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Volume III US (LRFD) Bridge Section
Version 9/09 3  2  1
3.5.2 Prestressed Concrete
Table of Contents
KDOT LRFD Prestressed Beam Design Guidelines Summary.............................................1
3.5.2.1 General  Precast Prestressed Concrete IBeam ........................................................3
3.5.2.2 Design Loads ............................................................................................................4
3.5.2.3 Properties and Stresses .............................................................................................4
3.5.2.4 Prestress Losses ........................................................................................................7
3.5.2.5 Continuity, Restraint and Flexure ...........................................................................10
3.5.2.6 Design for Positive Moment: ..................................................................................11
3.5.2.7 Design for Factored Positive Moment Resistance ..................................................13
3.5.2.8 Design for Factored Negative Moment Resistance .................................................15
3.5.2.8.1 Mild Reinforcement ...........................................................................................17
3.5.2.9 Design for Shear ......................................................................................................17
3.5.2.10 Diaphragms ...........................................................................................................18
3.5.2.11 Bearings and Expansion ........................................................................................20
3.5.2.12 Prestressed Concrete Deck Panels .........................................................................20
3.5.2.13 Transportation .......................................................................................................20
3.5.2.14 Lifting Devices ......................................................................................................21
3.5.2.15 Prestress Beam Plan Details ..................................................................................22
List of Tables
Table 3.5.2.11 Prestressed Beam Length Harp Criteria ...............................................................3
Table 3.5.2.11 Prestressed Beam Length Harp Criteria ...............................................................3
List of Figures
Figure 3.5.2.151a Geometry For a K6 .......................................................................................23
Figure 3.5.2.151b Geometry For a K4 ......................................................................................24
Figure 3.5.2.151c Geometry For a K3 .......................................................................................25
Figure 3.5.2.151d Geometry For a K2 .......................................................................................26
Figure 3.5.2.152a Standard Prestressed Concrete Beam Details (BR300a) ................................27
Figure 3.5.2.152b Standard Prestressed Concrete Beam Details (BR300b) ...............................28
Figure 3.5.2.152c Standard Prestressed Concrete Beam Details (BR300c) ................................29
Figure3.5.2.152d Standard Prestressed Concrete Beam Details (BR300d) ................................30
Figure 3.5.2.153 General Notes and Quantities (BR301) ...........................................................31
Figure 3.5.2.154 K4 Beam Details (BR302a) .............................................................................32
Figure 3.5.2.155 K3 Beam Details (BR302b) .............................................................................33
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
Volume III US (LRFD) Bridge Section
Version 9/09 3  2  2
Figure 3.5.2.156 Typical Abutment Diaphragm .........................................................................34
Figure 3.5.2.157 Typical Pier Diaphragm ...................................................................................35
Figure 3.5.2.157a Optional Abutment Diaphragm ......................................................................36
Figure 3.5.2.158 Typical Concrete Intermediate Diaphragm ......................................................37
Figure 3.5.2.159 Temporary Diaphragm Details (BR 305) .........................................................38
Figure 3.5.2.1510 Typical Bearing Pad Layout ..........................................................................39
Figure 3.5.2.1511 Typical Camber Diagram ...............................................................................40
Figure 3.5.2.1512 Concrete Placing Sequence ............................................................................41
Figure 3.5.2.1513 Computation of Fillets (Conventional Deck) .................................................42
Figure 3.5.2.1514a Computation of Fillets (P*S panel Deck) ....................................................43
Figure 3.5.2.1514b Computation of Fillets (P*S Panel Deck)(Cont.) .........................................44
Figure3.5.2.1515 Prestressed Concrete panel Details (BR303) ..................................................45
Figure3.5.2.1516 Variable Section SingleT ...............................................................................46
Figure 3.5.2.1517 DoubleTee Beam ..........................................................................................47
List of Appendixes
Appendix A Prestress Beam Guidelines ......................................................................................50
Appendix B Harp Strand Force Calculator ...................................................................................51
Appendix C Prestressed Girder (Transportation Stress Check) ....................................................54
References
References .......................................................................................................................................1
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
Volume III US (LRFD) Bridge Section
Version 9/09 3  2  3
Disclaimer:
Disclaimer:ThisdocumentisprovidedforusebypersonsoutsideoftheKansasDepartmentof
Transportationasinformationonly.TheKansasDepartmentofTransportation,theStateofKansas,its
officersoremployees,bymakingthisdocumentavailableforusebypersonsoutsideofKDOT,donot
undertakeanydutiesorresponsibilitiesofanysuchpersonorentitywhochoosestousethisdocument.
Thisdocumentshouldnotbesubstitutedfortheexerciseofaperson’sownUProfessionalEngineering
JudgementU.Itistheuser’sobligationtomakesurethathe/sheusestheappropriatepractices.Any
personusingthisdocumentagreesthatKDOTwillnotbeliableforanycommercialloss;inconvenience;
lossofuse,time,data,goodwill,revenues,profits,orsaving;oranyotherspecial,incidental,indirect,or
consequentialdamagesinanywayrelatedtoorarisingfromuseofthisdocument.
TypographicConventions:
Thetypographicalconventionforthismanualisasfollows:
NonitalicreferencesrefertolocationswithintheKDOTBridgeDesignManuals(eithertheLRFDorLFD),
orHyperlinksshowninred,asexamples:
 Section3.2.9.12Transportation
 Table3.9.2Ͳ1DeckProtection
ItalicreferencesandtextrefertolocationswithintheAASHTOLRFDDesignManual,forexample:
 Article5.7.3.4
ItalicreferenceswithaLFDlabelandtextrefertolocationswithintheAASHTOLFDStandard
Specifications,forexample:
 LFDArticle3.5.1
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
Volume III US (LRFD) Bridge Section
Version 9/09 3  2  4
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
Volume III US (LRFD) Bridge Section
Version 9/09 3 5  2  1
KDOT LRFD Prestressed Beam Design Guidelines Summary
Section Properties
• For Strength Limit States use Article 5.7.2
• For Fatigue and Services Limit States, use gross uncracked and untransformed sections
without reductions for reinforcement per Article 5.7.1
• Composite sections use the effective flange = tributary slab width, Article 4.6.2.6
Concrete Stresses
LRFD Design Stress Limit, (ksi) at Service Limit States
* Where A
s
is proportioned as stated in Article C.5.9.4.1.2
Properties
The coefficient of thermal expansion is a function of the aggregate material used; aggregate types
ranging from 3.0  9.0 x 10
6
/
o
F, with calcium carbonate aggregates on the low end and silica
aggregates on the high end. KDOT will use: Normal Weight Concrete = 6.0 x 10
6
/
o
F
Concrete Strength and Strand Usage
• Use 0.5 in. 270 ksi strands for K2 and K3 with f'
ci
= 4 ksi
and f'
c
= 5 ksi
• Use 0.5 or 0.6 in. 270 ksi strands for K4 with up to f'
ci
= 5 ksi and f'
c
= 6 ksi
• Use 0.6 in. 270 ksi strand for K6 with f'
ci
= 5 ksi and f'
c
= 6 ksi
• Do not exceed f'
c
= 6 ksi
Note: Adjust f'
ci
in 0.10 ksi increments per span as needed, limit f'
ci
to 0.80  0.85 f'
c
Calculation of Losses
• Include elastic shortening per Article 5.9.5.2.3
• Use the “Approximate Method” for time dependant losses, Article 5.9.5.3; this calculated
value can be used as a lump sum for software which does not have the “Approximate
Method” available.
Stage Stresses, (ksi) Article (s)
Initial Compression 0.60 f'
ci
5.9.4.1.1
* Initial Tension
0.24
5.9.4.1.2
Final Compression 0.60 f'
c
5.9.4.2.1
Final Tension
0.0948
5.9.4.2.2
Final Allowable Compression
with LL+1/2(P
eff
+DL)
0.40 f'
c
5.9.4.2.1
Final DL Compression 0.45 f'
c
5.9.4.2.1
Shipping & Handling Com
pression
0.60 f'
c
5.9.4.2.1
* Shipping & Handling
Tension
0.24
5.9.4.1.2
f ′
c
f ′
c
f ′
c
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
Volume III US (LRFD) Bridge Section
Version 9/09 3  5  2  2
Diaphragms
• Use temporary intermediate diaphragms for the following conditions
Up to 40 ft. spans: none are required
4080 ft. spans: use at first and third quarter points
80 120 ft. spans: use at first three quarter points
Greater than 120 ft. spans: use a special design
• Temporary diaphragms are property of the contractor, to be removed from site
• Use CIP diaphragms at all supports (detail per Bridge Design Manual)
• Use CIP intermediate diaphragms when the structure is heavily skewed or splayed
Time to Continuity (Article 5.14.1.4.4)
• KDOT assumes continuity is made at approximately 50 days; use this to calculate camber
The minimum beam age will be 28 days at the time of continuity
• Restraint moments are not used in determining beam design moments
• The CIP continuity diaphragm is considered partially effective per Article 5.14.1.4.5
• Full continuity is assumed at interior supports for determining the required slab reinforce
ment at the Strength Limit State
Analysis (+M) regions
• Beam self weight will be resisted by considering simply supported member conditions for
Service and Strength Combinations
• NonComposite DL will be resisted by considering simply supported member conditions for
Service and Strength Combinations
• Composite DL will be resisted by considering simply supported member conditions for Ser
vice and Strength Combinations
• Live Load and Dynamic Load will be resisted by considering simply supported member con
ditions for Service and Strength Limits States.
Analysis (M) regions
• Composite DL will be resisted by considering the members as continuous
• Live Load and Dynamic Load (LL/IM) will be resisted by considering the members as con
tinuous
• As a minimum, reinforce the slab per Article(s) 5.7.3.2, 5.7.3.3 and 5.7.3.4
• As a minimum, develop the slab reinforcing steel past the quarter point of the longest span,
inlieu of Article 5.14.1.4.8, and then begin to stagger the bars to be cutoff
Strand Extension (Article 5.14.1.4.9a)
• Provide positive restraint moment capacity at piers and abutments by extending strands a
minimum of 36 in. to resist 0.6*M
cr
• As a minimum extend six strands; four on the bottom and two on the top
Confinement /Splitting (Article 5.10.10)
• Do not exceed 3 in. spacing within the splitting zone defined as a region h/4 from the beam
end
• Do not exceed 6 in. spacing within the distance of 1.5d for the confinement reinforcing steel
Shear (Article 5.8.3)
• Do not exceed 18 in. spacing, or exceed 6 in. change in spacing, or reduce the shear capacity
of the section by more the 50% at any crosssection along the member
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
Volume III US (LRFD) Bridge Section
Version 9/09 3 5  2  3
3.5.2.1 General  Precast Prestressed Concrete IBeam
Design precast prestressed concrete Ibeams as a series of simple span beams in accordance with
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Multiple span prestressed bridges shall be made
continuous over the intermediate supports. KDOT considers multispan structures to have par
tially effective connections, as described in Article 5.14.1.4.5, and are considered to be continuous
for loads applied after continuity is established only for Strength Limit States. Beam section
properties will be based on uncracked and untransformed gross sections without reductions for
reinforcement.
Negative moment reinforcement in the slab will be proportioned for the effects of the continuous
composite dead load, live load and shall support a moment based on the Strength I Limit State.
For the negative moment regions, the members shall be assumed fully continuous with a constant
moment of inertia. The composite section properties shall be based on the slab thickness minus ½
in. for wear, on all deck slabs. Prestressed concrete bridges, up to 500 ft. in length, may be
designed monolithic with the piers and abutments; semiintegral abutments can be used to isolate
thermal movements.
The following is the order of evaluation that should be considered for prestressed beam strand
arrangements. First, use parallel prestressed strands when possible. Second, use debonded strands
to relieve compression in the bottom of the beam, near the end of the beam, for longer beams and/
or add additional strands to the top to resist tension on the top of the beam at release. Finally, if
parallel strands will not work for the length or required capacities, the bridge engineer should harp
the strands. Follow Table 1 for minimum length limits, (L) required for harped strands:
Table 3.5.2.11 Prestressed Beam Length Harp Criteria
As shown in Table 1, consideration should be given to using only straight parallel strands on short
prestressed beams due to the high holddown force required. Table 1 is based on using the mini
mum strand eccentricity from the geometry shown in Figures 1a1d, adjusting strand eccentrici
ties at beam ends can increase these controlling hold down forces. Use Appendix B Harp Strand
Force Calculator to verify hold down forces. Additional strands may be needed in the top of the
beam to limit tensile stresses in the top of the beam at transfer. Local prestressed manufactures
have indicated that up to 8 strands can be added, inlieu of harping, for a more economical beam.
This is due to the costs associated to the hold down hardware and labor.
Beam / Strand Economic Range E min 0.5” Strand Harp 0.6” Strand Harp
K2 4060 ft. 19 in. L > 30 ft N/A
K3 5070 ft. 28 in. L > 45 ft N/A
K4 60100 ft. 35 in. L > 55 ft L > 65 ft
K6 90120 ft. 53 in. N/A L > 100 ft
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
Volume III US (LRFD) Bridge Section
Version 9/09 3  5  2  4
The harped strand holddown points on prestressed beams shall normally be located at the 0.4 and
0.6 points. The vertical force required to deflect the strands downward in the beam shall be lim
ited to 4 or 5 kip per strand and 38 or 45 kip per holddown device for 0.5 and 0.6 in. strand
respectively. In certain instances, these values could be increased depending upon the type of
holddown device used. The designer will verify the manufacture’s prestressed hardware infor
mation during shop plan review. Show the vertical uplift force per strand and the total uplift force
per hold down device Figure 3.5.2.154 K4 Beam Details (BR302a) within the design plans. For
beams with a single harp point, at the 0.5 point, the hold down force will be taken as having two
vertical components unlike the single vertical component from two harp points.
Debonding of strands in the end region of beams may be used to control excessive compressive
stresses due to the prestressing force. Strands may be debonded by encasing the strand in a plastic
sheath along a certain portion of the length; typically strands are debonded in 5ft increments. PCI
Journal (1981).
Do not debond strands which will be extended per Article 5.14.1.4.4.9a. In addition, the following
shall be incorporated in members where debonding is included:
Article 5.11.4.3 Partially Debonded Strands
• Not more than 40% of the strands at one horizontal row will be debonded
• Not more than 25% of the total strands can be debonded
• The exterior strands of each horizontal row shall be fully bonded
• Symmetric debonding about member centerline is required
• Not more than 40% of the debonded strands, or four strands  which ever is greater  shall
have the debonding terminated at a section
• Shear investigation shall be made in the regard to the reduced horizontal force
3.5.2.2 Design Loads
• Noncomposite simple beam dead loads are loads that the beam supports prior to the time that
the slab concrete has cured. Generally, these loads include the weight of the beams, dia
phragms, fillets, slab, and construction loads.
• Composite dead loads are the loads that the beam and slab, acting as a composite section,
carry after the slab has been cured. These loads would include the weight of the curb, para
pet, railing and the weight of the initial and/or future wearing surface.
3.5.2.3 Properties and Stresses
Prestressing Steel: Use sevenwire lowrelaxation strands only.
• Use 0.5 in. strand in K2, K3 and K4 Beams.
• Use 0.6 in. strand in some K4 Beams on all K6 Beams.
Consideration may also be given to using 0.6 inch strand on long K4 Beams to alleviate conges
tion. If 0.6 inch strand is used on one span of a bridge, then use 0.6 inch for all spans of that
bridge.
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
Volume III US (LRFD) Bridge Section
Version 9/09 3 5  2  5
The fabricator will use 0.6 in hold down hardware whenever 0.6” strand is used.
design steel area (0.5 in. sevenwire strand) = 0.153 in
2
design steel area (0.6 in. sevenwire strand) = 0.217 in
2
Allowable strand stress is as follows:
f
pu
= 270 ksi tensile strength
f
py
= 243 ksi yield strength
The modulus of elasticity for the strand is E
s
= 28,500 ksi
Jacking Load (0.5 in lowrelaxation) = 0.75 f
pu
= 202.5 ksi (per Table 5.9.31)
= 31.0 kip/strand
Jacking Load (0.6” lowrelaxation) = 0.75 f
pu
= 43.9 kip/strand
Initial Stress (f
pt
) = Jacking stress (f
pj
)  Initial losses
f
pj
= Jacking stress, ksi
ƒ
pt
= Stress in prestressing steel immediately after transfer, ksi
Initial losses = Elastic Shortening
Note: Steel relaxation at transfer has been removed from the specification for the “Approximate
Method”, which KDOT uses to determine time dependent losses.
KDOT assumes strand release to be 18 hours. If a higher strength concrete is used, resulting in a
higher required initial strength, then the time to strand release may be increased. This would result
in higher initial steel relaxation losses, not accounted for by the current method used.
In general, the maximum initial effective stress is limited to:
Intermediate Grade Reinforcing Steel:
f
pe
= the effective stress at service limit state after all losses
= ƒ
pt
< 0.80ƒ
py
(194.4 ksi)
Δf
pES
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
Volume III US (LRFD) Bridge Section
Version 9/09 3  5  2  6
CastInPlace Concrete:
Prestressed Concrete Strength(s):
Prestressed concrete Ksection Ibeams should generally be designed for 5 ksi at 28day concrete
strength. Using Ksections for span lengths greater than the recommended range may require
higher strength concrete. However, it may be more economical to increase the beam height in per
inch increments rather than to increase the concrete strength. Note, when the beam height is
increased the minimum distance (cover) to top strand remains the same at 3 in.
The 28 day strength (f
c
') shall be rounded to the nearest 0.250 ksi (5 ksi, 5.250 ksi, etc.).
Do not require a higher f
c
' than that required by the design modified by the rounding criteria
defined above.
For beams made of 5 ksi concrete, it is KDOT policy to specify a compressive strength at time of
release of f'
ci
= 4 ksi unless otherwise shown on the plans. If release strengths in excess of 4 ksi
are required, the concrete release strengths for each size beam shall be shown on the plans.
• Round computed release strengths to the nearest 0.100 ksi.
• Temporary allowable concrete compressive stress before losses due to creep and shrinkage is
0.60 f'
ci
as specified in Article 5.9.4.1.1.
It is also KDOT policy to limit the temporary tension stresses (before losses due to creep and
shrinkage) to 0.09480 ksi or (3 psi).
• Under certain circumstances, the 4 #4 bars shown in the prestressed beam standards may be
used to increase this temporary tension stress to 0.24 as specified in Table 5.9.4.1.21
and commentary in Article 5.9.4.1.2.
• Include transportation stresses as shown in Section 3.2.9.11 and Appendix C. The transporta
tion tension stress is allowed to be 0.24 or (7.5 psi) if the stress in the mild rein
forcement in the top of the beam is proportioned to satisfy Article C5.9.4.1.2.
Final maximum compression is checked under Service I limit state and final maximum tension is
checked under Service III limit state. The difference between Service I and Service III limit states
is that Service I has a load factor of 1.0 for live load while Service III has a load factor of 0.80.
f
y
= 60 ksi yield stress
f
s
= 24 ksi stress in mild reinforcement at
nominal flexural resistance
f
c
’ = 4 ksi compressive strength @ 28 days
f′
ci
0.20 ≤ f′
ci
f′
c
f′
c
f′
c
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
Volume III US (LRFD) Bridge Section
Version 9/09 3 5  2  7
Stress Limits in prestressed beams due to the prestressing force, service loads and prestress losses
shall be limited per Table 5.9.4.2.11 Which is summarized below:
LRFD Design Stress Limit, (ksi) at Service Limit States
Concrete Stresses
LRFD Design Stress Limit, (ksi) at Service Limit States
* Where A
s
is proportioned as stated in Article C.5.9.4.1.2
3.5.2.4 Prestress Losses
The current LRFD Specification describes a “Refined Method” and a “Approximate Method” of
calculating TimeDependent losses. Article 5.9.5.3 describes the Approximate Estimate of Time
Dependent Losses which is used by KDOT for standard precast sections. The KDOT standard
precast section meet the requirements in the commentary of the “Approximate Method”.
All losses of the prestressing force on a member are interrelated. Prestress losses may be catego
rized as either instantaneous or timedependent.
Stage Stresses, (ksi) Article (s)
Initial Compression 0.60 f'
ci
5.9.4.1.1
* Initial Tension
0.24
5.9.4.1.2
Final Compression 0.60 f'
c
5.9.4.2.1
Final Tension
0.0948
5.9.4.2.2
Final Allowable Compression
with LL+1/2(P
eff
+DL)
0.40 f'
c
5.9.4.2.1
Final DL Compression 0.45 f'
c
5.9.4.2.1
Shipping & Handling Com
pression
0.60 f'
c
5.9.4.2.1
* Shipping & Handling
Tension
0.24
5.9.4.1.2
f ′
c
f ′
c
f ′
c
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
Volume III US (LRFD) Bridge Section
Version 9/09 3  5  2  8
f
pES
= Instantaneous losses are due to anchorage set, friction and elastic shortening of the con
crete however; only elastic shortening is considered for this method.
f
pLT
= Longterm timedependent losses are those due to creep, shrinkage and relaxation of the
steel.
General losses follows Article 5.9.5
f
pT
= The sum of all losses = f
pES
+ f
pLT
Losses before the slab is cast (instantaneous):
Elastic shortening is computed as follows:
In computing f
cgp
, the prestressing steel stress may be assumed to be 0.70 f
pu
for low relaxation
strand. This assumption is checked after the calculation of the loss, iterations may be necessary.
The alternative equation may also be used which gives a direct solution for f
pES
(Equation
C5.9.5.2.3a1).
f
pES
= (E
p
/ E
ci
) f
cgp
E
p
= 28,500 ksi
E
ci
=
=
Modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer
(33,000W
3/2
ksi.)
W = 0.145 kcf for normal weight concrete.
f
cgp
= Concrete stress at the center of gravity of prestressing steel
due to prestressing force and the dead load of the beam
immediately after transfer. (At this stage, the initial stress in
the tendon has been reduced by elastic shortening of the
concrete and tendon relaxation during placing and curing of
the concrete.)
Δ
Δ
Δ Δ Δ
Δ
f′
c
f
cgp
P
i
A
g

