Software Testing – made easy

Software Testing
- made easy

Prepared By

K. Muthuvel, B.Com.,M.C.A.
E.P.G.D.S.T * (Software Testing)

K. Muthuvel

Page 1 of 127

Software Testing – made easy

History
Version 1.0 Description / Changes Baseline version Author K. Muthuvel Approver Effective Date 10th Aug.'2005

For “Maveric Systems” Internal Use Only No part of this volume may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying and recording or by any information storage or retrieval system except as may be expressly permitted.

K. Muthuvel

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Software Testing – made easy

This book is dedicated to

Lord Vignesh

K. Muthuvel

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...17 4........................................................................................................3.. 9 2.........11 3..................................... 20 5...............................1................................. 19 5... 9 1..2..2........ 10 2............................Benefits of Testing.....2........................................................2.......................... 10 2........1.......................2.....5................................1............................... 11 3................4............................. 19 5.........................3...................1...........Types of Reviews........................................2...........................19 5.....................18 4..3.........................Level 1: Initial...............3...........................................Definition.....Verification.........................................2. 16 4......................................Activities performed during review............ 9 1............................................................Testing Standards............................................................2..............................1.Informal Review.......ANSI / IEEE Standards........................................5............Level 2: Phase Definition..................................13 3....................2.............. 12 3.......19 5..........Quality Control.......................................Testing Fundamentals............................ 16 4.................................... 18 5.......1..............2........Review ......1...1..........Need to use SW-TMM..........1.........................2................................................. 13 3.................W-Model..........Dynamic Testing Techniques.........................................................................SW-TMM Assessment Process.......................4.........4.......................................Objective......................................................10 2.......................... 10 2........1.........2.2......Review of the Specification / Planning and Preparing System Test........20 5.....................................ISO : International Organisation for Standardisation.......................................................2..............................Quality Assurance.................................2..................................................5............. 9 1................................................................................3.....4.............................14 4....3................SW – CMM:..............SW-TMM Summary........................................................................................Quality Assurance......................................1..................SIGIST................................... 16 4.........................Spiral Model............ 17 4...................... 11 3.. 21 5..................................................SDLC & STLC..........Walkthrough...................................4......2............................................................................Levels of SW –TMM......................................11 3...............Level 4: Management and Measurement......Testing Techniques........... 16 4...............1...................1.............10 3.....16 4......SW – TMM.....................................18 4....................2...2.............15 4.................................BCS ..................................................Static Testing Techniques......... 16 4................................2...............................................STLC – Software Testing Life Cycle ....Definition...Roles and Responsibilities...........Inspection........................Validation.....15 4.................1...................Waterfall Model........................................Technical Review...................................................................................................2.... 22 5...........................................2.... Quality Control.......................Extreme Programming Model..........................................1.............5................................................................1............................................................................... 19 5...Level 5: Optimization / Defect Prevention and Quality Control...... Muthuvel Page 4 of 127 ....................2......................................... Verification & Validation.......23 K...........................4.3..............................................1...............................1................................................................1............17 4...Level 3: Integration. 19 5.............3......................................................2..Models of SDLC & STLC................................1...................................4...................1.......................................................................................................1.......................................2......................................Software Testing – made easy Table of Contents 1......1....................2.......2..................... 20 5...........2........................ 16 4.........V-Model.........1.........2.

................3...................46 7..............42 7....................... 41 7....................3............ 39 7....1...........................................2................................... 33 6......................3...................2...........Stress testing.... 28 5.1...........2.......35 6................... 34 6.............Equivalence Class Partitioning.........................................2....................................................3...........................Software Testing – made easy 5...2.........Big Bang Integration... Muthuvel Page 5 of 127 .Performance testing.....32 5........................................................................2.......1..................2............................................................Pre-requisites...............................Stub and Drivers...........Quality Assurance Vs Quality Control..........2.................2......................... 47 K.........................................................2.................... 35 6..Condition Coverage:...........................................................2...............................2......System Testing............................25 5.3.............................................................................................43 7...............................White-Box Testing:......................IST & UAT.Functional Testing................ 38 7................2.............1....2.................................................................................6............................2..............36 7......2..................................................................... 42 7. 42 7.....Boundary Value Analysis. 33 6..............1...............2........2. 34 6.........8......2......................... 45 7....................................................Benefits of Unit Testing.........2....2...........................................2...........4.....1............................3..........5..................2.....3...............................36 7............................................3..................................27 5.......................44 7...1.......... 42 7.....1.....................................Difference Tables................2...............................................Alpha and Beta testing........... 44 7..........................................................Business-Process based Non-Functional Testing............................2..................................Incremental Integration Testing...1.................... 26 5................. 40 7.......................................2...................Re-testing and Regression Testing............2......................................2.......36 7...................................................Quality Vs Testing..3...........3........................................................................................1....................................2....................3.......Integration Testing....4........................45 7......................................Branch Coverage:.....................................2.................2..................1............................................................................2............... Alpha Testing & Beta Testing.......Validation Testing....... 32 6...............................1.......6..1.....3.....................2..........2................................3.............................. 29 5............31 5...........................................4.............................2..........Test Bed and Test Environment ..............Bottom up Integration...........................................................................2.............1.....................................................Non-Incremental Testing... 24 5.........1................................2...................Path Coverage:....... 27 5.............. 39 7................Mutation Testing:..........2.........Grey Box Testing.............................................7...........4.................Comparison Testing..........Statement Coverage:................. 23 5.......1....................................................... 34 6..............35 6.......Top Down Integration.............3............2............ 43 7......................................................................................2... 36 7...2..................Data Flow-Based Testing:.......................................................1...........................Unit Testing.........Recovery testing........1..................................................1.............................................................................Testing Vs Debugging........................SIT & IST........... 33 6...........Configuration review....9............1............10................................................................................................................................................ 33 6.......User Acceptance Testing..................... 42 7..............3............24 5...............Security testing................1............Levels of Testing.............Black Box Testing: ...........................Verification & Validation.................................................Requirement based Testing.4............................3.....2............5...1..............2.Black Box Testing & White Box Testing................2...........35 7............................................ 46 7........28 5...................Cause and Effect Graphs...3...2.................

............................................Tools used in Regression testing ............1................................................... 49 8...1.........................................51 9....Pilot Testing...................2......................................Test Plan Identifier.......................................................................7................................Ad-hoc Testing................................Regression Testing and Re-testing......................................4..Choosing Testing Techniques.........Traceability ................. 54 10................4....................................................................................................... 49 8.......................................................3................. 56 10................................................6....................5......1..................8...54 10....7....................................2...........49 8...........3...........Load Testing............................................................3.......................................................................................................1...................1.... 54 10..............................................................................5............Test Associate...........................................1......................................1...................56 10....47 7.......................Test Engineer....7.........Suspension Criteria and Resumption Requirements.............Usability Testing.......4.56 10..................................................Exit Criteria.............Compliance Testing.........................................1...........................Entry Criteria.....................................................................4..........................................................................2...........Roles & Responsibilities..................55 10.....................2............................ 50 8......Database Testing...Business Requirement............................................................................................... 54 10...........47 7............... 49 8...............System Specification..........3.......Test Preparation & Design Process...................5.........56 10.Parallel Testing........................................................Environmental Testing...............................................54 10...................................Stress and Volume Testing.....................53 10.... 50 8.........2..........Test Lead..................1........12................................................Item Pass/Fail Criteria..............5.....................1.......Gap Analysis..............5....7..............52 9....................................................10.........................................Configuration Testing........ 51 8............................... 49 8.........Functional Specification....55 10..........Design Specification..........................................................................................Test Manager.................................3...................... 57 10..................................................6............................................54 10...Test Items.....Features Not to Be Tested............. 50 8....................................7......Intersystem Testing / Interface Testing...............Automated Testing..............57 10.............................5..............................................48 8........................50 8...............................................................13.........................................................................................................................................................Error Guessing...57 10...................57 10...........48 7.......................... 51 8......................................................Introduction............................... 52 9...............1...........2......Factors favour Automation of Regression Testing...... 54 10......FS and Test conditions...54 10....Baseline Documents................................2.........................................................................................................................56 10..........................................................................8...........Features to be Tested.................................................................................... 51 8...................................................7.................................................................................................................................................................... 55 10................................................... Muthuvel Page 6 of 127 ....... 48 7.....4..........2............Approach.............Software Testing – made easy 7..........................................Test Plan..........Senior Test Engineer..............BR and FS........Types of Testing.7.......... 56 10...Error Seeding.........57 K....53 9............................................2..........................................................................7......................11..................................................................4.....................7.................................6..............50 8......................................................................................................52 9...........................................2..........4............................5..1...9.....7...............................................................7...............................................................................................Manual support Testing............. 52 9............................................

....................................7.....................8......... 59 10..........................1....... 63 11..........61 10.......Tools Used..........TestDirector (TD):...........................Defect Management...... 59 10.....................................................................2.......Data Definition .............................................4.......................Round I..................................Stages of Testing: ................................................ 65 12........................................................... 59 10...7......2...................64 11.....................................Expected Results.....Defect Life Cycle.........................................................................................Data definition......................................................3.....4............................................................4.....................7.............................3......................................................................Requirements ............................................. 69 13............ 61 10..................2........................................... 69 13.........................8......10............................58 10....................1..........1........................................16..........ClearQuest (CQ)...................Discrepancy Testing ................2....1................1........Types of Defects..............................................3..............................................................Environmental Needs....Risks and Contingencies............9................................69 13......................Test Closure Process............................................................................Testing Tasks.......Defect Tracker................ 64 11......................................................9.................2................................2....................7..........63 11.......................Test Deliverables............................Staffing and Training Needs...................1........3.......Approvals...............Round III..............................Comprehensive Testing ...................Defect age: ..............................................11...............Defect – Definition...........Multiple Expected Result.....8...... 67 12.............................................................. 64 11................ 61 10................................................................3.................................. 63 11..... 58 10................... 66 12..................................................................................15...........4......... 66 12...................... 64 11......................................................Test Case...........1............... 62 11.......5........1...Software Testing – made easy 10................8........................................12.............. Muthuvel Page 7 of 127 .......................................................Authorities........... 67 12.........................................................................4............................. 58 10........................2............Responsibilities.......................Defect Analysis: .....................69 13......Defect Metrics............... 66 12...Pre-requirements..........................13...................................................................2.........................................................2.........High Level Test Conditions / Scenario........................... 68 13.............................................................Round II...........................1..............59 10...........................................Sign Off.....................Interfaces for the application........3........................................9...........................................Single Expected Result..........................61 10..........................64 12..................................... 58 10.............1..................Sanity Testing ..................1............................. 63 11........................1............................................................. 66 12.....3...........1......Defects Publishing.....14...........Schedule...................................................................................................Defects Meetings......................................1......................................................................................Defect Reporting .....................................Deliverables..9...........................................................Unit testing sign off........ 69 K.....3................Test Execution Process.............7.................Feeds Analysis.....................4.........................9....................7........................................Version Identification Values...................................9.............................2................... 60 10..........Processing logic......7........ 62 10....7.............63 11......................................2......................Metrics............69 13................................ 69 13......................................2.....1......................................9...... 59 10.... 57 10.........4.... 69 13...........2.............................................Pre... 65 12.......................................................................4......................67 12.............................6.........Test Case Allocation.................................................................... 58 10....4.....................67 12.........7................................................................................1....

..................5.........Final Test Report............................................................................Defect Management Process............................................................................Test Planning Phase........... 89 15.........................Test condition / Test Case Document................. 88 15................................Test Execution & Defect Management Phase........5..............................Testing Process / Methodology.................................. 94 16........................9..................Defect Report..........................12..................................................88 15............................88 15..................5....................75 15.................................................................5.................Clarification Document...Test Design Phase...................................................Test Closure Phase..............Test Initiation Phase..................4..... 93 15....Minutes of Meeting.....Weekly Status Report...5........................................................................................................................................73 15............. 71 14.......................73 15...5....95 16............................................. 81 15....4......... 92 15..........................2....................... 119 K........... 82 15............5.........................................3.............15..........Test Environment Request...........................4.....................11.....Test Script Document.................... 79 15................5...................................71 14...4...............................................................................4........5...................Traceability Matrix.....85 15.......................74 15...........................Configuration Management and Quality Plan...................... 78 15.. 73 15........................................Test Initiation Phase..................2.............................................Maveric Systems Limited......................................................4...............E........................4.........6.............5. 71 14........................................2............................................Project De-brief Form........................5............................. 99 17.................................. Muthuvel Page 8 of 127 ..Test Design Phase..........................5........................2.....4..91 15......................14............Software Testing – made easy 13.....................4...........Top Level Project Checklist...........70 13.........Execution and Defect Management Phase.......................Final Test Checklist.........................4...........Daily Status Report............................Test Management Metrics............79 15............... 82 15...13..........................Testing Activities & Deliverables....94 15................1................................Risk Analysis Document..........................5......86 15....Test Strategy Document...............71 14...................................................................4....1...................86 15..................................................................................................5............5.......16...............................................................................................................5.........................................................................................................7..............................................................................................................1........................Debriefs With Test Team..Test Closure Phase........................................................4.....................4...................................Q & A...................................2.......5..............8.......1....................................... 72 15....................General.......................................Quality Policy.....1........................................................17....... 89 15....................................Overview..................Test Deliverables Template..5....................4.................1....5...5.............. 79 15....3...Project Details Form...............3.5...........................2......4........73 15......................................................Test Planning Phase...................................................... – Interview ........70 14...............Leadership Team..................3................................................... 95 16......................72 14...........................5........................................................................................ 76 15.................G................Test Execution Process................................................................10.......4..............................Glossary...........84 15........... 87 15............. 88 15...

Testing is the measurement of software quality.Benefits of Testing · · · · · · Increase accountability and Control Cost reduction Time reduction Defect reduction Increase productivity of the Software developers Quantitative Management of Software delivery K. whose removal increases the software quality by increasing the software’s potential reliability. reliability. Testing Fundamentals 1. The objective is to design tests that systematically uncover different classes of errors and do so with a minimum amount of time and effort.Software Testing – made easy 1. Demonstrating that the software application appears to be working as required by the specification Meeting performance requirements.3.1.Definition “The process of exercising software to verify that it satisfies specified requirements and to detect errors “ …BS7925-1 “Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors” …Glen Myers Testing identifies faults. We measure how closely we have achieved quality by testing the relevant factors such as correctness. A good test is one that has a high probability of finding an as-yet-undiscovered error. maintainability. usability. A successful test is one that uncovers an as-yet-undiscovered error. thus adding value to the entire process.Objective · · · · · · · · Testing is a process of executing a program with intent of finding an error.2. Muthuvel Page 9 of 127 . Testing should also aim at suggesting changes or modifications if required. ` 1. Software reliability and software quality based on the data collected during testing 1. reusability and testability.

… BS7925-1 Difference Table: Quality Analysis Study on Process followed in Project development Verification Process of determining whether output of one phase of development conforms to its previous phase Verification is concerned containment of errors with phase Quality Control Study on Project for its Function and Specification Validation Process of determining whether a fully developed system conforms to its SRS document Validation is concerned about the final product to be error free K. In order to achieve this purpose. processes are monitored and performance problems are solved. and the action taken when nonconformance is detected.4.2. Muthuvel Page 10 of 127 .Quality Control “QC is a process by which product quality is compared with applicable standards.Verification “The process of evaluating a system or component to determine whether the products of the given development phase satisfy the conditions imposed at the start of that phase.” 2. Quality Assurance.” … [IEEE] 2.” “Quality Control is defined as a set of activities or techniques whose purpose is to ensure that all quality requirements are being met.Software Testing – made easy 2.1.Validation Determination of the correctness of the products of software development with respect to the user needs and requirements. Verification & Validation 2.3.Quality Assurance “A planned and systematic pattern for all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that the item or product conforms to established technical requirements” 2. Quality Control.

One thing which all models have in common is that at some point in the life cycle. Preparation of Test Metrics for Continuous Process Improvement.1. The design has Integration Testing (IT) and the System Integration Testing (SIT) and so on. i.2.STLC – Software Testing Life Cycle · · · · · · · Preparation of Testing Project Plan which includes Test Strategy. Muthuvel Page 11 of 127 .2. 3. Defect Tracking with any bug tracking tools..Software Testing – made easy 3. The Requirement Analysis would correspondingly have an acceptance testing activity at the end. Preparation of Test Completion Report and Test Incident Report. K. SDLC & STLC 3. with particular emphasis on the testing activities in each model. This paper outlines some of the more commonly used software development life cycle. Every phase of the STLC in this model corresponds to some activity in the SDLC.1. 3.: Setting up the Test Environment Executing the Test Scripts (Automated as well as Manual Tests).Models of SDLC & STLC There are a number of different models for software development life cycle. Preparation of Testing Bed.e. software has to be tested. Preparation of Test Scripts which contains Test Scenarios.V-Model The figure shows the brief description of the V-Model kind of testing.

2. It encapsulates the steps in Verification and Validation phases for each step in the SDLC. test cases. but it fails to address how to start for all these test levels in parallel to development. high quality testing with greater efficiency. the W-model is presented. and at last he will go for business scenarios where he can validate by the customer and he can do the alpha testing and beta testing.2. reflect development input for the corresponding testing activities. Muthuvel Page 12 of 127 . Also it reduces time since the test plans. both the Development activity and the testing activities start almost at the same time with the same information in their hands. This is based on the general V-model and the disadvantages previously mentioned are removed. test strategy are prepared during the development stage itself. K.W-Model From the view of testing. For each phase. The development team will apply "do-procedures" to achieve the goals and the testing team will apply "Check-procedures" to verify that. debug and change tasks during the test phase is not clear In the following.Software Testing – made easy · · V model is model in which testing is done parallel with development. Its a parallel process and finally arrives to the product with almost no bugs or errors V-model is one of the SDLC STLC. after that he will verify for system is according to the requirements or not. it includes testing from the unit level to business level. That is after completing the coding tester starts testing the code by keeping the design phase documents that all the modules had been integrated or not. It is a parallel activity which would give the tester the domain knowledge and perform more value added. · · · 3. The V model shows the Development Cycle Stages and Maps it to Testing Cycles. And at last he decides to have the complete stable product. all of the models presented previously are deficient in various ways. The test activities first start after the implementation: · The connection between the various test stages and the basis for the test is not clear · The tight link between test. the subsequent phase becomes the verification (QA) phase and the corresponding testing phase in the other arm of the V becomes the validating (Testing) phase In the Software Development Life Cycle. V model is the classic software development model. Left side of v model.

A return in the development process was only possible to an immediate previous phase. In this model. the expense of the removal of faults and defects found is only recognizable through a return to the implementation phase.e.Software Testing – made easy 3. 3. as the last activity before release.2.Waterfall Model One of the first models for software development is the so-called waterfall-model by B.W. In the waterfall-model. in practice. By this model it was suggested that activities for testing could first be started after the implementation.4. could be relatively easily shortened or omitted altogether.Boehm. is unfortunately all too common. A further disadvantage is that testing. Muthuvel Page 13 of 127 . In this it was set out that each of the activities in the software development must be completed before the next phase begins. testing directly follows the implementation.Extreme Programming Model K. activities that were defined here are to be found in nearly all models proposed since.2. The individual phases i. This. Preparatory tasks for the testing were not clear.3.

validation of requirements and of the development) and the test phase was divided into stages. The test activities included module.Software Testing – made easy 3. integration and acceptance tests. The exception to this is that the test plan should be constructed after the design of the system. The spiral model also identifies no activities associated with the removal of defects K. However.5. Tests were explicitly mentioned (risk analysis. Muthuvel Page 14 of 127 .2.Spiral Model In the spiral-model a cyclical and prototyping view of software development was shown. in this model the testing also follows the coding.

