BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY

A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS
Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaña

STUDENT´S NAME ________________________________________

DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO

Este material ha sido preparado como una contribución para los alumnos de las Escuelas dependientes del Comando de Institutos y Doctrina y el Personal del Ejército de Chile -especialmente aquellos que se encuentran destinados en unidades alejadas- y que deseen actualizar y reforzar su dominio de las estructuras gramaticales del idioma inglés, incrementar su vocabulario y mejorar las estrategias comunicativas, mediante un trabajo personal.

Con mucho afecto y gratitud a la querida Institución, que me ha permitido servir con entusiasmo y crecer profesionalmente.

Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaña
Profesor de Inglés de la Academia de Guerra, la Academia Politécnica Militar, la Escuela Militar y la Escuela de Telecomunicaciones del Ejército de Chile. jmoyam@profing.tie.cl

Ejército de Chile Departamento Comunicacional Registro de Propiedad Intelectual N° 151.465 I.S.B.N. N° 956-7527-35-0 Impreso en los Talleres del Instituto Geográfico Militar

INDICE
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• Prologo _________________________________________________________________ 5 • Sugerencias Metodológicas ________________________________________________ 7 • Table of Contents _________________________________________________________ 9 • Unit 1 __________________________________________________________________ 15 • Unit 2 __________________________________________________________________ 27 • Unit 3 __________________________________________________________________ 37 • Unit 4 __________________________________________________________________ 47 • Unit 5 __________________________________________________________________ 59 • Unit 6 __________________________________________________________________ 77 • Unit 7 __________________________________________________________________ 91 • Unit 8 _________________________________________________________________ 103 • Unit 9 _________________________________________________________________ 115 • Unit 10 ________________________________________________________________ 127 • Unit 11 ________________________________________________________________ 141 • Unit 12 ________________________________________________________________ 157 • Unit 13 ________________________________________________________________ 175 • Unit 14 ________________________________________________________________ 191 • Unit 15 ________________________________________________________________ 203 • Unit 16 ________________________________________________________________ 215 • Unit 17 ________________________________________________________________ 225 • Unit 18 ________________________________________________________________ 237 • Unit 19 ________________________________________________________________ 253 • Unit 20 ________________________________________________________________ 263 • Unit 21 ________________________________________________________________ 277 • Apendices ____________________________________________________________ 297
A short course in english for adult students

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Prólogo
Prólogo El profesor Juan Moya Montaña me ha distinguido con la solicitud de prologar Structures and Vocabulary, texto de autoaprendizaje de gramática inglesa básica para adultos. Este manual forma parte del esfuerzo permanente del profesor Moya por contribuir al mejoramiento de la enseñanza de este idioma en el Ejército. El autor me concede la oportunidad de testimoniar mi reconocimiento y felicitarlo por su larga trayectoria como profesor vinculado al Ejército de Chile.* También, me permite hacerle llegar el sentimiento –y creo ser portador de cientos de integrantes de la institución– de profundo afecto hacia el comprometido teacher que, sacrificando horas de descanso, acudió en auxilio de tantos de nosotros cuando, con desesperación y a última hora, buscábamos incrementar nuestro nivel de inglés para cumplir alguna misión encomendada. Al respecto, permítaseme una anécdota. Ella no es sino un ejemplo –me atrevo a decirlo– de miles de vivencias que oficiales y cuadro permanente tuvimos para tratar de estar “a la altura”, poder entender y hacernos entender en un idioma extranjero; casi siempre en la víspera de una comisión de servicio o destinación que así lo exigía. Se vivía el mes de octubre de 1980 y el infrascrito –entonces mayor– recibió la orden de presentarse, ¡en una semana! (después se transformaron en 15 días) al curso de Estado Mayor en el Army War College de Pretoria, Sudáfrica, donde se suponía que las clases eran dictadas en inglés y en afrikaans. Esta designación cambiaba sorpresivamente mi destino a una unidad en Chile, luego de que mi participación en el curso de Estado Mayor en la Escuela Superior de Guerra de Francia fuera cancelada, debido al cese de los intercambios castrenses con dicho país. Ello, después de haber concluido –junto a mi compañero, el mayor Hernán Reyes– una metódica preparación en el idioma francés. Y aquí surge el reconocido rasgo de la personalidad del profesor Juan Moya. Enfrentado él a nuestra poca preparación y escaso tiempo disponible, se entregó de lleno y con entusiasmo a esta titánica tarea. Ésta consistió en clases diarias, donde el profesor Moya fue mi sombra; disparando verbos, haciéndome repetir pertinazmente cientos de palabras para aumentar mi vocabulario; exigiéndome el spelling de todo el abecedario, números y unidades de medida. Esto ocurría durante todo el día, en medio de entregas, cierre de oficina, firmas de actas y trámites para sacar pasaporte. Nunca podré olvidar esas cuatro últimas noches en que nos acompañó, a Isabel y a mí, desde las 9 de la noche hasta las 3 de la madrugada, impartiendo sus lecciones, haciéndonos preguntas a las cuales respondíamos encaramados sobre cajas, baúles y maletas. Si este relato no indica voluntad de servicio y entrega, creo que ningún otro podría reflejar ese espíritu de cooperación del distinguido autor y amigo. De esa traumática experiencia nació la decisión –con el gran apoyo de mis superiores, primero, y, luego, en el ejercicio de mis funciones como CJE.–, de buscar un cambio integral que permitiera a
* El Profesor Juan Moya Montaña fue contratado como Ayudante de Profesor para la Escuela Militar el 1 de marzo de 1970 y prestó servicios a la institución por 30 años en forma continua en el ya mencionado Instituto Matriz, en la Academia de Guerra y en el Comando de Institutos Militares.
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los oficiales y cuadro permanente del Ejército incorporar al inglés como un segundo idioma, exigible mediante un proceso regulado, que combinara el interés personal y el apoyo institucional para el logro del objetivo. Bien conocemos el sistema vigente que se orienta a tal propósito. Vayan aquí mis agradecimientos también a todos los que lo han construido; también a cuantos han debido “sufrir” el proceso. Sin duda, estos últimos, ahora se dan cuenta que han adquirido una herramienta básica en la formación de un profesional militar moderno. Con todo, no quisiera dejar la impresión que en el Ejército habría existido una despreocupación o falta de eficiencia en esta materia. Por el contrario, nuestros legendarios profesores de inglés, tanto de la Escuela Militar como de la Academia de Guerra del Ejército –Mr. Lühr, Mr. Clerc, Mr. Parada, Mr. Sepúlveda, y otros–, buscaban el mismo propósito. Y, por supuesto, obtenían resultados acordes a las horas, tiempos, sistemas e interés de los alumnos y de la institución por el tema. Lo que pasó fue que las crecientes demandas de cooperación internacional al Ejército superaron el sistema vigente; pero no así la voluntad, vocación y entrega de esos ejemplares maestros. Tampoco, el permanente interés de la institución por el asunto. De allí surge la necesidad del cambio, conocido por todos, hacia la actual estructura de la Escuela de Idiomas del Ejército y la aplicación de un modelo educacional en la materia, que ya cubre varias lenguas (desde el inglés al chino mandarín, incluyendo también las originarias rapanui, mapudungun y aimara), donde nuestro personal se prepara sistemática y formalmente con una gran dosis de compromiso personal en esta tarea. Este libro, sin duda, contribuirá a formar parte de las múltiples variables que configuran este todo: la formación en idiomas extranjeros del personal del Ejército para capacitarlos al nivel que hoy exige nuestra profesión y las características de un mundo globalizado.

Juan Emilio Cheyre Espinosa General de Ejército Comandante en Jefe del Ejército

Santiago, enero de 2006.

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A short course in english for adult students

discutir y practicar los ejercicios dados. A short course in english for adult students 7 . frases y expresiones idiomáticas que aparecen al final de cada unidad. rendirá sus frutos y le traerá muchas satisfacciones. Estudiar las ilustraciones. etc. preposiciones. Aprovechar cualquier momento libre para estudiar. Leer. los ejemplos dados y la pronunciación figurada indicada en algunos casos. estudiar de nuevo las definiciones y reglas dadas al inicio de la unidad pertinente y volver a hacer los ejercicios. adjetivos. Estudiar en lo posible con otra(s) persona(s) para comparar.). estudiar y memorizar las definiciones y reglas gramaticales dadas en las diferentes unidades del curso. con las dadas en las Claves de Respuestas y corrija sus errores. 3. de modo que haya una continuidad y regularidad. 5. 6. 4. 2. Use lápiz de grafito para escribir. verbos. 9. 7. Distribuir en forma adecuada el tiempo de estudio. estudiar y estudiar. Comparar las respuestas dadas por Ud. Si hubiera muchas respuestas incorrectas (más de un 20%). No es conveniente estudiar varias horas de una sola vez y dejar pasar mucho tiempo antes de iniciar otra etapa.Sugerencias Metodológicas 1. Estudiar y memorizar los listados de palabras (sustantivos. 8. Resolver los ejercicios dados como tarea. Este esfuerzo realizado por Ud.

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three times a year. the day before yesterday. Until. A(N). ORDINAL NUMBERS How deep?. midnight UNIT 4 • • • • • PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE • Now. Why?. What color?. every month. How? Whom?. at this time.. tomorrow. last week / last year / last Monday. water. When?. a lot. very little. How long?. O´clock. Countable nouns: people. How much?. generally. very few UNIT 3 • • • • • HAVE GOT / HAS GOT ADJECTIVES ARTICLES I . Which?. Whose?. Where?. at night Noon / midday. How wide?. For • Now. Always. men. quarter past / to. the day after tomorrow. How?. milk. twice a week. How big?. These. etc. Who?. etc.TABLE OF CONTENTS PART ONE: ELEMENTARY LEVEL UNIT 1 • TO BE (Present. Past and Future) • THE ENGLISH ALPHABET • THE PHONETIC ALPHABET • What?. at the moment. TIME AND DATES • How old?. What sort of?. lots of. A short course in english for adult students 9 . What size?.. Those.Clothes • • • • Every day.. How fast?. usually. Past and Future) • SOME . next week. Once a day. etc. How high?. At. What?. few. How thick?. minutes past / to In the morning / afternoon / evening. What kind of?. half past. temporarily. How tall?. QUESTION WORDS 1 What shape?.NOT ANY . little.Time expressions (I) . • ARTICLES II . work. Who?.NO .People • How much? How many? • Much. How far?... What time?. etc.General and specific • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who and Which • VOCABULARY: .Adjectives • • • • • Uncountable nouns: money. How often?. Why?. How many?. at present. That. On. today.Definite and Indefinite TELLING THE TIME VOCABULARY: . • VOCABULARY: . students. yesterday.. etc. sometimes. The . often. two days ago UNIT 2 • THERE TO BE (Present. Time and Dates UNIT 5 • SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE • ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY • QUESTION WORDS II For requesting information.. never. books. for the time INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS being.ANY • CARDINAL NUMBERS • VOCABULARY: .Numerals. like? For describing people and things.. How long?. What is / are . How old? How long? What time? • This. every week.etc. sugar. many. In .

. etc. Peter must be here at 8:15 tomorrow... not anything. • Bob can swim very well. streets. • A doctor. SOMETHING. • EXCLAMATORY FORM • VOCABULARY: ... but the girl doesn´t.Time Expressions II • John is coming here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow.. etc. somewhere. In Canada.. an engineer. in the West Indies. nothing. something. OUGHT TO • HAVE TO = TENER QUE • VOCABULARY: . • Somebody / someone. etc.. NEITHER / NOR BUT POSITION OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS VOCABULARY: • Our Health • They will be working at this time tomorrow / the day after tomorrow. • IT TAKES. MUST.. professions. This one is too old UNIT 11 • • • • • • • • • • FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE MAKING REQUESTS ASKING FOR PERMISSION OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER ALSO. SOMEWHERE AND DERIVED WORDS • VOCABULARY: ..The City • John will come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week / next month / at this time tomorrow / at this time next year..Parts Of The Body . in the USA.. • Open the door. nowhere UNIT 9 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II : AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO.. • It takes me 20 minutes to. SO.. SHOULD.the shortest • Intelligent. When Peter arrived this morning.. Whose • SOMEBODY / SOMEONE.. / IT TOOK.better .. What beautiful flowers! What nice weather! How tall she is! How quickly time passes! UNIT 8 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE I: Will • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who.EITHER. • How long does it take to. etc.shorter than. • Who is he? Whom did you see? Whose is that car? Whose care is it? : The man with whom Mary is working now. You may use the phone now. Dr. NOT. in North Carolina.... Peter doesn´t like golf and neither do I. don´t do that. / IT WILL TAKE.. a secretary.UNIT 7 • PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE • IMPERATIVE FORM • ARTICLES III .... UNIT 10 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III : AM / IS / ARE+ING • MODAL VERBS: CAN... • Can / Will / Could / Would you open the door please? Would you mind opening the door. titles and ranks.Food • John is going to come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week. please. The man whose car is parked outside. Please. He speaks Italian. Bob sent her some flowers. • Peter doesn´t like golf and I don´t like it either. Cpt. please? • Can I / May I / Do you mind if I open the window? • Shall I / Do you want me to / Would you like me to open the window? • Shall we / Would you like to / Why don´t we / Let´s go to a disco tonight. • An American. They should t / ought to be more careful of what they say • I have to buy another dictionary. 10 A short course in english for adult students . AS WELL. • Good .. etc. He told me that he was tired. a Chilean.. etc. when they got married. White. at 10:30 last night. more intelligent than....Nationalities. Whom.. Jones. etc.. = DEMORAR • COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES • VOCABULARY: .. etc.. • The boy speaks Italian. • He said that he was tired.. • On Fifth Avenue. Bob sent his girlfriend some flowers....? • Short ... How about going to a disco tonight? • The boy also speaks Italian. the most intelligent • As fast as.best. • Mr. • Bob sent some flowers to his girlfriend. MAY. cities. etc. countries and geographical names. not anywhere. etc.The house • At that time. an Englishman. TOO. not anybody / not anyone. The boy speaks Italian and so does the girl. nobody / no one. too / as well. In Salt Lake City. • What a tall woman!. Scott.

keep talking. Irregular plural forms Enjoy playing. go shopping. carefully.MUST / CAN / MUST HAVE. etc. Go skiing. He will let them play He wants us to go. too I saw her crossing / cross the road. Verb + ing / to-infinitive • TAG ENDINGS • VOCABULARY: . He lives all by himself We were going to play football but it began to rain UNIT 15 • PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • PAST TENSE OF SHOULD / OUGHT TO • WOULD RATHER / HAD BETTER • MODAL VERBS II: • COULD DO SOMETHING . etc. late. etc. / He ought to have done it You´d better take a taxi if you want to be there before your train leaves We could go to the movie We could have gone to the movie He must be very tired He can´t be hungry already He must have gone home He can´t have done that alone It may / might be true You must have / might have left it in the shop A short course in english for adult students 11 . Verb + somebody + bare infinitive / to-infinitive E. ever Book / books. for. lately. etc. brush / brushes. hard. more carefully. yet / already?. never.Sports and Recreation • • • • • • • • • • I have been working all day They agreed to meet outside the theater.before. Verb + gerund / bare infinitive D. knife / knives. etc. baby / babies. three times. since. etc. harder.Nature • • • • • • • • He had seen the film before The train had already left when he arrived Quickly.MAY. / CAN´T HAVE DONE SOMETHING . Fast. Sooner. Verb + to-infinitive B. earlier. UNIT 13 • PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS II A. Verb + somebody + bare infinitive C.The Weather • • • • • • • • • • • He had been working all day He should have studied harder. once. early. He himself did it. soon More quickly. already. He cut himself.COULD HAVE DONE SOMETHING . MIGHT.PART TWO: INTERMEDIATE LEVEL UNIT 12 • PRESENT PERFECT TENSE • PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS I VERB + GERUND • VOCABULARY: . certainly. MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE DONE SOMETHING • VOCABULARY: . twice.Prepositions and Connectors • • • • • • • • I have seen that movie Mary hasn´t finished typing it yet Have they arrived already? Just. day / days. I´ll help you do / to do that I like to playing / to play golf The floor needs cleaning / to be cleaned He works well. doesn´t he? He didn´t come to the meeting. did he? UNIT 14 • PAST PERFECT TENSE • ADVERBS: FORMATION AND COMPARISON • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS • PAST TENSE OF “GOING TO” • VOCABULARY: . not yet.

The Workshop • • • • • They will have finished the work by then He says he´s tired / He said he was tired. AS SOON AS. ETC..... Do you need anything else? I´ll take a taxi. UNIT 19 • REPORTED SPEECH A.The Armed Forces I • The book was published in 1998 • The train is supposed to arrive at 9:45 UNIT 18 • CONDITIONAL SENTENCES • SUBJUNCTIVE AFTER WISH • VERB + PRESENT OF SUBJUNCTIVE • VOCABULARY: . OR ELSE / OTHERWISE • VOCABULARY: . STATEMENTS B.. UNTIL.Regular and Irregular Verbs • • • • He said he wanted to go He told me that he wanted to go He asked me where they were He told me to sit down UNIT 20 • USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS • • • • • • At a social gathering At a hotel At a restaurant How to get to places At the station / airport Shopping UNIT 21 • ASSESSMENT TEST • • • • Student’s Question Booklet Answer Sheet Answer Key Teacher’s Text Script 12 A short course in english for adult students . COMMANDS.UNIT 16 • FUTURE PERFECT TENSE • SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES • THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER WHEN. When I see her tomorrow. • USE OF ELSE. ORDERS • VOCABULARY: .. QUESTIONS C. or else I´ll miss my flight.The Armed Forces II • • • • • • • If you study hard you´ll pass the course If you studied harder you´d get better marks If you had studied harder you would have passed the course I wish I could swim I wish I had seen her I wish it would stop snowing I suggest that she wait a few minutes. UNIT 17 • THE PASSIVE VOICE • BE SUPPOSED TO • VOCABULARY: .

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART ONE ELEMENTARY LEVEL .

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An /an/ (antes de vocal) un/a. /iés. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE: AM /æm/ . It is. Thank you /δæηk iu:/ gracias. /hi:z δe niú: instráktor/ She´s Miss Black. Fine /fáin/ bien. /hi:z at hóum/ It´s in the garage. TO BE (SER O ESTAR) A. thank you. δei á:r. /δei a:r búks/ Son libros They´re cars. She´s. Thanks /δæηks/ gracias. θæηks/ They´re very well. Normalmente formando las contracciones ISN´ T /íznt/ o AREN´ T /á:rent/ Iam not /ai æm nót/ You are not /iú á:r nót/ He is not /hi: iz nót/ She is not /shí: iz nót/ It is not /it iz nót/ We are not /wí: a:r nót/ They are not /δei a:r nót/ ---------------------------You aren´t /iu á:rent/ He isn´t /hí: íznt/ She isn´t /shí: íznt/ It isn´t /it íznt/ We aren´t /wí: á:rent/ They aren´t /δei á:rent/ I´m not /aim nót/ You´re not /iúr nót/ He´s not / hí:z nót/ She´s not /shí:z nót/ It´s not /its nót/ We´re not /wí:r nót/ They´re not /δeir nót/ A short course in english for adult students 15 .. /its an æmbiulans/ Es una ambulancia They are books. It´s a pen /iés. δi/ (antes de vocal) el. the new instructor. /δéir in δe ká:r pá:rk/ They´re in the lab. they are. /iés it iz its e háus/ Yes.They´re cars. Escuche. ¿Qué son éstos? What are those? /wót a:r δóuz/. It´s a house. /its on δe désk/ They´re in the car park. Who are those men? /hú: a:r δóuz mén/ Where is Bob? /wéar iz bób/ Where´s the car? /wéarz δe ká:r/ Where´s the book? /wéarz δe búk/ Where are the cars? /wéar a:r δe ká:rz/ Where are the students? /wéar a:r δe stiú:dents/ How are you? /háu á:r iu:/ How´s John? /háuz dllón/ How are the children? /háu a:r δe tchíldrn/ It is a pen. /its in δe gáridll/ It´s on the desk. Those /δóuz/ esos/as A/ a/(antes de cons. El verbo TO BE tiene tres formas en el tiempo presente: AM . the students. Where? /wéar/ ¿ Dónde?. /hí:z mátch béter. Who? /hu:/ ¿Quién?. it is. IS /iz/. /iés. Jones.ARE I am /ai æm/ You are /iú á:r/ He is /hi: íz/ She is /shi: íz/ It is /it íz/ (Yo soy/estoy) (Tú eres/estás) (El es/está) (Ella es/está) (Es/está) We are /wi: á:r/ You are /iú á:r/ They are /δéi á:r/ (Nosotros/as somos o estamos) (Uds. You´re. los. ARE /a:r/ 1. thanks. We´re. These /δí:z/ estos/as. son/están) (Ellos/as son/están) En conversación. Now /náu/ ahora. /δéir in δe læb/ I´m fine. The /δe (antes de cons. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra not. On /on/ encima de. In /in/ en. the secretary.) un/a. That /δæt/ ese/a. its a pén/ Yes. repita y aprenda: What? /wót/ ¿Qué? ¿Cuál?. Much better /match béter/ mucho mejor What is this? /wót iz δis/ ¿Qué es esto? What´s that? /wots δæt/ ¿Qué es eso? What are these? /wót a:r δí:z/. Jim and Tom.it iz.δeir ká:rz/ He´s Mr. It´s. normalmente se usan las contracciones I’m. /its a pén/ Es un lápiz It´s an ambulance. They´re.UNIT 1 PART I. /áim fáin.IS . las. δeir búks/ Yes. ¿Qué son esos? Is this a pen? /iz δis a pén/ Is that a house? /is δæt a háus/ Are these books? /a:r δí:z búks/ Are those cars? /á:r δóuz ká:rz/ Who is that man? /hú iz δæt mæn/ Who´s that woman? /hú:z δæt wúman/ . They´re books. At /æt/ en. This /δis/ este/a. /δeir véri wél θæηk iu/ 2. la. δei á:r. /δeir δe stiú:dents/ He´s at home. thanks.How? /háu/ ¿Cómo?. Today /tudéi/ Hoy día. He´s. Very well /véri uél/ muy bien. they are. θæηks/ He´s much better. /δeir ká:rz/ Son autos Yes.) . /shi:z δe sékretri/ They´re Bob.

Is this a modern plane? 16 A short course in english for adult students Yes. it isn´t. (sala de profs. The teacher ______ in the classroom now. 2. /tréin/ Bob is not very well /véri wél/ The students are not in the lab /læb/. Are the students in class? 6. He isn´t here. 5.Escuche. Use the correct form of the verb TO BE (am/is/are) 1. He´s not here. /mægazinz/ No. /páilot/ They are not students /stiú:dnts/. /trák/ No. They´re tables /téiblz/. here /híar/ aquí. a ne:rs/ ¿No es ella una enfermera? Aren´t they happy? /á:rent δei hæpi/ ¿No están ellos felices? Isn´t this question correct? /íznt δis kwéstchion korékt/ Ex. /pénsl/ No. He is not here /híar/. He isn´t very well. isn´t /íznt/ . he is. Is Miss Jones a secretary? 7. aren´t /á:rent/. They aren´t there. there /δéar/ allí.) They´re magazines. Yes. Am I a good instructor? 5. 10. They aren´t in the lab. (It´s not a tank. They are not there /(éar/ It is not a train. The instructor´s name _____ John Doe. It isn´t a train. He´s a pilot. it isn´t. I´m not a pilot They´re not students. They´re not there. The instructors _____ in the staff-room. Answer these questions. as in the example Is Tom a pilot? 1. Is that man Mr. The train _____ ten minutes late. are not /a:r nót/._____________ _______________________________________ Yes. It´s not a train. they aren´t. La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión de orden con el sujeto de la oración. repita y aprenda: Am I right? /ám ái ráit/ ¿Estoy correcto? Are you all right? /á. repita y aprenda: I am not a pilot. They´re not in the lab. 4. (It´s not a pen. Am I? /am ai/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Is he? /íz hí:/ Is she? /íz shí:/ Is it? /íz it/ * Aren´t I? * /á:rent ai / Aren´t you? /á:rent iu:/ Isn´t he? /íznt hi:/ Isn´t she? /íznt shi:/ Isn´t it? /íznt it/ Are we? /á:r wí:/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Are they? /á:r δei/ Aren´t we? /á:rent wi:/ Aren´t you? /á:rent iú:/ Aren´t they? /á.(vehículos lentos) Those weapons ______ powerful. Those vehicles______ slow-moving. 9. Doctor Smith _____ busy right now. Are you in the office? 2. habitualmente se usa AREN¨T en este caso. over there /óuver δéar/ allá ---------------------------They aren´t students. En conversación coloquial se usa la contracción AIN¨T /éint/ Ejemplo: Aren´t I your friend? Ain´t I your friend? Escuche. 3. The men ______ tired.) It´s a truck. ______ an undergraduate student.) It´s a pencil. Are we ready to go? 4. is not /iz nót/.r iu: ó:l ráit/ ¿Estás bien? Is he a captain? /íz hi: a káptin/ Es él un capitán? Are they busy? /á:r δei bízi/ ¿Están ellos ocupados? Is my answer correct? /íz mai á:nser korékt/ EXERCISES Ex. repita y aprenda estas preguntas y respuestas: Is this a pen? /pén/ Is that a tank? /tæηk/ Are these books? /búks/ Are those chairs? /tchéarz/ No. (armas-poderosas) 6. 8. 1. 3.rent δei/ Debido a que no existe una contracción para AM NOT. John and Mary _____ good friends. 2.) Aren´t I right? /á:rent ai ráit/ No estoy en lo cierto? Aren´t you tired? /á:rent iu táiard/ ¿No estás cansado? Isn´t she a nurse? /íznt shi. (They´re not chairs). 7. (They´re not books. He´s not very well. they aren´t._____________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ . Clark? 3. Escuche.

Are the men old? viejos (young) jóvenes 10. How?. claras) 8. as in the example: It´s a plane. as in the example below: The Browns .at home 1. They´re books 3. That boy´s my brother 8. Ask questions using the wh-words What?. Are the boys angry? enojados (hungry) hambrientos 2. I´m fine. The maps / in the library (biblioteca) Are the Browns at home? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No. The computer / connected to Internet 6. Are the children happy? felices (sad) tristes 5. Are the manuals updated?(actualizados) 9. The package / light or heavy (liviano o pesado) 7. Your friends / from Canada 5. Is the table clean? limpia (dirty) sucia 9. Is the bank open? 10. The books are on the table 9. 4 Ask questions. The pictures / clear (nítidas. It´s a chair 7.Is Cpt. 5. The children / in the playground. It´s a knife 2.(patio) 9. 3. The cigarettes are in the bag 4. they are not. The course / interesting 4. The children are tired 10.8. _________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ Ex. Where?.That woman´s my wife What´s this? o What´s that? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 17 . The cat´s under the sofa 6. Who?. Answer the questions as in the example: Are they instructors? (students) 1.Are you hungry? (hambriento) ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ Ex. Are you a navy officer?(an army officer) 8. Are your friends American? (British) 7. Are you thirsty? sedientos (hungry) 3. The CD´s / in the drawer (gaveta) 10. (They aren´t instructors) They ´re students No. thanks 5. Peter and John / in class 3. The manager / in his office 2. 1. Is Bob at home? en casa (at work) en el trabajo 4. Bowman on duty? de servicio (off duty) de franco Ex. Is your brother a doctor? (an engineer) 6.

6. I ______ with my friend Janet. My name ______ Frank.WERE /wer/ I was /ai wóz/ (yo era/estaba/fui/estuve) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Tú eras/estabas/fuiste/estuviste) He was /hí: wóz/ (El era/estaba/fue/estuvo) She was /shi: wóz/ (Ella era/estaba/fue/estuvo) It was /it wóz/ (era/estaba/fue/estuvo) We were /wi: wé:r/ (Nos. I ______ from Appleton. I ______ an instructor. /δei wé:r véri gud fréndz/ Mr. 18 A short course in english for adult students . How old? /háu óuld/ ¿Qué edad? Last week /lá:st wí:k/ . She ______ married. B. I´m glad to meet you. Brown? I ______ American. too. Jackson was here three weeks ago. /ai woz véri bízi iésterdei/ John was at home all day today. Hello. 1. Who______ that girl? She ______ Mary. Jane. Peter. Where ______ you. Where ______ you from. Jack. How do you do? My name ______ Jack Richardson. She ______ my classmate . ¿Por qué?. Mike Hello. Jim? I ______ here. I ______ not. She ______ a new student. Sir. Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael 4. EL TIEMPO PASADO: WAS /woz/ . Complete and practise these dialogues with a partner. Frank John Frank John Frank 3. Come and meet her. I ______ ______. eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) They were /δei wé:r/ (Ellos/as an/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) Escuche. la semana pasada Two days ago /tú: déiz agóu/ Hace dos días Yesterday /jésterdei/ ayer. Robert Jack Robert Jack 2. That ______ very interesting. How ______ you? I ______ fine. ¿Cuándo? Why? /wái/. lea y aprenda: When? /wén/.WERE /wer/ 1. Where ______ she from? She ______ from Australia. /míster djækson woz híar θrí: wí:ks agóu/ (Yo estuve muy ocupado ayer) (John estuvo en casa todo el día hoy) (Nosotros estuvimos en Paris del año pasado) (Mary era la mejor alumna de mi curso) (Ellos eran / fueron muy buenos amigos) (Mr Jackson estuvo aquí hace 3 semanas). I ______ glad to meet you. she ______ ______. Hello. Hello. /dllón woz at hóum ó:l déi tudéi/ We were in Paris last year /wi wé:r in páris la:st íar/ Mary was the best student in my class. Pleased to meet you. Oh. She ______ from London. Jack Jim Jack Jim Jim Jack Janet : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : How do you do? My name ______ Robert Brown. Oh. Oh. What ______ your name? My name ______ John. thanks. Wisconsin.Ex. éramos/estábamos/fuimos/estuvimos) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Uds. ______ she single? No. El verbo TO BE tiene las siguientes formas en el tiempo pasado: WAS /woz/ . ______ you alone? No. in the library. How ______ you? I ______ fine. The day before yesterday /δe déi bifór jésterdei/ anteayer Last night /la:st náit/ anoche I was very busy yesterday. (pausa) This ______ Janet. ______ you a student here? No. / méri woz δe bést stiú:dent in mai klás/ They were very good friends. Mr. That´s bad news.

lea y aprenda: Were you in class this morning? /we:r iú: in klás δis mórnin/ Was John sick yesterday? /woz dllón sík iésterdi/ Was Mary a good student at school? /woz méri a gúd stiú:dent at skú:l/ Where were you at this time yesterday? /wéar wé:r iú at δis táim iésterdi/ Why was Jim absent from work? /wái woz dllím æbsent from wé:rk/ EXERCISES: Ex. 3. Where ______ the Johnsons last weekend? Where ______ they today? The elevator ______ out of order last night. 5. La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después de WAS o WERE. but they ______ at work yesterday. /méri wóznt a gúd stiú:dent at hái skú:l/ (Mary no era una buena alumna en el liceo) They weren´t very hardworking. How old. 6. Liz was in bed because she was sick. Complete these sentences with the proper form of the verb TO BE. 4. but it ______ working well now.Y. /dllón wóznt at hóum δis mórnin/ (John no estuvo en casa esta mañana) We weren´t in New York last year. 1. Tom was at home at midnight last night. 3.Why?.2. 4. La forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de WAS / WERE con el sujeto Escuche. 4. 2. Bob ______ very sick yesterday. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´T /wóznt/ o WEREN´T /wé:rent/. The men were tired after the long walk. Mary was late for the train this morning. lea y aprenda: I was not very busy last week. 6. Yesterday ______ Sunday. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Mr Clark was about 85 years old when he died. 5. The Smiths were in Chile in 1985. 2. Ask questions using wh-words like What? Where? When?. el año pasado) Mary wasn´t a good student at high school. (¿Estuviste en clase esta mañana?) (¿Estuvo John enfermo ayer?) (¿Era Mary una buena alumna en el colegio?) (¿Dónde estabas a esta hora ayer?) (¿Por qué estuvo Jim ausente del trabajo?) Ex. 6. Escuche. They ______ free today. Today ______ Monday. John ______n´t in the office at ten this morning because he ______ at a meeting. present or past: 1. How?. Who? 1. /ai woz nót véri bízi lá:st wí:k/ (Yo no estuve muy ocupado la semana pasada) John wasn´t at home this morning. /wi wé:rent in niú: iórk lá:st íar/ (Nosotros no estuvimos en N. They were good friends at school. but he ______ much better today. George was a little better this morning. /δei wé:rnt véri há:rdwérkiη/ (Ellos no eran muy trabajadores) 3. 7. Henry was at the movie at 7 P. 3. John ______ in New York the day before yesterday but he ______ in Chicago today. 2.M. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 19 . 3. 5. The weather was fine that day. John was in the car at that moment. Change the following sentences into a) Negative b) interrogative 1. 2. The secretary was busy at midday.

de regreso? EXERCISES: Ex. 5. 2. serán / estarán) They will be /δei wil bí:/ (Ellos / as serán estarán) También se pueden usar las siguientes contracciones: I´ll be /áil bí:/ Escuche. 6. lea y aprenda: How long? /háu lóη/ ¿Cuánto tiempo? Until /antíl/ hasta. La forma interrogativa se expresa usando el verbo modal WILL o la contracción WON´T delante del sujeto. They won´t be here all day. /ái wil bí: véri bízi δis a:fternú:n/ . but he _________________________________________________ the day after tomorrow. EL TIEMPO FUTURO: WILL BE /will bi:/ 1. but it _____________________________________________ next month. It is not very cold now. /méri wil nót bí: at hóum tudéi/ Mary no estará en casa hoy día. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL Normalmente se usa la contracción WON´T /wóunt/. Escuche. but it ______________________________________________________________ this evening. /ai wil nót bí: bízi tumórou/ No estaré muy ocupado mañana Mary will not be at home today. /δei wóunt bí: híar ó:l dei/ Ellos no estarán aquí todo el día It won´t be cold tonight. 20 (will be at home) tomorrow. The weather was not very nice last month. For /for/ por What time? /wót táim/ ¿Qué hora? Tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana. /ail bí: on lí:v for tú: wí:ks/ Yo estaré con permiso por dos semanas 2. but he _______________________________________ next Monday. Estaré muy ocupado esta tarde John will be in class until 1 o´clock. Tom and Jack aren´t in the same class this semester. but he 1. but I ________________________________________________ in ten minutes. John isn´t absent today. /dllón wil bí: in klá:s antil wán oklók/ John estará en clases hasta la 1 It´ll be hot tomorrow. /it wóunt bí: kóuld tunáit/ No estará frio esta noche 3. but they _______________________________ next semester. Escuche.C. I will be /ai wil bí:/ (Yo seré / estaré) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Tú serás / estarás) He will be /hi: wil bí:/ (El será / estará) She will be /shí: wil bí:/ (Ellas será / estará) It will be /it wil bí:/ (Será / estará) We will be /wí: wil bí:/ (Nos. 1. Complete the sentences as in the example: John is not at home today. lea y aprenda: Will you be free tomorrow evening? /wil iú: bí: frí: tumórou í:vnin/ ¿Estarás libre mañana en la noche? Will the test be difficult? /wil δe tést bí: dífikalt/ ¿Será dificil la prueba? Will they be here on Monday? /wil δei bí: híar on mándei/ ¿estarán ellos aquí el lunes? Won´t you be at the meeting? /wóunt iú. A short course in english for adult students . Next week /´nekst wi:k/ la próxima semana. Normalmente se usa la contracción ‘ll en la conversación diaria informal. lea y aprenda: I will not be very busy tomorrrow. 7. El tiempo futuro del verbo TO BE se expresa mediante el uso del Verbo Modal WILL seguido del infinitivo BE.Johnson was not at the meeting last week.seremos / estaremos) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Uds. 3. We are not busy right now. The day after tomorrow /δe déi á:fter tumórou/ pasado mañana You´ll be /iu:l bí:/ He´ll be /hí:l bí:/ They´ll be /δeil bí:/ I will be very busy this afternoon. I am not in my office at the moment. Mr. but we _________________________________________________________ after lunch. bi: at δe mí:tin/ ¿No estarás tú en la reunión? When will they be here again? /wén wil δei bí: híar agéin/ ¿Cuándo estarán ellos aquí nuevamente? How long will they be in Washington? /háu loη wil δei bí: in wóshiδton/ ¿Cúanto tiempo estarán ellos en Washington? What time will you be back? /wót táim wil iu: bí: bæk/ ¿A qué hora estará Ud. 4. /ítl bí: hot tumórou/ Estará caluroso mañana I´ll be on leave for two weeks.

When will you be on vacation again? 3. Ask questions using Where?. I´ll be in the first team. Mr. Cuándo están ellos libres todo el día? ¿Quién era ese hombre? Este no es un libro muy interesante. Where were you last weekend? 7. Where were you at this time yesterday? 2. 3. Ellos estarán muy ocupados mañana en la mañana. 2. Esos niños no son muy buenos alumnos. I will be free next Tuesday morning. 12. 7. They will be in the next town before midday. 14.When?. They will be at home all day because the weather is not good. Answer the following questions. 3. 7. How long?. Who was with you at the party last Saturday? 8. in English. 1. 4. Ella será una excelente secretaria. How are you today? 4. Mary´ll be in the office all morning. It´ll be hot tomorrow. 2. ¿Dónde están tus amigos ahora? ¿Quién estuvo aquí esta mañana? Nosotros no estuvimos aquí la semana pasada. 11.Ex. en esa ciudad nuevamente? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 21 . 1. Mary will be in New York next weekend. 3. What time?. 9. 3. 6. 13. ¿Cuándo estará Ud. 10. Why is your friend in bed at this time? 6. 2. 5. 2. 6. 7. The program will be interesting. 5. Ellos fueron buenos amigos en el colegio Los informes no estaban listos todavía. Where will you be at this time tomorrow? 10. The students will be in the lab this afternoon. 8. 4. 5. All the shops will be closed tomorrow because it´s Sunday. etc. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. My friends will be here before 12. Change the following sentences into the negative and the interrogative forms. 4. When is the next general meeting? 9. Who was absent from class last Monday? 5. 9. 1. She will be back in Chile on Wednesday. The weather will be very nice this month.Why? How?. 4. They will be here at ten-thirty. 5. John will be in class today. Johnson will be absent from work for three days? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. Why were you absent from class last Friday? Ex. 6. Alguien estuvo aquí ayer en la tarde. Mr Jackson estuvo en la oficina todo el día. 8.

I .E .K .W .Y .O .D .M .G .X .S .H .PART II.Y .Q . 2. My last name is Vasquez.K .U .I . ¿Puede leer estas series de letras? 1.P .Z .A Ex.A .N .V .H .T . P .O .W .K .X .G .A -E 2.R .E . δæts vi: éi és kiú i: zéd/ 3.Q .A .N .r/ B: Last month.J .S .A .I .C .F .I . /tóm wé:rks for ái bí: ém in él éi/ Ex. E . How do you spell your first name? /háu diu: spél io:r fe:rst néim/ 2.Q . I bought it at the PX A: Was it very expensive? /wóz it ekspénsiv/ /lá:st mánθ ái bó:t it at δe pí: éks/ B: No. Tom works for IBM in LA.W .D .L .T . B: Can you spell that.G .L .O .B .R .Z . please A: I-G-N-A-C-I-O B: Thank you /θæηkiu:/ /kán iu: spél δæt plí:z/ /ai dllí: én éi sí: ái óu/ /mái bráδerz néim iz ignásio/ 2.W .O . /mái la:st néim is váskes. ¿Puede deletrear estas palabras? Yorkshire Mexico Washington Quebec geography Chicago Kalamazoo Venezuela Japan Shanghai whisky Tokyo 22 A short course in english for adult students .B .L .U .C . lea y aprenda: 1. J .G . A: My brother´s name is Ignacio. 3.M .B .F . THE ENGLISH ALPHABET Vowels: Consonants: A /éi/ E /i:/ I /ái/ O /óu/ U /iú/ B /bi:/ C /si:/ D /di:/ G /dlli:/ P /pi:/ T /ti:/ V /vi:/ F /ef/ L /el/ M /em/ N /en/ S /es/ X /eks/ Z /zed/* J /dlléi/ H /eitch/ K /kei/ Y /uái/ Q /kiú/ W /dábliu/ R /a:r/ * En Inglés Americano la letra Z se pronuncia /zi:/ PRACTICE EXERCISES: Ex.O .C . it only cost me eighty-five dollars /nóu it óunli kóst mi:éiti fáiv dólarz/ Ex.Q . U .E .O .J .F 4.B .I . Practique estos diálogos con algún amigo: 1.A 5. 4.A .V . 1. A: When did you buy your VCR? /wén did iú: bái io:r ví: sí: á.N .X .X .I . that´s V-A-S-Q-U-E-Z.I .Y . Escuche.Y .L .U .T .E . E .V -B 3.X .C .X .

I spell: C as in Charlie.C. 5. R as in Romeo and K as in Kilo: CLARK A short course in english for adult students 23 . I spell: J for Juliett.D OBE CEO UK UNO DEA MP FOB CIF ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ¿Puede agregar algunas otras siglas de uso frecuente? ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ THE PHONETIC ALPHABET This alphabet is used in radio / telephone communication to spell difficult words: as in A B C D E F G H I J K L M /az in/ como en Alfa /álfa/ Bravo /brávou/ Charlie /tchá:rli/ Delta /délta/ Echo /ékou/ Foxtrot /fókstrot/ Golf /gólf/ Hotel /houtél/ India /índia/ Juliett /dlluliét/ Kilo /kílou/ Lima /líma/ Mike /máik/ for N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z /fo:r/ para November /nouvémber/ Oscar /óskar/ Papa /pápa/ Quebec /kuibék/ Romeo /rómiou/ Sierra /siéra/ Tango /táηgou/ Uniform /íunifo:rm/ Victor /víktor/ Whisky /wíski/ X-ray /éks réi/ Yankee /iáηki/ Zulu /zúlu/ as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in for for for for for for for for for for for for for Examples: 1. A. A as in Alfa.D. My name is JUAN. BBC UCLA VAT UFO NCO PTO p. PLO USSR VCR NBT CO ADC EST ATM OAS IBM CIA IRA MIT APC DC COD GPS GMT MIA Ph. U for uniform.m. The commander´s last name is CLARK. A for alfa and N for November: JUAN 2. L as in Lima.Ex. Estudie estas siglas (acronyms) de uso frecuente: USA B.m. FBI OK ITT a.

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They´re young. she is. Somebody was here yesterday afternoon / evening . No.. Is the manager in his office? 2. What´s this / that? 7. 9. 1. Mary won´t be. No. am 9.R: is J: is . 14. Where´s the cat? 6. The weather wasn´t . It isn´t clean... / Were they. I´m hungry. Ex. 10. I´m a army officer. When will she be back in Chile? 8. 4.. I´m not. are 4.. it is.? Ex. They´re hungry. I´m not thirsty. My friends won´t be. 1..KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 1 Part 1 A. When are they free all day? 11... Was .. 4. 2. Are the pictures clear? 8.? 5. 6. 1.? Ex.. What are these / those? 3...am (pause) is . You´re a good instructor. She´ll be an excellent secretary 7. is 7. 8. I am. 1.were 3.. is 2. When were the Smiths .. When will Mary be in New York? 7. it is... Mr Jackson was in the office all day.. Are Peter and John in class? 3.Are J: am . I won´t be. Was .? C. He isn´t a doctor. are 6.. / Was the secretary .No. will be very nice. How old was Mr Clark when. How long will Mr Johnson be absent from work? Ex.. Where are the books? 9.. F: is . 13.. Are the maps in the library? Ex. 5..? 3.. 6. he´s not. will be in my office 6. 5. No.. they are. I´m not.. / Was Hernry.. 1. Ex. They aren´t old. 1. 6. They weren´t. The program won´t be .. 1.is 6. Are the children in the playground? 9.is .. They were good friends at school. No. It´s open. Where was Tom at.. They´re sad.. Why will all the shops be closed tomorrow? 2. 1. Where will the students be this afternoon? 4. I´m in the office. The reports weren´t ready yet.? 6. No. Who was that man? 12.. They aren´t happy. 7. Ex.? 6. Was .. / Will my friends be... / Was the weather.. 1.. they´re not.. 9.is 2.am 3.? 2. They aren´t angry. Who was here this morning? 5. 5.. 8. Is the computer connected to internet? 6. How are the children? 10. 2.. What´s this / that? 2. They´ll be very busy tomorrow morning. Yes. She´s a secretary. Yes. 7. they´re not.is J: is . 3.. Yes. Is . Yes.. Who was in the car. Ex. 1. Mary wasn´t .. How will the weather be this month? 6... they´re not. will be very cold 4. 3.. will be absent 3. M: is P: is .is M: is P: is M: is P: isn´t . 2.. When will you be in that city again? A short course in english for adult students 25 .. will be very busy 5.? 2. 1. Are your friends from Canada? 5. 4. is 8..? 4. 5.. The men weren´t ... 2. 2. he is. Yes. 8. This isn´t a very interesting book. They´re in class. Is the course interesting? 4.. Who´s that boy? 8. 1. John won´t be. He isn´t at home.? 3.. Yes.. No. Who´s that woman? Ex. 10. they´re not. Those children are not very good students. will be at the meeting 7. It´s dirty. (open answers) Ex. it´s not. He´s an engineer.. Ex. will be in the same class 2. we are-We´re ready to go. Henry wasn´t . No. No. Where are your friends now? 4.? 6.. He´s at work.. 1. 2. When will you be free? 3. Yes.? 2. 9... / Will it be. How was George.. At what time will they be here? 5. I am. Ja: are Ji: am Ja: are Ji: am not . It won´t be .. 6. Was .. / Will John be .are Ex.? 5..was 7. Yes. 1.. The secretary wasn´t... Clark.are 5.. are 5. Is the package light or heavy? 7.are 3.. Yes. How are you? 5.? 5. Ex. 3.is 4. / Was Mary. We weren´t here last week... Are . It´s a modern plane.... / Will I be .? 4. He´s Mr.. 1.is Ex.. I´m not an navy officer.. Where are the cigarettes?.am J: is 2. 3.....are F: am . They´re British.. Why was Liz in bed? 4.. 3.. They´re updated. Are the CD´s in the drawer? 10. 3.is Ja: am .are R: am ..... they are..was 4. is 10. / Will Mary be.. he´s not.you are. 1. 4. Yes. Were .? 3. / Will the program be. I´m hungry. / Were the men ...are Ja: am B. They aren´t American.? 4... Why will they be at home all day? 9.

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There are no chairs. la palabra SOME /sám/ (algo. /δéarz e ká:r in δe ká:r pa:rk/ (Hay un auto en el estacionamiento) There´s some water in the glass. Normalmente. ha advertido. THERE TO BE (HABER. /δéarz sam wóter in δe glæs/ (Hay agua en el vaso) There are 10 students in my class. There´s a lot (of ice). Estudie la siguiente tabla: Affirmative Negative SOME NOT ANY NO Interrogative ANY? There´s some water in the glass. EXISTIR) A. /δéar íznt éni wóter in δe glæs/ There´s no water in the glass /δéarz nóu wóter in δe glæs/ There are not 10 students in my class. en castellano. en el singular. /δear íznt éni wóter in δe glá:s/ There aren´t any trees in the garden. /δear á:rent éni tchéarz in δe rúm/ There are no chairs in the room. /δear á:rent tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t any chairs in the room. /δear á:r tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ (Hay 10 alumnos en mi curso) There are some chairs in the room /δear á:r sam tchéarz in δe rúm/ (Hay algunas sillas en la sala) La forma negativa se expresa con THERE IS NOT / THERE ISN´T /δear íznt/ o THERE ARE NOT / THERE AREN´T /δear á:rent/ There is not a book on the desk. /δéarz nóu wóter in δe glá:s/ There are no trees in the garden.THERE ARE UNIT 2 Estas expresiones se usan para indicar la existencia de algo. Son equivalentes a la expresión HAY. /háu match/ Como ud. /δear á:r nóu trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ Is there any water in the glass? /iz δearz éni wóter in δe glá:s/ Are there any trees in the garden? . There are three (windows). /δear a:r nóu tchéarz in δe rúm/ La forma interrogativa se hace mediante simple inversión del verbo con la palabra THERE. Is there a book on the desk? /íz δer e búk on δe désk/ Is there a car in the car park? /íz δer e ká:r in δe ká:r pa:rk/ Is there any water in the glass? /íz δér éni wóter in δe glæs/ Are there 10 students in the class? /á:r δer tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ Are there any chairs in the room? /á:r δer éni tchéarz in δe rúm/ Hay dos palabras interrogativas estrechamente relacionadas con There is y There are: HOW MUCH? (¿Cuánto? ¿Cuánta?) y HOW MANY? /háu méni/ (¿Cuántos? ¿Cuántas?) How much whisky is there in the glass? How much ice is there in the glass? How much water is there? How many doors are there in this room? How many windows are there? How many chairs are there? There´s very little (whisky). There´s no water. se usa la contracción THERE´S /δéarz/.PART I. /δear á:rent éni trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ There ´s no water in the glass. PRESENT TENSE: THERE IS . /δéarz sam wóter in δe glá:s/ There are some trees in the garden /δéar á:r sam trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ There isn´t any water in the glass. En las interrogaciones se debe usar la palabra ANY /éni/. THERE ARE /δear á:r/ se usa con sustantivos plurales. /a:r δear éni trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ A short course in english for adult students 27 . algunos / as) solamente se usa en forma afirmativa. There aren´t any (chairs). There isn´t any (water). THERE IS /δear íz/ se usa con sustantivos singulares o incontables. There´s only one (door). En la forma negativa se puede usar NOT ANY /not éni/ o NO /nóu/. There is a book on the desk /δear íz e búk on δe désk/ (Hay un libro sobre el escritorio) There´s a car in the car park. /δear iz nót e búk on δe désk/ There isn´t a car in the car park. /δear a:r nót tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t 10 students in my class. / δéar íznt e ká:r in δe ká:r pa:rk/ There isn´t any water in the glass.

La expresión a lot of normalmente se usa en oraciones afirmativas. en las negaciones generalmente se usa la palabra NO /nóu/ There´s water in that bottle. /δéar á:r e lót ov buks on δe shélf/ There isn´t much sugar in the bowl. Normalmente el artículo A/AN se reemplaza por las palabras SOME /sam/ algunos/as. estudie la siguiente tabla some a lot of much a little very little no/not any some several many a lot of a few very few no/not any There is milk in this bottle There are flowers in the garden. por lo tanto se omite. /δéar á:rent méni buks on δe shélf/ Is there much sugar in the bowl? /iz δéar mutch shúgar in δe bóul/ Are there many books on the shelf? /á:r δéar méni buks on δe shélf/ Affirmative a lot of not much not many much? many? Negative Interrogative El artículo indefinido A/AN (un. /δéarz e lót ov áis in mai glá:s/ Hay bastante hielo en mi vaso There are very few desks in the room. En las oraciones negativas e interrogativas se prefiere usar las palabras much o many. 2. Cuando THERE IS/THERE ARE van seguidas directamente por un sustantivo. There´s no water in that bottle. 1. There are flowers in the garden. very few people at the conference. 28 _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ A short course in english for adult students some books on the shelf. There is a tree in the garden. There are no flowers in the garden Finalmente.una) no tiene una forma para el plural. . There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden. /δéar íznt mutch shúgar in δe bóul/ There aren´t many books on the shelf. /δear a:r véri fiú: desks in δe rú:m/ Hay muy pocos escritorios en la sala There are a lot of chairs in the room. /δear a:r e lót ov tchéarz in rú:m/ Hay bastantes sillas en la sala. 3. FEW /fiú:/ (pocos/as) y A LOT OF /e lót ov/ (bastante/bastantes) There´s very little water in the glass /δéarz véri lítl wóter in δe glá:s/ Hay muy poca agua en el vaso There´s a lot of ice in my glass. only one student in the lab now. según sea el caso There´s a lot of sugar in the bowl /δéarz e lót ov shúgar in δe bóul/ There are a lot of books on the shelf. Complete the sentences using THERE IS or THERE ARE: 1. There are many trees in the garden. SEVERAL /séverl/ varios/as. EXERCISES Ex. 4. MANY /méni/ muchos/as. very little money left in the box.Note el uso de LITTLE /lítl/ (poco/a).

10. 4. There´s central heating in the room. 3. just a little.. Use LITTLE.. 2. Ex. There are a lot of people in the room. no time left. of noise in this room. There´s a train for Paris in the morning. There´s some more coffee in the cup.: (How many) 1. ARE THERE? in the questions. very few.. 3. 5. 8.. 1. and THERE’S or THERE ARE in the Answers .. Use HOW MUCH. 2.. There are more women than men.5. 4. There are very ______________________________ There´s ____________________________________ There´s very ________________________________ There´s ____________________________________ books in the school library.. 8. 10. Ex. ___________________ 3. 9. There are more than 10 students.. 10. ___________________ 8. a lot of work. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. There is another chair in that room There are some more books. a lot. five or six. 3.IS THERE? Or HOW MANY. two. There´s a lot of free time in the mornings. ___________________ 6. Change the following sentences into the interrogative form. 9. 1. a lot of mistakes in your composition. There´s some more meat in the fridge. some letters for you on the desk. ___________________ 4. 9. 7. 6. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ no more milk in the jug. 6. 6. There are some more clean glasses. no milk in it. 5.. FEW. 4.. several helicopters in the airfield. no more cassettes in the box. 3. There´s a hotel near the Training Center. 2. ___________________ 7. 7. 1.. ___________________ dictionaries (are there)? money ______________ ? doors ________________ in the lab? milk _________________ in the jug? video tapes ___________ ? work _________________ today? people _______________ in the room?. 7. 4. There´s some more money in my pocket. There are 24 hours in a day.. four men. butter ________________ in the dish? secretaries____________ here? women ______________ in that group? men _________________ in the crew? (There are) 8. 5. ___________________ 10. milk left in the bottle. 2. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ very little. just one. ice in my glass. ___________________ 5. There are 30 days in February. ___________________ 9. Change the following statements into the negative form. 8. Complete the following questions and answers.. ___________________ 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. There are some students absent today. There are some extra chairs in the room. A short course in english for adult students 29 . sir. There’s a lot of fruit in the basket. There´s a telephone in the room. Ej. A LOT in the blank spaces. There are a lot of students absent..

students absent from class today. 6. Answer these questions. 7. 5. tickets available. 10. B. 2. There´s a lot of work in the office today. 2. How much free time was there during the Basic Training Period? (very little. How many days were there in February that year? (29. How many students were there in this class last year? (about 20) _________________________________________________________________________ 2. EXERCISES: Ex. How many students were there in the laboratory? ( not any) _________________________________________________________________________ 6. 10. of course) _________________________________________________________________________ 4. 9. 8. Is there enough money for the trip? How many people are there on board? There isn´t much time to talk. of sugar in my coffee. It´s too sweet. Were there many people at the meeting last Monday? (No. 9. of errors in my bill. There weren´t many books on the desk. 8. lea y aprenda There was a lot of noise in the room /δear was e lot ov nóis in δe rú:m/ Había bastante ruido en la sala. /δear wé:rnt méni buks on δe désk/ No había muchos libros sobre el escritorio. whisky left in the bottle. There were many people absent. using the information given in parenthesis: 1. 1. lots of cars) _________________________________________________________________________ 30 A short course in english for adult students . Was there a TV in the room? / woz δear e tÍ: ví: in δe rú:m / ¿Había un televisor en la habitación? How many people were there at the party? / háu meni pí:pl we:r δear atδe pá:rti / (¿Cuánta gente había en la fiesta?). 6. Change into the Past Tense: 1. Are there many errors in the bill? There´s very little whisky left. 4. 3. La interrogación se expresa invirtiendo el orden de las palabras WAS y WERE con la palabra THERE. How much milk is there in the fridge? There aren´t many hotels in this town.5. There are very few people in the pub. /δear wóznt éni bíar in δe kæn/ No había nada de cerveza en la lata. Normalmente se usan las contracciones THERE WASN´T /δear wózent/ THERE WEREN´T /δear wé:rent/. not more than 30) _________________________________________________________________________ 3. /δear we:r méni pí:pl æbsent/ Había muchas personas ausentes. Was there enough bread for all the people? (yes. it was a leap year) _________________________________________________________________________ 7. 7. PAST TENSE: THERE WAS . There are __________________________________ There are only a ____________________________ There are __________________________________ There´s ____________________________________ There are __________________________________ There´s just a ______________________________ of trees in that park. Escuche. Were there many cars in the street at that time? ( Yes. more than enough) _________________________________________________________________________ 5. There are two books missing from the shelf.THERE WERE El pasado de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa usando THERE WAS /δear wóz/ / THERE WERE /δear we:r/ La negación se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de WAS y WERE. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Ex. There wasn´t any beer in the can.

2. /δearl bí: sám mó:r réin nékst wikénd/. Habrá un muy buen programa en la TV esta noche. eni mó:r réin nekst wi:kend/ How many tests will there be next week? /háu méni tésts wil δear bí: nekst wí:k/ EXERCISES: Ex. How many people are there at the reception? How much money is there in the box? Is there any more work? Are there more than ten students in your class? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. el verbo modal WILL precede a la palabra THERE. normalmente formando la contracción WON´T /wóunt/ En las preguntas. Change into the future tense. There´ll be some more rain next weekend. 6. 10. /δear wóunt bí: tú: mó:r tests nekst wí:k/ Will there be a good program on TV this evening? /wil δear bí: a gud próugram on tí: ví: δis í:vnin/ Will there be any more rain next weekend? /wil δear bí. a lot of noise at the disco last night. not any more exercises in the book now. 5. 4. Escuche. Translate the previous sentences into Spanish.C. /δear wil not bí: anáδer mí:tiη δis í:vniη/ There won´t be two more tests next week. There will be two more tests next week. 2. There isn´t any food left in the fridge. very few flowers in our garden. Habrá otra reunión esta tarde. several trees in the park now. 4. lea y aprenda: There will be a very good program on TV tonight /δear wil bí: e veri gud próugram on tí: ví: tunaít/. /δear wil not bí: e gud próugram on tí: ví: tunáit/. 1. 1. En la conversación diaria WILL se une con la palabra THERE. 7. 3. 5. 3. 8. Use the right tense of There To Be (Present. in your class last year? much milk left. 1. 2. Habrá dos pruebas más la próxima semana. There will not be another meeting this evening. Escuche.1. 9. Just one or two bottles. There are some women at the meeting. 3. There is a lot of free time in the evening. next time? very little food in the fridge now. Habrá algo más de lluvia el próximo semana fin de La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL. lea y aprenda: There will not be a good program on TV tonight. FUTURE TENSE: THERE WILL BE El futuro de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa con la forma THERE WILL BE /δear wil bí:/. formando la contracción THERE´LL BE /δearl bí:/. 6. Ex. Past or Future). How many women ____________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ How much free time __________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ How many students ___________________________ ____________________________________________ at the party last Saturday? a lot of noise in this room now. /δearl bí: anáδer mí:tiη δis í:vniη/ . 5. /δear wil bí: tú: mó:r tésts nekst wí:k/ . 3. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 31 . There´ll be another meeting this evening. 2. 7. 4.

4. 11. 5. Translate the following sentences into English 1. 3. Answer these questions in English.. 3. 8. 6. 5. 9. 7. ___________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 9.6. 6. ¿Cuánto s autos había en el estacionamiento esa tarde? Había muy pocos niños en la calle ese día. Había solamente dos hoteles en ese pueblo. 7. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Ex. 12. 10. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 32 A short course in english for adult students . 8. No hay tiempo para conversar. 10. __________________________________________ No. Hay mucho ruido en esta sala ahora. No habrá muchos partidos de fútbol este fin de semana. 4. 9. 4. 7. 5. 2. 2. __________________________________________ Yes. Había muy poco tiempo libre durante la mañana. No habrá otro concierto hasta la próxima semana. 1. How many eggs are there in a dozen? Ex. 8. __________________________________________ No. Habrá otra reunión general el próximo viernes. How many days are there in a week? How many days will there be in February next year? How many students were there in your class last year? How many computers are there in your office? How many people were there in the room at 8:30? Will there be another meeting this week? Was there much work to do in the office last Monday? Are there any spelling mistakes in the letter? ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ No. ¿Hay un restaurant cerca de aquí? ¿Cuánto dinero hay en la billetera? No había mucha gente en el edificio a esa hora. How much money is there in your wallet? 10.

285 d) 94 k) 6. Las palabras hundred. There are millions of / lots of stars in our galaxy 5. US$ 4. 68 sixty-eight. million y billion no se pluralizan en inglés.000.971 forty five thousand nine hundred and seventy-one /fórti fáiv θáuzand nain hándred and séventi uán/ Importante: 1. thirty.000 two million /tú mílion/ 5.” Ej. million y billion no van seguidas de and. el punto es coma y la coma es punto.80 Ex. Las palabras hundred.394 e) 33 l) 24.265 four hundred and sixty-three thousand. lea y aprenda: 1 one /uán/ 6 six /siks/ 11 eleven /ilévn/ 16 sixteen /sikstín/ 20 twenty /tuénti/ 70 seventy /sévnti/ 2 two /tu:/ 7 seven /sévn/ 12 twelve /tuélv/ 17 seventeen /sevntín/ 30 thirty /δérti/ 80 eighty /éiti/ 3 three /δri:/ 8 eight /éit/ 13 thirteen /δertín/ 18 eighteen /eitín/ 40 forty /fórti/ 90 ninety /náinti/ 4 four /fo:r/ 9 nine /náin/ 14 fourteen /fo:rtín/ 19 nineteen /naintín/ 50 fifty /fífti/ 5 five /fáiv/ 10 ten /ten/ 15 fifteen /fiftín/ 60 sixty /síksti/ 100 one hundred /uán hándred/ 1. three hundred and eighty-seven. 3. 21.000. There were thousands of / lots of people in the stadium. 4. There are hundreds of / lots of trees in the park. 70.365. para indicar lo mismo que “lots of. 463. 32 thirty-two. 3. Al escribir cifras en inglés. 1 Read and then write these numbers a) 12 h) 597 a) c) e) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) b) 56 i) 846 c) 79 j) 1. las palabras thousand. Las palabras twenty.362 five thousand three hundred and sixty-two /faiv θáuzand θri: hándred and síksti tú:/ 45.000 five thousand. Ej. etc siempre van seguidas de un guión antes del número unitario. 5.45 km. 5. Ej. Ej.000 one thousand /uán θáuzand/ 200. Ej. thousand y million se pluralizan solamente en las siguientes expresiones. 94 ninety-four. NUMBERS Escuche.5% .. thousand. forty. twenty-one.000 three million. 12. La palabra hundred siempre va seguida de and.000 two thousand /tú θáuzand/ 2. 400 four hundred.PART II.687.328 _____________________________________________ b) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ d) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ f) ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 33 . two hundred and sixty-five. 45 fortyfive. 2.875 g) 148 n) 5. 365 three hundred and sixty-five.387 five thousand.973 f) 28 m) 256.000 two hundred thousand /tú: hándred θáuzand/ 200 two hundred /tú hándred/ 2..

niños hijo hija hermano hermana tío tía sobrino sobrina primo dad. personas niño/s. dædi/ mom.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words PEOPLE GENERAL person /pε:rsn/ people /pí:pl/ child /children /tcháild/tchildrn/ boy /boi/ girl /gε:rl/ FAMILY AND RELATIVES grandparents /grandpéarents/ grandfather /grandfa:δer/ grandmother /grandmáδer/ grandchildren /grandtchildren/ grandson /grándsan/ granddaughter /grand dó:ter/ parents /péarents/ husband /házband/ wife /waif/ father /fá:δer/ mother /máδer/ children /tchíldren/ son /sán/ daughter /dó:ter/ brother /bráδer/ sister /síster/ uncle /áηkl/ aunt /a:nt/ nephew /néfiu/ niece /ni:s/ cousin /kázin/ abuelos abuelo abuela nietos nieto nieta padres esposo. niños 34 A short course in english for adult students . mami abuelito abuelita suegro suegra yerno nuera cuñado cuñada padrastro madrastra hijastro hijastra hermanastro hermanastra padre adoptivo madre adoptiva padrino madrina persona gente. daddy /dæd.law /fá:δer in ló:/ mother-in-law /maδer in ló:/ son-in-law /san in ló:/ daughter-in-law /dó:ter in ló:/ brother-in-law /bráδer in ló:/ sister-in-law /síster in ló:/ step-father /step fá:δer/ step-mother /step máδer/ step-son /step san/ step-daughter /step dó:ter/ step-brother /step bráδer/ step-sister /step síster/ foster-father /fóster fá:δer/ foster-mother /fóster máδer/ god-father /god fá:δer/ god-mother /god máδer/ papá. mámi/ grandpa /grænpa:/ granny /græni/ father-in. pequeño/s niño niña man/men /mæn/men/ woman/women /wuman/wímen/ gentleman /dlléntlman/ lady /léidi/ kids /kidz/ hombre/s mujer/es caballero dama chicos. mujer padre madre hijos.papi mamá. mommy /mam. marido esposa.

.. How many people will there be. there won´t be another meeting 7.. There will be a lot.. ¿Cuánto tiempo libre habrá la próxima vez? 5. there are no spelling mistakes... 5. 5. Ex. Ex. Ex... Yes.... / There´s no more. 3.? There´s. There were about 20 .. Había bastante ruido en la discoteca anoche 8.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 2 Part I A.... are there. There isn´t Ex.. 1. There was 8.. There´s no central. There won´t be any.? 7.. How many people were there. 4. is there.? Ex. 2...? 4. 2. Are there 24. 1. Were there. There is 8.... 1.. / There are no extra.. there aren´t any. Is there another. 4. How many..? 10...... 1.. How many. 8. students..Hay bastante ruido en esta sala ahora. How many. 9. 1.. few 2. There aren´t 30.. 5. Ex. few 8. 5. 9.. Are there any more. How much milk was there.... 10... Sólo una o dos botellas... There isn´t any more. There isn´t much..... No. 3. There´s just one / There are. 10.? There´s. 1.were there 10. 2. a lot 10. Will there be any.. 8. Ex. 3. 12.. There aren´t many. 7.. / No... There were only two hotels in that town. 6.. There was.... How many.? Ex.? 6. There was very little free time during the morning.. 4. There´ll be 28 days. How much. There isn´t a. It was a leap year. 10.Is there a restaurant near here...? 2. few 7.? 4. There were very few children in the street that day. are there? There are. A short course in english for adult students 35 . C. There isn´t any more. there was more than enough. 5. No hay mucha leche sobrante. are there. Hay muy poca comida en el refrigerador ahora 6. There was very little. 7. 3.... Were there 2.. No. 8.. There are 4. Ex.? 6... 1. 2. Ex. There were.. There is 6. Is there a train...There aren´t any extra.. a lot 9.? There are.. 6. little 4. 8.. a lot 6.. 3.. / There are no more.. ¿Cuántos alumnos había en tu curso el año pasado? 10.. There won´t be another concert until next week. there was a lot of work. There´s a lot of noise in this room now. / There´s no more. 6.? 7. How much..? 3. There aren´t many... 2. Yes.. 1. 4... There won´t be many football games / matches this week end. is there. 3. There weren´t any 6... 3. Is there a hotel.. How many cars were there in the car park that afternoon / evening? 10.. There´s 3.. 4. There are 7. 4.... There are 9. is there? There´s..? There are. Are there more. 2... No hay más ejercicios en el libro ahora 7. There were. are there. 7. there were lots of cars. Ex.. There are 2.. 1.? Thre are. Will there be more than. 8... 2..? There´s.. 2.. There were 29..? 8. Was there enough. 4.. 9. There are seven days.. 2.. 1. There were... There is no time to talk.? 5. of course... There weren´t many people in the building at that time. Hay varios árboles en el parque ahora 4. ¿Cuántas mujeres había en la fiesta el sábado pasado? 2.. Are there more than.... 2.. is there.. There are 7. 6... Is there any more.? 10. No. little B..? 7. a lot 5.. 4.? There´s. 1. computers. Will there be 5. Hay muy pocas flores en nuestro jardín 9.. There will be another general meeting next Friday. How many.. How much.. There isn´t much money in it.. How much. There will be some. There wasn´t.people. 9.. There aren´t any more. Yes. 11. Are there any students.. There´s 6. There are 5..? 5. 5.? There are. 1. 3.. There weren´t.. There are twelve eggs..... 1.There are 10. 1.. are there. There was... There are 9. How much money is there in the wallet? 5. How many. 3. How much money will there be. There are Ex.? 6... There is 4. 5. little 3. There were. 9. 1. 7... are there.... There is 3.. there weren´t more than 30 3.? 9... Is there much free.

Ex. a) twelve b) fifty-six c) seventy-nine d) ninety-four e) thirty-three f) twenty-eight g) one hundred and forty-eight h) five hundred and ninety-seven i) eight hundred and forty-six j) one thousand. 36 A short course in english for adult students .Part II. six hundred and eighty-seven thousand. three hundred and ninety-four l) twenty-four thousand. eight hundred and seventy-five n) five million. two hundred and eighty-five k) six thousand. three hundred and twenty-eight. nine hundred and seventy-three m) two hundred and fifty-six thousand. 1.

/ En la forma negativa se usa HAVE NO GOT y HAS NOT GOT.../ Peter hasn´t got many friends. significa TENER... /δe rú:mz hávent gót.r/ Peter has not got many friends. They´ve got a small one.. /ai hav gót e ká:r/ (Yo tengo un auto) Peter has got many friends. /δe rú:mz hav gót séntrl hí:tiδ/ (Las habitaciones tienen calefacción central) I´ve got /aiv gót/ You´ve got /iu:v got/ He´s got /hi:z gót/ She´s got /shi:z gót/ It´s got /its gót/ We´ve got /wi:v gót/ You´ve got /iú:v gót / They´ve got /δéiv gót/ (yo tengo) (tú tienes) (él tiene) (ella tiene) (él / ella tiene) (nos.. A short course in english for adult students No. tenemos) (uds. lea y aprenda: I have got a car.. /δeiv gót.. John _____________________________ a new uniform. HAVE GOT = TENER Esta expresión verbal se usa especialmente en inglés británico ( y solamente en el tiempo presente) para indicar posesión o propiedad./ Have they got a big house? /hav δei gót. I haven´t got one ( one = a car) Yes.. lea y aprenda: Have you got a car? /hav iú gót./ They haven´t got a big house./ How much money have you got? How many brothers and sisters has Bob got? EXERCISES: Ex. /δei hávent got. /mai dóg házent gót... es decir. lea y aprenda: I have not got a car. 37 . /ai hávent gót. they haven´t..../ They have not got a big house./ Has Peter got many friends? /haz pí:ter gót.. It´s got very long ones./ My dog´s got long ears.. He´s got one sister and two brothers. /pí:ter haz not gót. /pí:ter házent gót..UNIT 3 PART I./ My dog has not got long ears./ The rooms haven´t got central heating../ I haven´t got a car.. /δei hav gót e bíg háus/ (Ellos tienen una casa grande) My dog has got long ears./ My dog hasn´t got long ears../ Have the rooms got a TV? /hav δe ru:mz got.. /mai dóg haz not gót. /pí:ter haz gót méni fréndz/ (Peter tiene muchos amigos) They have got a big house.... tienen) (ellos tienen) I´ve got a car /aiv gót e ká:r/ Peter´s got many friends. Hans ____________________________ long black hair ../ The rooms have not got central heating... (ones = ears) No. 2... En el Presente Afirmativo se conjuga de la siguiente manera: I have got /ai hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ He has got /hi: haz gót/ She has got /shi: haz gót/ It has got /it haz gót/ We have got /wi: hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ They have got /δéi hav gót/ Escuche. Normalmente se usan las contracciones HAVEN´T GOT /hδvent gót/ y HASN´T GOT /hδzent gt/ Escuche../ They´ve got a big house. /mai dóg haz gót loδ íarz/ (Mi perro tiene orejas largas) The rooms have got central heating../ Has the dog got long ears? /haz δe dóg gót. /pí:terz gót. /δei hav not gót. /δe rú:mz hav not gót . /ai hav not gót..1 Complete the following sentences using HAVE GOT or HAS GOT 1. (of friends) No. But they´ve got a radio.. I´ve only got 5 dollars. he´s got a lot. it has. I´ve got very little (money). Yes.. they haven´t got one. /mai dógz gót./ La forma interrogativa se hace por simple inversión del sujeto y HAVE o HAS: Escuche...

. Bob´s got our address. four wheels. 8. 7. They´ve got two cars. Has your parents´ house got a garden? 5. Bob´s got five dollars. 4.. 2. We´ve got a small classroom. Bob´s got a big family.? / HOW MANY. 4 Ask questions with HOW MUCH. Ex. Have you got any brothers or sisters? 10. 2 Change into the negative form 1. Bob´s sister has got a car. 3. She´s got blue eyes and black hair. The flat has got two bathrooms. You´ve got your passport here. The boy has got black shoes. 6. 5. How many rooms has your house got? 8. Have you got a big library at home? 9. 3. 5 Answer these questions: 1. Have you got a dog or a cat? 6. 4. You´ve got a lighter. My friends have got a telephone.. We´ve got 2 bottles of milk. How much money have you got in your pockets? 2. 10. 8. 7. 200 pages. 6. 6. Ex. 9. The house has got a garden.. 8. The students have got a new instructor. They´ve got a lot of friends there. 9. 7. Have you got a computer at home? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 38 A short course in english for adult students . 6. You´ve got many things to do today. I´ve got some cigarettes. They ´ve got very little free time. a new blue dress. 10.3. 3 Change into the interrogative form: 1. 2. The soldiers ______________________ We ______________________________ The book _________________________ I ________________________________ Mary _____________________________ My friends ________________________ My flat ___________________________ The car __________________________ a very good instructor. They´ve got a big family. 7. How many children have you got? 3.? 1. Has your wife / husband got a car? 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 5. 9. 4. 3. three children. I´ve got three children. a son and two daughters. They´ve got our telephone number. Bob´s got some money. Nancy´s got a computer. Have you got any friends in Europe? 7. a small house in the country. 2. 5. 10. two bedrooms. My father´s got a modern car. 4. a lot of money. Ex. The students have got some experience. A car has got four wheels . 5.

Mary is a beautiful woman This is an interesting book That is a big car Además. There are several books on the desk. The books are old. una) se usa para referirse a un artículo cualquiera. EL ARTÍCULO DEFINIDO THE (el. several /séveral/ (varios/as) o many /méni/ (muchos/as). Ej. Debido a que a / an no tiene una forma para el plural. Those are trees /δóuz a:r trí:z/ (Esos son árboles). /δis iz an æ (Esta es una manzana). The men are very tall. /δis iz a wán wei tíkit/ (Este es un boleto de ida). /δæts an órindll/ (Esa es una naranja). The woman is very tall. El artículo A se transforma en AN antes de una palabra iniciada con un sonido vocal o una h “muda”. Ej. Además. /hí: iz an ónest mæn/ (El es un hombre honrado). el adjetivo tall /to:l/ se podría traducir como alto. ADJECTIVES En inglés. en cuyo caso se trata como semi-consonante. Ejemplo. altas. no específico. Compare: This is an orange. masculino o femenino. An apple A dollar An exercise A hotel B. todos los sustantivos actúan como adjetivos cuando preceden a otro sustantivo. That´s an animal /δæts an æ ´nimal/ (Ese es un animal). /δi:z a:r háusiz/ (Estas son casas). Ej. en su lugar se usan normalmente palabras como some /sam/ (algunos/as). This is a one-way ticket. There´s a car in the street. The women are very tall. ARTICLES (I) 1. plural. /δis iz an órindll/ (Esta es una naranja). alta. las) se usa para referirse a objetos específicos. Those are animals /δóuz a:r æ ´nimalz/ (Esos son animales). There is a book on the desk. There is a tree in the garden There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden There are many trees in the garden An apple tree A one-dollar bill One exercise book A hotel manager Three apple trees A five-dollar bill Ten exercise books Two hotel managers 2. la los. That is a tree /δæt iz a trí:/ (Ese es un árbol). He is an honest man. En estos casos no deben pluralizarse (porque los adjetivos nunca se pluralizan!!). /δæts a gé:rl/ (Esa es una niña). This is an old car /δis iz an ´pl/ óuld ká:r/ (Este es un auto viejo). son invariables. pero también se pronuncia como una semiconsonante en palabras como uniform /iúnifo:rm/. These are houses. La letra u se considera vocal en palabras como umbrella /ambréla/. El articulo indefinido a/an no tiene plural. The book is old. The man is very tall. es decir la misma palabra se usa en el singular.PART II. That´s an orange. EL ARTÍCULO INDEFINIDO A (un. /δéarz a ká:r in δe strí:t/ (Hay un auto en la calle). This is an apple. Hay palabras que comienzan con una letra o pronunciada como /w/. determinados. This is a book. Por lo tanto. altos. /δis iz a búk/ (Este es un libro). los adjetivos siempre preceden a los sustantivos: Tom is a tall man. Compare: Show me a photograph (Muéstrame una fotografía) (cualquiera fotografía) Show me the photograph (Muéstrame la fotografía) (una fotografía específica) A short course in english for adult students 39 . Se usa tanto con sustantivos singulares como con plurales. Por lo tanto se deber decir: This is an umbrella /δis iz an ambréla/ (Este es un paraguas) y This is a uniform /δis iz a iúnifo:rm/ (Este es un uniforme). Ej. That´s a girl. A. This is a house /δis iz a háus/ (Esta es una casa).

There´s a text book on the teacher´s desk. There will be an interesting program tonight I´ve got a question for you. use some. Is that woman a nurse? Is that man an engineer? There´s a yellow flower in the garden. 13. That is a picture This is a car. 10. 26. They´ve got a horse on the farm. 1. There is a student in the laboratory now. This is an interesting novel. 30. 4. Mr. 14. 8. 11. 13. 28. 9. 2. Is that an apple tree or a pear tree? I haven´t got a cigarette. 3. 15. 2. Change these sentences into the plural. 1. 10.Exe. 20. I´ve got a coin in my pocket. 13. 15. 16. ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ car used car modern car young woman old woman one-dollar bill five-dollar bill hotel instrument musical instrument answer question impertinent question usual question unusual question hard lesson Ex. 22. 7. 7. 4. The student has got a new notebook. Smith. There is a letter for you. 14. There´s a tree in the garden. They´ve got an interesting book in the library The boy´s got a book in English. Please show me a photograph. ________ pencil ________ apple ________ egg ________ envelope ________ umbrella ________ hour ________ honor ________ house ________ banana ________ big banana ________ exercise ________ easy exercise ________ difficult exercise ________ university ________ old university ________ new university 17. 2. 5. I´ve got a magazine on my desk. I´ve got a friend in San Francisco. 11. 3. 5. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6. 8. 10. 6. Is this an envelope? That man isn´t a teacher. 32. 6. 27. There is a new student in this class. Use the indefinite articles a or an 1. many or several 1. 5. Peter´s got a new pen. 3. 4. 14. 3. 7. 19. 12. Change the following sentences into the plural. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 40 A short course in english for adult students . 8. 23. 12. 29. 9. 25. 11. There´s a woman in the office. 31. 24. 12. There was a car accident last Sunday. 21. This boy isn´t a new student. 9. 2. 18.