P
i
e
c
2
I
g

M
g
e
c
I
g
 – + =
Δ
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
Volume III US (LRFD) Bridge Section
Version 9/09 3 5  2  9
where:
Losses after the slab is cast (long term):
Equation 5.9.5.31 below describes three timedependent loss elements: the first term is creep
loss, the second is shrinkage, and the third is relaxation.
(Equation 5.9.5.31)
where:
=
area of prestressing steel ( )
=
gross area of section ( )
= modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer (ksi)
= modulus of elasticity of prestressing tendons (ksi)
=
average prestressing steel eccentricity at midspan ( )
= stress in prestressing steel immediately prior to transfer (ksi)
=
moment of inertia of the gross concrete section ( )
= midspan moment due to member selfweight (kipin)
f ’
ci
= compressive strength at the time of initial prestressing, (ksi)
f
pi
= prestress steel stress immediately prior to transfer, (ksi)
H = average annual ambient relative humidity, (%), Use 65% for
Kansas
Δf
pES
A
ps
f
pbt
I
g
e
m
2
A
g
+ ( ) e
m
M
g
A
g
–
A
ps
I
g
e
m
2
A
g
+ ( )
A
g
I
g
E
ci
E
p
 +
 =
A
ps in
2
A
g in
2
E
ci
E
p
e
m
in
f
pbt
I
g in
4
M
g
Δf
pLT
10.0
f
pi
A
ps
⋅
A
g
 γ
h
γ
st
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 12.0 γ
h
γ
st
Δf
pR
+ ⋅ ⋅ + =
γ
h
1.7 0.01 H ⋅ – = γ
st
5
1 f ′
ci
+ ( )
 =
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
Volume III US (LRFD) Bridge Section
Version 9/09 3  5  2  10
Note: The summation of losses f
pLT
may be entered as a lump sum, if the software being used
does not have the refined method available.
T.Y. Lin (1975) wrote that, “An error in computing losses can affect service conditions such as
camber, deflection, and cracking. However, it has no effect on the ultimate strength of a flexural
member unless the tendons are unbonded or the final stress after loss is less than 0.5 f
pu
”(p.88).
3.5.2.5 Continuity, Restraint and Flexure
The effectiveness of continuity is controlled by construction timing and the potential for cracking
or tension in the bottom of the continuity diaphragms. For partially effective continuity the
reduced live load, in the positive moment regions, is then the remainder amount above the rota
tion, at the beam end, which close the cracks and/or places the bottom of the diaphragm in com
pression. A positive restraint moment would reduce the live load capacity. As a result of the extra
moment required to close the tension cracks at the bottom of the continuity diaphragms.
Calculations for the final allowable stresses in the past used full continuity for live loads. Positive
restraint moments were then added to the final load and checked against a higher allowable at
midspan.
Article 5.14.1.4.5 states to be fully effective:
• The precast beams will be at least 90 days old at the time continuity is made, or:
• The bottom of the continuity diaphragm shall be in compression considering superimposed
permanent loads, settlement, creep, shrinkage, 50% live load and temperature.
Waiting 90 days before allowing the diaphragm to be poured is not a reasonable solution. The
reduction of the live load, for only the portion in excess of that which causes compression of the
bottom of the continuity diaphragm, may have limited benefits for service combinations and is
potentially unconservative. KDOT assumes the deck slab is placed 50 days after transfer, at
which time the continuity connection is assumed to occur; this time is used to calculate camber
and fillets for grading purposes. The alternative to a reduced live load capacity for the service
combinations is proportion to longterm creep and shrinkage is difficult to calculate and is
potently unconservative. That is why KDOT has adopted a simple span design at the service level
limit states. The following is the policy for the flexure design of prestressed members
= Correction factor for specified concrete strength at time of
prestress transfer
= Correction factor for relative humidity of the ambient air
= Loss due to relaxation of steel after transfer, (ksi)
(an estimate of 2.4 ksi, is taken for low relaxation strands)
γ
st
γ
h
Δf
pR
Δ
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
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• As in the past noncomposite dead loads are resisted by simple span conditions.
• Composite dead load (rail and future wearing surface) are resisted by simple span conditions.
• Live load beam design for positive moments are resisted by simple span conditions.
• Slab design, in the negative moments regions, are designed to resist negative moments
assuming 100% continuity.
• Anchor the slab reinforcement by extending to the 0.25 point + development length before
beginning the staggered cutoff (not more than 50%) of the longitudinal deck slab reinforce
ment. Using this anchor location is slightly different than described by Article 5.14.1.4.8.
• Positive moment continuity steel (strands extended into the pier diaphragm) will be provided.
It is assumed that by following the above criteria, the potential positive restraint moments are bal
anced with the lessthanfullyeffective continuity at the diaphragms. Thus, the additional
demand in the positive moment region due to restraint moments are already accounted for and
should not be included elsewhere. See Commentary C5.14.1.4.2.
3.5.2.6 Design for Positive Moment:
Prestressed concrete members will meet both the service load and strength requirements of
AASHTO. For analysis purpose, the beams are assumed to act as uncracked members subject to
combined axial and bending stresses. The sign convention used for a section is that tensile
stresses are positive and compressive stresses are negative.
In the use of the combined fiber stress formulas, the signs should be assigned by observation.
The general formula for combined fiber stresses is:
Top and bottom fiber stresses due to prestressing and design service loads are:
where:
f
ct
= top fiber stress
f
cb
= bottom fiber stress
F = total prestress force after losses
f
P
A

M
S
 ± – =
f
ct
F
A
 –
Fe
S
t

M
nd
S
t
 –
M
cd
M
cl
+
S
t
′

⎝ ⎠
⎛ ⎞
– + =
f
cb
F
A

Fe
S
b

M
nd
S
b

M
cd
M
cl
+
S
b
′

⎝ ⎠
⎛ ⎞
+ + – – =
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Temporary Stresses:
After the total design loads are satisfied by the design equations, initial stresses at strand release
from the application of prestress forces should be investigated. Temporary stresses are computed
as follows:
Where:
e = distance from centroid of prestressing steel to centroid of beam at
section being investigated
S
b
= noncomposite section modulus for bottom fiber
S
b'
= noncomposite section modulus for bottom fiber
S
t
= noncomposite section modulus for top fiber
S
t'
= composite section modulus for top fiber
M
nd
= moment due to dead loads on noncomposite section
M
cd
= moment due to dead loads on composite section
M
cl
= moment due to live load plus impact on composite section
A = gross noncomposite crosssectional area of beam
At midspan of beam
At end of beam
=
=
=
=
f
ct or cb
= initial concrete stress due to initial prestressing at top or bottom of beam
F
i
=
total initial prestressing force minus losses f
pES
at release
e
c
= distance from centroid of prestressing steel to centroid of prestressed
noncomposite beam at center or end of the beam
f
ct
F
i
A