On the other hand. Testing Standards Testing of software is defined very differently by different people and different corporations. these are more there to guide the process and not the testing. The same thing pretty much applies with ISO. IEEE. Maturity implies a potential growth in capability and indicates both the richness of an organization’s software process and the consistency with which it is applied in projects throughout the organization The five levels of SW. speak to testing.Software Testing – made easy 4. those IEEE templates tell you nothing about actually testing the product itself. etc. by proxy.SW – CMM: SEI .Capability Maturity Model SPICE. test plans. CMM . managed.Capability Maturity Model Software Process A software process can be defined as a set of activities. etc. So. methods." You also have other process and project oriented concepts out there like the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) Some of the organization that define testing standards are · · · · · · BS – British Standards ISO. SPICE. You have process standards bodies.) and some of that will. embedded systems.CMM Level 1: Initial Level 2: Repeatable Level 3: Managed Level 4: Defined Level 5: Optimum K. software. practices. and transformations that people use to develop and maintain software and the associated products Software Process Capability Software Process Capability describes the range of expected results that can be achieved by following a software process.Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination NIST-National institute of Standards and Technology DoD-Department of Defense 4. controlled. and effective. like IEEE. like ISO.International Organization of Standards CMM.1. ISO is the standard for international projects and yet it. However. They basically just show you how to document that you are testing the product. that attempt to impose a process to whatever types of development projects you do (be it hardware. measured. Carnegie Mellon University.The software process capability of an organization provides one means of predicting the most likely outcomes to be expected from the next software project the organization undertakes.Software Engineering Institute. That may help you out. Muthuvel Page 15 of 127 . IEEE will give you ideas for templates for such things as test case specifications. such as it is. etc. Software Process Maturity Software Process Maturity is the extent to which a specific process is explicitly defined. does not really force or even advocate a certain "testing standard. for example.

Level 1: Initial · · · A chaotic process Not distinguished from debugging and ill defined The tests are developed ad hoc after coding is complete Usually lack a trained professional testing staff and testing tools The objective of testing is to show that the system and software work · · 4.2.Software Testing – made easy 4.1.Level 2: Phase Definition · · · · Identify testing as a separate function from debugging Testing becomes a defined phase following coding Standardize their process to the point where basic testing techniques and methods are in place The objective of testing is to show that the system and software meets specifications 4.3. Muthuvel Page 16 of 127 .Level 3: Integration · · · · · · · · Integrate testing into the entire life cycle Establish a formal testing organization establishes formal testing technical trainings controls and monitors the testing process begins to consider using automated test tools The objective of testing is based on system requirements Major milestone reached at this level: management recognizes testing as a professional activity 4.Level 4: Management and Measurement · · · · Testing is a measured and quantified process Development products are now tested for quality attributes such as Reliability. Test cases are collected and recorded in a test database for reuse and regression testing Defects found during testing are now logged.1.1. and assigned a priority for correction 4.2.SW – TMM SW-TMM is a testing process improvement tool that can be used either in conjunction with the SW-CMM or as a stand-alone tool.2. given a severity level.Levels of SW –TMM 4.5.1.1.2.2.1.2.2. Usability and Maintainability. 4.1.Level 5: Optimization / Defect Prevention and Quality Control · Testing is institutionalized within the organization K.2.4.

questionnaire) training and briefing Conduct the assessment Document the findings Analyze the findings Develop the action plan Write the final report Implement the improvements best to implement the improvements either in a pilot project or in phases track progress and achievements prior to expanding organization wide also good in a limited application easier to fine-tune the new process prior to expanded implementation 4.SW-TMM Assessment Process · · · · · · · · · · Prepare for the assessment choose team leader and members choose evaluation tools (e.4.g.Need to use SW-TMM · · · · · · · easy to understand and use provide a methodology to baseline the current test process maturity designed to guide organization selecting process improvement strategies identifying critical issues to test process maturity provide a road map for continuous test process improvement provide a method for measuring progress allow organizations to perform their own assessment · · Organizations that are using SW-CMM · · SW-TMM fulfills the design objective of being an excellent companion to SW-CMM SW-TMM is just another assessment tool and easily incorporated into the software process assessment Organizations that are not using SW-CMM · · · provide an unbiased assessment of the current testing process provide a road map for incremental improvements save testing cost as the testing process moves up the maturity levels 4.Software Testing – made easy · · · · Testing process is well defined and managed Testing costs and effectiveness are monitored Automated tools are a primary part of the testing process There is an established procedure for selecting and evaluating testing tools 4.3.2. Muthuvel Page 17 of 127 .2.2.2.SW-TMM Summary · baseline the current testing process level of maturity K.

1058. 1058-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Project Management Plans 14.1 IEEE Standard for Software Quality Metrics Methodology. 1012a-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Verification and validation – Supplement to 1012-1998 Content 9. 730-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance plans 3. 1016-1998.ANSI / IEEE Standards ANSI .3 was circulated in July 1992 (it contained only the main clauses) to about 20 reviewers outside of the subgroup. 1008-1987(R1993) IEEE Standard for Software Unit Testing 7. 1028-1997 IEEE Standard for Software Reviews 11.4. 4.1-1987 IEEE Standard for Software Management 15. Draft 1. without being specific about how to choose and develop test cases. 1045-1992 IEEE Standard for Software Productivity metrics 13. Draft 1.Software Testing – made easy · · · · identify areas that can be improved identify testing processes that can be adopted organization-wide provide a road map for implementing the improvements provide a method for measuring the improvement results provide a companion tool to be used in conjunction with the SW-TMM · 4. 1012-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Verification and validation 8. The SIG formed a subgroup to develop a standard which addresses the quality of testing performed. but they describe the importance of good test case selection. Muthuvel Page 18 of 127 . 828-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Configuration Management 4. This meeting agreed that existing testing standards are generally good standards within the scope which they cover. Much of the feedback from this review suggested that the approach to the standard needed re-consideration. 830-1998 IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirement Specifications.‘American National Standards Institute’ IEEE Standards: Institute of Electrical and electronics Engineers (Founded in 1884) Have an entire set of standards devoted to software.IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Design description 10. 1061-1998. A few members of the subgroup trialed this draft of the standard within their own organisations.ISO : International Organisation for Standardisation · · · Q9001 – 2000 – Quality Management System : Requirements Q9000 – 2000 – Quality Management System : Fundamentals and Vocabulary Q9004 – 2000 – Quality Management System : Guidelines for performance improvements 4. Testers should be familiar with all the standards mentioned in IEEE. K. 6. 1044-1993 IEEE Standard Classification for Software Anomalies 12.5.BCS .3.2 was completed by November 1990 and this was made a semi-public release for comment.12-1990 IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology 2. 829-1998 IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation 5. 610. 1.SIGIST A meeting of the Specialist Interest Group on Software Testing was held in January 1989 (this group was later to affiliate with the British Computer Society).

Software Testing – made easy 5. 5.2.1.1.2. users. managers.Walkthrough “A review of requirements. and are educational in nature. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report.” … BS 7925-1 5.1. reader.1. painstaking work. Thorough preparation for inspections is difficult. Typically they entail dry runs of designs.Types of Reviews There are three general classes of reviews: · · · Informal / peer reviews Semiformal / walk-through Formal / inspections. product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection). or other interested parties for comment or approval.Inspection A group review quality improvement process for written material.1.1. customers. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements specification or a test plan. Little or no preparation is usually required. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document. typically with 3-8 people including a moderator. Muthuvel Page 19 of 127 . These are led by the author of the document.1. and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing. 5. It consists of two aspects. K. [IEEE] 5. is presented to project personnel. but is one of the most cost effective methods of ensuring quality. most problems will be found during this preparation. not to fix anything. Communication is therefore predominately one-way in nature. and a recorder to take notes. [BS 7925-1] An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough'. “ [BS 7925-1] A 'walkthrough' is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. Testing Techniques 5.Definition Review is a process or meeting during which a work product or set of work products.Review .2.Static Testing Techniques “Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program. code and scenarios/ test cases. designs or code characterized by the author of the material under review guiding the progression of the review.2.

Technical Review Technical reviews are also known as peer review as it is vital that participants are made up from the 'peer group'. overview meeting.1. Author. technical Formal fault experts detection process 5. source document changes and improvements.Activities performed during review Activities in Review: Planning. has defined roles. Recorder. documentation and management support.4. Deliverables in Review: Product changes. and includes metrics and formal process based on rules and checklists with entry and exit criteria.2. Factors for pitfall of review: Lack of training. Review meeting and follow-up.3.If necessary · Establish monitoring and reporting K.Informal Review · · · Unplanned and Undocumented Useful.3. These first activities are: · Fixing of test strategy and test concept · risk analysis · determine criticality · expense of testing · test intensity · Draw up the test plan · Organize the test team · Training of the test team .Software Testing – made easy Led by trained moderator (not author).1. Review of the Requirements / Planning and Preparing Acceptance Test At the beginning of the project the test activities must start.1. · Documented · Defined fault detection process · Includes peers and technical experts · No management participant Comparison of review types Review type Walkthrough Inspection Informal review Technical review Primary purpose Education Led by Author Participants Peers Reader. rather than including managers. Cheap and widely used Contrast with walkthroughs is that communication is very much two-way in nature 5. Muthuvel Page 20 of 127 . Inspector Not defined Degree of formality Presentational Formal defined Inspection process Largely Unplanned and Undocumented Finding faults and process Moderator improvement Find problems quickly and cheaply Finding faults Not defined Chairperson Peers. 5.2.

Ask questions like: Are the requirements testable? Are they testable with defensible expenditure? If the answer is no. The review of the requirement document answers questions like: Are all customers’ requirements fulfilled? Are the requirements complete and consistent? And so on. At this stage of the development process all the knowledge for the acceptance tests is available and to hand. · · · Review of the Architectural Design Detailed Design Planning and Preparing Integration/Unit Test During the review of the architectural design one can look forward and ask questions like: What is about the testability of the design? Are the components and interfaces testable? Are they testable with defensible expenditure? If the components are too expensive to test a re-work of the architectural design has to be done before going further in the development process. Tasks in planning and preparing for system testing include: · · · Establishing priorities of the tests depending on criticality Specifying (functional / non-functional) system test cases Defining and establishing the required infra-structure As with the acceptance test preparation. During the development process all plans must be updated and completed and all decisions must be checked for validity. can be achieved. …) Provide required software resources (software version.Review of the Specification / Planning and Preparing System Test In the review meeting of the specification documents ask questions like: Is the specification testable? Are they testable with defensible expenditure? Only these kinds of specifications can be realistically implemented and be used for the next steps in the development process. test tools. like specifying control flow and data flow integration test cases. For example one can · Establish priorities of the tests depending on criticality · Specify (functional and non-functional) test cases · Specify and . Also at this stage all the knowledge for integration testing is available. All preparation. There must be a re-work of the specifications if the answers to the questions are no. In a mature development process reviews and inspections are carried out through the whole process. Here all the knowledge for the system tests is available and to hand. But just as important is a look forward. all of the system test preparation is finished at this early development stage. …) The activities include the foundations for a manageable and high-quality test process. data base.4.Software Testing – made easy · · Provide required hardware resources (PC. If you have no idea how to test some requirements then it is likely that you have no idea how to implement these requirements. It is a look back to fix problems before going on in development. So this is the best place for doing all the planning and preparing for acceptance testing. a cost estimate and test plan are developed and progress monitoring and reporting are established.1. All accordingly activities of the review of the architectural design and the integration tests can be done here at the level of unit tests.provide the required infra-structure · At this stage all of the acceptance test preparation is finished and can be achieved. A test strategy is determined after a risk evaluation. then there will be problems to implement these requirements. K. Muthuvel Page 21 of 127 .if possible . 5.

and reviewers cannot switch roles easily. The basic roles in a review are: · The moderator · The recorder · The presenter · Reviewers Moderator: The moderator makes sure that the review follows its agenda and stays focused on the topic at hand. there are certain roles that must be played.Roles and Responsibilities In order to conduct an effective review. and not get drawn into side discussions of how to address the issue. not the means. It’s important to keep focused on this. it probably needs some work). Keeping track of what was discussed and documenting actions to be taken is a full-time task.Software Testing – made easy 5.the focus should be on the artifact. Recorder: The recorder is an often overlooked. It is the moderator’s role to make sure that participants (including the presenter) keep this in mind. More specifically. not on the presenter. Muthuvel Page 22 of 127 .1. Focus on results. but essential part of the review team. to answer questions and to offer clarification. failing to document what was decided will likely lead to the issue coming up again in the future. The presenter explains the artifact and any background information needed to understand it (although if the artifact was not selfexplanatory. The presenter is there to kick-off the discussion. It’s important that reviews not become “trials” . Worse yet. Reviewer: Reviewers raise issues. Presenter: The presenter is often the author of the artifact under review. The moderator ensures that side-discussions do not derail the review. everyone has a role to play. and that all reviewers participate equally.5. Make sure to have a recorder and make sure that this is the only role the person plays. K. Assigning this task to one of the reviewers essentially keeps them out of the discussion.

this technique determines whether combinations of inputs and operations produce expected results.2. The goal is to test how well the component conforms to the published requirements for the component It attempts to find: · · · · · Incorrect or missing functions Interface errors Errors in data structures or external database access Performance errors Initialization and termination errors Black-box test design treats the system as a "black-box". and it focuses specifically on using internal knowledge of the software to guide the selection of test data. In comparison. Black box testing is based solely on the knowledge of the system requirements.” …BS7925-1 Testing based on an analysis of the specification of a piece of software without reference to its internal workings. Muthuvel Page 23 of 127 .2.Black Box Testing: “Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the specification of the component without reference to its internal workings.1. Test Case design Techniques under Black Box Testing: · · · · · · Equivalence class partitioning Boundary value analysis Comparison testing Orthogonal array testing Decision Table based testing Cause Effect Graph K.Dynamic Testing Techniques “The process of evaluating a system or component based upon its behaviour during execution. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. “ … [IEEE] 5. Specifically.Software Testing – made easy 5. Black box testing focuses on testing the function of the program or application against its specifications. so it does not explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. White-box testing allows one to peek inside the "box".

2.g. 5000. If input is an enumerated set of values: o e.c} o one equivalence class for valid input values Another equivalence class for invalid input values should be defined.2.b. …BS7925-1 Example · · For a function that computes the square root of an integer in the range of 1 and 5000: Test cases must include the values: {0. o Example o A program reads an input value in the range of 1 and 5000: o computes the square root of the input number o There are three equivalence classes: o the set of negative integers. …BS7925-1 Equivalence partition testing: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes. and 5001}. o The test suite must include: o representatives from each of the three equivalence classes: o A possible test suite can be: {-5.Software Testing – made easy 5. o One valid and two invalid equivalence classes are defined. or an incremental distance either side of the boundary. · · Few general guidelines for determining the equivalence classes can be given If the input data to the program is specified by a range of values: o e. …BS7925-1 Boundary value analysis: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed which include representatives of boundary values.Equivalence Class Partitioning Equivalence class: A portion of the component's input or output domains for which the component's behaviour is assumed to be the same from the component's specification.Boundary Value Analysis Boundary value: An input value or output value which is on the boundary between equivalence classes. 1. numbers between 1 to 5000. · · 5. o Integers larger than 5000.1.2.1. Muthuvel Page 24 of 127 . 6000}. {a. o set of integers in the range of 1 and 5000.g. …BS7925-1 Determination of equivalence classes · Examine the input data. 500.1. K.

Muthuvel Page 25 of 127 . · · Graph converted to a decision table. sort.1. It graphically illustrates the relationship between a given outcome and all the factors that influence the outcome. as shown below Example C&E diagram for a Server crash issue: K. which can be used to design test cases” …BS7925-1 Cause-effect graphing attempts to provide a concise representation of logical combinations and corresponding actions. A Cause-and-Effect Diagram is a tool that helps identify.3. with the main causal categories drawn as "bones" attached to the spine of the fish.Cause and Effect Graphs “A graphical representation of inputs or stimuli (causes) with their associated outputs (effects). A cause-effect graph developed. Decision table rules are converted to test cases. The C&E diagram is also known as the Fishbone/Ishikawa diagram because it was drawn to resemble the skeleton of a fish.2. Causes (input conditions) and effects (actions) are listed for a module and an identifier is assigned to each. and display possible causes of a specific problem or quality characteristic (Viewgraph 1).Software Testing – made easy 5.

Muthuvel Page 26 of 127 . use separate teams to develop independent versions of the software. For redundant s/w.4.Comparison Testing · · · · · · · · · In some applications. When outputs of versions differ. Run all versions in parallel with a real-time comparison of results. Test each version with same test data to ensure all provide identical output.2.1. each is investigated to determine if there is a defect. for some critical applications can develop independent versions and use comparison testing or back-to-back testing.Software Testing – made easy Advantages · · · · · Helps determine root causes Encourages group participation Indicates possible causes of variation Increases process knowledge Identifies areas for collecting data 5. Redundant hardware and software may be used. Even if will on run one version in final system. Method does not catch errors in the specification. the reliability is critical. Exercise on Live Application K.

Also known as Structural Testing / Glass Box Testing / Clear Box Testing.” … BS7925-1 Design test cases so that every statement in a program is executed at least once.Statement Coverage: “A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute statements. we have no way of knowing if an error exists in that statement Example: Euclid's GCD computation algorithm: int f1(int x. } return x. int y){ while (x != y){ if (x>y) then x=x-y. y=4)} all statements are executed at least once.Software Testing – made easy 5. Tests are based on coverage of code statements.1. implementation and code Test Case design techniques under White Box Testing: · · · · · · Statement coverage Branch coverage Condition coverage Path coverage Data flow-based testing Mutation testing 5. K. Unless a statement is executed.White-Box Testing: “Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component.2. y=3).2. branches.2. y=3). • • Aims to establish that the code works as designedExamines the internal structure and implementation of the program Target specific paths through the programNeeds accurate knowledge of the design. else y=y-x. paths.” …BS7925-1 Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software. (x=4. conditions . } By choosing the test set {(x=3. (x=3.2. Muthuvel Page 27 of 127 .

(x=3.or.2.2.and.c2). (x=4.2. or when a component has more than one entry point. y=4)} 5.Branch Coverage: Branch : A conditional transfer of control from any statement to any other statement in a component.2. · Branch testing stronger than statement coverage testing. Example Consider the conditional expression ((c1. or an unconditional transfer of control from any statement to any other statement in the component except the next statement. c2 and c3 are exercised at least once i.Condition Coverage: Condition: “A Boolean expression containing no Boolean operators. · Condition testing stronger than branch testing. given true and false values. Muthuvel Page 28 of 127 . y=3). a transfer of control to an entry point of the component. Branch Testing: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute branch outcomes.Software Testing – made easy 5.c3): Each of c1.2. For instance.3. … BS7925-1 Branch testing guarantees statement coverage Example Test cases for branch coverage can be: {(x=3. y=3). K.e.” … BS7925-1 Test cases are designed such that: Each component of a composite conditional expression given both true and false values. A<B is a condition but A and B is not.

