test Execution and defect Management are: · Environment Check-up · Test data population · Execution and Defect management · Comprehensive (Round 1) · Discrepancy (Round 2) · Sanity (Round3) · Preparation of Daily status and Weekly status report · Defect Analysis · Preparation of Consolidated Defect report. 14.5.Software Testing – made easy · Approval of Design documents by the Client 14.4.Test Closure Phase The various activities happening during Test Closure are: · · · · · Final Testing Checklist Preparation of Final Test Summary Report Test Deliverables Project De-brief Project Analysis Report K.

specialist software testing service provider. Our forte lies in banking. and driving us to relentlessly deliver value to our clients. Bangalore. Singapore and Tokyo Primary Focus .1. We significantly enhance the functionality. Financial Services and Insurance New Focus Areas . and healthcare domains.Testing Subramanian NN AP Narayanan Director Manager .Quality Policy “We will significantly enhance the functionality. London. financial services and insurance verticals.2. Domain expertise in chosen areas enables us to understand client requirements quickly and completely to offer a value-added testing service. We have also delivered projects in telecom. · · · · · Maveric Systems is an independent software testing company Delivery hubs in India and UK 185 Professionals on Projects across Chennai. Delhi. Ranga Reddy P K Bandyopadhyay CEO Manager .Testing Venkatesh P Hari Narayana Director Manager .Fulfillment 15.Testing Mahesh VN Rosario Regis Director Manager . and performance of technology solutions deployed by our clients. “ K.3. A core group of anchor clients have propelled us to become a key independent software testing firm in India within a short span of three years. Dallas. Melbourne.Telecom and Manufacturing sectors 15. Chicago.Software Testing – made easy 15.Technical Writing Kannan Sethuraman Sajan CK Principal Manager . CRM. Complementing our core service offering in testing is a strong capability in strategic technical writing and risk management (verification) services. and performance of IT solutions deployed by our clients. Muthuvel Page 73 of 127 . A Maveric spirit and collective vision is nurturing our unique culture. Mumbai. usability. usability.Banking.Leadership Team Exceptional management bandwidth is a unique strength that has fuelled Maveric's aggressive growth. Hyderabad.Overview Maveric Systems is an independent. Our five founding Directors of Maveric took to entrepreneurship while they were at the prime of their careers in business and technology consulting. Maveric Systems Limited 15. We bring in a fresh perspective and rigor to testing engagements by virtue of our dedicated focus.

4.Testing Process / Methodology Input Output Key Signoff K.Software Testing – made easy 15. Muthuvel Page 74 of 127 .

Lead . · Prepare a micro level schedule indicating the roles allocated for all team members with timelines in MPP · Fill in the Project Details form and the Top Level Project Checklist Output · Minutes of meeting · MPP to be attached to Test Strategy (Test Planning process) · Project Details form · Top Level Project Checklist to Test Delivery Management K.Software Testing – made easy 15.1.4.Test Initiation Phase Input · Signed proposal Procedure · Arrange internal kick-off meeting among the team members. Muthuvel Page 75 of 127 .Commercial and Lead . Test Manager.Operations · Distribute the baseline documents based on the individual roles defined.

Muthuvel Page 76 of 127 .4.2.Software Testing – made easy 15.Test Planning Phase K.

Software Testing – made easy

Input · Baseline documents · MPP Procedure · Team members understand the functionality from baseline documents · Raise and obtain resolution of clarifications · Internal presentation and reverse presentation to the client · TL defines test environment and request the client for the same · TL identifies risks associated and monitors the project level risks throughout the project. The risks at the project delivery level are maintained by the Lead - Ops · TL prepares Test Strategy, review is by Lead - Commercial, Lead - Ops and Test Manager · AM revises commercials if marked difference between Test Strategy and the Proposal · TL prepares Configuration Management and Quality Plan, Review is by Lead Ops and Test Manager Output · Clarification document · Test Environment Request to client · Risk Analysis document to Test Delivery Management

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Software Testing – made easy 15.4.3.Test Design Phase

Input · Test Strategy Procedure · Team members prepare the Test Conditions, Test Cases and Test Script · TL prepares the Test Scenarios (free form)
· ·

·
· · · Output

Review of the above by the Lead - Ops, Test Manager Client review records are also maintained. Lead - Ops is responsible for sign-off Team members prepare Traceability matrix if agreed in Test Strategy and updated during Test Execution with defect ids Team members prepare Data Guidelines whenever required TL sends daily status reports to clients and the Test Delivery Management team. TL sends the weekly status reports to clients, Test Manager, delivery management team and the Account Manager TL escalates any changes in baseline documents to Delivery Management team.

· ·
·

Test Condition/Test Case document, Test Script, Test Scenarios (free form) Traceability matrix to the client Daily and Weekly status reports to client, Test Delivery Management and Account Management

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Software Testing – made easy 15.4.4.Execution and Defect Management Phase

15.4.4.1.Test Execution Process

15.4.4.2.Defect Management Process

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Software Testing – made easy Input · Test Conditions/ Test Cases document · Test Scenarios document · Traceability matrix Procedure · Validate test environment and deal with any issues · Execute first rounds of testing · Update the Test Condition/Test case document (and the Test Scripts. Test Delivery Management and Account Management K.Ops Complete rounds/stages of testing as agreed in the Test Strategy Send daily and weekly status reports to clients and the Test Delivery Management team Escalate any changes in baseline documents to Delivery Management team. consolidate all defects and send to client. No review or sign-off required Carry out the test in the new version of the application Changes to baseline or scope of work escalated to Lead . if prepared) with actual result and status of test · Log in the Defect Report. Test Manager and · · · · · · · delivery management team Conducts defect review meetings with client (as specified in Test Strategy) Consolidate the Test Conditions/Test Cases to be executed in the subsequent round in a separate document. Output · Defect Report · Daily and Weekly status reports to the client. Muthuvel Page 80 of 127 .

Ops and Test Manager Reviews the same. Lead .5. · Internal Review records and review records of clients are also stored. If required. decisions whether to close and release deliverables are taken by delivery management team · The team prepare the Quantitative measurements · TL prepares the Final Testing Checklist and Lead .4.Software Testing – made easy 15. Account Manager. TL and team members carry out the de-brief meeting. inputs are given to Quality Department for process improvements Output · Final Testing Checklist and Final Test Report to the client · Project De-brief to Quality Department K.Comm.Ops approves the same · TL prepares the Final Test Report and Lead . % compliance to schedule are documented in Project De-brief form.Ops. Test Manager. Lead ..Test Closure Phase Input · Consolidated Defect Report Procedure · Team Lead in consultation with Lead . Effort variances.Ops decides about closure of a project (both complete and incomplete) · In case of incomplete testing. Muthuvel Page 81 of 127 .

if any Defect tracking / Project management tools used.Project Details Form Name of Project Client Location Contact at Client Location Project In-charge (Testing) Project In-charge (Development) Name: Designation: Email: Phone: Mobile: Name: Designation: Email: Phone: Mobile: Name: Designation: Email: Phone: Mobile: Domain of the Project Duration of Testing Level of Testing Test Summary From To White Box Testing Black Box Testing Manual Testing Automation Testing Type of Testing Functional Testing Regression Testing Performance Testing Automation Tools.5. Muthuvel Page 82 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy 15.Test Deliverables Template 15.1.5. if any K.

Software Testing – made easy Application Summary Application Overview OS with version Database Backend Middleware Front-end Software languages used Module Summary Module Name Description Testers Summary K. Muthuvel Page 83 of 127 .

