Software Testing – made easy

Software Testing
- made easy

Prepared By

K. Muthuvel, B.Com.,M.C.A.
E.P.G.D.S.T * (Software Testing)

K. Muthuvel

Page 1 of 127

Software Testing – made easy

History
Version 1.0 Description / Changes Baseline version Author K. Muthuvel Approver Effective Date 10th Aug.'2005

For “Maveric Systems” Internal Use Only No part of this volume may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying and recording or by any information storage or retrieval system except as may be expressly permitted.

K. Muthuvel

Page 2 of 127

Software Testing – made easy

This book is dedicated to

Lord Vignesh

K. Muthuvel

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.2.....................................1.................................................................................................................1..SW – CMM:.ANSI / IEEE Standards............ISO : International Organisation for Standardisation....... 16 4.................................................5.....1.....................23 K..............................Dynamic Testing Techniques...................................2..............2...........................Quality Control.............................................................................................................Informal Review............2.........................................10 3. 12 3..Definition...............14 4..................2............Level 4: Management and Measurement........................ 19 5........ 16 4...........................2....Need to use SW-TMM.........Review ..............2................... 20 5...............Spiral Model............................................................................................Level 2: Phase Definition................Models of SDLC & STLC...........19 5......2........5........................... 11 3..........1..............................Benefits of Testing.................2........4..............................1....................................Roles and Responsibilities..............................13 3.2.........................................2..................1...........................................3............1............................................................1.....................Testing Standards................. 9 1................................................2.............................3..Quality Assurance....................................................................................................2...............2................................Extreme Programming Model.................2.Testing Fundamentals....4.......4.....Software Testing – made easy Table of Contents 1.....................................................1..2........................................................................................STLC – Software Testing Life Cycle .......1..............................................19 5.......................................................1...........................Levels of SW –TMM..................................................................SDLC & STLC............. Quality Control.........................3......................Walkthrough................................................2..................Level 5: Optimization / Defect Prevention and Quality Control............................... 17 4..1.................2............................... 16 4........Testing Techniques........................................................Quality Assurance..............................Level 1: Initial................................................1...................................................1............................ 20 5......Verification..............................................................1......Waterfall Model...............................................SW-TMM Summary.....3..................................3..................................................................................1.............1...................15 4...............2............... 10 2.1.SIGIST.............20 5..........................17 4..........................5.......17 4..........Review of the Specification / Planning and Preparing System Test..........3..................................2..V-Model.........................1................Objective...................................1.......................... 19 5..2...................................................18 4................................................... 9 1..........18 4........1....... 9 2..................................11 3..................... 16 4............... Verification & Validation......................... 10 2.......... 22 5...Definition..... 16 4......Technical Review.SW-TMM Assessment Process.............................1...............1.............................................Level 3: Integration..............4...............................SW – TMM.................................4......................BCS .4...Inspection.............................................Activities performed during review........................4.........2......2................................Types of Reviews....5......................................... Muthuvel Page 4 of 127 ...........1.............. 13 3.....W-Model....................3................................ 10 2..................................................................................16 4............................2.................................. 11 3.......................... 19 5......................................................2.........3...... 16 4...................................................................................................... 19 5........................Static Testing Techniques.2.............................2................. 18 5........ 9 1.......................................Validation.................. 21 5...................10 2.2...............15 4......11 3.....

........ 23 5..............3...............System Testing...................6.... 34 6..........2............Re-testing and Regression Testing......Quality Vs Testing................Software Testing – made easy 5..................... 45 7............................1...........2.....................Incremental Integration Testing.........................................................................Mutation Testing:...... 38 7.... 39 7.......................Boundary Value Analysis..............................................1..............2.......Black Box Testing: ...3..... 27 5......................................2..........................................4..............................3................2.............28 5................. 32 6................2..3.......................Unit Testing......................2.............2..White-Box Testing:.... 42 7.................................2........................2.................................2...........................4...........1.........5................................................................2..............................Comparison Testing............................Requirement based Testing...........................................Quality Assurance Vs Quality Control......................Big Bang Integration..............................1........................... 43 7.......6................................Data Flow-Based Testing:..............................................2.....1.2..............................4........................... 26 5..........Verification & Validation........46 7.3.... 35 6.36 7..........2.....................................3............................ 42 7.....................................................1...............................................................Alpha and Beta testing.........................................2............................Condition Coverage:.3..............Non-Incremental Testing...................1..............2...........................................Top Down Integration............................44 7........................1.............36 7...Integration Testing..42 7....1...............User Acceptance Testing.............................................................................................2..3..Business-Process based Non-Functional Testing..................................3............................................. 24 5.......................... 33 6.2.................................................................... 47 K...............................Stress testing..............................................3............................................2..2.................Recovery testing........................................................43 7......................................................................................Test Bed and Test Environment ...................................27 5.........................................2..... 36 7.......... 33 6......................Security testing..Benefits of Unit Testing..........................3............35 7..................................................1.....Configuration review..............................................................................2..Performance testing.............................Bottom up Integration............................36 7.......35 6...............................................................10...............2...........Pre-requisites................................................................2.............1.............2..Validation Testing.1......... 40 7......... 41 7................................................................2...... Muthuvel Page 5 of 127 ..32 5...................1......................Equivalence Class Partitioning..2...............5.............1........2......2.....................3....................7.......................1...............................Path Coverage:.........1.........9........................................................................................2........ 42 7.........45 7....................................Cause and Effect Graphs......IST & UAT....................2.................................2....... 28 5................. 44 7..................8.......1....................3...............................Black Box Testing & White Box Testing.......................Difference Tables...Branch Coverage:........................2...................................1.................................2.................................................. 33 6.....1.................... 46 7.........................4.......................2..Statement Coverage:......Grey Box Testing......35 6...........Testing Vs Debugging.......4......2................Stub and Drivers... 34 6..2....2............................................3.....3...2...31 5......2.............................................3.....................25 5.................Functional Testing.....................2.................................................................... 42 7...24 5........ Alpha Testing & Beta Testing.......... 39 7........SIT & IST............ 33 6.......2..............................Levels of Testing..............2......2.....................................................................................1...........................1........................................3................................................................................................................... 34 6......1............. 29 5.....

......................7.............................................Features to be Tested.....................Load Testing.........................................Test Engineer........................................1............54 10.....................7......................................56 10........... 51 8..............5.......2.Roles & Responsibilities........................Error Seeding.6.....47 7...........................................................................................................................12..............................................Senior Test Engineer.................................6.Database Testing........1...........Stress and Volume Testing......... 51 8....... 49 8.....7................................................................................................51 9..4....................................................................................2.................................................................... 50 8............................................Regression Testing and Re-testing...........................................10.....................54 10................................... Muthuvel Page 6 of 127 ............................................................Test Associate...57 10...................................................3.......................................................................................4............................57 10.............3..............Test Plan................. 54 10..................3........................5.......... 50 8.........53 9............5................................................ 51 8...........................Ad-hoc Testing........... 49 8......................................................... 52 9......7..................1.................................2.......................Choosing Testing Techniques..........................................................................................6......................Features Not to Be Tested.........Intersystem Testing / Interface Testing.................................................. 54 10................................ 49 8...........................................5.......................................Item Pass/Fail Criteria.............................................52 9........................Introduction.......1................................................52 9................... 48 7........................................................................56 10..............................................................................................Manual support Testing..............Environmental Testing.....................................................................................7.................................. 52 9.........................................3..............Test Manager.......7.......................2...................4...................2............................2................................Automated Testing...............55 10........48 8.............54 10............................57 K....................Baseline Documents.............................48 7.......7....................1.............................................2..................2....1.....................................................................50 8.......... 56 10...............54 10........1..........................7.....................4...........7.......................... 50 8................................2......................................................Compliance Testing....................Exit Criteria.............................Functional Specification..........57 10..................System Specification........................................4...2............................................................................1............................Design Specification......4................................5....... 54 10..........BR and FS...........................................Suspension Criteria and Resumption Requirements........................................Configuration Testing......1...............................................................................................Approach..1.........8............................Types of Testing...8...........................53 10..... 55 10................................................................................................................Gap Analysis...7.................................Tools used in Regression testing ........49 8......5.....Parallel Testing.............................FS and Test conditions.... 57 10.55 10..................................56 10.....................................................................................Business Requirement...56 10...............7.Error Guessing....4................................................................................47 7................... 49 8........................11..13..............................Pilot Testing................50 8....3..............Software Testing – made easy 7...............................................................................................................................................................................................Entry Criteria...............9............................Usability Testing. 56 10.............................Test Plan Identifier.........................................................5......Test Items......................................................Test Lead........................................................Test Preparation & Design Process........Traceability .................................1................................ 54 10.............1.Factors favour Automation of Regression Testing......

......7.......................................................................2...........................3.....................................Round I................................................................3..... 63 11....Requirements ...........................................1.....4........... 58 10.................................... 62 10.........................................................................1..........................................7....................................................................7.......... 59 10....................Software Testing – made easy 10....4...........9......4.......................................5.....Testing Tasks..............................................................High Level Test Conditions / Scenario..Multiple Expected Result..........................Defect Metrics..........................................................Data definition............................................1............................................................................Defect age: ....................Defect Management.. 63 11..............................Discrepancy Testing .....................9................... 66 12.......ClearQuest (CQ)........................7.................................................7...................................69 13.4................ 60 10....................................................................4......Data Definition ..........................................................Types of Defects... 59 10.......................................Test Deliverables.........................................Single Expected Result..........................2.................... 66 12................. 67 12.1................................................................................3..............9..............................Tools Used......................... 67 12..........................................Authorities.....14....................................... 57 10........................Schedule... 63 11....... 68 13...........13.7.9..1.................................................61 10..2.....1...............................3............1.......................................................................................... 65 12.......................................7..Expected Results................... 69 13.....8. 61 10........2........................6............ 66 12..... 62 11..Processing logic...................7..4.2...........................................1...................9.......2..1...............................................Feeds Analysis............................................................................Staffing and Training Needs................................................. 58 10...........Environmental Needs..............................2....Test Case............................. 64 11..1..... Muthuvel Page 7 of 127 ...................16................................................... 58 10..................................64 12...................61 10........4.......9.....................3...........12.....................................Defect Tracker................................................59 10....................................Defect Life Cycle..........................2...............11.......................................Metrics........................................Unit testing sign off...Defect – Definition.................... 59 10.............2.......................................................................................................................................................... 61 10....................................67 12......2............................................................. 66 12.............................................................................Round III........TestDirector (TD):.........................Test Execution Process....... 69 K......................................69 13.......Sign Off......Defects Publishing.....................7...1...............................1............................................................8................................15...........................................Sanity Testing .....63 11........58 10....................................................................................................4............................................Round II.....2........Approvals........................... 69 13.......Pre-requirements...........................................3........................................................Defects Meetings.....8.............. 58 10..................1...................................................... 59 10....................................Test Closure Process.......... 65 12.................................1.......8..............................Pre................67 12...........................Defect Analysis: ....................3.......................... 64 11................1...............................................64 11........1......................3............... 69 13...........................Version Identification Values...69 13...........................................Defect Reporting ........................................................ 69 13........................................................... 64 11......................................Risks and Contingencies...........................................2......Test Case Allocation..10.Deliverables................2..........4...................Comprehensive Testing ........................Interfaces for the application..................................................Responsibilities...............63 11...............Stages of Testing: ...9..

........................................Test Script Document.......................................................... 89 15.. 71 14...................... 92 15..................................70 13............4...... 88 15..............................Test Execution & Defect Management Phase............................................... 99 17...86 15....91 15..........................4...........5.............................................................Test Planning Phase.....Leadership Team...5......2..............4.........................................................................................................Test Closure Phase.................Test Execution Process............................ 93 15................... 79 15................Defect Report...........5.........................16.................................................................Weekly Status Report................ 88 15..........................................3.........4.........................5..............................................................................................................5.............. – Interview ...7......................................................2....................4.......70 14..................... 71 14................................................5...........Glossary....... 76 15...... 89 15...Q & A...................Test Management Metrics...........................................................................5..1........................14............................5............Test Planning Phase.......................... 73 15.....17.........................3..................................................................................4....................................................................5...Daily Status Report....Test Design Phase....................................5........G........5................4......84 15............................................9...Test Design Phase...............................88 15....................................................................................71 14................................71 14.....5..................73 15........73 15..................................................................... 82 15.................Testing Process / Methodology.......4...5. 78 15........ 81 15............................................................................5.............................12...General...4...........................................................................3.........Test Initiation Phase......................Test Strategy Document..............................74 15..............................4...........................Overview..Maveric Systems Limited...................................................2...............................2......................................72 14................5.....2...........................Top Level Project Checklist....................Clarification Document....4............................. Muthuvel Page 8 of 127 ...............1..............8.85 15......... 79 15..................5.....................94 15..................4...Configuration Management and Quality Plan..........Risk Analysis Document....5..............Traceability Matrix.Test Deliverables Template................. 87 15.....................................................................................Test condition / Test Case Document...13...................Test Environment Request...........................................3........95 16.......Minutes of Meeting........6.....................................Software Testing – made easy 13..........Final Test Report......5..73 15.Execution and Defect Management Phase...................4....86 15...................................Debriefs With Test Team..........79 15............. 119 K........Project De-brief Form..........................Testing Activities & Deliverables.................15...........................4............................................ 95 16.............................................................E..Test Closure Phase................1...................Quality Policy.4.........1...............................................1..........................................................................................................10.......................................................................................................................1..........Project Details Form................11...............Test Initiation Phase................. 94 16...............................................5.......75 15......................5............5...............................4........Defect Management Process..................2..................................................................................................... 72 15.................5..................................Final Test Checklist..............88 15......................................................... 82 15.....

2. A successful test is one that uncovers an as-yet-undiscovered error. The objective is to design tests that systematically uncover different classes of errors and do so with a minimum amount of time and effort. ` 1. reusability and testability.3.1. Demonstrating that the software application appears to be working as required by the specification Meeting performance requirements.Objective · · · · · · · · Testing is a process of executing a program with intent of finding an error. Testing should also aim at suggesting changes or modifications if required. usability. Software reliability and software quality based on the data collected during testing 1.Definition “The process of exercising software to verify that it satisfies specified requirements and to detect errors “ …BS7925-1 “Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors” …Glen Myers Testing identifies faults. reliability. thus adding value to the entire process. whose removal increases the software quality by increasing the software’s potential reliability.Benefits of Testing · · · · · · Increase accountability and Control Cost reduction Time reduction Defect reduction Increase productivity of the Software developers Quantitative Management of Software delivery K. Testing Fundamentals 1. A good test is one that has a high probability of finding an as-yet-undiscovered error. maintainability. Muthuvel Page 9 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy 1. Testing is the measurement of software quality. We measure how closely we have achieved quality by testing the relevant factors such as correctness.

Validation Determination of the correctness of the products of software development with respect to the user needs and requirements.Software Testing – made easy 2.Quality Control “QC is a process by which product quality is compared with applicable standards. Quality Control.1. Verification & Validation 2. Quality Assurance. Muthuvel Page 10 of 127 . … BS7925-1 Difference Table: Quality Analysis Study on Process followed in Project development Verification Process of determining whether output of one phase of development conforms to its previous phase Verification is concerned containment of errors with phase Quality Control Study on Project for its Function and Specification Validation Process of determining whether a fully developed system conforms to its SRS document Validation is concerned about the final product to be error free K.” “Quality Control is defined as a set of activities or techniques whose purpose is to ensure that all quality requirements are being met. processes are monitored and performance problems are solved.4. and the action taken when nonconformance is detected.2. In order to achieve this purpose.” 2.Quality Assurance “A planned and systematic pattern for all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that the item or product conforms to established technical requirements” 2.Verification “The process of evaluating a system or component to determine whether the products of the given development phase satisfy the conditions imposed at the start of that phase.3.” … [IEEE] 2.

Models of SDLC & STLC There are a number of different models for software development life cycle.1. Muthuvel Page 11 of 127 . Defect Tracking with any bug tracking tools. software has to be tested.e.STLC – Software Testing Life Cycle · · · · · · · Preparation of Testing Project Plan which includes Test Strategy. This paper outlines some of the more commonly used software development life cycle. The Requirement Analysis would correspondingly have an acceptance testing activity at the end. SDLC & STLC 3. 3. Preparation of Testing Bed. One thing which all models have in common is that at some point in the life cycle. K. i..Software Testing – made easy 3.1.2. Preparation of Test Completion Report and Test Incident Report. The design has Integration Testing (IT) and the System Integration Testing (SIT) and so on. with particular emphasis on the testing activities in each model.: Setting up the Test Environment Executing the Test Scripts (Automated as well as Manual Tests). Preparation of Test Scripts which contains Test Scenarios. Every phase of the STLC in this model corresponds to some activity in the SDLC.2. 3.V-Model The figure shows the brief description of the V-Model kind of testing. Preparation of Test Metrics for Continuous Process Improvement.

The V model shows the Development Cycle Stages and Maps it to Testing Cycles. but it fails to address how to start for all these test levels in parallel to development.2. it includes testing from the unit level to business level. Muthuvel Page 12 of 127 . And at last he decides to have the complete stable product. V model is the classic software development model. That is after completing the coding tester starts testing the code by keeping the design phase documents that all the modules had been integrated or not. all of the models presented previously are deficient in various ways. debug and change tasks during the test phase is not clear In the following.Software Testing – made easy · · V model is model in which testing is done parallel with development. test cases. the subsequent phase becomes the verification (QA) phase and the corresponding testing phase in the other arm of the V becomes the validating (Testing) phase In the Software Development Life Cycle. It is a parallel activity which would give the tester the domain knowledge and perform more value added. This is based on the general V-model and the disadvantages previously mentioned are removed. both the Development activity and the testing activities start almost at the same time with the same information in their hands. the W-model is presented.2. high quality testing with greater efficiency. Also it reduces time since the test plans. and at last he will go for business scenarios where he can validate by the customer and he can do the alpha testing and beta testing. reflect development input for the corresponding testing activities. For each phase. · · · 3.W-Model From the view of testing. The development team will apply "do-procedures" to achieve the goals and the testing team will apply "Check-procedures" to verify that. The test activities first start after the implementation: · The connection between the various test stages and the basis for the test is not clear · The tight link between test. after that he will verify for system is according to the requirements or not. K. Its a parallel process and finally arrives to the product with almost no bugs or errors V-model is one of the SDLC STLC. It encapsulates the steps in Verification and Validation phases for each step in the SDLC. Left side of v model. test strategy are prepared during the development stage itself.

2.Software Testing – made easy 3. A further disadvantage is that testing.Waterfall Model One of the first models for software development is the so-called waterfall-model by B. Muthuvel Page 13 of 127 .Extreme Programming Model K.4. 3.W.e. Preparatory tasks for the testing were not clear.2. A return in the development process was only possible to an immediate previous phase. is unfortunately all too common.Boehm.3. activities that were defined here are to be found in nearly all models proposed since. could be relatively easily shortened or omitted altogether. This. the expense of the removal of faults and defects found is only recognizable through a return to the implementation phase. testing directly follows the implementation. In this it was set out that each of the activities in the software development must be completed before the next phase begins. In this model. in practice. By this model it was suggested that activities for testing could first be started after the implementation. as the last activity before release. The individual phases i. In the waterfall-model.

in this model the testing also follows the coding.Spiral Model In the spiral-model a cyclical and prototyping view of software development was shown.2.Software Testing – made easy 3. The test activities included module. validation of requirements and of the development) and the test phase was divided into stages. Tests were explicitly mentioned (risk analysis. The spiral model also identifies no activities associated with the removal of defects K. integration and acceptance tests.5. However. The exception to this is that the test plan should be constructed after the design of the system. Muthuvel Page 14 of 127 .