F
i
e
c
S
t

M
nd
S
t
 – + –
f
cb
F
i
A

F
i
e
c
S
b

M
nd
S
b
 + – –
f
ct
F
i
A
 –
F
i
e
c
S
t
 +
f
cb
F
i
A
 –
F
i
e
c
S
b
 –
Δ
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3.5.2.7 Design for Factored Positive Moment Resistance
Prestressed concrete members will resist the simple span positive moment from noncomposite
dead loads and composite live loads, as well as composite dead loads. Computing the ultimate
flexural capacity for a prestressed concrete member is essentially the same as for a conventional
reinforced concrete member. The basic difference between the two is in the stressstrain relation
ship of the prestressing steel and intermediate grade reinforcing steel.
The factored resistance M
r
shall be taken as:
Resistance factors at the strength limit state are (Article 5.5.4.2):
*Tension controlled region (strain in steel > 0.005)
(Based on Equation 5.7.3.2.21)
(assuming a rectangular section with only prestressing steel present)
where: (Equation 5.7.3.1.11)
where; k = 0.28 for lolax strand
The above equation provides an approximate value of f
ps
. AASHTO allows the use of this equa
tion provided requirements of Article 5.7.3.1.1 are met.
The procedure for computing the nominal moment capacity of a composite prestressed concrete I
beam depends on the distance from the neutral axis to the compression face of the member. Tsec
S
i
= noncomposite section modulus for top or bottom fibers of the beam
M
nd
= Moment due to beam dead load
M
r
=
M
n
= 1.00 for flexure and tension of prestressed concrete *
= 0.90 for shear and torsion
= 1.00 for tension in steel in anchorage zones
φ
φ
φ
φ
M
n
A
ps
f
ps
d
p
a
2
 –
⎝ ⎠
⎛ ⎞
=
f
ps
f
pu
1 ( k
c
d
p

⎠
⎞
– =
k 2 1.04
f
py
f
pu
 –
⎝ ⎠
⎛ ⎞
=
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tions where the neutral axis lies in the flange, i.e. “c” is less then the slab thickness, are considered
rectangular sections.
The distance from the neutral axis to the compression face of the member is computed as follows
(assuming no mild steel or compression reinforcement is present):
(Based on Equation, 5.7.3.1.14)
Where:
For most KDOT designs of prestressed concrete composite members, the rectangular compres
sion stress block falls within the castinplace deck slab. When the neutral axis falls outside the
flange (i.e., flange thickness is less than “c”), the designer should use the Article 5.7.3.1.13 to
compute the nominal capacity of the composite member.3
Maximum steel percentage:
In the Standard Specifications the maximum percentage of steel was limited by the requirement
stating that the steel yields before the beam reaches ultimate capacity. The depth of the flexural
compressive block was compared to the depth of the steel centroid to verify adequate ductility.
Article 5.7.2 considers a section with the steel strain near the extreme fiber greater than 0.005 to
be a tension controlled region. Prestressed Beams are tension controlled. Unless unusually high
amounts of ductility are required, the 0.005 limit will provide ductile behavior for most designs.
b = effective width of flange (slab) = tributary width Article 4.6.2.6.1
d
p
= distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of the prestressing
tendons or strands (in)
A
ps
=
area of prestressing steel (in
2
)
f
ps
= average stress in prestressing steel at nominal bending resistance (ksi)
f
pu
= specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (ksi)
f ’
c
= specified compressive strength of castinplace deck @ 28 days.
= stress block factor specified in Article 5.7.2.2
c = distance between the neutral axis and the compressive face (in.)
a =
c
1
; depth of the equivalent compression stress block (in.)
c
A
ps
f
pu
0.85f ′
c
β
1
b kA
ps
f
pu
d
p
 +
 =
β
1
β
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High ductility is required for redistribution of negative moments for continuos members accord
ing to Article 5.7.3.5 at strength limit states.
Minimum steel percentage:
The minimum prestressing steel, from Article 5.7.3.3.2, shall be that required to develop an ulti
mate flexural capacity at the critical section at least equal to the lesser of:
• 1.2 times the cracking capacity or
• 1.33 times the factored moment required by the applicable Strength I Load Combination.
The cracking capacity of the section shall be based upon a modulus of rupture of ksi in
accordance with Article 5.4.2.6. Contrary to the Standard Specifications, the LRFD Specifica
tions state that this requirement will be met at every section.
The combined moment to cause cracking is the sum of the total dead load moments plus an addi
tional superimposed moment to reach a bottom fiber stress of ksi in the beam. The
allowable cracking tensile stress shall be computed as:
Equation. 5.7.3.3.21
Where:
3.5.2.8 Design for Factored Negative Moment Resistance
The design for factored nominal negative moments in precast prestressed concrete members that
are constructed continuous to provide continuity is by conventional methods of reinforced con
crete strength design. It is assumed, for the design of this section, that 100% effective continuity
is obtained at the intermediate supports by pouring a concrete diaphragm monolithically with the
deck slab and encasing the prestressed beams. Prestressed strands that are used in making the pos
M
cr
= Cracking moment capacity available to resist live load
f
r
= Allowable cracking tensile stress, ksi
f
cpe
= Compressive stress in concrete due to effective prestress forces only
(after allowance for prestressed losses) at the extreme fibers of the
section where the tensile stress is caused by external loads
M
dnc
= Total unfactored dead load moment acting on the slab of the
noncomposite prestressed beam, kin
S
nc
= Noncomposite section modulus for bottom fiber of prestressed
beam where tensile stress is caused by an externally applied load, in
3
S
c
= Composite section modulus for bottom fiber of prestressed beam where
tensile stress is caused by an externally applied load, in
3
c
f ' 37 . 0
c
f ' 37 . 0
M
cr
S
c
f
r
f
cpe
+ ( ) M
dnc
S
c
S
nc
 1 –
⎝ ⎠
⎛ ⎞
– S
c
f
r
≥ =
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itive moment connection should be extended a minimum of 3.0 ft., for the end of the beam. Use
Article 5.14.1.4.9a to determine the number of strands to extend. As a minimum extend four
strands on the bottom. If the strands are harped extend two strands on top as well. Extended
strands shall be located on the same row if possible and are not debonded. Do not create confu
sion in the shop by staggering row cutoff patterns.
The negative moments acting on the composite section include the effect of maximum live load
plus impact.
The dead loads include the weight of curbs, parapet, railing, and future wearing surface. The
value of the negative moment is time dependent; therefore, an assumption needs to be made as to
when the continuity connection is made. KDOT assumes this connection to be made 50 days after
the beams are fabricated. No additional negative moment is expected by this assumption. The
negative moment reinforcement shall be proportioned by strength design to resist
1.25(DC)+1.5(DW)+1.75(LL+IM). Check fatigue and crack control as well. See Section “3.9.12
Reinforcement for Deck Slabs” for additional discussions.
The factored resistance M
r
shall be taken as:
Resistance factor at the strength limit state is Article 5.5.4.2:
(Based on Equation 5.7.3.2.21)
(assuming a rectangular section with nonprestressed tension reinforcement)
The distance from the neutral axis to the compression face of the member is computed as follows
(assuming no prestressing steel or compression reinforcement is present):
(Based on Equation 5.7.3.1.14)
where:
M
r
=
M
n
= 0.90 for flexure and tension of reinforced concrete
b = width of beam bottom flange
d
s
= distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of
nonprestressed tension reinforcement
A
s
= area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement
φ
φ
M
n
A
s
f
s
d
s
a
2
 –
⎝ ⎠
⎛ ⎞
=
c
A
s
f
s
0.85f′
c
β
1
b
 =
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3.5.2.8.1 Mild Reinforcement
KDOT designs require mild longitudinal reinforcement to be used at the top of each beam to resist
tension stress at the top of the member due to transportation and erection of the member.
3.5.2.9 Design for Shear
Two design procedures are available in the LRFD Specification for shear and torsion design of
concrete members: (1) the sectional model as specified in Article 5.8.3 and (2) the strutandtie
model as specified in Article 5.6.3.
The sectional method (Section 3.5.1) is used whenever sectional forces (shear, axial, moment and
torsion) need not consider how the force effects were introduced; this is appropriate for most situ
ations other than those described below:
Article 5.8.1.1 directs the designer to use the strutandtie model whenever the distance from the
point of zero shear to the face of a support is less than twice the effective depth of the beam, or
when a load that causes at least onehalf of the shear at a support is within twice the effective
depth. Strutandtie models should also be used in members with abrupt changes in crosssection,
openings and drapedends, deep beams and corbels. The sectional model can be used for the
design of regions of concrete members where plane sections remain plane after loading. This
would include typical bridge beams, slabs and other regions of components where the assump
tions of traditional engineering beam theory are valid. The current acceptable methods described
in the 4th edition are summarized below:
Article 5.8.3.4.2  General Procedure
This design procedure (Collins et al, 1994) was derived from the Modified Compression Field
Theory (MCFT, Vecchio, and Collins, 1986) which is a comprehensive behavioral model for the
response of diagonally cracked concrete subject to inplane shear and normal stresses. Prior to the
2008 interim revisions, the General Procedure for shear design was iterative and required the use
of tables for the evaluation of and (see Appendix B5)*. With the 2008 revisions, this design
procedure was modified to be noniterative and algebraic equations were introduced for the eval
uation of and . These equations are functionally equivalent to those used in the Canadian
design code (A23.2M04, 2004), were also derived from the MCFT (Bentz et al. 2006), and were
f
s
= stress in mild steel tension reinforcement at nominal
flexural resistance (ksi), as specified in Article 5.7.2.1
f
s
= f
y
when c/d
s
< 0.6
f
c
' = compressive strength of beam concrete @ 28 days.
1
= stress block factor specified in Article. 5.7.2.2.
c = distance between the neutral axis and the compressive face.
a =
c; depth of equivalent compression stress block
β
β
1
β θ
β θ
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evaluated as appropriate for use in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (Hawkins et
al., 2006,2007)
Article 5.8.3.4.3  Simplified Procedure for Prestressed and Nonprestressed Sections
This design procedure is based on the recommendations of NCHRP Report 549 (Hawkins et al.,
2005). The concepts of this Article are compatible with the concepts of ACI Code 31805 and
AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges (2002) for evaluations of the shear resis
tance of prestressed concrete members. However, those concepts are modified so that this Article
applies to both prestressed and nonprestressed sections.
The longitudinal reinforcement resists the additional force due to shear, i.e., the horizontal com
ponent of the diagonal compression field. The tensile capacity of the reinforcement on the flex
ural tension side of the member, taking into account the lack of full development of that
reinforcement, is checked using Equation 5.8.3.51.
When computing strains for sections in the negative moment region, be aware that only reinforc
ing on the tension side of the beam may be used. Therefore, near a pier, the only prestressing steel
that can be used in the strain equation are the harped strands located on the tension side of the
beam.
Detailing for Shear
• At beam ends, use #5 stirrups spaced at 3 in for a distance of h/4 from the end of the beam for
the splitting zone defined in Article 5.10.10.
• For transportation considerations, continue use of #5 stirrups to a distance of onetenth of the
beam span.
• According to Article 5.10.10.2 at no instance will the confinement reinforcement from the
end of the beam to 1.5d be spaced greater than 6 in. See Section “3.2.9.12 Transportation” for
additional requirements.
• Additionally, do not exceed 18 in. stirrup spacing within the beam. Do not exceed a 6 in.
change in spacing when changing spacing along the length of the beam will result in a
reduced shear capacity by more the 50% along the member
• Use #5 stirrups throughout the beam.
*Note: Opis design software uses the iterative general method described in Appendix B5
3.5.2.10 Diaphragms
• For typical Abutment Diaphragm Details, see Figure 3.5.2.156 Typical Abutment Dia
phragm.
• For typical Pier Diaphragm Details, see Figure 3.5.2.157 Typical Pier Diaphragm and Figure
3.5.2.157a Optional Abutment Diaphragm.
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• For typical Concrete Intermediate Diaphragm Details, See Figure 3.5.2.158 Typical Con
crete Intermediate Diaphragm.
• For Temporary Diaphragm Details, see Figure 3.5.2.159 Temporary Diaphragm Details (BR
305)
Permanent diaphragms:
CastinPlace (CIP) permanent diaphragms are required at all supports; see Figure 3.5.2.156 Typ
ical Abutment Diaphragm for details. In general, CIP permanent intermediate diaphragms are
not preferred or required. Intermediate diaphragms are most beneficial in stabilizing the beam
during erection and offer little distribution of live load and therefore, they can be removed after
the structure has been made continuos and composite. LTRC, (2008)
Temporary diaphragms: **
Temporary diaphragms are required to stabilize beams during the construction of the deck. Plans
shall show the location of the temporary diaphragms on the plans. Locate them approximately 12
ft. from the beam ends or at quarter points  whichever is closest to the pier. Temporary dia
phragms are required in all bays or as noted below. They are attached by either coil inserts cast
into the beam or by bolting with an open hole cast into the beam. Open hole type connections are
preferred (and shown in Base Sheet BR305) by KDOT because this detail provides for a more
modular construction (interior and exterior beams are the same). For bridges with an even num
ber of beam lines every other bay may be sufficient to connect two beams, and thus creating frame
action see Figure 3.5.2.159 Temporary Diaphragm Details (BR 305) Steel temporary dia
phragms shall remain in place until the concrete diaphragms (if required) and the deck have cured.
The Contractor will remove the diaphragms and erection angles and fill the open holes of the
exterior face of the exterior beam an prequalified epoxy grout. The plans note states that all tem
porary diaphragms are subsidiary to other bid items.
For conventional overhang formwork supported by the exterior beams only, the plans will show
either of the following options:
a. For spans less the 40 ft long, no temporary steel diaphragms are required.
b. For spans 4080 ft long, use two temporary steel diaphragms at locations at the first and
third quarter points.
c. For spans greater than 80 ft but less than 120 ft, use three temporary steel diaphragms
located at all three quarter points.
d. For spans > 120 ft, a special design is required.
Needle beams may be used in lieu of temporary steel diaphragms to support formwork and stabi
lize beams during construction, as accepted by the Engineer. Needle beam support and framing is
considered to be falsework and is subject to the falsework review requirements as per the KDOT
specifications. (See Section 5 of the Bridge Manual).
** Note: This does not replace the requirements for erection controls on structures over traffic.
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3.5.2.11 Bearings and Expansion
At release of the prestressing force, IBeams are subject to end cracking due to corner flange
stress when the beam cambers up. To resist cracking of the beam, end steel bearing plates should
be used on all spans 60 ft or greater. For spans less than 60 ft bearing plates may be required as
directed by the Bridge Engineer. Also, bearing plates should be used on the web of all doubletee
beams. The prestressed beams should be supported on ¾ in. thick  60 Durometer Elastomeric
leveling pads at the pier and abutment bridge seats. The width of the pads should be the bearing
plate width and a minimum length of 8 in. The pad should be designed to support the dead load
of the beam and slab. The bearing stress should not exceed 800 psi in accordance with Article
14.6.6.3.2. See Figure 3.5.2.1510 Typical Bearing Pad Layout.
For prestressed bridges on sloping grade, the clearance between the edge of the abutment bridge
seat and the beam will be considered so that no edge load occurs on the beam from contact with
the abutment seat. Evaluate the compressive strain and creep deflection in the beams. For grades
1.5 percent or less, the ¾ in. leveling pad should be adequate.
For grades between 1.5 percent and 4.0 percent, a beveled pad should be used. For grades
exceeding 4.0 percent, a beveled steel plate welded to the end steel bearing plate should be con
sidered. Provide a minimum pad edge thickness of ¾ in. At no time shall the prestressed beam be
in contact with the pier beam except by means of a leveling pad (with type B material) or and
expansion device.
3.5.2.12 Prestressed Concrete Deck Panels
Prestressed concrete deck panels are discussed in Section 3.2.2.4 Reinforcement for Deck Slabs
(see LRFD Bridge Design Manual Section 3.9). An example of the use of the prestressed panels
is shown on Figure 3.5.2.155 K3 Beam Details (BR302b). The panels shall be supported on an
expanded polystyrene bedding. As an alternate, the panels may be placed on a mortar bed of non
shrinking grout upon request of the contractor.
Raking direction on the tops of prestressed panels shall be perpendicular to the prestressing
strands. When prestressed panels are used on prestressed beams, support of the overhang brack
ets presents a problem. Place note on the plans stating that the Contractor may add extra bars in
the beams at his expense for welding or attaching hangers for overhang brackets.
3.5.2.13 Transportation
During transportation, prestressed beams may be subjected to dynamic forces. This “bouncing”
of the beam can reduce the dead load on the member which could result in critical tension stresses
in the top of the beam. The designer should check these stresses by assuming support points for
beam transportation at 5.0 ft. from the end of the beam or to the first tenth point of the span,
whichever is greater. Check tension in the top of the beam over the temporary support due to the
cantilevered moment. To approximate the dynamic load effects, assume a beam dead load of “3g”
on the cantilevered portion (PCI Design Handbook, 1985, p. 517).
Also check the tension in the top of the beam at the harp point of the strands using the reduced
span length due to the temporary supports. Again, use “3g” for the overhang force, but use the
normal beam dead load (“g”) when computing forces between the supports. Allow a maximum
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temporary tension stress of 0.24 ksi or7.5 psi. This upper limit is allowed only if the
stress in the mild reinforcement at the top of the member meet the requirements of the commen
tary for Article C5.9.4.1.2.
For additional information on the handling of beams, see: (PCI JOURNAL, 1987, p.87101).
See Appendix C Prestressed Girder (Transportation Stress Check) for Example calculations for
transportation stress check
3.5.2.14 Lifting Devices
Do not use 0.6 in strand for lifting loops. If a beam requires two lifting devices at each end of the
beam, state clearly on the plans that the fabricator should use both devices when moving the
beam. The following example may be used as a guide for determining the number and depth of
strands required for beams larger than the typical K4 beam.
Note that many variables are involved when estimating the capacity of a lifting device. These
may include: embedment depth, lifting angle, strand loop diameter, fabrication of multiple loops,
and the amount of dynamic load to name a few.
DESIGN EXAMPLE: Design lifting devices for a 100 ft K4 Beam.
Use 1  3 strand lifting loop
Determine length of strand embedment required: (Ref. Missouri Report 735C “End Connec
tions of Pretensioned IBeam Bridge”)
Assumptions: Factor of safety = 4
45 degree lifting angle
Given: Strand = ½” diameter lowlax (f
s
’ = 270
ksi)
K4 beam mass = 671 lb./ft.
Total beam load = 100’ x 671 lb./ft./1000 = 67.1 kip
½ beam load = P = 33.55 kip
Allowable Kips per
strand
= 0.75 f
s
’(A
s
) =
0.75(270 ksi)(0.153 in
2
)
= 31 kip/strand
No. of strands = P (1/Sin 45°)(F.S.) / Allow. kips/
strand
= 33.55 kip (1.4)(4) / 31 kip/strand
= 6.1 strands required
6.1 strands / 2 strands
per loop
= 3.05 loops required
Embedment Length = L
e
= 0.337 (f
s
) (F.S.) + 8 in.
f ′
c i
f ′
c i
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Conclusion:
Use 33" embedment
3.5.2.15 Prestress Beam Plan Details
The following details illustrate strand locations and beam geometry which should be used for
KDOT designed projects.
Assume a factor of
safety of 2.0
Tension per strand = 33.55 kip/ 3 loops x 2 strands per
loop
=
5.6
kip/strand
f
s
= 5.6 kip/strand / 0.153
in
2
= 36.55 ksi
L
e
= 0.337 (36.55) 2 + 8 = 32.6"
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Figure 3.5.2.151a Geometry For a K6
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Figure 3.5.2.151b Geometry For a K4
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Figure 3.5.2.151c Geometry For a K3
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Figure 3.5.2.151d Geometry For a K2
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Figure 3.5.2.152a Standard Prestressed Concrete Beam Details (BR300a)
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Figure 3.5.2.152b Standard Prestressed Concrete Beam Details (BR300b)
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Figure 3.5.2.152c Standard Prestressed Concrete Beam Details (BR300c)
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Figure3.5.2.152d Standard Prestressed Concrete Beam Details (BR300d)
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Figure 3.5.2.153 General Notes and Quantities (BR301)
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Figure 3.5.2.154 K4 Beam Details (BR302a)
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Figure 3.5.2.155 K3 Beam Details (BR302b)
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Figure 3.5.2.156 Typical Abutment Diaphragm
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Figure 3.5.2.157 Typical Pier Diaphragm
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Figure 3.5.2.157a Optional Abutment Diaphragm
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Figure 3.5.2.158 Typical Concrete Intermediate Diaphragm
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Figure 3.5.2.159 Temporary Diaphragm Details (BR 305)
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Figure 3.5.2.1510 Typical Bearing Pad Layout
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Figure 3.5.2.1511 Typical Camber Diagram
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Figure 3.5.2.1512 Concrete Placing Sequence
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Figure 3.5.2.1513 Computation of Fillets (Conventional Deck)
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Figure 3.5.2.1514a Computation of Fillets (P*S panel Deck)
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
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Figure 3.5.2.1514b Computation of Fillets (P*S Panel Deck)(Cont.)
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Figure3.5.2.1515 Prestressed Concrete panel Details (BR303)
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Figure3.5.2.1516 Variable Section SingleT
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Figure 3.5.2.1517 DoubleTee Beam
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Appendix A Prestress Beam Guidelines
LFDandLRFDPrestressedBeams AASHTO
Code AASHTO KDOT
StrandType&Properties
SevenWireLowRelaxationStrands(Dia) 1/2" X X
TensileStrength(F
pu
)(ksi) 270ksi 5.4.4.1Ͳ1 X
YieldStrength(F
py
)(ksi) 0.90f
pu
=243ksi 5.4.4.1Ͳ1 X
ModulusofElasticity(ksi) 28,500ksi 5.4.4.2 X
StrandArea(in
2
) 0.153in
2
X
Mass/Wtperunitlength(lbs/ft) 0.521lbs/ft
TransferLength(in) 60d
s
=30" 5.11.4.1 X
Requirement
StrandType&Properties
SevenWireLowRelaxationStrands(Dia)K4orK6Only 0.6" X X
Mass/Wtperunitlength(lbs/ft) 0.732lbs/ft
StrandArea(in
2
) 0.215in
2
X
TransferLength(in) 60d
s
=36" 5.11.4.1 X
LFDRatingStressLimits (ksi) (psi)
InitialAllowableCompression 0.60*f'
ci 9.15.1 X
InitialAllowableTension 0.0948*SQRT(f'
ci
)<=0.20ksi 3*SQRT(f'
ci
)<=200psi 9.15.1 X X
FinalAllowableCompression 0.60*f'
c 9.15.2 X
FinalAllowableTension(NoteBelow) ZeroͲ Inv or 0.19*SQRT(f'
c
)Ͳ Oper ZeroͲ Inv or 6*SQRT(f'
c
)Ͳ Oper 9.15.2 X X FinalAllowableTension(NoteBelow) ZeroͲInvor0.19 SQRT(f
c
)ͲOper ZeroͲInvor6 SQRT(f
c
)ͲOper 9.15.2 X X
FinalAllowableDLCompression 0.40*f'
c 9.15.2 X
FinalAllowableSlabCompression 0.60*f'
c 9.15.2 X
FinalAllowableCompression 0.40*f'
c 9.15.2 X
(LL+1/2(Pe+DL))
IfratinganLRFDdesignedbridgeverifytheInventoryratingfactorfortheHSdesigntruckis1.10orgreater
=====> VisittheFactorsTaboftheMemberAlt.foreachmemberandsettheASDFactorforP/SConcreteTensionforInventorytoZERO <======
TheOperatingratingfactorshouldbegreaterthan1.0fortheHETloadratingtruckusingasinglelane(S/7)andfullimpact.
LRFDDesignStressLimits (ksi) (psi)
InitialAllowableCompression 0.60*f'
ci 5.9.4.1.1 X
I iti l All bl T i (With A ti d Fi InitialAllowableTension(WithAsproportionedasperFig.
C5.9.4.1.2Ͳ1)
0.24*SQRT(f'
ci
) 7.5*SQRT(f'
ci
) 5.9.4.1.2 X X
FinalAllowableCompression 0.60*f'
c 5.9.4.2.1 X
FinalAllowableTension 0.0948*SQRT(f'
c
) 3*SQRT(f'
ci
) 5.9.4.2.2 X X
FinalAllowableDLCompression 0.45*f'
c 5.9.4.2.1 X
FinalAllowableCompression 0.40*f'
c 5.9.4.2.1 X
(LL+1/2(Pe+DL))
SlabInterface
InterfaceType IntentionallyRoughened X
InterfaceWidth TopFlangeWidth 5.8.4.1 X
Cohesion(ksi) 0.28ksi 5.8.4.3 X X
FrictionFactor 1 5.8.4.3 X X
K1 0.3 5.8.4.3 X X
K2 1.8ksi 5.8.4.3 X X
P/SProperties
InitialLossͲElasticShortening 5.9.5.2.3 X
LongTermLossMethod(AASHTO,LumpSumorPCI) AASHTOͲApproximateMethod 5.9.5.3 X X ModifiedPCI
JackingStressRatio(lowrelaxation) 0.75 5.9.3 X X Setonplans
P/STransferStressRatio(lowrelaxation) LeaveitBlank X
TransferTime(18hrs=0.75days) 18 X ( y )
AgeatDeckPlacement(days) 50 X
FinalAge(days) 27375 X
LossDataͲAASHTOͲPercentDL 0% X
LossData,"LumpSum"(ksi)
FinalLoss Notused
CompositeLoss Notused
ContinuousLoss Notused
LossData"PCI"(ksi)
UltimateCreepLoss X seeBridgeDesignManual UltimateCreepLoss X seeBridgeDesignManual
MaturityCoefficent 0.75 X Use28days,0.75
UltimateShrinkageLoss X seeBridgeDesignManual
Shrinkage/Time
BeamCuringMethod,MoistorSteam Steam(assumed) X
SlabCuringMethod,MoistorSteam Moist X
DeckDryingTime 14Days X
Time
CuringTime(18hrs=0.75Days) 0.75 X
Time Continous (Days) 28 X TimeContinous(Days) 28 X
TimeComposite(Days) 50 X CamberCalcs
ServiceLife(years) 75 X
TimeofAnalysis(years) 75 X
LRFDShearComputationMethod
GeneralorSimplified General 5.8.3.4.2 X X
MaybeSimplified 5.8.3.4.3 X
Miscellaneous
Humidity 65% X
SustainedModularRatio 2 5.7.1 X
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Appendix B Harp Strand Force Calculator
Input
Strand Eccentricity (in)............................................................... e 45 :=
Beam Length(ft)...................................................................... L
b
60 :=
Strand Diameter (in)..................................................................... θ 0.6 :=
Cross Sectional Area (in
2
)............................................................ Area 0.217 :=
(Note: Use 0.153 in
2
for 0.5" strand and 0.217 in
2
for 0.6")
N
s
6 :=
Number of Strands being harped (each)...........................
Strength of Strand (ksi)................................................................. f
u
270 :=
Maximum Prestressing Force per strand (80% max for guts) (kip) .... P
u
45 :=
PS_Force_Max Area f
u
.80 :=
Harp Location (tenth point less than or equal to 0.5) ...................... Harp 0.4 :=
(must be symmetric)
Harp
n
2 :=
Number of Harp Locaions(each)..............................................
(typically two are used)
Calculations
ϕ atan
e
L
b
Harp 12