Software Testing – made easy 15. Muthuvel Page 84 of 127 .5.Minutes of Meeting Meeting Topic: Host of the Meeting: Participants: Absentees: Previous Meeting Follow up: Meeting Time: Date and Venue and Meeting: Minutes of the Meeting (Detailed) Attach if additional sheets require: Corrective and Preventive Actions with Target Date: Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: K.2.

3. Muthuvel Page 85 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy 15.Top Level Project Checklist K.5.

Muthuvel Page 86 of 127 .5.4.Configuration Management and Quality Plan K.Test Strategy Document 15.5.5.Software Testing – made easy 15.

5. Muthuvel Page 87 of 127 .Test Environment Request Project Code: Project Name: Application Version No: Type of Testing: Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: Description Client side Hardware Details like RAM. MS Projects etc. Server side – Middle Tier Hardware Platform.Software Testing – made easy 15. tools Browser support Internet connection Automation Tools to be installed Utility software’s like Toad.6. of CPU RAM Hard Disk capacity Operating System Software CPU RAM Hard Disk capacity Number of Database Servers Location of Database Servers Details Version K. No. of CPU RAM Hard Disk capacity Operating System Software Number of Servers Location of Server Server side – Database Hardware Platform. Operating System Client Software’s to be installed Front end language. Hard Disk Capacity etc. No.

9.10.5.5.Test condition / Test Case Document 15.5.Risk Analysis Document 15.7.Software Testing – made easy 15. Muthuvel Page 88 of 127 .Clarification Document 15.8.Test Script Document K.5.

Daily Status Report Project Code: Project Name: Phase of the Testing Life Cycle: Application Version No: Round: Report Date: Highlights of the Day: A1. Design Phase Module No of Test Condn Designed No of Test Cases Designed Remarks Sn No WinRunner Scripting Progress SRs/Transaction Status A2.Traceability Matrix 15.12. Defect Distribution K. Execution Phase Module Tot no of Conds in the module No.Software Testing – made easy 15. Muthuvel Page 89 of 127 .11.5. Executed during the day Planned Actua l Total executed till date Planned Actual Remarks B.5.

General Remarks: Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: K. Muthuvel Page 90 of 127 . Other Issues / Concerns Description of the Issue / Concern Action Proposed Proposed Target Date Responsibility Remarks E. Environment Non-availability From Time To Time Time Lost Man-hours Lost Error encountered & Root cause (If Identified) Total D.Software Testing – made easy Show Stopper Defects Raised Today (A) Till Yesterday (B) Total (A + B) Defects Closed (C) Balance Open (A + B – C) Fixed but to be retested Rejected Critical Major Minor Total C.

Highlights of the Week B1. Defect Distribution Show stopper Open Defects Break-up of Open defects Pending Clarifications Fixed but to be re-tested Re-raised Being Fixed Rejected Critical Major Minor Total D. Environment Non-availability Total man-hours lost during the week: K. Execution Phase Module Total no of conditions in the module No of conditions executed during the week Planned Actual Total executed till date Planned Actual Remarks C.Weekly Status Report Project Code: Project Name: Phase of the Testing Life Cycle: Application Version No: Report Date: Report for Week: A. Design Phase Module No of Test Condition Designed No of Test Cases Designed Remarks WinRunner Scripting Progress Sn No SRs/Transaction Status B2.Software Testing – made easy 15.5. Muthuvel Page 91 of 127 .13. Life Cycle/Process Planned Start Date End Date Manmonths Revised Start Date End Date Start Date Man months utilized till date Actual Projected man months till closure Projected End Date Reasons B.

Other Issues / Concerns Description of the Issue / Concern Action Proposed Proposed Target Date Responsibility Remarks F. General Remarks Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: 15.Defect Report Round 2& Round 3 as same as Round 1 K.14.5.Software Testing – made easy E. Muthuvel Page 92 of 127 .

Muthuvel Page 93 of 127 .Final Test Checklist Project Code: Project Name: Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: Check Have all modules been tested Have all conditions been tested Have all rounds been completed All deliverables named according to naming convention Are all increase in scope.5.15. client review comments etc) Have all defects been re-tested Have all defects been closed or deferred status Are all deliverables ready for delivery Are all deliverables taken from Configuration Management tool Are all soft copy deliverables checked to be virus free Comments and Observations: Final inspection result: Approved/ Rejected Status (Y/N) Remarks K. Test Strategy and design documents Have all agreed-upon changes carried out (change in scope.Software Testing – made easy 15. timelines been tracked in Top Level Project Checklist.

Project De-brief Form Project Code: Project Name: Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: Overview of the Application: Key Challenges faced during Design or Execution: Lessons learnt: Suggested Corrective Actions: K.Software Testing – made easy 15.16.17.5.5. Muthuvel Page 94 of 127 .Final Test Report 15.

Requirements should be. Any bugs not found on the list will be assumed to be new.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. Software complexity . cohesive.various tools often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. often requiring a lot of guesswork.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented that result as bugs. If a bug is found. A non-testable requirement would be. mistakes will be made. and testable. resulting in added bugs. Changing requirements . When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. the error is simulated Testing the fixed code to verify that the bug is really fixed Q3: What will happen about bugs that are already known? Ans: When a program is sent for testing (or a website given) a list of any known bugs should accompany the program. Time pressures . and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. there will be no clear-cut way to determine if a software application is performing correctly.understand the application requirements. Q4: What's the big deal about 'requirements'? Ans: Requirements are the details describing an application's externally perceived functionality and properties. for example. rescheduling of engineers. 'userfriendly' (too subjective). clear & documented.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development.programmers "can" make mistakes. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. attainable. K. Poorly documented code .A redesign. Muthuvel Page 95 of 127 . · · · Q2: What does "finding a bug" consist of? Ans: Finding a bug consists of number of steps that are performed: · · · · · Searching for and locating a bug Analyzing the exact circumstances under which the bug occurs Documenting the bug found Reporting the bug and if necessary. then the list will be checked to ensure that it is not a duplicate. Q&A 16. reasonably detailed. etc.General Q1: Why does software have bugs? Ans: · · · · Miscommunication or no communication . Without such documentation. Software development tools . Programming errors . complete. effects on other projects. If there are many minor changes or any major changes.Software Testing – made easy 16.1.

and servers. hardware. indicating a normal amount of programmer testing) High stability (bugs are expected to be difficult to find. Use rapid prototyping whenever possible to help customers feel sure of their requirements and minimize changes. or set up only higher-level generic-type test plans) Q6: When to stop testing? Ans: This can be difficult to determine. and run in such an interdependent environment.) Test cases completed with certain percentage passed Test budget depleted Coverage of code/functionality/requirements reaches a specified point Defect rate falls below a certain level Beta or Alpha testing period ends Q7: How does a client/server environment affect testing? Q9: How is testing affected by object-oriented designs? Ans: Well-engineered object-oriented design can make it easier to trace from code to internal design to functional design to requirements. load/stress/performance testing may be useful in determining client/server application limitations and capabilities. Design some flexibility into test cases (this is not easily done. so a complete testing can never be performed. Common factors in deciding when to stop testing are: · · · · · · Ans: Client/server applications can be quite complex due to the multiple dependencies among clients. Thus testing requirements can be extensive. While there will be little affect on black box testing (where an K. When time is limited (as it usually is) the focus should be on integration and system testing. It is up to the tester to decide how much to test it before it is tested. Muthuvel Page 96 of 127 . An initial assessment of the software is made. Be sure that customers and management understand the scheduling impacts. and it will be classified into one of three possible stability levels: · · · Low stability (bugs are expected to be easy to find. inherent risks. and costs of significant requirements changes. Q8: Does it matter how much the software has been tested already? Ans: No. Many modern software applications are so complex. Additionally. indicating that the program has not been tested or has only been very lightly tested) Normal stability (normal level of bugs. indicating already well tested) Deadlines achieved (release deadlines. the best bet might be to minimize the detail in the test cases.Software Testing – made easy Q5: What can be done if requirements are changing continuously? Ans: It's helpful if the application's initial design allows for some adaptability so that any changes done later do not require redoing the application from scratch. testing deadlines. data communications. etc. To makes changes easier for the developers the code should be well commented and well documented.