Software Testing – made easy 4. etc. by proxy. controlled." You also have other process and project oriented concepts out there like the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) Some of the organization that define testing standards are · · · · · · BS – British Standards ISO. Maturity implies a potential growth in capability and indicates both the richness of an organization’s software process and the consistency with which it is applied in projects throughout the organization The five levels of SW. IEEE will give you ideas for templates for such things as test case specifications. for example. like IEEE. methods. software. You have process standards bodies. like ISO. Testing Standards Testing of software is defined very differently by different people and different corporations. that attempt to impose a process to whatever types of development projects you do (be it hardware.Capability Maturity Model Software Process A software process can be defined as a set of activities. etc. speak to testing. these are more there to guide the process and not the testing.Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination NIST-National institute of Standards and Technology DoD-Department of Defense 4.SW – CMM: SEI . such as it is. embedded systems. CMM .) and some of that will. IEEE. test plans. Muthuvel Page 15 of 127 . managed. However. The same thing pretty much applies with ISO. They basically just show you how to document that you are testing the product.Software Engineering Institute. practices. Software Process Maturity Software Process Maturity is the extent to which a specific process is explicitly defined. those IEEE templates tell you nothing about actually testing the product itself.CMM Level 1: Initial Level 2: Repeatable Level 3: Managed Level 4: Defined Level 5: Optimum K. measured. etc.1. ISO is the standard for international projects and yet it.The software process capability of an organization provides one means of predicting the most likely outcomes to be expected from the next software project the organization undertakes.Capability Maturity Model SPICE. does not really force or even advocate a certain "testing standard. SPICE. Carnegie Mellon University. On the other hand. So.International Organization of Standards CMM. and effective. That may help you out. and transformations that people use to develop and maintain software and the associated products Software Process Capability Software Process Capability describes the range of expected results that can be achieved by following a software process.

1.Level 4: Management and Measurement · · · · Testing is a measured and quantified process Development products are now tested for quality attributes such as Reliability.Level 1: Initial · · · A chaotic process Not distinguished from debugging and ill defined The tests are developed ad hoc after coding is complete Usually lack a trained professional testing staff and testing tools The objective of testing is to show that the system and software work · · 4. Test cases are collected and recorded in a test database for reuse and regression testing Defects found during testing are now logged.Level 5: Optimization / Defect Prevention and Quality Control · Testing is institutionalized within the organization K.Levels of SW –TMM 4.2.2.Level 2: Phase Definition · · · · Identify testing as a separate function from debugging Testing becomes a defined phase following coding Standardize their process to the point where basic testing techniques and methods are in place The objective of testing is to show that the system and software meets specifications 4.2.4.1.5.1.3.2.2.2. Usability and Maintainability. and assigned a priority for correction 4.SW – TMM SW-TMM is a testing process improvement tool that can be used either in conjunction with the SW-CMM or as a stand-alone tool.2. given a severity level. 4. Muthuvel Page 16 of 127 .1.2.1.Software Testing – made easy 4.1.Level 3: Integration · · · · · · · · Integrate testing into the entire life cycle Establish a formal testing organization establishes formal testing technical trainings controls and monitors the testing process begins to consider using automated test tools The objective of testing is based on system requirements Major milestone reached at this level: management recognizes testing as a professional activity 4.1.

Need to use SW-TMM · · · · · · · easy to understand and use provide a methodology to baseline the current test process maturity designed to guide organization selecting process improvement strategies identifying critical issues to test process maturity provide a road map for continuous test process improvement provide a method for measuring progress allow organizations to perform their own assessment · · Organizations that are using SW-CMM · · SW-TMM fulfills the design objective of being an excellent companion to SW-CMM SW-TMM is just another assessment tool and easily incorporated into the software process assessment Organizations that are not using SW-CMM · · · provide an unbiased assessment of the current testing process provide a road map for incremental improvements save testing cost as the testing process moves up the maturity levels 4.2.SW-TMM Summary · baseline the current testing process level of maturity K.g.SW-TMM Assessment Process · · · · · · · · · · Prepare for the assessment choose team leader and members choose evaluation tools (e. Muthuvel Page 17 of 127 .2. questionnaire) training and briefing Conduct the assessment Document the findings Analyze the findings Develop the action plan Write the final report Implement the improvements best to implement the improvements either in a pilot project or in phases track progress and achievements prior to expanding organization wide also good in a limited application easier to fine-tune the new process prior to expanded implementation 4.4.2.Software Testing – made easy · · · · Testing process is well defined and managed Testing costs and effectiveness are monitored Automated tools are a primary part of the testing process There is an established procedure for selecting and evaluating testing tools 4.3.2.

but they describe the importance of good test case selection. Muthuvel Page 18 of 127 . 1061-1998. This meeting agreed that existing testing standards are generally good standards within the scope which they cover.2 was completed by November 1990 and this was made a semi-public release for comment.ANSI / IEEE Standards ANSI .ISO : International Organisation for Standardisation · · · Q9001 – 2000 – Quality Management System : Requirements Q9000 – 2000 – Quality Management System : Fundamentals and Vocabulary Q9004 – 2000 – Quality Management System : Guidelines for performance improvements 4.‘American National Standards Institute’ IEEE Standards: Institute of Electrical and electronics Engineers (Founded in 1884) Have an entire set of standards devoted to software. 1008-1987(R1993) IEEE Standard for Software Unit Testing 7. Draft 1. Much of the feedback from this review suggested that the approach to the standard needed re-consideration.1 IEEE Standard for Software Quality Metrics Methodology. 830-1998 IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirement Specifications. 1012-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Verification and validation 8. without being specific about how to choose and develop test cases. 4. A few members of the subgroup trialed this draft of the standard within their own organisations.3. 6. 730-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance plans 3. 610. K. Draft 1. 1028-1997 IEEE Standard for Software Reviews 11. 1.IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Design description 10.12-1990 IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology 2. 1044-1993 IEEE Standard Classification for Software Anomalies 12.3 was circulated in July 1992 (it contained only the main clauses) to about 20 reviewers outside of the subgroup.5.SIGIST A meeting of the Specialist Interest Group on Software Testing was held in January 1989 (this group was later to affiliate with the British Computer Society).1-1987 IEEE Standard for Software Management 15. 1058-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Project Management Plans 14.Software Testing – made easy · · · · identify areas that can be improved identify testing processes that can be adopted organization-wide provide a road map for implementing the improvements provide a method for measuring the improvement results provide a companion tool to be used in conjunction with the SW-TMM · 4. 1045-1992 IEEE Standard for Software Productivity metrics 13. The SIG formed a subgroup to develop a standard which addresses the quality of testing performed.BCS .4. 1016-1998. 828-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Configuration Management 4. 829-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation 5. 1012a-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Verification and validation – Supplement to 1012-1998 Content 9. Testers should be familiar with all the standards mentioned in IEEE. 1058.

not to fix anything. These are led by the author of the document. reader.2. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements specification or a test plan. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. most problems will be found during this preparation.2.Definition Review is a process or meeting during which a work product or set of work products. designs or code characterized by the author of the material under review guiding the progression of the review.” … BS 7925-1 5. It consists of two aspects.Walkthrough “A review of requirements.1.Inspection A group review quality improvement process for written material. Muthuvel Page 19 of 127 .2. Testing Techniques 5. users. [IEEE] 5.Types of Reviews There are three general classes of reviews: · · · Informal / peer reviews Semiformal / walk-through Formal / inspections.1. 5. product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection). and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. Thorough preparation for inspections is difficult. Typically they entail dry runs of designs. but is one of the most cost effective methods of ensuring quality. “ [BS 7925-1] A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes.1. K.1. and a recorder to take notes.1. [BS 7925-1] An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. customers. or other interested parties for comment or approval.Review .1. Little or no preparation is usually required. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. code and scenarios/ test cases.2.Static Testing Techniques “Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program. 5. Communication is therefore predominately one-way in nature. and are educational in nature. is presented to project personnel.1. managers. painstaking work.Software Testing – made easy 5.

Technical Review Technical reviews are also known as peer review as it is vital that participants are made up from the 'peer group'. and includes metrics and formal process based on rules and checklists with entry and exit criteria. Muthuvel Page 20 of 127 . technical Formal fault experts detection process 5. Cheap and widely used Contrast with walkthroughs is that communication is very much two-way in nature 5. Review of the Requirements / Planning and Preparing Acceptance Test At the beginning of the project the test activities must start. overview meeting.3. documentation and management support. 5.2. Author.4.1.3.1.Software Testing – made easy Led by trained moderator (not author).Activities performed during review Activities in Review: Planning.Informal Review · · · Unplanned and Undocumented Useful. Factors for pitfall of review: Lack of training. Deliverables in Review: Product changes. · Documented · Defined fault detection process · Includes peers and technical experts · No management participant Comparison of review types Review type Walkthrough Inspection Informal review Technical review Primary purpose Education Led by Author Participants Peers Reader. Recorder. source document changes and improvements. has defined roles. rather than including managers.If necessary · Establish monitoring and reporting K.2. These first activities are: · Fixing of test strategy and test concept · risk analysis · determine criticality · expense of testing · test intensity · Draw up the test plan · Organize the test team · Training of the test team . Review meeting and follow-up.1. Inspector Not defined Degree of formality Presentational Formal defined Inspection process Largely Unplanned and Undocumented Finding faults and process Moderator improvement Find problems quickly and cheaply Finding faults Not defined Chairperson Peers.

…) Provide required software resources (software version. 5. All accordingly activities of the review of the architectural design and the integration tests can be done here at the level of unit tests. like specifying control flow and data flow integration test cases. can be achieved. Ask questions like: Are the requirements testable? Are they testable with defensible expenditure? If the answer is no.provide the required infra-structure · At this stage all of the acceptance test preparation is finished and can be achieved. all of the system test preparation is finished at this early development stage. Muthuvel Page 21 of 127 . Tasks in planning and preparing for system testing include: · · · Establishing priorities of the tests depending on criticality Specifying (functional / non-functional) system test cases Defining and establishing the required infra-structure As with the acceptance test preparation. Also at this stage all the knowledge for integration testing is available.Software Testing – made easy · · Provide required hardware resources (PC.Review of the Specification / Planning and Preparing System Test In the review meeting of the specification documents ask questions like: Is the specification testable? Are they testable with defensible expenditure? Only these kinds of specifications can be realistically implemented and be used for the next steps in the development process.if possible . then there will be problems to implement these requirements. For example one can · Establish priorities of the tests depending on criticality · Specify (functional and non-functional) test cases · Specify and . At this stage of the development process all the knowledge for the acceptance tests is available and to hand. If you have no idea how to test some requirements then it is likely that you have no idea how to implement these requirements. During the development process all plans must be updated and completed and all decisions must be checked for validity. In a mature development process reviews and inspections are carried out through the whole process.4. test tools.1. K. Here all the knowledge for the system tests is available and to hand. All preparation. …) The activities include the foundations for a manageable and high-quality test process. A test strategy is determined after a risk evaluation. But just as important is a look forward. · · · Review of the Architectural Design Detailed Design Planning and Preparing Integration/Unit Test During the review of the architectural design one can look forward and ask questions like: What is about the testability of the design? Are the components and interfaces testable? Are they testable with defensible expenditure? If the components are too expensive to test a re-work of the architectural design has to be done before going further in the development process. So this is the best place for doing all the planning and preparing for acceptance testing. It is a look back to fix problems before going on in development. data base. There must be a re-work of the specifications if the answers to the questions are no. The review of the requirement document answers questions like: Are all customers’ requirements fulfilled? Are the requirements complete and consistent? And so on. a cost estimate and test plan are developed and progress monitoring and reporting are established.

Assigning this task to one of the reviewers essentially keeps them out of the discussion.Roles and Responsibilities In order to conduct an effective review. and not get drawn into side discussions of how to address the issue.5. Presenter: The presenter is often the author of the artifact under review. there are certain roles that must be played. Reviewer: Reviewers raise issues.Software Testing – made easy 5. The presenter is there to kick-off the discussion. everyone has a role to play. and reviewers cannot switch roles easily. but essential part of the review team. Focus on results. Muthuvel Page 22 of 127 . it probably needs some work). to answer questions and to offer clarification. Recorder: The recorder is an often overlooked. Make sure to have a recorder and make sure that this is the only role the person plays. not on the presenter. Keeping track of what was discussed and documenting actions to be taken is a full-time task. It is the moderator’s role to make sure that participants (including the presenter) keep this in mind. not the means. The moderator ensures that side-discussions do not derail the review. Worse yet. The basic roles in a review are: · The moderator · The recorder · The presenter · Reviewers Moderator: The moderator makes sure that the review follows its agenda and stays focused on the topic at hand. and that all reviewers participate equally. K.the focus should be on the artifact. It’s important that reviews not become “trials” . failing to document what was decided will likely lead to the issue coming up again in the future. It’s important to keep focused on this. The presenter explains the artifact and any background information needed to understand it (although if the artifact was not selfexplanatory.1. More specifically.

” …BS7925-1 Testing based on an analysis of the specification of a piece of software without reference to its internal workings. so it does not explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure.1. Test Case design Techniques under Black Box Testing: · · · · · · Equivalence class partitioning Boundary value analysis Comparison testing Orthogonal array testing Decision Table based testing Cause Effect Graph K. “ … [IEEE] 5. Specifically. Black box testing is based solely on the knowledge of the system requirements.Black Box Testing: “Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the specification of the component without reference to its internal workings. White-box testing allows one to peek inside the "box". Black box testing focuses on testing the function of the program or application against its specifications.2.Software Testing – made easy 5.Dynamic Testing Techniques “The process of evaluating a system or component based upon its behaviour during execution.2. In comparison. Muthuvel Page 23 of 127 . and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. The goal is to test how well the component conforms to the published requirements for the component It attempts to find: · · · · · Incorrect or missing functions Interface errors Errors in data structures or external database access Performance errors Initialization and termination errors Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. this technique determines whether combinations of inputs and operations produce expected results.

1. Muthuvel Page 24 of 127 .Equivalence Class Partitioning Equivalence class: A portion of the component's input or output domains for which the component's behaviour is assumed to be the same from the component's specification. · · 5. …BS7925-1 Boundary value analysis: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed which include representatives of boundary values. If input is an enumerated set of values: o e. 1. or an incremental distance either side of the boundary. numbers between 1 to 5000.Software Testing – made easy 5.1. o Example o A program reads an input value in the range of 1 and 5000: o computes the square root of the input number o There are three equivalence classes: o the set of negative integers. o One valid and two invalid equivalence classes are defined. …BS7925-1 Determination of equivalence classes · Examine the input data. o The test suite must include: o representatives from each of the three equivalence classes: o A possible test suite can be: {-5. and 5001}.1.2.2.b. …BS7925-1 Equivalence partition testing: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes. K. …BS7925-1 Example · · For a function that computes the square root of an integer in the range of 1 and 5000: Test cases must include the values: {0. {a.g. o set of integers in the range of 1 and 5000. 6000}.c} o one equivalence class for valid input values Another equivalence class for invalid input values should be defined.Boundary Value Analysis Boundary value: An input value or output value which is on the boundary between equivalence classes. 500.2. 5000. o Integers larger than 5000.g. · · Few general guidelines for determining the equivalence classes can be given If the input data to the program is specified by a range of values: o e.

3.Software Testing – made easy 5.2. · · Graph converted to a decision table. sort. A cause-effect graph developed. Muthuvel Page 25 of 127 .Cause and Effect Graphs “A graphical representation of inputs or stimuli (causes) with their associated outputs (effects).1. and display possible causes of a specific problem or quality characteristic (Viewgraph 1). which can be used to design test cases” …BS7925-1 Cause-effect graphing attempts to provide a concise representation of logical combinations and corresponding actions. Decision table rules are converted to test cases. with the main causal categories drawn as "bones" attached to the spine of the fish. Causes (input conditions) and effects (actions) are listed for a module and an identifier is assigned to each. It graphically illustrates the relationship between a given outcome and all the factors that influence the outcome. The C&E diagram is also known as the Fishbone/Ishikawa diagram because it was drawn to resemble the skeleton of a fish. as shown below Example C&E diagram for a Server crash issue: K. A Cause-and-Effect Diagram is a tool that helps identify.

Comparison Testing · · · · · · · · · In some applications. Redundant hardware and software may be used.4. Muthuvel Page 26 of 127 . the reliability is critical. use separate teams to develop independent versions of the software. for some critical applications can develop independent versions and use comparison testing or back-to-back testing.2. Exercise on Live Application K. Run all versions in parallel with a real-time comparison of results. For redundant s/w. each is investigated to determine if there is a defect.1. Test each version with same test data to ensure all provide identical output. Even if will on run one version in final system.Software Testing – made easy Advantages · · · · · Helps determine root causes Encourages group participation Indicates possible causes of variation Increases process knowledge Identifies areas for collecting data 5. Method does not catch errors in the specification. When outputs of versions differ.

Unless a statement is executed. else y=y-x. • • Aims to establish that the code works as designedExamines the internal structure and implementation of the program Target specific paths through the programNeeds accurate knowledge of the design.2. paths. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. } By choosing the test set {(x=3.Software Testing – made easy 5. branches. y=3). } return x.Statement Coverage: “A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute statements. (x=3. conditions . y=4)} all statements are executed at least once. we have no way of knowing if an error exists in that statement Example: Euclid's GCD computation algorithm: int f1(int x. y=3). implementation and code Test Case design techniques under White Box Testing: · · · · · · Statement coverage Branch coverage Condition coverage Path coverage Data flow-based testing Mutation testing 5.” …BS7925-1 Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software. K.2. int y){ while (x != y){ if (x>y) then x=x-y. (x=4.” … BS7925-1 Design test cases so that every statement in a program is executed at least once.2. Muthuvel Page 27 of 127 .2.1. Also known as Structural Testing / Glass Box Testing / Clear Box Testing.White-Box Testing: “Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component.

2.2.2. K.2. c2 and c3 are exercised at least once i. or an unconditional transfer of control from any statement to any other statement in the component except the next statement. y=4)} 5.c3): Each of c1. y=3). · Condition testing stronger than branch testing. or when a component has more than one entry point. … BS7925-1 Branch testing guarantees statement coverage Example Test cases for branch coverage can be: {(x=3. y=3). a transfer of control to an entry point of the component. given true and false values. A<B is a condition but A and B is not.2.or.Software Testing – made easy 5. Muthuvel Page 28 of 127 .3.e.and. For instance.Condition Coverage: Condition: “A Boolean expression containing no Boolean operators. (x=3. Example Consider the conditional expression ((c1.c2). (x=4.” … BS7925-1 Test cases are designed such that: Each component of a composite conditional expression given both true and false values.Branch Coverage: Branch : A conditional transfer of control from any statement to any other statement in a component. Branch Testing: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute branch outcomes. · Branch testing stronger than statement coverage testing.

or as McCabe's complexity. Muthuvel Page 29 of 127 . Cyclomatic complexity is often referred to simply as program complexity. Path testing: A test case design technique in which test cases are designed to execute paths of a component. An independent path is any path through a program that introduces at least one new set of processing statements or a new condition (i.Path Coverage: Path: A sequence of executable statements of a component.. Cyclomatic Complexity: The Cyclomatic complexity gives a quantitative measure of the logical complexity.Software Testing – made easy 5. Flow Graph Notation Notation for representing control flow Sequence If While Until Case On a flow graph: · Arrows called edges represent flow of control · Circles called nodes represent one or more actions · Areas bounded by edges and regions called regions · A predicate node is a node containing a condition Any procedural design can be translated into a flow graph.2. This measure provides a single ordinal number that can be compared to the complexity of other programs.2. This value gives the number of independent paths in the Basis set. … BS7925-1 A testing mechanism proposed by McCabe.e. Note that compound Boolean expressions at tests generate at least two predicate nodes and additional arcs. Test cases which exercise basic set will execute every statement at least once. from an entry point to an exit point.4. and an upper bound for the number of tests to ensure that each statement is executed at least once. Introduced by Thomas McCabe in 1976. it measures the number of linearly-independent paths through a program module. a new edge) K. Aim is to derive a logical complexity measure of a procedural design and use this as a guide for defining a basic set of execution paths.