\


.

\


.
360
2 π
:=
Angle for Harp from Horizontal (degrees)..................
Angle for Harp from Vertical (degrees) ................... β 90 ϕ ÷ := β 81.119 =
strand
per
2
Harp
n
P
u
cos
2 π
360
β

\


.
:=
Hold down force per strand (kip)............................. Plan
per_stand
strand
per
:=
Total hold down force per device (kip).................... Total strand
per
N
s
:=
Total
device
Total :=
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Appendix B Harp Strand Force Calculator
Results
PS_Force P
u
P
u
PS_Force_Max s if
"Greater than 0.80 Guts" otherwise
:= Total Total Total 38 s if
"Check Manufacture" otherwise
:=
strand
per
strand
per
strand
per
5 s θ 0.6 = . if
strand
per
strand
per
4 s θ 0.5 = . if
"Check Manufacture" otherwise
:=
Checks
Prestressing force per strand (80% GUTS max.) (kip) ...... PS_Force 45 =
strand
per
"Check Manufacture" =
Hold down force per strand (kip) (4 for 0.5" and 5 for 0.6" strand)..
Plan
per_stand
6.947 =
Total hold down force per device (kip) (38 kip max)............. Total "Check Manufacture" =
Total
device
41.682 =
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
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Appendix C Prestressed Girder (Transportation Stress Check)
From the shear & moment diagrams, it can be shown that by moving the supports inward, the
dead load moment between the support is reduced by a constant value. As can be seen the shape
of the moment diagrams are the same from support to support of the transported beam. Therefore
the value of the reduction is equal to the cantilever moment plus the value of the moment, for the
beam supported at the ends, at the location of the transportation support.
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
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Worked Example:
Assume supports at 7.0’ from beam ends during transportation.
w = 720 lb/ft
= = 42.84 kip
Results from PSCOG Computer Run
Initial Conditions:
A. Stress at Support
Moment=
Moment =
compression OK
compression OK
P = 1,018.7 kip A =
V = 31.8 kip =
M = 9,080 kin = Pe =
R
y
2 7.0 x 3 x 720 lb/ft ( ) 77.0′x720lb ft ⁄ ( ) +
2

692in
2
S
t 9 754in
3
,
S
b 9 815in
3
,
M 7.0′ V
3W 7.0 ( )
2
′
2
 + × = +
9 080 k in 2 671k in 635 k in 12 386 k in – , = – + – , + – ,
f
c
Top
P
A