It´s five to nine 5.21:00) at night /at náit/ (en la noche. please? /wóts δe táim plí:z/ ¿Cuál es la hora por favor? It´s ten to eight /its tén tu éit/ Son diez para las ocho Lea. It´s twenty past twelve 10. hasta las 12:00) in the afternoon /in δi a:fternú:n/ (en la tarde. J. TELLING THE TIME (Diciendo la hora) What time is it. de 13:00 . 11:25 09:55 It´s twenty-five (minutes) past eleven It´s five (minutes) to ten midday /míddei/ mediodía noon /nu:n/ mediodía midnight /mídnait/ medianoche a.m. I. A 12:20 08:30 09:45 02:15 07:05 08:55 03:10 04:50 04:00 12:40 06:25 10:35 B C D 1. 04:00 p. It´s ten to five 6. G.m. It´s four o´clock E F G H I J K L It´s midday / It´s noon It´s five o´clock a. em/ It´s four o´clock p. E. B. Match the times in Column A with the sentences is Column B A. de18:00 .m. /pii em/ It´s ten o´clock p. It´s half past eight 9.m. It´s a quarter past two 3. H. It´s twenty-five to eleven 7. /pí: ém/ in the morning /in δe mó:rniη/ (en la mañana.PART III. /pii em/ 24:00 It´s midnight It´s five o´clock in the morning It´s four o´clock in the afternoon It´s seven o´clock in the evening It´s ten o´clock at night A short course in english for adult students 41 . F. please? /wót táim iz it plí:z/ ¿Qué hora es por favor? What´s the time. It´s five past seven 8. It´s twenty-five past six 12. K. It´s twenty to one 2.m. /éi ém/ p. 07:00 p.m. 10:00 p. D. L. /pii em/ It´s seven o´clock p. 05:10 02:40 01:27 07:38 It´s ten (minutes) past five It´s twenty (minutes) to three It´s twenty-seven minutes past one It´s twenty-two minutes to eight.m.17:00) in the evening /in δi í:vniη/ (en la tarde / noche.m. 1. escuche y aprenda: o´clock /oklók/ 01:00 07:15 06:30 09:45 quarter past /kuórter pá:st/ half past /ha:f pá:st/ 05:00 10:15 12:30 03:45 quarter to /kuórter tú:/ It´s one o´clock It´s quarter past seven It´s half past six It´s quarter to ten to /tu:/ It´s five o´clock It´s quarter past ten It´s half past twelve It´s quarter to four minutes to /mínits tu:/ past /pá:st/ minutes past /mínits pá:st/ Nota: La palabra “minutes” generalmente se omite después de 5 o múltipos de 5. /ei. C. It´s ten past three 4.m.m. EXERCISES Ex. después de las 21:00) 12:00 05:00 a. It´s a quarter to ten 11.

Ex. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 04:00 p. 20. 22. 2.m. 09:00 It´s ________________________________________________________________________________ 08:50 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 03:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 01:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 09:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10:14 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 24:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 02:57 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 08:00 a. 21.m. 13. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11:00 p. 12. 3. 9. 11. 19. 14. 24. 8. 5. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 03:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 12:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 03:20 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 01:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 05:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 08:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 04:35 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 01:38 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10:18 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 09:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 42 A short course in english for adult students . 2. 10. 18. 17. 6. 7. 15. 23.m. 16. Write down the times and read: What time is it? What´s the time? 1. 4.

sin punta brillante ocupado claro frio. agitado triste agudo. estrecho nuevo bonito. sik/ interesting /íntrestiη/ large /la:dll/ SPANISH airado. apreciado profundo dificil opaco. agradable raro. orange /órindll/ gray.derecho tosco. indispuesto interesante grande ENGLISH late /leit/ lazy /léizi/ light /lait/ long /loη/ narrow /nárrou/ new /niu:/ nice /náis/ odd /o:d/ old /ould/ pleased /pli:zd/ poor /púar/ pretty /príti/ rich /ritch/ right /rait/ rough /ra:f/ sad /sæd/ sharp /sha:rp/ short /sho:rt/ silly /síli/ sleepy /slí:pi/ slow /slou/ small /smo:l/ soft /soft/ straight /streit/ strange /streindll/ stupid /stiu:pid/ tall /to:l/ thick /δik/ thin /δin/ thirsty /δ:rsti/ tiny /táini/ tired /táiard/ ugly /ágli/ uneven /aní:vn/ warm /wo:rm/ wide /waid/ wise /waiz/ wonderful /wánderful/ wrong /roη/ young /jaη/ SPANISH tarde. It´s blue. precursor fácil vacío parejo.liviano largo angosto. insatisfactorio bonito rico. incorrecto joven COLO(U)RS What colour is the car? What colours is the Chilean flag? black /blæk/ white /wait/ green /gri:n/ blue /blu:/ red /red/ brown /bráun/ yellow /yélou/ negro blanco verde azul rojo café amarillo It´s white. brusco. leso libre. ingenuo soñoliento lento pequeño suave recto extraño estúpido alto grueso delgado sediento diminuto cansado feo disparejo. white and red. fijo. leso. intenso alto caliente enorme hambriento enfermo. enojado malo grande romo. amplio sabio.rk blú:/ light blue /láit blú:/ anaranjado gris. impar (números) viejo satisfecho. gratis lleno. fome temprano. helado cómodo fresco curvo barato oscuro caro. puntiagudo corto. completo bueno feliz duro. gordo tonto. sano pesado. grey /grei/ purple /pε:rpl/ pink /piηk/ dark blue /dá.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words ADJECTIVES ENGLISH angry /ægri/ bad /bæd/ big /big/ blunt /blant/ bright /bráit/ busy /bízi/ clear /klíar/ cold /kould/ comfortable /kámfortbl/ cool /ku:l/ curved /kεrvd/ cheap /tshi:p/ dark /da:rk/ dear /díar/ deep /di:p/ difficult /dífikalt/ dull /dal/ early /ε:rli/ easy /í:zi/ empty /émti/ even /í:vn/ expensive /ikspénsiv/ fast /fæst/ fat /fæt/ foolish /fúlish/ free /fri:/ full /ful/ good /gud/ happy /hæpi/ hard /ha:rd/ hard-working /há:rd we:rkiη/ healthy /hélδi/ heavy /hévi/ high /hai/ hot /hot/ huge /hiudll/ hungry /háηgri/ ill.contento pobre. bajo de estatura tonto. no plano temperado ancho. adinerado correcto.celeste A short course in english for adult students 43 . plomo morado rosado azul oscuro azul claro. sick /il. sensato maravilloso equivocado. par (números) caro rápido. atrasado flojo claro. dificil esforzado saludable.

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. There are several letters.5 I .. a 25.8 C . 2. has got 8.. an 6. There are yellow flowers. an 7. B. 6.. an 5... It´s five past ten 17... / The students have got no experience..2 E . 15. has got 3.. There were several car accidents. I´ve got friends in S. It´s nine o´clock 2. a 21.. There are many text books.10 D .10. 3. Has Bob got any money? 3. It´s ten to nine 3.? 7..They haven´t got many friends. It´s half past eleven 19. an 16. have got 5.. 1. has got Ex... Bob hasn´t got a. a 19. 5. These are cars 3. 11... Peter´s got new pens 8.. We haven´t got a. There are some new students.4.a 23.... How many bathrooms has the flat got? 6.? 2.. 1. They´ve got some interesting books. Ex...12 J . 1. It´s quarter past one 6. 2.1 K .. Part III. 4. 1. an 26. How much free time have they got? Ex. It´s half past three 4. 8. The student has got some new notebooks 14. / I´ve got no cigarettes 7. 12. a 31. has got 10.. It´s twenty-five past five 20. Are those women nurses? 11. Ex.. Has Bob got our.F. 1. Are those apple trees or pear trees? 14. It´s twenty-five past three 14. It´s three minutes to three 10.an 4. an 12. 2.. 6. These boys aren´t new students 9. It´s nine o´clock A short course in english for adult students 45 . a 18. A . It´s twenty-two minutes to two 23.. 9. a 9. It´s eighteen minutes past ten 24.9 B . It´s quarter to two 18. 8. How many wheels has a car got? 4. a 2. have got 7. 7. How much milk have we got? / how many bottles of milk have we got? 7. There will be many new students. 13. The students haven´t got any experience.? 9. Has the boy got black. It´s five past nine 7. Have you got a. I´ve got several magazines. 2. a Ex.. Have the students got a. I haven´t got cigarettes Ex... Has Bob´s sister got a.3 H .. Nancy hasn´t go a. a 27. Have you got your.7 F .11 L . They´ve got horses.. Those men aren´t teachers 5. The house hasn´t got.a 17. My friends haven´t got.. Those are pictures 2. 1. 1. have got 9... Have they got our. It´s eight o´clock in the morning 11. have got 4.. It´s eleven o´clock at night 13. Are these envelopes? 4. an 13.. It´s twelve o´clock / midnight 9.. It´s forteen minutes past ten 8..? Ex.. a 10. It´s quarter to twelve 5. It´s twenty past three 16. 1. How many cars have they got? 2..KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 3 Part I. a 24. 5. a 15.. I haven´t got any cigarettes. I´ve got some coins. There are many women. 4. There are many students. Have you got many. I´ve got several questions. 3..? 8. 6.. Ex. Are those men engineers? 12. (open answers) Part II. an 28. It´s twelve o´clock / noon 15. has got 2. 3. How much money has Bob got? 5. 1. She hasn´t got blue.. It´s four o´clock in the afternoon 12. 9. Please. an 8..6 Ex... My father hasn´t got a.. Have they got a. There are some trees... 10. an 32.? 10.. How many children have you got? 3. show me some photographs.? 6. a 29. The boy has got some books. 7. 1.? 5.. a 14. 2. It´s twenty-five to five 22.. These are interesting novels 10.? 4.. a 20. It´s quarter past eight 21..... 3. an 30. a 11.4 G . has got 6.. Ex. an 22. 5.. 1. 13.. an 3.

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parando) swimming /suímiη/ (nadando) to live /liv/ (vivir) to write /ráit/ (escribir) EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO. AT THE MOMENT /at δe móument/ (en este momento). TEMPORARILY /temporárili/ (temporalmente).parar) To swim /suim/ (nadar) sitting /sítiη/ (sentándose) cutting /kátiη/ (cortando) stopping /stópiη/ (deteniendo. AT PRESENT /at prézent/ (en estos días. /hé:rberts hæviν lántch at δe móument/ (Herbert está almorzando en este momento) For the time being. lea y aprenda: They´re living in New York at present. estábamos o estaremos haciendo en un momento determinado. /mériz wé:rkiη in rúm tén náu/ (Mary está trabajando en la Of. El tiempo Presente Continuo o Progresivo está formado por el Presente del verbo TO BE (AM/S/ARE) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para expresar acciones que se están realizando NOW /náu/ (ahora) o AT THIS TIME /at δis táim/ (a esta hora). Escuche. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO (THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Introducción: Los Tiempos Contínuos Son tiempos continuos o progresivos todos aquellos tiempos verbales que se expresan con una forma del verbo TO BE y el GERUNDIO DE UN VERBO PRINCIPAL. la última consonante debe ser duplicada: To sit /sit/ (sentarse) To cut /kat/ (cortar) To stop /stop/ (detener. Es conveniente recordar aquí que el gerundio de un verbo principal se forma agregando -ING al infinitivo. They´re not living in New York at present. lea y aprenda: They are not living in New York at present.. Mary´s working in Room 10 now.Y. + vocal + cons. actualmente). El uso de las contracciones ISN´T y AREN´T es frecuente en la conversación diaria. /for δe táim bí:iη áim lívin wiδ mai bráδer dllón/ (Transitoriamente. Mary isn´t working in Room 10 now. They aren´t living in New York at present.transitoriamente). Mary is not working in Room 10 now. FOR THE TIME BEING /for δe táim bí: iδ/ (mientras tanto. estoy viviendo con mi hermano John) La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después del verbo TO BE. Estos tiempos verbales se usan para especificar qué estamos. esta letra se omite al formar en gerundio: living /líviη/ (viviendo) writing /ráitiη/ (escribiendo) Bl 47 Grupo C: Si el infinitivo está formado por consonante+vocal+consonante o cons. I´m living with my brother John. /δéi a:r liviη in niu iórk at prézent/ (Ellos están viviendo en N. Hay tres grupos de verbos. según la ortografía usada en la formación del gerundio: Grupo A: Verbos terminados en consonante que agregan -ing al infinitivo: to speak /spi:k/ (hablar) to eat /i:t/ (comer) to work /we:rk/ (trabajar) speaking /spi:kiη/ (hablando) eating /í:tiη/ (comiendo) working /wé:rkiη/ (trabajando) Grupo B: Si el infinitivo termina en -e muda. +cons. For the time being. I´m not living with my brother John . I am not living with my brother John. Escuche. en la actualidad). Mary´s not working in Room 10 now.UNIT 4 PART I. Este sufijo se pronuncia /iη/ .10 ahora) Herbert´s having lunch at the moment.

pedir/pidiendo. lea y aprenda estos verbos: INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /erráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To ask for /a:sk fo:r/ To buy /bái/ To close /klouz/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To dry /drái/ To eat /i:t/ To finish /fínish/ To fix /fiks/ To give /giv/ To go /gou/ To help /help/ To invite /inváit/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To listen to /lísn tu/ To live /liv/ To look at /luk at/ To make /meik/ To open /óupn/ To pay /pei/ To play /pléi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To receive /risí:v/ 48 A short course in english for adult students GERUND answering /á:nseriη/ arriving /erráiviη/ asking /á:skiη/ asking for /á:skiη fo:r// buying /báiiη/ closing /klóuziη/ coming /kámiη/ cutting /kátiη/ doing /dú:iη/ drinking /dríηkiη/ driving /dráiviη/ drying /dráiiη/ eating /í:tiη/ finishing /fínishiη/ fixing /fíksiη/ giving /gíviη/ going /góuiη/ helping /hélpiη/ inviting /inváitiη/ learning /lé:rniη/ leaving /lí:viη/ listening to /lísniη tu/ living /liviη/ looking at /lúkiη at/ making /méikiη/ opening /óupniη/ paying /péiiη/ playing /pléiiη/ putting /pútiη/ reading /rí:diη/ receiving /risí:viη/ SPANISH responder/respondiendo llegar/llegando preguntar/preguntando. lea y aprenda: Are they living in New York at present? Is Mary working in Room 10 now? Are you living with your brother John? Am I doing the exercise correctly? Aren´t they living in New York at present? Isn´t Mary working in Room 10 now? Aren´t you living with your brother John? Aren´t I doing the exercise correctly? Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por una palabra interrogativa como What. Escuche. I am wearing a sweater because it´s cold. arreglar/arreglando/fijar/fijando dar/dando ir/yendo ayudar/ayudando invitar/invitando aprender/aprendiendo partir/partiendo. etc. When.La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión del verbo TO BE (AM. Escuche. lea y aprenda: John is living in New York at present. 1. The children are playing soccer. viviendo mirar/mirando hacer/haciendo abrir/abriendo pagar/pagando jugar/jugando.IS. Escuche. dejar/dejando escuchar/escuchando vivir. How. solicitar/solicitando comprar/comprando cerrar/cerrando venir/viniendo cortar/cortando hacer/haciendo (actividades) beber/bebiendo conducir/conduciendo secar/secando comer/comiendo terminar/terminando reparar/reparando. En las preguntas negativas se usan las contracciones ISN´T/AREN´T delante del sujeto. tocar/tocando (un instr.. Where is John living at present? What are the children playing? Why are you wearing a sweater? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT ARE YOU DOING? /wót ar iú du: iη/ (¿qué estás haciendo?) EXERCISES Ex.ARE) con el sujeto. How often.) poner/poniendo leer/leyendo recibir/recibiendo . Where. debemos mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples.

creer/creyendo viajar/viajando tratar de/tratando de.llevar/llevando conversar/conversando decir/diciendo. leyendo cartas/el diario trabajando en la oficina conversando con amigos saliendo de la oficina haciendo las compras comprando el diario/cigarrillos mirando TV escuchando las noticias/la radio escribiendo a un/a amigo/a llamando a un/a amigo/a (por fono) jugando cartas/football caminando al parque corriendo a través del parque haciendo ejercicio (gimnasia) visitando un museo estudiando para una prueba lavando el auto limpiando la casa haciendo la cama ordenando el cuarto cocinando una comida preparando algunos tragos acostándose A short course in english for adult students 49 ./ Reading letters/the newspaper /rí:diη létez/δe niuzpéiper/ Working in the office /wé:rkiη in δi ófis/ Talking with friends /tó:kiη wiδ fréndz/ Leaving the office /lí:viη δi ófis/ Doing the shopping /dú:iη δe shópiη/ Buying the paper/cigarettes /báiiη δe péiper/sígaréts/ Watching TV /wótchiη tí: ví:/ Listening to the news/to the radio /lísniη tu δe niú:z/réidiou/ Writing to a friend /ráitiη tu e frénd/ Calling up a friend /kóliη áp e frénd/ Playing cards/soccer /pléiiη kárdz/sóker Walking to the park /wó:kiη tu δe pa:rk/ Running across the park /rániη akrós δe pá:rk/ Doing exercise /dú:iη éksersaiz/ Working out /wérkiη áut/ Visiting a museum /vízitiη a miu:zíam/ Studying for a test /stádiiη for e tést/ Washing the car /wóshiη δe ká:r/ Cleaning the house /klíiniη δe háus/ Making the bed /méikiη δe béd/ Tidying up the room /táidiiη áp δe rú:m/ Cooking a meal /kúkiη a mi:l/ Preparing some drinks /pripéariη sam dríηks/ Going to bed /góuiη tu béd/ levantándose tomando un baño/una ducha vistiéndose desayunando/almorzando/cenando yendo a casa/al trabajo/a la oficina yendo en auto a casa/trabajo/of.pasar/pasando(tiempo) empezar/empezando. intentar/intentando esperar/esperando caminar/caminando lavar/lavando observar/observando usar/usando(ropas) trabajar/trabajando.contar/contando (narrar) pensar/pensando. lea y aprenda estas actividades frecuentes: Getting up /gétiη ap/ Having a bath/a shower /hæviη e ba:θ/e sháuer/ Getting dressed /gétiη drést/ Having breakfast/lunch/dinner /hæviη brékfast//lantch/díner/ Going home/to work/to the office /góuiη hóum/tu we:rk/tu δi ófis/ Driving home/to work/to the office /dráiviη hóum/tu we:rk/tu δi ófis/. 2. Escuche.comenzar/comenzando permanecer/permaneciendo (quedarse) estudiar/estudiando tomar/tomando.To rain /réin/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To sing /siη/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spend/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To take /téik/ To talk /to:k/ To tell /tel/ To think /θiηk/ To travel /trævel/ To try to /trái tu/ To wait for /weit fo:r/ To walk /wo:k/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wear /wéar/ To work /we:rk/ To write /ráit/ raining /réiniη/ running /rániη/ saying /séiiη/ selling /séliη/ sending /séndiη/ singing /síηiη/ sitting /sítiη/ sleeping /slí:piη/ speaking /spí:kiη/ spending /spéndiη/ starting /stá:rtiη/ staying /stéiiη/ studying /stádiiη/ taking /téikiη/ talking /tó:kiη/ telling /téliη/ thinking /θíηkiη/ travelling /træveliη/ trying to /tráiiη tu/ waiting for /wéitiη fo:r/ walking /wó:kiη/ washing /wóshiη/ watching /wótchiη/ wearing /wéariη/ working /wé:rkiη/ Writing /ráitiη/ llover/lloviendo correr/corriendo decir/diciendo vender/vendiendo enviar/enviando cantar/cantando sentarse/sentándose dormir/durmiendo hablar/hablando gastar/gastando. funcionar/funcionando escribir/escribiendo Ex.

6. (visit) The train_____________________________ at the station at this time. The dog´s drinking milk. 4. John´s having breakfast now. They ___________________________ (work out) Ex. 11. 9. 10. 5. using the Present Continuous tense of the verb provided. Why. 1. (spend) Look! The bus ___________________________ over there! (come) Listen! Those children ____________________________ Spanish! (speak) There´s a man in the garden. 3. The children are watching TV 2.They´re looking at the horses. 3. He isn´t working because it´s Sunday. 4. Complete the following sentences. I______________________________ to the news at the moment. 6. 1. The students are writing a composition. 8. 4. 7.I´m trying to open the window. 10. Bill´s answering the phone. 10. 11. Change into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. 2. 11. (go) Mr. 5. I´m helping John with the work 5. 5. Billy´s wearing the new sweater. George is travelling by plane. 12.Ex. etc. 6. John and his friends are watching TV. 2. 12. (listen) The students _________________________ to school now. He__________________________ the grass. (do) They __________________________ the weekend in Miami. 12. The students are reading a story. You´re doing the exercise correctly. The boy´s singing an English song. They´re living in Bristol at present. 7. Where. The cadet´s sleeping in class. Our friends___________________________ Disney World today. 3. 3. (cut) There are several students in the gym. It´s raining very hard now. Ask questions using questions word like What. Mary __________________________ as a secretary. The girl´s washing the dishes. 9.The men are running now. I´m singing because I´m happy. 8. 7. (work). Mary´s eating an apple now. 4. Smith ____________________________ for the bus. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 50 A short course in english for adult students . ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. We´re making a lot of progress. I´m answering a letter. 9. (wait) For the time being. 8. (arrive) You ___________________________ the exercises well now.

too. Complete the dialogs using the verbs provided in the Present Continuous tense. No. Hans Bob Hans Bob 2. Study them and practise them with a friend: 1. A short course in english for adult students 51 . 6. Robert : Where are the children? Mary : Billy ____________ (watch) TV in the living-room. Where´s Billy? He´s in his room. Bob! Where ______ you ____________? ( go) To the post office. He ____________ (study) for a test. Jane Peter Jane Peter Jane Peter : : : : : : : : : : Hello. He ______ always ____________ ! (study). He ____________ (sleep). he ____________ (plan) to study engineering. 3.then. That´s why he ___________ (do) so well at school this year Well. you know. I ___________ (go) there. I think she ____________ (cook) dinner. They ____________ ( fix) the brakes. he isn´t. let´s go for a walk. Mary : Great! Let´s do that. of course! Robert : Well.Ex. And Betty´s in the kitchen. Why ______n´t you ____________ (drive) your car? It´s in the garage. And Jim´s in his room. What ______ he ___________?(do) I don´t think he ____________(sleep)..

The third (tercer) day of the week is Wednesday. Ordinal Numbers: Los números ordinales. θáuzand tú:/ (La fecha de hoy es Miércoles primero de Mayo de 2002) I was born on the fifteenth of August. Jane´s birthday is on the twenty-fifth of June /dlléinz bé:rθei is on δe tuénti fífθ ov dllú:n/. Tuesday is the second (segundo) day.PART II. o también. on August the fifteenth. Friday is the fifth (quinto) day. and Autumn /ó:tom/ (or Fall /fó:l/) Otoño There are seven days in a week. two thousand two /δe déit tudéi iz wénzdi δe fé:rst ov méi tú. May the first. Spring /spriη/ Primavera. and the sixth (sexto) day is Saturday. Wednesday. nineteen seventy-five /on ó:gast δe fiftí:nθ náintin séventi fáiv/ (Yo nací el 15 de Agosto de 1975). The days of the week are: Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tiú:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Thursday /δérzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Saturday /sæ ´terdi/ Jueves Viernes Sábado Sunday /sándi/ Domingo Monday is the first (primer) day of the week. nineteen seventy-five /ai woz bó:rn on δe fiftí:nθ ov ó:gast náintin séventi fáiv/. The months of the year are: January /dlláñiuari/ February /fébruari/ March /má:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /méi/ June /dllú:n/ Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre There are four seasons /sí:zonz/ in a year: Winter /uínter/ Invierno. and Thursday is the fourth (cuarto) day. o también. Summer /sámer/ Verano. A. se usan para expresar fechas. TIME AND DATES day /déi/ día week /wí:k/ semana month /manθ/ mes year /yíar/ año season /sí:zn/ estación There are 365 days /déiz/ in a year. There are 52 weeks /wí:ks/ in a year /jíar/ There are twelve months /mánθs/ in a year. lea y aprenda The date today is Wednesday the first of May. First /fé:rst/ 2nd Second /sékond/ 3rd Third /θé:rd/ 4th Fourth /fó:rθ/ 5th Fifth /fifθ/ 6th Sixth /sixθ/ 7th Seventh /sévenθ/ 8th Eighth /éitθ/ 9th Ninth /náinθ/ 10th Tenth /ténθ/ Escuche. on June the twentyfifth /on dllú:n δe tuénti fífθ/ (El cumpleaños de Jane es el 25 de Junio) 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th Eleventh /ilévenθ/ Twelfth /tuélfθ/ Thirteenth /θe:rtí:nθ/ Fourteenth /fortí:nθ/ Fifteenth /fiftí:nθ/ Sixteenth /sikstí:nθ/ Seventeenth /seventí:nθ/ Eighteenth /eití:nθ/ Nineteenth /naintí:nθ/ Twentieth /tuéntieθ/ 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st Twenty-first /tuénti fé:rst/ Twenty-second /tuénti sékond/ Twenty-third /tuénti θé:rd/ Twenty-fourth /tuénti fó:rθ/ Twenty-fifth /tuénti fífθ/ Twenty-sixth /tuénti síksθ/ Twenty-seventh /tuénti sévenθ/ Twenty-eighth /tuénti éitθ/ Twenty-ninth /tuénti náinθ/ Thirtieth /θértieθ/ Thirty-first /θé:rti fé:rst/ 52 A short course in english for adult students . además de usarse para indicar orden o lugar de precedencia. The seventh (séptimo) and last (último) day of the week is Sunday. Los números ordinales son: 1st. θáuzand tú:/ o también. two thousand two /wénzdi méi δe fé:rst tú.

10.1810 05.1987 02. 14. as in the examples: 1. 6. nineteen sixty-three ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ April the thirtieth.02. 11.1999 08. 10. 15. 2. When is your birthday? When was your father born? What day is today? What´s the date today? How many days are there in a week? What are the seasons of the year? What´s your favo(u)rite season? What are the days of the week? What are the months of the year? What´s the first month of the year? What´s the third day of the week? What´s the last month of the year? How many months are there in a year? How many hours are there in a day? When is New Year´s Day? When´s our Independence Day? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 53 .1938 02. Write the following dates. nineteen ninety-nine ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 2.2001 18.01.1900 10.1893 04.30.09. Answer the following questions: 1. 5. 9. 11.1963 05.11.1978 12.28. 16. 4.12. 3.09. 4. 13. 3. 5. 6. 2.27.1956 The twelfth of September.05. 13. 7.12. 12.1906 18. 1.08. 12. 14. 9.EXERCISES Ex.1956 10.07. 7. 8. 8. 12.1492 07.03.2000 01.

big /big/ grande tiny /táini/ diminuto. high How fast is the train moving? At about 90 k/h How deep is the lake? It´s 120 mt. thick How wide is the road? About 15 mt. en inglés se debe usar el verbo BE (am/is/are/was/were.altura size /saiz/ tamaño. short /sho:rt/ corto wide /wáid/ ancho. low /lóu/ bajo small /smó:l/ pequeño. new /niú:/ nuevo long /loη/ largo. thin /θin/ delgado distant /dístant/ distante. huge /hiu:dll/ enorme round /ráund/ redondo.? (Descripción de cosas) (Descripción de personas en cuanto a su carácter) EXAMPLE How old are you? I´m 21 years old How tall are you? I´m 1.. Nota importante: Como Ud. etc. young /yaη/ joven old /ould/ viejo...200 mt. How high is that hill? It´s about 1. nearby /níarbai/ cercano fast /fa:st/ veloz.like?* /wot.. En castellano normalmente se usa el verbo tener: How old are you? I am 35 = ¡Que edad tiene Ud? Yo tengo 35 Ex... square /skwear/ cuadrado.70 meters tall How far is the airpòrt? It´s about 20 km. Study these words: Nouns age /éidll/ edad length /leθ/ longitud width /wiθ/ anchura thickness /θiknis/ grosor distance /dístans/ distancia speed /spí:d/ velocidad depth /depθ/ profundidad height /háit/ estatura. 1.) para describir objetos. rectangular /rektængiular/ rectangular. slow /slóu/ lento deep /dí:p/ profundo.B.. viejo. away How long is the river? It´s 85 km..? /hau hévi/ What color? /hwot kólor/ What size? /hwot sáiz/ What shape? /hwot shéip/ What is /are.? /háu wel/ How heavy. oval /óuval/ ovalado heavy /hévi/ pesado. shallow /shálou/ poco profundo tall /tó:l/ alto. narrow /nærrou/ angosto thick /θik/ grueso. Question Words (1) Describing people and things Escuche. long. talla shape /shéip/ forma weight /wéit/ peso Adjectives old /ould/ anciano.. Iz /a:r. lea y aprenda ENGLISH How old? /háu óuld/ How tall? /háu to:l/ How far? /háu fa:r/ How long? /háu lóη/ How high? /háu hái/ How fast? /háu f(st/ How deep? /háu di:p/ How thick? /háu (ik/ How wide? /háu wáid/ How big. triangular /traiængiular/ triangular. light /láit/ liviano 54 A short course in english for adult students .? /háu big?/ How well. short /shó:rt/ bajo de estatura high /hái/ alto... deep How thick is that wall? It´s about 40 cm. wide How big is the house? It has got five rooms How well do you drive? I drive very well How heavy is the box? It weighs 5 kilos What color is the car? It´s light blue What size is this shirt? It´s extra large What shape is a football? It´s round What is the house like? It´s very comfortable What are the rooms like? They´re very small What´s Mary like? She´s very nice and friendly.láik/ SPANISH ¿Qué edad? ¿Qué estatura? ¿Qué distancia? ¿Qué longitud? ¿Qué altura? ¿Qué velocidad? ¿Qué profundidad? ¿Qué espesor / grosor? ¿Qué anchura / ancho? ¿Cuán grande? ¿Cuán bien? ¿Cuánto pesa? ¿Qué color? ¿Qué tamaño / talla? ¿Qué forma? ¿Cómo es / son. habrá advertido..

Units of time second /séknd/ minute /mínit/ hour /áuar/ day /dei/ week /wi:k/ 2.000. temporada año siglo Nota: En Inglés.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words: NUMERALS CARDINAL NUMBERS 1 one /wan/ uno 2 two /tu:/ dos 3 three /θri:/ tres 4 four /fo:r/ cuatro 5 five /faiv/ cinco 6 six /siks/ seis 7 seven /sévn/ siete 8 eight /eit/ ocho 9 nine /nain/ nueve 10 ten /ten/ diez 11 eleven /ilévn/ once 12 twelve /twélf/ doce 13 thirteen /θε:rtí:n/ trece 14 fourteen /fortí:in/ catorce 15 fifteen /fiftí:n/ quince 16 sixteen /sikstí:n/ dieciséis 17 seventeen /sevntí:n/ diecisiete 18 eighteen /eití:n/ dieciocho 19 nineteen /naintí:n/ diecinueve 20 twenty /twénti/ veinte 21 twenty-one /twénti wán/ veintiuno 22 twenty-two /twénti tú:/ veintidós 30 thirty /θε ´:rti/ treinta 31 thirty-one /θε wán/ ´:rti treinta y uno 40 forty /fó:rti/ cuarenta 50 fifty /fífti/ cincuenta 60 sixty /síksti/ sesenta 70 seventy /sévnti/ setenta 80 eighty /éiti/ ochenta 90 ninety /náinti/ noventa 100 one hundred /wan húndrid/ cien 1.000. Days of the week Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tíu:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Thursday /θε ´:rzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Jueves Viernes Saturday /sæ εrdi/ ´t Sunday /sándi/ Sábado Domingo segundo minuto hora día semana month /mánθ/ season /sí:zon/ year /yíar/ century /séntchuri/ mes estación. A short course in english for adult students 55 .000 one thousand /wan θáuznd/ mil 1. los días de la semana y los meses del año siempre se escriben con mayúsculas.000th ORDINAL NUMBERS first /fε:rst/ primero second /séknd/ segundo third /θε:rd/ tercero fourth /fo:rθ/ cuarto fifth /fifθ/ quinto sixth /siksθ/ sexto seventh /sévnθ/ séptimo eighth /éitθ/ octavo ninth /náinθ/ noveno tenth /ténθ/ décimo eleventh /ilévnθ/ décimo primero twelfth /twelfθ/ décimo segundo thirteenth /θε:rtí:nθ/ décimo tercero fourteenth /fo:rtí:nθ/ décimo cuarto fifteenth /fiftí:nθ/ décimo quinto sixteenth /sikstí:nθ/ décimo sexto seventeenth /sevntí:nθ/ décimo séptimo eighteenth /eití:nθ/ décimo octavo nineteenth /naintí:nθ/ décimo noveno twentieth /twéntieθ/ vigésimo twenty-first /twénti fε ´:rst/ vigésimo primero twenty-second /twénti séknd/ vigésimo segundo thirtieth /θε θ/ ´:rtie trigésimo thirty-first /θε fε ´:rti ´:rst/ trigésimo primero fortieth /fó:rtieθ/ cuadragésimo fiftieth /fíftieθ/ quincuagésimo sixtieth /síkstieθ/ sexagésimo seventieth /sévntieθ/ septuagésimo eightieth /éitieθ/ octogésimo ninetieth /naintieθ/ nonagésimo one hundredth /wan hándreθ/ centésimo one thousandth /wan θáuzndθ/ milésimo one millionth /wan mílionθ/ millonésimo TIME AND DATES 1.000 one million /wan mílion/ un millón 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 30th 31st 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 1.000th 1.

Seasons of the year summer /sámer/ autumn /fall/ó:tm/ /fó:l/ 4. nineteen fifty-seven) Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre verano otoño winter /wínter/ spring /spriη/ invierno primavera 56 A short course in english for adult students . two thousand one) He was born on January 26th. Dates Today is Monday. 2nd May.3. 2001 (the second of May. 1957 (January the twenty-sixth. Months of the year January /dllániuari/ February /fébruari/ March /ma:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /mei/ June /dllu:n/ 5.

. What are the men doing now? 11. Where are they living at present? 4. is arriving 7. A short course in english for adult students 57 . John isn´t having breakfast now / Is John having breakfast now? 3.. Tuesday..doing / is sleeping Peter: is studying Jane: is . 2. The last month of the year is December 13.. Today´s. eighteen ninety-three 11. forteen ninety-two 14. nineteen oh six 4. nineteen hundred 5. Saturday and Sunday.. is my favority season... Our Independence Day is on September the eighteenth. nineteen fifty-six 13... 16.. The second of November. / Is the cadet sleeping. 9.. is coming 10. The seasons of the year are Winter. April.. 8. is waiting 4. eighteen ten 8. 6..... 5. nineteen thirty-eight 3. / Are you doing the exercises.. October. There are seven days 6.The first month of the year is January 11. What are you doing? 5. March.? 10. What´s Mary eating now? 2. There are twenty-four hours in a day 15. It´s on.. What are you trying to do? 12. Mary: is watching / is cooking / is sleeping Part II Ex. are visiting 6. The eighteenth of July. are doing 8. nineteen fifty-six Ex. 1. 3. 5. How´s George travelling? 7.. There are twelve months in a year 14. It isn´t raining. The third day of the week is Wednesday 12. February the twenty-eighth. is working 5. The fifth of May.. Bill isn´t answering the phone / Is Bill answering the phone? 4. / Am I helping John. / Is the boy singing..3. The days of the week are Monday. Thursday.studyiung / is doing Peter: is planning . July the second. October the twelfth.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 4 Part I Ex. / Is it raining.driving Bob: are fising 2. The months of the year are January. Hans: are . The tenth of August. 1.? 9. The twelfth of March. Wednesday. 1. The girl isn´t washing the dishes / Is the girl washing the dishes? 6.. August. The boy isn´t singing. two thousand 6. 1. 1. Spring Summer and Autumn / Fall 7. What are they looking at? Ex. nineteen eighty-seven 12. 4.? Ex. The date today is. Which sweater is Billy wearing? 9. Jane: is .. am listening 2. are going 3.... The eighteenth of September. June. The children aren´t watching TV / Are the children watching TV? 2. 2. You aren´t doing the exercises. is cutting 12... May. New Year´s day is on the first of January. 2.. Why isn´t he working? 8. / Are the students writing. What are the students reading? 6. November and December 10. I´m not helping John.going Hans : am going / are . The cadet isn´t sleeping.? 8. are spending 9. The fifth of December.. What are John and his friends doing? 3.. February.. The dog isn´t drinking milk / Is the dog drinking milk? 11.. 4. 1. 3. The first of January.. He was born on. August the twenty-seventh. are working out Ex.? 5.? 7. The students aren´t writing. are speaking 11. nineteen seventy-eight 9.. two thousand one 7. July.. Friday. September. Why are you singing? 10.

Bl 58 .

etc. “ The secretary answers the telephone” estamos diciendo “The secretary does answer the telephone”. mientras que los adverbios de frecuencia van ubicados siempre antes del verbo principal. Este sufijo plural se pronuncia /iz/ y es una sílaba más: washes /wóshiz/. a month /e mánθ/ (al mes). Son adverbios de frecuencia: always /ó:lwiz/ (siempre). seguidas de las frases a day /e déi/ (al día). Las expresiones que llevan la palabra every habitualmente van ubicadas al final de la oración. it). Las expresiones de tiempo que más se usan en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan la palabra EVERY /évri/. lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day. /dllón pléiz téniz évri fráidi a:fternú:n/ (John juega ténis todos los viernes en las tardes)** John studies French on Friday morning.También son frecuentes en este tiempo verbal los adverbios de tiempo formados por once /wáns/ (una vez). y go tienen las siguientes formas en la 3ra. pero ese sufijo se pronuncia /iz/ y pasa a ser una sílaba más: rise /ráiz/ .) va seguido por el INFINITIVO de un verbo principal. often /ófn/ ( a menudo). /wi: góu tu δe bí:tch évri sámer/ (Nos. o -z deben agregar -es al verbo. /δe stiúdents pléi sóker wáns e wi:k/ (Los alumnos juegan fútbol una vez a la semana)æ ´ Cuando el sujeto es tercera persona del singular (he. -ge sólo agregan -s en la tercera persona del singular. every weekend /évri wikénd/ (todos los fines de semana).studies. Cuando decimos “I speak Spanish every day” estamos diciendo “I do speak Spanish every day”. sometimes /sámtaimz/ (a veces). -sh. Esto se comprueba cuando queremos expresar oraciones negativas o interrogativas: I do not speak Spanish every day/Do I speak Spanish every day?. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE SIMPLE (THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE) Este tiempo se usa para expresar acciones que ocurren a diario. -ce.changes /tchéindlliz/. etc. twice /twáis/ (dos veces). seldom /séldom/ (raramente). *** Los verbos regulares terminados en -se. persona del singular (he. usually /íushuali/ (usualmente). generally /dllénerali/ (generalmente). every morning /évri mó:niη/ (todas las mañanas). Escuche. You and I. /δe bás stóps híar/ (El bus para aquí) Bob washes the car on saturday. /δe sán ráiziz in δi í:st/ (El sol aparece en el este) *** John changes the batteries once a month. Persona del singular: has /hæz/. never /néver/ (nunca). /ai ófn sí: méri at δe kláb/ (Yo a menudo veo a Mary en el club) They always come here on Saturday. several times /sévral táimz/ (varias veces).etc) se debe agregar una -s o -es al verbo principal. -ch-.rises /ráiziz/. change /tchéindll/ . The students. she. sino que con qué frecuencia ocurren las acciones indicadas por el verbo). como every day /évri déi/ (todos los días). -x. /dllón tchéidlliz δe bátriz wáns e mánθ/ (John cambia las baterías una vez al mes) *** Notas: En la 3ra. You. The secretary does not answer the telephone/Does the secretary answer the telephone? Escuche. Si la -y está precedida de vocal se agrega -s: play /plei/. the boy. /δéi ólwiz kám híar on sæ ´terdi/ (Ellos siempre vienen acá los sábados) The students play soccer once a week. Es importante destacar aquí que en el Presente Simple afirmativo no se usa el verbo modal DO/DOES (está tácito).UNIT 5 PART I. Cuando decimos. el SUJETO (I. lea y aprenda: He speaks Spanish and English well. does /daz/. etc. Los verbos have. se deben considerar las siguientes reglas: * Los verbos terminados en -s. En la forma afirmativa. /ai spí:k spánish évri déi/ (Yo hablo español todos los días) We go to the beach every summer. en forma habitual. goes /góuz/. /mai wáif wótchiz tí: ví: in δi í:vniη/ (Mi mujer mira TV en las tardes) * John plays tennis every Friday afternoon. it. /δe sékretri ánserz δe télifoun/ (La secretaria contesta el teléfono) The bus stops here. rarely /réarli/ (rara vez). /bób wóshiz δe ka:r on sæ ´terdi/ (Bob lava el auto los sábados) * My wife watches TV in the evening. También se usan con este tiempo los ADVERBIOS DE FRECUENCIA (que no indican cuando. /dllón stádiz fréntch on fráidi mó:niη/ John estudia francés los viernes en la mañana)** The sun rises in the east. A short course in english for adult students 59 . she. watches /wótshiz/. do. /hi: spí:ks spánish and ínglish wel/ (El habla español e inglés bién) The secretary answers the telephone. hardly ever /há:rdli éver/ (casi nunca). a week /e wi:k/ (a la semana). plays /pléiz/.vamos a la playa todos los veranos) I often see Mary at the club. many times /méni táimz/ (muchas veces). ** Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de consonante transforman dicha letra en -ies : study . the telephone. three times /θri: táimz/ (tres veces).

The students play soccer every day. Escuche. We have lunch at school every day. En las preguntas negativas se deben anteponer las contracciones DON´T/DOESN¨T Escuche. Cuando se usa el verbo to have para expresar la idea de servirse. Do we go /du wi góu/ to the beach every summer?. lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day.?) 60 A short course in english for adult students . My wife watches TV in the morning. lea y aprenda: What language do you speak at home? /wót láηguidll diú spí:k at hóum/ When do they go to the beach? /wén du δei góu tu δe bí:tch/ Where does the bus stop? /wéar daz δe bás stóp/ Why does John change the batteries every month? /wái daz dllón tchéindll δe báteriz évri mánθ/ La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo verbal es : WHAT DO YOU DO? /wót diu dúu/ (¿Qué hace ud. My friends don´t have /dóunt hæv/ a new car. Recuerde que en inglés británico genertalmente se prefiere usar la expresión have got / has got (Ver Unit 3). debemos mantener el mismo orden usado en las interrogaciones simples. Mary has got many friends in Canada. se debe usar do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones ) My friends have a new car My friends don´t have a new car Mary has many friends in Canada Mary doesn´t have many friends in Canada = = = = My friends have got a new car My friends haven´t got a new car. beber. Does he speak /dáz hi: spí:k/ English well? Does the bus stop /dáz δe bás stóp/ here?. o to have a good time (pasarlo bien. He does not speak /daz nót spí:k/ English well The bus doesn´t stop /dáznt stóp/ here. The students don´t play /dóunt pléi/ soccer every day.En la forma negativa se debe usar el verbo modal DO /du/ seguido de la palabra NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DON¨T /dóunt/ ) más el infinitivo del verbo principal. We go to the beach every summer. como en to have breakfast (desayunar). por lo tanto necesita el verbo modal do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones. Bob doesn´t change /dáznt tchéindll/ the batteries once a month. etc. Mary hasn´t got many friends in Canada Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por palabras interrogativas como WHAT. En la tercera personal del singular se debe usar DOES /dáz/ seguido de NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DOESN´T /dáznt/ ) más el Infinitivo del verbo principal (sin agregar -s / -es) Escuche. comer. Mary doesn´t have /dáznt hæv/ many friends in Canada We don´t have lunch /dóunt hæv lántch/ at school every day. HOW. WHEN. Para expresar interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales DO/DOES al sujeto. He speaks English well. divertirse). Mary has many friends in Canada. lea y aprenda: Do you speak /diu spí:k/ Spanish every day?. WHERE. The bus stops here. o experimentar. Bob changes the batteries once a month My friends have a new car. Does your wife watch /dáz ior wáif wótch/ TV in the morning? Does Bob change /dáz bob tchéindll/ the batteries once a month? Do your friends have /du ior fréndz hæv/ a new car? Does Mary have /dáz méri hæv/ many friends in Canada? Do you have lunch /diu hæv lántch/ at school every day? Don´t you speak /dóunt iu spí:k/ Spanish at home? Doesn´t Mary work /dáznt méri wérk/ on Saturday? Nota: El verbo to have (tener) es un verbo principal. Do the students play /du δe stiú:dents pléi/ soccer every day?. We don´t go /dóunt góu/ to the beach every summer. I do not speak /du: nót spí:k/ Spanish every day. HOW MUCH. My wife doesn´t watch /dáznt wótch/ TV in the morning..

EXERCISES Ex. 1. ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Interrogative Do I work here every day? ______ you _______________ _______ Bill _______________ ______ Ann _______________ _______ we _______________ ______ they _______________ Do I watch TV after dinner? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 61 . Study the following expressions of time: Every Monday /évri mándi/ Every Tuesday /évri tiú:zdi/ Every Wednesday /évri wénzdi/ Every Thursday /évri θérzdi/ Every Friday morning /évri fráidi mó:niη/ Every Saturday afternoon /évri sæ ´terdi aftenún/ Every Sunday evening /évri sándi í:vniη/ Every morning /évri mó:niη/ Every afternoon /évri afternún/ Every evening /évri í:vniη/ Every day /évri déi/ Every night /évri náit/ Every week /évri wi:k/ Every month /évri mánθ/ Every year /évri yiar/ Once a day /wáns e déi/ Twice a week /twáis e wiik/ Three times a year /θri: táimz e yíar/ Several times a month /sévrl táimz e mánθ/ Always /ó:lweiz/ Frequently /fríkwentli/ Usually /iúshuali/ Generally /dllénerali/ Sometimes /sámtaimz/ Often /ófn/ Rarely /réarli/ Hardly ever /hárdli éver/ Seldom /séldom/ Never /néver/ In the summer /in δe sámer/ In the autumn/fall /in δi ó:tom /fo:l/ In the winter /in δe wínter/ In the spring /in δe spriη/ Todos los lunes Todos los martes Todos los miércoles Todos los jueves Todos los viernes en la mañana Todos los sábados en la tarde. 2.21:00) Todos los días Todas las noches Todas las semanas Todos los meses Todos los años Una vez al día Dos veces a la semana Tres veces al año Varias veces al mes Siempre Frecuentemente Usualmente Generalmente A veces A menudo Raramente Casi nunca Rara vez Nunca En el verano En el otoño En el invierno En la primavera Ex. I watch TV after dinner. I work here every day You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ b. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ Negative I don´t work here every day You ________________________ Bill _________________________ Ann ________________________ We _________________________ They _______________________ I don´t watch TV after dinner. Complete the conjugation of the following verbs: Affiirmative a. Todos los domingos en la tarde Todas las mañanas Todas las tardes (13:00 .17:00) Todas las tardes (18:00 .

m. They live near here. 7. (wash) I never ____________________________________ Spanish at school. I have dinner at work. Then translate them into Spanish 1. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 62 A short course in english for adult students . 11. I study English every day. 4. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ g. Complete the following sentences using the Simple Present Tense of the verbs given in parentheses. 2. 8. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ f. (get up) We seldom ___________________________ to the North in the summer. 10. 12. I go to the movies every night You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ d. (leave) My wife and I often _____________________________ in that restaurant. 3. (watch) Ex. Change the following sentences into a) negative. Mary likes to drink coffee with milk. 2. 4. The children ________________________at this time every morning. 9. (go) I ______________________________ breakfast at 7:15 every morning. 6. I play tennis on Saturday You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ e. I do the exercises well. (arrive) Myriam__________________________ the floor once or twice a week. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ I don´t ______________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Do I ______________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. 3. and c) Wh-questions: 1. (have) John _______________________ the newspaper on the train every day. (read) The students sometimes _________________________rugby at school. (eat) Mr Smith ________________________ TV after dinner every evening.c. (play) Peter ___________________ bridge with his friends every Friday night. 5. b) interrogative. (speak) The manager generally _________________ the office after 8:00 p. (play) The train ______________________in London at 7:50 every morning.

They need twenty dollars. 7. 9. How many legs has a dog got? 4. Bob always drinks beer. Ex. How much free time is there in an intensive course? 8. 6. Ask questions using wh-words like WHAT. They get up at 7:15 every morning. The bus leaves at 7:45 5. They work out every morning. etc. What do you do after dinner every evening? 7. They have two cars. Mary comes to work by bus. 14. 9. Where do you usually spend your summer vacatio 10. WHEN. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. What are they doing? 6. We go to the club on Friday. She lives near Wimbledon. She usually sleeps six hours every night. 10. 7. 12. 8. 11. 1. They come here twice a week. The students need more practice. He walks to work because he hasn´t got a car. 8. Answer these questions in English: 1. How often does your English teacher use the VCR in c? 9. The children are in the park. WHERE. Bob is in the office. How many weeks are there in a year? 2. 2. They play golf twice a week. Are there any trees in your garden? 5.3. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 4. 4. Mary goes shopping on Saturday. 13. They have two cars now. 10. What´s he doing? 3. When does a person go to see a doctor? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 63 . Peter does everything well. John goes to Pucón in the summer. 6. 3. 5. Peter watches TV every night. They go to the park on Sunday. HOW. That man speaks German. 6. They don´t like the car because it´s too small. 5.

6. 6. Ex. . (watch) 4. 8. 3. (understand) 16. I never ___________________________ coffee. (come) 6. (work) 2. For the time being. 7. He ___________________________ a green uniform. 2. 2. What _________________ the boy ___________________at the moment? (do) 11. The bar _______________________ at 6:45 and _____________________at 10:30 every day. (wear) 64 A short course in english for adult students . Janet _______________________________ tea very often. (Review) Use the Present Continuous or the Simple Present. every day. of the verb given in parentheses: 1. 3. An atheist ____________________________________ in God. (come) 7. Bees __________________________________ honey. 6. Look! It __________________________ to rain! Let´s go inside. Where ________________ they usually _________________ in the summer? (go) 10. Bad driving __________________________ many accidents. 5. Rice __________________________________ in Britain. drink(s) live(s) take(s) place Ann __________________________ German very well. An interpreter ______________________________________ from one language into another. Hello. Use one of the following verbs to complete these sentences. What _____________________________________(this word / mean)? Ex. (begin) 12. (leave) 3. Who can it be? (play) 17. The sun _____________________________________ in the east. Complete the sentences using one of the following: cause(s) open(s) close(s) speak(s) 1. The Olympic Games ___________________________every four years. 9. Listen! Somebody _______________________ the piano upstairs. Look at that man. Mr. You must always speak to him in English. Scott ____________________________ the news on TV at the moment. 8. We seldom _______________________ to the coast in the winter. 7. We ________not ___________________ anything special right now. The earth _____________________________________ round the sun. (do / watch) 14. He ______________ not ________________ Spanish. (go) 5. 4. He must be a police officer. 10. I don’t understand this sentence. Why ____________ you always ____________________ home so late every night? (Get) 20. 3. 5. (take) How long __________________ you? (it / take) I ___________________________the piano (play) but I ______________________ it very well (not / play).m. (open / close) 13. My brother Jim __________________________ in Boston at present. The River Amazon _____________________________ into the Atlantic Ocean. Sometimes you need the negative: believe eat go flow make rise grow tell translate 1. Where ________________ they _____________________at present? (live) 9. My grand parents ________________________ in a very small apartment.Ex. The swimming pool _________________________at 9:00 a. 4. We_______ just ____________ TV. 9. 7. Put the verb into the correct form. Tom _____________________________ as a mechanic. Vegetarians _______________________________________ meat. A liar is someone who ____________________________________ the truth.m and _____________________ at 6:30 p. It __________________________me an hour to get to work. What ___________ you ______________________ doing when you are at home? (like) 18. Mary __________________________ to visit us once or twice a month. 1. Look! John __________________________ over there. Ex. 4. Why ____________ you ______________________ English now? Are you planning to go to the USA? (study) 19. Bob! What _____________you _______________ there now? (do) 15. 2. A: ‘What __________________________________?’ (you / do) B:’I’m an electrical engineer’. The secretary generally _________________________the office at 7:30 every evening.(not / drink) What time _________________________________in Britain? (the banks / close) A:’Where __________________________________from?’ (Martin / come) B: ‘He’s Scottish’. 5. (work) 8.

Black´s at home. She (eat) _________________________________ dinner. Mrs. It (rain. 4. now and the Wilsons are in their kitchen. or (walk. 3. (Take. it). I usually (sit) _______________________at the same desk in class every day. She always (eat) dinner with her family around six o´clock. not) ___________________________________ it.He (speak) _________________________ Arabic.Ex. It´s 7:30 a. Mr and Mrs Wilson (watch. Look out of the window. There´s a cartoon on TV now. Mr Wilson (pour) ____________________________________ a cup of coffee. Mrs. but right now he (speak) _____________________English.m. (Rain. not ) __________________________ to watch cartoons. (Rain. 6. It´s 7 o´clock now. 2. _________________much in the South in the winter? 8. Alice (take. Shhh!! The little boy (sleep) _____________________ . Our teacher (stand. not) __________________right now. He (drink) _________________________ two cups of coffee every morning before he (go) to work. not) ____________________________ the bus to work every day. He (sit)_______________on the corner of his desk. He (sleep) __________________ for ten hours every night. She (read) ________________________ the morning paper. not) _____________________up right now. not) ____________________________ any attention to the TV. 7. Mustafa comes from Saudi Arabia . but the children (watch. 11. Wilson (sit) ______________________ at the breakfast table. (Review) Complete the sentences by using the Simple Present or the Present Continuous of the verbs provided. but this morning they (pay. you) _______________________ the bus to get to work every day. She usually (walk) _______________________________instead. 1. not) __________________________ TV either. The sun (shine) ________________ and the sky (be) ___________blue. Arabic is his native language. 10. They (play) with their toys instead. you) __________________________________ sometimes? A short course in english for adult students 65 . Right now I´m in class and I (sit) _______________________ at my desk. They usually (watch) _____________________ cartoons in the morning. it) ______________________ now? Should I take my umbrella? 9. They (like. She (read) ____________________________ the newspaper every morning. 5.

What do you want to eat? What ´s your name?. abáut/ Who. I go there three times a week..for?* /wot. What´s your opinion? Who is that man?. tu/ Who.. The boy sometimes wears his father´s shoes It takes me about 20 minutes to get there.with?* /hu:..from?* /wéar .with?* /wot. 14. 4. 3..wiϑ/ What. 66 Susan is very thin and has got blue eyes....for/ What.. las preguntas que comienzan con Preposición + Whom/What. 6. My friends come from San Diego....lúk láik/ SPANISH ¿Qué? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Quién / es /? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Cuándo? ¿Por qué? ¿Dónde? ¿Cómo? ¿De quién? ¿A quién? ¿Cuánto / a? ¿Cuántos / as? ¿Con qué frecuencia? ¿Cuánto tiempo? ¿Qué hora? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿De dónde? ¿Hacia dónde? ¿Con quién? ¿Acerca de quién? ¿Para quién? ¿Para qué? ¿Con qué? ¿Acerca de qué? ¿Hacia qué? ¿Cómo es/son.. 12.? (Descripción de personas .. About what are they talking? = What are they talking about?.../Where... 13.for?* /hu:.about?* /hu: . Ejemplos: From where is she? = Where is she from?.at/ What do /does. 2.PART II.. They look at the stars with the telescope. We take photographs with a camera. 15. A. 9. 1. normalmente trasladan la preposición al final.. for/ What. 16. 7.abáut/ What. Bob plays golf with his boss on Sunday.... whom vuelve a ser who) Ex... 11... I like Mary because she´s very friendly.... A short course in english for adult students _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ...wiϑ/ Who. Ask the corresponding wh-question for each of the following answers 1. about?* /wot. 10..físico) EXAMPLE What is that? .. Who wants to play? Which book is mine? Which car do you like best? When is your birthday? When do you watch TV? Why is Tom absent today? Why are you leaving? Where is Mr Smith? Where do you live? How are you today? How do you feel today? Whose is that car? Whose address do you need? Whom did you see? To whom is Bob speaking? How much money is there in the wallet? How many students are there in your class? How often do you play tennis? How long does the program last? What time is it? At what time do you get up? What kind of books do you like to read? What sort of programs do you watch on TV? Where are they from? Where are you going to? Who do you practice golf with? Who are they talking about? Who is this letter for? What is this for? What do you use a knife for? What do you take photographs with? What are they talking about? What are you looking at? What does Betty look like? She´s tall and thin. (II) Study the following list of interrogative words ENGLISH What? /wot/ Who? /hu:/ Which? /witch/ When? /wen/ Why? /wai/ Where? /wéar/ How? /hau/ Whose? /hu:z/ Whom? /hu:m/ How much? /háu mátch/ How many? /háu méni/ How often? /háu ófn/ How long? /háu long/ What time? /wot táim/ What kind of? /wot káind ov/ What sort of? /wot sort ov/ Where. 5. With whom will you go? = Who will you go with? (Al trasladar la preposición. California Jack visits his parents twice a month.. Ann likes apples.look like? /wót du /daz.to?* /wéar .from/ Where. Mr Jenkins writes about his trips round the world.. The boys usually talk about football..at?* /wot. QUESTION WORDS. They need twenty-five dollars. Nota: Muy a menudo. Mr Jackson gets up at 6:45 every morning.. oranges and pears We go to the South in the summer. 8..

___________children like to watch cartoons. cats. (Fresh air is good for the health.) 1. milk. 5. 6.17. Lea y compare: I need a dictionary. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? B. ___________light in this room is not good. Books are expensive in Chile. 8. El artículo indefinido A/AN se usa con sustantivos singulares no determinados ni específicos.) cuando estamos refiriéndonos a ellos en forma general. We have ______________ good light in our classroom. 14. Supply the definite article (the) where necessary in the following: Example: __________ fresh air is good for the health. etc. 3. money. 11. Gold is an important metal. Lea y compare: General Water is good for the health. se traduce como el. The gold in this ring is of good quality. 12. ARTICLES (II) El artículo definido THE se usa para referirse a sustantivos determinados o específicos y se usa con sustantivos singulares o plurales. 17. 2. 18. ___________fish in the refrigerator is fresh. The books which I want are on the table. happiness. (Necesito el diccionario que está sobre la repisa) (específico) That is the car which I like best. 1. 15. people. Ejemplos: The secretary works in the laboratory every day. ___________water in this glass is dirty. 13. Mr Williamson usually travels by plane. es decir. (Ese es el auto que me gusta más) (específico) No se debe usar ningún articulo con los sutantivos incontables (water. The students go to the gym after lunch. ___________leather in these shoes is very good. Específico The water in this glass is not clean. los y las . We get ________________ leather from the skins of animals. ___________air in this room is not good. We like _________ animals. We are studying ______________history of France. experience. Ann writes detective stories. 9. students. I always drink ________________water with my meals. 7. 19. 4. Bob goes to bed early when he´s tired.We all need _______________fresh air. (Ese es un auto) (general) I need the dictionary which is on the shelf. ___________history is an interesting subject. Pero sí debemos usar el articulo definido the cuando nos referimos a sustantivos en forma particular o específica. 16. ___________animals in that photograph are wild animals. (Necesito un diccionario) (general) That is a car. The secretaries work in the laboratory every day The book which I want is on the table.Do you sell ____________ stamps here? A short course in english for adult students 67 . 10. Girls work harder than boys. 20. etc) o sustantivos plurales (books. la. The books on that shelf are very expensive The girls in this group work very hard. Ex. men. ___________air in large cities is not very fresh. We eat _______________ meat almost every day.

Cuando queremos especificar acerca de qué persona. The women wearing a white uniform are nurses. The books __________________ are listed in that catalogue are in English. Are these the boys ___________ study with you? The man ___________________ is walking down the road is the postman.18. Las frases who is/are y which is/are generalmente se omiten en oraciones como las que se expresan a continuación The book which is on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. The people who are waiting outside the theater want to buy tickets for the concert. 7. 16. The dog which is in the garden is a cocker spaniel. The cars imported from Japan are really good. 8. The man ___________________ is driving the car is my father. 12. Is this the camera __________________ you are planning to buy? Is that the bus __________________ goes to the airport? The chair on ________________ I am sitting is very comfortable. 10. The book ___________________ I want is on the table. Smith´s office. 11. ? The cars which are imported from Japan are really good. 2. The girl _____________________ is with him is his sister. ? Ex. Ambas palabras se traducen en español con la palabra QUE. PRONOMBRES RELATIVOS WHO Y WHICH 1. Is this the newspaper __________________ you read every day? Are these the envelopes __________________you need? The people ____________________ are described in the story are very interesting. 9. Is this the computer __________ you use every day? Do you know the woman _____ is coming over there? That is exactly the car ________ I would like to have. ? The woman who is crossing the road is my wife.. 4. 20. 18. This is the book we use in class. (I would like = me gustaría) The book on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. 14. animal o cosa estamos hablando.I like collecting _______________stamps and ______________ coins 19. John is the student_________________ speaks English well. C. mientras que con los animales y las cosas debemos usar WHICH. ? I don´t know the man who is in Mr. 17. Normalmente el relativo which se omite cuando precede a un nombre o pronombre: This is the book which we use in class. debemos usar las pronombres relativos WHO o WHICH. ___________stamps and ______________ coins in this collection are interesting. 5. The men ___________________ are working in that room are engineers. The woman crossing the road is my wife. The plane flying over the city is a spy plane. 6. The men trained at our school are good pilots. I don´t know the man in Mr. 13. ____________ magazines are very easy to read. This is the book which we use in class. 68 A short course in english for adult students . 20. En inglés. ? The plane which is flying over the city is a spy plane. ? The women who are wearing a white uniform are nurses. 2. Lea los siguientes ejemplos: The man who is talking with John is an engineer. 1 Fill in the blanks with WHO or WHICH: 1. ? The men who are trained at our school are good pilots. Is it Mr Williamson _________________ wants to see the manager? The magazine __________________ is on the sofa is a sports magazine.Jones has got _____________English books and magazines. el pronombre relativo WHO se usa con las personas. 15.Mr. 3. 3. 19. The movie __________________ is on at the Rex today is very good. Smith´s office.

______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 18. as in the example: 1. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Translate the following sentences into English. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 20. 5. 20. 15. 12. El hombre que está conversando con Mary es el Dr. 9. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. 17. 1. 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 17. Los libros que están sobre esa silla son míos. 4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 11. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 69 . 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 13. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. 1. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. 8. omitting the relative pronoun WHICH. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 4. 7. The girl with him is his sister 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Smith. El libro sobre el que ellos están conversando es un best-seller ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 16. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 2. 18. 1. 10. 2. Las personas que están trabajando en esa oficina son ingenieros. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 19. or the word groups WHO IS/ARE o WHICH IS/ARE whenever it is possible.Ex. Underline the word(s) which can be omitted in everyday conversation. 14. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. 6. Rewrite the sentences in Ex. 19. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. Translate the sentences in the previous exercise into Spanish. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9.

Este es el bus que nos lleva al trabajo todas las mañanas. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Los zapatos que nosotros fabricamos son de muy buena calidad. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10.¿Es este el computador que usted quiere comprar? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 70 A short course in english for adult students . ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7.5. Ella es la secretaria que trabaja con el Profesor Stephens ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Estos son los libros que nosotros usamos en las clases de inglés. ¿Conoces tú al hombre que está trabajando en el laboratorio de idiomas? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9.

anorak /ánorak/ leather jacket /léδer dllákit/ necklace /néklis/ vestido blusa falda impermeable chaleco de lana pañuelo medias calzoncillo gorra galochas zapatillas sandalias chaleco de terno enagua pañuelo brazalete reloj pulsera anillo parka chaqueta de cuero collar A short course in english for adult students 71 .siz/ fur coat /fé:r kóut/ swimsuit /swimsiut/ trunks /tránks/ traje abrigo chaqueta pantalones camisa polera corbata suéter sombrero soquetes zapatos botas guantes paraguas bufanda cinturón lentes aro. arete lentes para sol abrigo de piel traje de baño traje de baño dress /dres/ blouse /bláuz/ skirt /ské:rt/ raincoat /réinkout/ cardigan /ká:rdigan/ handkerchief /hændkertchi:f/ stockings /stókiηz/ briefs /bri:fs/ cap /kæp/ galoshes /gæloshiz/ sneakers /sní:kerz/ sandals /sændalz/ waistcoat /wéiskout/ slip /slip/ kerchief /ké:rtchi:f/ bracelet /bréislet/ wrist watch /rístwotch/ finger ring /fíηger riη/ parka /pá:rka /.BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words CLOTHES /klou(z/ Vestuario suit /siu:t/ coat /kout/ jacket /dllákit/ trousers /tráuserz/ shirt /shé:rt/ T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ tie /tái/ sweater /suéter/ hat /hæt/ socks /sóks/ shoes /shu:z/ boots /bu:ts/ gloves /glavz/ umbrella /ambréla/ scarf /ská:rf/ belt /belt/ glasses /glá:siz/ earring /íarriη/ sunglasses /sanglá.

72 A short course in english for adult students .

You study English every day Bill studies English. You don´t go to the movies...? Do they play tennis......? Do they work here.....? Do they watch TV. Interrogative Do you work here. They don´t do the exercises.. You don´t have dinner. Ann doesn´t do the exercises.. They study English. Mary doesn´t like. They don´t work here... 2. Ann doesn´t watch TV. You don´t do the exercises.. We don´t play tennis.... Ann doesn´t have dinner.......? Does Ann go to the movies. go 3. We don´t do the exercises..... Ann goes to the movies... /Does the bus leave... We don´t go to the movies.? Do we watch TV. plays 7. /Do they work out..... Bill doesn´t go to the movies. We go to the movies.. They don´t have.. We don´t have dinner.? Does Bill study English... We have dinner at work. 1.... Bill goes to the movies. You play tennis on Saturday Bill plays tennis. Ann studies English... 4...? What language does that man speak? 6. They don´t have dinner.. /Does Mary like..../ What does Mary like to drink? 2. We play tennis.... Bill doesn´t do the exercises........ Ann doesn´t work here.......?/ Where do they live? 3. They don´t study English..? Do we play tennis.. They don´t go to the movies.... Bill doesn´t play tennis. You have dinner at work..... Ann doesn´t go to the movies...? Do we go to the movies.? Does Bill play tennis.... We don´t work here... /Does that man speak...? Does Ann play tennis..... You do the exercises well Bill does the exercises well Ann does the exercises well We do the exercises well They do the exercises well Negative You don´t work here.? Do they go to the movies. washes 9..? Does Bill go to the movies. Bill doesn´t have dinner..... We study English.? Does Ann watch TV..? Does Ann work here... reads 5.? Do they study English. You don´t play tennis.... They have dinner at work.... Bill has dinner at work..? Do we study English. They don´t play tennis. Bob doesn´t always drink....... They don´t live..? Do you play tennis.? Do you have dinner at work? Does Bill have dinner at work? Does Ann have dinner at work? Do we have dinner at work? Do they have dinner at work? Do you do the exercises well? Does Bill do the exercises well? Does Ann do the exercises well? Do we do the exercises well? Do they do the exercises well? Ex.. Bill doesn´t study English.?/ What time does the bus leave? 5..? Do you go to the movies. /Does Bob always drink. Affirmative You work here every day Bill works here every day Ann works here every day We work here every day They work here every day You watch TV after dinner Bill watches TV after dinner Ann watches TV after dinner We watch TV after dinner They watch TV after dinner You go to the movies every... They don´t work out. Ann plays tennis.........?/ What does Bob always drink? 8..........watches Ex.... You don´t study English....... We don´t watch TV.. They go to the movies.?/ When do they work out? 7....? Does Ann study English.....eat 12.. 3... /Does Peter watch.... leaves 11. You don´t watch TV.... Ann doesn´t play tennis. Peter doesn´t watch. We don´t study English. Ann doesn´t study English..... have 4..?/ What does Peter do every night? 4. That man doesn´t speak. get up 2.... speak 10... 1. arrives 8.? Do you study English. The bus doesn´t leave..? Do we work here. They play tennis... Bill doesn´t work here.. Bill doesn´t watch TV. /Do they live ..? Does Bill watch TV... They don´t watch TV.? Do you watch TV.... play 6...? Does Bill work here.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 5 Part I Ex.... /Do A short course in english for adult students 73 . Ann has dinner at work.

drink 3. /Does Peter do. 1. He´s working 3. there are some trees/No. Ex. Does it rain 8. The leather 9. A. /Do they come. stamps 18. How does Mr Williamson usually travel? 18. Peter doesn´t do. speaks/is speaking 4. Ex. When do you go to the club? 8. The water 8. is sleeping/sleeps 2. He hardly ever/never uses it. 1. make 5. Where do your friends come from? 7. Who does Bob play golf with on Sunday? 13. 10.. 7. What do the students need? 5. How long does it take you to get there? 11. 10. The book which I want is on the table 3. 6. 5. The movie which is on at the Rex today is very good. 1... What do they do on Sunday? 9. opens-closes 13. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. translates 8. How many cars do they have now? 12. 8. That is exactly the car which I would like to have. is working 2. 11. takes/does it take 6. Where does she live? 2. does Martin come 4. 1.water 7.the coins 20.. The books which are listed in that catalogue are in English 9. is wearing Ex. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. The man who is driving the car is my father 4. 1. How often does Jack visit his parents? 8. comes 7. There is very little free time 8. Why do you like Mary? 17. doesn´t believe 7. He/she goes to see a doctor when he/she is sick Ex. Children 17. 7. Why does he walk to work? 13 Why don´t they like the car? 14. 1. The girl who is with him is his sister 2. 15. are-doing 15. good light 5. The air 2. is coming 6. is watching 4. The chair on which I am sitting is very comfortable 7. The light 6. the history 4. rises 4.. The people who are described in the story are very interesting. Whose shoes does the boy sometimes wear? 10. 1.?/ How many cars do they have? 9. History 3. Is this the computer which you use every day? 19.don´t play 7. 1. take place Ex. How often do they play golf 3. go 5. opens . 8. is playing 17. leaves 3. causes 5. The air 12. What does Mary do on Saturday? 10.. English books / The magazines C. do the banks close 3. Where do you go in the summer? 5. do-get 20. 12. They´re playing /running/ etc. How many hours does she usually sleep every night? Ex.?/ How does Peter do everything? 10.. don´t eat 6.. stamps .. What kind of stories does Ann write? 19. It´s got four legs 4. There are fifty-two weeks in a year. is beginning 12. does-understand 16. Where does John go in the summer? 6. What kind of fruit does Ann like? 4. John is the student who speaks English well. am sitting/sit 3. I usually spend my summer vacation in. is eating/eats 6. Are these the envelopes which you need? 14. Where do the students go after lunch? 20. 2. doesn´t grow 3.they have. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. The animals 14. Ex. 1. do-go 10. is sitting / is reading / reads / is pouring / drinks / goes / are not watching / are playing / watch / are not paying / are not watching / don´t like 10. 1. The magazine which is on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. How does Mary come to work? 7. 1. Yes. play . Is this the camera which you are planning to buy? 5. fresh air 11. 9. Is this the newspaper which you read every day? 13. The man who is walking down the road is a postman 18.. What does Mr Jenkins write about? 14. Do you know the woman who is coming over there? 20.. do-like 18. speaks 2. is working 8. are-living 9. The stamps . are-studying 19. does this word mean? Ex. there aren´t any trees 5. animals 13. At what time do they get up every morning? 4. How often do you go there? 12. 1. doesn´t drink 2. What do they look at with the telescope? 15. do you do 5. Is it raining 9. The fish 16. 6. flows Ex. How much money do they need? 3. is not standing/is sitting 5. What does Susan look like? 2. is not raining / is shining / is 7. isdoing 11. What do you take photographs with? 16. are-doing/are-watching 14. 1.?/ How often do they come here? Ex. They don´t come.The men who are working in that room are engineers. 9. How much money do they need? 11. 74 A short course in english for adult students . leather 10. meat 15. live 6. What do the boys usually talk about? 9.. doesn´t tell 9. I usually watch TV /read a book/ etc.closes 4. At what time does Mr Jackson get up every morning? 6. 16.coins 19. When does Bob go to bed early? B. does not take / walks / Do you take / do you walk Part II. goes 2.

The book about which they are talking is a best-seller / The book they are talking about is a best-seller 4. 16. The girl with him is his sister 2. 16. ¿Es este el diario que ud. Do you know the woman coming over there? 20. 3. 15. She is the secretary who works with Professor Stephens 6. lee todos los días? 13. The shoes which we make are of very good quality.18. Las personas que están descritas en el cuento son muy interesantes. La niña que está con él es su hermana 2. 1.The men working in that room are engineers. This is the bus which takes us to work every morning 7. Williamson quien quiere ver al gerente? 10. 2.Ex. usa todos los días? 19.The people who are working in that office are engineers. Is this the newspaper you read every day? 13. That is exactly the car I would like to have. The man who is talking with Mary is Dr Smith. Is this the camera you are planning to buy? 5. The man walking down the road is a postman 18. ¿Es ese el bus que va al aeropuerto? 6. ¿Es el Sr. John is the student who speaks English well. 5. 1. ¿Do you know the man who is working in the language laboratory? 9. El hombre que está conduciendo el auto es mi padre 4. 8. El hombre que está bajando el camino es el cartero. The chair I am sitting on is very comfortable 7. Ese es exactamente el auto que me gustaría tener Ex. 2. These are the books which we use in the English lessons 8. John es el alumno que habla inglés bien. La película que está en cartelera hoy día en el Rex es muy buena. The man driving the car is my father 4. 10. The book I want is on the table 3. The books listed in that catalogue are in English 9. ¿Conoces a la mujar que viene allá? 20. The movie on at the Rex today is very good. 4. Los hombres que están trabajando en esa sala son ingenieros. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. 15. Los libros que están incluidos en ese catálogo están en inglés 9. The magazine on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. Ex. Is this the computer which you want to buy? A short course in english for adult students 75 . ¿Es esta la cámara que estás planeando comprar? 5. El libro que quiero está sobre la mesa 3. ¿Son estos los niños que estudian contigo? 17. 1. Are these the envelopes you need? 14. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. ¿Son estos los sobres que ud. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. 3. The people described in the story are very interesting. Is this the computer you use every day? 19. 12. La revista que está sobre el sofá es una revista deportiva 11. The books which are on that chair are mine. 8. 12. necesita? 14. ¿Es este el computador que ud. La silla sobre la que estoy sentado es muy comfortable 7.

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/méri didnt klí:n. They stopped talking when the teacher arrived /δei stópt tó:kiη wen δe tí:tcher rráivd/ (Ellos dejaron de conversar cuando el profesor llegó. /pí:ter kéim híar θrí: déiz agóu/ (Peter vino acá hace tres días) 3. Escuche. tanto de los Verbos Regulares (aquellos que agregan -ed/-d para formar el Pasado y el Pasado Participio) como de los Verbos Irregulares (aquellos verbos que no siguen dicha regla)./ Did they see a good film yesterday? /díd δéi sí:./ La forma interrogativa se expresa anteponiendo el verbo modal DID o DIDN´T al sujeto y el verbo principal. last weekend (el fin de semana pasado. mientras que los de los ejemplos 4. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd δat déi/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro ese día) 6. /δéi só: e gud fílm iésterdi/ (Ellos vieron una buena película ayer) 4.To buy .saw . -te./ They didn´t see a good film yesterday./ Did Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /díd méri klí:n... completed /komplí:tid/. Las expresiones más usadas en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan antepuesta la palabra LAST. Además están las expresiones yesterday (ayer). en la conversación diaria. To work . To clean . al igual que en la forma negativa. o una hora o fecha pasada. EL TIEMPO PASADO SIMPLE (The Simple Past Tense) Este tiempo se usa para expresar una acción que se realizó o que ocurrió en el pasado./ Did Peter come here three days ago? /díd pí:ter kám. pudo advertir a través de los ejemplos anteriores..stopped .. to stop . A menudo. 5. Escuche. aquí el pasado del verbo modal Do (DID) no se usa en la forma afirmativa (está tácito) Cuando decimos “I bought the car last year” estamos diciendo “I did buy the car last year”. 2.. /méri klí:nd δe háus iésterdi mó:rniη/ (Mary limpió la casa ayer en la mañana.. En los Ejemplos 1. on September 18th./ We didn´t work hard that day. yesterday morning/afternoon/evening (ayer en la mañana / tarde / noche)... To see . La forma negativa se expresa usando DID NOT /did nót/ seguido del INFINITIVO (No el Pasado) de un verbo principal. To come ./ Mary didn´t clean the house yesterday morning. 3. Peter came here three days ago.. several weeks ago (hace varias semanas). el Tiempo Pasado Simple se expresa con el SUJETO más el PASADO de un verbo principal. I bought the car last year /ai bó:t δe ká:r lá:st íar/ (Yo compré el auto el año pasado) 2. /ai dídnt bái.. como comprobaremos al expresar las negaciones e interrogaciones: I did not buy the car last year. last year (el año pasado). 5 y 6 son de Verbos Regulares : 1.come..to need..2. va en INFINITIVO.bought . como two days ago (hace dos días).seen. a long time ago (hace mucho tiempo).etc. como to want. We worked hard that day. como at 10:15 this morning (a las 10:15 de esta mañana). como last week (la semana pasada).-de. last night (anoche). the day before yesterday (anteayer).to complete.to decide también agregan -ed/-d. Al igual que en el tiempo Presente Simple. se usa la contracción DIDN´T /dídnt/.came . Mary cleaned the house yesterday morning. decided /disáidid/.stopped (ver formación de gerundios UNIT 4). 5.cleaned ...bought. that day (ese día). 1810 (el 18 de Septiembre.stopped La pronunciación del sufijo -d/-ed es /d/ o /t/ (nunca /ed/ !!). 1810) Escuche.) Como ud.worked . 4. Los infinitivos que tienen cons+vocal+cons o cons+cons+voc+cons deben duplicar la última consonante: to stop . /δéi dídnt sí:. También se usan en este tiempo verbal las expresiones que llevan la palabra AGO. needed /ní:did/.. last Monday morning (el lunes pasado en la mañana). Los verbos terminados en -t.UNIT 6 PART I. -d.3 los tres pasados corresponden a Verbos Irrregulares.cleaned.worked 6. lea y aprenda: Did you buy your car last year? /díd iú: bái. pero este sufijo debe ser pronunciado /id/ como en wanted /wóntid/../ Peter didn´t come here three days ago.. lea y aprenda: 1. lea y aprenda: I didn´t buy the car last year. /pí:ter didnt kám. Did I buy the car last year? Importante: Es necesario aquí aprender el pasado. They saw a good film yesterday. /wí: dídnt wé:rk. / A short course in english for adult students 77 ..

responder llega preguntar. pedir transportar./ Cuando se formula una pregunta introducida por una palabra interrogativa como WHAT.. permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar. gustar terminar odiar. gustar necesitar preferir llover recibir recordar reparar../ Where did they see a good film yesterday? /wéar díd δéi sí:. desear invitar escuchar ubicar. no gustar ayudar esperar. utilizar visitar esperar.../ Why did Peter come here 3 days ago? /wái díd pí:ter kám. etc. arreglar repetir solicitar. llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar....Did you work hard that day? /díd iú wé:rk. pedir fumar comenzar.?) EXERCISES: Ex. localizar mirar amar. lea y aprenda: When did you buy your car? /wén díd iú: bái. partir quedarse.. esforzarse usar. atender ./ La pregunta más habitual de este tiempo verbal es: WHAT DID YOU DO? /wót did iú dúu/ (¿Qué hizo ud./ Didn´t you buy your car last year? /dídnt iú bái.. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras de las interrogaciones simples: Escuche. Study the Past Tense form of the following regular verbs which are most frequently used. WHERE.../ When did you work hard? /wén díd iú wé:rk. 1..../ Didn´t Peter come here three days ago? /dídnt pí:ter kám.. HOW./ Why didn´t Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /wái dídnt méri klí:n. INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/ To look /luk/ To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ 78 A short course in english for adult students PAST TENSE answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/ looked /lukt/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ SPANISH contestar.. WHEN..

conocer aprender. narrar. mantener saber. encontrar olvidar conseguir. 2. comprender A short course in english for adult students 79 .pasar tiempo pararse nadar |tomar. fabricar reunirse. (get to = llegar a un lugar) dar ir tener. creer brillar entender. llevar enseñar contar. decir pensar. extraviar hacer. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar.saber. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. comer.conocer pagar poner. funcionar Ex. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. colocar leer correr. Study the Past Tense form of the following Irregular verbs which are most frequently used : INFINITIVE To begin /bigín/ To bring /briη/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lu:z/ To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /siη/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd áp/ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /θiηk/ To shine /sháin/ To understand /anderstænd/ PAST TENSE began /bigæn/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræηk/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /wént/ had /hæd/ heard /he:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /le:rnd/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slépt/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d áp/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ shone /shon/ understood /anderstúd/ SPANISH empezar. mirar desear trabajar.servirse oir guardar.To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/ caminar querer lavar observar. dejar prestar perder. enterarse partir. salir. obtener.