4. Test cases which exercise basic set will execute every statement at least once. … BS7925-1 A testing mechanism proposed by McCabe.2. from an entry point to an exit point. This measure provides a single ordinal number that can be compared to the complexity of other programs.Path Coverage: Path: A sequence of executable statements of a component. Cyclomatic Complexity: The Cyclomatic complexity gives a quantitative measure of the logical complexity. a new edge) K. Path testing: A test case design technique in which test cases are designed to execute paths of a component. Introduced by Thomas McCabe in 1976. Flow Graph Notation Notation for representing control flow Sequence If While Until Case On a flow graph: · Arrows called edges represent flow of control · Circles called nodes represent one or more actions · Areas bounded by edges and regions called regions · A predicate node is a node containing a condition Any procedural design can be translated into a flow graph. Note that compound Boolean expressions at tests generate at least two predicate nodes and additional arcs.Software Testing – made easy 5. Aim is to derive a logical complexity measure of a procedural design and use this as a guide for defining a basic set of execution paths. or as McCabe's complexity. it measures the number of linearly-independent paths through a program module.e.. Muthuvel Page 29 of 127 . An independent path is any path through a program that introduces at least one new set of processing statements or a new condition (i. Cyclomatic complexity is often referred to simply as program complexity.2. This value gives the number of independent paths in the Basis set. and an upper bound for the number of tests to ensure that each statement is executed at least once.

1. 8 2. 4. 8 Cyclomatic complexity provides upper bound for number of tests required to guarantee coverage of all program statements. Prepare test cases that will force execution of each path in the basis set. 1.Software Testing – made easy Cyclomatic complexity (CC) = E . 7b. draw the corresponding flow graph.N + p Where E = the number of edges of the graph N = the number of nodes of the graph p = the number of connected components Example has: 1 2 4 3 6 5 7a 7b 8 Cyclomatic complexity of 4. Note: Some paths may only be able to be executed as part of another test. Determine a basis set of independent paths. 8 3. 7a. 4. 1. 1. Using the design or code. K. 3. 7b. 2. 2. 1. Deriving Test Cases 1. 2. 5. 1. 4. 7a. 8 4. 6. As one of the more widely-accepted software metrics. it is intended to be independent of language and language format. Determine the Cyclomatic complexity of the flow graph. 3. Independent paths: 1. 1. 2. 7b. Muthuvel Page 30 of 127 .

It is very useful for selecting test paths of a program containing nested if and loop statements 1X(){ 2 B1. /* Defines variable a */ 3 While(C1) { 4 if (C2) 5 if(C4) B4. For a statement numbered S. 8 else B3. /* Defines variable a */ 3 While(C1) { 4 if (C2) 5 b=a*a. DEF(S) = {X/statement S contains a definition of X} USES(S) = {X/statement S contains a use of X} Example: 1: a=b.b}. B2.Software Testing – made easy 5. } 9 B6 } [a. However only 5 paths are needed to cover these chains.2. /*Uses variable a */ 6 else B5. B5. USES(1)={a. B6} There are 25 DU chains. /* Defines variable a */ 7 } 8 print(a). B3. B5} USED(X) = {B2. Muthuvel Page 31 of 127 . DEF (1) = {a}.Data Flow-Based Testing: “Testing in which test cases are designed based on variable usage within the code. DU Chain Example 1 X(){ 2 a=5. Every DU chain in a program is covered at least once.S. /*Uses variable a */ 6 a=a-1.S1]. …BS7925-1 K. B4. B3.1. B4. X in DEF(S) X in USES(S1).5. Assume: DEF(X) = {B1. and the definition of X in the statement S is live at statement S1. Example: 2: a=a+b.” Selects test paths of a program: According to the locations of definitions and uses of different variables in a program.5]: a DU chain. USES (1) = {b}. 7 else if (C3) B2.2. A variable X is said to be live at statement S1. DEF(1)={a}. S and S1 are statement numbers. } /*Uses variable a */ Definition-use chain (DU chain) [X. if X is defined at a statement S: there exists a path from S to S1 not containing any definition of X.

2. Changing a data type. The idea behind mutation testing is to make a few arbitrary small changes to a program at a time. If a mutant remains alive even after all test cases have been exhausted.3.Grey Box Testing · · · Grey box Testing is the new term. 5. Muthuvel Page 32 of 127 . mutation testing is taken up.2. A large number of possible mutants can be generated. The primitive changes can be: · · · Altering an arithmetic operator. Grey box testing is especially important with Web and Internet applications. the change is called a mutant.Software Testing – made easy 5. the test suite is enhanced to kill the mutant. If there at least one test case in the test suite for which a mutant gives an incorrect result. Changing the value of a constant. A major disadvantage of mutation testing: · · computationally very expensive.2.Mutation Testing: The software is first tested using an initial testing method based on white-box strategies we already discussed. etc. Tester should have the knowledge of both the internals and externals of the function. Tester should have good knowledge of White Box Testing and complete knowledge of Black Box Testing. which evolved due to the different architectural usage of the system. because the Internet is built around loosely integrated components that connect via relatively welldefined interfaces K. After the initial testing is complete.6. then the mutant is said to be dead. each time the program is changed it is called a mutated program. A mutated program tested against the full test suite of the program. The process of generation and killing of mutants can be automated by predefining a set of primitive changes that can be applied to the program. This is just a combination of both Black box & White box testing.

· Identifies weaknesses in processes and improves them. 6. Qc is a demonstration of consistency. Difference Tables 6. · Sets up measurements programs to evaluate processes. reporting them and correcting the defects It is performed after a work product is produced against established criteria ensuring that the product integrates correctly into the environment. which verifies if the product meets pre-defined standards. like walkthroughs. QA is the determination of correctness of the final software product by a development project with respect to the user needs and requirements and the responsibility of the entire team Quality Control Study on Project for its Function and Specification QC is a process by which product quality is compared with applicable standards. checklists and standards. reviews and inspections.Quality Vs Testing Quality Testing “Quality is giving more cushions for user to Testing is an activity done to achieve the use system with all its expected quality. It is an activity that establishes and evaluates the processes to produce the products by preventing the introduction of issues or defects. It is performed during development on key artifacts. It is an activity. QA improves the processes that are applied to multiple products that will ever be produced by a process. K. completeness.1.Testing Vs Debugging Testing Testing is done to find bugs Debugging Debugging is an art of fixing bugs. and correctness of the software at each stage and between each stage of the development life cycle and the responsibility of the tester. · help establish processes. characteristics” It is usually said as Journey towards Excellence.Software Testing – made easy 6. 6. Muthuvel Page 33 of 127 . and the action taken when nonconformance is detected. Qc improves the development of a specific product or service by identifying the defects.Quality Assurance Vs Quality Control Quality Analysis Study on Process followed in Project development QA is a planned and systematic set of activities necessary to provide adequate confidence that requirements are properly established and products or services conform to specified requirements.3.2. mentor feedback. training.

configuration.4.interface errors. performance. It is based on how the system is built It applied to individual components and interfaces. .IST & UAT Particulars Base line document Data Environment Orientation Tester composition Purpose IST Functional Specification Simulated Controlled Component Testing Firm Verification UAT Business Requirement Live Data Simulated Live Business Testing Firm / users Validation K. being particularly effective at discovering localized errors in control and data flows It involves the creation of custom test data.Black Box Testing & White Box Testing Black Box / Functional Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the specification of the component without reference to its internal workings It focuses on global issues of workflows. careful design. It involves insightful test planning.6.behavior or performance errors .initialization and termination errors. and so forth It attempts to find errors in the external behavior of the code in the following categories: .Verification & Validation Verification Process of determining whether output of one phase of development conforms to its previous phase Verification is concerned containment of errors with phase Validation Process of determining whether a fully developed system conforms to its SRS document Validation is concerned about the final product to be error free 6. 6.Software Testing – made easy 6.5.errors in data structures used by interfaces . they will need to understand some fundamental test design techniques to do a good job. and meticulous result checking Skilled manual tester know how to follow a trail of bugs. Muthuvel Page 34 of 127 . A good manual tester also applies on the spot judgment to observed results that an automated tool can’t White Box / Structural Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component.incorrect or missing functionality . And we can reuse such test data for other kinds of tests No matter who does the structural testing.

SIT & IST SIT SIT can be done when system is on the process of integration IST IST need integrated System of various Unit levels of independent functionality and checks its workability after integration and compares it before integration. 6.8.10. Servers. To check for the added or new functionality's effect on the existing system K.Test Bed and Test Environment Test Bed Test Environment Test bed holds only testing documents which supports testing which includes Test data.9. Test environment includes all supportive elements namely hardware. etc. Browsers. software.7.Software Testing – made easy 6. Muthuvel Page 35 of 127 . 6. tools. Alpha Testing & Beta Testing Component Test data Test Environment To Achieve Tested by Supporting Document Used Alpha testing Simulated Controlled Functionality Only testers Functional Specification Beta testing Live Uncontrolled User needs Testers and End-Users Customer Requirement Specification 6. Data guidelines etc.Re-testing and Regression Testing Re-testing Regression Testing To check for a particular bug and its dependencies after it is said to be fixed.

13).1. Tests can be designed to ensure that the code fulfills the requirements.1.Unit Testing “The testing of individual software components. or some mixture of these. Write many short tests (in code) that span the extents of the requirements for the module you wish to test. If techniques not described explicitly in this clause are used they shall comply with the 'Other Testing Techniques' clause (3. The component test strategy shall document the degree of independence required of personnel designing test cases from the design process. 7.Software Testing – made easy 7. Write tests before you write the code. c) the test cases are designed by a person(s) from a different section. K. Selection of techniques shall be according to clause 3. 7.Benefits of Unit Testing · · · · Assurance of working components before integration Tests are repeatable . If measures not described explicitly in this clause are used they shall comply with the 'Other Test Measurement Techniques' clause (4.” · · · … BS795-1 Individual testing of separate units .Pre-requisites Before component testing may begin the component test strategy (2. These test completion criteria should be test coverage levels whose measurement shall be achieved by using the test measurement techniques defined in clause 4. Levels of Testing 7. All debugging is separated from the code. You are done coding once your code can pass all the tests. b) the test cases are designed by another person(s).1) and project component test plan (2.Every time you change something you can rerun your suite of tests to verify that the unit still works. The component test strategy shall specify criteria for test completion and the rationale for their choice. e) the test cases are not chosen by a person. This shall include a description of the hardware and software environment in which all component tests will be run. such as: a) the test cases are designed by the person(s) who writes the component under test.2) shall be specified. d) the test cases are designed by a person(s) from a different organisation. bottom-up or top-down approaches.1.1. Component test strategy The component test strategy shall specify the techniques to be employed in the design of test cases and the rationale for their choice. The component test strategy shall document whether the component testing is carried out using isolation.2. Muthuvel Page 36 of 127 .13). The component test strategy shall document the environment in which component tests will be executed.1.1.methods and classes.

Later activities for one test case may occur before earlier activities for another. This Figure illustrates the generic test process described in clause 2.1. d) Component Test Recording. Component Test Execution.8. K. on any one iteration. The test process documentation shall define the testing activities to be performed and the inputs and outputs of each activity. be carried out for a subset of the test cases associated with a component. Muthuvel Page 37 of 127 . these activities are carried out for the whole component.1. Whenever an error is corrected by making a change or changes to test materials or the component under test. SIGIST. e) Checking for Component Test Completion. c) Component Test Execution.Software Testing – made easy The component test strategy shall document the test process that shall be used for component testing. b) Component Test Specification. the affected activities shall be repeated. Component Test Specification. 2001 For any given test case. Component Test Planning shall begin the test process and Checking for Component Test Completion shall end it.4 (27-Apr-01) © British Computer Society. and Component Test Recording may however. Standard for Software Component Testing 6 Working Draft 3. the test process documentation shall require that the following activities occur in the following sequence: a) Component Test Planning.

Muthuvel Page 38 of 127 . This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. client and server applications on a network etc. Software integration testing can elicit failures produced by defects that are difficult to detect during system or launch testing once the system has been completely integrated. The integration environment is ready. Objective: The typical objectives of software integration testing are to: · Cause failures involving the interactions of the integrated software components when running on a single platform. individual applications.e. · Help the software development team to stabilize the software so that it can be successfully distributed prior to system testing. · Minimize the number of low-level defects that will prevent effective system and launch testing.2. Software integration testing must be automated if adequate regression testing is to occur. · Report these failures to the software development team so that the underlying defects can be identified and fixed. the tests completely execute and the actual test results match the expected test results).. The first two software components have: o Passed unit testing. o Been ported to the integration environment. Adequate program or component documentation is available Verification that the correct version of the unit has been turned over for integration. o Been integrated.Integration Testing “Testing performed to expose faults in the interfaces and in the interaction between integrated components” … BS7925-1 Testing of combined parts of an application to determine they function together correctly. K. All software integration test suites successfully execute (i. Successful execution of the integration test plan No open severity 1 or 2 defects Component stability Guidelines: · · · The iterative and incremental development cycle implies that software integration testing is regularly performed in an iterative and incremental manner. Entry criteria: · · · · · · The integration team is adequately staffed and trained in software integration testing.Software Testing – made easy 7. Documented Evidence that component has successfully completed unit test. Exit criteria: · · · · · A test suite of test cases exists for each interface between software components. The 'parts' can be code modules.

with lower level components being simulated by stubs. requires that various aspects of an application's functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed. The process is repeated until the lowest level components has been tested.Software Testing – made easy 7. .1. Level 2 Level 2 stubs Level 2 Level 2 Level 2 Level 3 stubs Steps: · · · · · · Main control module used as the test driver.1. 7.2. Muthuvel Page 39 of 127 . Can use depth first or breadth first top down integration. done by programmers or by testers.Top Down Integration “An approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first. Verifies major control and decision points early in design process.2.1. K.” … BS795-1 · · Modules integrated by moving down the program design hierarchy. Replace stubs either depth first or breadth first Replace stubs one at a time. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. Integration testing where system components are integrated into the system one at a time until the entire system is integrated.Incremental Integration Testing “Integration testing where system components are integrated into the system one at a time until the entire system is integrated” … BS795-1 Continuous testing of an application as new functionality is added. Test after each module integrated Use regression testing (conducting all or some of the previous tests) to ensure new errors are not introduced. with stubs for all subordinate modules. Level 1 Testing sequence Level 1 . or that test drivers be developed as needed..

2. Cluster is tested. moving upwards in program structure. Driver program developed to test.” …BS7925-1 · · Begin construction and testing with atomic modules (lowest level modules). Muthuvel Page 40 of 127 .1. Driver programs removed and clusters combined. Bottom-up Major Features · · Allows early testing aimed t proving feasibility and practicality of particular modules. K. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.Software Testing – made easy 7.2.Bottom up Integration “An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first. Top-down The control program is tested first Modules are integrated one at a time Major emphasis is on interface testing · Major emphasis is on module functionality and performance. then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. · · · Modules can be integrated in various clusters as desired. Use driver program to test. Test drivers Level N Level N Level N Level N Level N Testing sequence Test drivers Level N–1 Level N–1 Level N–1 Steps: · · · Low level modules combined in clusters (builds) that perform specific software subfunctions.

Some people feel that bottom-up is being made. (This can be as simple as a return statement) 5.2. Stubs are usually expected to provide the following: An interface that is identical to the interface that will be provided by the actual program unit. or otherwise creating.3.2.2 Drivers: Drivers are programs or tools that allow a tester to exercise/examine in a controlling manner the unit of software being tested. K. A driver is usually expected to provide the following: A means of defining. and the minimum acceptable behavior expected of the actual program unit.Software Testing – made easy Advantages · · · No test stubs are needed It is easier to adjust manpower needs Errors in critical modules are found early · · · · · · No test drivers are needed The control program plus a few modules forms a basic early prototype Interface errors are discovered early Modular features aid debugging Test stubs are needed The extended early phases dictate a slow manpower buildup Errors in critical modules at low levels are found late Disadvantages Comments Test drivers are needed Many modules must be integrated before a working program is available · · Interface errors are discovered late At any given point.1. any input and output mechanisms needed in the testing of the unit Sandwich Testing: Combines bottom-up and top-down testing using testing layer. more code has been An early working program raises morale written and tested that with top down and helps convince management progress testing. It is hard to maintain a is a more intuitive test philosophy. or other items needed in the testing of the unit.1.3. and a means of monitoring the states of these items.2.3. any variables. · · 7.Stub and Drivers 5.1 Stubs: Stubs are program units that are stand-ins² for the other (more complex) program units that are directly referenced by the unit being tested. pure top-down strategy in practice. Muthuvel Page 41 of 127 . declaring.1. constants.

catalogued.g. 7. Tests conformance of the software to the Software Requirements Specification. To check that: all functional requirements satisfied.System Testing “System testing is the process of testing an integrated system to verify that it meets specified requirements". When validation tests fail it may be too late to correct the error prior to scheduled delivery.2. error recovery.2.Validation Testing Validation testing aims to demonstrate that the software functions in a manner that can be reasonably expected by the customer.2.Software Testing – made easy 7.2. … BS7925-1 It is further sub-divided into · · Functional system testing Non-Functional system testing System test Entrance Criteria: · · · · Successful execution of the Integration test cases No open severity 1 or 2 defects 75-80% of total system functionality and 90% of major functionality delivered System stability for 48-72 hours to start test Page 42 of 127 K.2.Configuration review An audit to ensure that all elements of the software configuration are properly developed. documentation is correct and 'human-engineered'.Non-Incremental Testing 7.1. Need to negotiate a method of resolving deficiencies with the customer.Big Bang Integration “Integration testing where no incremental testing takes place prior to all the system's components being combined to form the system. Validation test criteria · · A set of black box tests to demonstrate conformance with requirements. · 7.2.2. Muthuvel . This should contain a section “Validation criteria” which is used to develop the validation tests. compatibility..2.3.” … BS7925-1 7. and has necessary detail to support maintenance. and other requirements are met (e. all performance requirements achieved.2.3. maintainability).

When to use Requirements Testing: Every application should be requirements tested.and documentation that shows coverage of requirements and high-risk system components System meets pre-defined quality goals 100% of total system functionality delivered 7.Requirement based Testing “Designing tests based on objectives derived from requirements for the software component (e. It is not a question as to whether requirements must be tested but.Functional Testing 7.1. The objectives that need to be addressed in requirements testing are: · · · User requirements are implemented Correctness is maintained over extended processing periods. rather.g. the extent and methods used in requirements testing. The responsible user is normally only one of many groups having an interest in the application system.1. Application processing complies with the organization’s policies and procedures.1.. Objectives: Successfully implementing user requirements is only one aspect of requirements testing. Muthuvel Page 43 of 127 . and continue through every phase of the life cycle into operations and maintenance.3. The system can be tested for correctness throughout the lifecycle. tests that exercise specific functions or probe the non-functional constraints such as performance or security)” … BS7925-1 Requirements testing must verify that the system can perform its function correctly and that the correctness can be sustained over a continuous period of time.3. Unless the system can function correctly over an extended period of time management will not be able to rely upon the system. but it is difficult to test the reliability until the program becomes operational. The process should begin in the requirements phase. K.Software Testing – made easy System Test Exit Criteria: · · · Successful execution of the system test cases .

The amount of the potential loss should both determine the amount of resource to be put into disaster planning as well as recovery testing. K.2.” . and then reprocessing transactions up until the point of failure. “ …BS7925-1 Non-Functional testing types: Configuration Compatibility Conversion Disaster Recovery Interoperability Installability Memory Management.Recovery testing “Testing aimed at verifying the system's ability to recover from varying degrees of failure. usability.Software Testing – made easy 7. recovery testing not only verifies the recovery process..1. The importance of recovery will vary from application to application. etc. performance. Objectives: Recovery testing is used to ensure that operations can be continued after a disaster. The process normally involves reverting to a point where the integrity of the system is known.Business-Process based Non-Functional Testing Testing of those requirements that do not relate to functionality. Maintainability Portability Performance Procedure Reliability Recovery Stress Security Usability 7.. The user should estimate the potential loss associated with inability to recover operations over various time spans.3.2. Specific objectives of recovery testing include: · · · · · Adequate backup data is preserved Backup data is stored in a secure location Recovery procedure are documented Recovery personnel have been assigned and trained Recovery tools have been developed and are available When to use Recovery Testing: Recovery testing should be performed whenever the user of the application states that the continuity of operation of the application is essential to the proper functioning of the user area. Muthuvel Page 44 of 127 . I.e.3. but also the effectiveness of the component parts of that process. BS7925-1 Recovery is the ability to restart operations after the integrity of the application has been lost.