7a. 8 Cyclomatic complexity provides upper bound for number of tests required to guarantee coverage of all program statements. As one of the more widely-accepted software metrics. 1. K. 1. 8 4. 1. 1. 4. 4. 6. draw the corresponding flow graph. Prepare test cases that will force execution of each path in the basis set. Independent paths: 1. 7b. 2. it is intended to be independent of language and language format. 3. 1. Deriving Test Cases 1. Determine the Cyclomatic complexity of the flow graph. 1. 8 2. Determine a basis set of independent paths.Software Testing – made easy Cyclomatic complexity (CC) = E . 8 3. 2. Using the design or code. 5. 7b. 4. 2. 1.N + p Where E = the number of edges of the graph N = the number of nodes of the graph p = the number of connected components Example has: 1 2 4 3 6 5 7a 7b 8 Cyclomatic complexity of 4. 2. 7a. 3. Note: Some paths may only be able to be executed as part of another test. Muthuvel Page 30 of 127 . 7b.

1.Data Flow-Based Testing: “Testing in which test cases are designed based on variable usage within the code. /* Defines variable a */ 3 While(C1) { 4 if (C2) 5 if(C4) B4. S and S1 are statement numbers. …BS7925-1 K. For a statement numbered S. if X is defined at a statement S: there exists a path from S to S1 not containing any definition of X. B5.S1]. B4. B6} There are 25 DU chains. USES(1)={a.Software Testing – made easy 5. B5} USED(X) = {B2. Every DU chain in a program is covered at least once. B2. A variable X is said to be live at statement S1.2.2.S. /*Uses variable a */ 6 a=a-1. Muthuvel Page 31 of 127 .5. 8 else B3. Example: 2: a=a+b. B3. B3.5]: a DU chain. /* Defines variable a */ 3 While(C1) { 4 if (C2) 5 b=a*a. DU Chain Example 1 X(){ 2 a=5. X in DEF(S) X in USES(S1). It is very useful for selecting test paths of a program containing nested if and loop statements 1X(){ 2 B1. DEF (1) = {a}. 7 else if (C3) B2. and the definition of X in the statement S is live at statement S1.” Selects test paths of a program: According to the locations of definitions and uses of different variables in a program. /* Defines variable a */ 7 } 8 print(a). } /*Uses variable a */ Definition-use chain (DU chain) [X. Assume: DEF(X) = {B1. DEF(1)={a}. } 9 B6 } [a. /*Uses variable a */ 6 else B5. B4. DEF(S) = {X/statement S contains a definition of X} USES(S) = {X/statement S contains a use of X} Example: 1: a=b. USES (1) = {b}.b}. However only 5 paths are needed to cover these chains.

the change is called a mutant. If a mutant remains alive even after all test cases have been exhausted. 5.2.2. A large number of possible mutants can be generated. Grey box testing is especially important with Web and Internet applications.3.Mutation Testing: The software is first tested using an initial testing method based on white-box strategies we already discussed.Grey Box Testing · · · Grey box Testing is the new term. Tester should have the knowledge of both the internals and externals of the function.Software Testing – made easy 5. then the mutant is said to be dead.2. After the initial testing is complete. Changing a data type. each time the program is changed it is called a mutated program. This is just a combination of both Black box & White box testing. Tester should have good knowledge of White Box Testing and complete knowledge of Black Box Testing. The primitive changes can be: · · · Altering an arithmetic operator. Changing the value of a constant. If there at least one test case in the test suite for which a mutant gives an incorrect result. mutation testing is taken up. Muthuvel Page 32 of 127 . The idea behind mutation testing is to make a few arbitrary small changes to a program at a time. which evolved due to the different architectural usage of the system. A mutated program tested against the full test suite of the program.6. A major disadvantage of mutation testing: · · computationally very expensive. because the Internet is built around loosely integrated components that connect via relatively welldefined interfaces K. The process of generation and killing of mutants can be automated by predefining a set of primitive changes that can be applied to the program. etc. the test suite is enhanced to kill the mutant.

Qc is a demonstration of consistency. Qc improves the development of a specific product or service by identifying the defects. and the action taken when nonconformance is detected. like walkthroughs. characteristics” It is usually said as Journey towards Excellence. It is an activity that establishes and evaluates the processes to produce the products by preventing the introduction of issues or defects. · Sets up measurements programs to evaluate processes. reviews and inspections.Quality Vs Testing Quality Testing “Quality is giving more cushions for user to Testing is an activity done to achieve the use system with all its expected quality. Difference Tables 6.Testing Vs Debugging Testing Testing is done to find bugs Debugging Debugging is an art of fixing bugs.2. mentor feedback. completeness. Muthuvel Page 33 of 127 .1.3. which verifies if the product meets pre-defined standards. 6. checklists and standards. K. and correctness of the software at each stage and between each stage of the development life cycle and the responsibility of the tester. training. · Identifies weaknesses in processes and improves them.Quality Assurance Vs Quality Control Quality Analysis Study on Process followed in Project development QA is a planned and systematic set of activities necessary to provide adequate confidence that requirements are properly established and products or services conform to specified requirements. reporting them and correcting the defects It is performed after a work product is produced against established criteria ensuring that the product integrates correctly into the environment. 6. · help establish processes. It is an activity. QA improves the processes that are applied to multiple products that will ever be produced by a process. QA is the determination of correctness of the final software product by a development project with respect to the user needs and requirements and the responsibility of the entire team Quality Control Study on Project for its Function and Specification QC is a process by which product quality is compared with applicable standards. It is performed during development on key artifacts.Software Testing – made easy 6.

6.Verification & Validation Verification Process of determining whether output of one phase of development conforms to its previous phase Verification is concerned containment of errors with phase Validation Process of determining whether a fully developed system conforms to its SRS document Validation is concerned about the final product to be error free 6.IST & UAT Particulars Base line document Data Environment Orientation Tester composition Purpose IST Functional Specification Simulated Controlled Component Testing Firm Verification UAT Business Requirement Live Data Simulated Live Business Testing Firm / users Validation K.4.errors in data structures used by interfaces .Software Testing – made easy 6. . they will need to understand some fundamental test design techniques to do a good job.behavior or performance errors . And we can reuse such test data for other kinds of tests No matter who does the structural testing. It involves insightful test planning.interface errors. and meticulous result checking Skilled manual tester know how to follow a trail of bugs. 6.initialization and termination errors. A good manual tester also applies on the spot judgment to observed results that an automated tool can’t White Box / Structural Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component. careful design.incorrect or missing functionality .5. It is based on how the system is built It applied to individual components and interfaces. performance. configuration. and so forth It attempts to find errors in the external behavior of the code in the following categories: . being particularly effective at discovering localized errors in control and data flows It involves the creation of custom test data.Black Box Testing & White Box Testing Black Box / Functional Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the specification of the component without reference to its internal workings It focuses on global issues of workflows. Muthuvel Page 34 of 127 .

Muthuvel Page 35 of 127 . tools.Re-testing and Regression Testing Re-testing Regression Testing To check for a particular bug and its dependencies after it is said to be fixed.Software Testing – made easy 6. Data guidelines etc.10. Alpha Testing & Beta Testing Component Test data Test Environment To Achieve Tested by Supporting Document Used Alpha testing Simulated Controlled Functionality Only testers Functional Specification Beta testing Live Uncontrolled User needs Testers and End-Users Customer Requirement Specification 6. 6. 6.SIT & IST SIT SIT can be done when system is on the process of integration IST IST need integrated System of various Unit levels of independent functionality and checks its workability after integration and compares it before integration. Test environment includes all supportive elements namely hardware. To check for the added or new functionality's effect on the existing system K. etc.9. Browsers.Test Bed and Test Environment Test Bed Test Environment Test bed holds only testing documents which supports testing which includes Test data.7. software.8. Servers.

If techniques not described explicitly in this clause are used they shall comply with the 'Other Testing Techniques' clause (3. Muthuvel Page 36 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy 7.Pre-requisites Before component testing may begin the component test strategy (2. The component test strategy shall document the degree of independence required of personnel designing test cases from the design process.1.1. c) the test cases are designed by a person(s) from a different section. K.2) shall be specified. Tests can be designed to ensure that the code fulfills the requirements. This shall include a description of the hardware and software environment in which all component tests will be run. All debugging is separated from the code.Unit Testing “The testing of individual software components. 7. bottom-up or top-down approaches.13).1.” · · · … BS795-1 Individual testing of separate units . Write many short tests (in code) that span the extents of the requirements for the module you wish to test. The component test strategy shall document whether the component testing is carried out using isolation.Every time you change something you can rerun your suite of tests to verify that the unit still works. The component test strategy shall specify criteria for test completion and the rationale for their choice. 7.1. Levels of Testing 7.1) and project component test plan (2. e) the test cases are not chosen by a person. b) the test cases are designed by another person(s).Benefits of Unit Testing · · · · Assurance of working components before integration Tests are repeatable .1.2.13). Write tests before you write the code. The component test strategy shall document the environment in which component tests will be executed. These test completion criteria should be test coverage levels whose measurement shall be achieved by using the test measurement techniques defined in clause 4.1. d) the test cases are designed by a person(s) from a different organisation. such as: a) the test cases are designed by the person(s) who writes the component under test. or some mixture of these. If measures not described explicitly in this clause are used they shall comply with the 'Other Test Measurement Techniques' clause (4.methods and classes. Component test strategy The component test strategy shall specify the techniques to be employed in the design of test cases and the rationale for their choice. Selection of techniques shall be according to clause 3. You are done coding once your code can pass all the tests.

the affected activities shall be repeated. e) Checking for Component Test Completion. c) Component Test Execution. d) Component Test Recording. Whenever an error is corrected by making a change or changes to test materials or the component under test. Muthuvel Page 37 of 127 . be carried out for a subset of the test cases associated with a component. these activities are carried out for the whole component.1.8.1. 2001 For any given test case. The test process documentation shall define the testing activities to be performed and the inputs and outputs of each activity. Standard for Software Component Testing 6 Working Draft 3. This Figure illustrates the generic test process described in clause 2. Component Test Execution. Component Test Planning shall begin the test process and Checking for Component Test Completion shall end it. b) Component Test Specification. Later activities for one test case may occur before earlier activities for another. SIGIST. K. Component Test Specification. on any one iteration. and Component Test Recording may however.4 (27-Apr-01) © British Computer Society.Software Testing – made easy The component test strategy shall document the test process that shall be used for component testing. the test process documentation shall require that the following activities occur in the following sequence: a) Component Test Planning.

Objective: The typical objectives of software integration testing are to: · Cause failures involving the interactions of the integrated software components when running on a single platform. The 'parts' can be code modules.. Software integration testing can elicit failures produced by defects that are difficult to detect during system or launch testing once the system has been completely integrated. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. client and server applications on a network etc.Software Testing – made easy 7. · Minimize the number of low-level defects that will prevent effective system and launch testing.2. Adequate program or component documentation is available Verification that the correct version of the unit has been turned over for integration. Muthuvel Page 38 of 127 .Integration Testing “Testing performed to expose faults in the interfaces and in the interaction between integrated components” … BS7925-1 Testing of combined parts of an application to determine they function together correctly. o Been integrated. Successful execution of the integration test plan No open severity 1 or 2 defects Component stability Guidelines: · · · The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that software integration testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. The integration environment is ready.e. All software integration test suites successfully execute (i. Software integration testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur. o Been ported to the integration environment. Documented Evidence that component has successfully completed unit test. Exit criteria: · · · · · A test suite of test cases exists for each interface between software components. individual applications. the tests completely execute and the actual test results match the expected test results). K. · Help the software development team to stabilize the software so that it can be successfully distributed prior to system testing. The first two software components have: o Passed unit testing. · Report these failures to the software development team so that the underlying defects can be identified and fixed. Entry criteria: · · · · · · The integration team is adequately staffed and trained in software integration testing.

with lower level components being simulated by stubs. Level 2 Level 2 stubs Level 2 Level 2 Level 2 Level 3 stubs Steps: · · · · · · Main control module used as the test driver. Level 1 Testing sequence Level 1 .1. Tested components are then used to test lower level components.Software Testing – made easy 7.1. Replace stubs either depth first or breadth first Replace stubs one at a time. 7.” … BS795-1 · · Modules integrated by moving down the program design hierarchy. K. done by programmers or by testers.Incremental Integration Testing “Integration testing where system components are integrated into the system one at a time until the entire system is integrated” … BS795-1 Continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. The process is repeated until the lowest level components has been tested.Top Down Integration “An approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed.2. Verifies major control and decision points early in design process. or that test drivers be developed as needed. . Can use depth first or breadth first top down integration.1.2. Integration testing where system components are integrated into the system one at a time until the entire system is integrated. Test after each module integrated Use regression testing (conducting all or some of the previous tests) to ensure new errors are not introduced.. Muthuvel Page 39 of 127 . with stubs for all subordinate modules.

Cluster is tested. Muthuvel Page 40 of 127 . Top-down The control program is tested first Modules are integrated one at a time Major emphasis is on interface testing · Major emphasis is on module functionality and performance. Bottom-up Major Features · · Allows early testing aimed t proving feasibility and practicality of particular modules.” …BS7925-1 · · Begin construction and testing with atomic modules (lowest level modules).1. Driver program developed to test.2. K.2. Driver programs removed and clusters combined. · · · Modules can be integrated in various clusters as desired. Use driver program to test. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.Software Testing – made easy 7.Bottom up Integration “An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first. Test drivers Level N Level N Level N Level N Level N Testing sequence Test drivers Level N–1 Level N–1 Level N–1 Steps: · · · Low level modules combined in clusters (builds) that perform specific software subfunctions. then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. moving upwards in program structure.

It is hard to maintain a is a more intuitive test philosophy. declaring.3. any variables. more code has been An early working program raises morale written and tested that with top down and helps convince management progress testing.Software Testing – made easy Advantages · · · No test stubs are needed It is easier to adjust manpower needs Errors in critical modules are found early · · · · · · No test drivers are needed The control program plus a few modules forms a basic early prototype Interface errors are discovered early Modular features aid debugging Test stubs are needed The extended early phases dictate a slow manpower buildup Errors in critical modules at low levels are found late Disadvantages Comments Test drivers are needed Many modules must be integrated before a working program is available · · Interface errors are discovered late At any given point. Some people feel that bottom-up is being made. A driver is usually expected to provide the following: A means of defining.1. any input and output mechanisms needed in the testing of the unit Sandwich Testing: Combines bottom-up and top-down testing using testing layer.2.2. (This can be as simple as a return statement) 5.2 Drivers: Drivers are programs or tools that allow a tester to exercise/examine in a controlling manner the unit of software being tested. Muthuvel Page 41 of 127 .1. or other items needed in the testing of the unit. and the minimum acceptable behavior expected of the actual program unit. pure top-down strategy in practice. and a means of monitoring the states of these items.Stub and Drivers 5.1 Stubs: Stubs are program units that are stand-ins² for the other (more complex) program units that are directly referenced by the unit being tested. Stubs are usually expected to provide the following: An interface that is identical to the interface that will be provided by the actual program unit. · · 7.2. K. constants.3. or otherwise creating.3.1.

2.2. To check that: all functional requirements satisfied. This should contain a section “Validation criteria” which is used to develop the validation tests. maintainability). documentation is correct and 'human-engineered'.2.2. and has necessary detail to support maintenance. Need to negotiate a method of resolving deficiencies with the customer.3. … BS7925-1 It is further sub-divided into · · Functional system testing Non-Functional system testing System test Entrance Criteria: · · · · Successful execution of the Integration test cases No open severity 1 or 2 defects 75-80% of total system functionality and 90% of major functionality delivered System stability for 48-72 hours to start test Page 42 of 127 K. compatibility. all performance requirements achieved.g..Configuration review An audit to ensure that all elements of the software configuration are properly developed.Software Testing – made easy 7.2. catalogued.Non-Incremental Testing 7.1. error recovery. When validation tests fail it may be too late to correct the error prior to scheduled delivery.2.Validation Testing Validation testing aims to demonstrate that the software functions in a manner that can be reasonably expected by the customer.2.2.” … BS7925-1 7.System Testing “System testing is the process of testing an integrated system to verify that it meets specified requirements". Validation test criteria · · A set of black box tests to demonstrate conformance with requirements.Big Bang Integration “Integration testing where no incremental testing takes place prior to all the system's components being combined to form the system. and other requirements are met (e. · 7. Tests conformance of the software to the Software Requirements Specification.3. Muthuvel .2. 7.

The responsible user is normally only one of many groups having an interest in the application system. When to use Requirements Testing: Every application should be requirements tested. Muthuvel Page 43 of 127 .Requirement based Testing “Designing tests based on objectives derived from requirements for the software component (e.Functional Testing 7. The system can be tested for correctness throughout the lifecycle. the extent and methods used in requirements testing.and documentation that shows coverage of requirements and high-risk system components System meets pre-defined quality goals 100% of total system functionality delivered 7. K.1. rather. Application processing complies with the organization’s policies and procedures. The objectives that need to be addressed in requirements testing are: · · · User requirements are implemented Correctness is maintained over extended processing periods.3.1. tests that exercise specific functions or probe the non-functional constraints such as performance or security)” … BS7925-1 Requirements testing must verify that the system can perform its function correctly and that the correctness can be sustained over a continuous period of time. Objectives: Successfully implementing user requirements is only one aspect of requirements testing.Software Testing – made easy System Test Exit Criteria: · · · Successful execution of the system test cases . Unless the system can function correctly over an extended period of time management will not be able to rely upon the system. The process should begin in the requirements phase.g. and continue through every phase of the life cycle into operations and maintenance. but it is difficult to test the reliability until the program becomes operational. It is not a question as to whether requirements must be tested but.1.3..

BS7925-1 Recovery is the ability to restart operations after the integrity of the application has been lost. Objectives: Recovery testing is used to ensure that operations can be continued after a disaster.1.Recovery testing “Testing aimed at verifying the system's ability to recover from varying degrees of failure.3. I.2. Maintainability Portability Performance Procedure Reliability Recovery Stress Security Usability 7.2. etc. Specific objectives of recovery testing include: · · · · · Adequate backup data is preserved Backup data is stored in a secure location Recovery procedure are documented Recovery personnel have been assigned and trained Recovery tools have been developed and are available When to use Recovery Testing: Recovery testing should be performed whenever the user of the application states that the continuity of operation of the application is essential to the proper functioning of the user area. recovery testing not only verifies the recovery process. The user should estimate the potential loss associated with inability to recover operations over various time spans.” .. Muthuvel Page 44 of 127 .. performance. and then reprocessing transactions up until the point of failure. but also the effectiveness of the component parts of that process. The importance of recovery will vary from application to application.e.Software Testing – made easy 7. K. “ …BS7925-1 Non-Functional testing types: Configuration Compatibility Conversion Disaster Recovery Interoperability Installability Memory Management.Business-Process based Non-Functional Testing Testing of those requirements that do not relate to functionality. The process normally involves reverting to a point where the integrity of the system is known.3. The amount of the potential loss should both determine the amount of resource to be put into disaster planning as well as recovery testing. usability.