10. Bob washes the car every Saturday. 3. 18. b) interrogative and c) Wh-questions: 1. They saw the car accident. 9. We wrote the letter in Spanish. They go to Europe every year. 4. We watch TV every night. The boy reads a book every month. 7. 11. 6. 4. We had dinner at the Club. 14. 4. It rains a lot here every winter. 8. 10. 9. They studied English in London. 2. I wanted to drink tea. Remember that you have to use the word LAST instead of EVERY in the expressions of time 1. 3. We went to work by bus.To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /róut/ vestir. I give the boy a present every year. Father tells the boy a story every night. They receive a letter every week. desgastar escribir Ex. 6. They sell lots of books every year. John sold his house for 120. Peter comes here every week. __________________________________________ last week. The postman brings a letter every Monday. Mother makes an apple pie every Saturday. I buy the newspaper every Sunday. The boy did the exercise well. 5. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. Peter came here yesterday. 13. Change the following sentences into the Simple Past Tense. We have a test every week. 20. 16. We enjoy our vacation every summer. Change the following sentences into a) negative. They eat fish every Friday. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? 80 A short course in english for adult students . They bought the car in Paris. Mary visits her parents every month. 5. 15. 17. 7.000 dollars. Peter drives to Baltimore every Sunday. 12. 19. I sleep well every night. 8. 2. I write to Mary every week-end.

Did they watch TV last night? (listen to the radio) 2. They came here by taxi. etc. 10. 4. How. When. How often. __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? Ex. 6. the underlined part must be the answer of the question asked. Answer the following questions with complete sentences: 1. I went by taxi. 4. 1.Ex. They stayed in Vancouver for a week. 7. In each case. I didn´t (go by bus). What did you watch? _________________________________________________ What time did you get up this morning? ___________________________________________________ Ex. How much. Did Peter say “yes” (“No”) 7. Bob did the same exercise three times. 9. Did Mary send you a fax? (a letter) 5. Ask questions using question words like What. 2. The boy wanted to play. 6 7. Answer these questions using the information given in parentheses. ___________________________________________________ Did you watch TV last night? If so. Smith come in the morning? (at midday) No. Did you eat fish for supper? (chicken) 4. as in the example: Did you go by bus? (taxi) 1. Bill spent one hundred dollars. 3. Where did you go last Saturday evening? ___________________________________________________ When did you begin to study English? ___________________________________________________ How long did it take you to get here today? ___________________________________________________ What did the teacher tell you to do? ___________________________________________________ What did you eat for dinner last night?. He didn´t go because he was tired. 8. 2. Did the woman buy a dress? ( a jacket) 11. Did the old man feel well? (weak and tired) 14. 5. Did they walk to the park? (take a bus) 6. The children got up at 6:30 He went to the doctor because he was ill. 5. Did John go out last night? (stay at home) 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 81 . 3. 6. Did Mr. Did you see Mary last Sunday? (yesterday) 12. Peter saw the film last week. He went to the zoo yesterday. Did they drink beer? (wine) 9. Did Jack have lunch at home? (at work) 13. Did you read the book in English? (French) 8. 7. 5. Did the man speak to you in English? (French) 15. Did John write a poem? ( a short story) 10. Where.

Did he break his arm in the accident? (his leg) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 82 A short course in english for adult students .16. Did Jane wear a short skirt? (a long one) 20. Did you fly American Airlines? (United Airlines) 17. Did you give the boy an apple? (some money) 18. Did the secretary leave the office early? (late) 19.

. (not. Ahora no juego bien) They used to visit /δei iú:st tu vízit/ us every summer. I don´t play well now. (He doesn´t smoke cigars anymore/He doesn´t smoke cigars any longer/He no longer smokes cigars) A short course in english for adult students 83 . but he used to get /iú:st tu gét/ very good grades anyway..... Bob used to love ama.. Mr. (not. lea y aprenda: I used to play /ái iu:st tu plei/ football well when I was young. any longer o no longer (antes del verbo principal) Escuche. They don´t visit us in the summer anymore/any longer.. Explain the change in meaning. anymore) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7.. Scott smoked cigars. Ann came to class on time every day. (no longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. We exported shoes to the USA. Uncle Paul lived in that house. (Yo jugaba fútbol bien cuando era joven.. Mary spoke Italian at home.. Scott used to smoke cigars. Peter was a good student.. (no longer) ___________________________________________________ 2. Jim no estudiaba mucho en el colegio. (He doesn´t work there now) Mr. “USED TO + INFINITIVE” Esta expresión se usa para referirse a actividades que antes se realizaban en forma regular y que se han dejado de hacer. pero de todos modos obtenía buenas notas. John Kerry went to that school. En las oraciones negativas que siguen a una oración con USED TO normalmente se usan las expresiones not.. Introduce USED TO by changing the italicized verbs. (not. Mother played the piano well. (not. any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. /iú:st tu láv/ her very much.. (not. 1. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8.. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10.. He no longer loves her now. (not. Bill brought her flowers every Friday.PART II. I rode the subway to work. Equivale al la terminación -aba o -ía del español. Bob la amaba mucho. anymore) Bob used to work in the car factory.. Bill helped me with my homework. anymore. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. (Ellos nos visitaban todos los veranos. not. (not. Where did you use to spend /did iú iú:s tu spénd/ your summer vacation when you were young? ¿Dónde pasabas tus vaciones de verano cuando eras joven? EXERCISES Ex 1. Ahora ya no la Jim didn´t use to work /dídnt iú:s tu wé:rk/ very hard at school.... any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. (not. Ellos no nos visitan más en el verano. as in the examples Bob worked in the car factory..

The children´s names are Bob and Joe. His /hiz/= suyo. Escuche. o cosa) Our /áuar/= nuestro Your /ió:r/= vuestro Their /δéar/= su (de ellos) Possessive Pronouns Mine /máin/=mío Yours /ió:rz/= suyo. es decir agregando un apóstrofe + S (´s) a los nombres o sustantivos referidos a personas. John walks to______ desk. EXERCISES Ex. 8. This is John´s book. Jones take ______ children to the park on Sunday. The house of Mr Smith is very big. Smith´s house is very big.) His /hiz/= su (de él) Her /hé:r/= su (de ella) Its /its/= su (de un anim. Un possessive pronoun (pronombre posesivo) reemplaza a un adjetivo posesivo y un sustantivo que ha sido mencionado con anterioridad. They went back to ______ seats and began to write. lea y aprenda: I´ve got a book. de ella -------------------------- Ours /áuarz/= nuestro Yours /ió:rz/= vuestro Theirs /δéarz/= suyo (de ellos) Un possessive adjective (adjetivo posesivo) siempre acompaña a un sustantivo para indicar posesión. Con los sustantivos plurales solamente se debe agregar un apóstrofe. (de nosotros) La posesión tambien se expresa usando el Saxon genitive (genitivo sajón). Mrs. (mi libro) The book is mine (mío) Mary bought this car last year. It is her car. This is my book. The students´ books are new. 3. de él Hers /hé:rz/= suyo.PART III. I walk to ______ chair 2. The books of the students are new. That is the car of my brother. A. salvo que sean sustantivos plurales irregulares. 7. . Escuche. de ud. We moved to ______ new house last month. (de ella) They´ve got a house. The house is theirs. lea y aprenda: The book of the student is new. lea y aprenda: This is the book of John. This is my parents´ house. This is their house (nuestra casa). 4. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla: Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /wi:/ You /iú:/ They /δéi/ Possessive Adjectives My /mái/= mi Your /ió:r/= su (de Ud. Mr. 1.. Escuche. Mr and Mrs. 6. 84 A short course in english for adult students The student´s book is new. Fill in the blanks with the correct possessive adjective. That´s my brother´s car. The teacher writes with ______ pen. The car is hers.(su auto). 1. This is the house of my parents. Clark goes to ______ office every day 5. You walk to ______ school every morning. The names of the children are Bob and Joe.

Change the words in italics to Possessive form: 1. He’s also the teacher of my friend. The dog wags ______ tail. 10.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 12.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.. 11. My brother drives ______ car every day. This is the pen of Helen. You have a dog and a cat. the English books are _______________. Ex. He’s the teacher of Helen 9. Helen has a cat. the dog and the cat are _______________. Complete the following by adding the necessary possessive pronoun: 1. The house of my friends is beautiful 12. These (newspapers ) are their newspapers. 10. 2. 3. Substitute possessive pronouns for the italicized words: 1. Jones has a new car. 3. This (book) is my book. 4.9. The desk of the teacher is new. 2. the dog is mine . That (notebook) is Helen’s notebook. 7. the pen is _______________. What´s the name of that man? 14. 10. This is the book of John. 6. Mary has a new pen. This is the notebook of William. What are the names of those men? (This is John’s book. This (room) is her room. This (office) is John’s office. 7.2 . 4. 8. 8. 5. 9. the dog is _______________. 2. the dog and the cat are _______________. The friend of my sister is very sick. I have a dog. Is this (pencil) your pencil? Is this (coat) your coat or her coat? These (seats) are our seats. 10. 3. 4. 7. the pen is _______________. That’s the home of my teacher. This is the wife of Mr Smith 11. Smith is very large. the cat is _______________. 8. 3. This (notebook) is my notebook. These (cigarettes) are Peter´s cigarettes. We have two English books. (This book is mine. You have a pen. 9. 13. He took his book and left my book. Mr. 6. This (desk) is the teacher’s desk. 5. 6. the car is _______________. That is the room of the teachers. 5. The office of Mr. the English books are _______________. John has a dog. I have a dog and a cat. A short course in english for adult students 85 . Helen and Mary have two English books. 4.

14. 13. 6. Is this letter for Mr. 6. them) instead of names 1. it. 1. Jim goes with Mary and me to the lesson. 9. SUBJECT PRONOUNS AND OBJECT PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla. 2. 8. EXERCISES Ex. por lo tanto. siempre van ubicados después de un verbo principal o de una preposición. 11. him. I like this song very much. 12. Janet sent the invitations to Mary and me. 4. Jones or for his wife? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. 7. 7. 3. 3. 10. 8. 2. us. Bob studies his book every day. The teacher likes Mary and William. Answer these questions using the expressions of time provided in parentheses. James goes with John and Alice to the club. 5. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 86 A short course in english for adult students . 10. Pedro speaks with Helen in English. Use object pronouns (me. John likes Mary. William studies the book She speaks with John. 9. 11. When did you see Peter? (2 days ago) When did you buy the car? (5 years ago) When did he visit Mary? (last Sunday afternoon) When did she send the letters? (last Monday) When did they wash the car? (2 weeks ago) When did you visit your parents? (last weekend) When did he get his diploma? (a long time ago) When did she spend the money. I know William and his wife very well. 4. 12. her. Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /uí:/ You /iú:/ They /δei/ Object Pronouns Me /mi:/ You /iú:/ Him /him/ Her /he:r/ It /it/ Us /az/ You /iú:/ Them /δem/ Los SUBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres nominativos) reemplazan al sujeto de una oración: Los OBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres complementarios) reemplazan a un direct object (complemento directo) o a un indirect object (complemento indirecto) y. They are talking about the accident.B. (last summer) When did you speak to Tom? (yesterday morning) When did he invite you? (last month) When did they eat the apples? (this morning) When did she meet Robert? (last Friday morning) (I saw him 2 days ago). I understand the teacher very well. you. 5. Substitute the correct pronoun for the italicized word or words: 1.

conductor electrician /elektríshn/ electricista engineer /endlliníar/ ingeniero farmer /fá:rmer / granjero firefighter /fáiarfáiter/ bombero fireman /fáiarman/ bombero florist /flórist/ florista gardener /gá:rdner/ jardinero greengrocer /gri:ngróuser/ verdulero grocer /gróuser/ almacenero hair-dresser /héar dreser/ peinadora hostess /hóustes/ azafata janitor /dllánitor/ conserje jeweller /dllúeler/ joyero journalist /dllórnalist/ periodista judge /dlládll/ juez lawyer /ló:yer/ manager /mænidller/ mechanic /mekænik/ newsagent /niuzéidllent/ newspaper boy /niu:zpéiper bói/ painter /péinter/ photographer /fotógrafer/ pilot /páilot/ plumber /plámer/ policeman /polísman/ postman /póustman/ priest /pri:st/ receptionist /risépshonist/ salesman /séilzman/ secretary /sékretri/ shoe-maker /shu:méiker/ singer /si(ger/ steward /stiú:ard/ stewardess /stiú:ardes/ student /stiúdent/ tailor /téilor/ technician /teknishan/ teacher /ti:tcher/ telephonist /télifonist/ tourist guide /túrist gáid/ vicar /víkar/ waiter /wéiter/ waitress /wéitres/ watch-maker /wotchméiker/ writer /ráiter/ abogado gerente mecánico agente de diarios suplementero pintor fotógrafo piloto plomero. peluquero butcher /bútcher/ carnicero chemist /kémist/ farmacéutico. boticario clergyman /klε ´:rdlliman/ clérigo. sacerdote clerk /klε ´:rk/ vendedor cook /kuk / cocinero conductor /kondáktor/ inspector (trenes) doctor /dóktor/ doctor dress-maker /drés méiker/ modista driver /dráiver/ chofer. cura garzón garzona relojero escritor A short course in english for adult students 87 . gásfiter policía cartero sacerdote.BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS actor /(ktor/ actor actress /(ktres/ actriz architect /á:rkitekt/ arquitecto artist /á:rtist/ artista baker /béiker/ panadero barber /bá:rber/ barbero. cura recepcionista vendedor secretaria zapatero cantante sobrecargo azafata alumno sastre técnico profesor telefonista guía turístico vicario.

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KEY TO ANSWERS

UNIT 6
Part I
Ex. 1. & 2. Study List of Regular and Irrgular Verbs Ex. 3. 1. Peter came here... 2. I bought the...3. They went to .4. Mary visited her... 5. I wrote to... 6. They ate fish... 7. Bob washed the... 8. We watched TV... 9. The postman brought a... 10. We had a... 11. The boy read / red / a... 12.. I gave the...13. Peter drove to... 14. We enjoyed our... 15. It rained a lot... 16. They received a...17. I slept well... 18. Father told the... 19. Mother made an... 20. They sold lots of... Ex. 4. (didn´t = did not) 1. We didn´t go to... / Did we go to...? / How did we go to work? 2. Peter didn´t come... / Did Peter come...? / When did Peter come here? 3. I didn´t want to drink... / Did I want to drink...? / What did I want to drink? 4. They didn´t see the... / Did they see the...? / What did they see? 5. John didn´t sell his... / Did John sell his...? / How much did John sell his house for? 6.They didn´t buy the... / Did they buy the...? / Where did theybuy the car? 7. They boy didn´t do the... / Did the boy do the...? / How did the boy do the exercise? 8. We didn´t have dinner... / Did we have dinner...? / Where did we have dinner? 9. We didn´t write the... / Did we write the...? / What language did we write the letter in? 10. They didn´t study... / Did they study... / Where did they study English? Ex. 5. 1. Where did he go yesterday? 2. At what time did the children get up? 3. Why did he go to the doctor? 4. When did Peter see the film? 5. How did they come here? 6. What did the boy want to do? 7. Why didn´t he go? 8. How long did they stay in Vancouver? 9. How much money did Bill spend? 10. How many times did Bill do the same exercise? Ex. 6. (open answers) 1. I went to... 2. I began to study English (... ago / last... / in...) 3. It took me about... 4. He / she told me to... 5. I ate... 6. Yes, I did. I watched... / No, I didn´t. 7. I got up at... Ex. 7. 1. No, they didn´t (watch TV). They listened to the radio. 2. No, He didn´t (go out). He stayed at home. 3. No, I didn´t (eat fish). I ate chicken. 4. No she didn´t (send me a fax) . She sent me a letter. 5. No, they didn´t (walk ) They took a bus. 6. No, he didn´t (say “yes”). He said “No” 7. No, I didn´t (read it in English). I read it in French. 8. No, they didn´t (drink beer) . They drank wine. 9. No, he didn´t (write a poem). He wrote a short story. 10. No, she didn´t (buy a dress). She bought a jacket. 11. No, I didn´t (see her last week). I saw her yesterday. 12. No, he didn´t (have lunch at home) He had lunch at work. 13. No, he didn´t (feel weel) . He felt weak and tired. 14. No, he didn´t ( speak to me in english) . He spoke to me in French. 15. No, he didn´t (come in the morning). He came at midday. 16. No, I didn´t (fly American) I flew United Airlines. 17. No, I didn´t (give him an apple) . I gave him some money. 18. No, she didn’t (leave early) She left late. 19. No, she didn´t (wear a short skirt). She wore a long one. 20. No, he didn´t (break his arm). He broke his leg.

Part II
Ex. 1. 1. Uncle Paul used to live in that house. He doesn´t live there now 2. Mary used to speak Italian at home. She doesn´t speak it at home anymore 3. Ann used to come to class on time every day. She doesn´t come to class on time every day now 4. Peter used to be a good student. He no longer is a good student 5. I used to ride the subway to work. I don´t ride it to work any longer 6. Bill used to bring her flowers every Friday. He doesn´t bring her flowers on Friday any more 7. Mother used to play the piano well. She doesn´t play it well now 8. Bill used to help me with my homework. He doesn´t help me with it any longer 9. John Kerry used to go to that school. He doesn´t go to that school now 10. We used to export shoes to the USA. We no longer export shoes to the USA.

Part III.
A. Ex. 1. 1. my 2.. his 3. your .4.. her 5. their .6. his / her .7. our .8. their .9. its 10. his Ex. 2. 2. This is Helen´s pen. 3. The teacher´s desk is new. 4. That´s my teacher´s home 5. My sister´s friend is very sick 6. Mr Smith´s office is very large 7. This is William´s notebook 8. He´s Helen´s teacher 9. He´s also my friend´s teacher 10. This is Mr Smith´s wife. 11. My friends´ house is beautiful 12. That´s the teachers´ room. 13. What´s that man´s name? 14. What are those men´s names?
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Ex. 3. 2. This room is hers. 3. This office is John´s 4. He took his book and left mine. 5. These newspapers are theirs. 6. These cigarettes are Peter´s. 7. That notebook is Helen´s. 8. This notebook is mine. 9. Is this pencil yours? 10. Is this coat yours or hers? 11. These seats are ours. 12. This desk is the teacher´s. Ex. 4. 1. mine 2. his 3. hers 4. yours 5. his 6. hers 7. ours 8. theirs 9. mine 10. yours B. Ex. 1. 1. her 2. it 3. him 4. him / her 5. them 6. it 7. us 8. it 9. them 10. her 11. them 12. us 13. it 14. him or her?. Ex. 2. 2. I bought it 5 years ago. 3. He visited her last Sunday afternoon. 4. She sent them last Monday 5. They washed it 2 weeks ago 6. I visited them last weekend. 7. He got it a long time ago. 8. She spent it last summer. 9. I spoke to him yesterday morning. 10. He invited me last month. 11. They ate them this morning. 12. She met him last Friday morning.

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UNIT 7
PART 1. EL TIEMPO PASADO CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO (THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE)
Este tiempo verbal se usa para expresar una acción que se estaba realizando en un momento o en una fecha determinada en el pasado. En este tiempo verbal se debe usar el pasado del verbo To Be (WAS /woz/, o WERE /we:r/) más el gerundio de un verbo principal. Las expresiones de tiempo que normalmente se usan con el pasado contínuo son aquellas que indican una hora exacta en el pasado, como at 10 o´clock this morning /at tén oklók δis mó:niη/, at midday last Sunday /at míddei lá:st sándi/, etc. También son importantes las expresiones compuestas por When + SUBJECT + Past Tense como When I got home last night /wen ai got hóum la:st náit/. Lea, escuche y aprenda: I was driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning. /ai woz dráiviη tu δi éarpo:rt at ten oklók δis mó:niη/ (Yo iba conduciendo al aeropuerto a las 10 de esta mañana) They were playing football at midday last Sunday. /δéi we:r pléiη fútbol at míddei lá:st sándi/ (Ellos estaban jugando fútbol al mediodía el domingo pasado) He was visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June. /hí: woz vízitiη hiz péarents in ditróit on δe fifθ ov dllú:n/ (El estaba visitando a sus padres en Detroit el 5 de junio) I was sleeping when the telephone rang last night. /ái woz slí:piη wen de télifoun ræη la:st náit/ (Yo estaba durmiendo cuando sonó el teléfono anoche) We were having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday. /wí: we:r hæviη lantch wen áuer frénd dllæk arráivd lá:st sándi/ (Nosotros estábamos almorzando cuando nuestro amigo Jack llegó el Domingo pasado)) La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de was/were. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´T /wóznt/ o WEREN´T /wé:rent/: Lea, escuche y aprenda: I was not driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning. /ai wóznt dráiviη.../ They were not playing football at midday last Sunday. /dei wé:rent pléiiη.../ He wasn´t visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June. /hi: wóznt vízitiη.../ I wasn´t sleeping when the telephone rang last night. /ai wóznt sli:piη.../ We weren´t having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday. /wi: wé:rent hæviη lántch... / La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante la inversión del orden del sujeto y los verbos WAS/WERE (o las contracciones WASN´T/WEREN´T) Lea, escuche y aprenda: Was I driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning? /woz ái dráiviη.../ Were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /we:r δéi pléiiη.../ Wasn´t he visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June? /wóznt hi: vízitiη.../ Weren´t you sleeping when the telephone rang last night? /wé:rent iú slí:piη.../ Were we having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday? /we:r wí: hæviη lántch.../

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En las preguntas introducidas con palabras interrogativas como What, Where, Why, etc. se debe mantener el mismo orden de las interrogaciones simples: Lea, escuche y aprenda: What were you reading when the teacher entered the room? /wót we:r iú rí:diη.../ Where were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /wéar we:r δei pléiiη fútbol.../ Why weren´t they having lunch when Jack arrived? /wái wé:rnt δei hæviη lántch.../ Why wasn´t he working at 9 o´clock this morning? /wái wóznt hí: wé:rkiη.../ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: What were you doing...? /wót we:r iú: dúiη.../ (¿Qué estaba haciendo ud....?) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses in the Past Continuous Tense 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. The sun _________________________ when Peter got up this morning. (shine) Bill _________________________the report when Mr. Jenkins entered the room. (read) The students ___________________________ rugby when it began to rain. (play) We ________________________the road when the accident happened. (cross) At that time, everyone _________________________to go to work. (get ready) I ________________________to the coast when the car broke down. (drive) We ________________________near the river that evening. (camp) Ann ________________________in Germany when the war broke out. (live) When we got to the station, the train ________________________ . (leave) We ________________________when the lights went out last night. (have dinner) Mrs. Brown ____________________________ the shopping when she had the accident. (do) Mary and John _______________________________ in the park when we saw them yesterday. (walk)

Ex. 2. Change the following sentences into a) negative form, and b) interrogative form : 1. She was having a bath. 2. We were running down the road. 3. The soldiers were doing exercise 4. Alice was making the beds. 5. The children were watching TV. 6. The men were going to work. 7. The boys were studying for a test. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Ex. 3. Ask questions using question words like Who, Where, What, How, etc. In each case, the underlined part must be the answer to your question. 1. They were walking in the park at midday. ___________________________________________________ 2. Mary was eating a sandwich in her room. ___________________________________________________ 3. Peter wasn´t working because he was on vacation. ___________________________________________________ 4. The generals were working in the conference room. ___________________________________________________ 5. I was getting dressed when you called me up this morning. ______________________________________________
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6. Mrs. White was lying on the sofa because she was tired._________________________________________________ 7. The soldiers were jogging when it began to rain. ___________________________________________________ 8. Bob was taking a shower when the fire started. ___________________________________________________ 9. When the war broke out, they were living in the north of France. __________________________________________ 10. More than ten people were standing outside the building. _______________________________________________ Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Ellos estaban jugando bridge a esa hora. ___________________________________________________ Yo no estaba durmiendo cuando ellos llegaron ___________________________________________________ Juan y sus amigos estaban mirando TV en ese momento . _______________________________________________ Cuando llegué, todos estaban conversando ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué estaba haciendo ud. a esa hora? ___________________________________________________ ¿Por qué no estaban ellos trabajando ese día? ___________________________________________________ ¿Dónde estaban viviendo tus padres cuando se conocieron? ____________________________________________ ¿Qué estabas haciendo a esta hora ayer? ___________________________________________________ Yo estaba escuchando las noticias en ese momento. ___________________________________________________

Ex. 5. Answer the following questions in English. Give complete answers. 1. What were you doing at this time yesterday? ___________________________________________________ 2. Where were you working in December last year? ___________________________________________________ 3. Where were your parents living when they got married? __________________________________________________ 4. What were you doing when Jack phoned you last night? _________________________________________________ Ex. 6. (Review) Fill in the blank spaces using the verbs provided in the appropriate verb tense. You must use either the Past Simple or the Past Continuous Tenses only. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. I ___________________________ very well last night. (sleep) I ___________________________ soundly when you ______________________________ last night. (sleep...arrive) They _______________________ to the office when I __________________________ them this morning. (go..see) Peter _______________________ his wife Lynda when he __________________________ in Chicago (meet... live) We ________________________ golf when it ______________________________ to rain yesterday. (play...begin) Bill ________ not _____________ in the office when the boss ____________________ into the room. (work...walk) When John ______________________ us last night, we ____________________________ ( call on...have dinner) Peter _______________________ the accident while he _______________________________ home. (have...drive) What _______________________ you ______________________________________ last Saturday afternoon? (do) What _______________________ you ________________________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) Mr. Johnson ______________________ in New York when he _____________________ chairman of the company. (work...become) 12. He _________________________ the newspaper while he ______________________ the bus to work. (read...ride)

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You spell your first name. (so = tan) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 94 A short course in english for adult students . You come here tomorrow morning. 2. 9. 10. Por favor. Listen to him please. 2. Take a taxi. 5. por favor Para expresar una orden negativa se debe usar la contracción DON´T /dóunt/ antes del infinitivo Escuche lea y aprenda: Don´t come here Don´t listen to me Please.PART II. please Don´t speak so slowly please. 8. Las órdenes o solicitudes se expresan mediante el uso del INFINITIVO sin sujeto ( el pronombre you. /pli:z óupn δe wíndou/ (you) Speak more slowly. no abra la ventana No hable tan rápido. please. 6. Look at the map. You drink milk every morning. You listen to the story carefully. abra la ventana Hable más lento. 5. 7. don´t open the window. Come again this afternoon. Give Mary my new address. Normalmente se usa la palabra PLEASE. Change the following imperative sentences into the negative form: Speak slowly. 2. Eat my bread and butter. please EXERCISES Ex. please. Change the following sentences into the imperative form: Add the word PLEASE at the end of your sentence: You look at the map 1. You fill up the tank. 1. Drink black coffee. You call me up after 9 o´clock. A. 1. You eat more slowly. 7. Escuche lea y aprenda: (You) Come here /kám híar/ (You) Listen to me /lísn tu mí:/ Please. please ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No venga para acá No me escuche. (you) open the window. Work hard. 3. 8. 6. 9. 3. (so /sou/= tan) Ex. You study hard every day. 4. please Work slowly please. please Drive fast please. please. ya sea al inicio o al final de la orden o solicitud. 10. 4. You have another cup of coffee. THE IMPERATIVE FORM (LA FORMA IMPERATIVA) La forma imperativa se usa para dar órdenes o para solicitar servicios. por favor. Don´t speak so fast. You write your answer on the whiteboard. esta implícito en la orden). please /spí:k mó:r slóuli/ Venga para acá Escúchame Por favor. Say that again.

A short course in english for adult students 95 .. mares.) 2. 8. He lives on Fifth Avenue. The New York City subways go very fast. Escuche. We plan to spend our vacation in __________ Mexico and __________ North Carolina.) Santiago is the capital of Chile.. Tampoco se debe anteponer artículo a los nombres de personas cuando éstos van precedidos de títulos (Mr. Smith to send the message right away. __________ United States. President Bush and Senator Payne will meet at 10:15 next Tuesday. __________ Hudson River lies west of __________ New York City. __________ United Kingdom and __________ Soviet Union were permanent members of the UN Security Committee.) y también delante de los nombres de países compuestos de Adj. (adj. The Pacific Ocean is much larger than the Atlantic Ocean. Supply the definite article the where necessary: 1.) EXERCISES Ex..Ms.) Escuche lea y aprenda When did they go to Europe? Did you see Mary this morning? They lived in New York City for several years. (We plan to spend our vacation in Mexico and North Carolina. Later we want to visit __________ Dominican Republic. __________ Panama Canal joins __________ Atlantic and __________ Pacific Oceans. etc. Senator etc. canales. 3. 10. Cuando los nombres de ciudades o países cumplen la función de adjetivos estos van precedidos del artículo definido the. They are coming back from China. Escuche lea y aprenda The Mississippi and the Missouri rivers are in Central United States. 6.. Sir. 1. Sgt. No se usa the delante de los nombres de continentes. ARTICLES (III) No se debe usar ningún artículo delante de los nombres de personas. estados. Lady. Some ships can cross __________ Atlantic Ocean from __________ France to __________ Unites States. The Santiago newspapers are not very expensive. You should take a trip sometime to __________ West Indies. He spent several weeks in __________ Italy and several weeks in __________ Spain.They´ve climbed Mount Everest. White to a famous Italian restaurant that evening. continentes. Dr. lea y compare: New York is a large city.. Gen.. Mr De Ponti invited Dr. They are planning to spend a week in the West Indies. Prof. __________ China. calles cuando estos son usados como nombres propios. Cpt. Mrs. The United States and South Korea will sign a new free trade agreement. 7.B.. Miss. 4. cordilleras. Lady Macbeth fainted when she saw the body of her husband lying on the floor. ciudades. volcanes.etc..+Sust. The principal city of __________ Germany is __________ Berlin. Sin embargo se debe usar el artículo definido the delante de los nombres geográficos (ríos. President. 9.. We live on __________ Madison Avenue near __________ Central Park Station. países. Johnson ordered Sgt.) o grados (Gen. (excepto cuando el adjetivo es un punto cardinal). 5. (adj. montes.

6. __________. C. 6. 5. 12. __________ Broadway buses are slow.11. 10. Some __________ European cities are very interesting to visit.London and __________ York are beautiful __________ English cities. 1. 11. __________ London School of Economics is very famous. 96 A short course in english for adult students . + uncountable noun (+S + V)! How + adj. THE EXCLAMATORY FORM (LA FORMA EXCLAMATIVA) Las exclamaciones en inglés se expresan de la siguiente manera. __________ Europe is a large continent. 4. Supply WHAT or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. 9. 9. + plural noun (+S + V)! What + adj. 14 15.) __________ Mexican climate is warm. ______________________ good idea! ______________________ beautiful day! ______________________ pretty eyes she has! ______________________ strange thing to say! ______________________ easy exercise! ______________________ difficult lesson! ______________________ funny name to give a dog! ______________________ good whisky! ______________________ happy child! ______________________ happy children! ______________________ beautiful music! ______________________ large room! ______________________ foolish mistake! ______________________ hot day! ______________________ beautiful weather!. 10. 7. + singular noun (+ S +V)! What + adj. __________ England is a small country. Lots of oil tankers go from _________ Persian Gulf to _________ Mediterranean Sea through _________ Suez Canal. We walked along __________ Broadway. 2. 5. 3. __________ New York city traffic is very slow. 3. He lives in __________ Mexico. Estudie el siguiente diagrama: Structure What + a(n) + adj. _________ English language is easy. 11. in __________ Utah. They live on __________ Clark Street in __________ Salt Lake City. 4. 8. 12. (He lives in Mexico. Fill in the blanks with the correct articles where needed: 1. / adv. 8. 13. (+S + V)! Examples What a beautiful woman (she is)! What an interesting book (you are reading)! What beautiful eyes (you have)! What nice people (we met at the party)! What nice music (this is)! What good coffee (they served)! What terrible weather (we are having)! How silly (I was)! How fast (you´re driving Tom)! How expensive (that book is)! EXERCISES Ex. Ex. 7. 2. 2.

_____________________ quickly the time passes! 13.. 7. ______________________ pretty girl! 2. New York is a fascinating city. She plays the piano well.. Make exclamations using What a(n). _____________________ hot day it is today! 12. _____________________ excellent student he is! Ex. John is a very intelligent person. ______________________ strange remark to make! 4. 6.. 3.!. ______________________ well she swims! 5.Ex. 14. 5. 4. Mr Johnson is a very pleasant man. It is a beautiful day.. ______________________ hot it is today! 6. _____________________ well she speaks English! 14. I was a very stupid person. These shoes are very expensive. 3. 4. or How.!. as in the example Peter is a very tall man 1. She is an excellent pianist. as indicated: 1. 2. or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. This whisky is very good 10.! . 2. 12. 8. ______________________ foolish thing to say! 10. WHAT. 5. ______________________ beautifully she sings! 9.. Change these sentences to exclamatory form by using HOW or WHAT / WHAT A(N). This is a very incredible story.. She plays the violin beautifully. ______________________ pretty she is! 3. What a tall man Peter is! How tall Peter is! ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. This music is very romantic. This trip is very interesting. ______________________ hard sentences these are! 7. Mary is a very friendly person 13. 4. _____________________ hot weather we are having! 11. They are very beautiful women. 9. What. ______________________ beautiful eyes she has! 8. He runs very fast. These exercises are very difficult. These photographs are very beautiful 11. The movie was very exciting. 2. Supply HOW. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 97 .

10. It was very cold last night. It is very cold today. We were very tired after the walk. You have a beautiful new car. 16. It´s a cold day today. 18. 9. Grandfather told us a sad story. 15. 13. 14. Ann was a generous woman. It was a very fast train. 8. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 98 A short course in english for adult students . He is a very tall man.6. 12. He is a handsome fellow. 11. She is very pretty. Bob acted very foolishly. 17. She is wearing a beautiful dress. 7.

reloj cortinas chimenea cuadro porcelain /pó:rselein/ radio set /réidiou set/ rug /rag/ sofa /sóufa/ table /téibl/ telephone /télifoun/ television set /télivilln set/ VCR /vi: si: a:r/ porcelana radio alfombra (USA) sofá mesa teléfono televisor video-grabadora e) The Bedroom /δe bédrum/ El Dormitorio alarm clock /alá:rm klók/ bed /bédrum/ bed spread /bédspred/ blanket /blæηkit/ chest of drawers /tchést ov dró:erz/ night gown /náit gáoun/ night table /náit téibl/ reloj despertador cama cubrecamas frazada cómoda.(USA) block of flats /blok ov flæts/ edificio de dptos. excusado.. d) The Sitting-room /δe sítiηrum/ El Living arm-chair /á:rm tchéar/ carpet /ká:pit/ CD player /sí: dí: pléier/ chair /tchéar/ china /tcháina/ clock /klok/ curtains /kértenz/ fireplace /faiarpléis/ picture /píktcher/ sillón alfombra (BR) reproductor de CD silla loza fina./ terrace house /téris háus/ villa /vila/ casa de campo departamento (BR) casa choza.cajonera bata de noche velador pillow case /pílou kéiz/ pillow /pílou/ pyjama /pidllámaz/ sheets /shi:ts/ slippers /slíperz/ wardrobe /wó:dróub/ funda almohada pijamas sábanas zapatillas ropero f) The Kitchen /δe kítchin/ La Cocina broom /brú:m/ can opener /kæn óupner/ escoba abrelatas (USA) mixer /mikser/ napkin /nápkin/ máquina licuadora servilleta A short course in english for adult students 99 ..c. cabaña casa pareada casa en fila casa de veraneo apartment /apa:rment/ departamento (USA) apartment building /apa:rmet bíldiη/ edificio de dptos. (BR) bungalow /báηgalou/ bungalow condominium /kondomínium/ condominio cottage /kótidll/ casa de campo.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE HOUSE a) Housing /háusiη/ Vivienda farm house /fá.rm háus/ flat /flæt/ house /háus/ hut /hat/ semi-detached house /sémi.w.quinta detached house /ditηtætcht háus/ casa aislada b) Parts of the House /parts ov (e háus/ Partes de la Casa ceiling /síliη/ door /do:r/ floor /flo:r/ front door /fránt dó:r/ landing /lændiη/ cielo raso puerta piso puerta de calle descanso (de escaleras) roof /ruf/ staircase /stéar kéis/ wall /wo:l/ window /wíndou/ techo escaleras muralla ventana c) Rooms of the House /ru:mz ov (e háus/ Piezas de la Casa attic /ætik/ basement /béisment/ bathroom /bá:θrum/ bedroom /bédrum/ cellar /sélar/ dining-room /dáiniηrum / kitchen /kítchin/ ático subterráneo sala de baño dormitorio bodega(vinos) comedor cocina laundry room /ló:ndrirum/ library /láibreari/ lounge /láundll/ pantry /pæntri/ sitting room /sítiηrum/ study /stádi/ toilet /tóilet/ lavandería biblioteca salon (Br) despensa living estudio baño.

) block de borrador impresora perforadora escáner corchetera teléfono máquina de escribir 100 A short course in english for adult students .cooker/stove/range /kúker/stóuv/réindll/ cocina (artefacto) cookery book /kúkri buk/ libro de recetas corkscrew /korkskrú:/ sacacorchos crockery /krókeri/ loza corriente cup /kap/ taza cupboard /kábord/ aparador cutlery /kátleri/ cuchillería dishwasher /dishwósher/ lavadora de vajilla drier /dráier/ secadora fork /fo:rk/ tenedor freezer /frí:zer/ congeladora fridge /frídll/ refrigerador frying pan /fráiiη pæn/ sartén garbage can /gá:rbidll kæn/ basurero (USA) glass /glá:s/ vaso glassware /glá:swear/ cristalería kettle /kétl/ tetera knife/knives /náif /náivz/ cuchillo /s microwave oven /máikrouweiv ávn/ horno micro ondas g) The Bathroom /δe bá:θrum/ La Sala de Baño bath tub /bá:θ tab/ cold water tap /kóuld wó:ter tæp/ comb /kóum/ electric shaver /iléktrik shéiver/ faucet /fó:set/ hair brush /héar brash/ hair dryer /héar dráier/ hot water tap /hot wó:ter tæp/ lotion /lóushn/ mirror /míror/ safety razor /séifti réizor/ tina de baño llave de agua fria peineta afeitadora llave del agua (USA) cepillo de pelo secador de pelo llave de agua caliente loción espejo máquina de afeitar oven /ávn/ horno pan /pæn/ olla plate /pléit/ plato pot /pot/ cacerola refrigerator /refridlleréitor/ refrigerador rubbish bin /rábish bin/ basurero (BR) saucer /só:ser/ platillo silverware /sílverwéar/ platería sink /siηk/ lavaplatos spoon /spú:n/ cuchara tea pot /tí: pot/ tetera para el té teaspoon /tí:spun/ cuchara de té tin opener /tin óupener/ abrelatas (BR) toaster /tóuster/ tostadora trash can /træsh kæn/ basurero (USA) tray /trei/ bandeja vacuum cleaner /vækium klí:ner/ aspiradora wall clock /wó:l klók/ reloj de pared washing machine /wóshiη mashí:n/ lavadora de ropa shaving brush /shéiviηbrash/ shaving cream /shéiviη krí:m/ shower /sháuer/ shower cap /sháuer kæp/ soap dish /sóup dish/ tap /tæp/ tooth brush /túθbrash/ tooth paste /tú:θpéist/ towel rack /táuel ræk/ towel /táuel/ wash basin /woshbéizin/ hisopo crema de afeitar ducha gorra de baño jabonera llave del agua (Br) cepillo de dientes pasta dental pañera toalla lavamanos h) The Studio /δe stúdiou/ La Sala de Estudio book shelf /buk shelf/ bookcase /buk kéis/ chair /tchear/ computer /kompiúter/ desk /desk/ desk lamp /desk læmp/ fax machine /fæks mashí:n/ file /fail/ filing cabinet /fáiliη kábinet/ j) Outdoors /áutdó:rz/ El exterior fence /fens/ garage /gará:dll/ garden /gá:rdn/ gate /geit/ lawn /ló:n/ reja garage jardín puerta (reja) césped orchard /ó:rtcha:rd/ huerto path /pa:θ/ sendero swimming pool /suimiη pú:l/ piscina vegetable garden /védlletabl gá:rdn/ huerta repisa para libros librero silla computador escritorio lámpara de escritorio máquina fax archivador archivo laptop /læp top/ notebook /nóutbuk/ note-pad /nóutpæd/ printer /prínter/ punch /pantch/ scanner /skæner/ stapler /stéipler/ telephone /télifoun/ typewriter /táipráiter/ PC portátil (US) PC portátil (Br.

. 3.. European cities. 1. / Were the children watching.. What an. please 2...Berlin 9... 6. Fill up the tank please.. was living 9. (when he phoned me last night) Ex. 8.. / Were the soldiers doing.. were having dinner 11. / Were we running.. Central Park Station 11. / Was Alice making. 4. 8..... slept 2... Madison Avenue. 1.? 2. Spell your first name please. The children weren´t watching. What a. 9.. Alice wasn´t making. was shining 2. What a. 6. Ex.. 2. 3. What a. 7. What a. 2. 3.What were they doing in the park at midday? 2. 7..the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans 8.. (Open answers) 1..UNIT 7 Key to answers PART I Ex. Write your answer on the whiteboard please. 4. 14....? 5.English cities 7.. They were living in. did .France. 4.. 15. China. (at this time yesterday. What. was getting ready 6. I was. 12.. Don´t say that again please. had / was driving 9.the Mediterranean Sea.. 2. C.. 9.... 1.? Ex. (when they got married / then). 6. 2.Clark Street.. the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union 5.. Don´t take a taxi please. Don´t give Mary my new address please.. was sleeping / arrived. 6. Why was Mrs. London. 10. was doing 12. What a. Ex. Where were your parents living when they met? 8.. John and his friends were watching TV at that moment. 13. B.. England. The men weren´t going. Call me up after 9 o´clock please 5. The boys weren´t studying.. 1... I wasn´t sleeping when they arrived. The soldiers weren´t doing. Come here tomorrow morning please.. called on / were having dinner 8. How many people were standing outside the building? Ex. What a.. 1.. 4.. 4. the Persian Gulf. the United States 6. The English language. Ex. 1. The Broadway buses.? 4.. The Atlantic Ocean.. was driving 7.. Germany.They were playing bridge at that time. 5..... the Suez Canal 12.... What were you doing when I called you up this morning? 6. Italy. 9.. Listen to the story carefully please.working / walked 7... Don´t come again this afternoon please... Ex. Where were they living when the war broke out? 10. Salt Lake City. met / was living 5..Broadway... 6......) 2.? 7. When I arrived. White lying on the sofa? 7. She wasn´t having.. Don´t listen to him please 5. 10. 10. What was Bob doing when the fire started? 9.. What were you doing at this time yesterday? 9.. everyone was talking. 11. What. 1.. / were the men going... were camping 8.. were going / saw 4.....? 6.. What.. Why weren´t they working that day? 7. The New York City traffic..Utah Ex. Ex. Europe. We weren´t running. 3. 5.. 2. 11. Don´t eat my bread and butter please.do 10. A short course in english for adult students 101 . 4.. York. 3. Spain 10. I was listening to the news at that moment. The Mexican climate. What.. 2. 5. 10. were playing / began 6.. What a.... 5. 2. Don´t drink black coffee please.. / Was she having.. read / was riding PART II A. Don´t work so slowly please. Have another cup of coffee please. was leaving 10.. I was.. 1.. Why wasn´t Peter working? 4. (in December last year). What were you doing at that time? 6.. 3. What were the soldiers doing when it began to rain? 8. 1. The United States. 9...Don´t drive so fast please.were playing 4... 4.. 8.... 3. What a. Eat more slowly please 7..The Panama Canal. 2.. Study hard every day please. 1... were walking Ex. The West Indies 7.. / Were the boys studying. was . The Hudson River / New York City 4.the Dominican Republic 3.. 3.. were . The London School of Economics. was reading 3.. was working / became 12... 8. Drink milk every morning.. What was Mary eating in her room? 3. were crossing 5. 1. What. Don´t work so hard please.doing 11.. I was working. Where were the generals working? 5. 1....? 3. What a.

.. 13. What a fascinating city New York is! / How fascinating New York is! 12. What a beautiful day it is today! 4. What an. How. What a beautiful new car you have! 14.. How cold it was last night! 10.. What difficult exercises these are! / How difficult these exercises are! 9.... How well she plays the piano! 2..Ex. What a tall man he is! 9. 4.. 3. 9. 11. How pretty she is! 11. 2.. How. What a pleasant man Mr. What expensive shoes these are! / How expensive these shoes are! 14. What. What romantic music this is! / How romantic this music is! 8. What a. What a. 1.. 4.What an interesting trip this is ! / How interesting this trip is! 6. 1. 8. What an exciting movie it was! / How exciting the movie was! Ex.. What. 1.. 10. What an intelligent person John is! / How intelligent John is! 2. What beautiful women they are! / How beautiful they are! / How beautiful those women are! 3... What a cold day it is today! 8. What a. How foolishly Bob acted! 102 A short course in english for adult students .. How... What a beautiful dress she is wearing! 13. Johnson is! / How pleasant Mr. What a friendly person Mary is! / How friendly Mary is! 13. 7...7.. How fast she runs! 5.What a. What good whisky this is! / How good this whisky is! 10. What a stupid person I was! / How stupid I was! 5.. What a sad story grandfather told us! 15. How tire we were after the walk! 16. How. How. 12. What a fast train it was! 17. What beautiful photographs these are! / How beautiful these photographs are! 11. How. 3. 6. What a handsome fellow he is! 12. How cold it is today! 7. What an excellent pianist she is! 3. How beautifully she plays the violin! 6.... What an incredible story this is! / How incredible this story is! 4. Ex.. What a generous woman Ann was! 18. 2. 5.. 14.. Johnson is!. What.

.. En la interrogación. acordadas o previstas con antelación. Peter will come to Chile next month. promesas o determinaciones.../ Will Mary come to work tomorrow? /wil méri kám. Si se desea formular una pregunta introducida por What. Lea. según la idea que se desee transmitir: 1.. En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre el verbo modal WILL y el Infinitivo../ Won´t Mary come to work? /wóunt méri kám. próximo mes EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON WILL Esta construcción generalmente se usa para expresar el Futuro Simple. the day after tomorrow /δe déi áfter tumórou/ pasado mañana. /ai wóunt bí: at hóum ó:l dei nékst sándi/./ Will you be at home all day next Sunday? /wil iu: bí: at hóum o:l déi nekst sándi/ When will they visit us? /wén wil δei vízit ás/ Why won´t Mary come to work tomorrow? /wái wóunt méri kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ A short course in english for adult students /pí:ter iz kámiδ tu tchíle nekst mánδ/ Peter viene (tiene previsto venir) a Chile el 103 . I won´t be at home.. /méri wóunt kám. Mary won´t come to work tomorrow.. EL TIEMPO FUTURO SIMPLE THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE Este tiempo verbal se usa para referirse a acciones que ocurrirán en el futuro. /áil bí: at hóun ó:l dei nekst sándi/ Estaré en casa todo el día el próx. by the end of this year /bai δi énd ov δis yíar/ hacia fines de este año. Las expresiones de tiempo frecuentes en este tiempo verbal son tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana... /pí:ter iz góuiδ tu kám tu tchíle nékst manδ/ Peter va a venir a Chile el próximo mes. Dgo. /pí:ter wil kám tu tchile nekst mánδ/ Peter vendrá a Chile el próximo mes 2. intenciones. En la conversación diaria se prefiere usar la contracción WON´T / wóunt / Lea. se debe anteponer el verbo modal WILL (o la contracción WON¨T) al sujeto.. /δei wóunt vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary will not come to work tomorrow. o sucesos que evidentemente o muy probablemente ocurrirán. When. 3. etc El Futuro Simple se puede expresar de tres maneras. next month /nékst manθ/ el próximo mes. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE+ GOING TO + INFINITIVE para referirse a planes. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE +ING (Present Continuous) para referirse a actividades agendadas. next week /nékst wí:k/ la próxima semana. promesa o determinación. y sugiere la idea de decisión.UNIT 8 PART 1. next year /nekst yíar/ el próximo año. Tu wé:rk tumórou/ I will not be at home all day next Sunday. escuche y aprenda: Will they visit us next week-end? /wil δei vízit. escuche y aprenda: They will not visit us next weekend./ Won´t they visit us next week-end? /wóunt δei vízit. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples: Lea. SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE para referirse a decisiones. En la conversación diaria WILL forma la contracción ´LL. /méril kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ Mary vendrá a trabajar mañana I´ll be at home all day next Sunday. escuche y aprenda: They will visit us next week-end. in three months /in θrí: mánθs/ dentro de tres meses. Where. Peter is coming to Chile next month. /δéi wil vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos nos visitarán el proximo fin de semana Mary´ll come to work tomorrow. etc. They won´t visit us next weekend. Peter is going to come to Chile next month.

10. ___________________________________________________ They´ll talk about many things tomorrow ___________________________________________________ 104 A short course in english for adult students . 5. (attend) I ________________________ busy all day tomorrow. Where. 1. (sell) The instructor ________________________ the overhead projector. What. John will accept the offer. 2. (send) My little brother ________________________ a hard test next Monday. The train will arrive soon. How long. ___________________________________________________ John will give the answer next week. 3. They´ll get married in May 6. 9. Mary will go out this evening. 12. In each case. (have) Mr Jackson ________________________ his old car. (dig) NASA ________________________ a space ship to Mars next week. and b) interrogative. 1. (use) The gardener ________________________ a deep hole in the ground to plant the tree. 3. The soldiers ________________________ to the top of that hill tomorrow. 6. 3. Ask questions using question words like When. 10. 1. 2. (launch) Professor Lee________________________ a conference in Paris next month. ___________________________________________________ They´ll stay in Toronto for three days ___________________________________________________ We´ll wait for you in the cafeteria ___________________________________________________ They´ll need five volunteers.? Ex.2 Change the following sentences into a) negative. Use the verbs given in parentheses in the future simple tense. How. using WILL 1. ___________________________________________________ Bob will sell the car because it´s old. ___________________________________________________ Mr Smith will send them another catalog ___________________________________________________ Sue will not buy the dress because it´s too expensive. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. (hire) The Smiths ________________________ to a new house in the Spring. 4. 3. (move) ¿Qué hará ud. 8. (be) We ________________________ a new house soon. 4. Mr Smith will see you tomorrow. 11. the underlined part of the sentence must be the answer for the question asked. etc. (march) I ________________________ you a post card from Washington DC. 7.La pregunta habitual con esta construcción verbal es: What will you do? /wót wil iu: dú:/ EXERCISES: Ex. 5. ___________________________________________________ The soldiers will wait there until dawn. You will send them a fax. 5. 6. (buy) Mr Jackson ________________________ a limousine to take his guests to the airport. 2. 7. 8. They´ll go to the north in the summer. 9. 4.

John told Helen that he loved her. Fill in the blanks with SAY or TELL 1. 8. 13. ________________________ Mr Jones before leaving the house. John ________________________ that he is very busy at the moment. she ________________________ Bob ________________________ that he doesn´t like hot weather. 9. Jackson said (to his students).1. Helen” Mary said. Mr Jackson ________________________ us all about his trip to Nepal. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 1. 4. Mary ________________________ her teacher that her mother was sick. 10. “I am very tired after the long walk” Mr. Mary told me that she was very tired after the long walk. Yesterday I ________________________ my teacher that I liked my lessons. please? Please ________________________ John that I´ll send him the money tomorrow. 12. “Please sit down and look at the map” “I love you very much”. 2. pero difieren en cuanto a su uso. “I´m going to phone you as soon as I get home” Yesterday. Mr Smith said (to Peter) that he was too busy to go with us. “I am very tired after the long walk”. (You) Tell Mary that I want to speak with her. The boy ________________________ that he likes geography very much. what did you say? What are you going to say? El verbo TELL se usa cuando se menciona al interlocutor. 7. la persona a quien se le habló. Did you hear what she ________________________? Ex. Miss Brown ________________________ that she loves spring. John said (to his friends) that he could not go with them to the park. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 105 . please. 14. El verbo SAY se usa en los siguientes casos: 1. he said. Then make whatever other changes are necessary. A. 11. John ________________________ yesterday. 5.PART II. She said (to me) that she was sick. Yesterday John ________________________ his friends that he was planning to get married. 6. Jackson told his students to sit down and look at the map. “I love you. Mr. “I will be back at about 10:30”. Antes de la conjunción that John said that he loved Helen Mary said that she was very tired after the long walk. USE OF SAY AND TELL Los verbos SAY y TELL tienen el mismo significado (DECIR). said Mary. Can you ________________________ me where the office is. 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 3. En posición final I didn´t understand what she said. EXERCISES Ex. 2 Change SAY to TELL. es decir. 3. Sorry. Antes o después de una cita textual John said (to Helen). “This book is very interesting “.

Then make whatever other changes are necessary. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ B. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. William said (to the doctor) that he had a terrible headache. The teacher said (to Paul´s parents) that Paul was a good student. Helen said (to the travel agent) that she was travelling alone. . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Mr Smith told his friends that he knew how to play tennis. Bob told me that he could speak French well. I told my girlfriend that I wanted to go for a walk in the park. I told Mr Smith that I knew how to play. The man says (to me) that he wants to see the manager immediately. The car which is outside is a police car. Ann said (to the officer) that she did not speak French.4. The woman about whom Jim was talking was his wife. Change TELL to SAY. The boy tells me that he wants to drink some water. La palabra WHO se tranforma en WHOM /hu:m/ después de las preposiciones y cuando actúa como complemento directo de un verbo. The man whom I met was John´s father. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. y por lo tanto va seguido de un pronombre o un nombre. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. He tells me that she doesn´t want to participate in the game. La palabra WHOSE /hu:z/ (posesivo de who) se puede traducir como ¿de quién? en interrogaciones. The boy said (to us) that he liked to swim in the river. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. With whom will you go to the party? (Who will you go to the party with?) I met a man in the street. en BEGS & VOC Unit 5) Who is that man? The man who is in the car is a policeman. a) Whose? = ¿De quién? Whose is this hat? o Whose hat is this? (el sustantivo hat puede ir al final o junto a whose) Whose are these cigarettes? / Whose cigarettes are these? (el sustantivo hat puede ir al final o junto a whose) Whose is that yellow sweater? (aquí el sustantivo está modificado por un adjetivo) 106 A short course in english for adult students . WHOSE Habíamos visto que la palabra WHO? significa ¿quién? Y que además es un pronombre relativo y que se debe traducir con la palabra QUE para especificar acerca de quién estamos hablando (Revisar el uso de los pronombres relativos who y which. 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. pero también es el pronombre relativo cuyo(s)/cuya(s). _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. RELATIVE PRONOUNS WHO. John told the police officer that he lived near the church. The teacher told John that our compositions were very good. WHOM. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Jim was talking about a woman. too.

To (who. 4.. From (who. He wrote detective stories. The man whose car is parked outside the building is a doctor. 24. the blue one or the brown one? __________________ pen-knife is this? I think it´s Peter´s. Fill in the blank spaces with Who. 20. 6. 7. Ex. whom) did you meet at the party? 5. I met a man _______________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 107 . 10. Is it yours? The children __________________ are in Room B are 2nd grade students. 17. They are American. WHOM or WHOSE 1. whom) did you get the money? 10. 2.Whose is that book on the desk? (aquí el sustantivo va seguido de una frase adjetiva) b) whose = cuyo(s) / cuya(s) A man wants to see you. 13.whom) did you write a letter last night? 2. 22. The woman (who. Is that the bus __________________ we must take? She is the woman __________________ I really love. 14. His car is parked outside the building. 19. The man is a doctor. Mr Clark. whom) does he want to speak? 3. With __________________ will you go to the theater tomorrow? He is the man __________________ daughter will participate in the competition. 7. __________________ was working in the office at 9 o´clock this morning? With __________________ will you work on the thesis? I don´t know __________________ watch this is. but I´m not quite sure. __________________ are they talking about? The man __________________ Prof. I met a man yesterday. (Who. 1. The man about __________________ they are talking is a well-known football player __________________ will you ask for help? __________________ are those cigarettes on the small table? Are they yours? The man with __________________ John is speaking is an Australian pilot. Choose the correct form. With (who. About (who. Clark mentioned in his lecture is a famous American writer. Mr Clark. 16. __________________ are those brown shoes __________________ are under the chair? __________________ are you talking to? The children with __________________ my son is playing are not Chilean. 3. Ex. whom ) are they talking? 8. The train __________________ leaves at 10:25 is an express train. Smith read in class yesterday. 2. 15. 8. The woman __________________ we met at the party was a friend of Peter´s. 6. (Who. 12. Whose 1. This isn´t the dictionary __________________ we generally use in class. 9. Combine the two sentences to make one single sentence. whom) the policemen rescued from the boat was terrified. Whom. whom) is the best student in your class? 4. The man (who.using WHO. The boy (who. His daughter called you this morning The man whose daughter called you this morning wants to see you. Which. whom) you saw is my new teacher. The girl with (who. EXERCISES Ex. whom) I danced was very beautiful. 5. whom) telephoned you is my brother. 3. 23. Everyone liked the poem __________________ Prof. 18. 1. 11. 9. __________________ jacket do you like best. The boy __________________ father died in the accident is still in hospital. 21.

Where is he? Where is the man ________________________________________________________________________________ ?. Make synonymous sentences using the verb belong instead of the possessives. 4. It´s my brother´s 108 A short course in english for adult students .2. I met a woman ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. The policemen interrogated _________________________________________________________________________ 5. The policemen interrogated the old man. 5. 2.That car isn´t his.Whose glasses are these? 11. 3. Ask questions with whose. 14. 2. There´s a man in the lobby. Her husband died in a car accident. Exercise 4. 8. This pen is mine That house is ours. 9. They contacted a man. 15. 7.This sweater isn´t my sister´s. To whom does this pen belong? (belong = pertenecer) Whose pen is this? / Whose is this pen? To whom does that old blue jacket belong? Whose is that old blue jacket? To whom does this car belong? _________________________________________________ To whom do these books belong? _________________________________________________ To whom does this brand new car belong? _________________________________________________ To whom does that coat belong’ _________________________________________________ To whom does this gold ring belong? _________________________________________________ To whom do the cigarettes on that table belong? _________________________________________________ To whom does this camera belong? _________________________________________________ 1..This house is ours. His car was parked outside the school. Peter came to the party with a young woman. as in the example. You were talking to a man in the lobby. 6. These aren´t Mary´s shoes.I´m sure that that house isn´t theirs. They found his wallet in the street. This is the young woman. 13. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. I met a woman yesterday. 4. There´s a man ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 6. Are these cigarettes yours? Whose is this watch? This pen _________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ To ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________ To ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ I´m sure __________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? 10. They contacted the man ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. Those keys are mine. 12. It´s hers. 3. This is the young __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Is that car yours? That is not John´s bicycle. It isn´t theirs. 1. He wants to speak with you. 5. 7. That´s not your leather jacket.I think that this wallet is yours. 5.

I ´ve got some friends in Atlanta I haven´t got any friends in Atlanta / I´ve got no friends in Atlanta Have you got any friends in Atlanta? 2.. alguna cosa). Anybody Not. etc. I saw somebody in the car I didn´t see anybody in the car / I saw nobody in the car Did you see anybody in the car? 3. They will go somewhere after the lesson They won´t go anywhere after the lesson / They will go nowhere after the lesson Will they go anywhere after the lesson? EXERCISES Ex. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 1. SOMETHING. Somewhere (algun lugar.any No Interrogative Any Somebody/someone Not. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. There is someone at the door. He lives somewhere in New York. They need something now.C.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. I saw somebody in the corridor. ANY b) NO ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. ANY o NO.. habíamos aprendido que la palabra SOME solamente se usaba en oraciones afirmativas.. En las oraciones negativas había dos alternativas: se podía usar NOT.. 1. SOMEBODY. Esta misma regla se debe seguir al usar las palabras derivadas. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9.anyone Nobody No One Anybody / Anyone Something Not.anywhere Nowhere Anywhere En la BEGS & VOC UNIT 2. They don´t need anything now.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8.. Please put it somewhere in this room. y que en las interrogaciones se debía usar ANY. SOMEWHERE AND DERIVED WORDS Study the following chart Afirmative Negative Some Not.. He gave the book to somebody.. Tell somebody about Peter´s problems.anything Nothing Anything Somewhere Not. I put the money somewhere in this drawer yesterday.. Change to negative form Use a) NOT. / They need nothing now Do they need anything now? 4. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: 1. alguna parte).. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10. There is someone in the room 109 . He told somebody about it.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. He said something to her. es decir con Somebody / Someone (alguien) Something (algo..

ANY” negative form: 1. He can see nothing without his glasses. 8.11. Ex. 6. 9. She has something to do. He told somebody about it. 12. 6. He took them somewhere on Long Island. There is nowhere for him to sit. 3. 10. He gave it to someone. There is someone in the next room. 2. Rewrite the following “NO” sentences in the more common “NOT . ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. 4. He brought something with him. 13. 5. 7. She put it somewhere. They gave us nothing to eat. They will send the goods to someone. I saw somebody at the desk. He went somewhere last night. He´s going to do something now. 3. 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 110 A short course in english for adult students . 10. 1 saw somebody I knew. We went nowhere after the dance. 5. I liked something about her. There is no more coffee. 12. He has something to do. 14.. They want nothing to drink. She spoke to no one about it. thank you. Change to question form 1. Somebody wants to speak to him. 3. We saw nobody at all in the park. 7. They found nobody at home. 2. 9. They found the money somewhere. 1 want no more. 11.. 8. 4.

calzada roundabout /ráundabáut/ rotonda school /skú:l/ colegio.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE CITY airport /éarport/ aeropuerto all-you-can-eat restaurant /ó:l iu kn í:t réstrant/ restaurant tenedor libre art gallery /á:rt gæleri/ galería de arte baker’s /béikerz/ panadería book shop /buk shop/ librería police station /polís stéishn/ cuartel de policia building /bíldiη/ edificio bus /bás/ bus bus stop /bas stop/ paradero de buses bus terminal /bas té:rminl/ terminal de buses butcher’s /bútcherz/ carnicería cab /kæb/ taxi (USA) café /kæfei/ café cafetería /kafitíria/ fuente de soda. disco /dískou/ discoteca dry-cleaner’s /drái klí:nerz/ lavaseco. tintorería estate car /estéit ká:r/ ranchera (BR) fire brigade /fáiar brigéid/ cuartel de bomberos flower shop /fláuer shop/ florería greengrocer’s /gri:ngróuserz/ verdulería grocer’s /gróuserz/ almacén (BR) grocery store /gróuseri stóar/ almacén (USA) hardware store /hárdwear stóar/ ferretería hospital /hóspitl/ hospital hostel /hóstel/ hostal hotel /houtél/ hotel jeweller´s /dllúelerz/ joyería level crossing /lével krósiη/ cruce FFCC (BR) lorry /lorri/ camión (BR) museum /miuzíam/ museo news-stand /niuz stænd/ puesto de diarios night-club /náit klab/ boite park /pa:rk/ parque pavement /péivment/ vereda (BR) pedestrian /pedéstrian/ peatón pick up /pik áp/ camioneta (USA) planetarium /planetærium/ planetario bridge /bridll/ puente post office /póust ófis/ oficina de correos public library /páblik láibreari/ biblioteca pública railway station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes restaurant /réstorant/ restaurant road /róud/ camino.casino car /ka:r/ automóvil casino /kazínou/ casino de juegos chemist’s /kémists/ farmacia church /tchértch/ iglesia cinema /sínema/ sala de cine coach /kóutch/ bus interurbano coffee shop /kófishop/ cafetería college /kólidll/ escuela (univ. escuela shoe shop /shu: shop/ zapatería shop /shop/ tienda (BR) sidewalk /sáidwo:k/ vereda (USA) snack bar /snæk bá:r/ fuente de soda station wagon /stéishn wágon/ ranchera (USA) stationer’s /stéishonerz/ librería (art.) corner /kó:rner/ esquina crossroads /krósroudz/ cruce department store /dipá:rment stóar/ tienda de depart.escrit.) store /stóar/ tienda (USA) street /stri:t/ calle street-car /strí:t ká:r/ tranvía subway /sábwei/ paso bajo nivel (BR) subway /sábwei/ tren subterráneo (USA) supermarket /supermá:rkit/ supermercado tailor’s /téilorz/ sastrería take-away restaurant /téikawei réstrant/ restaurante de platos preparados para llevar taxi /tæksi/ taxi tea shop /ti:shop/ salón de té theatre /θíater/ teatro town hall /táun hó:l/ municipalidad traffic lights /træfik laits/ semáforo traffic sign /træfik sáin/ señalización train /tréin/ tren travel agent´s /trævel éidllents/ agencia de viajes truck /trak/ camióm (USA) tunnel /tánel/ tunnel underground /andergráund/ tren subterráneo (BR) university /iunivérsiti/ universidad van /væn/ camioneta (BR) zebra crossing /zibra krósiη/ cruce de zebra zoo /zu:/ zoológico A short course in english for adult students 111 .

Bl 112 .

4. whose wallet they found in the street. How long will the soldiers wait there? 5. 1.... will send 3..whom does this watch belong? / Who does this watch belong to? 10. 5. / Will Mary go out. Mr Smith told Peter that.? Ex. Which 2..who wants to speak with you. John told his friends that. 5.. whom Ex. This sweater doesn´t belong to my sister. 1... tell 12.whom 10. A. 1.. The man tells me that.. told 5... Whose are the cigarettes on that table? 7. Whom 5. whom 20. will dig 7. 1.. whom Ex. Ex.. Who 17. said 9. which 24. will launch 8 will attend 9.. who 6. says 2. will use 6. Why will Bob sell the car? 4. Ex. says 8. whom 2. whom 7. William told the doctor that. will move Ex. will have 4. Whose is this brand new car? 4. / Will John accept... whose 21. Whose camera is this? Whose is this camera Ex. 13. whom 10. will buy 11... Whose car is this? Whose is this car? 2. whom 18. / Will they get married? 6. That house belongs to us 3.. said 10.. She told me that... Helen told the travel agent that... 7. That leather jacket doesn`t belong to you? 4. told 14. 8.. whom 14... told 7.. Who 4. How many volunteers will they need? 10. John said that. whom 7. belongs to me 2. 7. Mr Smith won`t see. It belongs to her..? 4. Does that car belong to you? 6. 1.. The teacher told Paul`s parents that. 3....which 16. How long will they stay in Toronto? 8. which 23. It belongs to my brother.to whom you were talking in the lobby? Ex. John will not accept. Who 19. says 6.. You won`t send.. whose 5.. 6... What will Mr Smith send them? 6. 2. The train won´t arrive... He says that she..... They won`t get married. 1. The teacher said that. 7. which 12... 7..? 5.. 3.. 1. 2. 1..5. I´m sure (that) that house doesn´t belong to them . Ann told the office that. 12.? 3.UNIT 8 Key to answers PART I A. whom 8... Ex.. 14. Whose . I said that. / Will you send. 2. The boy says that. This house belongs to us. 4. who 22. 6. Do these cigarettes belong to you? 9.. Whose books are these? Whose are these books? 3..... 4.. whose 15. will march 2. 4. will sell 5.. 2. 9.. 2. Where will they go in the summer? 2.. I said that. 15. 3.whom do these glasses belong? / Who do these glasses belong to? 11. Mary will not go out. will hire 12. 3. Mr Smith said that. Whose coat is that? Whose is that coat? 5. which 6..? 2. whom 4. Bob said that he..who wrote detective stories. A short course in english for adult students 113 . Those shoes don´t belong to Mary 8. 6. When will John give the answer? 3.. Who 13. 1. 1.. 8. 1. told 3.. said 4.whose husband died in a car accident 3. says 11... Ex. I think (that) this wallet belongs to you. 3.. whom 3. It doesn`t belong to them.. / Will Mr Smith see. whom 11.the old man whose car was parked outside the school. That bicycle doesn`t belong to John. will be 10. Whose is this gold ring? 6. the boy told us that. Who(m) 8.woman with whom Peter came to the party. 1. What will they talk about tomorrow? PART II. / Will the train arrive. 1. Why won`t Sue buy the dress? 7. Where will you wait for me / us? 9. said Ex. 5. whom 9. B. Those keys belong to me 5. That car doesn´t belong to him... 2... Whose 9. 1... Whose 3. tell 13.

She didn`´t speak to anyone about it 6.. I didn`t put the money anywhere. He doesn´t live anywhere in.. put it nowhere in. Does she have anything to do? 4. Don`t tell anybody about. don´t put it anywhere in. thank you. Did he bring anything with him? 10. 1. He isn´t going to do anything now / He`s going to do nothing now 13... I didn´t see anybody in. Did he take them anywhere on Long Island? 14. 3. Please. Does anybody want to speak to him? 8. They didn´t find anybody at home 2.. Did she put it anywhere? 6. 2. 11.. / He lives nowhere in. We didn´t go anywhere after the dance 114 A short course in english for adult students ... 9... 4.. / He told nobody. 6. Did I see anybody at the desk... He didn´t tell anybody. / I saw nobody in. / There´s no one in. There isn´t anywhere for him to sit 5.. He can´t see anything without his glasses. They don´t want anything to drink 4. He didn`t give the book to anybody / He gave the book to nobody 8.. 1. 7.. He doesn`t have anything to do / He has nothing to do 12.. Did he tell anybody about it? 5. 1.. They didn´t give us anything to eat .. 2.. / There`s no one at.. They won´t send the goods to anyone / They´ll send the goods to no one... Did he give it to anyone? 11.. 1. 3... Ex. 8.. There isn`t anyone at. Is there anyone in the next room? 7.? 2. 7.. / I put the money nowhere.... We didn´t see anybody at all in the park 9. There isn`t anyone in. 5.3. Did I like anything about her? Ex. There isn´t any more coffee...... / He said nothing. / Please. Ex. 10.C. Did I see anybody I knew? 9. Did he go anywhere last night? 3. / Tell nobody about. He didn´t say anything. 10. They didn´t find the money anywhere / They found the money nowhere 14. I don´t want any more.

2. I will send Mary a post-card from L. Mary is going to come to work tomorrow /mériz góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. 8. The instructor will use a video. escuche y aprenda: They aren´t going to visit us next week-end. 4..”. 7.. 4. Why isn´t Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /wái iznt méri góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. Tom isn´t going to come to Chile next year. /δéi á:rent góuiη tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t going to come to work tomorrow. Mary va a venir a trabajar mañana En la negación y en la interrogación se aplican las mismas reglas dadas en el Presente Continuo. 6. La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What are you going to do? /wót a:r iú góuiη tu dú:/ ¿Qué va ha hacer ud. 2. The Johnsons will spend their vacation in Acapulco. Lea. 2. EL FUTURO SIMPLE II (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO Esta construcción gramatical se usa para expresar intenciones o planes que probablemente se llevaran a cabo en el futuro cercano. Equivale a la expresión “Yo voy a . _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Is Tom going to come to Chile next year? _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 115 . escuche y aprenda: They are going to visit us next week-end. 1.? EXERCISES Ex.UNIT 9 PART 1. /δéi a:r góuiη tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos van a visitarnos el próximo fin de semana. 6. 8. They´ll travel to Mexico in March. Jackson will play tennis tomorrow Jane will buy a bilingual dictionary.”. 5. 5. “Él va a . When are they going to visit us? /wén a:r δéi góuiη tu vízit as/. Tom will come to Chile next year... Change the following sentences using AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO instead of WILL: 1. Mr. Are they going to visit us next week-end? /á:r δéi góuiη tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /iz méri góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. Lea.. etc. Paul will go to Germany and France. 3.”.. /méri íznt góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. “Tú vas a .A. 7. Change the sentences you wrote in the previous exercise into a) negative and b) interrogative 1.

/IT TOOK. 3. o “Will it take.”. Clark demora cerca de 20 minutos en conducir a su oficina. LA EXPRESION IDIOMATICA IT TAKES.. /it tuk δe stiú:dents abáut an áuar tu á:nser δe kwéstchonz/ Los alumnos demoraron más o menos una hora en contestar las preguntas. 3..Ex. 4./ IT WILL TAKE. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex.. 1. Where. They´re going to fix the engine.?”. We´re going to buy fruit and drinks. to fly from London to Chicago PAST It took the students the men me ________________ FUTURE It will take you the men ____________________ Escuche.. 4. 2. Esta expresión idiomática se usa para expresar la idea de “demorar”. ¿Cuándo vas a vender tu auto? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ PART II. La forma interrogativa se expresa con “Does it take. etc. It took the students about an hour to answer the questions... 3... Bob and Jim are going to swim. Ask questions using question words like When. o “It won´t take. She´s not going to go because she´s tired. A. It will take you at least an hour to type the report.”. Translate the following sentnces into English 1. Bill is going to travel by plane. “Did it take. ¿Qué vas ha hacer mañana en la mañana? ¿Van a estar uds...?” 116 A short course in english for adult students . menos una hora en tipear el informe /it wil téik iú: at lí:st an áuar tu táip δe ripó:rt/ Ud... 6. Ella va a comprar otro par de zapatos. 2.. 5. demorará por lo La forma negativa se expresa mediante el uso de “It doesn´t take. I´m going to get back from work at 6:30.. en casa esta tarde? Yo voy a visitar a Mary este fin de semana. Ellos no van a venir a la fiesta esta noche. 5.”. How long. 6. 7.. 4.. In each case the underlined part of the sentence will be the answer to the question asked.. “It didn´t take.?”. lea y aprenda: It takes Mr Clark about twenty minutes to drive to his office /it téiks míster klá:rk abáut twénti mínits tu dráiv tu hiz ófis/ El Sr.. to learn English to build the pyramids to type the report to build the new highway. “ tomar tiempo” Study the following chart: Whom? PRESENT It takes Mr Clark the students us ________________ How long? about 20 minutes about 15 minutes about one hour about 2 hours about 1 hour six months more than a year a long time at least an hour two years about 10 hours To do what? to drive to his office to run to the stadium to walk that distance to drive to Viña del Mar to answer the questions to build the bridge. Bill is going to answer the question.

___________________________________________________ ¿Cuánto tiempo se demora Ud. It didn’t take Herbert a long time to walk there. 2.? How long did it take you to. It took Herbert a long time to walk there. ___________________________________________________ I wrote the letter in a few minutes. 3. 2. en.: 1. 1. IT TOOK. ___________________________________________________ They will complete the work in six years. ___________________________________________________ I do my homework every night in a short time. en..... ___________________________________________________ She learned to speak English in only one year. 9.. Did it take the students much time to answer the questions? It won´t take you more than an hour to type the report. 3. ___________________________________________________ They will build the bridge in two years. 12. lea y aprenda: It doesn´t take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office..? Ex.? How long will it take you to. en. It took them many years to build the road. 6. It took him several hours to finish it.. 5. ___________________________________________________ We drove to Philadelphia in one hour. 11...? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demoró Ud. I come to work on the bus in ten minutes..... ___________________________________________________ He does his homework every day in one hour.... 8. ___________________________________________________ I finished the work in an hour.. La pregunta habitual con esta expresión idiomática es : How long does it take you to. 4.? Escuche. 2.. lea y aprenda: How long does it take Mr Clark to drive to his office every morning? How long did it take the students to answer the questions? How long will it take you to type this report? EXERCISES Ex. 10. Change to negative and to interrogative form. or IT WIL TAKE. 4.Escuche. 5. It takes me seven minutes to walk there.) I did my exercise in one hour. ___________________________________________________ I walked to the station in fifteen minutes. Did it take Herbert a long time to walk there? How long did it take Herbert to walk there? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 117 . ___________________________________________________ I found my mistake in a few minutes. Does it take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office? It didn´t take the students much time to answer the questions. Then ask a Wh-question with HOW LONG? 1. (It takes me ten minutes to come to work on the bus.. Will it take you more than an hour to type the report? . 7. It takes me ten minutes to get there by subway.? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demorará Ud. Change the following to introduce IT TAKES.

10. 11. no demorará mucho tiempo en leer ese artículo _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 118 A short course in english for adult students . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ¿Cuánto tiempo demora Ud. Translate the following sentences into English 1. Los alumnos demoraron más de dos horas en contestar todas las preguntas. Ella no demoró mucho tiempo en aprender a usar el computador. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Ud. It took a month to complete the work. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. It takes much time to learn English. It will take you a week to read this book. 7. It took them two days to find him. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoró Ud. 12. 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. It takes an hour to do this exercise. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoraremos nosotros en aprender a hablar inglés bien? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Uno no demora más de dos horas en viajar de Santiago aPuerto Montt en avión.6. 9. en aprender a conducir un auto? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. usualmente en ducharse todas las mañanas? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. demorarán por lo menos tres meses en preparar el informe. It took an hour to discover the mistake. Uds. 8. Yo generalmente demoro diez minutos en caminar a casa desde la oficina. It will take a long time to get there.