2. The testing should be performed both prior to the system going into an operational status and after the system is placed into an operational status. Protecting the confidentiality of the information is designed to protect the resources of the organization.Stress testing “Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements. The security testing objectives include: · · · · Determine that adequate attention has been devoted to identifying security risks Determining that a realistic definition and enforcement of access to the system has been implemented Determining that sufficient expertise exists to perform adequate security testing Conducting reasonable tests to ensure that the implemented security measures function properly When to Use security Testing: Security testing should be used when the information and/or assets protected by the application system are of significant value to the organization.” … BS7925-1 Stress testing is designed to test the software with abnormal situations.3. Objectives: Security defects do not become as obvious as other types of defects.Security testing “Testing whether the system meets its specified security objectives. Even failures in the security system operation may not be detected. K. Stress testing attempts to find the limits at which the system will fail through abnormal quantity or frequency of inputs. Test cases that cause 'thrashing' in a virtual operating system.3. Muthuvel Page 45 of 127 . resulting in a loss or compromise of information without the knowledge of that loss. Data rates an order of magnitude above 'normal'. 7. Test cases that cause excessive 'hunting' for data on disk systems. the objectives of security testing are to identify defects that are very difficult to identify.3. The extent of testing should depend on the security risks.Software Testing – made easy 7. For example. and the individual assigned to conduct the test should be selected based on the estimated sophistication that might be used to penetrate security. · · · · · Higher rates of interrupts. Therefore. Test cases that require maximum memory or other resources. Security testing is designed to evaluate the adequacy of the protective procedures and countermeasures.” … BS7925-1 Security is a protection system that is needed for both secure confidential information and for competitive purposes to assure third parties their data will be protected.2.2.

Beta testing is conducted at one or more customer sites by end users.3.3. It is 'live' testing in an environment not controlled by the developer. 7. Muthuvel Page 46 of 127 . That is.Software Testing – made easy 7. the tester can uncover situations that lead to degradation and possible system failure. It should be conducted by people who represent the software vendor's market. External instrumentation can monitor intervals. and who will use the product in the same way as the final version once it is released. Alpha testing is conducted at the developer's site by a customer.2. The customer records and reports difficulties and errors at regular intervals.Alpha and Beta testing “Alpha testing: Simulated or actual operational testing at an in-house site not otherwise involved with the software developers. The customer uses the software with the developer 'looking over the shoulder' and recording errors and usage problems. it is necessary to measure resource utilization in an exacting fashion. Alpha testing conducted in a controlled environment.” … IEEE Performance testing is designed to test run time performance of software within the context of an integrated system.Performance testing “Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. log events. K. By instrument the system. Performance tests are often coupled with stress testing and often require both hardware and software infrastructure.” … BS7925-1 “Beta testing: Operational testing at a site not otherwise involved with the software developers. It is not until all systems elements are fully integrated and certified as free of defects the true performance of a system can be ascertained.3. The benefit of this type of acceptance testing is that it will bring out operational issues from potential customers prepared to comment on the software before it is officially released.4.” … BS7925-1 This is testing of an operational nature once the software seems stable.

compatibility. The client team should sign off the ‘Deferred’ defects. · K. error recovery etc. UAT focuses on the following aspects: · · · · All functional requirements are satisfied All performance requirements are achieved Other requirements like transportability.Exit Criteria · · · All Test Scenarios/conditions would be executed and reasons will be provided for untested conditions arising out of the following situations Non -Availability of the Functionality Deferred to the Future Release All Defects Reported are in the ‘Closed’ or ‘Deferred’ status.User Acceptance Testing “Acceptance testing: Formal testing conducted to enable a user.Software Testing – made easy 7.4. 7. 7. are satisfied. Muthuvel Page 47 of 127 . Acceptance criteria specified by the user is met.2.4. or other authorized entity to determine whether to accept a system or component” … BS7925-1 User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is performed by Users or on behalf of the users to ensure that the Software functions in accordance with the Business Requirement Document. customer. All User IDs requested by the testing team to be created and made available to the testing team one week prior to start of testing.1.Entry Criteria · · · · SIT must be completed. Test Cases prepared by the testing team to be reviewed and signed-off by the Project coordinator (AGM-Male).4. Availability of stable Test Environment with the latest version of the Application.

Three of these things are bad. the tests that are deemed necessary to validate modified software.Regression Testing and Re-testing “Retesting of a previously tested program following modification to ensure that faults have not been introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes made. retesting previously tested functions to make sure adding new features has not introduced new problems. · Coverage approaches are also based on coverage criteria. There are three main groups of test selection approaches in use: · Minimization approaches seek to satisfy structural coverage criteria by identifying a minimal set of tests that must be rerun.” Regression testing is an expensive but necessary activity performed on modified software to provide confidence that changes are correct and do not adversely affects other system components. from an existing test set.2.5.5. Instead. Muthuvel Page 48 of 127 . and one is good: New Bug No New Bug Bad Good Successful Change Bad Unsuccessful Change Bad Because of the high probability that one of the bad outcomes will result from a change to the system.5. they seek to select all tests that exercise changed or affected program components. Four things can happen when a developer attempts to fix a bug. but do not require minimization of the test set.” … BS7925-1 “Regression Testing is the process of testing the changes to computer programs to make sure that the older programs still work with the new changes.Factors favour Automation of Regression Testing · · · · · · Ensure consistency Speed up testing to accelerate releases Allow testing to happen more frequently Reduce costs of testing by reducing manual labor Improve the reliability of testing Define the testing process and reduce dependence on the few who know it 7. 7.” “When making improvements on software. · Safe attempt instead to select every test that will cause the modified program to produce different output than original program.1.Software Testing – made easy 7. A regression test selection technique chooses. it is necessary to do regression testing.Tools used in Regression testing · · · · · · WinRunner from Mercury e-tester from Empirix WebFT from Radview Silktest from Radview Rational Robot from Rational QA Run from Compuware K.

Intersystem Testing / Interface Testing “Integration testing where the interfaces between system components are tested” … BS7925-1 The intersystem testing is designed to check and verify the interconnection between application function correctly Applications are frequently interconnected to other systems.2. where multiple systems are integrated in cycles. commonly done with modules like Payroll. K. Tests at this level are vital to improve not only your overall Test strategy. leaving for another application frequently in multiple cycles The intersystem testing involves the operations of multiple systems in test. Testing at the data access layer is the point at which your application communicates with the database. but also your product’s quality. Database testing includes the process of validation of database stored procedures. The other system is considered as the standard of comparison. Muthuvel Page 49 of 127 . Today’s intricate mix of client-server and Web-enabled database applications is extremely difficult to Test productively. Process in which both the old and new modules run at the same time so that performance and outcomes can be compared and corrected prior to deployment. The interconnection may be data coming into the system from another application.Parallel Testing · · The process of comparing test results of processing production data concurrently in both the old and new systems. recovery. Testing a new or an alternate data processing system with the same source data that is used in another system. database APIs.Database Testing The database component is a critical piece of any data-enabled application. 8. The basic need of intersystem test arises whenever there is a change in parameters between application systems. · 8. security and database conversion. Types of Testing 8.Software Testing – made easy 8. 8. properly handling special data boundaries and other business requirements.4.Compliance Testing Involves test cases designed to verify that an application meets specific criteria.3. such as processing four-digit year dates. database triggers.1. backup.

Manual support Testing Manual support testing involves all functions performed by the people in preparing data for and using data from automated system. this will be the only kind of testing that can be performed. K.8. it can often find problems that are not caught in regular testing. The method of testing may be testing is same but the objective remains the same.Software Testing – made easy 8. if testing occurs very late in the development cycle. Sometimes. 8.6.Configuration Testing Testing to determine how well the product works with a broad range of hardware/peripheral equipment configurations as well as on different operating systems and software. Typically involves many users. Often is considered a Move-to-Production activity for ERP releases or a beta test for commercial products. Muthuvel Page 50 of 127 .” … BS7925-1 Testing without a formal test plan or outside of a test plan.Automated Testing Software testing that utilizes a variety of tools to automate the testing process and when the importance of having a person manually testing is diminished.Pilot Testing Testing that involves the users just before actual release to ensure that users become familiar with the release contents and ultimately accept it. Sometimes ad hoc testing is referred to as exploratory testing. 8. Automated testing still requires a skilled quality assurance professional with knowledge of the automation tool and the software being tested to set up the tests.9.Ad-hoc Testing “Testing carried out using no recognised test case design technique. If carried out by a skilled tester. Manual support testing involves first the evaluation of the adequacy of the process and seconds the execution of the process. is conducted over a short period of time and is tightly controlled. 8.7. The objective of manual support testing is · · · Verify the manual – support procedures are documented and complete Determine the manual-support responsibilities has been assigned Determine manual support people are adequately trained.5. With some projects this type of testing is carried out as an adjunct to formal testing. 8.

10. as its name implies.12.Environmental Testing These tests check the system’s ability to perform at the installation site. BS7925-1 “Volume Testing: Testing where the system is subjected to large volumes of data. “ ….” All aspects of user interfaces are tested: · Display screens · messages · report formats · navigation and selection problems ….13.” ….Stress and Volume Testing “Stress Testing: Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements. Volume Testing. BS7925-1 Testing with the intent of determining how well a product performs when a load is placed on the system resources that nears and then exceeds capacity. is testing that purposely subjects a system (both hardware and software) to a series of tests where the volume of data being processed is the subject of the test.Usability Testing “Testing the ease with which users can learn and use a product.11. Such systems can be transactions processing systems capturing real time sales or could be database updates and or data retrieval. Load testing applications can emulate the workload of hundreds or even thousands of users.Software Testing – made easy 8. K. 8. BS7925-1 8.Load Testing Load Testing involves stress testing applications under real-world conditions to predict system behavior and performance and to identify and isolate problems. etc. so that you can predict how an application will work under different user loads and determine the maximum number of concurrent users accessing the site at the same time. Muthuvel Page 51 of 127 . 8. Requirements might include tolerance for · heat · humidity · chemical presence · portability · electrical or magnetic fields · Disruption of power.

Roles & Responsibilities 9. retest and close defects Preparation of reports on Test progress 9. test scripts Defect Management Preparation of test deliverable documents and defect metrics analysis report K.3. record defects.) with the test data generated Reviews test ware. record defects.Test Associate Reporting To: Team Lead of a project Responsibilities: · · · · · Design and develop test conditions and cases with associated test data based upon requirements Design test scripts Executes the test ware (Conditions. retest and close defects Preparation of reports on Test progress 9. Test scripts etc. Cases.Software Testing – made easy 9.Test Engineer Reporting To: Team Lead of a project Responsibilities: · · · · · Design and develop test conditions and cases with associated test data based upon requirements Design test scripts Executes the test ware (Conditions.2.1. supervision of test cases preparation based on the business scenarios Maintaining the run details of the test execution. Muthuvel Page 52 of 127 . Cases.Senior Test Engineer Reporting To: Team Lead of a project Responsibilities: · · · · · · · Responsible for collection of requirements from the users and evaluating the same and send out for team discussion Preparation of the High level design document incorporating the feedback received on the high level design document and initiate on the low level design document Assist in the preparation of test strategy document drawing up the test plan Preparation of business scenarios. Review of test condition/cases.) with the test data generated Reviews test ware. Test scripts etc.

Mail Training Process for training needs. and transferring this knowledge to test team Ensure test project documentation 9.4.Test Manager Reporting To: Management Responsibilities: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Liaison for interdepartmental interactions: Representative of the testing team Client interaction Recruiting.Test Lead Reporting To: Test Manager Responsibilities: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Technical leadership of the test project including test approach and tools to be used Preparation of test strategy Ensure entrance criteria prior to test start-off Ensure exit criteria prior to completion sign-off Test planning including automation decisions Review of design documents (test cases. Test tool selection and introduction. and staff training.5. Test program oversight and progress tracking.Software Testing – made easy 9. Test budgeting and scheduling. conditions. Test environment and test product configuration management. Use of metrics to support continual test process improvement. if required Review of the proposal K. Coordinating pre and post test meetings. Test planning including development of testing goals and strategy. including test-effort estimations. Muthuvel Page 53 of 127 . Nomination of training Cohesive integration of test and development activities. training and continual improvement. staff supervision. Test process definition. scripts) Preparation of test scenarios and configuration management and quality plan Manage test cycles Assist in recruitment Supervise test team Resolve team queries/problems Report and follow-up test systems outrages/problems Client interface Project progress reporting Defect Management Staying current on latest test approaches and tools.

The test team should also have a detailed understanding of the design specification in order to understand the system architecture. 10.BR and FS The requirements specified by the users in the business requirement document may not be exactly translated into a functional specification.1. This is done over a period of time and going through various levels of requirements. which specifies the client's business needs.1.1.” … BS7925-1 The Functional Specification document describes the functional needs. Muthuvel Page 54 of 127 . It is primarily derived from Business requirement document.1. This should also portray functionalities that are technically feasible within the stipulated time frames for delivery of the application. a trace on specifications between K. These documents are written in sequence. 10. Therefore. User acceptance test is based on this document.2.Baseline Documents Construction of an application and testing are done using certain documents. table structures and program specifications.Software Testing – made easy 10.Functional Specification “The document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended capability. It contains the system architecture.Business Requirement It describes user’s needs for the application. each of it derived from the previous document.2.3. Test Preparation & Design Process 10. This is used henceforth to develop further documents for software construction.4.1. As this contains user perspective requirements. validation and verification of the software. The proposed application should adhere to the specifications specified in the document. This is ideally prepared and used by the construction team.Traceability 10. 10. design of the flow and user maintained parameters.1. Case Study on each document and reverse presentation 10. This is used in case of small application or an enhancement to an application.System Specification The System Specification document is a combination of Functional specification and design specification.1.Design Specification The Design Specification document is prepared based on the functional specification.2. 10.

there by giving the customer an application. or deferred after discussions. Mathematically. which will satisfy their needs. tester must then build conditions for the gaps. these ripple effects may not be reflected in the FS. B=C.3.Choosing Testing Techniques · · · · · The testing technique varies based on the projects and risks involved in the project.2. as deferring or taking in a gap may have ripple effect on the application. In this process. there is a direct translation of specification from the Business Requirement to Test conditions leaving lesser amount of understandability loss. In the case of UAT.4. It is determined by the criticality and risks involved with the Application under Test (AUT). 10. 10. This helps finding the gap between the documents. Testers should understand these gaps and use them as an addendum to the FS. Muthuvel Page 55 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy functional specification and business requirements is done a one to one basis. after getting this signed off from the author of the FS. it is done on the Business requirement to FS and FS to test conditions.FS and Test conditions Test conditions built by the tester are traced with the FS to ensure full coverage of the baseline document. 10. If gaps between the same are obtained.Gap Analysis This is the terminology used on finding the difference between "what it should be" and "what it is". · And also depends onetime and money spend on testing. The technique used for testing will be chosen based on the organizational need of the end user and based on the caracal risk factor or test factors that do impacts the systems The technique adopted will also depend on the phases of testing The two factors that determine the test technique are · Test factors: the risks that need to be address in testing · Test Phases: the phase of the systems development life cycle in which testing will occur. Addendum’s may sometime affect the entire system and the test case development. A=Business requirement B=Functional Specification C=Test conditions A=B. These gaps are then closed by the author of the FS. testers must keep in mind the rules specified in Test condition writing. Simplifying the above. it becomes evident that Business requirements that are user’s needs are tested. K. The final FS form may vary from the original. as Business requirement and Test conditions are matched. As explained. Therefore A=C Another way of looking at this process is to eliminate as many mismatches at every stage of the process. Sometimes.2.

configuration management plan.7. operations guide.7. the testing tasks.Test Plan This is a summary of the ANSI/IEEE Standard 829-1983.6. design specification. project plan.1.Error Guessing “A test case design technique where the experience of the tester is used to postulate what faults might occur. “ … BS7925-1 10. and schedule of intended testing activities. relevant policies. who will do each task.7. It describes a test plan as: “A document describing the scope. Muthuvel Page 56 of 127 . and to design tests specifically to expose them.3.” … (ANSI/IEEE Standard 829-1983) This standard specifies the following test plan outline: 10. and any risks requiring contingency planning. the features to be tested.Test Items § § § § § Test items and their version Characteristics of their transmittal media References to related documents such as requirements specification.Software Testing – made easy 10. relevant standards References to lower level test plans 10. approach.2.5.7.” … [IEEE] 10. It identifies test items.Error Seeding “The process of intentionally adding known faults to those already in a computer program for the purpose of monitoring the rate of detection and removal. users guide. resources. and estimating the number of faults remaining in the program. QA plan.Test Plan Identifier § A unique identifier 10. installation guide References to bug reports related to test items Items which are specifically not going to be tested (optional) K.Introduction § § § § Summary of the items and features to be tested Need for and history of each item (optional) References to related documents such as project authorization.

7. test design specifications. test item transmittal reports. and deadline 10.6.Suspension Criteria and Resumption Requirements § § Specify criteria to be used to suspend the testing activity Specify testing activities which must be redone when testing is resumed 10.7.7.5.Approach § § § § § § § § Overall approach to testing For each major group of features of combinations of featres. Muthuvel Page 57 of 127 .4. testingresource availability.8. test summary reports Identify test input and output data Identify test tools (optional) § § K. test procedure specifications.Features Not to Be Tested § § All features and significant combinations of features which will not be tested The reasons these features won’t be tested 10.Test Deliverables § Identify the deliverable documents: test plan.7. such as test-item availability.7.7. test incident reports.7. test logs. specify the approach Specify major activities. and tools which are to be used to test the groups Specify a minimum degree of comprehensiveness required Identify which techniques will be used to judge comprehensiveness Specify any additional completion criteria Specify techniques which are to be used to trace requirements Identify significant constraints on testing.9.Software Testing – made easy 10. test case specifications.Item Pass/Fail Criteria § Specify the criteria to be used to determine whether each test item has passed or failed testing 10.Features to be Tested § § All software features and combinations of features to be tested References to test-design specifications associated with each feature and combination of features 10. techniques.

14.Environmental Needs § § § Specify the level of security required Identify special test tools needed Specify necessary and desired properties of the test environment: physical characteristics of the facilities including hardware.. executing. witnessing. specify its periods of use K. the mode of usage (i. designing.10. checking and resolving Identify groups responsible for providing the test items identified in the Test Items section Identify groups responsible for providing the environmental needs identified in the Environmental Needs section 10. stand-alone).Software Testing – made easy 10.7.7.Staffing and Training Needs § § Specify staffing needs by skill level Identify training options for providing necessary skills 10.12. communications and system software.13. and any other software or supplies needed Identify any other testing needs Identify the source for all needs which are not currently available § § 10.Responsibilities § § § Identify groups responsible for managing.7.7.e.7.Testing Tasks § § § Identify tasks necessary to prepare for and perform testing Identify all task interdependencies Identify any special skills required 10. preparing.11.Schedule § § § § § Specify test milestones Specify all item transmittal events Estimate time required to do each testing task Schedule all testing tasks and test milestones For each testing resource. Muthuvel Page 58 of 127 .