Moment
St

1 018.7 k ,
692in
2

12 386 k in – ,
9 754in
3
,
 202 psi = – = – =
f
c
Bot
P
A

Moment
Sb

1 018.7 k ,
692in
2

12 386 k in – ,
9 815in
3
,
 2 734psi , = + = + =
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Allowable Stresses:
Allow Comp. = 0.6 will be the average of Initial and Final
Allow Comp. =
=
Allow Ten. =
B. Stresses at Hold Down
Moment =
=
Tension OK
Comp. OK
f
c
′ f
c
′ f
c
′
0.6 5 440psi , × 3 260psi , =
f
c
′
4 931psi , 5 947psi , +
2
 5 440psi , = =
3 260psi ,
5 f
c
′ 5 5 440 , 370psi = =
M 36.5′ V 3W 33.0′ 7.0′
W 29.5 ( )
2
2
 R
y
29.5′ ( ) – + × × + × +
9 080k in 13 928k in 5 988k in 3 759k in 15 165k in 17 590k in – , = – , – – , + – , + – , + – ,
f
c
Top
P
A

Moment
St

1 018.7k ,
692in
2

17 590 k in – ,
9 754in
3
,
 331psi = – = – =
f
c
Bot
P
A

Moment
Sb

1 018.7k ,
692in
2

17 590 k in – ,
9 815in
3
,
 3 264psi , = + = + =
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MathCadd Example:
Transportation Stress Calculations:
Beam Data: K4+2
D 56in := L 82ft := HarpPt 33ft := 0.4*L Use_A
s.top
1 := 1=yes, 0=no
Near Beam Ends
b
top
24in :=
P
ps
910.4kip := A 692in
2
:=
Enter f'c at time of transportation stresses.
As an approximation, try the average of
Initial and Final.
A
s.top
0.78in
2
:=
V
ps
30.9kip := S
t
9754in
3
:=
f
pc
5290psi := f
y
60ksi :=
M
ps
8850kip in := S
b
9815in
3
:=
Calculations
W A 150 pcf := W 0.721
kip
ft
=
f
c_comp_allow
0.6 ÷ f
pc
:= f
c_comp_allow
3.174 ÷ ksi =
f
c_ten_allow
0.24 f
pc
ksi Use_A
s.top
1 = if
5 f
pc
psi Use_A
s.top
2 = if
min 0.0948 f
pc
ksi 0.200ksi .
( )
otherwise
:=
f
c_ten_allow
0.552 ksi =
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
Volume III US (LRFD) Bridge Section
Version 9/09 3 5  2  1
References
ACIASCE Joint Committee 323, (1958). “Tentative Recommendations for Prestressed
Concrete,”
AASHTO, (2007). LRFD Bridge Design Specification, 4
th
ed. American Association of State
Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC.
AASHTO, (2002). Standard Specification for Highway Bridges, 17
th
ed. American Association
of State Highway and Transportation officials, Washington, DC.
Laszlo, G. & Imper, R., (Nov.Dec. 1987). Handling and Shipping of Long Span Bridge Beams,
PCI Journal, p.87101.
Lin, T.Y., & Burns, H. N. , (1975). Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures, p.88.
LTRC, (2008). Technical Summary Report 420, Assessing the need for Intermediate Diaphragms
in Prestressed Concerte Bridges.
PCI Handbook, (1985).Precast and Prestressed Concrete, 3
rd
Edition, Chapter 5.
PCI Journal, (1981).Use of Deboned Strands in Pretensioned Bridge Members, Vol. 26, No. 4.
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual
Volume III US (LRFD) Bridge Section
Version 9/09 3  5  2  2
Kansas Department of Transportation
Design Manual
Figure 3.5.2.156 Typical Abutment Diaphragm .........................................................................34 Figure 3.5.2.157 Typical Pier Diaphragm ...................................................................................35 Figure 3.5.2.157a Optional Abutment Diaphragm ......................................................................36 Figure 3.5.2.158 Typical Concrete Intermediate Diaphragm ......................................................37 Figure 3.5.2.159 Temporary Diaphragm Details (BR 305) .........................................................38 Figure 3.5.2.1510 Typical Bearing Pad Layout ..........................................................................39 Figure 3.5.2.1511 Typical Camber Diagram ...............................................................................40 Figure 3.5.2.1512 Concrete Placing Sequence ............................................................................41 Figure 3.5.2.1513 Computation of Fillets (Conventional Deck) .................................................42 Figure 3.5.2.1514a Computation of Fillets (P*S panel Deck) ....................................................43 Figure 3.5.2.1514b Computation of Fillets (P*S Panel Deck)(Cont.) .........................................44 Figure3.5.2.1515 Prestressed Concrete panel Details (BR303) ..................................................45 Figure3.5.2.1516 Variable Section SingleT ...............................................................................46 Figure 3.5.2.1517 DoubleTee Beam ..........................................................................................47
List of Appendixes
Appendix A Prestress Beam Guidelines ......................................................................................50 Appendix B Harp Strand Force Calculator ...................................................................................51 Appendix C Prestressed Girder (Transportation Stress Check) ....................................................54
References
References .......................................................................................................................................1
Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09
Bridge Section 3 2  2
Kansas Department of Transportation
Design Manual
Disclaimer:
Disclaimer: This document is provided for use by persons outside of the Kansas Department of Transportation as information only. The Kansas Department of Transportation, the State of Kansas, its officers or employees, by making this document available for use by persons outside of KDOT, do not undertake any duties or responsibilities of any such person or entity who chooses to use this document. This document should not be substituted for the exercise of a person’s own Professional Engineering Judgement. It is the user’s obligation to make sure that he/she uses the appropriate practices. Any person using this document agrees that KDOT will not be liable for any commercial loss; inconvenience; loss of use, time, data, goodwill, revenues, profits, or saving; or any other special, incidental, indirect, or consequential damages in any way related to or arising from use of this document.
U U
Typographic Conventions:
The typographical convention for this manual is as follows:
Non italic references refer to locations within the KDOT Bridge Design Manuals (either the LRFD or LFD), or Hyper links shown in red, as examples: x x
Section 3.2.9.12 Transportation Table 3.9.2 1 Deck Protection
Italic references and text refer to locations within the AASHTO LRFD Design Manual, for example: x Article 5.7.3.4
Italic references with a LFD label and text refer to locations within the AASHTO LFD Standard Specifications, for example: x LFD Article 3.5.1
Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09
Bridge Section 3  2  3
4 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 2 .
9.24 f ′c Tension * Where As is proportioned as stated in Article C.2.4.1.5.2 • For Fatigue and Services Limit States.1 .9.0 x 10 6/oF Concrete Strength and Strand Usage • Use 0.9.0.4.5 or 0.4.9.9.1 5.3.2 Shipping & Handling Com0.2.1 • Composite sections use the effective flange = tributary slab width.9. Article 4.7.10 ksi increments per span as needed.2 5.9.0 . this calculated value can be used as a lump sum for software which does not have the “Approximate Method” available.85 f'c Calculation of Losses • Include elastic shortening per Article 5.2.1.1 5. aggregate types ranging from 3.2 .1.4.9.2.4.2 5.60 f'ci 0.0948 f ′c 0.45 f'c Article (s) 5.2.0 x 10 6/oF.9.3 • Use the “Approximate Method” for time dependant losses.80 .6.4.6 Concrete Stresses LRFD Design Stress Limit.4. 270 ksi strands for K4 with up to f'ci = 5 ksi and f'c= 6 ksi • Use 0. KDOT will use: Normal Weight Concrete = 6.5.9.2 Properties The coefficient of thermal expansion is a function of the aggregate material used. (ksi) 0.60 f'c pression * Shipping & Handling 0.40 f'c 0.7.1. use gross uncracked and untransformed sections without reductions for reinforcement per Article 5. with calcium carbonate aggregates on the low end and silica aggregates on the high end.1 5.9.5. 270 ksi strand for K6 with f'ci = 5 ksi and f'c= 6 ksi • Do not exceed f'c= 6 ksi Note: Adjust f'ci in 0.4.1 5. Article 5. Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .2.9.6 in.4. 270 ksi strands for K2 and K3 with f'ci = 4 ksi and f'c= 5 ksi • Use 0. (ksi) at Service Limit States Stage Initial Compression * Initial Tension Final Compression Final Tension Final Allowable Compression with LL+1/2(Peff+DL) Final DL Compression Stresses.24 f ′c 0.60 f'c 0.1 5.2.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual KDOT LRFD Prestressed Beam Design Guidelines Summary Section Properties • For Strength Limit States use Article 5. limit f'ci to 0.5 in.6 in.
spans: use at first three quarter points Greater than 120 ft. or exceed 6 in.1.1.3) • Do not exceed 18 in.8.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Diaphragms • Use temporary intermediate diaphragms for the following conditions Up to 40 ft. spacing within the splitting zone defined as a region h/4 from the beam end • Do not exceed 6 in. four on the bottom and two on the top Confinement /Splitting (Article 5.6*Mcr • As a minimum extend six strands. spans: none are required 4080 ft. and then begin to stagger the bars to be cutoff Strand Extension (Article 5. inlieu of Article 5.5d for the confinement reinforcing steel Shear (Article 5.4 • As a minimum.3.3. or reduce the shear capacity of the section by more the 50% at any crosssection along the member Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 352. Analysis (M) regions • Composite DL will be resisted by considering the members as continuous • Live Load and Dynamic Load (LL/IM) will be resisted by considering the members as continuous • As a minimum.7.9a) • Provide positive restraint moment capacity at piers and abutments by extending strands a minimum of 36 in.4. to resist 0.3. spacing.4.4) • KDOT assumes continuity is made at approximately 50 days.8.10. develop the slab reinforcing steel past the quarter point of the longest span.2 .4. reinforce the slab per Article(s) 5.14.14.1. spacing within the distance of 1.7.5 • Full continuity is assumed at interior supports for determining the required slab reinforcement at the Strength Limit State Analysis (+M) regions • Beam self weight will be resisted by considering simply supported member conditions for Service and Strength Combinations • NonComposite DL will be resisted by considering simply supported member conditions for Service and Strength Combinations • Composite DL will be resisted by considering simply supported member conditions for Service and Strength Combinations • Live Load and Dynamic Load will be resisted by considering simply supported member conditions for Service and Strength Limits States.3 and 5. 5.2.7.10) • Do not exceed 3 in.4. spans: use at first and third quarter points 80 120 ft. change in spacing. spans: use a special design • Temporary diaphragms are property of the contractor.1. use this to calculate camber The minimum beam age will be 28 days at the time of continuity • Restraint moments are not used in determining beam design moments • The CIP continuity diaphragm is considered partially effective per Article 5.14.14. to be removed from site • Use CIP diaphragms at all supports (detail per Bridge Design Manual) • Use CIP intermediate diaphragms when the structure is heavily skewed or splayed Time to Continuity (Article 5.
The composite section properties shall be based on the slab thickness minus ½ in. consideration should be given to using only straight parallel strands on short prestressed beams due to the high holddown force required. and are considered to be continuous for loads applied after continuity is established only for Strength Limit States.1 General . live load and shall support a moment based on the Strength I Limit State. (L) required for harped strands: Table 3. 90120 ft. inlieu of harping. Table 1 is based on using the minimum strand eccentricity from the geometry shown in Figures 1a1d. as described in Article 5. on all deck slabs. Beam section properties will be based on uncracked and untransformed gross sections without reductions for reinforcement. E min 0.14. semiintegral abutments can be used to isolate thermal movements. in length. may be designed monolithic with the piers and abutments.4. Local prestressed manufactures have indicated that up to 8 strands can be added. for wear.5. First.3 . use parallel prestressed strands when possible. L > 30 ft 28 in. For the negative moment regions.2 . the members shall be assumed fully continuous with a constant moment of inertia.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual 3. if parallel strands will not work for the length or required capacities. The following is the order of evaluation that should be considered for prestressed beam strand arrangements.11 Prestressed Beam Length Harp Criteria Beam / Strand K2 K3 K4 K6 Economic Range 4060 ft. Follow Table 1 for minimum length limits. use debonded strands to relieve compression in the bottom of the beam.Precast Prestressed Concrete IBeam Design precast prestressed concrete Ibeams as a series of simple span beams in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.1. Multiple span prestressed bridges shall be made continuous over the intermediate supports. Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .2. up to 500 ft. Additional strands may be needed in the top of the beam to limit tensile stresses in the top of the beam at transfer.5” Strand Harp 19 in. the bridge engineer should harp the strands. KDOT considers multispan structures to have partially effective connections. Finally. L > 55 ft 53 in. N/A 0. This is due to the costs associated to the hold down hardware and labor.6” Strand Harp N/A N/A L > 65 ft L > 100 ft As shown in Table 1. adjusting strand eccentricities at beam ends can increase these controlling hold down forces. Prestressed concrete bridges.2. Negative moment reinforcement in the slab will be proportioned for the effects of the continuous composite dead load. Use Appendix B Harp Strand Force Calculator to verify hold down forces. 60100 ft. 5070 ft. Second. for a more economical beam.5. near the end of the beam.5. L > 45 ft 35 in. for longer beams and/ or add additional strands to the top to resist tension on the top of the beam at release.
then use 0. Debonding of strands in the end region of beams may be used to control excessive compressive stresses due to the prestressing force. these values could be increased depending upon the type of holddown device used. If 0. or four strands . at the 0. slab.4 and 0.2 Design Loads • Noncomposite simple beam dead loads are loads that the beam supports prior to the time that the slab concrete has cured. • Use 0. strand respectively. fillets.6 in. the hold down force will be taken as having two vertical components unlike the single vertical component from two harp points.6 inch strand on long K4 Beams to alleviate congestion.2.5.4 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual The harped strand holddown points on prestressed beams shall normally be located at the 0. The vertical force required to deflect the strands downward in the beam shall be limited to 4 or 5 kip per strand and 38 or 45 kip per holddown device for 0. Show the vertical uplift force per strand and the total uplift force per hold down device Figure 3.4. Strands may be debonded by encasing the strand in a plastic sheath along a certain portion of the length.6 inch for all spans of that bridge. typically strands are debonded in 5ft increments. For beams with a single harp point.14. carry after the slab has been cured. these loads include the weight of the beams. Generally.4. • Use 0.6 in.shall have the debonding terminated at a section • Shear investigation shall be made in the regard to the reduced horizontal force 3. Do not debond strands which will be extended per Article 5. parapet. PCI Journal (1981). and construction loads.6 inch strand is used on one span of a bridge.9a.3 Partially Debonded Strands • Not more than 40% of the strands at one horizontal row will be debonded • Not more than 25% of the total strands can be debonded • The exterior strands of each horizontal row shall be fully bonded • Symmetric debonding about member centerline is required • Not more than 40% of the debonded strands. the following shall be incorporated in members where debonding is included: Article 5.154 K4 Beam Details (BR302a) within the design plans.6 points. diaphragms.5. The designer will verify the manufacture’s prestressed hardware information during shop plan review.5 in.1.5. 3. In certain instances. Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 352. strand in K2. These loads would include the weight of the curb. acting as a composite section.5 and 0.5 point. railing and the weight of the initial and/or future wearing surface. Consideration may also be given to using 0.11.2. • Composite dead loads are the loads that the beam and slab.which ever is greater . K3 and K4 Beams.3 Properties and Stresses Prestressing Steel: Use sevenwire lowrelaxation strands only.4. strand in some K4 Beams on all K6 Beams.2. In addition.