” … BS7925-1 Security is a protection system that is needed for both secure confidential information and for competitive purposes to assure third parties their data will be protected.2. · · · · · Higher rates of interrupts. Even failures in the security system operation may not be detected. Therefore. Test cases that cause 'thrashing' in a virtual operating system.” … BS7925-1 Stress testing is designed to test the software with abnormal situations.3. 7.Software Testing – made easy 7. Protecting the confidentiality of the information is designed to protect the resources of the organization. Muthuvel Page 45 of 127 . Security testing is designed to evaluate the adequacy of the protective procedures and countermeasures. and the individual assigned to conduct the test should be selected based on the estimated sophistication that might be used to penetrate security. Stress testing attempts to find the limits at which the system will fail through abnormal quantity or frequency of inputs. Test cases that require maximum memory or other resources.2.Security testing “Testing whether the system meets its specified security objectives. The extent of testing should depend on the security risks. For example. Objectives: Security defects do not become as obvious as other types of defects.Stress testing “Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements. the objectives of security testing are to identify defects that are very difficult to identify.2. The security testing objectives include: · · · · Determine that adequate attention has been devoted to identifying security risks Determining that a realistic definition and enforcement of access to the system has been implemented Determining that sufficient expertise exists to perform adequate security testing Conducting reasonable tests to ensure that the implemented security measures function properly When to Use security Testing: Security testing should be used when the information and/or assets protected by the application system are of significant value to the organization.3. K. Data rates an order of magnitude above 'normal'. The testing should be performed both prior to the system going into an operational status and after the system is placed into an operational status. resulting in a loss or compromise of information without the knowledge of that loss. Test cases that cause excessive 'hunting' for data on disk systems.3.

Alpha and Beta testing “Alpha testing: Simulated or actual operational testing at an in-house site not otherwise involved with the software developers. Alpha testing conducted in a controlled environment.” … IEEE Performance testing is designed to test run time performance of software within the context of an integrated system.Performance testing “Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. Beta testing is conducted at one or more customer sites by end users.Software Testing – made easy 7. External instrumentation can monitor intervals. Muthuvel Page 46 of 127 .” … BS7925-1 “Beta testing: Operational testing at a site not otherwise involved with the software developers. The customer uses the software with the developer 'looking over the shoulder' and recording errors and usage problems. The customer records and reports difficulties and errors at regular intervals. log events.” … BS7925-1 This is testing of an operational nature once the software seems stable.2. It is 'live' testing in an environment not controlled by the developer. By instrument the system. Performance tests are often coupled with stress testing and often require both hardware and software infrastructure. That is. the tester can uncover situations that lead to degradation and possible system failure.3. K. It should be conducted by people who represent the software vendor's market. It is not until all systems elements are fully integrated and certified as free of defects the true performance of a system can be ascertained. 7. Alpha testing is conducted at the developer's site by a customer.3. The benefit of this type of acceptance testing is that it will bring out operational issues from potential customers prepared to comment on the software before it is officially released.3. and who will use the product in the same way as the final version once it is released.4. it is necessary to measure resource utilization in an exacting fashion.

Exit Criteria · · · All Test Scenarios/conditions would be executed and reasons will be provided for untested conditions arising out of the following situations Non -Availability of the Functionality Deferred to the Future Release All Defects Reported are in the ‘Closed’ or ‘Deferred’ status. error recovery etc. All User IDs requested by the testing team to be created and made available to the testing team one week prior to start of testing. are satisfied. 7. Availability of stable Test Environment with the latest version of the Application.User Acceptance Testing “Acceptance testing: Formal testing conducted to enable a user. 7. UAT focuses on the following aspects: · · · · All functional requirements are satisfied All performance requirements are achieved Other requirements like transportability. · K. or other authorized entity to determine whether to accept a system or component” … BS7925-1 User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is performed by Users or on behalf of the users to ensure that the Software functions in accordance with the Business Requirement Document. Acceptance criteria specified by the user is met.4.Software Testing – made easy 7. compatibility. customer. Muthuvel Page 47 of 127 .1.4. The client team should sign off the ‘Deferred’ defects.2.4.Entry Criteria · · · · SIT must be completed. Test Cases prepared by the testing team to be reviewed and signed-off by the Project coordinator (AGM-Male).

5.5. the tests that are deemed necessary to validate modified software. Muthuvel Page 48 of 127 . it is necessary to do regression testing. A regression test selection technique chooses. · Safe attempt instead to select every test that will cause the modified program to produce different output than original program.Factors favour Automation of Regression Testing · · · · · · Ensure consistency Speed up testing to accelerate releases Allow testing to happen more frequently Reduce costs of testing by reducing manual labor Improve the reliability of testing Define the testing process and reduce dependence on the few who know it 7.” Regression testing is an expensive but necessary activity performed on modified software to provide confidence that changes are correct and do not adversely affects other system components. Instead. There are three main groups of test selection approaches in use: · Minimization approaches seek to satisfy structural coverage criteria by identifying a minimal set of tests that must be rerun.Regression Testing and Re-testing “Retesting of a previously tested program following modification to ensure that faults have not been introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes made. but do not require minimization of the test set. from an existing test set.5. Four things can happen when a developer attempts to fix a bug.1. · Coverage approaches are also based on coverage criteria. they seek to select all tests that exercise changed or affected program components.” … BS7925-1 “Regression Testing is the process of testing the changes to computer programs to make sure that the older programs still work with the new changes.2. Three of these things are bad. 7. retesting previously tested functions to make sure adding new features has not introduced new problems. and one is good: New Bug No New Bug Bad Good Successful Change Bad Unsuccessful Change Bad Because of the high probability that one of the bad outcomes will result from a change to the system.” “When making improvements on software.Software Testing – made easy 7.Tools used in Regression testing · · · · · · WinRunner from Mercury e-tester from Empirix WebFT from Radview Silktest from Radview Rational Robot from Rational QA Run from Compuware K.

backup. K. such as processing four-digit year dates. Testing a new or an alternate data processing system with the same source data that is used in another system. leaving for another application frequently in multiple cycles The intersystem testing involves the operations of multiple systems in test. Testing at the data access layer is the point at which your application communicates with the database. 8. recovery.2. The other system is considered as the standard of comparison. Muthuvel Page 49 of 127 . The interconnection may be data coming into the system from another application. database triggers.3. · 8.Software Testing – made easy 8. The basic need of intersystem test arises whenever there is a change in parameters between application systems.Parallel Testing · · The process of comparing test results of processing production data concurrently in both the old and new systems. Tests at this level are vital to improve not only your overall Test strategy. database APIs. Types of Testing 8. security and database conversion. where multiple systems are integrated in cycles. Today’s intricate mix of client-server and Web-enabled database applications is extremely difficult to Test productively.Intersystem Testing / Interface Testing “Integration testing where the interfaces between system components are tested” … BS7925-1 The intersystem testing is designed to check and verify the interconnection between application function correctly Applications are frequently interconnected to other systems.Compliance Testing Involves test cases designed to verify that an application meets specific criteria. commonly done with modules like Payroll. properly handling special data boundaries and other business requirements. 8. Database testing includes the process of validation of database stored procedures. but also your product’s quality.1.Database Testing The database component is a critical piece of any data-enabled application. Process in which both the old and new modules run at the same time so that performance and outcomes can be compared and corrected prior to deployment.4.

With some projects this type of testing is carried out as an adjunct to formal testing. Automated testing still requires a skilled quality assurance professional with knowledge of the automation tool and the software being tested to set up the tests.6. 8. The method of testing may be testing is same but the objective remains the same. If carried out by a skilled tester.Software Testing – made easy 8. Often is considered a Move-to-Production activity for ERP releases or a beta test for commercial products. Sometimes ad hoc testing is referred to as exploratory testing.Manual support Testing Manual support testing involves all functions performed by the people in preparing data for and using data from automated system. K. Sometimes. 8. The objective of manual support testing is · · · Verify the manual – support procedures are documented and complete Determine the manual-support responsibilities has been assigned Determine manual support people are adequately trained.5.” … BS7925-1 Testing without a formal test plan or outside of a test plan.7. 8. Manual support testing involves first the evaluation of the adequacy of the process and seconds the execution of the process. it can often find problems that are not caught in regular testing.8.9. this will be the only kind of testing that can be performed. if testing occurs very late in the development cycle. Muthuvel Page 50 of 127 . 8. is conducted over a short period of time and is tightly controlled.Ad-hoc Testing “Testing carried out using no recognised test case design technique.Configuration Testing Testing to determine how well the product works with a broad range of hardware/peripheral equipment configurations as well as on different operating systems and software.Automated Testing Software testing that utilizes a variety of tools to automate the testing process and when the importance of having a person manually testing is diminished. Typically involves many users.Pilot Testing Testing that involves the users just before actual release to ensure that users become familiar with the release contents and ultimately accept it.

Load testing applications can emulate the workload of hundreds or even thousands of users.” ….Load Testing Load Testing involves stress testing applications under real-world conditions to predict system behavior and performance and to identify and isolate problems. as its name implies.Usability Testing “Testing the ease with which users can learn and use a product. is testing that purposely subjects a system (both hardware and software) to a series of tests where the volume of data being processed is the subject of the test.Environmental Testing These tests check the system’s ability to perform at the installation site. Muthuvel Page 51 of 127 .” All aspects of user interfaces are tested: · Display screens · messages · report formats · navigation and selection problems …. “ …. 8. BS7925-1 8.Software Testing – made easy 8. Volume Testing. BS7925-1 “Volume Testing: Testing where the system is subjected to large volumes of data.Stress and Volume Testing “Stress Testing: Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements. Such systems can be transactions processing systems capturing real time sales or could be database updates and or data retrieval. so that you can predict how an application will work under different user loads and determine the maximum number of concurrent users accessing the site at the same time. K.10.12.11. BS7925-1 Testing with the intent of determining how well a product performs when a load is placed on the system resources that nears and then exceeds capacity. etc.13. Requirements might include tolerance for · heat · humidity · chemical presence · portability · electrical or magnetic fields · Disruption of power. 8.

Test Associate Reporting To: Team Lead of a project Responsibilities: · · · · · Design and develop test conditions and cases with associated test data based upon requirements Design test scripts Executes the test ware (Conditions. retest and close defects Preparation of reports on Test progress 9.1. Roles & Responsibilities 9. record defects. Muthuvel Page 52 of 127 . Test scripts etc.3. Review of test condition/cases. test scripts Defect Management Preparation of test deliverable documents and defect metrics analysis report K.Test Engineer Reporting To: Team Lead of a project Responsibilities: · · · · · Design and develop test conditions and cases with associated test data based upon requirements Design test scripts Executes the test ware (Conditions. Cases.Senior Test Engineer Reporting To: Team Lead of a project Responsibilities: · · · · · · · Responsible for collection of requirements from the users and evaluating the same and send out for team discussion Preparation of the High level design document incorporating the feedback received on the high level design document and initiate on the low level design document Assist in the preparation of test strategy document drawing up the test plan Preparation of business scenarios. Test scripts etc.2. retest and close defects Preparation of reports on Test progress 9. record defects.) with the test data generated Reviews test ware.) with the test data generated Reviews test ware.Software Testing – made easy 9. supervision of test cases preparation based on the business scenarios Maintaining the run details of the test execution. Cases.

scripts) Preparation of test scenarios and configuration management and quality plan Manage test cycles Assist in recruitment Supervise test team Resolve team queries/problems Report and follow-up test systems outrages/problems Client interface Project progress reporting Defect Management Staying current on latest test approaches and tools. Test process definition.Software Testing – made easy 9. Test tool selection and introduction.5.Test Lead Reporting To: Test Manager Responsibilities: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Technical leadership of the test project including test approach and tools to be used Preparation of test strategy Ensure entrance criteria prior to test start-off Ensure exit criteria prior to completion sign-off Test planning including automation decisions Review of design documents (test cases. Test planning including development of testing goals and strategy. Use of metrics to support continual test process improvement. and staff training. including test-effort estimations. staff supervision. Test program oversight and progress tracking. Mail Training Process for training needs. Test budgeting and scheduling. if required Review of the proposal K. training and continual improvement. Coordinating pre and post test meetings.4.Test Manager Reporting To: Management Responsibilities: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Liaison for interdepartmental interactions: Representative of the testing team Client interaction Recruiting. conditions. Test environment and test product configuration management. Muthuvel Page 53 of 127 . Nomination of training Cohesive integration of test and development activities. and transferring this knowledge to test team Ensure test project documentation 9.

10.System Specification The System Specification document is a combination of Functional specification and design specification. 10. This is used in case of small application or an enhancement to an application.Functional Specification “The document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended capability. a trace on specifications between K. validation and verification of the software.3. This is used henceforth to develop further documents for software construction. Case Study on each document and reverse presentation 10.Baseline Documents Construction of an application and testing are done using certain documents.1. 10.1.1. These documents are written in sequence. This is done over a period of time and going through various levels of requirements.2. The proposed application should adhere to the specifications specified in the document.BR and FS The requirements specified by the users in the business requirement document may not be exactly translated into a functional specification. Test Preparation & Design Process 10.1. It is primarily derived from Business requirement document.Design Specification The Design Specification document is prepared based on the functional specification. design of the flow and user maintained parameters.4. This is ideally prepared and used by the construction team.Business Requirement It describes user’s needs for the application.” … BS7925-1 The Functional Specification document describes the functional needs. Therefore.2. which specifies the client's business needs. 10.1. table structures and program specifications. User acceptance test is based on this document.1.2. This should also portray functionalities that are technically feasible within the stipulated time frames for delivery of the application. each of it derived from the previous document.Software Testing – made easy 10. It contains the system architecture. The test team should also have a detailed understanding of the design specification in order to understand the system architecture. Muthuvel Page 54 of 127 . As this contains user perspective requirements.Traceability 10.1.

As explained. 10. it is done on the Business requirement to FS and FS to test conditions. The technique used for testing will be chosen based on the organizational need of the end user and based on the caracal risk factor or test factors that do impacts the systems The technique adopted will also depend on the phases of testing The two factors that determine the test technique are · Test factors: the risks that need to be address in testing · Test Phases: the phase of the systems development life cycle in which testing will occur. 10. These gaps are then closed by the author of the FS.Software Testing – made easy functional specification and business requirements is done a one to one basis. Sometimes. The final FS form may vary from the original.FS and Test conditions Test conditions built by the tester are traced with the FS to ensure full coverage of the baseline document. It is determined by the criticality and risks involved with the Application under Test (AUT). B=C.2. there by giving the customer an application. In this process. Therefore A=C Another way of looking at this process is to eliminate as many mismatches at every stage of the process. tester must then build conditions for the gaps. This helps finding the gap between the documents. these ripple effects may not be reflected in the FS. In the case of UAT.Choosing Testing Techniques · · · · · The testing technique varies based on the projects and risks involved in the project. 10. Mathematically.4. If gaps between the same are obtained. A=Business requirement B=Functional Specification C=Test conditions A=B. there is a direct translation of specification from the Business Requirement to Test conditions leaving lesser amount of understandability loss.3. Muthuvel Page 55 of 127 . after getting this signed off from the author of the FS. as Business requirement and Test conditions are matched. Simplifying the above. it becomes evident that Business requirements that are user’s needs are tested. as deferring or taking in a gap may have ripple effect on the application.2. K. testers must keep in mind the rules specified in Test condition writing.Gap Analysis This is the terminology used on finding the difference between "what it should be" and "what it is". · And also depends onetime and money spend on testing. Addendum’s may sometime affect the entire system and the test case development. or deferred after discussions. which will satisfy their needs. Testers should understand these gaps and use them as an addendum to the FS.

7. resources. approach.” … [IEEE] 10.Test Items § § § § § Test items and their version Characteristics of their transmittal media References to related documents such as requirements specification.5.1.7.6.Error Guessing “A test case design technique where the experience of the tester is used to postulate what faults might occur. relevant standards References to lower level test plans 10. the features to be tested.Test Plan Identifier § A unique identifier 10. relevant policies. “ … BS7925-1 10. users guide. operations guide. Muthuvel Page 56 of 127 . It describes a test plan as: “A document describing the scope. and any risks requiring contingency planning. design specification.Software Testing – made easy 10.Error Seeding “The process of intentionally adding known faults to those already in a computer program for the purpose of monitoring the rate of detection and removal. and estimating the number of faults remaining in the program.” … (ANSI/IEEE Standard 829-1983) This standard specifies the following test plan outline: 10. who will do each task.Test Plan This is a summary of the ANSI/IEEE Standard 829-1983.2. project plan.Introduction § § § § Summary of the items and features to be tested Need for and history of each item (optional) References to related documents such as project authorization.7. the testing tasks. It identifies test items.7.3. and to design tests specifically to expose them. configuration management plan. installation guide References to bug reports related to test items Items which are specifically not going to be tested (optional) K. and schedule of intended testing activities. QA plan.

testingresource availability. such as test-item availability.8. test logs. Muthuvel Page 57 of 127 .9.7. and deadline 10.6.Software Testing – made easy 10.7.Test Deliverables § Identify the deliverable documents: test plan.7. test summary reports Identify test input and output data Identify test tools (optional) § § K. test procedure specifications.Suspension Criteria and Resumption Requirements § § Specify criteria to be used to suspend the testing activity Specify testing activities which must be redone when testing is resumed 10.Features Not to Be Tested § § All features and significant combinations of features which will not be tested The reasons these features won’t be tested 10. test incident reports.7.Features to be Tested § § All software features and combinations of features to be tested References to test-design specifications associated with each feature and combination of features 10.Approach § § § § § § § § Overall approach to testing For each major group of features of combinations of featres. test case specifications.7.7. test item transmittal reports.Item Pass/Fail Criteria § Specify the criteria to be used to determine whether each test item has passed or failed testing 10. techniques.7. specify the approach Specify major activities. test design specifications. and tools which are to be used to test the groups Specify a minimum degree of comprehensiveness required Identify which techniques will be used to judge comprehensiveness Specify any additional completion criteria Specify techniques which are to be used to trace requirements Identify significant constraints on testing.5.4.

7.14.10. communications and system software. and any other software or supplies needed Identify any other testing needs Identify the source for all needs which are not currently available § § 10.13.7. preparing. witnessing. the mode of usage (i. checking and resolving Identify groups responsible for providing the test items identified in the Test Items section Identify groups responsible for providing the environmental needs identified in the Environmental Needs section 10.12.7.e. Muthuvel Page 58 of 127 .Staffing and Training Needs § § Specify staffing needs by skill level Identify training options for providing necessary skills 10.Schedule § § § § § Specify test milestones Specify all item transmittal events Estimate time required to do each testing task Schedule all testing tasks and test milestones For each testing resource.7. specify its periods of use K. stand-alone). executing.11..7. designing.Environmental Needs § § § Specify the level of security required Identify special test tools needed Specify necessary and desired properties of the test environment: physical characteristics of the facilities including hardware.Software Testing – made easy 10.Responsibilities § § § Identify groups responsible for managing.Testing Tasks § § § Identify tasks necessary to prepare for and perform testing Identify all task interdependencies Identify any special skills required 10.