only when needed. set priorities. functional.Testing can go in parallel with the software development life cycle to minimize the time needed to develop the software.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. reporting requirements. Automated testing tools are only one part of a unique solution to achieving customer success. in their domain areas. white-box testing can be oriented to the application's objects. Muthuvel Page 97 of 127 . Independent assessment . change processes. problem/bug tracking. Q10: Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Ans: A tool set that allows controlled access to all test assets promoted better communication between all the team members. system.Using a dedicated and expert test team frees the development team to focus on sharpening their core skills in design and development. integration.Outsourcing testing offers the flexibility of having a large test team. test tracking. and will ultimately break down the walls that have traditionally existed between various groups. This reduces the carrying costs and at the same time reduces the ramp up time and costs associated with hiring and training temporary personnel. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents Obtain budget and schedule requirements Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities. for different clients. Testing a software application now involves a variety of skills.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. Q11: Why outsource testing? Ans: Skill and Expertise Developing and maintaining a team that has the expertise to thoroughly test complex and large applications is expensive and effort intensive.Independent test team looks afresh at each test project while bringing with them the experience of earlier test assignments.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. and services needed to efficiently develop software. · · Focus . and determine scope and limitations of tests Determine test approaches and methods . required standards and processes (such as release processes. The complete solution is based on providing the user with principles. and labor requirements · · · · · K. etc. on multiple platforms and across different domain areas. functional design. usability tests. etc. load. coverage analyzers.Software Testing – made easy understanding of the internal design of the application is unnecessary). · · Q12: What steps are needed to develop and run software tests? Ans: The following are some of the steps needed to develop and run software tests: · · · Obtain requirements. etc. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. software. communications. If the application was well designed this can simplify test design. Reduce Cost . those responsible for tasks. etc. tools.unit. Save time .

that the software produced fulfils the requirements or design statements of the appropriate software specification. is the development of a test plan. timelines. A test strategy should ideally be organization wide. The next stage of test design. is critical to the success of software development within the organization. describing the plans for testing of individual units of software. milestones Determine input equivalence classes.Software Testing – made easy · · · · · Set schedule estimates. test environment. test cases. A test plan states what the items to be tested are. describing the plan for acceptance testing of the software. which is the first stage within a software development project. In the case of acceptance testing and system testing. · · · · · · · · · The objective of each test plan is to provide a plan for verification. A Software Integration Test Plan. K. These may form part of the Detailed Design Specifications. which efficiently meets the needs of an organization. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. being applicable to all of organizations software developments. how the test strategy will be applied to the testing of each item. but might be published with the acceptance test plan. This would also usually be published as a separate document. Muthuvel Page 98 of 127 . and test ware through life cycle · Q13: What is a Test Strategy and Test Plan? Ans: A test strategy is a statement of the overall approach to testing. boundary value analyses. A test plan may be project wide. Developing a test strategy. but might be published with the system test plan as a single document. The application of a test strategy to a software development project should be detailed in the projects software quality plan. Unit Test Plan(s). set up test tracking processes. This may form part of the Architectural Design Specification. A System Test Plan. describing the plan for system integration and testing. set up logging and archiving processes. techniques and tools to be used. this means the Requirements Specification. by testing the software. what sequence they are to be tested in. describing the plan for integration of testes software components. This would usually be published as a separate document. and describes the test environment. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test ware. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. identifying what levels of testing are to be applied and the methods. or may in fact be a hierarchy of plans relating to the various levels of specification and testing: · An Acceptance Test Plan. at what level they will be tested.

Apart from that they also perform a lot of tests like · Ad-Hoc testing · Cookie testing · CET ( Customer Experience test) · Client-Server Test · Configuration Tests · Compatibility testing · Conformance Testing · Depth Test · Error Test · Event-Driven · Full Test · Negative Test · Parallel Testing · Performance Testing · Recovery testing · Sanity Test · Security Testing · Smoke testing · Web Testing 4. What is the need for testing? The Primary need is to match requirements get satisfied with the functionality and also to answer two questions A. Whether the system is not performing what it is not suppose to do? 6. /BRS (CRS)/User Manual. An integrated application. Stable for testing Performance Testing: K. What is Software Testing? “The process of exercising or evaluating a system or system component by manual or automated means to verify that it satisfies specified requirements or to identify differences between expected and actual results. What types of testing do testers perform? Black-box testing. 3. Whether the system is doing what it supposes to do? B.Software Testing – made easy 16. performing its task as expected.. To achieve the maximum usability of the system To demonstrate expected performance of the system. White box testing is the basic type of testing testers Performs. What is the Outcome of Testing? A stable application. – Interview 1.G.E.2.." 2. 5. Muthuvel Page 99 of 127 . What is the Purpose of Testing? · · · To uncover hidden error. What are the entry criteria for Functionality and Performance testing? Functional testing: Functional Spec.

process or related documentation. arrays. conditions. which relates to a software system. hardware. are very micro level but they are Basement for any application. What is verification? A tester uses verification method to ensure the system complies with an organization standards and processes. etc. What is Baseline document. What are the entry criteria for Automation testing? Application should be stable. Software metrics is any type of measurement. an evaluation doing on the testing to extract some information about the application health using outputs of testing. Regard less of model the following criteria should considered To start: When test Environment was supportive enough for testing. Here loops. When Application study was confident enough To Stop: After full coverage of Scope of testing After getting enough confidence on health of the application. when Black box testing is available? A benchmark that certifies Commercial (Business) aspects and also functional (technical) aspects is objectives of black box testing. Clear Design and Flow of the application is needed 10. 11. So White box takes these things in Macro level and test these things 9. starts actual testing. Muthuvel Page 100 of 127 . structures.Software Testing – made easy Same above mentioned baseline document support and good and healthy application that supports drastic performance testing 7. which starts the understanding of the application before the tester. What is test metrics? After doing the actual testing. relying on review or non executable methods (such as software. When to start and Stop Testing? If we follow ‘Waterfall’ model then testing can be started after coding. If ‘V’ model is followed then testing can be started at design phase itself. documentation and personnel) “Are we Building the Right Product” K. Functional Specification Business Requirement Document 13.. Eg: Size of code and Found bugs on that count Number of bugs reported per day. Can you say any two? A baseline document. Number of Conditions/Cases tested per day It can be · Test Efficiency · Total number of tests executed 8. Why do you go for White box testing. What is Quality “Fitness to use” “A journey towards excellence” 12. files.

which clearly pictures how a software development and testing should be done.What are the various levels of testing? · Unit Testing · Integration testing · System Testing · User Acceptance Testing 20. · Ad . What are the Qualities of a Tester? · · · · · · Should be perfectionist Should be tactful and diplomatic Should be innovative and creative Should be relentless Should possess negative thinking with good judgment skills Should possess the attitude to break the system 19. What are SDLC and TDLC? The Flow and explanation process. processes are monitored and performance problems are solved. What is quality control? Quality Control is defined as a set of activities or techniques whose purpose is to ensure that all quality requirements are being met. What is quality assurance? A planned and systematic pattern for all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that the item or product conforms to established technical requirements 16.Software Testing – made easy 14. were explained in SDLC and TDLC respectively. Muthuvel Page 101 of 127 . “Are we building the Product Right” 15. What is validation? Validation physically ensures that the system operates according to plan by Executing the system functions through series of tests that can be observed or evaluated. In order to achieve this purpose.Hoc testing · Cookie Testing · CET (Customer Experience Test) · Client-Server Test · Configuration Tests · Compatibility testing · Conformance Testing · Depth Test · Error Test · Event-Driven · Full Test · Negative Test · Parallel Testing K. (Software development Life Cycle and testing development Life cycle) TDLC is a informal concept and also referred as TLC 18. Tell names of some testing type which you learnt or experienced? Any 5 or 6 types which are related to companies profile is good to say in the interview. 17.