7.High Level Test Conditions / Scenario It represents the possible values that can be attributed to a particular specification.Polarity of the value given for test is to analyze the practical usage of the condition. It is left to the test team to decide on the application segmentation.8. Muthuvel Page 59 of 127 .8. The importance of determining the conditions are: · Deciding the architecture of testing approach · Evolving design of the test scripts · Ensuring coverage · Understanding the maximum conditions for a specification At this point the tester will have a fair understanding of the application and his module.1.Risks and Contingencies § § Identify the high-risk assumptions of the test plan Specify contingency plans for each 10.16.Polarity of the value given for test is to assess the extreme values of the condition. Boundary condition .7.8. The functionality can be broken into · Field level rules · Module level rules · Business rules · Integration rules 10. For the segments identified by the test team. 10.Software Testing – made easy 10.Approvals § § Specify the names and titles of all persons who must approve the plan Provide space for signatures and dates 10.Polarity of the value given for test is to comply with the condition existence.2. Negative condition .Polarity of the value given for test is not to comply with the condition existence.Data Definition K.Processing logic It may not be possible to segment the specifications into the above categories in all applications. the possible condition types that can be built are · · · · Positive condition . User perspective condition .15.

These feeds.e.. the application should be populated with data. Translation of the high level data designed previously should be converted into the feed formats. By constructing such intelligent data. received from other machines. It will be difficult for the tester to identify his requirements from the mass data. Example: Using the above example. all processes will happen within its database and no external inputs of processed data are required. in order to populate the application database. To populate an interest to be paid field of a deposit.5478 and make the tenor as two months for a particular deposit. they are sent in a format.3. 10. the tester should be able to design intelligent data for his test conditions. like end of day or every hour etc. to find a suitable record with interest exceeding 8 % and the Tenor being more than two months is difficult. Example: Business rule. essential for testers to understand the data mapping between the feeds and the database tables of the application. if the interest to be paid is more than 8 % and the tenor of the deposit exceeds one month.Software Testing – made easy In order to test the conditions and values that are to be tested.8. Having now understood the difference between intelligent and unintelligent data and also at this point having a good idea of the application. There are two ways of populating the data into tables of the application. then the system should give a warning.Feeds Analysis Most applications are fed with inputs at periodic intervals. These will aid in triggering certain action by the application. · · · Data Sheet format (ISO template) Exercise with the live application Test Case K. · Unintelligent: Data is populated in mass. which are redesigned. This type of population can be used for testing the performance of the application and its behavior to random data. Some applications may be stand alone i. Muthuvel Page 60 of 127 . corresponding to the table structures. having reference to its condition. will be processed by local programs and populated in respective tables. at the application end. Its values are chosen at random and not with reference to the conditions derived. It is therefore. a document is published in this regard. Application may have its own hierarchy of data structure which is interconnected. Usually. This will trigger the warning in the application. · Intelligent: Data is tailor-made for every condition and value. In the case of applications having feeds. we can give 9. few data records will suffice the testing process.

which becomes readable and understandable by all. In general.1. 10.” … BS7925-1 Test cases are written based on the test conditions.1. The resultant behavior of the application after execution is the expected result. The results expressed should be clear and have only one interpretation possible. Expected results: The expected result on the execution of the instruction in the description is mentioned.Test Case “A set of inputs. Expected result: New time deposit screen should be displayed. · · Description: Here the details of the test on a specification or a condition are written.Single Expected Result It has a single impact on the instruction executed. the tester should include the following: · · · Reference to the rules and specifications under test in words with minimal technical jargons. Pre-requirements for the test to be executed should also be clearly mentioned.1. Example: Test Case Description: Click on the hyperlink "New deposit" at the top left hand corner of the main menu screen.1. It is the phrased form of Test conditions. · While writing a test case. 10.9.9. Language used in the expected results should not have ambiguity. It is advisable to use the term "Should" in the expected results. Namely. Muthuvel Page 61 of 127 . and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective. K.Software Testing – made easy 10.Expected Results The outcome of executing an instruction would have a single or multiple impacts on the application. to make the test cases explicit. Check on data shown by the application should refer to the table names if possible Names of the fields and screens should also be explicit. There are three headings under which a test case is written.2.9. Example: Test Case Description: Click on the hyperlink "New deposit" at the top left hand corner of the main menu screen. such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement. it should reflect in detail the result of the test execution. execution preconditions. Data and Pre-requirements: Here either the data for the test or the specification is mentioned.Multiple Expected Result It has multiple impacts on executing the instructions.9. 10.

9. Time at which the test case is to be executed o Example: Test to be executed after 2.m. Change values if required to trigger an action by the application o Example: Change the value of the interest for a deposit so as to trigger a warning by the application. Below is the list of possible pre-requirements that could be attached to the test case: · Enable or Disable external interfaces o Example: Reuters. in order to trigger a warning.Pre-requirements Test cases cannot normally be executed with normal state of the application.as its sometimes not possible to predict the dates of testing . the test cases should indicate the calculated value in the expected results of the test case.30 p. K. it is difficult to give the value of the maturity date while data designing or preparing test cases.9.Software Testing – made easy Expected result: New time deposit screen should be displayed & Customer contact date should be pre-filled with the system date. Deletion of certain records to trigger an action by the application o Example: A document availability indicator field to be made null.3.Data definition Data for executing the test cases should be clearly defined in the test cases.and populate certain date fields when they are to trigger certain actions in the application. Example: Description: Enter Client's name Data: John Smith (OR) Description: Check the default value of the interest for the deposit Data: $ 400 In the case of calculations involved. Date's that are to be maintained (Pre-date or Post date) in the database before testing . So. Example: Description: Check the default value of the interest for the deposit Data: $ 400 This value ($400) should be calculated using the formula specified well in advance while data design. 10. They should indicate the values that will be entered into the fields and also indicate default values of the field. o Example: Maturity date of a deposit should be the date of test. Muthuvel Page 62 of 127 . · · · · 10. Foreign exchange rate information service organization server to be connected to the application. so as to trigger a warning from the application.2.

1. The test team should next plan the execution of the test on the application.Requirements 11. Clients and the development team must sign off this stage. This helps in identifying unauthorized transfers or usage of application files by both parties involved. 11. important control paths and filed validations are tested. K. The version of these files and a unique checksum number for these files is a must for change management.3. Unit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of software design. Actual navigation to and from an interface may not be covered in black box testing. Test Execution Process The preparation to test the application is now over. These numbers will be generated for every program file on transfer from the development machine to the test environment. Some applications have concepts that would require sequencing of the test cases before actual execution. In both cases the development team should certify that the application would function in an integrated fashion.Version Identification Values The application would contain several program files for it to function. Muthuvel Page 63 of 127 . o Test Plan – Internal o Test Execution Sequence Test cases can either be executed in a random format or in a sequential fashion.Interfaces for the application In some applications external interfaces may have to connected or disconnected. and hand over the signed off application with the defect report to the testing team.1. 11. it can be detected by using these numbers.Pre.Unit testing sign off · · · To begin an integrated test on the application.1. development team should have completed tests on the software at Unit levels. The details of the execution are documented in the test plan.1. Sequencing can also be done on the modules of the application. 11. The number attributed to each program file is unique and if any change is made to the program file between the time it is transferred to the test environment and the time when it is transferred back to the development for correction. as one module would populate or formulate information required for another. comparing and tracking before and after soft base transfer lie with the test team. These values have to be obtained from the development team by the test team. These identification methods vary from one client to another.Software Testing – made easy 11.2. The responsibilities of acquiring. Using the Design specification as a guide.1.

Software Testing – made easy 11.1.4.Test Case Allocation
The test team should decide on the resources that would execute the test cases. Ideally, the tester who designed the test cases for the module executes the test. In some cases, due to time or resource constraint additional test cases might have to be executed by other members of the team. Clear documentation of responsibilities should be mentioned in the test plan. Test cases are allocated among the team and on different phases. All test cases may not be possibly executed in the first passes. Some of the reasons for this could be: · Functionality may some-times be introduced at a later stage and application may not support it, or the test team may not be ready with the preparation · External interfaces to the application may not be ready · The client might choose to deliver some part of the application for testing and rest may be delivered during other passes Targets for completion of Phases Time frames for the passes have to be decided and committed to the clients well in advance to the start of test. Some of the factors consider for doing so are · Number of cases/scripts: Depending on the number of test scripts and the resource available, completion dates are prepared. · Complexity of testing: In some cases the number of test cases may be less but the complexity of the test may be a factor. The testing may involve time consuming calculations or responses form external interfaces etc. · Number of errors: This is done very exceptionally. Pre-IST testing is done to check the health of the application soon after the preparations are done. The number of errors that were reported should be taken as a benchmark. The preparation to test the application is now over. The test team should next plan the execution of the test on the application. In this section, we will see how test execution is performed.

11.2.Stages of Testing: 11.2.1.Comprehensive Testing - Round I
All the test scripts developed for testing are executed. Some cases the application may not have certain module(s) ready for test; hence they will be covered comprehensively in the next pass. The testing here should not only cover all the test cases but also business cycles as defined in the application.

11.2.2.Discrepancy Testing - Round II
All the test cases that have resulted in a defect during the comprehensive pass should be executed. In other words, all defects that have been fixed should be retested. Function points that may be affected by the defect should also be taken up for testing. This type of testing is called as Regression testing. Defects that are not fixed will be executed only after they are fixed.

11.2.3.Sanity Testing - Round III
This is final round in the test process. This is done either at the client's site or at Maveric depending on the strategy adopted. This is done in order to check if the system is sane enough for the next stage i.e. UAT or production as the case may be under an isolated environment. Ideally the defects that are fixed from the previous phases are checked and freedom testing done to ensure integrity is conducted.

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Software Testing – made easy

12.

Defect Management

12.1.Defect – Definition
“Error: A human action that produces an incorrect result. “

… [IEEE]

“Fault: A manifestation of an error in software. A fault, if encountered may cause a failure. “ … BS7925-1 “Failure: Deviation of the software from its expected delivery or service. “ … BS7925-1

“A deviation from expectation that is to be tracked and resolved is termed as a defect. “ An evaluation of defects discovered during testing provides the best indication of software quality. Quality is the indication of how well the system meets the requirements. So in the context defects are identified as any failure to meet the system requirements. Error:

“Is an undesirable deviation from requirements?” Any problem or cause for many problems which stops the system to perform its functionality is referred as Error

Bug: Any Missing functionality or any action that is performed by the system which is not supposed to be performed is a Bug. “Is an error found BEFORE the application goes into production?” Any of the following may be the reason for birth of Bug 1. Wrong functionality 2. Missing functionality 3. Extra or unwanted functionality Defect: A defect is a variance from the desired attribute of a system or application. “Is an error found AFTER the application goes into production?” Defect will be commonly categorized into two types: 1. Defect from product Specification 2. Variance from customer/user expectation. Failure: Any Expected action that is supposed to happen if not can be referred as failure or we can say absence of expected response for any request. Fault: This generally referred in hardware terminologies. A Problem, which cause the system not to perform its task or objective.

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Software Testing – made easy 12.2.Types of Defects
Defects that are detected by the tester are classified into categories by the nature of the defect. The following are the classification · Showstopper: A Defect which may be very critical in terms of affecting the schedule, or it may be a show stopper – that is, it stops the user from using the system further · Major: A Defect where a functionality/data is affected significantly but not cause a showstopping condition or a block in the test process cycles. · Minor: A Defect which is isolated or does not stop the user from proceeding, but causes inconvenience. Cosmetic Errors would also feature in this category

12.3.Defect Reporting
Defects or Bugs when detected in the application by the tester must be duly reported through an automated tool. Particulars that have to be filled by a tester are · Defect Id: Number associated with a particular defect, and henceforth referred by its ID · Date of execution: The date on which the test case which resulted in a defect was executed · Defect Category: These are explained in the next section, ideally decided by the test leader · Severity: As explained, it can be Major, Minor and Show-stopper · Module ID: Module in which the defect occurred · Status: Raised, Authorized, Deferred, Fixed, Re-raised, And Closed. · Defect description: Description as to how the defect was found, the exact steps that should be taken to simulate the defect, other notes and attachments if any. · Test Case Reference No: The number of the test case and script in combination which resulted in the defect. · Owner: The name of the tester who executed the test cases · Test case description: The instructions in the test cases for the step in which the error occurred · Expected Result: The expected result after the execution of the instructions in the test case descriptions · Attachments: The screen shot showing the defect should be captured and attached · Responsibility: Identified team member of the development team for fixing the defect.

12.4.Tools Used
Tools that are used to track and report defects are,

12.4.1.ClearQuest (CQ)
It belongs to the Rational Test Suite and it is an effective tool in Defect Management. CQ functions on a native access database and it maintains a common database of defects. With CQ the entire Defect Process can be customized. For e.g., a process can be designed in such a manner that a defect once raised needs to be definitely authorized and then fixed for it to attain the status of retesting. Such a systematic defect flow process can be established and the history for the same can be maintained. Graphs and reports can be customized and metrics can be derived out of the maintained defect repository.

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defect categorizations are done. an Independent Software Testing Company in Chennai for defect management. · As a sophisticated system for tracking software defects.Defects Publishing Defects that are authorized are published in a mutually accepted media like Internet or sending the issue by email etc.4. executing tests.2.Software Testing – made easy 12.TestDirector (TD): TestDirector is an Automated Test Management Tool developed by Mercury Interactive for Test Management to help to organize and manage all phases of the software testing process. Apart from Manual Test Execution. Possible causes for the problems are o Main server on which the application may have problems with number of instances on it slowly down the system o Networking to the main server or internal network may get down K.Defect Tracker Defect Tracker is a tool developed by Maveric Systems Ltd. · To analyze our Testing Process by means of various graphs and reports.4. the WinRunner automated test scripts of the project can also be executed directly from TestDirector. Here. · Reports that are published are · Daily status report · Summarized defect report for the individual domain / product if any · Final defect reported Test down Times: During the execution of the test. and displays the results.3. schedules prepared earlier may slip based on certain factors. test team should have internal discussions with the test lead on the defects reported to the test lead. track the defect and report the defect effectively by the testing team. · Server problems o Test team may come across problems with the server. TestDirector activates WinRunner. Before meetings with the development team. Muthuvel Page 67 of 127 .5. creating tests. The process ensures that all defects are accurate and authentic to the best knowledge of the test team. it is used for · To report defects detected in the software. runs the tests. · To monitor defects closely from initial detection until resolution. 12. including planning. Apart form the above.Defects Meetings Meetings are conducted at the end of everyday between the test team and development team to discuss test execution and defects. This tool is used to manage the defect. TestDirector enables us to manage user access to a project by creating a list of authorized users and assigning each user a password and a user group such that a perfect control can be exercised on the kinds of additions and modifications and user can make to the project. and tracking defects.6. on which the application is planted. 12. Time lost due to these should be recorded duly by the test team. 12.

Muthuvel Page 68 of 127 .7.Defect Life Cycle K.Software Testing – made easy · · · · · · · · · Software compatibility with application and middleware if any may cause concerns delaying the test start New version of databases or middleware may not be fully compatible with the applications Improper installation of system applications may cause delays Interfaces with applications may not be compatible with the existing hardware setup Problems on Testing side / Development side Delays can also be from the test or development teams likely Data designed may not be sufficient or compatible with the application (missing some parameters of the data) Maintenance of the parameters may not be sufficient for the application to function Version transferred for testing may not be the right one 12.

Further analysis and derivation of metrics can be done based on the various components of the defect management. the following has to be completed.3. These are categorized as 13. As an example Defect density is a metric which gives the ratio of defects in specific modules to the total defects in the application.Defect Metrics Analysis on the defect report is done for management and client information.2. This would give a fair idea on the defect set to be included for smoke test during regression.1.Sign Off Sign off Criteria: In order to acknowledge the completion of the test process and certify the application. · · · All passes have been completed All test cases should have been executed All defects raised during the test execution have either been closed or deferred 13.Defect age: Defect age is the time duration between the points of introduction of defect to the point of closure of the defect.3.1. K. 13. Test Closure Process 13.Defect Analysis: The analysis of the defects can be done based on the severity. occurrence and category of the defects. Muthuvel Page 69 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy 13.Deliverables The following are the deliverables to the Clients · · · · · · Test Strategy High Level Test Conditions or Scenarios and Test Conditions document Consolidated defect report Weekly Status report Traceability Matrix Test Acceptance/Summary Report.4.Metrics 13. 13.2.4.4.Authorities The following personnel have the authority to sign off the test execution process · · · Client: The owners of the application under test Project manager: Maveric Personnel who managed the project Project Lead: Maveric Personnel who managed the test process 13.4.

Software Testing – made easy 13. 13.4.Test Management Metrics Analysis on the test management is done for management and client information.Debriefs With Test Team Completion of a project gives knowledge enrichment to the team members.4. Effort: Effort variance is a metric determined by the ratio of the planned effort to the actual effort exercised for the project. positive and negative should be shared commonly with the management and peer groups.4. These are categorized as · · Schedule: Schedule variance is a metric determined by the ratio of the planned duration to the actual duration of the project. Polarity of the knowledge i. K..e. Muthuvel Page 70 of 127 .5.

test activities and dependencies 14.Test Initiation Phase The various activities happening during Test Initiation phase are: · · · · · · Functional Point Analysis. Muthuvel Page 71 of 127 . The testing deliverables of different phases are significant for monitoring the testing process and for process improvement. 14. It plays a significant role in · · · · · · Identify and prioritize improvement areas Analyze the results and about the variability and current strengths and weakness and indicate improvement areas List improvement areas Analyze effectiveness measurements Exercise on Test strategy preparation using Maveric template Identification of test phases. Test script and Test data Preparation of Traceability matrix Preparation of Daily status and Weekly status report K.Test Design Phase The various activities happening during Test design phase are: · · · · Environment set up for Testing by the IT department Preparation of Test condition.1. Risk Analysis Effort Estimation Proposal preparation and submission. Testing Activities & Deliverables The process of testing involves sequence of phases with several activities involved in each phase.Software Testing – made easy 14. Discussion with Client Contract sign-off 14. Each phase of testing has various documents to be maintained that tracks the progress of testing activities and helps for future references.3.Test Planning Phase The various activities happening during Test Planning phase are: · · · · · · · · Team formation and Task allocation Application understanding Preparation of Clarification document Internal Presentation Client Presentation Assess and Prioritize risk Preparation of Test Schedule(Effort estimation) Preparation of Test strategy document.2.

Test Closure Phase The various activities happening during Test Closure are: · · · · · Final Testing Checklist Preparation of Final Test Summary Report Test Deliverables Project De-brief Project Analysis Report K. Muthuvel Page 72 of 127 .4.5.Software Testing – made easy · Approval of Design documents by the Client 14.Test Execution & Defect Management Phase The various activities happening during Test Execution and defect Management are: · Environment Check-up · Test data population · Execution and Defect management · Comprehensive (Round 1) · Discrepancy (Round 2) · Sanity (Round3) · Preparation of Daily status and Weekly status report · Defect Analysis · Preparation of Consolidated Defect report. 14.

Dallas. A Maveric spirit and collective vision is nurturing our unique culture.Testing Mahesh VN Rosario Regis Director Manager . “ K. and performance of technology solutions deployed by our clients. Domain expertise in chosen areas enables us to understand client requirements quickly and completely to offer a value-added testing service. financial services and insurance verticals. Chicago. Our five founding Directors of Maveric took to entrepreneurship while they were at the prime of their careers in business and technology consulting. Financial Services and Insurance New Focus Areas .2. We have also delivered projects in telecom. and healthcare domains.1. Mumbai.Quality Policy “We will significantly enhance the functionality.Technical Writing Kannan Sethuraman Sajan CK Principal Manager .Banking. usability. · · · · · Maveric Systems is an independent software testing company Delivery hubs in India and UK 185 Professionals on Projects across Chennai. We significantly enhance the functionality.Software Testing – made easy 15. We bring in a fresh perspective and rigor to testing engagements by virtue of our dedicated focus. Ranga Reddy P K Bandyopadhyay CEO Manager . Maveric Systems Limited 15.Leadership Team Exceptional management bandwidth is a unique strength that has fuelled Maveric's aggressive growth. specialist software testing service provider. Hyderabad. Complementing our core service offering in testing is a strong capability in strategic technical writing and risk management (verification) services. Muthuvel Page 73 of 127 . London.Overview Maveric Systems is an independent.3. CRM. Our forte lies in banking.Testing Venkatesh P Hari Narayana Director Manager . Singapore and Tokyo Primary Focus . usability. A core group of anchor clients have propelled us to become a key independent software testing firm in India within a short span of three years.Fulfillment 15. Melbourne. Delhi. and driving us to relentlessly deliver value to our clients.Testing Subramanian NN AP Narayanan Director Manager .Telecom and Manufacturing sectors 15. and performance of IT solutions deployed by our clients. Bangalore.