Polarity of the value given for test is to assess the extreme values of the condition.1.High Level Test Conditions / Scenario It represents the possible values that can be attributed to a particular specification.Data Definition K.16.8.8.Processing logic It may not be possible to segment the specifications into the above categories in all applications.Polarity of the value given for test is to analyze the practical usage of the condition. Boundary condition . Negative condition .7.8. For the segments identified by the test team.Approvals § § Specify the names and titles of all persons who must approve the plan Provide space for signatures and dates 10. the possible condition types that can be built are · · · · Positive condition .7.Polarity of the value given for test is not to comply with the condition existence.Polarity of the value given for test is to comply with the condition existence. 10.Risks and Contingencies § § Identify the high-risk assumptions of the test plan Specify contingency plans for each 10. The importance of determining the conditions are: · Deciding the architecture of testing approach · Evolving design of the test scripts · Ensuring coverage · Understanding the maximum conditions for a specification At this point the tester will have a fair understanding of the application and his module. The functionality can be broken into · Field level rules · Module level rules · Business rules · Integration rules 10. User perspective condition . It is left to the test team to decide on the application segmentation.Software Testing – made easy 10.15.2. Muthuvel Page 59 of 127 .

· · · Data Sheet format (ISO template) Exercise with the live application Test Case K.Software Testing – made easy In order to test the conditions and values that are to be tested. in order to populate the application database. It will be difficult for the tester to identify his requirements from the mass data. the tester should be able to design intelligent data for his test conditions.Feeds Analysis Most applications are fed with inputs at periodic intervals. This will trigger the warning in the application. · Unintelligent: Data is populated in mass. having reference to its condition. corresponding to the table structures. a document is published in this regard. we can give 9. which are redesigned. By constructing such intelligent data. will be processed by local programs and populated in respective tables. if the interest to be paid is more than 8 % and the tenor of the deposit exceeds one month. These feeds. all processes will happen within its database and no external inputs of processed data are required. This type of population can be used for testing the performance of the application and its behavior to random data. received from other machines. the application should be populated with data. Muthuvel Page 60 of 127 .3. Usually.e. essential for testers to understand the data mapping between the feeds and the database tables of the application. at the application end. like end of day or every hour etc. 10. to find a suitable record with interest exceeding 8 % and the Tenor being more than two months is difficult. Example: Business rule. then the system should give a warning. There are two ways of populating the data into tables of the application. few data records will suffice the testing process. Some applications may be stand alone i.. they are sent in a format. Translation of the high level data designed previously should be converted into the feed formats. · Intelligent: Data is tailor-made for every condition and value. In the case of applications having feeds.8. Application may have its own hierarchy of data structure which is interconnected. To populate an interest to be paid field of a deposit. These will aid in triggering certain action by the application.5478 and make the tenor as two months for a particular deposit. Example: Using the above example. Its values are chosen at random and not with reference to the conditions derived. It is therefore. Having now understood the difference between intelligent and unintelligent data and also at this point having a good idea of the application.

In general.9. Data and Pre-requirements: Here either the data for the test or the specification is mentioned. to make the test cases explicit. It is the phrased form of Test conditions. · While writing a test case.Multiple Expected Result It has multiple impacts on executing the instructions. it should reflect in detail the result of the test execution. Expected results: The expected result on the execution of the instruction in the description is mentioned.Expected Results The outcome of executing an instruction would have a single or multiple impacts on the application. such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement. 10. K. Muthuvel Page 61 of 127 . Language used in the expected results should not have ambiguity.1. 10.9.1.9.Software Testing – made easy 10.Test Case “A set of inputs. Expected result: New time deposit screen should be displayed. which becomes readable and understandable by all. There are three headings under which a test case is written.2.1. Example: Test Case Description: Click on the hyperlink "New deposit" at the top left hand corner of the main menu screen.9. execution preconditions. · · Description: Here the details of the test on a specification or a condition are written.1. The results expressed should be clear and have only one interpretation possible. and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective. It is advisable to use the term "Should" in the expected results. Pre-requirements for the test to be executed should also be clearly mentioned. the tester should include the following: · · · Reference to the rules and specifications under test in words with minimal technical jargons.Single Expected Result It has a single impact on the instruction executed.” … BS7925-1 Test cases are written based on the test conditions. Example: Test Case Description: Click on the hyperlink "New deposit" at the top left hand corner of the main menu screen. 10. Check on data shown by the application should refer to the table names if possible Names of the fields and screens should also be explicit. The resultant behavior of the application after execution is the expected result. Namely.

Deletion of certain records to trigger an action by the application o Example: A document availability indicator field to be made null. it is difficult to give the value of the maturity date while data designing or preparing test cases.Data definition Data for executing the test cases should be clearly defined in the test cases. K.9. Foreign exchange rate information service organization server to be connected to the application. Below is the list of possible pre-requirements that could be attached to the test case: · Enable or Disable external interfaces o Example: Reuters. · · · · 10.as its sometimes not possible to predict the dates of testing . o Example: Maturity date of a deposit should be the date of test.m. So. so as to trigger a warning from the application. 10.Pre-requirements Test cases cannot normally be executed with normal state of the application. Date's that are to be maintained (Pre-date or Post date) in the database before testing . Example: Description: Check the default value of the interest for the deposit Data: $ 400 This value ($400) should be calculated using the formula specified well in advance while data design. in order to trigger a warning.2.and populate certain date fields when they are to trigger certain actions in the application. Change values if required to trigger an action by the application o Example: Change the value of the interest for a deposit so as to trigger a warning by the application. Example: Description: Enter Client's name Data: John Smith (OR) Description: Check the default value of the interest for the deposit Data: $ 400 In the case of calculations involved.9. Muthuvel Page 62 of 127 .3. Time at which the test case is to be executed o Example: Test to be executed after 2.30 p.Software Testing – made easy Expected result: New time deposit screen should be displayed & Customer contact date should be pre-filled with the system date. They should indicate the values that will be entered into the fields and also indicate default values of the field. the test cases should indicate the calculated value in the expected results of the test case.

In both cases the development team should certify that the application would function in an integrated fashion. The test team should next plan the execution of the test on the application. Clients and the development team must sign off this stage. Unit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of software design. This helps in identifying unauthorized transfers or usage of application files by both parties involved.1. it can be detected by using these numbers. Test Execution Process The preparation to test the application is now over. comparing and tracking before and after soft base transfer lie with the test team. development team should have completed tests on the software at Unit levels.Version Identification Values The application would contain several program files for it to function.2. The details of the execution are documented in the test plan. 11.3. The version of these files and a unique checksum number for these files is a must for change management. and hand over the signed off application with the defect report to the testing team. Muthuvel Page 63 of 127 . o Test Plan – Internal o Test Execution Sequence Test cases can either be executed in a random format or in a sequential fashion. as one module would populate or formulate information required for another. The number attributed to each program file is unique and if any change is made to the program file between the time it is transferred to the test environment and the time when it is transferred back to the development for correction. important control paths and filed validations are tested.1. 11. The responsibilities of acquiring.Requirements 11. Some applications have concepts that would require sequencing of the test cases before actual execution. These numbers will be generated for every program file on transfer from the development machine to the test environment. 11.Unit testing sign off · · · To begin an integrated test on the application.Pre.1. Sequencing can also be done on the modules of the application.Interfaces for the application In some applications external interfaces may have to connected or disconnected. K.Software Testing – made easy 11. These identification methods vary from one client to another.1. Using the Design specification as a guide. Actual navigation to and from an interface may not be covered in black box testing.1. These values have to be obtained from the development team by the test team.

Software Testing – made easy 11.1.4.Test Case Allocation
The test team should decide on the resources that would execute the test cases. Ideally, the tester who designed the test cases for the module executes the test. In some cases, due to time or resource constraint additional test cases might have to be executed by other members of the team. Clear documentation of responsibilities should be mentioned in the test plan. Test cases are allocated among the team and on different phases. All test cases may not be possibly executed in the first passes. Some of the reasons for this could be: · Functionality may some-times be introduced at a later stage and application may not support it, or the test team may not be ready with the preparation · External interfaces to the application may not be ready · The client might choose to deliver some part of the application for testing and rest may be delivered during other passes Targets for completion of Phases Time frames for the passes have to be decided and committed to the clients well in advance to the start of test. Some of the factors consider for doing so are · Number of cases/scripts: Depending on the number of test scripts and the resource available, completion dates are prepared. · Complexity of testing: In some cases the number of test cases may be less but the complexity of the test may be a factor. The testing may involve time consuming calculations or responses form external interfaces etc. · Number of errors: This is done very exceptionally. Pre-IST testing is done to check the health of the application soon after the preparations are done. The number of errors that were reported should be taken as a benchmark. The preparation to test the application is now over. The test team should next plan the execution of the test on the application. In this section, we will see how test execution is performed.

11.2.Stages of Testing: 11.2.1.Comprehensive Testing - Round I
All the test scripts developed for testing are executed. Some cases the application may not have certain module(s) ready for test; hence they will be covered comprehensively in the next pass. The testing here should not only cover all the test cases but also business cycles as defined in the application.

11.2.2.Discrepancy Testing - Round II
All the test cases that have resulted in a defect during the comprehensive pass should be executed. In other words, all defects that have been fixed should be retested. Function points that may be affected by the defect should also be taken up for testing. This type of testing is called as Regression testing. Defects that are not fixed will be executed only after they are fixed.

11.2.3.Sanity Testing - Round III
This is final round in the test process. This is done either at the client's site or at Maveric depending on the strategy adopted. This is done in order to check if the system is sane enough for the next stage i.e. UAT or production as the case may be under an isolated environment. Ideally the defects that are fixed from the previous phases are checked and freedom testing done to ensure integrity is conducted.

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Software Testing – made easy

12.

Defect Management

12.1.Defect – Definition
“Error: A human action that produces an incorrect result. “

… [IEEE]

“Fault: A manifestation of an error in software. A fault, if encountered may cause a failure. “ … BS7925-1 “Failure: Deviation of the software from its expected delivery or service. “ … BS7925-1

“A deviation from expectation that is to be tracked and resolved is termed as a defect. “ An evaluation of defects discovered during testing provides the best indication of software quality. Quality is the indication of how well the system meets the requirements. So in the context defects are identified as any failure to meet the system requirements. Error:

“Is an undesirable deviation from requirements?” Any problem or cause for many problems which stops the system to perform its functionality is referred as Error

Bug: Any Missing functionality or any action that is performed by the system which is not supposed to be performed is a Bug. “Is an error found BEFORE the application goes into production?” Any of the following may be the reason for birth of Bug 1. Wrong functionality 2. Missing functionality 3. Extra or unwanted functionality Defect: A defect is a variance from the desired attribute of a system or application. “Is an error found AFTER the application goes into production?” Defect will be commonly categorized into two types: 1. Defect from product Specification 2. Variance from customer/user expectation. Failure: Any Expected action that is supposed to happen if not can be referred as failure or we can say absence of expected response for any request. Fault: This generally referred in hardware terminologies. A Problem, which cause the system not to perform its task or objective.

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Software Testing – made easy 12.2.Types of Defects
Defects that are detected by the tester are classified into categories by the nature of the defect. The following are the classification · Showstopper: A Defect which may be very critical in terms of affecting the schedule, or it may be a show stopper – that is, it stops the user from using the system further · Major: A Defect where a functionality/data is affected significantly but not cause a showstopping condition or a block in the test process cycles. · Minor: A Defect which is isolated or does not stop the user from proceeding, but causes inconvenience. Cosmetic Errors would also feature in this category

12.3.Defect Reporting
Defects or Bugs when detected in the application by the tester must be duly reported through an automated tool. Particulars that have to be filled by a tester are · Defect Id: Number associated with a particular defect, and henceforth referred by its ID · Date of execution: The date on which the test case which resulted in a defect was executed · Defect Category: These are explained in the next section, ideally decided by the test leader · Severity: As explained, it can be Major, Minor and Show-stopper · Module ID: Module in which the defect occurred · Status: Raised, Authorized, Deferred, Fixed, Re-raised, And Closed. · Defect description: Description as to how the defect was found, the exact steps that should be taken to simulate the defect, other notes and attachments if any. · Test Case Reference No: The number of the test case and script in combination which resulted in the defect. · Owner: The name of the tester who executed the test cases · Test case description: The instructions in the test cases for the step in which the error occurred · Expected Result: The expected result after the execution of the instructions in the test case descriptions · Attachments: The screen shot showing the defect should be captured and attached · Responsibility: Identified team member of the development team for fixing the defect.

12.4.Tools Used
Tools that are used to track and report defects are,

12.4.1.ClearQuest (CQ)
It belongs to the Rational Test Suite and it is an effective tool in Defect Management. CQ functions on a native access database and it maintains a common database of defects. With CQ the entire Defect Process can be customized. For e.g., a process can be designed in such a manner that a defect once raised needs to be definitely authorized and then fixed for it to attain the status of retesting. Such a systematic defect flow process can be established and the history for the same can be maintained. Graphs and reports can be customized and metrics can be derived out of the maintained defect repository.

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Apart from Manual Test Execution.5. Here. TestDirector activates WinRunner. executing tests. track the defect and report the defect effectively by the testing team. The process ensures that all defects are accurate and authentic to the best knowledge of the test team. schedules prepared earlier may slip based on certain factors. · Server problems o Test team may come across problems with the server. and displays the results. on which the application is planted. 12. test team should have internal discussions with the test lead on the defects reported to the test lead. · Reports that are published are · Daily status report · Summarized defect report for the individual domain / product if any · Final defect reported Test down Times: During the execution of the test. Before meetings with the development team. including planning. an Independent Software Testing Company in Chennai for defect management. Apart form the above. the WinRunner automated test scripts of the project can also be executed directly from TestDirector. TestDirector enables us to manage user access to a project by creating a list of authorized users and assigning each user a password and a user group such that a perfect control can be exercised on the kinds of additions and modifications and user can make to the project. creating tests. and tracking defects. 12.Defects Meetings Meetings are conducted at the end of everyday between the test team and development team to discuss test execution and defects. · To monitor defects closely from initial detection until resolution. · As a sophisticated system for tracking software defects.3. · To analyze our Testing Process by means of various graphs and reports.TestDirector (TD): TestDirector is an Automated Test Management Tool developed by Mercury Interactive for Test Management to help to organize and manage all phases of the software testing process.Software Testing – made easy 12. Time lost due to these should be recorded duly by the test team. it is used for · To report defects detected in the software. This tool is used to manage the defect.4.6.Defect Tracker Defect Tracker is a tool developed by Maveric Systems Ltd.2. defect categorizations are done. Possible causes for the problems are o Main server on which the application may have problems with number of instances on it slowly down the system o Networking to the main server or internal network may get down K. runs the tests.4. 12.Defects Publishing Defects that are authorized are published in a mutually accepted media like Internet or sending the issue by email etc. Muthuvel Page 67 of 127 .

Defect Life Cycle K. Muthuvel Page 68 of 127 .7.Software Testing – made easy · · · · · · · · · Software compatibility with application and middleware if any may cause concerns delaying the test start New version of databases or middleware may not be fully compatible with the applications Improper installation of system applications may cause delays Interfaces with applications may not be compatible with the existing hardware setup Problems on Testing side / Development side Delays can also be from the test or development teams likely Data designed may not be sufficient or compatible with the application (missing some parameters of the data) Maintenance of the parameters may not be sufficient for the application to function Version transferred for testing may not be the right one 12.

Further analysis and derivation of metrics can be done based on the various components of the defect management. 13.3.1.Authorities The following personnel have the authority to sign off the test execution process · · · Client: The owners of the application under test Project manager: Maveric Personnel who managed the project Project Lead: Maveric Personnel who managed the test process 13. K.Software Testing – made easy 13.2.2.Metrics 13.4.4. the following has to be completed.4. Test Closure Process 13. · · · All passes have been completed All test cases should have been executed All defects raised during the test execution have either been closed or deferred 13.Defect age: Defect age is the time duration between the points of introduction of defect to the point of closure of the defect. As an example Defect density is a metric which gives the ratio of defects in specific modules to the total defects in the application. 13.Defect Metrics Analysis on the defect report is done for management and client information. occurrence and category of the defects.1. Muthuvel Page 69 of 127 .Sign Off Sign off Criteria: In order to acknowledge the completion of the test process and certify the application.Defect Analysis: The analysis of the defects can be done based on the severity.Deliverables The following are the deliverables to the Clients · · · · · · Test Strategy High Level Test Conditions or Scenarios and Test Conditions document Consolidated defect report Weekly Status report Traceability Matrix Test Acceptance/Summary Report. These are categorized as 13.3. This would give a fair idea on the defect set to be included for smoke test during regression.4.

positive and negative should be shared commonly with the management and peer groups.Software Testing – made easy 13. 13.Test Management Metrics Analysis on the test management is done for management and client information.4.. Muthuvel Page 70 of 127 .4.5. These are categorized as · · Schedule: Schedule variance is a metric determined by the ratio of the planned duration to the actual duration of the project.e.4. K. Effort: Effort variance is a metric determined by the ratio of the planned effort to the actual effort exercised for the project. Polarity of the knowledge i.Debriefs With Test Team Completion of a project gives knowledge enrichment to the team members.

Muthuvel Page 71 of 127 . test activities and dependencies 14.Test Planning Phase The various activities happening during Test Planning phase are: · · · · · · · · Team formation and Task allocation Application understanding Preparation of Clarification document Internal Presentation Client Presentation Assess and Prioritize risk Preparation of Test Schedule(Effort estimation) Preparation of Test strategy document.Software Testing – made easy 14. It plays a significant role in · · · · · · Identify and prioritize improvement areas Analyze the results and about the variability and current strengths and weakness and indicate improvement areas List improvement areas Analyze effectiveness measurements Exercise on Test strategy preparation using Maveric template Identification of test phases. Test script and Test data Preparation of Traceability matrix Preparation of Daily status and Weekly status report K. Risk Analysis Effort Estimation Proposal preparation and submission. 14. Each phase of testing has various documents to be maintained that tracks the progress of testing activities and helps for future references. Discussion with Client Contract sign-off 14. The testing deliverables of different phases are significant for monitoring the testing process and for process improvement.Test Design Phase The various activities happening during Test design phase are: · · · · Environment set up for Testing by the IT department Preparation of Test condition.Test Initiation Phase The various activities happening during Test Initiation phase are: · · · · · · Functional Point Analysis. Testing Activities & Deliverables The process of testing involves sequence of phases with several activities involved in each phase.2.1.3.

Test Execution & Defect Management Phase The various activities happening during Test Execution and defect Management are: · Environment Check-up · Test data population · Execution and Defect management · Comprehensive (Round 1) · Discrepancy (Round 2) · Sanity (Round3) · Preparation of Daily status and Weekly status report · Defect Analysis · Preparation of Consolidated Defect report.Test Closure Phase The various activities happening during Test Closure are: · · · · · Final Testing Checklist Preparation of Final Test Summary Report Test Deliverables Project De-brief Project Analysis Report K. 14. Muthuvel Page 72 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy · Approval of Design documents by the Client 14.4.5.