Grado Superlativo y Grado de Igualdad. (Este auto es más viejo que ese) 3.thinner c. thin . tall .bigger. (Mary es la niña más hermosa en el grupo) Bob is the most intelligent person I know.shorter b. (Bob es tan inteligente como George) Our house is as big as your house. Nosotros usamos el GRADO COMPARATIVO cuando especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando: Mary is more beautiful than her sister Alice. GRADOS DE COMPARACION DE LOS ADJETIVOS Cuando usamos un adjetivo calificativo como beautiful. Mary is a beautiful girl. EL GRADO POSITIVO es aquel que usamos cuando no especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando. short . Mary is as beautiful as her sister Alice. Si el adjetivo está formado por cons. Mary is the most beautiful girl in the group. (Nuestra casa es muy grande) This car is very old. (Nuestra casa es la casa más grande en el barrio) This is the oldest car in this town (Este es el auto más viejo en este pueblo) 4. 1. (Mary es más hermosa que su hermana Alaice) Bob is more intelligent than George. old. (Bob es la persona más inteligente que conozco) Our house is the biggest house in the neighborhood. hot .taller.+vocal+cons o cons+cons+vocal+cons debemos duplicar la última consonante: big . (Nuestra casa es tan grande como vuestra casa) This car is as old as that one.hotter. Cuando usamos el GRADO DE IGUALDAD estamos diciendo que dos personas o cosas tienen la misma característica. (Este auto es tan viejo como ese). (Bob es más inteligente que George) Our house is bigger than your house. (Este auto es muy viejo) 2. Cuando decimos que “Mary is a beautiful girl” estamos comparándola con otras niñas que hemos visto anteriormente. (Mary es tan hermosa como su hermana Alice) Bob is as intelligent as George. (Nuestra casa es más grande que vuestra casa) This car is older than that one. (Bob es una persona inteligente) Our house is very big. GRADO COMPARATIVO Al usar el Grado Comparativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a. (Mary es una niña hermosa) Bob is an intelligent person. big. intelligent estamos haciendo comparaciones. Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra more: intelligent . Grado Comparativo. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -er: small .more intelligent important .smaller. Los adjetivos tienen cuatro grados de comparación: Grado Positivo. Cuando usamos el GRADO SUPERLATIVO estamos comparando una persona o cosa con todas las demás de su especie. es decir son iguales.more important A short course in english for adult students 119 .B.

+ as. A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -er .most modern e.shortest b.as.prettiest common .most GRADO DE IGUALDAD Estas oraciones se expresan usando as + adj.. Existen algunos adjetivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good . si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra more. Existen algunos adjetiivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good bad far better worse farther little many much less more more GRADO SUPERLATIVO Al usar el Grado Superlativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a. 120 Philadelphia is.biggest.farthest little . (interesting) A short course in english for adult students .as o not so. short .smallest tall . A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -est.+vocal+cons o cons+cons+vo cal+cons debemos duplicar la última consonante big . hot . 4. (El no es tan alto como su hermano) (su hermano es ligeramente más alto) He is not so tall as his brother.cleverest modern .most much .thinnest c. pretty common prettier more common clever modern cleverer more modern e...most intelligent important . 6. 3.. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -est: small .d.. Si el adjetivo está formado por cons.most common clever . Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra most: intelligent .(larger than).best bad .most important d. He is not as tall as his brother. thin .hottest. 2. En las oraciones negativas el grado de igualdad puede ser expresado con not as.Washington (large) John is ____________________________ William (short) Henry is ____________________________ I (tall) This book is ____________________________ that book . dependiendo del grado de diferencia existente He is as tall as his brother. 1. Supply the comparative form of the adjectives in parentheses 1. 5. (El no es TAN alto como su hermano) (su hermano es mucho más alto) EXERCISES Ex..least many . pretty .. (old) The weather today is ____________________________ yesterday (bad) This summer is ____________________________ last summer (hot) This article is ____________________________ that one. si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra most. 7.tallest.worst far ..

.... (sweet) This is ____________________________ park in the city.. 3.(pretty) 3. 7. 14.. 4.. 8. 11..(long) 8... Grace is. (light) Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (important) Ex.. This book was __________________________________ The weather today is not better than it was yesterday. 3... 5.. (few) John has ____________________________ experience in computers in the group. (good) Some people are ____________________________ others. Frank is. 9. New York is _____________________________________________________ Helen is not younger than her sister... 4....(hot) New York is ____________________________ city in the United States... introduce the superlative form or the adjective in parentheses: 1. In the following. 7. (intelligent) He is also ____________________________ student in the class.. This street is ___________________________________________________ This exercise is not more difficult than the last one. (interesting) New York is also ____________________________ city in the United States..... 10. 10... Complete these sentences by using the adjective which is the opposite of the one in italics: 1. 2. This book is ______________________________________________ This book was not more expensive than my French book. 2.... (light) Which student in your class knows ____________________________ English words? (many) Which man in the group has ____________________________ money? (much) That city has ____________________________ parks in the region... John is ____________________________ boy in the class (tall). 6..(intelligent) 4. 15... (large) This is ____________________________ apple of all.(tall) 7. (good) Henry is ____________________________ dancer in the school. 12....The weather today is ________________________________ Ex..... (good) student ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 121 . Henry is ____________________________________________________________________ New York is not smaller than Chicago. Henry is not taller than I. (healthy) This room is ____________________________ that one... Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (difficult) These apples are ____________________________ those.(wide) 9.. John is a... first in comparative form. 6.... (beautiful) John is ____________________________ boy in the class. and second in superlative form. Use words of your choosing to complete each sentence: 1.(tall) 2. (bad) Which is ____________________________ city in this country? (large) This is ____________________________ room in the whole building. 4.. 2. Henry is... 11..(interesting) 5. Today is ____________________________ day of the year. 9. This street is. 9. is. The Empire State Bldg. The weather today is ________________________________ The weather today is not colder than it was yesterday. 5........ 13..... This exercise is _______________________________________ This book is not thicker than my French book. The Mississippi River is. (little) Ex....8. (young) 6. This book is.. 12. Helen is __________________________________________________________ This street is not wider than that street.. State the adjectives in parentheses.. Bill is. 8. 3..

The sky is darker than it was yesterday. John is as tall as his brother. 6. 9..The weather today is worse than it was yesterday.. This exercise is longer than the last. Our apartment is larger than yours. This exercise is. State each sentence first in positive form and then in negative form: 1. This street is wider than that one.10. 12. 10. John isn’t as / so tall as his brother. 4. John is taller than his brother.. 3. 5. Peter has more money than Henry 14..C. This corridor is larger than the room. This book is better than the other. 7.John makes more mistakes than Henry. Rewrite each sentence to show equality of comparison... Helen is more beautiful than Mary.. John has less experience in computers than I. 5.. 2. New York is more important than Washington D. (easy) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.There are more people today than yesterday 13.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 122 A short course in english for adult students . 11. 8.

Provisions /províllnz/ Abarrotes bread /bred/ biscuit /biskit/ butter /báter/ cake /keik/ candies /kændiz/ coffee /kófi/ cookie /kúki/ cracker /kræker/ cream /kri:m/ cheese /tchi:z/ chips /tchips/ egg /eg/ french fries /frénch fráiz / jam /dllæm/ lard /la:rd / margarine /má:rdllari:n/ marmalade /má:rmeléid / 2. Meats /mi:ts/ Carnes beef /bi:f/ breast /brest/ chicken /tchikin/ chop /tchop/ duck /dak/ fillet /filét/ lamb /læm/ leg /leg/ mutton /mátn/ vacuno pechuga pollo chuleta pato filete cordero lechón pata. Sea Food /sí: fu:d/ Pescados y mariscos abalone /abalouni/ clam /klæm/ cockle /kókl/ cod /kod/ conger eel /kónger i:l/ crab /kræb/ eel /í:l/ fish /fish/ haddock /hædok/ hake /heik/ herring /hérriη/ loco almeja caracol. berberecho bacalao congrio jaiva anguila pescado abadejo. pastillas tea /ti:/ té toast /tóust/ tostada(s) vinegar /vínegar/ vinagre 4. pié cordero pheasant /féznt/ pork /po:rk/ rib /rib/ sirloin /se:rloin/ T-bone /tí: bóun/ turkey /té:rki/ veal /vi:l/ venison /vénison/ wing /wiη/ faisán cerdo costilla lomo entrecot pavo ternera ciervo ala desayuno desayuno-almuerzo almuerzo cena (informal) cena (formal) aperitivo hors-dóeuvres /o:dévre/ starter /stá:rter/ first course /fé:rst kó:rz/ main course /méin kó:rz/ dessert /dizé:rt/ entremeses entrada primer plato plato de fondo postre pan galleta (Br) mantequilla torta calugas café galleta (USA) galleta de agua crema queso papas fritas (Br) huevo papas fritas (USA) mermelada.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words FOOD /fu:d/ Los alimentos 1.merlango merluza arenque mackerel /mækerel/ mussel /mázl/ oyster /óister/ prawns /pro:nz/ salmon /sá:mon/ scallop /skálop/ shellfish /shelfish/ shrimps /shrimps/ sole /soul /. mejillón ostra gamba. plaice /pléis/ squid /skuid/ swordfish /sórdfish/ caballa cholga. dulce manteca margarina mermelada cítrica mashed potatoes /mæsht potéitouz/ puré de papas noodles /nú:dlz/ fideos oil /oil/ aceite pepper /péper/ pimienta rice /ráis/ arroz salad dressing /sælad drésiη/ aliño para ensaladas salt /sólt/ sal sauce /so:s/ salsa soup /su:p/ sopa Spaghetti /spagéti/ tallarines sugar /shúgar/ azúcar sweets /suits/ dulces.camarones salmón ostión mariscos langostinos lenguado calamar albacora /pez espada 123 A short course in english for adult students . Meals /mi:lz/ Las comidas breakfast /brékfast/ brunch /brantch/ lunch /lantch/ supper /sáper/ dinner /díner/ appetizer /apetáizer/ 3.

king crab /kiη kræb/ lobster /lóbster/ 5.choclo pepino garlic /gá:rlik/ lemon /lémon/ lettuce /létis/ onion /ánion/ pea(s) /pi:(z)/ potato(es) /potéitou(z)/ pumkin /pámkin/ raddish /rædish/ red /green pepper /péper/ spinach /spínidll/ tomato(es) /toméitou(z)/ ajo limón lechuga cebolla arveja(s) papa(s) zapallo rábano pimentón /morrón espinaca tomate(s) 7. Vegetables /védlletablz/ Verduras celery /séleri/ artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ asparragus /aspáragaz/ bean(s) /bi:n(z) beetroot /bí:trut/ broad bean /broud bí:n/ cabbage /kæbidll/ carrot /károt/ chicory /tchíkori/ corn /kó:rn/ cucumber /kiukámber/ apio alcachofa espárrago poroto(s) betarraga haba repollo zanahoria chicoria maíz. Fruits /fru:ts/ Frutas apple /æpl/ apricot /éiprikot/ banana /banana/ blackberry /blækberi/ blueberry /blú:beri/ cherry/cherries /tchérriz/ coconut /kókounat/ cranberry /krænberi/ dates /déits/ gooseberry /gú:zberi/ grapefruit /gréifru:t/ grapes /greips/ hazel nuts /héizl nats/ centolla langosta trout /traut/ tuna fish /tuna fish/ urchin /é:rchin/ trucha atún erizo manzana damasco plátano mora arándano cerezas coco arándano agrio dátiles grosella pomelo uvas nueces melon /mélon/ orange /órindll/ peach /pi:tch/ peanut /pí:nats/ pineapple /páinápl/ plum /plam/ prunes /prú:nz/ quince /kuins/ raisins /réizinz/ raspberry /ræzberi/ strawberry /stró:beri/ watermelon /wotermélon/ melón naranja durazno maní piña ciruela ciruelas secas membrillo pasas frambuesa frutilla sandía 6. Beverages /bívridlliz/ Bebestibles beer /bíar/ coffee /kófi:/ drink /driηk/ herbal tea /hérbal tí:/ juice /dllu:s/ lemonade /lémoneid/ milk /milk/ cerveza café trago aguita de hierbas jugo limonada leche red wine /réd wáin/ soda water /sóuda wó:ter/ soft drink /sóft driηk/ tea /ti:/ water /wó:ter/ white wine /wáit wáin/ wine /wáin/ vino tinto agua de soda refresco té agua vino blanco vino 124 A short course in english for adult students .

..? / How long did it take them to..UNIT 9 Key to answers PART I Ex... 1. 7.? 4... / Did it take them two days to..? 6. How long did it take you to learn to drive a car? 5.? 5..? 7. Mr Jackson isn´t going to play. It took me a few minutes to write the letter. Ex. 1....They aren´t going to come to the party tonight.. They aren´t going to travel to.. It didn´t take her very long / much time to learn how to use the computer.. It took me fifteen minutes to walk to the station . healthier than 11..? 10.. What are you / we going to buy? 4.... 3... It took the students more than two hours to answer all the questions. I´m going to send Mary. / Will it take a long time to.. Why isn´t she going to go? 7... 4. 6... The Johnsons are going to spend. 8.. It didn´t take them many years to build... I´m not going to send Mary.? 9.. 1 How is Bill going to travel? 2. / Is Mr Jackson going to play. It took her only one year to learn to speak English.? / How long does it take to. 3.. 9.. / Is Tom going to come to...? / How long did it take to.? / How long will it take you to. / Does it take me ten minutes to get. 2. It took us one hour to drive to Philadelphia.? 4. It doesn´t take more than two hours to travel from Santiago to Puerto Montt by plane.. 1. 2.? 8.3.. 9. / Did it take him several hours to....... It doesn´t take an hour to. 1. It generally takes me ten minutes to walk home from the office. It takes him one hour to do his homework every day.. It takes me a short time to do my homework every night 7..? 3. Ex.. Ex.. 2.. 12. / Did it take them many years to build.. What time / When are you going to get back from work? 5. Jane´s going to buy. / How long did it take him to. / Is Jane going to buy.? 2. / Is Paul going to go to. Paul isn´t going to go to.. Tom is going to come to. 2.. / Did it take an hour to..? 8.? / How long does it take me to get. Ex. It will take you at least three months to prepare the report....? / How long does it take to.? / How long does it take me to. 8.. / Does it take much time to. They are going to travel to. / Is the instructor going to use... / Does it take me seven minutes to..? 5...... What are they going to do? 6.... Mr Jackson´s going to play. The instructor isn´t going to use. older than 5.... more difficult than 9. 5... more interesting than 8.... It doesn´t take me seven minutes to.....? Ex..? 7. / Did it take a month to... It didn´t take him several hours to.? 11. worse than 6. It took me a few minutes to find my mistake. 8.. / Will it take you a week to... Who is going to answer the question? Ex.. Tom isn´t going to come to. How long does it usually take you to take a shower every morning? 7. 4. lighter than 12. It won´t take you very long to read that article.. 1.. 11..? / How long did it take to. Jane isn´t going to buy. It took me an hour to finish the work 10. / Am I going to send Mary.. It will take them six years to complete the work. It didn´t take an hour to. 3.. 6.? / How long did it take them to build. It doesn`t take much time to. more important than A short course in english for adult students 125 . The Johnsons aren´t going to spend..? / How long will it take to.. / Are they going to travel to. It won´t take a long time to.? 6. 4. It won´t take you a week to. It will take them two years to build the bridge.. better than 10. It didn´t take them two days to.. When are you going to sell your car? PART II A. It took me an hour to do my exercise 3.? 12.. 2.. It didn´t take a month to.. What are you going to do tomorrow morning? 4. 2. She´s going to buy another pair of shoes. The instructor´s going to use. hotter than 7... 4. What are Bob and Jim going to do? 3. 2. / Are the Johnsons going to spend... 2. I´m going to visit Mary this weekend? 6. taller than 4..? 3. B.... It doesn´t take me ten minutes to get. shorter than 3. / Does it take an hour to... How long will it take us to learn to speak English well? 6.. Are you going to be at home this evening? 5..... 3. Paul`s going to go to. 1.? Ex. 5... 1.

9. John doesn´t have as / so little experience in computers as I. the tallest 2. 4. Our apartment is as large as yours. 2. 3. the least Ex. This corridor isn´t as / so large as the room. / Bill is the most intelligent person in my class. John doesn´t make as / so many mistakes as Henry. 4. Peter doesn´t have as / so much money as Henry. / This is the widest street in this town. The sky is as dark as it was yesterday. 1. 9. / New York isn´t as / so important as Washington. The weather today is as bad as it was yesterday.. John is a better student than Peter / John is the best student in my class. Henry is taller than Bill / Henry is the tallest person in the group. the largest 11. cheaper than my French book 8. This street is as wide as that one. the most interesting 4. 4. Bill is more intelligent than James. The Empire State Building is taller than the RCA Building. 7. the most 13. 5. Ex. Our apartment isn´t as / so large as yours. There are as many people today as yesterday.This corridor is as large as the room. thinner than my French book 7. warmer / hotter than it was yesterday. 4. The Mississippi River is longer than the Colorado River / The Mississippi River is the longest river in the USA 8. This book isn´t as / so good as the other. 10. Peter has as much money as Henry. This street is wider than my street. 9. the most 14. easier than 6. 10. 3. 3. This street isn´t as / so wide as that one. 2. This exercise is as long as the last. worse than it was yesterday. / This is the easiest exercise in this unit. the fewest 15. the most intelligent 8. the hottest 3. 12. 7. 11. the sweetest 6. 2. There aren´t as / so many people today as yesterday. This book is as good as the other. the most beautiful 7. 6. John makes as many mistakes as Henry. The sky isn´t as / so dark as it was yesterday. The weather today isn´t as / so bad as it was yesterday.New York is as important as Washington.5. the largest 5. Grace is prettier than her sister. This exercise isn´t as / so long as the last. This exercise is easier than the previous one. / Grace is the prettiest girl (whom) I know. Ex. 126 A short course in english for adult students . the worst 10. shorter than I 2. This book is more interesting than that one. / This is the most interesting book (that) I have ever read 5. 1. 14. the lightest 12. bigger than Chicago 3. older than her sister. Helen isn´t as / so beautiful as Mary.Ex. Frank is younger than his sister / Frank is the youngest person in the family 6. narrower than 5. Helen is as beautiful as Mary. the best 9. 13. John has as little experience in computers as I. 8. (Open answers) 1. / The Empire State (Building) is the tallest building in New York.

We´re going to Cancun again. He went to his travel agent this morning and bought an air ticket (fly). to come. to visit. etc. We´re leaving on January 21st. EL FUTURO SIMPLE III (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GERUNDIO Como probablemente ud. to come back. We´re flying / We´re going by plane. escuche y aprenda: They aren´t visiting us next week-end. I´m visiting my sister in New Jersey.UNIT 10 PART 1. (have dinner) I´m having dinner with the Johnsons next Friday evening. to drive. Lea. John wrote in his diary: “Monday 10:30 Conference at YMCA Auditorium” (attend) John __________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 127 . to travel. to attend. to leave. en esta variante se usa la misma estructura del Presente Contínuo (S+AM/IS/ ARE+ING/. por ejemplo: to go. (Qué tienes previsto / planificado hacer mañana en la mañana / el domingo / etc. previstas o fijadas con anticipación para una fecha próxima. Ex. I accepted their invitation. 1 Practice these questions and answers with a friend: What are you doing on Friday night? What are you doing next week-end? What´s the boss doing this afternoon? What are you and your wife doing next summer? How are you getting there? When are you leaving? How long are you staying there this time? I´m going to a disco with some friends. Mr Mitchell wants to visit Sydney next week. 2. /mériz kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ (She confirmed this morning) Los verbos más comúnmente usados en esta variante son aquellos que indican movimiento o desplazamiento de uno a otro lugar. /δéi a:r vízitiη as nékst wí:kénd/ (They accepted our invitation) Mary´s coming to work tomorrow. to stay. Make sentences using the Present Continuous to refer to future activities. Esta construcción gramatical se usa para referirse a actividades que han sido acordadas. to fly. Las forma negativa e interrogativa se expresa en la misma forma que se hizo con el Presente Contínuo Lea. to arrive. Mr Mitchell _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 1. like in the example: The Johnsons invited me for dinner next Friday evening. ha advertido. /méri íznt kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ Are they visiting us next week-end? /á:r δéi vízitiη as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary coming to work tomorrow? /iz méri kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ When are they visiting us? /wén a:r δéi vízitiη ás/ Why isn´t Mary coming to work tomorrow? /wái íznt méri kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo es: What are you doing tomorrow morning/on Sunday/ etc? /wót á:r iu dú:iη tumórou mó:rniη/on sándi/ etc. escuche y aprenda: They are visiting us next week-end. /δéi á:rent vízitiη as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t coming to work tomorrow. agendadas. He´s attending a meeting.) EXERCISES Ex. We´re staying there for 10 days. to have lunch/dinner.

09:30 Play tennis with Dr. Let´s hurry up. at Kennedy Center Thurs. Brown said to us. of course!” (play) I______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Write sentences indicating Dr. Novoa´s Schedule Mon. As you can see. he _______________________________________________________ at Nasa Space Center At midday. We must hurry up. 9. Ex.. 6. Sat. (not attend) Mr Brown______________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Dr. Dr. late in the evening. We just got a telegram from our daughter. 2. he´s attending a meeting at the US Medical Association. 7. Now complete the sentences using the information given in the chart. 6. I want to play tennis tomorrow. Novoa´s activities in Washington and in Houston. He is arriving at Arturo Merino Airport at about 21:15. at 16:00. by boat or plane? _____________________________________________ What are you doing on Saturday? ___________________________________________________ What time are you getting home tonight? ___________________________________________________ 128 A short course in english for adult students . I´ll be away on a business trip”. What are you doing this evening? ___________________________________________________ Where are you going on vacation this year? ___________________________________________________ What are you doing next Friday evening? ___________________________________________________ When are your friends from New York coming to visit you? ____________________________________________ How is Mr Jackson travelling to Japan. ____________________________________________________________________________________ At 7:40 AM on Thursday. he ____________________________________________________________________ He is arriving in Washington DC. let´s go”! (go) Jim and Mary __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I can´t come to your wedding party on Friday. 4. 13. First he is visiting Washington DC and then he is attending a Conference in Houston. 11. 10:30 Meeting at the US Medical Assn. Answer these questions in English. he´s ________________________________________________________________________ He´s _______________________________________________________________________ on Tuesday morning. It´s 8:15 now. The departure of our train is at 8:25. Fri. 3.Texas 14:00 Conference at Houston Medical Center 08:00 Conference. United Airlines Flight 908 from National Airport. DC 10:15 Fly back to Chile. Surgeons Club Wed. (leave) Our train_____________________________________________________________ in ten minutes. Dr. 2. 10. _________________________________________________________________________________ On Wednesday morning. 07:40 Fly to Houston. Nasa Space Center 12:45 Lunch with friends at Waldorf Hotel 16:00 Fly back to Washington. 4. he ______________________________________________________________________ On Thursday afternoon. Right after lunch. I asked Bob if he wanted to play with me and he said. Brown 11:30 Ceremony at Lincoln Memorial 20:00 Dinner party at US. 19:30 Reception at the White House Tues. “Arriving on 8:15 train Saturday morning” (arrive) Our daughter___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Novoa ____________________________back to Chile. It says. 8. Make complete sentences: 1. Mary?”. Jim: “Why don´t we go to a disco tonight._________________________________________________________________________ After dinner. 12. 4. 5. Texas. 7. On Monday evening. Use the information given below: Dr. 14. “ Yes. he _______________________________________________________________________ On Friday morning. Ex. Novoa will have a very busy week next week. 10:00 Visit Bethesda Medical Center 19:45 Concert. 3. “I´m afraid. Mr.3. On Monday morning. At 10:15 on Saturday. he ___________________________________________________________________________________ In the evening. After that. he´s _______________________________________________________________ at the Waldorf Hotel. Mary: “Yes. 3. 5. 1. Novoa is going to the USA next week.

He must be over 70 years old. (No se debe decir. ___________________________________________________ Ellos van a estar con nosotros varios días. Jones ___________________________________________________ Yo no voy a salir de Stgo. PODER = tener permiso para (Informal) Synonym 1.. DEBER = tener que (obligación/ necesidadad) 2. Mary vendrá a vernos la próxima semana. 2. MODAL VERBS (I) A. You must obey orders.. recomendación 1. 7. Be possible to 3.. You had better study every day MUST 1. PODER = ser posible 3. 1. Ej. 8.. SHOULD/OUGHT TO Estos Verbos Modales (también llamados defectivos o especiales) tienen los siguientes significados: Spanish CAN 1. Ej. 1. “He cans swim well”) • Niegan agregando la palabra NOT (formando en algunos casos una contracción) Ej. 4. Translate the following sentences into English 1. / You ought to study every day = It is convenient for you to study every day. / I assume. You should study every day. You can use my computer. = I think / assume he is over.) Ej. 2. MUST. MAY. He can swim well. DEBER = tener que (deducción/ conclusión) 1. Can he swim well? • Rara vez se usa el verbo modal OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. He can swim well. CAN. I think. A short course in english for adult students 129 .. be likely to. probably MAY SHOULD OUGHT TO 1. He cannot / can´t swim well (cannot es el único caso en que el verbo modal y not van unidos) • Interrogan mediante simple inversión con el sujeto. DEBERÍA = consejo. 10. = You have to obey orders. 1. 5. Bob = You are allowed to use my computer 1. You can see the lake from here. be advisable to / convenient / had better Estos verbos modales o especiales acompañan a un verbo principal y tienen las siguientes características: • Van seguidos de un infinitivo sin TO (excepto. PODER = ser capaz de. be allowed to 2. PODER = ser posible o probable 1. = Bob is able to swim well 2.. = It´s possible (for you) to see the lake from here 3. ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué harán ellos con el dinero que recibieron? ___________________________________________________ ¿Cuando tienen ellos previsto viajar a los EEUU? ___________________________________________________ ¿A que hora vas a llegar del trabajo esta tarde? ___________________________________________________ Según el itinerario.. 5.Ex. 6. ¿a que hora vamos a llegar allá? __________________________________________________ PART II. It may rain tomorrow. have to 2. Be able to 2. ___________________________________________________ Creo que ella no va a aceptar nuestra invitación. este fin de semana. 2. ___________________________________________________ Te prometo que no haré eso nuevamente. OUGHT TO. Be allowed to Example 1. ___________________________________________________ Esta noche tenemos previsto cenar con Mr. (No se debe decir. 9. Bob can swim well. = It is likely to rain tomorrow. 3. It´ll probably rain tomorrow. PODER = tener permiso (formal) 2.. “He can to swim”) • No agregan -s en la tercera persona singular en el tiempo presente. You may leave now = You are allowed to leave now. 2.

(No te subas a esa silla. Sir? (¿Puedo fumar aquí. (Se está nublando. It´s not good for your health. si lo desea) You may not use this telephone at any time. (Ud. (Uds. hablar Inglés?) You can see the lake from this window. Para indicar incredulidad o asombro. Sr. mother? You ____________ not do that again. I think that you should see a doctor /. It may rain tomorrow. Tommy. Para dar consejos. No pueden usar este teléfono a ninguna hora) May I smoke here. 5. 2. reprochar o indicar un deber moral You don´t look well. 2. (No debería fumar tanto.(Mary no puede tocar la guitarra) Can you speak English? (¿Puede Ud. puede ver el lago desde esta ventana) We can´t use the elevator now . He ____________ be over 65 years old now. 1. (Puedes retirarte ahora. She must know where Mr Jackson is now. (Los alumnos no deben fumar en el laboratorio) He´s wearing a green uniform. papá?) That can´t be true! (Eso no puede ser cierto!) I can´t believe my eyes! (No puedo creer lo que estoy viendo!) You must obey all traffic regulations. A short course in english for adult students . He must be a policeman. Te puedes caer y quebrar un brazo) Cigarette smoking may cause cancer! (Fumar cigarrillos puede producir cancer) Should / Ought To (Debería) 1. Peter. Peter) Can I turn on the TV. (El está usando un uniforme verde.(No podemos usar el ascensor ahora. It´s out of order. I just put on my glasses. It´s dangerous. ____________ I use your pen please. 3. (Deberías sentirte orgulloso de ser chileno) 3. No es bueno para tu salud) You should feel proud of being a Chilean. You ____________ have a passport and a visa to enter the United States. 8. debe obedecer las leyes del tránsito) Students mustn´t smoke in the laboratory. Puede que llueva mañana) Don´t get on that chair. 9. 1. you ____________ ask questions at the end of the presentation. 3. John. 6. You may fall down and break an arm.Estos verbos tienen los siguientes significados y usos : Can (Poder) 1. Para indicar capacidad. 130 Gentlemen. Joe. habilidad o destreza.you ought to see a doctor / iu: ó:t tu sí: e dóktor / (No te ves bien. Complete the blanks with CAN. You ____________ take your umbrella in case it rains this afternoon. (Informal) Para dar o pedir permiso o autorización. Creo que deberías ver un médico) You should not smoke so much. (Ud. John can swim very well. (Positive) Para indicar suposición o deducción.. Para indicar posibilidad o probabilidad EXERCISES Ex. (John puede nadar bien) Mary can´t play the guitar. Tommy. if you wish. 7. Now I ____________ read better. (Ud. (Pregúntele a la secretaria. Debe ser un policía) Ask the secretary.?) It´s getting cloudy. You ____________ easily fall and break your leg. 4. dad? (¿Puedo encender el televisor. puede retirarse. Sir? ____________ I have another piece of cake. Ella debe saber dónde está el Sr Kackson ahora) You must be joking! (Debes estar bromeando!) It must be a mistake! (Debe ser un error!) You may leave now. Está descompuesto) You can leave now. 2. Para indicar que la posibilidad para hacer algo. según corresponda. (formal). Para pedir o dar permiso o autorización.. Must (Deber) 1. You ____________ study harder if you want to get better grades. if you like. (Negative). He is a retired civil servant. Para indicar obligación. MUST. 4. MAY o SHOULD. 2. Para expresar incredulidad o asombro May (Poder) 1.

2. 11. He ____________n´t be an engineer. señor? 9. You ____________ come and visit us any day.We don´t accept cash.10. mientras que MUST enfatiza más la idea de obligación. 18. Translate the following sentences into English 1. 6. El puede correr muy rápido. A pesar de ser sinónimos. 24. Why don´t you give them some more money? You ____________ be more generous. 21. Bob can speak three languages. El no puede hablar español bién. 19. Lea. They should take a taxi. ¿Puedes tú ayudarme esta tarde? 8. They ____________ be working instead. 4. 16. They ____________ be sleeping at this time. 3. They may use Room 203. 3. b) interrogative and c) Wh-question : 1. 13. escuche y aprenda: I must go to the hospital to see a friend. 23. (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) I have to go to the hospital to see a friend. en el uso díario HAVE TO se utiliza frecuentemente para expresar idea de necesidad. It´s too young. Eso puede suceder nuevamente. 14. You ____________ insert two coins in the slot if you want to use the telephone. 3. debe venir mañana nuevamente. The little bird ____________n´t fly yet. He ____________n´t be driving the car! He doesn´t know how to start a car. They´re very poor. 22. ¿Qué debería hacer yo ahora? 7. 2. pueden fumar aquí. You ____________ be punctual for the meeting. You are too fat. 17. El trabajó muy duro. I think you ____________ go on a diet. 2 Change the following sentences into a) negative. Uds. John. You´ll be welcome to our home. I don´t know why they´re talking. ¿Puedo sentarme aquí. 12. 15. We must go because it´s late. 5. The boss gets very angry when people are late. It´s almost midnight now. Ud. Billy . Puede que ellos nos visiten mañana. HAVE TO = TENER QUE El verbo modal MUST (deber) tiene un sinónimo: la expresión idiomática HAVE TO . (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) Peter must work until late this evening. (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) A short course in english for adult students ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 131 . He ____________ lift that heavy box easily. The man is very strong. Debe estar cansado. Ex. What ____________ I do in order to improve my pronunciation. professor? You ____________ pay by credit card or by cheque. He is only 18 years old! Miss Clark ____________ type fast but she ____________n´t use a computer. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Ex. He sometimes goes home for lunch. Why don´t you phone at his home. He ____________ be there. 10. 20. 4. B. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) Peter has to work until late this evening.

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 132 A short course in english for adult students . DID. (Peter tuvo que trabajar hasta tarde ayer) (Future) = Peter will have to work until late this evening. es necesario recurrir a la forma correspondiente de HAVE TO. (Yo tuve que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I will have to go to the hospital to see a friend. escuche y aprenda: Does Peter have to work until late every evening? Did Peter have to work until late yesterday evening? Will Peter have to work until late this evening? EXERCISES Ex. I must get up early every day. John must go out of town this afternoon. Mary and John must fly to Paris today. 11. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde todas las noches) (Past) = Peter had to work until late yesterday evening. 8. They must stay there at least an hour. 1. 9.Debido a que el verbo modal MUST no tiene una forma para expresar el pasado. WILL + NOT o las contracciones DON´T / DOESN´T. 10. escuche y aprenda: (Present) I must go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Past) (Future) = I have to go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I had to go to the hospital to see a friend. Mary must study French next year. 1 must write many letters. I must work tonight. los verbos modales DO / DOES. 4. We must learn many new words every day. ni tampoco se puede usar en otros tiempos verbales. 7. Lea. DIDN´T. = Peter has to work until late every evening. al igual que con los verbos principales. Peter tendrá que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) En la forma negativa de HAVE TO se deben usar. 12. John must also take another language. Lea. escuche y aprenda: Peter doesn´t have to work until late every evening Peter didn´t have to work until late yesterday evening Peter won´t have to work until late this evening En las interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales do/does/did/will al sujeto Lea. You must read this article. (Yo tendré que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Present) Peter must work until late this evening. 6. We must prepare our lessons every night. 5. WON´T. We must write a composition each night. Substitute the correct form of HAVE To for MUST in the following: 1. 3. 2.

I had to leave at once. We have to go to the hospital this afternoon. He had to be there at two o’clock. I have to work today. 4. We have to get up early.Ex. 4. Mr. 3. 12. She__________ attend class every day. Mary has to come with him. Then. He has to see a doctor. Read the following with MUST. 7. 3. He __________ stay at home and rest. change to past and future time: 1. 7. He __________ spend more time on his English. We all have to write a short story. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 133 A short course in english for adult students . (at once = right away= = immediately) I will have to leave at once. 6. 9. Smith has to go out of town. They have to write many letters. 1 must must leave at once. They have to study very hard. I have to get up early. We had to meet him at noon. He __________ go to the hospital right away. Ex. John has to be here at two o’clock. Ex. We __________ hurry in order to get there early. 2. 8. 10. 3. 6. Change to past and future time: 1. 5. They have to come back later. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. 10. 4. 6. We have to study tonight. 5. We have to write a composition tonight. We __________ make reservations at once. 8. Change to negative form: 1. 9. We __________ telephone her right away. 2. 2. He __________ learn all the new words. 4. 11. I ____________ answer this letter at once. John has to stop his English lessons. 3. You have to wait a few minutes. 5.

He had to leave a tip for the waiter. They have to rent an apartment soon. Then. 9. He has to take more exercise.. They had to leave early. 11. 10. We have to get up at 6. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 134 A short course in english for adult students . She has to rest a while because she´s tired 12. They have to study every day. He had to buy several new books. Change to interrogative form. 8. We have to prepare our homework every day. We have to work on Sunday. 9. He had to return yesterday. 7. He has to wear a coat because it´s cold. 1. They will have to come back later. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. I have to buy a new pen. 5. 6. 4. We will have to learn many new words. WHAT TIME. 8. 10. John had to go to the hospital. He will have to wait a few minutes. WHERE.00 every morning. ask questions with WHEN. 3. 2. WHY. 12.7. 11. etc. 5. He had to leave at noon.

mamas nalgas pecho. The Head /(e hed/ La cabeza beard /bíard/ brains /breinz/ cheek /tchi:k/ chin /tchin/ ear /iar/ eye /ai/ eyebrow /aibrau/ eyelash /áilæsh/ eyelid /áilid/ face /feis/ forehead /fo:red/ hair /héar/ Head /héd/ jaw /dllo:/ 2. torax vesícula corazón cadera intestines /intéstinz/ kidney /kídni/ liver /líver/ lung /laη/ navel /néivl/ ribs /ribz/ spleen /spli:n/ stomach /stómak/ waist /weist/ intestinos riñón hígado pulmón ombligo costillas bazo estómago cintura barba cerebro mejilla mentón oreja ojo ceja pestaña párpado cara frente cabello cabeza mandíbula lip /lip/ moustache /mustá:sh/ mouth /mauθ/ neck /nek/ nose /nouz/ nostrils /nóstrilz/ pupil /piu:pl/ sideburns /sáidbernz/ skull /skal/ temple /témpl/ throat /θrout/ tongue /táη/ tooth /teeth /tu:θ. ti:θ/ labio bigote boca cuello nariz fosas nasales pupila patillas cráneo sien garganta lengua diente(s) 3. Related Words /riléitid we:rdz/ Palabras relacionadas corn /ko:rn/ callo cough /kof/ tos freckle /frékl/ peca hiccough /híkap/ hipo mole /moul/ lunar Pins and needles /pinz an ní:dlz/ calambres sigh /sai/ sneeze /sni:z/ wart /wo:rt/ wrinkle /rínkl/ yawn /io:n/ suspiro estornudo verruga arruga bostezo A short course in english for adult students 135 .BASIC VOCABULARY: PARTS OF THE BODY /pá:rts ov δe bódi/ Las Partes del Cuerpo 1. fi:t/ hand /hænd/ heel /hi:l/ index finger /índeks fiηger/ knee /ni:/ kneecap /ni:kap/ knuckle /nákl/ leg /leg/ tobillo brazo axila pantorrilla codo dedo(mano) pie /s mano talón índice rodilla rótula nudillo pierna limbs /limz/ little finger /lítl fiηger/ middle finger /mídl fiηger/ nail /neil/ palm /pa:m/ ring finger /riη fiηger/ shin /shin/ shoulder /shóulder/ sole /soul/ thigh /θai/ thumb /θam / toe /tou/ wrist /rist/ extremidades meñique cordial uña palma anular canilla hombro planta (del pie) muslo pulgar dedo(del pie) muñeca 4. The Trunk /(e truηk/ El tronco back /bæk/ backbone /bækboun/ bladder /bláder/ bowels /báuelz/ breast /brest/ buttocks /bátoks/ chest /tchést/ gall bladder /golbláder/ heart /ha:rt/ hip /hip/ espalda espina dorsal vejiga vientre. The Limbs /(e limz/ Las extremidades ankle /æηkl/ arm /a:rm/ armpit /á:rmpit/ calf /ka:f/ elbow /élbou/ finger /fíηger/ foot / feet /fu:t. entrañas pecho.

un rato atrás inmediatamente de inmediato al instante.TIME EXPRESSIONS /táim iksprésh now /náu/ at this moment /at δe móument/ at present /at prézent/ for the time being /for δe táim bi:iη/ right now /rait náu/ today /tudéi/ yesterday /yésterdi/ tomorrow /tumórou/ this morning /δis mó:rniη/ this afternoon /δis a:fternú:n/ this evening /δis í:vniη/ tonight /tunáit/ tomorrow morning /tumórou mó:niη/ yesterday afternoon /yésterdi a:fternú:n/ last night /la:st náit/ last week /la:st wí:k/ next Monday /nekst mándi/ last Tuesday morning /la:st tíuzdi mó:rniη/ next Sunday afternoon /nekst sándi a:fternú:n/ the day after tomorrow /δe déi a:fter tumórou/ the day before yesterday /δe déi bifó:r iésterdi/ in the morning /in δe mó:rniη/ in the afternoon /in δi a:fternú:n/ in the evening /in δi í:vniη/ at night /at náit/ a week next Monday /e wí:k neks mándi/ a week last Sunday /e wí:k la:st sándi/ in December last year /in disémber la:st yíar/ in the summer of 1976 /in δe sámer ov náintin séventi síks/ every day /évri déi/ every week /évri wí:k/ every month /évri mánθ/ every year /évri yíar/ every Monday morning /évri mándi mó:niη/ every other day /évri áδer déi/ every other three days /évri áδer θrí: déiz/ once a day /wans e déi/ twice a week /twáis e wí:k/ several times a month /sévral táimz e mánθ/ many times a year /méni táimz e yíar/ a long time ago /e lóη táim agóu/ many years ago /méni yíarz agóu/ ten minutes ago /tén mínits agóu/ not very long ago /nót véri loη agóu/ ages ago /éidlliz agóu/ a short while ago /e short wáil agóu/ immediately /immídlliatli/ at once /at wáns/ right away /ráit ewéi/ as soon as possible /as sú:n as pósibl/ always /ó:lweiz/ generally /dllénerali/ usually /iúshuali/ frequently /fríkwentli/ often /ó:fn/ occasionally /okéillonali/ 136 A short course in english for adult students nz/ Expresiones de Tiempo ahora en este momento en la actualidad transitoriamente. lo más pronto posible siempre generalmente usualmente frecuentemente a menudo ocasionalmente . por ahora ahora mismo hoy día ayer mañana esta mañana esta tarde esta tarde esta noche mañana en la mañana ayer en la tarde anoche la semana pasada el próximo lunes el martes pasado en la mañana el próximo domingo en la tarde pasado mañana anteayer en la mañana en la tarde en la tarde por /durante la noche el lunes subsiguiente el domingo antepasado en diciembre del año pasado en el verano de 1976 todos los días todas las semanas todos los meses todos los años todos los lunes en la mañana día por medio cada tres días una vez al día dos veces a la semana varias veces al mes muchas veces al año hace mucho tiempo /mucho tiempo atrás hace muchos años hace diez minutos no hace mucho tiempo hace muchísimo tiempo hace un rato. “al tiro” lo antes posible.

de vez en cuando. A short course in english for adult students 137 .sometimes /sámtaimz/ rarely /réarli/ seldom /séldom/ hardly ever /ha:dli éver/ never /néver/ from time to time /from táim tu táim/ once in a while /wáns in e wáil/ now and then /náu an δén/ a veces raramente rara vez casi nunca nunca de vez en cuando de vez en cuando.

Bl 138 .

You have to read.. 2.. John had to be.? / How many languages can Bob speak? 2. / Can Bob speak. 12. 4.. Should / ought to 21. Sir? 9.. / She´ll have to attend.We have to learn Ex. Must 3. I had to work.. 2... He´s flying back to Washington DC. / He´ll have to spend 7. She had to attend. A short course in english for adult students 139 . Bob can´t speak. Ex.... Must 22. 1... 5. 6. / I´ll have to answer. / They´ll have to write.. / We´ll have to telephone. He had to stay. Mary has to study. Can´t 15. You can / may smoke here. 1. 7. / We´ll have to study. Can´t 13. Ex. May 2. 6... We won´t have to learn... / Should they take. 1. 9. Mary and John have to fly. They may not use. Can you help me this afternoon? 8. / I´ll have to get up.... Should / ought to 7.. / John´ll have to stop. 4. Must 23.... He worked very hard. What will they do with the money they received? 8. He had to go. He must be tired. / We´ll have to write. We don´t have to write... A. 4.. I have to write.11.. 14. 12.can´t 14.. Can´t Ex...... When are they traveling to the USA? 9. He can´t speak Spanish well. They had to come back. / He´ll have to see. They didn´t have to leave. Ex. 3.. 2.... Ex. 2. / I´ll have to work... 1....... He´s attendding a concert at the Kennedy Center. / You´ll have to wait. We´re having dinner with Mr Jones this evening. Ex.. That may / can happen again. Should / ought to 4. They shouldn´t take... We all had to write. They´re going to stay several days with us.. We had to telephone. / Must we go. 5. He´s attending a dinner party at the US Surgeons Club 6. I had to answer.. Mr Mitchell is flying to Sydney next week. Must 6. We had to hurry... 3. 3.... Jim and Mary are going to a disco tonight.. According to the schedule. John has to go out. We have to prepare... 2. Can 12.. 11.. 10. 9. He´s flying to Texas. They may visit us tomorrow 5. Can 9. Mr Brown isn´t attending our wedding party on Friday. 3.. He´s attending a conference at houston Medical Center.... / He´ll have to stay. 5.. 8. He can run very fast. Must 11.. 6. Must 20. 2. 5. John also has to take... They have to stay.. 4.. Mary will come to see us next week.11. B. 10.. John had to stop. I have to get up. / We´ll have to make.. Should / ought to 18. He´s flying back to Chile from National Airport.. I´m playing tennis with Bob tomorrow. 11. We must not go. John didn´t have to go.. I promise you I will never do that again... 1. He didn´t have to be. / May they use... We didn´t have to meet. May I sit here.. 1. 5. He had to spend. 2.Key to answers UNIT 10 PART I. What should I do now? 7. Our daughter is arriving on the 8:15 train on Saturday morning..... Mr Smith doesn´t have to go.. 2.... 2.. 3. 3. Attending a reception at the White House 3. 7. 3. Playing tennis with Dr Brown 4.. 3. He´s attending a conference at Nasa Space Center.. I don´t have to buy. 8. I have to work. 1.10. 7. 6.. They don´t have to study. We had to make. We have to write... 5. Ex. At what time are you going to arrive / get back from work this evening? 10.? / Which room may they use? Ex.. / Mary will have to come. / He´ll have to learn.8. Ex.. / John will have to be. 1.. 3.5. 6.can / may 10. 9.. 7. Can .. Must / should .. Is attending a ceremony at Lincoln Memorial. 4.. 4... 5.. John is attending a conference at YMCA at 10:30 on Monday. 10.. / We´ll have to hurry. 10.. 6. You had to wait.. We don´t have to get up. 12. They had to write..... He´s having lunch with some friends at the Waldorf Hotel. 8. He had to see.. Open answers Ex. 6.... We don´t have to prepare.12.. May 17..He´s visiting Bethesda Medical Center...? / What should they do? 3. I´m not going out of Santiago this weekend.. He had to learn... Can 5. 2... 4. / He´ll have to go.8. 4... Mary had to come. at what time are we getting there? PART II... Should 19. Should / ought to 24. / We´ll have to go. 9.. We don´t have to work. We had to go. 3. 9. I think / believe she´s not going to accept our invitation 7. 1.. 1..? / Why must we go? 4. 2.... / They´ll have to come back.. -I had to get up.... May 8. We had to study. 10. 4.You must come again tomorrow... Can / must 16..

What do they have to do every day? 4.Ex. When / What time did he have to leave? 2. Why does she have to rest a while? 12. What did he have to leave for the waiter? 7. When will they have to come back? 10. What did he have to buy? 6. What does she have to do? 140 A short course in english for adult students . What time do we / you have to get up every morning? 3. When do they have to rent an apartment? 5. When did he have to return? 8. How long will he have to wait? 9. 5. Why does he have to wear a coat? 11. 1.

The President will be flying to Tokyo at this time on Tuesday /δe prézident wil bí: fláiiη tu tókiou at δis táim on tiú:zdi/ El Presidente estará volando hacia Tokio a esta hora el martes La forma negativa y la forma interrogativa se expresa como en el tiempo futuro simple. 4. (drive) The Browns ________________________ some friends at 9 this evening (entertain) Mr Scott and his friends ________________________Toronto next weekend. 2. We will be having lunch at 1 o´clock tomorrow. (watch) What _____________ you ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do) A short course in english for adult students 141 . 4. (visit) Jane ________________________ the shopping at midday today. They won´t be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. cuando otra acción ocurra. Escuche. at midday next Saturday /at míddei nékst sæ ´terdi/ (al mediodía el próximo sábado). También se usan expresiones de tiempo como. 5. /wi: wil bí: hæviη /lántch at wán oklók tumórou/ Nosotros estaremos almorzando a la una mañana. Por lo tanto son frecuentes las expresiones de tiempo compuestas por WHEN + SUBJECT + PRESENT + TOMORROW/ NEXT MONDAY. 3. 1. /δe tchíldren wil bí: slí:piη wen δe próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Los niños estarán durmiendo cuando el programa comience esta noche 5. (play) The students ________________________ in the gym after 7 this evening. /δéi wóunt bí: wé:rkiη in δe labóratri at δis táim nékst mándi/ The children will not be sleeping when the program starts tonight. 9. lea y aprenda: 1. 2. Lynda will be travelling in Europe at this time next month. /δéi wil bí: wé:rkiη in δe labóratri at δis táim nékst mándi / Ellos estarán trabajando en el laboratorio a esta hora el próximo lunes. I ________________________ here. 4. 6. 3. EL TIEMPO FUTURO CONTINUO (THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se expresa con el futuro del verbo BE (WILL BE) más el GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para referirse a acciones que estarán realizándose a una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro. (work) At this time next month. (work out) I ________________________ television when you come home tonight. etc. o when the program starts tonight /wen δe próugram stá:rts tunáit/ (cuando el programa comience esta noche). es decir. 8. (travel) I ________________________ to work at this time tomorrow morning. The children will be sleeping when the program starts tonight. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses. con WILL NOT / WON´T en las negaciones e invirtiendo el orden del sujeto con el modal WILL en las interrogaciones: Escuche.UNIT 11 PART I. 7. /línda wil bí: tráveliη in iúrop at δis táim nékst mánθ/ Lynda estará viajando en Europa en esta fecha el próximo mes. we ________________________ in the USA. 3. 2. como when you come home this evening /wen iú: kam hóum δis í:vniη/ (cuando tú vengas a casa esta tarde). They will be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday.?) EXERCISES: Ex. at this time tomorrow /at δis táim tumórou/” (a esta hora mañana). /δe tchíldren wil nót bí: slí:piη wen δe próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Will they be travelling in Europe at this time next month? /wíl δéi bí: tráveliη in iú:rop at δis táim nékst mánθ/ What will the President be doing at this time on Tuesday? /wót wil δe prézident bí: dú:iη at δis táim on tíu:zdi/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es : WHAT WILL YOU BE DOING? /wót wil iú: bí: dú:iη/ (¿Qué estará haciendo ud. in the Future Continuous Tense: 1. 10. lea y aprenda: 1. (do) We________________________ soccer at this time next Saturday. At 10 o´clock tomorrow morning. at ten o´clock tomorrow /at tén oklók tumórou/ (mañana a las 10:00).

16. 9. Jackson will be attending a meeting at this time on Thursday. The students will be taking a test at 10. 11. 13. Where. 5. My friends will be taking their final exams by this time next month. 3. 8. 15. (cook) Where _________ they ________________________ when they visit Paris in June? (stay) What _______________ you ________________________ at midday on Sunday? (do) ___________ they ________________________ their holidays in Chile again next year? (spend) Ex. 4. (play) We ________________________ our vacation in Majorca next year. Mike will be washing his car in the morning. ___________________________________________________ 7. we ________________________. The train will be arriving at 12:30 tomorrow. (see) They _________ not ________________________ English very often. They´ll be running up the hill at midday. 2. Review Practice. _________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. I´ll be staying at the Carlton Hotel in London. etc. 12. ___________________________________________________ 6. ___________________________________________________ 4. 5. 8. 3. we ______________________________ television. __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. 3. 2. 7. Helms ________________________ a very good movie last night. (come) Mr. 142 Listen! Mary ______________________________ the piano now. Use the Present. (come) ____________ you always ________________________ home at midday? (phone) _________ your friends __________________you when you arrived at their home yesterday? (expect) Where _______________ they __________________ when World War II started? (live) How often ________ your friend ________________________to you? (write) What time __________________ you __________________ this morning? (get up) What time __________________ you __________________here tomorrow? (be) A short course in english for adult students . 6. 18. (visit) At this time tomorrow. Mr.2. 4. (practise) What ___________ you ________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) They ____________ not ________________________ the story at the moment. (have dinner) Mary ________________________ dinner when John gets home tonight. 3. ___________________________________________________ 5. 10. 6. They´ll be having dinner at 8 this evening. (spend) At 10:30 last night. 9. 7. (live) They ________________________ at a Chinese restaurant tonight. ___________________________________________________ 3. (read) What _____________ the Johnsons ________________________ last Saturday? (do) W___________ Mary ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do ____________ n´t you ________________________ the newspaper this morning? (buy) Jane __________ n´t __________________________ to see me every day. 2. 14. (watch) John usually ______________________________ here on Tuesday. Jim won´t be working tomorrow because it´s a holiday. 10. How long. in their Simple or Contínuous forms: 1. Smith ________ not __________________ home for dinner tonight. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. ___________________________________________________ 2. 17. 5. Change the following sentences into a) negative and b) interrogative: 1. Ask questions using question words like What. 4. (come) They ________________________ in Boston at this time next year. Use the verbs provided in the Simple Future or the Future Contínuous Tense: 1. (work) Mr. the Past or the Future tenses.Ex. (have) They ________________________ Brazil next month. of course. Hans will be working all morning tomorrow. They ________________________ dinner at 8:45 this evening. Janet will be travelling in Asia for 2 weeks. 4. 1. Use the proper verb tense of the verbs provided. I´ll be working in the lab tomorrow morning.

6. PART II A.. 4. MAKING REQUESTS ... please? 1.. 5. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2..19.. using Can you. 2. or Will you. 21. please?. 7... please? B: Sure Ex... Open the window. Ask somebody to do the following things. 5. please? (Informal) Imperative.please?.please? or Would you. 23. Wait for me in the lobby. 24. 20... two or three nights? (stay) Walter never ______________________________ in bed.. Pay attention. Come back this afternoon. (go) When _____________the Johnsons________________________. please? Would you mind waiting outside. 22. using Could you.. as a rule..ing. please? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • With pleasure /wiδ pléllar/ Con mucho gusto Sure /shúar/ seguro Certainly /sé:rtenli/ Por cierto Of course /ov kó:rz/ Por supuesto Escuche..please? (Informal) Will you + infinitive. please? (Formal) Would you + infinitive.. instead of the simple imperative form. Speak more slowly. A: Will you lend me your pen. Be quiet.. 3. Sit on this chair. 4. will you? Could you speak more slowly.. 1..+ infinitive. please? B: With pleasure EXERCISES Ex. Turn the radio down.. 2... They ______________n´t ________________________ out tonight because it´s too cold. Speak more slowly. 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 143 . (instead of = en vez de) 1. please? Would you sign your name here. Ask somebody to do the following things. please? (Formal) Would you mind +. A: Why ________n´t Helen _____________________ abroad on her vacation last summer? (travel) B: Because she hates flying. generalmente se usan las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • • • Can you. please + will you? (Informal) Could you + infinitive.. Sign your name here.. 3.. Help me open the suitcase.. lea y aprenda: 1. today or tomorrow? (arrive) How long __________ you ________________________ at the hotel this time.. please? (Muy formal) Can you open the door please? Will you help me please? Listen to me please. Repeat your question. A: Could you help me. (smoke) A: Why________ you ________________________ your sweater yesterday? (put on) B: Because it was too cold.(SOLICITANDO SERVICIOS O FAVORES) Para solicitar que una persona haga algún servicio o favor.

Ask him. • Please do. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? Peter: With Pleasure 2. • Please don´t.. 4. 3. Ask him. You : _________________________________________________________ . You : __________________________________________________________ . 5. B. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 1. Repeat the previous exercise using the polite form Would you mind.. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? He/She: Yes. John? B: Sure. Escuche. Take off your hat.ing. __________________________________________________________ ? María: Yes. It´s too cold. 6. You want a friend to give you a hand (= help you). You want María to call you up tomorrow morning. A: Do you mind if I open the window? B: Please don´t. Ask him. 4. You want a stranger to show you the way to the railway station. please? Stranger: Sure. go ahead. Tom? Tom:: Of course. Follow the instructions carefully. 6. You want somebody to spell his/her surname for you. 3. 144 A short course in english for adult students . of course. You: ____________________________________________________________ . 2. You want Sr. Wait for me in the lobby. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights and then turn left.6. Ask him/her politely. Turn the radio down. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. lea y aprenda: A: Can I use your computer. go ahead. I didn´t know you were studying. Use the other elevator. John? John : Certainly. certainly. Ask him. Repeat your question. ASKING FOR PERMISSION (SOLICITANDO PERMISO) Para solicitar permiso para hacer algo debemos usar las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • Can I + Infinitive? (Informal) May I + Infinitive? (Formal) Do you mind if I + Infinitive? (Formal) Would you allow me to + Infinitive? (Formal) Can I open the door? May I ask a question? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you allow me to use the phone? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como: • Sure. please? 1 Speak more slowly. Sign your name here. 7. S-M-I-T-H. Ask her to do that informally. 3. Perez to help you translate this letter into Spanish. Take off your hat. 7. You : María. At what time do you want me to call you up? 5. Make requests. Smith 4. Use the other elevator. You want your brother Tom to turn down the radio.

I read it this morning. It´s getting dark Do you want me to _________________________________ ? Yes. Mr Jackson. 3. You´re at a conference. Ask his permission. to turn the light on. (OFRECIENDOSE A HACER ALGO) Cuando nos ofrecemos a hacer algo por alguien podemos usar las siguientes estructuras: • Shall I + Infinitive? • Do you want me to + Infinitive? • Would you like me to + Infinitive? Shall I help you? Do you want me to get you a taxi? Would you like me to carry your bags to the room. Jackson: Sure. 2. My Spanish is not very good Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. please • No. You: ________________________________________________________________________________________. to spell your last name. Ask your mother´s permission. Ask permission to do things. You want to take a look at his newspaper. You´re sitting next to an old man on the bus. You : ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Host: Sure. Ask his permission. 6. C. I can do it myself / I can manage it myself EXERCISES Ex. 1.Sir? Old man: Please don´t open it. Jack? Jack. You are at a friend´s house. Bob? Bob: Sure. go ahead. Mr. please do.EXERCISES Ex. Offer yourself to do these things : 1. It´s too cold outside. It´s all yours. mum? Your mother: Yes. 1. You: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Speaker: Certainly. You want to turn on the TV. 5. A short course in english for adult students 145 . 4. You: _____________________________________________________________________________________ . Ask his permission. Ask the speaker´s permission. please. here you are. You: ________________________________________________________________________________ . I´ve got a bad cold. You want to use your friend´s lighter. to shut the window. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. I´m working. 2. Ask your host´s permission. please. come in please. You are a visitor and you want to use the telephone. I don´t need it now. Ask his permission. thank you. Please use the microphone so everyone can hear your question. 1. OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING. please. You: _____________________________________________________________________________________ . You want to open the window. Sir? Normalmente estos ofrecimientos se responden con expresiones como: • Yes. but keep the volume down. Mr Jackson is working in his office. please. You : ______________________________________________________________________________________ . 7. 3. Follow the instructions carefully. You want to go in . You want to ask a question.

please. that´s a good idea. 8. I need to tell her something Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. To go to the seaside next weekend.. Let´s do that. of course. Las invitaciones o sugerencias de este tipo se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • Good idea! Let´s do that. To sit on the grass and rest for a while. I´m a bit busy right now. to speak more slowly. Sure. etc. 146 A short course in english for adult students . thanks. Would you ________________________________________ ? Of course! We´d love to. 5. It´s not necessary Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. 2. please.4. INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER. Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes. Sorry I can´t. to translate this letter into English Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. It´s getting late. certainly / Yes. I´m a little hungry. I´m too busy / It´s too late / I have to study for a test. Why not? Yes. to repeat your question. 1. Why _____________________________________________ ? Good idea. I don´t understand English very well yet. 10.. D.ing? Let´s + infinitive Shall we go to a disco this evening? Do you want to play cards now? Would you like to have dinner with us tonight? Why don´t we sit down and talk for a while? How about going out for a walk? Let´s take a walk after dinner. 3. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. To spend the summer holidays with us. How about _______________________________________ ? I don´t think we should. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. to tell Mary that I want to see her. please. I don´t understand French. 4. I can manage myself. 7. Invite or suggest your friends to do the following activities together: 1. to call back later today. (INVITANDO O SUGIRIENDO HACER ALGO EN CONJUNTO) Para invitar o sugerir una acción conjunta normalmente se usan expresiones como estas: • • • • • • Shall we + infinitive? Do you want to + Infinitive Would you like to + infinitive? Why don´t we + Infinitive? How about +. please. EXERCISES Ex. To go to the movies after dinner tonight. to get me some coffee and a sandwich. 9. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Please do. to help me complete the application form. thanks. 6.

Tom: And his brother was sleeping as well. let´s do that. John went to the party. To play tennis tomorrow morning. or else we´ll miss our plane PART III. John went to the party and so did Peter. 1) Mary: I really like that dress. Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes. but peter didn´t go to the party.. mientras que las palabras too y as well se usan al final de las oraciones. Peter went to the party. 10. + + + - + But BUT +S+ Contr. John didn´t like the party. Would you ________________________________________ ? Yes. John went to the party. 2) John. _________________________________________________ ? I think we should travel by plane. lea y aprenda... Peter also went to the party. either NEITHER +MV+S / NOR +MV+S John went to the party. To invite the Smiths to dinner one evening.too. Peter: And Janet will come too! 147 . John went to the party. but peter liked the party. La palabra SO es un sinónimo de ALSO. How about _______________________________________ ? I´d rather (preferiría) go out for a walk. 9. A. To travel by boat instead of by plane 8. Escuche. BUT (PERO) Study the following chart Also Too As well SO+MV+S Not. It´s much cheaper. John didn´t go to the party.TOO. EITHER AND NEITHER / NOR (TAMPOCO). 7. / BUT +S+ MV 1. let´s do that. TOO y AS WELL significan TAMBIEN. Peter: And so will Janet! A short course in english for adult students 2) John: Mary will come to the party tonight. Why _____________________________________________ ? Yes. Mary will come to the party tonight. TOO y AS WELL y se usa para abreviar y hacer más fluída la conversación. 3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. It´s a very interesting exhibition. Jane: I also like it very much. I´d love to. They´re very nice people. Jane: So do I . Peter didn´t go to the party either. Peter went to the party as well. 2. John didn´t go to the party and neither did Peter Or John didn´t go to the party and nor did Peter. John went to the party. Why not. ALSO. Las palabras ALSO. AS WELL AND SO (TAMBIÉN). John didn´t like the party. To take a taxi to the airport Why _____________________________________________ ? Sure. Also se usa antes de un verbo principal. but peter didn´t. NOT. 6. SO va seguida de un Verbo Modal + Sujeto 1) Mary: I really like that dress. but peter did. To go to the arts exhibition. To stay at home and watch TV .5.. It´s a pleasant evening. I´ll be free all morning tomorrow.

EXERCISES Ex. (I) 4. 1a) Peter: I don´t like classical music. lea y aprenda. 1. They´ve ___________________ got a big one. La palabra BUT se usa tanto en la forma completa como en la forma abreviada. 9. He liked the picture. Ann: Nor did I! 4. Escuche. Bob likes coffee and SO does JANE. Do you ___________________ speak Spanish. Peter likes dogs very much and his sister likes them very much ___________________ Mr Johnson isn´t going to attend the meeting. 1 eat lunch in the cafeteria. (he) 5. 1 watch TV after dinner.EITHER (tampoco) pueden ser reemplazadas por NEITHER (o NOR) para abreviar y hacer más fluida la conversación. Ex. Ann: I didn´t see you either. John is going to travel to Europe and we´re going to travel there ___________________ Mary is going to go to Spain. 2b) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane did. (my wife) 8. 7. Mary likes pie for dessert. 10. 2b) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. Mary can speak Italian well. Escuche. 2a) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. lea y aprenda. John walks to school. EITHER. (the children) Bob likes coffee and Jane also likes coffee. ___________________ my husband can. Tom: And so was his brother . I don´t understand it ___________________ I can´t drive a car. 1a) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane saw it. Mary: Neither do I.. John went to the movies with us (Peter) 6. Las palabras NOT. 2a. Mary: I don´t like it either. (the secretary) 3. then? 2a) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t go. (Carmen) 2. ___________________ John is not going to go there. He´s going to go to France. (Jane) 1.3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. What language do you speak. Use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL. She comes here every day. or do you speak another language? So you don´t speak Spanish and you don´t speak Italian ________________. 8. (We) 7. The boys didn´t go to the lab and the girls didn´t go ___________________ We´ve got a big house. or BUT 1. 3. 6. 3. 2. as in the examples: Bob likes coffee. Peter doesn´t understand Italian. 4. ___________________ Mr Clark is (going to attend the meeting). 1b) Peter: I don´t like classical music. First use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL and then use SO. 2b) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 148 A short course in english for adult students .. 5.

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 149 . Mary shouldn´t work harder. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex..9. (my wife’s car) 12. My car isn´t very old. 3. They mustn´t pay more.. (Carmen) 2. He didn´t like the picture (We) 7. They weren´t very busy.(My wife´s car) 12. (I) 13. 2b. but Jane does. (I) Bob likes coffee. (you) 14. I didn´t eat there yesterday. (The children) 9. John didn´t go to the movies. They were very busy. first use NOT. (you) 14. Mary should work harder. as in the example Bob doesn’t like coffee and Jane doesn’t like coffee either. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. (the secretary) 3. Now. I don´t watch TV after dinner (My wife) 8. Complete these sentences with BUT. Mary doesn´t like pie for dessert. She doesn´t come here every day. John walks to school. They must pay more. We will go by train. (Carmen) 2. John doesn´t go to school . (My friends) 10. I don´t eat lunch in the cafeteria. (they) 11. We won´t go by train. (the secretary) 3. Then use NEITHER (or NOR). (Jane) 1. Mary can speak Italian well. Bob doesn´t like coffee. but Jane doesn´t. as in the examples Bob likes coffee. (I) 13. (I) 4. (Peter) 6. 1. Bob doesn´t like coffee and NEITHER DOES JANE. My car is very old. (he) 5. (They) 11.EITHER. 1 ate there yesterday (my friends) 10. Mary can´t speak Italian well. 1 eat lunch in the cafeteria.

3. Place the indirect object before the direct object: 1. Del mismo modo. En la oración “Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday” el complemento indirecto es “Mr Smith” y en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son”.Los verbos To send y To buy son verbos transitivos porque van seguidos de un complemento directo. Mary likes pie for dessert. A su vez. Ex. (Peter) 6. He liked the picture. La inversión del orden de los complementos directo e indirecto es muy común cuando el complemento indirecto es un pronombre complementario (object pronoun) Escuche. POSITION OF INDIRECT OBJECT (posición del complemento indirecto) Son Verbos Transitivos aquellos que van seguidos de un Complemento Directo (Direct Object). He sent a letter to me.”Peter sent a letter yesterday” el complemento directo es la frase “a letter” porque responde a la pregunta. (We) 7. They were very busy. 2. (I) 13. “What did Peter send yesterday”. (the children) 9. Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday Peter sent Mr Smith a letter yesterday= Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son. El complemento directo responde a la pregunta What? En la oración. (my wife’s car) 12. 150 He gave the money to me. He told the story to us. She brought the book to me. (they) 11.4. John went to the movies with us. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. Mary bought her son a pair of shoes= Peter sent him a letter yesterday. Como ud. 5. en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes”. He sent some candy to his sister. “What did Mary buy?. My car is very old. The teacher gave some dictation to us. 6. Mary bought him a pair of shoes. pero en ese caso se deben omitir las preposiciones to o for. 1 ate there yesterday. Mary shouldn´t work harder. 1 watch TV after dinner. habrá advertido los complementos directos e indirectos van unidos por las preposiciones to o for El complemento indirecto se reconoce porque responde a las preguntas to whom? (¿a quién?) o for whom? (¿Para quién?) : “To whom did Peter send a letter yesterday”? “For whom did Mary buy a pair of shoes”? El orden de los complementos directo e indirecto puede ser invertido. (he) 5. (my wife) 8. We will go by train. She comes here every day. They must pay more. 1. (you) 14. A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . el complemento directo puede ir seguido por un Complemento Indirecto (Indirect Object). (my friends) 10. 4. la frase “a pair of shoes” es el complemento directo porque responde a la pregunta. el complemento indirecto es “her son”. lea y aprenda.

9. Please hand me that book. 5. He bought some flowers for his wife He gave a ring to (=phoned) his friend. He gave me some books. 9. 4. Will you lend your pen to me? He gave some excellent advice to all of us. 12. Henry told us the story of his trip. 11.7. 3. Please lend me your pencil for a few minutes. John lent some money to his friends. 2. 10. They sent an invitation to us. 8. They sent us the material right away. 7. He sent his mother several letters. 2. 12. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 151 . 1 gave him the note which you sent. John gladly lent me the money. They gave us some magazines. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. They sent us an invitation to the party. They brought us many presents from abroad. 6. 8. 10. Please give us some dictation today. Place the indirect object after the direct object: 1. 11.

152 A short course in english for adult students .BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words OUR HEALTH /áuar hél(/ La salud arthritis /a:rθráitis/ blister /blíster/ chicken-pox /tchíkin poks/ chilblain /tchilblein/ chills /tchilz/ cold /kóuld/ colic /kólik/ constipation /konstipéishn/ diarrhea /daiaría/ disease /disí:z/ earache /iar eik/ fever /fí:ver/ flu /flu:/ hay fever /héi fí:ver/ headache /héd eik/ health /hélθ/ heart attack /ha:ræt atæk/ ´ artritis ampolla alfombrilla sabañón escalofríos resfrío cólico estitiquez colitis enfermedad dolor de oídos fiebre gripe fiebre del heno dolor de cabeza salud paro cardiaco illness /ílnis/ enfermedad insomnia /insómnia/ insomnio mumps /mamps/ parotiditis nervous breakdown /né:rvas bréikdaun/ depresión pain /pein/ dolor rheumatism /rúmatizm/ reumatismo runny nose /ráni nouz/ romadizo sickness /síknis/ mareo smallpox /smol poks/ viruela sore throat /só:r θróut/ faringitis stomach-ache /stómak eik/ dolor de estómago stroke /stróuk/ trombosis tonsilítis /tonsiláitis/ amigdalitis toothache /tuθ eik/ dolor de muelas typhus /táifus/ tifus whooping cough /hú:piη kof/ tos convulsiva.

Were . does .phone 14. saw 6. 1.? 5. Could you / Would you show me...? 7..please? 2.. At what time will the train be arriving tomorrow? 7. May I / Do you mind if I go in.practice 7. 4..please? 7.. 9... 3. comes 5. Can you / Will you come. 1 They won´t be running.. Can you / Will you give me.. 4. please? Ex. Would you mind repeating. May I / Do you mind if I ask. 1. Ex.. How long will Janet be travelling in Asia? 3.stay / are .. is playing 2. smokes 23.. 8... shut. like to spend. 9. 2. tell Mary that you.. Ex. Can you / Will you be.. Ex. will be cooking 8.... 1. Can you / Will you sit...expecting 15. 8. turn. Could you / Would you help me. 5.. May I / Do you mind if I use. did .. were ..? 4.come 5. Will ..write 17.be doing 11. May I / Do you mind if I open. 1..3. will... to spell my.. 3.. 1. did . does .? 2. Could you / Would you use... please? B.. Hans won´t be working. did .. 1. Ex.. sitting.going to go / are . please? 3.? 3. will be playing 8. don´t we travel.. 3.. 6. will spend / are going to spend / are spending 3.. will be watching 10..? 6...buy 12.. 1.. will .arriving 21. 1... please? 4... 6... Would you mind waiting.. / Will they be running..go / are . will be travelling 3. Where will you be working tomorrow morning? 4. will be doing 7.... me to help you.arrive / are ... Where / In which hotel will you be staying in London? 6..... will be living 6. Can you / Will you help. 7.? 3....... Would you mind using. Could you / Would you sign.. please? / Would you mind spelling... please? 7.? 5.. Ex.. 10.. please? Ex...reading 9.? 3. don´t we invite.. / Will Hans be working.. 1. Could you / Would you take.. please? 4.... Could you / Would you speak. me to repeat my........ call back.going to stay / are . A short course in english for adult students 153 . will be working 4... will be visiting.. are .spend ..Would you mind speaking.. 10.. Can I take. Could you / Would you repeat... / Will Mike be washing.do 10. 1.. will . will ...? C... will be working out 9.Why won´t Jim be working tomorrow? 5... did . will be working 2. 1. The students won´t be taking. please? 5.staying 22...? 6. go. What will your friends be doing by this time next month? Ex. please? 3. Mr Perez? Would you mind helping me.be doing 10..get up 18.. Can you / Will you call me up..going to be 19..and watching... Can you / Will you pay.. were watching 4..put on 24.. Mr Perez? 2.living 16. Could you / Would you turn..going to arrive / are . do . Can I use your.. 1. play... D. 6.travel PART II A. will . me to speak.. staying.doing 8. 2.stay 9..going 20.. me to translate.please? 5. Mike won´t be washing.. 1 What will they be doing at 8 this evening? 2. me to get you. 1.? 2. Do .5..? 2.....be doing Ex. please? 6. please? 2 Could you / Would you wait.come 13... Would you mind signing. Could you / Would you spell. like to go... were .? 4... don´t we go. will . will have dinner 7... will . will .. 4. Would you mind turning. Can I turn. Would you mind taking. please? 6. and resting... Will ... please? 2... don´t we take.? Ex.. will be entertaining 5.please? 3 Can you / Will you open . 7. What will Mr Jackson be doing at this time on Thursday? 8. 4.please? 4.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 11 PART I Ex.. 1.. please? 7. please? / Would you mind showing me.. will be having 2.. will visit 3. please? 4. will be driving 4. please? 6. 5.. 2... Can you / Will you speak.. please? Ex. please? 5.be / are . Did . / Will the students be taking. Can you / Will you turn down. 1.

and so should you. 10. 1.. but my wife doesn´t.. 10. but he doesn´t / She doesn´t come.. 7.. / I watch. but Carmen can´t / Mary can´t speak... but he does. and my friends didn´t eat.. but 9.... He gave some books to me. John walks. and I walk. My wife´s car is. 1 gave the note which you sent to him. but I wasn´t.. Ex.. They sent an invitation to the party to us. She comes.. They sent us an invitation..too / Mary should work.... He gave me the money 2.. and neither / nor did we 7. / We´ll go. and he comes. / They weren´t. too / as well 8.. and we didn´t like.. 6...... My car is. as well / John walks.... and so do I 4.. 8.. They were. and we mustn´t pay. Henry told the story of his trip to us.. too. 9... and the children don´t like.They brought many presents to us from abroad.either / Mary doesn´t like.... 1.... too / Mary can... but I was. and we liked. 3.and neither / nor did Peter..... They sent the material to us right away. and neither / nor can Carmen 2. They weren´t. / I don´t watch.. 6.. 14.. We won´t go. He sent several letters to his mother....... He gave all of us some excellent advice Ex... and neither / nor must we Ex. either / They must pay. 14.... They must pay. but you shouldn´t / Mary shouldn´t work.....12. / John went. and he doesn´t come.. as well / They were..... 1... and neither / nor do I 4..... John went... either 6. I diidn´t eat. but I don´t. They were. and you should work. I ate. and neither / nor does the secretary. and I was.. either / They weren´t. 1.. either / He didn´t like. and you shouldn´t work.. 4. I eat.... too / She comes. and so does my wife 8. 11.either / We won´t go.. Please hand that book to 154 A short course in english for adult students .. and my wife doesn´t watch. 2a..9.either / Mary should work. but Peter didn´t / John didn´t go. but we mustn´t / They mustn´t pay. 11. / We won´t go. and the secretary doesn´t eat..either... 3.. We will go.. John lent his friends some money 11...either / I didn´t eat. and Peter didin´t go.. 6..either / My car isn´t very old and neither / nor is my wife´s (car) 12.. Mary shouldn´t work... 3. and neither / nor will they. and they won´t go... and they will also go. John walks.. 11. but the children don´t.. He sent his sister some candy. / Mary doesn´t like. 3. either Ex. and neither / nor should you...... and Carmen can´t. but my friends did... 2.but the secretary doesn´t / I don´t eat.. but my wife does.. 2b. and Carmen can.. also 5.... I don´t eat... John gladly lent the money to me.. but my wife´s car isn´t / My car isn´t.. I ate.. I don´t watch. They mustn´t pay. My car isn´t.. and so was I 13. Mary can´t... He liked. but my friends didn´t / I didn´t eat. but Carmen can 2. John doesn´t walk.8. either 4... / John didn´t go... but 7. / John doesn´t walk.. / I ate.and so does he 5. Please give some dictation to us today.. 12. Mary doesn´t like.. but I do... Mary likes. also 10.. / My car´s very old and so is my wife´s (car)12. Ex.. 1.. They must pay and we must pay.... as well / He liked. but the secretary does 3.. I watch. He liked. and so do the children 9.and neither / nor does he 5. and so must we Ex.......7.. 9....... and the children also like.PART III A.11.. 10.. 5...and so did Peter.. 7... She comes. and so did my friends. John didn´t go.. He bought his wife some flowers. but Peter did. 1...5. and Peter also went.. and so can Carmen 2..either / She doesn´t come.. 1. 2. 4..... and my wife´s car is.... but we did. either / I don´t eat. We´ll go.... They gave some magazines to us. 3 He sent me a letter 4.... and my wife´s car isn´t. 6. but you should . and I wasn´t.. and my friends also ate.. and so will they.. Mary can... but they won´t. and so does the secretary.. 10. Please lend your pencil to me for a few minutes. but the children do.... Mary likes... and so did we 7. and I don´t walk. 10.. and the secreatry also eats. Mary can speak... 13. He didn´t like. and neither / nor was I.. 1.. 14. Will you lend me your pen? 12.. Mary should work... / They must pay. but we didn´t / He didn´t like.. and neither / nor do the children 9. Mary should work...... John went. too / as well 2. I watch... as well...... but 3. either / John doesn´t walk. He gave his friend a ring. either / Mary can´t.. She brought me the book. She doesn´t come.. but they will. The teacher gave us some dictation 6.. / I don´t watch. but my wife´s car is.. and neither / nor did my friends. He told us the story 5. and neither / nor does my wife 8. but we must B. 8. / I eat. I eat... / Mary likes.. and my wife also watches.... 13..

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART TWO INTERMEDIATE LEVEL A short course in english for adult students 155 .

Bl 156 .

.UNIT 12 PART I EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) INTRODUCCIÓN Son TIEMPOS PERFECTOS todos los tiempos verbales compuestos por una forma del verbo modal o auxiliar HAVE (haber) más un PARTICIPIO PASADO (3ra. /hí:z/. Recuerde que se pueden formar contracciones. Son VERBOS IRREGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio en forma diferente. A short course in english for adult students 157 . forma) de un verbo principal. He´s. hemos Uds. puede ver. Curiosamente. To study . Recuerde que son VERBOS REGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio agregando el sufijo -d o -ed al infinitivo del verbo..worked. habrán Ellos habrán Ejemplos: I have seen = Yo he visto I had seen = Yo había visto I will have seen = Yo habré visto Mary has been = Mary ha estado Mary had been = Mary había estado Mary will have been = Mary habrá estado They have worked = Ellos han trabajado They had worked = Ellos habían trabajado They will have worked = Ellos habrán trabajado EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) El Presente Perfecto se forma con el presente del verbo modal HAVE (have /hæv/ o HAS /h_ z/ ) más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. y por lo tanto Ud. Habíamos Uds.. la mayoría de nuestras acciones o actividades cotidianas se expresan con verbos irregulares.worked . han Ellos han Inglés I had You had He had She had It had We had You had They had Pasado Español Yo había Tú habías El había Ella había El / Ella había Nos. ahora deberá aprender la 3ra. To work . Ellos han contestado la carta. She´s /shí:z. También es importante recordar aquí que el verbo HAVE en inglés y HABER en español tienen las siguientes formas en los tiempos presente.studied . etc.decided.. como por ejemplo: I´ve. Escuche. Como Ud. debe aprenderlos y memorizarlos. /δéiv á:nserd δe léter/ Yo he visto esa película dos veces Yo he estado allí antes. /méri haz ríten anáδer nóvel/ Peter ´s bought a new car. habremos Uds. /iu:v/. habían Ellos habían Inglés I will have You will have He will have She will have It will have We will have You will have They will have Futuro Español Yo habré Tú habrás El habrá Ella habrá El / Ella habrá Nos. María ha escrito otra novela Peter ha comprado un auto nuevo Nosotros hemos terminado nuestro trabajo. lea y aprenda: I have seen that movie twice. To decide . /aiv/. /pí:tez bó:t a niú: ká:r/ We have finished our job.. Ej.. forma o Participio Pasado de los verbos regulares e irregulares de uso más frecuente. /áiv bí:n δéar bifó:r/ Mary has written another novel.decided . /wí: hav fínisht áuar dllób/ They´ve answered the letter. You´ve. pasado y futuro: Presente Inglés I have You have He has She has It has We have You have They have Español Yo he Tú has El ha Ella ha El / Ella ha Nos. /ái hav sí:n δæt múvi twáis/ I ´ve been there before.studied.