Testing Process / Methodology Input Output Key Signoff K. Muthuvel Page 74 of 127 .4.Software Testing – made easy 15.

Test Initiation Phase Input · Signed proposal Procedure · Arrange internal kick-off meeting among the team members.4. Muthuvel Page 75 of 127 .1. · Prepare a micro level schedule indicating the roles allocated for all team members with timelines in MPP · Fill in the Project Details form and the Top Level Project Checklist Output · Minutes of meeting · MPP to be attached to Test Strategy (Test Planning process) · Project Details form · Top Level Project Checklist to Test Delivery Management K. Lead . Test Manager.Software Testing – made easy 15.Commercial and Lead .Operations · Distribute the baseline documents based on the individual roles defined.

Muthuvel Page 76 of 127 .2.4.Test Planning Phase K.Software Testing – made easy 15.

Software Testing – made easy

Input · Baseline documents · MPP Procedure · Team members understand the functionality from baseline documents · Raise and obtain resolution of clarifications · Internal presentation and reverse presentation to the client · TL defines test environment and request the client for the same · TL identifies risks associated and monitors the project level risks throughout the project. The risks at the project delivery level are maintained by the Lead - Ops · TL prepares Test Strategy, review is by Lead - Commercial, Lead - Ops and Test Manager · AM revises commercials if marked difference between Test Strategy and the Proposal · TL prepares Configuration Management and Quality Plan, Review is by Lead Ops and Test Manager Output · Clarification document · Test Environment Request to client · Risk Analysis document to Test Delivery Management

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Software Testing – made easy 15.4.3.Test Design Phase

Input · Test Strategy Procedure · Team members prepare the Test Conditions, Test Cases and Test Script · TL prepares the Test Scenarios (free form)
· ·

·
· · · Output

Review of the above by the Lead - Ops, Test Manager Client review records are also maintained. Lead - Ops is responsible for sign-off Team members prepare Traceability matrix if agreed in Test Strategy and updated during Test Execution with defect ids Team members prepare Data Guidelines whenever required TL sends daily status reports to clients and the Test Delivery Management team. TL sends the weekly status reports to clients, Test Manager, delivery management team and the Account Manager TL escalates any changes in baseline documents to Delivery Management team.

· ·
·

Test Condition/Test Case document, Test Script, Test Scenarios (free form) Traceability matrix to the client Daily and Weekly status reports to client, Test Delivery Management and Account Management

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Software Testing – made easy 15.4.4.Execution and Defect Management Phase

15.4.4.1.Test Execution Process

15.4.4.2.Defect Management Process

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if prepared) with actual result and status of test · Log in the Defect Report. Output · Defect Report · Daily and Weekly status reports to the client. Test Delivery Management and Account Management K. Muthuvel Page 80 of 127 . Test Manager and · · · · · · · delivery management team Conducts defect review meetings with client (as specified in Test Strategy) Consolidate the Test Conditions/Test Cases to be executed in the subsequent round in a separate document. consolidate all defects and send to client.Software Testing – made easy Input · Test Conditions/ Test Cases document · Test Scenarios document · Traceability matrix Procedure · Validate test environment and deal with any issues · Execute first rounds of testing · Update the Test Condition/Test case document (and the Test Scripts.Ops Complete rounds/stages of testing as agreed in the Test Strategy Send daily and weekly status reports to clients and the Test Delivery Management team Escalate any changes in baseline documents to Delivery Management team. No review or sign-off required Carry out the test in the new version of the application Changes to baseline or scope of work escalated to Lead .

Software Testing – made easy 15.5. decisions whether to close and release deliverables are taken by delivery management team · The team prepare the Quantitative measurements · TL prepares the Final Testing Checklist and Lead . If required. Muthuvel Page 81 of 127 .Comm. Test Manager. % compliance to schedule are documented in Project De-brief form. inputs are given to Quality Department for process improvements Output · Final Testing Checklist and Final Test Report to the client · Project De-brief to Quality Department K.4. Lead . · Internal Review records and review records of clients are also stored.Ops approves the same · TL prepares the Final Test Report and Lead . Effort variances.Ops. Lead .Ops decides about closure of a project (both complete and incomplete) · In case of incomplete testing.Test Closure Phase Input · Consolidated Defect Report Procedure · Team Lead in consultation with Lead .Ops and Test Manager Reviews the same.. TL and team members carry out the de-brief meeting. Account Manager.

Muthuvel Page 82 of 127 . if any K.Software Testing – made easy 15.5.1. if any Defect tracking / Project management tools used.Test Deliverables Template 15.Project Details Form Name of Project Client Location Contact at Client Location Project In-charge (Testing) Project In-charge (Development) Name: Designation: Email: Phone: Mobile: Name: Designation: Email: Phone: Mobile: Name: Designation: Email: Phone: Mobile: Domain of the Project Duration of Testing Level of Testing Test Summary From To White Box Testing Black Box Testing Manual Testing Automation Testing Type of Testing Functional Testing Regression Testing Performance Testing Automation Tools.5.

Muthuvel Page 83 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy Application Summary Application Overview OS with version Database Backend Middleware Front-end Software languages used Module Summary Module Name Description Testers Summary K.

Software Testing – made easy 15.Minutes of Meeting Meeting Topic: Host of the Meeting: Participants: Absentees: Previous Meeting Follow up: Meeting Time: Date and Venue and Meeting: Minutes of the Meeting (Detailed) Attach if additional sheets require: Corrective and Preventive Actions with Target Date: Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: K.5. Muthuvel Page 84 of 127 .2.

5.Software Testing – made easy 15. Muthuvel Page 85 of 127 .3.Top Level Project Checklist K.

Test Strategy Document 15. Muthuvel Page 86 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy 15.4.5.5.5.Configuration Management and Quality Plan K.

of CPU RAM Hard Disk capacity Operating System Software Number of Servers Location of Server Server side – Database Hardware Platform.Software Testing – made easy 15. Hard Disk Capacity etc.5. Server side – Middle Tier Hardware Platform. No. of CPU RAM Hard Disk capacity Operating System Software CPU RAM Hard Disk capacity Number of Database Servers Location of Database Servers Details Version K. Operating System Client Software’s to be installed Front end language. MS Projects etc.6. Muthuvel Page 87 of 127 . tools Browser support Internet connection Automation Tools to be installed Utility software’s like Toad. No.Test Environment Request Project Code: Project Name: Application Version No: Type of Testing: Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: Description Client side Hardware Details like RAM.

5.8.5.Clarification Document 15.Risk Analysis Document 15.Test condition / Test Case Document 15.5.7. Muthuvel Page 88 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy 15.9.5.10.Test Script Document K.

Executed during the day Planned Actua l Total executed till date Planned Actual Remarks B.5.12. Design Phase Module No of Test Condn Designed No of Test Cases Designed Remarks Sn No WinRunner Scripting Progress SRs/Transaction Status A2. Defect Distribution K.Software Testing – made easy 15.Traceability Matrix 15.11.Daily Status Report Project Code: Project Name: Phase of the Testing Life Cycle: Application Version No: Round: Report Date: Highlights of the Day: A1. Muthuvel Page 89 of 127 .5. Execution Phase Module Tot no of Conds in the module No.

Environment Non-availability From Time To Time Time Lost Man-hours Lost Error encountered & Root cause (If Identified) Total D. Muthuvel Page 90 of 127 . Other Issues / Concerns Description of the Issue / Concern Action Proposed Proposed Target Date Responsibility Remarks E. General Remarks: Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: K.Software Testing – made easy Show Stopper Defects Raised Today (A) Till Yesterday (B) Total (A + B) Defects Closed (C) Balance Open (A + B – C) Fixed but to be retested Rejected Critical Major Minor Total C.

Highlights of the Week B1. Environment Non-availability Total man-hours lost during the week: K.Software Testing – made easy 15. Life Cycle/Process Planned Start Date End Date Manmonths Revised Start Date End Date Start Date Man months utilized till date Actual Projected man months till closure Projected End Date Reasons B.5.13. Design Phase Module No of Test Condition Designed No of Test Cases Designed Remarks WinRunner Scripting Progress Sn No SRs/Transaction Status B2. Execution Phase Module Total no of conditions in the module No of conditions executed during the week Planned Actual Total executed till date Planned Actual Remarks C.Weekly Status Report Project Code: Project Name: Phase of the Testing Life Cycle: Application Version No: Report Date: Report for Week: A. Defect Distribution Show stopper Open Defects Break-up of Open defects Pending Clarifications Fixed but to be re-tested Re-raised Being Fixed Rejected Critical Major Minor Total D. Muthuvel Page 91 of 127 .

Muthuvel Page 92 of 127 .Software Testing – made easy E.5.Defect Report Round 2& Round 3 as same as Round 1 K. Other Issues / Concerns Description of the Issue / Concern Action Proposed Proposed Target Date Responsibility Remarks F.14. General Remarks Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: 15.

timelines been tracked in Top Level Project Checklist.5. client review comments etc) Have all defects been re-tested Have all defects been closed or deferred status Are all deliverables ready for delivery Are all deliverables taken from Configuration Management tool Are all soft copy deliverables checked to be virus free Comments and Observations: Final inspection result: Approved/ Rejected Status (Y/N) Remarks K.Software Testing – made easy 15. Muthuvel Page 93 of 127 .Final Test Checklist Project Code: Project Name: Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: Check Have all modules been tested Have all conditions been tested Have all rounds been completed All deliverables named according to naming convention Are all increase in scope.15. Test Strategy and design documents Have all agreed-upon changes carried out (change in scope.

Software Testing – made easy 15.5.17.5.16.Final Test Report 15.Project De-brief Form Project Code: Project Name: Prepared By: Date: Approved By: Date: Overview of the Application: Key Challenges faced during Design or Execution: Lessons learnt: Suggested Corrective Actions: K. Muthuvel Page 94 of 127 .

K.various tools often introduce their own bugs or are poorly documented. 'userfriendly' (too subjective). cohesive. resulting in added bugs. then the list will be checked to ensure that it is not a duplicate. there will be no clear-cut way to determine if a software application is performing correctly.it's tough to maintain and modify code that is badly written or poorly documented that result as bugs. known and unknown dependencies among parts of the project are likely to interact and cause problems. etc. If there are many minor changes or any major changes. Changing requirements .understand the application requirements. Q4: What's the big deal about 'requirements'? Ans: Requirements are the details describing an application's externally perceived functionality and properties. rescheduling of engineers. the error is simulated Testing the fixed code to verify that the bug is really fixed Q3: What will happen about bugs that are already known? Ans: When a program is sent for testing (or a website given) a list of any known bugs should accompany the program. Muthuvel Page 95 of 127 . clear & documented. mistakes will be made. and testable.scheduling of software projects is difficult at best. reasonably detailed. and the complexity of keeping track of changes may result in errors. for example. complete.programmers "can" make mistakes. Poorly documented code . A non-testable requirement would be. Software complexity . If a bug is found. often requiring a lot of guesswork. attainable. Without such documentation.Software Testing – made easy 16. Requirements should be.General Q1: Why does software have bugs? Ans: · · · · Miscommunication or no communication . Q&A 16. Any bugs not found on the list will be assumed to be new.1. · · · Q2: What does "finding a bug" consist of? Ans: Finding a bug consists of number of steps that are performed: · · · · · Searching for and locating a bug Analyzing the exact circumstances under which the bug occurs Documenting the bug found Reporting the bug and if necessary.A redesign. When deadlines loom and the crunch comes. Software development tools . Time pressures .the complexity of current software applications can be difficult to comprehend for anyone without experience in modern-day software development. Programming errors . effects on other projects.

indicating a normal amount of programmer testing) High stability (bugs are expected to be difficult to find. Be sure that customers and management understand the scheduling impacts. Muthuvel Page 96 of 127 . It is up to the tester to decide how much to test it before it is tested.) Test cases completed with certain percentage passed Test budget depleted Coverage of code/functionality/requirements reaches a specified point Defect rate falls below a certain level Beta or Alpha testing period ends Q7: How does a client/server environment affect testing? Q9: How is testing affected by object-oriented designs? Ans: Well-engineered object-oriented design can make it easier to trace from code to internal design to functional design to requirements. or set up only higher-level generic-type test plans) Q6: When to stop testing? Ans: This can be difficult to determine. An initial assessment of the software is made. and servers.Software Testing – made easy Q5: What can be done if requirements are changing continuously? Ans: It's helpful if the application's initial design allows for some adaptability so that any changes done later do not require redoing the application from scratch. While there will be little affect on black box testing (where an K. Q8: Does it matter how much the software has been tested already? Ans: No. load/stress/performance testing may be useful in determining client/server application limitations and capabilities. etc. Additionally. Use rapid prototyping whenever possible to help customers feel sure of their requirements and minimize changes. so a complete testing can never be performed. Common factors in deciding when to stop testing are: · · · · · · Ans: Client/server applications can be quite complex due to the multiple dependencies among clients. data communications. Design some flexibility into test cases (this is not easily done. When time is limited (as it usually is) the focus should be on integration and system testing. hardware. and run in such an interdependent environment. Thus testing requirements can be extensive. and it will be classified into one of three possible stability levels: · · · Low stability (bugs are expected to be easy to find. inherent risks. testing deadlines. and costs of significant requirements changes. indicating already well tested) Deadlines achieved (release deadlines. the best bet might be to minimize the detail in the test cases. To makes changes easier for the developers the code should be well commented and well documented. Many modern software applications are so complex. indicating that the program has not been tested or has only been very lightly tested) Normal stability (normal level of bugs.

Outsourcing testing offers the flexibility of having a large test team. integration. load. and services needed to efficiently develop software. Testing a software application now involves a variety of skills. problem/bug tracking. · · Q12: What steps are needed to develop and run software tests? Ans: The following are some of the steps needed to develop and run software tests: · · · Obtain requirements. system. Q10: Will automated testing tools make testing easier? Ans: A tool set that allows controlled access to all test assets promoted better communication between all the team members. on multiple platforms and across different domain areas. Automated testing tools are only one part of a unique solution to achieving customer success.) Determine test-ware requirements (record/playback tools. If the application was well designed this can simplify test design. This reduces the carrying costs and at the same time reduces the ramp up time and costs associated with hiring and training temporary personnel.Software Testing – made easy understanding of the internal design of the application is unnecessary).Using a dedicated and expert test team frees the development team to focus on sharpening their core skills in design and development. required standards and processes (such as release processes. · · Focus . software. Save time . Independent assessment . set priorities. and labor requirements · · · · · K. test tracking. for different clients. and will ultimately break down the walls that have traditionally existed between various groups. functional. etc. usability tests. those responsible for tasks. Muthuvel Page 97 of 127 . etc. communications.unit. coverage analyzers. only when needed. change processes. etc. white-box testing can be oriented to the application's objects. in their domain areas. Determine test environment requirements (hardware. reporting requirements.) Determine test input data requirements Identify tasks. and internal design specifications and other necessary documents Obtain budget and schedule requirements Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities.Independent test team looks afresh at each test project while bringing with them the experience of earlier test assignments. Reduce Cost .) Identify application's higher-risk aspects. tools. etc. and determine scope and limitations of tests Determine test approaches and methods . functional design.Testing can go in parallel with the software development life cycle to minimize the time needed to develop the software. The complete solution is based on providing the user with principles. Q11: Why outsource testing? Ans: Skill and Expertise Developing and maintaining a team that has the expertise to thoroughly test complex and large applications is expensive and effort intensive.

but might be published with the system test plan as a single document. Muthuvel Page 98 of 127 . K. techniques and tools to be used. set up test tracking processes. The next stage of test design. boundary value analyses. is the development of a test plan. A test plan states what the items to be tested are. test environment. A System Test Plan. obtain needed user manuals/reference documents/configuration guides/installation guides. These may form part of the Detailed Design Specifications. Developing a test strategy. how the test strategy will be applied to the testing of each item. This would usually be published as a separate document. This may form part of the Architectural Design Specification. · · · · · · · · · The objective of each test plan is to provide a plan for verification. set up or obtain test input data Obtain and install software releases Perform tests Evaluate and report results Track problems/bugs and fixes Retest as needed Maintain and update test plans. describing the plan for acceptance testing of the software. describing the plan for system integration and testing. is critical to the success of software development within the organization.Software Testing – made easy · · · · · Set schedule estimates. Unit Test Plan(s). at what level they will be tested. describing the plan for integration of testes software components. A test strategy should ideally be organization wide. what sequence they are to be tested in. The application of a test strategy to a software development project should be detailed in the projects software quality plan. A Software Integration Test Plan. A test plan may be project wide. milestones Determine input equivalence classes. or may in fact be a hierarchy of plans relating to the various levels of specification and testing: · An Acceptance Test Plan. error classes Prepare test plan document and have needed reviews/approvals Write test cases Have needed reviews/inspections/approvals of test cases Prepare test environment and test ware. describing the plans for testing of individual units of software. set up logging and archiving processes. but might be published with the acceptance test plan. timelines. and describes the test environment. and test ware through life cycle · Q13: What is a Test Strategy and Test Plan? Ans: A test strategy is a statement of the overall approach to testing. In the case of acceptance testing and system testing. test cases. by testing the software. This would also usually be published as a separate document. being applicable to all of organizations software developments. that the software produced fulfils the requirements or design statements of the appropriate software specification. this means the Requirements Specification. which is the first stage within a software development project. identifying what levels of testing are to be applied and the methods. which efficiently meets the needs of an organization.

An integrated application. What is the need for testing? The Primary need is to match requirements get satisfied with the functionality and also to answer two questions A.2." 2. /BRS (CRS)/User Manual. What is the Outcome of Testing? A stable application. 5. What are the entry criteria for Functionality and Performance testing? Functional testing: Functional Spec.. To achieve the maximum usability of the system To demonstrate expected performance of the system.. What is Software Testing? “The process of exercising or evaluating a system or system component by manual or automated means to verify that it satisfies specified requirements or to identify differences between expected and actual results. What types of testing do testers perform? Black-box testing. White box testing is the basic type of testing testers Performs.E. What is the Purpose of Testing? · · · To uncover hidden error. Stable for testing Performance Testing: K. performing its task as expected. Muthuvel Page 99 of 127 . Apart from that they also perform a lot of tests like · Ad-Hoc testing · Cookie testing · CET ( Customer Experience test) · Client-Server Test · Configuration Tests · Compatibility testing · Conformance Testing · Depth Test · Error Test · Event-Driven · Full Test · Negative Test · Parallel Testing · Performance Testing · Recovery testing · Sanity Test · Security Testing · Smoke testing · Web Testing 4.Software Testing – made easy 16. Whether the system is not performing what it is not suppose to do? 6. 3. – Interview 1. Whether the system is doing what it supposes to do? B.G.