Our forte lies in banking. We significantly enhance the functionality.Testing Subramanian NN AP Narayanan Director Manager .Quality Policy “We will significantly enhance the functionality. · · · · · Maveric Systems is an independent software testing company Delivery hubs in India and UK 185 Professionals on Projects across Chennai.2.Testing Mahesh VN Rosario Regis Director Manager . Dallas. Singapore and Tokyo Primary Focus . Bangalore. A Maveric spirit and collective vision is nurturing our unique culture. and performance of IT solutions deployed by our clients. specialist software testing service provider. We bring in a fresh perspective and rigor to testing engagements by virtue of our dedicated focus. Complementing our core service offering in testing is a strong capability in strategic technical writing and risk management (verification) services.Testing Venkatesh P Hari Narayana Director Manager .1. CRM. Maveric Systems Limited 15. Melbourne. and performance of technology solutions deployed by our clients. We have also delivered projects in telecom. financial services and insurance verticals.Leadership Team Exceptional management bandwidth is a unique strength that has fuelled Maveric's aggressive growth.Technical Writing Kannan Sethuraman Sajan CK Principal Manager . Chicago. London.Software Testing – made easy 15. usability.Fulfillment 15. Ranga Reddy P K Bandyopadhyay CEO Manager . “ K.Banking. Mumbai.Overview Maveric Systems is an independent. Financial Services and Insurance New Focus Areas . and healthcare domains. Muthuvel Page 73 of 127 .3. and driving us to relentlessly deliver value to our clients. Delhi. Domain expertise in chosen areas enables us to understand client requirements quickly and completely to offer a value-added testing service. Hyderabad. Our five founding Directors of Maveric took to entrepreneurship while they were at the prime of their careers in business and technology consulting.Telecom and Manufacturing sectors 15. usability. A core group of anchor clients have propelled us to become a key independent software testing firm in India within a short span of three years.

Testing Process / Methodology Input Output Key Signoff K.4. Muthuvel Page 74 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy 15.

Muthuvel Page 75 of 127 .Commercial and Lead .Operations · Distribute the baseline documents based on the individual roles defined. Test Manager.Test Initiation Phase Input · Signed proposal Procedure · Arrange internal kick-off meeting among the team members. Lead .1.4.Software Testing – made easy 15. · Prepare a micro level schedule indicating the roles allocated for all team members with timelines in MPP · Fill in the Project Details form and the Top Level Project Checklist Output · Minutes of meeting · MPP to be attached to Test Strategy (Test Planning process) · Project Details form · Top Level Project Checklist to Test Delivery Management K.

2.Software Testing – made easy 15. Muthuvel Page 76 of 127 .4.Test Planning Phase K.

Software Testing – made easy

Input · Baseline documents · MPP Procedure · Team members understand the functionality from baseline documents · Raise and obtain resolution of clarifications · Internal presentation and reverse presentation to the client · TL defines test environment and request the client for the same · TL identifies risks associated and monitors the project level risks throughout the project. The risks at the project delivery level are maintained by the Lead - Ops · TL prepares Test Strategy, review is by Lead - Commercial, Lead - Ops and Test Manager · AM revises commercials if marked difference between Test Strategy and the Proposal · TL prepares Configuration Management and Quality Plan, Review is by Lead Ops and Test Manager Output · Clarification document · Test Environment Request to client · Risk Analysis document to Test Delivery Management

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Software Testing – made easy 15.4.3.Test Design Phase

Input · Test Strategy Procedure · Team members prepare the Test Conditions, Test Cases and Test Script · TL prepares the Test Scenarios (free form)
· ·

·
· · · Output

Review of the above by the Lead - Ops, Test Manager Client review records are also maintained. Lead - Ops is responsible for sign-off Team members prepare Traceability matrix if agreed in Test Strategy and updated during Test Execution with defect ids Team members prepare Data Guidelines whenever required TL sends daily status reports to clients and the Test Delivery Management team. TL sends the weekly status reports to clients, Test Manager, delivery management team and the Account Manager TL escalates any changes in baseline documents to Delivery Management team.

· ·
·

Test Condition/Test Case document, Test Script, Test Scenarios (free form) Traceability matrix to the client Daily and Weekly status reports to client, Test Delivery Management and Account Management

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Software Testing – made easy 15.4.4.Execution and Defect Management Phase

15.4.4.1.Test Execution Process

15.4.4.2.Defect Management Process

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if prepared) with actual result and status of test · Log in the Defect Report. Test Delivery Management and Account Management K. consolidate all defects and send to client. Output · Defect Report · Daily and Weekly status reports to the client.Software Testing – made easy Input · Test Conditions/ Test Cases document · Test Scenarios document · Traceability matrix Procedure · Validate test environment and deal with any issues · Execute first rounds of testing · Update the Test Condition/Test case document (and the Test Scripts.Ops Complete rounds/stages of testing as agreed in the Test Strategy Send daily and weekly status reports to clients and the Test Delivery Management team Escalate any changes in baseline documents to Delivery Management team. Muthuvel Page 80 of 127 . No review or sign-off required Carry out the test in the new version of the application Changes to baseline or scope of work escalated to Lead . Test Manager and · · · · · · · delivery management team Conducts defect review meetings with client (as specified in Test Strategy) Consolidate the Test Conditions/Test Cases to be executed in the subsequent round in a separate document.

Muthuvel Page 81 of 127 . decisions whether to close and release deliverables are taken by delivery management team · The team prepare the Quantitative measurements · TL prepares the Final Testing Checklist and Lead .Software Testing – made easy 15. Test Manager. Lead ..4. TL and team members carry out the de-brief meeting.Ops. % compliance to schedule are documented in Project De-brief form. Lead . Effort variances.Test Closure Phase Input · Consolidated Defect Report Procedure · Team Lead in consultation with Lead . Account Manager. inputs are given to Quality Department for process improvements Output · Final Testing Checklist and Final Test Report to the client · Project De-brief to Quality Department K.Comm.Ops approves the same · TL prepares the Final Test Report and Lead .Ops decides about closure of a project (both complete and incomplete) · In case of incomplete testing.5. If required. · Internal Review records and review records of clients are also stored.Ops and Test Manager Reviews the same.

1.Software Testing – made easy 15. if any K. if any Defect tracking / Project management tools used.Project Details Form Name of Project Client Location Contact at Client Location Project In-charge (Testing) Project In-charge (Development) Name: Designation: Email: Phone: Mobile: Name: Designation: Email: Phone: Mobile: Name: Designation: Email: Phone: Mobile: Domain of the Project Duration of Testing Level of Testing Test Summary From To White Box Testing Black Box Testing Manual Testing Automation Testing Type of Testing Functional Testing Regression Testing Performance Testing Automation Tools. Muthuvel Page 82 of 127 .5.Test Deliverables Template 15.5.

Muthuvel Page 83 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy Application Summary Application Overview OS with version Database Backend Middleware Front-end Software languages used Module Summary Module Name Description Testers Summary K.

Software Testing – made easy 15.5. Muthuvel Page 84 of 127 .2.Minutes of Meeting Meeting Topic: Host of the Meeting: Participants: Absentees: Previous Meeting Follow up: Meeting Time: Date and Venue and Meeting: Minutes of the Meeting (Detailed) Attach if additional sheets require: Corrective and Preventive Actions with Target Date: Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: K.

3.Top Level Project Checklist K.5. Muthuvel Page 85 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy 15.

Software Testing – made easy 15.4.Configuration Management and Quality Plan K.5. Muthuvel Page 86 of 127 .5.5.Test Strategy Document 15.

5. tools Browser support Internet connection Automation Tools to be installed Utility software’s like Toad.Test Environment Request Project Code: Project Name: Application Version No: Type of Testing: Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: Description Client side Hardware Details like RAM. No.6.Software Testing – made easy 15. MS Projects etc. Operating System Client Software’s to be installed Front end language. Muthuvel Page 87 of 127 . of CPU RAM Hard Disk capacity Operating System Software Number of Servers Location of Server Server side – Database Hardware Platform. No. Server side – Middle Tier Hardware Platform. Hard Disk Capacity etc. of CPU RAM Hard Disk capacity Operating System Software CPU RAM Hard Disk capacity Number of Database Servers Location of Database Servers Details Version K.

8.Software Testing – made easy 15.Clarification Document 15.Risk Analysis Document 15.Test Script Document K.9.5.7. Muthuvel Page 88 of 127 .5.5.Test condition / Test Case Document 15.5.10.

Daily Status Report Project Code: Project Name: Phase of the Testing Life Cycle: Application Version No: Round: Report Date: Highlights of the Day: A1.12.Software Testing – made easy 15. Execution Phase Module Tot no of Conds in the module No. Design Phase Module No of Test Condn Designed No of Test Cases Designed Remarks Sn No WinRunner Scripting Progress SRs/Transaction Status A2. Muthuvel Page 89 of 127 .11.Traceability Matrix 15.5. Executed during the day Planned Actua l Total executed till date Planned Actual Remarks B. Defect Distribution K.5.

Environment Non-availability From Time To Time Time Lost Man-hours Lost Error encountered & Root cause (If Identified) Total D. Other Issues / Concerns Description of the Issue / Concern Action Proposed Proposed Target Date Responsibility Remarks E.Software Testing – made easy Show Stopper Defects Raised Today (A) Till Yesterday (B) Total (A + B) Defects Closed (C) Balance Open (A + B – C) Fixed but to be retested Rejected Critical Major Minor Total C. General Remarks: Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: K. Muthuvel Page 90 of 127 .

Muthuvel Page 91 of 127 .Weekly Status Report Project Code: Project Name: Phase of the Testing Life Cycle: Application Version No: Report Date: Report for Week: A.Software Testing – made easy 15. Highlights of the Week B1. Defect Distribution Show stopper Open Defects Break-up of Open defects Pending Clarifications Fixed but to be re-tested Re-raised Being Fixed Rejected Critical Major Minor Total D. Life Cycle/Process Planned Start Date End Date Manmonths Revised Start Date End Date Start Date Man months utilized till date Actual Projected man months till closure Projected End Date Reasons B. Environment Non-availability Total man-hours lost during the week: K. Design Phase Module No of Test Condition Designed No of Test Cases Designed Remarks WinRunner Scripting Progress Sn No SRs/Transaction Status B2. Execution Phase Module Total no of conditions in the module No of conditions executed during the week Planned Actual Total executed till date Planned Actual Remarks C.13.5.

General Remarks Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: 15.14.Defect Report Round 2& Round 3 as same as Round 1 K.5. Muthuvel Page 92 of 127 . Other Issues / Concerns Description of the Issue / Concern Action Proposed Proposed Target Date Responsibility Remarks F.Software Testing – made easy E.

Muthuvel Page 93 of 127 .5.Final Test Checklist Project Code: Project Name: Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: Check Have all modules been tested Have all conditions been tested Have all rounds been completed All deliverables named according to naming convention Are all increase in scope.15.Software Testing – made easy 15. timelines been tracked in Top Level Project Checklist. Test Strategy and design documents Have all agreed-upon changes carried out (change in scope. client review comments etc) Have all defects been re-tested Have all defects been closed or deferred status Are all deliverables ready for delivery Are all deliverables taken from Configuration Management tool Are all soft copy deliverables checked to be virus free Comments and Observations: Final inspection result: Approved/ Rejected Status (Y/N) Remarks K.

Muthuvel Page 94 of 127 .16.Final Test Report 15.5.5.17.Project De-brief Form Project Code: Project Name: Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: Overview of the Application: Key Challenges faced during Design or Execution: Lessons learnt: Suggested Corrective Actions: K.Software Testing – made easy 15.

When deadlines loom and the crunch comes.A redesign. resulting in added bugs. etc. Poorly documented code . A non-testable requirement would be. Software complexity . Time pressures . for example.1. Muthuvel Page 95 of 127 . there will be no clear-cut way to determine if a software application is performing correctly.understand the application requirements.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented that result as bugs. clear & documented. Without such documentation. attainable. If a bug is found. often requiring a lot of guesswork. K. and testable. rescheduling of engineers. · · · Q2: What does "finding a bug" consist of? Ans: Finding a bug consists of number of steps that are performed: · · · · · Searching for and locating a bug Analyzing the exact circumstances under which the bug occurs Documenting the bug found Reporting the bug and if necessary. the error is simulated Testing the fixed code to verify that the bug is really fixed Q3: What will happen about bugs that are already known? Ans: When a program is sent for testing (or a website given) a list of any known bugs should accompany the program.programmers "can" make mistakes. Q4: What's the big deal about 'requirements'? Ans: Requirements are the details describing an application's externally perceived functionality and properties. Programming errors . Software development tools . reasonably detailed. mistakes will be made. Requirements should be. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems.the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. effects on other projects. Q&A 16. complete. 'userfriendly' (too subjective). If there are many minor changes or any major changes. Changing requirements .Software Testing – made easy 16.various tools often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. then the list will be checked to ensure that it is not a duplicate. cohesive. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors.General Q1: Why does software have bugs? Ans: · · · · Miscommunication or no communication . Any bugs not found on the list will be assumed to be new.

and it will be classified into one of three possible stability levels: · · · Low stability (bugs are expected to be easy to find. Additionally. the best bet might be to minimize the detail in the test cases. It is up to the tester to decide how much to test it before it is tested. testing deadlines. Muthuvel Page 96 of 127 . Design some flexibility into test cases (this is not easily done. An initial assessment of the software is made. or set up only higher-level generic-type test plans) Q6: When to stop testing? Ans: This can be difficult to determine. etc. data communications. inherent risks. load/stress/performance testing may be useful in determining client/server application limitations and capabilities. Thus testing requirements can be extensive. When time is limited (as it usually is) the focus should be on integration and system testing. so a complete testing can never be performed. and servers.) Test cases completed with certain percentage passed Test budget depleted Coverage of code/functionality/requirements reaches a specified point Defect rate falls below a certain level Beta or Alpha testing period ends Q7: How does a client/server environment affect testing? Q9: How is testing affected by object-oriented designs? Ans: Well-engineered object-oriented design can make it easier to trace from code to internal design to functional design to requirements. Q8: Does it matter how much the software has been tested already? Ans: No. Be sure that customers and management understand the scheduling impacts.Software Testing – made easy Q5: What can be done if requirements are changing continuously? Ans: It's helpful if the application's initial design allows for some adaptability so that any changes done later do not require redoing the application from scratch. and run in such an interdependent environment. While there will be little affect on black box testing (where an K. indicating a normal amount of programmer testing) High stability (bugs are expected to be difficult to find. Many modern software applications are so complex. Use rapid prototyping whenever possible to help customers feel sure of their requirements and minimize changes. indicating already well tested) Deadlines achieved (release deadlines. and costs of significant requirements changes. Common factors in deciding when to stop testing are: · · · · · · Ans: Client/server applications can be quite complex due to the multiple dependencies among clients. To makes changes easier for the developers the code should be well commented and well documented. hardware. indicating that the program has not been tested or has only been very lightly tested) Normal stability (normal level of bugs.

load. Reduce Cost . Muthuvel Page 97 of 127 . usability tests. and determine scope and limitations of tests Determine test approaches and methods . in their domain areas. Q10: Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Ans: A tool set that allows controlled access to all test assets promoted better communication between all the team members. The complete solution is based on providing the user with principles. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. system. those responsible for tasks. for different clients. integration. and will ultimately break down the walls that have traditionally existed between various groups. functional. Q11: Why outsource testing? Ans: Skill and Expertise Developing and maintaining a team that has the expertise to thoroughly test complex and large applications is expensive and effort intensive.Outsourcing testing offers the flexibility of having a large test team. etc. only when needed.Software Testing – made easy understanding of the internal design of the application is unnecessary). set priorities. reporting requirements.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. communications. · · Focus . change processes. Testing a software application now involves a variety of skills.Using a dedicated and expert test team frees the development team to focus on sharpening their core skills in design and development. required standards and processes (such as release processes. and services needed to efficiently develop software. problem/bug tracking. tools. functional design. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents Obtain budget and schedule requirements Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities.unit. coverage analyzers. If the application was well designed this can simplify test design.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. software. on multiple platforms and across different domain areas. This reduces the carrying costs and at the same time reduces the ramp up time and costs associated with hiring and training temporary personnel. etc. white-box testing can be oriented to the application's objects. test tracking. etc.Testing can go in parallel with the software development life cycle to minimize the time needed to develop the software. · · Q12: What steps are needed to develop and run software tests? Ans: The following are some of the steps needed to develop and run software tests: · · · Obtain requirements.Independent test team looks afresh at each test project while bringing with them the experience of earlier test assignments.) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. etc. Independent assessment . and labor requirements · · · · · K. Save time . Automated testing tools are only one part of a unique solution to achieving customer success.

K. but might be published with the acceptance test plan. being applicable to all of organizations software developments. This would also usually be published as a separate document. which efficiently meets the needs of an organization. but might be published with the system test plan as a single document. boundary value analyses. which is the first stage within a software development project. The application of a test strategy to a software development project should be detailed in the projects software quality plan. identifying what levels of testing are to be applied and the methods. describing the plan for system integration and testing.Software Testing – made easy · · · · · Set schedule estimates. techniques and tools to be used. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test ware. and test ware through life cycle · Q13: What is a Test Strategy and Test Plan? Ans: A test strategy is a statement of the overall approach to testing. Muthuvel Page 98 of 127 . timelines. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. by testing the software. is critical to the success of software development within the organization. Developing a test strategy. This would usually be published as a separate document. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. describing the plan for integration of testes software components. set up logging and archiving processes. A System Test Plan. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. test environment. test cases. This may form part of the Architectural Design Specification. how the test strategy will be applied to the testing of each item. describing the plan for acceptance testing of the software. that the software produced fulfils the requirements or design statements of the appropriate software specification. what sequence they are to be tested in. and describes the test environment. at what level they will be tested. In the case of acceptance testing and system testing. A Software Integration Test Plan. The next stage of test design. describing the plans for testing of individual units of software. is the development of a test plan. Unit Test Plan(s). · · · · · · · · · The objective of each test plan is to provide a plan for verification. set up test tracking processes. These may form part of the Detailed Design Specifications. A test strategy should ideally be organization wide. this means the Requirements Specification. A test plan states what the items to be tested are. A test plan may be project wide. or may in fact be a hierarchy of plans relating to the various levels of specification and testing: · An Acceptance Test Plan.

To achieve the maximum usability of the system To demonstrate expected performance of the system. Muthuvel Page 99 of 127 . – Interview 1.Software Testing – made easy 16. What is Software Testing? “The process of exercising or evaluating a system or system component by manual or automated means to verify that it satisfies specified requirements or to identify differences between expected and actual results.E. Apart from that they also perform a lot of tests like · Ad-Hoc testing · Cookie testing · CET ( Customer Experience test) · Client-Server Test · Configuration Tests · Compatibility testing · Conformance Testing · Depth Test · Error Test · Event-Driven · Full Test · Negative Test · Parallel Testing · Performance Testing · Recovery testing · Sanity Test · Security Testing · Smoke testing · Web Testing 4.G. 5. What types of testing do testers perform? Black-box testing. Whether the system is not performing what it is not suppose to do? 6. What is the need for testing? The Primary need is to match requirements get satisfied with the functionality and also to answer two questions A. Stable for testing Performance Testing: K. Whether the system is doing what it supposes to do? B. What are the entry criteria for Functionality and Performance testing? Functional testing: Functional Spec. What is the Outcome of Testing? A stable application. performing its task as expected. /BRS (CRS)/User Manual. What is the Purpose of Testing? · · · To uncover hidden error. 3.2. An integrated application..." 2. White box testing is the basic type of testing testers Performs.

files. Clear Design and Flow of the application is needed 10. When Application study was confident enough To Stop: After full coverage of Scope of testing After getting enough confidence on health of the application. What is test metrics? After doing the actual testing. What are the entry criteria for Automation testing? Application should be stable. Software metrics is any type of measurement.. conditions. hardware. documentation and personnel) “Are we Building the Right Product” K. which starts the understanding of the application before the tester. structures. What is Quality “Fitness to use” “A journey towards excellence” 12.Software Testing – made easy Same above mentioned baseline document support and good and healthy application that supports drastic performance testing 7. Why do you go for White box testing. If ‘V’ model is followed then testing can be started at design phase itself. starts actual testing. arrays. Can you say any two? A baseline document. 11. Functional Specification Business Requirement Document 13. What is Baseline document. when Black box testing is available? A benchmark that certifies Commercial (Business) aspects and also functional (technical) aspects is objectives of black box testing. What is verification? A tester uses verification method to ensure the system complies with an organization standards and processes. When to start and Stop Testing? If we follow ‘Waterfall’ model then testing can be started after coding. process or related documentation. an evaluation doing on the testing to extract some information about the application health using outputs of testing. Number of Conditions/Cases tested per day It can be · Test Efficiency · Total number of tests executed 8. Eg: Size of code and Found bugs on that count Number of bugs reported per day. Regard less of model the following criteria should considered To start: When test Environment was supportive enough for testing. Muthuvel Page 100 of 127 . So White box takes these things in Macro level and test these things 9. etc. Here loops. which relates to a software system. relying on review or non executable methods (such as software. are very micro level but they are Basement for any application.