. /tóm haz wé:rkt híar sins náintin náinti tú:/ Tom ha trabajado aquí desde 1992 We have lived here for several years. Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son SINCE /síns/ (desde) y FOR /for/ (por. escuche y aprenda: Tom has worked here since 1992.? vez. escuche y aprenda: The train has just arrived. Es frecuente aquí el uso de la palabra JUST pasado participio.. since 10:30 /sins tén θé:rti/. Lea. once. sin especificar cuándo exactamente ella ocurrió. /shiz bí:n híar léitli/ Ella ha estado aquí últimamente • Para indicar que la acción expresada por el verbo ha sido realizada varias veces a la fecha de hoy. etc. la palabra for va seguida de un período: since last Monday /sins lá: st mándi/. /yés wáns δéi vízitid mi in δe wínter v náintin náiti fáiv/ Sí. /hav iú éver.. Lea. for 2 weeks /for tú: wí:ks/. Mientras since va seguido de una fecha u hora. escuche y aprenda: I am sure that I´ve seen that film before. many times /méni támiz/. Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son: once /wáns/. since 1978 /ins náintin séventi éit/. alguna 158 A short course in english for adult students . Lea. never /nóu/néver/ No. several times /sévral támiz/. Already siempre se usa en oraciones afirmativas. three or four times /θrí: or fó:r támiz/./ /dllást/ antes del Ha Ud. nunca A: Have they ever visited you in the winter? /háv δéi éver vízitid iú: in δe wínter/ ¿Te han visitado ellos alguna vez en el invierno? B. escuche y aprenda: A: Have you ever drunk tequila? /hav iú: éver dræηk tekíla/ ¿Has tomado tequila alguna vez? B: No. /wí: hav lívd híar for sévral yíarz/ Hemos vivido aqui por varios años • Son frecuentes.? Lea. tambien. twice /twáis/... /áim shó:r δat áiv sí:n δt fílm bifó:r/ Estoy seguro de que he visto esa película antes She ´s been here lately. /wí:v bí:n in niú: ió:rk sévral tamiz/ Nosotros hemos estado en Nueva York varias veces • Para referirse a una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado hasta el día de hoy. escuche y aprenda: I´ve seen that documentary twice. hasta este momento. En las interrogaciones se puede usar indistintamente already o yet. /δe tréin haz dllást arráivd/ El tren acaba de llegar They´ve just left. They visited me in the winter of 1995. las preguntas que comienzan con HAVE YOU EVER.. durante). Lea.. Yes. /áiv sí:n δat dokiuméntri twáis/ Yo he visto ese documental dos veces We´ve been in New York several times.. for ten years /for tén yíarz/. Ellos me visitaron en el invierno de 1995 • También se debe usar el Presente Perfecto con las expresiones ALREADY / olrédi / (ya) y YET / yét / (aún).El Presente Perfecto se usa en los siguientes casos: • Para describir una acción que acaba de suceder. /δéiv dllást léft/ Ellos acaban de retirarse/irse • Para referirse a una acción que ha ocurrido antes (BEFORE /bifó:r/) o últimamente (LATELY /léitli/). una vez. en las negaciones de debe usar yet.

/wí: hævent hæd brékfast yet/ No hemos tomado desayuno aún. dejar prestar perder. Has the train arrived already/yet? /haz δe tréin arráivd olrédi/ yet/¿Ha llegado ya el tren? En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre HAVE/HAS y el pasado participio del verbo principal. 1. escuche y aprenda: They have seen that documentary. /méri haz sóuld he:r ká:r/ Mary ha vendido su auto. salir. escuche y aprenda: I´ve already seen that movie. Estudie el Pasado Participio de los siguientes verbos irregulares: Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /briη/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ Past Tense began /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræηk/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ Past Participle Spanish empezar. encontrar olvidar conseguir. Generalmente se prefiere usar las contracciones HAVEN´T /hævnt/ HASN´T /hæznt/). obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. /áiv olrédi sí:n θæt mú:vi/ Yo ya he visto esa película. haber oir guardar. learned /lé:rnd/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /lé:rnd/ left /léft/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ lost /lost/ A short course in english for adult students 159 .? EXERCISES Ex. mantener saber. conocer aprender. We haven´t had breakfast yet. /δéi hav sí:n θt dokiuméntri/ Ellos han visto ese documental They haven´t seen that documentary. /méri hæznt sóuld he:r ká:r/ Has Mary sold her car? /haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ Why has Mary sold her car? /wái haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What have you done? /wót hav iú: dán/ ¿Qué ha hecho Ud. enterarse partir. Mary hasn´t sold her car. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar.Lea. En las interrogaciones se debe invertir el orden de have/has con el sujeto: Lea. servirse. extraviar begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /draηk/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:len/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /forgótn/ got/gotten /got /gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/. /δéi hævent sí:n θæt dokiuméntri/ Have they seen that documentary? /hav δéi sí:n θt dokiuméntri/ How many times have they seen that documentary? /háu méni táimz hav δéi sí:n θæt dokiuméntri/ Mary has sold her car.

2. He________________ to America. 6. He can tell you where to go and what to do there. Bill ________________ in Tokyo several times. (go) 10. I´m quite sure that I ________________ that woman before. He´s reading it now. 1. Sir. fabricar. You´ll have to take the 8:15 train which leaves from Victoria Station. He isn´t in Chile. (meet) Ex. John ________________ for that company since 1987. 5. but I´m sure I know him. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 160 A short course in english for adult students . Complete las siguientes oraciones usando el verbo dado en el tiempo Presente Perfecto: 1. vestir escribir Ex. The students ________________ already ________________ that book (read) 11. Hurry up! (start) 2. Peter has had dinner already. (work) 9. (receive) 7. I ________________ that man before. John has sent them a fax. Bob ________________to San Francisco several times. He knows it well. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. The soccer game has already finished. confeccionar reunirse. I don´t remember when. Mary ________________ to him about it twice already. pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. (go) 8. creer entender. comprender usar (ropa). (speak) 12.conocer pagar poner. 2. llevar enseñar decir pensar. (leave) 4. 3. Cambie las siguientes oraciones a) al negativo y b) al interrogativo. Your train ________________ already ________________. (live) 6. (be) 3. The tennis game________________ just ________________. Peter ________________ just ________________ a letter. The plane has already left. They have studied the report. 4.To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /siη/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd ap/ ´ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /θiηk/ To understand /anderstænd/ ´ To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /rout/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /saη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn/ hacer. colocar leer correr. 3. They´ve given her Tom´s new address. (see) 5. My friends ________________ in this house for over 10 years.

___________________________________________ The boys have done nothing today. en el Ejército? ___________________________________________________ ¿Dónde han estado ellos desde las ocho de esta mañana? ______________________________________________ PART II A. ___________________________________________________ They´ve bought a new house. 5. Traduzca las siguientes oraciones al inglés. /g/. 12. todavía? ___________________________________________________ ¿Cuánto tiempo ha trabajado Ud. 1. ___________________________________________________ El General ya se ha ido a la reunión.Ex. 1. Conteste las siguientes preguntas usando las expresiones dadas después de cada pregunta: 1. How long. John? ___________________________________________________ Mi suegro ha vivido en esta ciudad toda su vida. 2. 5. ___________________________________________________ Tom´s lived in Pakistan for over a year. ______________________________________________ No. 10. 2. etc. ___________________________________________________ He´s gone to bed because he´s ill. ___________________________________________________ Paul´s worked for our company since 1989. pero se debe pronunciar /z/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sonora. 5. 4. ___________________________________________________ John has been in Chicago and Boston. /l/. ___________________________________________________ ¿Por qué no han visitado California Uds. Esta regla también se aplica a los sustantivos terminados en -e “muda” Ejemplos: one book /buk/ one hat /hæt/ one dam /dæm/ one pad /pæd/ two books /buks/ six hats /hæts/ two dams /dæmz/ ten pads /pædz/ one top /top/ one bag /bæg/ one club /klab/ three tops /tops/ three bags /bægz/ two clubs /klabz/ A short course in english for adult students 161 . _________________________________________________ Ex. ___________________________________________________ They´ve sold ten books today. _______________________________________________ Yes. 7. /b/. 7. En Inglés los sustantivos normalmente se pluralizan agregando una -s al singular. 4. Has Maria ever visited the USA? (twice) 3. ___________________________________________________ Ann hasn´t answered the letters because she´s been too busy. ___________________________________________________ The students have done the same exercise three times. etc. Have you ever been to Japan? (never). ___________________________________________________ We´ve waited for them for more than two hours. She __________________________________________ In 1991 and in 1997 ___________________________________________________ Yes. ___________________________________________________ ¿Has mirado televisión esta tarde. 5. 3. 9. /d/. _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 7. 8. es decir sin vibración de las cuerdas vocales. 10. como /m/. 8. como /k/. es decir con vibración de las cuerdas vocales. 6. Tom´s seen that same movie three times. 2. 4. Este sufijo se pronuncia /s/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sorda. When. Formule preguntas usando palabras interrogativas como What. 6. ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué te ha contado Mary acerca de ello? ___________________________________________________ Ellos han estudiado Inglés por más de dos años. /t/.. 4. PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS (LA PLURALIZACIÓN DE LOS SUSTANTIVOS) 1. ___________________________________________________ I´ve eaten a ham sandwich. 3. /p/. Where. How. 6. ___________________________________________________ Ellos han estado aquí varias veces antes. 11. 6. Have they ever seen a UFO? (Never) Have you ever driven a Mercedes? (Once or twice) Has your father ever lived abroad? (several times) Have you seen the President in person? (never) Has Susan ever come to Chile? (a couple of times) ___________________________________________________ Yes. etc. Yo no he leído ese libro todavía. 9.

pero aquellas que terminan en -y precedida por una consonante cambian la -y por -i y enseguida agregan -es Ejemplos: one day /dei/ one key /ki:/ one boy /boi/ two days /deiz/ five keys /ki:z/ three boys /boiz/ one lily /líli/ one baby /béibi/ one fly /flái/ three lilies /líliz/ two babies /béibiz/ several flies /fláiz/ 4. soprano. Los sustantivos terminados en -y precedida por una vocal agregan -s para formar su plural. several beliefs /bilí:fs/ one cliff /klif/. some cliffs /klifs/ a roof /ru:f/. Ejemplos: one handkerchief /hænke:rtchi:f/. banjo. -sh. también se incluyen aquí los sustantivos terminados en -se. piano. Los sustantivos terminadas en -o precedida por una vocal normalmente agregan una -s Ejemplos: one tomato /toméitou/ one hero /híarou/ one radio /réidiou/ one video /vídiou/ one studio /stúdiou/ two tomatoes /toméitouz/ two heroes /híarouz/ two radios /réidiouz/ three videos /vídiouz/ two studios /stúdiouz/ one potato /potéitou/ one folio /fóuliou/ one zoo /zu:/ two potatoes /potéitouz/ two folios /fóuliouz/ several zoos /zu:z/ 162 A short course in english for adult students . -ff. forman su plural cambiando la -f o -fe en -ves. -ch. -ge. solo. o -z forman el plural agregando -es /iz/ . sino que simplemente agregan -s para formar el plural. Los sustantivos que terminan en -s. los que solamente agregan -s pero en este caso la pronunciación tambien es /iz/ Ejemplos: One bus /bás/ One watch /wótch/ One case /keis/ One page /péidll/ two buses /básiz/ three watches /wótchiz/ two cases /kéisiz/ ten pages /péidlliz/ one brush /brash/ one box /boks/ one face /féis/ four brushes /bráshiz/ ten boxes /bóksiz/ three faces /féisiz/ 3. -oof. -ce. Los sustantivos terminados en -f o -fe.one gate /géit/ one note /nóut/ one name /néim/ one tone /tóun/ two gates /geits/ ten notes /nóuts/ two names /néimz/ two tones /tóunz/ one lake /léik/ one cave /kéiv/ several lakes /léiks/ two caves /kéivz/ 2. two roofs /ru:fs/ 5. etc). Ejemplos: one leaf /li:f/ one wolf /wulf/ one wife /waif/ two leaves /li:vz/ five wolves /wulvz/ three wives /wáivz/ one loaf /lóuf/ one knife /naïf/ three loaves /lóuvz/ ten knives /náivz/ Algunos sustantivos terminados en -ief. two handkerchiefs /hænke:rtchi:fs/ a belief /bilí:f/. -x. Los sustantivos terminados en -o precedida por una consonante normalmente agregan -es para formar el plural (excepto las palabras relacionadas con música (generalmente de origen italiano) como. no siguen la regla anterior.

: mosquitos/mosquitoes /moskitouz/ . volcano / volkéinou / y zero / zíarou / forman el plural agregando indistintamente -s o -es. Existen algunos sustantivos que mantienen la misma forma en el plural: Ejemplos: one/several fish /fish/ one/two series /siariz/ one/several aircraft /éarkrá:ft/ one/ten deer /díar/ one/ten sheep /shi:p/ one/several means /mí:nz/ one/two species /spíshiz/ 8. tornados/tornadoes /to:rnéidouz/ . Existen algunos plurales irregulares que no siguen ninguna de las reglas anteriores y que debemos memorizar: Ejemplos: one man /mæn/ one woman /wúman/ one child /tcháild/ one tooth /tu:θ/ one foot / fu:t / one goose /gu:z/ one louse /láus/ one mouse /máus/ one ox /oks/ two men /men/ three women /wímin/ five several children /tchíldren/ two teeth /tí:θ/ two feet /fi:t/ ten geese /gí:z/ several lice /láis/ three mice /máis/ four oxen /óksen/ 7. tornado / to:rnéidou /. Existen algunos sustantivos de origen latín o griego que tienen plurales especiales o irregulares: Ejemplos: criterion /kraitérion/ analysis /anælisis/ ´ crisis /kráisis/ oasis /ouéisis/ thesis /θí:sis/ curriculum /karíkiulam/ medium /mí:diam/ stimulus /stímiulas/ cactus /kæktas/ ´ syllabus /sílabas/ formula /fó :rmiula/ vertebra /vértibra/ appendix /apéndiks/ index /índeks/ criteria /kraitíaria/ analyses /anælisi:z/ ´ crises /kráisi:z/ oases /ouéisiz/ theses /δí:siz/ curricula /karíkiula/ media /mí:dia/ stimuli /stímiulai/ cacti /kæktai/ ´ syllabi /sílabai/ formulae /fó :rmiuli:/ vertebrae /vértibri:/ appendices /apéndisi:z/ indices /indisi:z/ phenomenon /fenómenon/ basis /béisis/ hypothesis /haipóθesis/ parenthesis /parénθesis/ bacterium /bæktí:ariam/ datum /déitam/ memorandum /memorædam/ ´ cactuses /kæktasi:z/ ´ syllabuses /sílabasiz/ formulas /fó :rmiulaz/ appendixes /apéndiksi:z/ indexes /índeksiz/ phenomena /fenómena/ bases /béisi:z/ hypotheses /haipóθesi:z/ parentheses /parénθesi:z/ bacteria /bæktía:ria/ data /déita/ memoranda /memorδda/ A short course in english for adult students 163 . volcanos/volcanoes /volkéinouz/ .Excepciones one piano /pianou/ one kilo /kílou/ one photo /fóutou/ two pianos /pianouz/ two kilos /kílouz/ several photos /fóutouz/ one banjo /bændllou/ ´ one memo /mémou/ two banjos /bændllouz/ ´ three memos /mémouz/ Los sustantivos mosquito /moskitou/. zeros/zeroes /zíarouz/ 6.

como To want (I want to read the newspaper). to speak. pensar en To delay /diléi/ retrasar To deny /dinái/ negar. 164 A short course in english for adult students . etc. I heard some surprising news. como ud. o de un BARE INFINITIVE (infinitivo sin To). Mrs Brown goes shopping every Saturday morning. USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. They went sightseeing in the morning. I enjoy playing tennis. seguir To mind /máind/ importar. como To make (He made us do the exercise again). como To enjoy (I enjoy reading) y otros verbos que normalmente van seguidos de TO + INFINITIVO. recordar con nostalgia To postpone /pospóun/ postergar To appreciate /áprishieit/ agradecer To risk /risk/ arriesgar. After playing tennis. (Uso de los infinitivos y los gerundios) Se denomina Infinitivo a la palabra To + la forma simple de un verbo principal: to go. Ann will soon finish typing the letter. etc. (ver reglas dadas en la Unit 4) Un gerundio puede actuar como: a) b) c) d) Sujeto de una oración: Complemento directo de un verbo: Complemento de una preposición: Adjetivo: Playing tennis is fun. salir. También existe un grupo de verbos que pueden ir seguidos indistinatamente de TO + INFINITIVO o de un GERUNDIO (I like to swim / I like swimming). they went to the library. I was playing tennis at this time yesterday. Además.B. continuar. aceptar como cierto To avoid /avóid/ evitar To consider /konsíder/ considerar. molestar To miss /mis/ echar de menos. El gerundio es la forma simple de un verbo principal + el sufijo -ING: going. gustar To finish /fínish/ terminar To imagine /imádllin/ imaginar(se) To involve /invóulv/ involucrar.) To go window-shopping /góu wíndow shópiη/ ir a vitrinear Ejemplos: I usually go jogging in the evening. to write. 1. el gerundio (en este caso el presente participio) se usa con el verbo TO BE para expresar los tiempos continuos o progresivos: I am playing tennis now. speaking. writing. seguramente recordará. gustar To fancy /f(nsi/ agradar. abandonar To suggest /sadllést/ sugerir To practise /práktis/ practicar Ejemplos: Would you mind closing the door? I enjoy walking in the park in the morning. Existen algunos verbos que van seguidos normalmente por un GERUNDIO. comprender To keep /kí:p/ mantener(se). correr el riesgo de To quit /kuit/ dejar. El verbo TO GO va seguido de un gerundio en expresiones que se refieren a actividades deportivas como las siguientes: To go boating /góu bóutiη/ ir a andar en bote To go bowling /góu bóuliη/ ir a jugar a los bolos To go camping /góu kæmpiη/ ir a acampar To go dancing /góu dænsiη/ ir a bailar To go fishing /góu físhiη/ ir a pescar To go hang gliding /góu hænd gláidiη/ ir a planear (delta) To go hiking /góu háikiη/ ir a excursionar To go jogging /góu dllógiη/ ir a trotar To go running /góu rániη/ ir a correr To go sailing /góu séiliη/ ir a andar en yate To go shopping /góu shópiη/ ir de compras To go sightseeing /góu sáitsí:iη/ ir en un tour To go skating /góu skéitiη/ ir a patinar To go skiing /góu skí:iη/ ir a esquiar To go skydiving /góu skáidáiviη/ ir a hacer salto libre To go swimming /góu swímiη/ ir a nadar To go trekking /góu trékiη/ ir de excursión To go water-skiing /góu wó:terskí:iη/ ir a esquiar (acuat. no aceptar como cierto To enjoy /endllói/ disfrutar. VERB + GERUND Los siguientes verbos van normalmente seguidos de un gerundio: To admit /admit/ admitir.

?) There´s no use waiting any longer. Would you mind ______________________________ (wait) a few minutes? They´ve stopped ______________________________ (speak) to each other. las siguientes expresiones van seguidas de un gerundio: Hay algunas expresiones idiomáticas que a pesar de contener la preposición to van seguidas de un gerundio To accuse someone of /akiú:z sámwane v/ To apologize for /apólodlláiz for/ To be accustomed to /bí: akástomd tu/ To be afraid of /bí: afréid v/ To be capable of /bí: kéipabl v/ To be fond of /bí: fond v/ To be tired of /bí: táiard v/ To be used to /bí: iu:st tu/ To carry on /kæri on/ ´ To dream of/about /drí:m v. He left the house ______________________________ good bye. Bob will soon get used to living in this country.. 4. rendirse continuar. Las siguientes expresiones idiomáticas también van seguidas de un gerundio: There´s no use /δeaz nóu iu:s/ No vale la pena. I look forward to seeing you soon. (say) The girl washed the apple ______________________________ it. Supply the gerund form of the verb in parentheses 1. the old woman locked all the doors. 4. 1.. 2. It´s no use /its nóu iu:s/ There´s not much point in /δeaz nót match póint in/ No sirve de mucho Is this. 2. seguir. A short course in english for adult students 165 . 3. Es inutil It´s no use insisting There´s not much point in doing that. Por lo tanto. Have you fínished ______________________________ (read) the book yet? We’re considering ______________________________ (take) a new course. Ann is fond of gardening. dejar para más tarde o después lograr exitosamente conversar...? Is it worthwhile /iz it we:rθwail/ ¿Vale la pena. seguir insistir en continuar. discutir Ejemplos: John´s given up smoking at last.. abáut/ To feel like /fí:l láik/ To forgive somebody for /forgív sámbodi for/ To get through /get θru:/ To get used to /get iu:st tu/ To give up /giv áp/ To go on /gou ón/ To insist on /insíst ón/ To keep on /kí:p ón/ To look forward to /luk fórward tu/ To prevent somebody from /privént sámbodi from/ To put off /put óf/ To succeed in /saksí:d in/ To talk about /to:k abáut/ acusar a alguien de disculparse por estar acostumbrado a tener miedo a ser capaz de ser aficionado a estar cansado de estar acostumbrado a continuar. worth /iz δis. Is this book worth reading? Is it worthwhile going there now? EXERCISES Ex. 6.. mantenerse soñar con.esta/e. soñar que sentir o tener ganas de perdonar a alguien por terminar acostumbrarse a dejar de. (pay) 1 can increase my salary ______________________________ overtime. seguir. (eat) Bob left the restaurant ______________________________ the check. (take) He put on his coat ______________________________ the house. (leave) ______________________________ to bed. mantenerse esperar con ansia. (go) Ex. 5. 2.. 7.Todas las preposiciones (excepto la preposición to) van seguidas de un gerundio.. Use the correct preposition in the blank space and the gerund of the verbs in parentheses..we:rθ/ ¿Vale la pena. 1. They kept on talking for hours. 3. desear evitar o impedir que alguien postergar. (work) We’re thinking ______________________________ a trip to Europe..

5. 9. 11. Complete each sentence with one of these verbs: answer 1. I don’t mind you _______________________ the phone as long as you pay for all your calls. 3. 8. Ann: What shall we do? Bob suggested going to the cinema. I considered _______________________ for the job but in the end I decided against it. Ex. It´s better to avoid ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Sorry! Bob admitted. 1 don’t mind ______________________________ (have) to work till late on Fridays. Could you please stop _______________________ so much noise? I enjoy _______________________ to music. Use -ING. It´s not a good. 12. He wants to carry on _______________________. What a stupid thing to do! Can you imagine anybody _______________________ so stupid? Sarah gave up _______________________ to find a job in this country and decided to go abroad. I really must do it today. 10. _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 1. idea to travel during the rush hour. 4. The driver of the car admitted ____________________________________________________________________ 166 A short course in english for adult students . _______________________________________? 4. 1. 8. Bob: We could go the cinema. Shall we go away tomorrow instead of today? Shall we postpone ________________________________ until. Ann: You broke into the shop. Ann: Do you want to play tennis Bob: No. Ann: Can you wait a few minutes? Bob: Sure. The boy’s finished ______________________________ (eat) his supper. Ex. 2. 2. I can do what I want and you can´t stop me. apply be be listen make see try use wash work write He tried to avoid answering my question. 1 aIways enjoy ______________________________ (visit) new places. Bob didn’t fancy _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. 6. 7. 9. Ann: Why don’t we go for a swim? Bob: Good idea! Ann suggested ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. you risk _______________________ knocked down by a passing car. 1 dislike ______________________________ (ride) on the subway. You can´t stop me doing what I want. no problem. The driver couldn’t avoid ______________________________ (hit) the pedestrian. Bob didn’t mind ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. The driver of the car said it was true that he didn´t have a licence. 3. Hello! Fancy _______________________ you here! What a surprise! I’ve put off _______________________ the letter so many times. Jim is 65 but he isn’t going to retire yet. Complete the sentences for each situation using -ing. 7. 5. Have you finished _______________________ your hair yet? If you walk ínto the road without looking. Bob: No. They can’t risk ______________________________ (be) seen. 4. 1 didn’t! Bob denied ___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. it’s true. Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the first sentence. 6. 10. 5. 2. Ann: You were driving so fast! Bob: Yes. not really.

______________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 167 . ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I don’t fancy ______________________________________________________________ l’m afraid there aren’t any more chairs. (study) Bob has very little experience _______________________ trucks. He will marry Helen. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. We’re going to the movie tonight. so I suggested ________________________________________________________________ It was very funny. 6. 5. 7. 5. She won’t go to the university. (hit) There is little chance _______________________ her again. (see) The seat belt prevented me _______________________ my head against the windshield. please? Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? 6. 8. He will not remain a bachelor. He will not work in his father’s store. 11. (wait) Bill has no intention _______________________ part in the game. Mary is very fond _______________________ in the river (swim) John insisted _______________________ to the stadium with us. They will stay home this summer. They won’t go abroad. Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. We will not visit the Smiths. 4. 2. 10. I will play tennis. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7.5. (see) lt’s a question _______________________ it at once. I won’t work in the garden today I will play tennis instead of working in the garden today. I aIways enjoy talking to her. 4. I couldn´t stop __________________________________________________________________ My car isn´t very reliable. (do) We are thinking _______________________ French. She will study music. (finish) Ex. 1. They will not drive in their new car. 2. (go) Henry needs much more practice _______________________ (speak) We look forward _______________________ you soon. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Please don´t interrupt me all the time. Could you turn the radio down. 12. 6. (drive) John got tired _______________________ for us. 9. 8. 2. I hope you don`t mind _________________________________________ It was a lovely day. 3. She’s a very interesting person. 3. It keeps _________________________________________________________________ Ex. (take) There´s no possibility _______________________ the work today. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. He will not stay at the home of his cousin. They will fly to Mexico. Supply the correct preposition and the gerund form of the verb in parentheses: 1. He will live in a dormitory. 7. John will study to be an engineer. l’m not feeling very well. Join the following pairs of sentences by using INSTEAD OF /instéd ov/ (en vez de) 1. 6. Use gerunds.

A: What are you doing? B: I´m helping Teddy with his homework. she dusted the furniture. A: Are you listening to me? B: Yes. Keep _______________________. I´m considering ___________________________________ 3. Keep__________________________________ lf at first you don`t succeed. They’re considering _______________________ We discussed _______________________ Colorado for our vacation. news! I feel great. so we postponed going to/visiting the botanical gardens. 4._______________________ their homework. I´m thinking about ___________________________________ B: Do you think you´ll get another Honda? A: No. don’t give up. 168 A short course in english for adult students . Add a preposition after the gerund. I’m thinking about _______________________ a biology course next semester. I´m not tired yet. A: Are you a procrastinator? B: A what? A: A procrastinator. then. 11. Be sure to use a gerund in each sentence. yesterday. The Porters´ house is too small. and 1 still don’t understand it. B: Let´s go. 6. B: Oh? A: I quit ___________________________________ B: That´s wonderful! 5. 8. but it finally stopped _______________________ around 10 p. B: Well. sometimes I put off ___________________________________ 7.Ex. A: Good. try again. B: Oh.m. and I don’t run out of breath when I walk up a hill. 7. lt’s slowly falling apart. 10. Beth doesn’t like her job. A: What do you usually do in your free time in the evening? B: I enjoy ___________________________________ 4. A: Would you like to go for a walk? B: Has it stopped raining? A: Yes. A: I´ve been having a lot of trouble with my old Honda the last couple of months. It was cold and rainy yesterday. I´d be glad to. 12. I enjoy _______________________ sports. 10. 3. That’s someone who always postpones ___________________________________. 1. it has. I’m listening to you. 2. buy a new car do things go to the zoo on Saturday rain repeat that help him do my homework get a Toyota try read a good book smoke tap your fingernails on the table 1.. I quit _______________________ comic books when I was twelve years old. Sometimes students put off. I don’t cough any more. Let’s keep on _______________________ for another hour or so. Use the expressions in the list or your own words. A: Could you please stop doing that? B: Doing what? A: Stop ___________________________________ It´s driving me crazy. We had a blizzard. Complete the sentences by using GERUNDS. When Martha finished _______________________ the floor. A: Do you want to take a break? B: No. 5. 14. 9. try. 2. Complete the sentences in the dialogues. 6. I´m considering _______________________ New York City. Ex. 9. if necessary. Well. 8. She’s talking about _______________________ a different job. A: When you finísh ___________________________________ could you he1p me in the kitchen? B: Sure. 13. A: I’ve been working on this math problem for the last half hour. A: Would you mind _______________________ the window? B: Not at all.

It´s winter now. What does she like to do? She likes to go swimming 2. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 14. Would you mind ___________________________________? B: Of course not. What are the Taylors going to do tomorrow? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. My sister goes to the beach almost every day. She goes to a place where she rolls a thirteen-pound ball at some wooden pins.. George and Jane know all the latest dances. Johnson likes to go to the Shopping Mall and buy things. Answer the questions. What does he like to do? He likes _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. What do they do on buses? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. The ice is smooth. Use the expressions GO +. so the lake is completely frozen. When there’s a strong wind. Jim and his wife live near the sea. Mr. She runs a couple of miles every day. They don’t open their parachutes until the last minute.ING 1. She spends hours in the water. “Three free trees. He usually takes long walks in the woods. Barbarta prefers indoor sports. The Taylors are going to go to a little lake near their house tomorrow. Smith´s wife takes good care of her health. What do they like to do? They ________________________________________________________________________________________ . What do you like to do for exercise and fun? I _____________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 169 . What do they like to do? hey like _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. “ Ex. they like to spend the day ín their yatch. 11. the Smiths sometimes go to a mountain resort. A: I didn’t understand what you said. What does Sara often do? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. I said. Frank and his girlfriend like to spend the whole day on a lake with poles in their hands. Colette and Ben like to jump out of airplanes.9. Tourists often get on buses that take them to see interesting places in an area. What does she do every day? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. A: Do you have any plans for this weekend? B: Henry and I talked about ___________________________________ 10. They like to race down the side of a mountain in the snow. What do they probably do a lot? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 10.. What did he do last summer? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. On weekends in the winter. What does Joe like to do? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. He slept in a tent and cooked his food over a fire. Mr. Jim Clark is a nature lover. Last summer John went to Paine National Park.

BASIC VOCABULARY: A. at 4. a en la parte posterior de en la parte inferior de en la parte superior de antes de detrás de más abajo de más abajo de al lado de además de entre (dos) más allá de por. en dirección a debajo de hasta hacia arriba de con dentro de sin Example about the history of the USA above the clouds across the street after the lesson against the enemy along the coast among all the girls around the house at home. hacia hacia.r/ behind /biháind/ below /bilóu/ beneath /biní:θ/ beside /bisáid/ besides /bisáidz/ between /bituí:n/ beyond /biyónd/ by /bai/ despite /dispáit/ down /dáun/ during /diúriη/ far from /fá:r from/ for /fo:r/ from /from/ in /in/ in front of /in fránt v/ in the corner of /in δ kórner v/ inside /insáid/ into /íntu/ near /niar/ next to /nékst tu/ of / v/ off /of/ on /on/ onto /óntu/ opposite /óposit/ out /áut/ out of /áut v/ outside /autsáid/ over /óuver/ since /sins/ through /θru:/ till /til/ to /tu/ towards /tuwó:rdz/ under /ánder/ until /antíl/ up /ap/ with /wiδ/ within /wiδin/ without /wiδáut/ 170 A short course in english for adult students Spanish acerca de más arriba de a través de (de un lado al otro) después de en contra de a lo largo de entre (varios) alrededor de en. de en al frente de en la esquina de dentro de hacia adentro cerca de próximo a de lejos de encima de (sobre) hacia encima de frente a afuera hacia afuera fuera de sobre desde a través de hasta a. PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES English about / báut/ above / báv/ across / krós/ after /á:fter/ against /egéinst/ along / lóη/ among / máη/ around / ráund/ at / t/ at the back of / t δ bæk v/ at the bottom of / t δ bótom v/ at the top of / t δ top ηv/ before /bifó. cerca de a pesar de hacia abajo durante lejos de para desde.15 at the back of the room at the bottom of the map at the top of the shelf before the lesson behind the door below the carpet beneath the ground beside the table besides John Clark between you and me beyond the hill by the river despite the noise down the coast during the day far from London for the students from the USA in the garden in front of the school in the corner of the room inside the classroom into the room near the hospital next to the supermarket of the week off the coast on the desk onto the table opposite the bank out in the street out of the room outside the office over the roof since that day through the tunnel till tomorrow to the office towards the east under the table until next Sunday up the road with my friends within a week without money .

ni. nevertheless. en consecuencia posteriormente. on the other hand. we have to wash the car. Mary was sick.. but he didn´t do well in the test... he seems to know a lot about our customs. next /nékst/ a pesar de.. en realidad in addition /in adíshon/ además in spite of that /in spáit v δæt/ a pesar de ello in the first place /in δ fé:rst pléis/ en primer lugar in the meantime /in δ mí:ntaim/ mientras tanto in the same way /in δ seim wéi/ del mismo modo on one hand / n wan hænd/ por un lado ´ on the other hand / n δi áδ r hænd/ por otro lado ´ to begin with /tu bigín wiδ/ para comenzar to start with /tu stá:rt wiδ/ para comenzar A short course in english for adult students 171 . por fin similarly /símilarli/ en primer lugar. He´s my best friend. besides. 13. de lo contrario similarmente. First.... pues por lo tanto. the house is not very comfortable. por otra parte sin embargo. He gave her a beautiful diamond.nor /ní:δer. 7. he went to the post office. The student speaks English well.. en lugar de eso Phrasal adverbial connectives after all /á:fter ó:l/ as a consequence /az kónsikwens/ as a matter of fact /az máter ov fækt/ ´ as a result /az rizált/ even so /í:vn sóu/ first of all /fé:rst v ó:l/ for example /for igzámpl/ for instance /for ínstans/ for one thing /for wan θiη/ for that reason /for δæt rí:zn/ ´ Examples: 1... 10. 3. nonetheless. al comienzo instead /instéd/ en último término del mismo modo.. Peter and Tom went to visit Hans in hospital. Alice studied very hard... moreover. con posterioridad por lo tanto. he took her to Europe. furthermore... primeramente so /sóu/ además subsequently /sábsikwentli/ de aquí que. in addition. then. it has an excellent location 14. no obstante therefore /δéarfo:r/ en efecto..but also /nót óunli.como.... ya sea. debido a que no both.and.or /í:δer. 11. I´m getting along quite well. 12. we´ve known each other all our lives. It´s cold outside. Connectors Coordinating conjunctions: and /ánd/ or /o:r/ so /sou / for /fó:r/ not /not/ y o por lo tanto porque. He studied hard as well.and/ either. sin embargo. enseguida. entonces. por lo tanto then /δen/ sin embargo. we can´t afford the house. no sólo. Both Peter and Tom went to see Hans in hospital. por consiguiente así. así mismo mientras tanto además. 5. no obstante después... de este modo en cambio.. He didn´t study hard enough.. 9..no:r/ not only.. On one hand.but ólsou/ yet /iét/ tanto.o:r/ neither. no obstante nonetheless /nanδeles/ igualmente otherwise /áδerwaiz/ finalmente... no obstante Adverbial connectives: accordingly /akó:rdiηli/ actually /æktchuali/ ´ although /ólδou/ anyway /éniwei/ besides /bisáidz/ consequently /kónsekwentli/ despite /dispáit/ equally /íkwali / finally /fáinali/ first /fé:rst/ furthermore /férδermó:r/ hence /héns/ however /hauéver/ indeed /indí:d/ initially /iníshiali/ en conformidad last(ly) /lá:stli/ en realidad likewise /láikwaiz/ aún cuando. o.sino que también. aunque...B. acto seguido sin embargo. 2. como resultado de ello aún así en primer término por ejemplo por ejemplo en primer lugar por ese motivo in fact /in fækt/ de hecho.. she came to class. 6. /bóuθ. he went to the bank. a pesar de meanwhile /mí:nwail/ de todos modos moreover /mó:rouver/ además nevertheless /néverδelés/ en consecuencia. yet she didn´t pass her exam.. my roommate is not doing so well.. however. The yard is too big.. no obstante ello de otro modo. 8. después de todo como resultado de ello en realidad. 4. so he failed the exam. por cierto thus /δas/ inicialmente. del mismo modo por lo tanto. ni..

Bl 172 .

. answering 11. Yes. 6. has. she´s come here a couple of times. washing 6. snowing 7.. before eating 3.1 1. playing tennis 3. instead of remaining a bachelor 8. How long has Tom lived in Pakistán? 5. 1. being 7.. They´ve studied English for more than two years. they´ve never seen one 4. 1. Have you watched TV this afternoon / evening. going away. Ex. of swimming 2. taking 9. going for a swim 5..? Ex. 5. applying 5. How many books have they sold today? 6. What has Mary told you about that? 7. How long have we / you waited for them? 12. Yes. I haven´t read that book yet. They haven´t given her. of taking 12. They haven´t studied the report / Have they studied the report? 4. has been 3. I´ve never seen him in person. The soccer game hasn´t finished yet / Has the soccer game finished already / yet? 2. 1.. using 9. How many times has Tom seen that same movie? 2.received 7. 2.. instead of going abroad 4. working 8. laughing 6. about studying 9.read 11. has . What have the boys done today? 11.left 4.. have .instead of staying at the home of his cousin 7.Key to answers UNIT 12 A. by working 5. riding 7. 3. have seen 5. looking for 10. taking 5. going out this evening 3.instead of working in his father´s store 6. going to 4. Ex. visiting 12. has spoken 12. 3. 3.instead of going to the university 3. 5. of doing 8. standing up 4. has worked 9.. 5. Ex. Why has he gone to bed? 4. seeing 10. 1.. of seeing 7. going out for a walk 5. has gone 8. in speaking 4. speaking 3. have lived 6. to seeing 5. tomorrow 4. 3. No. 4. 2. 4. listening 4. being 8. Why hasn´t Ann answered the letters? 10. Ex.started 2. before leaving 7. No. hitting 9. about taking 6. visiting Ex. What have they bought? 3.. 8. she´s been there twice. moving into a larger house 3. travelling during the rush hour 3. working 14. speaking 13..instead of driving in their new car Ex. trying Ex.. Driving / having been driving too fast 4. being 12. How long has Paul worked for our company? 7. My father-in-law has lived in this city all his life. waiting a few minutes. The plane hasn´t left yet / Has the plane left already / yet? 5. Breaking / having broken 6. having 10. from hitting 6. he´s lived abroad several times 6. doing 6.. reading 4. I´ve driven one once or twice.. The general has already gone to the meeting. practising 11.. 1. not interrupting me all the time? Ex. on going 3.. Where has John been? 9. of waiting 11. How many times have the students done the same exercise? Ex. 9. 8. (Possible answers) 2. breaking down Ex. Yes. Where have they been since eight o´clock this morning? B. (Possible answers) 2. has . not having a license 5.. please? 6. eating 6. Why haven´t you visited California yet? 9. vacuuming 5. 2.Yes. 2. making 3.. 7.. They´ve been here several times before. without / after paying 4.. I´ve never been there 2.. waiting 2.. has . of finishing Ex.. 7. 1. No. turning the radio down. How long have you worked in the army? 10. Peter hasn´t had dinner yet / Has Peter had dinner already / yet? 3. closing A short course in english for adult students 173 . instead of visiting the Smiths 5. 2. buying 8.. John hasn´t sent them a fax / Has John sent them a fax? 6. without / after saying 2. 1. 6. / Have they given her.. 2. 6. What have you eaten? 8. of driving 10.. John? 5. have met Ex. 4.been 10. before going Ex.

like to go skiing 7.Ex. helping him 8. tapping your fingernails on the table 9. are going to go ice-skating 11. to go water-skiing 3. likes trekking 8. like to go sailing 12. like to go sky-diving 14. etc. 11. go sight-seeing 13. 10. doing things / doing his homework 7. going to the zoo on Saturday 10. repeating that Ex. went camping 4. reading a good book 4. go dancing 10. smoking 5. like to go (fishing / window-shopping / swimming. 2. to go shopping 5. trying 6. buying a new car / getting a Toyota 3. 174 A short course in english for adult students . goes bowling 9. goes jogging 6. 2.

They _______________________________ in the office for several hours. (sit) The cadets _______________________________ at attention for about 15 minutes. Lea. /its bí:n ráiniη for abáut an áuar/. escuche y aprenda: Tom hasn´t been working there for more than 2 hours. /δéiv bi:n líviη in δe sáuθ for at lí:st tú mánθs/ Ellos han estado viviendo en esa casa por lo menos 2 meses. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PRESENT PERFECCT CONTINUOUS) Este tiempo verbal está formado por el presente perfecto de To Be (HAVE BEEN /hav bí:n/ HAS BEEN /haz bí:n/) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal. 2. /wí:v bí:n stádiiη iηglish for óuver tú: mánθs/ It´s been raining for about an hour. 2 horas They ´ve lived in the South ever since they got married. hasta esta fecha. (stand) A short course in english for adult students 175 . Complete the following sentences using the verb provided in the Present Perfect Continuous Tense.? EXERCISES Ex. (work) That man _______________________________ there for about 2 hours. La forma negativa se expresa usando HAVEN´T BEEN /hævnt bí:n/ HASN´T BEEN /hæznt bí:n/ más el GERUNDIO y en la forma interrogativa de debe usar HAVE/HAS delante del sujeto de la oración. /δéi hav bí:n líviη in maiámi sins náintin éiti fáiv/ We´ve been studying English for over two months. escuche y aprenda: Tom has been working there since 8:30 las 8. Lea.UNIT 13 PART 1. Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado realizándose en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento. Normalmente este tiempo describe acciones que se empezaron a realizar hace poco tiempo. 3.30. /hi:z bí:n wérkiη δéar for abáut tú: áuarz/. /tóm haz bí:n wé:rkiη δéar sins éit θé:rti/. El ha estado trabajando allí aprox. /δéiv lívd in δe sáuθ éver sins δéi gót mærid/ Ellos han vivido en el sur desde que se casaron They´ve been living in that house for at least two months. /tóm /hæznt bí:n wé:rkiη δéar for mó:ar δan tú: áuarz/ Tom no ha estado trabajando allí por más de dos horas Have they been living there very long? /hav δei bí:n líviη δéar véri lóη/ ¿Han estado ellos viviendo allí mucho tiempo? How long have you been practising English today? /háu loη hav iú: bi:n præktisiη íηglish tudéi/ ¿Cuánto tiempo has estado practicando inglés hoy día? La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT HAVE YOU BEEN DOING? /wót av iu: bi:n dú:iη/ ¿Qué ha estado haciendo Ud. estudiando inglés por más de dos meses. Ha estado lloviendo cerca de una hora Compare: He´s worked there for many years. 4. 1. Miami desde 1985. Tom _______________________________ here for several months (live) . Tom ha estado trabajando ahí desde Ellos han estado viviendo en Nosotros hemos estado They have been living in Miami since 1985. 1. /hi:z wé:rkt δéar for méni yíarz/ El ha trabajado allí por muchos años He´s been working there for about 2 hours.

________________________________________________________________________________________________? 176 A short course in english for adult students . 9. and b) interrogative. (work out) The generals _______________________________the situation all morning. Henry´s been reading the newspaper all morning. They´ve been saving money because they´re planning to buy a house. When. He´s been living in Caracas since 1995. (discuss) Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Where. 8. (write) The officers _______________________________ in the gym for about 45 minutes. etc. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. 6. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 1. They´ve been discussing the new project too long. They´ve been waiting for a taxi for about 15 minutes. (read) Miss Black _______________________________ her new novel since April. They´ve been playing tennis since midday. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Bob´s been swimming all morning. The boy´s been listening to the radio since 7 o´clock. How long.5. Change the following sentences into a) negative. They´ve been staying at the Rex Hotel. 3. Jane´s been feeling well since March. Bill´s been sleeping all morning. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. Ask questions using question words like What. I _______________________________ for the bus for more than 10 minutes (wait) Jack and Mary _______________________________ in the park for nearly an hour. 10. 7. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. 2. (run) The commander _______________________________ the report all evening. 1. My friends have been living in Madrid since December 2002 ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 6.

Existen algunas variantes de la estructura presentada anteriormente. The students tend to be negligent. querer decir Ofrecer(se) Planificar Fingir. TO A short course in english for adult students 177 . TO WISH /wish/ desear. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. I promise to help you. TO TEND /tend/ tender a They seem to be very annoyed. afirmar autoría Decidir Merecer No conseguir. The boy doesn´t want to do his homework now. The woman pretends to know everything. simular. /si:m/ parecer. USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. van seguidos por to+Infinitive Los siguientes verbos van seguidos de to+infinitive: To agree /agrí:/ To afford /afó:rd/ To aim /éim/ To arrange /arréindll/ To ask /a:sk/ To attempt /atémpt/ To claim /kléim/ To decide /disáid/ To deserve /disε´:rv/ To fail /féil/ To forget /forgét/ Acordar Disponer (dinero o tiempo) Aspirar Convenir Solicitar Intentar Reclamar. simular Prometer Rehusar. TO DECIDE planear. Verb + to be + adjective Esta estructura es muy común con los siguientes verbos: TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. Peter wants to study engeneering. (II) A. no lograr Olvidar To hope /houp/ To learn /lε:rn/ To manage /mænidll/ ´ To mean /mi:n/ To offer /ófer/ To plan /plæn/ To pretend /priténd/ To promise /prómis/ To refuse /refiú:z/ To threaten /θréten/ To want /wont/ Esperar (desear) Aprender Conseguir (lograr) Tener intención de. TO SEEM /si:m/ parecer. Querer (necesitar) /disáid/ decidir. tambien pueden ir seguidos de TO BE + Gerund: Mary appeared to be suffering too much. TO SEEM TEND /tend/ tender a. 2.PART II. I can´t afford to buy a Honda car. Verb + to be +Gerund (Continuous Infinitive) Los verbos TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. verse. The man attempted to escape from the prison twice. pensar. He pretended to be reading the paper. negarse a Amenazar. We aim to increase our exports to Europe. They seem to be doing well now. VERB + TO-INFINITIVE Ciertos verbos como TO WANT /wont/ querer. so I agreed to lend him some money. que son las siguientes: 1. TO PLAN /plæn/ Ejemplos: Sam was in a difficult situation. verse. She promised not to be late. etc. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. simular.

3. I´d hate the boys to do it here. They don´t mean to do it now. Permítame llevarle su bolso. Verb + (somebody) + to-infinitive Los siguientes verbos pueden ir seguidos por a) un to-Infinitive o por b) un Complemento Indirecto + to-Inifinitive. saber. I begged them to see the photos. se puede usar una palabra interrogativa seguida de to+infinitivo We asked how to get to the station Have you decided where to go for your holidays? I don´t know whether to apply for the job or not. ´ The IRA claimed to have planted the bomb in the car. solicitar. He asked to take part. Hot weather makes me feel tired. I´d prefer to do it now. Her parents wouldn´t let her go out alone. + to-Infinitive Después de los verbos TO ASK /a:sk/ solicitar. VERB + BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos TO MAKE /meik/ hacer. I´d love to go to the club. mostrar. I don´t mean you to do it now. I begged to see the photos. We expect to be there soon.. (No se debe decir. pueden ir seguidos por un complemento indirecto (Peter. I´d like you to go I´d prefer them to do it now I´d love you to go to the club.. I would like to go. Let me carry your bag for you. déjeme salir I want to go there. him. me. B I want you to go there He asked us to take part. El oficial de aduana hizo a Alice abrir su maleta. B. Bob taught us how to use the computer. Verb + to have + Past Participle Perfect Infinitive) Hay algunos verbos que pueden ir seguidos de TO HAVE + un Pasado Participio: They seem to have been doing well so far. 4. them. TO TELL /tel/ decir. Verb + Somebody+ wh + to-infinitive Los verbos TO SHOW /shóu/. TO ASK /a:sk/ pedir. dejar van seguidos de un BARE INFINITIVO (Infinitive sin TO) en la siguiente estructura: TO MAKE / TO LET + Somebody + bare infinitive You make me feel happy. madam. the student. El tiempo caluroso me hace sentir cansado. I´d hate to do that here. TO UNDERSTAND /anderstænd/ entender. etc. (so far = hasta ahora) Bob seems to have lost weight. Sus padres no le permitirían a ella salir sola. señora Please let me go out. “You make me TO feel happy”) Tú me haces sentir feliz The customs officer made Sally open her suitcase. Verb + Wh. pedir. etc) + una palabra interrogativa (what. A To want /wont/ querer To ask /a:sk/ pedir To expect /ikspékt/ esperar To beg /beg/ rogar To mean /mi:n/ tener la intención de I would like /wud laik/ me gustaría. TO ADVISE /adváiz/ aconsejar y TO TEACH /ti:tch/ enseñar. I would prefer /wud prifε preferiría ´:r/ I would love /wud lav/ me encantaría I would hate /wud héit/ me desagradaría. obligar y TO LET /let/ permitir. Por favor. when.) + un to-infinitive Can someone show me how to change the film in this camera? I told them what to do and where to go in London. 6. 178 A short course in english for adult students . TO DECIDE /disáid/ decidir. Do you understand what to do? 5. where. We expect you to be there soon. TO KNOW /nóu/.Mary.

Ex. Bob: Can I carry your bag for you? Woman: No. I wonder where Sue is. When I’m tired. It’s driving me mad. 1. I can manage. 6. 2. Put the verb into the correct form to-Infinitive or -ing 1. 6. (bark) Our neighbour threatened _____________________________ the police if we didn’t stop the noise.C. (go) I wish that dog would stop _____________________________ . Jill has decided not _____________________________ a car. van seguidos de un gerund cuando nos referimos a una acción parcial o de un bare infinitive cuando nos referimos a la acción completa Ejemplos: I saw her crossing the road. 4. 2. so we decided _____________________________ for a walk. (acción completa) Los oí cantar 10 canciones. TO HEAR /híar/ oir. 2. Hans: OK. (parte de la acción) Los oí cantando una canción We heard them sing ten songs. We were all too afraid to speak. Mary agreed ___________________________________________________ 3. 1. Does anyone fancy _____________________________ for a walk? (go) I’m not in a hurry. Don’t forget _____________________________ the letter I gave you. 5. Bob offered ____________________________________________________ 4. 3. 4. let´s They decided __________________________________________________ 2. The woman refused _____________________________________________ Ex. (call) A short course in english for adult students 179 . They can’t afford _____________________________ out very often. (watch) It was a nice day. There was a lot of traffic but we managed _____________________________to the airport in time. Complete each sentence with a suitable verb. 5. Man: What´s your name? Woman: I´m not going to tell you. thanks. Tom: Shall we get married? Betty: Yes. We’ve got a new computer in our office. TO WATCH /wótch/ observar. D. VERB + SOMEBODY + TO-INFINITIVE/BARE INFINITIVE El verbo TO HELP /hélp/ ayudar puede ir seguido indistintamente de un to-Infinitive o un bare Infinitive Ejemplo: Can you help me to lift / lift this box. Jack : Please help me. I haven’t learnt how _____________________________ it yet. It’s relaxing. 3. Complete the sentences for each situation. I enjoy _____________________________ television. fine. (parte de la acción) I saw her cross the road. Nobody dared _____________________________ anything. (acción completa) La ví cruzando la calle La vi cruzar la calle We heard them singing a song. Bob: Let´s meet at 8 o´clock. 1. They arranged _________________________________________________ 5. I don’t mind _____________________________ (wait) They don’t have much money. 3. (go) It’s a nice day. 7. She promised not_____________________________ late. please? EXERCISES Ex. VERBO + GERUND o BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos de percepción TO SEE /sí:/ ver. Mary: OK.

1. CompIete the sentences for each situation.(seem) Tom is worried about something. I will. 4. TO WAIT 1.(tend) They have solved the problem. My father allowed _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Sylvia: Be careful. ____________________________________________________________________ Ex. Why don´t you come and stay with us for a few days? ____________________________________________________________________ Mary: No ____________________________________________________________________ Hans: Don´t worry. Complete these sentences so that the meaning is similar to the first sentence. I was really astonished. 1. We were hungry. 6. Hurry up! I don’t want to risk _____________________________ the train. I´d love to Tom and Betty invited John 3. Complete each sentence using what/how/whether + one of these verbs: 1. 6. Ex.? or WOULD YOU LIKE ME TO. 2. 2. Use DO YOU WANT ME TO. 7. Tom & Betty: John: Yes. (find) Ex. so I suggested _____________________________ dinner early. I didn’t know _____________________________. Sue: Lock the door. (have) 9. TO SHUT. Sylvia warned 5. 5. 7. do get go ride say use Do you know _____________________________ to John’s house? Can you show me_____________________________ this washing machine? Would you know_____________________________ if there was a fire in the building? You´ll never forget _____________________________ a bicycle once you have learned.? with one of these verbs (+ any other necessary words): TO COME. 8. (appear) David forgets things. 5. My father said I could use his car. (appear) You know a lot of people. 3.. I didn’t expect ____________________________________________________________________________________ 180 A short course in english for adult students .. 5. TO LEND. (claim) He ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6. 2. (seem) That car has broken down.. He has lost weight. 4. Bob: Can I use your phone? Mary wouldn´t let 4. of course. Tom: Can you give me a hand? Tom asked Hans: OK. 6. Sue told Hans to lock the door. TO SHOW. 4. I’ve been invited to the party but I don’t know _____________________________ or not.. 5. ____________________________________________________________________ Jane. I’m still looking for a job but I hope _____________________________something soon. 1. Do you want to go alone or do you want me to _______________________________________________________? Have you got enough money or do you want me to ___________________________________________________? Shall I leave the window open or would you like me to _________________________________________________? Do you know how to use the machine or would _______________________________________________________? Did you hear what I said or do _____________________________________________________________________? Can 1 go now or do ______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. (seem) My English is getting better. I was surprised that it rained. 3. TO REPEAT. 4.8. Complete the questions. (miss) 10. 2. Yes. 3. Make a new sentence using the verb in brackets.

Let ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The minister went on talking for two hours. TO LOVE /lav/ encanterle a uno. (study) E. 2. TO BEGIN /bigín/ empezar. 4. (go) I’m in a difficult position. Los verbos más comunes de este tipo son: TO PREFER /prifè:r/ preferir. TO CONTINUE /kontíniu/ seguir. They will stop (in order) to rest for a while. (He talked about the same thing) El ministro siguió hablando por dos horas. I remember doing that. (I said that. the minister then went on to talk about foreign policy. 8. It made me _____________________________ (cry) Carol’s parents always encouraged her _____________________________hard at school. We continued to work until 10:30. I was told that 1 shouldn’t believe everything he says.continuar. I think you should know the truth. I want ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I can´t stand to wait in lines too long. you are able to travel round more easily.ING/TO-INFINITIVE Algunos verbos pueden ir seguidos indistintamente de un gerundio o de un to-infinitive. Glasses make ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Don’t let me forget to phone my sister. Don´t stop him doing what he wants. arrepentirse. They stopped working in the fields when it started to rain / raining. She doesn’t allow us _____________________________ in the house. At first I didn’t want to apply for the job but Sarah persuaded me. What do you advise me _____________________________?(do) She said the letter was personal and wouldn´t let me _____________________________it. I regret to say that we can´t send the price lists yet. I like to listen to music while I´m studying. He looks older when he wears glasses. 7. I was warned not _________________________________________________________________________________ 10. I remembered to do that. ________________________________________________________________________________ 9.. TO INTEND /inténd/ tener la intención de. and now I am sorry about it) Lamento haber dicho lo que dije. 3. If you’ve got a car. (smoke) I’ve never been to Iceland but I’d like _____________________________there. (read) He was kept at the police station for two hours and then he was allowed _____________________________ (go) Where would you recommend me _____________________________ for my holidays? (go) I wouldn’t recommend you_____________________________in that restaurant. detenerse. TO HATE /heit/ desagradar. so I did that) Me acordé de hacer eso. sin cambiar de significado. Remind __________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. My lawyer advised.3. 1. recordarse. (I did it and now I remember it) Recuerdo haber hecho eso. I love to go to baseball games. (I´m sorry that I have to say that) Lamento decir que aún no podemos enviarle la lista de precios. They have been working all morning and feel very tired. It started snowing around midnight We continued working until 10:30 I like listening to music while I´m studying I love going to baseball games I can´t stand waiting in lines too long = = = = = It started to snow around midnight.. parar. I regret saying what I said. TO LIKE /láik/ gustarle a uno. 9. TO GO ON /gou on/ continuar también pueden ir seguidos de un gerundio o un to-infinitive pero. VERBS +. a diferencia de los anteriores. TO REGRET /rigrét/ lamentar. The food is awful (eat) The film was very sad. Después de hablar acerca de la economía. estos cambian de significado de la oración. el ministro pasó a hablar acerca de la política exterior. (I remembered I had to do that. 5. TO START /stá:rt/ comenzar. After discussing the economy. Sarah persuaded _________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Having a car enables ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. A short course in english for adult students 181 . TO STOP /stop/ parar. My lawyer said 1 shouldn’t say anything to the police. Los verbos TO REMEMBER /rimémber/ recordar. CAN´T STAND /ká:nt stænd/ no soportar. 9. Put the verb in the right form : -ing or infinitive (with or without to). 6.

(see) The baby began _____________________________ in the middle of the night. 11._____________________________you any money. 1. She didn’t answer the phone. 4. 10. 11.’ (shut) I’ve enjoyed __________________________you. 9. (watch) Please stop _____________________________ your knuckles! (crack) Did you remember _____________________________ the cat this morning? (feed) 1 won’t be late. 3. 2. 16. I’m too tired. she just carried on _____________________________ (eat) “How did the thief get into the house?” “ I forgot _____________________________ the window. 6. (want) (go) (sail) Ex. A: Did you remember _____________________________ your sister? B: No. (meet) 1 hope _________________________ you again soon. 1. 12. I need to study tonight (study) I enjoy cooking gourmet meals (cook) Helen started talking/to talk about her problem. (pay) Ann was having dinner when the phone rang. 14. (get). Please remember to lock the door when you go out. 17. (go) Has it stopped _____________________________ yet? (rain) Can you remind me_____________________________ some coffee when we go out? (buy) Why do you keep _____________________________me questions? Can’t you leave me alone? (ask) Please stop _____________________________ me questions! (ask) I refuse _____________________________ any more questions. 14. 2. Ex. (go) (shop) 24. A: You lent me some money a few months ago. 13. (live) Don’t put off _____________________________ your composition until the last minute. I clean (= completely) forgot. (be) I’m considering _____________________________ to a new apartment. 4. (jog) The company will continue _____________________________ new employees as long as new production orders keep _____________________________in. 3. 1. (lock) I don’t mind _____________________________ with four roommates. 20. 8. (go) I can’t afford _____________________________ out tonight. 15. (steal) I don’t enjoy _____________________________very much. 6. (help) I’ve just begun _____________________________ a movie on TV. 15. 7. Use the verb provided in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. 1 promise _____________________________ on time. 16. 12. 5. 18. (get) We finished _____________________________ around seven. (meet) The Wilsons went _____________________________ in Yellowstone National Park last summer. 21.EXERCISES Ex. Complete these sentences with a suitable verb in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. (eat) Are you planning _____________________________ a vacation this year? (take) I like _____________________________ new people. (cry) Julia has been ill but now she’s beginning _____________________________ better. (hire) (come) 22. 182 A short course in english for adult students . 3. 2. (answer) One of the boys admitted _____________________________ the window. I’ll phone her tomorrow. B: Did l? Are you sure? 1 don’t remember . (break) The boy’s father promised _____________________________for the window to be repaired. (talk) Bud and Sally have decided _____________________________ married. (camp) My roommate offered _____________________________ me with my English. Alex seems _____________________________ this weekend. I want _____________________________this afternoon. (write) Ken had to quit _____________________________ because he hurt his knee. 2. That’s not what I meant! 1 meant _____________________________ just the opposite. 10. 1. 1 haven’t got enough money. They denied _____________________________the money. Complete the sentences with the TO-INFINITIVE or the GERUND form of the words in parentheses. Sometimes either form is possible. (drive) I don’t want _____________________________out tonight. (go) I forgot _____________________________ the door when I left my apartment this morning. 9. 7. 3. (move) What time do you expect _____________________________ in Denver? (arrive) Some children hate _____________________________ to school. 8. 5. 13. 19. (say) 23.

19. (talk) I can´t afford _____________________________ that house. I need _____________________________ with the manager immediately. BARE INFINITIVE. (move) He left the house without _____________________________ the front door. GERUND. (watch) Where did they agree_____________________________. (Review) Use the verbs given in the correct form. 1 believe that what 1 said was fair. It needs _____________________________. 9. 13. (live) I don´t mind _____________________________ the washing up. 12. When you see Mandy tomorrow. As a matter of fact I do it every day. 20. 8. 12. This is very urgent. remember _____________________________ her my regards. (work) A short course in english for adult students 183 . 3. (do) Could you helpj Jimmy _____________________________ that math exercise. and then went on _____________________________ her newspaper. 10. (move) I am planning _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon.4. or did you forget? (phone) I haven´t phoned her at her home lately. Keith joined the company 15 years ago. (go) It started _____________________________ at about 7:30 this morning. 14. mum. 6. (lock) I think Jane is quite used _____________________________ with Dr. 1 don’t regret _____________________________ it. (watch) I am considering _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon. 15. 4. in La Paz or in Sucre? (meet) The men have been walking up the hill for about an hour. The children stopped _____________________________ when the teacher entered the room. (go) We used_____________________________ on holiday every summer when I was a child. 17. (rain) Bob never got used _____________________________ in that part of the country. so they´ll stop ________________________ (rest) a while. (wash). 7. 5. 8. (wash) I drove past Peter´s house yesterday. It took him more than 20 minutes to do it. Did you remember _____________________________ Mary last night. When 1 came into the room Liz was reading a newspaper. He was quickly promoted and became assistant manager after two years. 11. won’t you? 5.George? (do) Please let me _____________________________ cartoons.(buy) They wanted _____________________________ the soccer game on TV. 10. I saw him _____________________________ his car. I clearly remember _____________________________ it by the window and now it has gone. I saw Bob _____________________________ the car yesterday. 4. TO-INFINITIVE. She looked up and said hello to me. This jacket is dirty. Someone must have taken my bag. 2. 18. A few years later he went on _____________________________ manager of the company. 1. Smith. 6. Remember that in some cases you have two alternatives and that sometimes there is a change in the meaning. 9. (after a driving test) I regret _____________________________ that you have failed the test. In fact I don´t remember ___________________ her for a long time (phone) I look forward _____________________________ to that wedding party on Friday. I´ve already done my homework. 16. I can’t go on _____________________________here any more. Ex. 11. 7. It is too expensive. I want a different job.

4. You are busy today. 2. ____________________________________________________________? Henry left at two o’clock. ___________________________________________________? Ex. The boy can´t speak French. You don´t know him well. ____________________________________________? 9. 12. Salvo que estemos buscando una confirmación. ____________________________________________? 3. did he? The boys can´t speak French. I´m doing the exercise well. 8. _____________________________________? 5. John is a good student. Add the proper tag ending. has he? Como Ud. isn´t she? You know him well. _______________________________________________________________? She studies with you. ____________________________________ ? (He comes here every day. Smith has seen that movie. ______________________________________ ? (John is a good student. 7. ____________________________________________________________? Mr. Los Tag Endings se usan al final de una aseveración con el fin de buscar una confirmación o para indicar que lo que se afirma está correcto. Helen and her sister are both studying English. ___________________________________________________________? He will be back later.PART III TAG ENDINGS. Add the proper tag ending: 1. ______________________________________________? Both men look very much alike. George is a very tall boy. Contracción+ Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) isn´t she? don´t you? can´t he? Verbo Modal + Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) is she? do you? can he? EXERCISES Ex. ______________________________________________________? 7. It is beginning to rain. They were both absent from the lesson. Note that all these sentences are formed with the verb To BE. 13. You were absent from class yesterday. 2. ha advertido. ___________________________________________________________? He left at two o’clock. ___________________________________________________________? 184 A short course in english for adult students . _______________________________________________________? He has many friends here. 1. isn’t he?) 2. ____________________________________________________? 4. ________________________________________________________? There´s some more milk in the fridge. can they? Thomas hasn´t been here before. You know him well. don´t you? Bob left on Wednesday. hasn´t he? Mary isn´t at home now. 5. normalmente se usa una entonación descendente. The boy can speak French. __________________________________________________________? He has to work tomorrow. 10. _______________________________________________________? You live uptown. 3. los tag endings siempre se expresan de la siguiente manera: Sujeto + aseveración afirmativa Mary is at home now. Sujeto + aseveración negativa Mary isn´t at home now. used either as the main verb or as the auxiliary verb: 1. do you? Bob didn´t leave on Wednesday. He comes here every day. ______________________________________________________? They will be here early. can´t they? Thomas has been here before. Mary is at home now. ___________________________________________________? I´m your best friend. 14. 9. didn´t he? The boys can speak French. The wind is blowing very hard. is she? You don´t know him well. doesn’t he?) She can speak French well. 11. ____________________________________________________________? 6. ________________________________________________________? 8. 6. Equivale a la pregunta ¿Verdad? ¿No es cierto?.

She isn’t busy now. 12. doesn’t he?) 2. ________________________________ ? The sun sets at about six o’clock. _______________________________________? 10. There are many students absent today. ____________________________________________? Ex. __________________________________________________? 5. They didn’t arrive on time. She can’t speak French. He hasn’t got any money. 10. He didn’t mail any packages. 9.. They didn’t have to work yesterday. They are leaving early in the morning. They don’t know each other. They didn’t come with her. _____________________________________________? 8. _____________________________________ ? Ex. __________________________________________________? 12. 4. ____________________________________________________________ ? 3. But he dropped the letter into the box. He didn’t visit us last night. ______________________________________________________ ? 7. 4. _________________________________________________________ ? 6. We don’t have to come to school tomorrow. Mary goes shopping every day. _________________________________________ ? William was born in Cardiff. _____________________________? (Mary goes shopping every day.”. _________________________________________? 7. __________________________ ? (He doesn’t come here every day. ______________________________________________? 3. Mr. __________________________________________________ ? William has been working very hard today. _______________________________________________________ ? 4. 3. _________________________ ? (John often walks to the post office. He put a stamp on the envelope. John often walks to the post office. He first goes to the window marked “Stamps. There are many people ahead of him. Add the proper tag ending: 1. Add the proper tag ending: 1. _______________________________________________? 11.10. _____________________________________________ ? 8. Add the proper tag ending: 1. ______________________________________________________ ? The shopping district extends for many blocks. __________________________________________________________ ? Bob´s going to buy a new car this year. 5. _______________________________________________________? 12. ____________________________________________? 10. She won’t be at the lesson tomorrow. There are only a few people ahead of him. He doesn’t always buy stamps. ______________________________________________________ ? William will be here soon. He doesn’t always have to wait in line. 8. _____________________________________________? 12. ____________________________________________? A short course in english for adult students 185 . _________________________________________________? 13. ________________________________________________________? 11. _____________________________________________? 6. ________________________________________________________ ? The traffic on this street was very heavy that evening. He doesn’t come here every day. He gave him the stamps. 11. 3. Smith is out of town. _____________________________________? 4. He won’t have to wait in line tomorrow. 5. _____________________________________________________ ? 9. 7. ________________________________________________ ? The sun is setting now.. ________________________________________________________? 11. They don’t live uptown. He didn’t have to wait in line yesterday. does he?) 2. 2. ____________________________________________ ? They went into the church. _______________________________________ ? José used to work in this office. _______________________________________________________ ? Ex. ____________________________________________? 9. He never goes there in the morning. doesn’t she?) Sue was at home when you called last night. ________________________________________________________ ? 5. ____________________________________________________? 14. John didn’t receive any change. 6.

Ex. 6. You think, but you are not sure. Ask questions, using tag endings. Read these examples: You think Mary speaks Spanish, but you`re not sure. You say: Mary speaks Spanish, doesn`t she? You think the children can`t swim well. You say: The children can`t swim well, can they? 1. You think John`s been to England twice, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. You think my friends come from Wisconsin, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. You think Bob didn`t attend the meeting last Monday, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. You think there isn`t any more whisky in the bottle, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. You think they have to work a little faster, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 6. You think Jane shouldn`t do that again, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 7. You think the boy has had dinner already, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 8. You think there was too much noise in the room, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 9. You think you´re a good student, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 10. You think the boys worked harder than the girls, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 11. You think I wouldn`t like to go there again, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 12. You think John put on his new sweater, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 13. You think I was at the meeting too, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 14. You think the train hadn`t left yet when I got to the station, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________?

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BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words SPORTS AND RECREATION Deportes y Recreación amusement park /amiuzment pá:rk/ angling /ægliη/ ´ athletics /aθlétiks/ baths /ba:θs/ beach /bi:tch/ bowling /bóuliη/ boxing /bóksiη/ car-racing /ka:r réisiη/ casino /kazí:nou/ cinema /sínema/ circus /sé:rkas/ climbing /kláimiη/ competition /kompetíshn/ court /kó:rt/ cycling /sáikliη/ championship /tchámpionship/ disco /dískou/ diving /dáiviη/ drive /dráiv/ excursion /ekskérshion/ exhibition /eksibíshion/ expedition /ekspedíshion/ fair /féar/ fencing /fénsiη/ field /fí:ld/ fishing /físhiη/ game /géim/ gliding /gláidiη/ green /grí:n/ horse riding /ho:rs ráidiη/ horse-racing /hó:rs réisiη/ hunting /hántiη/ hurdling /hé:rdliη/ ice-skating /áis skéitiη/ javelin /dllævelin/ ´ jogging /dllógiη/ journey /dllé:rni/ jumping /dllámpiη/ parque de diversiones. pesca de río atletismo baños, termas playa bocha boxeo carrera de autos casino de juegos cine circo andinismo competición cancha (tenis) ciclismo campeonato discoteca buceo paseo en auto excursión exposición expedición feria esgrima cancha (fútbol) pesca juego, partido planeo cancha (golf) equitación carreras hípica caza salto de vallas patinaje en hielo javalina trote Viaje Salto lawn /ló:n/ césped match /mætch/ ´ partido (fútbol,box) movie theater /múvi θíater/ sala de cine museum /miuzíam/ museo night club /náit klab/ club nocturno oar /óar/ remo obstacle /óbstakl/ hurdle /hé:dl/ obstáculo,valla paddling /pæliη/ ´ remo de paleta park /pá:rk/ parque pentathlon /péntaθlon/ pentatlón picnic /píknik/ picnic ride /ráid/ paseo a caballo, etc rink /riηk/ cancha de patines rowing /róuiη/ remo running /rániη/ carrera seaside resort /sí:said risó:rt/ balneario sightseeing tour /sáitsi:iη túar/ paseo turístico skating /skéitiη/ patinaje skiing /skí:iη/ esquí skiing resort /skí:iη rizó:rt/ centro de esquí sneakers /sní:kerz/ zapatillas surfing /sé:rfiη/ surfing sweat-shirt /suét shé:rt/ polerón swimming /suímiη/ natación sword /só:rd/ espada theater /δíater/ teatro tour /túar/ viaje, excursión tournament /tó:rnament/ torneo track /træk/ pista de carrera trekking /trékiη/ excursión en montaña trip /trip/ viaje trunks /tráηks/ pantalones de atlet. T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ polera voyage /vóiidll/ viaje walk /wó:k/ caminata water-skiing /wó:ter skíiη/ esquí acuático weight-lifting /wéit líftiη/ pesas

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Key to answers

UNIT 13
PART I.
Ex. 1. 1 has been living 2. have been working 3. has been sitting 4. have been standing 5. have been waiting 6. have been running 7. has been reading 8. has been writing 9. have been working out 10. have been discussing Ex. 2. 1. He hasn`t been living... / Has he been living...? 2. They haven`t been playing... / Have they been playing...? 3. Jane hasn`t been feeling... / Has Jane been feeling...? 4. They haven`t been discussing... / Have they been discussing...? 5. Bob hasn`t been swimming... / Has Bob been swimming...? `t Ex. 3. 1. What has Henry been reading all morning? 2. What has Bill been doing all morning? 3. Where have they been staying? 4. Why have they been saving money? 5. How long have your friends been living in Madrid? 6. What has the boy been doing since 7 o`clock? 7. How long have they been waiting for a taxi?

PART II.
A. Ex. 1. 1. to get married 2. to help Jack 3. to carry the woman`s bag 4. to meet at 8 o`clock 5. to tell the man her name Ex. 2. (Possible answers) 1. to post. 2. to get 3. to buy 4. (how) to use 5. to be 6. to say Ex. 3. 1. watching 2. to go 3. going 4. waiting 5. to go 6. barking 7. to call 8. having 9. missing 10. to find Ex. 4. 1. He seems to have lost weight 2. Tom appears to be worried about something. 3. You seem to know a lot of people. 4. My English seems to be getting better. 5.That car appears to have broken down 6. David tends to forget things. 7. They claim to have solved the problem. Ex. 5. 1. how to get 2. how to use 3. what to do 4. how to ride 5. what to say 6. whether to go Ex. 6. 1. go with you? 2. lend you some 3. shut it 4. you like to show you how to use it 5. you want me to repeat what I said 6. you want me to wait Ex. 7. 2. to come and stay with them for a few days 3. Bob use her phone 4. Hans to be careful 5. Jane to give him a hand. Ex. 8. 1. me to use his car. 2. it to rain / it would rain. 3. him do what he wants. 4. him look older. 5. you to know the truth. 6. me to phone my sister. 7. me to apply for the job. 8. not to say anything to the police. 9. to believe everything he says. 10. you to travel round more easily. Ex. 9. 1. to smoke 2. to go 3. to do 4. read 5. to go 6. to go 7. to eat 8. cry 9. to study. B. Ex. 1. 4. to get 5. eating 6. to take 7. meeting / to meet 8. camping 9. to help 10. watching / to watch 11. cracking 12. to feed 13. to be 14.. moving 15. to arrive 16. going / to go 17. to lock 18. living 19. writing 20. jogging 21. to hire / hiring - coming 22. .to say 23. to go shopping 24. to want to go sailing Ex. 2. 1. stealing / having stolen 2. driving 3. to go 4. to go 5. raining 6. to buy 7. asking 8. asking 9. to answer 10. breaking / having broken 11. to pay 12. eating 13. to shut 14. meeting...to see 15. to cry / crying 16. to get Ex. 3. 2. lending / having lent you 3. to phone. 4. to give 5. having left / leaving 6. saying / having said 7. to tell 8. to become 9. working 10. reading 11. cleaning 12. to talk / to meet
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Ex. 4. 1. wash 2. washing 3. to phone 4. phoning 5. to going 6.to go 7. to rain / raining 8. to living 9. doing 10. do / to do 11. watch 12. to meet 13. (in order) to rest 14. talking 15. to buy 16. to watch 17. moving 18. to move 19. locking 20. to working C. Ex. 1. 2. She can speak..., can`t she? 3. They`ll be..., won`t they? 4. He left..., didn`t he? 5. He has to work..., doesn`t he? 6. He has many..., doesn`t he? 7. You live..., don`t you? 8. She studies..., doesn`t she? 9. He`ll be back..., won`t he? 10. Henry left..., didn`t he? 11. There`s some..., isn´t there? 12. Both men look..., don`t they? 13. I`m your..., aren`t I? 14. Mr Smith``s seen..., hasn`t he? Ex. 2. 2. They were both absent..., weren`t they? 3. The wind`s blowing..., isn`t it? 4. Helen and her sister are both..., aren`t they? 5. You`re busy..., aren`t you? 6. I`m doing..., aren`t I? 7. George`s a very..., isn`t he? 8. You were absent..., weren`t you? 9. It`s beginning..., isn`t it? 10. Mr Smith`s out of..., isn`t he? 11. They`re leaving..., aren`t they? 12. There are many..., aren`t there? Ex. 3. 2. Sue was at home..., wasn`t she? 3. José used to work..., didn´t he? 4. William`s been working..., hasn`t he? 5. William was born in..., wasn`t he? 6. William will be..., won`t he? 7. The traffic on this street was very..., wasn`t it? 8. The sun sets..., doesn`t it? 9. The sun`s setting..., isn`t it? 10. Bob`s going to buy..., isn`t he? 11. They went..., didn`t they? 12. The shopping district extends..., doesn`t it. Ex. 4. 2. She isn`t busy..., is she? 3. They didn`t come..., did they? 4. She can`t speak..., can she? 5. They don`t live..., do they? 6. He didn`t visit..., did he? 7. She won`t be..., will she? 8. They don`t know..., do they? 9. We don`t have to come..., do we? 10. They didn`t have to work..., did they? 11. He hasn`t got..., has he? 12. They didn`t arrive..., did they? Ex. 5. 2. He never goes..., does he? 3. He first goes to..., doesn`t he? 4. He doesn`t always buy..., does he? 5. There are many people..., aren`t there? 6. There are only a few..., aren`t there? 7. He doesn`t always have to wait..., does he? 8. He didn`t have to wait..., did he? 9. He won`t have to wait..., will he? 10. He gave..., didn`t he? 11. John didn`t receive..., did he? 12. He put..., didn`t he? 13. He didn`t mail..., did he? 14. But he dropped..., didn`t he? Ex. 6. 1. John`s been to England twice, hasn`t he? 2. Your friends come from Wisconsin, don´t they? 3. Bob didn´t attend the meeting last Monday, did he? 4. There isn`t any more whisky in the bottle, is there? 5. They have to work a little faster, don`t they? 6. Jane shouldn`t do that again, should she? 7. The boy has had dinner already, hasn`t he? 8. There was too much noise in the room, wasn`t there? 9. I´m a good student, aren´t I? 10. The boys worked harder than the girls, didn`t they? 11. You wouldn´t like to go there again, would you? 12. John put on his new sweater, didn`t he? 13. You were at the meeting too, weren`t you? 14. The train hadn`t yet left when you got to the station, had it?