Software Testing – made easy
· · · · · · Performance Testing Recovery testing Sanity Test Security Testing Smoke testing Web Testing

21. What exactly is Heuristic checklist approach for unit testing? It is method of achieving the most appropriate solution of several found by alternative methods is selected at successive stages testing. The check list Prepared to Proceed is called Heuristic check list 22. After completing testing, what would you deliver to the client? · · · · · · · Test deliverables namely Test plan Test Data Test design Documents (Condition/Cases) Defect Reports Test Closure Documents Test Metrics

23. What is a Test Bed? Before Starting the Actual testing the elements which supports the testing activity such as Test data, Data guide lines. Are collectively called as test Bed. 24. What is a Data Guideline? Data Guidelines are used to specify the data required to populate the test bed and prepare test scripts. It includes all data parameters that are required to test the conditions derived from the requirement / specification The Document, which supports in preparing test data are called Data guidelines

25. Why do you go for Test Bed? When Test Condition is executed its result should be compared to Test result (expected result), as Test data is needed for this here comes the role of test Bed where Test data is made ready. 26. What is Severity and Priority and who will decide what? Severity: How much the Bug found is supposed to affect the systems Function/Performance, Usually we divide as Emergency, High, Medium, and Low. Priority: Which Bug should be solved fist in order of benefit of system’s health? Normally it starts from Emergency giving first Priority to Low as last Priority. 27. Can Automation testing replace manual testing? If it so, how? Automated testing can never replace manual Testing.

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As these tools to Follow GIGO principle of computer tools. Absence of creativity and innovative thinking. But 1. It speeds up the process. Follow a clear Process, which can be reviewed easily. Better Suited for Regression testing of Manually tested Application and Performance testing. 28. What is a test case? A Test Case gives values / qualifiers to the attributes that the test condition can have. Test cases, typically, are dependent on data / standards. A Test Case is the end state of a test condition, i.e., it cannot be decomposed or broken down further. Test Case design techniques for Black box Testing. · · · · · · Decision table Equivalence Partitioning Method Boundary Value Analysis Cause Effect Graphing State Transition Testing Syntax Testing

29. What is a test condition? A Test Condition is derived from a requirement or specification. It includes all possible combinations and validations that can be attributed to that requirement/specification. 30. What is the test script? A Test Script contains the Navigation Steps, Instructions, Data and Expected Results required to execute the test case(s). Any test script should say how to drive or swim through out the application even for a new user. 31. What is the test data? The value which are given at expected places(fields) in a system to verify its functionality have been made ready in a piece of document called test data. 32. What is an Inconsistent bug? The Bug which is not occurring in a definable format or which cannot be caught, even if a process is followed. It may occur and may not when tested with same scenario. 33. What is the difference between Re-testing and Regression testing? Retest-To check for a particular bug and its dependencies after it is said to be fixed. Regression testing: To check for the added or new functionality's effect on the existing system 34. What are the different types of testing techniques? · · · White box Black box Gray Box

35. What are the different types of test case techniques?

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Test Case design techniques for Black box Testing. · Decision table · Equivalence Partitioning Method · Boundary Value Analysis · Cause Effect Graphing · State Transition Testing · Syntax Testing 36. What are the risks involved in testing? · · · Resource Risk (A. Human Resource B. Hardware resource C. Software resource) Technical risk Commercial Risk

37. Differentiate Test bed and Test Environment? Test bed holds only testing documents which supports testing which includes Test data, Data guidelines etc. Test environment includes all supportive elements namely hardware, software, tools, Browsers, Servers, etc., 38. What ifs the difference between defect, error, bug, failure, fault? Error: “Is an undesirable deviation from requirements?” Any problem or cause for many problems which stops the system to perform its functionality is referred as Error Bug: Any Missing functionality or any action that is performed by the system which is not supposed to be performed is a Bug. “Is an error found BEFORE the application goes into production?” Any of the following may be the reason for birth of Bug 1. Wrong functionality 2. Missing functionality 3. Extra or unwanted functionality Defect: A defect is a variance from the desired attribute of a system or application. “Is an error found AFTER the application goes into production?” Defect will be commonly categorized into two types: 1. Defect from product Specification 2. Variance from customer/user expectation. Failure: Any Expected action that is suppose to happen if not can be referred as failure or we can say Absence of expected response for any request. Fault: This generally referred in hardware terminologies. A Problem, which cause the system not to perform its task or objective. 39. What is the difference between quality and testing? “Quality is giving more cushions for user to use system with all its expected characteristics”It is usually said as Journey towards Excellence. Testing is an activity done to achieve the quality.

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Missing functionality 3. What is the difference between verification and validation? Verification: The process of determining whether of not the products of a given phase of the software development cycle meets the implementation steps and can be traced to the incoming objectives established during the previous phase. then specific source code features are irrelevant. inspection and reviewing. “Is an error found AFTER the application goes into production?” Defect will be commonly categorized into two types: 1. In other words we can say Verification as “Are we building the Product Right” K. What is the difference between White & Black Box Testing? White box: Structural tests verify the structure of the software itself and require complete access to the object's source code. What is the difference between bug and defect? Bug: Any Missing functionality or any action that is performed by the system which is not supposed to be performed is a Bug. Extra or unwanted functionality Defect: A defect is a variance from the desired attribute of a system or application. In other words we can say Verification as “Are we Building the Right Product” A tester uses verification method to ensure the system complies with an organization standards and processes. If the program consistently provides the desired features with acceptable performance. Defect from product Specification 2. Wrong functionality 2. Black Box: Functional tests examine the observable behavior of software as evidenced by its outputs without reference to internal functions. The techniques for verification are testing. hardware. inspection and reviewing. Both are done to achieve the quality 43. It's a pragmatic and down-to-earth assessment of software. The technique for validation is testing. Hence ‘black box’ testing. documentation and personnel) Validation: The process of evaluating software at the end of the software development process to ensure compliance with software requirements. What is the difference between Quality Assurance and Quality Control? QA: Study on Process followed in Project development QC: Study on Project for its Function and Specification 42. 41. Muthuvel Page 105 of 127 . What is the difference between Testing and debugging? Testing is done to find bugs Debugging is an art of fixing bugs. relying on review or non executable methods (such as software.Software Testing – made easy 40. “Is an error found BEFORE the application goes into production?” Any of the following may be the reason for birth of Bug 1. This is known as ‘white box’ testing because you see into the internal workings of the code. Variance from customer/user expectation 44.