Software metrics is any type of measurement. relying on review or non executable methods (such as software. What is Baseline document. When to start and Stop Testing? If we follow ‘Waterfall’ model then testing can be started after coding. Eg: Size of code and Found bugs on that count Number of bugs reported per day. Why do you go for White box testing. structures. are very micro level but they are Basement for any application. arrays. So White box takes these things in Macro level and test these things 9. Clear Design and Flow of the application is needed 10. documentation and personnel) “Are we Building the Right Product” K. Functional Specification Business Requirement Document 13. etc. Regard less of model the following criteria should considered To start: When test Environment was supportive enough for testing. If ‘V’ model is followed then testing can be started at design phase itself. 11. hardware. When Application study was confident enough To Stop: After full coverage of Scope of testing After getting enough confidence on health of the application. Number of Conditions/Cases tested per day It can be · Test Efficiency · Total number of tests executed 8. when Black box testing is available? A benchmark that certifies Commercial (Business) aspects and also functional (technical) aspects is objectives of black box testing. files.. What is Quality “Fitness to use” “A journey towards excellence” 12. starts actual testing. Here loops. What is verification? A tester uses verification method to ensure the system complies with an organization standards and processes. an evaluation doing on the testing to extract some information about the application health using outputs of testing. conditions. which starts the understanding of the application before the tester. which relates to a software system. What are the entry criteria for Automation testing? Application should be stable.Software Testing – made easy Same above mentioned baseline document support and good and healthy application that supports drastic performance testing 7. process or related documentation. Can you say any two? A baseline document. Muthuvel Page 100 of 127 . What is test metrics? After doing the actual testing.

processes are monitored and performance problems are solved. · Ad . (Software development Life Cycle and testing development Life cycle) TDLC is a informal concept and also referred as TLC 18. What are the Qualities of a Tester? · · · · · · Should be perfectionist Should be tactful and diplomatic Should be innovative and creative Should be relentless Should possess negative thinking with good judgment skills Should possess the attitude to break the system 19.Hoc testing · Cookie Testing · CET (Customer Experience Test) · Client-Server Test · Configuration Tests · Compatibility testing · Conformance Testing · Depth Test · Error Test · Event-Driven · Full Test · Negative Test · Parallel Testing K. What is validation? Validation physically ensures that the system operates according to plan by Executing the system functions through series of tests that can be observed or evaluated. What are SDLC and TDLC? The Flow and explanation process. 17. Tell names of some testing type which you learnt or experienced? Any 5 or 6 types which are related to companies profile is good to say in the interview. In order to achieve this purpose.Software Testing – made easy 14.What are the various levels of testing? · Unit Testing · Integration testing · System Testing · User Acceptance Testing 20. What is quality assurance? A planned and systematic pattern for all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that the item or product conforms to established technical requirements 16. “Are we building the Product Right” 15. Muthuvel Page 101 of 127 . which clearly pictures how a software development and testing should be done. What is quality control? Quality Control is defined as a set of activities or techniques whose purpose is to ensure that all quality requirements are being met. were explained in SDLC and TDLC respectively.

Software Testing – made easy
· · · · · · Performance Testing Recovery testing Sanity Test Security Testing Smoke testing Web Testing

21. What exactly is Heuristic checklist approach for unit testing? It is method of achieving the most appropriate solution of several found by alternative methods is selected at successive stages testing. The check list Prepared to Proceed is called Heuristic check list 22. After completing testing, what would you deliver to the client? · · · · · · · Test deliverables namely Test plan Test Data Test design Documents (Condition/Cases) Defect Reports Test Closure Documents Test Metrics

23. What is a Test Bed? Before Starting the Actual testing the elements which supports the testing activity such as Test data, Data guide lines. Are collectively called as test Bed. 24. What is a Data Guideline? Data Guidelines are used to specify the data required to populate the test bed and prepare test scripts. It includes all data parameters that are required to test the conditions derived from the requirement / specification The Document, which supports in preparing test data are called Data guidelines

25. Why do you go for Test Bed? When Test Condition is executed its result should be compared to Test result (expected result), as Test data is needed for this here comes the role of test Bed where Test data is made ready. 26. What is Severity and Priority and who will decide what? Severity: How much the Bug found is supposed to affect the systems Function/Performance, Usually we divide as Emergency, High, Medium, and Low. Priority: Which Bug should be solved fist in order of benefit of system’s health? Normally it starts from Emergency giving first Priority to Low as last Priority. 27. Can Automation testing replace manual testing? If it so, how? Automated testing can never replace manual Testing.

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Software Testing – made easy
As these tools to Follow GIGO principle of computer tools. Absence of creativity and innovative thinking. But 1. It speeds up the process. Follow a clear Process, which can be reviewed easily. Better Suited for Regression testing of Manually tested Application and Performance testing. 28. What is a test case? A Test Case gives values / qualifiers to the attributes that the test condition can have. Test cases, typically, are dependent on data / standards. A Test Case is the end state of a test condition, i.e., it cannot be decomposed or broken down further. Test Case design techniques for Black box Testing. · · · · · · Decision table Equivalence Partitioning Method Boundary Value Analysis Cause Effect Graphing State Transition Testing Syntax Testing

29. What is a test condition? A Test Condition is derived from a requirement or specification. It includes all possible combinations and validations that can be attributed to that requirement/specification. 30. What is the test script? A Test Script contains the Navigation Steps, Instructions, Data and Expected Results required to execute the test case(s). Any test script should say how to drive or swim through out the application even for a new user. 31. What is the test data? The value which are given at expected places(fields) in a system to verify its functionality have been made ready in a piece of document called test data. 32. What is an Inconsistent bug? The Bug which is not occurring in a definable format or which cannot be caught, even if a process is followed. It may occur and may not when tested with same scenario. 33. What is the difference between Re-testing and Regression testing? Retest-To check for a particular bug and its dependencies after it is said to be fixed. Regression testing: To check for the added or new functionality's effect on the existing system 34. What are the different types of testing techniques? · · · White box Black box Gray Box

35. What are the different types of test case techniques?

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Test Case design techniques for Black box Testing. · Decision table · Equivalence Partitioning Method · Boundary Value Analysis · Cause Effect Graphing · State Transition Testing · Syntax Testing 36. What are the risks involved in testing? · · · Resource Risk (A. Human Resource B. Hardware resource C. Software resource) Technical risk Commercial Risk

37. Differentiate Test bed and Test Environment? Test bed holds only testing documents which supports testing which includes Test data, Data guidelines etc. Test environment includes all supportive elements namely hardware, software, tools, Browsers, Servers, etc., 38. What ifs the difference between defect, error, bug, failure, fault? Error: “Is an undesirable deviation from requirements?” Any problem or cause for many problems which stops the system to perform its functionality is referred as Error Bug: Any Missing functionality or any action that is performed by the system which is not supposed to be performed is a Bug. “Is an error found BEFORE the application goes into production?” Any of the following may be the reason for birth of Bug 1. Wrong functionality 2. Missing functionality 3. Extra or unwanted functionality Defect: A defect is a variance from the desired attribute of a system or application. “Is an error found AFTER the application goes into production?” Defect will be commonly categorized into two types: 1. Defect from product Specification 2. Variance from customer/user expectation. Failure: Any Expected action that is suppose to happen if not can be referred as failure or we can say Absence of expected response for any request. Fault: This generally referred in hardware terminologies. A Problem, which cause the system not to perform its task or objective. 39. What is the difference between quality and testing? “Quality is giving more cushions for user to use system with all its expected characteristics”It is usually said as Journey towards Excellence. Testing is an activity done to achieve the quality.

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Both are done to achieve the quality 43. 41. then specific source code features are irrelevant. Black Box: Functional tests examine the observable behavior of software as evidenced by its outputs without reference to internal functions. Missing functionality 3. inspection and reviewing. It's a pragmatic and down-to-earth assessment of software. What is the difference between White & Black Box Testing? White box: Structural tests verify the structure of the software itself and require complete access to the object's source code. Extra or unwanted functionality Defect: A defect is a variance from the desired attribute of a system or application. “Is an error found BEFORE the application goes into production?” Any of the following may be the reason for birth of Bug 1. relying on review or non executable methods (such as software. In other words we can say Verification as “Are we Building the Right Product” A tester uses verification method to ensure the system complies with an organization standards and processes. inspection and reviewing. This is known as ‘white box’ testing because you see into the internal workings of the code. What is the difference between bug and defect? Bug: Any Missing functionality or any action that is performed by the system which is not supposed to be performed is a Bug. If the program consistently provides the desired features with acceptable performance. Muthuvel Page 105 of 127 . Defect from product Specification 2. In other words we can say Verification as “Are we building the Product Right” K. Hence ‘black box’ testing. “Is an error found AFTER the application goes into production?” Defect will be commonly categorized into two types: 1. Variance from customer/user expectation 44.Software Testing – made easy 40. The technique for validation is testing. What is the difference between verification and validation? Verification: The process of determining whether of not the products of a given phase of the software development cycle meets the implementation steps and can be traced to the incoming objectives established during the previous phase. hardware. What is the difference between Testing and debugging? Testing is done to find bugs Debugging is an art of fixing bugs. What is the difference between Quality Assurance and Quality Control? QA: Study on Process followed in Project development QC: Study on Project for its Function and Specification 42. The techniques for verification are testing. Wrong functionality 2. documentation and personnel) Validation: The process of evaluating software at the end of the software development process to ensure compliance with software requirements.

It validates that the software performs as designed. Deliverable of integration testing is parts of system ready for testing with other portions of system. Validates that multiple parts of the system perform as per specification. What is the difference between functional spec? And Business requirement Specification? Functional specification will be more technical. It holds properties of a field and functionality dependencies E. What is the difference between Volume & Load? Testing Type Data Increase Till saturation Point is reached Co User Load Constant Increase Till saturation Volume Point is reached 48.: size. Type of data whether numeric or alphabets etc. Deliverable of the unit testing is software unit ready for testing with other system components. Muthuvel Page 106 of 127 . Stress is the combination of both volume and load.g. so need not to increase in volume alone even user can also increased objective here is to check the up to which extend it can bare the increasing load and volume. it is usually done by the developer of the unit. Business Requirement Specification will be more business oriented which throws light more on needs or requirements 46. modules or units of code. 45. Integration Testing: Testing of related programs. What is the difference between unit testing and integration testing? Unit Testing Coding & Debugging Individual Unit Under Integration Testing Unit Testing: Testing of single unit of code. K.Software Testing – made easy Validation physically ensures that the system operates according to plan by Executing the system functions through series of tests that can be observed or evaluated. 47. What is difference between Volume & Stress? Volume testing is increasing the volume of data to maximum withstand capacity of the system. module or program.

but prior to implementation.. IST need integrated System of various Unit levels of independent functionality and checks its workability after integration and compares it before integration. There are three separate inspection performed. but prior to Unit testing. 51. What is the difference between walkthrough and inspection? Walkthrough: In a walk through session. Dynamic testing: Performed to the System that responds to any specific request. 50. What is the difference between Integration & System Testing? Integration testing 52. Inspections: Design and code inspection was first described by FAGUN. 55. the aim of this review is to enhance the process carried out in production environment. etc. the material being examined is presented by a reviewed and evaluated by a team of reviewers. What is the Difference between static and dynamic? · · Static testing: Testing performed with expecting any response for specific request placed at that time. A walk through is generally carried out without any plan or preparation. More than all that without executing the application this testing cannot be done. logic. · Following implementation. What is the Difference between SIT & IST? · · SIT can be done when system is on the process of integration. Muthuvel Page 107 of 127 . done to check its stability and functionality when goes online. · Finally inspecting Unit testing. Done Based on structures. What is the difference between Client Server & Web Based Testing? Client server needs a Client server environment that is a system to Request and another to respond to its request. 53.Software Testing – made easy 49. they are · Following design. Load Testing is increasing number of user to maximum withstand capacity of the system. this was not considered to be cost-effective in discovering errors. 56. Review is highly recommended to be done by people of higher level in team or who have good knowledge about the application. Web Based testing normally goes with 3W sites testing. What is the difference between Stress & Load Testing? Stress is the combination of both volume and load. so need not to increase in volume alone even user can also increased objective here is to check the up to which extend it can bare the increasing load and volume. 54. What is the Difference between Code Walkthrough & Code Review? Both are almost same except in one issue that is Walkthrough need not be done by people inside the team are who have more knowledge about the system. Algorithms. What is the difference between alpha testing and beta testing? K.

Browsers. What are the Minimum requirements to start testing? · · · · Baseline Documents. 62. This can be performed even with non-availability of of Baseline documents. 60. Many critical software applications and services have integrated security measures against malicious attacks. password validation and details about your session. 59. The purpose of security testing of these systems include identifying and removing software flaws that may potentially lead to security violations. What is database testing? The demonstrate the backend response for front end requests K.Software Testing – made easy Component Test data Test Environment To Achieve Tested by Supporting Document Used Alpha testing Simulated Controlled Functionality Only testers Functional Specification Beta testing Live Uncontrolled User needs Testers and Users Customer Requirement Specification End- 57. Cookies will get stored in our machines (client). Stable application. Servers.Its mainly to verify whether cookies are being written correctly. Muthuvel Page 108 of 127 . . What is Ad hoc testing? When it can be done? Appropriate and very often syndicated when tester wants to become familiar with the product. It is also largely based on general software product functionality/testing understanding and the normal 'Human Common Sense'. Simulated security attacks can be performed to find vulnerabilities. Enough hardware and software support E. What is cookie testing? Cookie is a text file normally written by web applications to store all your login-id. Importance of cookie testing: · To evaluate the performance of a web application · To assure the health of www application where more cookies are involved 61. and validating the effectiveness of security measures.g. or in the environment when technical/testing materials are not 100% completed. How much it can with stand from breaking the system from performing its assigned task. What is security testing? · · To test how the system can defense itself from external attacks. Originated in the hardware testing practice of turning on a new piece of hardware for the first time and considering it a success if it does not catch on fire. and Tools) Optimum maintenance of resource 58. What is Smoke Testing & when it will be done? A quick-and-dirty test that the major functions of a piece of software work without bothering with finer details.

What is the Initial Stage of testing? Right from understanding the application testing starts with clarifying the ambiguities in the application and continues to Test initiation encloses.finally this execution is going to find the bugs to be fixed so we have prepare this documents. test script (Before Starting Testing)? These are test design document which are used to execute the actual testing Without which execution of testing is impossible . What is Client Server Application Testing? Client server needs a Client server environment that is a system to Request and another to respond to its request. How do you determine. Data guidelines Preparation and test design which is finally executed 67. Testing is the way of achieving quality. What is the relation ship between Quality & Testing? Quality is a journey towards excellence. How do you go about testing of Web Application? K. 65. test data. says how the system should behave in ideal scenario. 72. done to check its stability and functionality when goes online. Is it not waste of time in preparing the test condition. what to be tested? The Scope of testing should be created based on the requirements or needs given by the end user or client. How do you go about testing a project? · · · System study Understanding the application Test environment setup 66. 64. Why do we prepare test condition. 70. which stores and retrieve back the data and supports the front end when in need is justified database testing. based on these things the testing scope should be decided. 69. What is the use of Functional Specification? Functional Specification is a baseline document prepared in technical perspective. 71. Tells right from syntax to its functionality and dependencies Eg: for a password and user id fields It should accept <n>number of characters in<Type> of type of data and it gets input from <x> and gives output to <y>. test case & Test Script? No document prepared in any process is waste of time.Software Testing – made easy How backend. What is Web Based Application Testing? Web Based testing normally goes with 3W sites testing. Muthuvel Page 109 of 127 . That too test design documents which plays vital role in test execution can never be said waste of time as without which proper testing cannot be done. Test process. 63. 68. test cases.

Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program. but Depends on the Application’s individual structure and behavior. Conditions Loops Arrays Structures 77. Is the dynamic testing a functional testing? Yes. Function Validation and Field level validation testing. 76.front end server. security server and back end server. Can test condition. 74. What is the functional testing you perform? I have done Conformance testing. test case & test script help you in performing the static testing? Static testing will be done based on Functions. What does dynamic testing mean? Any dynamic application i. What is meant by Alpha Testing? K. 78. Can be done regardless of type of application. loops. 82. 81. Is the Static testing a functional testing? Yes. the first attack on the application should be on its performance behavior as that is very important for a web application and then transfer of data between web server . can be tested. 75. How do you go about testing of Client Server Application? To approach a client server environment we can track back the data transfer. arrays and structures. What is meant by Static Testing? Structure of a program. Workability testing. 80. 73. what all can be tested? · · · · · Functions. so hardly not needed to have These documents. Can the static testing be done for both Web & Client Server Application? Yes. Regardless of static or dynamic if applications functionality's are attacked keeping in mind to achieve the need then it will come under functional testing. Condition coverage. Regression testing. By keeping this also static testing can be done. In the Static Testing.Software Testing – made easy To approach a web application testing. Muthuvel Page 110 of 127 . the system that responds to request of user is tested by executing it is called dynamic testing 79.e. Check the compatibility and verify the individual behavior and then to compare as client and server. Conditions. Code coverage etc. Program Logic. Regardless of static or dynamic if applications functionality's is attacked keeping in mind to achieve the need then it will come under functional testing..

Who can perform the Unit Testing? Both developers and testers can perform this unit level testing 86. In this testing usually users or testers will involve in performing. 85. which expresses all the functionality's of the application and other documents like user manual and BRS are also need for functional testing. E. 83.: if an application have 5 functionality's to work together.: a Product after completion given to customers for trail as Beta version and feedback from users and important suggestions which will add quality will be done before release. Muthuvel Page 111 of 127 .g. if they have been developed individually then unit testing can be carried out before their integration is suppose to be done. What is meant by Beta Testing? User Acceptance testing which is done with the objective of achieving all users needs. if Applicable v Verify completeness of project test plan How to Validation Not usable use Project Planning Not usable K. Say for E.Software Testing – made easy Alpha testing is testing of product or system at developer’s site by the customer. At what stage the unit testing has to be done? After completing coding of individual functionality's unit testing can be done.g. 84. What kind of Document you need for going for a Functional testing? Functional specification is the ultimate document. Gap analysis document will add value to understand expected and existing system. When will the Verification & Validation be done? Software How To use Development Verification Phases v Verify Requirements Completeness of gathering Requirements v Verify vendor capability.

The nature of this phase is certainly 'white box'. subsystem. K. especially with the top-down method. or system. to make sure the units work together. you prefer & Prepare before starting Testing? Study the application. Ambiguity/Clarification Document and test design Documents. Understanding the applications expected functionality's. Preparing Test plan. as we must have certain knowledge of the units to recognize if we have been successful in fusing them together in the module. 89. What is meant by System Testing? The system test phase begins once modules are integrated enough to perform tests in a whole system environment. Integration testing focuses on the interfaces between units.Software Testing – made easy · · · Validate Correctness of changes Validate Regression Validate meets user acceptance criteria Validate Supplier’s software Process correctly Validate Software interfaces · · Project Implementation Verify Correctness and completeness of Interim Deliverables. What is meant by SIT? System Integration Testing done after the completion of Unit level testing. What is Incremental Integration Testing? Incremental Integration Testing is an approach of testing where we will integrate the modules top to bottom or on the incrementing scale of intensity. What is the testing that a tester performs at the end of Unit Testing? Integration testing will be performed after unit testing to ensure that unit tested modules get integrated correctly. An application which is integrated together after assuring their individual functionality's. What are the things. Then Application is recommended for integration after these unit getting integrated. application can be performed integration testing. 90. 91. What is Integration Testing? Integration testing exercises several units that have been combined to form a module. 87. When do you go for Integration Testing? When all Separate unit in Unit Level testing is assured to do good their performance. Muthuvel Page 112 of 127 . Verify contingency plan · · 86A. 88. 92. System testing can occur in parallel with integration test.