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UNIT 14
PART 1. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO (THE PAST PERFECT TENSE)
Este tiempo verbal se forma con el pasado del verbo modal Have (HAD /hæd/) más el Participio Pasado (3ra. forma) de un verbo principal y se usa para describir una acción que ocurrió antes que otra acción sucediera. Por lo tanto este tiempo no se usa en forma independiente, pues siempre va junto a una oración expresada en pasado simple. De dos acciones pasadas, la que cronológicamente ocurrió primero debe ir en el Pasado Perfecto. Escuche, lea y aprenda Hans left at 8:15. You phoned at 8:25. Hans had already left when you phoned this morning. /háns had oñrédi léft wen iú: fóund δis mó:rniη/ Hans ya había partido cuando tú llamaste por teléfono esta mañana The show started at 10:30. Paul arrived at the theater at 10:40. The show had already started when Paul arrived at the theater. /δe shóu had olrédi stá:rtid wen pó:l arráivd at δe θíater/ El espectáculo ya había comenzado cuando Paul llegó al teatro. The old man died at 11:25. The ambulance arrived a few minutes later. By the time the ambulance arrived, the old man had already died. /bai δe táim δe æmbiuláns arráivd δe óuld mæn had olrédi dáid/ Cuando la ambulancia llegó, el viejo ya había fallecido. Al igual que en el Pasado Contínuo, las expresiones de tiempo que acompañan al Pasado Perfecto, son aquellas cláusulas compuestas por WHEN + S + PASADO SIMPLE: When you phoned this morning; When Paul arrived at the theatre; By the time the ambulance arrived. Compare: They were having lunch when you called. /δéi we:r hæviη lántch wen iú: kó.ld/ Ellos estaban almorzando cuando tú llamaste. (La acción no había concluido) They had already had lunch when you called. /δéi had olrédi hæd lántch wen iú: kó.ld/ Ellos ya habían almorzado cuando tú llamaste. (La acción ya había concluido) En la primera oración, la acción expresada por el Pasado Contínuo todavía se estaba realizando (They were having lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called), mientras que en la segunda oración la acción expresada por el Pasado Perfecto ya había concluído (They had already had lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called). La forma negativa se expresa con HAD NOT (o HADN´T /hædnt/ ) más un Participio Pasado y la forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de HAD con el sujeto. (Recuerde que en las oraciones negativas debe usar yet en vez de already). En las preguntas introducidas con una palabra interrogativa como what, where, how, etc., se debe seguir el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. Lea, escuche y aprenda: Hans had not left yet when you phoned this morning. /háns had nót léft yét wen iú: fóund δis mó:rniη/ The show hadn´t started yet when Paul arrived at the theater. /δe shóu hædnt stá:rtid yét wen pó:l arráivd at δe θíater/ The old man hadn´t died yet by the time the ambulance arrived. /δi óuld mæn hædnt dáid yét bai δe táim δe æmbiuláns arráivd/ Had Hans left already when you phoned this morning? /had háns léft olrédi wen iú: fóund δis mó:rniη/ Had the show started yet when Paul arrived at the theatre? /had δe shóu stá:rtid yét wen pó:l arráivd at δe θíater/ Where had they lived before they moved to Santiago? /wéar had δéi lívd bifó:r δéi mú:vd tu santiágou/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU DONE? /wót had iú: dán/ (¿Qué había hecho ud.?)

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I (see) _______________________________ John Palmer. The policeman told us that we ______________________ the wrong road. 3. (leave) 9. The show (begin. They´d already spent all the money. and b) the interrogative. 4. Mrs Bentley had gone to bed already. They arrived only ten minutes after John ______________________. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verbs in the Past Perfect tense. 1. the rain (stop) _____________ _________ 6. 1. he noticed that someone ______________________ his TV set. (steal) 7. 2. Paul had already sent her a fax. 2. the thief ______________________ already ______________________. never) ______________________any of Renoir´s paintings before they (visit) ________________ ______ the art gallery. 1. I (recognize. Bob ________________ just _________________ typing the report when the general called him to his office. They _____________________ already _____________________ the discussion when we entered the room. Remember in the negative you must use YET instead of ALREADY. It was raining hard. 10. The students (see. Millions of years ago. Jane had seen that movie twice. 9.(start) 3. 5. already) ______________________ the test results when I (get) ____________________ to class. When the police arrived. The children had already had supper. I (see. 3. (be) 6. (put out 10. All of the other passengers (board. but by the time the meeting (be) ______________________ over. The detectives (leave) ______________________ the place after they (collect) ______________________ enough evidence 5. already) ______________________ by the time we (get) ______________________ to the theater. 2. dinosaurs (roam) ______________________ the earth.EXERCISES Ex.Mary _____________________ already _____________________ to bed when we arrived home last night. Tom had already left the office. already) ______________________ by the time she (get)______________________ to the boarding gate. Mary ______________________already ______________________ to the cinema when I arrived.Yesterday at a restaurant. As soon as he opened the door. 3. but they (become. (go) Ex. not)_______________________________ him in years. 1. By the time the firemen arrived. the neighbours _________________already_________________the fire. Ex. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 192 A short course in english for adult students . so we quietly (take) ______________________a seat in the back. Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided either in the Simple Past or in the Past Perfect Tenses. The teacher (give. an old friend of mine. She said she ______________________ there several times before. (take) 8. At first. Change the following sentences into a) the negative. 6. Robert (be)______________________ a taxi driver before he (become) ______________________ a businessman. 7. (go) 2.(finish) 4. not) ______________________ _______ _______________ him because he (lose) ____________________________ at least fifteen kilos. Mr Smith (feel) ______________________ a little better after he (take) ______________________ the medicine. Gloria almost missed her plane.already) __________ ____________ extinct by the time man first (appear) ______________________ 8. (disappear) 5. 4.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 3. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 4. El dijo que había estado muy ocupado ese día. Where. ¿Habías comido esto anteriormente? ¿Por qué no habías escrito a nosotros antes? Ella no había leído ese libro aún. He´d worked in the Army for 29 years when he became a general. 10.000 before they arrived in Tokyo. Ella nunca había estado en el extranjero antes. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Yo no había visto un partido de crícket antes. ___________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Ask questions using question words like What. etc. The engineer had graduated from UCLA in 1945. 5. 7. The girl had studied French at school. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Paul had sold his house the previous year. 1. Translate the following sentences into English 1. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 193 . 4. How long. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. When. Ellos no habían estudiado allí por mucho tiempo. How. Bill had made the same mistake three times. 8. John had visited them that evening. 7. Ellos habían visitado otros países antes de venir a USA. 5. ¿Dónde habían estado ellos esa mañana? Ella había trabajado duro por mucho tiempo. The plane had taken off from JFK Airport at 23:25 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. John had eaten three sandwiches that evening. Dr.Ex. 2. 9. 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Black had studied at Harvard University. They´d spent over US $ 3.

+ THAN: We got there sooner than we expected. hard /ha:rd/ duro. Es importante notar que existen las palabras HARDLY y LATELY que tienen un significado especial Compare: Bob works very hard. LATE y HARD. Con los adverbios SOON.(últimamente) 194 A short course in english for adult students . es decir. Formation of adverbs Muchos adverbios en inglés se forman agregando el sufijo -ly a los adjetivos correspondientes. el grado de comparación se expresa mediante el uso del sufijo -ER. no es necesario agregar el sufijo -ly al adjetivo para formar el adverbio.). adelantado Examples: This is a hard (adj. I got up a little earlier than usual today. apenas) I haven´t seen John lately . A. se agregaba el sufijo -ER o se anteponía el adverbio MORE al adjetivo Normalmente el GRADO COMPARATIVO DE LOS ADVERBIOS se expresa mediante el uso de MORE+ ADVERB + THAN: John drives more carefully than Bob. Peter hardly works on Saturday. Mike came more quickly than the other boys. (arduamente) They arrived late (tarde. They took the early (adj. He drives carefully (adverbio). (adjetivo) It moves very slowly (adverbio) John is a careful (adjetivo) driver. atrasados) 2. We arrived there early (adv. Mr Blake will call later tonight.) lesson. Comparison of adverbs Cuando estudiamos la Comparación de los Adjetivos (Unit 9). FAST. dependiendo del número de sílabas del adjetivos. late /leit/ tarde/atrasado. EARLY.PART II. A bus runs more slowly than a train. This train is very slow. Estos son los principales adjetivos / adverbios: fast /fæst/ ´ rápido/rápidamente. difícil. intenso/intensamente. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 1. (casi no. slow /slóu/ lento quick /kuik/ rápido careful /kéarful/ cuidadoso happy /hæpi/ feliz ´ certain /sε:rten/ cierto ´ safe /séif/ seguro slowly /slóuli/ lentamente quickly /kuíkli/ rápidamente carefully /kéarfuli/ cuidadosamente happily /hæpili/ felizmente ´ certainly /sε:rtenli/ ciertamente ´ safely /séifli/ con seguridad Existen algunas palabras que pueden actuar indistintamente como adjetivo o adverbio. tempranamente.). vimos que.) train. A dog runs faster than a horse. early /ε:rli / ´ temprano. FORMATION OF ADVERBS. I have to study hard (adv. Bob works harder than any of the other students.

They went very far. Bill behaves badly in class.Hay algunos adverbios que usan una forma diferente en el grado comparativo. We drove to the hospital very ____________________________ (fast) Ex. They acted ____________________________ in that matter. (careful) 2. He always does his work ____________________________ (careful). 12. John works ____________________________ I (hard) 9. (often) 3. She speaks English____________________________ (beautiful). 10. She prepares her lessons ____________________________ (careless). 10.+ AS Bob speaks English as well as Helen does. 9. (quick). 3. 7. (bad) Ex. 1 can do this exercise ____________________________ (easy). 4. He learns his lesson ____________________________(quick). 2. 4. This is an ____________________________ exercise. He studies ____________________________ Mary. 8. He is a very careful student. She also sings and plays the guitar ____________________________ (beautiful). (hard). (beautiful) 7. (fast). I go there ____________________________ he does. John works more carefully than I. (easy). Mary is a ____________________________ girl. They acted ____________________________ in doing. (easy) 5. well (bien) badly (mal) far (lejos) better (mejor) worse (peor) farther (más lejos) John works well. She plays the guitar ____________________________ anyone else. Supply the proper form: adjective or adverb: 1. She works very ____________________________ every day. (serious) A short course in english for adult students 195 . (good). 8. 6. He always does his work ____________________________ (good) He speaks very ____________________________ (fast). (good) 7. 2. 1 feel very ____________________________ today. He certainly acted ____________________________ (foolish). We walked very ____________________________ (quick). He gets up as early as I do. 3. John was very ____________________________ (foolish). He comes here ____________________________ she. 3. (wise) 12. Express the words in parentheses in comparative form: 1. John left the office quickly that afternoon. (frequent) 6. He can run much ____________________________ I. We went farther. 8. 11. (early) 5. We arrived home ____________________________ that evening (early). He comes here ____________________________ he did before. 6. 2. (wise) 11. He did the work____________________________. as usual. EXERCISES Ex. John works better than William. It is always ____________________________ to prepare for the future. La comparación de igualdad se expresa con AS +ADVERB. 9. They get up every morning ____________________________ we. that. 5. but Jack behaves worse as a rule.(regular) 4. 1 Supply the adverb form of the adjective in parentheses: 1. He always drives ____________________________ (careful).

Express in full form. (fast) 2. (beautiful) 6. He can’t come ____________________________ we. (Bob se cortó con el cuchillo) The men killed themselves. Se usan para expresar énfasis. He goes to bed ____________________________ I (late) 2. I can’t do it ____________________________ I did it before. “personalmente” The King himself will visit the devastated areas. (early) Ex. (good) 4. We drove to the hospital ____________________________ we could. They came to work ____________________________usual. He doesn’t walk as / so fast as I do. (El Rey visitará personalmente la zona desvastada) I myself will do it. (early) 3.(en este caso se traducen con las palabras “mismo”. (easy) 5. (early) 5. He came here ____________________________ he could. Se usan para expresar acciones reflejas. She can’t play ____________________________ she can sing. (quick) 8.. (bad) 9. John speaks English ____________________________I.10. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Los pronombres reflexivos son los siguientes: Singular myself /maisélf/ yourself /io:rsélf/ himself /himsélf/ herself /he:rsélf/ itself /itsélf/ Plural ourselves /auersélvz/ yourselves /io:rsélvz/ themselves /δemsélvz/ Los pronombres reflexivos tienen tres usos frecuentes: 1. (regular) 10. (fast) 12. (early) 11. (hard) B. 4. He gets up ____________________________ his sister. (Los hombres se suicidaron) 2. (good) 4. (Yo mismo lo haré) 196 A short course in english for adult students . He doesn’t work ____________________________ she. Express in full form. He works ____________________________ he can. using equality of comparison: 1. (careful) 7. using equality of comparison: 1. He can run ____________________________ his brother. You can do it ____________________________ I . Bob doesn´t work ____________________________ you do. (easy) 5. (late) 11. He will arrive____________________________ they. Bob cut himself with the knife. He doesn’t play tennis ____________________________ he plays baseball. (fast) 3. (soon) 12. He came ____________________________ he could. (bright) 9. Helen doesn´t attend class ____________________________ Mary. I go to bed ____________________________ you. He didn’t arrive ____________________________ we expected him. She doesn’t speak ____________________________ her sister. Speak ________________________________________________________ possible. (good) 8. The sun is shining ____________________________ it was yesterday. (soft) 10. (early) 6. (hard) 7. She sings ____________________________ she plays.

3. Se usan (con la preposición by) para indicar la idea de “alone” (= solo, sin la ayuda o la compañía de otra persona). The poor man lives by himself in an old house. (El pobre hombre vive solo en una casa vieja) Hans studies in a group but I study by myself. (Hans estudia en un grupo, pero yo estudio solo) The girl solved the problem by herself. (La niña resolvió el problema sola) EXERCISES Ex. 1 Supply the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. John hurt ______________________________ when he fell. The baby cannot dress ______________________________. Helen burnt ______________________________ with the match. William shaves ______________________________ every day. We enjoyed ______________________________ at the concert. She looked at ______________________________ in the mirror. Some people like to talk about ______________________________ Do you like to talk about______________________________? The little girl cut ______________________________ with a pen-knife I shave ______________________________ every morning. The poor man killed ______________________________. He fell and hurt ______________________________ on the ice.

Ex. 2. Supply the correct reflexive pronoun (emphatic use): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. I myself will do it. Helen ______________________________ will deliver the speech. He said that he ______________________________ could meet us at the airport. They ______________________________ will deliver the merchandise. We ______________________________ will wait for you. The President ______________________________ attended to the meeting. Miss Smith ______________________________ will speak to us. The ambassador ______________________________ will sign the agreement. John ______________________________ wrote to me. Mary ______________________________ will attend the meeting. You ______________________________ must speak to him, Peter. You ______________________________ have to do it, boys.

Ex. 3. For the word ALONE substitute the preposition BY with the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. John lives alone in an apartment 2. She likes to study alone. 3. I went to the movie alone. 4. Do you like to go to the movie alone? 5. He likes to walk alone in the park. 6. My aunt lives alone in the cottage. 7. He works alone in a small office. 8. He prefers to work alone. 9. I do not like to eat alone. 10. I do not think he can do it alone. 11. Both the boys and the girls study alone. 12. He wrote the entire book alone. (John lives by himself in an apartment) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

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C. EL PASADO DE “GOING TO” (subject + was / were going to + infinitive) Esta estructura se usa para referirse a acciones que, habiendo sido planeadas o planificadas con anterioridad, no se llevaron a cabo por alguna razón. Compare: We are going to play football at midday today. (Nosotros vamos a jugar fútbol hoy al mediodía) We were going to play football at midday yesterday but it rained. (Nosotros íbamos a jugar fútbol ayer al mediodía pero llovió) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Substitute the past form of GOING To for the italicized, verbs: 1. I intended to call you yesterday but I forgot I was going to call you yesterday but I forgot. 2. I planned to go to the beach but it rained. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. We planned to telephone you but we couldn’t find your number. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. We intended to wait but we had to leave. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I planned to come back earlier but I had to work until late. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I intended to go home early but the manager asked me to help him. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. We intended to walk in the park but it was too cold. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I intended to write you a letter last week but I couldn´t find your address. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. We planned to eat early but our guests arrived late. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. We intended to go to a movie first but we had to wait for our friends to arrive. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. We planned to study for our examination but some friends called on us (= visited us). _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. They intended to leave New York yesterday but they missed their flight. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 2. Answer the questions as in the example 1. Ann: Did you telephone Peter last night? You: No, I didn´t. I was going to telephone him but I forgot. 2. Ann: Did you buy the car? You: No, I didn´t. I ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Ann: Did you visit your friends last Saturday? You: No, I didn´t. _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Ann: Did you go out after dinner last night? You: No, I didn´t . _________________________________________________________________________________

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BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words NATURE /néitchar/ La Naturaleza a) Geography /dlliógrafi/ geografía air /éar/ archipelago /a:rkipélagou/ bay /béi/ beach /bí:tch/ canal /kanæl/ ´ canyon /kænion/ ´ countryside /kántrisaid/ city /síti/ cliff /klif/ coastline /kóuslain/ comet /kómet/ continent /kóntinent/ country /kántri/ creek /krí:k/ channel /tchænel/ ´ desert /dézert/ earth /é:rθ/ forest /fórest/ galaxy /gælaksi/ ´ ground /gráund/ harbour /há:rbor/ hill /hil/ island /áiland/ ithmus /íθmas/ jungle /dllángl/ lake /léik/ land /lænd/ landmark /lændma:rk/ ´ aire archipiélago bahía playa canal (artificial) cañón campiña ciudad acantilado costa cometa continente país riachuelo canal (natural) desierto tierra (planeta) bosque, foresta galaxia suelo, tierra rada, bahía cerro, colina isla istmo selva lago tierra hito landscape /lændskeip/ ´ moon /mu:n/ mountain range /máuntin réingll/ ocean /óushn/ peak /pi:k/, summit /sámit/ peninsula /penínsiula/ planet /plænet/ ´ pond /pond/ prairy /préari/ rain forest /réin fórest/ river /ríver/ satellite /sætelait/ ´ sea /si:/ shore /shóar/ slopes /slóups/ solar system /sóular sístem/ space /spéis/ spring /spriη/ star /stá:r/ strait(s) /stréit(s)/ stream /strí:m/ town /táun/ valley /væli/ ´ village /vílidll/ volcano /volkéinou/ water /wó:ter/ waterfalls /wóterfo:lz/ paisaje luna, satélite nat. cordillera océano cumbre península planeta laguna pradera selva tropical río satélite mar playa lomas sistema solar espacio vertiente estrella estrecho arroyo pueblo valle pueblito, villa volcán agua cataratas

b) Vegetation /vedlletéishn/ vegetacióin branch /bræntch/ ´ bush /bush/ flower /flaúer/ fruit /fru:t/ grass /gra:s/ leaf /li:f/ leaves /li:vz/ c) Animals /ænimalz/ Animales ´ alligator /æligéitor/ ´ ant /ænt/ ´ bear /béar/ bee /bi:/ bird /bé:rd/ bird of prey /bé:rd ov préi/ búfalo /báfalou/ bumblebee /bámblbí:/ butterfly /báterflai/ cat /kæt/ ´ cock /kok/, cockerel /kókerel/ caimán hormiga oso abeja ave, pájaro ave de rapiña búfalo moscardón mariposa gato gallo flea /fli:/ fly /flai/ goose /gu:z/ geese /gi:z/ hare /héar/ hen /hen/ horse /ho:rs/ horsefly /ho:rsflai/ insect /ínsekt/ lion /láion/ louse /láus/ lice /lais/ monkey /máηki/ pulga mosca ganso /s liebre gallina caballo tábano insecto león piojo /s mono
A short course in english for adult students

rama arbusto flor fruto pasto hoja /s

plant /pla:nt/ roots /ru:ts/ seed /si:d/ shrub /shrab/ tree /tri:/ trunk /traηk/

planta raíces semilla arbusto, mata árbol tronco

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cow /káu/ crocodile /krókoudáil/ chicken /tchikin/ deer /dí:ar/ dog /dog/ dolphin /dólfin/ donkey /dóηki/ dragonfly /drægonflai/ ´ duck /dak/ eagle /í:gl/ elephant /élifant/ fish /fish/ flamingo /flæmíηgou/

vaca cocodrilo pollo ciervo perro delfin burro libélula pato águila elefante pez flamenco

mouse /máus/ mice /mais/ ostrich /óstritch/ rabbit /ræbit/ ´ rat /ræt/ rhinoceros /rainoseros/ seagull /sí:gal/ seal /si:l/ shellfish /shélfish/ snake /snéik/ squirrel /skuírel/ tiger /táiger/ turkey /té:rki/ whale /wéil/

ratón /es avestruz conejo rata rinoceronte gaviota foca marisco culebra ardilla tigre pavo ballena

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Key to answers

UNIT 14
PART I
Ex. 1. 1. had - gone 2. had - started 3. had - finished 4. had - disappeared 5. had been 6. had stolen 7. had taken 8. had left 9. had - put out 10. had - gone Ex. 2 1. had been - became 2. felt - had taken 3. had already given - got 4. left - had collected 5. was - had stopped 6. had already begun - got - took 7. roamed - had already become - appeared 8. had never seen - visited 9. had already boarded - got 10. saw - had not seen - didn`t recognize - had lost Ex. 3 1. Tom hadn`t left...yet / Had Tom left...yet / already? 2.They hadn`t spent all... yet. / Had they spent all...already / yet? .3. Paul hadn`t sent...yet / Had Paul sent...already / yet? 4. Jane hadn`t seen... / Had Jane seen...? 5. The children hadn`t had...yet. / Had the children had... already / yet? 6. Mrs. Bentley hadn´t gone...yet / Had Mrs. Bentley gone... already / yet? Ex. 4 1. How many sandwiches had John eaten that evening? 2. Where had Dr. Black studied? 3. When had the engineer graduated from UCLA? 4. What had Paul done the previous year? 5. At what time / When had the plane taken off from JFK Airport? 6. How long had he worked in the Army when he became a general? 7. How much money had they spent before they arrived in Tokyo? 8. How many times had Bill made the same mistake? 9. Who had visited them that evening? 10. What language had the girl studied at school? Ex. 5 . 1. They had not studied there very long. 2. I hadn`t seen a cricket game before. 3. Had you eaten / had this before? 4. Why hadn`t you written to us before? 5. She hadn`t read that book before. 6 They had visited other countries before they came / before coming to the USA. 7. Where had they been that morning? 8. She´d worked hard very long. 9.She`d never been abroad before. 10. He said (that) he`d been very busy that day.

PART II.
A. Ex. 1 2. beautifully 3. carefully 4. hard 5. early 6. easily 7. quickly 8. well 9. well 10. fast 11. carelessly 12. badly Ex. 2 . 2 carefully 3. quickly 4. easy 5. easily 6.beautiful 7. beautifully 8.foolish 9. foolishly 10. wise 11. wisely 12. fast Ex. 3. 2. more often than 3. more regularly than 4. earlier than 5. more frequently than 6. better than 7. faster than 8. harder than 9. more seriously than 10. later than 11.sooner than 12. earlier than Ex. 4. 1. as late as 2. as fast as 3. as well as 4. as early as 5. as beautifully as 6. as hard as 7. as quickly as 8. as brightly as 9. as softly as 10. as early as 11. as fast as 12. as easily as Ex. 5. 2. as / so early as 3. as / so well as 4. as / so easily as 5. as / so early as 6. as / so carefully as 7. as / so well as 8. as / so badly as 9. as / so regularly as 10. as / so hard as . B. Ex 1 1. himself 2. itself / himself / herself 3. herself 4. himself 5. ourselves 6. herself 7. themselves 8. yourself / yourselves 9. herself 10. myself 11. himself 12. himself Ex. 2 . 2. herself 3. himself 4. themselves 5. ourselves 6. himself 7. herself 8. himself 9. himself 10. herself 11. yourself 12. yourselves

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Ex. 3. 2. She likes to study by herself 3. I went to the movie by myself 4. Do you like to go to the movie by yourself? 5. He likes to walk by himself in the park 6. My aunt lives by herself in the cottage. 7. He works by himself in a small office 8. He prefers to work by himself. 9 I do not like to eat by myself 10. I do not think he can do it by himself. 11. Both the boys and the girls study by themselves 12. He wrote the entire book by himself. C. Ex. 1. 2. I was going to go to the beach but...3. We were going to telephone you but... 4. We were going to wait but... 5. I was going to come back earlier but... 6. I was going to go home early, but...7. We were going to walk in the park but... 8. I was going to write you a letter last week but... 9. We were going to eat early but... 10. We were going to go to a movie first but... 11. We were going to study for our examination but... 12. They were going to leave New York yesterday but... Ex. 2. (Possible answers) 2. I was going to buy it but I decided to save more money to buy a newer model. 3. I was going to visit them but I could not go out of town because of the snow storm. 4. I was going to go out but then decided to stay in and watch the baseball game on TV instead.

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6. Had they been playing soccer all day? /had δéi bi:n pléiη sóker o:l déi/ ¿Habían estado ellos jugando fútbol todo el día? How long had they been playing soccer? /háu lóη had δei bi:n pléiη sóker/ ¿Cuánto tiempo habían estado ellos jugando fútbol? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU BEEN DOING? /wót had iú: bí:n dú:iη/ (¿Qué había estado haciendo ud. 4. /δ mæn had bin wé:rkiη o:l déi/ El hombre había estado trabajando todo el día. 5. /δéid pléid sóker for abáut tú: áuarz/ Ellos habían jugado fútbol cerca de 2 horas. (rain) What ________________________ they ________________________before we arrived? (do) They ________________________ not ________________________ too much before the bar closed. /δéid bi:n pléiiη sóker for Ellos habían estado jugando fútbol cerca de dos horas. escuche y aprenda: The man had worked all day /δ mæn had wé:rkt o:l déi/ El hombre había trabajado todo el día. 2. The man had been working all day. (study) The ground was very wet that morning because it ________________________ all night.(fly) A short course in english for adult students 203 . 3. (walk) Jack ________________________ German for 2 years before they sent him to Germany.UNIT 15 PART 1. Normalmente se usa en vez del Pasado Perfecto con el fin de enfatizar la idea de continuidad de la acción. Tom ________________________ TV since 8:45 that evening. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense 1. escuche y aprenda: They had not been working all day.?) EXERCISES Ex. Lea. 7. (watch) The men ________________________ for 6 hours when they got to the village. báut tú: áuarz/ Las forma negativa se expresa usando HAD NOT o HADN´T /hædnt/. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo se forma usando el Pasado Perfecto del verbo modal BE (HAD BEEN /had bi:n/) más un GERUNDIO del un verbo principal. They´d been playing soccer for about two hours. (drink) We ________________________ for over 12 hours when the plane landed in New York. En la forma interrogativa se debe anteponer HAD al sujeto: Lea. /δéi had nót bi:n wé:rkiη o:l déi/ Ellos no habían estado trabajando todo el día. They´d played soccer for about two hours. 1.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 204 A short course in english for adult students . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. He had been teaching Physics for 2 decades in that school before he retired. Ellos habían estado conversando aproximadamente una hora antes que yo llegara. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 5. esa mañana? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. It´d been raining hard that afternoon. 3.30.Ex. 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. The Johnsons had been living in the same house for about 20 years. The patient had been feeling better. They´d been studying the report that evening. The boy had been watching the stars before he went to bed that night. ¿Cuánto tiempo habías estado viviendo en ese departamento antes de comprar esta casa? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ¿Qué había estado haciendo Ud. Mr. 4. 2. La Sra. Ella había estado trabajando en ese informe desde la semana anterior. Where. etc. How long. Ask questions using question words like What. 3. 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. El joven ingeniero había estado haciendo trabajo de investigación durante mucho tiempo. The students had been practising Spanish. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 4. I´d been working out for 20 minutes. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. and b) the interrogative 1. Bob had been sleeping since 8. 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. El cielo estaba despejado y el sol estaba brillando. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Smith had been saving money because he was planning to take a trip to Africa. Había estado lloviendo toda la mañana. She´d been reading a magazine. Change the following sentence into a) the negative. Brown había estado trabajando arduamente ese día y se sentía cansada.

He left the books in Room 10. .PART II. 7. He studied engineering in college. 6. He ________________________ (start) a long time ago. Complete the following in your own words. En este caso estos verbos van seguidos de HAVE + UN PAST PARTICIPLE . but we should_____________________________________________________________________ 7. (Deberías haber llegado más temprano. Ex. 2. You ________________________ (tell) me that you were not able to come. He ________________________ (come) at ten o’clock last night instead of twelve. 11. mientras que la oración “You HAD BETTER SEE a doctor right away” (Sería mejor que vieras un médico de inmediato) es sinónimo de “You should see a doctor right away” o “It is advisable that you see a doctor right away” A short course in english for adult students 205 . We went to Mexico on our vacation. expresa un reproche o crítica. Es importante destacar que esta estructura conlleva una idea negativa. It was very interesting. La oración “I WOULD RATHER WATCH TV” (Preferiría mirar TV) es sinónimo de “I prefer to watch TV”. 4. They sent us the merchandise by parcel post. pero no lo hice) You ought to come earlier. as usual. You ________________________ (attend) the lecture last night. but you ought ________________________________________________________ 6. (Yo debería comenzar a estudiar Francés ahora) I SHOULD HAVE STARTED to study French a long time ago.OUGHT TO Los verbos modales SHOULD y OUGHT TO (debería o debiera) tienen una forma de expresar el pasado. You ________________________ (not tell) her anything about the accident.Smith yesterday You ________________________ (not give) our address to John. 1. She gave the money to John. but she should __________________________________________________________ 4. but I did not. Ambas se refieren a situaciones presentes o futuras. but he should _______________________________________________________ 9. Compare: I should start to study French now. (Deberías venir más temprano) You OUGHT TO HAVE COME earlier. using constructions with SHOULD HAVE or OUGHT TO HAVE: 1.) 2. 5. but we should _____________________________________________________ 10. but he should ____________________________________________ (He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street. Supply the proper past tense form of SHOULD or OUGHT TO (Alternate should and ought to ) 1. but they should ____________________________________________ B. It was excellent.) You ought to have telephoned (telephone) me yesterday (but you didn´t) You ________________________ (go) to the opera with us last night. IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASES: “WOULD RATHER” AND “HAD BETTER” Estas frases idiomáticas se usan como si fueran verbos modales y van seguidas de un bare infinitive (Infinitivo sin “to”). 10. He started to study English last month. 2. (Yo debería haber comenzado a estudiar Francés hace mucho tiempo. I ________________________ (not go) to bed so late last night. but he should ___________________________________________________________ 5. 12. He should have studied (study) before he took his examinations ( but he didn´t. PAST TENSE OF SHOULD . You ________________________ (give) that money to Mr. You telephoned him at his office. We sent her a fax. 9. He invested his money in real estate. but he ___________________________________________________________ 8. He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street. but he should _____________________________________________________ 3. A. You ________________________ (telephone) to the police as soon as you reached home. He sent the package by regular mail. Rara vez se usa OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. 8. but you came late. pero llegaste atrasado como de costumbre) EXERCISES Ex. but he should have waited for me on the corner of 57th Street. 3.

2. Change these sentences to introduce HAD BETTER 1. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if he takes private lessons. stay in bed all day or see a doctor? Además de WOULD RATHER.. I like cold drinks better than hot drinks. 2.) It will be better if he goes to a doctor at once. Al formular interrogaciones se debe anteponer WOULD o HAD al sujeto. 3. _______________________________________________ It will be better if we don’t stand so close to the curb. I prefer nonfiction ______________________________ fiction. 6. tea or coffee? You´d better not mention it to anyone. 4. (You’d better come back later.En las conversación diaria tanto WOULD RATHER como HAD BETTER se usan en contracción. I like rock ‘n roll ______________________________ classical music.. Tina would rather lie on the beach ______________________________ go swimming. I prefer cold drinks to hot drinks. I like chicken ______________________________ beef. 4.. como en estos ejemplos: I´d rather not go at all than go with them. 10. 7.3 Complete the sentences with THAN. 2. 5. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if she spends more time on her homework. They prefer not to wait outside. I prefer to wait here . 10. They prefer to speak to him at his home. BETTER THAN or TO. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if you don’t work so hard after your illness. 7. What had I better do. 6. 9. It will be better if you come back later. como los ejemplos siguientes: I´d rather see a movie than go to the opera. When I’m hot and thirsty. I´d rather have an apple than an orange. 8. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if Helen begins to spend more time on her English. 9. I prefer to go to South America on my vacation. When I choose a book. I’d rather have a cold drink than a hot drink. podemos indicar o expresar preferencia mediante el uso de PREFER. 3. 6. 5. TO o LIKE. BETTER THAN I prefer apples to oranges I prefer watching TV to studying math. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if we don’t mention it to him.. I prefer not to go to the party alone. _______________________________________________ It will be better if we send him an e-mail right away. 1. 2.. I’d rather eat chicken ______________________________ beef. I prefer to drink tea with my meals. ________________________________________ Ex. 3. 8. Change these sentences to introduce WOULD RATHER: 1. We prefer not to say anything to him about it. He´d better see a doctor immediately En la forma negativa se debe usar NOT después de WOULD RATHER o HAD BETTER. A short course in english for adult students .. 9. When I’m hot and thirsty. John prefers to go to the party with Helen. What would you rather drink. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if you rest a while.. EXERCISES Ex. She prefers to come back later.. 8.. I prefer chicken ______________________________ beef. (I’d rather wait here.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ I like apples better than oranges I like watching TV better than studying math. 1. 4. Ex. 5. 7. I Prefer to stay at home and watch television. 206 When I’m hot and thirsty.

podrías. We could go for a walk (podríamos salir a caminar) in the park. • When you go to New York next month. I could hear something (Podía oir algo) (Past) Pero COULD también se puede usar cuando queremos referirnos a acciones posibles de realizar ahora o en el futuro. Mr. • I was so tired that day that I could have slept for a week. COULD es el pasado CAN (poder. you could stay (podrías quedarte) with Barbara. • The phone´s ringing. En este caso COULD significa podría. 11. They enjoy their jobs. 14.(Estaba tan cansado ese día que podría haber dormido una semana) (Past) COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE se usa para referirse a acciones que pudiendo haberse realizado o sucedido. C. (Present) (Estoy tan cansado ahora que podría dormir durante una semana. My sister likes her math class ______________________________ her biology class. • I listened. • Why did you stay at a hotel when you came to Santiago. Tina likes lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. (Podría haberse lastimado seriamente) A short course in english for adult students 207 . Compare las siguientes oraciones: • I am so tired now that I could sleep for a week. • Jim: If you need money. MODAL VERBS (II) 1. Tina prefers lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. especialmente cuando deseamos hacer una sugerencia. • It´s a nice day. 13. COULD (DO SOMETHING) AND COULD HAVE (DONE SOMETHING) Como sabemos. 17. • John: What shall we do this evening? Mary: We could go (podríamos ir) to the cinema. He could have hurt himself badly. My parents would rather work______________________________ retire. no se realizaron o no sucedieron. It could be Tim. 18. También COULD se usa para referirse a algo que es posible ahora o en el futuro. 12. (podría ser Tim) • I don´t know when they´ll be here. 16.10. podríamos. You could have stayed with us. Do you like fresh vegetables ______________________________ frozen or canned vegetables? I would rather take a picture of a wild animal______________________________ kill it with a gun. Kim prefers tea ______________________________ coffee with his evening meal. I prefer visiting my friends in the evening ______________________________ watching TV by myself. I can hear something. They could arrive (podrían llegar) at any time. 15. I suppose I could do that (podría hacer eso). etc. why don´t you ask Karen? Tom: Yes. (Puedo oir algo) (Present). There´s a very good film on at the Rex. My brother would rather read a book in the evening ______________________________ visit with friends.(Pudrías haberte quedado con nosotros) • John fell off a ladder yesterday but he´s all right. ser capaz de) • Listen. En este caso COULD es sinónimo de MIGHT.

Paul couldn´t have gone (no habría podido salir) anyway because he was ill. Ex. We _______________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Ex. 2 Put in CAN or COULD. You ______________________________ for it. 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 208 A short course in english for adult students . (Podría haberlo conseguido) • We could have gone away (podríamos haber salido) if we´d had enough money. 5. The weather is nice now but it ______________________________ change later. 4.’ Peter is a keen musician. ‘ B: Why did you stay at home? You ______________________________ to the cinema. ‘I can’t find my bag. Where shall we go for our holidays? (to Scotland). 1. A: Where shall we meet tomorrow? B: Well. 4. 2. 3. We ______________________________ watch that’. but it ______________________________ be in the car. 5. Read this information about Ken: Ken didn’t do anything on Saturday evening. 8. We ______________________________ but we decided not to. He plays the flute and he ______________________________ also play the piano.A veces esta estructura puede usarse para expresar la idea de “WOULD HAVE BEEN ABLE TO” (habría podido) • Why didn´t Liz apply for the job? She could have got it. A: The phone is ringing. Ken doesn’t know anything about machines. Some people wanted Ken to do different things last week but they couldn’t contact him. We could go to the cinema. ‘What shall we do?’ ‘There’s a film on television. 6. 4. 6. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 1. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Who do you think it is?’ B: It ______________________________ be Tim. Ken´s car was stolen on Monday. Ken was short of money last week. It’s so nice here. You have to say whether he could have done or couldn’t have done them. So he didn’t do any of these things. Use COULD. 3. 1. 2. Ex. B: What sort of job is it? Show me the advertisement. EXERCISES Ex. A: I had a very boring evening at home yesterday. I ______________________________ eat a horse! If you’re very hungry. 1. • The trip was cancelled last week. A: Did you go to the concert last night? B: No. Complete the sentences. Jack wanted Ken to lend him £50 last week. Use COULD or COULD HAVE + a suitable verb. A: What shall we do this evening? B: I don’t mind. 3. 5. Ken had to work on Friday evening. What shall we have for dinner tonight?(fish) What shall I give Ann for her birthday?(a book) When shall I phone Angela? (right now) When shall we go and see Tom? (on Friday) Where shall we hang this picture?(in the kitchen) We could go to Scotland. I’m really hungry. Another friend wanted him to play tennis on Monday afternoon. 1. 7. I ______________________________ stay here all day but unfortunately I have to go. A: There’s an interesting job advertised in the paper. Have you seen it?’ ‘No. Ken was free on Monday afternoon. A friend of his wanted him to go out for a meal on Friday evening. 4. Ken’s aunt wanted him to drive her to the airport on Tuesday. I ______________________________ to your house if you like. Sometimes either word is possible. Answer the questions with a suggestion. 3. He couldn´t have driven her to the airport (because his car had been stolen) 2. we ______________________________ have dinner now.

so they ___________________ be short of money. Congratulations on passing your exam. MUST. No puede haber estado durmiendo) Note la pronunciación de las siguientes oraciones: You must be very tired. He____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. You must be very tired. They can’t _____________________________many people. You. /δei mástav gón áut/ She can´t have seen me. You ___________________ be very pleased. CAN´T. 1. You can´t be hungry already. That restaurant ___________________ be very good. You’ve been travelling all day.(Debo haber estado dormido) • Jane walked past me without speaking. It’s always empty. Put in MUST or CAN’T. I must have been asleep. Ex. Tom was in his bedroom. She can´t have seen me. 1. 3. I must _____________________________ it somewhere. He´s rung the doorbell three times but nobody has answered They must have gone out. (Deben haber salido) • The phone rang but I didn´t hear it.. como en los siguientes ejemplos : • You´ve just had lunch. (Debes estar muy cansado) • A: “Jim is a hard worker” B: Jim? A hard worker? You must be joking (Debes estar bromeando) He´s very lazy” • Carol must get very bored (debe aburrirse mucho) in her job. It’s always full of people. 6. 4. 1. 3. debemos usar CAN´T. He must have been watching the news on TV. 7.(No pueden conocer mucha gente) En situaciones pasadas se debe usar MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE o CAN´T HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE. Ted isn’t at work today. It rained every day during their holiday. AND CAN´T HAVE Sabemos que uno de los usos de MUST es el de expresar una suposición. 2. They can´t know many people. como en los siguientes ejemplos: • You have been working all day. MUST HAVE. She does the same thing every day. que no puede ser cierto. He must _____________________________ ill. 8. He can´t have been sleeping (Deber haber estado viendo las noticas en TV. o conclusión. es decir. Ken’s mother wanted him to repair her washing machine. /hi: mástav bi:n wótchiδη tí: ví:/ He can´t have been sleeping /hi: ká:ntav bi:n slí:piδη/ EXERCISES Ex. /iú: más bi: véry táiard/ They must have gone out. Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often. A short course in english for adult students 209 . so they ___________________ have had a very nice time. /sh: ká:ntav sí:n mi:/ He must have been watching TV. Ted wasn’t at work last week.5. (No puedes estar con hambre ya) • They haven´t lived here very long. You ___________________ be very tired. cuando estamos seguros que algo es así.___________________ have walked very fast. (No debe haberme visto) • It was about 9:15 in the evening. Jane wanted Ken to come to her party on Saturday evening. You got here very quickly. They haven’t lived here very long. You’re going on holiday next week. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. You ___________________ be looking forward to it. Cuando estamos seguros de que algo no es posible. I’ve lost one of my gloves. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: • George is outside his friends´ house. That restaurant ___________________ be very good. He must ___________________________ ill. 5. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. 2. 4.

. I haven’t seen the people next door for ages.(Puede que haya estado durmiendo) (= perhaps she was asleep) • A: I can’t find my bag anywhere. B: He may not have been feeling well. (I/asleep) 1 must have been asleep. Don passed the exam without studying for it. She knew everything about our plans. 2. Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with MUST HAVE and CAN’T HAVE. (the neighbours/have/a party) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. (Puede que no tenga suficiente) (=perhaps I don’t have enough) En el pasado podemos usar MAY HAVE + past participle o MIGHT HAVE + past participle. B: She may have been asleep. (= perhaps she knows what happened ) La forma negativa se expresa usando MAY NOT o MIGHT NOT * It might not be true. He has been walking behind us for the last 20 minutes.. Carol knows a lot about films. the light was on. He must _____________________________ us. B: She might not have known about it. (I/leave it in the restaurant last night) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it.. It can’t ____________________ Mary. There is a man walking behind us. He must _____________________________ out. 9.) what happened. MAY / MIGHT AND MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Los verbos modales MAY / MIGHT se usan frecuentemente para indicar una posibilidad: * It may be true (Puede que sea cierto) It might be true (Podría ser cierto). She’s still at work at this time. (she/listen/to our conversation) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 1. Ann was in a very difficult situation. 6. Jack is putting on his hat and coat. I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it wasn’t there any more.. She must _____________________ to the cinema a lot. (it/very expensive) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. (the driver/see/the red light) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. (Podría no ser cierto) (= perhaps it isn’t true) * I’m not sure whether I can lend you some money. (Puede que no haya sabido) (= perhaps she didn’t know) • A: I wonder why Colin was in such a bad mood yesterday. . (I/forget/to turn it off) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10.) She might know (Ella podría tal vez saber.. (= perhaps it is true) * She may know what happened (Puede que ella sepa. It can’t _____________________________easy for her. 10. When I woke up this morning.. (she/understand/what I said) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. (they/go away) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. • A: I wonder why Kay didn’t answer the phone. 7. The lights were red but the car didn’t stop. (Puede que no haya estado sintiéndose bien) (= perhaps he wasn’t feeling well) 210 A short course in english for adult students 5. Ex. Look. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door..Somebody must _____________________________ it. I can’t find my umbrella. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do. 3. The jacket you bought is very good quality. I may not have enough.) (= perhaps you left it in the shop) • A: I was surprised that Sarah wasn’t at the meeting.(The doorbell rings) I wonder who that is. B: You might have left it in the shop (Podrías haberla dejado. 8. Jane walked past me without speaking. (she/see/me) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. (the exam/very difficult) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7.

a (he / go / shopping) He may have gone shopping. B: Yes. a (he / be / in the bathroom) ___________________________________________________ b (he / not / hear / the bell) ___________________________________________________ Ex. She might not have seen you. Perhaps she doesn’t want to see me. be having lunch. A: I wonder how the fire started. 1. 3. It might ________________________________________ her brother. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ In sentences 9-11 use MAY NOT or MIGHT NOT. b (he / play / tennis) He might be playing tennis 2. Why didn’t Tom answer the doorbell? I’m sure he was in the house at the time. she was too far away.’ ‘Who was the man we saw with Ann yesterday?’ ‘I’m not sure. Perhaps she wants to be alone. The police say it _____________________________________________________________________________ 6. 11. 1. I can’t find George anywhere. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Complete the sentences using MIGHT. 1. 5. B: Well. A: I wonder why Ann didn´t come to the party. 1. She couldn´t have seen me 2. Perhaps she isn’t working today. He might. B: That´s possible. 9. 4. 8.’ Ex. 2. B: I agree. Use MAY or MIGHT. They say it __________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 211 . She might be in her office. Perhaps Margaret is in her office. Perhaps she is working. Perhaps she wasn’t feeling well yesterday.’ ‘Who is that man with Ann?’ ‘I’m not sure. He __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I’m looking for Helen.. it´s possible. 3. Perhaps she didn´t see me. Perhaps she went home early. COULDN’T. She ________________________________________________________________________ 4. Perhaps she wasn´t invited. 4. 6. I can’t find my umbrella. Do you think it was an accident? B.. It might ______________________ her brother. I´m sure he would have come to the party if he´d been invited. Perhaps she had to go home early. Do you know where she is? a (she / watch / TV / in her room) ___________________________________________________ b (she / go / out) ___________________________________________________ 3. Write these sentences in a different way using MAY (or MIGHT)). Perhaps Margaret is busy. 10.EXERCISES Ex. A: How did the fire start? I suppose it was an accident. Perhaps she was working yesterday. They might ________________________ for a bus. A: Do you think she saw you? B: No. A: I wonder why she didn´t say hello. He might ___________________________________ it already. MAY HAVE (or MIGHT HAVE). 5. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. I wonder where he is. Have you seen it? a (it / be / in the car) ___________________________________________________ b (you / leave / in the restaurant last night) ___________________________________________________ 4.’ ‘Shall I buy this book for Tim?’ ‘You’d better not. MIGHT NOT or COULD. 3. A: Tom loves parties.’ ‘Why are those people waiting in the street?’ ‘I don’t know. ‘Where’s Bob?’ ‘I’m not sure. 2. 3 Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets. Perhaps she was ill yesterday. 7. 1. the police aren´t sure. 4.

aluvión de agua neblina.VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WEATHER /(e wé(er/ El tiempo Atmosférico blizzard /blízard/ breeze /brí:z/ cloud /kláud/ cloudy /kláudi/ cold wave /kóuld wéiv/ cyclone /sáikloun/ dew /diu:/ downpour /dáunpoar/ drizzle /drízl/ drought /dráut/ flood /flad/ flashflood /flæshflad/ ´ fog /fog/ foggy /fógi/ frost /frost/ gale /géil/ hail /heil/ heat wave /hi:t wéiv/ hurricane /hárikein/ ice /áis/ landslide /lændslaid/ ´ lightning flash /láitniη flæsh/ mist /mist/ misty /místi/ ventisca brisa nube nublado onda de frío ciclón rocío aguacero llovizna sequía inundación torrente. eléctica) tornado tromba. bruma brumoso escarcha ventarrón granizo onda de calor huracán hielo aluvión de barro relámpago bruma matinal brumoso rainfall /réinfo:l/ scattered shower /skæterd sháuer/ ´ shower /sháuer/ sleet /slí:t/ snowfall /snóufo:l/ snowflake /snóufleik/ sunny /sáni/ sunny intervals /sáni íntervolz/ sunny patches /sáni pætchiz/ ´ sunny spells /sáni spelz/ thunder /θánder/ thunderbolt /θánderboult/ thunderstorm /θándersto:rm/ thundery /θánderi/ tornado /tornéidou/ twister /tuíster/ typhoon /taifú:n/ whirlwind /wé:rlwind/ wind /wind/ windy /wíndi/ lluvia caída chubasco ocasional chubasco aguanieve nevazón copo de nieve soleado intervalos de sol claros de sol ratos de sol trueno rayo tormenta eléctrica tormentoso (torm. remolino tifón remolino viento con viento 212 A short course in english for adult students .

? Ex. 4. had been watching 2.. Ex.. had been studying 4. 5. 1.. (Possible answers) 2. to have telephoned him at his home 6.. 8. She´d better spend more time on her homework. had .. 8. 3. than 15.. / Had Bob been sleeping. have sent her an e-mail. have sent it by air mail 3. could 8. Bob hadn´t been sleeping. 4. 5. 2. They´d rather speak to him at his home. Ex. 4. 2. 1. 6... The sky was clear and the sun was shining. 1..been drinking 7. 1. 4. to 8. 7. can / could 4. 1. 6. You should not have told l her.. How long had he been teaching Physics in that school when he retired? Ex. You ought to have telephoned.. We could go and see him on Friday.. 9. 7. had been flying Ex. Helen had better begin more time on her English. could apply 4. You could give her a book. 8. can / could 2. have given it to Jane 4. He ought to have come. She´d been working on that report since last week / the previous week. 3.. had been walking 3. 6. It hadn`t been raing. than 13. 4. John would rather go to the party with Helen. 7. have left them in Room 11. 9. You ought to have given.. 3. Ex..? 4. 1. 11. 5.. They´d rather not wait outside 5. 2.. You should have gone.? 5.been doing 6. could 5.. 2. 1. The young engineer had been doing research work for a long time. PART II A.? 2. 9. She hadn`t been reading. He´d better take private lessons. than 18.. 2. to 16. / Had the students been practicing.. 6.. than 10. He´d better go to a doctor at once. 5. He ought to have started. Ex. could 3. I´d rather not go to the party alone. We´d better send him an e-mail right away. She´d rather come back later. to have invested it in stocks / shares.. better than C. . You should have attended. can / could 6. I´d rather drink tea with my meals.. 1. / Had I been working.. 8. I´d rather stay at home and watch TV.. Ex. They´d been talking for about an hour before I arrived... had . have studied medicine. 3.. 10.. have sent it by UPS / FedEx B. 3. could come A short course in english for adult students 213 . The students had not been practicing. You should have told. 2.1. 5. / Had it been raining. I ought not to have gone... Why had Mr. better than 9. How long had you been living in that apartment before buying this house? 4. Ex.. to 17. I´d rather go to South America on my vacation.could have gone 3. 2. Ex. 7... had been raining 5. can 7. What had the boy been watching? 3.The patient hadn´t been feeling.. 10. You´d better not work so hard after your illness. What had you been doing that morning? 2. to 5.. / Had the patient been feeling. How long had the Johnsons been living in the same house? 5. better than 14. 7. We´d rather not say anything to him about it. could Ex. We´d better not mention it to him.. You´d better rest a while 4. better than 6. 9.could have gone 5.? 6. It´d been raining all morning . We´d better not stand so close to the curb. 12..? 3.Key to answers UNIT 15 PART I Ex. 10.what had they been doing that evening? 2.. have gone to Tahiti 10.. 2. You should not have given. Mrs. 3. to 12.... Brown had been working hard that day and felt very tired. better than 11. than 7.. We could hang it in the kitchen. 3. / Had she been reading. We could have fish 3.. 6. Smith been saving money? 4. 1. I hadn´t been working. You could phone her now .

be 4.2. must 2. She may / might have had to go home early 8. 5.must 7. She may / might not have been feeling well yesterday. can´t Ex.The neighbors must have been having a party . have left 2. Ken couldn´t have gone out because he had to work. 5. 4. be waiting 5. She may / might want to be alone 5. Ex. She may / might be working 4. 4. 1. might have been an accident 214 A short course in english for adult students . 2a. must 3. He may / might not have heard the bell. Ex. It may / might be in the car. C. know 3. 11. 2. might not have been invited. He couldn´t have lent him £50 because he was short of money. 10. 3. He may / might have been in the bathroom. b e 3.She may / might have been working yesterday. have bought Ex. 2b. She may / might not want to see me. (Possible answers)2. 6. be 6. might have come if he´d been invited. 10. She may / might have been ill yesterday . must 8. He couldn´t have repaired it because he doesn´t know anything about machines. 9. have taken / stolen 9. 2. The driver can´t have seen the red light. The exam can´t have been very difficult 7. can´t 4. She may / might have gone out 3a. 6. 2. have been 4. 3. I must have left it in the restaurant last night. 5.. 6. have been 5. 4. be following Ex. She may / might have gone home early 7. 8. be going 8. go 7. 3. 2. 3. must 5. have been 10. 6. Ex. I must have forgotten to turn it off.She can´t have seen me. 3b. Ex. 2. He couldn´t have come to her party because he didn´t do anything on Friday evening. 9. She may / might be watching TV in her room. 1. 3. (Possible answers) 1. 3. It must have been very expensive 4. 4b. She may / might not be working today 11. She can´t have understood what I said. Ken could have played tennis on Monday evening because he was free.Ex. She must have listened to our conversation. 1. She may / might be busy. can´t 6.They must have gone away. might have been an accident. 4. You may / might have left it in the restaurant 4a. 3. C.

When Peter gets home tonight. ´ If our team wins the next game... Tambien son comunes las expresiones que contienen WHEN / IF + S + PRESENTE SIMPLE + UNA FECHA FUTURA. nosotros habremos vivido cinco años en este país By the end of this month the spaceship will have reached Jupiter. Este tiempo se expresa usando WILL HAVE más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. la nave espacial habrá llegado a Júpiter. nosotros habremos ganado nuestro tercer trofeo.... She is free now. nosotros habremos viajado más de doce horas. Ella está libre ahora When she is free next time. lea y aprenda : By December 15th. etc.. etc. I have the information now Yo tengo la información ahora When I have the information this afternoon. we will have gotten our third trophy.UNIT 16 PART I. Cuando ella esté libre la próxima vez. /wen pí :ter géts hóum tunáit ail hav hæd díner alrédi/ Cuando ´ Peter llegue a casa esta noche. we´ll have travelled more than twelve hours. Cuando tú vengas acá mañana. we will have lived in this country five years... by this time next week. Escuche. by the end of this month.. if they arrive after 10 tomorrow (si ellos llegan después de las 10 mañana).? Note como la palabra WHEN cambia el significado de las siguientes oraciones: You come here every day Tú vienes acá todos los días When you come here tomorrow. como When Peter gets home tonight (cuando Peter llegue a casa esta noche). /wen wi gét tu δæt táun tumórou wil hav ´ træveld móar δan tuelv áuerz/ Cuando lleguemos a ese pueblo mañana. When we get to that town tomorrow (cuando lleguemos a esa ciudad mañana).. /bai disémber δe fift:nθ wi wil hav lívd in δis kántri fáiv yíarz/ Hacia el 15 de diciembre. Escuche. Las expresiones de tiempo usadas en el Futuro Perfecto son aquellas introducidas con by + una fecha futura como by December 15th. I will have had dinner already. La forma negativa se expresa usando WILL NOT HAVE + past participle y en la interrogación se antepone el verbo modal WILL al sujeto. /bai δi énd ov δis mánθ δe spéiship wil hav rí:tcht dllúpiter/ Hacia fines de este mes. Will they have finished the work by 10:30? What time will they have finished the work? La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT WILL YOU HAVE DONE? /wót wil iu: h v dán/ ¿Qué habrá hecho Ud. yo ya habré cenado When we get to that town tomorrow. lea y aprenda : They will have finished the work by 10:30 They will not/won´t have finished the work by 10:30. Cuando yo tenga la información esta tarde.. EL TIEMPO FUTURO PERFECTO (THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE) Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que será completada antes de una fecha específica dada en el futuro. A short course in english for adult students 215 .. /if auar tí:m winz δe nékst géim wi wil hav góten áuar θerd trófi/ Si nuestro equipo gana el próximo partido.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 216 A short course in english for adult students . (learn) By this time next month. I will have completed this course in English. (forget) When he becomes a man. 5. 10. 1. they ________________________ and ________________________ . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.go) Ex. they ________________________ dinner when he gets there. I ________________________ all these grammar rules. a) By the end of this month. 2. the Johnsons ________________________ already. (have) By December. 1 Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided in the Future Perfect Tense. they ________________________ home. the weather ________________________ considerably. I will have finished reading this book. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ b) By the end of this year. 2. and c) when you retire? Write at least three sentences for each question. (be) By tomorrow. 1. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Si no tomamos un taxi. (recover) Before they leave New York next Sunday. 1. 4. El ya habrá realizado todos sus planes antes termine el verano. 11. 5.EXERCISES Ex. 8. 2. By two o´clock. 2. 9. I will have worked as a teacher for thirty-five years ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. the students ________________________ their first course. 3. nosotros ya habremos procesado toda la información. 3. 1. 4. 6. 7. (come . 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ c) By the time I retire. 4. el concierto ya habrá comenzado cuando lleguemos al teatro. 3. (finish) If he gets here at 6 o´clock. (leave) By the end of March. When you arrive at midday tomorrow. 5. (visit) 12. 4. Ellos habrán terminado ese edificio antes del fin de año. 3. 2. What things will you have done: a) by the end of this month? b) by the end of this year?. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. you ________________________ from your illness. they________________________ the most important places of interest. (change) If you come at noon tomorrow. (complete) I________________________ in this country two years next October. 5. (go) If he doesn´t hurry. we ________________________ the work. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. he ________________________ many things. Antes de las seis de la tarde.

(Ellos dicen que deben estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) They said they had to be at the airport at 8:30. SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES (CONCORDANCIA DE TIEMPOS VERBALES) Observe la siguiente tabla: PRINCIPAL VERB PRESENT PAST Según la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales. se habrá recuperado de su operación. will. (Mary dijo que conocía bien a Bob. do / does. did. (Mary dice que conoce bien a Bob. SUBORDINATE VERB Present Future Past Conditional a) Cuando el verbo principal de una oración está expresado en el TIEMPO PRESENTE. (Ellos dijeron que debían en estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) A short course in english for adult students 217 . must. had. (El dijo que su nombre de pila era Robert) Tom thinks that he can come to the party tonight. may deben ser cambiados a las respectivas formas del pasado: was / were. De acuerdo con esta regla. (El dice que su nombre de pila es Robert) He said that his first name was Robert.5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ PART II. could. A. yo ya habré aprendido a conversar en inglés. (El hombre dijo que vendría acá mañana) They say they must be at the airport at 8:30. los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PASADO o en el POTENCIAL. muy pronto Ud. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. los resultados de elección habrán sido enviados a la prensa. have / has. los verbos modales am / is / are. had to. Antes de la medianoche. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Si sigue los consejos de su médico. (Tom cree que puede venir a la fiesta esta noche) Tom thought that he could come to the party tonight. b) Cuando el verbo principal está expresado en el TIEMPO PASADO. would. (El hombre dice que vendrá acá mañana) The man said that he would come here tomorrow. lea y aprenda : Mary says that she knows Bob well. La mayoría de los pájaros habrá emigrado al norte antes que llegue el invierno. los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PRESENTE o en el TIEMPO FUTURO. Hacia fines de este curso.) He says that his first name is Robert.) Mary said that she knew Bob well. Escuche. might. (Tom creía que podría venir a la fiesta esta noche) The man says that he will come here tomorrow. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. can.

I think I can meet you. UNLESS (a menos que). Choose the correct form: 1. The boy says he has seen the movie. 13. “will rain”) next Sunday. AS SOON AS (en cuanto). 8. 3. 12. 9. He thinks he (can. 17. lea y aprenda : If John comes (no. I think Mr Jones may be in his office. “will come” ) tomorrow. had been) a soldier. would) be here. I didn’t know what he (is. would) rain. I think he will be there by ten o´clock He believes he can do it. he will see Mary. 7. I think it will be very hot this afternoon. I told him that I (cannot. 11. I don´t know where Mary is. u otra palabra similar para introducir una cláusula subordinada en el tiempo futuro.EXERCISES Ex. might) be late. 18. THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER IF (EL TIEMPO PRESENTE DESPUES DE IF ) Se debe usar el TIEMPO PRESENTE (y no el tiempo futuro) después de la palabra IF. The newspaper says it (will. 14. 4. I think there´ll be a lot of work to do. 8. meant). The young man tells us he is married. I don´t think Bob will like the new job. 9. could) do it easily. I didn’t know what the word (means. 3. He wants to know where she is. was) trying to do. 11. Escuche. I don’t know what his name (is. did not) feel well. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 1. He asked me where 1 (live. 16. He says he has to work. 10. AFTER (después que). 5.hard every day I know where she lives. He says he will be here at noon. 218 A short course in english for adult students . 4. 10. 19. following the rule of sequence of tenses: 1. He said he (will. Bob wants to know how many people there are. Change to past tense. is going) away. 6. 2. could not) go. He says he is very sorry. 7. aún cuando nos estemos refiriendo a situaciones futuras. If it rains (no. 2. 2. 5. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. He said he (has been. The girl says she is studying for a test. lived). 20. He hopes he can be there early I think it may rain this evening. they will not go to the beach. BEFORE (antes que). AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que). debemos usar el PRESENTE (y no el futuro) después de las palabras WHEN (cuando). She said she (may. was). UNTIL (hasta que). She said she (was going. She said she (does not. 12. The weather man predicts it will rain. 15. 6. Del mismo modo.

(Cuando John venga acá esta tarde. WHEN. USE OF “ELSE” Y “OR ELSE”. Call me as soon as he ____________________________ (get) here tomorrow morning. anybody / anyone. WHILE. You must wait ____________________________ the light changes to green. A. we may go to the beach. somewhere. As soon as he ____________________________ (telephone) today. Ex.: 1. Please wait here ____________________________ the doctor arrives. please let me know. (Alguien más se preocupara de ustedes) Is there anything else (= any other thing) that you need? (¿Hay algo más que necesite usted?) A short course in english for adult students 219 . We’ll come to see you next week ____________________________ you leave on your vacation. We wilI wait here ____________________________ you telephone this afternoon. 1. If he_____________________not _____________________ (come) here soon. You will know him ____________________________ you see him at the meeting tomorrow. some other thing. nowhere) como un sinónimo de some other person. etc. they will not wait for him. When he ____________________________ (come) this afternoon. 10. ELSE Esta palabra se usa junto a las palabras derivadas de SOME. too. he will see Mary. 3.` If he ____________________________ (like) the job next week. anywhere. nothing. I´ll write to you ____________________________ I get to New York next Friday evening. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. Don´t start moving. please give him the message. I will give him your message. Escuche. 3. We will not leave the hotel ____________________________ you are ready to go. anything. (Espere aquí hasta que el bus llegue. he will keep it. no other person. Do not call me tomorrow morning unless he ____________________________ (come) to the office. They will stay in the South West ____________________________ the war lasts. within ten or fifteen minutes. You can stay here ____________________________ we go to the movie this evening.Escuche. 5. 4 5. lf he ____________________________ (be) late this evening. AS SOON AS. Insert the missing conjunction: UNTIL. 8. any other thing. 2. If he____________________________ (arrive) on time tomorrow morning. etc. dentro de 10 o 15 minutos) EXERCISES Ex. 6. BEFORE. 10. Do not leave before I ____________________________:____________________________ (tell) you to go . 2. he can go with us on the city tour. 7. 6. lea y aprenda : Somebody else ( = some other person) will take care of you. ANY y NO (somebody / someone. any other person. 9. we will have to leave without him. 12. (En cuanto yo vea a Mr Smith mañana le dare su mensaje) Wait here in the lobby until the bus arrives. 2. 8. lea y aprenda : When John comes here this evening. AS LONG AS. 11. 9.(within a few minutes) I´ll believe ít ____________________________ I see it PART III. 7. él vera a Mary) As soon as I see Mr Smith tomorrow. If the weather ____________________________ (be) good tomorrow. nobody / no one. we will go to the beach. lf it _____________________ not ______________________ (rain) tomorrow. 4. something. I will not go to the meeting next Monday unless you ____________________________ (go) too.

Join the following pairs of sentences. Helen must rest more. Mrs. Put the dog outside. I must go home right away. 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. If we don´t. you’ll wake the baby. we´ll miss the train. Haven’t I met you some other place? 5. she may have a nervous breakdown. If we don’t. If you don’t he will bark and wake everyone up. Substitute the correct expression with ELSE for the words in italics: 1. substituting OR ELSE for the words in italics: 1. You must study hard. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. If you don’t. If you don’t. 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 220 A short course in english for adult students . If you don’t. she´ll punish you. They´ve never sold that product in any other place. If I don’t. También se puede usar en este caso la palabra otherwise (= de lo contrario) Escuche. If she doesn’t. If you don’t. 4. You must ask some other person about it. Can I show you any other thing. 3. Smith? 10. We had better hurry. You must practice your English every day. my mother will be angry with me.B. If you don’t. we´ll be late. You must do as your mother says. 11. You´d better tell him about it or else (if you don´t) he´ll be angry with you. There was no other person in the room at that time. Did you see any other thing that you liked? 7. you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. Turn off the radio. Do you have any other thing to tell us about him? 12. OR ELSE Esta frase se usa como un sinónimo de if not (= o si no). Save your money. He´d better wait here or else (if he doesn´t) he will miss her. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. We must hurry. I didn’t tell any other person about it. 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 8. No other person helped him with the work. Did they go any other place? 2. Let’s do some other thing tonight. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. you won’t pass the course. you will soon forget it. EXERCISES Ex. lea y aprenda : We must hurry or else (if we don´t) we will be late for the train. Will they go any other place after the concert? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.

but this time substitute the word OTHERWISE for the words in italics: 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. We must hurry.Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 3. otherwise we´ll be late 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WORKSHOP /(δ axe /æks/ bolt /bóult/ bucket /bákit/ drill /dril/ file /fáil/ hammer /hæmer/ ´ jack /dllæk/ lathe /leiδ/ lever /lí:ver/ measuring tape /mélloriη téip/ nail /neil/ needle /ní:dl/ nut /nat/ plane /pléin/ pliers /pláiarz/ hacha perno balde taladro lima martillo gata torno palanca huincha de medir clavo aguja tuerca formón alicates wé:rkshop/ El Taller serrucho tijeras tornillo desatornillador soldadora pala llave de tuercas escuadra tenazas banco de torno golilla soplete para soldar alambre banco de trabajo llave inglesa saw /so:/ scissors /sízorz/ screw /skru:/ screwdriver /skru:dráiver/ soldering-iron /sólderiη áiron/ spade /spéid/ spanner /spæner/ ´ square /skwéar/ tongs /tongz/ vise /váis/ washer /wósher/ welding torch /wéldiη tó:rtch/ wire /wáiar/ workbench /we:rkbéntch/ wrench /réntch/ A short course in english for adult students 221 . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Repeat the previous exercise.

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1. 3. The weather man predicted it would rain. 3. when / as soon as PART III. will have had 6. Mrs. 1. likes 8. otherwise we´ll be late. 11. A.Key to answers UNIT 16 PART I. otherwise my mother will be angry with me. Ex. 4. 8. I thought there would be a lot of work to do. until 4. Save your money. By / Towards the end of this course I´ll have learnt to talk in English. 1 didn’t tell anybody else about it.rain 3. He said he had to work. 6. unless 2. He said he would be here at noon 2. I knew where she lived. will 6. otherwise you’ll wake the baby. or else we´ll be late. does . will have learnt (or learned) 10. 1. (Open answers) Ex. Nobody else helped him with the work. might B. will have come . 1. 1 must go home right away. 1. 2. will have gone 5. go 12. I didn´t think Bob would like the new job. could not 8. They´ve never sold that product anywhere else 6. 1. The boy said he had seen the movie. Ex. 9. Ex. Smith? 10. 2. 2. There was nobody else in the room at that time. 1. or else we´ll miss the train. Did they go anwhere else? 2. The girl said she was studying for a test. otherwise you won’t pass the course. I thought he would be there by ten o´clock. Helen must rest more. or else she´ll punish you. 6. until 6. or else she may have a nervous breakdown.16. as long as 5. Bob wanted to know how many people there were. otherwise she´ll punish you. as soon as 3. 2. Before midnight. when / as soon as 8. while 7. You must do as your mother says. I you follow your doctor´s advice. Put the dog outside. was 12. 1. 7 You must practice your English every day. or else my mother will be angry with me. Helen must rest more. 5. otherwise she may have a nervous breakdown. telephones 10. 3. I thought Mr Jones might be in his office. will have finished 4. He wanted to know where she was. 10. We must hurry. will have left 2. will have completed 7. tell 7. can 3. was going 7. Turn off the radio. or else you’ll wake the baby. 8. 1 must go home right away. or else you won’t pass the course. did not 10. 4. had been 9. 5. otherwise we´ll miss the train. otherwise you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. is 9. Did you see anything else that you liked? 7. very soon you´ll have recovered completely from your surgery 8. 7. I thought I could meet you. the concert will have already started by the time we get to the theatre. We had better hurry. 2. Put the dog outside. 1. will have forgotten 9. 10. 8. 9. will have changed 3. I didn´t know where Mary was. 3. we´ll have processed all the information. before 9. Ex. He hoped he could be there. If we don´t take a taxi / cab. is 4. 8.9. until 10. otherwise you will soon forget it. comes 11. You must ask somebody else about it. 14. 4. comes 5. 1 1. 1.hard every day. Before 6 this evening. I thought it might rain this evening. 1. 9.come Ex. 13. lived 4. 7 You must practice your English every day. or else you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. does . 20. Let’s do something else tonight. is 11. 5. the results of the election will have been sent / released to the press PART II. They´ll have finished that building before the end of this year.(will have ) gone Ex. gets 6. 5. We must hurry. will have visited 12. 3. 4. or else he will bark and wake everyone up. meant 5. 3. Haven’t I met you somewhere else? 5. Will they go anywhere else after the concert? Ex. 6. 7. 2. You must study hard. will have been 8. 19. Turn off the radio. 12. Do you have anything else to tell us about him? 12. He´ll have fulfilled / carried out all his plans before the summer ends / is over. Most birds will have emigrated to the north before winter comes. 2. Can I show you anything else. otherwise he will bark and wake everyone up. You must do as your mother says. 18. Ex. Ex. 15. 3. will have recovered 11. You must study hard. The young man told us he was married. A short course in english for adult students 223 . He believed he could do it. Save your money. 4. 17. 6. We had better hurry. 11. or else you will soon forget it. He said he was very sorry. arrives 2. 10. would 2. I thought it would be very hot this afternoon.

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V) (D.O). Smith teaches that class on Friday. debido a que éste es desconocido o no es importante.) (doer) (P. (P. Este sujeto pasivo va seguido de una forma del verbo modal Be más el participio pasado del verbo principal. 7. The car will be fixed. 8.S. el complemento directo de la oración activa pasa a ser el sujeto pasivo (passive subject) de la oración. es decir. Change to passive voice: 1. perfect) Passive Voice The car is fixed (by him).) (doer) A new bridge will be built (by the workers) over that river. (S) (Tr. 225 . (S) (Tr. 3. She has just taken the newspaper. Peter wrote the letter last year. They had finished the work by noon. He has fixed the car. 11.O). perfect) EXERCISES Ex. Smith wrote the book last summer. 5.p. He had fixed the car.p.UNIT 17 PART 1. She ate the cake this morning.p. 15. 6. They will bring the boy tomorrow. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut.V) (D. éste va seguido por un complemento directo (direct object). 4. (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres.) (be + p. 13. Normalmente en una oración pasiva no se hace mención del sujeto agente (doer).O). Somebody has taken my book.) The meals are prepared (by Mary) in the kitchen. 9. 12. The letter was written (by Peter) last year. THE PASSIVE VOICE Hay oraciones gramaticales expresadas en voz activa y oraciones gramaticales expresadas en voz pasiva.) (be + p. The workers will build a new bridge over that river. The car had been fixed. They have found the child at last. She broke the plate on purpose. The car will have been fixed.Jackson saw the accident. (be + p.S. 2. The wind blew the smoke away soon. 16.) (doer) Para cada oración en voz activa hay una oración pasiva correspondiente (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres. 14. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut. He fixed the car. 10. En una oración en voz activa el verbo principal es un verbo transitivo (transitive verb). People will forget it in few days. 1. 17. Mrs. 18. (P. He will do the work this afternoon. En la voz pasiva. People speak English all over the world. He will deliver the merchandise today. The money was taken by him last Monday evening ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students Active Voice He fixes the car. Mary prepares the meals in the kitchen (S) (Tr.V) (D. They will leave the tickets for you. Mr.S. They fought a big battle here many years ago. He took the money last Monday evening. He will fix the car. Mr. He will have fixed the car. The car was fixed. The car has been fixed.

5. 6. 9. 3. 20. The lesson is taught by Mr. Will the work be done by Mr. Change to negative and to question form: 1. 3. The book was written by Mr. 10. The book has been returned by John. Mary found the book. Smith. 2. ___________________________________________________ The work had been finished by June. Scott. The money was stolen by a thief. 4. 13. The money has been found. My grandfather _____________________________________ The books will be brought by John. 8. 4. Someone has put all the chairs in the next room. The city was destroyed by bombs. The work won’t be done by Mr. They ______________________________________________ The city has been destroyed (by the enemy). The dish was broken by the maid. 22. Smith. Thompson. America was discovered in 1492. 13. They made this gun by hand. ___________________________________________________ The merchandise will be delivered tomorrow. The book will be published in June.19. Smith? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 226 A short course in english for adult students . 12. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 11. 2. 12. Longmans _________________________________________ The lecture was attended by many people. 21. The work will be done by Mr. Change to active voice: 1. __________________________________________________ He was struck by an automobile. The house was struck by lightning. They will send the book next week. 15. ___________________________________________________ Ex. They left the wounded soldiers behind. 7. 14. 9. 10. 23. 8. ___________________________________________________ This book was written by Mr. He broke his leg in an accident. Columbus _________________________________________ Our class is taught by Mr. ___________________________________________________ Our exercises are corrected each night by our teacher. The work will be completed tomorrow. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. The cries of the child were heard clearly. ___________________________________________________ America was discovered in 1492. 2. 14. The money had been stolen by one of the boys. They ______________________________________________ The house was built in 1910. The e-mail was sent this morning. 5. ___________________________________________________ The book will be published next spring. 6. 15. Smith. 11. 24. The book was found by Mary. A car ran over our dog a short while ago. He _______________________________________________ The town will have been captured by Wednesday. 7. Smith. 3.

4.. _____________________________ because of bad weather. 4. 7. 14. 15. Change to question form. (Active) They boy can do this exercise easily. 6. 3. (Passive) The road was being built (by the men) when I was there La voz pasiva con verbos modales can. (When) __________________________________________________? The mail is delivered at ten o’clock every day. 2. A short course in english for adult students 227 . (Passive) This job must be finished (by them) today. was. 9. más el pasado participio del verbo principal. have to. se debe usar el verbo modal seguido de Be y del pasado participio del verbo principal.. may. a la voz pasiva. (Active) They must finish this job today. 10. _____________________________ by the end of the month.When was America discovered?) The house was destroyed by fire. 10. ________________________________________ by the maid.by / By whom) _____________________________________? Ex. etc. 17. ____________________________________ in a wooden box. _________________________________________ in the safe. (Passive) This exercise can be done by the boy easily. 11. _________________________________________ in the park. (Active) They have to send this report today. should. La voz pasiva en los tiempos continuos. America was discovered in 1492. were + being). beginning each question with the question word in parentheses: 1. 6. Answer these questions: 1.. 5. ____________________________________________in 1999. (Passive) This report has to be sent (by them) today. ___________________________________ for about 2 hours. ____________________________________ by our instructor. 13.. ________________________________________ in Scotland.Ex. (What time) ______________________________________________? He was injured in an automobile accident. (Who. __________________________________one of the servants. _______________________________________ in Valparaiso. _________________________________________by the chef. La voz pasiva de los tiempos presente y pasado continuo se construye usando la forma continua del verbo modal Be (am. (How) __________________________________________________? The work will be completed next month. _________________________________________ in Chicago. 5. 8. 3. (In what kind of accident) ______________________________________? The house was built in 1945. (Who.by / By whom) _______________________________________________? The book will be published in June. (Active) The mechanic is fixing the car now (Passive) The car is being fixed (by the mechanic) now (Active) The men were building the road when I was there. 16. By whom was America discovered? In what year was America discovered? When was this book published? Where was this book published? Who was the money stolen by? Where was the child finally found? Who will the dinner be prepared by? By whom are your exercises corrected? Why was the train delayed? Where was the money hidden? When was the news released? When will the work be completed? Where were they married? In what country was Helen born? By whom was the plate broken? Where was the money put? How long was the man held by the police? ____________________________ by Christopher Columbus. (When) __________________________________________________? The child was finally found in the park. 9. should. (In what year) __________________________________________________? The money was stolen by one of the servants. 7. must. must. 2. have to Al cambiar oraciones activas que contienen un verbo modal como can. are. ___________________________________________ in 1492. ________________________________________about 10:30. (Where) __________________________________________________? The tree was planted by my father. 5. may. 8. 12. 4. is.

This can be finished (by us) right away. John will bring the mail tomorrow. By whom. They have to deliver the books today. 9. You can use this room for the lesson. 9. They were discussing the question when I went in. 9. They have put the chairs in the room. 2. The police may hold him for several days. They are sending troops there today. 7.Ex. He wasn’t killed in an accident. 9. 7. We must lose no time. 3. etc. 8. John may bring the mail tomorrow. once in simple form and once with some question word like Who. John has to bring the mail every day. 2. How. He should send this right away. We can finish this right away. He cannot finish this today. 12. 3. 12. He was killed in an accident. She is typing that letter now. 3. 2. 8. John brings the mail every day. He is finishing the work now. 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6. . 12. We have to write these exercises at home. They may deliver the goods tomorrow. 3. 11. We must find him immediately. 10. They may send the fax tomorrow. We must help him. Change to passive voice: 1.: 1. 11. 10. Where. 8. 4. He sent the e-mail last week. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. He has to do it immediately. 7. 6. They are defending the city well. 4. Change to passive voice : 1. 5. John has brought the mail every day. They are sending the material today. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. We are using this room. Was he killed in an accident? How was he killed? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 228 A short course in english for adult students . John is bringing the mail now. 8. The story is being published today. John brought the mail yesterday. Change to passive voice: 1. The mail is brought by John every day. 7. They cannot put those things here. The material is being sent (by them) today. They are holding the meeting today. 4. They are examining him now. 5. 10. 5. Change to negative and to question form. 6. 6. They are sending the merchandise today. State each question twice. 11. This must be checked twice. They were cleaning the office this morning. They are considering that question now. They are transferring him to another class.

sin embargo es muy frecuente el uso del signo “SE” en este tipo de oraciones. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 229 . 5. The material is being prepared by Mr.4. “A new bridge will be built here next year” Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. The money has been sent to New York. 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 12. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Esto se puede hacer fácilmente. 10. Se han descubierto otros planetas en nuestro sistema solar. lt can be done three or four times a month. “A big battle was fought here”. Se están desarrollando nuevos métodos para controlar la inflación. Smith. It has to be done at once. This book was published in 1945. Se deben construir nuevos caminos en esta parte del país. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Este libro se ha traducido a varios idiomas. 9. 7. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ El signo “SE” en español En español. si se usan las herramientas apropiadas. 11. This room can be used for our meetings. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Se enviaron todas las invitaciones por correo aéreo. 10. lt has to be sent right away. It should be sent immediately.Reese. no siempre se expresa la voz pasiva con el verbo SER más un PARTICIPIO PASADO de un verbo principal. Muchas cartas se envían al extranjero desde esta oficina todos los días. Compare las siguientes oraciones pasivas: El español es hablado en este país Una gran batalla fue librada en este lugar Un nuevo puente será construido aquí el próximo año En este país se habla español En este lugar se libró una gran batalla Aquí se construirá un nuevo puente el próximo año Estas mismas oraciones se pueden traducir al inglés de la siguiente manera: “English is spoken in this country”. The class is taught by Mr.