What is the difference between functional spec? And Business requirement Specification? Functional specification will be more technical. It holds properties of a field and functionality dependencies E. Business Requirement Specification will be more business oriented which throws light more on needs or requirements 46. What is the difference between Volume & Load? Testing Type Data Increase Till saturation Point is reached Co User Load Constant Increase Till saturation Volume Point is reached 48.: size. Deliverable of integration testing is parts of system ready for testing with other portions of system. 47. Type of data whether numeric or alphabets etc. What is difference between Volume & Stress? Volume testing is increasing the volume of data to maximum withstand capacity of the system. so need not to increase in volume alone even user can also increased objective here is to check the up to which extend it can bare the increasing load and volume. Integration Testing: Testing of related programs.g. Stress is the combination of both volume and load. It validates that the software performs as designed.Software Testing – made easy Validation physically ensures that the system operates according to plan by Executing the system functions through series of tests that can be observed or evaluated. Deliverable of the unit testing is software unit ready for testing with other system components. Validates that multiple parts of the system perform as per specification. modules or units of code. module or program. K. Muthuvel Page 106 of 127 . it is usually done by the developer of the unit. What is the difference between unit testing and integration testing? Unit Testing Coding & Debugging Individual Unit Under Integration Testing Unit Testing: Testing of single unit of code. 45.

the aim of this review is to enhance the process carried out in production environment.Software Testing – made easy 49. etc. IST need integrated System of various Unit levels of independent functionality and checks its workability after integration and compares it before integration. What is the difference between Stress & Load Testing? Stress is the combination of both volume and load. More than all that without executing the application this testing cannot be done. but prior to Unit testing. Done Based on structures. What is the difference between Client Server & Web Based Testing? Client server needs a Client server environment that is a system to Request and another to respond to its request. 54. the material being examined is presented by a reviewed and evaluated by a team of reviewers. Algorithms. this was not considered to be cost-effective in discovering errors. so need not to increase in volume alone even user can also increased objective here is to check the up to which extend it can bare the increasing load and volume. What is the difference between Integration & System Testing? Integration testing 52. Load Testing is increasing number of user to maximum withstand capacity of the system. 55. What is the Difference between static and dynamic? · · Static testing: Testing performed with expecting any response for specific request placed at that time. What is the difference between walkthrough and inspection? Walkthrough: In a walk through session. · Following implementation. What is the difference between alpha testing and beta testing? K. Inspections: Design and code inspection was first described by FAGUN. they are · Following design.. 51. done to check its stability and functionality when goes online. 56. A walk through is generally carried out without any plan or preparation. Dynamic testing: Performed to the System that responds to any specific request. 53. There are three separate inspection performed. · Finally inspecting Unit testing. Web Based testing normally goes with 3W sites testing. Review is highly recommended to be done by people of higher level in team or who have good knowledge about the application. logic. What is the Difference between SIT & IST? · · SIT can be done when system is on the process of integration. Muthuvel Page 107 of 127 . 50. What is the Difference between Code Walkthrough & Code Review? Both are almost same except in one issue that is Walkthrough need not be done by people inside the team are who have more knowledge about the system. but prior to implementation.

Muthuvel Page 108 of 127 . Stable application. Simulated security attacks can be performed to find vulnerabilities. 62. Importance of cookie testing: · To evaluate the performance of a web application · To assure the health of www application where more cookies are involved 61.g. This can be performed even with non-availability of of Baseline documents. Cookies will get stored in our machines (client).Software Testing – made easy Component Test data Test Environment To Achieve Tested by Supporting Document Used Alpha testing Simulated Controlled Functionality Only testers Functional Specification Beta testing Live Uncontrolled User needs Testers and Users Customer Requirement Specification End- 57. and validating the effectiveness of security measures. What is database testing? The demonstrate the backend response for front end requests K. 59. password validation and details about your session. How much it can with stand from breaking the system from performing its assigned task. and Tools) Optimum maintenance of resource 58. What is security testing? · · To test how the system can defense itself from external attacks. Enough hardware and software support E. What is cookie testing? Cookie is a text file normally written by web applications to store all your login-id. Browsers. .Its mainly to verify whether cookies are being written correctly. or in the environment when technical/testing materials are not 100% completed. It is also largely based on general software product functionality/testing understanding and the normal 'Human Common Sense'. Many critical software applications and services have integrated security measures against malicious attacks. The purpose of security testing of these systems include identifying and removing software flaws that may potentially lead to security violations. What is Ad hoc testing? When it can be done? Appropriate and very often syndicated when tester wants to become familiar with the product. What are the Minimum requirements to start testing? · · · · Baseline Documents. What is Smoke Testing & when it will be done? A quick-and-dirty test that the major functions of a piece of software work without bothering with finer details. 60. Servers. Originated in the hardware testing practice of turning on a new piece of hardware for the first time and considering it a success if it does not catch on fire.

Software Testing – made easy How backend. 68. 69. 71. says how the system should behave in ideal scenario. That too test design documents which plays vital role in test execution can never be said waste of time as without which proper testing cannot be done. 63. What is Web Based Application Testing? Web Based testing normally goes with 3W sites testing. How do you go about testing a project? · · · System study Understanding the application Test environment setup 66. 70. What is the relation ship between Quality & Testing? Quality is a journey towards excellence. test case & Test Script? No document prepared in any process is waste of time. based on these things the testing scope should be decided. What is the Initial Stage of testing? Right from understanding the application testing starts with clarifying the ambiguities in the application and continues to Test initiation encloses. what to be tested? The Scope of testing should be created based on the requirements or needs given by the end user or client. What is the use of Functional Specification? Functional Specification is a baseline document prepared in technical perspective. which stores and retrieve back the data and supports the front end when in need is justified database testing. test data. Testing is the way of achieving quality. 72. Why do we prepare test condition. 64. Tells right from syntax to its functionality and dependencies Eg: for a password and user id fields It should accept <n>number of characters in<Type> of type of data and it gets input from <x> and gives output to <y>. test cases. 65. Test process. Data guidelines Preparation and test design which is finally executed 67.finally this execution is going to find the bugs to be fixed so we have prepare this documents. done to check its stability and functionality when goes online. Is it not waste of time in preparing the test condition. Muthuvel Page 109 of 127 . What is Client Server Application Testing? Client server needs a Client server environment that is a system to Request and another to respond to its request. test script (Before Starting Testing)? These are test design document which are used to execute the actual testing Without which execution of testing is impossible . How do you go about testing of Web Application? K. How do you determine.

In the Static Testing. Conditions. Check the compatibility and verify the individual behavior and then to compare as client and server. What is meant by Static Testing? Structure of a program. Workability testing. 74. 73. Is the Static testing a functional testing? Yes.. By keeping this also static testing can be done. Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program. What does dynamic testing mean? Any dynamic application i. test case & test script help you in performing the static testing? Static testing will be done based on Functions. Can the static testing be done for both Web & Client Server Application? Yes.Software Testing – made easy To approach a web application testing. What is the functional testing you perform? I have done Conformance testing. the system that responds to request of user is tested by executing it is called dynamic testing 79. Muthuvel Page 110 of 127 . so hardly not needed to have These documents. Regardless of static or dynamic if applications functionality's are attacked keeping in mind to achieve the need then it will come under functional testing. arrays and structures.e. Regardless of static or dynamic if applications functionality's is attacked keeping in mind to achieve the need then it will come under functional testing. Regression testing. Can test condition. 76. Is the dynamic testing a functional testing? Yes. 80. Can be done regardless of type of application. Conditions Loops Arrays Structures 77. Code coverage etc. Program Logic. Condition coverage. 75. Function Validation and Field level validation testing. the first attack on the application should be on its performance behavior as that is very important for a web application and then transfer of data between web server . 78. loops. can be tested. What is meant by Alpha Testing? K. security server and back end server. How do you go about testing of Client Server Application? To approach a client server environment we can track back the data transfer. 82. what all can be tested? · · · · · Functions. 81.front end server. but Depends on the Application’s individual structure and behavior.

g.g. if they have been developed individually then unit testing can be carried out before their integration is suppose to be done. 84. if Applicable v Verify completeness of project test plan How to Validation Not usable use Project Planning Not usable K. Gap analysis document will add value to understand expected and existing system. When will the Verification & Validation be done? Software How To use Development Verification Phases v Verify Requirements Completeness of gathering Requirements v Verify vendor capability. What kind of Document you need for going for a Functional testing? Functional specification is the ultimate document.: a Product after completion given to customers for trail as Beta version and feedback from users and important suggestions which will add quality will be done before release. E.: if an application have 5 functionality's to work together. Muthuvel Page 111 of 127 . 83. Say for E.Software Testing – made easy Alpha testing is testing of product or system at developer’s site by the customer. At what stage the unit testing has to be done? After completing coding of individual functionality's unit testing can be done. Who can perform the Unit Testing? Both developers and testers can perform this unit level testing 86. which expresses all the functionality's of the application and other documents like user manual and BRS are also need for functional testing. In this testing usually users or testers will involve in performing. 85. What is meant by Beta Testing? User Acceptance testing which is done with the objective of achieving all users needs.