In order to achieve this purpose. were explained in SDLC and TDLC respectively. Muthuvel Page 101 of 127 . Tell names of some testing type which you learnt or experienced? Any 5 or 6 types which are related to companies profile is good to say in the interview. What are SDLC and TDLC? The Flow and explanation process. (Software development Life Cycle and testing development Life cycle) TDLC is a informal concept and also referred as TLC 18.Software Testing – made easy 14. which clearly pictures how a software development and testing should be done. “Are we building the Product Right” 15. What is validation? Validation physically ensures that the system operates according to plan by Executing the system functions through series of tests that can be observed or evaluated. 17. processes are monitored and performance problems are solved. What is quality control? Quality Control is defined as a set of activities or techniques whose purpose is to ensure that all quality requirements are being met.What are the various levels of testing? · Unit Testing · Integration testing · System Testing · User Acceptance Testing 20. What are the Qualities of a Tester? · · · · · · Should be perfectionist Should be tactful and diplomatic Should be innovative and creative Should be relentless Should possess negative thinking with good judgment skills Should possess the attitude to break the system 19.Hoc testing · Cookie Testing · CET (Customer Experience Test) · Client-Server Test · Configuration Tests · Compatibility testing · Conformance Testing · Depth Test · Error Test · Event-Driven · Full Test · Negative Test · Parallel Testing K. · Ad . What is quality assurance? A planned and systematic pattern for all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that the item or product conforms to established technical requirements 16.

Software Testing – made easy
· · · · · · Performance Testing Recovery testing Sanity Test Security Testing Smoke testing Web Testing

21. What exactly is Heuristic checklist approach for unit testing? It is method of achieving the most appropriate solution of several found by alternative methods is selected at successive stages testing. The check list Prepared to Proceed is called Heuristic check list 22. After completing testing, what would you deliver to the client? · · · · · · · Test deliverables namely Test plan Test Data Test design Documents (Condition/Cases) Defect Reports Test Closure Documents Test Metrics

23. What is a Test Bed? Before Starting the Actual testing the elements which supports the testing activity such as Test data, Data guide lines. Are collectively called as test Bed. 24. What is a Data Guideline? Data Guidelines are used to specify the data required to populate the test bed and prepare test scripts. It includes all data parameters that are required to test the conditions derived from the requirement / specification The Document, which supports in preparing test data are called Data guidelines

25. Why do you go for Test Bed? When Test Condition is executed its result should be compared to Test result (expected result), as Test data is needed for this here comes the role of test Bed where Test data is made ready. 26. What is Severity and Priority and who will decide what? Severity: How much the Bug found is supposed to affect the systems Function/Performance, Usually we divide as Emergency, High, Medium, and Low. Priority: Which Bug should be solved fist in order of benefit of system’s health? Normally it starts from Emergency giving first Priority to Low as last Priority. 27. Can Automation testing replace manual testing? If it so, how? Automated testing can never replace manual Testing.

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Software Testing – made easy
As these tools to Follow GIGO principle of computer tools. Absence of creativity and innovative thinking. But 1. It speeds up the process. Follow a clear Process, which can be reviewed easily. Better Suited for Regression testing of Manually tested Application and Performance testing. 28. What is a test case? A Test Case gives values / qualifiers to the attributes that the test condition can have. Test cases, typically, are dependent on data / standards. A Test Case is the end state of a test condition, i.e., it cannot be decomposed or broken down further. Test Case design techniques for Black box Testing. · · · · · · Decision table Equivalence Partitioning Method Boundary Value Analysis Cause Effect Graphing State Transition Testing Syntax Testing

29. What is a test condition? A Test Condition is derived from a requirement or specification. It includes all possible combinations and validations that can be attributed to that requirement/specification. 30. What is the test script? A Test Script contains the Navigation Steps, Instructions, Data and Expected Results required to execute the test case(s). Any test script should say how to drive or swim through out the application even for a new user. 31. What is the test data? The value which are given at expected places(fields) in a system to verify its functionality have been made ready in a piece of document called test data. 32. What is an Inconsistent bug? The Bug which is not occurring in a definable format or which cannot be caught, even if a process is followed. It may occur and may not when tested with same scenario. 33. What is the difference between Re-testing and Regression testing? Retest-To check for a particular bug and its dependencies after it is said to be fixed. Regression testing: To check for the added or new functionality's effect on the existing system 34. What are the different types of testing techniques? · · · White box Black box Gray Box

35. What are the different types of test case techniques?

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Test Case design techniques for Black box Testing. · Decision table · Equivalence Partitioning Method · Boundary Value Analysis · Cause Effect Graphing · State Transition Testing · Syntax Testing 36. What are the risks involved in testing? · · · Resource Risk (A. Human Resource B. Hardware resource C. Software resource) Technical risk Commercial Risk

37. Differentiate Test bed and Test Environment? Test bed holds only testing documents which supports testing which includes Test data, Data guidelines etc. Test environment includes all supportive elements namely hardware, software, tools, Browsers, Servers, etc., 38. What ifs the difference between defect, error, bug, failure, fault? Error: “Is an undesirable deviation from requirements?” Any problem or cause for many problems which stops the system to perform its functionality is referred as Error Bug: Any Missing functionality or any action that is performed by the system which is not supposed to be performed is a Bug. “Is an error found BEFORE the application goes into production?” Any of the following may be the reason for birth of Bug 1. Wrong functionality 2. Missing functionality 3. Extra or unwanted functionality Defect: A defect is a variance from the desired attribute of a system or application. “Is an error found AFTER the application goes into production?” Defect will be commonly categorized into two types: 1. Defect from product Specification 2. Variance from customer/user expectation. Failure: Any Expected action that is suppose to happen if not can be referred as failure or we can say Absence of expected response for any request. Fault: This generally referred in hardware terminologies. A Problem, which cause the system not to perform its task or objective. 39. What is the difference between quality and testing? “Quality is giving more cushions for user to use system with all its expected characteristics”It is usually said as Journey towards Excellence. Testing is an activity done to achieve the quality.

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What is the difference between verification and validation? Verification: The process of determining whether of not the products of a given phase of the software development cycle meets the implementation steps and can be traced to the incoming objectives established during the previous phase. In other words we can say Verification as “Are we building the Product Right” K. hardware. Hence ‘black box’ testing. “Is an error found AFTER the application goes into production?” Defect will be commonly categorized into two types: 1. What is the difference between bug and defect? Bug: Any Missing functionality or any action that is performed by the system which is not supposed to be performed is a Bug. What is the difference between Testing and debugging? Testing is done to find bugs Debugging is an art of fixing bugs. documentation and personnel) Validation: The process of evaluating software at the end of the software development process to ensure compliance with software requirements. The technique for validation is testing. In other words we can say Verification as “Are we Building the Right Product” A tester uses verification method to ensure the system complies with an organization standards and processes. Both are done to achieve the quality 43. The techniques for verification are testing. then specific source code features are irrelevant. relying on review or non executable methods (such as software. Muthuvel Page 105 of 127 . Wrong functionality 2. This is known as ‘white box’ testing because you see into the internal workings of the code. Defect from product Specification 2. It's a pragmatic and down-to-earth assessment of software. What is the difference between White & Black Box Testing? White box: Structural tests verify the structure of the software itself and require complete access to the object's source code. inspection and reviewing. What is the difference between Quality Assurance and Quality Control? QA: Study on Process followed in Project development QC: Study on Project for its Function and Specification 42. Variance from customer/user expectation 44.Software Testing – made easy 40. 41. If the program consistently provides the desired features with acceptable performance. inspection and reviewing. Black Box: Functional tests examine the observable behavior of software as evidenced by its outputs without reference to internal functions. Missing functionality 3. Extra or unwanted functionality Defect: A defect is a variance from the desired attribute of a system or application. “Is an error found BEFORE the application goes into production?” Any of the following may be the reason for birth of Bug 1.

Deliverable of integration testing is parts of system ready for testing with other portions of system. Stress is the combination of both volume and load. What is the difference between functional spec? And Business requirement Specification? Functional specification will be more technical. K. modules or units of code. 47. Integration Testing: Testing of related programs. Deliverable of the unit testing is software unit ready for testing with other system components. it is usually done by the developer of the unit. It holds properties of a field and functionality dependencies E.Software Testing – made easy Validation physically ensures that the system operates according to plan by Executing the system functions through series of tests that can be observed or evaluated. Type of data whether numeric or alphabets etc. Muthuvel Page 106 of 127 . 45.: size. Business Requirement Specification will be more business oriented which throws light more on needs or requirements 46. What is the difference between Volume & Load? Testing Type Data Increase Till saturation Point is reached Co User Load Constant Increase Till saturation Volume Point is reached 48. so need not to increase in volume alone even user can also increased objective here is to check the up to which extend it can bare the increasing load and volume. Validates that multiple parts of the system perform as per specification. module or program. What is the difference between unit testing and integration testing? Unit Testing Coding & Debugging Individual Unit Under Integration Testing Unit Testing: Testing of single unit of code. What is difference between Volume & Stress? Volume testing is increasing the volume of data to maximum withstand capacity of the system.g. It validates that the software performs as designed.

done to check its stability and functionality when goes online. Done Based on structures. Algorithms. What is the difference between walkthrough and inspection? Walkthrough: In a walk through session. What is the difference between alpha testing and beta testing? K. Muthuvel Page 107 of 127 . IST need integrated System of various Unit levels of independent functionality and checks its workability after integration and compares it before integration. but prior to Unit testing. A walk through is generally carried out without any plan or preparation. 51. There are three separate inspection performed. 54.Software Testing – made easy 49. Dynamic testing: Performed to the System that responds to any specific request. 56. What is the difference between Stress & Load Testing? Stress is the combination of both volume and load. this was not considered to be cost-effective in discovering errors. What is the Difference between SIT & IST? · · SIT can be done when system is on the process of integration. Load Testing is increasing number of user to maximum withstand capacity of the system. · Finally inspecting Unit testing. What is the difference between Client Server & Web Based Testing? Client server needs a Client server environment that is a system to Request and another to respond to its request. · Following implementation.. What is the Difference between Code Walkthrough & Code Review? Both are almost same except in one issue that is Walkthrough need not be done by people inside the team are who have more knowledge about the system. 55. Inspections: Design and code inspection was first described by FAGUN. they are · Following design. Review is highly recommended to be done by people of higher level in team or who have good knowledge about the application. logic. but prior to implementation. the aim of this review is to enhance the process carried out in production environment. What is the Difference between static and dynamic? · · Static testing: Testing performed with expecting any response for specific request placed at that time. the material being examined is presented by a reviewed and evaluated by a team of reviewers. What is the difference between Integration & System Testing? Integration testing 52. More than all that without executing the application this testing cannot be done. etc. Web Based testing normally goes with 3W sites testing. 53. 50. so need not to increase in volume alone even user can also increased objective here is to check the up to which extend it can bare the increasing load and volume.

What is database testing? The demonstrate the backend response for front end requests K. .Its mainly to verify whether cookies are being written correctly. Browsers. and validating the effectiveness of security measures. The purpose of security testing of these systems include identifying and removing software flaws that may potentially lead to security violations. Many critical software applications and services have integrated security measures against malicious attacks. Enough hardware and software support E. Importance of cookie testing: · To evaluate the performance of a web application · To assure the health of www application where more cookies are involved 61. It is also largely based on general software product functionality/testing understanding and the normal 'Human Common Sense'. What is Ad hoc testing? When it can be done? Appropriate and very often syndicated when tester wants to become familiar with the product. Originated in the hardware testing practice of turning on a new piece of hardware for the first time and considering it a success if it does not catch on fire. Servers. 60. What is Smoke Testing & when it will be done? A quick-and-dirty test that the major functions of a piece of software work without bothering with finer details. 62. Muthuvel Page 108 of 127 . What is cookie testing? Cookie is a text file normally written by web applications to store all your login-id. This can be performed even with non-availability of of Baseline documents. 59. password validation and details about your session. What are the Minimum requirements to start testing? · · · · Baseline Documents. What is security testing? · · To test how the system can defense itself from external attacks. or in the environment when technical/testing materials are not 100% completed.Software Testing – made easy Component Test data Test Environment To Achieve Tested by Supporting Document Used Alpha testing Simulated Controlled Functionality Only testers Functional Specification Beta testing Live Uncontrolled User needs Testers and Users Customer Requirement Specification End- 57. Simulated security attacks can be performed to find vulnerabilities. Stable application.g. Cookies will get stored in our machines (client). and Tools) Optimum maintenance of resource 58. How much it can with stand from breaking the system from performing its assigned task.

based on these things the testing scope should be decided. Data guidelines Preparation and test design which is finally executed 67. 63. Why do we prepare test condition. What is Web Based Application Testing? Web Based testing normally goes with 3W sites testing. How do you go about testing a project? · · · System study Understanding the application Test environment setup 66.Software Testing – made easy How backend. How do you go about testing of Web Application? K. what to be tested? The Scope of testing should be created based on the requirements or needs given by the end user or client. 71. test case & Test Script? No document prepared in any process is waste of time. which stores and retrieve back the data and supports the front end when in need is justified database testing.finally this execution is going to find the bugs to be fixed so we have prepare this documents. How do you determine. Testing is the way of achieving quality. test cases. Tells right from syntax to its functionality and dependencies Eg: for a password and user id fields It should accept <n>number of characters in<Type> of type of data and it gets input from <x> and gives output to <y>. That too test design documents which plays vital role in test execution can never be said waste of time as without which proper testing cannot be done. Muthuvel Page 109 of 127 . 64. Is it not waste of time in preparing the test condition. What is the use of Functional Specification? Functional Specification is a baseline document prepared in technical perspective. test data. What is the relation ship between Quality & Testing? Quality is a journey towards excellence. 65. done to check its stability and functionality when goes online. What is Client Server Application Testing? Client server needs a Client server environment that is a system to Request and another to respond to its request. Test process. says how the system should behave in ideal scenario. 69. 72. test script (Before Starting Testing)? These are test design document which are used to execute the actual testing Without which execution of testing is impossible . What is the Initial Stage of testing? Right from understanding the application testing starts with clarifying the ambiguities in the application and continues to Test initiation encloses. 70. 68.

what all can be tested? · · · · · Functions. 75. Can test condition. test case & test script help you in performing the static testing? Static testing will be done based on Functions. What is meant by Alpha Testing? K. Condition coverage. so hardly not needed to have These documents. 78. Conditions Loops Arrays Structures 77. Check the compatibility and verify the individual behavior and then to compare as client and server. the system that responds to request of user is tested by executing it is called dynamic testing 79. but Depends on the Application’s individual structure and behavior. Is the dynamic testing a functional testing? Yes. Program Logic. Can be done regardless of type of application. 74. Workability testing.front end server. 82. Is the Static testing a functional testing? Yes. loops.e. 81. can be tested.Software Testing – made easy To approach a web application testing. 76. Regardless of static or dynamic if applications functionality's is attacked keeping in mind to achieve the need then it will come under functional testing. What does dynamic testing mean? Any dynamic application i. arrays and structures. security server and back end server. In the Static Testing. Regression testing. How do you go about testing of Client Server Application? To approach a client server environment we can track back the data transfer. Code coverage etc. Can the static testing be done for both Web & Client Server Application? Yes. What is meant by Static Testing? Structure of a program. Regardless of static or dynamic if applications functionality's are attacked keeping in mind to achieve the need then it will come under functional testing.. 73. the first attack on the application should be on its performance behavior as that is very important for a web application and then transfer of data between web server . What is the functional testing you perform? I have done Conformance testing. Conditions. By keeping this also static testing can be done. 80. Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program. Function Validation and Field level validation testing. Muthuvel Page 110 of 127 .

which expresses all the functionality's of the application and other documents like user manual and BRS are also need for functional testing.g. 85. When will the Verification & Validation be done? Software How To use Development Verification Phases v Verify Requirements Completeness of gathering Requirements v Verify vendor capability. Who can perform the Unit Testing? Both developers and testers can perform this unit level testing 86. 83. At what stage the unit testing has to be done? After completing coding of individual functionality's unit testing can be done. What is meant by Beta Testing? User Acceptance testing which is done with the objective of achieving all users needs. Gap analysis document will add value to understand expected and existing system. Say for E. What kind of Document you need for going for a Functional testing? Functional specification is the ultimate document. In this testing usually users or testers will involve in performing.g.Software Testing – made easy Alpha testing is testing of product or system at developer’s site by the customer. if they have been developed individually then unit testing can be carried out before their integration is suppose to be done. 84. if Applicable v Verify completeness of project test plan How to Validation Not usable use Project Planning Not usable K. Muthuvel Page 111 of 127 . E.: if an application have 5 functionality's to work together.: a Product after completion given to customers for trail as Beta version and feedback from users and important suggestions which will add quality will be done before release.

Understanding the applications expected functionality's. What is the testing that a tester performs at the end of Unit Testing? Integration testing will be performed after unit testing to ensure that unit tested modules get integrated correctly. subsystem. When do you go for Integration Testing? When all Separate unit in Unit Level testing is assured to do good their performance. you prefer & Prepare before starting Testing? Study the application. to make sure the units work together. What is Incremental Integration Testing? Incremental Integration Testing is an approach of testing where we will integrate the modules top to bottom or on the incrementing scale of intensity. K. Verify contingency plan · · 86A. 89. especially with the top-down method.Software Testing – made easy · · · Validate Correctness of changes Validate Regression Validate meets user acceptance criteria Validate Supplier’s software Process correctly Validate Software interfaces · · Project Implementation Verify Correctness and completeness of Interim Deliverables. What are the things. 92. 90. as we must have certain knowledge of the units to recognize if we have been successful in fusing them together in the module. What is meant by System Testing? The system test phase begins once modules are integrated enough to perform tests in a whole system environment. Integration testing focuses on the interfaces between units. 87. 88. What is meant by SIT? System Integration Testing done after the completion of Unit level testing. What is Integration Testing? Integration testing exercises several units that have been combined to form a module. Ambiguity/Clarification Document and test design Documents. An application which is integrated together after assuring their individual functionality's. Preparing Test plan. 91. Then Application is recommended for integration after these unit getting integrated. Muthuvel Page 112 of 127 . System testing can occur in parallel with integration test. The nature of this phase is certainly 'white box'. or system. application can be performed integration testing.