Several different techniques may be applied. the comet will be easily seen near the Southern Cross _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. It is considered that English has become a universal language. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. using the word “SE” in each case. The data was being processed at that moment. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 230 A short course in english for adult students . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Durante ese año se habían llevado a cabo varios proyectos importantes. Se deberían mejorar los servicios de transporte publico en esta ciudad. During this week. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Translate the following sentences into Spanish. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. several animals will be sent into space in order to study the effects of weightlessness. most goals had been successfully attained.8. Next time. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. All kinds of computers are repaired here. Se construirán varios hospitales en el país durante los próximos 5 años. By the end of the 90’s. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. The information is being analyzed thoroughly. The economic policies have been changed in order to control inflation. 1. A new type of missile has been tested recently. 11.

Esta frase idiomática se usa solamente en los tiempos presente y pasado. 1. 4. (John is supposed to come at six o’clock. 10. 5. The train ______________________________ (be) faster than the bus. (Passive Voice) 14. We expect the bus to stop here. WHERE. (Passive Voice) 13. Esta es una oración pasiva que surge debido a que “se supone” o “se espera” que el sujeto realice la acción prometida o el compromiso adquirido. State each question twice. He isn’t supposed to leave tomorrow morning. We expect our lesson to last one hour. He ______________________________ (send) this letter yesterday. He was supposed to bring the money last night. etc. 3. John ______________________________ (be) a better student than Henry. They´re supposed to start the work soon. 12. (Present) Helen is supposed (by us) to arrive tomorrow. We expect him to leave for Europe next week. 6. Se supone que él está aquí ahora. We expect the bank to open at nine o’clock. 7. He ______________________________ (know) her well. 9. En las ideas futuras se debe usar el verbo BE en presente. once in simple form and once with some question word like WHEN. 3. (Passive Voice) Ex. The ship was supposed (by the public and by the officials) to arrive last night. They ______________________________ (deliver) the merchandise last week. (They at ten o’clock. 11. Se supone que Helen llegará mañana. He is supposed to leave tomorrow morning. 5. 3. WHAT TIME. They expected the war to be over sooner. He ______________________________ (come) tomorrow at five. (Future) This book is supposed to have been published in 1975.: 1. The merchandise ______________________________ (send) tomorrow. 9. Change to negative and to question form.PART II. We expect the weather to be hot tomorrow. These chairs ______________________________ (put) in the next room. 4.) 2. 2. We expect her to bring the book with her. 2. This book ______________________________ (publish) last year. Is he supposed to leave tomorrow morning? When is he supposed to leave? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 231 . They are supposed to leave (leave) at ten o’clock. 2. 11. He ______________________________ (meet) us in Macy’s. He ______________________________ (be) here yesterday at three o’clock. 7. 10. We expect our lesson to finish at ten o’clock. He ______________________________(call) me tomorrow. We expect the parade to begin soon. (Passive Voice) 15. He ______________________________ (be) here now. This fax ______________________________ (send) yesterday. Change to introduce SUPPOSED TO: 1. Supply the correct form of SUPPOSED TO: 1. 8.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 12. THE IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASE “BE SUPPOSED TO” Esta expresión se usa para referirse a una obligación del sujeto de llevar a cabo una promesa o un compromiso.. We expect John to come at six o’clock. 3. They expect the train to arrive at four ‘clock. 8. 6. We expected him to arrive last night. Se supone que este libro fue publicado en 1975 Ex. Se suponía que el barco llegaría anoche (Past) Bob is supposed (by us) to be here now.

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 232 A short course in english for adult students . 5. He´s supposed to be living somewhere in L. The book is supposed to be published in June. 7. He was supposed to telephone me yesterday. 6.A. They´re suppposed to finish the job tomorrow.4. 8. The King is supposed to visit the USA in May. The letter was supposed to be sent yesterday. 9.. We were supposed to meet them on 42nd Street. 10.

) regimiento división Ejército vainilla estopin ROUND OF AMMUNITION /ráund ov amiuníshon/ Tiro de munición Bullet /búlit/ bala. grado Oficial superior ARMS /á:rmz/armas. BRANCHES /bræntchiz/ramas o servicios ´ Infantry /infantri/ Infantería Artillery /a:rtílori/ Armored Cavalry /á:rmord kævalri/ Caballería Blindada ´ Signal /sígnal/ Airborne /éarbó:rn/ aerotransportada Engineers /endlliníarz/ Transportation /transportéishon/ Transportes Medical /médikal/ Finance /fáinans/ Intendencia Mechanized /mékanáizd/ Ordnance /ó:rdnans/ material de guerra COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /komíshond ófiserz/ Oficiales Comisionados Full General /ful dlléneral/ General de Ejército Lieutenant General /luténant dlléneral/ Major General /méidllor dlléneral/ Mayor General Brigadier General /brigadíar dlléneral/ Colonel /ké:rnel/ Coronel Lieutenant Colonel /luténant ké:rnel/ Major /méidllor/ Mayor Captain /kæptin/ ´ First Lieutenant /f :rst luténant/ Teniente Second Lieutenant /sékond luténant/ Ensign /énsin/ Alférez (en la marina) Cadet /kadét/ NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /non komíshond ófiserz/ Suboficiales Sergeant Major /sá:rdllent méidllor/ Sargento Mayor (US) Staff Sergeant /sta:f sá:rdllent/ Sergeant First Class /sá:rdllent férst kla:s/ Sargento Primero Sergeant /sá:rdllent/ Corporal /kó:rporal/ Cabo Private First Class /práivit férst kla:s/ Lance Corporal /láns kó:rpral/ Soldado Primero (Br) Private /práivit/ Recruit /rékrut/ Soldado conscripto TACTICAL UNITS /tæktikal iúnits/ Squad /skwod/ Troop /tru:p/ Squadron /skuódr n/ Battalion /batælion/ ´ Brigade /brigéid/ Corps /ko:r/ Unidades Tácticas pelotón escuadrón (cab. bomba A short course in english for adult students 233 . pistola Knife /naif/ Sword /só:rd/ espada Dagger /dæger/ ´ Machine gun /mashí:n gán/ ametralladora Mortar /mó:rtar/ Howitzer /hóuitser/ obús Hand grenade /hænd granéid/ Flame-thrower /fléim θróuer/ lanzallamas Rocket launcher /rókit ló:ntcher/ Mine /main/ mina Missile /mízil/ Mass destruction weapon /mæs distrákshon wèpon/ arma de destrucción masiva Bullet /búlit/ bala Shell /shel/ Bomb /bom/ bomba fusil cuchillo daga mortero granada de mano lanzacohetes misil proyectil. proyectil Cartridge case /ká:rtridll kéiz/ Propellant /propélant/ propelente o polvora Primer /práimer/ Shrapnel /shræpn l/ ´ metralla o esquirla TACTICAL WEAPONS /tæktikal wéponz/ Armas Tácticas Pistol /pístol/ pistola Rifle /ráifl/ Gun /gan/ cañón.) grupo (cab.VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /(i á:rmd fó:rsiz/ Las Fuerzas Armadas (I) Army /a:rmi/ Air Force /éar fó:rs/ Ranks /ræηks/ ´ Commander /kománder/ Subordinate /sabó:dinit/ Ejército Fuerza Aérea filas comandante subalterno Navy /néivi/ Rank /ræηk/ ´ Officer /ófiser/ Superior /supíarior/ Marina rango.blin.) batallón brigada cuerpo Platoon /plδtú:n/ Company /kámpni/ Battery /bæteri/ ´ Regiment /rédlliment/ División /dividllon/ Army /a:rmi Artillería Telecomunicaciones Ingenieros Sanidad Mecanizado Teniente General Brigadier General Teniente Coronel Capitán Subteniente Cadete Sargento Mayor (Br)) Sargento Segundo Soldado Primero (US) Soldado pelotón compañía batería (art.

característica Barrel /bærel/ ´ Butt /bat/ Firing mechanism /fáiariη mékanízm/ Follower /fólouer/ Hammer /hæmer/ ´ Muzzle /máz l/ Receiver /risí:ver/ Sling /sliη/ Trigger /trigger/ cañón culata mecanismo de disparo cargador martillo trompetilla caja de mecanismos correa disparador. criterio Willing obedience /wíliη obí:diens/ obediencia espontánea PARTS OF A RIFLE /pa:rtse v ráifl/ Partes del Fusil Aiming mechanism /éimiη mécanizm/ mecanismo de puntería Bolt /boult/ cerrojo Chamber /tchéimber/ recámara Firing pin /fáiariη pin/ percutor Front sight /fránt sáit/ punto de mira Locking lug /lókiη lag/ asegurador Rear sight /ríar sáit/ alza Sighting mechanism /sáitiη mekanízm/ mecanismo de visada Stock /stok/ caja Trigger guard /trigger gá:rd/ guardamonte THE TANK /δ tδk/ El Tanque Armor /á:mor/ Gun /gan/ Gunner /gáner/ Tank driver /tæηk dráiver/ ´ Turret /tárit/ blindaje cañón artilllero conductor del tanque torreta APC /éi pí: sí:/ transporte de personal Airplane /éarplein/ avión Bomber /bómer/ cazabombardero Chopper /tchóper/ helicóptero Warship /wó:rship/ buque de guerra Mine sweeper /main suí:per/ barreminas Main Battle Tank / mein bætl tæηk/ tanque de combate ´ Command /komænd/ ´ Confidence /kónfidens/ Cooperation /kouoperéishon/ Chain of command /tchéin v komá:nd/ Dependability /dipendabíliti/ Dignity /digniti/ Endurance /endiúarans/ Esprit de corps /esprí: de kó:r/ Integrity /intégriti/ Leader /lí:der/ Pride /práid/ Subordinate /sabó:rdinit/ Trait /tréit/ mando confianza cooperación cadena de mando confiabilidad dignidad resistencia espíritu de cuerpo integridad líder. coraje Decisiveness /disáisivnis/ decision Determination /diterminéishon/ determinación Echelon of command /éshelon v komænd/ escalón de mando ´ Enthusiasm /enθusiázn/ entusiasmo Initiative /iníshiativ/ iniciativa Justice /dllástis/ justicia Morale /morá:l/ moral Span of control /spæn v kontróul/ ámbito de control ´ Tact /tækt/ ´ tacto.TACTICAL VEHICLES /tæktikal víiklz/ Vehículos Tácticos ´ Tank /tæηk/ tanque Truck /trak/ camion Fighter plane /fáiter pléin/ cazabombardero Helicopter /hélicopter/ helicóptero Speedboat /spi:d bout/ lancha de desembarco Airplane carrier /éarplein kærier/ portaviones ´ Submarine /sábmarí:n/ submarino LEADERSHIP /lí:dership/ Liderazgo Behavior /bihéivior/ conducta Commander /kománder/ comandante Control /kontróul/ control Courage /káridll/ valor. comandante orgullo subalterno rasgo. gatillo Armor plate /á:mor pléit // Gun tube /gán tiu:b/ Tank commander /tæηk komá:nder/ ´ Tracks /træks/ ´ Wheel /wi:l/ plancha de blindaje tubo del cañón comandante del tanque orugas rueda posición sentada posición encuclillas FIRING POSITIONS /fáiariη posillonz/ Posiciones de Disparo Standing /stændiη/ position ´ posición de pie Sitting /sítiη/ position Prone /próun/ position posición tendida Squat /skuot/ position Kneeling /ní:liη/ position posición arrodillada 234 A short course in english for adult students .

. When will the book be published? 7.. In what kind of accident was he injured? 9. 10. 24./ Will the work be completed. Mr. The city is being defended by them well 11. They´re corrected by our instructor. / Were the cries of the child heard clearly? 7. It wasn´t discovered by Christopher Columbus.? 3. 1. He was finally found in the park. 8. / Was the dish broken by. Ex. The enemy has destroyed the city. That class is taught by Mr. The boy will be brought by them tomorrow. 19.. 6 Many people attended the lecture. All the chairs have been put by someone in the next room. The meeting is being held by them today. 2. 13. 9. The dish wasn´t broken by the maid.. 13. / Has the book been returned by. 9. 8. No time must be lost by us. The merchandise will be delivered by him today 3. 11. 2. 5. It has to be done by him immediately. This cannot be finished by him today.. Where was the child finally found? 5. / Was the city destroyed by. 6. He´s being examined by them now. 10. 18.The lesson isn´t taught by Mr.? 11. 2..? 4. 11. It was published in 1999. They were married in Valparaiso. 13. / Was the house struck by.Key to answers UNIT 17 PART I. He had finished the work by June. / Has the money been found? 13. It was stolen by one of the servants. 16. The work had been finished by them by noon. Ex.The book won´t be published in June.. 3. 10. The child has been found by them at last 15. The city wasn´t destroyed by bombs. 2. 4. This room can be used by you for the lesson.The cries of the child weren´t heard clearly. A short course in english for adult students 235 . His leg was broken (by him) in an accident. 2. 5. 4. The office was being cleaned by them this morning.In what year was the house built? 10. 8.? 9.. She was born in Scotland. / Was it discovered by. Smith. / Was America discovered in. 8. 17. Thompson. That letter is being typed by her now..The book hasn´t been returned by John. How was the house destroyed? 3. 12. 4. 7. 14. / Was the book written by. It was broken by the maid. 2. 7. Our dog was run over by a car a short while ago. 3... He´s being transferred by them to another class. That question is being considered by them now. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. John will bring the books.? 12.. The smoke was blown away by the wind soon. 3. The cake was eaten by her this morning 4. When will the work be completed? 4..? 14. 3. The mail was brought by John yesterday. It was put in the safe. The work will be done by him this afternoon.? 15.. It will be forgotten(by people) in a few days.. An automobile struck him 9. The book was written by Mr. / Was the telegram delivered. 4. / Will the book be published in. The accident was seen by Mrs. The question was being discussed by them when I went in. 4. The mail may be brought by John tomorrow.? 10. 4.. 6. He must be helped by us . 9. They will have captured the town by Wednesday..America wasn´t discovered in 1492. Longmans will publish the book next spring. 7. 6. These exercises have to be written by us at home. 12. 12. A big battle was fought (by them) here many years ago. Columbus discovered America in 1492. Ex. 8.? 6. 5. 2. 15./ Is the lesson taught by. 2. It was hidden in a wooden box. 1. 16. 23. The plate was broken by her on purpose. 11. The goods may be delivered by them tomorrow. A thief stole the money. He may be held by the police for several days. Ex. 8.. The fax may be sent by them tomorrow.. They will deliver the merchandise tomorrow. It was released at about 10:30 12. Smith teaches our class.? 5. 12. This should be sent by him right away. 22. 11. It was discovered in 1492.The house wasn´t struck by lightning. 20.Scott wrote this book. 21. Troops are being sent (by them) there today.. 2. 7. 7..(At) what time is the mail delivered every day? 8. 15. The book wasn´t written by Mr. Smith last summer. 5. 3. 6.? 8.. Jackson.The money hadn´t been stolen by one of the boys. 9.. The newspaper has just been taken by her 6. The work is being finished by him now. 10.. The wounded soldiers were left behind (by them). 6. My book has been taken by somebody.The telegram wasn´t delivered this morning. English is spoken (by people) all over the world. It will be completed by the end of the month. It was delayed because of bad weather conditions. This room is being used by us. This gun was made (by them) by hand . Ex.? Ex. He was held for about two hours. Who was the money stolen by? / By whom was the money stolen? Ex. Ex. The mail is being brought by John now. 3. 14. Who was the tree planted by? / By whom was the tree planted? 6. The book will be sent by them next week. Those things cannot be put by them here. The mail will be brought by John tomorrow. The mail has been brought by John every day. 7 Our teacher corrects our exercises each night. It will be prepared by the chef. 17. 14. It was published in Chicago. / Had the money been stolen by. The work won´t be completed tomorrow. 10. My grandfather built the house in 1910. 5. Mr. The tickets will be left for you by them.The money hasn´t been found. 5. Smith on Friday.

several important projects have been carried out.. Our lesson is supposed to last. / Does it have to be done at once? / When does it have to be done? 12. 2. se enviarán varios animales al espacio para estudiar los efectos de la ingravidez / falta de gravedad PART II. 2. It shouldn´t be sent immediately.. This mustn´t be checked twice. were supposed to deliver 4..? / When is the King supposed to visit the USA? 236 A short course in english for adult students ... / Is the King supposed to visit. It doesn´t have to be sent right away. Public transport services should be improved in this city. 6. 10. Aquí se repara todo tipo de computadores. 4. Our lesson is supposed to finish at. is supposed to be 7. This can be done easily if the right / appropriate tools are used. se habían logrado satisfactoriamente la mayor parte de las metas. Ex. 2. The e-mail was sent by him last week. / Has the money been sent to NY? / Where has the money been sent to? 8. 2. 8.. 10. The book isn´t supposed to be published in June / Is the book supposed to be published in June? / When is the book supposed to be published? 10.. The parade is supposed to begin.. 9. / Is the material being prepared by Mr. The money hasn´t been sent to NY.? / Where are we supposed to meet them? 9. / Was this book published in 1945? / When was this book published? 9. 9.. is supposed to be 8. 3. is supposed to call 9.... / Is he supposed to be living. We aren´t supposed to meet them... 7. Ex. / Can it be done three or four times a month? / How many times a week / How often can it be done? 5. Smith? / Who is the class taught by? Ex. was supposed to be 11. Several hospitals will be built in the country during the next five years. 2. 8. The material isn´t being prepared by Mr.... This room can´t be used for our meetings. Hacia fines del la década de los 90. 11...? / Where is he supposed to be living? 7. 6. Se considera que el Inglés ha llegado a ser un idioma universal. It doesn´t have to be done at once.. Durante esta semana se verá el cometa fácilmente cerca de la Cruz del Sur..? / When are they supposed to finish? 5.. He isn´t supposed to be living.11. 5. He is supposed to leave for. Reese. 3. During that year.. 3. It can´t be done three or four times a month. he was supposed to arrive. This book has been translated into several languages. New roads have to / must be built in this part of the country.. The class isn´t taught by Mr. / Does it have to be sent right away? / When does it have to be sent? 6. / Was he supposed to telephone. / Was he supposed to bring it. He wasn´t supposed to bring it.. The bank is supposed to open at. is supposed to come 3. All the invitations were sent by air mail. 7. She is supposed to bring the. 7. New methods are being developed to control inflation. 12. 10. The weather is supposed to be hot.7. is supposed to have been sent 14. 8.. Other planets have been discovered in our solar system.. 12. The train is supposed to arrive at. Ex. 1. 2.? / When was he supposed to bring it? 3... They aren´t supposed to start soon / Are they supposed to start soon? / When are they supposed to start the work? 4. 5. 4. Se está analizando minuciosamente la información.. Se estaban procesando los datos en ese momento. He must be found by us immediately. The letter wasn´t supposed to be sent yesterday / Was the letter supposed to be sent yesterday? / When was the letter supposed to be sent? 6. is supposed to be 6. 11.. The books have to be delivered by them today. 9..Many letters are sent abroad from this office every day.. Smith / Is the class taught by Mr. / Can this room be used for our meetings? / What can this room be used for? 7. 5. The bus is supposed to stop.. 9. The war was supposed to be over. 4. 8. 9. is supposed to know 12... is supposed to meet 10.. The story isn´t being published today / Is the story being published today? / When is the story being published? 3. Ex.. Se ha probado un nuevo tipo de misíl recientemente. This book wasn´t published in 1945... He wasn´t supposed to telephone. / Are we supposed to meet them. 1. 6. is supposed to be sent 13. / Must it be checked twice? / How many times must it be checked? 4. 10. The mail has to be brought by John every day. 10. Reese? / Who is the material being prepared by? 10. The King isn´t supposed to visit.. / Are they supposed to finish tomorrow.. The merchandise is being sent by them today. They aren´t supposed to finish tomorrow. La próxima vez. The chairs have to be put by them in the room. Se han cambiado las políticas económicas con el fin de controlar la inflación.. 1. Se pueden aplicar varias técnicas diferentes. 3. are supposed to be put Ex.? / When was he supposed to telephone you? 8. / Should it be sent immediately? / When should it be sent? 11. was supposed to send 5. 2.

you would have seen him. Una de ellas es la CONDICIÓN. Son oraciones condicionales aquellas oraciones que empiezan con la palabra IF. (Si él viene mañana. (Si él viene mañana.) 2.) . (Si Diana no sale de inmediato. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES Introducción 1. b... (Si él viniera acá más seguido. listen and repeat these examples: If the weather is good tomorrow. she´ll miss her train. we will go to the beach (Si el tiempo está bueno mañana. If he comes tomorrow. introducida por la palabra IF. tú lo habrías visto) I. la segunda es la cláusula de RESULTADO. tú lo verías más seguido también) c. too. (Si te sientas aquí. cuando la condición introducida por IF se materializa. you will see him.. FUTURO POSIBLE (Future Possible): If he comes tomorrow. you will not get a good mark.. you would see him more often. You will see him if he comes tomorrow. I´ll give him your message. you´ll have an accident. le daré tu mensaje) If you sit here. tendrás un accidente) A short course in english for adult students 237 . (Si no eres cuidadoso cuando estás conduciendo. lo más probable es que se dé el resultado previsto en la cláusula de Resultado. lo verás) (Condición) (Resultado) 3. (Si veo a Juan en la fiesta. (Si. you will see him. (Si no estudias duro.. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL PRIMER TIPO: FUTURO POSIBLE En este tipo de oraciones condicionales. iremos a la playa) If I see John at the party. Existen tres tipos de oraciones condicionales: a. (Si él viene mañana.. podrás ver todo) If you don´t study hard. no te sacarás una buena nota) If Diana doesn´t leave at once.UNIT 18 PART I..).. La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condicion If + Subject + Present Resultado Subject + will + Infinitive Read. tú lo verás. Las oraciones condicionales son oraciones compuestas. El orden de las cláusulas que componen una oración condicional puede ser invertido If he comes tomorrow. 4.. PASADO IRREAL (Past Unreal): If he had come here yesterday. you will be able to see everything. you will see him.. If he comes tomorrow. ya que están formadas por dos cláusulas. (Si él hubiera venido acá ayer. perderá su tren) If you aren´t careful when you´re driving. PRESENTE IRREAL (Present Unreal): If he came here more often.

BEFORE (antes que). ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL SEGUNDO TIPO: PRESENTE IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones condicionales nos planteamos una situación hipotética (es contraria a la realidad) If John had a car. John would do it if he ________________________ (be) not so busy. she would study more. lf he ________________________ (prepare) his lessons every night. ella iría a la playa más seguido) (Real situation: She doesn´t know how to swim. 7. (Cuando Kevin venga esta tarde. I would buy that suit. “If Mary will come”). he will tell us what happened. etc. verá al Príncipe) I will wait here until she telephones. es decir todas las personas deben usar la forma WERE. lf I ________________________ (have) the money. listen and repeat these examples: When Kevin comes this afternoon. WHILE (mientras). I will give her your message. (Si yo fuera millonario. etc. she will see the Prince.1. lf Mary ________________________ (have) more time. so he can´t drive to California) If Mary knew how to swim. 8. él viajaría en auto a California) (Real situation: He doesn´t have a car. this evening. aún cuando nos estamos refiriendo a una acción futura. he could go with her to the party. AS SOON AS (en cuanto). (Esperaré aquí hasta que ella llame por teléfono) II.) 2. (lf Mary had more time. 3. AFTER (después que). 9. el verbo debe ir en presente simple (y no en futuro). he would be a better student. compraría muchas cosas) EXERCISES Ex. 11. We would speak better if we ________________________ (have) more practice in conversation. 5. she would study more. If John were here now he would help us. she would speak English better. Del mismo modo. she would go to the beach more often. we could study better. cuando se está usando una expresión de tiempo futuro. (Si John estuviera aquí. If I ________________________(be) in your position. (En cuanto ella abra los ojos. 10. I would go if I ________________________ (have) more time.Es importante notar aquí que en la condición. UNLESS (a menos que). 238 A short course in english for adult students . If he ________________________ (know) her better. 4. we would go for a walk. AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que). he would drive to California (Si John tuviera un auto. UNTIL (hasta que). I would study French. como tomorrow. Read.. él nos ayudaría) If I were a millionaire I would buy many things. Si Mary supiera nadar. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses in the following PRESENT-UNREAL conditional statements: 1. 12. debe usar el tiempo presente (y no el futuro) después de los conectores WHEN (cuando). él nos contará qué pasó) As soon as she opens her eyes. lf Helen ________________________ (be) a good student. 6. so she doesn´t go to the beach very often) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condicion If + Subject + Past Resultado Subject + would/could/might + Infinitive Es importante observar que cuando se usa el verbo TO BE en estas oraciones debemos usar el subjuntivo de dicho verbo. If the weather ________________________ (be) warmer. If Mary comes tomorrow (No. lf our room ________________________ (be) larger. next Monday morning. he would help us. lf John ________________________ (be) here now.

.. Complete the following: 1. If I could speak French. he________________________ (learn) more. If he had more time.. would be very happy. (John does not study hard... lf he had more money. 4. If he studied more. I.. ___________________________________________________ I can’t speak French... but if.. I will go to the beach. 7. he ________________________ (be) a better student. If he came to class regularly.. She ________________________ (make) more progress if she studied more. 2 .. ___________________________________________________ Ex. but if.. but if.. but if. She ________________________ (go) with us if she were not so busy. we. 2. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses: 1. lf I am free tomorrow. 3. I ________________________ (speak) to her.. 4. If I knew her well.. 4.. 10.. If he went to bed earlier. ___________________________________________________ 8...Ex. 5. he would go) 2. lf I knew her. ___________________________________________________ William never comes to class on time. 11. If he were stronger . 7. (If he had time. If we have more practice. I will go to the movie. 8. but if. 10. lf they try hard. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 239 . he.. If he came to class more often. 9. but if. he. lf he were here. If he studies hard.) 2. ___________________________________________________ 5. ___________________________________________________ He has very little free time. He would speak better if. ___________________________________________________ I am not in Florida now. he ________________________ (help) us. but if.... but if. 10.. he. She ________________________ (speak) English better if she had more practice. 11. 7. he would help us. he ________________________ (take) trip to Japan. he can help us. 2... 3.. he will see her. we will not go.. ___________________________________________________ He has very few friends. 6. 3. ___________________________________________________ 3. If the weather is cold. lf I don’t have to work... If I were free tomorrow. 11. If today were a holiday. he. they will succeed.. If he prepares his lessons. I will read more books. but if. ___________________________________________________ He doesn’t like to study English. ___________________________________________________ 6.. 12. ___________________________________________________ She has very little money. but if he studied hard he would learn more quickly. ___________________________________________________ 11. we will speak better.. If today were a holiday. 5. he will make good progress. Complete the following by using Present Unreal Conditions: 1... but if. I __________________________ (visit) the museum Ex. ___________________________________________________ Ex.. If he goes to the party... If he has time. __________________________________________________ 10. 4. 3. ___________________________________________________ 12. If he is here. ___________________________________________________ 9. he will go. 6. 6.) Mary does not prepare her lessons. 5. but if. lf John prepared his lessons every night. 9. (If he were here. Change to Present Unreal Conditions: 1. ___________________________________________________ He has very little practice in speaking. If he came to class on time. he. If I were you... I. he will pass. If he comes. 12. ___________________________________________________ Mary isn’t here now. If l were in Florida now.. we ______________________________ (go) to the beach. I... John does not study hard but if. ___________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________ I don’t speak English well.. ___________________________________________________ 7. 8. lf John were here. he ________________________ (feel) better. he ___________________________ (work) harder. 8. 9. If I have more time . I.. he will meet her.. 5.

14. will be) nice tomorrow. Ex. If today were Sunday. 4. If you had an automobile. I will go to the movie. 13. he would have passed his examination. we. When John (comes. If I (know. If today were Sunday.. If you could visit any country in the world. If today were a holiday.. what other language would you begin to study? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ III. where would you drive this weekend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. If I were you. 10. where would you go and what would you do? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I would. we may drive to the country.) If the weather (is. could) help us. would you get better marks in all your subjects? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. had) the time. We would go for a walk in the park if. (Real situation: He didn´t pass his examination because he didn´t study hard) If they had known your telephone number. (lf I were in your position. Answer these questions: 1... 6. If you knew English perfectly. Mary will talk with him. If you had much money. might) be late. Mary would go with us if. If John had studied hard. 7. they would have called you up. he could telephone me.. I would study French.. would) walk to school. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL TERCER TIPO: PASADO IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones nosotros nos referimos a una situación hipotética (contraria a la realidad) en el pasado. 9. Choose the correct form: 1. where would you go? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 8. 5.. He would go to the theater more often if he (have. knew) how to swim.. te habrían llamado) (Real situation: They didn´t call you up because they didn´t have your telephone number) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condicion If + Subject + Past perfect Resultado Subject + would have/could have/might have + Past participle 240 A short course in english for adult students .. how would you spend it? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 3. He would speak better if. John said he (will. I would go swimming every day. 6. If I (had. 2.. He said he (may. 12. 15. I am sure he would. 11. (Si ellos hubieran conocido su número telefónico.12. Mary told me that she (can. could) not come. would) be here soon. were) in your position. Would you speak English better if you had more practice in conversation? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. habría aprobado su examen). If you studied harder. If I (was. have) time tomorrow. Would John speak English better if he spent more time on his lessons? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. If he (knows. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. will come) here tomorrow. knew) my number. If he (can. what country would you visit first? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. (Si John hubiera estudiado más. I (will. 7.

2. he would have come to see you . Ex. John wasn’t at the meeting yesterday. John didn’t prepare his lessons. but if _____________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. but if. She didn’t wear her raincoat. 8. 2. Mary didn’t come to school yesterday. I wasn’t in Florida last winter. If he had studied more. 4. 10. He would have come to the party if he had known (know) about it. (He would have come to the party if he about it). 6. Ex. I would have told him. 2. They ________________________ (drive) to the country if they had had a car. I would have called on you. He ________________________ (be) angry if he had learned the truth. If the weather ________________________(be) nice yesterday. We ________________________ (go) to the movie last night if we had been free. 5. we would have gone to the beach. We ________________________ (come) earlier if we had known about it. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 4. En estos casos el verbo modal HAD precede al sujeto. I would not have been so angry. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. If he had not worn his overcoat. 10. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 3. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. He would have gotten sick if he ________________________ (go) out in the rain. este tipo de oraciones condicionales se expresan sin IF. I would have been glad to go. I didn’t have a car last winter. but if_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. 9. I ________________________ (help) him if he had asked me. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. If I________________________(have) your address. If yesterday ________________________ (be) a holiday. If you ________________________ (call) me. I wasn’t in his position. She didn’t come on time. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. he ________________________(catch ) cold. If he________________________ (tell) me the truth. Had he known that you were ill. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. If I________________________ (be) in your place. they would have gone to the park. I didn’t know his name. He couldn’t speak English at the time. he would not have caught cold. 7. 9. but if ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. he he would have succeeded. We ________________________ (be) glad to meet you if you had invited us. 6. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 241 . 2. 1. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. 8. 7. I would have visited you if I________________________ (know) you were living in New York. 5. He didn’t tell me about it. but if he had prepared them he would have learned English better . I ________________________ (tell) you about it if I had known all the facts. He________________________ (write) to you if he had had your address. 3. Complete the following sentences by adding a PAST-UNREAL conditional statement: 1. If he ________________________ (wear) his overcoat. I didn’t have your telephone number. (succeed) . EXERCISES Ex.En situaciones formales o literarias. 3.

If I had known about it. I will call her up a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. If he has time. He would have helped us if __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 242 A short course in english for adult students . Change to PRESENT-UNREAL and to PAST-UNREAL Conditions: 1. If John is present. he may go with us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 12. he may help us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. If I see her. I __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. he will let us know a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. If I am free next week. 2. _____________________________________________________________________________ b. I will do it gladly a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. If he is here. 5. If he came. They would have come if they _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. If I were you. _____________________________________________________________________________ b. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. she would speak to him. she would have spoken to him. If he has the money. I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I ____________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. If he comes.Ex. I ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. he will go with us a. If he had telephoned me. a. If you had asked me. If he works harder. the meeting will be good a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. If it rains. If he were here. If he had come. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. he would take part in the game 2. she will speak to him. I would go if I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I will give her the message a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. (Open Exercise) Complete the following: 1. he will be promoted a b ______________________________________________________________________________ 11. If the weather is nice. 4. If he goes there. they will stay at home a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 10. they will go to the beach a. b. If I can do it.

If I (would be. If it (rains. 12. If I (was. were) you. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. were) sick. I would have acted differently. 6. John looks as though he (was. I (could go. had been) a holiday.) 2. They would have joined the class if they _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16.9. 15. would you have gotten a better mark on your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. had known) this yesterday. I would certainly do it. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. (lf I were you. were) a holiday. If he (was.If yesterday (was. Choose the correct form: 1.If today (was. I might have caught cold if I _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex.He will not go unless she (goes. I ________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. 16. had had) a great shock. If I had more time. Would John have gone to the stadium with you if he had not been sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. If you hadn´t had to study last night. If you had studied harder. If the weather had been nice. 6. I would certainly do it. had eaten) a large dinner. we _____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. has been. will rain) tomorrow. Ex. 7. If you had had last week off. we may not go away. I _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. 10. If the weather were nice. I (will. If you had known it was going to rain. 9. we could have gone to the beach. Would you have helped your friend with his homework if he had asked you? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 243 . will go) too. If England had been better prepared for war. had been) here. we _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. 4. 11. He acted as if he (was. we could go to the beach. He would have succeeded if he ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. would have come) if we had asked him.I think he (would come. could have gone) if they had asked me.Call me if he (comes. 7.I feel as if I (ate. he would have taken part in the discussion. Germany __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Answer these questions: 1. If I had been invited. 14. He acted as if he (had. would you have gone on that picnic yesterday? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. were) in his position. will come) before noon. If I (knew. would) like to study Spanish if I had the time. 8. Would the party have been better if Mary had been present? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. were) the manager of the place. If yesterday had been a holiday. 3. 13. 5. I would not accept the work. would you have gone to the movies with your friend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.

Complete the following sentences: 1. 4. 12. I wish it would stop raining soon. 5. I am not a millionaire but I wish 8. 2. Mary is not here now. 10. este siempre debe ir seguido por el modo subjuntivo. John won’t do it for us but I wish 9. I wish today ______________________________ (be) a holiday. 8. I wish I knew how to swim. debemos usar el verbo modal WOULD.” I don´t know how to swim. es decir. “Me gustaría.. I didn’t study before my examinations but I wish 4. I wish I ______________________________ (know) her better. John wishes he ______________________________ (be) in Florida now. va seguido de un verbo en PASADO en situaciones presentes y un PASADO PARTICIPIO en situaciones pasadas. USO DEL SUBJUNTIVO DESPUES DE WISH Debido a que el verbo WISH (desear) sugiere una situación que es hipotética o contraria a la realidad. I wish it ______________________________ (stop) snowing soon. Mary isn’t here but I wish 10.PART II. o “Me habría gustado.. A. I didn´t see Mary at the meeting yesterday. I wish he wouldn´t do that again Observe la siguiente tabla: Situaciones Presentes: Situaciones Pasadas: Situaciones Futuras: EXERCISES Ex.. I wish I ______________________________ (know) about this yesterday.) I wish I ______________________________ (can) swim. Today isn’t a holiday but I wish 5. 6. I have no car but I wish 2. 2. John wishes she were here now.I can’t speak English well but I wish 244 A short course in english for adult students ( I had one. I wish I had seen her. 7.”. 9.”. I wish John ______________________________ (be) here now.. I´d certainly invite her to the party. I wish I ______________________________ (go) with you to the movie last night. Yesterday wasn’t a holiday but I wish 6.I have to work this afternoon but I wish 11. It´s been raining hard for about five hours. S + Past I wish S + Past Perfect S + Conditional Ex. I wish I ______________________________ (study) English when I was a boy. I can´t go to the conference because I´m very busy. I wish I ______________________________ (have) yesterday off. The weather isn’t nice today but I wish 7. 3.. I wish it ______________________________ (be) not so cold now. Cuando queremos expresar un deseo relacionado con una situación futura. 11. 1. I wish I ______________________________ (have) today off. al igual que en las oraciones condicionales.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . (I wish John were here now.. En estos casos estas expresiones se usan para expresar un deseo y equivalen a “Ojalá. I wish I weren´t so busy. I cannot swim but I wish 3. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1.

3.) He suggested that John______________________________(wait) a few minutes.. (Ellos recomendaron que yo estuviera alli. todas las personas usan la forma simple del infinitivo. I recommended that you ______________________________ (come) back later. 1. 4. They insisted that we ______________________________ (visit) them again. 3. (Ella pidió que nosotros estuviéramos alli antes del mediodia) They recommended that I be there a few minutes earlier. TO SUGGEST. He recommended that she wait (sin “s”) for us outside the theater... En el Presente del Subjuntivo. I´m sorry it is raining so hard.. como los siguientes ejemplos: It is necessary that Mary see the manager today. 4. I’m sorry that Helen can’t go with us to the beach. I’m sorry he does not speak English well... I suggested that you should see the manager today. Is it necessary that this ______________________________ (be) finished today? He insisted that she ______________________________ (go) on with the work... I’m sorry that you can’t swim... 8. It´s advisable that you be there before midday. 7. A short course in english for adult students 245 . 8. (Yo sugerí que usted viera al gerente hoy día) Cuando se desea usar el verbo TO BE no se debe usar las formas am/is/are. I’m sorry he did not go with us last night. They recommended that I should be there a few minutes earlier También se debe usar el presente del subjuntivo después frases como.Mary isn’t going with us but I wish ___________________________________________________ Ex. etc. TO DEMAND. EXERCISES Ex. deben ir seguidos de THAT + PRESENTE DE SUBJUNTIVO cuando estamos refiriéndonos a una situación propuesta o hipotética. He proposed that John ______________________________ (be) chairman. The doctor suggested that Mr. Change the sentences to introduce I WISH instead of I´M SORRY: 1.”..”.. 10. (He recommended that she go with him.”.) En la conversación diaria coloquial se prefiere usar el verbo modal should + infinitive para expresar estas ideas. I´m sorry John is not here with us. “It´s advisable that. sino que la forma simple BE She asked that we be there before midday. It is imperative that they ______________________________ (be) there on time. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. 6. 2. He recommended that she ________________________ go) with him. 5. “It´s imperative that.. I’m sorry that today is not a holiday.) I suggested that you see the manager today.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. 9. VERBOS SEGUIDOS DEL PRESENTE DEL SUBJUNTIVO Los verbos TO RECOMMEND. I’m sorry that she could not go with us to the beach. He recommended that she should wait for us outside the theater.”. She asked that we should be there before midday. 2. 10. 7. 6. por lo tanto no se debe agregar -s o -es en la tercera persona del singular. (Él recomendó que ella nos esperara. (I wish he spoke English well. “It´s essential hat. 3. He asked that it______________________________ (be) done right away. TO REQUIRE. 5. Smith ______________________________ (take) a long vacation. “It is necessary that.12. TO INSIST y TO PROPOSE. I’m sorry you could not go to the opera last night. 9. TO ASK. I’m sorry that I don’t know her better.

have seen) John yesterday. 5. I ______________________________ (begin) to study Spanish. Choose the correct form: 1. 9. Which would you prefer. to be rich or poor? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. The owner of the store asked me to call back later. I asked her to come back later. He said he already (saw. 3. 7. Ex. 6. 10. 11. If yesterday ______________________________ (be) a holiday. comes) soon. Had I had more time. me). 6. Which would you prefer. to travel in Europe or in South America? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. to own a house or an apartment? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 246 A short course in english for adult students . has been living) here many years. 5. What would you do if you ______________________________ (be) I? Were I you. John sat between Mary and (I. If he (will come. Ex. If John were here. I (saw. it (would be) (be) much easier for us. If I (were. 2. John said he (will. 4. he ______________________________ (come) to the meeting. please let me know. 2. be) there early. John always (sits. 7. I asked John to wait for me. I suggested that John wait for me. If you come too early. Had I known your number. I ______________________________ (telephone) you. He recommended that I (am. He (is living. 5.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. I ______________________________ (do) it. The teacher asked us to visit her in her home. 8. He suggested that John (come. We asked her to be at our home at eight o’clock. 4. The teacher asked Bill to be more careful. I (may sleep. 14. If he had been well. 8. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. 5 Answer these questions: 1. 10. Change the sentences to introduce SUGGESTED / INSISTED / RECOMMENDED instead of ASKED: 1. Which would you prefer to be. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. 2. 4. had gone) with you to the party last night. I wish I (were. Which would you prefer to study in the future. he would spend it at the beach. 13. 7. I wish I (went. 8. If he felt better. had seen) that movie. John asked me to take a walk with him. 3. would be) in Florida now. would be) in Florida now. If he had felt better. 3. The merchandise is supposed (to send. 3. 9. 10. He would help us if he ______________________________ (can). 6. 11. 2. in good health or in bad health? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.Ex. He asked me to be there on time. may be sleeping). We asked them to go with us in our car. to be sent) tomorrow. Supply the correct form in the following: 1. would) be here tomorrow. Which would you prefer. He asked me to lend him the money. 12. 12. German or Chinese? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 9. He would have finished sooner if he ______________________________ (hurry). 4. is sitting) at this desk. he would have spent it at the beach. I would go swimming. If today ______________________________ (be) a holiday. comes) back later.

Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had won a large prize? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Would I be right or wrong if I said that birds could swim? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had failed your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9.6. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you were not going to graduate? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Would I be right or wrong if I said that fish could fly? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that your friend was sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Would I be right or wrong if I said that you spoke English very well? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 247 .

auxilio equipo de rescate reservista toque de diana recogida. bajas maniobras Mercenary /mersenæri/ ´ Militant /mílitant/ Mountaineer /maunteníar/ Nurse /né:rs/ Offensive action /ofénsiv æktchn/ ´ Orderly /ó:rderli/ Parade /paréid/ Paratrooper /paratrú:per/ Peace /pí:s/ Peace treaty /pí:s trí:ti/ Peacekeeping forces Policeman /polísman/ Preemptive action /pi:skí:piη fó:rsiz/ mercenario militante andinista enfermero acción ofensiva ordenanza parada paracaidista paz tratado de paz fuerzas de mantenimiento de paz policía acción preemptiva acción preventiva prisionero incursión comando retaguardia posición de retagurdia reconocimiento refuerzo ayuda. retreta revista revuelta revuelta saludo tirador escogido escaramuza matanza espía estrategia lucha rendición vigilancia táctica tregua no tripulado veterano de guerra victoria guerra (evento) guerra (actividad) guerrero repliegue /priémptiv æktchn/ ´ Preventive action /privéntiv æktchn/ ´ Prisoner /prízoner/ Raid /reid/ Ranger /réindller/ Rear /ríar/ Rear position /ríar posíshon/ Reconnaissance /rikónisans/ Reinforcement /riinfó:rsment/ Relief /rilí:f/ Rescue team /réskiu ti:m/ Reservist /rése:rvist/ Reveille /revæli //réveli/ ´ Retreat /ritrí:t/ Review /riviú:/ Revolt /rivólt/ Riot /ráiot/ Salute /saliút/ Sharp shooter /sharp shú:ter/ Skirmish /sk :rmish/ Slaughter /sló:ter/ Spy /spái/ Strategy /strætedlli/ ´ Struggle /strægl/ ´ Surrender /sarénder/ Surveillance /se:rvéilans/ Tactics /tæktiks/ ´ Truce /tru:s/ Unmanned /anmænd/ ´ Veteran /véteran/ Victory /víktri/ War /wo:r/ Warfare /worféar/ Warrior /wórior/ Withdrawal /wiθdróal/ 248 A short course in english for adult students . asedio toque de queda derrota acción defensiva zona desmilitarizada despliegue destrucción destacamento disuasión fuego directo ruptura del combate buzo doctor ejercicio fuego enemigo lucha.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /δi á:rmd fó:rsiz/ Las Fuerzas Armadas (II) Allied forces /aláid fó:rsiz/ Armistice /á:rmistis/ Assault /asó:lt/ Attacking unit /atækiη iunit/ ´ Barrack /bærak/ ´ Battle /bætl/ ´ Battlefield /bætlfí:ld/ ´ Bombardment /bombá:rdment/ Campaign /kampéin/ Carnage /ká:rnidll/ Casualty /kællualti/ ´ Ceasefire /si:sfáiar/ Chaplain /tchæplin/ ´ Civilian /sivílian/ Clash /klæsh/ ´ Combatant /kómbatant/ Combat /kómbat/ Commando /komændou/ ´ Conflict /kónflikt/ Coup d´etat /ku:detá:/ Siege /sí:dll/ Curfew /ké:rfiu/ Defeat /difí:t/ Defensive action /defénsiv æktchn/ ´ Demilitarized zone /dimilítaráizd zóun/ Deployment /diplóiment/ Destruction /distrákshn/ Detachment /ditætchment/ ´ Deterrent /dité:rrent/ Direct fire /dairékt fáiar/ Disengament /disengéidllment/ Diver /dáiver/ Doctor /dóktor/ Drill /dril/ Enemy fire /énemi fáiar/ Fight /fáit/ Flank /flæηk/ ´ Foe /fou/ Friendly fire /fréndli fáiar/ Front /frant/ Front line /frant lain/ Garrison /gærison/ ´ Guerrilla /geríla/ Headquarters /hedkuórterz/ Hostage /hóstidll/ Indirect fire /indairékt fáiar/ Killing /kíliη/ Logistic support /lodllístik sapó:rt/ Losses /lósiz/ Maneuvers /manú:verz/ fuerzas aliadas armisticio asalto unidad de ataque barraca. cuadra batalla campo de batalla bombardeo campaña matanza. combate flanco enemigo fuego amigo frente línea de frente guarnición guerrillero cuartel general rehén fuego indirecto matanza apoyo logístico pérdidas.carnicería baja de guerra cese al fuego capellán civil enfrentamiento combatiente combate comando conflicto golpe de estado sitio.

pelear disparar rendirse invadir To kill /kil/ To lead /li:d/ To lose /lu:z/ To mobilize /móbiláiz/ To occupy /ókiupái/ To overcome /óuverkám/ To overrun /óuverán/ To patrol /patróul/ To raid /réid/ To recruit /rekrú:t/ To retreat /ritrí:t/ To review /riviú:/ To salute /saliú:t/ To seize /sí:z/ To shell /shel/ To sight /sáit/ To spy /spái/ To struggle /strágl/ To supply /saplái/ To support /sapó:rt/ To surrender /sarrénder/ To wage /wéidll/ To win /win/ To withdraw /wiθdró:/ To inspect /inspékt/ matar guiar. asir bombardear hacer puntería espiar luchar suministrar apoyar. ayudar rendirse librar una guerra ganar replegarse inspeccionar A short course in english for adult students 249 . estallar capturar realizar comandar conquistar derrotar defender desplegar destruir desarmar ejercitar resistir trabar combate luchar.Verbs: To accomplish /akómplish/ To aim /éim/ To ambush /æmbush/ ´ To arm /a:rm/ To attack /atæk/ ´ To besiege /bi:sí:dll/ To blow up /blou áp/ To bomb /bom/ To bombard /bombá:rd/ To break out /breik áut/ To capture /kæptcher/ ´ To carry out /kæri áut/ ´ To command /komænd/ ´ To conquer /kónker/ To defeat /difí:t/ To defend /difénd/ To deploy /diplói/ To destroy /distrói/ To disarm /disá:rm/ To drill /dril/ To endure /endiú:ar/ To engage /engéidll/ To fight /fait/ To fire /fáiar/ To give up /giv áp/ To invade /invéid/ llevar a cabo apuntar emboscar armar atacar sitiar estallar bombardear bombardear comenzar. conducir perder movilizar ocupar vencer invadir patrullar incursionar reclutar retirarse revistar saludar tomar.

Bl 250 .

he had more practice in speaking he would speak a lot better. of course.he had more friends. had told 10.. would have been 7.If the weather were nice... 3... 5. were 3. would speak 6. 2.. he might have helped us. 6. 7. 3. had 11. had been 4. he had told me. I would be a CEO (Chief Executive Officer).... 3. were 6.... 6. were 12. could 7.. 11. I´d give her the message. / If I´d seen her. 8.. 9. He´d certainly speak better. I had known it. 9.I had been there.. If he prepared his lessons.he´d be a better student. he´d enjoy living here. If 1 were free now.. 8.. would visit Ex. Oh yes. would take 9. Ex. 7. would 4. 8. 9.. 3... 10. would go 10.I had had it. 10.could go on a picnic. 2 .. If 1 could do it. had worn 6.. knew 4.would plan a trip to France. you would have seen him.. I would call you up. 11. he ´d have gotten a better job. is 3......I were there now I would visiting Orlando. she wouldn´t have miss the first act of the opera.would buy a modern car. 2. 2.I could speak it.. 4. 4.. If I saw her. 1. she wouldn´t have caught cold... 5. prepared 10. 6.. 1. they would succeed. 5. he might he1p us.... would learn 4... would be 7. I would have included it in the list of guests 7. 11. And I´d. 13.... I´d speak a lot better . would work 11. he would have gone with us. If he were here. / If he´d been here. If I had more time. I´d buy... I´d go to. could 6. had gone 9... I´d have acted differently.would visit Epcot Center 7.. he could help us.. they would go to the beach.he had more free time. 7.. 5.she had more money. 6. I´d getter better marks. 4. would go to the beach. 12. I would have driven to Denver at Christmastime . had called 5.he liked to do it.. he would play tennis more often.she had wore it. were 9. If I didn´t have to work. would have driven Ex. knew 8. would have caught 3. Yes. had Ex.. would feel 8. / I´d go to. she had come on time. 4. first. 3.. 9... 11..he´d learn more. / If 1 had been free yesterday... were 8.he had more practice in conversation.. would make 5. would have written 8. 5.. comes 10.. I would have called you up. C) Ex. 6... 7. If the weather were cold.he had been there. (Possible answers) 2. he´d speak it better. (Possible answers) 2.he had spoken it.. would go 12. she prepared her lessons she´d learn more. I´d go to the beach. would 5. 10.Key to answers UNIT 18 PART I B) Ex. I´d be planning a trip to France. I´d go to.. might 12. 12. I ´d have asked for an interview with the boss.... 2. Ex... 2. 3. 1 would do it gladly.I had had one. If he came. he would pass 5. 14... 10... 15. I´d read more books. we would not go. would learn faster 4. he came to class on time he´d be a better student. If they tried hard. he´d make good progress. 3. 4. 6.. she had come. she would have taken part in the competition.would do more things every day... would have helped 4. If A short course in english for adult students 251 . 2. had 5...I spoke it well.... I´d have gone on a cruise in the Caribbean. 7.. would have come 6... 2. 6. Ex.. If he had time. I´d drive to. would have told 9. 4. I´d would visit. 2. 8.... / If the weather had been nice.. Ex. If I were free tomorrow. If he went. he studied harder 3. 2. 2. have 9.it were not so cold. If he were here. I ´d have done it gladly. had been Ex. 4.. she´d be able to travel abroad more often. If we had much practice.. 9. 8. had 11. had known 7. they would have gone to the beach. were 7. (Possible answers).I had been in his position. had had 3.. I´d have given her the message..... would have been 5. I´d go to the movie. 12. would speak 3.. I´d beging to study. / If I´d been able to do it. he would go with us. he would meet her.. had been 8. (Suggested answers) 1.she had the day off / free. 12. he would see her.would invite her out to dinner. 8. knew Ex. Yes. would have gone 10. we would speak better. if he studied hard. / If he had had time. I´d have called you up. 5..she were here I would be talking with her now.

6. of course. I wish he had gone with us last night. You´d be right or wrong. could 3.. had known it started today. 6. I wish she had been able to go with us to the beach. 10. I didn´t have to work. would begin 5. 9.. If he worked harder.. 12. I would have gone all the same. I love the rain. 3. 5. would 8. / .wouldn´t have attacked the territory by air. If he´d worked harder. had had 12. 10.had been invited 4... I´d prefer to be in good health.. had gone 6. I´d be pleased to hear that... 5. saw 13. He hates sports. 2. 9. I had studied 4. go 10. 2. take Ex. goes 15. he might go with us / If he´d had the money. comes 13. 7. were 5. You´d be wrong if you said that. had been 8. 12. I´d have gone to. The teacher insisted that Bill be / should be more careful. it would have been the same 8. had already seen 14. would have telephoned 3. 7. 3. he will let us know. 11. 11. were 6. knew Ex.would have attended the conference. may be sleeping 11.had gone out in the cold yesterday evening. 12. (Possible answers) 1. visit 7.. it had been a holiday 6. they would have stayed at home. would have done 7. 4. I hate the rain / Yes.. 3. He suggested that I be / should be there on time.. 10... come 5. sits Ex. 1. My English is not very good.. 1.. he had worked harder during the term. John recommended that I take / should take a walk with him. No. I wish you could swim / I wish I were able to swim B) Ex. . I wouln´t have gone. The teacher recommended that we visit / should visit her in her home.... had studied 4. of course.were 4. He loves sports / No. If he had the money. 10. It depends. I´d prefer to own a horse. were 10. I wish today were a holiday. 7. would have gone out for a walk 15. be 8. 11.. would have come 8. 9.. I´d be sorry to hear that. would go 9. 8. could Ex. I´d prefer to travel to Europe. would have gone 10. I think.. I was too busy at that moment. 7. / No. 6. PART II A) Ex. 2. had the day off .. would buy a Japanese car. were 9. 6. I wish I knew her better 7. 2. If it rained. I´d be very sorry to hear that. 7. He suggested that I lend / should lend him the money.. it were a holiday. If John were present. would go out for a walk 14. 6. 4. If he´d gone there... I would have certainly helped him.. of course. were 2. of course.. would 10.he went there. he would have been promoted. would have helped you 6. (Suggested answers) 2. be 9. I were 8. 5. We recommended that she be / should be at our home at eight o´clock. 2. the meeting would have been good. would have come Ex. 5. I wouldn´t have helped him. has been living 12. I´d prefer to be rich. had gone 3. had known 5. come 6.. 12. be 5. 2. had 11. were 7. Ex. 3. 1. I´d prefer to speak English perfectly. I could swim 3. would have I´d have told him you were here. be 4. they would stay at home. of course. 9.. Ex. You´d be very wrong if you said that. the meeting would be good. he wouldn´t have gone.. 4. 9. / . 1. had known 9. he would have let us know. I wish John were here with us. 2. she were. Of course he would have gone. 10. I would have gotten a better mark. could have gone 7. If it had rained. Yes. 5. I´d have gone to a concert instead. 4.we had asked him to help us. 2. had been 12. me 9. I would have gone. would have phoned you 3. of course. I wish you had been able to go to the opera last night. / .. / If John had been present.. had been 12. Yes. comes 8. 5. rains 6. 13. would 7. I would have gone to. I wouldn´t have gone to the movies. 8. were 14. be 4. 16. 252 A short course in english for adult students . 2 . 8. 10. had hurried 6. 5.. Ex. Yes. would watch TV every day 11.. I wish it weren´t raining so hard.. had eaten 16.. he might have gone with us.. to be sent 10.. 3. I´d be very sorry to hear that. We insisted that they go / should go with us in our car. 5. (Suggested answers) 1.. wait 3. were 3... it were nice 7. were 11. were 11. of course / No. I could speak it . Ex. 2. perhaps it would have been better if she had been present / No. he would be promoted. I like riding horses. had had 4. The owner of the store suggested that I call / should call back later. of course. 8. of course. I wish Helen could go with us to the beach. she were here. Yes... 2. he would do it 9. 4. I insisted that she come / should come back later 3.

“I´m very busy.” He said that he always worked hard. He said. (Indirect Speech) John told us that he liked New York.” He said that he had worked very hard. Es necesario revisar la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales estudiadas en la Unidad 16. “I was busy yesterday. lo que se conoce como Discurso Indirecto en castellano (o Indirect Speech en inglés). “I have worked very hard. John said. “I worked very hard. “I will work hard all day. o podemos realizar algunos cambios verbales. He said. “I must do the job well. He said. “I like New York. He said. “I´m busy today. (Indirect Speech) I.” ➙ He said that he was working very hard.” He said that he had to do that again. Simple present Present perfect Simple past Future Can Must May Have to / Has to Past continuous Simple past Past perfect Past perfect Conditional Could Had to Might Had to He said.” He said that he had to do the job well. “ (Direct Speech) John said (to us).” He said that he was busy at that moment He said. preguntas u órdenes del discurso directo al indirecto. “I´m busy at this moment. He said.” He said that he could use a computer.” He said that he was busy that day / yesterday. En esos casos debemos hacer algunos cambios que son obligatorios (verbos y pronombres) y otros son optativoss.” He said that he would work hard all day. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS O NEGATIVAS Existen ciertas reglas que debemos conocer cuando estamos cambiando oraciones. nos preguntó o nos ordenó.” (Direct Speech) John said that he was very busy. “I´m busy now. dependiendo si entre lo que se dijo y lo que estamos contando ha habido cambios de orden cronólogico (tiempo) o geográfico (lugar) Cambios Verbales (obligatorios): Present cont.” He said that he was busy then. “It may rain again. podemos utilizar las palabras textuales usadas por esa persona. “I´m working very hard. Yesterday A short course in english for adult students 253 .” He said that he had worked very hard. “I always work hard. “I like these books” He said that liked those books. pronominales o adverbiales para respetar la concordacia de los tiempos verbales y la correspondencia de los pronombres y las expresiones de tiempo o lugar. He said.UNIT 19 THE REPORTED SPEECH (DISCURSO DIRECTO E INDIRECTO) Cuando deseamos contar a otra persona lo que alguien nos dijo. He said. lo que en castellano se conoce como Discurso Directo (o “Direct Speech” en inglés). He said.” He said that he had been busy the day before. He said. He said.” He said that it might rain again. “I have to do that again. Cambios de orden cronológico o geográfico (Optativos) Now Today This These Then That day / Yesterday That Those The day before / The previous day He said. He said. pidió o advirtió hacer. “I can use a computer.

“I hope she comes soon. Note que cuando se nombran a las dos personas que intervinieron en la conversación. “We may have an exam. según vimos en la Unidad 8. ETC. III. 5. “I have to work tonight. Change from direct to indirect form: 1. 4. 1. “I was very busy last night” He said that he´d been very busy the previous night. Smith said. “I don’t know her well. ‘’I will be back later. Bob asked his friends. me you him / her us them the boy the boys To/not To + Infinitive.” He said that he would be busy the following day. Cuando se desea expresar una orden.” He said.” A short course in english for adult students (John said that he had to work tonight. He said.” He said that he was very happy there. 3. no se debe mantener la estructura negativa (VM+S+VP) en la cláusula subordinada sino que se debe usar la estructura afirmativa (S+(VM)+VP John asked me. “I cannot go with you tonight. He said. “Do you like New York?” Bob asked me whether / if I liked New York. He said.” He said.” Bob told us that he liked New York. 8. to sit down to work harder to be more careful not to be late not to talk in class EXERCISES Ex. “Why is Bob absent today?” The teacher asked the students why Bob was absent today.” He said. 9. ADVERTENCIAS. Bob asked me.” He said.” Mary said to me. 6. se debe usar la siguiente estructura: Subject He Miss White The teacher The instructors They Verb asked told warned requested ordered Object Pro (Noun). “Will you come to my party?” Bob asked his friends whether / if they would come to his party. “I´ll be busy tomorrow. “I have no money.Tomorrow Here Tonight Last night The following day There Last night The night before / The previous night He said. en el discurso indirecto. The teacher asked the students. 254 John said.” Mary said to me. “John is a very sick man. “l have known him a long time. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORDENES. se debe usar TOLD en vez de SAID. “Where does Mary live?” John asked me where Mary lived. 7. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON PREGUNTAS Cuando se desea expresar un pregunta en el discurso indirecto.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . un requerimiento. “We will finish this tomorrow. “I´m very happy here.” Mr.” Mr. Smith said. 10. REQUERIMIENTOS. 2. Bob said. II.” He said that she was very busy that night. advertencia. “I´m very busy tonight. etc. “I like New York.” The doctor said.

” 12. John said to me.” Ex. “I am going away tomorrow. “Wait five minutes for me..He asked me. He asked me. Mary asked. 2. Answer the following questions in indirect form. ) Is he in the building? (She wants to know. .” ___________________________________________________ 3. “What time is it?” ___________________________________________________ 5. “Where is it?” ___________________________________________________ Exercise 3. ) (I don’t know where John is. Begin each answer with the words given in parentheses after the question: 1. Helen said to me. Do your exercíses in ink. Change the following imperative sentences to indirect form. Give this message to Mrs. Take your feet off the desk.Mr Smith asked us. He said to me. He said to me. “Don’t cross the road.. “When are you leaving for Europe?’’ ___________________________________________________ 10. Don’t waste so much time. Begin each one with THE TEACHER TOLD ME: 1. 12. (The teacher told me to sit in the first row. I asked her.) Where is she going? (She didn’t say.” ___________________________________________________ 6. Come back later. 3. 3. “He is supposed to be here now. The teacher asked. 4.. “What does the word mean?” ___________________________________________________ 11.) Where does she live? (Can you tell me. “ls John here?” ___________________________________________________ 14. She said. “Don’t write in pencil. She said to him. Where´s John? (I don’t know.. “Sit down for a few minutes. 6. “Don’t make the same mistake again. “Where does John live?” (Mary asked where John lived. . He asked me. 2. “When did you read that book?” ___________________________________________________ 12. Don’t look at your neighbor’s paper. Go to the whiteboard. 5. “Do you have to work tonight?” ___________________________________________________ 6. 10. “Do you understand this exercise?” _________________________________________________ 4. The teacher said to us.. 5.11. “Are you going to the movies with us?” __________________________________________________ 8. Change to indirect form: 1.” __________________________________________________ 10. “Do you like my new hat?” ___________________________________________________ 15.” ___________________________________________________ Ex. He said to me. “Don’t forget what I told you. Sit down and read the story. “Try to come on time. He asked me.” ___________________________________________________ 7. John said. 6.” (John told me to wait five minutes for him.. Sit in the first row.) 2. He said to me.. He warned the child. Wait outside in the hall. “How are you today?” ___________________________________________________ 13. “ls it raining?” ___________________________________________________ 7.. 7. “How long have you lived here?’’ ___________________________________________________ 3.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 5. “Did you see that documentary?” ___________________________________________________ 9.” ___________________________________________________ 4. Smith.? Is he a good student? (I´m not sure. He asked me. 4..” ___________________________________________________ S. I asked her. He asked me. He said to me. 4. Prepare your lessons more carefully. 11.” ___________________________________________________ 5. 8.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 255 . ‘’Please send me the money at once.” ___________________________________________________ 9. 9. He begged me. Sit up straíght. I asked him. I asked John. Change from direct to indirect form: ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 1. I asked him. -) How much does it cost? (He wants to know . “Be more careful. 2. ‘’Please don’t be late.) 2.

13. Jones wanted to know. Did Grace tell you whether or not she had enjoyed the party? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 256 A short course in english for adult students . 12.”) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.7. 8.. “I am busy. 10. He said he (can. 8. 3. said to me) that he was busy. 8. Why did John tell you to wait for him after the lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. I asked him what the word (means. . it is). (He asked me where I lived.. He asked me where I lived. would) come here soon. He asked her whether she liked New York.... He asked whether I had mailed the letter. He told her to leave the room.. She said her last name was Smith. I don’t know whether (I can. He didn’t say where he (is. meant). 9. He asked me where I (live. 3.) ___________________________________________________ How tall is he? (I don’t know. 6.. was) married. Where did William ask you to meet him tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. was) going. 2.) ___________________________________________________ Where is he now? (Can you tell me. 11. ) ___________________________________________________ Is Mr.) _________________________________________________ Is the elevator out of order? (Can you tell me.) How is he getting along? (Mrs. 14. He (told me. I asked her whether she (is. 10. What exercise did the teacher tell you to prepare for tomorrow’s lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 7. 11. 6. is it)? He said he (will.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. He asked me what time it (is.. could) meet us easily. Did John say that he had or had not seen that movie? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 5. Why did the mother warn the child not to cross the street? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 9. How is he getting along? (She wants to know .) ___________________________________________________ When will he get back? (I´d like to find out. Choose the correct form: 1. 7. 12. Can you tell me what time (it is. (He said. She said she was going out of town. He told me not to wait for him. lived)..) ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. 12. 7. Smith here? (I’d like to know. Why doesn’t Henry know whether or not he can go to the party tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 5. 8. Answer these questions: 1. I´m not sure whether (he is. was).. 15. 11. He said he was busy. He said he would be back soon. Why did you ask Mary what time it was? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.. ) ___________________________________________________ Is he very tall? (I really don’t know. 4. Change from indirect to direct form: 1.. 6.) ___________________________________________________ Where does he live? (Ask him. . is he) here now.. 4.. She said her maiden name had been Jones. 10. He asked how much it cost. He said that he could not meet us. 9. can I) do it.. I’d like to know where (is it.

Aquellos verbos regulares terminados en -t. pedir transportar. el pasado. -te. o cons+cons+vocal+cons. Verbos regulares de uso frecuente Infinitive To watch /wotch/ To work /we:rk/ To love /lav/ To play /plei/ (1) To study /stádi/ (1) To fit /fit/ (2) To stop /stop/ (2) To guide /gáid/ (3) To repeat /ripí:t/ (3) Past watched /wotcht worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Past Part. -de deben agregar -d/ed y ese sufijo se pronuncia /id/. llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar. Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de una vocal deben agregar -ed. Infinitive To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/ To look /luk/ Past Tense /past Participle answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/ looked /lukt/ Spanish contestar. 2. /δéi spóuk íηglish in klá:s/ They have always spoken Spanish. (Ellos están hablando inglés ahora) A. mientras que los que terminan en -y precedida de consonante deben transformar la -y en -ied. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd iésterdi/ We have worked hard this year. responder llegar preguntar. -d. /wí: wé:rk há:rd évri dei/ We worked hard yesterday. Son verbos regulares aquellos que agregan D / ED para formar el pasado y el pasado participio.BASIC VOCABULARY Verbos principales: Verbos Regulares e Irregulares Todos los verbos principales tienen cuatro formas: el infinitivo. /wí:r wé:rkiη ha:rd náu/ They speak Spanish at home /δéi spí:k spænish at hóum/ They spoke English in class. localizar mirar A short course in english for adult students 257 . deben duplicar la última consonante antes de agregar -ed. /wí: hav wé:rkt há. /δéi hav ó:lweiz spóukn spænish/ They are speaking English now.rd δis íar/ We are working hard now. La mayoría de los verbos que tienen la conbinación consonante+vocal+consonante. /δéir spí:kiη íηglish náu/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro todos los días) (Nosotros trabajamos arduamente ayer) (Nosotros hemos trabajado duro este año) (Nosotros estamos trabajando duro ahora) (Ellos hablan español en casa) (Ellos hablaron inglés en la clase) (Ellos siempre han hablado español). el gerundio. y es una sílaba más: fit /fit/ fitted /fitid/. Según la manera en que forman el pasado y el pasado participio los verbos principales se clasifican en dos grupos: Verbos Regulares y Verbos Irregulares. Escuche. no gustar ayudar esperar. decide /disáid/ decided /disáidid/. lea y aprenda: We work hard every day. desear invitar escuchar ubicar. 3. gustar terminar odiar. request /rikwést/ requested /rikwéstid/. el pasado participio. watched /wotcht/ worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Gerund watching /wótchiη/ working /wé:rkiη/ loving /láviη/ playing /pléiη/ studying /stádiiη/ fitting /fitiη/ stopping /stopiη/ guiding /gáidiη/ repeating /ripí:tiη/ Spanish observar trabajar amar jugar estudiar calzar detener guiar repetir NOTAS: 1. Los que no lo hacen así se llaman Verbos Irregulares.

obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener.enterarse partir. atender caminar querer lavar observar. arreglar repetir solicitar. esforzarse usar.conocer A short course in english for adult students . haber oir guardar. pedir fumar comenzar. mirar desear trabajar. servirse. permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar.To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To offer /ófer/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ offered /óferd/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/ amar. dejar prestar perder. Verbos irregulares de uso frecuente Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /briη/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ 258 Past Tense began /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræηk/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt * /le:rnt/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ Past Participle begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /draηk/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:ln/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /forgótn/ got/gotten /got/gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ Spanish empezar. conocer aprender. encontrar olvidar conseguir. utilizar visitar esperar. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. partir quedarse. funcionar B. mantener saber. fabricar reunirse. salir. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. gustar necesitar ofrecer preferir llover recibir recordar reparar. extraviar hacer.

To pay /péi/ paid /péid/ To put /put/ put /put/ To read /ri:d/ read /red/ To run /ran/ ran /ræn/ To say /séi/ said /sed/ To see /si:/ saw /so:/ To sell /sel/ sold /sóuld/ To send /send/ sent /sént/ To shut /shat/ shut /shat/ To sing /siη/ sang /sæη/ To sit /sit/ sat /sæt/ To sleep /sli:p/ slept /slept/ To speak /spi:k/ spoke /spóuk/ To spend /spénd/ spent /spént/ To stand up /stænd ap/ stood /stu:d ap/ To swim /swim/ swam /swæm/ To take /téik/ took /tuk/ To teach /ti:tch/ taught /to:t/ To tell /tel/ told /tóuld/ To think /θiηk/ thought /θo:t/ To understand /anderstænd/ understood /anderstú:d/ To wear /wéar/ wore /wo:r/ To write /ráit/ wrote /rout/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /saη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn pagar poner. llevar enseñar decir.pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. colocar leer correr. creer entender. narrar pensar. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. desgastar escribir A short course in english for adult students 259 . comprender vestir.

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Mr. The teacher told me to give this message to Mrs. 8. 3. He asked. He told me (that) he was supposed to be here now. He wants to know how much it costs. 5. He told me to write a short story in English. 7.Key to answers UNIT 19 Ex. She wants to know whether / if he is in the building. 6. The teacher told me to prepare my lessons more carefully. 1. He said he´d seen it. 5. The teacher told me to come back later. John asked whether / if it was raining. He asked me to sit down for a few minutes. 8.” 9. The teacher told me to do my exercises in ink. 12. I asked John what time it was. Jones wanted to know how he was getting along. He asked me to meet him outside the station. . He begged me to send him the money at once. The teacher told me not to write in pencil. 5. 10. he is 12. 7. 1. 3. (Possible Answers) . The teacher told me to wait outside in the hall. He asked her. 9. He asked me to try to come on time. 6. 6. The doctor said (that) John was a very sick man. He said to her. I asked her where it was. Mrs. Because there was too much traffic at that time. He said (that) he had known him a long time. 3. Mr. 5. told me 6. Can you tell me whether / if the elevator is out of order? 10. “Did you mail the letter?” 12. 3. He politely asked me not to be late. 4. 2. 9. 3. She asked him whether / if he liked her new hat. He told me not to make the same mistake again. I can 3. I don´t know how tall he is. He asked me whether / if I had to work tonight . 9. The teacher told me to sit down and read the story. He said (that) he hoped she came soon. 7. The teacher asked whether / if I had seen that documentary. 6. I´d like to find out when he´ll get back. 8. He asked me what the word meant.” 8. “I can´t meet you . 8. “Leave the room. He told me not to forget what he had told me. He asked me whether / if I was going to the movies with them. I´m not sure whether / if he is a good student. Because he wanted to tell me about his new plans. I told him to be more careful. He said (that) he had no money. 3. The teacher told me not to waste so much time. 2. “My maiden name was Jones. Because he thinks he´ll have to work till late tonight. The teacher told me to take my feet off the desk. Ex. 15. Ex. She didn´t say where she was going . 4. would 5. Smith. 8. “I´ll be back soon. 10. “Where do you live?” 3. 7. 2. was 7. 2. 7.She said. it is 10. could 11. I asked him when he had read that book. 7. The teacher told me not to look at my neighbor´s paper. He said (that) he didn´t know her well 11. 6. She said she hadn´t enjoyed it. Ex. Smith said (that) we would finish this tomorrow. 5. A short course in english for adult students 261 . He said to me. 11. Ex. 14. I really don´t know whether / if he´s very tall. He asked me. Smith asked us whether / if we understood this exercise. 14. 4. it is 4. He asked me when I was leaving for Europe. Can you tell me where she lives? 4. 5. 12. Can you tell me where he is now? 11. 10. was Ex. I asked her whether / if John was here. Smith said (that) we might have an examination. He asked me. “Don´t wait for me. 2. Smith is here. Ex. 6. Helen asked me how long I had lived here. 11. 3. 13. 9. Mr. 4. 10. 2. The teacher told me to go to the whiteboard. She said. 6. She wants to know how he is getting along. I´d like to know whether / if Mr. Mary told me (that) she could not go with me tonight. Ask him where he lives. meant 8. 15.” Ex. 4. 8. 2. He said. 7. 9. 2. The teacher told me to sit up straight. He asked me how I was today. She said (that) she was going away tomorrow. Mary told me (that) she would be back later. Because I wanted to know what time it was and I didn´t have a watch.” 5. 5. 8. was 9. “How much does it cost?” 10. 4. 12. “Do you like New York?” 4. 7. 2. He warned the child not to cross the road. She said. 12. He said. 13. “My last name´s Smith 6. “ 11. “I´m going out of town.

Bl 262 .

? Have you got any children? How many children have you got? Where are you from? I´m from Chile Where do you come from? I come from Santiago. thanks and how are you? I´m not very well I´m afraid How do you do./ /plí:z lét mi introdiu:z maisélf mai néim iz. Desgraciadamente no sé Lamentablemente no puedo ¿Cuál es su nombre? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Qué hace Ud? Soy un oficial de ejército.. ../ /aid láik iu tu mí:t míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor. At a social gathering (en una reunion social) Hallo!/Hello!/Hi! Good morning Good afternoon Good evening Good bye/Bye bye Good night See you later See you tomorrow See you this evening Thank you/Thank you very much You´re welcome How are you today? I´m very well. ¿Cuál es su grado? ¿Habla Ud.Chile ¿Vive ud. This is Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor./ /hav iu gót éni tchíldren/ /háu méni tchíldren hav iu gót/ /wéar á:r iu from/ /aim from tchile/ /wéar diu kám from/ /ai kám from santiágou tchile/ /diu liv híar/ /witch houtél a:r iu stéiiη æt/ /wóts io:r rú:m námber/ ¡Hola! Buenos días Buenas tardes Buenas tardes Hasta luego Buenas noches Hasta pronto Hasta mañana Hasta la noche Muchas gracias De nada ¿Cómo está UD hoy? Estoy muy bien gracias Estoy bien gracias y ¿cómo está Ud? No estoy muy bien lamentablemente Encantado.? Vengo de Stgo.. Chile Do you live here? Which hotel are you staying at? What´s your room number? /halóu//hai/ /gud mórniη/ /gud afternú:n/ /gud í:vniη/ /gud bái//bái bái/ /gud náit/ /sí: iu: léiter/ /sí: iu: tumórou/ /sí: iu: δis i:vniη/ /θækiu:/ /θækiu: véri mátch/ /io:r wélkam/ /háu á:r iu tudéi/ /aim véri wel θæηkiu/ /aim fáin θæηks and hau a:r iú:/ /aim nót veri wél aim afréid/ /háu diu: dú: mai néim iz.. casado/a o soltero/a? ¿Tiene Ud... Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr... Encantado/a de conocerlo/a Me alegra conocerlo/a Por favor Lo siento Lamento haberme atrasado Lamentablemente.. Me gustaría presentarle al Sr. Pleased to meet you I´m glad to meet you Please I´m sorry I´m sorry I´m late I´m afraid I´m afraid I don´t know I´m afraid I can´t What´s your first name? What´s your surname/last name? What do you do? I´m an army officer What is your rank? Do you speak French/German/Italian/ No.? ¿Cuál es el número de su habitación? A short course in english for adult students 263 .? Soy de Chile ¿De dónde viene Ud.... My name is.. My name is... bat ai spí:k spænish and íηglish/ /aim sóri ai dóunt anderstænd fréntch/ /a:r iu mærid o:r síngl/ ´ /hav iu gót a.../ /plí:zd tu mí:t iu/ /aim glæd tu mí:t iu/ /plí:z/ /aim sóri/ /aim sóri aim léit/ /aim afréid/ /aim afréid ai dóunt nóu/ /aim afréid ai ká:nt/ /wóts io:r fé:rst néim/ /wóts io:r sé:rneim/lá:st néim/ /wót diu dú:/ /aim an á:rmi ófiser/ /wóts io:r ræηk /diu spí:k fréntch/dllérman/itálian/ /nóu ai dóunt..UNIT 20 USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS Frases y expresiones útiles en inglés para viajeros A. francés/alemán/italiano? No. Este es el o la Sr. aqui? ¿En qué hotel está hospedado/a Ud. No entiendo francés Es Ud./ /δis iz míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor. But I speak Spanish and English I´m sorry I don´t understand French Are you married or single? Have you got a.? ¿De dónde es Ud...... thank you I´m fine.. I´d like you to meet Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor. hijos? ¿Cuántos hijos tiene Ud. Permítame presentarme.. Pero hablo español e inglés Lo siento.? ¿Tiene Ud. un/a./Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr... Mi nombre es.. mi nombre es... Please let me introduce myself.... I don´t....

of course/certainly/sure No. por favor. razón. No concuerdo con Ud. feliz? ¿Está triste Ud. please do You´re right You´re wrong I agree with you I don´t agree with you I don´t think so I hope so Yes. Hágalo ¿Está bien si me siento aquí? Si. Concuerdo con Ud. por favor hágalo Tiene Ud. No lo creo así. I think so Yes. su nombre? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? Siéntese. Sí. Sentémonos aquí Entremos/Salgamos Hace frío aquí adentro Hace demasiado calor aquí. Ud. It was nice meeting you Can/may I come in? Please. Fue grato conocerlo a Ud. correcto Eso es lo que quiero decir ¿Qué quiere decir con eso? ¿Qué significa esta palabra? ¿Cuál es el significado de esta palabra? . por favor No abra la ventana. please Can you wait a minute? Can you repeat your question. come in and sit down Wait a moment.. please Let´s sit here Let´s go inside/outside It´s cold in here It´s too hot here What time is it? What´s the date today? Are you all right? Are you tired? Are you cold? Are you hot? Are you hungry? Are you thirsty? Are you sleepy? Are you happy? Are you sad? Are you worried? Are you sick/ill? Do you mind if I smoke? No. creo que sí Sí. please Don´t open the window. Go ahead Is it all right if I sit here? Yes.What´s your telephone number? What´s your address? Can I help you? Can you help me? Pardon? Could you speak more slowly please? Yes.? ¿Está cansado/a? ¿Tiene frío? ¿Tiene calor? ¿Tiene hambre? ¿Tiene sed? ¿Tiene sueño? ¿Está Ud. that´s right That´s what I mean What do you mean by that? What does this word mean? What´s the meaning of this word? 264 A short course in english for adult students /wóts io:r télifoun námber/ /wóts io:r addrés/ /kan ai hélp iu/ /kan iu hélp mi:/ /pá:rdon/ /kud iu spí:k mó:r slóuli plí:z/ /ies ov kó:rs/sé:rtnli/shuar/ /nóu aim afréid nót/ /wiδ pléllar/ /aim sóri ai mast góu náu/ /aim afréid its léit and ai hæf tu góu náu/ /it woz náis mí:tiη iu:/ /kan/mei ai kám ín/ /plí:z kám ín and sít dáun/ /wéit e móument plí:z/ /kan iu wéit e mínit/ /kan iu ripí:t io:r kwéstchon plí:z/ /háu diu spél io:r néim/ /kan iu spél it plí:z/ /sit dáun plí:z/ /dóunt óupn δe wíndou plí:z/ /léts sit hiar/ /léts góu insáid/autsáid/ /its kóuld in híar/ /its tú: hot híar/ /wót táim iz it/ /wóts δe déit tudéi/ /a:r iu ó:l ráit/ /a:r iu táiard/ /a:r iu kóuld/ /a:r iu hot/ /a:r iu háηgri/ /a:r iu θé:rsti/ /a:r iu slí:pi/ /a:r iu hæpi/ ´ /a:r iu sæd/ /a:r iu wárid/ /a:r iu sik/íl/ /diu máind if ai smouk/ /nou ai dóunt máind góu ahéd/ /iz it ó:l ráit if ai sít híar/ /ies plí:z dú:/ /io:r ráit/ /io:r róη/ /ai agrí: wiδ iú:/ /ai dóunt agrí: wiδ iú:/ /ai dóunt θiηk sóu/ /ai hóup sóu/ /ies ai θiηk sóu/ /ies δæts ráit/ /δæts wot ai mí:n/ /wót diu: mí:n bai δæt/ /wót daz δis wé:rd mí:n/ /wóts δe mí:niη ov δis wé:rd ¿Cuál es su número telefónico? ¿Cuál es su dirección? ¿Puedo ayudarle? ¿Puede ayudarme? ¿Perdón? ¿Podría hablar más lento por favor? Sí. lamentablemente no Con mucho gusto Lo siento debo irme ahora Lamentablemente es tarde y tengo que irme ahora. por supuesto No. Así lo espero.? ¿Está preocupado/a? ¿Está enfermo/a Ud. entre y siéntese Espere un momento por favor ¿Puede UD esperar un minuto? ¿Puede UD repetir su pregunta? ¿Cómo deletrea Ud. I don´t mind. ¿Puedo entrar? Por favor. ¿Qué hora es? ¿Qué fecha es hoy? ¿Está bien Ud.? ¿Le molesta si fumo? No me molesta.. está equivocado. I´m afraid not With pleasure I´m sorry I must go now I´m afraid it´s late and I have to go now. please? How do you spell your name? Can you spell it please? Sit down.