sevenwire strand) = 0.6” strand is used.153 in2 design steel area (0. not accounted for by the current method used.2 . This would result in higher initial steel relaxation losses. sevenwire strand) = 0.5 ksi (per Table 5.217 in2 Allowable strand stress is as follows: fpu = 270 ksi tensile strength fpy = 243 ksi yield strength The modulus of elasticity for the strand is Es = 28. the maximum initial effective stress is limited to: fpe = = the effective stress at service limit state after all losses ƒpt < 0.6 in hold down hardware whenever 0.75 fpu = 43.6” lowrelaxation) = 0.80ƒpy (194. ksi ƒpt = Stress in prestressing steel immediately after transfer.9.75 fpu = 202.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual The fabricator will use 0.6 in.5 in.31) = 31.5 .5 in lowrelaxation) = 0. In general. If a higher strength concrete is used. which KDOT uses to determine time dependent losses. resulting in a higher required initial strength.9 kip/strand Initial Stress (fpt) = Jacking stress (fpj) . ksi Initial losses = Elastic Shortening Δ f pES Note: Steel relaxation at transfer has been removed from the specification for the “Approximate Method”.Initial losses fpj = Jacking stress. then the time to strand release may be increased.0 kip/strand Jacking Load (0.4 ksi) Intermediate Grade Reinforcing Steel: Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 . KDOT assumes strand release to be 18 hours.500 ksi Jacking Load (0. design steel area (0.
when the beam height is increased the minimum distance (cover) to top strand remains the same at 3 in. The 28 day strength (fc') shall be rounded to the nearest 0.21 and commentary in Article 5.4.9.2. etc. For beams made of 5 ksi concrete. it is KDOT policy to specify a compressive strength at time of release of f'ci = 4 ksi unless otherwise shown on the plans.).250 ksi. • Temporary allowable concrete compressive stress before losses due to creep and shrinkage is 0.2.24 f ′ c or (7.80. the concrete release strengths for each size beam shall be shown on the plans.2. The transportation tension stress is allowed to be 0.1.60 f'ci as specified in Article 5. the 4.9.1. It is also KDOT policy to limit the temporary tension stresses (before losses due to creep and shrinkage) to 0.20 ksi or (3 f ′ ci psi). Note.6 .100 ksi. The difference between Service I and Service III limit states is that Service I has a load factor of 1.9.1.4.4. Final maximum compression is checked under Service I limit state and final maximum tension is checked under Service III limit state.9.09480 f ′ ci ≤ 0. 5. However. Do not require a higher fc' than that required by the design modified by the rounding criteria defined above. • Under certain circumstances.#4 bars shown in the prestressed beam standards may be used to increase this temporary tension stress to 0.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual fy fs = = 60 ksi yield stress 24 ksi stress in mild reinforcement at nominal flexural resistance CastInPlace Concrete: fc’ = 4 ksi compressive strength @ 28 days Prestressed Concrete Strength(s): Prestressed concrete Ksection Ibeams should generally be designed for 5 ksi at 28day concrete strength.11 and Appendix C. Using Ksections for span lengths greater than the recommended range may require higher strength concrete.1. • Include transportation stresses as shown in Section 3.4. If release strengths in excess of 4 ksi are required.0 for live load while Service III has a load factor of 0.24 f ′ c as specified in Table 5.9.1. it may be more economical to increase the beam height in per inch increments rather than to increase the concrete strength.250 ksi (5 ksi. Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 352.5 f ′ c psi) if the stress in the mild reinforcement in the top of the beam is proportioned to satisfy Article C5. • Round computed release strengths to the nearest 0.
2 5.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Stress Limits in prestressed beams due to the prestressing force.4.4.2.0948 f ′c 0. Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .9.9.9.5.24 f ′c Article (s) 5.1 5.2.4.60 f'ci 0. All losses of the prestressing force on a member are interrelated.9.4 Prestress Losses The current LRFD Specification describes a “Refined Method” and a “Approximate Method” of calculating TimeDependent losses.2. (ksi) 0.1 5.4.4.4.45 f'c 0. The KDOT standard precast section meet the requirements in the commentary of the “Approximate Method”.1 5.4.5.2 . Prestress losses may be categorized as either instantaneous or timedependent.24 f ′c 0.1.4.2. Article 5.1 5.1 5.9. service loads and prestress losses shall be limited per Table 5.4.1. (ksi) at Service Limit States Stage Initial Compression * Initial Tension Final Compression Final Tension Final Allowable Compression with LL+1/2(Peff+DL) Final DL Compression Shipping & Handling Compression * Shipping & Handling Tension Stresses.9. (ksi) at Service Limit States Concrete Stresses LRFD Design Stress Limit.2 3.2 5.9.60 f'c 0.7 .11 Which is summarized below: LRFD Design Stress Limit.2 * Where As is proportioned as stated in Article C.3 describes the Approximate Estimate of TimeDependent Losses which is used by KDOT for standard precast sections.2.1.9.40 f'c 0.9.60 f'c 0.9.1.2.9.2.5.4.
9.3a1). Concrete stress at the center of gravity of prestressing steel due to prestressing force and the dead load of the beam immediately after transfer.8 . This assumption is checked after the calculation of the loss. the prestressing steel stress may be assumed to be 0.) W fcgp 0. only elastic shortening is considered for this method.5 Δ fpT = The sum of all losses = Δ fpES + Δ fpLT Losses before the slab is cast (instantaneous): Elastic shortening is computed as follows: Δ fpES Ep Eci = = = = = = (Ep / Eci) fcgp 28.) f cgp Pi Pi ec2 Mg ec = .+ .000W3/2 f ′ c ksi.500 ksi Modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer (33. Δ fpLT = Longterm timedependent losses are those due to creep. (At this stage.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Δ fpES = Instantaneous losses are due to anchorage set.9. The alternative equation may also be used which gives a direct solution for Δ fpES (Equation C5. the initial stress in the tendon has been reduced by elastic shortening of the concrete and tendon relaxation during placing and curing of the concrete.5.– Ig Ag Ig In computing fcgp.70 fpu for low relaxation strand.145 kcf for normal weight concrete. General losses follows Article 5. Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 352. iterations may be necessary. shrinkage and relaxation of the steel.2. friction and elastic shortening of the concrete however.
01 ⋅ H where: f’ci fpi H = = = compressive strength at the time of initial prestressing. f pi ⋅ A ps Δ f pLT = 10. (ksi) prestress steel stress immediately prior to transfer.0 ⋅ γ h ⋅ γ st + Δ f pR Ag 5 γ st = ( 1 + f ′ ci ) (Equation 5.2 .7 – 0.31 below describes three timedependent loss elements: the first term is creep loss.5. the second is shrinkage.0 ⋅ . (%).5. Use 65% for Kansas Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .9.⋅ γ h ⋅ γ st + 12.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual ps pbt g m g m g g Δ f pES =  A f ( I + e2 A ) – e M A A g I g E ci 2 A ps ( I g + e m A g ) + Ep where: A ps Ag E ci Ep em f pbt Ig Mg = = = = = = = = area of prestressing steel ( in ) gross area of section ( in 2 ) modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer (ksi) modulus of elasticity of prestressing tendons (ksi) average prestressing steel eccentricity at midspan ( in ) stress in prestressing steel immediately prior to transfer (ksi) moment of inertia of the gross concrete section ( in ) midspan moment due to member selfweight (kipin) 4 2 Losses after the slab is cast (long term): Equation 5.31) γ h = 1.9 . (ksi) average annual ambient relative humidity. and the third is relaxation.9.
“An error in computing losses can affect service conditions such as camber.14.88). and cracking. Article 5. Lin (1975) wrote that. That is why KDOT has adopted a simple span design at the service level limit states.5 Continuity. it has no effect on the ultimate strength of a flexural member unless the tendons are unbonded or the final stress after loss is less than 0. (ksi) (an estimate of 2. Waiting 90 days before allowing the diaphragm to be poured is not a reasonable solution.5. if the software being used does not have the refined method available. deflection. 3. The alternative to a reduced live load capacity for the service combinations is proportion to longterm creep and shrinkage is difficult to calculate and is potently unconservative.5 .5 fpu”(p.Y.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual γ st = = = Correction factor for specified concrete strength at time of prestress transfer Correction factor for relative humidity of the ambient air Loss due to relaxation of steel after transfer. at which time the continuity connection is assumed to occur. The following is the policy for the flexure design of prestressed members Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .10 .4 ksi. creep. at the beam end. A positive restraint moment would reduce the live load capacity.2 . The reduction of the live load.4. is taken for low relaxation strands) γh Δf pR Note: The summation of losses Δ fpLT may be entered as a lump sum. or: • The bottom of the continuity diaphragm shall be in compression considering superimposed permanent loads. Calculations for the final allowable stresses in the past used full continuity for live loads.2. for only the portion in excess of that which causes compression of the bottom of the continuity diaphragm. 50% live load and temperature.5 states to be fully effective: • The precast beams will be at least 90 days old at the time continuity is made. in the positive moment regions. Restraint and Flexure The effectiveness of continuity is controlled by construction timing and the potential for cracking or tension in the bottom of the continuity diaphragms. T. may have limited benefits for service combinations and is potentially unconservative. Positive restraint moments were then added to the final load and checked against a higher allowable at midspan. However. which close the cracks and/or places the bottom of the diaphragm in compression. KDOT assumes the deck slab is placed 50 days after transfer.1. settlement. this time is used to calculate camber and fillets for grading purposes. As a result of the extra moment required to close the tension cracks at the bottom of the continuity diaphragms. shrinkage. is then the remainder amount above the rotation. For partially effective continuity the reduced live load.
the additional demand in the positive moment region due to restraint moments are already accounted for and should not be included elsewhere.14. • Anchor the slab reinforcement by extending to the 0. Thus. For analysis purpose.6 Design for Positive Moment: Prestressed concrete members will meet both the service load and strength requirements of AASHTO. The sign convention used for a section is that tensile stresses are positive and compressive stresses are negative.11 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual • As in the past noncomposite dead loads are resisted by simple span conditions.2.5. 3.1.⎝ ⎠ Sb ′ A Sb Sb where: fct fcb F = = = top fiber stress bottom fiber stress total prestress force after losses Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 . • Slab design. the potential positive restraint moments are balanced with the lessthanfullyeffective continuity at the diaphragms.– ⎛ . the beams are assumed to act as uncracked members subject to combined axial and bending stresses. Using this anchor location is slightly different than described by Article 5. See Commentary C5.1.+ . • Composite dead load (rail and future wearing surface) are resisted by simple span conditions.2 . • Live load beam design for positive moments are resisted by simple span conditions.4.+ ⎛ .14.⎞ ⎠ St ′ St ⎝ A St M cd + M cl M nd fcb = – F – Fe + . in the negative moments regions.2.⎞ .8. In the use of the combined fiber stress formulas. the signs should be assigned by observation. • Positive moment continuity steel (strands extended into the pier diaphragm) will be provided. The general formula for combined fiber stresses is: M f = – P ± A S Top and bottom fiber stresses due to prestressing and design service loads are: F Fe M nd M cd + M cl f ct = – .– . It is assumed that by following the above criteria. are designed to resist negative moments assuming 100% continuity.4.25 point + development length before beginning the staggered cutoff (not more than 50%) of the longitudinal deck slab reinforcement.
2 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual e Sb Sb' St St' Mnd Mcd Mcl A = = = = = = = = = distance from centroid of prestressing steel to centroid of beam at section being investigated noncomposite section modulus for bottom fiber noncomposite section modulus for bottom fiber noncomposite section modulus for top fiber composite section modulus for top fiber moment due to dead loads on noncomposite section moment due to dead loads on composite section moment due to live load plus impact on composite section gross noncomposite crosssectional area of beam Temporary Stresses: After the total design loads are satisfied by the design equations.– A St St F F i e c M nd – i – . initial stresses at strand release from the application of prestress forces should be investigated.5 . Temporary stresses are computed as follows: fct At midspan of beam fcb = = F F i e c M nd – i + .+ A Sb Sb F Fi ec – i + A St F Fi ec – i – A Sb fct At end of beam = f cb = Where: fct or cb Fi ec = = = initial concrete stress due to initial prestressing at top or bottom of beam total initial prestressing force minus losses Δ fpES at release distance from centroid of prestressing steel to centroid of prestressed noncomposite beam at center or end of the beam Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .12 .
00 for tension in steel in anchorage zones *Tension controlled region (strain in steel > 0.3.28 for lolax strand f py where. AASHTO allows the use of this equation provided requirements of Article 5.04 – .21) ⎝ 2⎠ (assuming a rectangular section with only prestressing steel present) where: cfps = fpu ( 1 – k .⎞ ⎝ f pu⎠ The above equation provides an approximate value of fps. The factored resistance Mr shall be taken as: Mr = φ Mn Resistance factors at the strength limit state are (Article 5.1.7 Design for Factored Positive Moment Resistance Prestressed concrete members will resist the simple span positive moment from noncomposite dead loads and composite live loads.7.2.2.2 . Computing the ultimate flexural capacity for a prestressed concrete member is essentially the same as for a conventional reinforced concrete member.00 for flexure and tension of prestressed concrete * 0.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Si Mnd = = noncomposite section modulus for top or bottom fibers of the beam Moment due to beam dead load 3. The procedure for computing the nominal moment capacity of a composite prestressed concrete Ibeam depends on the distance from the neutral axis to the compression face of the member.5.5.2): φ φ φ = = = 1.11) dp ⎠ k = 0.3.7.90 for shear and torsion 1.7. The basic difference between the two is in the stressstrain relationship of the prestressing steel and intermediate grade reinforcing steel.1. as well as composite dead loads.13 .⎞ (Equation 5. Tsec Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .1 are met.4. k = 2 ⎛ 1.005) M n = A ps f ps ⎛ d p – a⎞ (Based on Equation 5.3.