Muthuvel Page 113 of 127 . What are stubs & drivers? Driver programs provide emerging low-level modules with simulated inputs and the necessary resources to function.If that was done for integration testing then it is top down model testing in Integration and vice versa for Bottom up model 96. the Testing Starts? It depends upon the Software Model which we follow. If we follow V model then testing can be started at the design phase itself. 95. UAT test cases can be written from URS/BRS and System test cases can be written from SRS. 99. The system as a whole can be tested only if all modules are integrated and all modules work correctly System testing should be done before UAT (User Acceptance testing) and Before Unit Testing. What is the Outcome of Integration Testing? At the completion of integration testing all the unit level functionalities or sub modules are integrated together and finally it should work as a system as whole as expected. Stubs simulate sub-programs or modules while testing higher-level routines. What is the Concept of Up-Down & Down-Up in Testing in integration testing? There is two approach in testing an application if the functionality sequence was mapped and tracked from top to bottom then it is called top down method . which use GUI support systems and standard such as MS Windows. What is meant by Back-End Testing? Database Testing is also called as back end testing checking whether database elements have been accessed by front end whenever required as desired. Drivers are important for bottom-up testing. 102. What are the features. 101. you take care in Prototype testing? Prototype testing is carrying out testing in same method reputedly to understand the system behavior.Software Testing – made easy 93. What is the final Stage of Integration Testing? All the individual units integrated together to Perform a task as a system or Part of the system as expected to do so. If we use Waterfall model then testing will comes in to picture only after coding is done. 98. 100. Where in the SDLC. where you have a complete low-level module. What is Mutation testing & when can it be done? K. 94. What is meant by GUI Testing? Testing the front-end user interfaces to applications. here full coverage of functionality should be taken care With the same process followed as for Prototype testing. 97. but nothing to test it with. Can the System testing be done at any stage? No.

Mutation testing injects faults into code to determine optimal test inputs 103. Since it is a fault-based testing technique. Operating Systems. K. Compatibility testing can be performed manually or can be driven by an automated functional or regression test suite. Mutation testing is based on two assumptions: the competent programmer hypothesis and the coupling effect. and satisfaction with which specified users could achieve specified goals in the Application. ultimately. namely simple syntactic changes to a program. It is a Process of Testing the effectiveness. The coupling effect stated that a set of test data that can uncover all simple faults in a program is also capable of detecting more complex faults. The competent programmer hypothesis assumes that competent programmers tend to write nearly "correct" programs. 105. 107. Testing is mainly done to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. When we prefer Regression & what are the stages where we go for Regression Testing? We Prefer regression testing to provide confidence that changes are correct & has not affected the flow or Functionality of an application which got Modified or bugs got fixed in it. Testing only demonstrates that the product performs each function intended & to show the product is free from defect. What is meant by regression Testing? Regression testing is an expensive but necessary activity performed on modified software to provide confidence that changes are correct and do not adversely affects other system components. All other skills that we deploy or cultivate aim to make usability (and. 104. Synonymous with "ease of use". What is the Importance of testing? Software Testing is more Oriented to detecting the defects or often equated to finding bugs. What is Compatibility Testing? Testing to ensure compatibility of an application with different browsers. it is necessary to do regression testing. Three of these things are bad. What is Usability Testing? Usability testing is a core skill because it is the principal means of finding out whether a system (see our definition below) meets its intended purpose. Muthuvel Page 114 of 127 . use) successful. 106. efficiency. and hardware platforms. Four things can happen when a developer attempts to fix a bug.Software Testing – made easy Mutation testing is a powerful fault-based testing technique for unit level testing. it is aimed at testing and uncovering some specific kinds of faults. and one is good: Change New Bug No New Bug Bug Successful Bad Good Change Unsuccessful Bad Bad Change Because of the high probability that one of the bad outcomes will result from a change to the system.

What is the Performance testing. Volume testing. peak. This sort of testing is particularly useful to identify performance bottlenecks in high use applications. · Safe attempt instead to select every test that will cause the modified program to produce different output than original program. Performance testing can be applied to understand your application or WWW site's scalability. it is only necessary to stress test again if major changes take place. & Volume are the types of testing which are been done automatically. by using the Automated Skills. or to benchmark the performance in an environment of third party products such as servers and middleware for potential purchase. Load testing. for identifying whether the application works fine.Software Testing – made easy Stages where we go for Regression Testing are: · Minimization approaches seek to satisfy structural coverage criteria by identifying a minimal set of tests that must be retested. but do not require minimization of the test set. Instead. keeping the Number of Users constantly & finding the Response time & the system With Standing Capability or varying the Load till saturation Point is reached Load Testing: -Testing the Application under Constant load. like any other large-scale system that requires multiple accesses and processing. Stress tests are most useful when systems are being scaled up to larger environments or being implemented for the first time. Unfortunately.Load. most stress testing can only simulate loads on various points of the system and cannot truly stress the entire network. they seek to select all tests that exercise changed or affected program components. contain vulnerable nodes that should be tested before deployment. 108. The following three types highly influence Performance of an application. Performance testing generally involves an automated test suite as this allows easy simulation of a variety of normal. Muthuvel Page 115 of 127 . Stress. as the users would experience it. Stress Testing Stress testing is the combination of both load and volume.Load. What is performance testing? An important phase of the system test. Stress & Load Testing? Volume testing: . and stress tests try to determine the failure point of a system under extreme pressure. volume or performance test. In other words. Web sites. What is Volume. Automated: . A drawback of performance testing is that can easily confirm that the system can handle heavy loads. those can be done Manually & Automatically? This sort of testing is particularly useful to identify performance bottlenecks in high use applications. keeping varying the Number of Users & there by finding the Response time & the system With Standing Capability or varying the Users till saturation Point is reached Stress Testing: . peak. Stress. Manually: . processing incorrect transactions at high speed can cause much more damage and liability than simply stopping or slowing the processing of correct transactions. 109. once stress and load factors have been successfully overcome.Testing the Application under varying loads. but cannot so easily determine if the system is producing the correct information.Testing the Application under varying loads. Fortunately. · Coverage approaches are also based on coverage criteria. Performance testing generally involves an automated test suite as this allows easy simulation of a variety of normal. often-called load. & Volume are the types of testing which are been done Manually. keeping varying the Number of Users simultaneously & there by finding the Response time & the system With Standing Capability or varying the Load & Users till saturation Point is reached K. and exceptional load conditions. 110. and exceptional load conditions.

(i. It mainly deals with. What is the Priority in fixing the Bugs? Priority: . the status will be made as closed or if the Defect still remains. what importance should be given to each bug by the Developer. by both Testers & Developers (But Mostly the Development team will take care of this). it is done again by the Development team. What is a Bug? Bug: .e. Muthuvel Page 116 of 127 . until all the bugs gets fixed in the application. What is a Defect? Defect: . it will be Re-raised again & even the new bugs with status Open will be sent to the Development team) The above-mentioned cycle flows on continuously. 115. 114. What is the defect Life Cycle? Test Team (Here the Defect status will be Open) Test Lead Authorize the bugs found (Here the Defect Status will be Open) Development Team reviewing the Defect (Here the Defect Status will be Open) The defect can be Authorized or Unauthorized by the development Team (Here the Status of the Defect will be Open (For Authorized Defects) & Reject (For Unauthorized Defects) · Development Team fixing the Defect (Here the authorized Bugs will get fixed or differed.) like the Critical bugs should be solved first & then the Major bugs can be taken care. Explain the Severity you rate for the bugs found? · · · · K.“Is an error found AFTER the application goes into production?” 113.The value will be given to the bugs.“Is an error found BEFORE the application goes into production?” 112.Software Testing – made easy Testing Type Data User Load Constant Increase Till saturation Point is reached Increase Till saturation Point is reached Increase Till saturation Point is reached Volume Constant Stress Increase Till saturation Point is reached 111. Here the Status after the Development team fixing the bugs will be (Fixed) & Status will be Differed for the bugs which got Differed) · The Fixed bugs will be again Re-tested by the Test Team (Here based on the Closure of the Bug.

What all are the requirements needed for UAT? · Business Requirement Document is the Documents required for performing the UAT Testing by the testers. by this time. Testing is done in User Style 4. you have a much better chance of a successful project User Acceptance testing is done to achieve the following:· User specified requirements have been satisfied · Functionality is doing as per supporting documents · Expected performance have been achieved · End user is comfortable to use the application. It is mostly done based on the nature of the defect found in the Application.When user is not able to proceed or system gets crashes & so that tester is not able to proceed further testing (These Bugs will be rated as Critical) E. K. Severity can be rated as Critical or major or Minor.g. Testing is done by the Real Users or some Third Party Testers IST: 1. What is meant by UAT? Traditionally. it is based on the Defect we find in the application. If you can perform every test as user acceptance tests.Mostly the FLV Bugs & some functional bugs (Related the value display etc. Done with the Live Data 3. this is where the users ‘get their first crack’ at the software. they are inevitably going to be unhappy with the result. been involved with the design. Muthuvel Page 117 of 127 . Difference between UAT & IST? UAT & IST UAT: 1. Testing in done in the Client Place 5. Eg: .When user tries to add an record & then tries to view the same record added & if the details getting displayed to the fields are not the same which the user provided as the value to the fields (These Type of Bugs will be rated as Major Bugs) E. Done Using BRD 2.: . 118.Software Testing – made easy · · · · Emergency High (Very High & high) Medium Low (Very Low & Low) Testers will rate severity. Done Using FS 2. Done with the Simulated Data 3. 116. Testing is done in a Controlled Way. Testing in done in Offsite 5. Unfortunately. If the users have not seen prototypes. Testing is done in the Testers Company 117.g.) will be rated as Minor. 4.: . it's usually too late. and understood the evolution of the system.

Transaction Time. 120.Which is capable of exploiting vulnerability in the security of a computer system or application. Threat: . all the Modules should be tested at least once after Integrating the Modules) 119. threats. What are the docs required for Performance Testing? Bench Mark is the Basic Document required for Performance Testing. How to do risk management? Identifying the Risk Involved in the project & finding Mitigation for the Risk Found will do risk Management. What is risk analysis? Risk Analysis is a series step that helps the Software or Testing Team to understand & manage Uncertainty. Virtual Memory in which the Application should work. What are test closure documents? · Test Conditions · Test Case · Test Plan · Test Strategy · Traceability Matrix · Defect Reports · Test Closure Document · Test Data (The Above Mentioned Deliverables are based on the deliverables accepted by the Testing Team & mentioned in the Test Strategy) 123. Commonly available tools like TEST DIRECTOR can also be employed K. or operations flaw that may be exploited by a threat? Control: -Control is anything that tends to cause the reduction of risk.Software Testing – made easy · Application should be Stable (Means. Vulnerability: -Is a design. What is Traceability matrix? Traceability Matrix: Through out the testing life cycle of the project Traceability matrix has been maintained to ensure the Verification & Validation of the testing is complete. Data Transfer Time. 124. Where the documents contains in detail about the Response Time. What ways can be followed for defect management? · · · Reporting the Bugs through the Defect Report (Excel Template) Any in-house tool inbuilt in the company may also be used. 122. controls. Risk Mitigation will be a solution for the Risk Identified. 121. & vulnerabilities. Muthuvel Page 118 of 127 . It is a process of evaluating risks. implementation.

managers. customers. K. product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection).Software Testing – made easy 17. Static Testing Techniques “Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program. or other interested parties for comment or approval. “ Inspection A group review quality improvement process for written material. Glossary Testing “The process of exercising software to verify that it satisfies specified requirements and to detect errors “ Quality Assurance “A planned and systematic pattern for all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that the item or product conforms to established technical requirements” Quality Control “QC is a process by which product quality is compared with applicable standards.” Validation Determination of the correctness of the products of software development with respect to the user needs and requirements. It consists of two aspects. Walkthrough “A review of requirements. and the action taken when nonconformance is detected. users. Muthuvel Page 119 of 127 . is presented to project personnel.” Verification “The process of evaluating a system or component to determine whether the products of the given development phase satisfy the conditions imposed at the start of that phase.Definition Review is a process or meeting during which a work product or set of work products. designs or code characterized by the author of the material under review guiding the progression of the review.” Review .

” Equivalence partition testing: Equivalence partition testing: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes. Boundary value analysis: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed which include representatives of boundary values. K.Software Testing – made easy Dynamic Testing Techniques “The process of evaluating a system or component based upon its behaviour during execution. Muthuvel Page 120 of 127 . Boundary Value Analysis Boundary value: An input value or output value which is on the boundary between equivalence classes. or an incremental distance either side of the boundary.” Statement Coverage: “A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute statements. “ Black Box Testing: “Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the specification of the component without reference to its internal workings. Cause and Effect Graphs “A graphical representation of inputs or stimuli (causes) with their associated outputs (effects).” Branch Testing: Branch Testing: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute branch outcomes. which can be used to design test cases” White-Box Testing: “Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component. Equivalence class: A portion of the component's input or output domains for which the component's behaviour is assumed to be the same from the component's specification.

Path testing: A test case design technique in which test cases are designed to execute paths of a component. a transfer of control to an entry point of the component. The process is repeated until the lowest level components has been tested. or an unconditional transfer of control from any statement to any other statement in the component except the next statement.” Integration Testing “Testing performed to expose faults in the interfaces and in the interaction between integrated components” Incremental Integration Testing “Integration testing where system components are integrated into the system one at a time until the entire system is integrated” Top Down Integration “An approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first.” Unit Testing “The testing of individual software components. Data Flow-Based Testing: “Testing in which test cases are designed based on variable usage within the code.” K. with lower level components being simulated by stubs. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. from an entry point to an exit point.” Bottom up Integration “An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first. or when a component has more than one entry point.Software Testing – made easy Branch : A conditional transfer of control from any statement to any other statement in a component. Muthuvel Page 121 of 127 . The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested. Path Testing Path: A sequence of executable statements of a component.

Big Bang Integration “Integration testing where no incremental testing takes place prior to all the system's components being combined to form the system. usability. System Testing “System testing is the process of testing an integrated system to verify that it meets specified requirements". etc.Software Testing – made easy Stubs: Stubs are program units that are stand-ins² for the other (more complex) program units that are directly referenced by the unit being tested. “ Recovery testing “Testing aimed at verifying the system's ability to recover from varying degrees of failure.” Validation Testing Validation testing aims to demonstrate that the software functions in a manner that can be reasonably expected by the customer. tests that exercise specific functions or probe the non-functional constraints such as performance or security)” Business-Process based Non-Functional Testing Testing of those requirements that do not relate to functionality. performance. Drivers: Drivers are programs or tools that allow a tester to exercise/examine in a controlling manner the unit of software being tested. and has necessary detail to support maintenance.g. I.. catalogued.e.” K. Configuration review An audit to ensure that all elements of the software configuration are properly developed. Requirement based Testing “Designing tests based on objectives derived from requirements for the software component (e. Muthuvel Page 122 of 127 .

” Performance testing “Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements.” Stress testing “Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements.” Alpha and Beta testing “Alpha testing: Simulated or actual operational testing at an in-house site not otherwise involved with the software developers.” User Acceptance Testing “Acceptance testing: Formal testing conducted to enable a user. K. so that you can predict how an application will work under different user loads and determine the maximum number of concurrent users accessing the site at the same time. Muthuvel Page 123 of 127 .” Ad-hoc Testing “Testing carried out using no recognised test case design technique.” Load Testing Load Testing involves stress testing applications under real-world conditions to predict system behavior and performance and to identify and isolate problems. Load testing applications can emulate the workload of hundreds or even thousands of users. or other authorized entity to determine whether to accept a system or component” Regression Testing and Re-testing “Retesting of a previously tested program following modification to ensure that faults have not been introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes made.Software Testing – made easy Security testing “Testing whether the system meets its specified security objectives. customer.” “Beta testing: Operational testing at a site not otherwise involved with the software developers.

and estimating the number of faults remaining in the program. Functional Specification “The document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended capability. Error Guessing “A test case design technique where the experience of the tester is used to postulate what faults might occur.” K. “ Usability Testing “Testing the ease with which users can learn and use a product. Muthuvel Page 124 of 127 . System Specification The System Specification document is a combination of Functional specification and design specification. “ Error Seeding “The process of intentionally adding known faults to those already in a computer program for the purpose of monitoring the rate of detection and removal. table structures and program specifications.Software Testing – made easy Stress and Volume Testing “Stress Testing: Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements. and to design tests specifically to expose them.” Design Specification The Design Specification document is prepared based on the functional specification.” Environmental Testing These tests check the system’s ability to perform at the installation site. It contains the system architecture. Business Requirement It describes user’s needs for the application.” “Volume Testing: Testing where the system is subjected to large volumes of data.

such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement.Software Testing – made easy Test Plan A record of the test planning process detailing the degree of tester indedendence.Round III This is final round in the test process. Muthuvel Page 125 of 127 .e. UAT or production as the case may be under an isolated environment. and schedule of intended testing activities.Round II All the test cases that have resulted in a defect during the comprehensive pass should be executed.BS “A document describing the scope. In other words.” . the test environment. and the rationale for their choice. the test case design techniques and test measurement techniques to be used. resources.IEEE Test Case “A set of inputs. This type of testing is called as Regression testing. Discrepancy Testing . Sanity Testing . . the testing tasks. hence they will be covered comprehensively in the next pass. This is done in order to check if the system is sane enough for the next stage i. approach. The testing here should not only cover all the test cases but also business cycles as defined in the application. This is done either at the client's site or at Maveric depending on the strategy adopted. who will do each task. all defects that have been fixed should be retested. and any risks requiring contingency planning.Round I All the test scripts developed for testing are executed. Defects that are not fixed will be executed only after they are fixed. Ideally the defects that are fixed from the previous phases are checked and freedom testing done to ensure integrity is conducted.” Comprehensive Testing . K. and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective. Function points that may be affected by the defect should also be taken up for testing. Some cases the application may not have certain module(s) ready for test. the features to be tested. It identifies test items. execution preconditions.

it stops the user from using the system further Major A Defect where a functionality/data is affected significantly but not cause a showstopping condition or a block in the test process cycles. “ “Failure: Deviation of the software from its expected delivery or service. Muthuvel Page 126 of 127 . or it may be a show stopper – that is. Minor A Defect which is isolated or does not stop the user from proceeding. A fault. Medium. K. if encountered may cause a failure.Software Testing – made easy Defect – Definition “Error: A human action that produces an incorrect result. “ Defects Classification Showstopper A Defect which may be very critical in terms of affecting the schedule. Cosmetic Errors would also feature in this category Severity: How much the Bug found is supposed to affect the systems Function/Performance. but causes inconvenience. Usually we divide as Emergency. High. “ “A deviation from expectation that is to be tracked and resolved is termed as a defect. and Low. Priority: Which Bug should be solved fist in order of benefit of system’s health? Normally it starts from Emergency giving first Priority to Low as last Priority. “ “Fault: A manifestation of an error in software.

Any test script should say how to drive or swim through out the application even for a new user. Data and Expected Results required to execute the test case(s). and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under test including stubs and test drivers. K. Test environment A description of the hardware and software environment in which the tests will be run. The Document.Software Testing – made easy Test Bed Before Starting the Actual testing the elements which supports the testing activity such as Test data. It includes all data parameters that are required to test the conditions derived from the requirement / specification. Instructions. which supports in preparing test data are called Data guidelines Test script A Test Script contains the Navigation Steps. Test data The value which are given at expected places(fields) in a system to verify its functionality have been made ready in a piece of document called test data. Data Guidelines Data Guidelines are used to specify the data required to populate the test bed and prepare test scripts. Muthuvel Page 127 of 127 . Traceability Matrix Through out the testing life cycle of the project Traceability matrix has been maintained to ensure the Verification & Validation of the testing is complete. Data guide lines. Are collectively called as test Bed.

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