Preparing Test plan. What is meant by System Testing? The system test phase begins once modules are integrated enough to perform tests in a whole system environment. 91. or system. Muthuvel Page 112 of 127 . Then Application is recommended for integration after these unit getting integrated. What is Integration Testing? Integration testing exercises several units that have been combined to form a module. An application which is integrated together after assuring their individual functionality's. Ambiguity/Clarification Document and test design Documents. 89. application can be performed integration testing. Verify contingency plan · · 86A. What is meant by SIT? System Integration Testing done after the completion of Unit level testing. What are the things. subsystem. as we must have certain knowledge of the units to recognize if we have been successful in fusing them together in the module.Software Testing – made easy · · · Validate Correctness of changes Validate Regression Validate meets user acceptance criteria Validate Supplier’s software Process correctly Validate Software interfaces · · Project Implementation Verify Correctness and completeness of Interim Deliverables. What is the testing that a tester performs at the end of Unit Testing? Integration testing will be performed after unit testing to ensure that unit tested modules get integrated correctly. 92. 88. Integration testing focuses on the interfaces between units. K. When do you go for Integration Testing? When all Separate unit in Unit Level testing is assured to do good their performance. 87. Understanding the applications expected functionality's. 90. What is Incremental Integration Testing? Incremental Integration Testing is an approach of testing where we will integrate the modules top to bottom or on the incrementing scale of intensity. The nature of this phase is certainly 'white box'. to make sure the units work together. System testing can occur in parallel with integration test. especially with the top-down method. you prefer & Prepare before starting Testing? Study the application.

Stubs simulate sub-programs or modules while testing higher-level routines. The system as a whole can be tested only if all modules are integrated and all modules work correctly System testing should be done before UAT (User Acceptance testing) and Before Unit Testing. If we use Waterfall model then testing will comes in to picture only after coding is done. What is the Concept of Up-Down & Down-Up in Testing in integration testing? There is two approach in testing an application if the functionality sequence was mapped and tracked from top to bottom then it is called top down method . but nothing to test it with. here full coverage of functionality should be taken care With the same process followed as for Prototype testing. If we follow V model then testing can be started at the design phase itself. 99. Where in the SDLC. What is Mutation testing & when can it be done? K. 97. UAT test cases can be written from URS/BRS and System test cases can be written from SRS. which use GUI support systems and standard such as MS Windows.Software Testing – made easy 93. What are the features. Muthuvel Page 113 of 127 . Drivers are important for bottom-up testing. What is the final Stage of Integration Testing? All the individual units integrated together to Perform a task as a system or Part of the system as expected to do so. What is the Outcome of Integration Testing? At the completion of integration testing all the unit level functionalities or sub modules are integrated together and finally it should work as a system as whole as expected. where you have a complete low-level module. What are stubs & drivers? Driver programs provide emerging low-level modules with simulated inputs and the necessary resources to function. 94. 101. Can the System testing be done at any stage? No. the Testing Starts? It depends upon the Software Model which we follow. 95. 98. you take care in Prototype testing? Prototype testing is carrying out testing in same method reputedly to understand the system behavior. 102.If that was done for integration testing then it is top down model testing in Integration and vice versa for Bottom up model 96. What is meant by Back-End Testing? Database Testing is also called as back end testing checking whether database elements have been accessed by front end whenever required as desired. What is meant by GUI Testing? Testing the front-end user interfaces to applications. 100.

Since it is a fault-based testing technique. Muthuvel Page 114 of 127 . Mutation testing injects faults into code to determine optimal test inputs 103. Mutation testing is based on two assumptions: the competent programmer hypothesis and the coupling effect. What is meant by regression Testing? Regression testing is an expensive but necessary activity performed on modified software to provide confidence that changes are correct and do not adversely affects other system components. The competent programmer hypothesis assumes that competent programmers tend to write nearly "correct" programs. Four things can happen when a developer attempts to fix a bug. Three of these things are bad. Compatibility testing can be performed manually or can be driven by an automated functional or regression test suite. K. it is necessary to do regression testing. Operating Systems. namely simple syntactic changes to a program. What is Compatibility Testing? Testing to ensure compatibility of an application with different browsers. ultimately. 105. 104. What is the Importance of testing? Software Testing is more Oriented to detecting the defects or often equated to finding bugs. It is a Process of Testing the effectiveness. 107. use) successful. 106. it is aimed at testing and uncovering some specific kinds of faults. and satisfaction with which specified users could achieve specified goals in the Application. All other skills that we deploy or cultivate aim to make usability (and. and one is good: Change New Bug No New Bug Bug Successful Bad Good Change Unsuccessful Bad Bad Change Because of the high probability that one of the bad outcomes will result from a change to the system. Testing only demonstrates that the product performs each function intended & to show the product is free from defect. Synonymous with "ease of use". and hardware platforms.Software Testing – made easy Mutation testing is a powerful fault-based testing technique for unit level testing. Testing is mainly done to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. When we prefer Regression & what are the stages where we go for Regression Testing? We Prefer regression testing to provide confidence that changes are correct & has not affected the flow or Functionality of an application which got Modified or bugs got fixed in it. The coupling effect stated that a set of test data that can uncover all simple faults in a program is also capable of detecting more complex faults. What is Usability Testing? Usability testing is a core skill because it is the principal means of finding out whether a system (see our definition below) meets its intended purpose. efficiency.