8..)? Can Will 6...(smoke.... What´s your.etc. etc..etc.etc) (hará. Shall I. spell it? (. Can May I. go there ( speak..).)UD? did 3.Remember: 1... Siéntese aquí (venga. No vaya allá (hable. etc) ..(nombre dirección. por favor. 8.. Sit here. ¿Le deletreo? ( Le ayudo.. etc..... ¿Cuál es su. ¿Puedo yo.. etc)? 9.(come here.) please. ) 7.(sentarme aquí.....(help me.) A short course in english for adult students 265 .....)? Recuerde: 1.)? ¿Puedes ¿Quieres 6. Do you mind if I. address. etc .. etc..... etc.etc... What do you.. etc) 3. ¿Qué está estará (hizo...)? Would 5. etc.)? will 4.. ¿Podría Ud. 5.(name. help you.). Sentémosnos aquí (vamos.... Don´t.. ¿Qué (hace.( haciendo. Could you.)? were you 2. go..)? ¿Querría Ud...)? UD? 4.etc..). Let´s sit here...(ayudarme.(do.. etc.. etc... (. etc.(fumo. What are you will you be .)? estaba 2.(doing... etc... etc.)? 7.etc)? 9.. please... ¿Le molesta a UD si yo. (sit here. por favor.

. por favor? ¿Hay una oficina de cambio en el hotel? ¿Podría traerme un. please? Room number 206 Is there a telephone in the lobby? Can I have my bill/check. ¿Hay una peluquería aquí? ¿Podría Ud.tu mai rú:m plí:z/ /wéarz δe réstorant ápstéarz o:r dáunstéarz/ /antíl wót táim iz δe bá:r óupn/ /hav ai gót éni mésidlliz/ /kan ai hæv mai rú:m kí: plí:z rú:m námber tú: óu síks/ /iz δer e télifoun in δe lóbi/ /kan ai hæv mai bíl/tchék plí:z/ /δérz an éror in mai bíl/tchék ai θiηk/ /ai dídnt hæv díner híar la:st náit/ /ai dídnt hæv/í:t/driηk/órder δis/ /iz δer a bá:rberz shop híar/ /kud iu póust δí:z léterz/póuská:rdz for mí:/ /wéar a:r δe lífts/elevéitorz/ /téik δe líft/elevéitor tu δe ténθ fló:r/ /ai wónt tu tchék áut at. ¿Cuál es el voltaje usado aquí? 220 o 110? ¿Podría conseguirme un adaptador para mi afeitadora eléctrica? ¿Hay una lavadora operada con monedas? Deseo que me laven y planchen estas ropas. por favor? ¿Hay una piscina/casino/gimnasio en el hotel? ¿Puede despertarme a las seis.B.. At a hotel (en un hotel) I want to check in What´s my room number? Could you take this suitcase to my room please? Is there a colo(u)r TV in the room? The central heating/air conditioner isn´t working well My bed hasn´t been made yet I need another blanket Could you change the towels? Could you get me some soap/shampoo. Necesito otra frazada ¿Podría cambiar las toallas? ¿Podría conseguirme jabón/shampú. My country code number is 56 and the code number for Santiago is 2 I want to make a collect call.. por favor. por favor? Hay un error en mi cuenta. por favor? ¿Donde está el restaurant? Arriba o Abajo? ¿Hasta qué hora está abierto el bar? ¿Tengo algún mensaje? ¿Puede darme la llave de mi pieza. Yo no me serví/comí/bebí/pedí ésto. Quiero hacer una llamada con cobro revertido. I didn´t have/eat/drink/order this. Habitación 206 ¿Hay un teléfono en el hall? ¿Puede darme la cuenta.. please? What is the voltage used here? 220 or 110? Could you get me an adaptor for my electric shaver? Is there a coin operated washing machine? I want to have these clothes washed and ironed. I want to check out at. Is there a barber´s shop here. por favor. por favor... please? Is there a swimming pool/casino/gym in the hotel? Can you wake me up at six o´clock? Could you get me a taxi please? Is there a money exchange in the hotel? Could you bring a. Could you post these letters/postcards for me? Where are the lifts/elevators? Take the lift/elevator to the tenth floor. please? There´s an error in my bill/check. I think I didn´t have dinner here last night.m veri mátch/ ¿Me pueden traer desayuno a mi habitación¡ ¿Podría conseguirme un periódico en español. o´clock I liked/I didn´t like the service/the food/the room very much /ai wónt to tchek ín/ /wóts mai rú :m námber/ /kud iu téik δis sútkeis tu mai rú:m plí :z/ /iz δér e kólor tí: ví: in δe rú:m/ /δe séntral hí:tiη/éar kondíshoner íznt wé: rkiη wél/ /mai béd háznt bí:n méid iet/ /ai ní:d anáδer blæηkit/ /kud iu tchéindll δe táuelz/ /kud iu gét mi sam sóup/shæmpu: plí:z/ /wóts δe vóltidll iú:zd híar/tú: twénty or uán hándrid and tén/ /kud iu gét mi an adæptor for mai eléktrik ´ shéiver/ /iz δear a kóin operéitid wóshiη mashí:n/ /ai wónt tu hæv δi:z klóuδz wósht and áiond plí:z/ /ai ní:d tu méik an internæshonal kó:l tu ´ tchile/ /mai kántri kóud námber is fífty siks and δe kóud námber for santiágou is tú:/ /ai wónt tu méik it kolékt kó:l plí:z/ Deseo registrarme ¿Cuál es el número de mi habitación? ¿Podría llevar esta maleta a mi habitación por favor? ¿Hay un TV a color en la habitación? La calefacción central/El aire acondicionado no está funcionando bien Mi cama aún no ha sido hecha... please Can I send a fax/an e-mail from the hotel? At what time do you serve breakfast/lunch/dinner? Can I have breakfast in my room? Could you get me a newspaper in Spanish. 266 A short course in english for adult students . me parece. please I need to make an international call to Chile. Me gustó mucho/No me gustó mucho el servicio/ la comida/la habitación. a mi habitación. por favor Deseo hacer una llamada interna-cional a Chile El código de mi país es 56 y el código para Santiago es 2. despacharme estas cartas/postales? ¿Dónde están los ascensores? Tome el ascensor al 10° piso Quiero dejar el hotel/registrar mi salida a las.. Yo no cené aquí anoche.. por favor? ¿Podría conseguirme un taxi.. to my room please? Where´s the restaurant? Upstairs or downstairs? Until what time is the bar open? Have I got any messages? Can I have my room key..oklók/ /ai laikt/ai dídnt láik δe sé:rvis/δe fu:d/δe rú. /kan ai sénd e fáks/an í: méil from δe houtél/ ¿Puedo enviar un fax/e-mail desde el hotel? /at wót táim diu sé:rv brékfast/lántch/díner/ ¿A qué hora sirven desayuno/almuerzo/cena? /kan ai hæv brékfast in mai rú:m/ /kud iu gét mi e niuzpéiper in spánish plí:z/ /iz δer e suímiη pú:l/kazí:nou/dlli:m in δe houtél/ /kan iu wéik mi áp at siks oklók/ /kud iu gét mi e tæksi plí:z/ ´ /iz δer e máni ekstchéindll in δe houtél/ /kud iu bríη e.

Quiero. ¿Podría Ud.)? ¿Dónde están los . Could you.( have another coffee. etc.(lift. etc)? 3....etc..(bar.. bar..) please? Recuerde: 1.) en el hotel? 4..? 3.etc..(despertarme a las 7. etc.etc. ) 2.. etc..(servirme otro café.. ¿Hay un.etc.etc.) in the hotel? 4.(wake me up at 7:30.. ) por favor? A short course in english for adult students 267 .. / teléfonos... (telephones. etc) Desearía..etc.(ascensor.) I would like to. ¿Dónde está el.) 2. baños...Remember: 1. Is there a..(bar. etc. bar.. I want to....(hacer una llamada..)? Where are the.. toilets....(make a phone call.... Where is the..

almendras saladas o maní.)? How would you like your. medium or well-done? I want it well done please.. Could you pass me the salt. ¿Qué se servirá de postre? Desearía ordenar una ensalada de fruta. por favor? Realmente disfrute la comida. cerveza o una gaseosa? Podría servirme una cerveza de barril. How do you want your. por favor ¿Con qué desearía comenzar? Creo que me serviré una sopa de pollo. etc. (una cerveza.. Muchísimas gracias.). etc. etc)? Desearía pedir. please What will you have to follow? I´ll have rump steak.. What do you want to.. (otro whisky.)? ¿Cómo desearía Ud su (bife. etc. bíar or e sóft dríηk/ /kan ai hæv e drá:ft bíar plí:z/ ´ /háu diu wónt io:r mí:t/diu wónt it réar. por favor ¿Qué se servirá a continuación? Me serviré un trozo de lomo. a sandwich. etc. amareto? ¿Me podría traer la cuenta..etc. (a beer... You can keep the change. Fue muy buena en verdad. near the window? What time do you start serving lunch/dinner? Can I pay by credit card/by cheque/cash? Can you charge this into my hotel bill? Room 2105 Can I take a look at the menu? Would you like an appetizer? I´ll have a glass of white wine and some cheese. Can I have. Recuerde: 1.. Thank you very much. etc.. por favor? Desearía servirme un vaso de soda. ¿Podría servirme un café? ¿Desearía un bajativo? Whisky.. ¿Desearía algo para beber? Vino. etc.)? What would you like to. mí: dium or wél dán/ /ai wónt it wél dán plí:z/ /wót wil iu hæv for dizért/ ´ /aid láik tu ó.. (steak. un sandwich.. beer or a soft drink? Can I havea draught beer please? How do you want your meat? Do you want it rare. salted almonds or peanuts..) I´d like to have. Remember: 1. cherry. (drink. ¿Cómo quiere Ud su (té.. potato chips and a mixed salad Could you get me another knife? This one is dirty. por favor.. etc..)? ¿Qué desearía Ud. please? I really enjoyed the meal. La quiere a punto.C.. ¿Podría pasarme la sal. Hasta luego. (chicken and rice. At a restaurant (en un restaurante) I need a table for three (people) please Is there a table in the non-smoking area.? Could you get me.etc) Desearía servirme. It was very good indeed.)? 2. etc. Good bye. (the bill. cognac. (la cuenta. (beber.. (eat. (some more tea.. etc.)? 3. (tea. (pollo con arroz. etc) ¿Puedo servirme. Could I have some coffee? Would you like some liqueur? Scotch. ) /ai ní:d e téibl for θrí: (pí:pl) plí:z/ /iz δer e téibl in δe non smóukiη éaria níar δe wíndou/ /wót táim diu stá:rt sé:rviη lántch/díner/ /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/bai tchek/kæsh/ ´ /kan iu: tchárdll δis íntu mai houtél bíl/rú:m tuénti wán óu fáiv/ /kan ai téik a lúk at δe méniu:/ /wud iu láik an apetáizer/ /ail hæv e glá:s of wáit wáin and sam tchí:s ´ sóltid ó:lmondz or pí:nats plí:z/ /wót wud iu láik tu stá:rt wiη/ /ai θiηk ail hæv tchíkin sú:p plí:z/ ´ /wót wil iu hæv tu fólou/ ´ /ail hæv rámp stéik/potéitou tchips and e ´ míkst sælad/ /kud iu get mi anáδer náif δis wan iz dé:rti/ /kud iu pá.. etc) 268 A short course in english for adult students .)? I´d like to order.etc)? 2. (más tea...)? ¿Me podría traer. (comer. Puede conservar el vuelto. etc)? 3. please? I´d like to have a glass of soda water Would you like something to drink? Wine...rder e frú:t sælad ´ /kud ai hæv sam kófi:/ ´ /wud iu láik sam likiuar/skótch/tchéri/ amarétou/ /kud iu bríη mi δe bíl/tchék plí:z/ /ai ríali endllóid δe mí:l/it woz véri gud indí:d/ /θæηkiu véri match/iu kan kí:p δe tchéidll/ ´ Necesito una mesa para tres (personas) por favor. etc). por favor? ¿Cómo quiere la carne. ¿Hay una mesa en la zona no fumadores. Quiero servirme. ¿Qué quiere Ud. I want to have... please What would you like to start with? I think I´ll have chicken soup.s mi δe só:lt plí:z/ /aid láik tu hæv e glá:s of souda wóter/ ´ /wud iu láik sámθiη tu dríηk wáin. What will you have for dessert? I´d like to order a fruit salad. . regular o bien cocida? La quiero bien cocida. etc. papas fritas y una ensalada mixta ¿Me podría traer otro cuchillo? Este está sucio. cerca de la ventana? ¿A qué hora comienzan a servir el almuerzo/la cena? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito/con cheque/ en efectivo? ¿Puede cargarme ésto en mi cuenta del hotel? Habitación 2105 ¿Puedo mirar el menú? ¿desea un aperitivo? Me serviré una copa de vino blanco y queso. (another whisky. amaretto? Could you bring me the bill/check.

pléis/ Squid /skuid/ Trout /tráut/ tuna fish /tú :na fish/ BEVERAGES. bill /tchek. bil/ Tip /tip/ Change /tcheindll/ BREAKFAST /brékfast/ Bacon and eggs /béikonanégz/ Boiled eggs /bóild égz/ Bread /bréd/ Bread and butter /brédanbáter/ Coffee /kófi/ Cornflakes /kó:rnfleiks/ Fried eggs /fráid égz/ Ham /hæm/ Ham and eggs /hæmanégz/ Jam /dllæm/ Marmalade /mármeléid/ Milk /milk/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Scrambled eggs /skrámbld égz/ Tea /tí:/ Toast /tóust/ Wholemeal bread /hóulmi:l bréd/ LUNCH /DINNER:/ lántch/díner/ Dessert /dezé :rt/ French dressing /fréntch drésiη/ Fruit /frú:t/ hors d’oeuvres /o :rdá :vre/ main course /méin kó :rs/ Mayonnaise /máioneiz/ Salad /sælad/ Sauce /só :s/ Soup /su :p/ Starter /stá:rter/ MEATS: /mí:ts/ Beef /bí:f/ Chicken /tchiken/ Chops /tchops/ Duck /dák/ Fillet steak /fílit stéik // Lamb /læm/ Meatballs /mí:tbo:lz/ Mutton /mátn/ Garzón Carta. TRAGOS Bebida alcohólica Cerveza Cerveza inglesa (amarga) Coñac Champaña Jugo de frutas Agua de hierbas Té helado Cerveza rubia (pílsener) Té con limón Limonada Licor Leche Agua mineral Vino tinto Vino Rosado Cerveza con orange Gaseosa Tea Whisky Vino blanco VERDURAS Alcachofa Espárragos Palta Bruselas Repollo Zanahoria Apio 269 A short course in english for adult students .cambio DESAYUNO Huevos con tocino Huevos duros Pan Pan con mantequilla Café Cereales Huevos fritos Jamón Jamón con huevos Mermelada (dulce) Mermelada (cítrico) Leche Huevos fritos en agua Huevos revueltos Té Tostada Paan integral ALMUERZO /CENA Postre Aliño francés Fruta Entremeses Plato de fondo Mayonesa Ensalada Salsa Sopa Entrada CARNES Vacuno Pollo Chuletas Pato Filete Cordero lechón Albóndigas Cordero FISH AND SEAFOOD Abalone /abalóuni/ Cod /kod/ Cuttlefish /kátlfish/ Herring /hériη/ King-crab /kiη kræb/ Lobster /lóbster/ Mussels /máslz/ Octopus /óktopas/ Oysters /óisterz/ Prawns /pró:nz/ Salmon /sá:mon/ Sardine /sa:rdí:n/ Scallops /skælops/ Sea-urchin /sí: é:rtchin/ Shrimps /shrimps/ sole. menú Desayuno Almuerzo Cena liviana Cena Refrigerio Maestro de cocina Cuenta Propina Vuelto.Restaurants: Useful vocabulary (Restaurantes: Vocabulario util) Waiter /wéiter/ Menu /méniu/ Breakfast /brékfast/ Lunch /lántch/ Supper /sáper/ Dinner /díner/ Snack /snæk/ Chef /tchef/ Check. DRINKS: Alcoholic drink /alkohólik drink/ Beer /bíar/ Bitter /bíter/ Brandy /brændi/ Champagne /shampéin/ Fruit juice /fru:t dllu:s/ Herbal tea /hé:rbal tí:/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Lager /lá:ger/ Lemon tea /lémon tí:/ Lemonade /lémoneid/ Liqueur /líke:r/ Milk /milk/ Mineral water /míneral wóter/ Red wine /réd wáin/ Rosé /rouzéi/ Shandy /shændi/ Soft drink /soft drink/ Tea /tí:/ Whisky /wiski/ White wine /wáit wáin/ VEGETABLES: /védlletablz/ Artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ Asparragus /aspárragas/ Avocado /ævoká:dou/ Brussels sprouts /brásels spráuts/ Cabbage /kábidll/ Carrot /kárrot/ Celery /séleri/ PESCADOS Y MARISCOS Loco Bacalao Jibia Arenque Centolla Langosta Cholgas pulpo Ostras Gambas Salmón Sardina Ostiones Erizo Langostinos Lenguado calamar Trucha Atún BEBIDAS. plaice /sóul.

rlik/ FRUTA POSTRES Manzana Damasco Plátano Mora Torta Guinda Mus de chocolate Pomelo uvas Helado Melón Bombones de menta Naranja Durazno Pera Piña Ciruela Frambuesa Grosella Bollo Frutilla Pastilla Samdía Yogurt SABORES Amargo Picante Salado Agrio Condimentado Dulce CONDIMENTOS Laurel Ají Canela Ajo 270 A short course in english for adult students .Pork /pó:rk/ Ribs /ribz/ Roast beef /róus bí:f/ Rump steak /rámp stéik/ Sirloin steak /sé:rloin stéik/ T-bone /tí : bóun/ Turkey /té:rki/ Veal /ví:l/ HOW MEAT IS COOKED Medium to rare /mí:dium tu réar/ Rare /réar/ Well done /wél dán/ HOW FOOD IS PREPARED Baked cake /béikt kéik/ Boiled eggs /bóild egz/ Broiled chicken /bróild tchiken/ Chilled wine /tchíld wáin/ Chopped fruit /tchópt frú:t/ Fried fish /fráid fish/ Grated cheese /gréitid tchí:z/ Grilled steak /grild stéik/ Ground coffee /gráund kófi/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Melted sugar /méltid shúgar/ Minced meat (mínst mí:t/ Mixed salad /míkst sálad/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Roast beef /róust bí:f/ Sliced bread /sláist bréd/ Smoked salmon /smóukt sá:mon/ Steamed fish /stí:md fish/ Stewed beef /stiu:d bí:f/ Stuffed turkey /stáft té:rki/ Whipped cream /wipt krí:m/ MISCELLANEOUS Ashtray /æshtrei/ Beerglass /bíargla:s/ Bottle of wine /bótl ov wáin/ Bottle opener /bótl óupner/ Bread knife /brédnaif/ Butter dish /báterdish/ Cruet /kru:it/ Cup /káp/ Dessertspoon /dezértspu:n/ Fork /fórk/ Goblet /góblit/ Jug /dllág/ Knife /náaif/ Lighter /láiter/ Match /mætch/ Cerdo Costillas Rosbif Lomo Lomo vetado Entrecot Pavo Ternera COCCIÓN DE CARNES Regular. casi a punto A punto Bien cocido COMO ESTA PREPARADA LA COMIDA Queque horneado Huevos cocidos Pollo a lo spiedo Vino helado Fruta picada Pescado frito Queso rallado Bife a la parrilla Café en grano molido Té helado Azucar derretida Carne molida Ensalada mixta Huevos escalfados Vacuno asado Pan rebanado Salmón ahumado Pescado al vapor Bife estofado Pavo relleno Crema batida MISCELANEO Cenicero Vaso para cerveza Botella de vino Abridor de botella Cuchillo para pan Mantequillera Alcuza Taza Cuchara para postre Tenedor Copa Jarro Cuchillo Encendedor Fósforo Corn /kó :rn/ Cucumber /kíukumber/ Green beans /grí:n bí:nz/ Leek /lí:k/ Lettuce /létis/ Mushrooms /máshrumz/ Peas /pí:z/ Potato /potéitou/ Red pepper /réd /grí:n péper/ Tomato /tomá:tou //toméitou/ Maíz Pepino Porotos verdes Puerro Lechuga Champiñones Arvejas Papa Pimiento rojo Tomate FRUIT /frú:t/ DESSERTS /dizé:rts/ Apple /æpl/ Apricot /éiprikot //éiprikot/ Banana /baná:na/ Blackberry /blæberi/ Cake /kéik/ Cherry /tchéri/ Chocolate mousse /tcóklit mu:z/ Grapefruit /gréipfrut/ Grapes /gréips/ Ice cream /áis krí:m/ Melon /mélon/ Mints /mints/ Orange /órindll/ Peach /pí:tch/ Pear /péar/ Pineapple /páinápl/ Plum /plám/ Raspberry /rázberi/ Redcurrant /redkúrant/ Scone /skóun/ Strawberry /stró:beri/ Sweets /sui:ts/ Watermelon /wótermelon/ Yoghourt /ióga:rt/ HOW FOOD TASTES Bitter /bíter/ Hot /hot/ Salty /só:lti/ Sour /sáuer/ Spicy /spáisi/ Sweet /sui:t/ SPICES /spáisiz/ Bay leaf /béi lí:f/ Chilli pepper /tchili péper/ Cinnamon /sínamon/ Garlic /gá.

Mug /mág/ Napkin /næpkin/ Place mat /pléismæt/ Plate /pléit/ Saucer /só:ser/ Soup bowl /sú:p bóul/ Sugar bowl /shúgarbóul/ Tablecloth /téiblkloθ/ Tablespoon /téiblspu:n/ Teaspoon /tí:spun/ Tin opener /tin óupner/ Tumbler /támbler/ Wineglass /wáingla:s/ Tazón Servilleta Individual Plato Platillo Plato para sopa Azucarero Mantel Cuchara para sopa Cuchara de té Abrelatas Vaso para gaseosas Vaso para el vino Ginger /dllíndller/ Ketchup kétchap/ Mustard /másta:rd/ Parsley /pá:rsli/ Pepper /péper/ Salt /só:lt/ Thyme /táim/ Genjibre Ketchup Mostaza Perejil Pimienta Sal Tomillo A short course in english for adult students 271 .

por favor? Perdón. ¿Cómo llego yo al museo? Mire el mapa. does this bus go to the stadium? Please. Doble a la izquierda en la próxima esquina y baje (por esa calle) dos cuadras Tome la tercera bocacalle a la derecha y enseguida camine unos 40 metros No está muy lejos. I´m a stranger here myself. We are here. Enseguida doble a la derecha y verá la torre al final de la calle Lo siento. Do you know where the station is. ¿Podría indicarme el camino. un mapa de Londres? Deseo ir a la Catedral. Go straight ahead until you come to the bridge.por favor? Perdón. ¿Podría indicarme el camino al parque. please? Could you tell me where the bank is. Take the third turning on the right and then walk for about 40 meters. No sé. en la Calle Park Perdón. please? Excuse me. ¿Sabe Ud. take me to the Oxford Hotel. Turn left at the next corner and walk down the street for two blocks. Where´s the post office. You have to take bus 44 here and get off at the Railway Station. please? Excuse me. can you tell me the way to the park. Kan iu shóu mi δe wéi pli:z/ /ikskiú:z mi wéarz δe póust ófis plí:z/ /kud iu tél me wéar δe bæηk iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/diu nóu wéar δe stéishn iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/kan iu tél mi δe wéi tu δe pá: rk plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/háu du ai gét tu δe miu:zíam/ /luk at δe mæp/wi a:r híar autsáid δe stéishn/ góu stréit ahéd antil iu kæm tu δe brídll/ /iu hæf tu téik bás fó:rti fóar and get óf at δe réilwei stéishn/ /wó:k alóη δis strí:t as fá:r as δe træfik láits/ /té:rn léft at δe nékst kó:rner and wó:k dáun δe strí:t for tú: blóks/ /téik δe θé:rd té:rniη on δe ráit and δén wó:k for abáut fó:rti mí:terz/ /its nót veri fá:r/dráiv aloη δis róud til iu kám tu klá:rk áveniu/δen té:rn ráit and iul sí: δe táuer at δi énd ov δe róud/ /sóri ai dóunt nóu/aim a stréidller híar maisélf/á:sk e plísman/ /ikskiu:s mi/witch bás du ai ní:d tu téik to góu tu δe næ´shional á:rt gæleri/ /hau fá:r iz δi éarpó:rt from híar/ /its abáut twénti kiloumí:terz/iu ní:d tu téik δe tréin/ /ikskiú:s mi dáz δis bás go tu δe stéidium/ /plí:z téik mi tu δi óksford houtél in pá:rk strí: t/ /ikskiu:s mi wéarz δe níarest ándergráund stéishn/ /kan ai wó:k or du ai ní:d tu téik e bás/ /ikskiú:z mi/iz δer e réstorant níar híar/ Iés/δéarz wan in bridll strí:t. lléveme al Hotel Oxford. ¿Qué bus necesito tomar para ir a la National Art Gallery? ¿A qué distancia está el aeropuerto de aquí? Esta a más o menos 20 kms. opposite the cinema. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights. Siga derecho hacia adelante hasta llegar al puente Tiene que tomar el bus 44 aquí y bajarse en la estación de ferrocarriles. is there a restaurant near here? Yes. Ask a policeman. Could you show me the way please? Excuse me. ¿Va este bus al estadio? Por favor. Then turn right and you´ll see the tower at the end of the road. por favor? Perdón. Necesita tomar el tren. What time do the banks open? What time do buses start running? What time do the shops close? Does the supermarket open on Sunday? /hav iu got/diu hæv e mæp ov lándon/ /ai wónt tu góu tu δe kaθídrl. or do I have to take a bus? Excuse me. ¿Donde está la oficina de correos. dónde está la estación. where is the nearest underground station? Can I walk. Yo también soy forastero aquí. Excuse me. It´s not very far. outside the station.¿Hay un restaurante cerca de aquí? Sí.D. please? Excuse me. Pregúntele a un policía Perdón. por favor? Perdón. Drive along this road till you come to Clark Avenue. frente al cine. hasta el semáforo. ¿A qué hora abren los bancos? ¿A que hora comienzan a correr los buses? ¿A qué hora cierran las tiendas? ¿Abre el supermercado los domingos? 272 A short course in english for adult students . in Park Street. óposit δe sínema/ /wót táim du δe bæηks óupen/ /wót táim du básiz stá :rt rániη/ /wót taim du δe shóps klóuz/ /dáz δe supermá:rkit óupn on sándi/ ¿Tiene Ud.. Conduzca por este camino hasta llegar a la calle Clark. How to get to places (como llegar a lugares) Have you got/Do you have a map of London? I want to go to the cathedral. ¿Dónde está la estación de metro más próxima? ¿Puedo irme a pié. por favor? ¿Podría decirme dónde está el banco. Excuse me which bus do I need to take to go to the National Art Gallery? How far is the airport from here? It´s about 20 kilometers. Estamos aquí afuera de la estación. You need to take the train. Hay uno en la calle Bridge. Perdón. Camine por esta calle. how do I get to the museum? Look at the map. Sorry I don´t know. Excuse me. o tengo que tomar un bus? Perdón. there´s one in Bridge Street.

. Necesito comprar un / algunos... please? 3.. ¿A qué distancia está el / la. What time do the....? ¿A qué hora abre / cierra el / la.open / close? 6. Do you know where the..... please? 4.... near here? Building /bíldiη/ edificio Hotel /houtél/ hotel Lift /lift/ ascensor (Br) Elevator /elevéitor/ ascensor (US) Restaurant /réstorant/ resturant Store/Shop /stóar/shop/ tienda Shopping centre Centro comercial Shopping mall Centro comercial Library /láibreari/ biblioteca Museum /miu:zíam/ museo Park /pá:rk/ parque Hospital /hóspitl/ hospital Supermarket /supermá:kit/ supermercado Department store /dipá:rment stóar/ Tienda de departamente Book store /buk stó:r/ librería book shop /buk/shop/ librería Post office /póust ófis/ Oficina de Correos Police station /polís stéishn/ Cuartel de policia Cinema /sínema/ cine Theater /θíater/ teatro Night club /náit klab/ club nocturno Recuerde: 1..Useful vocabulary (vocabulario util) City.. ¿Cómo llego a... Which bus do I need to take to go to the..? 2.. open / close? What time does the.... /péivment/ vereda(Br) Sidewalk /saidwó:k/ vereda(US) Bus stop /bas stóp/ parada de buses Underground Station (Br) /ándergráund stéishn/ estación de metro Subway Station (US) /sábwei stéishn/ estación de metro Railway Station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes Airport /éarpó:rt/ aeropuerto Square /skuéar/ plaza Traffic lights /træfik láits/ semáforo Park /pá:rk/ parque Remember: 1...por favor? ¿Dónde esta la. Could you show the way to..más cercana. I need to buy a / some..? 2.cerca de aquí A short course in english for adult students 273 .. Could you tell me the way to. is..s.. please? Can you tell me where the..? 5...de aquí? 7.... How far is the. /síti/ ciudad Town /táun/ pueblo Street /strí:t/ calle Pavement. from here? 7..? Is there a.? 5..por favor? ¿Puede decirme dónde está la. ¿Sabe UD dónde está la.. por favor? 4. ¿Dónde está la.. Where is the. How do I get to. Where is the nearest.? ¿Podría indicarme el camino a... ¿A qué hora abren / cierran las.. Hay un / una...? 6...is.por favor? 3. ¿Cuál bus necesito tomar para ir a.... please?.

/ai wil kæri δis hændbæg maisélf/ Yo mismo transportaré ese bolso de mano Where is the luggage /baggage claim? /wéar iz δe lágidll /bægidll kléim/ ´ ¿Dónde está la entrega de equipaje? I have nothing to declare /ai hæv náθiη tu dikléar/ No tengo nada para declarar How many bottles can I take with me? /háu méni bótlz kan ai téik wiδ mí:/ ¿Cúantas botellas puedo llevar conmigo? Do I have to pay sales tax /customs duties? /du ai hæv tu pei seil taks /diútiz/ ¿Debo pagar IVA /derechos aduaneros? Is there a duty-free shop here? /iz δer e diu:ti frí: shop híar/ ¿Hay una tienda libre de IVA aquí? Where is the bar? /restaurant? /wéarz δe bá:r /restorant/ ¿Dónde está el bar /restaurante? Are we landing /arriving soon? /á:r wi lændiη /aráiviη sú:n/ ¿Estamos aterrizando /llegando pronto? We´re landing /arriving in a few minutes. Please remain seated until the plane /train has stopped. At the station / airport (en la estacion / aeropuerto) /kan ai hav ior pá:spo:rt plí:z/ /wóts ior læst néim plí:z kan iu spél it plí:z/ Can I see your ticket? /kan ai sí: ió:r tíkit/ I want a ticket to Milan /ai wónt e tíket tu milán/ How much is a single ticket to Naples? How much is a /háu mátch iz e síngl tíkit tu néiplz/ /háu return ticket to Lyon? mátch iz a ritérn tíkit tu lión/ Can I have your passport. doble la mesita y enderece your seat in the upright position. please? What´s your last name. /wi a:r lændiη /aráiviη in e fiu: minits/ Estamos aterrizando /llegando dentro de unos pocos minutos. Fasten your seat belt.E. Please put your cigarette out now. /plí:z put io:r sigarét áut nau/ Por favor apague su cigarrillo ahora. /plí:z riméin sí:tid antil δe pléin /tréin haz Por favor manténgase sentado hasta que el stópt/ avión /tren se haya detenido. Can you spell it please? ¿Puede mostrame su pasaporte por favor? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? ¿Puedo ver su boleto? Quiero un ticket a Milán ¿Cuánto cuesta un b oleto simple a Nápoles? ¿Cuánto cuesta un boleto de ida y vuelta a Lyon? How much is the bus ticket to the zoo? /háu mátch is δe bás tíkit tu δe zú:/ ¿Cuánto cuesta el pasaje de bus al zoo? Is it a direct journey /flight? /iz it a dirékt dllérni /fláit/ ¿Es un viaje /vuelo directo? How long does the journey /flight take? /háu lóη daz δe dllérni /fláit téik/ ¿Cuánto tiempo dura el viaje /vuelo? What time does the train /plane leave? /wot táim daz δe tréin /pléin lí:v/ ¿A qué hora sale el tren /avión? What time does the train /plane /get there? /wot táim daz δe tréin /pléin get δéar/ ¿A qué hora llega el tren /avión allá? Which platform /gate does it leave from? /witch plátform /géit daz it lí:v from/ ¿Desde cuál andén /puerta sale? How long does it take to get to Budapest? /háu loη daz it teik to get tu budapést/ ¿Cuánto se demora en llegar a Budapest? What time do we need to check in? /wót táim du wi ní:sd tu tchek ín/ ¿A qué hora necesitamos presentarnos? Do they serve lunch on board? /du δei sé:rv lántch on bó:rd/ ¿Sirven almuerzo a bordo? Can I have a seat by the window? /kan ai hæv e sí:t bai δe wíndou/ ¿Puede darme un asiento al lado de la ventana? I want a seat in the non smoking area /ai wónt e sí:t in δe non smóukiη éaria/ Deseo un asiento en la zona de no fumadores These are my suitcases /δí:z a:r mai sutkéisiz/ Estas son mis malaetas Please carry my suitcases with care /plí:z kæri mai sutkéisiz wiδ kéar/ Por favor transporte mis maletas con cuidado I will carry this handbag myself. bæk ov io:r sí:t in δi apráit posíshn/ el respaldo de su asiento We hope you´ve enjoyed your trip /flight /wi hóup iuv indllóid io:r trip /fláit/ Esperamos que haya disfrutado su viaje /vuelo 274 A short course in english for adult students . fold the table and put the back of /fá:sn io:r sí:t bélt /fóuld δe téibl and put δe Ajuste su cinturón.

F. ¿Tiene Ud. Do you have a different colo(u)r? /ai dóunt láik δe kólor /diu hæv e dífrent kólor/ What size do you take? /wót sáiz diu ték/ I want to buy a present for my wife. Shopping (de compras) I like this /that watch /jacket. /plí:z kí:p δis risí:t /wí wil sénd δi áitmz tu δe pléin/ How much is this watch? /háu mátch iz δis wotch/ How much are those gloves? /háu mátch a:r δouz glávz/ Me gusta este reloj /esa chaqueta ¿Puedo verlo /a? ¿Puedo probármelo /a? ¿Cuánto vale? ¿Cuánto cuesta? ¿Tiene una talla más grande /más chica? Me gustans estos lentes /esos zapatos ¿Puedo verlos /verlas? ¿Puedo probármelos /las? ¿Cuánto valen? ¿Cuánto cuestan? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito? ¿Puedo pagar con dinero norteamericano /dólares? No me gusta el color. guarde este recibo. Can I see it? Can I try it on? How much is it? /How much does it cost? Do you have a larger /smaller size? I like these /those glasses /shoes. un color diferente? ¿Qué talla tiene Ud.? Quiero comprar un regalo para mi esposa. ¿Puede mostrarme algo? ¿Está hecho de cuero /plástico /lana /algodón /oro /plata? Por favor. Can you show me /ai wónt tu bái e prezent for mai wáif /kan something? iu shóu mi sámθiη/ Is it made of leather /plastic /wool /cotton /gold /silver? /iz it méid of léδer /plástik /wu:l /kóton /góuld /sílver Please keep this receipt. Le enviaremos los artículos al avión ¿Cuánto vale este reloj? ¿Cuánto valen esos guantes? A short course in english for adult students 275 . We´ll send the items to the plane. Can I see them? Can I try them on? How much are they? /How much do they cost? /ai láik δis /δæt wótch /dllákit/ /kan ai sí: it/ /kan ai trái it ón/ /háu mátch iz it /háu mátch daz it kóst/ /diu hæv e lárdller /smóler sáiz/ /ai láik δí:z /δóuz glá:siz /shú:z/ /kan ai sí: δem/ /kan ai trái δem ón // /háu mátch á:r δei /háu mátch du δei kóst/ Can I pay by credit card? /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/ Can I pay with American money /US dollars /kan ai péi wiδ amérikan máni /iú: és dólarz/ I don´t like the colo(u)r.

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. que le lea las preguntas que aparecen en el EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto del para el Examinador)..50. 3. 4.Una vez que haya contestado las 120 preguntas. antes de comenzar la prueba.LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita) B. usted deberá solicitar a otra persona (en lo posible un profesor de inglés o una persona que tenga buen dominio de ese idioma).. El examinador deberá leer 2 veces cada una de las preguntas.Esta prueba consta de 2 partes: A..READING PART (Parte Escrita) 2. Enseguida calcule su puntaje final según la pauta dada a continuación: Pauta de Evaluación Scoring (Puntaje): Listening Part: 50 % Reading Part : 50 % Overall Score: 100 % Your score x 1/0 Your score x 5/7 Your overall score: = ______ % = ______ % = ______ % A short course in english for adult students 277 .Usted deberá tener su QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) y su ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de Respuestas) sobre su escritorio.Para contestar las preguntas de la LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita). compruebe sus respuestas con la ANSWER KEY (Clave de Respuestas) y cuente el número de respuestas correctas obtenidas..Para contestar las preguntas 51 a 120 de la READING PART (Parte Escrita) usted cuenta con tiempo maximo de 35 minutos. Preguntas 1 . 5..UNIT 21 ASSESSMENT TEST (Prueba de Evaluación Final) INSTRUCCIONES GENERALES 1..

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A. so much difficult for him. D. C. B. D. B. give him your message. D. which Peter sent Mary last week. everywhere that day. C. wants open the door now. A. can be there now. B. B. would know her new address. B. have just opened the door. A. have been having dinner that evening. “What expensive it is!” C. C. opens the door now. 11.15. he works hard as a rule. A. too late right now. he always works hard. D. B whom Peter sent Mary last week. will be there on time. whose Peter sent Mary last week. nowhere that day. won’t be allowed to see it well. C. En cada caso Ud. too much difficult for him. am going to give him your message D. Ud. B. he seldom works hard. had to be there very quickly. was stealing. C. C. should to go by taxi. D. D. D. very ill now. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. 14. a little bored. 6. should know her new address. was been stolen. 4. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. are better to go by taxi. C. oirá oraciones incompletas. might see a doctor today. were there earlier. 10. Ud. is trying to open the door now. C. 15. B. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. C. can see a doctor today. C. A. B. 5. A. C. 13. know her new address. A. B. ought to see a doctor today. a few difficult for him. A. A. are having dinner that evening. deberá elegir la alternativa A. won’t can see it well. B. were having dinner that evening. B. won’t be possible to see it well A. D. D. somewhere that day. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 . B. C. quite busy at the moment. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador. may see a doctor today. had better go by taxi. “What expensive watch is it!” 8. A short course in english for adult students 279 . won’t be able to see it well. 12. deberá consignarla. A.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT ASSESSMENT TEST 1 QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) A. B. anywhere that day. 7. A. had dinner that evening. who Peter sent Mary last week. A. A. he often works hard. too difficult for him. had stolen. C. had been stolen. o D. 3. 9. D. would rather go by taxi. give your message to him 2. “How expensive it is!” B. C. knew her new address. “How expensive watch is it!” D. D. will give to him your message C. A. D. D. B.

He was away all day long. He hasn’t told us much about her. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. 29. D. A. Later in the day. B. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. 20. He used all his money quickly while he was living there. She’ll go and see them. He wanted to save money. A. Because it’s a quiet and pleasant place. It was a very crowded place. He’ s only seen her once or twice. He was working at home all day. He didn’t like hotels very much. Ud. He was away almost all day. A. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. 17. He doesn’t feel like going out today. A. They are 12 years old. They had dinner at the restaurant. He’d better stay at home all day today. They went somewhere else together. en cada caso. He has to decide what to do soon. oirá oraciones completas y. 24. No escriba en este cuadernillo. C. They met people and went on sightseeing tours. At once. 25.30. A. A. A dull person. B. The weather was awful. C. B. He visited a friend he had met at the airport. A. C. D. They are a little younger. Didn’t forget. He became accustomed to living in this house quickly. 31 A. C. 26. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. D. C. Didn’t make a decision. D. B. C. B. B. A kind person. D. 19. 28. o D. C. Ud. D. A sociable person. A. C. On his way to the office. C. C. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. B. He would miss his family. A. They decided to go home early. 21. He has to work in the evenings too D. A short course in english for adult students 32. She’ll call the roll. A. He lived in this house until recently. D. D. 16. Because they like the rain. D. B. A. He drove to the airport to pick up a friend. He preferred to go home by taxi. He doesn’t see her so often. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla. A. D. They go there only when the weather’s fine. B. A. 30. A polite person. D. Away from the office. deberá elegir la alternativa A. There were too many people there.Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . Después de cada oración U¡. He wanted to take a walk. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. Instrucciones para las preguntas 31 -40. C. B. Didn’t care much. They are a different age. A. No escriba en este cuadernillo. A. 18. He hates to be at home during the day. The buses were crowded at that time C. They are 10 years altogether. D. B. 27. B. She’ll ring them up. B. He must order someone to do the job. They go there when they want to have fun. C. Didn’t remember. B. Because it’s a busy little town. D. D. C. They attended a meeting at the club. He must finish the job sometime. B. He was resting all day. D. He hasn’t studied her well. que la conteste en mejor forma. C. B. B. A. They go there from time to time.He had no time to travel. He’s happy when he can stay at home all day. He stayed in the garden all morning. They go there when they have time. She’ll show them a map. D. He came to live in this house very recently. He remembered he had a friend. C. C. 0 D. Because they like shopping. 280 . 23. 22. He wanted to get home more safely. C. B. C. B.

36. Escuche atentamente. Because he was glad to see her again B. El examinador leerá una historia. D. D. B. C. Harry doesn’t know that area very well. C. At an expensive hotel near Paris. Paul isn’t tall enough to drive the car himself. She wanted to buy an air ticket. It doesn’t snow very often in that part of the country. D. He wasn’t able to go to the reception. D. A. They didn’t accept Harry’s invitation because it was cold. He could not help at the reception. B. D. D. He should have gone to the reception. B. No escriba en este cuadernillo. deberá elegir la alternativa A. 34. A.33. They already knew how to repair cars in those days. C. Because they´d been friends for many years. Because he noticed she was an old lady now. They worked in a garage in those days. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. 41. o D. It wasn’t warm enough inside. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. A short course in english for adult students 42. Mary telephoned him after she got there. Because she told him about her husband´s death. Because she wanted to go back Brighton next summer. C. 43. 39. 40.. D. That area never appears on the maps. A.. A. 37. Robert telephoned then to give them the new orders B. Robert called them up to tell them what had happened. deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. C. A. D. D. They didn’t eat everything because the food was cold. She did everything as carefully as possible. At a summer house they had in the south of France. She did everything following the instructions. They used to have two cars in those days. 38. She wanted him to advise her where to go on holiday. B. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta. Mary touched him as soon as she saw him. B. She wanted to travel abroad by boat. A. C. so they ate quickly and left the place. B. C. Paul can’t travel because he doesn’t have enough time. Paul is too young to have that kind of trouble. En cada caso. They didn’t like the meal Harry served because it was not warm. A. B. She did everything correctly. Mary was very surprised to see him so soon. The weather in winter is not very nice in the area. They have used that car for a long time. She did everything immediately. He wasn’t allowed to attend the reception. B. A. B. At a hotel which a member of the family had in Brighton. A. Robert telephoned them in a given order. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. 35. Mary was welcomed by him at the railway station. D. Robert called to give them a new order. A. C. Paul is too young to go abroad alone. B. 281 . C. C. C. D. C. A. At a nice cheap guest house on the coast in Britain.

THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST 282 A short course in english for adult students . A. A. A. Because everything was included in the fare and she wouldn´t have to worry about anything. B. B. To visit some friends in Portugal. To spend her summer holidays abroad. 47. Because she didn´t like package tours very much. Because it was a lot more convenient for them to go there on holiday. D. B. Because Mrs Green was planning to spend her summer holidays in Asia. Mrs Green went to her travel agent to inquire about cheap hotels in Portugal. as usual. 48. Mrs Green´s husband passed away. B. Because she wanted to arrange her holiday herself and travel cheaply. Because they knew they were going to have good weather there. D. Because he thought Mrs Green had died a few months ago. Because lots of people were spending their holidays there these days. D. C. 50. To a hotel a Potuguese friend had in Lisbon. They decided not to go on holiday abroad any longer. D. C. Because wanted to take a two-week package tour of India. To a particular holiday place in India. B. 49. C. 46. Because India was an amazing country. To spend her summer holidays in Britain. D. C. To go to a cheap hotel in Italy or Spain. To a nice and pleasant holiday resort in Potugal. Because the travel agent told them the weather was nicer in those countries. C. B. Because he was not expecting to see Mrs Green that day. A. B. 45. To the same family hotel she used stay when she was young. A. D. Because she didn´t like traveling with other people.44. C. Because they wanted their children to study a foreign language. D. C. A. The Greens went on holiday abroad for the last time. A. Because that was the only way to visit interesting places in India. Because he happened to have a guidebook and some brochures to show her.

drunk A. John. How much time . enseguida. C. Jim. How long . What is the ____________ professional experience you’ve had in your military career? A. A. never.the highest C. would rather D. ought to 59.the higher 57. but he remembered that he _________ go and see a A short course in english for adult students 283 . C. Jack! Do you think you´ll have time to read them all? A. A. since . Have . for . But I know it’s a very strong liquor.the most highest D. Remember that you have to turn off all the lights ___________ the office. You are getting too fat. Bob : José: __________ you ever _________ Drambuie. hard enough D. No escriba en este cuadernillo. How many times – theirs C. too many C.been drunk 52. Mary seems to be a very responsible person. READING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 51 – 80. Will . should to C. José? No. She´ll surely get one of ____________ marks in the final examination. better D. they were having D. it was 55. I think you __________ eat less and do more physical exercise. 51. B. before you’re leaving D. hardest B. As soon as I opened the door and looked inside.the high B. during . so I don’t think he’ll get a good report from his superiors. most good 54. I noticed that ______________ a party the night before because there were dirty plates and glasses and empty bottles all over the place. Mr Morrison __________ the children to the park that morning. o D. before to leave 58. que llene el o los espacios en blanco en forma correcta y. A. valuable C. What a lot of D. before leaving B. there had been B. How much 56. must to B. consigne su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS.your family B. A. En cada una de las oraciones hay uno o dos espacios en blanco. What a few B How interesting C.your friends 60. Captain Thomas has not worked _________ during the last three months. there were C. _____________ books you´ve brought with you. satisfactory 53. in order to leaving C. Have . elija la alternativa A. __________ did you use to write to ____________ when you were serving in the United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in the Middle East? A.drink D. She has studied very hard ______________ this semester. too good B. How often . A.B. Do – drank B. along .them D..

as B. A. whose .had to C. give her the letter . are decreased . which . A. was going to take .am going to see her 65.are talking B. have been decreasing . He must be _________ having lunch ________attending a meeting at the Conference Hall.never was able to be B. a year D.An illiterate person is a person _______ can’t read or write. both nor and 67.friend who was in hospital. has decreased D. give to her the letter . would take . are decreasing B.was allowed 61. either as or C. talk 69. The manager told the secretary to use the computer ________ have the work done before midday. in order to 70. so that D. If they had taken all the necessary precautions. give the letter her D. A. give the letter to her . don´t talk D. I can’t move this box by myself because it’s ____________ A. A. not heavy enough 68. he _________ considered a full member of our modern society. I’ m sure the strict regulations the Ministry of Transport imposed two years ago ___________ the effects everyone expected. Grandmother ____________ when I went out to do the shopping about two hours ago and she is __________ asleep. Mrs Brown takes her children to the dentist once or twice________ A. very heavy B. slept – also B.will be producing 63. had been taking – should D.. Don’t you think I should go and see if she is all right? A.Mr Smith isn’t in the office at the moment. neither D. has slept – already D.will never be 64. too much heavy C. whom . for the year 66. A. so to C. too heavy D.have talked C.will see her B. A. was sleeping – still C. A. the accident _____________.are producing . I´m going to ______________ as soon as I ____________ this afternoon. for to B. could have been prevented 284 A short course in english for adult students C. A. have been prevented . could be prevented D. in a year B. who .will produce C.produce . by the year C. The number of accidents caused by careless drivers_____________ during the last two years.doesn’t have to be D. had taken – must B.mustn´t be C. Consequently.can see her . had been sleeping – yet 62. John and his friends seldom_____________ when they´re at work because their boss is always keeping an eye on them.see her C. must have prevented B.

we______________ over the Atlantic near the coast of Africa.Their laptop is being checked by a technician at moment. do contradict 75. had better D. A. at all B. A. yet . would rather 79. He may get angry and reprimand you. If I had had some extra money. are flying C. enough B. still B. have been flying 73. were allowed to use D. will be flying D. For the time being. so I sent him an email __________ A. When I was your age. went 74. He needed the answer urgently. Your taxi hasn’t arrived _______. have used B. they _________ the old computer. don’t contradict C. had to C. what time was it exactly 72. I would have visited some other places too. 80. all the same D. At this time tomorrow. did D.will be C. suddenly 76. It __________ here in a few minutes A. If a superior tells you that you aren’t doing the job correctly. otherwise you’ll be too busy tomorrow . do - would havecan have A short course in english for adult students 285 . I ____________ football almost every afternoon. A. A: What ________ you do if you __________ a lot of money? A. A. right now D. too much everywhere somewhere C. would have had C. you don’t contradict B. had played C. Miss Jones? A. You _________ do it right now. at once C. would better B. A.should be . already must to be going to be B: I’d buy a car. A. don’t you contradict D. where did the people go B. used to play D. Do you know ___________ when the fire began. some nowhere anywhere 78. are using C. except to the places which were listed in the brochure.71. Sir. was playing B. I didn’t have___________ extra money. seldom use 77. can B.Tom. why was sleeping the old man D. are going to fly B. ___________ him. what the young man was doing C. I think. any D. so I could go ___________ else.

begins D. o D. D. A. 81. No escriba en este cuadernillo. que exprese lo mismo o casi lo mismo que la parte subrayada. A. B. A. obtains C. dislikes to read 83. was too young C. hates reading C. was much too old B. B. A. and so did Bill. A. was too very young 87. How frequent 86. wasn’t very old D. became sick of C.Instrucciones para las preguntas 81 . How often D. What time C. D. so the little boy had to spend the day all by himself. too. prefers to read B. got tired of B. Cada una de las siguientes oraciones tiene una parte subrayada. 91. becomes B. doesn’t enjoy reading D. There wasn’t anyone else in the house. didn’t want to C. Mrs Scott quickly got used to living in the Middle East. and Bill didn’t. punctually 90. A. How long B. need to remain 85. fills C. so he walked home.95. John didn’t come to class today. The girl wasn’t old enough to get a driving licence. very often B. The boy usually gets sick when he drinks milk. It’s too cold. 89. A. quietly and secretly. without anything to eat. would like to stay 84. Mr Smith is quite fond of reading fiction novels. I think the children would rather stay at home today. ought to stay D. A. refused to 88. became accustomed to 82. A. My grandfather seldom goes out for walks in the evening. almost D. hardly ever 286 A short course in english for adult students C. and Bill didn’t either. How many times a week do you practise tennis? A. Elija la alternativa A. The lieutenant reported to the general right away. simply . C. at once C. Registre su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. simply couldn’t D. completely alone D. wasn’t allowed to B. have to be B. got afraid of D. and neither did Bill. somewhere else C. C. B. but Bill didn’t also. The old man wasn’t able to get on the bus. from a distant place. in the right way B. A.

“She’s still in the living-room. actually C. “Where’s Carol?” Mr Soames asked. Because the girl had never done that kind of job before. You can. They had some trouble with their baby. A.” “He was looking at the television. D. If the boy wakes up. Because the boy was a newly born baby. They are living in Los Angeles for the time being. It’s on the table. They went to visit some friends. of course. because the weather’s good there. Registre la alternativa correcta en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. consider C. A. Mrs Soames gave last minute instructions to the baby-sitter. obtain a room C. and Mrs Soames was a little worried. he’s four years old. The girl had never done baby sitting before.What time do you think they will get there? A. at present. “He’s wide awake. C. many times. “What was he doing there?” Mr Soames exclaimed. and the television could just be heard. leave out D. from time to time B. B. C. Because the boy was not in good health. “Make yourself comfortable. Anyway. get a place D. Lea cuidadosamente el siguiente trozo de lectura. D. listen to the radio or watch television. D. D. She’s fast asleep!” 96. A. leave the city C. que estime Ud. He´ll go back to sleep at once. 98. but don’t have it too loud because you might wake our little boy. 93. No escriba en este cuadernillo.” Mrs Soames said.” Mr and Mrs Soames returned rather later than they had expected A light was still on in the living-room. Because the boy was going with them as well. Because the boy would be sleeping most of the time. with some exaggeration D. Enseguida deberá contestar las preguntas eligiendo la alternativa A. I won’t be able to attend the reception. o D. B. underline B. 97. go to his room and stay there for a few minutes. B. be in that town B. Because there wasn´t much food for the baby-sitter. es la más adecuada en cada caso. because it’s a nice city. Because she had left a tray of food in case he felt hungry. Why was the girl told that she would have no trouble with the boy? A. B. report 94. He’s told me the same thing over and over. a young girl of seventeen. Instrucciones para las preguntas 96 – 105. Please cross out my name. Why was Mrs Soames so worried? A. so you should not have any trouble. Carol. A short course in english for adult students 287 . “I’ve prepared a tray of food for you. B. Before she left. only a few times 95. What did the Soames do that evening? A. C. They saw a program on television. Because the girl could not hear the television very well. C. He is too old and is losing his memory.92. They invited a baby-sitter to their house. Mrs Soames went to the living-room right away and came out again a moment later holding the boy. My husband and I will be back at about eleven o’clock.” Mrs Soames said.

C. throw C. day D. (término excluido). happier E. century E. B. Get a sofa and watch TV or listen to the radio if you like. 101. No escriba en este Cuadernillo 106. B. He will feel sleepy. glove E. fast D. C. clever C. cheaper B. En cada una de las series de palabras hay una que no corresponde a ella. looking for D. 288 A. D. waking up C. Where were Carol and the baby when the Soames returned home? A. age C. It wasn´t very late. along E. He will go to his bed. carrying Instrucciones para las preguntas 106 -120. her D. C. mine A. D. 107 108. B. nephew D.butter B. Be careful with the neighbours. by no means B. B. En esta sección hay cinco alternativas A. 115. quickly A. tie D. sock C. planned. The boy was in the living-room and Carol was in the bed-room. 102. They were both in the living-room. You can lie down on our bed if you feel tired.? (line 8) A. meat C. narrow A. however (line 3) 103. wide D. aunt C. left (line 10) C.99. Don´t worry about anything. What’s the best synonym for “make yourself comfortable” A. behind A. shirt A. The boy was awake and the girl was asleep. 100.our B. D. 113. careful C. obviously D. should E. D. of course. What time was it when the Soames arrived? A. worse A. could A. 104.neck B. What does the expression “He’ll go back to sleep” mean? (line 6) A. It was only a few minutes past eleven. D. decided B. What is the meaning of the expression “of course” (line 4) A. sight C.would B. 110.deep B. month C. It was almost midnight. faster D. o E. perhaps C. their E. 105. It was just before eleven. What is the meaning of “holding” A. across D. 109. high E. weak B. He will go to his bedroom again. rice A. 111. Carol was downstairs and the baby was upstairs. 112. slowly B. juice D. his C. 114. B. He will fall asleep again. promised D. What is the best synonym for “expected”’. well E. Ubique en cada serie el término excluido y regístrelo en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS.niece B. sun E. C. cousin A. ought D. among B. hour A short course in english for adult students . cotton E. looking at B. C.

seen B. bought B. come THIS IS THE END OF THE ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A short course in english for adult students 289 . forgot D. broke C. A. 117. tired D. 119. often B. 118. grocer A. shoulder A. shut E.116. seldom A. tailor C. brought C. butcher E. put E. nose B. always E. 120. barber D. real C. belt E. elbow C.customer B. made A. arm D. sometimes D.

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36. 17. 9. 44. 6. 10. 67. 30. 57. 48. 7. 13. 19. 45. 25. 21. 39. 14. 5. 23. 56. 46. 60. 4. 49. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 38. 69. LISTENING PART 1. 27. 52. 15. 63 64. 34. 16. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D B. 40. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 8. 62. 3. 24. 2. 41. 47. 66. 59. 12. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 291 A short course in english for adult students . 31. 70. 18. 37. 53. 29. 11. 54. 20. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 22. 42. 28. 58. 35. 43. 33. 65. 55. 68. 50. 32.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de respuestas) Student_s Name _______________________Date: _____________ Score: _______ % A.

73. 99. 109. 93. 94.71. 90. 86. 102. 105. 76. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E 292 A short course in english for adult students . 112. 83. 84. 111. 79. 117. 80. 87. 108. 98. 72. 100. 107. 101. 88. 115. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 96. 78. 77. 118. 114. 116. 89. 75. 113. 74. 85. 81. 120. 97. 92. 82. 104. 95. 103. 119. 106. 91. 110.

C. Ud. Ud. 2. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 . En cada caso Ud. Jack. Question: What did John do that morning? 25. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. I’m not happy with him because ________ There was a big noise outside the building and the lights went out while we __________ When the shop assistant told my wife the price of the watch.30. He is only ten at present. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. so she will have to call them again this afternoon. 14. Question: How did Jack spend the day yesterday? 18. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. 6. 9.Jack didn’t go out yesterday because he had to read some reports and write some letters. you ________ I would certainly send her a post card from Edinburgh if I ____________ As soon as I entered the office this morning.The secretary could not get in touch with the customers this morning. 5. Mr Jackson and his friends met outside the restaurant at about 7. but Bill is two years younger.Tom knows Jane better because they’ve been friends for years since they were at school together. 0 D. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. Question: What does the expression “didn’t make up his mind” mean in this sentence? 19.John is fond of visiting people and usually entertains friends at his home.15. They went to the club instead. C. que la conteste en mejor forma. the traffic is never so heavy and there are no factories nearby.John was going to work in the garden that morning. I think you __________ I had so many things to do at the office that I decided to go _________ John. 8. I’m absolutely sure that these are the books for children ___________What’s that noise. Mary? I think somebody _____________ The traffic is too heavy at this time of day.It’s usually cold and it rains quite a lot during the year in that part of the country. whereas Robert only met her a couple of days ago. 11. 7. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla. Question: When did Robert want to see Jim? 17. 3. but he remembered he had to go and meet a friend at the airport.The young captain did not make up his mind quickly. oirá oraciones incompletas.45 that evening but they did not go in because it was too early and they did not feel hungry at that moment. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. 12. I noticed that the computer ________ Although the old man knows how to do the job well. If you take a taxi. Question: What did they A short course in english for adult students 293 . Question: How old are Jack and Tom? 27. 4. deberá elegir la alternativa A. you are going to get there late if you go by bus. Question: What will the secretary do after lunch today? 23.Jack and Tom are the same age. He thought he’d rather be near his wife and children than be travelling all the time. 13. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador. Después de cada oración Ud. so he left the job for the following weekend. 10. you really don’t look well this morning. Question: What kind of a person is John? 21.John didn’t accept the job offer because he would have to be away from home too often. I think you __________ If you don’t put on your glasses. I ___________ Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . Question: Why are they so happy to be living there? 24. B. she exclaimed __________ Robert Smith is planning to go somewhere and do something interesting because he feels ________ The little boy won’t be able to answer all the questions correctly because they are _______ Tom. Bill will have to work overtime if he wants to finish the job before the end of this month.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto para el Examinador) A. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente.Robert told Jim to come to his office right away. That’s why he can’t tell us much about her. No escriba en este cuadernillo. John. Ud. 16. you ___________ As soon as the manager comes back to the office this afternoon. but they like living in that small town because all the shops are near. Question: Why did he refuse to accept the job offer? 20. deberá consignarla. B. Question: What must he do in order to complete the job in good time? 26. o D. Question: Why can’t we ask Robert to talk about Jane’s personality? 22. 15.

do after all of them had arrived? 28.They had a good time there because, although the weather was not fine, they had the chance of making friends and visiting places. Question: Why did they enjoy their holidays so much? 29.Mr Clark walked home from the office that evening because all the buses were full at that time and he didn’t have enough money to take a taxi. Question: Why didn’t Mr Clark go home by bus? 30.The Browns hardly ever go to their parents´ farm in the south because it is too far and it takes them more than ten hours to drive there. Question: How often do they go there during the year? Instrucciones para las preguntas 31-40. Ud. oirá oraciones completas y, en cada caso, deberá elegir la alternativa A, B, C, o D. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo. 31. He’d rather stay at home all day today. 32. He got used to living in this house after a few months. 33. He could not attend the reception at the embassy that day because he was too busy. 34. Mary got in touch with him as soon as she got there. 35. Paul isn´t old enough to travel abroad by himself. 36. They ate their meal in a hurry because it was too cold inside the restaurant. 37. Robert telephoned them that evening in order to give them the news. 38. It hardly ever snows in that region. 39. They used to repair cars in those days. 40. She did everything right away. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. El examinador leerá una historia. Escuche atentamente. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. En cada caso, deberá elegir la alternativa A, B, C, o D. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta, deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo. “A holiday abroad? Yes, of course, Mrs Green. I’m sure we can arrange something for you.” The travel agent smiled at the old lady across the counter. He knew her well. At one time, years before, she and her husband used to go to Brighton every summer. In those days, he booked a family hotel for them. Then they started to take their holidays in France - and he got them their boat tickets. Later, when their children grew up, they ‘discovered’ Italy and Spain. He bought their air tickets or found cheap holidays for them. But then, the previous autumn, Mr Green died. “Well, no more holidays abroad for Mrs Green,” he thought. “She’ll probably start going to Brighton again!” But he was wrong! Here she was, only a few months after her husband’s death, back in his office asking about holidays abroad. “Have you any particular place in mind?” he asked. “How about Portugal, for instance? A nice, friendly place, with good weather... “ Mrs Green shook her head. “As a matter of fact,” she said, “I was thinking of India!” India! For a moment, the travel agent was surprised, but then he thought: “Of course! Lots of people want to go to India these days. It’s all these programmes and films on TV. However, at her age...” “India …” he said. “Well, yes. I’m sure we can fix up something for you.” He showed Mrs Green a brochure. “How about a two-week tour, for example? Complete with air ticket, hotels, meals and guides. You’ll see the really important places - and you won’t have to think about a thing!” “Thank you,” said Mrs Green. “That’s exactly what 1 don’t want.” The travel agent looked puzzled. “Look,” Mrs Green went on. “I’ve got a guidebook of India here.” She waved it at him. “It says you can go everywhere by bus or train. There are plenty of cheap hotels - and food is cheap too. So all I need is a cheap air ticket! Can you get me one or not?” 41. Why did Mrs Green visit the travel agent that morning? 42. Why did the travel agent smile when he saw her in his office? 43. Where did the Greens spend their summer holidays when the children were small? 44. Why did they start going to Italy or Spain? 45. What happened a few months ago? 46. What did the travel agent think Mrs Green was planning to do? 47. Where did the travel agent suggest Mrs Green should go on holiday next summer? 48. Why was the travel agent so surprised? 49. Why did the travel agent offer her the two-week package tour of India? 50. Why didn’t Mrs. Green want to take the package tour the travel agent recommended her? THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST
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A short course in english for adult students

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A. LISTENING PART 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A KEY TO ANSWERS (Clave de respuestas) B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

B. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D
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A short course in english for adult students

71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

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A short course in english for adult students

APENDICE 1 CHART 1. BASIC VERB TENSES
PRESENT SIMPLE
(S + DO / DOES + INFINITIVE)

I write (= I do write) a letter every day
(Yo escribo una carta todos los días;)

Mary writes (= Mary does write) a letter every day.
(Mary escribe una carta todos los días)

CONTINUOUS
(S + AM / IS / ARE + ING)

I am writing a letter now.
(Yo estoy ecribiendo una carta ahora)

PERFECT
(S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE)

I have written several letters today.
(Yo he escrito varias cartas hoy)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + HAVE / HAS BEEN + ING)

I have been writing letters since 8:30 this morning
(Yo he estado escribiendo cartas desde las 8:30 de la mañana)

PAST

SIMPLE
(S + DID + INFINITIVE )

I wrote (= I did write) a letter yesterday.
(Yo escribí una carta ayer)

CONTINUOUS
(S + WAS / WERE + ING)

I was writing a letter when John arrived at 8:45 this evening .
(Yo estaba escribiendo una carta cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde)

PERFECT
(S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE)

I had already written three letters when John arrived at 8:45 this evening.
(Yo ya había escrito tres cartas cuando John llegó al las 8:45 esta tarde)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + HAD BEEN + ING)

I had been writing letters for about two hours when John arrived at 8:45 this evening
(Yo había estado escribiendo cartas por cerca de dos horas cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde)

FUTURE

SIMPLE
A) B) C) (S + WILL + INFINITIVE) (S +AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO + INF) (S + AM / IS / ARE + ING)

a) I will write a letter to John tomorrow
(Yo escribiré una carta a Juan mañana)

b) I am going to w rite a letter to John tomorrow.
(Yo voy a escribir una carta a John mañana )

c) I am writing a letter to John in a few minutes
(Estoy escribiendo una carta a Juan dentro de unos pocos minutos)

CONTINUOUS
(S + WILL BE + ING )

I will be writing letters when you come to see me this evening.
(Yo estaré escribiendo cartas cuando tú vengas a verme esta tarde)

PERFECT
(S + WILL HAVE + PAST PART)

I will have written several letters when you come to see me this evening.
(Yo habré escrito varias cartas cuando vengas a verme esta tarde)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + WILL HAVE BEEN + ING )

I will have been writing letters for more than two hours when you come at midday.
(Yo habré estado escribiendo cartas por más de dos horas cuando vengas al mediodía.)

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APENDICE 2 CHART 2. BASIC VERB TENSES: STRUCTURE AND USAGE
A. CONTINUOUS (OR PROGRESSIVE) TENSES
PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO:

Describe una acción que se está realizando Describe una acción que se estaba Describe una acción que se estará realizando o está ocurriendo en este momento y que realizando o estaba ocurriendo en un o estará ocurriendo en un momento aún no han concluido. momento determinado en el pasado determinado en el futuro

ESTRUCTURA:
S + AM / IS / ARE+ ING

ESTRUCTURA:
S+WAS / WERE +ING

ESTRUCTURA:
S+WILL BE+ ING S + AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO BE + ING

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
Now, at the moment, at this time, For the time being, at present

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
When + S + Past + yesterday / last Monday,etc .At...o´clock yesterday / last Monday, etc,

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
When + S + Present + tomorrow / next week, etc. At..o´clock tomorrow / next Monday, etc.

EJEMPLOS:
John is speaking with the manager now John is not / isn´t speaking with the manager now Is John speaking with the manager now?

EJEMPLOS:
John was speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday. John was not / wasn´t speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday Was John speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday?

EJEMPLOS:
John will be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. John will not / won´t be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. Will John be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow.

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What are you doing (now)? / wót a:r iu: dúi_ náu / ¿Qué esta haciendo Ud. ahora?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What were you doing (at that time)? / wót wer iu: dúi_ at __t táim / ¿Qué estaba Ud. haciendo a esa hora?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What will you be doing (at 8:30 this evening) ? / wót wil iu: bí: dú:i_ at eit _é: rti _is ívni_ / ¿Qué estará haciendo Ud. a las 8:30 esta tarde?

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Sam: Hi Bob! What are you doing? Are you watching the news? Bob: No, I´m not. I´m studying history. I have my term test tomorrow. And what are you doing here? Sam: I´m looking for Mary. Is she at home? Bob: Yes, she is. She´s reading the paper in the garden, I think. Sam: Thanks, Bob. I´m sorry I interrupted you. Bob: Don´t worry,. It´s all right Detective:

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Were you at home at the time the men broke into the house, Mr Smith? Yes, Sir. But I was in the garage. I was washing the car. Was your wife with you? No, she wasn´t. She was attending a conference at the Arts Museum. Did you hear any noise in the house? Yes, I did. But I thought Billy was watching TV upstairs.

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Bob: What will you be doing at this time next Saturday? Jack: I´ll be flying to London. Bob: What time will you be landing at Heathrow? Jack: At about 8:15 in the evening. We won´t be arriving at the hotel before 9:30. Bob: Will you go on a sightseeing tour on Sunday? Jack: Of course not! We will be working all day on Sunday. We must have everything ready for the World Peace Talks which start on Monday.

Peter:

Detective: Peter:

Detective: Peter:

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. En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa did + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: a) S+WILL+INFINITIVE (Decisión) b) S+AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO + INF (Intención. etc. etc.... That day. Will I speak with the manager. several times a year. ESTRUCTURA: S+DO / DOES+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa solamente S + Infinitive.......prevista o acordada con aticipación) EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Every day.. Am I going to speak with... seldom.. sometimes. every week. etc. como mañana. SIMPLE TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se realizará o sucederá en una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro. usually.. Did I speak with the manager.. ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: a) What will you do (tomorrow) ? / wot wil iú dú: tumórou / ¿Qué hará Ud. Do I speak with the manager .. mañana?) b) What are you going to do (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: gói_ tu dú: tomórou / ¿Qué va a hacer .etc.. Two days ago. every month.? 300 A short course in english for adult students . el sábado pasado. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Tomorrow.? EJEMPLOS: a) I will speak with the manager tomorrow... next Sunday...? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What do you do (every day) ? / wót diu: dú: évri déi / (¿Qué hace Ud.. I did not speak with the manager. siempre.. often.. etc Always.etc.she it se agrega s / es al infinitivo). en el pasado. last night. etc. como ayer.. el próximo sábado.. on May 4. 1997. I do not speak with the manager. I´m not going to speak with ... Once a day.. como todos los sucedió en una fecha u hora determinada días. last Sunday..? c) What are you doing (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: dúi_ tumórou / ¡Que tiene previsto hacer.B... next month. etc. plan) c) S+AM / IS / ARE+ING (Actividad .... next week... twice a week.. last week.... En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa do / does + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: S+DID+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa S + Past... in 1986.. Jane does not speak with the .. Am I speaking with . todos los días) PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What did you do (yesterday)? / wót did iu: dú: iésterdei / ¿Que hizo Ud.? b) I´m going to speak with the manager tomorrow.? Jane speaks (= Jane does speak) with the manager every day....? c) I´m speaking with the manager tomorrow.. Describe una acción que se realiza o Describe una acción que se realizó o sucede en forma habitual. EJEMPLOS: I speak (= I do speak) with the manager every day.. I ´m not speaking with .. I will not speak with the manager. Does Jane speak with the manager.. (con He.. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Yesterday.? EJEMPLOS: I spoke (= I did speak) with the manager yesterday. ten months ago...

Nancy? Nancy: I live on Clark Street. Bob: Ann: Bob: Ann: FUTURE SAMPLE DIALOG: What will you do in the summer?. Where did you stay? We rented a small house. I went with some friends. we´re going to make reservations for the last two weeks in July. Bob: Does your husband take the bus too? Nancy: No he doesn´t . Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: PAST SAMPLE DIALOG: What did you do last week-end? I went to the beach. Bob: Are you just going to visit Cancún? Ann: I don´t know yet. When are you going to leave? Well. He usually walks. What did you do on Saturday? In the afternoon we went swimming and in the evening we went to a disco. Bob: How do you get here every day? Nancy: I generally take the bus. My friends and I are meeting this evening to discuss our plans.PRESENT SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Where do you live. We will go to Cancun again. Did you go alone? No. We really had a great time there. Bob: That sounds great! Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: A short course in english for adult students 301 . It doesn´t take him more than 5 minutes to get to the office. I didn´t.

PERFECT TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá realizado o completado antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro. desde que llegó esta mañana? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you done (before Peter arrived yesterday)? / wot had iu: dán bifó: r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Que había hecho ud. EJEMPLOS: When Peter gets here today. I think they will have finished building it before the end of this week. it wasn´t I had been in New York a couple of times before. But they will have built several important roads and our economy will have grown considerably. we will have had lunch already.before EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S+ Present + tomorrow / next Monday. Mrs. Your train has just left.. continuado hasta este momento.. lately. many times Ever? EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Past By the time + S + Past Several times before. They will have gone by the time Peter arrives this evening PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you done (since you arrived this morning)? / wot av iu: dán sins iu: arráivd δ is mó:rniη / ¿Que ha hecho Ud. Have you ever drunk tequila? EJEMPLOS: The train had already left when we got to the station. three times. b) una acción que acaba de ocurrir. never. I have never been there. But I had never visited it in the spring.. already .. By the end of this month / year.. many times before. He says it´s spectacular.. antes de una fecha futura Describe a) una acción que comenzó a realizarse Describe una acción que se realizó u en una fecha u hora en el pasado y que ha ocurrió antes que otra ocurriera.Several times.etc By this time tomorrow / next month. I´ve come here three or four times. Officer: I´m sure you will enjoy the visit SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Was that your first visit to New York? Jane: No. not.etc.. antes que Peter llegara ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have done (by the end of this month)? / wot wil iu: hav dán bai δ i énd ov δ is mánθ / ¿Qué habrá hecho ud. hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Officer: Is this the first time you came to the United States? Peter: No. She had never been in Paris before. We had had dinner by the time they arrived last night.yet.. Jackson has never travelled abroad. ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For. before.. He had not saved enough money for the tickets. c) una acción que se ha realizado varias veces en el pasado.. Bob: Why didn´t Jack go with you? Jane: He couldn´t afford the trip. Once. Sir Peter has been in Chicago twice. Sir. never. I must say Central Park is beautiful at this time of the year.. He had worked in the Army for about 30 years when he retired. since. Officer: Have you ever been to the Grand Canyon? Peter: No.C.. But one of my brothers has visited it several times... etc. EJEMPLOS: I have lived in Santiago for ten years I have lived in Santiago since 1992.. SAMPLE DIALOG: John: Have they finished building the bridge yet? Peter: No they haven´t.. Just. John: I hope your dreams come true 302 A short course in english for adult students . John: How many bridges will they have built by the end of this decade? Peter: I don´t know... twice.

. I´ve been working on my thesis.. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Since. / for. Mary: Yes... / for. antes que Peter llegara ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have been doing by the end of this month? / wót wil iu: hav bí:n dú:iη bai δi énd ov δis mánθ / ¿Qué habrá estado haciendo Ud... EJEMPLOS: John had been working in his office since 8:30 that morning.... desde que llegó esta mañana? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you been doing before Peter arrived yesterday? / wot had iu: bí:n dú:iη bifó:r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Qué había estado haciendo Ud. ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS+BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WILL HAVE + BEEN + ING EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For.... continuado en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento. I will have been working on this project for more than three months by the time this term ends... I hope they take a stand and vote for it. EJEMPLOS: Peter will have been living in this country for five years by the end of this month. when S + Past Since. They´d been dancing and singing.. Are they still discussing the project to build the new bridge across the Potomac? B.... It had been raining hard for about two hours that morning. since. A short course in english for adult students 303 . Yes. by the time + S + Present EJEMPLOS: I have been working on this project since March this year They have been waiting for the bus for about twenty minutes so far. Anyway... They will have been discussing it for fifteen months next week and they haven´t yet decided whether it should or shouldn´t be built.. Al igual que el Presente Perfecto describe Describe una acción que se había estado una acción que comenzó a realizarse en realizando en forma ininterrumpida antes una fecha u hora en el pasado y que ha que otra ocurriera...D. antes de una fecha futura... we simply have to be patient and wait. John: And why were the neighbors so angry? Jim: They had been trying to sleep. Peter: Yes. And they had also been sitting and talking by the fire. It will all be over before the end of this month..... PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you been doing since you arrived here this morning? / wot av iu: bí:n dú:iη sins iu: arráivd híar δis mó:rniη / ¡Qué ha estado haciendo Ud. by the time + S + Past EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For.. . Peter: You really look tired. I haven´t been sleeping well since this term started in March. hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Peter: What have you been doing since you got up this morning? Mary: I´ve been doing lots of things. In the meantime. but hadn´t been able to do so because of the noise!!! SAMPLE DIALOG: A.. It´s a shame! Well. PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá estado realizándose en forma ininterrumpida antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro.. After all we have been using the ferry for years and have become used to it.. A.. and I have been studying for the final exams. and you´ll get your degree at last!! SAMPLE DIALOG: John: What had your friends been doing that evening? Jim: They´d been celebrating Mary´s birthday.

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