2 considers a section with the steel strain near the extreme fiber greater than 0. the rectangular compression stress block falls within the castinplace deck slab. depth of the equivalent compression stress block (in.7. The distance from the neutral axis to the compression face of the member is computed as follows (assuming no mild steel or compression reinforcement is present): A ps f pu c = .3.e.14 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual tions where the neutral axis lies in the flange.2.13 to compute the nominal capacity of the composite member. Unless unusually high amounts of ductility are required.2. When the neutral axis falls outside the flange (i.2 distance between the neutral axis and the compressive face (in.85f ′ c β 1 b + kA ps dp Where: b dp Aps fps fpu f’c β1 c a = = = = = = = = = effective width of flange (slab) = tributary width Article 4.3 Maximum steel percentage: In the Standard Specifications the maximum percentage of steel was limited by the requirement stating that the steel yields before the beam reaches ultimate capacity.1 distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of the prestressing tendons or strands (in) area of prestressing steel (in2) average stress in prestressing steel at nominal bending resistance (ksi) specified tensile strength of prestressing steel (ksi) specified compressive strength of castinplace deck @ 28 days.7.5 .7. are considered rectangular sections. Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 . The depth of the flexural compressive block was compared to the depth of the steel centroid to verify adequate ductility.6. “c” is less then the slab thickness.. i.005 to be a tension controlled region.) c β 1.) For most KDOT designs of prestressed concrete composite members. flange thickness is less than “c”).14) f pu 0.3. 5. stress block factor specified in Article 5. Prestressed Beams are tension controlled.1. Article 5.7.005 limit will provide ductile behavior for most designs.1.e. the designer should use the Article 5. the 0.2 .6.(Based on Equation.
33 times the factored moment required by the applicable Strength I Load Combination. shall be that required to develop an ultimate flexural capacity at the critical section at least equal to the lesser of: • 1. kin Noncomposite section modulus for bottom fiber of prestressed beam where tensile stress is caused by an externally applied load.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual High ductility is required for redistribution of negative moments for continuos members according to Article 5. Minimum steel percentage: The minimum prestressing steel. It is assumed.3.21 ⎝S . The Mdnc Snc Sc = = = 3.⎠ nc Where: Mcr fr fcpe = = = Cracking moment capacity available to resist live load Allowable cracking tensile stress. 5.2 times the cracking capacity or • 1.2.5. in3 Composite section modulus for bottom fiber of prestressed beam where tensile stress is caused by an externally applied load.7.– 1⎞ ≥ S c f r Equation.2.4. ksi Compressive stress in concrete due to effective prestress forces only (after allowance for prestressed losses) at the extreme fibers of the section where the tensile stress is caused by external loads Total unfactored dead load moment acting on the slab of the noncomposite prestressed beam. the LRFD Specifications state that this requirement will be met at every section.15 .3.3. The combined moment to cause cracking is the sum of the total dead load moments plus an additional superimposed moment to reach a bottom fiber stress of 0.8 Design for Factored Negative Moment Resistance The design for factored nominal negative moments in precast prestressed concrete members that are constructed continuous to provide continuity is by conventional methods of reinforced concrete strength design. that 100% effective continuity is obtained at the intermediate supports by pouring a concrete diaphragm monolithically with the deck slab and encasing the prestressed beams. Contrary to the Standard Specifications.6. in3 f ' c ksi in the beam.37 f ' c ksi in accordance with Article 5. The cracking capacity of the section shall be based upon a modulus of rupture of 0.2 .2.5 at strength limit states.3. for the design of this section. from Article 5.7. Prestressed strands that are used in making the pos Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .7.3.37 allowable cracking tensile stress shall be computed as: Sc M cr = S c ( f r + f cpe ) – M dnc ⎛ .
parapet.3. an assumption needs to be made as to when the continuity connection is made. The value of the negative moment is time dependent.85f ′ c β 1 b where: b ds As = = = width of beam bottom flange distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of nonprestressed tension reinforcement area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .4.(Based on Equation 5. The dead loads include the weight of curbs. The factored resistance Mr shall be taken as: Mr = φ Mn Resistance factor at the strength limit state is Article 5. The negative moments acting on the composite section include the effect of maximum live load plus impact.5 .. and future wearing surface.14. Use Article 5. therefore.12 Reinforcement for Deck Slabs” for additional discussions.4.3. No additional negative moment is expected by this assumption.5(DW)+1.21) M n = A s f s ⎛ d s – a⎞ ⎝ 2⎠ (assuming a rectangular section with nonprestressed tension reinforcement) The distance from the neutral axis to the compression face of the member is computed as follows (assuming no prestressing steel or compression reinforcement is present): As fs c = .5.2: φ = 0. Check fatigue and crack control as well.2.1.25(DC)+1.1. If the strands are harped extend two strands on top as well.7. KDOT assumes this connection to be made 50 days after the beams are fabricated.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual itive moment connection should be extended a minimum of 3.14) 0.9a to determine the number of strands to extend. Do not create confusion in the shop by staggering row cutoff patterns.16 . railing.90 for flexure and tension of reinforced concrete (Based on Equation 5.0 ft. See Section “3.2 . Extended strands shall be located on the same row if possible and are not debonded. for the end of the beam.7.9.75(LL+IM). The negative moment reinforcement shall be proportioned by strength design to resist 1. As a minimum extend four strands on the bottom.
5. 1986) which is a comprehensive behavioral model for the response of diagonally cracked concrete subject to inplane shear and normal stresses.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual fs = stress in mild steel tension reinforcement at nominal flexural resistance (ksi).1 directs the designer to use the strutandtie model whenever the distance from the point of zero shear to the face of a support is less than twice the effective depth of the beam.2. This would include typical bridge beams.5. the General Procedure for shear design was iterative and required the use of tables for the evaluation of β and θ (see Appendix B5)*. β 1 c.2. this design procedure was modified to be noniterative and algebraic equations were introduced for the evaluation of β and θ .8. 3. 2004). and were Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 . 2006). or when a load that causes at least onehalf of the shear at a support is within twice the effective depth. openings and drapedends.2.1 Mild Reinforcement KDOT designs require mild longitudinal reinforcement to be used at the top of each beam to resist tension stress at the top of the member due to transportation and erection of the member. Strutandtie models should also be used in members with abrupt changes in crosssection.3.7. this is appropriate for most situations other than those described below: Article 5. Prior to the 2008 interim revisions. With the 2008 revisions.2. deep beams and corbels. Vecchio. axial.5.8. and Collins.2 . 5.4.17 .9 Design for Shear Two design procedures are available in the LRFD Specification for shear and torsion design of concrete members: (1) the sectional model as specified in Article 5.6 compressive strength of beam concrete @ 28 days.2 . distance between the neutral axis and the compressive face. were also derived from the MCFT (Bentz et al. as specified in Article 5.1. The sectional model can be used for the design of regions of concrete members where plane sections remain plane after loading. stress block factor specified in Article. depth of equivalent compression stress block fc' β1 c a = = = = 3.3 and (2) the strutandtie model as specified in Article 5.3. These equations are functionally equivalent to those used in the Canadian design code (A23. The sectional method (Section 3.8. slabs and other regions of components where the assumptions of traditional engineering beam theory are valid.7. moment and torsion) need not consider how the force effects were introduced.8.6. The current acceptable methods described in the 4th edition are summarized below: Article 5.1 fs = fy when c/ds < 0.2.General Procedure This design procedure (Collins et al.1) is used whenever sectional forces (shear.2M04. 1994) was derived from the Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT.
Kansas Department of Transportation
Design Manual
evaluated as appropriate for use in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (Hawkins et al., 2006,2007) Article 5.8.3.4.3  Simplified Procedure for Prestressed and Nonprestressed Sections This design procedure is based on the recommendations of NCHRP Report 549 (Hawkins et al., 2005). The concepts of this Article are compatible with the concepts of ACI Code 31805 and AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges (2002) for evaluations of the shear resistance of prestressed concrete members. However, those concepts are modified so that this Article applies to both prestressed and nonprestressed sections. The longitudinal reinforcement resists the additional force due to shear, i.e., the horizontal component of the diagonal compression field. The tensile capacity of the reinforcement on the flexural tension side of the member, taking into account the lack of full development of that reinforcement, is checked using Equation 5.8.3.51. When computing strains for sections in the negative moment region, be aware that only reinforcing on the tension side of the beam may be used. Therefore, near a pier, the only prestressing steel that can be used in the strain equation are the harped strands located on the tension side of the beam. Detailing for Shear • At beam ends, use #5 stirrups spaced at 3 in for a distance of h/4 from the end of the beam for the splitting zone defined in Article 5.10.10. • For transportation considerations, continue use of #5 stirrups to a distance of onetenth of the beam span. • According to Article 5.10.10.2 at no instance will the confinement reinforcement from the end of the beam to 1.5d be spaced greater than 6 in. See Section “3.2.9.12 Transportation” for additional requirements. • Additionally, do not exceed 18 in. stirrup spacing within the beam. Do not exceed a 6 in. change in spacing when changing spacing along the length of the beam will result in a reduced shear capacity by more the 50% along the member • Use #5 stirrups throughout the beam. *Note: Opis design software uses the iterative general method described in Appendix B5
3.5.2.10 Diaphragms
• For typical Abutment Diaphragm Details, see Figure 3.5.2.156 Typical Abutment Diaphragm. • For typical Pier Diaphragm Details, see Figure 3.5.2.157 Typical Pier Diaphragm and Figure 3.5.2.157a Optional Abutment Diaphragm.
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Kansas Department of Transportation
Design Manual
• For typical Concrete Intermediate Diaphragm Details, See Figure 3.5.2.158 Typical Concrete Intermediate Diaphragm. • For Temporary Diaphragm Details, see Figure 3.5.2.159 Temporary Diaphragm Details (BR 305) Permanent diaphragms: CastinPlace (CIP) permanent diaphragms are required at all supports; see Figure 3.5.2.156 Typical Abutment Diaphragm for details. In general, CIP permanent intermediate diaphragms are not preferred or required. Intermediate diaphragms are most beneficial in stabilizing the beam during erection and offer little distribution of live load and therefore, they can be removed after the structure has been made continuos and composite. LTRC, (2008) Temporary diaphragms: ** Temporary diaphragms are required to stabilize beams during the construction of the deck. Plans shall show the location of the temporary diaphragms on the plans. Locate them approximately 12 ft. from the beam ends or at quarter points  whichever is closest to the pier. Temporary diaphragms are required in all bays or as noted below. They are attached by either coil inserts cast into the beam or by bolting with an open hole cast into the beam. Open hole type connections are preferred (and shown in Base Sheet BR305) by KDOT because this detail provides for a more modular construction (interior and exterior beams are the same). For bridges with an even number of beam lines every other bay may be sufficient to connect two beams, and thus creating frame action see Figure 3.5.2.159 Temporary Diaphragm Details (BR 305) Steel temporary diaphragms shall remain in place until the concrete diaphragms (if required) and the deck have cured. The Contractor will remove the diaphragms and erection angles and fill the open holes of the exterior face of the exterior beam an prequalified epoxy grout. The plans note states that all temporary diaphragms are subsidiary to other bid items. For conventional overhang formwork supported by the exterior beams only, the plans will show either of the following options: a. For spans less the 40 ft long, no temporary steel diaphragms are required. b. For spans 4080 ft long, use two temporary steel diaphragms at locations at the first and third quarter points. c. For spans greater than 80 ft but less than 120 ft, use three temporary steel diaphragms located at all three quarter points. d. For spans > 120 ft, a special design is required.
Needle beams may be used in lieu of temporary steel diaphragms to support formwork and stabilize beams during construction, as accepted by the Engineer. Needle beam support and framing is considered to be falsework and is subject to the falsework review requirements as per the KDOT specifications. (See Section 5 of the Bridge Manual). ** Note: This does not replace the requirements for erection controls on structures over traffic.
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Kansas Department of Transportation
Design Manual
3.5.2.11 Bearings and Expansion
At release of the prestressing force, IBeams are subject to end cracking due to corner flange stress when the beam cambers up. To resist cracking of the beam, end steel bearing plates should be used on all spans 60 ft or greater. For spans less than 60 ft bearing plates may be required as directed by the Bridge Engineer. Also, bearing plates should be used on the web of all doubletee beams. The prestressed beams should be supported on ¾ in. thick  60 Durometer Elastomeric leveling pads at the pier and abutment bridge seats. The width of the pads should be the bearing plate width and a minimum length of 8 in. The pad should be designed to support the dead load of the beam and slab. The bearing stress should not exceed 800 psi in accordance with Article 14.6.6.3.2. See Figure 3.5.2.1510 Typical Bearing Pad Layout. For prestressed bridges on sloping grade, the clearance between the edge of the abutment bridge seat and the beam will be considered so that no edge load occurs on the beam from contact with the abutment seat. Evaluate the compressive strain and creep deflection in the beams. For grades 1.5 percent or less, the ¾ in. leveling pad should be adequate. For grades between 1.5 percent and 4.0 percent, a beveled pad should be used. For grades exceeding 4.0 percent, a beveled steel plate welded to the end steel bearing plate should be considered. Provide a minimum pad edge thickness of ¾ in. At no time shall the prestressed beam be in contact with the pier beam except by means of a leveling pad (with type B material) or and expansion device.
3.5.2.12 Prestressed Concrete Deck Panels
Prestressed concrete deck panels are discussed in Section 3.2.2.4 Reinforcement for Deck Slabs (see LRFD Bridge Design Manual Section 3.9). An example of the use of the prestressed panels is shown on Figure 3.5.2.155 K3 Beam Details (BR302b). The panels shall be supported on an expanded polystyrene bedding. As an alternate, the panels may be placed on a mortar bed of nonshrinking grout upon request of the contractor. Raking direction on the tops of prestressed panels shall be perpendicular to the prestressing strands. When prestressed panels are used on prestressed beams, support of the overhang brackets presents a problem. Place note on the plans stating that the Contractor may add extra bars in the beams at his expense for welding or attaching hangers for overhang brackets.
3.5.2.13 Transportation