The following three types highly influence Performance of an application. Performance testing generally involves an automated test suite as this allows easy simulation of a variety of normal. Unfortunately. Manually: . This sort of testing is particularly useful to identify performance bottlenecks in high use applications. Stress. & Volume are the types of testing which are been done automatically.Testing the Application under varying loads. Performance testing can be applied to understand your application or WWW site's scalability. but cannot so easily determine if the system is producing the correct information. and exceptional load conditions. those can be done Manually & Automatically? This sort of testing is particularly useful to identify performance bottlenecks in high use applications. and stress tests try to determine the failure point of a system under extreme pressure. for identifying whether the application works fine. Muthuvel Page 115 of 127 .Load. like any other large-scale system that requires multiple accesses and processing.Load.Software Testing – made easy Stages where we go for Regression Testing are: · Minimization approaches seek to satisfy structural coverage criteria by identifying a minimal set of tests that must be retested. Web sites. keeping the Number of Users constantly & finding the Response time & the system With Standing Capability or varying the Load till saturation Point is reached Load Testing: -Testing the Application under Constant load. What is Volume. but do not require minimization of the test set. once stress and load factors have been successfully overcome. Stress. Load testing. they seek to select all tests that exercise changed or affected program components. · Safe attempt instead to select every test that will cause the modified program to produce different output than original program. it is only necessary to stress test again if major changes take place. 110. by using the Automated Skills. peak. often-called load. Stress tests are most useful when systems are being scaled up to larger environments or being implemented for the first time. processing incorrect transactions at high speed can cause much more damage and liability than simply stopping or slowing the processing of correct transactions. Fortunately. volume or performance test. What is the Performance testing. Performance testing generally involves an automated test suite as this allows easy simulation of a variety of normal. as the users would experience it. & Volume are the types of testing which are been done Manually. Automated: . A drawback of performance testing is that can easily confirm that the system can handle heavy loads. 109. keeping varying the Number of Users simultaneously & there by finding the Response time & the system With Standing Capability or varying the Load & Users till saturation Point is reached K. Stress Testing Stress testing is the combination of both load and volume. peak. or to benchmark the performance in an environment of third party products such as servers and middleware for potential purchase. and exceptional load conditions. keeping varying the Number of Users & there by finding the Response time & the system With Standing Capability or varying the Users till saturation Point is reached Stress Testing: . contain vulnerable nodes that should be tested before deployment. What is performance testing? An important phase of the system test. Volume testing. · Coverage approaches are also based on coverage criteria. 108.Testing the Application under varying loads. Stress & Load Testing? Volume testing: . In other words. Instead. most stress testing can only simulate loads on various points of the system and cannot truly stress the entire network.

e. What is the Priority in fixing the Bugs? Priority: . It mainly deals with. Here the Status after the Development team fixing the bugs will be (Fixed) & Status will be Differed for the bugs which got Differed) · The Fixed bugs will be again Re-tested by the Test Team (Here based on the Closure of the Bug. what importance should be given to each bug by the Developer. What is a Defect? Defect: . (i. until all the bugs gets fixed in the application. Explain the Severity you rate for the bugs found? · · · · K. What is the defect Life Cycle? Test Team (Here the Defect status will be Open) Test Lead Authorize the bugs found (Here the Defect Status will be Open) Development Team reviewing the Defect (Here the Defect Status will be Open) The defect can be Authorized or Unauthorized by the development Team (Here the Status of the Defect will be Open (For Authorized Defects) & Reject (For Unauthorized Defects) · Development Team fixing the Defect (Here the authorized Bugs will get fixed or differed.Software Testing – made easy Testing Type Data User Load Constant Increase Till saturation Point is reached Increase Till saturation Point is reached Increase Till saturation Point is reached Volume Constant Stress Increase Till saturation Point is reached 111. Muthuvel Page 116 of 127 .) like the Critical bugs should be solved first & then the Major bugs can be taken care. the status will be made as closed or if the Defect still remains. it will be Re-raised again & even the new bugs with status Open will be sent to the Development team) The above-mentioned cycle flows on continuously.“Is an error found BEFORE the application goes into production?” 112. it is done again by the Development team.“Is an error found AFTER the application goes into production?” 113. 115. What is a Bug? Bug: .The value will be given to the bugs. by both Testers & Developers (But Mostly the Development team will take care of this). 114.

When user is not able to proceed or system gets crashes & so that tester is not able to proceed further testing (These Bugs will be rated as Critical) E. If you can perform every test as user acceptance tests. 118.: . K.When user tries to add an record & then tries to view the same record added & if the details getting displayed to the fields are not the same which the user provided as the value to the fields (These Type of Bugs will be rated as Major Bugs) E. Testing in done in the Client Place 5. it is based on the Defect we find in the application. Done with the Simulated Data 3. Testing is done by the Real Users or some Third Party Testers IST: 1. Muthuvel Page 117 of 127 .g. by this time.: . Testing is done in User Style 4.Software Testing – made easy · · · · Emergency High (Very High & high) Medium Low (Very Low & Low) Testers will rate severity. Done Using FS 2. Difference between UAT & IST? UAT & IST UAT: 1. Testing is done in the Testers Company 117. 4. Done Using BRD 2. 116. Severity can be rated as Critical or major or Minor. If the users have not seen prototypes. Done with the Live Data 3. Eg: . this is where the users ‘get their first crack’ at the software. been involved with the design. What all are the requirements needed for UAT? · Business Requirement Document is the Documents required for performing the UAT Testing by the testers.Mostly the FLV Bugs & some functional bugs (Related the value display etc. Unfortunately. and understood the evolution of the system.g. What is meant by UAT? Traditionally. they are inevitably going to be unhappy with the result. Testing is done in a Controlled Way. it's usually too late. you have a much better chance of a successful project User Acceptance testing is done to achieve the following:· User specified requirements have been satisfied · Functionality is doing as per supporting documents · Expected performance have been achieved · End user is comfortable to use the application. It is mostly done based on the nature of the defect found in the Application. Testing in done in Offsite 5.) will be rated as Minor.

Transaction Time. What ways can be followed for defect management? · · · Reporting the Bugs through the Defect Report (Excel Template) Any in-house tool inbuilt in the company may also be used. How to do risk management? Identifying the Risk Involved in the project & finding Mitigation for the Risk Found will do risk Management. Muthuvel Page 118 of 127 . 120. & vulnerabilities. 121. Threat: . It is a process of evaluating risks. controls. What are the docs required for Performance Testing? Bench Mark is the Basic Document required for Performance Testing. 122. What is Traceability matrix? Traceability Matrix: Through out the testing life cycle of the project Traceability matrix has been maintained to ensure the Verification & Validation of the testing is complete. or operations flaw that may be exploited by a threat? Control: -Control is anything that tends to cause the reduction of risk. Commonly available tools like TEST DIRECTOR can also be employed K.Software Testing – made easy · Application should be Stable (Means. Where the documents contains in detail about the Response Time. all the Modules should be tested at least once after Integrating the Modules) 119. What are test closure documents? · Test Conditions · Test Case · Test Plan · Test Strategy · Traceability Matrix · Defect Reports · Test Closure Document · Test Data (The Above Mentioned Deliverables are based on the deliverables accepted by the Testing Team & mentioned in the Test Strategy) 123. What is risk analysis? Risk Analysis is a series step that helps the Software or Testing Team to understand & manage Uncertainty. 124.Which is capable of exploiting vulnerability in the security of a computer system or application. Virtual Memory in which the Application should work. threats. Vulnerability: -Is a design. Risk Mitigation will be a solution for the Risk Identified. implementation. Data Transfer Time.

or other interested parties for comment or approval. Walkthrough “A review of requirements. product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection). It consists of two aspects. designs or code characterized by the author of the material under review guiding the progression of the review. Muthuvel Page 119 of 127 . customers. users. managers. “ Inspection A group review quality improvement process for written material.” Review .” Validation Determination of the correctness of the products of software development with respect to the user needs and requirements.Definition Review is a process or meeting during which a work product or set of work products. K.” Verification “The process of evaluating a system or component to determine whether the products of the given development phase satisfy the conditions imposed at the start of that phase. Static Testing Techniques “Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program.Software Testing – made easy 17. and the action taken when nonconformance is detected. Glossary Testing “The process of exercising software to verify that it satisfies specified requirements and to detect errors “ Quality Assurance “A planned and systematic pattern for all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that the item or product conforms to established technical requirements” Quality Control “QC is a process by which product quality is compared with applicable standards. is presented to project personnel.