94. 102. 98. here full coverage of functionality should be taken care With the same process followed as for Prototype testing. you take care in Prototype testing? Prototype testing is carrying out testing in same method reputedly to understand the system behavior.If that was done for integration testing then it is top down model testing in Integration and vice versa for Bottom up model 96. the Testing Starts? It depends upon the Software Model which we follow. Can the System testing be done at any stage? No. If we use Waterfall model then testing will comes in to picture only after coding is done. The system as a whole can be tested only if all modules are integrated and all modules work correctly System testing should be done before UAT (User Acceptance testing) and Before Unit Testing. What is the Concept of Up-Down & Down-Up in Testing in integration testing? There is two approach in testing an application if the functionality sequence was mapped and tracked from top to bottom then it is called top down method . 100. 97. UAT test cases can be written from URS/BRS and System test cases can be written from SRS. What are the features. What is Mutation testing & when can it be done? K. If we follow V model then testing can be started at the design phase itself. What is meant by GUI Testing? Testing the front-end user interfaces to applications. 95. What is meant by Back-End Testing? Database Testing is also called as back end testing checking whether database elements have been accessed by front end whenever required as desired. Drivers are important for bottom-up testing. Stubs simulate sub-programs or modules while testing higher-level routines. 101. What are stubs & drivers? Driver programs provide emerging low-level modules with simulated inputs and the necessary resources to function. Muthuvel Page 113 of 127 . Where in the SDLC. What is the Outcome of Integration Testing? At the completion of integration testing all the unit level functionalities or sub modules are integrated together and finally it should work as a system as whole as expected. 99.Software Testing – made easy 93. What is the final Stage of Integration Testing? All the individual units integrated together to Perform a task as a system or Part of the system as expected to do so. where you have a complete low-level module. but nothing to test it with. which use GUI support systems and standard such as MS Windows.

What is meant by regression Testing? Regression testing is an expensive but necessary activity performed on modified software to provide confidence that changes are correct and do not adversely affects other system components. efficiency. The coupling effect stated that a set of test data that can uncover all simple faults in a program is also capable of detecting more complex faults. It is a Process of Testing the effectiveness. Testing is mainly done to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. Operating Systems. it is necessary to do regression testing. What is the Importance of testing? Software Testing is more Oriented to detecting the defects or often equated to finding bugs. Testing only demonstrates that the product performs each function intended & to show the product is free from defect. Muthuvel Page 114 of 127 . What is Compatibility Testing? Testing to ensure compatibility of an application with different browsers. The competent programmer hypothesis assumes that competent programmers tend to write nearly "correct" programs. Since it is a fault-based testing technique. and hardware platforms. Compatibility testing can be performed manually or can be driven by an automated functional or regression test suite. All other skills that we deploy or cultivate aim to make usability (and. and one is good: Change New Bug No New Bug Bug Successful Bad Good Change Unsuccessful Bad Bad Change Because of the high probability that one of the bad outcomes will result from a change to the system. it is aimed at testing and uncovering some specific kinds of faults.Software Testing – made easy Mutation testing is a powerful fault-based testing technique for unit level testing. When we prefer Regression & what are the stages where we go for Regression Testing? We Prefer regression testing to provide confidence that changes are correct & has not affected the flow or Functionality of an application which got Modified or bugs got fixed in it. ultimately. 105. Mutation testing is based on two assumptions: the competent programmer hypothesis and the coupling effect. 107. and satisfaction with which specified users could achieve specified goals in the Application. Four things can happen when a developer attempts to fix a bug. 104. use) successful. What is Usability Testing? Usability testing is a core skill because it is the principal means of finding out whether a system (see our definition below) meets its intended purpose. Mutation testing injects faults into code to determine optimal test inputs 103. Three of these things are bad. namely simple syntactic changes to a program. K. 106. Synonymous with "ease of use".

108. Fortunately. Stress & Load Testing? Volume testing: . The following three types highly influence Performance of an application. but do not require minimization of the test set. Manually: . Performance testing generally involves an automated test suite as this allows easy simulation of a variety of normal. · Safe attempt instead to select every test that will cause the modified program to produce different output than original program. What is the Performance testing. In other words. Web sites. they seek to select all tests that exercise changed or affected program components. by using the Automated Skills. & Volume are the types of testing which are been done Manually. peak. once stress and load factors have been successfully overcome.Software Testing – made easy Stages where we go for Regression Testing are: · Minimization approaches seek to satisfy structural coverage criteria by identifying a minimal set of tests that must be retested. This sort of testing is particularly useful to identify performance bottlenecks in high use applications. Muthuvel Page 115 of 127 . Stress. peak. it is only necessary to stress test again if major changes take place. processing incorrect transactions at high speed can cause much more damage and liability than simply stopping or slowing the processing of correct transactions. those can be done Manually & Automatically? This sort of testing is particularly useful to identify performance bottlenecks in high use applications. Load testing. most stress testing can only simulate loads on various points of the system and cannot truly stress the entire network. and exceptional load conditions. and stress tests try to determine the failure point of a system under extreme pressure. Unfortunately. 110. Performance testing can be applied to understand your application or WWW site's scalability.Load. for identifying whether the application works fine. Stress Testing Stress testing is the combination of both load and volume. What is performance testing? An important phase of the system test. often-called load. as the users would experience it. & Volume are the types of testing which are been done automatically. contain vulnerable nodes that should be tested before deployment. keeping varying the Number of Users & there by finding the Response time & the system With Standing Capability or varying the Users till saturation Point is reached Stress Testing: . What is Volume. Stress. A drawback of performance testing is that can easily confirm that the system can handle heavy loads. or to benchmark the performance in an environment of third party products such as servers and middleware for potential purchase. and exceptional load conditions. 109.Load. volume or performance test. but cannot so easily determine if the system is producing the correct information. Volume testing.Testing the Application under varying loads. · Coverage approaches are also based on coverage criteria. keeping varying the Number of Users simultaneously & there by finding the Response time & the system With Standing Capability or varying the Load & Users till saturation Point is reached K.Testing the Application under varying loads. Instead. Automated: . keeping the Number of Users constantly & finding the Response time & the system With Standing Capability or varying the Load till saturation Point is reached Load Testing: -Testing the Application under Constant load. like any other large-scale system that requires multiple accesses and processing. Stress tests are most useful when systems are being scaled up to larger environments or being implemented for the first time. Performance testing generally involves an automated test suite as this allows easy simulation of a variety of normal.

Muthuvel Page 116 of 127 .The value will be given to the bugs. It mainly deals with.“Is an error found BEFORE the application goes into production?” 112. what importance should be given to each bug by the Developer. 114. it will be Re-raised again & even the new bugs with status Open will be sent to the Development team) The above-mentioned cycle flows on continuously. What is the defect Life Cycle? Test Team (Here the Defect status will be Open) Test Lead Authorize the bugs found (Here the Defect Status will be Open) Development Team reviewing the Defect (Here the Defect Status will be Open) The defect can be Authorized or Unauthorized by the development Team (Here the Status of the Defect will be Open (For Authorized Defects) & Reject (For Unauthorized Defects) · Development Team fixing the Defect (Here the authorized Bugs will get fixed or differed. by both Testers & Developers (But Mostly the Development team will take care of this). What is a Defect? Defect: .e. the status will be made as closed or if the Defect still remains. Explain the Severity you rate for the bugs found? · · · · K. 115. until all the bugs gets fixed in the application. What is a Bug? Bug: .Software Testing – made easy Testing Type Data User Load Constant Increase Till saturation Point is reached Increase Till saturation Point is reached Increase Till saturation Point is reached Volume Constant Stress Increase Till saturation Point is reached 111. What is the Priority in fixing the Bugs? Priority: .“Is an error found AFTER the application goes into production?” 113. it is done again by the Development team. (i. Here the Status after the Development team fixing the bugs will be (Fixed) & Status will be Differed for the bugs which got Differed) · The Fixed bugs will be again Re-tested by the Test Team (Here based on the Closure of the Bug.) like the Critical bugs should be solved first & then the Major bugs can be taken care.

Testing in done in the Client Place 5. it's usually too late. you have a much better chance of a successful project User Acceptance testing is done to achieve the following:· User specified requirements have been satisfied · Functionality is doing as per supporting documents · Expected performance have been achieved · End user is comfortable to use the application. 4. What all are the requirements needed for UAT? · Business Requirement Document is the Documents required for performing the UAT Testing by the testers. Done Using BRD 2. Testing in done in Offsite 5. 118. Eg: . Unfortunately. Testing is done in User Style 4. What is meant by UAT? Traditionally. Done with the Simulated Data 3. K. Testing is done by the Real Users or some Third Party Testers IST: 1. by this time.: . If you can perform every test as user acceptance tests. Muthuvel Page 117 of 127 .When user tries to add an record & then tries to view the same record added & if the details getting displayed to the fields are not the same which the user provided as the value to the fields (These Type of Bugs will be rated as Major Bugs) E.: . it is based on the Defect we find in the application. they are inevitably going to be unhappy with the result. It is mostly done based on the nature of the defect found in the Application. Testing is done in a Controlled Way.Mostly the FLV Bugs & some functional bugs (Related the value display etc.) will be rated as Minor. 116.g. Severity can be rated as Critical or major or Minor. and understood the evolution of the system.Software Testing – made easy · · · · Emergency High (Very High & high) Medium Low (Very Low & Low) Testers will rate severity.g. Difference between UAT & IST? UAT & IST UAT: 1. Done with the Live Data 3. If the users have not seen prototypes.When user is not able to proceed or system gets crashes & so that tester is not able to proceed further testing (These Bugs will be rated as Critical) E. Testing is done in the Testers Company 117. this is where the users ‘get their first crack’ at the software. Done Using FS 2. been involved with the design.

What is risk analysis? Risk Analysis is a series step that helps the Software or Testing Team to understand & manage Uncertainty. Where the documents contains in detail about the Response Time. implementation. threats. Transaction Time. Virtual Memory in which the Application should work. or operations flaw that may be exploited by a threat? Control: -Control is anything that tends to cause the reduction of risk. Commonly available tools like TEST DIRECTOR can also be employed K. controls. & vulnerabilities. Risk Mitigation will be a solution for the Risk Identified. It is a process of evaluating risks. all the Modules should be tested at least once after Integrating the Modules) 119. What is Traceability matrix? Traceability Matrix: Through out the testing life cycle of the project Traceability matrix has been maintained to ensure the Verification & Validation of the testing is complete. What ways can be followed for defect management? · · · Reporting the Bugs through the Defect Report (Excel Template) Any in-house tool inbuilt in the company may also be used. Vulnerability: -Is a design. 124. How to do risk management? Identifying the Risk Involved in the project & finding Mitigation for the Risk Found will do risk Management. What are test closure documents? · Test Conditions · Test Case · Test Plan · Test Strategy · Traceability Matrix · Defect Reports · Test Closure Document · Test Data (The Above Mentioned Deliverables are based on the deliverables accepted by the Testing Team & mentioned in the Test Strategy) 123. 121. 120.Software Testing – made easy · Application should be Stable (Means. Muthuvel Page 118 of 127 . What are the docs required for Performance Testing? Bench Mark is the Basic Document required for Performance Testing.Which is capable of exploiting vulnerability in the security of a computer system or application. Threat: . Data Transfer Time. 122.

It consists of two aspects. Walkthrough “A review of requirements.Software Testing – made easy 17. Muthuvel Page 119 of 127 . K. or other interested parties for comment or approval. users. Static Testing Techniques “Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program. product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection). “ Inspection A group review quality improvement process for written material. and the action taken when nonconformance is detected. designs or code characterized by the author of the material under review guiding the progression of the review. is presented to project personnel.” Validation Determination of the correctness of the products of software development with respect to the user needs and requirements.” Verification “The process of evaluating a system or component to determine whether the products of the given development phase satisfy the conditions imposed at the start of that phase. customers. managers. Glossary Testing “The process of exercising software to verify that it satisfies specified requirements and to detect errors “ Quality Assurance “A planned and systematic pattern for all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that the item or product conforms to established technical requirements” Quality Control “QC is a process by which product quality is compared with applicable standards.” Review .Definition Review is a process or meeting during which a work product or set of work products.

” Equivalence partition testing: Equivalence partition testing: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes. K. Boundary value analysis: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed which include representatives of boundary values. or an incremental distance either side of the boundary. Equivalence class: A portion of the component's input or output domains for which the component's behaviour is assumed to be the same from the component's specification. Muthuvel Page 120 of 127 . “ Black Box Testing: “Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the specification of the component without reference to its internal workings.” Statement Coverage: “A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute statements.Software Testing – made easy Dynamic Testing Techniques “The process of evaluating a system or component based upon its behaviour during execution. which can be used to design test cases” White-Box Testing: “Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component. Cause and Effect Graphs “A graphical representation of inputs or stimuli (causes) with their associated outputs (effects). Boundary Value Analysis Boundary value: An input value or output value which is on the boundary between equivalence classes.” Branch Testing: Branch Testing: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute branch outcomes.

” Unit Testing “The testing of individual software components. with lower level components being simulated by stubs. or when a component has more than one entry point.” K. or an unconditional transfer of control from any statement to any other statement in the component except the next statement.Software Testing – made easy Branch : A conditional transfer of control from any statement to any other statement in a component. The process is repeated until the lowest level components has been tested. Muthuvel Page 121 of 127 .” Bottom up Integration “An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first. Path testing: A test case design technique in which test cases are designed to execute paths of a component. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. a transfer of control to an entry point of the component. Path Testing Path: A sequence of executable statements of a component. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.” Integration Testing “Testing performed to expose faults in the interfaces and in the interaction between integrated components” Incremental Integration Testing “Integration testing where system components are integrated into the system one at a time until the entire system is integrated” Top Down Integration “An approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first. Data Flow-Based Testing: “Testing in which test cases are designed based on variable usage within the code. from an entry point to an exit point. then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components.

catalogued. performance.” Validation Testing Validation testing aims to demonstrate that the software functions in a manner that can be reasonably expected by the customer. System Testing “System testing is the process of testing an integrated system to verify that it meets specified requirements". Muthuvel Page 122 of 127 . usability. Big Bang Integration “Integration testing where no incremental testing takes place prior to all the system's components being combined to form the system.” K.e. Configuration review An audit to ensure that all elements of the software configuration are properly developed. Requirement based Testing “Designing tests based on objectives derived from requirements for the software component (e..g.Software Testing – made easy Stubs: Stubs are program units that are stand-ins² for the other (more complex) program units that are directly referenced by the unit being tested. tests that exercise specific functions or probe the non-functional constraints such as performance or security)” Business-Process based Non-Functional Testing Testing of those requirements that do not relate to functionality. etc. “ Recovery testing “Testing aimed at verifying the system's ability to recover from varying degrees of failure. and has necessary detail to support maintenance. Drivers: Drivers are programs or tools that allow a tester to exercise/examine in a controlling manner the unit of software being tested. I.

Software Testing – made easy Security testing “Testing whether the system meets its specified security objectives.” Ad-hoc Testing “Testing carried out using no recognised test case design technique.” “Beta testing: Operational testing at a site not otherwise involved with the software developers. customer. so that you can predict how an application will work under different user loads and determine the maximum number of concurrent users accessing the site at the same time.” Performance testing “Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements.” Alpha and Beta testing “Alpha testing: Simulated or actual operational testing at an in-house site not otherwise involved with the software developers.” User Acceptance Testing “Acceptance testing: Formal testing conducted to enable a user.” Stress testing “Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements. Muthuvel Page 123 of 127 . Load testing applications can emulate the workload of hundreds or even thousands of users. or other authorized entity to determine whether to accept a system or component” Regression Testing and Re-testing “Retesting of a previously tested program following modification to ensure that faults have not been introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes made.” Load Testing Load Testing involves stress testing applications under real-world conditions to predict system behavior and performance and to identify and isolate problems. K.

Software Testing – made easy Stress and Volume Testing “Stress Testing: Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements.” K. “ Error Seeding “The process of intentionally adding known faults to those already in a computer program for the purpose of monitoring the rate of detection and removal. and to design tests specifically to expose them. and estimating the number of faults remaining in the program. It contains the system architecture.” Design Specification The Design Specification document is prepared based on the functional specification. System Specification The System Specification document is a combination of Functional specification and design specification. “ Usability Testing “Testing the ease with which users can learn and use a product. Error Guessing “A test case design technique where the experience of the tester is used to postulate what faults might occur. table structures and program specifications. Business Requirement It describes user’s needs for the application. Muthuvel Page 124 of 127 .” Environmental Testing These tests check the system’s ability to perform at the installation site.” “Volume Testing: Testing where the system is subjected to large volumes of data. Functional Specification “The document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended capability.

the testing tasks. approach. The testing here should not only cover all the test cases but also business cycles as defined in the application.BS “A document describing the scope. In other words. Defects that are not fixed will be executed only after they are fixed. such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement.Round II All the test cases that have resulted in a defect during the comprehensive pass should be executed. Some cases the application may not have certain module(s) ready for test. and the rationale for their choice.e. UAT or production as the case may be under an isolated environment. the test case design techniques and test measurement techniques to be used. . Sanity Testing . Ideally the defects that are fixed from the previous phases are checked and freedom testing done to ensure integrity is conducted. the test environment. Discrepancy Testing .Round III This is final round in the test process. hence they will be covered comprehensively in the next pass. This is done either at the client's site or at Maveric depending on the strategy adopted. resources. who will do each task. This is done in order to check if the system is sane enough for the next stage i. and schedule of intended testing activities. It identifies test items. Muthuvel Page 125 of 127 .IEEE Test Case “A set of inputs. all defects that have been fixed should be retested. Function points that may be affected by the defect should also be taken up for testing.” Comprehensive Testing .Round I All the test scripts developed for testing are executed. and any risks requiring contingency planning.Software Testing – made easy Test Plan A record of the test planning process detailing the degree of tester indedendence. K. execution preconditions.” . This type of testing is called as Regression testing. the features to be tested. and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective.

it stops the user from using the system further Major A Defect where a functionality/data is affected significantly but not cause a showstopping condition or a block in the test process cycles. Minor A Defect which is isolated or does not stop the user from proceeding. “ “Fault: A manifestation of an error in software. Usually we divide as Emergency. “ “Failure: Deviation of the software from its expected delivery or service. or it may be a show stopper – that is. High. K. A fault. but causes inconvenience. Muthuvel Page 126 of 127 . and Low. Cosmetic Errors would also feature in this category Severity: How much the Bug found is supposed to affect the systems Function/Performance. Priority: Which Bug should be solved fist in order of benefit of system’s health? Normally it starts from Emergency giving first Priority to Low as last Priority. “ Defects Classification Showstopper A Defect which may be very critical in terms of affecting the schedule.Software Testing – made easy Defect – Definition “Error: A human action that produces an incorrect result. Medium. if encountered may cause a failure. “ “A deviation from expectation that is to be tracked and resolved is termed as a defect.

which supports in preparing test data are called Data guidelines Test script A Test Script contains the Navigation Steps. Traceability Matrix Through out the testing life cycle of the project Traceability matrix has been maintained to ensure the Verification & Validation of the testing is complete. Data and Expected Results required to execute the test case(s). Are collectively called as test Bed. It includes all data parameters that are required to test the conditions derived from the requirement / specification. K. The Document. Test data The value which are given at expected places(fields) in a system to verify its functionality have been made ready in a piece of document called test data. Instructions. Data Guidelines Data Guidelines are used to specify the data required to populate the test bed and prepare test scripts. Test environment A description of the hardware and software environment in which the tests will be run. and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under test including stubs and test drivers. Data guide lines. Muthuvel Page 127 of 127 . Any test script should say how to drive or swim through out the application even for a new user.Software Testing – made easy Test Bed Before Starting the Actual testing the elements which supports the testing activity such as Test data.