During transportation, prestressed beams may be subjected to dynamic forces. This “bouncing” of the beam can reduce the dead load on the member which could result in critical tension stresses in the top of the beam. The designer should check these stresses by assuming support points for beam transportation at 5.0 ft. from the end of the beam or to the first tenth point of the span, whichever is greater. Check tension in the top of the beam over the temporary support due to the cantilevered moment. To approximate the dynamic load effects, assume a beam dead load of “3g” on the cantilevered portion (PCI Design Handbook, 1985, p. 517). Also check the tension in the top of the beam at the harp point of the strands using the reduced span length due to the temporary supports. Again, use “3g” for the overhang force, but use the normal beam dead load (“g”) when computing forces between the supports. Allow a maximum
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Bridge Section 3  5  2  20
Assumptions: Given: Factor of safety 45 degree lifting angle Strand K4 beam mass = 100’ x 671 lb.05 loops required Total beam load ½ beam load Allowable Kips per strand No.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual temporary tension stress of 0. of strands 6. and the amount of dynamic load to name a few.75 fs’(As) =4 = ½” diameter lowlax (fs’ = 270 ksi) = 671 lb. state clearly on the plans that the fabricator should use both devices when moving the beam. Note that many variables are involved when estimating the capacity of a lifting device. For additional information on the handling of beams.75(270 ksi)(0./1000 = P = 0.2 .5.1 strands required = 3./ft.1 strands / 2 strands per loop Use 1 .4.153 in2) = 31 kip/strand = P (1/Sin 45°)(F.S.55 kip = 0.87101).1. 1987. kips/ strand = 33. p.9.2. fabrication of multiple loops. Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 . If a beam requires two lifting devices at each end of the beam. Missouri Report 735C “End Connections of Pretensioned IBeam Bridge”) Embedment Length = Le = 0.55 kip (1.S. These may include: embedment depth. lifting angle.5 f c i psi. The following example may be used as a guide for determining the number and depth of strands required for beams larger than the typical K4 beam.21 .1 kip = 33.14 Lifting Devices Do not use 0. DESIGN EXAMPLE: Design lifting devices for a 100 ft K4 Beam.2. See Appendix C Prestressed Girder (Transportation Stress Check) for Example calculations for transportation stress check 3.24 f c i ksi or7.4)(4) / 31 kip/strand = 6.3 strand lifting loop Determine length of strand embedment required: (Ref.) + 8 in.337 (fs) (F. This upper limit is allowed only if the ′ ′ stress in the mild reinforcement at the top of the member meet the requirements of the commentary for Article C5./ft.6 in strand for lifting loops. strand loop diameter. see: (PCI JOURNAL. = 67.) / Allow.
55 ksi 32.2.15 Prestress Beam Plan Details The following details illustrate strand locations and beam geometry which should be used for KDOT designed projects.6 kip/strand 36.5.2 .6" 3.22 .6 kip/strand / 0.0 Tension per strand = = fs Le Conclusion: Use 33" embedment = = 5.55) 2 + 8 = = 33.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Assume a factor of safety of 2.337 (36.5 . Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .153 in2 0.55 kip/ 3 loops x 2 strands per loop 5.
2.151a Geometry For a K6 Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .23 .2 .5.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.
151b Geometry For a K4 Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .2 .5.2.5 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.24 .
2 .25 .151c Geometry For a K3 Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .2.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.5.
5 .2.151d Geometry For a K2 Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.2 .5.26 .
2.152a Standard Prestressed Concrete Beam Details (BR300a) Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .27 .2 .5.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.
5.152b Standard Prestressed Concrete Beam Details (BR300b) Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .28 .2.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.5 .2 .
2.2 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.5.29 .152c Standard Prestressed Concrete Beam Details (BR300c) Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .
5 .2 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure3.30 .5.152d Standard Prestressed Concrete Beam Details (BR300d) Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .2.
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.2 .31 .153 General Notes and Quantities (BR301) Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .5.2.
32 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.2.2 .154 K4 Beam Details (BR302a) Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .5.5 .
5.2 .33 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.2.155 K3 Beam Details (BR302b) Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .
34 .5.5 .2 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.156 Typical Abutment Diaphragm Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .2.
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.2.157 Typical Pier Diaphragm Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .2 .35 .5.
157a Optional Abutment Diaphragm Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .2.5.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.5 .2 .36 .
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.2.37 .158 Typical Concrete Intermediate Diaphragm Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .5.2 .
159 Temporary Diaphragm Details (BR 305) Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .5 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.5.38 .2.2 .
1510 Typical Bearing Pad Layout Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .39 .2 .5.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.2.
2 .40 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.2.5.5 .1511 Typical Camber Diagram Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .
5.2 .2.41 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.1512 Concrete Placing Sequence Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .
2.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.42 .1513 Computation of Fillets (Conventional Deck) Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .5.2 .5 .
43 .1514a Computation of Fillets (P*S panel Deck) Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .2.5.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.2 .
2 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.5.) Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .5 .2.44 .1514b Computation of Fillets (P*S Panel Deck)(Cont.
2.45 .2 .5.1515 Prestressed Concrete panel Details (BR303) Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure3.
46 .2.2 .5 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure3.5.1516 Variable Section SingleT Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .
1517 DoubleTee Beam Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Figure 3.2.47 .5.2 .
48 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .2 .5 .
521 lbs/ft 60 ds = 30" X X X X X 5.9.9.9.15.5.1 X X X X X X X X Intentionally Roughened Top Flange Width 0.4.2 9. "Lump Sum" (ksi) Final Loss Composite Loss Continuous Loss Loss Data "PCI" (ksi) Ultimate Creep Loss Maturity Coefficent Ultimate Shrinkage Loss Shrinkage/Time Beam Curing Method.20 ksi Initial Allowable Tension 0.40*f'c Final Allowable Compression (LL+1/2(Pe+DL)) If rating an LRFD designed bridge verify the Inventory rating factor for the HS design truck is 1.1 1 5.10 or greater =====> Visit the Factors Tab of the Member Alt.5*SQRT(f'ci) 3*SQRT(f'ci) (psi) 9.2 9.45*f'c 0.215 in 60 ds = 36" X X X 5.60*f'c 0.4.1 1 5.4.75 X X X see Bridge Design Manual Use 28 days.15.4.9. LRFD Design Stress Limits Initial Allowable Compression Initial All I iti l Allowable T i bl Tension (With As proportioned as per Fi A ti d Fig.4.3 5.40*f'c Final Allowable DL Compression 0.19 SQRT(f 6 SQRT(f 0.8. for each member and set the ASD Factor for P/S Concrete Tension for Inventory to ZERO The Operating rating factor should be greater than 1.3 5.4.3.3 5.732 lbs/ft 2 0.5. 0.4. Moist or Steam Deck Drying Time Time Curing Time (18 hrs = 0.4.4.3 5.4.9.15.75 Leave it Blank 18 50 27375 0% 5.8 ksi X 5.1.60*f'c Final Allowable Slab Compression 0.2 1) Final Allowable Compression Final Allowable Tension Final Allowable DL Compression Final Allowable Compression (LL+1/2(Pe+DL)) Slab Interface Interface Type Interface Width Cohesion (ksi) Friction Factor K1 K2 P/S Properties Initial Loss Elastic Shortening Long Term Loss Method (AASHTO.60*f'c Final Allowable Compression Final Allowable Tension (Note Below) Zero Inv or 0.75 days) (18 Age at Deck Placement (days) Final Age (days) Loss Data AASHTO Percent DL Loss Data.4.1 9.3 5.1 X Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .15.11.50 .24*SQRT(f'ci) 0.90 fpu = 243 ksi 28.2 5.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Appendix A Prestress Beam Guidelines LFD and LRFD Prestressed Beams Strand Type & Properties Seven Wire Low Relaxation Strands (Dia) Tensile Strength (Fpu) (ksi) Yield Strength (Fpy) (ksi) Modulus of Elasticity (ksi) Strand Area (in2) Mass/Wt per unit length (lbs/ft) Transfer Length (in) Strand Type & Properties Seven Wire Low Relaxation Strands (Dia) K4 or K6 Only Mass/Wt per unit length (lbs/ft) 2 Strand Area (in ) Transfer Length (in) AASHTO Requirement Code AASHTO KDOT 1/2" 270 ksi 0.4.8.8.1.3 1.2 X 5.3 X X X X X X X X X AASHTO Approximate Method 0. Moist or Steam Slab Curing Method.8.75 28 50 75 75 (ksi) 0.1 5.3 X X X X X X X X Modified PCI Set on plans X X Not used Not used Not used 0.19*SQRT(f'c) Oper Zero Inv or 6*SQRT(f'c) Oper 0.1 5.7.60*f'ci Initial Allowable Compression 3*SQRT(f'ci)<=200 psi 0.4.153 in 0.2 5.4.0948*SQRT(f'c) 0.4.4.8.1 5.4. Lump Sum or PCI) Jacking Stress Ratio (low relaxation) P/S Transfer Stress Ratio (low relaxation) y) Transfer Time ( hrs = 0.9. C5.75 Days) Time Continous (Days) Time Composite (Days) Service Life (years) Time of Analysis (years) LRFD Shear Computation Method General or Simplified Miscellaneous Humidity Sustained Modular Ratio 0.2 X X X X X X X X X <====== 5.6" 0.3.A1 .2.4.2.28 ksi 1 0.8.4.15.60*f'ci 0.1 9.4.15.4.2 9.4.1.3 X X X X 5.2.15.11.75 see Bridge Design Manual Steam (assumed) Moist 14 Days X X X X X X X X Camber Calcs General Maybe Simplified 65% 2 5.2 9.0948*SQRT(f'ci)<=0.1 X LFD Rating Stress Limits (ksi) (psi) 0.2.9.8.1 5.2.1 X 0.2 5.0 for the HET load rating truck using a single lane (S/7) and full impact.9.500 ksi 2 0.40*f'c 7.9.9.
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .A1 .5 .51 .
..............................6 Area 0................................ Planper_stand strandper Total strandper Ns Total device Total Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .. e 45 Lb 60 θ 0........................... Cross Sectional Area (in 2 )................... Harp 0...............80 Harp Location (tenth point less than or equal to 0............... Strand Diameter (in)...........4 (must be symmetric) Harpn 2 Number of Harp Locaions(each)................A2 ........................................ ϕ e § atan § · · 360 ¨ ¨ L Harp 12 ¸ ¸ 2 π © © b ¹¹ β Pu cos § ¨ 81..... Beam Length(ft).....................217 Ns 6 fu 270 (Note: Use 0...217 in 2 for 0.......................................5" strand and 0.......... Total hold down force per device (kip)................................5) .............. Maximum Prestressing Force per strand (80% max for guts) (kip) ..............................51 ..........................Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Appendix B Harp Strand Force Calculator Input Strand Eccentricity (in).........u 45 P PS_Force_Max Area fu ..............................153 in2 for 0............................. Strength of Strand (ksi)............. (typically two are used) Calculations Angle for Harp from Horizontal (degrees)........ Angle for Harp from Vertical (degrees) .........119 β 90 ϕ strandper 2 Harpn 2 π · β¸ © 360 ¹ Hold down force per strand (kip)...............................6") Number of Strands being harped (each).........
..6 strandper if strandper d 4 θ = 0.80 Guts" otherwise Total Total if Total d 38 "Check Manufacture" otherwise strandper strandper if strandper d 5 θ = 0. Total "Check Manufacture" 41....682 Total device Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .52 .....5" and 5 for 0...) (kip) .A2 .5 .. strandper "Check Manufacture" 6..Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Appendix B Harp Strand Force Calculator Results PS_Force Pu if Pu d PS_Force_Max "Greater than 0.5 "Check Manufacture" otherwise Checks Prestressing force per strand (80% GUTS max.947 Planper_stand Total hold down force per device (kip) (38 kip max)....6" strand)... PS_Force 45 Hold down force per strand (kip) (4 for 0.
As can be seen the shape of the moment diagrams are the same from support to support of the transported beam. for the beam supported at the ends. Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Appendix C Prestressed Girder (Transportation Stress Check) From the shear & moment diagrams. it can be shown that by moving the supports inward. Therefore the value of the reduction is equal to the cantilever moment plus the value of the moment. at the location of the transportation support.A3 .54 . the dead load moment between the support is reduced by a constant value.
5 ..+ 12.018.0’ from beam ends during transportation.= 42.0 ′ × V + ′ = 2 Moment = 9.A3 ..– 12.. 754in k .0 ′ x720lb ⁄ ft ) R y = . 671k – in + 635 k – in = 12.. 386 k – in = 2.55 . Stress at Support P V M = = 1. w = 720 lb/ft 2 ( 7.f c Bot = P + Moment = 1. 815in 2 Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 . 386 k – in = 202 psi compression OK .080 kin = Pe 3W ( 7. 815in = 9. 018.7 kip 31.0 x 3 x 720 lb/ft ) + ( 77. 754in 9.0 ) M + 7.8 kip A St Sb = = = 692in 2 3 3 9. 386 k – in Moment= k f c Top = P – Moment = 1. 018. 734psi compression OK 2 3 A Sb 692in 9.7 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Worked Example: Assume supports at 7.2 3 A St 692in 9.7 . 080 k – in + 2.84 kip 2 Results from PSCOG Computer Run Initial Conditions: A.
018. 590 k – in = 331psi Tension OK .6 f c ′ Allow Comp.. 754in . 815in 2 f c ′ will be the average of Initial and Final f c ′ = 0. 590k – in f c Top = P – Moment = 1.5 ) Moment = M + 36. = 5 f c ′ = 5 5. 080k – in + 13. 440psi = 3.5 ′ × V + 3W × 33.– R y ( 29. 260psi Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 . 440psi 2 = 3.. 590 k – in = 3. 931psi + 5. 928k – in + 5.0 ′ × 7.56 . 165k – in = 17.2 3 A St 692in 9. 947psi = 5. 988k – in + 3. Stresses at Hold Down W ( 29.A3 . 264psi Comp. f c ′ = 4.f c Bot = P + Moment = 1. 260psi Allow Ten..0 ′ + .5 ′ ) 2 = 9.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Allowable Stresses: Allow Comp. OK 2 3 A Sb 692in 9.. 759k – in – 15.7 k – 17.7 k + 17. 440 = 370psi B. 018. = 0.6 × 5.
78in fy 60ksi 2 St 9754in Sb 9815in W A 150 pcf fc_comp_allow 0.top 1 1=yes.174 ksi fc_ten_allow 0. 0=no D 56in Near Beam Ends Pps 910.Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual MathCadd Example: Transportation Stress Calculations: Beam Data: K4+2 L 82ft HarpPt 33ft 0.6 fpc W 0.24 fpc ksi if Use_As.top = 1 5 fpc psi if Use_As. As an approximation.552 ksi .4kip Vps 30.200ksi fc_ten_allow 0.top 0.0948 fpc ksi 0.9kip M ps 8850kip in Calculations A 692in 2 3 3 b top 24in Enter f'c at time of transportation stresses.4*L Use_As.top = 2 min 0. fpc 5290psi As.721 kip ft fc_comp_allow 3. try the average of Initial and Final.
A3 .5 . otherwise Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 .57 .
G. “Tentative Recommendations for Prestressed Concrete. PCI Journal. N. (2008). (1981). . LTRC. T.2 .Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual References ACIASCE Joint Committee 323.87101. p. Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 3 5 . 4th ed. Laszlo. Assessing the need for Intermediate Diaphragms in Prestressed Concerte Bridges. Technical Summary Report 420. DC.. R. 26. Handling and Shipping of Long Span Bridge Beams. Washington. (Nov. 4.Use of Deboned Strands in Pretensioned Bridge Members. American Association of State Highway and Transportation officials. Standard Specification for Highway Bridges. PCI Handbook. DC. H. 3rd Edition. (1985).1 . Washington.Dec. Chapter 5. (1975). Vol. AASHTO. (2002). 1987). No. 17th ed.” AASHTO.88. Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures. (2007).. & Imper. PCI Journal. (1958). Lin. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. LRFD Bridge Design Specification. & Burns.Y.Precast and Prestressed Concrete. p.
Kansas Department of Transportation Design Manual Volume III US (LRFD) Version 9/09 Bridge Section 352.2 .
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