” Equivalence partition testing: Equivalence partition testing: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes. Muthuvel Page 120 of 127 . “ Black Box Testing: “Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the specification of the component without reference to its internal workings. Equivalence class: A portion of the component's input or output domains for which the component's behaviour is assumed to be the same from the component's specification.” Statement Coverage: “A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute statements.Software Testing – made easy Dynamic Testing Techniques “The process of evaluating a system or component based upon its behaviour during execution.” Branch Testing: Branch Testing: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute branch outcomes. Boundary value analysis: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed which include representatives of boundary values. Boundary Value Analysis Boundary value: An input value or output value which is on the boundary between equivalence classes. which can be used to design test cases” White-Box Testing: “Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component. or an incremental distance either side of the boundary. K. Cause and Effect Graphs “A graphical representation of inputs or stimuli (causes) with their associated outputs (effects).

” K. or when a component has more than one entry point. then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components.” Bottom up Integration “An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first. The process is repeated until the lowest level components has been tested. or an unconditional transfer of control from any statement to any other statement in the component except the next statement. Path Testing Path: A sequence of executable statements of a component.” Unit Testing “The testing of individual software components. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. a transfer of control to an entry point of the component.Software Testing – made easy Branch : A conditional transfer of control from any statement to any other statement in a component. Data Flow-Based Testing: “Testing in which test cases are designed based on variable usage within the code. Muthuvel Page 121 of 127 . Path testing: A test case design technique in which test cases are designed to execute paths of a component. with lower level components being simulated by stubs. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested. from an entry point to an exit point.” Integration Testing “Testing performed to expose faults in the interfaces and in the interaction between integrated components” Incremental Integration Testing “Integration testing where system components are integrated into the system one at a time until the entire system is integrated” Top Down Integration “An approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first.

” Validation Testing Validation testing aims to demonstrate that the software functions in a manner that can be reasonably expected by the customer. Muthuvel Page 122 of 127 . etc. tests that exercise specific functions or probe the non-functional constraints such as performance or security)” Business-Process based Non-Functional Testing Testing of those requirements that do not relate to functionality.” K. Drivers: Drivers are programs or tools that allow a tester to exercise/examine in a controlling manner the unit of software being tested. catalogued..e. “ Recovery testing “Testing aimed at verifying the system's ability to recover from varying degrees of failure. Configuration review An audit to ensure that all elements of the software configuration are properly developed. System Testing “System testing is the process of testing an integrated system to verify that it meets specified requirements". performance.Software Testing – made easy Stubs: Stubs are program units that are stand-ins² for the other (more complex) program units that are directly referenced by the unit being tested. Requirement based Testing “Designing tests based on objectives derived from requirements for the software component (e. I.g. and has necessary detail to support maintenance. Big Bang Integration “Integration testing where no incremental testing takes place prior to all the system's components being combined to form the system. usability.

customer. Muthuvel Page 123 of 127 .” Performance testing “Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements.” Alpha and Beta testing “Alpha testing: Simulated or actual operational testing at an in-house site not otherwise involved with the software developers.” “Beta testing: Operational testing at a site not otherwise involved with the software developers.” User Acceptance Testing “Acceptance testing: Formal testing conducted to enable a user.” Ad-hoc Testing “Testing carried out using no recognised test case design technique.Software Testing – made easy Security testing “Testing whether the system meets its specified security objectives.” Stress testing “Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements.” Load Testing Load Testing involves stress testing applications under real-world conditions to predict system behavior and performance and to identify and isolate problems. or other authorized entity to determine whether to accept a system or component” Regression Testing and Re-testing “Retesting of a previously tested program following modification to ensure that faults have not been introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes made. so that you can predict how an application will work under different user loads and determine the maximum number of concurrent users accessing the site at the same time. K. Load testing applications can emulate the workload of hundreds or even thousands of users.

Business Requirement It describes user’s needs for the application. and to design tests specifically to expose them. System Specification The System Specification document is a combination of Functional specification and design specification.” K.” Design Specification The Design Specification document is prepared based on the functional specification.Software Testing – made easy Stress and Volume Testing “Stress Testing: Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements. Error Guessing “A test case design technique where the experience of the tester is used to postulate what faults might occur. “ Error Seeding “The process of intentionally adding known faults to those already in a computer program for the purpose of monitoring the rate of detection and removal. table structures and program specifications. Muthuvel Page 124 of 127 . “ Usability Testing “Testing the ease with which users can learn and use a product. Functional Specification “The document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended capability.” Environmental Testing These tests check the system’s ability to perform at the installation site.” “Volume Testing: Testing where the system is subjected to large volumes of data. It contains the system architecture. and estimating the number of faults remaining in the program.

execution preconditions. Discrepancy Testing .” . all defects that have been fixed should be retested. and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective. Ideally the defects that are fixed from the previous phases are checked and freedom testing done to ensure integrity is conducted. This type of testing is called as Regression testing.Round I All the test scripts developed for testing are executed.e.Software Testing – made easy Test Plan A record of the test planning process detailing the degree of tester indedendence. who will do each task. Defects that are not fixed will be executed only after they are fixed. approach. and any risks requiring contingency planning. Sanity Testing .” Comprehensive Testing . hence they will be covered comprehensively in the next pass. K. and schedule of intended testing activities. In other words. and the rationale for their choice. the features to be tested. This is done in order to check if the system is sane enough for the next stage i. Muthuvel Page 125 of 127 .IEEE Test Case “A set of inputs. . the test environment. Function points that may be affected by the defect should also be taken up for testing. the test case design techniques and test measurement techniques to be used.BS “A document describing the scope. UAT or production as the case may be under an isolated environment. The testing here should not only cover all the test cases but also business cycles as defined in the application. It identifies test items. the testing tasks. This is done either at the client's site or at Maveric depending on the strategy adopted. Some cases the application may not have certain module(s) ready for test. such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement. resources.Round II All the test cases that have resulted in a defect during the comprehensive pass should be executed.Round III This is final round in the test process.

Usually we divide as Emergency. or it may be a show stopper – that is. A fault. K. “ “A deviation from expectation that is to be tracked and resolved is termed as a defect. “ “Fault: A manifestation of an error in software. Minor A Defect which is isolated or does not stop the user from proceeding. Priority: Which Bug should be solved fist in order of benefit of system’s health? Normally it starts from Emergency giving first Priority to Low as last Priority. if encountered may cause a failure. “ “Failure: Deviation of the software from its expected delivery or service. Muthuvel Page 126 of 127 . Medium. Cosmetic Errors would also feature in this category Severity: How much the Bug found is supposed to affect the systems Function/Performance. High. but causes inconvenience.Software Testing – made easy Defect – Definition “Error: A human action that produces an incorrect result. and Low. it stops the user from using the system further Major A Defect where a functionality/data is affected significantly but not cause a showstopping condition or a block in the test process cycles. “ Defects Classification Showstopper A Defect which may be very critical in terms of affecting the schedule.

Traceability Matrix Through out the testing life cycle of the project Traceability matrix has been maintained to ensure the Verification & Validation of the testing is complete. Test environment A description of the hardware and software environment in which the tests will be run. and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under test including stubs and test drivers. It includes all data parameters that are required to test the conditions derived from the requirement / specification.Software Testing – made easy Test Bed Before Starting the Actual testing the elements which supports the testing activity such as Test data. which supports in preparing test data are called Data guidelines Test script A Test Script contains the Navigation Steps. Data guide lines. Any test script should say how to drive or swim through out the application even for a new user. The Document. Instructions. Test data The value which are given at expected places(fields) in a system to verify its functionality have been made ready in a piece of document called test data. Muthuvel Page 127 of 127 . Data and Expected Results required to execute the test case(s). K. Are collectively called as test Bed. Data Guidelines Data Guidelines are used to specify the data required to populate the test bed and prepare test scripts.

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